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Sample records for american crystal sugar

  1. RECOVERY OF LACTIC ACID FROM AMERICAN CRYSTAL SUGAR COMPANY WASTEWATER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daniel J. Stepan; Edwin S. Olson; Richard E. Shockey; Bradley G. Stevens; John R. Gallagher

    2001-04-30

    , self-supporting thin films and have, therefore, been used for adhesives, safety glass, and finishes. If the bacterial culture produces the L-lactic acid enanatiomer form exclusively, the L-lactide prepared from this form can be used for making polymers with good fiber-forming properties. We have not currently achieved the exclusive production of L-lactate in our efforts. However, markets in films and structural shapes are available for polymers and copolymers prepared from the mixed D,L-lactide forms that result from processing the D,L-lactic acid obtained from fermentation such as that occurring naturally in sugar beet wastewater. These materials are slowly biodegraded to harmless compounds in the environment, and they burn with a clean blue flame when incinerated. These materials represent excellent opportunities for utilization of the D,L-lactic mixture produced from natural fermentation of the ACS flume water. Esters can be converted into a lactide, and the alcohol released from the ester can be recycled with no net consumption of the alcohol. Lactide intermediates could be produced locally and shipped to polymer producers elsewhere. The polymer and copolymer markets are extremely large, and the role of lactides in these markets is continuously expanding. The overall process can be readily integrated into existing factory wastewater operations. There are several environmental benefits that would be realized at the factories with incorporation of the lactate recovery process. The process reduces the organic loading to the existing wastewater treatment system that should result in enhanced operability with respect to both solids handling and treated-water quality. A higher-quality treated water will also help reduce odor levels from holding ponds. Several water reuse opportunities are probable, depending on the quality of treated water from the FT process.

  2. Multifractal modeling of the production of concentrated sugar syrup crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheng, Bi; Jianbo, Gao

    2016-07-01

    High quality, concentrated sugar syrup crystal is produced in a critical step in cane sugar production: the clarification process. It is characterized by two variables: the color of the produced sugar and its clarity degree. We show that the temporal variations of these variables follow power-law distributions and can be well modeled by multiplicative cascade multifractal processes. These interesting properties suggest that the degradation in color and clarity degree has a system-wide cause. In particular, the cascade multifractal model suggests that the degradation in color and clarity degree can be equivalently accounted for by the initial “impurities” in the sugarcane. Hence, more effective cleaning of the sugarcane before the clarification stage may lead to substantial improvement in the effect of clarification.

  3. Multifractal modeling of the production of concentrated sugar syrup crystal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bi Sheng; Gao Jianbo

    2016-01-01

    High quality, concentrated sugar syrup crystal is produced in a critical step in cane sugar production: the clarification process. It is characterized by two variables: the color of the produced sugar and its clarity degree. We show that the temporal variations of these variables follow power-law distributions and can be well modeled by multiplicative cascade multifractal processes. These interesting properties suggest that the degradation in color and clarity degree has a system-wide cause. In particular, the cascade multifractal model suggests that the degradation in color and clarity degree can be equivalently accounted for by the initial “impurities” in the sugarcane. Hence, more effective cleaning of the sugarcane before the clarification stage may lead to substantial improvement in the effect of clarification. (paper)

  4. [The "crystals" in the sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) leaves].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semenova, G A; Romanova, A K

    2011-01-01

    Crystal containing cells widely distributed in plant tissues, though the origin of the crystals and their functions are still opened to question. Membrane vesicles in beet leaves are visible in electronic microscope. They originate in cytoplasm and penetrate into vacuole by pinocytosis with participation of tonoplast. In light microscope, vesicles are luminous likewise crystals in crystal cells. Such vesicles-"crystals" fulfill crystal cells also. The content of vesicles-"crystals" are electronic transparent at every path of leaf development. It was proposed that distinct vesicles-"crystals" in cytoplasm and vacuole and mass of them in crystal cells, vein bundles, and epidermal cells--all of them are lytic compartments. Later, obviously, true crystals are formed.

  5. Sugar Beets, Segregation, and Schools: Mexican Americans in a Northern Colorado Community, 1920-1960.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donato, Ruben

    2003-01-01

    What was unique about the Mexican American experience in Fort Collins (Colorado) was the extent to which the Great Western Sugar Company colonized Mexican workers. They lived in Mexican colonies, separate neighborhoods, or remote locations on sugar beet farms. In public schools, Mexican Americans were perceived as intellectually inferior and were…

  6. Translation and implementation of added sugars consumption recommendations: a conference report from the American Heart Association Added Sugars Conference 2010.

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    Van Horn, Linda; Johnson, Rachel K; Flickinger, Brent D; Vafiadis, Dorothea K; Yin-Piazza, Shirley

    2010-12-07

    A 2-day forum was convened to (1) discuss ways to translate the 2009 American Heart Association added sugars recommendations into actions in areas such as regulation, food labeling, nutrient content claims, and practical application in the American diet; (2) review surveillance methodology and metrics for tracking and understanding the impact of reducing added sugars in the diet; and (3) initiate the development of a framework for future collaboration to help Americans implement science-based guidance relative to added sugars. More than 100 multinational participants representing scientists from academia and government and stakeholders engaged in food production, development, and processing, food manufacturing and servicing, food and nutrition policy, and nutrition recommendations for the public attended the conference. Presentations included definitions and examples of added sugars, current US and international added sugars perspectives, added sugars in diets of individuals and in the food supply, food technology behind added sugars, added sugars and health, food manufacturer perspectives, added sugars food-labeling considerations, and examples of positive approaches to improve eating behaviors and the food environment. Facilitated breakout sessions were conducted after the plenary sessions to allow participants to contribute their expertise and thoughts. The American Heart Association Added Sugars Conference is the first step in an important process that facilitates collaboration across science, public health, and industry to foster innovation, partnerships, policy, and implementation of new products and services for the benefit of the health and well-being of the American public. Science has advanced in the area of added sugars and health, creating mounting pressure to use better methods for translation and dissemination of the science for consumer education and for food companies to respond by producing foods and beverages with fewer added sugars. The new

  7. Sugar Cane: A Bitter-Sweet Legacy. A Study of the Disappearing African-American Worker on the Sugar Cane Plantations in Southern Louisiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, John A., Jr.; And Others

    This resource/study guide is designed to accompany the instructional video, "Sugar Cane: A Bitter-Sweet Legacy," which explores the significance of cultivating, harvesting, and refining sugar cane. It is also a brief study of the disappearing African-American workers on the sugar cane plantations in southern Louisiana. Seven main ideas…

  8. Thorium and rare earth elements in crystal and brown sugar consumed in Brazil and Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salles, Paula M.B. de; Campos, Tarcisio P. R. de

    2015-01-01

    Human exposure to contaminants in foods is a matter of general health concern. There is a growing interest in determine and quantify contaminants in food chain including natural radionuclides and rare earth elements (REE). Irradiation effects of radioactive nuclides and REE may cause lesions from their interaction with the human body. This study aimed to identify the presence of thorium and rare earth elements in crystal and brown sugar samples available for consumption in Brazil and Argentina. To determine the chemical elements, the 5g-sample methodology established at CDTN/CNEN, in Belo Horizonte, using the neutron activation technique, k 0 -method, was applied. The element Sm was determined in crystal sugar samples analyzed that were available to consumption in both countries. Similarly to the brown sugar samples which presented La, Sc and Sm. The elements Ce and Th were found in brown sugar sample available to consumption in Brazil. Thus, the detection of these elements in sugar samples is important insofar as the increasing consumption of sugar around the world. The presence of impurities and its concentration may contribute to health issues to consumers. (author)

  9. Borassus flabellifer L. Brown Crystal Sugar Processing (The Study of Sap pH and Fine Crystal Sucrose (FCS Concentration

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    Azmi Alvian Gabriel

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Nira as one of the Borassus flabellirer L. products has a similar characteristics with other agricultural commodities that are easily damaged. This research aims to know the influence of nira’s pH and concentration addition of FCS against characteristics of the brown crystal sugar. Research compiled by using Randomized Block Design (RBD which comprises two factors consisting of 3 levels with 3 times replication. The first factor is pH or degree of nira acidity which consists of 3 level (6.50 (± 0.10; 7.00 (± 0.10; 7.50 (± 0.10 and the second factor is addition of FCS concentration consisting of 3 level (5%; 10%; 15% (b/v. The analyzes used include analysis of organoleptic (color, aroma, taste as well as physical and chemical analyzes (sucrose content, moisture content, ash content, reducing sugar content, insoluble solid content. The analysis results of raw material showed that the pH of palm sap affect the amount of total sugar because the fermentation process. The addition of 10% FCS provides organoleptic results with the best reception at the brown crystal sugar. Physical and chemical test results of products with the best treatment showed that the levels of sucrose in brown crystal sugar was 81.483% in accordance with the minimum requirements specified Indonesian Industrial Standard (IIS, water content of 6.32% dry basis , ash content of 1.78%, reducing sugar amounted to 5.18%, and insoluble solid content of 0.089%.

  10. Total and Added Sugar Intake: Assessment in Eight Latin American Countries

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    Mauro Fisberg

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Non-communicable diseases are growing at an alarming rate in Latin America. We assessed total and added sugar intake in Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Ecuador, Peru, and Venezuela, to verify the adequacy of the World Health Organization’s recommendations, considering gender, socioeconomic level (SEL and age. A total of 9218 non-institutionalized individuals living in urban areas (age range 15–65 years were assessed in the Latin American Study of Nutrition and Health (ELANS, a multicenter household population-based cross-sectional survey. Socio-demographic data were collected. Total and added sugar intakes were measured using two non-consecutive 24-h dietary recalls. The prevalence of excessive sugar intake was estimated. A large proportion of individuals showed high consumption of total and added sugar intake, which reflected in the high prevalence of excessive sugar intake. With minimal differences across countries, in general, women, individuals with high SEL, and younger people had higher percentages of total energy intake from total and added sugar intake, and of contribution of carbohydrates from total and added sugars. Thus, there is high consumption of total and added sugar intake in the Latin American countries with some peculiarities considering socio-demographic variables, which should be considered in each country’s health intervention proposals.

  11. Added Sugars and Cardiovascular Disease Risk in Children: A Scientific Statement From the American Heart Association.

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    Vos, Miriam B; Kaar, Jill L; Welsh, Jean A; Van Horn, Linda V; Feig, Daniel I; Anderson, Cheryl A M; Patel, Mahesh J; Cruz Munos, Jessica; Krebs, Nancy F; Xanthakos, Stavra A; Johnson, Rachel K

    2017-05-09

    Poor lifestyle behaviors are leading causes of preventable diseases globally. Added sugars contribute to a diet that is energy dense but nutrient poor and increase risk of developing obesity, cardiovascular disease, hypertension, obesity-related cancers, and dental caries. For this American Heart Association scientific statement, the writing group reviewed and graded the current scientific evidence for studies examining the cardiovascular health effects of added sugars on children. The available literature was subdivided into 5 broad subareas: effects on blood pressure, lipids, insulin resistance and diabetes mellitus, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, and obesity. Associations between added sugars and increased cardiovascular disease risk factors among US children are present at levels far below current consumption levels. Strong evidence supports the association of added sugars with increased cardiovascular disease risk in children through increased energy intake, increased adiposity, and dyslipidemia. The committee found that it is reasonable to recommend that children consume ≤25 g (100 cal or ≈6 teaspoons) of added sugars per day and to avoid added sugars for children added sugars most likely can be safely consumed in low amounts as part of a healthy diet, few children achieve such levels, making this an important public health target. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  12. Hypertension Due to Toxic White Crystals in the Diet: Should We Blame Salt or Sugar?

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiNicolantonio, James J; O'Keefe, James H

    The "Salt Hypothesis" is the notion that an increase in salt intake will increase blood pressure and thus increase the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD),which has been a point of contention for decades. Despite this, numerous health organizations, dietary guidelines, and government policies advocate population-wide salt restriction. However, there is no conclusive proof that restricting salt intake reduces the risk of hypertension (HTN) and/or CVD events; sodium restriction in fact may paradoxically lead to adverse health outcomes. Importantly, another white crystal, sucrose (or table sugar) but also high-fructose corn syrup are much more detrimental food additives. Indeed, added sugars have the ability to induce hypertension via the promotion of inflammation, oxidative stress, insulin resistance, and obesity. Considering that there is no physiologic requirement for dietary carbohydrate, there is little reason to suspect adverse health consequences from cutting back on sugar. This paper reviews the evidence relating to salt and sugar on HTN and CVD. Based on our review of the scientific literature, guidelines should focus more on reducing sugar rather than salt for the prevention and treatment of HTN and its consequences. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Added Sugars Intake of Americans: What We Eat in America, NHANES 2013-2014

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    This Data Brief compares the intakes of selected Food Patterns food groups by different demographic groups of Americans, ages 2 years and over, grouped based on their added sugars intake status on day 1 of the What We Eat in America, NHANES 2013-2014 dietary data. There were 8,066 persons in the st...

  14. Conformational dynamics of dry lamellar crystals of sugar based lipids: an atomistic simulation study.

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    Vijayan ManickamAchari

    Full Text Available The rational design of a glycolipid application (e.g. drug delivery with a tailored property depends on the detailed understanding of its structure and dynamics. Because of the complexity of sugar stereochemistry, we have undertaken a simulation study on the conformational dynamics of a set of synthetic glycosides with different sugar groups and chain design, namely dodecyl β-maltoside, dodecyl β-cellobioside, dodecyl β-isomaltoside and a C12C10 branched β-maltoside under anhydrous conditions. We examined the chain structure in detail, including the chain packing, gauche/trans conformations and chain tilting. In addition, we also investigated the rotational dynamics of the headgroup and alkyl chains. Monoalkylated glycosides possess a small amount of gauche conformers (∼20% in the hydrophobic region of the lamellar crystal (LC phase. In contrast, the branched chain glycolipid in the fluid Lα phase has a high gauche population of up to ∼40%. Rotational diffusion analysis reveals that the carbons closest to the headgroup have the highest correlation times. Furthermore, its value depends on sugar type, where the rotational dynamics of an isomaltose was found to be 11-15% and more restrained near the sugar, possibly due to the chain disorder and partial inter-digitation compared to the other monoalkylated lipids. Intriguingly, the present simulation demonstrates the chain from the branched glycolipid bilayer has the ability to enter into the hydrophilic region. This interesting feature of the anhydrous glycolipid bilayer simulation appears to arise from a combination of lipid crowding and the amphoteric nature of the sugar headgroups.

  15. Contribution of botanical origin and sugar composition of honeys on the crystallization phenomenon.

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    Escuredo, Olga; Dobre, Irina; Fernández-González, María; Seijo, M Carmen

    2014-04-15

    The present work provides information regarding the statistical relationships among the palynological characteristics, sugars (fructose, glucose, sucrose, melezitose and maltose), moisture content and sugar ratios (F+G, F/G and G/W) of 136 different honey types (including bramble, chestnut, eucalyptus, heather, acacia, lime, rape, sunflower and honeydew). Results of the statistical analyses (multiple comparison Bonferroni test, Spearman rank correlations and principal components) revealed the valuable significance of the botanical origin on the sugar ratios (F+G, F/G and G/W). Brassica napus and Helianthus annuus pollen were the variables situated near F+G and G/W ratio, while Castanea sativa, Rubus and Eucalyptus pollen were located further away, as shown in the principal component analysis. The F/G ratio of sunflower, rape and lime honeys were lower than those found for the chestnut, eucalyptus, heather, acacia and honeydew honeys (>1.4). A lower value F/G ratio and lower water content were related with a faster crystallization in the honey. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Diet quality, added sugar, and dietary fiber intakes in American preschoolers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kranz, Sibylle; Smiciklas-Wright, Helen; Francis, Lori A

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to examine the relationship between meeting the intake recommendations for added sugar (AS) and dietary fiber and overall diet quality in American preschoolers from different ethnic backgrounds. Data from a nationally representative sample of preschoolers participating in the Continuing Survey of Food Intake by Individuals (CSFII) 1994-1996, and 1998 (n=5,437) were categorized into 3 groups: (1) meeting the recommendation for AS intake (dietary fiber (14 g and 20 g in 2- to 3-year-olds and 4- to 5-year-olds, respectively; n=236); (2) meeting only 1 recommendation (n=1,502); and (3) meeting neither (n=3,699). Dietary AS and dietary fiber sources were ascertained. Mean energy intake, nutrient intake, and food group density were established within each category, and student's t test was employed to determine significant differences. Nutrient and food group density was also examined stratified by 4 distinct ethnic groups. Children meeting both recommendations had better diet quality but also higher energy intakes than children meeting only 1 or neither recommendation. Most American preschoolers do not meet the dietary intake recommendations for AS and dietary fiber. Health professionals should work together to increase dietary fiber density and reduction of added sugar in the diets of preschoolers to improve diet quality and oral health.

  17. Health of eastern North American sugar maple forests and factors affecting decline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephen B. Horsley; Robert P. Long; Scott W. Bailey; Richard A. Hallett; Philip M. Wargo

    2002-01-01

    Sugar maple (Acer saccharum) is a keystone species in the forests of the northeastern and Midwestern United States and eastern Canada. Its sustained health is an important issue in both managed and unmanaged forests. While sugar maple generally is healthy throughout its range, decline disease of sugar maple has occurred sporadically during the past...

  18. No Effect of Added Sugar Consumed at Median American Intake Level on Glucose Tolerance or Insulin Resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua Lowndes

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Excess sugar consumption may promote adverse changes in hepatic and total body insulin resistance. Debate continues over the effects of sugars at more typically consumed levels and whether the identity of the sugar consumed is important. In the present study participants (20–60 years old were randomly assigned to one of five groups, three that consumed low fat milk with added fructose containing sugars in amounts equivalent to the 50th percentile of fructose consumption (US, one which consumed low-fat milk sweetened with glucose, and one unsweetened low-fat milk control group. The intervention lasted ten weeks. In the entire study population there was less than 1 kg increase in weight (73.6 ±13.0 vs. 74.5 ± 13.3 kg, p < 0.001, but the change in weight was comparable among groups (p > 0.05. There were no changes in fasting glucose (49 ± 0.4 vs. 5.0 ± 0.5 mmol/L, insulin (56.9 ± 38.9 vs. 61.8 ± 50.0 pmol/L, or insulin resistance, as measured by the Homeostasis Model Assessment method (1.8 ± 1.3 vs. 2.0 ± 1.5, all p > 0.05. These data suggest that added sugar consumed at the median American intake level does not produce changes in measures of insulin sensitivity or glucose tolerance and that no sugar has more deleterious effects than others.

  19. Mathematical modeling and fuzzy availability analysis for serial processes in the crystallization system of a sugar plant

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    Aggarwal, Anil Kr.; Kumar, Sanjeev; Singh, Vikram

    2017-08-01

    The binary states, i.e., success or failed state assumptions used in conventional reliability are inappropriate for reliability analysis of complex industrial systems due to lack of sufficient probabilistic information. For large complex systems, the uncertainty of each individual parameter enhances the uncertainty of the system reliability. In this paper, the concept of fuzzy reliability has been used for reliability analysis of the system, and the effect of coverage factor, failure and repair rates of subsystems on fuzzy availability for fault-tolerant crystallization system of sugar plant is analyzed. Mathematical modeling of the system is carried out using the mnemonic rule to derive Chapman-Kolmogorov differential equations. These governing differential equations are solved with Runge-Kutta fourth-order method.

  20. Effects of high-sugar and high-fiber meals on physical activity behaviors in Latino and African American adolescents.

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    O'Reilly, Gillian A; Belcher, Britni R; Davis, Jaimie N; Martinez, Lauren T; Huh, Jimi; Antunez-Castillo, Luz; Weigensberg, Marc; Goran, Michael I; Spruijt-Metz, Donna

    2015-09-01

    This crossover experimental study examined the acute effects of high-sugar/low-fiber (HSLF) vs. low-sugar/high-fiber (LSHF) meals on sedentary behavior (SB) and light-plus activity (L+) in minority adolescents with overweight and obesity. 87 Latino and African American adolescents (mean age = 16.3 ± 1.2 years, mean BMI z-score = 2.02 ± 0.52, 56.8% Latino, 51.1% male) underwent two experimental meal conditions during which they consumed HSLF or LSHF meals. Physical activity and SB were measured using accelerometers, and blood glucose and insulin were collected every 30 minutes over 5 hours. Mixed models were used to examine the temporal trends of SB and L+, whether the temporal trends of SB and L+ differed by meal condition, and the influence of blood glucose and insulin on the activity behaviors. SB and L+ fluctuated over time during the HSLF condition but were stable during the LSHF condition. SB and L+ were influenced by the blood glucose response to the HSLF meals. Insulin did not influence SB or L+ in either meal condition. Sugar and fiber content of meals can have differing acute impacts on activity behaviors in minority adolescents with overweight and obesity, possibly due to differing metabolic responses. © 2015 The Obesity Society.

  1. Purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of RafE, a sugar-binding lipoprotein from Streptococcus pneumoniae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paterson, Neil G., E-mail: neison@chem.gla.ac.uk; Riboldi-Tunnicliffe, Alan [Department of Chemistry and WestCHEM, Glasgow Biomedical Research Centre (GBRC), University of Glasgow, 120 University Place, Glasgow G12 8TA,Scotland (United Kingdom); Mitchell, Timothy J. [Division of Infection and Immunity (IBLS), Glasgow Biomedical Research Centre (GBRC), University of Glasgow, 120 University Place, Glasgow G12 8TA,Scotland (United Kingdom); Isaacs, Neil W. [Department of Chemistry and WestCHEM, Glasgow Biomedical Research Centre (GBRC), University of Glasgow, 120 University Place, Glasgow G12 8TA,Scotland (United Kingdom)

    2006-07-01

    The mature form of RafE has been expressed, purified and crystallized. X-ray diffraction data have been collected to 3.65 and 2.90 Å resolution from native and selenomethionine-derivative crystals, respectively. Streptococcus pneumoniae contains a large number of sugar-transport systems and the system responsible for raffinose uptake has recently been identified. The substrate-binding protein component of this system shares strong sequence homology with the multiple sugar metabolism substrate-binding protein MsmE from S. mutans and contains a lipoprotein-attachment site at cysteine residue 23. A truncated form (residues 24–419) of RafE from S. pneumoniae was cloned and overexpressed in Escherichia coli. Native and selenomethionine-labelled protein have been crystallized in the hexagonal space group P6{sub 1}22. Diffraction data have been successfully phased to 2.90 Å using Se SAD data and model building is in progress.

  2. Purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of RafE, a sugar-binding lipoprotein from Streptococcus pneumoniae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paterson, Neil G.; Riboldi-Tunnicliffe, Alan; Mitchell, Timothy J.; Isaacs, Neil W.

    2006-01-01

    The mature form of RafE has been expressed, purified and crystallized. X-ray diffraction data have been collected to 3.65 and 2.90 Å resolution from native and selenomethionine-derivative crystals, respectively. Streptococcus pneumoniae contains a large number of sugar-transport systems and the system responsible for raffinose uptake has recently been identified. The substrate-binding protein component of this system shares strong sequence homology with the multiple sugar metabolism substrate-binding protein MsmE from S. mutans and contains a lipoprotein-attachment site at cysteine residue 23. A truncated form (residues 24–419) of RafE from S. pneumoniae was cloned and overexpressed in Escherichia coli. Native and selenomethionine-labelled protein have been crystallized in the hexagonal space group P6 1 22. Diffraction data have been successfully phased to 2.90 Å using Se SAD data and model building is in progress

  3. Development of the SoFAS (solid fats and added sugars) concept: the 2010 Dietary Guidelines for Americans.

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    Nicklas, Theresa A; O'Neil, Carol E

    2015-05-01

    The diets of most US children and adults are poor, as reflected by low diet quality scores, when compared with the recommendations of the Dietary Guidelines for Americans (DGAs). Contributing to these low scores is that most Americans overconsume solid fats, which may contain saturated fatty acids and added sugars; although alcohol consumption was generally modest, it provided few nutrients. Thus, the 2005 DGAs generated a new recommendation: to reduce intakes of solid fats, alcohol, and added sugars (SoFAAS). What precipitated the emergence of the new SoFAAS terminology was the concept of discretionary calories (a "calorie" is defined as the amount of energy needed to increase the temperature of 1 kg of water by 1°C), which were defined as calories consumed after an individual had met his or her recommended nutrient intakes while consuming fewer calories than the daily recommendation. A limitation with this concept was that additional amounts of nutrient-dense foods consumed beyond the recommended amount were also considered discretionary calories. The rationale for this was that if nutrient-dense foods were consumed beyond recommended amounts, after total energy intake was met then this constituted excess energy intake. In the 2010 DGAs, the terminology was changed to solid fats and added sugars (SoFAS); thus, alcohol was excluded because it made a minor contribution to overall intake and did not apply to children. The SoFAS terminology also negated nutrient-dense foods that were consumed in amounts above the recommendations for the specific food groups in the food patterns. The ambiguous SoFAS terminology was later changed to "empty calories" to reflect only those calories from solid fats and added sugars (and alcohol if consumed beyond moderate amounts). The purpose of this review is to provide an historical perspective on how the dietary recommendations went from SoFAAS to SoFAS and how discretionary calories went to empty calories between the 2005 and 2010

  4. The crystal structure of a sodium galactose transporter reveals mechanistic insights into Na+/sugar symport.

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    Faham, Salem; Watanabe, Akira; Besserer, Gabriel Mercado; Cascio, Duilio; Specht, Alexandre; Hirayama, Bruce A; Wright, Ernest M; Abramson, Jeff

    2008-08-08

    Membrane transporters that use energy stored in sodium gradients to drive nutrients into cells constitute a major class of proteins. We report the crystal structure of a member of the solute sodium symporters (SSS), the Vibrio parahaemolyticus sodium/galactose symporter (vSGLT). The approximately 3.0 angstrom structure contains 14 transmembrane (TM) helices in an inward-facing conformation with a core structure of inverted repeats of 5 TM helices (TM2 to TM6 and TM7 to TM11). Galactose is bound in the center of the core, occluded from the outside solutions by hydrophobic residues. Surprisingly, the architecture of the core is similar to that of the leucine transporter (LeuT) from a different gene family. Modeling the outward-facing conformation based on the LeuT structure, in conjunction with biophysical data, provides insight into structural rearrangements for active transport.

  5. Cardiovascular risk in Gullah African Americans with high familial risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus: project SuGAR.

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    Hunt, Kelly J; Kistner-Griffin, Emily; Spruill, Ida; Teklehaimanot, Abeba A; Garvey, W Timothy; Sale, Michèle; Fernandes, Jyotika

    2014-10-01

    To determine the prevalence of cardiovascular disease, levels of cardiovascular risk factors, and extent of preventive care in Gullah African Americans with a high familial risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Between 1995 and 2003, 1321 Gullah African Americans with a high prevalence of diabetes mellitus from the South Carolina Sea Islands consented to and enrolled in the Sea Islands Genetic African American Registry (Project SuGAR). A cross-sectional analysis of cardiometabolic risk, preventive care, and self-reported cardiovascular disease was conducted. Cardiometabolic risk factor levels were high and vascular disease was prevalent. Among the subjects with diabetes mellitus, the mean disease duration was 10.5 years; approximately one-third reported reduced vision or blindness; and >80% reported numbness, pain, or burning in their feet. Preventive diabetes care was limited, with <60%, <25%, and <40% seeing an ophthalmologist, podiatrist, and dentist, respectively, within the past year. Only 54.4% of women and 39.3% of men reported daily glucose monitoring. As the largest existing study of Gullah individuals, our study offers insight into not only the level of cardiovascular risk in this population but also the pathophysiological mechanisms central to ancestral differences in cardiometabolic risk in the broader African American population.

  6. Crystal methamphetamine use among American Indian and White youth in Appalachia: Social context, masculinity, and desistance.

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    Brown, Ryan A

    2010-06-01

    Rural areas and American Indian reservations are hotspots for the use of crystal methamphetamine ("meth") in the United States, yet there is little ethnographic data describing meth use in these areas. This study draws upon three years of ethnographic work conducted with American Indian and White youth in Appalachia during the height of the meth epidemic. It describes how historical, cultural, and socioeconomic processes influence vulnerability to meth use in Appalachia, and highlights the role of social relationships and meaning-making in facilitating desistance and recovery from meth use. The first section shows how crystal meth filled a particular functional niche in the lives of many young men, alleviating boredom and anomie linked to recent socioeconomic changes and labor opportunities in the region, and intersecting with local understandings of masculinity and forms of military identity. Here, ethnographic and interview data converge to illustrate how social role expectations, recent socioeconomic change, and meth's pharmacological properties converge to create vulnerability to meth use in Appalachia. The second section draws upon two American Indian narratives of desistance. These youth described recently severed social relationships and acute feelings of social isolation during the initiation of meth use. Both also described dramatic close calls with death that facilitated their eventual desistance from use, involving repaired social relationships and the establishment of new lives and hope. These interviews illustrate how changes in social relationships were linked with both initiation and desistance from meth use, and how religious interpretations of near-death experiences structured narratives of cessation and redemption.

  7. Crystal structure of lactose permease in complex with an affinity inactivator yields unique insight into sugar recognition

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    Chaptal, Vincent; Kwon, Seunghyug; Sawaya, Michael R.; Guan, Lan; Kaback, H. Ronald; Abramson, Jeff (UCLA); (TTU)

    2011-08-29

    Lactose permease of Escherichia coli (LacY) with a single-Cys residue in place of A122 (helix IV) transports galactopyranosides and is specifically inactivated by methanethiosulfonyl-galactopyranosides (MTS-gal), which behave as unique suicide substrates. In order to study the mechanism of inactivation more precisely, we solved the structure of single-Cys122 LacY in complex with covalently bound MTS-gal. This structure exhibits an inward-facing conformation similar to that observed previously with a slight narrowing of the cytoplasmic cavity. MTS-gal is bound covalently, forming a disulfide bond with C122 and positioned between R144 and W151. E269, a residue essential for binding, coordinates the C-4 hydroxyl of the galactopyranoside moiety. The location of the sugar is in accord with many biochemical studies.

  8. crystal

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    Yu, Yi; Huang, Yisheng; Zhang, Lizhen; Lin, Zhoubin; Sun, Shijia; Wang, Guofu

    2014-07-01

    A Nd3+:Na2La4(WO4)7 crystal with dimensions of ϕ 17 × 30 mm3 was grown by the Czochralski method. The thermal expansion coefficients of Nd3+:Na2La4(WO4)7 crystal are 1.32 × 10-5 K-1 along c-axis and 1.23 × 10-5 K-1 along a-axis, respectively. The spectroscopic characteristics of Nd3+:Na2La4(WO4)7 crystal were investigated. The Judd-Ofelt theory was applied to calculate the spectral parameters. The absorption cross sections at 805 nm are 2.17 × 10-20 cm2 with a full width at half maximum (FWHM) of 15 nm for π-polarization, and 2.29 × 10-20 cm2 with a FWHM of 14 nm for σ-polarization. The emission cross sections are 3.19 × 10-20 cm2 for σ-polarization and 2.67 × 10-20 cm2 for π-polarization at 1,064 nm. The fluorescence quantum efficiency is 67 %. The quasi-cw laser of Nd3+:Na2La4(WO4)7 crystal was performed. The maximum output power is 80 mW. The slope efficiency is 7.12 %. The results suggest Nd3+:Na2La4(WO4)7 crystal as a promising laser crystal fit for laser diode pumping.

  9. Sugar Substitutes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and drinks. You may have heard them called “artificial sweeteners” or “non-caloric sweeteners.” They can be used ... a food or drink contains. What sugar substitutes/artificial sweeteners are approved by the FDA? The following sugar ...

  10. Blood Sugar

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of your body's cells to use for energy. Diabetes is a disease in which your blood sugar levels are too high. Over time, having too ... serious problems. Even if you don't have diabetes, sometimes you may have problems with blood sugar that is too low or too high. Keeping ...

  11. Low Light Availability Associated with American Beech Is the Main Factor for Reduced Sugar Maple Seedling Survival and Growth Rates in a Hardwood Forest of Southern Quebec

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Collin

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Several recent studies have reported a marked increase in American beech dominance (Fagus grandifolia Ehrh. relative to sugar maple (Acer saccharum Marsh. in late successional forests of North America. However, many factors have been proposed to explain this sudden shift in tree species composition. We investigated the microsite factors responsible for maple regeneration failure under maple-beech stands, focusing on both light availability and soil conditions. The survival and growth of maple seedlings planted in the natural soil and in pots with enriched soil were monitored for two years, as well as foliar nutrition and herbivory damages of natural seedlings. The results indicate that low light availability associated with the presence of beech is the primary factor leading to maple regeneration failures. Soil nutrient availability and foliar nutrition of natural seedlings did not differ between forest types. Yet, the results indicate that factors such as allelopathy and preferential herbivory on maple seedlings under beech could be superimposed effects that hinder maple regeneration. Under similar forests, a control of beech sapling abundance in the understory followed by selection cutting could be one way to promote and maintain maple populations in the longer term.

  12. PROCESS OF OBTAINING OF SUGAR FROM SUGAR BEET AND INFLUENCE ON ITS QUALITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marián Tokár

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Cooking of massecuites has been study in the connection with different particle size distribution of white sugar. During the crystallization is possible to operate with parameters which have influence on particle size of white sugar. Dry matter of juice in crystallizer, volume of the standard syrup in crystallizer and heating curve of crystallization process are constant parameters in this process. Quantity of slurry (seed magma crystallizate and volume of slurry massecuite are parameters which can be changed for control the particle size distribution of white sugar. Five variants of viable parameters have been trying for obtain ideal particle size distribution of white sugar. As a best has been evaluated variant with 1100 cm3 of slurry and 20 % of volume of slurry massecuite in crystallizer. This variant has had the crystals proportions captured by the sieves between 1.00 and 0.40 mm with minimal differences in weight. More results have been related to reduction of losses of sugar in molasses with the right setting for the line of cooling crystallization process. The looses of sugar can be reduced by adding two coolers in the end of cooling crystalization process what will decrease a temperature to 40 ° C. This temperature will lead to more efficient crystallization in the cooling crystallization process.doi:10.5219/122

  13. Increase The Sugar Concentration of The Solution Sugar by Reverse Osmotic Membrane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redjeki, S.; Hapsari, N.; Iriani

    2018-01-01

    Sugar is one of the basic needs of people and food and drink industry. As technology advances and the demand for efficient usage of sugar rises, crystal sugar is seen as less advantageous than liquid sugar. If sugar is always dissolved in water before use, then it will be more efficient and practical for consumers to use sugar in liquid form than in crystal form. Other than that, liquid sugar is also attractive to consumers because it is economical, hygienic, instantly soluble in hot and cold water, fresher and longer-lasting, able to thicken and enrich the texture of foods and drinks, and functions as sweetener, syrup, and flavor enhancer. Liquid sugar is also more beneficial for sugar producers because of simpler production process, cheaper production cost, and similar yield with no extra cost. In sugar production, separation process is found in most of its stages and therefore the use of membrane technology for separating solute and water content has a good potential. In this research, water content reduction of sugar solution was done in order to increase the sugar concentration of the solution. The parameters of this research were 4%, 5%, and 6% starting concentration of sugar solution; 20, 40, and 60 minutes of process time; and 85 and 60 PSI ΔP. The best result was acquired on 4% starting concentration, 60 PSI ΔP, and 60 minutes process time.

  14. Added Sugar: Don't Get Sabotaged by Sweeteners

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... your diet, you can cut calories without compromising nutrition. In fact, cutting back on foods with added sugars and solid ... et al. The science of sugars: Part 3. Nutrition Today. 2012;47:252. Sugar 101. ... for cutting down on sugar. American Heart Association. http://www. ...

  15. Sugar 101

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Search By Zipcode Search by State SELECT YOUR LANGUAGE Español (Spanish) 简体中文 (Traditional Chinese) 繁体中文 (Simplified Chinese) ... Hey Kids, Learn About Blood Sugar and Diabetes Teaching Gardens Teaching Gardens Recognition Teaching Gardens-See Our ...

  16. Added Sugars

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Search By Zipcode Search by State SELECT YOUR LANGUAGE Español (Spanish) 简体中文 (Traditional Chinese) 繁体中文 (Simplified Chinese) ... Hey Kids, Learn About Blood Sugar and Diabetes Teaching Gardens Teaching Gardens Recognition Teaching Gardens-See Our ...

  17. Sugar-Sweetened Beverages Are the Main Sources of Added Sugar Intake in the Mexican Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Pimienta, Tania G; Batis, Carolina; Lutter, Chessa K; Rivera, Juan A

    2016-09-01

    Sugar intake has been associated with an increased prevalence of obesity, other noncommunicable diseases, and dental caries. The WHO recommends that free sugars should be ENSANUT (National Health and Nutrition Survey) 2012], which represents 3 geographic regions and urban and rural areas. Dietary information was obtained by administering a 24-h recall questionnaire to 10,096 participants. Total sugar intake was estimated by using the National Institute of Public Health (INSP) food-composition table and an established method to estimate added sugars. The mean intakes of total, intrinsic, and added sugars were 365, 127, and 238 kcal/d, respectively. Added sugars contributed 13% of TEI. Sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) were the main source of sugars, contributing 69% of added sugars. Food products high in saturated fat and/or added sugar (HSFAS) were the second main sources of added sugars, contributing 25% of added sugars. The average intake of added sugars in the Mexican diet is higher than WHO recommendations, which may partly explain the high prevalence of obesity and diabetes in Mexico. Because SSBs and HSFAS contribute >94% of total added sugars, strategies to reduce their intake should be strengthened. This includes stronger food labels to warn the consumer about the content of added sugars in foods and beverages. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

  18. Blood sugar test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... level; Fasting blood sugar; Glucose test; Diabetic screening - blood sugar test; Diabetes - blood sugar test ... than likely, the doctor will order a fasting blood sugar test. The blood glucose test is also used to ...

  19. Inorganic elements in sugar samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salles, Paulo M.B. de; Campos, Tarcisio P.R. de

    2013-01-01

    Sugar is considered a safe food ingredient; however, it can be contaminated by organic elements since its planting until its production process. Thus, this study aims at checking the presence of inorganic elements in samples of crystal, refined and brown sugar available for consumption in Brazil. The applied technique was neutron activation analysis, the k 0 method, using the TRIGA MARK - IPR-R1 reactor located at CDTN/CNEN, in Belo Horizonte. It was identified the presence of elements such as, Au, Br, Co, Cr, Hf, K, Na, Sb, Sc and Zn in the samples of crystal/refined sugar and the presence of As, Au, Br, Ca, Co, Cr, Cs, Fe, Hf, K, Na, Sb, Sc, Sm, Sr, Th and Zn in the brown sugar samples. The applied technique was appropriate to this study because it was not necessary to put the samples in solution, essential condition in order to apply other techniques, avoiding contaminations and sample losses, besides allowing a multi elementary detection in different sugar samples. (author)

  20. Pengaruh Keragaman Gula Aren Cetak terhadap Kualitas Gula Aren Kristal (Palm Sugar) Produksi Agroindustri Kecil

    OpenAIRE

    susi, susi

    2013-01-01

    Cyrstal palm sugar was one product diversification of palm sugar that utilization continues to grow and is expected to reduce its dependence on white sugar. Crystal palm sugar can be processed from the sap of palm or palm sugar product which melted. Utilization palm sugar as a raw material is one way to reduce excess palm sugar, but on the other hand is rather difficult to control the quality of raw materials. Wide variations in the quality of the palm sugar will also cause the palm sugar cry...

  1. Sugar pine and its hybrids

    Science.gov (United States)

    W. B. Critchfield; B. B. Kinloch

    1986-01-01

    Unlike most white pines, sugar pine (Pinus lambertiana) is severely restricted in its ability to hybridize with other species. It has not been successfully crossed with any other North American white pine, nor with those Eurasian white pines it most closely resembles. Crosses with the dissimilar P. koraiensis and P....

  2. Sugar Price Supports and Taxation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dilk, Abby; Savaiano, Dennis A.

    2017-01-01

    Domestic US sugar production has been protected by government policy for the past 82 years, resulting in elevated domestic prices and an estimated annual (2013) $1.4 billion dollar “tax” on consumers. These elevated prices and the simultaneous federal support for domestic corn production have ensured a strong market for high-fructose corn syrup. Americans have dramatically increased their consumption of caloric sweeteners during the same period. Consumption of “empty” calories (ie, foods with low-nutrient/high-caloric density)—sugar and high-fructose corn syrup being the primary sources—is considered by most public health experts to be a key contributing factor to the rise in obesity. There have been substantial efforts to tax sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) to both reduce consumption and provide a source of funds for nutrition education, thereby emulating the tobacco tax model. Volume-based SSB taxes levy the tax rate per ounce of liquid, where some are only imposed on beverages with added sugar content exceeding a set threshold. Nonetheless, volume-based taxes have significant limitations in encouraging consumers to reduce their caloric intake due to a lack of transparency at the point of purchase. Thus, it is hypothesized that point-of-purchase, nutrient-specific excise taxes on SSBs would be more effective at reducing sugar consumption. However, all SSB taxes are limited by the possibility that consumers may compensate their decreased intake from SSBs with other high-calorie junk foods. Furthermore, there are no existing studies to provide evidence on how SSB taxes will impact obesity rates in the long term. The paradox of sugar prices is that Americans have paid higher prices for sugar to protect domestic production for more than 80 years, and now, Americans are being asked to pay even more to promote public health. The effective use of sugar taxes should be considered based on their merits in reducing sugar consumption and making available a new

  3. Sweeteners - sugar substitutes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artificial sweeteners are substances that are used in place of sweeteners with sugar (sucrose) or sugar alcohols . They ... foods and drinks without adding extra calories. Using artificial sweeteners in place of sugar can also help prevent ...

  4. Acceptance of sugar reduction in flavored yogurt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chollet, M; Gille, D; Schmid, A; Walther, B; Piccinali, P

    2013-09-01

    To investigate what level of sugar reduction is accepted in flavored yogurt, we conducted a hedonic test focusing on the degree of liking of the products and on optimal sweetness and aroma levels. For both flavorings (strawberry and coffee), consumers preferred yogurt containing 10% added sugar. However, yogurt containing 7% added sugar was also acceptable. On the just-about-right scale, yogurt containing 10% sugar was more often described as too sweet compared with yogurt containing 7% sugar. On the other hand, the sweetness and aroma intensity for yogurt containing 5% sugar was judged as too low. A second test was conducted to determine the effect of flavoring concentration on the acceptance of yogurt containing 7% sugar. Yogurts containing the highest concentrations of flavoring (11% strawberry, 0.75% coffee) were less appreciated. Additionally, the largest percentage of consumers perceived these yogurts as "not sweet enough." These results indicate that consumers would accept flavored yogurts with 7% added sugar instead of 10%, but 5% sugar would be too low. Additionally, an increase in flavor concentration is undesirable for yogurt containing 7% added sugar. Copyright © 2013 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Sugar Restriction Leads to Increased Ad Libitum Sugar Intake by Overweight Adolescents in an Experimental Test Meal Setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Reilly, Gillian A; Black, David S; Huh, Jimi; Davis, Jaimie N; Unger, Jennifer; Spruijt-Metz, Donna

    2017-07-01

    The impact of sugar restriction on subsequent sugar intake by overweight adolescents is unknown. Our aim was to examine the effect of sugar restriction on subsequent ad libitum sugar intake by overweight adolescents and whether habitual sugar intake and impulsivity influence the effect of sugar restriction on subsequent sugar intake. This was an in-laboratory crossover feeding trial with sugar-exposure and sugar-restriction conditions. Eighty-seven overweight Latino and African-American adolescents underwent both meal conditions in two separate 8-hour in-laboratory visits. Participants had access to ad libitum snack trays for 3 hours after the condition-specific meals. Ad libitum sugar intake during the snack period was measured at each visit. Habitual sugar intake and impulsivity were assessed at baseline. Repeated measures analysis of covariance was used to examine the within-person effect of meal condition on ad libitum sugar intake. Mixed models were used to examine the moderating effects of habitual sugar intake and impulsivity on the meal condition-ad libitum sugar intake relationship. Participants consumed more ad libitum sugar during the snack period in the sugar-restriction condition than in the sugar-exposure condition (sugar restriction=78.63±38.84 g, sugar exposure=70.86±37.73 g; F=9.64, P=0.002). There was no relationship between habitual sugar intake and how much ad libitum sugar participants consumed during either condition. Higher impulsivity was associated with greater ad libitum sugar intake during both conditions (sugar restriction: b=.029, standard error=.01, Poverweight adolescents restricted from sugar intake consume greater amounts of sugar when they are later given access to high-sugar foods. Overweight adolescents with higher impulsivity appear to consume greater amounts of sugar regardless of previous levels of sugar consumption. Compensatory sugar intake and trait impulsivity may have implications for dietary interventions in this

  6. Production in Pichia pastoris, antifungal activity and crystal structure of a class I chitinase from cowpea (Vigna unguiculata): Insights into sugar binding mode and hydrolytic action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landim, Patrícia G Castro; Correia, Tuana O; Silva, Fredy D A; Nepomuceno, Denise R; Costa, Helen P S; Pereira, Humberto M; Lobo, Marina D P; Moreno, Frederico B M B; Brandão-Neto, José; Medeiros, Suelen C; Vasconcelos, Ilka M; Oliveira, José T A; Sousa, Bruno L; Barroso-Neto, Ito L; Freire, Valder N; Carvalho, Cristina P S; Monteiro-Moreira, Ana C O; Grangeiro, Thalles B

    2017-04-01

    A cowpea class I chitinase (VuChiI) was expressed in the methylotrophic yeast P. pastoris. The recombinant protein was secreted into the culture medium and purified by affinity chromatography on a chitin matrix. The purified chitinase migrated on SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis as two closely-related bands with apparent molecular masses of 34 and 37 kDa. The identity of these bands as VuChiI was demonstrated by mass spectrometry analysis of tryptic peptides and N-terminal amino acid sequencing. The recombinant chitinase was able to hydrolyze colloidal chitin but did not exhibit enzymatic activity toward synthetic substrates. The highest hydrolytic activity of the cowpea chitinase toward colloidal chitin was observed at pH 5.0. Furthermore, most VuChiI activity (approximately 92%) was retained after heating to 50 °C for 30 min, whereas treatment with 5 mM Cu 2+ caused a reduction of 67% in the enzyme's chitinolytic activity. The recombinant protein had antifungal activity as revealed by its ability to inhibit the spore germination and mycelial growth of Penicillium herquei. The three-dimensional structure of VuChiI was resolved at a resolution of 1.55 Å by molecular replacement. The refined model had 245 amino acid residues and 381 water molecules, and the final R-factor and R free values were 14.78 and 17.22%, respectively. The catalytic domain of VuChiI adopts an α-helix-rich fold, stabilized by 3 disulfide bridges and possessing a wide catalytic cleft. Analysis of the crystallographic model and molecular docking calculations using chito-oligosaccharides provided evidences about the VuChiI residues involved in sugar binding and catalysis, and a possible mechanism of antifungal action is suggested. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. and Société Française de Biochimie et Biologie Moléculaire (SFBBM). All rights reserved.

  7. Sugar beet breeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugar beet is a recent crop developed solely for extraction of the sweetener sucrose. Breeding and improvement of Beta vulgaris for sugar has a rich historical record. Sugar beet originated from fodder beet in the 1800s, and selection has increased sugar content from 4 to 6% then to over 18% today. ...

  8. Crystal structure of the enzyme-product complex reveals sugar ring distortion during catalysis by family 63 inverting α-glycosidase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyazaki, Takatsugu; Nishikawa, Atsushi; Tonozuka, Takashi

    2016-12-01

    Glycoside hydrolases are divided into two groups, known as inverting and retaining enzymes, based on their hydrolytic mechanisms. Glycoside hydrolase family 63 (GH63) is composed of inverting α-glycosidases, which act mainly on α-glucosides. We previously found that Escherichia coli GH63 enzyme, YgjK, can hydrolyze 2-O-α-d-glucosyl-d-galactose. Two constructed glycosynthase mutants, D324N and E727A, which catalyze the transfer of a β-glucosyl fluoride donor to galactose, lactose, and melibiose. Here, we determined the crystal structures of D324N and E727A soaked with a mixture of glucose and lactose at 1.8- and 2.1-Å resolutions, respectively. Because glucose and lactose molecules are found at the active sites in both structures, it is possible that these structures mimic the enzyme-product complex of YgjK. A glucose molecule found at subsite -1 in both structures adopts an unusual 1 S 3 skew-boat conformation. Comparison between these structures and the previously determined enzyme-substrate complex structure reveals that the glucose pyranose ring might be distorted immediately after nucleophilic attack by a water molecule. These structures represent the first enzyme-product complex for the GH63 family, as well as the structurally-related glycosidases, and it may provide insight into the catalytic mechanism of these enzymes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Home blood sugar testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... You and your provider can look at your blood sugar patterns together and make adjustments to your medicines, if needed. You and your provider should set a target goal for your blood sugar level for different times of the day. ...

  10. Sugar - a harmless indulgence?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Lone Banke; Andersen, Niels Lyhne; Ovesen, L.

    1998-01-01

    in the diet, primarily because of the high energy density of sugar. Diabetes mellitus and heart diseases do not seem to have any direct connection with a high sugar consumption. Sugar continues to be a risk factor for the development of caries. Further, it cannot be excluded that high sugar consumption...... is a risk factor for cancer in the gastrointestinal tract or for Crohn's disease. It seems reasonable to keep the current recommendations about sugar intake.......The consumption of sugar is relatively high in Denmark - and other industrial countries - and many persons have a consumption which exceeds the recommended level of maximally 10% of energy intake. A high sugar consumption may reduce the nutrient density of the diet and increase the risk of vitamin...

  11. "Big Momma Had Sugar, Imma Have It Too" Medical Fatalism and the Language of Faith Among African-American Women in Memphis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hotz, Kendra G

    2015-12-01

    This essay offers a theological exploration of the relationship between medical fatalism and religious belonging among African-American women in Memphis. Drawing on the work of black and womanist theologians and on conversations with participants in a diabetes intervention program administered by a faith-based community health provider, I argue that how we narrate the meanings of our bodies is irreducibly religious. The language we use to interpret and communicate the meaning of our bodily existence emerges from a set of assumptions, often unarticulated, about what is of ultimate value to us. The essay focuses on three interlocking features that link faith with fatalism or hope: (1) The idea that if "I don't claim that" disease cannot enter my body; (2) the role of faith-based clinics in re-establishing trust with marginalized communities; and (3) how nuanced attention to the social location of health seekers can re-frame our understanding of patient compliance. Disrupting fatalism can only be done from within a health seeker's own narrative, and therefore, healthcare providers who learn these narratives and respect their holiness will develop more effective interventions.

  12. Sugar - a harmless indulgence?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Lone Banke; Andersen, Niels Lyhne; Ovesen, L.

    1998-01-01

    The consumption of sugar is relatively high in Denmark - and other industrial countries - and many persons have a consumption which exceeds the recommended level of maximally 10% of energy intake. A high sugar consumption may reduce the nutrient density of the diet and increase the risk of vitamin...... and mineral deficiency, especially in low energy consumers. The sugar intake and the fat intake, expressed as percentage of energy, usually show an inverse association. This has lead to the statement that a diet with both a low sugar content and a low fat content is incompatible, but we will argue...... that this is not the fact. The significance of sugar for the development of obesity is not clarified. A high fat content in the diet seems to promote the development of obesity, while a high carbohydrate content tends to reduce obesity. It is not known if sugar in this connection is comparable to the other carbohydrates...

  13. USE CELLULOSE FOR CLEANING CONCENTRATED SUGAR SOLUTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. G. Kul’neva

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Summary. Producing high quality intermediate products in the boiling-crystallization station is an actual problem of sugar production. In the production of white sugar brown sugar syrup is not further purified that decreases the quality of the end product. Studies have been conducted using cellulose as an adsorbent for the purification of concentrated sugar solutions, having affinity to dyes and other impurities. Research have been carried out with the intermediate products of the Lebedyan sugar plant. Test results have shown cellulose ability to adsorb the dyes in sugar production. The influence of the adsorbent concentration and the mass fraction of solids in the syrup on the decolorization effect has been studied; rational process parameters have been obtained. It has been found that proceeding an additional adsorption purification of brown sugars syrup allows to reduce the solution color, increase the amount and quality of the end product. Adsorbing means, received from production wastes on the basis of organic resources, have many advantages: economical, environmentally friendly for disposal, safe to use, reliable and efficient in use. Conducted research on using cellulose as adsorbent for treatment of concentrated sugar solutions, having an affinity for colouring matter and other impurities. The experiments were carried out on the intermediates Lebedyanskiy sugar factory. The test results showed the ability of cellulose to adsorb coloring matter of sugar production. To evaluate the effect of bleaching depending on the mass fraction of dry substances prepared yellow juice filtration of sugar concentration of 55, 60, 65 % with subsequent adsorption purification of cellulose. The results of the experiment built adsorption isotherm of dyestuffs. The influence of the concentration of the adsorbent and a mass fraction of solids of juice filtration on the efficiency of decolorization obtained by rational parameters of the process. It is

  14. Sugar from Palms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barfod, Anders

    Throughout the tropics and subtropics a large number of products are derived from the sugar-rich sap tapped from palms. I will give an overview of the most important species being exploited, harvesting practices and yields. I will further provide insights in the biomechanmics of sugar...... transportation in palms, which remain an enigma. Finally, the prospects for developing palm sugar into a commodity of worlswide significance will be discussed....

  15. Transport of sugars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Li-Qing; Cheung, Lily S; Feng, Liang; Tanner, Widmar; Frommer, Wolf B

    2015-01-01

    Soluble sugars serve five main purposes in multicellular organisms: as sources of carbon skeletons, osmolytes, signals, and transient energy storage and as transport molecules. Most sugars are derived from photosynthetic organisms, particularly plants. In multicellular organisms, some cells specialize in providing sugars to other cells (e.g., intestinal and liver cells in animals, photosynthetic cells in plants), whereas others depend completely on an external supply (e.g., brain cells, roots and seeds). This cellular exchange of sugars requires transport proteins to mediate uptake or release from cells or subcellular compartments. Thus, not surprisingly, sugar transport is critical for plants, animals, and humans. At present, three classes of eukaryotic sugar transporters have been characterized, namely the glucose transporters (GLUTs), sodium-glucose symporters (SGLTs), and SWEETs. This review presents the history and state of the art of sugar transporter research, covering genetics, biochemistry, and physiology-from their identification and characterization to their structure, function, and physiology. In humans, understanding sugar transport has therapeutic importance (e.g., addressing diabetes or limiting access of cancer cells to sugars), and in plants, these transporters are critical for crop yield and pathogen susceptibility.

  16. Total, Added, and Free Sugars: Are Restrictive Guidelines Science-Based or Achievable?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Erickson

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Sugar consumption, especially added sugars, is under attack. Various government and health authorities have suggested new sugar recommendations and guidelines as low as 5% of total calories from free sugars. Definitions for total sugars, free sugars, and added sugars are not standardized, nor are there accepted nutrient databases for this information. Our objective was to measure total sugars and added sugars in sample meal plans created by the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA and the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics (AND. Utilizing the Nutrition Data System for Research (NDSR nutritional database, results found that plans created by the USDA and AND averaged 5.1% and 3.1% calories from added sugar, 8.7% and 3.1% from free sugar, and 23.3% and 21.1% as total sugars respectively. Compliance with proposed added sugar recommendations would require strict dietary compliance and may not be sustainable for many Americans. Without an accepted definition and equation for calculating added sugar, added sugar recommendations are arbitrary and may reduce intakes of nutrient-rich, recommended foods, such as yogurt, whole grains, and tart fruits including cranberries, cherries, and grapefruit. Added sugars are one part of excess calorie intake; however, compliance with low added sugar recommendations may not be achievable for the general public.

  17. Total, added, and free sugars: are restrictive guidelines science-based or achievable?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Jennifer; Slavin, Joanne

    2015-04-15

    Sugar consumption, especially added sugars, is under attack. Various government and health authorities have suggested new sugar recommendations and guidelines as low as 5% of total calories from free sugars. Definitions for total sugars, free sugars, and added sugars are not standardized, nor are there accepted nutrient databases for this information. Our objective was to measure total sugars and added sugars in sample meal plans created by the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) and the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics (AND). Utilizing the Nutrition Data System for Research (NDSR) nutritional database, results found that plans created by the USDA and AND averaged 5.1% and 3.1% calories from added sugar, 8.7% and 3.1% from free sugar, and 23.3% and 21.1% as total sugars respectively. Compliance with proposed added sugar recommendations would require strict dietary compliance and may not be sustainable for many Americans. Without an accepted definition and equation for calculating added sugar, added sugar recommendations are arbitrary and may reduce intakes of nutrient-rich, recommended foods, such as yogurt, whole grains, and tart fruits including cranberries, cherries, and grapefruit. Added sugars are one part of excess calorie intake; however, compliance with low added sugar recommendations may not be achievable for the general public.

  18. Does Consuming Sugar and Artificial Sweeteners Change Taste Preferences?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartolotto, Carole

    2015-01-01

    Americans consume 22.3 teaspoons of added caloric sweeteners a day. Sweeteners range from 180 to 13,000 times sweeter than sugar. In summer 2014, 20 people from Kaiser Permanente California facilities cut out all added sugars and artificial sweeteners for 2 weeks: 95% of participants found that sweet foods and drinks tasted sweeter or too sweet, 75% found that other foods tasted sweeter, and 95% said moving forward they would use less or even no sugar. Additionally, 86.6% of participants stopped craving sugar after 6 days.

  19. Hyperactivity and sugar

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... likely to be hyperactive if they eat sugar, artificial sweeteners, or certain food colorings. Other experts disagree with this. Side Effects Some people claim that eating sugar (such as sucrose), aspartame, and artificial flavors and colors lead to hyperactivity and other ...

  20. Hawaii's Sugar Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawaiian Sugar Planters' Association, Aiea, HI.

    A warm and sunny subtropical climate helps make Hawaii an important sugar producer. History records that sugarcane was already present when Captain James Cook discovered the islands in 1778, and that the first successful sugarcane plantation was started in 1835 by Ladd and Company at Koloa. The first recorded export of Hawaiian sugar was in 1837,…

  1. Effect on Caries of Restricting Sugars Intake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moynihan, P.J.; Kelly, S.A.M.

    2014-01-01

    A systematic review of studies in humans was conducted to update evidence on the association between the amount of sugars intake and dental caries and on the effect of restricting sugars intake to caries to inform the updating of World Health Organization guidelines on sugars consumption. Data sources included MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane Database, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Latin American and Caribbean Health Sciences, China National Knowledge Infrastructure, Wanfang, and South African Department of Health. Eligible studies reported the absolute amount of sugars and dental caries, measured as prevalence, incidence, or severity. The review was conducted and reported in accordance with the PRISMA statement, and the evidence was assessed according to GRADE Working Group guidelines. From 5,990 papers identified, 55 studies were eligible – 3 intervention, 8 cohort, 20 population, and 24 cross-sectional. Data variability limited meta-analysis. Of the studies, 42 out of 50 of those in children and 5 out of 5 in adults reported at least one positive association between sugars and caries. There is evidence of moderate quality showing that caries is lower when free-sugars intake is caries risk throughout the life course. PMID:24323509

  2. Intake of added sugar in Malaysia: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amarra, Maria Sofia V; Khor, Geok Lin; Chan, Pauline

    2016-01-01

    The term 'added sugars' refers to sugars and syrup added to foods during processing or preparation, and sugars and syrups added at the table. Calls to limit the daily intakes of added sugars and its sources arose from evidence analysed by WHO, the American Heart Association and other organizations. The present review examined the best available evidence regarding levels of added sugar consumption among different age and sex groups in Malaysia and sources of added sugars. Information was extracted from food balance sheets, household expenditure surveys, nutrition surveys and published studies. Varying results emerged, as nationwide information on intake of sugar and foods with added sugar were obtained at different times and used different assessment methods. Data from the 2003 Malaysian Adult Nutrition Survey (MANS) using food frequency questionnaires suggested that on average, Malaysian adults consumed 30 grams of sweetened condensed milk (equivalent to 16 grams sugar) and 21 grams of table sugar per day, which together are below the WHO recommendation of 50 grams sugar for every 2000 kcal/day to reduce risk of chronic disease. Published studies suggested that, for both adults and the elderly, frequently consumed sweetened foods were beverages (tea or coffee) with sweetened condensed milk and added sugar. More accurate data should be obtained by conducting population-wide studies using biomarkers of sugar intake (e.g. 24-hour urinary sucrose and fructose excretion or serum abundance of the stable isotope 13C) to determine intake levels, and multiple 24 hour recalls to identify major food sources of added sugar.

  3. Are restrictive guidelines for added sugars science based?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Jennifer; Slavin, Joanne

    2015-12-12

    Added sugar regulations and recommendations have been proposed by policy makers around the world. With no universal definition, limited access to added sugar values in food products and no analytical difference from intrinsic sugars, added sugar recommendations present a unique challenge. Average added sugar intake by American adults is approximately 13% of total energy intake, and recommendations have been made as low 5% of total energy intake. In addition to public health recommendations, the Food and Drug Administration has proposed the inclusion of added sugar data to the Nutrition and Supplemental Facts Panel. The adoption of such regulations would have implications for both consumers as well as the food industry. There are certainly advantages to including added sugar data to the Nutrition Facts Panel; however, consumer research does not consistently show the addition of this information to improve consumer knowledge. With excess calorie consumption resulting in weight gain and increased risk of obesity and obesity related co-morbidities, added sugar consumption should be minimized. However, there is currently no evidence stating that added sugar is more harmful than excess calories from any other food source. The addition of restrictive added sugar recommendations may not be the most effective intervention in the treatment and prevention of obesity and other health concerns.

  4. What Price Sugar? Land, Labor, and Revolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel C. Littlefield

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available [First paragraph] Sugar, Slavery, and Society: Perspectives on the Caribbean, India, the Mascarenes, and the United States. Bernard Moitt (ed.. Gainesville: University Press of Florida, 2004. vii + 203 pp. (Cloth US $ 65.00 Tropical Babylons: Sugar and the Making of the Atlantic World, 1450-1680. Stuart B. Schwartz (ed.. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2004. xiii + 347 pp. (Paper US $ 22.50 These two books illustrate the fascination that sugar, slavery, and the plantation still exercise over the minds of scholars. One of them also reflects an interest in the influence these have had on the modern world. For students of the history of these things the Schwartz collection is in many ways the more useful. It seeks to fill a lacuna left by the concentration of monographs on the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, suggesting that we know less about the history of sugar than we thought we did. Perhaps in no other single place is such a range of information on so wide an area presented in such detail for so early a period. Ranging from Iberia to the Caribbean and including consumption as well as production of sugar, with a nod to the slave trade and a very useful note on weights and currencies, this volume is a gold mine of information. It considers (briefly the theoretical meaning as well as the growing of this important crop, contrasting its production in Iberia with that on the Atlantic islands of Madeira and the Canaries, colonized by Iberian powers, and continuing the contrast with São Tomé, off the coast of Africa, and on to Brazil and the Spanish American empire before ending with the British in Barbados. In the transit, it of necessity considers and complicates the meaning of “sugar revolution” and shows how scholars using that term do not always mean the same thing. John McCusker and Russell Menard, for example, tackling a cornerstone of the traditional interpretation of the development of sugar, argue that there

  5. Transcription Factor AREB2 Is Involved in Soluble Sugar Accumulation by Activating Sugar Transporter and Amylase Genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Qi-Jun; Sun, Mei-Hong; Lu, Jing; Liu, Ya-Jing; Hu, Da-Gang; Hao, Yu-Jin

    2017-08-01

    Sugars play important roles in plant growth and development, crop yield and quality, as well as responses to abiotic stresses. Abscisic acid (ABA) is a multifunctional hormone. However, the exact mechanism by which ABA regulates sugar accumulation is largely unknown in plants. Here, we tested the expression profile of several sugar transporter and amylase genes in response to ABA treatment. MdSUT2 and MdAREB2 were isolated and genetically transformed into apple ( Malus domestica ) to investigate their roles in ABA-induced sugar accumulation. The MdAREB2 transcription factor was found to bind to the promoters of the sugar transporter and amylase genes and activate their expression. Both MdAREB2 and MdSUT2 transgenic plants produced more soluble sugars than controls. Furthermore, MdAREB2 promoted the accumulation of sucrose and soluble sugars in an MdSUT2 -dependent manner. Our results demonstrate that the ABA-responsive transcription factor MdAREB2 directly activates the expression of amylase and sugar transporter genes to promote soluble sugar accumulation, suggesting a mechanism by which ABA regulates sugar accumulation in plants. © 2017 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  6. Low blood sugar

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a medical emergency. It can cause seizures and brain damage. Severe low blood sugar that causes you to become unconscious is called hypoglycemic or insulin shock. Even one episode of severe low blood ...

  7. Sugar recognition by human galactokinase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timson David J

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Galactokinase catalyses the first committed step of galactose catabolism in which the sugar is phosphorylated at the expense of MgATP. Recent structural studies suggest that the enzyme makes several contacts with galactose – five side chain and two main chain hydrogen bonds. Furthermore, it has been suggested that inhibition of galactokinase may help sufferers of the genetic disease classical galactosemia which is caused by defects in another enzyme of the pathway galactose-1-phosphate uridyl transferase. Galactokinases from different sources have a range of substrate specificities and a diversity of kinetic mechanisms. Therefore only studies on the human enzyme are likely to be of value in the design of therapeutically useful inhibitors. Results Using recombinant human galactokinase expressed in and purified from E. coli we have investigated the sugar specificity of the enzyme and the kinetic consequences of mutating residues in the sugar-binding site in order to improve our understanding of substrate recognition by this enzyme. D-galactose and 2-deoxy-D-galactose are substrates for the enzyme, but N-acetyl-D-galactosamine, L-arabinose, D-fucose and D-glucose are all not phosphorylated. Mutation of glutamate-43 (which forms a hydrogen bond to the hydroxyl group attached to carbon 6 of galactose to alanine results in only minor changes in the kinetic parameters of the enzyme. Mutation of this residue to glycine causes a ten-fold drop in the turnover number. In contrast, mutation of histidine 44 to either alanine or isoleucine results in insoluble protein following expression in E. coli. Alteration of the residue that makes hydrogen bonds to the hydroxyl attached to carbons 3 and 4 (aspartate 46 results in an enzyme that although soluble is essentially inactive. Conclusions The enzyme is tolerant to small changes at position 2 of the sugar ring, but not at positions 4 and 6. The results from site directed mutagenesis could

  8. The Sugar Tax in Holland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ajjaji, Fadoua

    2016-01-01

    This inquiry supports the theory of a sugar tax has a positive influence on the sugar consumption of Dutch individuals. Once a tax is implemented, the sugar consumption declines. Furthermore, this study supported the hypothesis claiming that children have a positive influence on their parental sugar

  9. Apparatus for drying sugar cubes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Derckx, H.A.J.; Torringa, H.M.

    1999-01-01

    Device for drying sugar cubes containing a heating apparatus for heating and dehumidifying the sugar cubes, a conditioning apparatus for cooling off and possibly further dehumidifying the sugar cubes and a conveying apparatus for conveying the sugar cubes through the heating apparatus and the

  10. Metabolic engineering of sugars and simple sugar derivatives in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrick, John W; Botha, Frikkie C; Birch, Robert G

    2013-02-01

    Carbon captured through photosynthesis is transported, and sometimes stored in plants, as sugar. All organic compounds in plants trace to carbon from sugars, so sugar metabolism is highly regulated and integrated with development. Sugars stored by plants are important to humans as foods and as renewable feedstocks for industrial conversion to biofuels and biomaterials. For some purposes, sugars have advantages over polymers including starches, cellulose or storage lipids. This review considers progress and prospects in plant metabolic engineering for increased yield of endogenous sugars and for direct production of higher-value sugars and simple sugar derivatives. Opportunities are examined for enhancing export of sugars from leaves. Focus then turns to manipulation of sugar metabolism in sugar-storing sink organs such as fruits, sugarcane culms and sugarbeet tubers. Results from manipulation of suspected 'limiting' enzymes indicate a need for clearer understanding of flux control mechanisms, to achieve enhanced levels of endogenous sugars in crops that are highly selected for this trait. Outcomes from in planta conversion to novel sugars and derivatives range from severe interference with plant development to field demonstration of crops accumulating higher-value sugars at high yields. The differences depend on underlying biological factors including the effects of the novel products on endogenous metabolism, and on biotechnological fine-tuning including developmental expression and compartmentation patterns. Ultimately, osmotic activity may limit the accumulation of sugars to yields below those achievable using polymers; but results indicate the potential for increases above current commercial sugar yields, through metabolic engineering underpinned by improved understanding of plant sugar metabolism. © 2012 The Authors Plant Biotechnology Journal © 2012 Society for Experimental Biology, Association of Applied Biologists and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  11. Converting sugars to sugar alcohols by aqueous phase catalytic hydrogenation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Douglas C [Richland, WA; Werpy, Todd A [West Richland, WA; Wang, Yong [Richland, WA; Frye, Jr., John G.

    2003-05-27

    The present invention provides a method of converting sugars to their corresponding sugar alcohols by catalytic hydrogenation in the aqueous phase. It has been found that surprisingly superior results can be obtained by utilizing a relatively low temperature (less than 120.degree. C.), selected hydrogenation conditions, and a hydrothermally stable catalyst. These results include excellent sugar conversion to the desired sugar alcohol, in combination with long life under hydrothermal conditions.

  12. Sugar Cane Magic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mower, Nancy Alpert

    The booklet contains a story for middle-grade students which shows how the roles of men and women change through the years. The main characters are three sixth graders in Hawaii: one girl has Hawaiian ancestors, one girl has Japanese ancestors, and one boy has New England missionary ancestors. The children discover a magic stalk of sugar cane…

  13. Sugars, exercise and health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Codella, Roberto; Terruzzi, Ileana; Luzi, Livio

    2017-12-15

    There is a direct link between a variety of addictions and mood states to which exercise could be relieving. Sugar addiction has been recently counted as another binge/compulsive/addictive eating behavior, differently induced, leading to a high-significant health problem. Regularly exercising at moderate intensity has been shown to efficiently and positively impact upon physiological imbalances caused by several morbid conditions, including affective disorders. Even in a wider set of physchiatric diseases, physical exercise has been prescribed as a complementary therapeutic strategy. A comprehensive literature search was carried out in the Cochrane Library and MEDLINE databases (search terms: sugar addiction, food craving, exercise therapy, training, physical fitness, physical activity, rehabilitation and aerobic). Seeking high-sugar diets, also in a reward- or craving-addiction fashion, can generate drastic metabolic derangements, often interpolated with affective disorders, for which exercise may represent a valuable, universal, non-pharmachological barrier. More research in humans is needed to confirm potential exercise-mechanisms that may break the bond between sugar over-consumption and affective disorders. The purpose of this review is to address the importance of physical exercise in reversing the gloomy scenario of unhealthy diets and sedentary lifestyles in our modern society. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Sugar-Sweetened Beverage Consumption among U.S. Youth, 2011-2014. NCHS Data Brief. Number 271

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosinger, Asher; Herrick, Kirsten; Gahche, Jaime; Park, Sohyun

    2017-01-01

    Sugar-sweetened beverages contribute calories and added sugars to the diets of U.S. children. Studies have suggested a link between the consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages and dental caries, weight gain, type 2 diabetes, dyslipidemia, and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease in children. The 2015-2020 Dietary Guidelines for Americans recommend…

  15. Monitoring Your Blood Sugar Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... be a viable option. These systems use a sensor placed beneath the skin that measures blood sugar ... have diabetes are more likely to get heart disease. Blood sugar that is too high can damage… ...

  16. Manage your blood sugar (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Checking your blood sugar levels often and writing down the results will tell you how well you are managing your diabetes so you ... possible. The best times to check your blood sugar are before meals and at bedtime. Your blood ...

  17. IRREVERSIBILITY GENERATION IN SUGAR, ALCOHOL AND BIOGAS INTEGRATED PRODUCTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meilyn González Cortés

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the stages of losses and lower exergetic efficiency are determined when the sugar production process is integrated with others for the production of products such as biogas, torula yeast and electricity. The study is carried out in three scenarios of integrated processes for obtaining the indicated products. A sugar factory in which sugar and electricity are produced is considered as the base scenario and from this; a second scenario is inferred in which alcohol is produced from the molasses of the sugar process and biogas from the vinasse of the alcohol distillation process. Finally, a third scenario is exergetically evaluated in which sugar, electricity, biogas and alcohol are produced, but this last one from juices and molasses of the sugar process. For the exergetic analysis the integrated scheme was divided into 8 subsystems. From the analysis of results, the major subsystems that generate irreversibilities are: cogeneration (64.36-65.98%, juice extraction (8.85-9.85%, crystallization and cooking, (8.48 -9.02%, fermentation (4.12-4.94% and distillation (2.74-3.2%. Improvements are proposed to minimize irreversibilities, including the thermal integration of processes, technological modifications in the fermentation process and the introduction of more efficient equipment for the generation of electricity. The exergetic efficiency is between 78.95-81.10%, obtaining greater exergetic efficiency in the scheme of joint operation to produce sugar, alcohol and biogas.

  18. Impacts of Sugar Import Policy on Sugar Production in Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Suryantoro, Agustinus; Susilo, Albertus Magnus; Supriyono, Supriyono

    2013-01-01

    Production of sugar unful lled consumption of Indonesia society. The lack of consumption and productionhave ful lled by import. Assumption national consumption 2,7 million ton, Indonesia will import sugar in 2013predicted about 300.000 ton (Tempo.co, August, 21, 2012).The aims in general of this research are to understand the impact of sugar import policy on sugar production.Especially (1) to understand the factors that in uence sugar import price, (2) to understand impact of sugarimport pric...

  19. Starches, Sugars and Obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik E. J. G. Aller

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The rising prevalence of obesity, not only in adults but also in children and adolescents, is one of the most important public health problems in developed and developing countries. As one possible way to tackle obesity, a great interest has been stimulated in understanding the relationship between different types of dietary carbohydrate and appetite regulation, body weight and body composition. The present article reviews the conclusions from recent reviews and meta-analyses on the effects of different starches and sugars on body weight management and metabolic disturbances, and provides an update of the most recent studies on this topic. From the literature reviewed in this paper, potential beneficial effects of intake of starchy foods, especially those containing slowly-digestible and resistant starches, and potential detrimental effects of high intakes of fructose become apparent. This supports the intake of whole grains, legumes and vegetables, which contain more appropriate sources of carbohydrates associated with reduced risk of cardiovascular and other chronic diseases, rather than foods rich in sugars, especially in the form of sugar-sweetened beverages.

  20. Starches, sugars and obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aller, Erik E J G; Abete, Itziar; Astrup, Arne; Martinez, J Alfredo; van Baak, Marleen A

    2011-03-01

    The rising prevalence of obesity, not only in adults but also in children and adolescents, is one of the most important public health problems in developed and developing countries. As one possible way to tackle obesity, a great interest has been stimulated in understanding the relationship between different types of dietary carbohydrate and appetite regulation, body weight and body composition. The present article reviews the conclusions from recent reviews and meta-analyses on the effects of different starches and sugars on body weight management and metabolic disturbances, and provides an update of the most recent studies on this topic. From the literature reviewed in this paper, potential beneficial effects of intake of starchy foods, especially those containing slowly-digestible and resistant starches, and potential detrimental effects of high intakes of fructose become apparent. This supports the intake of whole grains, legumes and vegetables, which contain more appropriate sources of carbohydrates associated with reduced risk of cardiovascular and other chronic diseases, rather than foods rich in sugars, especially in the form of sugar-sweetened beverages.

  1. Added Sugars and Cardiovascular Disease Risk in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vos, Miriam B.; Kaar, Jill L.; Welsh, Jean A.; Van Horn, Linda V.; Feig, Daniel I.; Anderson, Cheryl A.M.; Patel, Mahesh J.; Munos, Jessica Cruz; Krebs, Nancy F.; Xanthakos, Stavra A.; Johnson, Rachel K.

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND Poor lifestyle behaviors are leading causes of preventable diseases globally. Added sugars contribute to a diet that is energy dense but nutrient poor and increase risk of developing obesity, cardiovascular disease, hypertension, obesity-related cancers, and dental caries. METHODS AND RESULTS For this American Heart Association scientific statement, the writing group reviewed and graded the current scientific evidence for studies examining the cardiovascular health effects of added sugars on children. The available literature was subdivided into 5 broad subareas: effects on blood pressure, lipids, insulin resistance and diabetes mellitus, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, and obesity. CONCLUSIONS Associations between added sugars and increased cardiovascular disease risk factors among US children are present at levels far below current consumption levels. Strong evidence supports the association of added sugars with increased cardiovascular disease risk in children through increased energy intake, increased adiposity, and dyslipidemia. The committee found that it is reasonable to recommend that children consume ≤25 g (100 cal or ≈6 teaspoons) of added sugars per day and to avoid added sugars for children added sugars most likely can be safely consumed in low amounts as part of a healthy diet, few children achieve such levels, making this an important public health target. PMID:27550974

  2. What is the appropriate upper limit for added sugars consumption?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rippe, James M; Sievenpiper, John L; Lê, Kim-Anne; White, John S; Clemens, Roger; Angelopoulos, Theodore J

    2017-01-01

    Dramatic increases in obesity and diabetes have occurred worldwide over the past 30 years. Some investigators have suggested that these increases may be due, in part, to increased added sugars consumption. Several scientific organizations, including the World Health Organization, the Scientific Advisory Council on Nutrition, the Dietary Guidelines Advisory Committee 2015, and the American Heart Association, have recommended significant restrictions on upper limits of sugars consumption. In this review, the scientific evidence related to sugars consumption and its putative link to various chronic conditions such as obesity, diabetes, heart disease, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, and the metabolic syndrome is examined. While it appears prudent to avoid excessive calories from sugars, the scientific basis for restrictive guidelines is far from settled. © The Author(s) 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Life Sciences Institute. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Characterization of in vitro antifungal activities of small and American cranberry (Vaccinium oxycoccos L. and V. macrocarpon Aiton) and lingonberry (Vaccinium vitis-idaea L.) concentrates in sugar reduced fruit spreads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ermis, Ertan; Hertel, Christian; Schneider, Christin; Carle, Reinhold; Stintzing, Florian; Schmidt, Herbert

    2015-07-02

    In this study, cranberry and lingonberry concentrates were added to commercial sugar-reduced fruit spreads (raspberry-Aloe vera, strawberry-guava, and strawberry-lime), and tested for their antifungal activities. Selected strains of the species Absidia glauca, Penicillium brevicompactum, Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Zygosaccharomyces bailii, as well as xerophilic environmental isolates of the genera Penicillium and Eurotium were used for challenge testing. Initially, varying concentrations of synthetic antifungal agents, such as sodium benzoate, potassium sorbate and butyl 4-hydroxybenzoate were tested against these fungi on wort agar containing 31% fructose at different pH values. Subsequently, the experiments were conducted in fruit spreads containing different concentrations of cranberry and lingonberry concentrates. The results of this study demonstrate that these concentrates were able to inhibit growth of visible colonies of xerophilic and non-xerophilic fungi. Cranberry and lingonberry concentrates are interesting candidates for natural preservation against fungal growth in sugar reduced fruit spreads. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Free sugar profile in cycads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marler, Thomas E.; Lindström, Anders J.

    2014-01-01

    The sugars fructose, glucose, maltose, and sucrose were quantified in seven tissues of Zamia muricata Willd. to determine their distribution throughout various organs of a model cycad species, and in lateral structural roots of 18 cycad species to determine the variation in sugar concentration and composition among species representing every cycad genus. Taproot and lateral structural roots contained more sugars than leaf, stem, female strobilus, or coralloid roots. For example, taproot sugar concentration was 6.4-fold greater than stem sugar concentration. The dominant root sugars were glucose and fructose, and the only detected stem sugar was sucrose. Sucrose also dominated the sugar profile for leaflet and coralloid root tissue, and fructose was the dominant sugar in female strobilus tissue. Maltose was a minor constituent of taproot, leaflet, and female strobilus tissue, but absent in other tissues. The concentration of total free sugars and each of the four sugars did not differ among genera or families. Stoichiometric relationships among the sugars, such as the quotient hexoses/disaccharides, differed among organs and families. Although anecdotal reports on cycad starch have been abundant due to its historical use as human food and the voluminous medical research invested into cycad neurotoxins, this is the first report on the sugar component of the non-structural carbohydrate profile of cycads. Fructose, glucose, and sucrose are abundant in cycad tissues, with their relative abundance highly contrasting among organs. Their importance as forms of carbon storage, messengers of information, or regulators of cycad metabolism have not been determined to date. PMID:25339967

  5. Free Sugar Profile in Cycads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Edward Marler

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The sugars fructose, glucose, maltose, and sucrose were quantified in seven tissues of Zamia muricata Willd. to determine their distribution throughout various organs of a model cycad species, and in lateral structural roots of 18 cycad species to determine the variation in sugar concentration and composition among species representing every cycad genus. Taproot and lateral structural roots contained more sugars than leaf, stem, female strobilus, or coralloid roots. For example, taproot sugar concentration was 6.4-fold greater than stem sugar concentration. The dominant root sugars were glucose and fructose, and the only detected stem sugar was sucrose. Sucrose also dominated the sugar profile for leaflet and coralloid root tissue, and fructose was the dominant sugar in female strobilus tissue. Maltose was a minor constituent of taproot, leaflet, and female strobilus tissue, but absent in other tissues. The concentration of total free sugars and each of the four sugars did not differ among genera or families. Stoichiometric relationships among the sugars, such as the quotient hexoses/disaccharides, differed among organs and families. Although anecdotal reports on cycad starch have been abundant due to its historical use as human food and the voluminous medical research invested into cycad neurotoxins, this is the first report on the sugar component of the non-structural carbohydrate profile of cycads. Fructose, glucose, and sucrose are abundant in cycad tissues, with their relative abundance highly contrasting among organs. Their importance as forms of carbon storage, messengers of information, or regulators of cycad metabolism have not been determined to date.

  6. Cathy J. Schlund-Vials, Linda Trinh Võ and K. Scott Wong,eds., Keywords for Asian American StudiesCrystal Parikh and Daniel Y. Kim, eds. The Cambridge Companion to Asian American Literature

    OpenAIRE

    Kimak, Izabella

    2016-01-01

    Two recent publications, Keywords for Asian American Studies and The Cambridge Companion to Asian American Literature, both published in 2015 by New York University Press and Cambridge University Press, respectively, constitute scholarly attempts at encompassing the most crucial developments that have taken place within the field of Asian American studies in the last few decades. These new publications follow in the footsteps of such seminal titles as Elaine H. Kim’s 1982 Asian American Liter...

  7. Use of a urinary sugars biomarker to assess measurement error in self-reported sugars intake in the nutrition and physical activity assessment study (NPAAS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tasevska, Natasha; Midthune, Douglas; Tinker, Lesley F; Potischman, Nancy; Lampe, Johanna W; Neuhouser, Marian L; Beasley, Jeannette M; Van Horn, Linda; Prentice, Ross L; Kipnis, Victor

    2014-12-01

    Measurement error in self-reported sugars intake may be obscuring the association between sugars and cancer risk in nutritional epidemiologic studies. We used 24-hour urinary sucrose and fructose as a predictive biomarker for total sugars, to assess measurement error in self-reported sugars intake. The Nutrition and Physical Activity Assessment Study (NPAAS) is a biomarker study within the Women's Health Initiative (WHI) Observational Study that includes 450 postmenopausal women ages 60 to 91 years. Food Frequency Questionnaires (FFQ), four-day food records (4DFR), and three 24-hour dietary recalls (24HRs) were collected along with sugars and energy dietary biomarkers. Using the biomarker, we found self-reported sugars to be substantially and roughly equally misreported across the FFQ, 4DFR, and 24HR. All instruments were associated with considerable intake- and person-specific bias. Three 24HRs would provide the least attenuated risk estimate for sugars (attenuation factor, AF = 0.57), followed by FFQ (AF = 0.48) and 4DFR (AF = 0.32), in studies of energy-adjusted sugars and disease risk. In calibration models, self-reports explained little variation in true intake (5%-6% for absolute sugars and 7%-18% for sugars density). Adding participants' characteristics somewhat improved the percentage variation explained (16%-18% for absolute sugars and 29%-40% for sugars density). None of the self-report instruments provided a good estimate of sugars intake, although overall 24HRs seemed to perform the best. Assuming the calibrated sugars biomarker is unbiased, this analysis suggests that measuring the biomarker in a subsample of the study population for calibration purposes may be necessary for obtaining unbiased risk estimates in cancer association studies. ©2014 American Association for Cancer Research.

  8. Added sugars: Definition and estimation in the USDA Food Patterns Equivalents Databases

    Science.gov (United States)

    For the very first time, the Dietary Guidelines for Americans, 2015-2020 made a quantitative recommendation that added sugars intake of individuals to not exceed 10 percent of total energy intake. The objective of this article is to define added sugars and to describe the methodology used to estima...

  9. I Mend It With Sugar

    OpenAIRE

    Lindvall, Charlotta

    2015-01-01

    I mend it with sugar         Abstract   "Gluttony" and "sloth" is the sugar addictions best friend, or could it be that the addiction comes out of a disturbed hormone production caused by the environment that surrounds us? Trying to understand my own sugar addiction I weave in my personal story into my artistic research around this subject. The sugar might be the cause of the pandemic obesity and that's why it has to bee brought up into the light from its darkness down the basement of the fo...

  10. 76 FR 62339 - Domestic Sugar Program-2011-Crop Cane Sugar and Beet Sugar Marketing Allotments and Company...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-07

    ... Commodity Credit Corporation Domestic Sugar Program--2011-Crop Cane Sugar and Beet Sugar Marketing... marketing allotments and company allocations to sugarcane and sugar beet processors, which apply to all... sector. CCC distributed the FY 2012 beet sugar allotment of 5,139,472 STRV (54.35 percent of the OAQ...

  11. Sugar Price Supports and Taxation: A Public Health Policy Paradox.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dilk, Abby; Savaiano, Dennis A

    2017-05-01

    Domestic US sugar production has been protected by government policy for the past 82 years, resulting in elevated domestic prices and an estimated annual (2013) $1.4 billion dollar "tax" on consumers. These elevated prices and the simultaneous federal support for domestic corn production have ensured a strong market for high-fructose corn syrup. Americans have dramatically increased their consumption of caloric sweeteners during the same period. Consumption of "empty" calories (ie, foods with low-nutrient/high-caloric density)-sugar and high-fructose corn syrup being the primary sources-is considered by most public health experts to be a key contributing factor to the rise in obesity. There have been substantial efforts to tax sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) to both reduce consumption and provide a source of funds for nutrition education, thereby emulating the tobacco tax model. Volume-based SSB taxes levy the tax rate per ounce of liquid, where some are only imposed on beverages with added sugar content exceeding a set threshold. Nonetheless, volume-based taxes have significant limitations in encouraging consumers to reduce their caloric intake due to a lack of transparency at the point of purchase. Thus, it is hypothesized that point-of-purchase, nutrient-specific excise taxes on SSBs would be more effective at reducing sugar consumption. However, all SSB taxes are limited by the possibility that consumers may compensate their decreased intake from SSBs with other high-calorie junk foods. Furthermore, there are no existing studies to provide evidence on how SSB taxes will impact obesity rates in the long term. The paradox of sugar prices is that Americans have paid higher prices for sugar to protect domestic production for more than 80 years, and now, Americans are being asked to pay even more to promote public health. The effective use of sugar taxes should be considered based on their merits in reducing sugar consumption and making available a new source of

  12. Declining consumption of added sugars and sugar-sweetened beverages in Australia: a challenge for obesity prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand-Miller, Jennie C; Barclay, Alan W

    2017-04-01

    Background: Reduced intakes of added sugars and sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) have been the main focus of efforts to stall obesity. Although obesity has risen steeply in Australia, some evidence suggests that added-sugars and SSB intakes have declined over the same time frame. Objective: We investigated recent trends in the availability of sugars and sweeteners and changes in intakes of total sugars, added sugars, and SSBs in Australia by using multiple, independent data sources. Design: The study was designed to compare relevant data published by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations [FAO Statistics Division Database (FAOSTAT)], the Australian government, academia, and the food industry. Results: With the use of the FAOSTAT food balance sheets for Australia, the per capita availability of added or refined sugars and sweeteners was shown to have fallen 16% from 152 g/d in 1980 to 127 g/d in 2011 ( P -trend = 0.001). In national dietary surveys in 1995 and 2011-2012, added-sugars intake declined markedly in adult men (from 72 to 59 g/d; -18%) but not in women (44-42 g/d; NS). As a proportion of total energy, added-sugars intake fell 10% in adult men but nonsignificantly in adult women. Between 1995 and 2011-2012, the proportion of energy from SSBs (including 100% juice) declined 10% in adult men and 20% in women. More marked changes were observed in children aged 2-18 y. Data from national grocery sales indicated that per capita added-sugars intakes derived from carbonated soft drinks fell 26% between 1997 and 2011 (from 23 to 17 g/d) with similar trends for noncarbonated beverages. Conclusions: In Australia, 4 independent data sets confirmed shorter- and longer-term declines in the availability and intake of added sugars, including those contributed by SSBs. The findings challenge the widespread belief that energy from added sugars or sugars in solution are uniquely linked to the prevalence of obesity. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  13. Cut Back on Your Kid's Sweet Treats: 10 Tips to Decrease Added Sugars

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Guidelines for Americans Cut back on your kid’s sweet treats Set your kids on a path for ... limiting the amount of added sugars they eat. Sweet treats and sugary drinks have lots of calories ...

  14. Anaerobic Treatment of Cane Sugar Effluent from Muhoroni Sugar ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It was therefore concluded that anaerobic treatment, particularly with pH control and seeding shows potential in first stage management of sugar mill wastewater. Keywords: cane sugar mill effluent, anaerobic treatment, batch reactor, waste stabilization ponds. Journal of Civil Engineering Research and Practice Vol.

  15. TM0416, a Hyperthermophilic Promiscuous Nonphosphorylated Sugar Isomerase, Catalyzes Various C5 and C6 Epimerization Reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Sun-Mi; Cao, Thinh-Phat; Choi, Jin Myung; Kim, Seong-Bo; Lee, Sang-Jae; Lee, Sung Haeng; Lee, Dong-Woo

    2017-05-15

    characterization and functional annotation of a putative nonphosphorylated sugar 3-epimerase from a hyperthermophilic bacterium. Furthermore, we determined its crystal structures in complex with divalent metal ions and l-erythrulose, highlighting its metal-dependent, bifunctional, sugar-isomerizing activity. This hyperthermophilic R3E exhibited d-erythrose/d-threose isomerase activity, with structural features near the substrate-binding site distinct from those of its mesophilic counterparts. Moreover, this metalloenzyme showed unusually high activity for the epimerization of d-tagatose to d-sorbose at 70°C. Therefore, TM0416 can be functionally classified as a novel type of promiscuous R3E with a potential for the production of rare sugars for the food and pharmaceutical industries. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  16. Method for determining the composition of the sugar moiety of a sugar containing compound

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2016-01-01

    The present invention relates to methods of labeling sugar moieties of sugar containing compounds including glycopeptides. The compounds presented in the present invention facilitate reliable detection of sugar moieties of sugar containing compounds by a combination of spectroscopy methods...

  17. Sweet Knowledge: How Declaring Added Sugars Will Help Consumers Make Informed Food Choices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonough, Sarah P

    2015-01-01

    This paper argues that the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has the authority to require a declaration of "added sugars" on the nutrition label. FDA has relied on scientific evidence from well-respected sources that concluded that "added sugars" pose a public health concern for Americans; its rule is not arbitrary or capricious. At the same time, there are certain limits on the effectiveness of the "added sugars" rule, especially consumer comprehension. Therefore, FDA should consider more effective front-of-package labeling to clearly communicate the public health risks of "added sugars".

  18. Carbohydrates, Sugar, and Your Child

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Carbohydrates and Sugar KidsHealth / For Parents / Carbohydrates and Sugar ... carbohidratos, el azúcar y su hijo What Are Carbohydrates? Carbohydrates are the body's most important and readily ...

  19. Crystals in crystals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Claus H.; Schmidt, I.; Carlsson, A.

    2005-01-01

    A major factor governing the performance of catalytically active particles supported on a zeolite carrier is the degree of dispersion. It is shown that the introduction of noncrystallographic mesopores into zeolite single crystals (silicalite-1, ZSM-5) may increase the degree of particle dispersion...... of the zeolite particles, particularly after thermal treatment. When using mesoporous zeolites, the particles were evenly distributed throughout the mesopore system of the zeolitic support, even after calcination, leading to nanocrystals within mesoporous zeolite single crystals....

  20. Sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kagami, Hiroyo; Kurata, Masayuki; Matsuhira, Hiroaki; Taguchi, Kazunori; Mikami, Tetsuo; Tamagake, Hideto; Kubo, Tomohiko

    2015-01-01

    Creating transgenic plants is invaluable for the genetic analysis of sugar beet and will be increasingly important as sugar beet genomic technologies progress. A protocol for Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of sugar beet is described in this chapter. Our protocol is optimized for a sugar beet genotype that performs exceptionally well in tissue culture, including the steps of dedifferentiation, callus proliferation, and regeneration. Because of the infrequent occurrence of such a genotype in sugar beet populations, our protocol includes an in vitro propagation method for germplasm preservation. The starting materials for transgenic experiments are aseptic shoots grown from surface-sterilized seed balls. Callus is induced from leaf explants and subsequently infected with Agrobacterium. Plantlets are regenerated from transgenic callus and vernalized for flowering, if necessary. The efficiency of transformation was quite high; in our laboratory, the culture of only ten leaf explants, on average, generated one transgenic plant.

  1. Sugar Sugar – don’t be misled / laat je niet misleiden

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toebes, Brigit

    2017-01-01

    NRC Handelsblad’s Saturday 25 November issue contains an entry of eleven pages entirely devoted to sugar. It discusses a broad range of topics related to sugar, including the role of sugar throughout the centuries, sugar consumption in the Netherlands, the amount of sugar in bread, and sugar

  2. Keeping Track of Your Blood Sugar

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Search English Español Keeping Track of Your Blood Sugar KidsHealth / For Teens / Keeping Track of Your Blood ... levels regularly. Why Should I Check My Blood Sugar Levels? Keeping an eye on blood sugar levels ...

  3. Life Cycle Assessment of Sugar Production (VB)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Teljigovic, Mehmed; Mengiardi, Jon; Factor, Gabriela

    1999-01-01

    The environmental organisation NOAH has proposed carrying out an environmental assessment of two different sugar productions (using sugar beet or sugar cane) in order to illustrate which of the systems has a higher environmental impact for sugar consumption in Denmark. Therefore a comparison...... will be made between sugar from sugar beet produced in Denmark versus sugar produces from sugar cane in a tropical country, Brazil, and transported afterwards to Denmark. To evaluate the environmental aspects of these two product systems a Life Cycle Assessement (LCA) will be carried out.From the results...... obtained in the present LCA of sugar produces from sugar canes or sugar beet it is difficult to make an immediate choice between the two possibilities. Indeed, Quantitative results from the EDIP (Environmental Design of Industrial Products) software are globally similar for both ways of producing sugar...

  4. Input Quality in the Sugar Beet Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Boland, Michael A.; Marsh, Thomas L.

    2006-01-01

    Using 23 years of data (1978-2000), this study examines seven vertically integrated sugar beet plants representing three different companies in the United States. The objective of this research is to identify the marginal costs of producing sugar beets for vertically integrated sugar beet processors as a way of determining the cost savings from higher quality sugar beets. In doing so, we account for quality differences in the sugar beet input that are used to manufacture the refined sugar out...

  5. Sugar and Type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lean, Michael E J; Te Morenga, Lisa

    2016-12-01

    Consumption of sugar, specifically sugar-sweetened beverages, has been widely held responsible by the media for the global rise in Type 2 diabetes (T2DM). Systematic reviews and dietary guidelines relating dietary sugars to T2DM. Weight gain and T2DM incidence are associated with diet and lifestyle patterns characterized by high consumptions of any sweetened beverages. High sugar intakes impair risk factors for macrovascular complications of T2DM. Much of the association between sugars and T2DM is eliminated by adjusting data for body mass index (BMI). However, BMI adjustment does not fully account for adiposity (r 2 =0.65-0.75). Excess sugar can promote weight gain, thus T2DM, through extra calories, but has no unique diabetogenic effect at physiological levels. Ethical concerns about caffeine added to sweetened beverages, undetectable by consumers, to increase consumption. Evidence needed for limiting dietary sugar below 10% energy intake. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Young People\\'s Relationships with Sugar Daddies and Sugar ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    s relationships with sugar daddies and mummies. It considers definitional, measurement and analytical issues involved in assessing these relationships, their magnitude, patterns, determinants and consequences. The review compares and ...

  7. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS OF RAW SUGAR MATERIAL FOR SUGAR PRODUCER COMPLEX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Gromkovskii

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Summary. In the article examines the statistical data on the development of average weight and average sugar content of sugar beet roots. The successful solution of the problem of forecasting these raw indices is essential for solving problems of sugar producing complex control. In the paper by calculating the autocorrelation function demonstrated that the predominant trend component of the growth raw characteristics. For construct the prediction model is proposed to use an autoregressive first and second order. It is shown that despite the small amount of experimental data, which provide raw sugar producing enterprises laboratory, using autoregression is justified. The proposed model allows correctly out properly the dynamics of changes raw indexes in the time, which confirms the estimates. In the article highlighted the fact that in the case the predominance trend components in the dynamics of the studied characteristics of sugar beet proposed prediction models provide the better quality of the forecast. In the presence the oscillations portions of the curve describing the change raw performance, for better construction of the forecast required increase number of measurements data. In the article also presents the results of the use adaptive prediction Brown’s model for predicting sugar beet raw performance. The statistical analysis allowed conclusions about the level of quality sufficient to describe changes raw indices for the forecast development. The optimal discount rates data are identified that determined by the form of the curve of growth sugar content of the beet root and mass in the process of maturation. Formulated conclusions of the quality of the forecast, depending on these factors that determines the expert forecaster. In the article shows the calculated expression, derived from experimental data that allow calculate changes of the raw material feature of sugar beet in the process of maturation.

  8. Maturation of sugar maple seed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clayton M., Jr. Carl; Albert G., Jr. Snow; Albert G. Snow

    1971-01-01

    The seeds of a sugar maple tree (Acer saccharum Marsh.) do not mature at the same time every year. And different trees mature their seeds at different times. So time of year is not a reliable measure of when seeds are ripe. Better criteria are needed. In recent studies we have found that moisture content and color are the best criteria for judging when sugar maple...

  9. 19 CFR 151.30 - Sugar closets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sugar closets. 151.30 Section 151.30 Customs... (CONTINUED) EXAMINATION, SAMPLING, AND TESTING OF MERCHANDISE Sugars, Sirups, and Molasses § 151.30 Sugar closets. Sugar closets for samples shall be substantially built and secured by locks furnished by Customs...

  10. Investigation of lactose crystallization process during condensed milk cooling using native vacuum-crystallizer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. I. Dobriyan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the most general defects of condensed milk with sugar is its consistency heterogeneity – “candying”. The mentioned defect is conditioned by the presence of lactose big crystals in the product. Lactose crystals size up to 10 µm is not organoleptically felt. The bigger crystals impart heterogeneity to the consistency which can be evaluated as “floury”, “sandy”, “crunch on tooth”. Big crystals form crystalline deposit on the can or industrial package bottom in the form of thick layer. Industrial processing of the product with the defective process of crystallization results in the expensive equipment damage of the equipment at the confectionary plant accompanied with heavy losses. One of the factors influencing significantly lactose crystallization is the product cooling rate. Vacuum cooling is the necessary condition for provision of the product consistency homogeneity. For this purpose the vacuum crystallizers of “Vigand” company, Germany, are used. But their production in the last years has been stopped. All-Russian dairy research institute has developed “The references for development of the native vacuum crystallizer” according to which the industrial model has been manufactured. The produced vacuum – crystallizer test on the line for condensed milk with sugar production showed that the product cooling on the native vacuum-crystallizer guarantees production of the finished product with microstructure meeting the requirements of State standard 53436–2009 “Canned Milk. Milk and condensed cream with sugar”. The carried out investigations evidences that the average lactose crystals size in the condensed milk with sugar cooled at the native crystallizer makes up 6,78 µm. The granulometric composition of the product crystalline phase cooled at the newly developed vacuum-crystallizer is completely identical to granulometric composition of the product cooled at “Vigand” vacuum-crystallizer.

  11. The water footprint of sweeteners and bio-ethanol from sugar cane, sugar beet and maize

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerbens-Leenes, Winnie; Hoekstra, Arjen Ysbert

    2009-01-01

    Sugar cane and sugar beet are used for sugar for human consumption. In the US, maize is used, amongst others, for the sweetener High Fructose Maize Syrup (HFMS). Sugar cane, sugar beet and maize are also important for bio-ethanol production. The growth of crops requires water, a scarce resource. The

  12. OMICS Technologies and Applications in Sugar Beet

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Yongxue; Nan, Jingdong; Yu, Bing

    2016-01-01

    Sugar beet is a species of the Chenopodiaceae family. It is an important sugar crop that supplies approximately 35% of the sugar in the world. Sugar beet M14 line is a unique germplasm that contains genetic materials from Beta vulgaris L. and Beta corolliflora Zoss. And exhibits tolerance to salt stress. In this review, we have summarized OMICS technologies and applications in sugar beet including M14 for identification of novel genes, proteins related to biotic and abiotic stresses, apomixes...

  13. The effect of alpha amylase enzyme on quality of sweet sorghum juice for chrystal sugar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marwati, T.; Cahyaningrum, N.; Widodo, S.; Astiati, U. T.; Budiyanto, A.; Wahyudiono; Arif, A. B.; Richana, N.

    2018-01-01

    Sweet sorghum juice (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) has characteristics similar to sugar cane juice and potentially used for sugar substitutes that can support food security. Nevertheless the sweet sorghum juicecontain starch which impede sorghum sugar crystallization. Therefore, research on the enzymatic process is needed to convert starch into reducing sugar. The experimental design used was the Factorial Randomized Design with the first factor was alpha amylase enzyme concentration (0, 20, 40, 60, 80, 100, 120 μL/100 mL) and second factor was incubation time (0, 30, 60, 90 minute) at temperature 100°C. The experiment was conducted on fresh sweet sorghum. The results showed that the addition of the alpha amylase enzyme increased the content of reducing sugar and decreased levels of starch. Elevating concentration of alpha amylase enzyme will increase the reducing sugar content in sweet sorghum juice. The optimum alpha amylase enzyme concentration to produce the highest total sugar was 80 μL/100 mL of sweet sorghum juice with the optimum incubation time was 90 minutes. The results of this study are expected to create a new sweetener for sugar substitution. From the economic prospective aspect, sorghum is a potential crop and can be relied upon to support the success of the food diversification program which further leads to the world food security

  14. Methods for dehydration of sugars and sugar alcohols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holladay, Johnathan E [Kennewick, WA; Hu, Jianli [Kennewick, WA; Zhang, Xinjie [Burlington, MA; Wang, Yong [Richland, WA

    2010-08-10

    The invention includes a method of dehydration of a sugar using a dehydration catalyst and a co-catalyst within a reactor. A sugar is introduced and H.sub.2 is flowed through the reactor at a pressure of less than or equal to about 300 psig to convert at least some of the sugar into an anhydrosugar product. The invention includes a process for producing isosorbide. A starting material comprising sorbitol is flowed into a reactor. H.sub.2 is counter flowed through the reactor. The starting material is exposed to a catalyst in the presence of a co-catalyst which comprises at least one metal. The exposing is conducted at a hydrogen pressure of less than or equal to 300 psig within the reactor and the hydrogen removes at least some of any water present during the exposing and inhibits formation of colored byproducts.

  15. A comparative study of the word sugar and of its equivalents in Hindustani as traceable to Chinese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahdihassan, S

    1981-01-01

    Etymology enables words to deliver past facts and can become an independent source of knowledge. Here the word sugar is traced to the Chinese term Sha-Che, literally "Sand-Sugar plant," signifying a sand-like product from the sugar plant, which is sugar. Sha-Che underwent the following phonetic changes: Sha-Che = Sha-Ke = Shar-Ker = Sharkera, which became the Sanskrit word for sugar, with the variant Sha-Kera. Its popular vernacular form became Shak-Ker. This entered Arabic as Al-Shakker, changing into Al-Sukker, pronounced as "Assuker." Muslims in Spain gave the Spanish their word when Assuker = Azucar (Spanish). Sukker, the real Arabic word, entered Old French as Suker-e, Italian as Zuker-o or Zucckero, and German as Zucker. When "k" is emphasized it can become aspirated as "kh" or doubled as "kk," or mutate into "g." Sukker then changed into Sugar with the "s" further mutating into "sh," giving the final form Shugar, written as Sugar. The Greeks directly borrowed the popular vernacular word Shakker. It was Hellenized as Sakkharon, mentioned by Discoredes in 56 A.D. From the Greek it passed into Latin as Saccharum. In India the large crystalline form of sugar is called Misri. Its Chinese original is Mi-Sha-Li, "sweet-pebble-glassy," a sweet crystalline (glassy) substance the size of pebbles. Another form of sugar is in small crystals, which in a heap appear opaque-white or porcelain-white rather than transparent salt-white. Porcelain-white sugar was called Cheeni, where Cheeni = Porcelain. Thus, Cheeni does not mean Chinese sugar, nor Misri Egyptian sugar. Both these forms of sugar were sweetening agents not intended to be directly consumed. But a sweet, composed of sugar and an article of food, was known in Chinese as Kan-Di, "Sweet-Drop." This became Candy in English, Qand in Arabic, Khanda in Sanskrit and Khand in vernaculars.

  16. Worldwide trends in dietary sugars intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittekind, Anna; Walton, Janette

    2014-12-01

    Estimating trends in dietary intake data is integral to informing national nutrition policy and monitoring progress towards dietary guidelines. Dietary intake of sugars is a controversial public health issue and guidance in relation to recommended intakes is particularly inconsistent. Published data relating to trends in sugars intake are relatively sparse. The purpose of the present review was to collate and review data from national nutrition surveys to examine changes and trends in dietary sugars intake. Only thirteen countries (all in the developed world) appear to report estimates of sugars intake from national nutrition surveys at more than one point in time. Definitions of dietary sugars that were used include 'total sugars', 'non-milk extrinsic sugars', 'added sugars', sucrose' and 'mono- and disaccharides'. This variability in terminology across countries meant that comparisons were limited to within countries. Hence trends in dietary sugars intake were examined by country for the whole population (where data permitted), and for specific or combined age and sex subpopulations. Findings indicate that in the majority of population comparisons, estimated dietary sugars intake is either stable or decreasing in both absolute (g/d) and relative (% energy) terms. An increase in sugars intake was observed in few countries and only in specific subpopulations. In conclusion, the findings from the present review suggest that, in the main, dietary sugars intake are decreasing or stable. A consistent approach to estimation of dietary sugars intake from national nutrition surveys is required if more valid estimates of changes in dietary sugars intakes are required in the future.

  17. Crystal Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schomaker, Verner; Lingafelter, E. C.

    1985-01-01

    Discusses characteristics of crystal systems, comparing (in table format) crystal systems with lattice types, number of restrictions, nature of the restrictions, and other lattices that can accidently show the same metrical symmetry. (JN)

  18. Virtual Crystallizer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Land, T A; Dylla-Spears, R; Thorsness, C B

    2006-08-29

    Large dihydrogen phosphate (KDP) crystals are grown in large crystallizers to provide raw material for the manufacture of optical components for large laser systems. It is a challenge to grow crystal with sufficient mass and geometric properties to allow large optical plates to be cut from them. In addition, KDP has long been the canonical solution crystal for study of growth processes. To assist in the production of the crystals and the understanding of crystal growth phenomena, analysis of growth habits of large KDP crystals has been studied, small scale kinetic experiments have been performed, mass transfer rates in model systems have been measured, and computational-fluid-mechanics tools have been used to develop an engineering model of the crystal growth process. The model has been tested by looking at its ability to simulate the growth of nine KDP boules that all weighed more than 200 kg.

  19. Crystal Engineering

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Nangia (2002). “Today, research areas under the wide umbrella of crystal engineering include: supramolecular synthesis; nanotechnology; separation science and catalysis; supramolecular materials and devices; polymorphism; cocrystals, crystal structure prediction; drug design and ligand–protein binding.”

  20. Effects of low molecular sugars on the retrogradation of tapioca starch gels during storage.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoyu Zhang

    Full Text Available The effects of low molecular sugars (sucrose, glucose and trehalose on the retrogradation of tapioca starch (TS gels stored at 4°C for different periods were examined with different methods. Decrease in melting enthalpy (ΔHmelt were obtained through differential scanning calorimetry analysis. Analysis of decrease in crystallization rate constant (k and increase in semi-crystallization time (τ1/2 results obtained from retrogradation kinetics indicated that low molecular sugars could retard the retrogradation of TS gels and further revealed trehalose as the best inhibitor among the sugars used in this study. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR analysis indicated that the intensity ratio of 1047 to 1022 cm-1 was increased with the addition of sugars in the order of trehalose > sucrose > glucose. Decrease in hardness parameters and increase in springiness parameters obtained from texture profile analysis (TPA analysis also indicated that low molecular sugars could retard the retrogradation of TS gels. The results of FTIR and TPA showed a consistent sugar effect on starch retrogradation with those of DSC and retrogradation kinetics analysis.

  1. Sugar holograms with erioglaucine and tartrazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mejias-Brizuela, N. Y.; Olivares-Pérez, A.; Páez-Trujillo, G.; Fuentes-Tapia, I.

    2007-09-01

    An artificial green colorant, composed by erioglaucine (Blue 1) and tartrazine (Yellow 5), was employed in a sugar matrix to improve the material sensibility and to make a comparative analysis of the diffraction efficiency parameter, for holograms replications, the holographic pattern was obtained by a computer and recorded in sugar films and in modified sugar (sugar-colorant). Conventional lithography and UV radiation were used. The results show that the behavior diffraction efficiency of the sugar-colorant films is slightly larger than in the sugar matrix under the same recording conditions.

  2. Pyrolytic sugars from cellulosic biomass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzhiyil, Najeeb

    Sugars are the feedstocks for many promising advanced cellulosic biofuels. Traditional sugars derived from starch and sugar crops are limited in their availability. In principle, more plentiful supply of sugars can be obtained from depolymerization of cellulose, the most abundant form of biomass in the world. Breaking the glycosidic bonds between the pyranose rings in the cellulose chain to liberate glucose has usually been pursued by enzymatic hydrolysis although a purely thermal depolymerization route to sugars is also possible. Fast pyrolysis of pure cellulose yields primarily levoglucosan, an anhydrosugar that can be hydrolyzed to glucose. However, naturally occurring alkali and alkaline earth metals (AAEM) in biomass are strongly catalytic toward ring-breaking reactions that favor formation of light oxygenates over anhydrosugars. Removing the AAEM by washing was shown to be effective in increasing the yield of anhydrosugars; but this process involves removal of large amount of water from biomass that renders it energy intensive and thereby impractical. In this work passivation of the AAEM (making them less active or inactive) using mineral acid infusion was explored that will increase the yield of anhydrosugars from fast pyrolysis of biomass. Mineral acid infusion was tried by previous researchers, but the possibility of chemical reactions between infused acid and AAEM in the biomass appears to have been overlooked, possibly because metal cations might be expected to already be substantially complexed to chlorine or other strong anions that are found in biomass. Likewise, it appears that previous researchers assumed that as long as AAEM cations were in the biomass, they would be catalytically active regardless of the nature of their complexion with anions. On the contrary, we hypothesized that AAEM can be converted to inactive or less active salts using mineral acids. Various biomass feedstocks were infused with mineral (hydrochloric, nitric, sulfuric and

  3. Sugar cane and sugar beet molasses, antioxidant-rich alternatives to refined sugar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valli, Veronica; Gómez-Caravaca, Ana María; Di Nunzio, Mattia; Danesi, Francesca; Caboni, Maria Fiorenza; Bordoni, Alessandra

    2012-12-26

    Molasses, the main byproduct of sugar production, is a well-known source of antioxidants. In this study sugar cane molasses (SCM) and sugar beet molasses (SBM) were investigated for their phenolic profile and in vitro antioxidant capacity and for their protective effect in human HepG2 cells submitted to oxidative stress. According to its higher phenolic concentration and antioxidant capacity in vitro, SCM exhibited an effective protection in cells, comparable to or even greater than that of α-tocopherol. Data herein reported emphasize the potential health effects of molasses and the possibility of using byproducts for their antioxidant activity. This is particularly important for consumers in developing countries, as it highlights the importance of consuming a low-price, yet very nutritious, commodity.

  4. 29 CFR 780.815 - Basic conditions of exemption; second part, processing of sugar beets, sugar-beet molasses...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... sugar beets, sugar-beet molasses, sugarcane, or maple sap. 780.815 Section 780.815 Labor Regulations... Cotton and Processing of Sugar Beets, Sugar-Beet Molasses, Sugarcane, or Maple Sap into Sugar or Syrup... Quantities § 780.815 Basic conditions of exemption; second part, processing of sugar beets, sugar-beet...

  5. Molecular mobility in sugar glasses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dries, van den I.J.

    2000-01-01

    Glasses are liquids that exhibit solid state behavior as a result of their extremely high viscosity. Regarding their application to foods, glasses play a role in the preservation of foods, due to their high viscosity and the concomitant low molecular mobility. This thesis focuses on sugar

  6. What's a sugar maple worth?

    Science.gov (United States)

    George L. Cook

    1991-01-01

    What is a sugar maple worth? This is an interesting question and not one which is easy to answer. I have some thoughts on this subject to share with you. Many of these have been discussed with county and district foresters, sugarmakers and people from the community who appreciate the maple tree very much.

  7. Frequently Asked Questions about Sugar

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Search By Zipcode Search by State SELECT YOUR LANGUAGE Español (Spanish) 简体中文 (Traditional Chinese) 繁体中文 (Simplified Chinese) ... Hey Kids, Learn About Blood Sugar and Diabetes Teaching Gardens Teaching Gardens Recognition Teaching Gardens-See Our ...

  8. Heritability of high sugar consumption through drinks and the genetic correlation with substance use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treur, Jorien L; Boomsma, Dorret I; Ligthart, Lannie; Willemsen, Gonneke; Vink, Jacqueline M

    2016-10-01

    High sugar consumption contributes to the rising prevalence of obesity. Sugar can have rewarding effects that are similar to, but less strong than, the effects of addictive substances. People who consume large amounts of sugar also tend to use more addictive substances, but it is unclear whether this is due to shared genetic or environmental risk factors. We examined whether there are genetic influences on the consumption of sugar-containing drinks and whether genetic factors can explain the association with substance use. The frequency of consumption of sugar-containing drinks (e.g., cola, soft drinks, and energy drinks) and addictive substances (nicotine, caffeine, alcohol, cannabis, and illicit drugs) was obtained for 8586 twins who were registered at the Netherlands Twin Register (women: 68.7%; mean ± SD age: 33.5 ± 15.3 y). Participants were categorized as high or low sugar consumers (>1 compared with ≤1 SD above daily consumption in grams) and as high or low substance users (≥2 compared with substances). Through bivariate genetic modeling, genetic and environmental influences on sugar consumption, substance use, and their association were estimated. Genetic factors explained 48% of the variation in high sugar consumption, whereas unique environmental factors explained 52%. For high substance use, these values were 62% and 38%, respectively. There was a moderate phenotypic association between high sugar consumption and high substance use (r = 0.2), which was explained by genetic factors (59%) and unique environmental factors (41%). The positive association between high sugar consumption and high substance use was partly due to unique environmental factors (e.g., social situations). Genetic factors were also of influence, suggesting that neuronal circuits underlying the development of addiction and obesity are related. Further research is needed to identify genes that influence sugar consumption and those that overlap with substance use. © 2016 American

  9. OMICS Technologies and Applications in Sugar Beet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yongxue; Nan, Jingdong; Yu, Bing

    2016-01-01

    Sugar beet is a species of the Chenopodiaceae family. It is an important sugar crop that supplies approximately 35% of the sugar in the world. Sugar beet M14 line is a unique germplasm that contains genetic materials from Beta vulgaris L. and Beta corolliflora Zoss. And exhibits tolerance to salt stress. In this review, we have summarized OMICS technologies and applications in sugar beet including M14 for identification of novel genes, proteins related to biotic and abiotic stresses, apomixes and metabolites related to energy and food. An OMICS overview for the discovery of novel genes, proteins and metabolites in sugar beet has helped us understand the complex mechanisms underlying many processes such as apomixes, tolerance to biotic and abiotic stresses. The knowledge gained is valuable for improving the tolerance of sugar beet and other crops to biotic and abiotic stresses as well as for enhancing the yield of sugar beet for energy and food production. PMID:27446130

  10. The UK sugar tax - a healthy start?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, C M

    2016-07-22

    The unexpected announcement by the UK Chancellor of the Exchequer of a levy on sugar sweetened beverages (SSBs) on the 16 March 2016, should be welcomed by all health professionals. This population based, structural intervention sends a strong message that there is no place for carbonated drinks, neither sugared nor sugar-free, in a healthy diet and the proposed levy has the potential to contribute to both general and dental health. The sugar content of drinks exempt from the proposed sugar levy will still cause tooth decay. Improving the proposed tax could involve a change to a scaled volumetric tax of added sugar with a lower exemption threshold. External influences such as the Common Agricultural Policy and the Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership may negate the benefits of the sugar levy unless it is improved. However, the proposed UK sugar tax should be considered as a start in improving the nation's diet.

  11. When Blood Sugar Is Too High

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Videos for Educators Search English Español When Blood Sugar Is Too High KidsHealth / For Teens / When Blood ... often can be unhealthy. What Is High Blood Sugar? The blood glucose level is the amount of ...

  12. Drug-induced low blood sugar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drug-induced low blood sugar is low blood glucose that results from taking medicine. ... Low blood sugar (hypoglycemia) is common in people with diabetes who are taking insulin or other medicines to control their diabetes. ...

  13. High blood sugar - self-care

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... High blood glucose - self care; Diabetes - high blood sugar ... Symptoms of high blood sugar can include: Being very thirsty or having a dry mouth Having blurry vision Having dry skin Feeling weak or tired ...

  14. 7 CFR 58.934 - Sugars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Plants Approved for USDA Inspection and Grading Service 1 Quality Specifications for Raw Materials § 58.934 Sugars. Any sugar used in the manufacture of sweetened condensed or sterilized milk products shall be refined, and of food grade quality. ...

  15. Association of δ¹³C in fingerstick blood with added-sugar and sugar-sweetened beverage intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davy, Brenda M; Jahren, A Hope; Hedrick, Valisa E; Comber, Dana L

    2011-06-01

    of total added sugars (g, r = 0.37; kcal, r = 0.37), soft drinks (g, r = 0.26; kcal, r = 0.27), and total sugar-sweetened beverage (g, r = 0.28; kcal, r = 0.35). The δ¹³C value in the lowest and the highest added-sugar intake tertiles were significantly different (mean difference = -0.48‰; P = 0.028). Although there are several potential dietary sources for blood carbon, the δ¹³C value of fingerstick blood shows promise as a noninvasive biomarker of added-sugar and sugar-sweetened beverage intake based on these findings. Copyright © 2011 American Dietetic Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. 21 CFR 184.1859 - Invert sugar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Invert sugar. 184.1859 Section 184.1859 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1859 Invert sugar. (a) Invert sugar (CAS Reg. No. 8013-17-0) is an aqueous...

  17. 27 CFR 24.317 - Sugar record.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sugar record. 24.317... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Records and Reports § 24.317 Sugar record. A proprietor who receives, stores, or uses sugar shall maintain a record of receipt and use. The record will show the date of...

  18. Study of fiber optic sugar sensor

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In the present work, an intensity-modulated intrinsic fiber optic sugar sensor is pre- sented. This type of sensor, with slight modification, can be used for on-line determination of the concentration of sugar content in sugarcane juice in sugar industry. In the present set-up, a plastic fiber made of polymethylmethacrylate is used.

  19. Technical Efficiency of Sugar Cane ( Saccharum officinarum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sugar cane (Saccharum officinarum) is grown by thousands of local farmers in Nigeria, yet the level of production has not kept pace with the level of consumption. This study was therefore carried out to examine the efficiency of sugar cane production in Niger State, Nigeria. The study sample comprised of 105 sugar cane ...

  20. Ethanol production from tropical sugar beet juice

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sanette

    2012-07-05

    Jul 5, 2012 ... South Africa has been limited by the large production of sugarcane in tropical areas. Recent trials in the ... It was concluded from the results of this research that bioethanol can be produced economically from tropical sugar beet .... sugar beet molasses as well as the effect of initial sugar concentration ...

  1. Role of potassium and nitrogen on sugar concentration of sugar beet

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sugar is obtained from root of sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) in addition to other sources. Three important economic parameters are often considered and these are root yield, sugar concentration in root juice and total sugar yield. All the three are affected by cropping period and use of fertilisers. Existing literature suggests the ...

  2. Effect of Meloidogyne incognita parasitism on yield and sugar content of sugar beet in Georgia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugar beet (Beta vulgaris) is typically grown as a summer crop for edible sugar production in the north-central and western US, but it could be incorporated as a winter crop into annual cropping systems in the southern US where the sugar would be used for biofuel and plastic production. Sugar beet ...

  3. Saccharification of recalcitrant biomass and integration options for lignocellulosic sugars from Catchlight Energy's sugar process (CLE Sugar).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Johnway; Anderson, Dwight; Levie, Benjamin

    2013-01-28

    Woody biomass is one of the most abundant biomass feedstocks, besides agriculture residuals in the United States. The sustainable harvest residuals and thinnings alone are estimated at about 75 million tons/year. These forest residuals and thinnings could produce the equivalent of 5 billion gallons of lignocellulosic ethanol annually. Softwood biomass is the most recalcitrant biomass in pretreatment before an enzymatic hydrolysis. To utilize the most recalcitrant lignocellulosic materials, an efficient, industrially scalable and cost effective pretreatment method is needed. Obtaining a high yield of sugar from recalcitrant biomass generally requires a high severity of pretreatment with aggressive chemistry, followed by extensive conditioning, and large doses of enzymes. Catchlight Energy's Sugar process, CLE Sugar, uses a low intensity, high throughput variation of bisulfite pulping to pretreat recalcitrant biomass, such as softwood forest residuals. By leveraging well-proven bisulfite technology and the rapid progress of enzyme suppliers, CLE Sugar can achieve a high yield of total biomass carbohydrate conversion to monomeric lignocellulosic sugars. For example, 85.8% of biomass carbohydrates are saccharified for un-debarked Loblolly pine chips (softwood), and 94.0% for debarked maple chips (hardwood). Furan compound formation was 1.29% of biomass feedstock for Loblolly pine and 1.10% for maple. At 17% solids hydrolysis of pretreated softwood, an enzyme dose of 0.075 g Sigma enzyme mixture/g dry pretreated (unwashed) biomass was needed to achieve 8.1% total sugar titer in the hydrolysate and an overall prehydrolysate liquor plus enzymatic hydrolysis conversion yield of 76.6%. At a much lower enzyme dosage of 0.044 g CTec2 enzyme product/g dry (unwashed) pretreated softwood, hydrolysis at 17% solids achieved 9.2% total sugar titer in the hydrolysate with an overall sugar yield of 85.0% in the combined prehydrolysate liquor and enzymatic hydrolysate. CLE Sugar has

  4. South African Sugar Technologists' Association. Proceedings of the fifty-ninth annual congress held at Durban and Mount Edgecombe, 17 to 21 June 1985

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    This publication presents the proceedings of the fifty-ninth annual congress of the South African Sugar Technologists' Association, held in Durban and Mount Edgecombe, from 17 to 21 June 1985. Almost every facet of the sugar industry is covered including topics such as milling, irrigation, growth, crystal elongation and crystal size distribution, pans, stirrers and boilers used in the industry, evaporation, sucrose losses, radiometric and other gauges, the use of x-ray techniques and chemical methods of analysis, diseases, cooling waters, refining, maintenance, efficiency, operation, production and performance of a sugar station

  5. RNA Crystallization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golden, Barbara L.; Kundrot, Craig E.

    2003-01-01

    RNA molecules may be crystallized using variations of the methods developed for protein crystallography. As the technology has become available to syntheisize and purify RNA molecules in the quantities and with the quality that is required for crystallography, the field of RNA structure has exploded. The first consideration when crystallizing an RNA is the sequence, which may be varied in a rational way to enhance crystallizability or prevent formation of alternate structures. Once a sequence has been designed, the RNA may be synthesized chemically by solid-state synthesis, or it may be produced enzymatically using RNA polymerase and an appropriate DNA template. Purification of milligram quantities of RNA can be accomplished by HPLC or gel electrophoresis. As with proteins, crystallization of RNA is usually accomplished by vapor diffusion techniques. There are several considerations that are either unique to RNA crystallization or more important for RNA crystallization. Techniques for design, synthesis, purification, and crystallization of RNAs will be reviewed here.

  6. Shifting Sugars and Shifting Paradigms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegal, Mark L.

    2015-01-01

    No organism lives in a constant environment. Based on classical studies in molecular biology, many have viewed microbes as following strict rules for shifting their metabolic activities when prevailing conditions change. For example, students learn that the bacterium Escherichia coli makes proteins for digesting lactose only when lactose is available and glucose, a better sugar, is not. However, recent studies, including three PLOS Biology papers examining sugar utilization in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, show that considerable heterogeneity in response to complex environments exists within and between populations. These results join similar recent results in other organisms that suggest that microbial populations anticipate predictable environmental changes and hedge their bets against unpredictable ones. The classical view therefore represents but one special case in a range of evolutionary adaptations to environmental changes that all organisms face. PMID:25688600

  7. Shifting sugars and shifting paradigms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark L Siegal

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available No organism lives in a constant environment. Based on classical studies in molecular biology, many have viewed microbes as following strict rules for shifting their metabolic activities when prevailing conditions change. For example, students learn that the bacterium Escherichia coli makes proteins for digesting lactose only when lactose is available and glucose, a better sugar, is not. However, recent studies, including three PLOS Biology papers examining sugar utilization in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, show that considerable heterogeneity in response to complex environments exists within and between populations. These results join similar recent results in other organisms that suggest that microbial populations anticipate predictable environmental changes and hedge their bets against unpredictable ones. The classical view therefore represents but one special case in a range of evolutionary adaptations to environmental changes that all organisms face.

  8. Interrelationships of added sugars intake, socioeconomic status, and race/ethnicity in adults in the United States: National Health Interview Survey, 2005.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Frances E; McNeel, Timothy S; Dowling, Emily C; Midthune, Douglas; Morrissette, Meredith; Zeruto, Christopher A

    2009-08-01

    The consumption of added sugars (eg, white sugar, brown sugar, and high-fructose corn syrup) displaces nutrient-dense foods in the diet. The intake of added sugars in the United States is excessive. Little is known about the predictors of added sugar intake. To examine the independent relationships of socioeconomic status and race/ethnicity with added sugar intake, and to evaluate the consistency of relationships using a short instrument to those from a different survey using more precise dietary assessment. Cross-sectional, nationally representative, interviewer-administered survey. Adults (aged > or = 18 years) participating in the 2005 US National Health Interview Survey Cancer Control Supplement responding to four added sugars questions (n=28,948). The intake of added sugars was estimated using validated scoring algorithms. Multivariate analysis incorporating sample weights and design effects was conducted. Least squares means and confidence intervals, and significance tests using Wald F statistics are presented. Analyses were stratified by sex and controlled for potential confounders. The intake of added sugars was higher among men than women and inversely related to age, educational status, and family income. Asian Americans had the lowest intake and Hispanics the next lowest intake. Among men, African Americans had the highest intake, although whites and American Indians/Alaskan Natives also had high intakes. Among women, African Americans and American Indians/Alaskan Natives had the highest intakes. Intake of added sugars was inversely related to educational attainment in whites, African Americans, Hispanic men, and American Indians/Alaskan Native men, but was unrelated in Asian Americans. These findings were generally consistent with relationships in National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2003-2004 (using one or two 24-hour dietary recalls). Race/ethnicity, family income, and educational status are independently associated with intake of added

  9. 7 CFR 1435.304 - Beet and cane sugar allotments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Beet and cane sugar allotments. 1435.304 Section 1435... For Sugar § 1435.304 Beet and cane sugar allotments. (a) The allotment for beet sugar will be 54.35... overall allotment quantity. (c) A sugar beet processor allocated a share of the beet sugar allotment may...

  10. The Shape of the Dose-Response Relationship between Sugars and Caries in Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernabé, E; Vehkalahti, M M; Sheiham, A; Lundqvist, A; Suominen, A L

    2016-02-01

    Dental caries is considered a diet-mediated disease, as sugars are essential in the caries process. However, some gaps in knowledge about the sugars-caries relationship still need addressing. This longitudinal study aimed to explore 1) the shape of the dose-response association between sugars intake and caries in adults, 2) the relative contribution of frequency and amount of sugars intake to caries levels, and 3) whether the association between sugars intake and caries varies by exposure to fluoride toothpaste. We used data from 1,702 dentate adults who participated in at least 2 of 3 surveys in Finland (Health 2000, 2004/05 Follow-up Study of Adults' Oral Health, and Health 2011). Frequency and amount of sugars intake were measured with a validated food frequency questionnaire. The DMFT index was the repeated outcome measure. Data were analyzed with fractional polynomials and linear mixed effects models. None of the 43 fractional polynomials tested provided a better fit to the data than the simpler linear model. In a mutually adjusted linear mixed effects model, the amount of, but not the frequency of, sugars intake was significantly associated with DMFT throughout the follow-up period. Furthermore, the longitudinal association between amount of sugars intake and DMFT was weaker in adults who used fluoride toothpaste daily than in those using it less often than daily. The findings of this longitudinal study among Finnish adults suggest a linear dose-response relationship between sugars and caries, with amount of intake being more important than frequency of ingestion. Also, daily use of fluoride toothpaste reduced but did not eliminate the association between amount of sugars intake and dental caries. © International & American Associations for Dental Research 2015.

  11. Sugar Consumption and Changes in Dental Caries from Childhood to Adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peres, M A; Sheiham, A; Liu, P; Demarco, F F; Silva, A E R; Assunção, M C; Menezes, A M; Barros, F C; Peres, K G

    2016-04-01

    There are no prospective studies investigating the effects of sugar-related feeding practices on changes in dental caries from early childhood to young adulthood. The aim of this study was to assess whether sugar-related feeding practices affect dental caries between the ages of 6 and 18 y. This birth cohort study was initiated in 1993 in Pelotas, Brazil. There were 3 dental clinical assessments; at ages 6 y (n = 359), 12 y (n = 339), and 18 y (n = 307). Sugar-related feeding practices were assessed at ages 4, 15, and 18 y. Covariates included sex and life course variables, such as family income, breast-feeding, mother's education, regularity of dental visit, and child's toothbrushing habits. Group-based trajectory analysis was performed to characterize trajectories of time-varying independent variables that had at least 3 time points. We fitted a generalized linear mixed model assuming negative binomial distribution with log link function on 3-time repeated dental caries assessments. One in 5 participants was classified as "high" sugar consumers, and nearly 40% were "upward consumers." "Low consumers" accounted for >40% of the sample. High and upward sugar consumers had higher dental caries prevalence and mean DMFT in all cohort waves when compared with low sugar consumers. Caries occurred at a relatively constant rate over the period of study, but in all sugar consumption groups, the increment of dental caries was slightly higher between ages 6 and 12 y than between 12 and 18 y. Adjusted analysis showed that dental caries increment ratio between ages 6 and 18 y was 20% and 66% higher in upward and high sugar consumer groups as compared with low consumers. The higher the sugar consumption along the life course, the higher the dental caries increment. Even the low level of sugar consumption was related to dental caries, despite the use of fluoride. © International & American Associations for Dental Research 2016.

  12. Sugar contents of Brandy de Jerez during its aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez Montero, Cristina; Rodríguez Dodero, M del Carmen; Guillén Sánchez, Dominico Antonio; García Barroso, Carmelo

    2005-02-23

    Brandy de Jerez is aged in American oak casks according to the traditional dynamic system (Soleras y Criaderas) and sometimes additionally by the static system (Anadas). The experimental arrangement used here for the analytical monitoring of brandy aging consisted of 15 casks, 12 of which were set up for aging by the dynamic system, which is well established in the denomination of origin area, whereas the other 3 contained the same brandy but aged according to the static system. This paper studies the kinetics of sugar extraction from oak wood to distillate, as well as the possible correlations between the sugar contents in brandy and its age or the commercial type it belongs to (Solera, Solera Reserva, or Solera Gran Reserva). High-performance anion-exchange chromatography with pulsed amperometric detection was used as the analytical tool to measure the concentrations of glucose, fructose, arabinose, galactose, and xylose, the presence of which in brandy has previously been described.

  13. Knowledge, perceptions, and behaviors of adults concerning nonalcoholic beverages suggest some lack of comprehension related to sugars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rampersaud, Gail C; Kim, Hyeyoung; Gao, Zhifeng; House, Lisa A

    2014-02-01

    Key recommendations in the 2010 Dietary Guidelines for Americans and US Department of Agriculture's MyPlate are to reduce the intake of added sugars, particularly from sugar-sweetened beverages, and drink water instead of "sugary" beverages. However, little is known about consumer knowledge, perceptions, and behaviors regarding sugars in beverages. We hypothesized that consumers would have limited or inaccurate knowledge of the sugars in beverages and that their beverage consumption behaviors would not reflect their primary concerns related to sugars in beverages. An online survey was completed by 3361 adults 18 years and older residing throughout the United States. Water was consumed in the highest amounts followed by (in descending amounts) other beverages (includes coffee and tea), added sugar beverages, milk, diet drinks, and 100% fruit juice and blends. Participants primarily associated the term "sugary" with beverages containing added sugars; however, almost 40% identified 100% fruit juice as sugary. Some participants misidentified the types of sugars in beverages, particularly with respect to milk and 100% fruit juices. Generally, beverage choices were consistent with stated concerns about total, added, or natural sugars; however, less than 40% of participants identified added sugars as a primary concern when choosing beverages despite public health recommendations to reduce the intake of added sugars and sugar-sweetened beverages. Results suggest that there may be a considerable level of consumer misunderstanding or confusion about the types of sugars in beverages. More consumer research and education are needed with the goal of helping consumers make more informed and healthy beverage choices. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Photosynthesis Activates Plasma Membrane H+-ATPase via Sugar Accumulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okumura, Masaki; Inoue, Shin-Ichiro; Kuwata, Keiko; Kinoshita, Toshinori

    2016-05-01

    Plant plasma membrane H(+)-ATPase acts as a primary transporter via proton pumping and regulates diverse physiological responses by controlling secondary solute transport, pH homeostasis, and membrane potential. Phosphorylation of the penultimate threonine and the subsequent binding of 14-3-3 proteins in the carboxyl terminus of the enzyme are required for H(+)-ATPase activation. We showed previously that photosynthesis induces phosphorylation of the penultimate threonine in the nonvascular bryophyte Marchantia polymorpha However, (1) whether this response is conserved in vascular plants and (2) the process by which photosynthesis regulates H(+)-ATPase phosphorylation at the plasma membrane remain unresolved issues. Here, we report that photosynthesis induced the phosphorylation and activation of H(+)-ATPase in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) leaves via sugar accumulation. Light reversibly phosphorylated leaf H(+)-ATPase, and this process was inhibited by pharmacological and genetic suppression of photosynthesis. Immunohistochemical and biochemical analyses indicated that light-induced phosphorylation of H(+)-ATPase occurred autonomously in mesophyll cells. We also show that the phosphorylation status of H(+)-ATPase and photosynthetic sugar accumulation in leaves were positively correlated and that sugar treatment promoted phosphorylation. Furthermore, light-induced phosphorylation of H(+)-ATPase was strongly suppressed in a double mutant defective in ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase and triose phosphate/phosphate translocator (adg1-1 tpt-2); these mutations strongly inhibited endogenous sugar accumulation. Overall, we show that photosynthesis activated H(+)-ATPase via sugar production in the mesophyll cells of vascular plants. Our work provides new insight into signaling from chloroplasts to the plasma membrane ion transport mechanism. © 2016 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  15. Scientists Discover Sugar in Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-06-01

    The prospects for life in the Universe just got sweeter, with the first discovery of a simple sugar molecule in space. The discovery of the sugar molecule glycolaldehyde in a giant cloud of gas and dust near the center of our own Milky Way Galaxy was made by scientists using the National Science Foundation's 12 Meter Telescope, a radio telescope on Kitt Peak, Arizona. "The discovery of this sugar molecule in a cloud from which new stars are forming means it is increasingly likely that the chemical precursors to life are formed in such clouds long before planets develop around the stars," said Jan M. Hollis of the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, MD. Hollis worked with Frank J. Lovas of the University of Illinois and Philip R. Jewell of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) in Green Bank, WV, on the observations, made in May. The scientists have submitted their results to the Astrophysical Journal Letters. "This discovery may be an important key to understanding the formation of life on the early Earth," said Jewell. Conditions in interstellar clouds may, in some cases, mimic the conditions on the early Earth, so studying the chemistry of interstellar clouds may help scientists understand how bio-molecules formed early in our planet's history. In addition, some scientists have suggested that Earth could have been "seeded" with complex molecules by passing comets, made of material from the interstellar cloud that condensed to form the Solar System. Glycolaldehyde, an 8-atom molecule composed of carbon, oxygen and hydrogen, can combine with other molecules to form the more-complex sugars Ribose and Glucose. Ribose is a building block of nucleic acids such as RNA and DNA, which carry the genetic code of living organisms. Glucose is the sugar found in fruits. Glycolaldehyde contains exactly the same atoms, though in a different molecular structure, as methyl formate and acetic acid, both of which were detected previously in interstellar clouds

  16. Consumption of added sugars among US children and adults by food purchase location and food source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drewnowski, Adam; Rehm, Colin D

    2014-09-01

    The proposed changes to the Nutrition Facts Label by the US Food and Drug Administration will include information on added sugars for the first time. The objective was to evaluate the sources of added sugars in the diets of a representative sample of US children and adults by food purchase location and food source (eg, food group). This cross-sectional study among 31,035 children, adolescents, and adults aged ≥6 y from the 2003-2004, 2005-2006, 2007-2008, and 2009-2010 NHANES used data from a 24-h dietary recall to evaluate consumption of added sugars. Food locations of origin were identified as stores (supermarket or grocery store), quick-service restaurants/pizza (QSRs), full-service restaurants (FSRs), schools, and others (eg, vending machines or gifts). Added sugars consumption by food purchase location was evaluated by age, family income-to-poverty ratio, and race-ethnicity. Food group sources of added sugars were identified by using the National Cancer Institute food categories. Added sugars accounted for ∼14.1% of total dietary energy. Between 65% and 76% of added sugars came from stores, 6% and 12% from QSRs, and 4% and 6% from FSRs, depending on age. Older adults (aged ≥51 y) obtained a significantly greater proportion of added sugars from stores than did younger adults. Lower-income adults obtained a significantly greater proportion of added sugars from stores than did higher-income adults. Intake of added sugars did not vary by family income among children/adolescents. Soda and energy and sports drinks were the largest food group sources of added sugars (34.4%), followed by grain desserts (12.7%), fruit drinks (8.0%), candy (6.7%), and dairy desserts (5.6%). Most added sugars came from foods obtained from stores. The proposed changes to the Nutrition Facts Label should capture the bulk of added sugars in the US food supply, which suggests that the recommended changes have the potential to reduce added sugars consumption. © 2014 American Society

  17. 21 CFR 173.320 - Chemicals for controlling microorganisms in cane-sugar and beet-sugar mills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...-sugar and beet-sugar mills. 173.320 Section 173.320 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION... controlling microorganisms in cane-sugar and beet-sugar mills. Agents for controlling microorganisms in cane-sugar and beet-sugar mills may be safely used in accordance with the following conditions: (a) They are...

  18. 29 CFR 516.18 - Employees employed in certain tobacco, cotton, sugar cane or sugar beet services, who are...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Employees employed in certain tobacco, cotton, sugar cane....18 Employees employed in certain tobacco, cotton, sugar cane or sugar beet services, who are... cigar leaf tobacco, cotton, cottonseed, cotton ginning, sugar cane, sugar processing or sugar beets who...

  19. 75 FR 53013 - Fiscal Year 2011 Tariff-rate Quota Allocations for Raw Cane Sugar, Refined and Specialty Sugar...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-30

    ... TRADE REPRESENTATIVE Fiscal Year 2011 Tariff-rate Quota Allocations for Raw Cane Sugar, Refined and Specialty Sugar, and Sugar-containing Products; Revision AGENCY: Office of the United States Trade... allocations of raw cane sugar, refined and special sugar, and sugar-containing products. USTR is revising the...

  20. 75 FR 50796 - Fiscal Year 2011 Tariff-Rate Quota Allocations for Raw Cane Sugar, Refined and Specialty Sugar...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-17

    ... TRADE REPRESENTATIVE Fiscal Year 2011 Tariff-Rate Quota Allocations for Raw Cane Sugar, Refined and Specialty Sugar, and Sugar-Containing Products AGENCY: Office of the United States Trade Representative... quotas for imported raw cane sugar, refined and specialty sugar, and sugar-containing products. DATES...

  1. 76 FR 50285 - Fiscal Year 2012 Tariff-Rate Quota Allocations for Raw Cane Sugar, Refined and Specialty Sugar...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-12

    ... TRADE REPRESENTATIVE Fiscal Year 2012 Tariff-Rate Quota Allocations for Raw Cane Sugar, Refined and Specialty Sugar and Sugar-Containing Products AGENCY: Office of the United States Trade Representative... quotas for imported raw cane sugar, refined and specialty sugar and sugar-containing products. DATES...

  2. 77 FR 57180 - Fiscal Year 2013 Tariff-rate Quota Allocations for Raw Cane Sugar, Refined and Specialty Sugar...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-17

    ... REPRESENTATIVE Fiscal Year 2013 Tariff-rate Quota Allocations for Raw Cane Sugar, Refined and Specialty Sugar, and Sugar-Containing Products AGENCY: Office of the United States Trade Representative. ACTION: Notice... raw cane sugar, refined and specialty sugar, and sugar-containing products. DATES: Effective Date...

  3. Crystal Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    SRD 3 NIST Crystal Data (PC database for purchase)   NIST Crystal Data contains chemical, physical, and crystallographic information useful to characterize more than 237,671 inorganic and organic crystalline materials. The data include the standard cell parameters, cell volume, space group number and symbol, calculated density, chemical formula, chemical name, and classification by chemical type.

  4. The Czech Republic Sugar Market Development in the Context of the Phasing out of Sugar Quota

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kateřina Kovářová

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper is to assess the current position and situation of the Czech sugar market actors. The new situation is expected due to the declared phasing of out of sugar quota with the EU Common Agriculture Policy. The analysis is based on secondary date from the statistics of the Czech Statistical Office and the Ministry of Agriculture of the Czech Republic. Czech Republic has a long strong tradition in sugar production. It lost a leading position in the sugar market in the past. The sugar industry has been affected by various factors during several periods. The last big challenge for the market was the restricting system of the Common Agriculture Policy of the European Union. The expected development of the sugar market in the no-quota environment could be a good opportunity for both Czech sugar beet producers and sugar beet manufacturers (sugar producers.

  5. Complete oxidative conversion of lignocellulose derived non-glucose sugars to sugar acids by Gluconobacter oxydans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Ruimiao; Hou, Weiliang; Bao, Jie

    2017-11-01

    Non-glucose sugars derived from lignocellulose cover approximately 40% of the total carbohydrates of lignocellulose biomass. The conversion of the non-glucose sugars to the target products is an important task of lignocellulose biorefining research. Here we report a fast and complete conversion of the total non-glucose sugars from corn stover into the corresponding sugar acids by whole cell catalysis and aerobic fermentation of Gluconobacter oxydans. The conversions include xylose to xylonate, arabinose to arabonate, mannose to mannonate, and galactose to galactonate, as well as with glucose into gluconate. These cellulosic non-glucose sugar acids showed the excellent cement retard setting property. The mixed cellulosic sugar acids could be used as cement retard additives without separation. The conversion of the non-glucose sugars not only makes full use of lignocellulose derived sugars, but also effectively reduces the wastewater treatment burden by removal of residual sugars. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. The use of Lactobacillus species as starter cultures for enhancing the quality of sugar cane silage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ávila, C L S; Carvalho, B F; Pinto, J C; Duarte, W F; Schwan, R F

    2014-02-01

    Sugar cane (Saccharum spp.) is a forage crop widely used in animal feed because of its high dry matter (DM) production (25 to 40 t/ha) and high energy concentration. The ensiling of sugar cane often incurs problems with the growth of yeasts, which leads to high losses of DM throughout the fermentative process. The selection of specific inoculants for sugar cane silage can improve the quality of the silage. The present study aimed to select strains of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) isolated from sugar cane silage and to assess their effects when used as additives on the same type of silage. The LAB strains were inoculated into sugar cane broth to evaluate their production of metabolites. The selected strains produced higher concentrations of acetic and propionic acids and resulted in better silage characteristics, such as low yeast population, lower ethanol content, and lesser DM loss. These data confirmed that facultative heterofermentative strains are not good candidates for sugar cane silage inoculation and may even worsen the quality of the silage fermentation by increasing DM losses throughout the process. Lactobacillus hilgardii strains UFLA SIL51 and UFLA SIL52 resulted in silage with the best characteristics in relation to DM loss, low ethanol content, higher LAB population, and low butyric acid content. Strains UFLA SIL51 and SIL52 are recommended as starter cultures for sugar cane silage. Copyright © 2014 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Energy consumption for sugar manufacturing. Part I: Evaporation versus reverse osmosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madaeni, S.S.; Zereshki, S.

    2010-01-01

    Removing water from various feeds is usually carried out using evaporation process especially in food industry. Due to the high latent heat of water, this unit operation results in consumption of unacceptable amount of energy. Finding low energy consuming processes which could be replaced with this process is still a challenge. The processes with no phase inversion may be considered for concentration purposes with reasonable energy consumption in comparison with the other various separation procedures. Reverse osmosis and most of the other membrane technologies are separation techniques without any change in the phase and therefore consume low amount of energy. Concentrating the sugar thin juice in the classical sugar manufacturing procedure is carried out using conventional evaporation. Reverse osmosis membranes may be used as a pre-concentration step to partially separate water from the sugar thin juice in combination with this part of the plant. Final concentration and thick juice preparation for crystallization may be carried out in the evaporation unit. In this study, membranes were employed for sugar thin juice concentration using a two-stage reverse osmosis process in two different arrangements. The energy consumption was calculated and compared for conventional evaporation versus reverse osmosis combined with evaporation. The results indicate that the employment of reverse osmosis membranes for concentrating the sugar thin juice leads to sensibly lower energy requirements. Furthermore, there is no thermal loss of sugar in the membrane process.

  8. Plastid transformation in sugar beet: Beta vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Marchis, Francesca; Bellucci, Michele

    2014-01-01

    Chloroplast biotechnology has assumed great importance in the past 20 years and, thanks to the numerous advantages as compared to conventional transgenic technologies, has been applied in an increasing number of plant species but still very much limited. Hence, it is of utmost importance to extend the range of species in which plastid transformation can be applied. Sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) is an important industrial crop of the temperate zone in which chloroplast DNA is not transmitted trough pollen. Transformation of the sugar beet genome is performed in several research laboratories; conversely sugar beet plastome genetic transformation is far away from being considered a routine technique. We describe here a method to obtain transplastomic sugar beet plants trough biolistic transformation. The availability of sugar beet transplastomic plants should avoid the risk of gene flow between these cultivated genetic modified sugar beet plants and the wild-type plants or relative wild species.

  9. Liquid crystal tunable photonic crystal dye laser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buss, Thomas; Christiansen, Mads Brøkner; Smith, Cameron

    2010-01-01

    We present a dye-doped liquid crystal laser using a photonic crystal cavity. An applied electric field to the liquid crystal provides wavelength tunability. The photonic crystal enhances resonant interaction with the gain medium.......We present a dye-doped liquid crystal laser using a photonic crystal cavity. An applied electric field to the liquid crystal provides wavelength tunability. The photonic crystal enhances resonant interaction with the gain medium....

  10. Does information about sugar source influence consumer liking of products made with beet and cane sugars?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbanus, Brittany L; Schmidt, Shelly J; Lee, Soo-Yeun

    2014-11-01

    Beet sugar contains an off-aroma, which was hypothesized to generate expectations on the acceptability of a product made with beet sugar. Thus, the objective of this study was to assess the impact of information about the sugar source (beet vs. cane) on the overall liking of an orange-flavored beverage. One hundred panelists evaluated an orange-flavored powdered beverage mix and beverage made with beet and cane sugars using a 5-phase testing protocol involving a tetrad test and hedonic ratings performed under blind and informed conditions. Tetrad test results indicated that there was a significant difference (P beet sugar and cane sugar; however, no difference was found between the beverage made with beet sugar and cane sugar. Hedonic ratings revealed the significance of information conditions on the panelists evaluation of sugar (F = 24.67, P sugar source information in a beverage product. Based on concerns with the use of beet sugar expressed in the popular press, there may be a subgroup of the population that has a preconceived bias about sugar sources due to their prior experiences and knowledge and, thus, would be influenced by labels indicating the sugar source used in a product. © 2014 Institute of Food Technologists®

  11. Trends in added sugars from packaged beverages available and purchased by US households, 2007-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Shu Wen; Ostrowski, Jessica D; Li, Kuo-Ping

    2017-07-01

    Background: The US Food and Drug Administration's updated nutrition labeling requirements will include added sugars starting in July 2018, but no measure currently exists to identify the added sugar content of products and what it represents among purchases. Beverages are one of the first targets for reducing added sugar consumption, and hence are the focus here. Objective: Our goal was to estimate trends in added sugars in nonalcoholic packaged beverage products available in the United States and to estimate amounts of added sugars obtained from these beverages given the purchases of US households overall and by subpopulations. Design: On the basis of nutrition label data from multiple sources, we used a stepwise approach to derive the added sugar content of 160,713 beverage products recorded as purchased by US households in 2007-2012 (345,193 observations from 110,539 unique households). We estimated the amounts of added sugars obtained from packaged beverages US households reported buying in 2007-2008, 2009-2010, and 2011-2012, overall and by subpopulations based on household composition, race/ethnicity, and income. The key outcomes are added sugars in terms of per capita grams per day and the percentage of calories from packaged beverages. Results: Packaged beverages alone account for per capita consumption of 12 g/d of added sugars purchased by US households in 2007-2012, representing 32-48% of calories from packaged beverages. Whereas the absolute amount of added sugars from beverages has not changed meaningfully over time, the relative contribution of added sugars to calories from beverages has increased. Non-Hispanic black households and low-income households obtain both higher absolute and relative amounts of added sugars from beverages than non-Hispanic white households and high-income households (all P added sugars from packaged beverages at both the product level and the population level in the United States and can be used for comparisons after the

  12. 21 CFR 184.1857 - Corn sugar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Corn sugar. 184.1857 Section 184.1857 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1857 Corn sugar. (a) Corn sugar (C6H12O6, CAS Reg. No. 50-99-7), commonly... monohydrate form and is produced by the complete hydrolysis of corn starch with safe and suitable acids or...

  13. Not-so-healthy sugar substitutes?

    OpenAIRE

    Swithers, Susan E.

    2016-01-01

    Replacing sugar-sweetened beverages with diet soft drinks containing sugar substitutes that provide few or no calories has been suggested as one strategy for promoting improved public health outcomes. However, current scientific evidence indicates that routine consumption of beverages with non-nutritive sweeteners not only fails to prevent disease, but is associated with increases in risks for the same health outcomes associated with sugar-sweetened beverages, including type 2 diabetes, cardi...

  14. Moderate evidence support a relationship between sugar intake and dental caries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Ruth

    2014-12-01

    Medline, Embase, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), LILACS (Latin American and Caribbean Health Sciences), CNKI (China National Knowledge Infrastructure), Wanfang (China) and the South African Department of Health databases were searched. In addition the archives at the WHO Collaborating Centre for Nutrition and Oral Health at Newcastle University and reference lists of reviews were searched and experts contacted for further relevant papers. Intervention, cohort population or cross sectional studies were considered where there was any intervention to alter the intake of sugar or the intake of sugars or change of sugar intake was monitored. The main outcome was caries incidence. The GRADE (Grading of Recommendations Assessment Development and Evaluation) system was used to assess study quality. Separate data abstraction forms were designed for RCTs and observational studies and meta-analyses were to be conducted where possible. Sixty-five papers reporting 55 studies were included. No RCTs were identified. Three studies (four papers) were interventional, eight (12 papers) were prospective cohort, 20 (25 papers) were population based and 24 (25 papers) were cross-sectional. Data variability limited meta-analysis. Of the studies, 42 out of 50 of those in children and five out of five in adults reported at least one positive association between sugars and caries.Five of the eight cohort studies allowed comparison of dental caries development when sugars consumption was equivalent to a level 10% E. All eight studies found higher caries with sugars intake > 10% E compared with dental caries development. There is evidence of moderate quality to show that dental caries is lower when free-sugars intake is Dental caries progresses with age, and the effects of sugars on the dentition are lifelong. Even low levels of caries in childhood are of significance to levels of caries throughout the life course. Analysis of the data suggests that there may be

  15. Nuclear analytical techniques in Cuban Sugar Industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diaz Riso, O.; Griffith Martinez, J.

    1996-01-01

    This paper is a review concerning the applications of Nuclear Analytical Techniques in the Cuban sugar industry. The most complete elemental composition of final molasses (34 elements ) and natural zeolites (38) this last one employed as an auxiliary agent in sugar technological processes has been performed by means of Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) and X-Ray Fluorescence Analysis (XRFA). The trace elements sugar cane soil plant relationship and elemental composition of different types of Cuban sugar (rawr, blanco directo and refine) were also studied. As a result, valuable information referred to the possibilities of using these products in animal and human foodstuff so as in other applications are given

  16. Impact of harvest time and switchgrass cultivar on sugar release through enzymatic hydrolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) is a native North American prairie grass being developed for bioenergy production in the central and eastern USA. The objective of this study was to identify the impacts harvest time and switchgrass cultivar had on sugar release variables determined through enzymat...

  17. 75 FR 60715 - Domestic Sugar Program-FY 2010 and FY 2011 Cane Sugar and Beet Sugar Marketing Allotments and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... allotment quantity (OAQ) at 9,235,250 short tons, raw value (tons). As required by the Agricultural..., CCC determined that Puerto Rican processors permanently terminated operations because no sugar had..., announcement of sugar marketing allotment changes implemented CCC's reassignment of 200,000 tons of surplus...

  18. A trial of sugar-free or sugar-sweetened beverages and body weight in children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Ruyter, Janne C; Olthof, Margreet R; Seidell, Jacob C; Katan, Martijn B

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The consumption of beverages that contain sugar is associated with overweight, possibly because liquid sugars do not lead to a sense of satiety, so the consumption of other foods is not reduced. However, data are lacking to show that the replacement of sugar-containing beverages with

  19. Effects of bagging on sugar metabolism and the activity of sugar ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To investigate the effects of bagging on sugar metabolism and the activity of sugar metabolism related enzymes in Qingzhong loquat fruit development, the contents of sucrose, glucose and soluble solids as well as the activities of sugar metabolism related enzymes were evaluated. The content of sucrose, glucose and ...

  20. Coordination chemistry of sugar-phosphate complexes with palladium(II), rhenium(V) and zinc(II)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steinborn, Christian Martin

    2013-05-21

    As described before, some studies dealing with coordination chemistry of sugar phosphates are available but no analogous complexes of Zn{sup II} have been investigated yet. The primary goal of this work is, therefore, to fill this gap. In order to stay close to the active sites of enzymes such as class-II-aldolase, the simple metal fragment Zn{sup II}(dien) is used. NMR spectroscopy is used primarily as analytical method since it enables the investigation of both complex equilibria in solution and pH dependence of metal-binding sites. Since this approach is challenging due to the fast metal-ligand exchange and the absence of CIS values, it is necessary to improve the significance of NMR data collected from sugar-phosphate complexes with Zn{sup II}. Hence, further experiments are performed with molecules similar to sugar phosphates such as reducing and methylated sugars or polyols. Beside NMR spectroscopy, crystal-structure analysis will be used to get more detailed information about the binding pattern of the complexes. Additionally, sugar-phosphate complexes of Pd{sup II} are investigated. Further experiments are conducted, on the one hand, to synthesise more sugarphosphate complexes with ReVON2 fragments, and, on the other hand, to grow crystals confirming the theory about mixed sugar-core-phosphate chelation.

  1. Cell culture media supplementation of infrequently used sugars for the targeted shifting of protein glycosylation profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossler, Patrick; Racicot, Christopher; Chumsae, Christopher; McDermott, Sean; Cochran, Keith

    2017-03-01

    Mammalian cells in culture rely on sources of carbohydrates to supply the energy requirements for proliferation. In addition, carbohydrates provide a large source of the carbon supply for supporting various other metabolic activities, including the intermediates involved in the protein glycosylation pathway. Glucose and galactose, in particular, are commonly used sugars in culture media for these purposes. However, there exists a very large repertoire of other sugars in nature, and many that have been chemically synthesized. These sugars are particularly interesting because they can be utilized by cells in culture in distinct ways. In the present work it has been found that many infrequently used sugars, and the corresponding cellular response towards them as substrates, led to differences in the protein N-glycosylation profile of a recombinant glycoprotein. The selective media supplementation of raffinose, trehalose, turanose, palatinose, melezitose, psicose, lactose, lactulose, and mannose were found to be capable of redirecting N-glycan oligosaccharide profiles. Despite this shifting of protein glycosylation, there were no other adverse changes in culture performance, including both cell growth and cellular productivity over a wide range of supplemented sugar concentrations. The approach presented highlights a potential means towards both the targeted shifting of protein glycosylation profiles and ensuring recombinant protein comparability, which up to this point in time has remained under-appreciated for these under-utilized compounds. © 2017 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Biotechnol. Prog., 33:511-522, 2017. © 2017 American Institute of Chemical Engineers.

  2. Characterization of sugar beet pulp derived oligosaccharides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leijdekkers, M.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract This thesis aimed at characterizing complex mixtures of sugar beet pulp derived oligosaccharides, in order to be able to monitor and optimize the enzymatic saccharification of sugar beet pulp. Hydrophilic interaction chromatography with on-line evaporative light scattering

  3. Spring reflections on Louisiana sugar cane

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Louisiana sugar industry continues to produce high cane and sugar yields despite a short growing season. Spring fallow land management is essential for the upcoming crop. In the past few years, wide row spacing, billet cane planting, and cover-cropping have received significant attention. The ei...

  4. A sugar maple planting study in Vermont

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harry W. Yawney; Clayton M., Jr. Carl; Clayton M. Carl

    1970-01-01

    Past attempts to establish sugar maple (Acer saccharum Marsh.) by planting have generally met with little success. The failures have been blamed mainly on competition by other vegetation and on damage done by animals. Finding an effective way to establish sugar maple seedlings is a key part in the research being carried on in Vermont by the USDA Forest Service to...

  5. Characterization of sugar beet pulp derived oligosaccharides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leijdekkers, M.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract

    This thesis aimed at characterizing complex mixtures of sugar beet pulp derived oligosaccharides, in order to be able to monitor and optimize the enzymatic saccharification of sugar beet pulp.

    Hydrophilic interaction chromatography with on-line evaporative

  6. Sugar amino acids and related molecules

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Sugar amino acids constitute an important class of such polyfunctional scaffolds where the carboxyl, amino and hydroxyl termini provide an excellent opportunity to organic chemists to create structural diversities akin to Nature's molecular arsenal. In recent years, sugar amino acids have been used extensively in the area of ...

  7. Engineering of sugar metabolism in Lactococcus lactis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pool, Weia Arianne

    2008-01-01

    Short English Summary Lactococcus lactis is a lactic acid bacterium used in the dairy industry. This thesis decribes the genetic engineering performed on the sugar metabolism of L. lactis. Besides our fundamental interest for sugar metabolism and its regulation in L. lactis, this project had the

  8. Sugar in infants, children and adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mis, Nataša Fidler; Braegger, Christian; Bronsky, Jiri

    2017-01-01

    childhood and adulthood. Sugar should preferably be consumed as part of a main meal and in a natural form as human milk, milk, unsweetened dairy products and fresh fruits, rather than as SSBs, fruit juices, smoothies and/or sweetened milk products. Free sugars in liquid form should be replaced by water...

  9. Sugar in Infants, Children and Adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mis, Nataša Fidler; Braegger, Christian; Bronsky, Jiri

    2017-01-01

    childhood and adulthood. Sugar should preferably be consumed as part of a main meal and in a natural form as human milk, milk, unsweetened dairy products and fresh fruits, rather than as SSBs, fruit juices, smoothies and/or sweetened milk products. Free sugars in liquid form should be replaced by water...

  10. Microbiological Spoilage of High-Sugar Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Sterling

    The high-sugar products discussed in this chapter are referred to as chocolate, sugar confectionery (non-chocolate), liquid sugars, sugar syrups, and honey. Products grouped in the sugar confectionery category include hard candy, soft/gummy candy, caramel, toffee, licorice, marzipan, creams, jellies, and nougats. A common intrinsic parameter associated with high-sugar products is their low water activity (a w), which is known to inhibit the growth of most spoilage and pathogenic bacteria. However, spoilage can occur as a result of the growth of osmophilic yeasts and xerophilic molds (Von Richter, 1912; Anand & Brown, 1968; Brown, 1976). The a w range for high-sugar products is between 0.20 and 0.80 (Banwart, 1979; Richardson, 1987; Lenovich & Konkel, 1992; ICMSF, 1998; Jay, Loessner, & Golden, 2005). Spoilage of products, such as chocolate-covered cherries, results from the presence of yeasts in the liquid sugar brine or the cherry. Generally, the spoiled product will develop leakers. The chocolate covering the cherry would not likely be a source of yeast contamination.

  11. The sugar industry in Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klaren, Peter F.

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Since the early Colonial times sugar production has been a key sector in the Peruvian export economy. This article analyzes its evolution as from the beginning of its modern phase by mid 19th Century, its consolidation in the Northern coastal region, and its concentration in scale-economy plants. The prosperity of this type of production contributed to the formation of both an oligarchy which governed the country until 1968, and the populist party (APRA and its electoral basis (the so-called «Aprista North». In the sixties Velasco Alvarado’s military revolution nationalized the sugar industry, which underwent structural changes leading to a serious crisis in the eighties that has not been overcome up-todate.

    La producción de azúcar ha constituido un importante sector en la economía exportadora del Perú desde el período colonial temprano. Este artículo analiza su evolución, sobre todo tras el inicio de su fase moderna, fechada a partir de mediados del siglo XIX, cuando se modernizó, se consolidó en la región costera septentrional y se concentró en fábricas que operaban con economías de escala. Su prosperidad, contribuyó, además, a la formación de una oligarquía que gobernó el país hasta 1968 y del partido populista, APRA, y su base electoral (el llamado «sólido Norte aprista». La revolución militar de Velasco Alvarado nacionalizó la industria en la década de 1960 y los cambios estructurales que sufrió posteriormente le condujeron a una grave crisis en los años ochenta que aún no ha superado.

  12. Comparative anatomy of the peduncles of Thai Sugar Palms provides insight on putative sugar transport mechanisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Somjaiai, Pananun; Barfod, Anders; Jampeetong, Arunothai

    Inflorescences of sugar palms exude copious amounts of sugar-rich sap, when their peduncles are scarred. In Thailand this phenomenon form the basis of a widespread cottage industry based on species such as Arenga pinnata, Borassus flabellifera, Cocos nucifera and Nypa fruticans. The extracted sugar...... sap is used mainly for jaggery, syrup and different types of beverages. In this study we looked for anatomical correlates of the elevated sap flow in injured peduncles of sugar palms. Despite a limited sample size we observed that sugar producing palms differ from the reference palm Chamaedorea...

  13. Simplified and age-appropriate recommendations for added sugars in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goran, M I; Riemer, S L; Alderete, T L

    2018-04-01

    Excess sugar intake increases risk for obesity and related comorbidities among children. The World Health Organization (WHO), American Heart Association (AHA) and the 2015 USDA dietary recommendations have proposed guidelines for added sugar intake to reduce risk for disease. WHO and USDA recommendations are presented as a percentage of daily calories from added sugar. This approach is not easily understood or translated to children, where energy needs increase with age. The AHA recommendation is based on a fixed value of 25 g of added sugar for all children 2-19 years of age. This approach does not take into account the different levels of intake across this wide age range. Due to these limitations, we adapted current recommendations for added sugars based on daily energy needs of children 2-19 years. We used those values to derive simple regression equations to predict grams or teaspoons of added sugars per day based on age that would be equivalent to 10% of daily energy needs. This proposed approach aligns with the changing nutritional needs of children and adolescents during growth. © 2017 World Obesity Federation.

  14. Sugars and Dental Caries: Evidence for Setting a Recommended Threshold for Intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moynihan, Paula

    2016-01-01

    Dental caries affects ≤80% of the world's population with almost a quarter of US adults having untreated caries. Dental caries is costly to health care and negatively affects well-being. Dietary free sugars are the most important risk factor for dental caries. The WHO has issued guidelines that recommend intake of free sugars should provide ≤10% of energy intake and suggest further reductions to caries risk, which showed evidence of moderate quality from cohort studies that limiting free sugars to ≤10% of energy reduced, but did not eliminate, dental caries. Even low levels of dental caries in children are of concern because caries is a lifelong progressive and cumulative disease. The systematic review therefore explored if there were further benefits to dental health if the intake of free sugars was limited to caries when free sugar intake was 5% but ≤10% of energy. The WHO recommendations are intended for use by policy makers as a benchmark when assessing intake of sugars by populations and as a driving force for policy change. Multiple strategies encompassing both upstream and downstream preventive approaches are now required to translate the recommendations into policy and practice. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

  15. 78 FR 146 - Determination of Trade Surplus in Certain Sugar and Syrup Goods and Sugar-Containing Products of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-02

    ... and Syrup Goods and Sugar-Containing Products of Chile, Morocco, Costa Rica, the Dominican Republic... the determination of the trade surplus in certain sugar and syrup goods and sugar containing products of Determination of Trade Surplus in Certain Sugar and Syrup Goods and Sugar-Containing Products of...

  16. 75 FR 38764 - USDA Reassigns Domestic Cane Sugar Allotments and Increases the Fiscal Year 2010 Raw Sugar Tariff...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-06

    ... USDA Reassigns Domestic Cane Sugar Allotments and Increases the Fiscal Year 2010 Raw Sugar Tariff-Rate... announced a reassignment of surplus sugar under domestic cane sugar allotments of 300,000 short tons raw value (STRV) to imports, and increased the fiscal year (FY) 2010 raw sugar tariff-rate quota (TRQ) by...

  17. Sugar-induced molten-globule model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis-Searles, P R; Morar, A S; Saunders, A J; Erie, D A; Pielak, G J

    1998-12-01

    Proteins denature at low pH because of intramolecular electrostatic repulsions. The addition of salt partially overcomes this repulsion for some proteins, yielding a collapsed conformation called the A-state. A-states have characteristics expected for the molten globule, a notional kinetic protein folding intermediate. Here we show that the addition of neutral sugars to solutions of acid-denatured equine ferricytochrome c induces formation of the A-state in the absence of added salt. We characterized the structure and stability of the sugar-induced A-state with circular dichroism spectropolarimetry (CD) and NMR-monitored hydrogen-deuterium exchange experiments. We also examined the stability of the sugar-induced A-state as a function of sugar size and concentration. The results are interpreted using several models and we conclude that the stabilizing effect is consistent with increased steric repulsion between the protein and the sugar solutions.

  18. Variation in access to sugar-sweetened beverages in vending machines across rural, town and urban high schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adachi-Mejia, A M; Longacre, M R; Skatrud-Mickelson, M; Li, Z; Purvis, L A; Titus, L J; Beach, M L; Dalton, M A

    2013-05-01

    The 2010 Dietary Guidelines for Americans include reducing consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages. Among the many possible routes of access for youth, school vending machines provide ready availability of sugar-sweetened beverages. The purpose of this study was to determine variation in high school student access to sugar-sweetened beverages through vending machines by geographic location - urban, town or rural - and to offer an approach for analysing school vending machine content. Cross-sectional observational study. Between October 2007 and May 2008, trained coders recorded beverage vending machine content and machine-front advertising in 113 machines across 26 schools in New Hampshire and Vermont, USA. Compared with town schools, urban schools were significantly less likely to offer sugar-sweetened beverages (P = 0.002). Rural schools also offered more sugar-sweetened beverages than urban schools, but this difference was not significant. Advertisements for sugar-sweetened beverages were highly prevalent in town schools. High school students have ready access to sugar-sweetened beverages through their school vending machines. Town schools offer the highest risk of exposure; school vending machines located in towns offer up to twice as much access to sugar-sweetened beverages in both content and advertising compared with urban locations. Variation by geographic region suggests that healthier environments are possible and some schools can lead as inspirational role models. Copyright © 2013 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. THE FACTORS FORMING QUALITY OF GRANULATED SUGAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. G. Kulneva

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Sugar, with good taste and high caloric, is one of the most popular human food. Consumers sugar must be sure that the sugar under normal conditions of use is of high quality and is not harmful to the health of the product. One reason for the decline in the quality of sugar is bacterial contamination. This is because the sugar industry products are good targets for the development of different groups of microorganisms, e.g., Bacillus subtilis, Clostridium perfringes, Leuconostoc dextranicum, Torula alba, Pseudomonas fluorescens, Sarcina lutea and others. These organisms are affected with beets, and then with sugar beet chips and diffusion juice fall into the processing line of sugar production. Their number in the diffusion juice varies and depends on many facto rs such as the quality of raw materials, the quality of cleaning beet root colonization of transporter-washing and the supply of water to the diffusion process, the temperature of the diffusion and others. In the diffusion unit has the most favorable conditions for the development of micro-organisms. Some of them, especially resistant bacteria and thermophilic bacteria or their spores, forming a capsule which protects against external influences occur in the final product sugar. When injected into the fresh crop of product (juice, syrup, they begin to multiply rapidly, causing difficulties in the process. The higher seeding beet microorganisms, the more they decompose and emit sucrose metabolism byproducts. To reduce the negative impact of microbiological and reduce losses from decomposition of sucrose conducted research on the possibility of using chlorine-containing substances in the sugar industry. It was established experimentally that the investigated chlorinated drug has bacteriostatic action and can be recommended for use in sugar beet production.

  20. Maturing of different types ok sugar beet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Čačić Nikola

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Levels of sugar and non-sugar (K, Na and amino N depend on environmental conditions and cultural practices applied. At the same time, these traits are an important characteristic of every cultivar. A number of parameters are used to determine the technological maturity of sugar beet, but the main ones are sugar content and sugar utilization percentage, which is affected by the non-sugars. In the present study, the monitoring of root yield and the yield of the above-ground plant parts and the analysis of root quality were done at 15-day intervals starting on July 1 and ending on September 16, 1999. Used in the study were four cultivars and two experimental hybrids of sugar beet. The cultivar Crvenka mz and the experimental hybrid NS Hy 20 proved ultra sugary (on the last lifting date, they had sugar contents 16.28% and 16.54%, respectively. Going from the first to the last lifting date, the K and Na contents of all the cultivars decreased, especially in the cultivar Crvenka mz and the experimental hybrid NS Hy 20. In all of the cultivars. the ammo N content increased until the fourth lifting date (August 16, when it started to decrease. One hundred and fifty days into the growing season, thanks to their high sugar content and low level of non-sugars (especially K and Na, the cultivar Crvenka mz and the hybrid NS Hy 20 had considerably better technological characteristics than the other cultivars. The aforementioned characteristics of Crvenka mz and NS Hy 20 make these two genotypes more suitable for early lifting dates than the other cultivars. .

  1. Sugar reduction of skim chocolate milk and viability of alternative sweetening through lactose hydrolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, X E; Lopetcharat, K; Qiu, Y; Drake, M A

    2015-03-01

    Milk consumption by Americans has not met the standards of the Dietary Guidelines for Americans. Chocolate milk can improve milk consumption, especially by children, due to its color and taste. However, the high sugar content of chocolate milk is a cause for concern about its healthfulness, resulting in its removal from some school lunch programs. It is important to reduce the sugar content of chocolate milk and still maintain acceptability among consumers. It is also important to investigate other natural alternatives to sweetening. The objectives of this study were to identify the different sweetness intensity perceptions of sucrose in water and various dairy matrices, to identify the acceptable reduction in sweet taste for chocolate milk for both young adults (19-35 yr) and children (5-13 yr), and to determine if lactose hydrolysis is a viable alternative. Threshold and power function studies were used to determine the benchmark concentration of sucrose in chocolate milk. The acceptability of sugar reduction from the benchmark concentration for both young adults and children and the acceptability of lactose hydrolyzed chocolate milk (4°C for 24 h) with added lactose for young adults were evaluated. Acceptability results demonstrated that sugar reduction in chocolate milk is possible for both young adults and children as long as it does not exceed a 30% reduction (from 205 mM). Lactose hydrolysis of added lactose was used to achieve the sweetness of sucrose in chocolate milk but required >7.5% (wt/vol) added lactose, which contributed undesirable calories, indicating that lactose hydrolysis may be more suitable for other dairy beverages that require less added sugar. The findings of this study demonstrate consumer acceptance of reduced-sugar chocolate milk and a possible way to use lactose hydrolysis in dairy beverages. Copyright © 2015 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Nucleation and crystal growth in batch crystallizers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janse, A.H.

    1977-01-01

    The aim of the present work is to gain knowledge of the mechanism of formation of the crystal size distribution in batch crystallizers in order to give directives for design and operation of batch crystallizers. The crystal size distribution is important for the separation of crystals and mother

  3. Helium crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lipson, S.G.

    1987-01-01

    Hexagonal close-packed helium crystals in equilibrium with superfluid have been found to be one of the few systems in which an anisotropic solid comes into true thermodynamic equilibrium with its melt. The discovery of roughening transitions at the liquid-solid interface have shown this system to be ideal for the study of the statistical mechanics of interface structures. We describe the effect of roughening on the shape and growth of macroscopic crystals from both the theoretical and experimental points of view. (author)

  4. Added sugars in kids' meals from chain restaurants

    OpenAIRE

    Scourboutakos, Mary J.; Semnani-Azad, Zhila; L'Abbé, Mary R.

    2016-01-01

    Objective To analyze the added sugars in kids' meals from Canadian chain restaurants in relation to the World Health Organization's proposed sugar recommendation (less than 5% of total daily calories should come from added sugars) and current recommendation (less than 10% of total daily calories should come from added sugars). Methods Total sugar levels were retrieved from the websites of 10 fast-food and 7 sit-down restaurants in 2010. The added sugar levels in 3178 kids' meals from Canadian...

  5. Added sugars in the diet are positively associated with diastolic blood pressure and triglycerides in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kell, Kenneth P; Cardel, Michelle I; Bohan Brown, Michelle M; Fernández, José R

    2014-07-01

    Hypertension and dyslipidemia have traditionally been associated with dietary sodium and fat intakes, respectively; however, they have recently been associated with the consumption of added sugars in adults and older adolescents, but there is no clear indication of how early in the life span this association manifests. This study explored the cross-sectional association between added sugar (sugars not naturally occurring in foods) consumption in children, blood pressure (BP), and fasting blood lipids [triglycerides and total, low-density lipoprotein, and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol]. BP, blood lipids, and dietary intakes were obtained in a multiethnic pediatric sample aged 7-12 y of 122 European American (EA), 106 African American (AA), 84 Hispanic American (HA), and 8 mixed-race children participating in the Admixture Mapping of Ethnic and Racial Insulin Complex Outcomes (AMERICO) study-a cross-sectional study conducted in the Birmingham, AL, metro area investigating the effects of racial-ethnic differences on metabolic and health outcomes. Multiple regression analyses were performed to evaluate the relations of added sugars and sodium intakes with BP and of added sugars and dietary fat intakes with blood lipids. Models were controlled for sex, race-ethnicity, socioeconomic status, Tanner pubertal status, percentage body fat, physical activity, and total energy intake. Added sugars were positively associated with diastolic BP (P = 0.0462, β = 0.0206) and serum triglycerides (P = 0.0206, β = 0.1090). Sodium was not significantly associated with either measure of BP nor was dietary fat with blood lipids. HA children had higher triglycerides but lower added sugar consumption than did either the AA or EA children. The AA participants had higher BP and HDL but lower triglycerides than did either the EA or HA children. These data suggest that increased consumption of added sugars may be associated with adverse cardiovascular health factors in children

  6. BREAK-EVEN POINT IN SUGAR-BEET PRODUCTION

    OpenAIRE

    Ilija Nedić

    2015-01-01

    World sugar consumption has been recording a steady growth in the past 70 years and, according to all relevant estimates, it will continue to grow also in the next decade, which puts sugar in the category of the most significant foods and commodities in the world. Of the total world sugar production, around 77% is derived from sugar cane and 23% from sugar beet. Brazil has been the world leader in sugar production for a long period of time, producing white sugar from sugar cane only, whereas ...

  7. Improved molecular tools for sugar cane biotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinkema, Mark; Geijskes, Jason; Delucca, Paulo; Palupe, Anthony; Shand, Kylie; Coleman, Heather D; Brinin, Anthony; Williams, Brett; Sainz, Manuel; Dale, James L

    2014-03-01

    Sugar cane is a major source of food and fuel worldwide. Biotechnology has the potential to improve economically-important traits in sugar cane as well as diversify sugar cane beyond traditional applications such as sucrose production. High levels of transgene expression are key to the success of improving crops through biotechnology. Here we describe new molecular tools that both expand and improve gene expression capabilities in sugar cane. We have identified promoters that can be used to drive high levels of gene expression in the leaf and stem of transgenic sugar cane. One of these promoters, derived from the Cestrum yellow leaf curling virus, drives levels of constitutive transgene expression that are significantly higher than those achieved by the historical benchmark maize polyubiquitin-1 (Zm-Ubi1) promoter. A second promoter, the maize phosphonenolpyruvate carboxylate promoter, was found to be a strong, leaf-preferred promoter that enables levels of expression comparable to Zm-Ubi1 in this organ. Transgene expression was increased approximately 50-fold by gene modification, which included optimising the codon usage of the coding sequence to better suit sugar cane. We also describe a novel dual transcriptional enhancer that increased gene expression from different promoters, boosting expression from Zm-Ubi1 over eightfold. These molecular tools will be extremely valuable for the improvement of sugar cane through biotechnology.

  8. SILAGE CANE SUGAR ADDED WITH DRIED BREWER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. J. R. Castro

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this experiment was to evaluate the fermentative parameters and chemical composition of silage cane sugar added with residue dried brewery. The experimental design was completely randomized with four treatments and four replications: 100% cane sugar; 90% of cane sugar + 10% residue dried brewer; 80% of cane sugar + 20% residue dried brewer and 70% cane sugar + 30% dried brewer based on natural matter, composed silages. The sugar cane was chopped in a stationary machine with forage particle size of approximately 2 cm, and homogenized manually with the additives. For storage chopped fresh weight were used in experimental silos capacity of about 4 liters. The results showed that the contents of dry matter and crude protein showed positive linear (P0.05 with mean value of 3.81, while for ether extract and ash results were positive linear (P0.05 for N ammonia presented average value of 4.18. It is concluded that the addition of brewer dehydrated improves the fermentation process of silage cane sugar, in addition to improving their nutritional characteristics.

  9. Sugar Metabolism in Hummingbirds and Nectar Bats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raul K. Suarez

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Hummingbirds and nectar bats coevolved with the plants they visit to feed on floral nectars rich in sugars. The extremely high metabolic costs imposed by small size and hovering flight in combination with reliance upon sugars as their main source of dietary calories resulted in convergent evolution of a suite of structural and functional traits. These allow high rates of aerobic energy metabolism in the flight muscles, fueled almost entirely by the oxidation of dietary sugars, during flight. High intestinal sucrase activities enable high rates of sucrose hydrolysis. Intestinal absorption of glucose and fructose occurs mainly through a paracellular pathway. In the fasted state, energy metabolism during flight relies on the oxidation of fat synthesized from previously-ingested sugar. During repeated bouts of hover-feeding, the enhanced digestive capacities, in combination with high capacities for sugar transport and oxidation in the flight muscles, allow the operation of the “sugar oxidation cascade”, the pathway by which dietary sugars are directly oxidized by flight muscles during exercise. It is suggested that the potentially harmful effects of nectar diets are prevented by locomotory exercise, just as in human hunter-gatherers who consume large quantities of honey.

  10. Sugar Metabolism in Hummingbirds and Nectar Bats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suarez, Raul K; Welch, Kenneth C

    2017-07-12

    Hummingbirds and nectar bats coevolved with the plants they visit to feed on floral nectars rich in sugars. The extremely high metabolic costs imposed by small size and hovering flight in combination with reliance upon sugars as their main source of dietary calories resulted in convergent evolution of a suite of structural and functional traits. These allow high rates of aerobic energy metabolism in the flight muscles, fueled almost entirely by the oxidation of dietary sugars, during flight. High intestinal sucrase activities enable high rates of sucrose hydrolysis. Intestinal absorption of glucose and fructose occurs mainly through a paracellular pathway. In the fasted state, energy metabolism during flight relies on the oxidation of fat synthesized from previously-ingested sugar. During repeated bouts of hover-feeding, the enhanced digestive capacities, in combination with high capacities for sugar transport and oxidation in the flight muscles, allow the operation of the "sugar oxidation cascade", the pathway by which dietary sugars are directly oxidized by flight muscles during exercise. It is suggested that the potentially harmful effects of nectar diets are prevented by locomotory exercise, just as in human hunter-gatherers who consume large quantities of honey.

  11. Therapeutic Crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bond, Charles S.

    2014-01-01

    Some readers might not fully know what the difference is between crystallography, and the "new age" practice of dangling crystals around the body to capitalise on their healing energy. The latter is often considered to be superstition, while ironically, the former has actually resulted in real rationally-based healing of human diseases…

  12. Ribbon Crystals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bohr, Jakob; Markvorsen, Steen

    2013-01-01

    A repetitive crystal-like pattern is spontaneously formed upon the twisting of straight ribbons. The pattern is akin to a tessellation with isosceles triangles, and it can easily be demonstrated with ribbons cut from an overhead transparency. We give a general description of developable ribbons...

  13. Sugar as a vehicle for iron fortification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Layrisse, M; Martinez-Torres, C; Renzi, M; Velez, F; González, M

    1976-01-01

    Sugar as a vehicle for iron fortification presents several advantages over the other vehicles used in the last three decades. In vitro studies demonstrated that ferrous sulfate added to sugar in proportion of 1 mg to 1 g, respectively, is maintained in the ferrous form for a period of at least 1 year and does not induce adverse changes in the vehicle. Sugar, by itself, carries practically no inhibitors for the absorption of iron. Iron absorption from fortified sugar mixed with vegetals is the same as that of native vegetal iron. The absorption from fortified sugar is increased more than 50% over that observed from native vegetal when it is administered as a drink during the ingestion of a meal. A further increase in absorption was found when fortified sugar was administered with beverages. The mean absorption ratio of fortified sugar given with orange juice, Coca-Cola, and Pepsi-Cola to a reference dose of iron ascorbate was between 0.45 and 0.66, which is more than 3 times the absorption of this iron fortification mixed with vegetals. The mean absorption ratio from coffee was 0.30, and from coffee with milk, 0.15. These data indicate that the fortification of sugar with iron could be a better procedure for the prevention of iron deficiency than the iron fortification of bread and wheat products, from which iron is poorly absorbed. It could be used in developing countries where beverages are highly consumed by the low socioeconomic class. This program could be extended to all sugar consumption or be restricted to soft drinks.

  14. Two Islands, One Commodity: Cuba, Java, and the Global Sugar Trade (1790-1930

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Curry-Machado

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Sugar had become, by the eighteenth century, a global commodity. Originating in East Asia, plantations in the Americas fed the growing taste for its use in Europe, with its consumption increasingly popularised. The 1791 Revolution in Saint Domingue (Haiti and the 1807 British abolition of the slave trade prompted shifts in the epicentres of sugar, the most important of these being arguably to Cuba and Java. These two fertile islands saw the burgeoning development of sugar-plantation systems with major inputs of foreign capital and forced labour. In the process the two islands each, respectively, became central to the very much truncated Spanish and Dutch colonial empires left after the Napoleonic wars and the Latin American wars of liberation; and by the mid-nineteenth century in the case of Cuba, and by the late nineteenth century in the case of Java, they had been catapulted to global sugar pre-eminence. There has been an abundance of study on the two islands each in their own right, but none systematically examines their parallel trajectories. Yet the question arises as to how sugar came to dominate the agriculture, industry and trade of these two islands; and how these two islands in particular, in two different colonial systems and parts of the world, should rise to sugar pre-eminence in the way they did and when they did. Are there connections and similarities between the two that help explain this phenomenon? This article analyses the conditions that led Java and Cuba to become the prime cane-sugar exporters of the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. Initiative for this came from the linkages between their dominant elites and the transnational, transimperial networks of trade and capital. This furthered the stimulation of technological and scientific innovation in both, enabled not only through the introduction of the latest advances in machinery and method, but also the immigration of technical skilled workers from Europe and North

  15. Electrochemical and optical sugar sensors based on phenylboronic acid and its derivatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Egawa, Yuya; Seki, Toshinobu [Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Josai University, Keyakidai, Sakado, Saitama 350-0295 (Japan); Takahashi, Shigehiro [Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciecnes, Tohoku University, Aramaki, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8578 (Japan); Anzai, Jun-ichi, E-mail: junanzai@mail.pharm.tohoku.ac.jp [Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciecnes, Tohoku University, Aramaki, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8578 (Japan)

    2011-10-10

    indicators. Anthracene, pyranine, fluorescein, and rhodamine dyes have been used as fluorophores for fluorescence sensors. These dyes have been used in solution or immobilized in films, hydrogels, nanospheres, and quantum dots (QDs) to enhance the sensitivity. QDs-based sensors have been successfully applied for continuous monitoring of glucose in cells. Holographic glucose sensors have also been developed by combining PBA-immobilized hydrogels and photonic crystal colloidal arrays. Highlights: {yields} Phenylboronic acid-based optical and electrochemical sensors are reviewed. {yields} Dye-modified phenylboronic acids are useful as optical sugar sensor. {yields} Ferrocene-modified phenylboronic acids are used for electrochemical sugar detection. {yields} Phenylboronic acid is an alternative of enzymes for constructing sugar sensors.

  16. Electrochemical and optical sugar sensors based on phenylboronic acid and its derivatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Egawa, Yuya; Seki, Toshinobu; Takahashi, Shigehiro; Anzai, Jun-ichi

    2011-01-01

    indicators. Anthracene, pyranine, fluorescein, and rhodamine dyes have been used as fluorophores for fluorescence sensors. These dyes have been used in solution or immobilized in films, hydrogels, nanospheres, and quantum dots (QDs) to enhance the sensitivity. QDs-based sensors have been successfully applied for continuous monitoring of glucose in cells. Holographic glucose sensors have also been developed by combining PBA-immobilized hydrogels and photonic crystal colloidal arrays. Highlights: → Phenylboronic acid-based optical and electrochemical sensors are reviewed. → Dye-modified phenylboronic acids are useful as optical sugar sensor. → Ferrocene-modified phenylboronic acids are used for electrochemical sugar detection. → Phenylboronic acid is an alternative of enzymes for constructing sugar sensors.

  17. Sugar regulation of SUGAR TRANSPORTER PROTEIN 1 (STP1) expression in Arabidopsis thaliana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordoba, Elizabeth; Aceves-Zamudio, Denise Lizeth; Hernández-Bernal, Alma Fabiola; Ramos-Vega, Maricela; León, Patricia

    2015-01-01

    Sugars regulate the expression of many genes at the transcriptional level. In Arabidopsis thaliana, sugars induce or repress the expression of >1800 genes, including the STP1 (SUGAR TRANSPORTER PROTEIN 1) gene, which encodes an H+/monosaccharide cotransporter. STP1 transcript levels decrease more rapidly after the addition of low concentrations of sugars than the levels of other repressed genes, such as DIN6 (DARK-INDUCED 6). We found that this regulation is exerted at the transcriptional level and is initiated by phosphorylatable sugars. Interestingly, the sugar signal that modulates STP1 expression is transmitted through a HEXOKINASE 1-independent signalling pathway. Finally, analysis of the STP1 5′ regulatory region allowed us to delimit a region of 309bp that contains the cis elements implicated in the glucose regulation of STP1 expression. Putative cis-acting elements involved in this response were identified. PMID:25281700

  18. When Blood Sugar Is Too Low

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... juggle those three activities so you keep feeling good. Some things that can make low blood sugar levels more likely to happen are: skipping meals and snacks not eating enough food at a meal or ...

  19. Intensive Insulin Therapy: Tight Blood Sugar Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Intensive insulin therapy: Tight blood sugar control Intensive insulin therapy can help prevent long-term diabetes complications. Consider the ... cases if you have type 2 diabetes — intensive insulin therapy may be the key to long-term ...

  20. Treatment of biomass to obtain fermentable sugars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunson, Jr., James B.; Tucker, Melvin [Lakewood, CO; Elander, Richard [Evergreen, CO; Hennessey, Susan M [Avondale, PA

    2011-04-26

    Biomass is pretreated using a low concentration of aqueous ammonia at high biomass concentration. Pretreated biomass is further hydrolyzed with a saccharification enzyme consortium. Fermentable sugars released by saccharification may be utilized for the production of target chemicals by fermentation.

  1. When Blood Sugar is Too High

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... them back to a healthy level. What Is Diabetic Ketoacidosis (DKA)? Someone who has high blood sugar can ... a serious problem with a serious-sounding name: diabetic ketoacidosis (say: kee-toh-ah-sih-DOH-sis). This ...

  2. Enzymatic conversion of lignocellulose into fermentable sugars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Henning; Kristensen, Jan Bach; Felby, Claus

    2007-01-01

    into fermentable sugars requires a number of different cellulases and hemicellulases. The hydrolysis of cellulose is a sequential breakdown of the linear glucose chains, whereas hemicellulases must be capable of hydrolysing branched chains containing different sugars and functional groups. The technology......The economic dependency on fossil fuels and the resulting effects on climate and environment have put tremendous focus on utilizing fermentable sugars from lignocellulose, the largest known renewable carbohydrate source. The fermentable sugars in lignocellulose are derived from cellulose...... for pretreatment and hydrolysis has been developed to an extent that is close to a commercially viable level. It has become possible to process lignocellulose at high substrate levels and the enzyme performance has been improved. Also the cost of enzymes has been reduced. Still a number of technical and scientific...

  3. Root rot diseases of sugar beet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacobsen Barry J.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Root rot diseases of sugar beet caused by Rhizoctonia solani (AG 2-2 IIIB and AG 2-2 IV, R. crocorum, Aphanomyces cochlioides, Phoma betae, Macrophomina phaeseolina, Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. radicis-betae, Pythium aphanidermatum Phytophthora drechsleri, Rhizopus stolonifer, R. arrhizus and Sclerotium rolfsii cause significant losses wherever sugar beets are grown. However, not all these soil-borne pathogens have been reported in all sugar beet production areas. Losses include reduced harvestable tonnage and reduced white sugar recovery. Many of these pathogens also cause post harvest losses in storage piles. Control for diseases caused by these pathogens include disease resistant cultivars, avoidance of stresses, cultural practices such as water management and the use of fungicides.

  4. Mixed sugar fermentation by Pichia stipitis , Sacharomyces ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ability of K. marxianus to ferment mixed sugars comprised of 30 g/l glucose, 30 g/l xylose, 12 g/l mannose and 8 g/l galactose (total sugar 80 g/l), as a model of many hydrolysates, were compared to P. stipitis and S. cerevisiae and then a coculture of P. stipitis and S. cerevisiae was compared with a coculture of P. stipitis and ...

  5. Worldwide trends in dietary sugars intake.

    OpenAIRE

    Wittekind, Anna; Walton, Janette

    2014-01-01

    Estimating trends in dietary intake data is integral to informing national nutrition policy and monitoring progress towards dietary guidelines. Dietary intake of sugars is a controversial public health issue and guidance in relation to recommended intakes is particularly inconsistent. Published data relating to trends in sugars intake are relatively sparse. The purpose of the present review was to collate and review data from national nutrition surveys to examine changes and trends in dietary...

  6. Dietary sugar utilisation by putative oral probiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamatova, I; Kari, K; Hervonen, L; Meurman, J H

    2012-09-01

    Probiotic consumption and repeated probiotic intake have shown promising results as adjunct therapies in prevention and alleviation of some chronic disease conditions in the gastrointestinal tract. Recent evidence suggests that probiotics may also be beneficial in preventing oral diseases. An efficient probiotic candidate in the mouth, however, should not impose any risk to oral tissues, such as acid demineralisation of tooth enamel because of sugar fermentation. The aim of the present in vitro study was to evaluate the utilisation of some sugars and sugar alcohols by yogurt starter Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus strains and to assess the influence of these carbohydrate sources on cell surface properties. For comparsion, a commercially available probiotic, Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG, was used. The results showed that lactose, glucose and fructose were readily metabolised by all strains tested. However, strain-specific metabolic patterns were observed when other sugars and sugar alcohols were used as sole carbohydrate source in the growth medium. Surface properties of the bacteria such as hydrophobicity and surface-associated proteins appeared to vary with the carbohydrate content of the growth medium. Based on these results it can be concluded that among the L. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus strains probiotic candidate strains are available that warrant further studies due to their inability to ferment sugars with pronounced cariogenic properties.

  7. Sugar Intake, Obesity, and Diabetes in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulati, Seema; Misra, Anoop

    2014-01-01

    Sugar and sweet consumption have been popular and intrinsic to Indian culture, traditions, and religion from ancient times. In this article, we review the data showing increasing sugar consumption in India, including traditional sources (jaggery and khandsari) and from sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs). Along with decreasing physical activity, this increasing trend of per capita sugar consumption assumes significance in view of the high tendency for Indians to develop insulin resistance, abdominal adiposity, and hepatic steatosis, and the increasing “epidemic” of type 2 diabetes (T2DM) and cardiovascular diseases. Importantly, there are preliminary data to show that incidence of obesity and T2DM could be decreased by increasing taxation on SSBs. Other prevention strategies, encompassing multiple stakeholders (government, industry, and consumers), should target on decreasing sugar consumption in the Indian population. In this context, dietary guidelines for Indians show that sugar consumption should be less than 10% of total daily energy intake, but it is suggested that this limit be decreased. PMID:25533007

  8. Airflow obstruction in chalkpowder and sugar workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohadana, A B; Massin, N; Wild, P; Berthiot, G

    1996-01-01

    Our aim was to investigate the relationship between suspected occupational hazards and airflow obstruction in industrial workers. The study was a cross-sectional survey of 314 male workers from a chalkpowder plant (n = 158) and from a sugar refinery (n = 156). Occupational exposure to chalkpowder and sugar dust was assessed by individual job classification. Outcome variables included respiratory symptoms and routine spirometric parameters. Statistical analysis was done for each industry separately. Overall, mean pulmonary function parameters fell either within or above the normal range in both industries. However, analysis by job classification showed that in the chalkpowder plant, all indices of airway obstruction declined significantly with increasing dustiness. Additionally, workers in the dustiest workplace (chalk sacking) had significantly lower airflow parameters than workers from other workstations. In the sugar refinery, workers exposed to sugar dust in the sugar cube manufacture workstation had significantly lower forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1) (p = 0.02) than the non-exposed ones. For both industries, the proportion of subjects complaining of cough and/or phlegm was greater among the most exposed subgroups than among the remaining workers but the differences were not statistically significant. In conclusion, coupling spirometry to job classification proved useful in disclosing a relationship between airflow obstruction and exposure to either chalkpowder or sugar dust in industrial workers.

  9. BREAK-EVEN POINT IN SUGAR-BEET PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilija Nedić

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available World sugar consumption has been recording a steady growth in the past 70 years and, according to all relevant estimates, it will continue to grow also in the next decade, which puts sugar in the category of the most significant foods and commodities in the world. Of the total world sugar production, around 77% is derived from sugar cane and 23% from sugar beet. Brazil has been the world leader in sugar production for a long period of time, producing white sugar from sugar cane only, whereas the leader in the production of sugar derived from sugar beet is the EU-28. When the Republic of Croatia joined the EU, the Croatian sugar industry became part of the single European sugar market, so the break-even point was used in the research to determine the competitiveness level of the Croatian sugar beet production. Based on the expected selling price of sugar beet amounting to EUR 34 per ton of standard quality sugar beet, and using the break-even method, it was determined that the quantity required to cover total costs in sugar beet production in the Republic of Croatia amounts to 55.26 tons per hectare of payable sugar beet, standard quality, i.e. 8.84 tons of polarized sugar per hectare. As the average sugar beet production in the Republic of Croatia, expressed in the equivalent of polarized sugar, amounts to 7.8 tons per hectare, it is obvious that an average Croatian producer of sugar beet, without income from subsidies, operates at a loss.

  10. 40 CFR 409.10 - Applicability; description of the beet sugar processing subcategory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SUGAR PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Beet Sugar Processing Subcategory § 409.10 Applicability; description of the beet sugar processing subcategory. The... processing of sugar beets for the production of sugar. ...

  11. 40 CFR 409.30 - Applicability; description of the liquid cane sugar refining subcategory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... liquid cane sugar refining subcategory. 409.30 Section 409.30 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Cane Sugar Refining Subcategory § 409.30 Applicability; description of the liquid cane sugar refining... cane sugar into liquid refined sugar. ...

  12. Sugar signalling and gene expression in relation to carbohydrate ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    function of sugars as a nutrient and a signalling molecule complicates the analysis of mechanisms involved in sig- nal transduction pathways (Rolland et al 2001). 3. Signal transduction cascades. Very little is known about the effect that sugars have on expression of genes involved in sugar signalling cascade. The sugar ...

  13. 27 CFR 24.181 - Use of sugar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Use of sugar. 24.181... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Production of Wine § 24.181 Use of sugar. Only sugar, as defined in § 24.10, may be used in the production of standard wine. The quantity of sugar used will be determined...

  14. 19 CFR 151.22 - Estimated duties on raw sugar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Estimated duties on raw sugar. 151.22 Section 151... THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) EXAMINATION, SAMPLING, AND TESTING OF MERCHANDISE Sugars, Sirups, and Molasses § 151.22 Estimated duties on raw sugar. Estimated duties shall be taken on raw sugar, as defined...

  15. 19 CFR 151.24 - Unlading facilities for bulk sugar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Unlading facilities for bulk sugar. 151.24 Section... OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) EXAMINATION, SAMPLING, AND TESTING OF MERCHANDISE Sugars, Sirups, and Molasses § 151.24 Unlading facilities for bulk sugar. When dutiable sugar is to be imported in bulk, a full...

  16. Sugar beet genotype effect on potential of bioethanol production ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Variation on ethanol production were intensively related to the chemical composition of root, especially sugar content, potassium impurity, syrup purity and some characteristics such as root dry matter and root length. Bioethanol production was enhanced by increasing the sugar content and root yield in sugar beet. Sugar ...

  17. Phenolics, sugars, antimicrobial and free-radical-scavenging activities of Melicoccus bijugatus Jacq. fruits from the Dominican Republic and Florida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bystrom, Laura M; Lewis, Betty A; Brown, Dan L; Rodriguez, Eloy; Obendorf, Ralph L

    2009-06-01

    Edible fruits of the native South American tree Melicoccus bijugatus Jacq. are consumed fresh or in traditional food, drink and medicinal preparations. Some therapeutic effects of these fruits may be due to phenolics and sugars. Aqueous acetone, methanol or ethanol tissue extracts of different cultivars or collections of M. bijugatus fruits from the Dominican Republic and Florida were analyzed for total phenolics and free radical scavenging activity by UV-vis spectroscopy, sugars by gas chromatography, and antimicrobial activity by the disc diffusion assay. Total phenolics and free radical scavenging activities ranked: seed coat > embryo > pulp extracts. Montgomery cultivar fruits had the highest total phenolics. For sugars: pulp > embryo and highest in Punta Cana fruit pulp. In all extracts: sucrose > glucose and fructose. Glucose:fructose ratios were 1:1 (pulp) and 0.2:1 (embryo). Pulp extracts had dose-response antibacterial activity and pulp and embryo extracts had antifungal activity against one yeast species. Phenolics and sugars were confirmed with thin-layer chromatography and nuclear magnetic resonance. Sugar-free pulp fractions containing phenolics had slightly more antimicrobial activity than H2O-soluble pulp fractions with sugars. Results indicate M. bijugatus fruits contain phenolics, sugars and other H2O-soluble compounds consistent with therapeutic uses.

  18. What do government agencies consider in the debate over added sugars?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klurfeld, David M

    2013-03-01

    The place of sugars in the U.S. diet is vigorously debated with much attention on added sugars, those added during processing or preparation of foodstuffs, particularly as they relate to obesity. Federal government agencies have different responsibilities related to the food supply including research, food safety, nutrition assistance, and labeling; therefore, the interpretation of evidence differs depending on the role of the agency. Some common references for government agency positions are the dietary reference intakes and the Dietary Guidelines for Americans, which together form the foundation for much of federal nutrition policy. Sugar consumption has increased in proportion to intake of other nutrients since 1980, when obesity began to increase substantially. Median intake of added sugars is ~12% of energy, whereas total sugar intake is ~22% of energy. Although there are differences in the way in which individual monosaccharides are metabolized, they are rarely consumed alone. A key issue related to obesity is likely the increased number of eating occasions and portion size for many indulgent foods; grain-based snacks have become the largest source of energy in the U.S. diet. There are currently insufficient data to justify a decision on regulation or taxation of sugar-containing foods and the like because the approach must be weighed against personal freedoms; the list of foods associated with obesity includes many commonly eaten items, and it is not likely that they are all causally related. Government should consider the totality of the evidence including the strength of the relationship of sugar intake with various health outcomes.

  19. Sugars, obesity, and cardiovascular disease: results from recent randomized control trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rippe, James M; Angelopoulos, Theodore J

    2016-11-01

    The relationship between sugar consumption and various health-related sequelas is controversial. Some investigators have argued that excessive sugar consumption is associated with increased risk of obesity, coronary heart disease, diabetes (T2D), metabolic syndrome, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, and stimulation of reward pathways in the brain potentially causing excessive caloric consumption. These concerns have influenced organizations such as the World Health Organization, the Scientific Advisory Committee on Nutrition in England not to exceed 5 % of total energy and the Dietary Guidelines for Americans Advisory Committee 2015 to recommend upper limits of sugar consumption not to exceed 10 % of calories. Data from many randomized control trials (RCTs) do not support linkages between sugar consumption at normal levels within the human diet and various adverse metabolic and health-related effects. Fructose and glucose are typically consumed together in roughly equal proportions from high-fructose corn syrup (also known as isoglucose in Europe) or sucrose. The purpose of this review is to present data from recent RCTs and findings from recent systematic reviews and meta-analyses related to sugar consumption and its putative health effects. This review evaluates findings from recent randomized controlled trials, systematic reviews and meta-analyses into the relationship of sugar consumption and a range of health-related issues including energy-regulating hormones, obesity, cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and accumulation of liver fat and neurologic responses. Data from these sources do not support linkages between sugar consumption at normal levels within the human diet and various adverse metabolic and health-related effects.

  20. Cuba and origins of the US sugar quota

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dye, Alan D.

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available In the history of Cuban sugar industry, the most significant institutional factor after 1930 was the export quota gained in the 1934 United States market, which has been regarded in a positive perspective. This is here re-examined in the light of later events which prove that the quota system was detrimental to the island economy, particularly in the fifties. The analysis is based on the examination of sugar companies’ stock prices which are a useful indicator of investment expectations. Finally, it is concluded that the 1934 North American quota system issued from the conviction that the tariff system applied until then was not enough to protect the domestic sugar beet production.

    El factor institucional más importante en la historia de la industria del azúcar en Cuba después de 1930 fue la cuota de exportación que obtuvo en el mercado de los Estados Unidos en 1934. Este artículo revisa las tesis que consideran ese hecho como relativamente positivo y lo hace a la luz de los acontecimientos posteriores, que muestran que dicho sistema de cuotas perjudicó a la economía insular, sobre todo en la década de 1950, y examinando los stock prices de las empresas del sector, un buen indicador de las expectativas de retorno de las inversiones. Como conclusión afirma que el reparto del consumo azucarero norteamericano entre diferentes abastecedores fue fruto de la convicción de que el instrumento arancelario usado hasta entonces para proteger a la producción remolachera interna ya no era eficaz.

  1. Taxes on sugar-sweetened beverages: results from a 2011 national public opinion survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barry, Colleen L; Niederdeppe, Jeff; Gollust, Sarah E

    2013-02-01

    Consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages including nondiet sodas, sport drinks, and energy drinks has been linked with obesity. Recent state and local efforts to tax these beverages have been unsuccessful. Enactment will be unlikely without public support, yet little research is available to assess how to effectively make the case for such taxes. The objectives were to assess public opinion about arguments used commonly in tax debates regarding sugar-sweetened beverages and to assess differences in public opinion by respondents' political party affiliation. A public opinion survey was fielded in January-March 2011 using a probability-based sample of respondents from a large, nationally representative online panel to examine public attitudes about nine pro- and eight anti-tax arguments. These data were analyzed in August 2011. Findings indicated greater public agreement with anti- than pro-tax arguments. The most popular anti-tax argument was that a tax on sugar-sweetened beverages is arbitrary because it does not affect consumption of other unhealthy foods (60%). A majority also agreed that such taxes were a quick way for politicians to fill budget holes (58%); an unacceptable intrusion of government into people's lives (53.8%); opposed by most Americans (53%); and harmful to the poor (51%). No pro-tax arguments were endorsed by a majority of the public. Respondents reported highest agreement with the argument that sugar-sweetened beverages were the single largest contributor to obesity (49%) and would raise revenue for obesity prevention (41%). Without bolstering public support for existing pro-tax messages or developing alternative pro-tax messages, enacting such policies will be difficult. Message-framing studies could be useful in identifying promising strategies for persuading Americans that taxes on sugar-sweetened beverages are warranted. Copyright © 2013 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Sugar as an optimal carbon source for the enhanced performance of MgB2 superconductors at high magnetic fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shcherbakova, O. V.; Pan, A. V.; Wang, J. L.; Shcherbakov, A. V.; Dou, S. X.; Wexler, D.; Babić, E.; Jerčinović, M.; Husnjak, O.

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we report the results of an extended study of the effect of sugar doping on the structural and electromagnetic properties of MgB2 superconductors. High values of the upper critical field (Bc2) of 36 T and the irreversibility field (Birr) of 27 T have been estimated at the temperature of 5 K in a bulk MgB2 sample with the addition of 10 wt% of sugar. The critical current density (Jc(Ba)) of sugar-doped samples has been significantly improved in the high field region. The value of transport Jc has reached as high as 108 A m-2 at 10 T and 5 K for Fe-sheathed sugar-doped MgB2 wire. The analysis of the pinning mechanism in the samples investigated indicated that dominant vortex pinning occurs on the surface type of pinning defects, such as grain boundaries, dislocations, stacking faults etc, for both pure and doped MgB2. In sugar-doped samples, pinning is governed by numerous crystal lattice defects, which appear in MgB2 grains as a result of crystal lattice distortion caused by carbon substitution for boron and nano-inclusions. The drastically improved superconducting properties of sugar-doped samples are also attributed to the highly homogeneous distribution and enhanced reactivity of this dopant with host Mg and B powders. The results of this work suggest that sugar is the optimal source of carbon for doping MgB2 superconductor, especially for application at high magnetic fields.

  3. Preparing polished crystal slices with high precision orientation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathiesen, S. Ipsen; Gerward, Leif; Pedersen, O.

    1974-01-01

    A polishing procedure is described which utilizes a high precision Laue technique for crystal orientation. Crystal slices with their final polished surfaces parallel to a crystallographic plane within 0.02° can be prepared. ©1974 The American Institute of Physics......A polishing procedure is described which utilizes a high precision Laue technique for crystal orientation. Crystal slices with their final polished surfaces parallel to a crystallographic plane within 0.02° can be prepared. ©1974 The American Institute of Physics...

  4. Estimating Free and Added Sugar Intakes in New Zealand

    OpenAIRE

    Rachael Kibblewhite; Alice Nettleton; Rachael McLean; Jillian Haszard; Elizabeth Fleming; Devonia Kruimer; Lisa Te Morenga

    2017-01-01

    The reduction of free or added sugar intake (sugars added to food and drinks as a sweetener) is almost universally recommended to reduce the risk of obesity-related diseases and dental caries. The World Health Organisation recommends intakes of free sugars of less than 10% of energy intake. However, estimating and monitoring intakes at the population level is challenging because free sugars cannot be analytically distinguished from naturally occurring sugars and most national food composition...

  5. Added sugars in kids' meals from chain restaurants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scourboutakos, Mary J; Semnani-Azad, Zhila; L'Abbé, Mary R

    2016-06-01

    To analyze the added sugars in kids' meals from Canadian chain restaurants in relation to the World Health Organization's proposed sugar recommendation (less than 5% of total daily calories should come from added sugars) and current recommendation (less than 10% of total daily calories should come from added sugars). Total sugar levels were retrieved from the websites of 10 fast-food and 7 sit-down restaurants in 2010. The added sugar levels in 3178 kids' meals from Canadian chain restaurants were calculated in 2014 (in Toronto, Canada) by subtracting all naturally occurring sugars from the total sugar level. The average amount of added sugars in restaurant kids' meals (25 ± 0.36 g) exceeded the WHO's proposed daily recommendation for sugar intake. There was a wide range of added sugar levels in kids' meals ranging from 0 g to 114 g. 50% of meals exceeded the WHO's proposed daily sugar recommendation, and 19% exceeded the WHO's current daily sugar recommendation. There is a wide range of sugar levels in kids' meals from restaurants, and many contain more than a day's worth of sugar.

  6. Stem girdling manipulates leaf sugar concentrations and anthocyanin expression in sugar maples trees during autumn

    Science.gov (United States)

    P.F. Murakami; P.G. Schaberg; J.B. Shane

    2008-01-01

    To better understand the effects of sugar accumulation on red color development of foliage during autumn, we compared carbohydrate concentration, anthocyanin expression and xylem pressure potential of foliage on girdled versus non-girdled (control) branches of 12 mature, open-grown sugar maple (Acer saccharum Marsh.) trees. Half of the study trees...

  7. Triple sugar screen breath hydrogen test for sugar intolerance in children with functional abdominal symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teitelbaum, Jonathan E; Ubhrani, Dolly

    2010-09-01

    Sugar intolerance and functional gastrointestinal disorders are both common in school age children. Both may present with similar complaints such as abdominal pain, diarrhea and bloating. Lactose, fructose and sucrose hydrogen breath tests are widely used to detect sugar malabsorption. To determine the proportion of children with symptoms of functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGID) that have sugar intolerance as determined by using a breath hydrogen test. We prospectively enrolled subjects with chronic abdominal pain, bloating and/or chronic diarrhea. All subjects underwent triple sugar screen hydrogen breath test (TSST) using the combined sugar solution. Breath hydrogen concentration ≥ 20 ppm above baseline was interpreted a positive test for sugar malabsorption. A positive hydrogen breath test consistent with sugar malabsorption was found in 5 out of 31 (16%) subjects. Three of these subjects were confirmed to have lactose malabsorption based on small bowel lactase enzyme analysis or subsequent lactose hydrogen breath test. One subject with positive TSST was diagnosed with fructose malabsorption based on dietary history; he improved on a limited fructose diet, and one was diagnosed to have gastric Crohn's disease. Approximately one in six children with symptoms of FGID had sugar intolerance as determined by the TSST.

  8. 76 FR 36512 - USDA Increases the Domestic Sugar Overall Allotment Quantity, Reassigns Domestic Cane Sugar...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-22

    ... imports. The OAQ was increased due to an increase in estimated sugar demand since the FY 2011 OAQ was... imports; and an increase in the fiscal year (FY) 2011 raw sugar tariff-rate quota (TRQ) of the same amount. DATES: Effective: June 22, 2011. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Angel F. Gonzalez, Import Policies and...

  9. Aromatics extraction from pyrolytic sugars using ionic liquid to enhance sugar fermentability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, X.; Luque-Moreno, L.C.; Oudenhoven, Stijn; Rehmann, L.; Kersten, Sascha R.A.; Schuur, Boelo

    2016-01-01

    Fermentative bioethanol production from pyrolytic sugars was improved via aromatics removal by liquid–liquid extraction. As solvents, the ionic liquid (IL) trihexyltetradecylphosphonium dicyanamide (P666,14[N(CN)2]) and ethyl acetate (EA) were compared. Two pyrolytic sugar solutions were created

  10. Sugar palm (Argena pinnata). Potential of sugar palm for bio-ethanol production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elbersen, H.W.; Oyen, L.P.A.

    2010-01-01

    The energetic and economic feasibility of bioethanol production from sugar palm is virtually unknown. A positive factor are the potentially very high yields while the long non-productive juvenile phase and the high labor needs can be seen as problematic. Expansion to large scale sugar palm

  11. Genetic transformation of the sugar beet plastome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Marchis, Francesca; Wang, Yongxin; Stevanato, Piergiorgio; Arcioni, Sergio; Bellucci, Michele

    2009-02-01

    It is very important for the application of chloroplast engineering to extend the range of species in which this technology can be achieved. Here, we describe the development of a chloroplast transformation system for the sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L. ssp. vulgaris, Sugar Beet Group) by biolistic bombardment of leaf petioles. Homoplasmic plastid-transformed plants of breeding line Z025 were obtained. Transformation was achieved using a vector that targets genes to the rrn16/rps12 intergenic region of the sugar beet plastome, employing the aadA gene as a selectable marker against spectinomycin and the gfp gene for visual screening of plastid transformants. gfp gene transcription and protein expression were shown in transplastomic plants. Detection of GFP in Comassie blue-stained gels suggested high GFP levels. Microscopy revealed GFP fluorescence within the chloroplasts. Our results demonstrate the feasibility of engineering the sugar beet chloroplast genome; this technology provides new opportunities for the genetic improvement of this crop and for social acceptance of genetically modified sugar beet plants.

  12. PRODUCTION VALUES OF INVESTIGATED SUGAR BEET HYBRIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Pospišil

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Production values of 43 experimental and recognized sugar beet hybrids were conducted on the Zagreb location in the period 2003-2005. The trials included hybrids from six breeding institutions that sell sugar beet seed in the Republic of Croatia. Research results have revealed significant differences in yields and root quality among inve- stigated sugar beet hybrids. However, the results of a large number of hybrids were equal in value; namely, the dif- ference between them was within the statistically allowable deviation. The hybrids KW 0148 HR and Buda in 2003, Sofarizo and Takt were distinguished by high sugar yields in 2004, whereas Merak, Impact and Europa in 2005. The highest root yields were recorded for hybrids Dioneta, Buda and KW 0148 HR in 2003, Sofarizo, Takt, HI 0191 and Dorotea in 2004, Impact and SES 2371 in 2005. The highest root sugar contents were determined in hybrids Zita and Evelina in 2003, Cyntia, Diamant and Belinda in 2004, and Merak, Belinda and Cyntia in 2005.

  13. Photonic time crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Lunwu; Xu, Jin; Wang, Chengen; Zhang, Jianhua; Zhao, Yuting; Zeng, Jing; Song, Runxia

    2017-12-07

    When space (time) translation symmetry is spontaneously broken, the space crystal (time crystal) forms; when permittivity and permeability periodically vary with space (time), the photonic crystal (photonic time crystal) forms. We proposed the concept of photonic time crystal and rewritten the Maxwell's equations. Utilizing Finite Difference Time Domain (FDTD) method, we simulated electromagnetic wave propagation in photonic time crystal and photonic space-time crystal, the simulation results show that more intensive scatter fields can obtained in photonic time crystal and photonic space-time crystal.

  14. Post-oral appetite stimulation by sugars and nonmetabolizable sugar analogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zukerman, Steven; Ackroff, Karen; Sclafani, Anthony

    2013-10-01

    Post-oral sugar actions enhance the intake of and preference for sugar-rich foods, a process referred to as appetition. Here, we investigated the role of intestinal sodium glucose cotransporters (SGLTs) in sugar appetition in C57BL/6J mice using sugars and nonmetabolizable sugar analogs that differ in their affinity for SGLT1 and SGLT3. In experiments 1 and 2, food-restricted mice were trained (1 h/day) to consume a flavored saccharin solution [conditioned stimulus (CS-)] paired with intragastric (IG) self-infusions of water and a different flavored solution (CS+) paired with infusions of 8 or 12% sugars (glucose, fructose, and galactose) or sugar analogs (α-methyl-D-glucopyranoside, MDG; 3-O-methyl-D-glucopyranoside, OMG). Subsequent two-bottle CS+ vs. CS- choice tests were conducted without coinfusions. Infusions of the SGLT1 ligands glucose, galactose, MDG, and OMG stimulated CS+ licking above CS- levels. However, only glucose, MDG, and galactose conditioned significant CS+ preferences, with the SGLT3 ligands (glucose, MDG) producing the strongest preferences. Fructose, which is not a ligand for SGLTs, failed to stimulate CS+ intake or preference. Experiment 3 revealed that IG infusion of MDG+phloridzin (an SGLT1/3 antagonist) blocked MDG appetition, whereas phloridzin had minimal effects on glucose-induced appetition. However, adding phloretin (a GLUT2 antagonist) to the glucose+phloridzin infusion blocked glucose appetition. Taken together, these findings suggest that humoral signals generated by intestinal SGLT1 and SGLT3, and to a lesser degree, GLUT2, mediate post-oral sugar appetition in mice. The MDG results indicate that sugar metabolism is not essential for the post-oral intake-stimulating and preference-conditioning actions of sugars in mice.

  15. Characterization of Physical and Mechanical Properties of Miscible Lactose-Sugars Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Runjing; Roos, Yrjö H; Miao, Song

    2017-09-01

    Lactose-sugars systems were produced by spray drying. They were lactose, lactose-glucose (4:1) mixtures, lactose-maltose (4:1) mixtures, lactose-sucrose (4:1) mixtures, lactose-trehalose (4:1) mixtures, and lactose-corn syrup solids (CSS) (4:1) mixtures. The physical characteristics, water sorption behavior, glass transition, and mechanical properties of miscible lactose-sugars systems were investigated. Lactose-glucose mixtures had larger particle size than other lactose-sugars systems after spray drying. The presence of glucose or sucrose in lactose-sugars mixtures decreased the glass transition temperatures of amorphous systems, while the presence of maltose and trehalose had only minor impact on the glass transition temperatures. Moreover, glucose accelerated the crystallization of amorphous system at 0.44 a w , but its presence delayed the loss of sorbed water at higher water activities (≥0.54 a w ). Mechanical property study indicated that glucose and sucrose in amorphous system could result in an increase of molecular mobility, while the presence of CSS could decrease the free volume and maintain the stiffness of the miscible systems. © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  16. Estimating the Costs to Consumers of the U.S. Sugar Quota: An Exercise for Introductory Economics Classes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Andrew T.

    1997-01-01

    Provides a classroom exercise using the restrictive tariffs on sugar to examine issues of protectionism and international trade. Discusses related issues such as the North American Free Trade Agreement and the formation of large regional trading blocks. Includes a hands-on calculation of the economic impact of the quota on consumers. (MJP)

  17. SAFETY OF LIFE ACTIVITY AND ECOLOGICAL COMPATIBILITY IN THE GROCERY DEPARTMENT OF A BEET-SUGAR FACTORY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Ageev

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Beet-sugar factory - is a large, well-equipped with modern technology, the company that operates in a continuous circuit. In the technological structure of a sugar factory there are three production divisions: beet processing department, juice purification house and grocery department. In the grocery department of a sugar factory dangerous and harmful factors may encounter while using equipment such as vacuum devices, centrifuges, and crystallizer tank, massecuite distributor, driers and classifiers sugar. The working area of the service of machinery may appear dangerous or harmful factors, which are divided into the following groups: physical, chemical, biological and physiological. To maintain microclimate parameters can be applied general ventilation, in which the replacement of the warm air to the cold going around the room volume. Heating in the grocery department in the production season is not carried out, since it is sufficient to heat generated by the equipment. In the grocery department uses natural and artificial lighting. In the sugar factory used the following measures to protect against vibration: perform detailed assembly, eliminate defects and looseness of individual parts; way to isolate the transmission of vibrations from the machine to the foundation apply vibration isolators. Widespread use of electrical installations in a sugar factory creates the risk of electric shock to persons. Causes of electrical shocks are often disadvantages of construction and installation of the equipment, its operation is wrong. During drying and transportation of sugar produced by static electricity. To remove the static electricity equipment grounded; also used the increase in humidity; air ionization. To reduce the consumption of fresh industrial water from reservoirs provides for the establishment of the system of working circuits cleaning and maximum reuse of industrial water. Thus, safety and environmental compliance in the grocery

  18. Haitian Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catanese, Anthony V.

    1998-01-01

    Uses 1990 U.S. Census data to show the changing demographic profile of Haitian Americans. Haitian Americans are likely to live along the Atlantic seaboard and to have relatively low, although not the lowest, incomes. However, the demographic mosaic of Haitian Americans is diverse, showing the effects of Haitian national and ethnic history. (SLD)

  19. Sap flow and sugar transport in plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kaare Hartvig; Berg-Sørensen, Kirstine; Bruus, Henrik

    2016-01-01

    Green plants are Earth’s primary solar energy collectors. They harvest the energy of the Sun by converting light energy into chemical energy stored in the bonds of sugar molecules. A multitude of carefully orchestrated transport processes are needed to move water and minerals from the soil to sites...... of photosynthesis and to distribute energy-rich sugars throughout the plant body to support metabolism and growth. The long-distance transport happens in the plants’ vascular system, where water and solutes are moved along the entire length of the plant. In this review, the current understanding of the mechanism......, remarks are given on some of the open questions of this research field.Green plants harvest the energy of the Sun in the leaves by converting light energy into chemical energy in the bonds of sugar molecules, using water from the soil and carbon dioxide from the air. This review provides an overview...

  20. Sugar Transport and Metabolism in Thermotoga

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noll, Kenneth M.; Romano, Antonio H.

    2003-02-11

    The work conducted under this grant demonstrated that the hyperthermophilic bacterium Thermotoga neapolitana carries out glucose and lactose transport in a sodium-dependent manner and that energization of anaerobic cells is required to observe transport. We also demonstrated that Thermotoga maritima carries out maltose and glucose transport using periplasmic sugar binding proteins. We began defining patterns of expression of genes encoding sugar transport and catabolic functions in both T. maritima and T. neapolitana. We began a collaborative effort to identify all the genes regulated at the transcriptional level in response to sugars substrates. These funds also allowed us to begin an examination of the functions of several periplasmic substrate binding proteins encoded in the genome of T. maritima.

  1. СHIPS FROM SUGAR BEET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. O. Magomedov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Summary. Priority social problem in the Russian Federation is to provide diverse populations rational healthy diet, taking into account their traditions and economic status. Solving this problem requires the development of processing industries of agriculture on the basis of the improvement of existing and creation of new energy-saving environmentally friendly technologies that can provide deep, if possible without waste, recycling of raw materials. Therefore, the aim of research was the development of technology for production of sugar beet chips. Technology is as follows: sugar beet supplied into the washing machine to remove dirt from its surface. Washed roots inspect on conveyor belts. Next pure sugar beets sent to steam-heat treatment for cleaning the skin. After the beets is subjected to cutting by combining this process with a treatment with an aqueous solution of citric acid. Then he sent for the drying process is completed upon reaching a product of moisture content of 4-5 %. Drying chips feature is that under the high temperature reaction proceeds melanoidins between proteins and sugars present in sugar beet. As a result, the product obtained has the following characteristics: gold-yellow color; absence of a characteristic odor of sugar beet; pleasant sour taste; humidity of 4-5%. Thus, the new technology is relevant, because now the chips are one of the most popular products, ready to eat. A beet chips are rich in dietary fiber (pectin, hemicellulose and cellulose - 4-5 % minerals - macroelements (potassium, sodium, magnesium, calcium, phosphorus, trace elements (iron, zinc, copper, manganese - 0.5-0.6 %, and are the product of a functional food.

  2. Photonic Crystal Fibers

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kristiansen, Rene E

    2005-01-01

    This report results from a contract tasking Crystal Fibre A/S as follows: Crystal Fibre will conduct research and development of large mode area, dual clad multi-core Yb-doped photonic crystal fiber...

  3. Liquid Crystal Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradshaw, Madeline J.

    1983-01-01

    The nature of liquid crystals and several important liquid crystal devices are described. Ideas for practical experiments to illustrate the properties of liquid crystals and their operation in devices are also described. (Author/JN)

  4. Liquid Crystal Inquiries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marroum, Renata-Maria

    1996-01-01

    Discusses the properties and classification of liquid crystals. Presents a simple experiment that illustrates the structure of liquid crystals and the differences between the various phases liquid crystals can assume. (JRH)

  5. Sugar and Sugar Derivatives in Residues Produced from the UV Irradiation of Astrophysical Ice Analogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuevo, M.; Sandford, S. A.; Cooper, G.

    2016-01-01

    A large variety and number of organic compounds of prebiotic interest are known to be present in carbonaceous chondrites. Among them, one sugar (dihydroxyacetone) as well as several sugar acids, sugar alcohols, and other sugar derivatives have been reported in the Murchison and Murray meteorites. Their presence, along with amino acids, amphiphiles, and nucleobases strongly suggests that molecules essential to life can form abiotically under astrophysical conditions. This hypothesis is supported by laboratory studies on the formation of complex organic molecules from the ultraviolet (UV) irradiation of simulated astrophysical ice mixtures consisting of H2O, CO, CO2, CH3OH, CH4, NH3, etc., at low temperature. In the past 15 years, these studies have shown that the organic residues recovered at room temperature contain amino acids, amphiphiles, nucleobases, as well as other complex organics. However, no systematic search for the presence of sugars and sugar derivatives in laboratory residues have been reported to date, despite the fact that those compounds are of primary prebiotic significance. Indeed, only small (up to 3 carbon atoms) sugar derivatives including glycerol and glyceric acid have been detected in residues so far.

  6. Dynamics of sugar-metabolic enzymes and sugars accumulation during watermelon (citrullus lanatus) fruit development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, H.

    2016-01-01

    We analyzed sugar accumulation and the activities of sugar-metabolic enzymes in ripening fruits of three cultivars of watermelon; a high-sugar type w2, a low-sugar type (w1), and their hybrid. In w2, the glucose and fructose contents were higher than the sucrose content in the earlier stage of fruit development, and fruit growth was accompanied by increases in glucose, fructose, and sucrose contents. The sucrose content increased substantially after 20 days after anthesis (DAA) and it was the main soluble sugar in mature fruit (sucrose: hexoses ratio, 0.71). In W, the fructose and glucose contents were significantly higher than the sucrose content in mature fruit (sucrose: hexoses ratio, 0.25). Comparing the two parent cultivars, sucrose was the most important factor affecting the total sugar content in mature fruit, although glucose and fructose also contributed to total sugar contents. The fructose and glucose contents in the fruit of F1 were mid-way between those of their parents, while the sucrose content was closer to that of W (sucrose:hexoses ratio in F1, 0.26). In the early stage of fruit development of W2, the activities of acid invertase and neutral invertase were higher than those of sucrose synthase and sucrose phosphate synthase. After 20 DAA, the acid invertase and neutral invertase activities decreased and those of sucrose synthase and sucrose phosphate synthase increased, leading to increased sucrose content. In W1, the activities of acid invertase and neutral invertase were higher than those of sucrose synthase and sucrose phosphate synthase at the early stage. The sucrose synthase and sucrose phosphate synthase activities were lower in W1 than in W2 at the later stages of fruit development. The patterns of sugar accumulation and sugar-metabolic enzyme activities during fruit development in F1 were similar to those in W1. (author)

  7. Total, Added, and Free Sugars: Are Restrictive Guidelines Science-Based or Achievable?

    OpenAIRE

    Jennifer Erickson; Joanne Slavin

    2015-01-01

    Sugar consumption, especially added sugars, is under attack. Various government and health authorities have suggested new sugar recommendations and guidelines as low as 5% of total calories from free sugars. Definitions for total sugars, free sugars, and added sugars are not standardized, nor are there accepted nutrient databases for this information. Our objective was to measure total sugars and added sugars in sample meal plans created by the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) a...

  8. Urinary Excretion of Sodium, Nitrogen, and Sugar Amounts Are Valid Biomarkers of Dietary Sodium, Protein, and High Sugar Intake in Nonobese Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Lori B; Liu, Sarah V; Halliday, Tanya M; Neilson, Andrew P; Hedrick, Valisa E; Davy, Brenda M

    2017-12-01

    Background: Objective indicators of dietary intake (e.g., biomarkers) are needed to overcome the limitations of self-reported dietary intake assessment methods in adolescents. To our knowledge, no controlled feeding studies to date have evaluated the validity of urinary sodium, nitrogen, or sugar excretion as dietary biomarkers in adolescents. Objective: This investigation aimed to evaluate the validity of urinary sodium, nitrogen, and total sugars (TS) excretion as biomarkers for sodium, protein, and added sugars (AS) intake in nonobese adolescents. Methods: In a crossover controlled feeding study design, 33 adolescents [12-18 y of age, 47 ± 25th percentile (mean ± SD) of body mass index (BMI; in kg/m 2 ) for age] consumed 5% AS [low added sugars (LAS)] and 25% AS [high added sugars (HAS)] isocaloric, macronutrient-matched (55% carbohydrate, 30% fat, and 15% protein) diets for 7 d each, in a randomly assigned order, with a 4-wk washout period between diets. On the final 2 d of each diet period, 24-h urine samples were collected. Thirty-two adolescents completed all measurements (97% retention). Results: Urinary sodium was not different from the expected 90% recovery (mean ± SD: 88% ± 18%, P = 0.50). Urinary nitrogen was correlated with protein intake ( r = 0.69, P sodium appears to be a valid biomarker for sodium intake in nonobese adolescents. Urinary nitrogen is associated with protein intake, but nitrogen excretion rates were less than previously reported for adults, possibly owing to adolescent growth rates. TS excretion reflects AS at 25% AS intake and was responsive to the change in AS intake. Thus, urinary biomarkers are promising objective indicators of dietary intake in adolescents, although larger-scale feeding trials are needed to confirm these findings. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT02455388. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  9. Ambient aerosol concentrations of sugars and sugar-alcohols at four different sites in Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. E. Yttri

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Sugars and sugar-alcohols are demonstrated to be important constituents of the ambient aerosol water-soluble organic carbon fraction, and to be tracers for primary biological aerosol particles (PBAP. In the present study, levels of four sugars (fructose, glucose, sucrose, trehalose and three sugar-alcohols (arabitol, inositol, mannitol in ambient aerosols have been quantified using a novel HPLC/HRMS-TOF (High Performance Liquid Chromatography in combination with High Resolution Mass Spectrometry – Time of Flight method to assess the contribution of PBAP to PM>sub>10 and PM2.5. Samples were collected at four sites in Norway at different times of the year in order to reflect the various contributing sources and the spatial and seasonal variation of the selected compounds.

    Sugars and sugar-alcohols were present at all sites investigated, underlining the ubiquity of these highly polar organic compounds. The highest concentrations were reported for sucrose, reaching a maximum concentration of 320 ng m−3 in PM10 and 55 ng m−3 in PM2.5. The mean concentration of sucrose was up to 10 times higher than fructose, glucose and the dimeric sugar trehalose. The mean concentrations of the sugar-alcohols were typically lower, or equal, to that of the monomeric sugars and trehalose. Peak concentrations of arabitol and mannitol did not exceed 30 ng m−3 in PM10, and for PM2.5 all concentrations were below 6 ng m−3.

    Sugars and sugar-alcohols were associated primarily with coarse aerosols except during wintertime at the suburban site in Elverum, where a shift towards sub micron aerosols was observed. It is proposed that this shift was due to the intensive use of wood burning for residential heating at this site during winter, confirmed by high concurrent concentrations of levoglucosan. Elevated concentrations of sugars in PM2

  10. CMS rewards its best suppliers with the Crystal Award

    CERN Multimedia

    Patrice Loiez

    2002-01-01

    A. Ingman of the Finnish company Outokumpu Pori Oy, F. Krähenbuhl of the Swiss firm Nexans Suisse and M. Niemerski of the American company Plascore receive the highest distinction in the CMS supplier awards - the Crystal Award.

  11. Dietary sources of sugars in adolescents' diet: the HELENA study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesana, M I; Hilbig, A; Androutsos, O; Cuenca-García, M; Dallongeville, J; Huybrechts, I; De Henauw, S; Widhalm, K; Kafatos, A; Nova, E; Marcos, A; González-Gross, M; Molnar, D; Gottrand, F; Moreno, L A

    2018-03-01

    To report dietary sugars consumption and their different types and food sources, in European adolescents. Food consumption data of selected groups were obtained from 1630 adolescents (45.6% males, 12.5-17.5 years) from the HELENA study using two nonconsecutive 24-h recalls. Energy intake, total sugars and free sugars were assessed using the HELENA-DIAT software. Multiple regression analyses were performed adjusting for relevant confounders. Total sugars intake (137.5 g/day) represented 23.6% and free sugars (110.1 g/day), 19% of energy intake. Girls had significantly lower intakes of energy, carbohydrates, total sugars and free sugars. 94% of adolescents had a consumption of free sugars above 10% of total energy intake. The main food contributor to free sugars was 'carbonated, soft and isotonic drinks,' followed by 'non-chocolate confectionary' and 'sugar, honey, jam and syrup.' Older boys and girls had significantly higher intakes of free sugars from 'cakes, pies and biscuits.' Free sugars intake was negatively associated with low socioeconomic status for 'non-chocolate confectionary' and 'sugar, honey and jam' groups; with low maternal educational level for carbonated and 'soft drinks,' 'sugar, honey and jam,' 'cakes and pies' and 'breakfast cereals' groups; and with high paternal educational level for 'carbonated and soft drinks' and 'chocolates' group. The majority (94%) of studied adolescents consumed free sugars above 10% of daily energy intake. Our data indicate a broad variety in foods providing free sugars. Continued efforts are required at different levels to reduce the intake of free sugars, especially in families with a low educational level.

  12. Sugars as tobacco ingredient: Effects on mainstream smoke composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talhout, Reinskje; Opperhuizen, Antoon; van Amsterdam, Jan G C

    2006-11-01

    Sugars are natural tobacco components, and are also frequently added to tobacco during the manufacturing process. This review describes the fate of sugars during tobacco smoking, in particular the effect of tobacco sugars on mainstream smoke composition. In natural tobacco, sugars can be present in levels up to 20 wt%. In addition, various sugars are added in tobacco manufacturing in amounts up to 4 wt% per sugar. The added sugars are usually reported to serve as flavour/casing and humectant. However, sugars also promote tobacco smoking, because they generate acids that neutralize the harsh taste and throat impact of tobacco smoke. Moreover, the sweet taste and the agreeable smell of caramelized sugar flavors are appreciated in particular by starting adolescent smokers. Finally, sugars generate acetaldehyde, which has addictive properties and acts synergistically with nicotine in rodents. Apart from these consumption-enhancing pyrolysis products, many toxic (including carcinogenic) smoke compounds are generated from sugars. In particular, sugars increase the level of formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, acetone, acrolein, and 2-furfural in tobacco smoke. It is concluded that sugars in tobacco significantly contribute to the adverse health effects of tobacco smoking.

  13. EVOLUTION OF SUGAR BEET AND SUGAR PRODUCTION IN ROMANIA AFTER ITS ACCESSION INTO THE E.U.

    OpenAIRE

    Aurel-Florentin BADIU; Florentina BADIU

    2014-01-01

    The paper presents an analysis of the evolution for sugar beet production and sugar beet extraction after Romania accesion in European Union. The analysis is based on the evolutions of areas, total and average yields per unit of area. The last period (2007- 2013) is compared to the previous period (2001-2006), utilised at reference. Also, it is performed in the four sugar factories respectively (SC AGRANA Romania SA, Sugar Factory Bod, SC sugar Oradea SA, sugar Ludus SA) and it was made for t...

  14. Evaluation and characterisation of sugar cane germplasm ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Thirty local sugar cane (Saccharum spp.) accessions were evaluated and characterised for smut (Ustilago scitammeaSyd.) resistance during four years under field conditions. The results showed that nine accessions, BD-07, KN-08, LS-01, OG-07, 0Y10, 0Y11, OY-16, OY-22 and OY-26, were resistant and had high brix ...

  15. Building improved models of sugar maple mortality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles H. Perry; Patrick L. Zimmerman

    2012-01-01

    The decline of sugar maple (Acer saccharum Marsh.) in the northern United States is causing concern, and several studies have identified soil properties that are linked to the observation of dead/dying trees. Unfortunately, the sample of trees supporting these studies is purposive in nature; soil properties are assessed only on those plots where dead...

  16. Storage requirements for sugar maple seeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harry W. Yawney; Clayton M., Jr. Carl

    1974-01-01

    Sugar maple seeds, collected from three trees in northern Vermont, were stored at four temperatures (18, 7, 2, and -10ºC) in combination with four seed moisture contents (35, 25, 17, and 10 percent). Seed moisture content and storage temperature significantly affected keeping ability, and these factors were highly interrelated. Seeds from all trees kept best...

  17. Sap flow and sugar transport in plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, K. H.; Berg-Sørensen, K.; Bruus, H.; Holbrook, N. M.; Liesche, J.; Schulz, A.; Zwieniecki, M. A.; Bohr, T.

    2016-07-01

    Green plants are Earth's primary solar energy collectors. They harvest the energy of the Sun by converting light energy into chemical energy stored in the bonds of sugar molecules. A multitude of carefully orchestrated transport processes are needed to move water and minerals from the soil to sites of photosynthesis and to distribute energy-rich sugars throughout the plant body to support metabolism and growth. The long-distance transport happens in the plants' vascular system, where water and solutes are moved along the entire length of the plant. In this review, the current understanding of the mechanism and the quantitative description of these flows are discussed, connecting theory and experiments as far as possible. The article begins with an overview of low-Reynolds-number transport processes, followed by an introduction to the anatomy and physiology of vascular transport in the phloem and xylem. Next, sugar transport in the phloem is explored with attention given to experimental results as well as the fluid mechanics of osmotically driven flows. Then water transport in the xylem is discussed with a focus on embolism dynamics, conduit optimization, and couplings between water and sugar transport. Finally, remarks are given on some of the open questions of this research field.

  18. Idiomatic Control used in Sugar Plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kirsten Mølgaard; Nielsen, Jens Frederik Dalsgaard; Pedersen, Tom Søndergaard

    1993-01-01

    A description of a control system for a large scale industrial plant - the evaporator section of a sugar plant. The control system is based on the idiomatic control concept, causing decomposition into loop control units - idioms. Dynamic decoupling, feedforward- and feedback loops eg. have been...

  19. Possible toxicity of boron on sugar cane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bravo C., M.

    Analyses of necrotic and green leaf tissues from sugar cane grown in the Tambo Valley (Arequipa, Peru) have shown that the boron concentration in necrotic tissue (average 657.7 ppm) is several times higher than that in the green tissue (average 55.7 ppm). This suggests that the necrosis may be due to boron toxicity.

  20. Sequence of the Sugar Pine Megagenome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristian A. Stevens; Jill L. Wegrzyn; Aleksey Zimin; Daniela Puiu; Marc Crepeau; Charis Cardeno; Robin Paul; Daniel Gonzalez-Ibeas; Maxim Koriabine; Ann E. Holtz-Morris; Pedro J. Martínez-García; Uzay U. Sezen; Guillaume Marçais; Kathie Jermstad; Patrick E. McGuire; Carol A. Loopstra; John M. Davis; Andrew Eckert; Pieter de Jong; James A. Yorke; Steven L. Salzberg; David B. Neale; Charles H. Langley

    2016-01-01

    Until very recently, complete characterization of the megagenomes of conifers has remained elusive. The diploid genome of sugar pine (Pinus lambertiana Dougl.) has a highly repetitive, 31 billion bp genome. It is the largest genome sequenced and assembled to date, and the first from the subgenus Strobus, or white pines, a group...

  1. Postharvest Rhizopus rot on sugar beet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhizopus species have been reported as a minor post-harvest rot on sugar beet, particularly under temperatures above 5 deg C. In 2010, Rhizopus was isolated from beets collected from Michigan storage piles in February at a low frequency. However, recent evidence from Michigan has found a high incide...

  2. Regulations of sugar transporters: insights from yeast

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Horák, Jaroslav

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 59, 1-2 (2013), s. 1-31 ISSN 0172-8083 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP503/10/0307 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : sugar transporter * yeast * glucose signaling * sensing Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 1.712, year: 2013

  3. Decolorization of turbid sugar juice from sugar factory using waste powdered carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aljohani, Hind; Ahmed, Youssef; El-Shafey, Ola; El-Shafey, Shaymaa; Fouad, Rasha; Shoueir, Kamel

    2018-03-01

    Waste management of powdered activated carbon from cyclone of some sugar factories was used for decolorization of sugar mud juice (SMJ) in this study. The presence of powdered activated carbon waste (PACW) was admitted again for their use in SMJ decolorization. The determined specific surface area are typically S BET = 613.887 m2/g and the pore distribution lies in mesoporous domain. Color removal (CR%) and decolorization capacity (DC) of the characterized PACW are similar to those of decolorants used at this time for sugar refining. The CR% with PACW reached 81.03% at pH7.0 and dosed in the amount 0.5 g/50 ml of SMJ. There are two acceptable mechanisms illustrates the attachments between phenols and carboxylate ions. In this paper, we put a simple and rapid dark liquid decolorization by controlling rejected carbon waste, which will be useful for treatment of dark liquid sugar.

  4. Reconciliation of opposing views on membrane-sugar interactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Heidi D.; Wang, Chunhua; Arleth, Lise

    2011-01-01

    It is well established that small sugars exert different types of stabilization of biomembranes both in vivo and in vitro. However, the essential question of whether sugars are bound to or expelled from membrane surfaces, i.e., the sign and size of the free energy of the interaction, remains...... unresolved, and this prevents a molecular understanding of the stabilizing mechanism. We have used small-angle neutron scattering and thermodynamic measurements to show that sugars may be either bound or expelled depending on the concentration of sugar. At low concentration, small sugars bind quite strongly...... to a lipid bilayer, and the accumulation of sugar at the interface makes the membrane thinner and laterally expanded. Above â¼0.2 M the sugars gradually become expelled from the membrane surface, and this repulsive mode of interaction counteracts membrane thinning. The dual nature of sugar...

  5. RESEARCH OF LIMY AND CARBONATE SYSTEM OF SUGAR PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. G. Kulneva

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Influence of рН and temperature on activity of suspension of lime and carbonate in sugar production is investigated. Possibility of decrease in a consumption of reagents on purification of production sugar solutions is established.

  6. American = Independent?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markus, Hazel Rose

    2017-09-01

    U.S. American cultures and psyches reflect and promote independence. Devos and Banaji (2005) asked, does American equal White? This article asks, does American equal independent? The answer is that when compared to people in East Asian or South Asian contexts, people in American contexts tend to show an independent psychological signature-a sense of self as individual, separate, influencing others and the world, free from influence, and equal to, if not better than, others (Markus & Conner, 2013). Independence is a reasonable description of the selves of people in the White, middle-class American mainstream. Yet it is a less good characterization of the selves of the majority of Americans who are working-class and/or people of color. A cultural psychological approach reveals that much of North American psychology is still grounded in an independent model of the self and, as such, neglects social contexts and the psychologies of a majority of Americans. Given the prominence of independence in American ideas and institutions, the interdependent tendencies that arise from intersections of national culture with social class, race, and ethnicity go unrecognized and are often misunderstood and stigmatized. This unseen clash of independence and interdependence is a significant factor in many challenges, including those of education, employment, health, immigration, criminal justice, and political polarization.

  7. EVOLUTION OF SUGAR BEET AND SUGAR PRODUCTION IN ROMANIA AFTER ITS ACCESSION INTO THE E.U.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurel-Florentin BADIU

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents an analysis of the evolution for sugar beet production and sugar beet extraction after Romania accesion in European Union. The analysis is based on the evolutions of areas, total and average yields per unit of area. The last period (2007- 2013 is compared to the previous period (2001-2006, utilised at reference. Also, it is performed in the four sugar factories respectively (SC AGRANA Romania SA, Sugar Factory Bod, SC sugar Oradea SA, sugar Ludus SA and it was made for the 2007-2013 period, after the application of EU’s rules for sugar market. The study presents the evolution of the biological sugar content and white sugar content between the years 2007 and 2013 and it evaluates the variability of the way of achieving production quotas. The main conclusion imposed after the analysis is that the systems of sugar production from sugar beet are stabilized. Statistically multi-annual average deviation from the assigned quota is approx .2%. Annual variations of sugar production are set between (- 15 % - (+ 43%, compared with the Romanian quota (104.688 tons white sugar.

  8. Hydrogenolysis of 5-carbon sugars, sugar alcohols, and methods of making propylene glycol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werpy, Todd A [West Richland, WA; Zacher, Alan H [Kennewick, WA; Miller, Dennis J [Okemos, MI

    2006-05-02

    Methods and compositions for reactions of hydrogen over a Re-containing catalyst with compositions containing a 5-carbon sugar, sugar alcohol, or lactic acid are described. It has been surprisingly discovered that reaction with hydrogen over a Re-containing multimetallic catalyst resulted in superior conversion and selectivity to desired products such as propylene glycol. A process for the synthesis of PG from lactate or lactic acid is also described.

  9. CO-PROCESSING BEET AND CANE RAW SUGAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Golybin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Many sugar factories of the Russian Federation sugar and white sugar is produced not only from sugar beet, but also from raw sugar. To do this, the technological scheme of the plants provide mostly separate processing beet and raw sugar. This paper proposes a joint processing. With the aim of improving the quality of syrup, improving the filtration properties of the juice II saturation with joint processing beet and raw sugar was proposed clarification raw sugar to conduct the filtered juice I saturation with the addition of bleach in the amount of 0.05-0.10 % by weight of raw sugar and fine clay powder in the amount of 0.3-0.5 % by weight of raw sugar. Introduction chlorine is in the process of clarification raw sugar partly to carry out the depolymerization of highmolecular compounds, including polysaccharide dextran, and to adsorb the resulting fragments of high molecular compounds and pigments on fine particles of clay powder. Similar results were obtained when changing the costs of expanded clay powder. At a flow rate less than 0.3 %, there is a lack of adsorption of the surface to remove the degradation products of high -molecular compounds, which degrades the quality characteristics of the mixture of woodworking and furniture production of raw sugar and juice I carbon ation, and at a rate clay powder more than 0.5 % is irrational, since the cleaning effect is increased slightly. Suggested ways of coprocessing beet and raw sugar allow without significant cost effective processing of raw sugar factories. When beet low techn ological quality of these methods will increase the cleanliness of the production of sugar solutions and improve conditions for obtaining sugar of standard quality with the normative content of sucrose in molasses.

  10. Ethanol Production from Different Intermediates of Sugar Beet Processing

    OpenAIRE

    Mladen Pavlečić; Ivna Vrana; Kristijan Vibovec; Mirela Ivančić Šantek; Predrag Horvat; Božidar Šantek

    2010-01-01

    In this investigation, the production of ethanol from the raw sugar beet juice and raw sugar beet cossettes has been studied. For ethanol production from the raw sugar beet juice, batch and fed-batch cultivation techniques in the stirred tank bioreactor were used, while batch ethanol production from the raw sugar beet cossettes was carried out in horizontal rotating tubular bioreactor (HRTB). In both cases, Saccharomyces cerevisiae was used as a production microorganism. During batch ethanol ...

  11. Crystal growth and scintillation properties of Lu substituted CeBr.sub.3./sub. single crystals

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ito, T.; Yokota, Y.; Kurosawa, S.; Král, Robert; Kamada, K.; Pejchal, Jan; Ohashi, Y.; Yoshikawa, A.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 452, Oct (2016), s. 65-68 ISSN 0022-0248. [American Conference on Crystal Growth and Epitaxy /20./ (ACCGE) / 17th Biennial Workshop on Organometallic Vapor Phase Epitaxy (OMVPE) / 2nd 2D Electronic Materials Symposium. Big Sky, MT, 02.08.2015-07.08.2015] Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : radiation * halides * scintillator materials * crystal growth Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.751, year: 2016

  12. The effect of inoculation with Azotobacter chroococcum on microorganisms in rhizosphere and sugar beet yield in organic farming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mrkovački Nastasija B.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect on sugar beet yield parameters and microbiological soil status was studied using two techniques of sugar beet inoculation with strains of Azotobacter chroococcum. Cultivar “Drena” was used in the study, and field trial was set under the conditions of organic farming system in Bački Petrovac. A mixture of three strains of Azotobacter chroococcum was used as microbial fertilizer. Inoculation was performed by: (A incorporation of strains into soil before sowing; and (B repeated incorporation of strains into soil two weeks after sowing. PGP characterization of the strains confirmed the ability of producing indole-3-acetic acid (IAA from 12.63 μg ml-1 to 14.95 μg ml-1, nitrogen fixation, and P-solubilization. Positive effects on the number of azotobacter and free nitrogen fixers in rhizosphere were obtained by inoculation, as well as positive effects on the tested sugar beet yield parameters. The largest increase in root yield, yield of crystal sugar, and yield of polarised sugar compared with the control was obtained by repeated soil inoculation, ranging from 22 to 23%.

  13. Binary colloidal crystals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Christova-Zdravkova, C.G.

    2005-01-01

    Binary crystals are crystals composed of two types of particles having different properties like size, mass density, charge etc. In this thesis several new approaches to make binary crystals of colloidal particles that differ in size, material and charge are reported We found a variety of crystal

  14. Determination of Sugar and Some Trace Metals Content in Selected ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ten brands of commercial fruit juices were analyzed for pH, specific gravity, total solids, reducing sugar and total sugar trace metals contents. The pH was determined using a Hanna pH meter. Sugar content was determined using the Lane and Eynon method. Sodium and potassium were determined by flame photometry ...

  15. Ethanol production in fermentation of mixed sugars containing xylose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viitanen, Paul V [West Chester, PA; Mc Cutchen, Carol M [Wilmington, DE; Li,; Xu, [Newark, DE; Emptage, Mark [Wilmington, DE; Caimi, Perry G [Kennett Square, PA; Zhang, Min [Lakewood, CO; Chou, Yat-Chen [Lakewood, CO; Franden, Mary Ann [Centennial, CO

    2009-12-08

    Xylose-utilizing Z. mobilis strains were found to have improved ethanol production when grown in medium containing mixed sugars including xylose if sorbitol or mannitol was included in the medium. The effect was seen in concentrations of mixed sugars where no growth lag period occurs, as well as in higher sugars concentrations.

  16. Utilization of pectin extracted sugar beet pulp for composite application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugar beet pulp (SBP) is the residue left after beet sugar extraction. SBP contains ~25% pectin and is an important source for pectin. However, sugar beet pectin does not have good gel-forming properties and complete extraction of pectin is not typically performed due to the low quality of the galac...

  17. 7 CFR 457.109 - Sugar Beet Crop Insurance Provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Sugar Beet Crop Insurance Provisions. 457.109 Section... CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMON CROP INSURANCE REGULATIONS § 457.109 Sugar Beet Crop Insurance Provisions. The Sugar Beet Crop Insurance Provisions for the 1998 and succeeding crop years in countries with...

  18. Power generation from fuelwood by the Nicaraguan sugar mills

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carneiro de Miranda, R.; Broek, R. van den

    1997-01-01

    With new concept development for the sugar industry and with new power market opportunities, two sugar mills in Nicaragua initiated projects aimed at becoming power plants during the sugar cane off-season. Basically the idea is to use more efficient boilers and turbines, and generate power beyond

  19. 19 CFR 151.25 - Mixing classes of sugar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Mixing classes of sugar. 151.25 Section 151.25... TREASURY (CONTINUED) EXAMINATION, SAMPLING, AND TESTING OF MERCHANDISE Sugars, Sirups, and Molasses § 151.25 Mixing classes of sugar. No regulations relative to the weighing, taring, sampling, classifying...

  20. Sugar beet leaves: from biorefinery to techno-functionality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kiskini, Alexandra

    2017-01-01

    Sugar beet leaves (SBL), which are a side stream of the sugar beets cultivation, are currently left unexploited after sugar beets have been harvested. The general aim of this thesis was to study the biorefinery of SBL, with a special focus on the isolation of proteins. To reach this aim the

  1. Sugar signalling during germination and early seedling establishment in Arabidopsis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dekkers, S.J.W.

    2006-01-01

    Sugars have pronounced effects on many plant processes like gene expression, germination and early seedling development. Several screens for sugar insensitive mutants were performed to identify genes involved in sugar response pathways using the model plant Arabidopsis. These include sun, gin and

  2. Estimating Free and Added Sugar Intakes in New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kibblewhite, Rachael; Nettleton, Alice; McLean, Rachael; Haszard, Jillian; Fleming, Elizabeth; Kruimer, Devonia; Te Morenga, Lisa

    2017-11-27

    The reduction of free or added sugar intake (sugars added to food and drinks as a sweetener) is almost universally recommended to reduce the risk of obesity-related diseases and dental caries. The World Health Organisation recommends intakes of free sugars of less than 10% of energy intake. However, estimating and monitoring intakes at the population level is challenging because free sugars cannot be analytically distinguished from naturally occurring sugars and most national food composition databases do not include data on free or added sugars. We developed free and added sugar estimates for the New Zealand (NZ) food composition database (FOODfiles 2010) by adapting a method developed for Australia. We reanalyzed the 24 h recall dietary data collected for 4721 adults aged 15 years and over participating in the nationally representative 2008/09 New Zealand Adult Nutrition Survey to estimate free and added sugar intakes. The median estimated intake of free and added sugars was 57 and 49 g/day respectively and 42% of adults consumed less than 10% of their energy intake from free sugars. This approach provides more direct estimates of the free and added sugar contents of New Zealand foods than previously available and will enable monitoring of adherence to free sugar intake guidelines in future.

  3. Estimating Free and Added Sugar Intakes in New Zealand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachael Kibblewhite

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The reduction of free or added sugar intake (sugars added to food and drinks as a sweetener is almost universally recommended to reduce the risk of obesity-related diseases and dental caries. The World Health Organisation recommends intakes of free sugars of less than 10% of energy intake. However, estimating and monitoring intakes at the population level is challenging because free sugars cannot be analytically distinguished from naturally occurring sugars and most national food composition databases do not include data on free or added sugars. We developed free and added sugar estimates for the New Zealand (NZ food composition database (FOODfiles 2010 by adapting a method developed for Australia. We reanalyzed the 24 h recall dietary data collected for 4721 adults aged 15 years and over participating in the nationally representative 2008/09 New Zealand Adult Nutrition Survey to estimate free and added sugar intakes. The median estimated intake of free and added sugars was 57 and 49 g/day respectively and 42% of adults consumed less than 10% of their energy intake from free sugars. This approach provides more direct estimates of the free and added sugar contents of New Zealand foods than previously available and will enable monitoring of adherence to free sugar intake guidelines in future.

  4. Estimating Free and Added Sugar Intakes in New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kibblewhite, Rachael; Nettleton, Alice; McLean, Rachael; Haszard, Jillian; Fleming, Elizabeth; Kruimer, Devonia

    2017-01-01

    The reduction of free or added sugar intake (sugars added to food and drinks as a sweetener) is almost universally recommended to reduce the risk of obesity-related diseases and dental caries. The World Health Organisation recommends intakes of free sugars of less than 10% of energy intake. However, estimating and monitoring intakes at the population level is challenging because free sugars cannot be analytically distinguished from naturally occurring sugars and most national food composition databases do not include data on free or added sugars. We developed free and added sugar estimates for the New Zealand (NZ) food composition database (FOODfiles 2010) by adapting a method developed for Australia. We reanalyzed the 24 h recall dietary data collected for 4721 adults aged 15 years and over participating in the nationally representative 2008/09 New Zealand Adult Nutrition Survey to estimate free and added sugar intakes. The median estimated intake of free and added sugars was 57 and 49 g/day respectively and 42% of adults consumed less than 10% of their energy intake from free sugars. This approach provides more direct estimates of the free and added sugar contents of New Zealand foods than previously available and will enable monitoring of adherence to free sugar intake guidelines in future. PMID:29186927

  5. 21 CFR 172.585 - Sugar beet extract flavor base.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Sugar beet extract flavor base. 172.585 Section 172... CONSUMPTION Flavoring Agents and Related Substances § 172.585 Sugar beet extract flavor base. Sugar beet extract flavor base may be safely used in food in accordance with the provisions of this section. (a...

  6. A free sugars daily value (DV) identifies more "less healthy" prepackaged foods and beverages than a total sugars DV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernstein, Jodi T; Labonté, Marie-Ève; Franco-Arellano, Beatriz; Schermel, Alyssa; L'Abbé, Mary R

    2018-04-01

    Regulatory changes in Canada will require food labels to have a benchmark [% Daily Value, %DV] for total sugars, based on 100 g/day, while US labels will require a %DV for added sugars, based on 50 g/day. The objective of this study was to compare two labelling policies, a total sugars DV (100 g/day) and a free sugars DV (50 g/day) on food labels. This cross-sectional analysis of the Food Label Information Program database focussed on top sources of total sugars intake in Canada (n = 6924 foods). Products were categorized as "less healthy" using two sets of criteria: a) free sugars levels exceeding the WHO guidelines (≥10% energy from free sugars); and b) exceeding healthfulness cut-offs of the Food Standards Australia New Zealand Nutrient Profiling Scoring Criterion (FSANZ-NPSC). The proportion of "less healthy" products with ≥15%DV (defined as "a lot" of sugars i.e. high in sugars, based on Health Canada's %DV labelling footnote and educational message for dietary guidance) were compared for each sugar labelling scenario. The free sugars DV showed better alignment with both methods for assessing "healthfulness" than the total sugars DV. The free sugars DV identified a greater proportion of "less healthy" foods with ≥15%DV, based on both the FSANZ-NPSC (70% vs. 45%, p chocolate bars, confectionery, and frozen desserts categories. Compared to total sugars DV labelling, using a free sugars DV identified more "less healthy" foods. Findings support the adoption of free sugars labelling. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Ultra-processed foods and added sugars in the US diet: evidence from a nationally representative cross-sectional study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez Steele, Eurídice; Baraldi, Larissa Galastri; Louzada, Maria Laura da Costa; Moubarac, Jean-Claude; Mozaffarian, Dariush; Monteiro, Carlos Augusto

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To investigate the contribution of ultra-processed foods to the intake of added sugars in the USA. Ultra-processed foods were defined as industrial formulations which, besides salt, sugar, oils and fats, include substances not used in culinary preparations, in particular additives used to imitate sensorial qualities of minimally processed foods and their culinary preparations. Design Cross-sectional study. Setting National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2009–2010. Participants We evaluated 9317 participants aged 1+ years with at least one 24 h dietary recall. Main outcome measures Average dietary content of added sugars and proportion of individuals consuming more than 10% of total energy from added sugars. Data analysis Gaussian and Poisson regressions estimated the association between consumption of ultra-processed foods and intake of added sugars. All models incorporated survey sample weights and adjusted for age, sex, race/ethnicity, family income and educational attainment. Results Ultra-processed foods comprised 57.9% of energy intake, and contributed 89.7% of the energy intake from added sugars. The content of added sugars in ultra-processed foods (21.1% of calories) was eightfold higher than in processed foods (2.4%) and fivefold higher than in unprocessed or minimally processed foods and processed culinary ingredients grouped together (3.7%). Both in unadjusted and adjusted models, each increase of 5 percentage points in proportional energy intake from ultra-processed foods increased the proportional energy intake from added sugars by 1 percentage point. Consumption of added sugars increased linearly across quintiles of ultra-processed food consumption: from 7.5% of total energy in the lowest quintile to 19.5% in the highest. A total of 82.1% of Americans in the highest quintile exceeded the recommended limit of 10% energy from added sugars, compared with 26.4% in the lowest. Conclusions Decreasing the consumption of ultra

  8. Ultra-processed foods and added sugars in the US diet: evidence from a nationally representative cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez Steele, Eurídice; Baraldi, Larissa Galastri; Louzada, Maria Laura da Costa; Moubarac, Jean-Claude; Mozaffarian, Dariush; Monteiro, Carlos Augusto

    2016-03-09

    To investigate the contribution of ultra-processed foods to the intake of added sugars in the USA. Ultra-processed foods were defined as industrial formulations which, besides salt, sugar, oils and fats, include substances not used in culinary preparations, in particular additives used to imitate sensorial qualities of minimally processed foods and their culinary preparations. Cross-sectional study. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2009-2010. We evaluated 9317 participants aged 1+ years with at least one 24 h dietary recall. Average dietary content of added sugars and proportion of individuals consuming more than 10% of total energy from added sugars. Gaussian and Poisson regressions estimated the association between consumption of ultra-processed foods and intake of added sugars. All models incorporated survey sample weights and adjusted for age, sex, race/ethnicity, family income and educational attainment. Ultra-processed foods comprised 57.9% of energy intake, and contributed 89.7% of the energy intake from added sugars. The content of added sugars in ultra-processed foods (21.1% of calories) was eightfold higher than in processed foods (2.4%) and fivefold higher than in unprocessed or minimally processed foods and processed culinary ingredients grouped together (3.7%). Both in unadjusted and adjusted models, each increase of 5 percentage points in proportional energy intake from ultra-processed foods increased the proportional energy intake from added sugars by 1 percentage point. Consumption of added sugars increased linearly across quintiles of ultra-processed food consumption: from 7.5% of total energy in the lowest quintile to 19.5% in the highest. A total of 82.1% of Americans in the highest quintile exceeded the recommended limit of 10% energy from added sugars, compared with 26.4% in the lowest. Decreasing the consumption of ultra-processed foods could be an effective way of reducing the excessive intake of added sugars in the USA

  9. Identifying anterior segment crystals.

    OpenAIRE

    Hurley, I W; Brooks, A M; Reinehr, D P; Grant, G B; Gillies, W E

    1991-01-01

    A series of 22 patients with crystals in the anterior segment of the eye was examined by specular microscopy. Of 10 patients with hypermature cataract and hyperrefringent bodies in the anterior chamber cholesterol crystals were identified in four patients and in six of the 10 in whom aspirate was obtained cholesterol crystals were demonstrated in three, two of these having shown crystals on specular microscopy. In 10 patients with intracorneal crystalline deposits, cholesterol crystals were f...

  10. Pressure cryocooling protein crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Chae Un [Ithaca, NY; Gruner, Sol M [Ithaca, NY

    2011-10-04

    Preparation of cryocooled protein crystal is provided by use of helium pressurizing and cryocooling to obtain cryocooled protein crystal allowing collection of high resolution data and by heavier noble gas (krypton or xenon) binding followed by helium pressurizing and cryocooling to obtain cryocooled protein crystal for collection of high resolution data and SAD phasing simultaneously. The helium pressurizing is carried out on crystal coated to prevent dehydration or on crystal grown in aqueous solution in a capillary.

  11. Sensory differences between beet and cane sugar sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbanus, Brittany L; Cox, Ginnefer O; Eklund, Emily J; Ickes, Chelsea M; Schmidt, Shelly J; Lee, Soo-Yeun

    2014-09-01

    Research concerning the sensory properties of beet and cane sugars is lacking in the scientific literature. Therefore, the objectives of this research were to determine whether a sensory difference was perceivable between beet and cane sugar sources in regard to their (1) aroma-only, (2) aroma and taste without nose clips, and (3) taste-only with nose clips, and to characterize the difference between the sugar sources using descriptive analysis. One hundred panelists evaluated sugar samples using a tetrad test. A significant difference (P cane sugar sources when evaluated by aroma-only and taste and aroma without nose clips. However, there was no difference when tasted with nose clips. To characterize the observed differences, ten trained panelists identified and quantified key sensory attributes of beet and cane sugars using descriptive analysis. Analysis of variance indicated significant differences (P sugar samples for 8 of the 10 attributes including: off-dairy, oxidized, earthy, and barnyard aroma, fruity and burnt sugar aroma-by-mouth, sweet aftertaste, and burnt sugar aftertaste. The sensory profile of beet sugar was characterized by off-dairy, oxidized, earthy, and barnyard aromas and by a burnt sugar aroma-by-mouth and aftertaste, whereas cane sugar was characterized by a fruity aroma-by-mouth and sweet aftertaste. This study shows that beet and cane sugar sources can be differentiated by their aroma and provides a sensory profile characterizing the differences. As sugar is used extensively as a food ingredient, sensory differences between beet and cane sugar sources once incorporated into different product matrices should be studied as a next step. © 2014 Institute of Food Technologists®

  12. Solubility, inhibition of crystallization and microscopic analysis of calcium oxalate crystals in the presence of fractions from Humulus lupulus L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frąckowiak, Anna; Koźlecki, Tomasz; Skibiński, PrzemysŁaw; GaweŁ, WiesŁaw; Zaczyńska, Ewa; Czarny, Anna; Piekarska, Katarzyna; Gancarz, Roman

    2010-11-01

    Procedures for obtaining noncytotoxic and nonmutagenic extracts from Humulus lupulus L. of high potency for inhibition and dissolving of model (calcium oxalate crystals) and real kidney stones, obtained from patients after surgery, are presented. Multistep extraction procedures were performed in order to obtain the preparations with the highest calcium complexing properties. The composition of obtained active fractions was analyzed by GC/MS and NMR methods. The influence of preparations on inhibition of formation and dissolution of model and real kidney stones were evaluated based on conductrometric titration, flame photometry and microscopic analysis. The "fraction soluble in methanol" obtained from water-alkaline extracts contains sugar alcohols and organic acids, and is effective in dissolving the kidney stones. The "fraction insoluble in methanol" contains only sugar derivatives and it changes the morphology of the crystals, making them "jelly-like". Both fractions are potentially effective in kidney stone therapy.

  13. 76 FR 20305 - USDA Reassigns Domestic Cane Sugar Allotments and Increases the Fiscal Year 2011 Raw Sugar Tariff...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-12

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Office of the Secretary USDA Reassigns Domestic Cane Sugar Allotments and Increases the Fiscal Year 2011 Raw Sugar Tariff-Rate Quota AGENCY: Office of the Secretary, USDA. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Secretary of Agriculture today announced a reassignment of surplus sugar under domestic cane...

  14. 75 FR 22095 - USDA Reassigns Domestic Cane Sugar Allotments and Increases the Fiscal Year 2010 Raw Sugar Tariff...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-27

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Office of the Secretary USDA Reassigns Domestic Cane Sugar Allotments and Increases the Fiscal Year 2010 Raw Sugar Tariff-Rate Quota AGENCY: Office of the Secretary, USDA. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Secretary of Agriculture today announced a reassignment of surplus sugar under domestic cane...

  15. The role of nonfat ingredients on confectionery fat crystallization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Ryan; Rousseau, Dérick

    2017-03-31

    Confections such as chocolate and biscuit fillings are composed of a continuous fat phase that contains dispersed nonfat ingredients such as sugar and cocoa powder. Research on fat crystallization and rheology in confections often extrapolates crystallization and textural properties from bulk to mixed systems while overlooking the important role of composition or particle interactions. For example, in chocolate processing the fat phase aids dispersed phase lubrication and fluidity whereas the dispersed particles assist in fat crystallization by providing many nucleation sites. In confections with a high dispersed phase volume fraction, fat crystallization may be hindered due to reduced triacyglycerol mobility, confinement, and increased tortuosity. This is further complicated in systems with slow crystallizing fats such as palm oil whose crystallization is exceptionally sensitive to composition and processing. This review breaks down the physical chemistry of fat-based confections and discusses the impact of different nonfat ingredients towards fat crystallization and rheology. The behavior of palm oil is further highlighted as it is becoming increasingly popular as a confectionery ingredient. Lastly, ingredient-ingredient interactions and their role in fat crystallization are described along with force spectroscopy as a novel tool to characterize such phenomena. Force spectroscopy utilizes atomic force microscopy to measure intermolecular forces as a function of distance but remains largely unexplored in the area of food science.

  16. Meiose analyses of sugar beet triploids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mezei Snežana

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available During the seed crop growing there can be also problems with uncontrolled pollination if in the previous years there was seed shedding during the harvest, which can cause growth and flowering of diploid, triploid and tetraploid plants and that can present serious problem for the next sugar beet seed crop. Meiosis of triploid hybrids is irregular and can result in development of gametes with different chromosome number. Sugar beet triploids in metaphase I have 9 univalents and 9 bivalents and therefore can be source of aneuploid gametes. After cytological analysis that was performed on 2124 meiocytes, in 14.64% different types of irregularities were detected, such as dislocated chromosomes and chromosome bridges.

  17. Strip-till seeder for sugar beets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Schulze Lammers

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Strip-till save costs by reducing tillage on the area of sugar beet rows only. The seeding system is characterized by a deep loosening of soil with a tine combined with a share and by following tools generating fine-grained soil as seed bed. In cooperation with the Kverneland company group Soest/Germany a strip tiller combined with precision seeder was designed and tested in field experiments. Tilling and seeding was performed in one path on fields with straw and mustard mulch. Even the plant development was slower as compared to conventional sawn sugar beets the yield was on equivalent level. Further field experiments are planned to attest constant yield, cost and energy efficiency of the seeding system.

  18. Turgor-mediated transport of sugars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daie, J.

    1986-01-01

    Membrane associated processes have been suggested to be modulated by cellular turgor. The nature of this regulation is not, however, clearly understood. Evidence is presented that active but not passive transport of sugars is turgor regulated. Isolated phloem tissue, vascular bundles or storage parenchyma of celery were incubated in buffered solutions adjusted to 100, 200 or 400 m osmolal that contained various concentrations of 14 C-sugars. Cellular turgor was manipulated by using the non-permeating PEG (3350). Saturating carrier-mediated sucrose transport which is present only in phloem-containing tissue was enhanced under low turgor conditions. Sucrose diffusion, the predominant mode of uptake in non-phloem parenchyma tissue was not affected by cellular turgor. Furthermore, GA and IAA seem to interact with cellular turgor to bring about modified rates of sucrose uptake. The data are consistent with observations that sucrose loading is enhanced under mild water deficit conditions

  19. Sugars, the clock and transition to flowering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza eBolouri Moghaddam

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Sugars do not only act as source of energy, but they also act as signals in plants. This mini review summarizes the emerging links between sucrose-mediated signaling and the cellular networks involved in flowering time control and defense. Cross-talks with gibberellin (GA and jasmonate (JA signaling pathways are highlighted. The circadian clock fulfills a crucial role at the heart of cellular networks and the bilateral relation between sugar signaling and the clock is discussed. It is proposed that important factors controlling plant growth (DELLAs, PIFs, invertases and trehalose- 6-phosphate or T6P might fulfill central roles in the transition to flowering as well. The emerging concept of ‘sweet immunity’, modulated by the clock, might at least partly rely on a sucrose-specific signaling pathway that needs further exploration.

  20. Oxidative enzymatic gelation of sugar beet pectin for emulsion stabilization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abang Zaidel, Dayang Norulfairuz; Meyer, Anne S.

    2013-01-01

    Pectin from sugar beet is derived from the sugar beet pulp residue which results when sugar beets are processed for sucrose extraction. The sugar beet pectin has poor gelationability by the classic divalentcation molecular mechanism because of a relatively high acetylation degree and short...... emulsions has recently been investigated in model food emulsions. This paper reviews the pectin chemistry, enzymatic oxidative gelation mechanisms, interaction mechanisms of the sugar beet pectin with the emulsion droplets and explores how the gelation affects the rheology and stability of emulsion systems...

  1. SUGAR CANE ENSILED WITH SALT OR UREA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hélio Henrique Vilela

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Sugar cane silage is widely used in livestock production. Nevertheless, it presents a drawback which is alcoholic fermentation caused by yeasts and which can reduce its nutritional value. In this sense, the aim of this work was to evaluate the use of either doses of salt or urea in the ensiling of sugar cane with the objective of producing silages of better quality. For this purpose, an experiment consisted of completely randomized design with seven treatments and three replications was performed. The treatments consisted of the ensiling of sugar cane without the use of additives (control and ensiling utilizing 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5% of either salt or urea. Sugar cane was ensiled with 31.8% of DM in experimental PVC silos, which remained closed for 202 days. After this period, the silos were opened and a part of the central silage of each silo was utilized for evaluation of potential of hydrogen (pH and of the percentages of dry matter (DM, for crude protein (CP, neutral detergent fiber (NDF, acid detergent fiber (ADF, lignin and hemicellulose. By utilizing the weights of the silos, the production of effluents was also computed. The data were submitted to the analysis of variance and the means compared by the Skott-Knott test at 5% de significance. The percentage of DM (29.5% and lignin (9.9% as well as the effluent production (43.8 kg/t of natural matter were not influenced (P>0.05 by the treatments. Increased pH values (P

  2. Pozzolanic evaluation of the sugar cane leaf

    OpenAIRE

    Guzmán, A.; Gutierrez, C.; Amigó Borrás, Vicente; Mejia De Gutierrez, Ruby; Delvasto, S.

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the results of the evaluation of the sugarcane leaf, burnt under controlled conditions in order to obtain a reactive ash with pozzolanic properties. Chemical analysis, amorphousity and surface structure of the sugar cane straw ash (SCSA) were studied by X-ray diffraction, X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy and scanning electron microscope (SEM). The results of this research showed that SCSA has significant presence of amorphous material and a high content of silica (81.0%). T...

  3. Coil irrigation in sugar cane (Saccharum officinarum)

    OpenAIRE

    Jesús Sánchez Gutiérrez; Yoslén Fernández Gálvez; Mayra Martínez Pírez; Camilo Bonet Pérez; Manuel A Hernández Victoria; Arlandy Noy Perera

    2016-01-01

    This study was made at the Basic Seed Bank of the Local Sugar Cane Research Station for the Mideastern Cuba, based in Camaguey, on brown carbonate soil, between 2013 and 12014. Coil irrigation was applied to meet the water requirements for the crop, according to the edafoclimatic conditions and the different phenological phases it has. The Savo method was used to determine useful rain water. Adjustment and complementation of the irrigation program was based on indicators that characterize the...

  4. [Sugar and the birth of dentistry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dijs, F

    2004-06-01

    It took mankind some ten thousand years to get sugarcane from the Pacific to the Mediterranean. Once it reached Europe and the Europeans knew how to handle it, it took them only a hundred years to turn the production of sugar into the biggest industry of the world. Exactly in those hundred years the birth of modern medicine--and dentistry--is placed. This coincidence is too particular to be left unnoticed.

  5. Negative effects of sugar-sweetened beverages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nataša Fidler Mis

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The rising prevalence of obesity in children has been linked in part to the consumption of sugary drinks (sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs and fruit juices. They have high sugar content, low satiety effect and incomplete compensation for energy, so they pose a risk for promoting positive energy balance. Each extra serving of SSBs children consume per day increases their chance of becoming obese by 60 %. Other main negative health effects of sugary drinks are: the development of preference for sweet taste, poor nutrient supply, lower mineral density, bone fractures, development of dental caries, high blood pressure, cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes. SSBs are the leading source of added sugar in the diet of Slovenian adolescents. Water does not contain energy and may support a healthy weight status if it replaces sugary drinks. Cutting back on SSBs can control weight in children and adults. It is necessary that present public health strategies include education about beverage intake. Consumption of SSBs should be discouraged, whereas promoting the consumption of water should be made a priority.

  6. Naturally Occurring Cinnamic Acid Sugar Ester Derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuxin Tian

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Cinnamic acid sugar ester derivatives (CASEDs are a class of natural product with one or several phenylacrylic moieties linked with the non-anomeric carbon of a glycosyl skeleton part through ester bonds. Their notable anti-depressant and brains protective activities have made them a topic of great interest over the past several decades. In particular the compound 3′,6-disinapoylsucrose, the index component of Yuanzhi (a well-known Traditional Chinese Medicine or TCM, presents antidepressant effects at a molecular level, and has become a hotspot of research on new lead drug compounds. Several other similar cinnamic acid sugar ester derivatives are reported in traditional medicine as compounds to calm the nerves and display anti-depression and neuroprotective activity. Interestingly, more than one third of CASEDs are distributed in the family Polygalaceae. This overview discusses the isolation of cinnamic acid sugar ester derivatives from plants, together with a systematic discussion of their distribution, chemical structures and properties and pharmacological activities, with the hope of providing references for natural product researchers and draw attention to these interesting compounds.

  7. Rapid screening for anthocyanins in cane sugars using ESR spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thamaphat, Kheamrutai; Goodman, Bernard A; Limsuwan, Pichet; Smith, Siwaporn Meejoo

    2015-03-15

    Anthocyanin, which is soluble in water and released into sugar steam during extraction, was investigated in this study. The anthocyanin content in refined sugar, plantation white sugar, soft brown sugar and raw sugar was determined using electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy, which was operated at room temperature, and compared with spectra from standard anthocyanin. The ESR spectra of red and violet anthocyanins was predominantly g ≈ 2.0055, which corresponded to an unpaired electron located in the pyrylium ring. Signals for Fe(III) and Mn(II), which naturally occur in plants, were found in raw sugar, soft brown sugar and standard anthocyanin but were absent from refined sugar and plantation white sugar due to the refining process. In addition, the ESR results were correlated with the apparent colour of the sugar, which was determined using the method of the International Commission for Uniform Methods of Sugar Analysis and inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. An econometrics method to estimate demand of sugar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Negar Seyed Soleimany

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Sugar is one of the strategic goods in the basket of households in each country and it plays an important role in supplying the required energy. On the other hand, it is one of the goods, which Iranian government is about to change its subsidy strategies. To design useful sugar subsidy strategies, it is necessary to know sugar position in the basket of households and be familiar with households' sugar demand or consumption behavior. This research estimates sugar demand for Iranian households by using time series of 1984-2008, which is taken from central bank of Iran. In this paper, first independent and dependent variables of household sugar demand model are chosen based on the literature review and theory of demand. Then, sugar demand is estimated by OLS technique and linear regression. The preliminary statistical observations such as Durbin-Watson, F statistic and R2 indicate that the regression is admissible. The results seem plausible and consistent with theory and show that sugar demand in Iranian households is associated with household expenditure, relative sugar price, family size and indicate that demand of sugar is affected during the war time. The results also show the income elasticity is 0.8 and price elasticity is -0.2 which means sugar is essential good for Iranian households and is inelastic to price.

  9. Consumer understanding of sugars claims on food and drink products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, N J; Sadler, M J; Cooper, J M

    2012-06-01

    Consumer understanding of nutrition and health claims is a key aspect of current regulations in the European Union (EU). In view of this, qualitative and quantitative research techniques were used to investigate consumer awareness and understanding of product claims in the UK, focusing particularly on nutrition claims relating to sugars. Both research methods identified a good awareness of product claims. No added sugars claims were generally preferred to reduced sugars claims, and there was a general assumption that sweeteners and other ingredients would be added in place of sugars. However, there was little awareness of the level of sugar reduction and the associated calorie reduction in products when reduced sugars claims were made on pack. In focus groups, participants felt deceived if sugar reduction claims were being made without a significant reduction in calories. This was reinforced in the quantitative research which showed that respondents expected a similar and meaningful level of calorie reduction to the level of sugar reduction. The research also identified consumer confusion around the calorie content of different nutrients, including over-estimation of the calorie content of sugars. This is crucial to consumers' expectations as they clearly link sugar to calories and therefore expect a reduction in sugar content to deliver a reduction in calorie content.

  10. Factors associated with sugar intake and sugar sources in European children from 1 to 8 years of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawellek, I; Grote, V; Theurich, M; Closa-Monasterolo, R; Stolarczyk, A; Verduci, E; Xhonneux, A; Koletzko, B

    2017-01-01

    The World Health Organization recommends to limit intake of free sugars to 5% of total energy per day because of the great impact of high sugar intake on body fat deposition, adiposity and dental caries. However, little data exist about total intake and sources of sugar in European children. Therefore, this paper aims to describe sugar intake and dietary sugar sources and associated factors. Three-day weighed dietary records were obtained at eight time points from children 1 to 8 years of age (n=995) in five European countries. Food items were classified into subgroups according to food composition. Linear mixed models were used to examine associated factors. Total sugar intake increased from 65 g/day (30.0% of energy intake (E%)) at 12 months of age to 83 g/day (20.9 E%) at 96 months of age. Around 80% of children's sugar intake was derived from the following sources: milk and dairy products, fruits and fruit products, confectionary and sugar sweetened beverages (SSB). Total sugar intake and dietary sugar sources varied significantly by country of residence. Boys had a significantly (P=0.003) higher total sugar consumption than girls.SSB consumption was significantly higher in children from young mothers while sugar intake from fruit products was lower in children from mothers with lower educational status and those with higher birth order. Sugar intake in our population was lower than in other studies. Total sugar intake was associated with country of residence and gender, while dietary sugar sources varied by country of residence, maternal age, education and birth order.

  11. Oxidative enzymatic gelation of sugar beet pectin for emulsion stabilization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abang Zaidel, Dayang Norulfairuz; Meyer, Anne S.

    2013-01-01

    Pectin from sugar beet is derived from the sugar beet pulp residue which results when sugar beets are processed for sucrose extraction. The sugar beet pectin has poor gelationability by the classic divalentcation molecular mechanism because of a relatively high acetylation degree and short...... polygalacturonate backbone chain length. However, due to the feruloyl-substitutions on the side chains, the sugar beet pectic polysaccharides can be cross-linked via enzyme catalyzed oxidation. The enzyme kinetics and functionality of such oxidativelycross-linked sugar beet pectin, in relation to stabilizing...... emulsions has recently been investigated in model food emulsions. This paper reviews the pectin chemistry, enzymatic oxidative gelation mechanisms, interaction mechanisms of the sugar beet pectin with the emulsion droplets and explores how the gelation affects the rheology and stability of emulsion systems...

  12. Ribose and related sugars from ultraviolet irradiation of interstellar ice analogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meinert, Cornelia; Myrgorodska, Iuliia; de Marcellus, Pierre; Buhse, Thomas; Nahon, Laurent; Hoffmann, Søren V; d'Hendecourt, Louis Le Sergeant; Meierhenrich, Uwe J

    2016-04-08

    Ribose is the central molecular subunit in RNA, but the prebiotic origin of ribose remains unknown. We observed the formation of substantial quantities of ribose and a diversity of structurally related sugar molecules such as arabinose, xylose, and lyxose in the room-temperature organic residues of photo-processed interstellar ice analogs initially composed of H2O, CH3OH, and NH3 Our results suggest that the generation of numerous sugar molecules, including the aldopentose ribose, may be possible from photochemical and thermal treatment of cosmic ices in the late stages of the solar nebula. Our detection of ribose provides plausible insights into the chemical processes that could lead to formation of biologically relevant molecules in suitable planetary environments. Copyright © 2016, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  13. THE EFFECT OF NITROGEN INPUT ON POLARISED SUGAR PRODUCTION AND QUALITATIVE PARAMETERS OF SUGAR BEET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MILAN MACÁK

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available During 1998-2002, the application of different forms and doses of nitrogen on quantitative (polarised sugar productionand qualitative parameters (digestion, molasses forming components - potassium, sodium and α-amino nitrogen content of sugar beet in vulnerable zones (Nitrate directive was studied. Calculated input of nitrogen ranged from 12 kg up to 240 kg N.ha-1. By increasing input of N from FYM application into the soil causes an increases of α- amino nitrogen content in root, which in consequence causes a decreases the sugar content (negative correlation r= -0.8659+. The application of straw instead FYM of analogues treatments caused significant decrease (straw versus FYM and highly significant decrease (straw plus N fertilizers versus FYM plus N fertilizers of α-amino nitrogen content in sugar beet root living the productive parameters unchanged. The content of α-amino nitrogen in root of sugar beet indicate an environmentally friendly management practices with causal relation to water protection from nitrate.

  14. Sugarcane cells as origin of acid beverage floc in cane sugar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergamin Lima, Roberta; Andreia Tessmer, Magda; Appezzato da Gloria, Beatriz; Neves Dos Santos, Fabio; Nogueira Eberlin, Marcos; Lima de Aguiar, Claudio

    2017-12-15

    Brazil stands out as the largest producer of crystal sugar in the world, exporting much of its production to the soft drinks industry. However, the chemical composition of sugar may contain numerous compounds that promote the formation of acid beverage flocs (ABF), reducing product acceptance. This study aimed to identify the chemical composition of ABF using different analytical techniques. We could observe the ABF are formed by several chemical classes. Regarding the histochemical analysis, we observed the presence of cellular sugarcane tissues, which are not fully removed in sugarcane processing. Mineral compounds, such as silicon, were found in great amounts by the Scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive system (SEM/EDS) analysis. The mass spectrometry, high resolution mass by Q-ToF analysis and MALDI-MS allowed identification of compounds, such as p-hydroxybenzaldehyde, vanillin, triacontanoic acid, hexadecanoic acid, octadecanoic acid and n-octacosanoic acid, in the ABF composition. These compounds are widely found in vegetable tissues, confirming that the ABF are formed by tiny particles of plant cells of sugar cane. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Competitive Adsorption of Substrate and Solvent in Sn-Beta Zeolite During Sugar Isomerization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Graaff, William N P; Tempelman, Christiaan H L; Li, Guanna; Mezari, Brahim; Kosinov, Nikolay; Pidko, Evgeny A; Hensen, Emiel J M

    2016-11-23

    The isomerization of 1,3-dihydroxyactone and d-glucose over Sn-Beta zeolite was investigated by in situ 13 C NMR spectroscopy. The conversion rate at room temperature is higher when the zeolite is dehydrated before exposure to the aqueous sugar solution. Mass transfer limitations in the zeolite micropores were excluded by comparing Sn-Beta samples with different crystal sizes. Periodic density functional theory (DFT) calculations show that sugar and water molecules compete for adsorption on the active framework Sn centers. Careful solvent selection may thus increase the rate of sugar isomerization. Consistent with this prediction, batch catalytic experiments show that the use of a co-solvent, such as tetrahydrofuran, that strongly interacts with the Sn centers suppresses glucose isomerization. On the other hand, the use of ethanol as cosolvent results in significantly higher isomerization activity in comparison with pure water because of decreased competition with glucose adsorption on zeolitic Sn sites. © 2016 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. American Ginseng

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and inflammation of the lining of the stomach (gastritis). American ginseng is also used for low iron in the blood (anemia), diabetes, insulin resistance related to HIV treatments, cancer-related fatigue, high blood pressure, trouble sleeping (insomnia), ...

  17. Computational Design of Non-natural Sugar Alcohols to Increase Thermal Storage Density: Beyond Existing Organic Phase Change Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inagaki, Taichi; Ishida, Toyokazu

    2016-09-14

    Thermal storage, a technology that enables us to control thermal energy, makes it possible to reuse a huge amount of waste heat, and materials with the ability to treat larger thermal energy are in high demand for energy-saving societies. Sugar alcohols are now one promising candidate for phase change materials (PCMs) because of their large thermal storage density. In this study, we computationally design experimentally unknown non-natural sugar alcohols and predict their thermal storage density as a basic step toward the development of new high performance PCMs. The non-natural sugar alcohol molecules are constructed in silico in accordance with the previously suggested molecular design guidelines: linear elongation of a carbon backbone, separated distribution of OH groups, and even numbers of carbon atoms. Their crystal structures are then predicted using the random search method and first-principles calculations. Our molecular simulation results clearly demonstrate that the non-natural sugar alcohols have potential ability to have thermal storage density up to ∼450-500 kJ/kg, which is significantly larger than the maximum thermal storage density of the present known organic PCMs (∼350 kJ/kg). This computational study suggests that, even in the case of H-bonded molecular crystals where the electrostatic energy contributes mainly to thermal storage density, the molecular distortion and van der Waals energies are also important factors to increase thermal storage density. In addition, the comparison between the three eight-carbon non-natural sugar alcohol isomers indicates that the selection of preferable isomers is also essential for large thermal storage density.

  18. Crystallization In Multicomponent Glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kruger, A.A.; Hrma, P.R.

    2009-01-01

    In glass processing situations involving glass crystallization, various crystalline forms nucleate, grow, and dissolve, typically in a nonuniform temperature field of molten glass subjected to convection. Nuclear waste glasses are remarkable examples of multicomponent vitrified mixtures involving partial crystallization. In the glass melter, crystals form and dissolve during batch-to-glass conversion, melter processing, and product cooling. Crystals often agglomerate and sink, and they may settle at the melter bottom. Within the body of cooling glass, multiple phases crystallize in a non-uniform time-dependent temperature field. Self-organizing periodic distribution (the Liesegnang effect) is common. Various crystallization phenomena that occur in glass making are reviewed.

  19. CRYSTALLIZATION IN MULTICOMPONENT GLASSES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    KRUGER AA; HRMA PR

    2009-10-08

    In glass processing situations involving glass crystallization, various crystalline forms nucleate, grow, and dissolve, typically in a nonuniform temperature field of molten glass subjected to convection. Nuclear waste glasses are remarkable examples of multicomponent vitrified mixtures involving partial crystallization. In the glass melter, crystals form and dissolve during batch-to-glass conversion, melter processing, and product cooling. Crystals often agglomerate and sink, and they may settle at the melter bottom. Within the body of cooling glass, multiple phases crystallize in a non-uniform time-dependent temperature field. Self-organizing periodic distribution (the Liesegnang effect) is common. Various crystallization phenomena that occur in glass making are reviewed.

  20. Acid-producing capacity from sugars and sugar alcohols among Lactobacillus isolates collected in connection with radiation therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almståhl, Annica; Rudbäck, Helena; Basic, Amina; Carlén, Anette; Alstad, Torgny

    2017-12-01

    To investigate the acid-producing capacity from sugars and sugar alcohols of oral Lactobacillus collected in connection with radiation therapy (RT) to the head and neck region. Lactobacillus were collected from the tongue, buccal mucosa and supragingival plaque in 24 patients before, during, and after RT. The acid-producing capacity of Lactobacillus isolates (n=211) was analyzed using a colorimetric fermentation test in microtiter plates. Solutions containing 2% sugars (sucrose, glucose, fructose, lactose) or sugar-alcohols (sorbitol and xylitol) were used. After 24h of incubation, bacterial acid-producing capacity was determined as strong (pH6). Data regarding intake frequency of sugar-rich products and products with sugar-alcohols was collected. The highest acid-producing capacity using the sugars was seen for isolates collected during RT. Sorbitol was fermented to a higher extent during and post RT, especially among isolates from plaque. Lactobacillus fermenting xylitol showed the highest acid-producing capacity during RT (pacid-producing capacity, or between the intake frequency of sugar-rich products or sugar-alcohol containing products and Lactobacillus acid-producing capacity, were found. The results suggest that Lactobacillus isolates, collected from the tongue, buccal mucosa and supragingival plaque, have a higher acid-producing capacity using sugars and sugar-alcohols during RT than one year post RT. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Effect of electron radiation on sugar content in inverted liquid sugar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Podadera, P.; Sabato, S.F.

    2009-01-01

    Inverted liquid sugar is a mixture of sucrose, glucose and fructose, which shows its relevant characteristic on high sweetness power. Ionizing radiation has been applied to different kind of food and ingredients for different reasons, such as pathogens reduction, disinfestations, quarantine purposes, ripening delay among others. Radiation from an electron beam can be utilized as a technique to treat this ingredient because it can process a great volume of material per unit of time. The main goal of this paper was to verify the effect of radiation on the properties of inverted liquid sugar. This ingredient was irradiated in an electron accelerator (Radiation Dynamics) at a dose ranging from 5 to 50 kGy. Sucrose content measurements were reduced by 23% at 30 kGy when compared to control and the reduced sugar content increased around 11%. Density and moisture values were not affected by radiation. The total soluble solids (Brix degrees) rose in function of the absorbed dose. (authors)

  2. Crystallization and characterization of human chorionic gonadotropin in chemically deglycosylated and enzymatically desialylated states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lustbader, J.W.; Birken, S.; Pileggi, N.F.; Folks, M.A.G.; Pollak, S.; Cuff, M.E.; Yang, Wei; Hendrickson, W.A.; Canfield, R.E.

    1989-01-01

    Crystals suitable for X-ray diffraction studies at moderate resolution have been grown from two forms of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG): HF-treated hCG and neuraminidase-treated hCG. The enzymatically desialylated form of hCG produced crystals that diffract to 2.8 angstrom as compared to the HF-treated hCG crystals that diffract to 3.0 angstrom. Although it was assumed that the high and heterogeneous carbohydrate content of the glycoprotein hormones inhibited their crystallization, this report suggests that it is the negatively charged surface sugars and neither the total carbohydrate content nor its heterogeneity which interferes with crystal formation. Chemical deglycosylation resulted in significantly increased protein degradation during crystal growth. Such peptide bond cleavages were observed to a much lesser extent in the crystals grown from neuraminidase-digested hCG. Sequence analysis of the HF-treated hCG crystals suggested that up to 45% of the molecules within the crystal had an acid-labile peptide bond cleaved. In contrast, the neuraminidase-treated hCG exhibited less than 9% of this type of cleavage. The manner in which hCG was treated prior to crystallization was found to be a very important factor in the extent of peptide bound cleavages occurring during crystal growth. HF treatment of glycoproteins may render glycoproteins more susceptible to peptide bond cleavage during crystal growth

  3. Big Sugar in southern Africa: rural development and the perverted potential of sugar/ethanol exports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Ben

    2010-01-01

    This paper asks how investment in large-scale sugar cane production has contributed, and will contribute, to rural development in southern Africa. Taking a case study of the South African company Illovo in Zambia, the argument is made that the potential for greater tax revenue, domestic competition, access to resources and wealth distribution from sugar/ethanol production have all been perverted and with relatively little payoff in wage labour opportunities in return. If the benefits of agro-exports cannot be so easily assumed, then the prospective 'balance sheet' of biofuels needs to be re-examined. In this light, the paper advocates smaller-scale agrarian initiatives.

  4. Total antioxidant content of alternatives to refined sugar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Katherine M; Carlsen, Monica H; Blomhoff, Rune

    2009-01-01

    Oxidative damage is implicated in the etiology of cancer, cardiovascular disease, and other degenerative disorders. Recent nutritional research has focused on the antioxidant potential of foods, while current dietary recommendations are to increase the intake of antioxidant-rich foods rather than supplement specific nutrients. Many alternatives to refined sugar are available, including raw cane sugar, plant saps/syrups (eg, maple syrup, agave nectar), molasses, honey, and fruit sugars (eg, date sugar). Unrefined sweeteners were hypothesized to contain higher levels of antioxidants, similar to the contrast between whole and refined grain products. To compare the total antioxidant content of natural sweeteners as alternatives to refined sugar. The ferric-reducing ability of plasma (FRAP) assay was used to estimate total antioxidant capacity. Major brands of 12 types of sweeteners as well as refined white sugar and corn syrup were sampled from retail outlets in the United States. Substantial differences in total antioxidant content of different sweeteners were found. Refined sugar, corn syrup, and agave nectar contained minimal antioxidant activity (syrup, brown sugar, and honey showed intermediate antioxidant capacity (0.2 to 0.7 mmol FRAP/100 g). Based on an average intake of 130 g/day refined sugars and the antioxidant activity measured in typical diets, substituting alternative sweeteners could increase antioxidant intake an average of 2.6 mmol/day, similar to the amount found in a serving of berries or nuts. Many readily available alternatives to refined sugar offer the potential benefit of antioxidant activity.

  5. Highly diastereoselective conjugate addition of nitroalkanes to α,β-unsaturated sugar lactones for the efficient synthesis of chiral 2-pyrrolidones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yan-Ping; Li, Zhong-Jun; Meng, Xiang-Bao

    2011-09-27

    A series of 4,5-substituted chiral γ-lactams were synthesized through a highly diastereoselective addition-rearrangement approach from 2,3-unsaturated sugar lactones. The single-crystal X-ray structure of one product indicated that the sugar ring was attacked from the axial side. Partial reduction of the nitro group produced N-hydroxy-γ-lactams, which were further reduced with TiCl(3) to yield the 4,5-substituted chiral γ-lactams. The absolute configuration of C5 of the γ-lactam was determined by NOESY spectra. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Crystallization and biochemical characterization of an archaeal lectin from Methanococcus voltae A3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivaji, N; Abhinav, K V; Vijayan, M

    2017-05-01

    A lectin from Methanococcus voltae A3 has been cloned, expressed, purified and characterized. The lectin appears to be specific for complex sugars. The protein crystallized in a tetragonal space group, with around 16 subunits in the asymmetric unit. Sequence comparisons indicate the lectin to have a β-prism I fold, with poor homology to lectins of known three-dimensional structure.

  7. Photonic Crystal Nanocavity Arrays

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Altug, Hatice; Vuckovic, Jelena

    2006-01-01

    We recently proposed two-dimensional coupled photonic crystal nanocavity arrays as a route to achieve a slow-group velocity of light in all crystal directions, thereby enabling numerous applications...

  8. Growth of dopamine crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patil, Vidya, E-mail: vidya.patil@ruparel.edu; Patki, Mugdha, E-mail: mugdha.patki@ruparel.edu [D. G. Ruparel College, Senapati Bapat Marg, Mahim, Mumbai – 400 016 (India)

    2016-05-06

    Many nonlinear optical (NLO) crystals have been identified as potential candidates in optical and electro-optical devices. Use of NLO organic crystals is expected in photonic applications. Hence organic nonlinear optical materials have been intensely investigated due to their potentially high nonlinearities, and rapid response in electro-optic effect compared to inorganic NLO materials. There are many methods to grow organic crystals such as vapor growth method, melt growth method and solution growth method. Out of these methods, solution growth method is useful in providing constraint free crystal. Single crystals of Dopamine have been grown by evaporating the solvents from aqueous solution. Crystals obtained were of the size of orders of mm. The crystal structure of dopamine was determined using XRD technique. Images of crystals were obtained using FEG SEM Quanta Series under high vacuum and low KV.

  9. Crystal structure and prediction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakur, Tejender S; Dubey, Ritesh; Desiraju, Gautam R

    2015-04-01

    The notion of structure is central to the subject of chemistry. This review traces the development of the idea of crystal structure since the time when a crystal structure could be determined from a three-dimensional diffraction pattern and assesses the feasibility of computationally predicting an unknown crystal structure of a given molecule. Crystal structure prediction is of considerable fundamental and applied importance, and its successful execution is by no means a solved problem. The ease of crystal structure determination today has resulted in the availability of large numbers of crystal structures of higher-energy polymorphs and pseudopolymorphs. These structural libraries lead to the concept of a crystal structure landscape. A crystal structure of a compound may accordingly be taken as a data point in such a landscape.

  10. Photonic crystal pioneer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anscombe, Nadya

    2011-08-01

    Over the past ten years, Crystal Fiber, now part of NKT Photonics, has been busy commercializing photonic crystal fibre. Nadya Anscombe finds out about the evolution of the technology and its applications.

  11. Synergistic effects of surfactants and sugars on lipoplex stability during freeze-drying and rehydration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jinxiang; Anchordoquy, Thomas J

    2009-09-01

    The stability of nonviral vectors during freeze-drying has been well-studied, and it has been established that sugars can protect lipoplexes during freeze-drying. However low levels of damage are often observed after freeze-drying, and this damage is more evident in dilute lipoplex preparations. By investigating the stability of lipoplexes after each step in the freeze-drying cycle (i.e., freezing, primary drying, and secondary drying), we strive to understand the mechanisms responsible for damage and identify improved stabilization strategies. N-(1-(2,3-dioleoyloxy)propyl)-N,N,N-trimethylammonium chloride (DOTAP)-cholesterol/plasmid DNA lipoplexes were prepared at an equimolar DOTAP-cholesterol ratio, and a 3:1 DOTAP(+)-DNA(-) charge ratio. Our experiments indicate that despite sufficient levels of "stabilizing" sugars, significant damage is still evident when dilute lipoplex preparations are subjected to freeze-drying. Analysis of the different stages of freeze-drying suggests that significant damage occurs during freezing, and that sugars have a limited capacity to protect against this freezing-induced damage. Similar effects have been observed in studies with proteins, and surfactants have been employed in protein formulations to protect against surface-induced damage, for example, at the ice crystal, solid, air, or sugar glass surfaces. However, the use of surfactants in a lipid-based formulation is inherently risky due to the potential for altering/solubilizing the lipid delivery vehicle. Our data indicate that judicious use of surfactants can reduce surface-induced damage and result in better preservation of lipoplex size and transfection activity after freeze-drying.

  12. ALICE photon spectrometer crystals

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2006-01-01

    Members of the mechanical assembly team insert the last few crystals into the first module of ALICE's photon spectrometer. These crystals are made from lead-tungstate, a crystal as clear as glass but with nearly four times the density. When a high-energy particle passes through one of these crystals it will scintillate, emitting a flash of light allowing the energy of photons, electrons and positrons to be measured.

  13. Pollen dispersal in sugar beet production fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darmency, Henri; Klein, Etienne K; De Garanbé, Thierry Gestat; Gouyon, Pierre-Henri; Richard-Molard, Marc; Muchembled, Claude

    2009-04-01

    Pollen-mediated gene flow has important implications for biodiversity conservation and for breeders and farmers' activities. In sugar beet production fields, a few sugar beet bolters can produce pollen as well as be fertilized by wild and weed beet. Since the crop, the wild beets, and the weed beets are the same species and intercross freely, the question of pollen flow is an important issue to determine the potential dispersal of transgenes from field to field and to wild habitats. We report here an experiment to describe pollen dispersal from a small herbicide-resistant sugar beet source towards male sterile target plants located along radiating lines up to 1,200 m away. Individual dispersal functions were inferred from statistical analyses and compared. Pollen limitation, as expected in root-production fields, was confirmed at all the distances from the pollen source. The number of resistant seeds produced by bait plants best fitted a fat-tailed probability distribution curve of pollen grains (power-law) dependent on the distance from the pollen source. A literature survey confirmed that power-law function could fit in most cases. The b coefficient was lower than 2. The number of fertilized flowers by background (herbicide-susceptible) pollen grains was uniform across the whole field. Airborne pollen had a fertilization impact equivalent to that of one adjacent bolter. The individual dispersal function from different pollen sources can be integrated to provide the pollen cloud composition for a given target plant, thus allowing modeling of gene flow in a field, inter-fields in a small region, and also in seed-production area. Long-distance pollen flow is not negligible and could play an important role in rapid transgene dispersal from crop to wild and weed beets in the landscape. The removing of any bolting, herbicide-resistant sugar beet should be compulsory to prevent the occurrence of herbicide-resistant weed beet, thus preventing gene flow to wild

  14. Analysis of liquid crystal properties for photonic crystal fiber devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weirich, Johannes; Lægsgaard, Jesper; Wei, Lei

    2009-01-01

    We analyze the bandgap structure of Liquid Crystal infiltrated Photonic Crystal Fibers depending on the parameters of the Liquid Crystals by means of finite element simulations. For a biased Liquid Crystal Photonic Crystal Fiber, we show how the tunability of the bandgap position depends...... on the Liquid Crystal parameters....

  15. American Connections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Anne Ring

    2015-01-01

    The Danish artist Thomas Bang spent his early years in the USA. The works he created in this formative period were thus profoundly shaped by the contemporary movements in American art of the 1960s and 1970s when sculpture, or to be more precise, three-dimensional work became a hotbed of expansive...... experiments. This article traces how Bang made a radical move from painting to sculpture, which was characteristic of that time, and how he developed his artistic idiom by taking an active part in some of the seminal new departures in American art, in particular process art and post-minimalism. By leaping...... to the lasting impact of Bang's American period, which remains the key to understanding his works....

  16. Discrimination of genetically modified sugar beets based on terahertz spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Tao; Li, Zhi; Yin, Xianhua; Hu, Fangrong; Hu, Cong

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this paper was to apply terahertz (THz) spectroscopy combined with chemometrics techniques for discrimination of genetically modified (GM) and non-GM sugar beets. In this paper, the THz spectra of 84 sugar beet samples (36 GM sugar beets and 48 non-GM ones) were obtained by using terahertz time-domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS) system in the frequency range from 0.2 to 1.2 THz. Three chemometrics methods, principal component analysis (PCA), discriminant analysis (DA) and discriminant partial least squares (DPLS), were employed to classify sugar beet samples into two groups: genetically modified organisms (GMOs) and non-GMOs. The DPLS method yielded the best classification result, and the percentages of successful classification for GM and non-GM sugar beets were both 100%. Results of the present study demonstrate the usefulness of THz spectroscopy together with chemometrics methods as a powerful tool to distinguish GM and non-GM sugar beets.

  17. Application of Life Cycle Assessment (LCA in Sugar Industries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dwi Astuti Arieyanti

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Sugar is one of the main commodities that are needed for human life. The demand of sugar is very high with the trend increase from year to year. This condition makes the sugar industry become a leading industry that must be maintained sustainability. The sustainability of the sugar industry is influenced by the use of energy and natural resources and the resulting environmental impacts. Therefore, an effort is needed to analyze the environmental aspects and potential environmental impacts resulting from a product (sugar, by using Life Cycle Assessment (LCA. LCA is a very important tool for the analysis of a process/system from its cradle to grave. This technique is very useful in the estimation of energy usage and environmental load of a product/system. This paper aims to describe the main elements of sugar industries using Life Cycle Assessment.

  18. Application of Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) in Sugar Industries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astuti, Arieyanti Dwi; Astuti, Rahayu Siwi Dwi; Hadiyanto, Hadiyanto

    2018-02-01

    Sugar is one of the main commodities that are needed for human life. The demand of sugar is very high with the trend increase from year to year. This condition makes the sugar industry become a leading industry that must be maintained sustainability. The sustainability of the sugar industry is influenced by the use of energy and natural resources and the resulting environmental impacts. Therefore, an effort is needed to analyze the environmental aspects and potential environmental impacts resulting from a product (sugar), by using Life Cycle Assessment (LCA). LCA is a very important tool for the analysis of a process/system from its cradle to grave. This technique is very useful in the estimation of energy usage and environmental load of a product/system. This paper aims to describe the main elements of sugar industries using Life Cycle Assessment.

  19. Impact of sugars and sugar taxation on body weight control: A comprehensive literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bes-Rastrollo, Maira; Sayon-Orea, Carmen; Ruiz-Canela, Miguel; Martinez-Gonzalez, Miguel A

    2016-07-01

    To conduct a comprehensive literature review in the field of added-sugar consumption on weight gain including the effect of fructose-containing caloric sweeteners and sugar taxation. A search of three databases was conducted in the time period from the inception of the databases to August 2015. Sensitive search strategies were used in order to retrieve systematic reviews (SR) of fructose, sucrose, or sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) on weight gain and metabolic adverse effects, conducted on humans and written in English, Spanish, or French. In addition, a review about SSB taxation and weight outcomes was conducted. The search yielded 24 SRs about SSBs and obesity, 23 SRs on fructose or SSBs and metabolic adverse effects, and 24 studies about SSB taxation and weight control. The majority of SRs, especially the most recent ones, with the highest quality and without any disclosed conflict of interest, suggested that the consumption of SSBs is a risk factor for obesity. The effect of fructose-containing caloric sweeteners, on weight gain is mediated by overconsumption of beverages with these sweeteners, leading to an extra provision of energy intake. The tax tool alone on added sugars appears insufficient to curb the obesity epidemic, but it needs to be included in a multicomponent structural strategy. © 2016 The Obesity Society.

  20. Technical and Economical Feasibility of Production of Ethanol from Sugar Cane and Sugar Cane Bagasse

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Efe, C.; Straathof, A.J.J.; Van der Wielen, L.A.M.

    2005-01-01

    The primary aim of this study is to investigate and analyze the sugar-ethanol plants operating in Brazil to construct a raw model to gain better understanding and insight about the technical and economical aspects of the currently operating plants. And, the secondary aim is to combine the knowledge

  1. Understanding the Effect of Sugar and Sugar Replacement in Short Dough Biscuits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laguna, L.; Vallons, K.J.R.; Jurgens, A.; Sanz, T.

    2013-01-01

    Sucrose is the main sugar used in short dough biscuit formula, and it plays an important role in the biscuit manufacturing as well as in the biscuits final quality. However, for health reasons, high levels of sucrose are undesirable, making sucrose replacement an important issue to study. The

  2. Study of sugar cooking degree to sugar obtention using gamma attenuation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holanda Cavalcanti, J. de.

    1984-01-01

    The application of gamma radiation attenuation methodology in the determination of sugar cooking degree is studied. Several experiments with samples of vacuum equipment during the cooking were made, based on beam intensity variations of a radioactive source of Americium 241. One sensible difference between the sirup emergent radiation and the cooked mass was observed. (M.A.C.) [pt

  3. Role of potassium and nitrogen on sugar concentration of sugar beet

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Key Words: Beta vulgaris L., root yield, sugar yield, regression. RÉSUMÉ Le sucre est extrait des racines de la betterave (Beta vulgaris L.) en plus d'autres sources. Trois paramètres économiques importants sont souvent considérés notamment le rendement en racines, la concentration en sucre et le rendement en sucre.

  4. A tonoplast sugar transporter underlies a sugar accumulation QTL in watermelon

    Science.gov (United States)

    The molecular mechanism controlling accumulation of soluble sugars in watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) fruit, a trait associated with sweet-dessert watermelon domestication, is still unknown. We re-sequenced 96 recombinant inbred lines, derived from a cross between sweet and unsweet watermelon accessi...

  5. Perceptions of sugar mommy practices in South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Phaswana-Mafuya, Nancy; Shisana, Olive; Davids, Adlai; Tabane, Cily; Mbelle, Margaret; Matseke, Gladys; Banyini, Mercy; Kekana, Queen

    2014-01-01

    The study sought to explore sugar mommy practices regarding their occurrence, acceptability as well as perceived reasons why older women and younger men enter into sugar mommy relationships. An exploratory qualitative study involving 135 participants from 11 diverse focus groups in terms of age, gender (females=27%) and geotype throughout the nine South African provinces was conducted. Data on the participants’ views, opinions and experiences of sugar mommy practices were collected using focu...

  6. Analysis of honey main sugars by size-exclusion chromatography

    OpenAIRE

    Sousa, Mara E.B.C.; Peres, António M.; Dias, L.G.; Morais, Jorge Sá; Estevinho, Leticia M.; Machado, Adélio

    2012-01-01

    The main constituents of honey are sugars, mainly the monosaccharides fructose and glucose (reducing sugars), which account for 80% of the total mass, while the disaccharides (especially sucrose and maltose) represent 10%. In general, fructose predominates (giving a sweeter taste to honey than sucrose), although, in some honeys, glucose (that assigns a less sweet taste than sucrose but more than maltose) may be the main sugar. The fructose/glucose mass ratio is a parameter that...

  7. Site preparation as an aid to sugar pine regeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    H.A. Fowells

    1944-01-01

    On many thousands of acres of cut-over timber lands in California, brush of various species has gained such control of the soil that the success of natural reproduction is problematical. This condition is particularly serious in the high site quality sugar pine-white fir and sugar pine-ponderosa pine types, where the maintenance of sugar pine in the stands is a...

  8. Consumer understanding of sugars claims on food and drink products

    OpenAIRE

    Patterson, N J; Sadler, M J; Cooper, J M

    2012-01-01

    Consumer understanding of nutrition and health claims is a key aspect of current regulations in the European Union (EU). In view of this, qualitative and quantitative research techniques were used to investigate consumer awareness and understanding of product claims in the UK, focusing particularly on nutrition claims relating to sugars. Both research methods identified a good awareness of product claims. No added sugars claims were generally preferred to reduced sugars claims, and there was ...

  9. Sugar-induced cephalic-phase insulin release is mediated by a T1r2+T1r3-independent taste transduction pathway in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glendinning, John I; Stano, Sarah; Holter, Marlena; Azenkot, Tali; Goldman, Olivia; Margolskee, Robert F; Vasselli, Joseph R; Sclafani, Anthony

    2015-09-01

    Sensory stimulation from foods elicits cephalic phase responses, which facilitate digestion and nutrient assimilation. One such response, cephalic-phase insulin release (CPIR), enhances glucose tolerance. Little is known about the chemosensory mechanisms that activate CPIR. We studied the contribution of the sweet taste receptor (T1r2+T1r3) to sugar-induced CPIR in C57BL/6 (B6) and T1r3 knockout (KO) mice. First, we measured insulin release and glucose tolerance following oral (i.e., normal ingestion) or intragastric (IG) administration of 2.8 M glucose. Both groups of mice exhibited a CPIR following oral but not IG administration, and this CPIR improved glucose tolerance. Second, we examined the specificity of CPIR. Both mouse groups exhibited a CPIR following oral administration of 1 M glucose and 1 M sucrose but not 1 M fructose or water alone. Third, we studied behavioral attraction to the same three sugar solutions in short-term acceptability tests. B6 mice licked more avidly for the sugar solutions than for water, whereas T1r3 KO mice licked no more for the sugar solutions than for water. Finally, we examined chorda tympani (CT) nerve responses to each of the sugars. Both mouse groups exhibited CT nerve responses to the sugars, although those of B6 mice were stronger. We propose that mice possess two taste transduction pathways for sugars. One mediates behavioral attraction to sugars and requires an intact T1r2+T1r3. The other mediates CPIR but does not require an intact T1r2+T1r3. If the latter taste transduction pathway exists in humans, it should provide opportunities for the development of new treatments for controlling blood sugar. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  10. "Predicting" Polymorphs of Pharmaceuticals Using Hydrogen Bond Propensities: Probenecid and Its Two Single-Crystal-to-Single-Crystal Phase Transitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nauha, Elisa; Bernstein, Joel

    2015-06-01

    The recently developed hydrogen-bonding propensity tool in the Cambridge Structural Database software package (Mercury) was tested to predict polymorphs. The compounds for the study were chosen from a list of approximately 300 pharmaceutically important compounds, for which multiple crystal forms had not been previously reported. The hydrogen-bonding propensity analysis was carried out on approximately 60 randomly selected compounds from this list. Several compounds with a high probability for exhibiting polymorphism in the analysis were chosen for a limited experimental crystal form screening. One of the compounds, probenecid, did not yield polymorphs by traditional solution crystallization screening, but differential scanning calorimetry revealed three polymorphs. All of them exhibit the same hydrogen bonding and transform via two reversible single-crystal-to single-crystal transformations, which have been characterized in detail through three single-crystal structure determinations at appropriate temperatures. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association.

  11. pH Regulation of Electrogenic Sugar/H+ Symport in MFS Sugar Permeases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazzone, Andre; Madej, M. Gregor; Kaback, H. Ronald

    2016-01-01

    Bacterial sugar symporters in the Major Facilitator Superfamily (MFS) use the H+ (and in a few cases Na+) electrochemical gradients to achieve active transport of sugar into the cell. Because a number of structures of MFS sugar symporters have been solved recently, molecular insight into the transport mechanism is possible from detailed functional analysis. We present here a comparative electrophysiological study of the lactose permease (LacY), the fucose permease (FucP) and the xylose permease (XylE), which reveals common mechanistic principles and differences. In all three symporters energetically downhill electrogenic sugar/H+ symport is observed. Comparison of the pH dependence of symport at symmetrical pH exhibits broad bell-shaped pH profiles extending over 3 to 6 pH units and a decrease at extremely alkaline pH ≥ 9.4 and at acidic to neutral pH = 4.6–7.5. The pH dependence can be described by an acidic to neutral apparent pK (pKapp) and an alkaline pKapp. Experimental evidence suggests that the alkaline pKapp is due to H+ depletion at the protonation site, while the acidic pKapp is due to inhibition of deprotonation. Since previous studies suggest that a single carboxyl group in LacY (Glu325) may be the only side chain directly involved in H+ translocation and a carboxyl side chain with similar properties has been identified in FucP (Asp46) and XylE (Asp27), the present results imply that the pK of this residue is switched during H+/sugar symport in all three symporters. PMID:27227677

  12. Sugar ester surfactants: enzymatic synthesis and applications in food industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neta, Nair S; Teixeira, José A; Rodrigues, Lígia R

    2015-01-01

    Sugar esters are non-ionic surfactants that can be synthesized in a single enzymatic reaction step using lipases. The stability and efficiency of lipases under unusual conditions and using non-conventional media can be significantly improved through immobilization and protein engineering. Also, the development of de novo enzymes has seen a significant increase lately under the scope of the new field of synthetic biology. Depending on the esterification degree and the nature of fatty acid and/or sugar, a range of sugar esters can be synthesized. Due to their surface activity and emulsifying capacity, sugar esters are promising for applications in food industry.

  13. Characterization of Sugar Insensitive (sis) Mutants of Arabidopsis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gibson, Susan I.

    2009-06-08

    Despite the fact that soluble sugar levels have been postulated to play an important role in the control of a wide variety of plant metabolic and developmental pathways, the mechanisms by which plants respond to soluble sugar levels remain poorly understood. Plant responses to soluble sugar levels are also important in bioenergy production, as plant sugar responses are believed to help regulate both carbon fixation and carbon partitioning. For example, accumulation of soluble sugars, such as sucrose and glucose, in source tissues leads to feedback inhibition of photosynthesis, thereby decreasing rates of carbon fixation. Soluble sugar levels can also affect sink strengths, affecting the rates of accumulation of carbon-based compounds into both particular molecular forms (e.g. carbohydrates versus lipids versus proteins) and particular plant organs and tissues. Mutants of Arabidopsis that are defective in the ability to respond to soluble sugar levels were isolated and used as tools to identify some of the factors involved in plant sugar response. These sugar insensitive (sis) mutants were isolated by screening mutagenized seeds for those that were able to germinate and develop relatively normal shoot systems on media containing 0.3 M glucose or 0.3 M sucrose. At these sugar concentrations, wild-type Arabidopsis germinate and produce substantial root systems, but show little to no shoot development. Twenty-eight sis mutants were isolated during the course of four independent mutant screens. Based on a preliminary characterization of all of these mutants, sis3 and sis6 were chosen for further study. Both of these mutations appear to lie in previously uncharacterized loci. Unlike many other sugar-response mutants, sis3 mutants exhibit a wild-type or near wild-type response in all phytohormone-response assays conducted to date. The sis6-1 mutation is unusual in that it appears to be due to overexpression of a gene, rather than representing a loss of function mutation

  14. Supply optimization for the production of raw sugar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grunow, Martin; Günther, H.O.; Westinner, R.

    2007-01-01

    Based on a case study from Venezuela, the production of raw sugar is investigated. Ideally, sugar mills operate at a constant production rate. However, safety stocks of the raw material cannot be maintained as sugar cane quality deteriorates very rapidly. Sugar cane is therefore continuously...... at preserving a constant supply while minimizing the associated costs. The entire planning problem is structured in a hierarchical fashion: (1) cultivation of the haciendas, (2) harvesting, and (3) dispatching of the harvesting crews and equipment. The corresponding optimization models and solution procedures...

  15. American Illuminations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nye, David

    Illuminated fêtes and civic celebrations began in Renaissance Italy and spread through the courts of Europe. Their fireworks, torches, lamps, and special effects glorified the monarch, marked the birth of a prince, or celebrated military victory. Nineteenth-century Americans rejected such monarch......Illuminated fêtes and civic celebrations began in Renaissance Italy and spread through the courts of Europe. Their fireworks, torches, lamps, and special effects glorified the monarch, marked the birth of a prince, or celebrated military victory. Nineteenth-century Americans rejected...... such monarchial pomp and adapted spectacular lighting to their democratic, commercial culture. In American Illuminations, David Nye explains how they experimented with gas and electric light to create illuminated cityscapes far brighter and more dynamic than those of Europe, and how these illuminations became......, commercial lighting that defined distinct zones of light and glamorized the city’s White Ways, skyscrapers, bridges, department stores, theaters, and dance halls. Poor and blighted areas disappeared into the shadows. American illuminations also became integral parts of national political campaigns...

  16. Evidence that biosynthesis of the second and third sugars of the archaellin Tetrasaccharide in the archaeon Methanococcus maripaludis occurs by the same pathway used by Pseudomonas aeruginosa to make a di-N-acetylated sugar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siu, Sarah; Robotham, Anna; Logan, Susan M; Kelly, John F; Uchida, Kaoru; Aizawa, Shin-Ichi; Jarrell, Ken F

    2015-05-01

    archaellum assembly. Pilins are modified with a different N-glycan consisting of the archaellin tetrasaccharide but with an additional hexose attached to the linking sugar. Mass spectrometry analysis of the pili of one mutant strain provided insight into how this different glycan might ultimately be assembled. This study includes a rare example of an archaeal gene functionally replacing a bacterial gene in a complex sugar biosynthesis pathway. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  17. Photonic crystal light source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, James G [Albuquerque, NM; Lin, Shawn-Yu [Albuquerque, NM; Bur, James A [Corrales, NM

    2004-07-27

    A light source is provided by a photonic crystal having an enhanced photonic density-of-states over a band of frequencies and wherein at least one of the dielectric materials of the photonic crystal has a complex dielectric constant, thereby producing enhanced light emission at the band of frequencies when the photonic crystal is heated. The dielectric material can be a metal, such as tungsten. The spectral properties of the light source can be easily tuned by modification of the photonic crystal structure and materials. The photonic crystal light source can be heated electrically or other heating means. The light source can further include additional photonic crystals that exhibit enhanced light emission at a different band of frequencies to provide for color mixing. The photonic crystal light source may have applications in optical telecommunications, information displays, energy conversion, sensors, and other optical applications.

  18. The Influence of Sugar-Sweetened Beverage Health Warning Labels on Parents' Choices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberto, Christina A; Wong, Diandra; Musicus, Aviva; Hammond, David

    2016-02-01

    US states have introduced bills requiring sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) to display health warning labels. This study examined how such labels may influence parents and which labels are most impactful. In this study, 2381 demographically and educationally diverse parents participated in an online survey. Parents were randomly assigned to 1 of 6 conditions: (1) no warning label (control); (2) calorie label; or (3-6) 1 of 4 text versions of a warning label (eg, Safety Warning: Drinking beverages with added sugar[s] contributes to obesity, diabetes, and tooth decay). Parents chose a beverage for their child in a vending machine choice task, rated perceptions of different beverages, and indicated interest in receiving beverage coupons. Regression analyses controlling for frequency of beverage purchases were used to compare the no warning label group, calorie label group, and all warning label groups combined. Significantly fewer parents chose an SSB for their child in the warning label condition (40%) versus the no label (60%) and calorie label conditions (53%). Parents in the warning label condition also chose significantly fewer SSB coupons, believed that SSBs were less healthy for their child, and were less likely to intend to purchase SSBs. All P values parents' understanding of health harms associated with overconsumption of such beverages and may reduce parents' purchase of SSBs for their children. Copyright © 2016 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  19. Hydrogen Bonding Interactions and Enthalpy Relaxation in Sugar/Protein Glasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sydykov, Bulat; Oldenhof, Harriëtte; Sieme, Harald; Wolkers, Willem F

    2017-03-01

    In this study, hydrogen bonding interactions and enthalpy relaxation phenomena of sugar and sugar/protein glasses have been studied using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and differential scanning calorimetry. The sugar OH band in Fourier transform infrared spectra was used to derive the glass transition temperature, T g , and the wavenumber-temperature coefficient (WTC) of the OH band. A study on mixtures of sucrose and albumin revealed that the glass transition temperature and strength of hydrogen bonds increased with increasing percentages of albumin. WTC g and T g derived from sucrose/albumin glasses showed a negative linear correlation. The Lu-Weiss equation was used to fit T g data of sucrose/albumin mixtures. An inflection point was observed at a 1:1 mass ratio, which coincided with an inflection of the OH-stretching band denoting a change in hydrogen bonding interactions. Enthalpy relaxation, which is seen as an endothermic event superimposed on the glass transition in differential scanning calorimetry thermograms, increases with increasing storage temperature. Activation energies of enthalpy relaxation of sucrose and sucrose/albumin glasses were determined to be 332 and 236 kJ mol -1 , respectively. Addition of albumin to sucrose increases the T g , average strength of hydrogen bonding, heterogeneity, and the enthalpy relaxation time, making the glass more stable during storage at room temperature. Copyright © 2017 American Pharmacists Association®. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. The “Indy way”: Lessons from Brazilian sugar-cane biofuel supply chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    hristian Santiago

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores how the Brazilian sugar-energetic processors used Indycar racing to increase exports to the United States and create value by transforming the Brazilian ethanol from a commodity fuel to an advanced biofuel, between 2009 to 2012. This case study uses the relationship between Brazilian Sugar-cane Industry Association (UNICA, Brazilian Trade and Investment Promotion Agency (APEX-Brazil, and the IndyCar Racing League (IRL, to show the ability to learn and perform in a competitive scenario. Absorptive Capacity (ACAP theory is used to understand how the Brazilian sugar-energetic processors identified, assimilated, transformed, and exploited knowledge from this relationship, as well as how this experience could be used in other industries. As a trading result, Brazilian biofuel exports to the United States increased 758.22% during the studied period and the Volumetric Ethanol Excise Tax Credit (VEETC, an American tax act in vigor since the 1970’s, was extinguished at the end of 2011. The main contribution of this study: Identify how the Absorptive Capacity Theory can explain such impacts in the Brazilian Biofuel exports through the relationship between partners in the U.S. and Brazil.

  1. Tackling Obesity and Disease: The Culprit Is Sugar; the Response Is Legal Regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gostin, Lawrence O

    2018-01-01

    It is staggering to observe the new normal in America: 37.9 percent of adults are obese, and 70.7 percent are either obese or overweight. One out of every five minors is obese. The real tragedy, of course, is the disability, suffering, and early death that devastates families and communities. But all of society pays, with the annual medical cost estimated at $147 billion. The causal pathways are complex, but if we drill down, sugar is a deeply consequential pathway to obesity, and the single greatest dietary source is sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs). The copious amount of sugar in the American diet is no accident. Industry practices and regulatory failures have fueled this explosion. Yet there are sensible, effective interventions that would create the conditions for healthier behaviors. What are the key interventions, and how can we overcome the social, political, and constitutional roadblocks? Tobacco control offers a powerful model, suggesting that success requires a suite of interventions working in concert: labeling, warnings, taxation, portion sizes, product formulation, marketing restrictions, and bans in high-risk settings such as schools and hospitals. Each intervention deserves detailed analysis, but I'm kick-starting scholarly and policy conversation by systematically laying out the major legal tools. © 2018 The Hastings Center.

  2. Production and crystallization of α-phosphoglucomutase from Lactococcus lactis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nogly, Przemyslaw; Castro, Rute; Rosa, Matteo de; Neves, Ana Rute; Santos, Helena; Archer, Margarida

    2012-01-01

    α-Phosphoglucomutase from L. lactis, a homologue of human phosphomannomutase 1, was produced and crystallized. X-ray diffraction data were collected to 1.5 Å resolution. α-Phosphoglucomutase (α-PGM) is an enzyme that is essential for the growth of Lactococcus lactis. The enzyme links bacterial anabolism with sugar utilization through glycolysis by catalyzing the reversible interconversion of glucose 6-phosphate and α-glucose 1-phosphate. The gene encoding α-PGM was cloned and overexpressed in L. lactis. The purified protein was functionally active and was crystallized with ammonium sulfate as a precipitant using vapour-diffusion and seeding techniques. Optimized crystals diffracted to 1.5 Å resolution at a synchrotron source

  3. Macromolecular Crystallization in Microgravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snell, Edward H.; Helliwell, John R.

    2004-01-01

    The key concepts that attracted crystal growers, macromolecular or solid state, to microgravity research is that density difference fluid flows and sedimentation of the growing crystals are greatly reduced. Thus, defects and flaws in the crystals can be reduced, even eliminated, and crystal volume can be increased. Macromolecular crystallography differs from the field of crystalline semiconductors. For the latter, crystals are harnessed for their electrical behaviors. A crystal of a biological macromolecule is used instead for diffraction experiments (X-ray or neutron) to determine the three-dimensional structure of the macromolecule. The better the internal order of the crystal of a biological macromolecule then the more molecular structure detail that can be extracted. This structural information that enables an understanding of how the molecule functions. This knowledge is changing the biological and chemical sciences with major potential in understanding disease pathologies. Macromolecular structural crystallography in general is a remarkable field where physics, biology, chemistry, and mathematics meet to enable insight to the basic fundamentals of life. In this review, we examine the use of microgravity as an environment to grow macromolecular crystals. We describe the crystallization procedures used on the ground, how the resulting crystals are studied and the knowledge obtained from those crystals. We address the features desired in an ordered crystal and the techniques used to evaluate those features in detail. We then introduce the microgravity environment, the techniques to access that environment, and the theory and evidence behind the use of microgravity for crystallization experiments. We describe how ground-based laboratory techniques have been adapted to microgravity flights and look at some of the methods used to analyze the resulting data. Several case studies illustrate the physical crystal quality improvements and the macromolecular structural

  4. Association of δ13C in Fingerstick Blood with Added Sugars and Sugar-sweetened Beverage Intake

    OpenAIRE

    Davy, Brenda M.; Jahren, A. Hope; Hedrick, Valisa E.; Comber, Dana L.

    2011-01-01

    A reliance on self-reported dietary intake measures is a common research limitation, thus the need for dietary biomarkers. Added sugar intake may play a role in the development and progression of obesity and related co-morbidities; common sweeteners include corn and sugar cane derivatives. These plants contain a high amount of 13C, a naturally-occurring stable carbon isotope. Consumption of these sweeteners, of which sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB) are the primary dietary source, may be refle...

  5. Influences of Dietary Added Sugar Consumption on Striatal Food-Cue Reactivity and Postprandial GLP-1 Response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorton, Hilary M; Luo, Shan; Monterosso, John R; Page, Kathleen A

    2017-01-01

    Sugar consumption in the United States exceeds recommendations from the American Heart Association. Overconsumption of sugar is linked to risk for obesity and metabolic disease. Animal studies suggest that high-sugar diets alter functions in brain regions associated with reward processing, including the dorsal and ventral striatum. Human neuroimaging studies have shown that these regions are responsive to food cues, and that the gut-derived satiety hormones, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), and peptide YY (PYY), suppress striatal food-cue responsivity. We aimed to determine the associations between dietary added sugar intake, striatal responsivity to food cues, and postprandial GLP-1 and PYY levels. Twenty-two lean volunteers underwent a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) scan during which they viewed pictures of food and non-food items after a 12-h fast. Before scanning, participants consumed a glucose drink. A subset of 19 participants underwent an additional fMRI session in which they consumed water as a control condition. Blood was sampled for GLP-1, and PYY levels and hunger ratings were assessed before and ~75 min after drink consumption. In-person 24-h dietary recalls were collected from each participant on three to six separate occasions over a 2-month period. Average percent calories from added sugar were calculated using information from 24-h dietary recalls. A region-of-interest analysis was performed to compare the blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) response to food vs. non-food cues in the bilateral dorsal striatum (caudate/putamen) and ventral striatum (nucleus accumbens). The relationships between added sugar, striatal responses, and hormone changes after drink consumption were assessed using Spearman's correlations. We observed a positive correlation between added sugar intake and BOLD response to food cues in the dorsal striatum and a similar trend in the nucleus accumbens after glucose, but not water, consumption. Added sugar intake

  6. Influences of Dietary Added Sugar Consumption on Striatal Food-Cue Reactivity and Postprandial GLP-1 Response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilary M. Dorton

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Sugar consumption in the United States exceeds recommendations from the American Heart Association. Overconsumption of sugar is linked to risk for obesity and metabolic disease. Animal studies suggest that high-sugar diets alter functions in brain regions associated with reward processing, including the dorsal and ventral striatum. Human neuroimaging studies have shown that these regions are responsive to food cues, and that the gut-derived satiety hormones, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1, and peptide YY (PYY, suppress striatal food-cue responsivity. We aimed to determine the associations between dietary added sugar intake, striatal responsivity to food cues, and postprandial GLP-1 and PYY levels. Twenty-two lean volunteers underwent a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI scan during which they viewed pictures of food and non-food items after a 12-h fast. Before scanning, participants consumed a glucose drink. A subset of 19 participants underwent an additional fMRI session in which they consumed water as a control condition. Blood was sampled for GLP-1, and PYY levels and hunger ratings were assessed before and ~75 min after drink consumption. In-person 24-h dietary recalls were collected from each participant on three to six separate occasions over a 2-month period. Average percent calories from added sugar were calculated using information from 24-h dietary recalls. A region-of-interest analysis was performed to compare the blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD response to food vs. non-food cues in the bilateral dorsal striatum (caudate/putamen and ventral striatum (nucleus accumbens. The relationships between added sugar, striatal responses, and hormone changes after drink consumption were assessed using Spearman’s correlations. We observed a positive correlation between added sugar intake and BOLD response to food cues in the dorsal striatum and a similar trend in the nucleus accumbens after glucose, but not water, consumption

  7. Crystallization and crystal properties of squid rhodopsin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murakami, Midori; Kitahara, Rei; Gotoh, Toshiaki; Kouyama, Tsutomu

    2007-01-01

    Truncated rhodopsin from the retina of the squid Todarodes pacificus was extracted and crystallized by the sitting-drop vapour-diffusion method. Hexagonal crystals grown in the presence of octylglucoside and ammonium sulfate diffracted to 2.8 Å resolution. Rhodopsin, a photoreceptor membrane protein in the retina, is a prototypical member of the G-protein-coupled receptor family. In this study, rhodopsin from the retina of the squid Todarodes pacificus was treated with V8 protease to remove the C-terminal extension. Truncated rhodopsin was selectively extracted from the microvillar membranes using alkyl glucoside in the presence of zinc ions and was then crystallized by the sitting-drop vapour-diffusion method. Of the various crystals obtained, hexagonal crystals grown in the presence of octylglucoside and ammonium sulfate diffracted to 2.8 Å resolution. The diffraction data suggested that the crystal belongs to space group P6 2 , with unit-cell parameters a = b = 122.1, c = 158.6 Å. Preliminary crystallographic analysis, together with linear dichroism results, suggested that the rhodopsin dimers are packed in such a manner that their transmembrane helices are aligned nearly parallel to the c axis

  8. Approximal caries and sugar consumption in Icelandic teenagers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnadóttir, I B; Rozier, R G; Saemundsson, S R; Sigurjóns, H; Holbrook, W P

    1998-04-01

    The aim of this study, conducted in 1994, was to examine the association between approximal caries and sugar consumption in teenagers residing in three fluoride-deficient areas in Iceland while controlling for a number of behavioral, residential and microbiological factors. One hundred and fifty subjects (mean age 14 years) selected from the Icelandic Nutritional Survey (INS) were examined radiographically and they completed questionnaires about sugar consumption frequency. Total grams of sugar intake were obtained from the INS for each subject. Caries experience on approximal surfaces, diagnosed from radiographs, was used as the dependent variable in the analyses. Altogether 45.2% of subjects were caries free on approximal surfaces. The overall sample was found to have a mean DFS on approximal surfaces of 2.73 (s=4.36) per subject. Average daily total sugar intake was 170 g per subject and the mean number of sugar-eating occasions between meals was 5.32 (s=6.29) per subject. The regression model indicated that the frequency of between-meal sugar consumption was associated with approximal caries, with frequency of candy consumption being the most important of the sugar variables. In multivariate analysis, no relationship was found between dental caries and total daily intake of sugar, although a significant relationship between total sugar consumption and presence of caries was seen in bivariate analysis. Between-meal consumption of sugar remains a risk factor for the occurrence of dental caries, especially in populations with moderate-to-high levels of dental caries experience.

  9. Prospective association between added sugars and frailty in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laclaustra, Martin; Rodriguez-Artalejo, Fernando; Guallar-Castillon, Pilar; Banegas, Jose R; Graciani, Auxiliadora; Garcia-Esquinas, Esther; Ordovas, Jose; Lopez-Garcia, Esther

    2018-04-09

    Sugar-sweetened beverages and added sugars (monosaccharides and disaccharides) in the diet are associated with obesity, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease, which are all risk factors for decline in physical function among older adults. The aim of this study was to examine the association between added sugars in the diet and incidence of frailty in older people. Data were taken from 1973 Spanish adults ≥60 y old from the Seniors-ENRICA cohort. In 2008-2010 (baseline), consumption of added sugars (including those in fruit juices) was obtained using a validated diet history. Study participants were followed up until 2012-2013 to assess frailty based on Fried's criteria. Statistical analyses were performed with logistic regression adjusted for age, sex, education, smoking status, body mass index, energy intake, self-reported comorbidities, Mediterranean Diet Adherence Score (excluding sweetened drinks and pastries), TV watching time, and leisure-time physical activity. Compared with participants consuming added sugars (lowest tertile), those consuming ≥36 g/d (highest tertile) were more likely to develop frailty (OR: 2.27; 95% CI: 1.34, 3.90; P-trend = 0.003). The frailty components "low physical activity" and "unintentional weight loss" increased dose dependently with added sugars. Association with frailty was strongest for sugars added during food production. Intake of sugars naturally appearing in foods was not associated with frailty. The consumption of added sugars in the diet of older people was associated with frailty, mainly when present in processed foods. The frailty components that were most closely associated with added sugars were low level of physical activity and unintentional weight loss. Future research should determine whether there is a causal relation between added sugars and frailty.

  10. European Sugar Market – Impact of Quota System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irena Benešová

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The European agricultural market has been criticized for its heavy regulations and subsidization. The sugar market is one of the most regulated ones; however, this will change radically in 2017 when the current system of production quotas will end. The aim of this paper is to present the basic characteristics of the EU quota sugar market. The analysis identifies the main drivers of EU sugar market and their position within the EU sugar market. The paper identifies especially those drivers/companies/alliances which take control over the EU sugar production realized under the quota production system. The paper also highlights the level of EU sugar market concentration and also identifies those countries and companies which are the main leaders in the sugar production area realized under the quota system. Based on the results deriving from the paper, it is possible to characterize the EU sugar market as a heavily concentrated one – nearly 75% (10 mil. tonnes of the quota is controlled by five multinational companies only; these companies are operating more than 50% of all the available sugar plants located in the EU. These multinational alliances are also in control of the production capacities of their subsidiaries. In most countries, this causes serious problems as the given quota is controlled by one or two producers only. The EU sugar market is extremely concentrated especially if we take into consideration the location of each alliance’s headquarters. The majority of production capacities are under (the control of especially German and French companies. These two countries are also the main beneficiaries in relation to the EU sugar production quota system.

  11. Moisture and shelf life in sugar confections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ergun, R; Lietha, R; Hartel, R W

    2010-02-01

    From hardening of marshmallow to graining of hard candies, moisture plays a critical role in determining the quality and shelf life of sugar-based confections. Water is important during the manufacturing of confections, is an important factor in governing texture, and is often the limiting parameter during storage that controls shelf life. Thus, an understanding of water relations in confections is critical to controlling quality. Water content, which is controlled during candy manufacturing through an understanding of boiling point elevation, is one of the most important parameters that governs the texture of candies. For example, the texture of caramel progresses from soft and runny to hard and brittle as the moisture content decreases. However, knowledge of water content by itself is insufficient to controlling stability and shelf life. Understanding water activity, or the ratio of vapor pressures, is necessary to control shelf life. A difference in water activity, either between candy and air or between two domains within the candy, is the driving force for moisture migration in confections. When the difference in water activity is large, moisture migration is rapid, although the rate of moisture migration depends on the nature of resistances to water diffusion. Barrier packaging films protect the candy from air whereas edible films inhibit moisture migration between different moisture domains within a confection. More recently, the concept of glass transition, or the polymer science approach, has supplemented water activity as a critical parameter related to candy stability. Confections with low moisture content, such as hard candy, cotton candy, and some caramels and toffees, may contain sugars in the amorphous or glassy state. As long as these products remain below their glass transition temperature, they remain stable for very long times. However, certain glassy sugars tend to be hygroscopic, rapidly picking up moisture from the air, which causes

  12. 40 CFR 409.20 - Applicability; description of the crystalline cane sugar refining subcategory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... crystalline cane sugar refining subcategory. 409.20 Section 409.20 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Crystalline Cane Sugar Refining Subcategory § 409.20 Applicability; description of the crystalline cane sugar... processing of raw cane sugar into crystalline refined sugar. ...

  13. 7 CFR 1435.504 - Timing of distribution of CCC-owned sugar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Timing of distribution of CCC-owned sugar. 1435.504... CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS SUGAR PROGRAM Processor Sugar Payment-In-Kind (PIK) Program § 1435.504 Timing of distribution of CCC-owned sugar. Distribution of sugar...

  14. Total and Free Sugar Content of Canadian Prepackaged Foods and Beverages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernstein, Jodi T.; Schermel, Alyssa; Mills, Christine M.; L’Abbé, Mary R.

    2016-01-01

    A number of recommendations for policy and program interventions to limit excess free sugar consumption have emerged, however there are a lack of data describing the amounts and types of sugar in foods. This study presents an assessment of sugar in Canadian prepackaged foods including: (a) the first systematic calculation of free sugar contents; (b) a comprehensive assessment of total sugar and free sugar levels; and (c) sweetener and free sugar ingredient use, using the University of Toronto’s Food Label Information Program (FLIP) database 2013 (n = 15,342). Food groups with the highest proportion of foods containing free sugar ingredients also had the highest median total sugar and free sugar contents (per 100 g/mL): desserts (94%, 15 g, and 12 g), sugars and sweets (91%, 50 g, and 50 g), and bakery products (83%, 16 g, and 14 g, proportion with free sugar ingredients, median total sugar and free sugar content in Canadian foods, respectively). Free sugar accounted for 64% of total sugar content. Eight of 17 food groups had ≥75% of the total sugar derived from free sugar. Free sugar contributed 20% of calories overall in prepackaged foods and beverages, with the highest at 70% in beverages. These data can be used to inform interventions aimed at limiting free sugar consumption. PMID:27657125

  15. Enzymatic saccharification of sugar cane bagasse by continuous xylanase and cellulase production from cellulomonas flavigena PR-22.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas-Rejón, Óscar A; Poggi-Varaldo, Héctor M; Ramos-Valdivia, Ana C; Ponce-Noyola, Teresa; Cristiani-Urbina, Eliseo; Martínez, Alfredo; de la Torre, Mayra

    2016-03-01

    Cellulase (CMCase) and xylanase enzyme production and saccharification of sugar cane bagasse were coupled into two stages and named enzyme production and sugar cane bagasse saccharification. The performance of Cellulomonas flavigena (Cf) PR-22 cultured in a bubble column reactor (BCR) was compared to that in a stirred tank reactor (STR). Cells cultured in the BCR presented higher yields and productivity of both CMCase and xylanase activities than those grown in the STR configuration. A continuous culture with Cf PR-22 was run in the BCR using 1% alkali-pretreated sugar cane bagasse and mineral media, at dilution rates ranging from 0.04 to 0.22 1/h. The highest enzymatic productivity values were found at 0.08 1/h with 1846.4 ± 126.4 and 101.6 ± 5.6 U/L·h for xylanase and CMCase, respectively. Effluent from the BCR in steady state was transferred to an enzymatic reactor operated in fed-batch mode with an initial load of 75 g of pretreated sugar cane bagasse; saccharification was then performed in an STR at 55°C and 300 rpm for 90 h. The constant addition of fresh enzyme as well as the increase in time of contact with the substrate increased the total soluble sugar concentration 83% compared to the value obtained in a batch enzymatic reactor. This advantageous strategy may be used for industrial enzyme pretreatment and saccharification of lignocellulosic wastes to be used in bioethanol and chemicals production from lignocellulose. © 2016 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Biotechnol. Prog., 32:321-326, 2016. © 2016 American Institute of Chemical Engineers.

  16. Dietary Acculturation and Predictors of Anthropometric Indicators Among Filipino Americans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reimund C. Serafica

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to explore the relationship of the demographic variables, level of acculturation, dietary consumption of fat, sugar, fruits and vegetables and dietary acculturation to the anthropometric measurement of Filipino Americans (FAs in the United States. The study sample consisted of 128 FAs (N = 128 residing in the southeastern part of the United States. Participants completed the demographics, the Block’s Short Food Frequency Questionnaire (SFFQ, a Short Acculturation Scale for Filipino Americans (ASASFA, and the Dietary Acculturation Questionnaire for Filipino Americans (DAQFA. Anthropometric measurements (waist circumference, hip circumference, weight, and height were also taken. Descriptive statistics analyses and partial least squares (PLS were used to explore the predictive relationships among the variables constructed. The most important positive predictors of the anthropometric indicators were the Western Scale (path coefficient = .503, p < .05 and the intake of fats and sugars (path coefficient = .282, p < .05.

  17. A four-gene operon inBacillus cereusproduces two rare spore-decorating sugars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zi; Mukherjee, Thiya; Bowler, Kyle; Namdari, Sholeh; Snow, Zachary; Prestridge, Sarah; Carlton, Alexandra; Bar-Peled, Maor

    2017-05-05

    Bacterial glycan structures on cell surfaces are critical for cell-cell recognition and adhesion and in host-pathogen interactions. Accordingly, unraveling the sugar composition of bacterial cell surfaces can shed light on bacterial growth and pathogenesis. Here, we found that two rare sugars with a 3- C -methyl-6-deoxyhexose structure were linked to spore glycans in Bacillus cereus ATCC 14579 and ATCC 10876. Moreover, we identified a four-gene operon in B. cereus ATCC 14579 that encodes proteins with the following sequential enzyme activities as determined by mass spectrometry and one- and two-dimensional NMR methods: CTP:glucose-1-phosphate cytidylyltransferase, CDP-Glc 4,6-dehydratase, NADH-dependent SAM: C -methyltransferase, and NADPH-dependent CDP-3- C -methyl-6-deoxyhexose 4-reductase. The last enzyme predominantly yielded CDP-3- C -methyl-6-deoxygulose (CDP-cereose) and likely generated a 4-epimer CDP-3- C -methyl-6-deoxyallose (CDP-cillose). Some members of the B. cereus sensu lato group produce CDP-3- C -methyl-6-deoxy sugars for the formation of cereose-containing glycans on spores, whereas others such as Bacillus anthracis do not. Gene knockouts of the Bacillus C -methyltransferase and the 4-reductase confirmed their involvement in the formation of cereose-containing glycan on B. cereus spores. We also found that cereose represented 0.2-1% spore dry weight. Moreover, mutants lacking cereose germinated faster than the wild type, yet the mutants exhibited no changes in sporulation or spore resistance to heat. The findings reported here may provide new insights into the roles of the uncommon 3- C -methyl-6-deoxy sugars in cell-surface recognition and host-pathogen interactions of the genus Bacillus . © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  18. Bioproduction strategies for rare hexose sugars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izumori, Ken

    2002-03-01

    A new strategy for the bioproduction of all ketohexoses was developed using hexitols as intermediates. Biocatalysts used to employ the strategy were D-tagatose 3-epimerase, which epimerizes ketohexoses at the C-3 position, and oxidoreductases, which catalyze oxidation-reduction reactions between ketohexoses and the corresponding hexitols. Arranging all the ketohexoses and hexitols in a symmetric ring and connecting them with 20 biochemical reactions, I was able to construct a design for the bioproduction of all the rare ketohexoses. Various aldose isomerases transform ketohexoses into the corresponding aldohexoses, so the strategy is useful for the bioproduction of all the rare hexose sugars. Furthermore, the design revealed that there are four routes to the L-hexose world from the D-hexose one.

  19. Coil irrigation in sugar cane (Saccharum officinarum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Sánchez Gutiérrez

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was made at the Basic Seed Bank of the Local Sugar Cane Research Station for the Mideastern Cuba, based in Camaguey, on brown carbonate soil, between 2013 and 12014. Coil irrigation was applied to meet the water requirements for the crop, according to the edafoclimatic conditions and the different phenological phases it has. The Savo method was used to determine useful rain water. Adjustment and complementation of the irrigation program was based on indicators that characterize the exploitation scheme. The machine´s working parameters were determined to meet the water needs, and increase crop´s overall yields. The evaluations and results achieved have contributed to new proposals for management and operation of coil irrigation, and they are important to increase its efficiency.

  20. Sugar signalling and gene expression in relation to carbohydrate ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Transgenic plants with elevated levels of sugars/sugar alcohols like fructans, raffinose series oligosaccharides, trehalose and mannitol are tolerant to different stresses but have usually impaired growth. Efforts need to be made to have transgenic plants in which abiotic stress responsive genes are expressed only at the time ...

  1. Individual sugar and acid composition within southeastern peach germplasm

    Science.gov (United States)

    eaches grown in the southeast are valued for their acidic, sweet flavor. A complex mixture of various sugars and acids at different ratios play a key role in determining these unique peach flavor attributes. To understand the flavor profile of fresh market peaches, individual sugar and acid compone...

  2. Quantitative evaluation of sugars in some fruits consumed by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... and high sugar intake thereby over laboring the insulin. The need to evaluate the sugar content of commonly consumed fruits by patients with diabetes was imperative in order to enhance proper management of the disease. The fruits were obtained from the Jos environment after considering a questionnaire administered ...

  3. Sugar apple emerges as tempting treat for Florida Growers

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Sugar Apple, Annona squamosa, is described as a potential alternative crop for the Florida east coast. Sugar Apple is highly productive of fruit on bushes from seed beginning at about 1-2 years of age, and produces a very flavorful and highly sought after tropical fruit. Several cultivars of Sug...

  4. Effects of import tariff implementation policy of refined sugar ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The competitiveness of sugar products in Indonesia was evaluated using the of East Java wet and dry farmlands and was found to be higher than similar products from overseas as shown by DRC value of less than 1. Keyword: Sugar, Welfare distribution, Domestic Resource Cost (DRC), import tariff, Indonesia ...

  5. Measuring micronutrient intakes at different levels of sugar ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Measuring micronutrient intakes at different levels of sugar consumption in a population in transition: the Transition and Health during Urbanisation in South Africa (THUSA) study. ... Objective: The objective was to investigate the absolute micronutrient intake and the possibility of micronutrient dilution of added sugar in the

  6. Investigation of Copper Sorption by Sugar Beet Processing Lime Waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    In the western United States, sugar beet processing for sugar recovery generates a lime-based waste product (~250,000 Mg yr-1) that has little liming value in the region’s calcareous soils. This area has recently experienced an increase in dairy production, with dairi...

  7. [Molecular genetic investigation of sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butorina, A K; Kornienko, A V

    2011-10-01

    Molecular genetic studies of sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) are reviewed as a basis for the development of genomics of this species. The methods used to study structural and functional genomics are considered. The results and their application to increase the efficiency of sugar beet breeding are discussed.

  8. Possible root infection of Cercospora betiicola in sugar beet

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vereijssen, J.; Schneider, J.H.M.; Termorshuizen, A.J.

    2004-01-01

    A potential primary infection site of the foliar pathogen Cercospora beticola in sugar beet is described. Sugar beet seedlings of the susceptible cv. Auris were grown in a standard soil for 14 days. A monoconidial culture of a C. beticola isolate was grown to produce conidia. In experiment 1, roots

  9. Sugar Cane Genome Numbers Assumption by Ribosomal DNA FISH Techniques

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thumjamras, S.; Jong, de H.; Iamtham, S.; Prammanee, S.

    2013-01-01

    Conventional cytological method is limited for polyploidy plant genome study, especially sugar cane chromosomes that show unstable numbers of each cultivar. Molecular cytogenetic as fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) techniques were used in this study. A basic chromosome number of sugar cane

  10. Excessive consumption of fructose-containing sugars: An emerging ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Consumption of sugar sweetened beverages and processed foods has increased in the last decade in developed countries. This has been associated with the prevalence of diet-induced obesity and type-2 diabetes mellitus, albeit a causal relationship has not been proven. Although sugar-sweetened beverages and foods ...

  11. DEVELOPMENT OF SUGAR BEET SUBCOMPLEX BASED ON INNOVATIVE PROCESSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Kazaryan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In the paper the problems of development of sugar market in Russia are raised. The situation in the CFO (the largest Russian region for the production of sugar beet factory is considered. The strengths and weaknesses of the processes occurring in this area are highlighted, the directions of development of the improvement of in-novation activity AIC are proposed.

  12. Providing Base Line Data for the Treatment of Mauritian Sugar ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In that context, a pilot study was carried out to determine the performance of the UASB process in treating sugar mill effluent and to provide base-line operational and design data for the reactor on a large scale. A sugar factory wastewater was characterised and the data were used to prepare the molasses-based synthetic ...

  13. Sugar and dietary fibre components of tamarind (tamarindus indica l ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tamarind fruit, though, has considerable industrial potential, is largely underutilised in Nigeria. Mature tamarind fruits, collected from nineteen randomly selected major towns of the twenty states in the Savannah region on Nigeria, were analysed for their sugar and dietary fibre components, using standard methods. Sugars ...

  14. Conversion of oligomeric starch, cellulose, hydrolysates or sugars to hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silks, Louis A; Sutton, Andrew; Kim, Jin Kyung; Gordon, John Cameron; Wu, Ruilian; Kimball, David B.

    2017-09-05

    Embodiments of the present invention are directed to the conversion of a source material (e.g., a depolymerized oligosaccharide mixture, a monomeric sugar, a hydrolysate, or a mixture of monomeric sugars) to intermediate molecules containing 7 to 26 contiguous carbon atoms. These intermediates may also be converted to saturated hydrocarbons. Such saturated hydrocarbons are useful as, for example, fuels.

  15. 13 Comparative Effects of Cassava Starch and Simple Sugar in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Arc. Usman A. Jalam

    Abstract. Comparative effects of simple laboratory quality sugar and cassava starch on grade C35 concrete were studied in the laboratory. The simple white sugar was used at concentrations of 0 to 1% by weight of cement in concrete cured at 3, 7, 14 and 28 days using ordinary Portland cement. Cassava starch of the same ...

  16. EFFECT OF SUGAR CANE JUICE ON SLUMP VALUES FFECT OF ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eobe

    different percentages of unfermented sugar cane juice replacing some proportion of water in the concrete mix. Water/Sugar Cane Juice/cement ... The study has been carried out at 0, 25, 50 and 100% replacement by weight of potable water with SCJ. .... compression machine in the laboratory. The tests were performed in a ...

  17. Two Step Wittig/Dihydroxylation Synthetic Route to Higher Sugars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Morten; Madsen, Robert

    1999-01-01

    Higher carbon sugars are obtained by a two carbon, two step chain elongation of aldoses involving first a Wittig reaction and then an osmium tetroxide catalyzed dihydroxylation......Higher carbon sugars are obtained by a two carbon, two step chain elongation of aldoses involving first a Wittig reaction and then an osmium tetroxide catalyzed dihydroxylation...

  18. The ionic balance of the sugar-beet plant

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Egmond, van F.

    1975-01-01

    The ionic balance of the sugar-beet plant was studied by measuring dry weight and chemical composition of every leaf, the crown and the root during the growing season.

    The sugar-beet plant has an almost neutral uptake. The nitrate and sulphate reduction determines the amount of carboxylates

  19. Ethanol and sugar tolerance of wine yeasts isolated from fermenting ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Seventeen wine yeasts isolated from fermenting cashew apple juice were screened for ethanol and sugar tolerance. Two species of Saccharomyces comprising of three strains of S. cerevisiae and one S. uvarum showed measurable growth in medium containing 9% (v/v) ethanol. They were equally sugar-tolerant having ...

  20. Effects of sugar intake on body weight: A review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermunt, S.H.F.; Pasman, W.J.; Schaafsma, G.; Kardinaal, A.F.M.

    2003-01-01

    Weight reduction programmes are mainly focused on reducing intake of fat and sugar. In this review we have evaluated whether the replacement of dietary (added) sugar by low-energy sweeteners or complex carbohydrates contributes to weight reduction. In two experimental studies, no short-term

  1. Implications of WHO Guideline on Sugars for dental health professionals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moynihan, Paula; Makino, Yuka; Petersen, Poul Erik

    2018-01-01

    professionals and supporting patients to eat less free sugars are key actions for the dental profession. All dental health professionals should have the skills and confidence to provide their patients with healthier eating advice, including how to limit free sugars intake. It is therefore important that dental...

  2. Comparative study of effects of table sugar, laboratory grade ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    cntaganda

    ... sugars, table sugar, laboratory grade sucrose, mannitol. INTRODUCTION. The growth of explants under in vitro conditions depends on nutritional and environmental factors which interact to produce a plantlet with similar characteristics to those grown in the field (ZRYD, 1988). The optimization of medium composition is ...

  3. Fermentable sugars and microbial inhibitors formation from two ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Most of these inhibitors are sugars and lignin degradation compounds, which are almost unavoidable during pretreatment processes. ... factors of 3.5 or more to get high sugar yield, with increase in severity factor, high concentration of microbial inhibitors were formed and significantly affected downstream biofuel yield. Thus ...

  4. Sugar amino acids and related molecules: Some recent developments

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Sugar amino acids constitute an important class of such polyfunctional scaffolds where the carboxyl, amino and hydroxyl termini provide an excellent opportunity to organic chemists to create structural diversities akin to Nature's molecular arsenal. In recent years, sugar amino acids have been used extensively in the area of ...

  5. Determinants of Sugar Market Performance under Imperfect Market ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    pricing, which influences performance of the locally manufactured sugar from the six (n=6) manufacturing firms in Kenya. The study was based on. Industry competitiveness model (Siggel, 1995, Markusen, 1992 and; Kasekende, 1994). Empirical results reveal that consumption of sugar in. Kenya varies from an average rate ...

  6. Comparative Effects of Cassava Starch and Simple Sugar in Cement ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Comparative effects of simple laboratory quality sugar and cassava starch on grade C35 concrete were studied in the laboratory. The simple white sugar was used at concentrations of 0 to 1% by weight of cement in concrete cured at 3, 7, 14 and 28 days using ordinary Portland cement. Cassava starch of the same ...

  7. Sn-Beta catalysed conversion of hemicellulosic sugars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Martin; Pagán-Torres, Yomaira J.; Shunmugavel, Saravanamurugan

    2012-01-01

    are observed for the pentoses. This finding is in accordance to a reaction pathway that involves the retro aldol condensation of the sugars to form a triose and glycolaldehyde for the pentoses, and two trioses for hexoses. When reacting glycolaldehyde (formally a C2-sugar) in the presence of Sn-Beta, aldol...

  8. Biodiversity versus transgenic sugar beet : the one Euro question

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Demont, M.; Wesseler, J.; Tollens, E.

    2002-01-01

    The decision whether to release transgenic crops in the EU is one subject to flexibility, uncertainty and irreversibility. The case of herbicide tolerant sugar beet is analysed. Reassessed is whether the 1998 de facto moratorium of the EU on transgenic crops for sugar beet was correct from a

  9. Sugar and polyol solutions as effective solvent for biopolymers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sman, van der R.G.M.

    2016-01-01

    Ternary mixtures of biopolymers, sugars or polyols and water can be treated as a pseudo binary system with respect to melting of the biopolymer. Sugar and polyol solutions can be treated as an effective solvent, characterized by the density of hydroxyl groups available for intermolecular hydrogen

  10. Maple sugaring with vacuum pumping during the fall season

    Science.gov (United States)

    H. Clay Smith; Alan G., Jr. Snow

    1971-01-01

    Vacuum pumping of sugar maple trees during the late fall and early winter months is not advisable in northern Vermont. However, fall pumping may be profitable in other areas of the sugar maple range. It is recommended that the weather pattern in a given locale be observed; and if conditions are favorable, vacuum pumping should be tried on a small scale before...

  11. Review of Hosein Aabad Sugar Factory (HASF) Wastewater and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sugar industry is one of the largest industries in the world. Hosein Abad sugar factory (HASF) is located in Hamadan province of Iran. The aim of this research was to evaluate the quality and quantity of wastewater of the said factory and to estimate the pollution load and its emission factor as prerequisite of the management ...

  12. Ethanol production from tropical sugar beet juice | Marx | African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Starch and sugar resources have been extensively researched to find a suitable renewable source of energy to supplement the world's ever increasing demand for energy while also abating global warming by stemming the addition of earthbound carbon dioxide into the atmosphere. Sugar beet has been used as a source ...

  13. Sugar cane juice as a retarding admixture in concrete production ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sugar cane juice (SCJ) was investigated as a retarding agent in concrete production. Slump values and compressive strength of concrete with partial replacement of water by sugar cane juice was also investigated. The concrete cubes were prepared by replacing water with SCJ in the following proportions 0, 3, 5, 10 and ...

  14. Dynamic analysis of sugar metabolism in different harvest seasons ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In pineapple fruits, sugar accumulation plays an important role in flavor characteristics, which varies according to the stage of fruit development. Metabolic changes in the contents of fructose, sucrose and glucose and reducing sugar related to the activities of soluble acid invertase (AI), neutral invertase (NI), sucrose ...

  15. Seasonal alteration of sugar metabolism in strawberry ( Fragaria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Plants of strawberry cvs Aromas and Diamante were removed from the field in cold acclimated (CA, January) and non-acclimated (NA, July) stages. Crown parts of the plant were used for analysis. Apoplastic total soluble sugar (TSS), reducing sugars and sucrose contents did not change in both cultivars in both sampling ...

  16. Association of usual intake of added sugars with nutrient adequacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recommendations for intakes of added sugars have varied considerably and the scientific basis supporting these recommendations has been inconsistent. The goal of this study was to examine the association of usual intake (UI) of added sugars and nutrient adequacy in those participating in NHANES 2009...

  17. Schistosoma mansoni Infection in Finchaa Sugar Estate: Public ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study indicates that schistosomiasis is a major health problem in Finchaa Sugar Estate with moderate prevalence. The study results will provide an additional clinical and parasitological data on the current status of S. mansoni in Finchaa Sugar Estate and could serve as a guide in designing, developing and ...

  18. Diabetes and Exercise: When to Monitor Your Blood Sugar

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and exercise: When to monitor your blood sugar Exercise is an important part of any diabetes treatment plan. To avoid ... testing your blood sugar before, during and after exercise may be just as important as the exercise itself. Grant RW, et al. ...

  19. Du Pont model in enterprises of the sugar sector

    OpenAIRE

    Renata Gawda

    2009-01-01

    The estimation of using Du Pont model in 10 enterprises of the sugar industry was made. Du Pont model is being used for choosing a strategy of managing based on the analysis of factors shaping the return on equity. In the analysed sugar plants the structure of capitals gives the greatest possibilities for improvement to the return on equity.

  20. "Sugar" jõuab lavale / Ülle Hallik

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Hallik, Ülle, 1963-

    2008-01-01

    Vanemuises esietendub 5. juunil "Sugar", lavastaja Mare Tommingas. Muusikal põhineb Jule Styne muusikalil "Sugar ehk Dzhässis ainult tüdrukud". Muusikali libreto kirjutas Peter Stone Robert Thoereni jutustuse ning Billy Wilderi ja I. A. L. Dimanondi filmi "Some Like It Hot" põhjal

  1. Effect Of Import Tariff Implementation Policy On Refined Sugar ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    economization, are influenced by the import tariff and elasticity price toward supply and demand. It also showed that sugar product competitiveness in Indonesia is higher than the same product from other countries as the value of DRC is less than one. Key word: Sugar, Welfare Distribution, Domestic Resource Cost (DRC), ...

  2. Effect of manganese on endomycorrhizal sugar maple seedlings

    Science.gov (United States)

    George A. Schier; Carolyn J. McQuattie

    2002-01-01

    Manganese (Mn) toxicity may play an important role in the poor survival of seedlings in declining sugar maple (Acer saccharum Marsh.) stands in northern Pennsylvania. To determine the effect of Mn on the growth of sugar maple seedlings, 1-year-old seedlings inoculated with vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal (VAM) fungi and growing in sand-vermiculite-...

  3. Ethanol Production from Different Intermediates of Sugar Beet Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mladen Pavlečić

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In this investigation, the production of ethanol from the raw sugar beet juice and raw sugar beet cossettes has been studied. For ethanol production from the raw sugar beet juice, batch and fed-batch cultivation techniques in the stirred tank bioreactor were used, while batch ethanol production from the raw sugar beet cossettes was carried out in horizontal rotating tubular bioreactor (HRTB. In both cases, Saccharomyces cerevisiae was used as a production microorganism. During batch ethanol production from the raw sugar beet juice, ethanol yield was 59.89 g/L and production efficiency 78.8 %, and in fed-batch process the yield was 92.78 g/L and efficiency 93.4 %. At the same time, ethanol production in HRTB from the raw sugar beet cossettes with inoculum of 16.7 % V/m (raw sugar beet cossettes resulted in the highest ethanol yield of 54.53 g/L and production efficiency of 79.5 %. The obtained results clearly show that both intermediates of sugar beet processing can be successfully used for ethanol production.

  4. Dynamic analysis of sugar metabolism in different harvest seasons ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2011-04-04

    Apr 4, 2011 ... sugars and reducing sugars of pineapple treated by methyl jasmonate (MeJA) on chilling injuries were not significantly different from that of the control pineapple. Liu et al. (2009) reported that the flavor in summer pineapple fruit was better than that of the winter fruit. Joomwong (2006) showed that the fruit ...

  5. Fermentable sugars and microbial inhibitors formation from two ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    2015-09-30

    Sep 30, 2015 ... which should provide high sugar yield and low sugar as well as lignin degradation byproducts, that is, microbial inhibitors. The pretreatment process should also be inexpensive and less energy intensive (Qin et al., 2012;. Liu et al., 2013). It is obvious that the larger particle size reduces extensive biomass ...

  6. Sugar catabolism during growth on plant biomass in Aspergillus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khosravi, C.

    2017-01-01

    A growing industrial sector in which plant degrading enzymes are used is the production of alternative fuels, such as bio-ethanol, and biochemicals. Plant polysaccharides can be converted to fermentable sugars by fungal enzymes. The sugars are then fermented to ethanol and other products mainly by

  7. Biodiversity versus transgenic sugar beet: the one euro question

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Demont, M.; Wesseler, J.H.H.; Tollens, E.

    2004-01-01

    The decision on whether to release transgenic crops in the EU is subject to irreversibility, uncertainty and flexibility. We analyse the case of herbicide-tolerant sugar beet and assess whether the EU's 1998 de facto moratorium on transgenic crops for sugar beet was correct from a cost-benefit

  8. 7 CFR 1435.305 - State cane sugar allotments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS SUGAR PROGRAM Flexible Marketing Allotments... of 325,000 short tons, raw value, of the cane sugar allotment. (b) A new entrant cane State will receive an allotment to accommodate a new processor's allocation under 1435.308. (c) Subject to paragraphs...

  9. The dynamics of fat, protein and sugar metabolism during walnut ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yomi

    Walnut (Juglans regia L.) is named the “super food” in the 21st century. In this study, the 9-year-old precocious walnut cultivar 'Xiangling' were used to exam the developmental process, and the dynamics of fat, protein and sugar content in the fruit, and the activities of enzymes related with sugar metabolism were further ...

  10. Effect of commonly consumed sugar containing and sugar free fruit drinks on the hydrogen ion modulation of human dental plaque

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nanika Mahajan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: With the increased awareness of healthy diet among the population, the intake of fruit juices as health drinks has been increased. This study has been designed to check the potential cariogenicity of fruit drinks frequently consumed by infants and young children. Aim: To compare the acidogenic potential of sugar free fruit juices with fruit juices containing sugar by evaluating the plaque pH changes, following consumption of the above drinks. Design: The study was carried out on 10 children in the age group of 8-15 years. The four fruit juices used were 1 orange juice with added sugar 2 orange juice with no added sugar 3 apple juice with added sugar 4 apple juice with no added sugar. Sucrose rinse of 10% was used as control group. The endogenous pH of the fruit juices and control was assessed using digital pH meter. The plaque pH was assessed at the baseline and after the consumption of the drinks at 5, 10, 20, 30, 40, and 60 minutes time interval using the plaque-harvesting technique. The obtained results were compiled and subjected to statistical analysis using paired t-test. Result: All the fruit juices showed drop in plaque pH. A drop in pH was also observed in the juices despite of no added sugar content. Conclusion: The fruit juices labeled with "no added sugar" or "free from added sugar", contained substantial quantities of sugar and are equally cariogenic as are fruit drinks with added sugar.

  11. Carbohydrate intake and cardiometabolic risk factors in high BMI African American children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberts Lindsay S

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between intakes of subgroups of energy-providing carbohydrate, and markers of cardiometabolic risk factors in high BMI African American (AA children. A cross sectional analysis was performed on data from a sample of 9-11 year old children (n = 95 with BMI greater than the 85th percentile. Fasting hematological and biochemical values for selected markers of cardiometabolic risk factors were related to intakes of carbohydrates and sugars. After adjusting for gender, pubertal stage and waist circumference, multivariate regression analysis showed that higher intakes of carbohydrate (with fat and protein held constant were associated with higher plasma concentrations of triglycerides (TG, VLDL-C, IDL-C, and worse insulin resistance (homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance, HOMA-IR. After dividing carbohydrate into non-sugar versus sugar fractions, sugars were significantly related to higher TG, VLDL-C, IDL-C, lower adipocyte fatty acid insulin sensitivity (ISI-FFA, and was closely associated with increased HOMA-IR. Similar trends were observed for sugars classified as added sugars, and for sugars included in beverages. Further dividing sugar according to the food group from which it was consumed showed that consuming more sugar from the candy/soda food group was highly significantly associated with increased TG, VLDL-C, IDL-C and closely associated with increased HOMA-IR. Sugars consumed in all fruit-containing foods were significantly associated with lower ISI-FFA. Sugars consumed as fruit beverages was significantly associated with VLDL-C, IDL-C and ISI-FFA whereas sugars consumed as fresh, dried and preserved fruits did not show significant associations with these markers. Sugars consumed from in all dairy foods were significantly associated with higher TG, VLDL-C and IDL-C, and with significantly lower HDL-C and ISI-FFA. These effects were associated with sugars consumed

  12. Comparison of Spinach Sex Chromosomes with Sugar Beet Autosomes Reveals Extensive Synteny and Low Recombination at the Male-Determining Locus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahata, Satoshi; Yago, Takumi; Iwabuchi, Keisuke; Hirakawa, Hideki; Suzuki, Yutaka; Onodera, Yasuyuki

    2016-01-01

    Spinach (Spinacia oleracea, 2n = 12) and sugar beet (Beta vulgaris, 2n = 18) are important crop members of the family Chenopodiaceae ss Sugar beet has a basic chromosome number of 9 and a cosexual breeding system, as do most members of the Chenopodiaceae ss. family. By contrast, spinach has a basic chromosome number of 6 and, although certain cultivars and genotypes produce monoecious plants, is considered to be a dioecious species. The loci determining male and monoecious sexual expression were mapped to different loci on the spinach sex chromosomes. In this study, a linkage map with 46 mapped protein-coding sequences was constructed for the spinach sex chromosomes. Comparison of the linkage map with a reference genome sequence of sugar beet revealed that the spinach sex chromosomes exhibited extensive synteny with sugar beet chromosomes 4 and 9. Tightly linked protein-coding genes linked to the male-determining locus in spinach corresponded to genes located in or around the putative pericentromeric and centromeric regions of sugar beet chromosomes 4 and 9, supporting the observation that recombination rates were low in the vicinity of the male-determining locus. The locus for monoecism was confined to a chromosomal segment corresponding to a region of approximately 1.7Mb on sugar beet chromosome 9, which may facilitate future positional cloning of the locus. © The American Genetic Association 2016. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. The Effect of Sugar-Free Versus Sugar-Sweetened Beverages on Satiety, Liking and Wanting: An 18 Month Randomized Double-Blind Trial in Children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Ruyter, J.C.; Katan, M.B.; Kuijper, L.D.J.; Liem, D.G.; Olthof, M.R.

    2013-01-01

    Background:Substituting sugar-free for sugar-sweetened beverages reduces weight gain. A possible explanation is that sugar-containing and sugar-free beverages cause the same degree of satiety. However, this has not been tested in long-term trials.Methods:We randomized 203 children aged 7-11 years to

  14. Mechanical properties of sugar beet root during storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nedomová, Šárka; Kumbár, Vojtěch; Pytel, Roman; Buchar, Jaroslav

    2017-10-01

    This paper is an investigation via two experimental methods, of the textural properties of sugar beet roots during the storage period. In the work, sugar beet roots mechanical properties were evaluated during the post-harvest period - 1, 8, 22, 43, and 71 days after crop. Both experimental methods, i.e. compression test and puncture test, suggest that the failure strength of the sugar beet root increases with the storage time. The parameters obtained using the puncture test, are more sensitive to the storage duration than those obtained by way of the compression test. We also found that such mechanical properties served as a reliable tool for monitoring the progress of sugar beet roots storage. The described methods could also be used to highlight important information on sugar beet evolution during storage.

  15. Molecular dynamics simulations of lysozyme in water/sugar solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lerbret, A. [Department of Food Science, Cornell University, 101 Stocking Hall, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States); Affouard, F. [Laboratoire de Dynamique et Structure des Materiaux Moleculaires, UMR CNRS 8024, Universite Lille I, 59655 Villeneuve d' Ascq Cedex (France)], E-mail: frederic.affouard@univ-lille1.fr; Bordat, P. [Laboratoire de Chimie Theorique et de Physico-Chimie Moleculaire, UMR 5624, Universite de Pau et des Pays de l' Adour, 64000 Pau (France); Hedoux, A.; Guinet, Y.; Descamps, M. [Laboratoire de Dynamique et Structure des Materiaux Moleculaires, UMR CNRS 8024, Universite Lille I, 59655 Villeneuve d' Ascq Cedex (France)

    2008-04-18

    Structural and dynamical properties of the solvent at the protein/solvent interface have been investigated by molecular dynamics simulations of lysozyme in trehalose, maltose and sucrose solutions. Results are discussed in the framework of the bioprotection phenomena. The analysis of the relative concentration of water oxygen atoms around lysozyme suggests that lysozyme is preferentially hydrated. When comparing the three sugars, trehalose is seen more excluded than maltose and sucrose. The preferential exclusion of sugars from the protein surface induces some differences in the behavior of trehalose and maltose, particularly at 50 and 60 wt% concentrations, that are not observed experimentally in binary sugar/mixtures. The dynamical slowing down of the solvent is suggested to mainly arise from the homogeneity of the water/sugar matrices controlled by the percolation of the sugar hydrogen bonds networks. Furthermore, lysozyme strongly increases relaxation times of solvent molecules at the protein/solvent interface.

  16. Molecular dynamics simulations of lysozyme in water/sugar solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lerbret, A.; Affouard, F.; Bordat, P.; Hedoux, A.; Guinet, Y.; Descamps, M.

    2008-01-01

    Structural and dynamical properties of the solvent at the protein/solvent interface have been investigated by molecular dynamics simulations of lysozyme in trehalose, maltose and sucrose solutions. Results are discussed in the framework of the bioprotection phenomena. The analysis of the relative concentration of water oxygen atoms around lysozyme suggests that lysozyme is preferentially hydrated. When comparing the three sugars, trehalose is seen more excluded than maltose and sucrose. The preferential exclusion of sugars from the protein surface induces some differences in the behavior of trehalose and maltose, particularly at 50 and 60 wt% concentrations, that are not observed experimentally in binary sugar/mixtures. The dynamical slowing down of the solvent is suggested to mainly arise from the homogeneity of the water/sugar matrices controlled by the percolation of the sugar hydrogen bonds networks. Furthermore, lysozyme strongly increases relaxation times of solvent molecules at the protein/solvent interface

  17. Targeting postprandial blood sugar over fasting blood sugar: A clinic based comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herath, H M M; Weerarathna, T P; Fonseka, C L; Vidanagamage, A S

    Recent studies indicate that modulation of post prandial blood sugar (PPBS) plays an important role in the long term glycemic control. Measurement of PPBS is more convenient for patients attending outpatient clinics than fasting blood sugar (FBS) as the former needs only two hours of fasting from the last meal. To assess the value of PPBS monitoring in optimization of long term glycemic control among diabetic patients attending an outpatient clinic. A total of 240 patients with type 2 diabetes (T2DM) attending an out-patient medical clinic were randomized to either PPBS or FBS monitoring. Those who selected to PPBS-group underwent blood sugar measurement 2-h after last meal on the day of their clinic visits and those in the FBS group underwent blood sugar measurement after fasting overnight (8-10h) in the morning of their clinic visits. Treating team was asked to optimize the anti-diabetic medications based on the available PPBS or FBS results. All patients were followed up monthly for six months. Glycemic control was assessed with glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) at baseline and six months later. Baseline characteristics of the two arms including age, gender, and duration of T2DM were not significantly different. Mean HbA1c (SD) of FBS and PPBS arms at baseline were 7.20 (0.45), and 7.33 (0.43) and were not significantly different (P=0.115). During the study period, HbA1c dropped by 0.20 in FBS arm compared to 0.25 drop in PPBS arm (p=0.59). Incidence of hypoglycemia was similar in FBS (2.42%) and PPBS arms (2.70%). Monitoring of PPBS is a safe and effective alternative to FBS to optimize glycemic control in managing patients with T2DM attending outpatient clinics. Copyright © 2016 Diabetes India. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. CMS lead tungstate crystals

    CERN Multimedia

    Laurent Guiraud

    2000-01-01

    These crystals are made from lead tungstate, a crystal that is as clear as glass yet with nearly four times the density. They have been produced in Russia to be used as scintillators in the electromagnetic calorimeter on the CMS experiment, part of the LHC project at CERN. When an electron, positron or photon passes through the calorimeter it will cause a cascade of particles that will then be absorbed by these scintillating crystals, allowing the particle's energy to be measured.

  19. Macromolecular crystallization in microgravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snell, Edward H; Helliwell, John R

    2005-01-01

    Density difference fluid flows and sedimentation of growing crystals are greatly reduced when crystallization takes place in a reduced gravity environment. In the case of macromolecular crystallography a crystal of a biological macromolecule is used for diffraction experiments (x-ray or neutron) so as to determine the three-dimensional structure of the macromolecule. The better the internal order of the crystal then the greater the molecular structure detail that can be extracted. It is this structural information that enables an understanding of how the molecule functions. This knowledge is changing the biological and chemical sciences, with major potential in understanding disease pathologies. In this review, we examine the use of microgravity as an environment to grow macromolecular crystals. We describe the crystallization procedures used on the ground, how the resulting crystals are studied and the knowledge obtained from those crystals. We address the features desired in an ordered crystal and the techniques used to evaluate those features in detail. We then introduce the microgravity environment, the techniques to access that environment and the theory and evidence behind the use of microgravity for crystallization experiments. We describe how ground-based laboratory techniques have been adapted to microgravity flights and look at some of the methods used to analyse the resulting data. Several case studies illustrate the physical crystal quality improvements and the macromolecular structural advances. Finally, limitations and alternatives to microgravity and future directions for this research are covered. Macromolecular structural crystallography in general is a remarkable field where physics, biology, chemistry and mathematics meet to enable insight to the fundamentals of life. As the reader will see, there is a great deal of physics involved when the microgravity environment is applied to crystallization, some of it known, and undoubtedly much yet to

  20. Racial and gender disparities in sugar consumption change efficacy among first-year college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce, Marino A; Beech, Bettina M; Thorpe, Roland J; Mincey, Krista; Griffith, Derek M

    2017-02-01

    Reducing excess dietary sugar intake among emerging adults involves replacing sugar sweetened beverages (SSBs) and sugary snacks (SSN) with healthier options. Few studies have assessed the perceived degree of difficulty associated with making lifestyle modifications among a diverse group of emerging adults. The purpose of this study was to assess race and gender disparities in SSB and SSN behavioral modification efficacy among African American and White first year college students. A self-administered, cross-sectional survey was completed by a subsample of freshmen (n = 499) at a medium-sized southern university. Key outcome variables were self-efficacy in reducing consumption of SSBs and SSNs, respectively. Primary independent variables were BMI, concerns about weight, and attempts to lose weight, takeout food consumption frequency, and physical activity. Half of the sample was African American (50.1%) and a majority of participants were female (59.3%). Fewer African Americans than Whites were very sure they could substitute SSBs with water (48.8% vs 64.7%, p vs 48.2%, p vs 60.5%, p < 0.04). African Americans (OR = 0.38, CI: 0.22-0.64) and males (OR = 0.49, CI: 0.27-0.88) had lower odds of being more confident in their ability to change their SSB intake. Race and gender differences were not present in models predicting confidence to reduce SSN consumption. These findings highlight the need to consider race and gender in interventions seeking to increase self-efficacy to make lifestyle modifications. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Insights to the clarification of sugar cane juice expressed from sugar cane stalk and trash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thai, C C D; Bakir, H; Doherty, W O S

    2012-03-21

    Processing of juice expressed from green sugar cane containing all the trash (i.e., tops and leaves, the nonstalk component) of the sugar cane plant during sugar manufacture has been reported to lead to poor clarified juice (CJ) quality. Studies of different liming techniques have been conducted to identify which liming technique gives the best clarification performance from juice expressed from green cane containing half of all trash extracted (GE). Results have shown that lime saccharate addition to juice at 76 °C either continuous or batchwise gives satisfactory settling rates of calcium phosphate flocs (50-70 cm/min) and CJ with low turbidity and minimal amounts of mineral constituents. Surprisingly, the addition of phosphoric acid (≤ 300 mg/kg as P₂O₅), prior to liming to reduce juice turbidity (≤ 80%), increased the Mg (≤ 101%) and Si (≤ 148%) contents particularly for clarified GE juices. The increase was not proportional with increasing phosphoric acid dose. The nature of the flocs formed, including the zeta potential of the particles by the different liming techniques, has been used to account for the differences in clarification performance. Differences between the qualities of the CJ obtained with GE juice and that of burnt cane juices with all trash extracted (BE) have been discussed to provide further insights into GE processing.

  2. A crystal barrel

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    The production of crystals for the barrel of the CMS electromagnetic calorimeter has been completed. This is an important milestone for the experiment, which received the last of its 62,960 crystals on 9 March. The members of the team responsible for the crystal acceptance testing at CERN display the last crystal for the CMS electromagnetic calorimeter barrel. From left to right: Igor Tarasov, Etiennette Auffray and Hervé Cornet.One of the six machines specially developed to measure 67 different parameters on each crystal. Igor Tarasov is seen inserting the last batch of crystals into the machine. The last of the 62,960 CMS barrel crystals arrived at CERN on 9 March. Once removed from its polystyrene protection, this delicate crystal, like thousands of its predecessors, will be inserted into the last of the 36 supermodules of the barrel electromagnetic calorimeter in a few days' time. This marks the end of an important chapter in an almost 15-year-long journey by the CMS crystals team, some of whose member...

  3. Automation in biological crystallization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Patrick Shaw; Mueller-Dieckmann, Jochen

    2014-06-01

    Crystallization remains the bottleneck in the crystallographic process leading from a gene to a three-dimensional model of the encoded protein or RNA. Automation of the individual steps of a crystallization experiment, from the preparation of crystallization cocktails for initial or optimization screens to the imaging of the experiments, has been the response to address this issue. Today, large high-throughput crystallization facilities, many of them open to the general user community, are capable of setting up thousands of crystallization trials per day. It is thus possible to test multiple constructs of each target for their ability to form crystals on a production-line basis. This has improved success rates and made crystallization much more convenient. High-throughput crystallization, however, cannot relieve users of the task of producing samples of high quality. Moreover, the time gained from eliminating manual preparations must now be invested in the careful evaluation of the increased number of experiments. The latter requires a sophisticated data and laboratory information-management system. A review of the current state of automation at the individual steps of crystallization with specific attention to the automation of optimization is given.

  4. Crystallization Formulation Lab

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Crystallization Formulation Lab fills a critical need in the process development and optimization of current and new explosives and energetic formulations. The...

  5. Added sugars: Definitions, classifications, metabolism and health implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tailane SCAPIN

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The sugars added to foods have been featured in recent scientific research, including the publication of the World Health Organization recommendation to limit consumption of added sugars, based on studies on weight gain and dental caries. However, it is possible that there is evidence of an association between excessive consumption and other pathologies, but scientific studies have yet to investigate these associations. Moreover, there is no consensus on the descriptions and definitions of these sugars, with several terms and components used to designate them. In Brazil, there are few studies investigating added sugars, identifying a lack of discussion on this subject. This paper presents a literature review of sugars added to foods, from their definitions and classifications to the metabolism and health effects. The search was performed without limiting dates in the following databases: Web of Science, Scopus, PubMed and SciELO, as well as in national and international official sites. Keywords in Portuguese and English related to sugars added to foods were used, in combination with terms related to systematic review and meta-analysis studies, in order to find research linking added sugars consumption with health damage. The literature indicates that there is a relationship between excessive consumption of added sugars and various health outcomes, including weight gain, type 2 diabetes Mellitus, cancer, and cardiovascular diseases. The different descriptions of sugars in foods may confuse both food consumers and researchers, since each term includes different components. Thus, it is suggested to use the standardized term “added sugar” as the most suitable term for the broader population to understand, because it indicates that those sugars are not natural food components.

  6. High intake of added sugar among Norwegian children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Øverby, Nina C; Lillegaard, Inger T L; Johansson, Lars; Andersen, Lene F

    2004-04-01

    It is debated whether the intake of added sugar displaces micronutrient-rich foods and dilutes the nutrient density of the diet, and whether there is a link between sugar and the increased rate of obesity. The objectives of this study were to examine the effect of added sugar on the intakes of energy, micronutrients, fruit and vegetables, and to examine the association between intake of added sugar and age, sex, body mass index, physical activity, inactivity and parents' education. Participants recorded their food intake in pre-coded food diaries for 4 days and filled in a questionnaire about physical activity, watching television (TV)/using a personal computer (PC) and parents' education. Three hundred and ninety-one 4-year-olds, 810 students in the 4th grade (9 years old) and 1005 in the 8th grade (13 years old) were included in the study. The intakes of all nutrients, except alpha-tocopherol among 4-year-olds and vitamin C among 4-year-olds and 4th graders, decreased with increasing content of added sugar in the diet. Moreover, high consumers of added sugar had a 30-40% lower intake of fruit and vegetables than did low consumers. A negative association was observed between consumption of added sugar and body mass index among girls in the 8th grade (P=0.013), whereas a positive association was observed among 4-year-old boys (P=0.055). Associations between physical activity, hours spent watching TV/using a PC, parents' education and the energy intake from added sugar varied in the different age groups. This study showed a negative association between the intake of added sugar and intakes of micronutrients, fruit and vegetables. The negative association between sugar intake and intake of fruit and vegetables is important from a public health perspective, since one of the main health messages today is to increase current intake of fruit and vegetables.

  7. Approaches to raw sugar quality improvement as a route to sustaining a reliable supply of purified industrial sugar feedstocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Energy costs in the sugar industry are outstripping costs of manufacture, particularly in refineries. This, as well as increasing transportation costs and the need to meet manufacturers’ tight specifications, has increased the demand for a sustainable supply of purified, raw sugar. Agricultural com...

  8. Experimental branch cooling increases foliar sugar and anthocyanin concentrations in sugar maple at the end of the growing season

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul G. Schaberg; Paula F. Murakami; John R. Butnor; Gary J. Hawley

    2017-01-01

    Autumnal leaf anthocyanin expression is enhanced following exposure to a variety of environmental stresses and may represent an adaptive benefit of protecting leaves from those stresses, thereby allowing for prolonged sugar and nutrient resorption. Past work has shown that experimentally induced sugar accumulations following branch girdling triggers anthocyanin...

  9. A rapid method for simultaneous quantification of 13 sugars and sugar alcohols in food products by UPLC-ELSD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, Dong-Wan; Park, Jae-Woong; Lim, Jung-Hoon; Yea, Myeong-Jai; Bang, Dae-Young

    2018-02-01

    A novel, rapid, simultaneous analysis method for five sugars (fructose, glucose, sucrose, maltose, and lactose) and eight sugar alcohols (erythritol, xylitol, sorbitol, mannitol, inositol, maltitol, lactitol, and isomalt) was developed using UPLC-ELSD, without derivatization. The analysis conditions, including the gradient conditions, modifier concentration and column length, were optimized. Thirteen sugars and sugar alcohols were separated well and the resolution of their peaks was above 1.0. Their optimum analysis condition can be analyzed within 15min. Standard curves for sugars and sugar alcohols with concentrations of 5.0-0.1% and 2.0-0.05% are presented herein, and their correlation coefficients are found to be above 0.999 and the limit of detection (LOD) was around 0.006-0.018%. This novel analysis system can be used for foodstuffs such as candy, chewing gum, jelly, chocolate, processed chocolate products, and snacks containing 0.21-46.41% of sugars and sugar alcohols. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. American Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. O. Pechatnov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The "Founding fathers" of American Studies at MGIMO are considered to be A.V. Efimov and L.I. Clove. Alexey Efimov - Corresponding Member of the USSR Academy of Sciences since 1938, Head of the Department of Modern and Contemporary History and Dean of the Historical School at the Moscow State University - one of the first professors of the Faculty of International Relations MGIMO. Efimov distinguished himself by a broad vision and scope of scientific interests. Back in 1934 he published a monograph "On the history of capitalism in the United States," which initiated a series of research culminating in the fundamental work "The United States. The path of capitalist development (pre-imperialist era". Alexey was not only a great scientist but also a great teacher, whose lectures was popular throughout Moscow. His lecture courses, given at the end of the 1940s at MGIMO, became the basis for the first post-war history textbooks USA - "Essays on the history of the United States." At least as colorful a figure was Professor Leo Izrailevich Zubok - a man of unusual destiny. As a teenager he emigrated to the United States with his parents, where he soon joined the American revolutionary movement in the 1920s and was forced to leave the country. He came to MGIMO being already an experienced scientists. His research interests were very wide: from the study of American foreign policy expansion to the history of the labor movement in the United States. Zubok's fundamental works still have not lost its scientific significance. He has successfully combined scientific work with teaching. Tutorials that are based on his lectures were very popular not only among students of MGIMO.

  11. Channeling through Bent Crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mack, Stephanie; /Ottawa U. /SLAC

    2012-09-07

    Bent crystals have demonstrated potential for use in beam collimation. A process called channeling is when accelerated particle beams are trapped by the nuclear potentials in the atomic planes within a crystal lattice. If the crystal is bent then the particles can follow the bending angle of the crystal. There are several different effects that are observed when particles travel through a bent crystal including dechanneling, volume capture, volume reflection and channeling. With a crystal placed at the edge of a particle beam, part of the fringe of the beam can be deflected away towards a detector or beam dump, thus helping collimate the beam. There is currently FORTRAN code by Igor Yazynin that has been used to model the passage of particles through a bent crystal. Using this code, the effects mentioned were explored for beam energy that would be seen at the Facility for Advanced Accelerator Experimental Tests (FACET) at a range of crystal orientations with respect to the incoming beam. After propagating 5 meters in vacuum space past the crystal the channeled particles were observed to separate from most of the beam with some noise due to dechanneled particles. Progressively smaller bending radii, with corresponding shorter crystal lengths, were compared and it was seen that multiple scattering decreases with the length of the crystal therefore allowing for cleaner detection of the channeled particles. The input beam was then modified and only a portion of the beam sent through the crystal. With the majority of the beam not affected by the crystal, most particles were not deflected and after propagation the channeled particles were seen to be deflected approximately 5mm. After a portion of the beam travels through the crystal, the entire beam was then sent through a quadrupole magnet, which increased the separation of the channeled particles from the remainder of the beam to a distance of around 20mm. A different code, which was developed at SLAC, was used to

  12. The effects of sugars on moisture sorption isotherm and functional properties of cold water fish gelatin films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazaveh, Parham; Mohammadi Nafchi, Abdorreza; Abbaspour, Hossein

    2015-08-01

    Sugars were incorporated into CWFG solutions at different ratios (0%, 2%, 4%, and 6% w/w). Functional properties of the modified films were characterized following American standard test methods, and moisture sorption isotherm was characterized by polynomial and GAB models. Permeation to water vapor and oxygen of the modified films decreased compared to that of the control CWFG films. Moisture content, solubility, and monolayer water content of CWFG films decreased with the increase of sugar content. The addition of sugars significantly increased the Tensile strength of CWFG films from 30 to 40 MPa for ribose, and 30 to 35 MPa for fructose whereas elongation at the breaks decreased from 60% to 30% for ribose, and from 60% to 45% for that which incorporated fructose sugars. Moisture sorption isotherm curve significantly shifted to lower moisture content in aw0.6, ribose-incorporated CWFG films, had similar function to hydrogel materials. In all the characterizations, the effects of ribose were significantly higher than those of fructose. Results of this research can be explored for commercial use, depending on the application for either packaging purposes or in the cosmetics industries. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Metabolic Control of Tobacco Pollination by Sugars and Invertases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goetz, Marc; Guivarćh, Anne; Hirsche, Jörg; Bauerfeind, Martin Andreas; González, María-Cruz; Hyun, Tae Kyung; Eom, Seung Hee; Chriqui, Dominique; Engelke, Thomas; Großkinsky, Dominik K; Roitsch, Thomas

    2017-02-01

    Pollination in flowering plants is initiated by germination of pollen grains on stigmas followed by fast growth of pollen tubes representing highly energy-consuming processes. The symplastic isolation of pollen grains and tubes requires import of Suc available in the apoplast. We show that the functional coupling of Suc cleavage by invertases and uptake of the released hexoses by monosaccharide transporters are critical for pollination in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum). Transcript profiling, in situ hybridization, and immunolocalization of extracellular invertases and two monosaccharide transporters in vitro and in vivo support the functional coupling in supplying carbohydrates for pollen germination and tube growth evidenced by spatiotemporally coordinated expression. Detection of vacuolar invertases in maternal tissues by these approaches revealed metabolic cross talk between male and female tissues and supported the requirement for carbohydrate supply in transmitting tissue during pollination. Tissue-specific expression of an invertase inhibitor and addition of the chemical invertase inhibitor miglitol strongly reduced extracellular invertase activity and impaired pollen germination. Measurements of (competitive) uptake of labeled sugars identified two import pathways for exogenously available Suc into the germinating pollen operating in parallel: direct Suc uptake and via the hexoses after cleavage by extracellular invertase. Reduction of extracellular invertase activity in pollen decreases Suc uptake and severely compromises pollen germination. We further demonstrate that Glc as sole carbon source is sufficient for pollen germination, whereas Suc is supporting tube growth, revealing an important regulatory role of both the invertase substrate and products contributing to a potential metabolic and signaling-based multilayer regulation of pollination by carbohydrates. © 2017 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  14. Structure and Mechanism of ORF36, an Amino Sugar Oxidizing Enzyme in Everninomicin Biosynthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vey, Jessica L.; Al-Mestarihi, Ahmad; Hu, Yunfeng; Funk, Michael A.; Bachmann, Brian O.; Iverson, T.M. (Vanderbilt)

    2010-12-07

    Everninomicin is a highly modified octasaccharide that belongs to the orthosomycin family of antibiotics and possesses potent Gram-positive antibiotic activity, including broad-spectrum efficacy against multidrug resistant enterococci and Staphylococcus aureus. Among its distinctive structural features is a nitro sugar, L-evernitrose, analogues of which decorate a variety of natural products. Recently, we identified a nitrososynthase enzyme encoded by orf36 from Micromonospora carbonacea var. africana that mediates the flavin-dependent double oxidation of synthetically generated thymidine diphosphate (TDP)-L-epi-vancosamine to the corresponding nitroso sugar. Herein, we utilize a five-enzyme in vitro pathway both to verify that ORF36 catalyzes oxidation of biogenic TDP-L-epi-vancosamine and to determine whether ORF36 exhibits catalytic competence for any of its biosynthetic progenitors, which are candidate substrates for nitrososynthases in vivo. Progenitors solely undergo single-oxidation reactions and terminate in the hydroxylamine oxidation state. Performing the in vitro reactions in the presence of {sup 18}O{sub 2} establishes that molecular oxygen, rather than oxygen from water, is incorporated into ORF36-generated intermediates and products and identifies an off-pathway product that correlates with the oxidation product of a progenitor substrate. The 3.15 {angstrom} resolution X-ray crystal structure of ORF36 reveals a tetrameric enzyme that shares a fold with acyl-CoA dehydrogenases and class D flavin-containing monooxygenases, including the nitrososynthase KijD3. However, ORF36 and KijD3 have unusually open active sites in comparison to these related enzymes. Taken together, these studies map substrate determinants and allow the proposal of a minimal monooxygenase mechanism for amino sugar oxidation by ORF36.

  15. Capture and use of solar radiation, water, and nitrogen by sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaggard, K W; Qi, A; Ober, E S

    2009-01-01

    Sugar beet is spring-sown for sugar production in most sugar beet-growing countries. It is grown as a vegetative crop and it accumulates yield (sugar) from very early in its growth cycle. As long as the sugar beet plants do not flower, the sugar accumulation period is indefinite and yield continues to increase. This paper reviews the success of the sugar beet crop in capturing and using solar radiation, water and mineral nitrogen resources. The prospects for improved resource capture and therefore increased sugar yield are also considered, particularly the potential to increase solar radiation interception in the future by sowing the crop in the autumn.

  16. Enzymatic Synthesis and Characterization of Hydrophilic Sugar Based Polyesters and Their Modification with Stearic Acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Humayun Bilal

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Biodegradable and hydrophilic functional polyesters were synthesized enzymatically using xylitol or d-sorbitol together with divinyl adipate and lipase B from Candida antartica (CAL-B. The resulting polyesters had pendant OH-groups from their sugar units which were esterified to different degrees with stearic acid chloride. The structure and the degrees of polymerization of the resulting graft copolymers based on poly(xylitol adipate and poly(d-sorbitol adipate were characterized by 1H NMR spectroscopy and SEC. DSC, WAXS and SAXS measurements indicated that a phase separation between polymer backbone and stearoyl side chains occurred in the graft copolymers, and, additionally, the side chains were able to crystallize which resulted in the formation of a lamellar morphology. Additionally, nanoparticles of the graft copolymers in an aqueous environment were studied by DLS and negative stain TEM.

  17. Thermotropic Ionic Liquid Crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Axenov, Kirill V.; Laschat, Sabine

    2011-01-01

    The last five years’ achievements in the synthesis and investigation of thermotropic ionic liquid crystals are reviewed. The present review describes the mesomorphic properties displayed by organic, as well as metal-containing ionic mesogens. In addition, a short overview on the ionic polymer and self-assembled liquid crystals is given. Potential and actual applications of ionic mesogens are also discussed. PMID:28879986

  18. Walkout in Crystal City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrios, Greg

    2009-01-01

    When students take action, they create change that extends far beyond the classroom. In this article, the author, who was a former teacher from Crystal City, Texas, remembers the student walkout that helped launch the Latino civil rights movement 40 years ago. The Crystal City student walkout remains a high point in the history of student activism…

  19. Demonstration of Crystal Structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neville, Joseph P.

    1985-01-01

    Describes an experiment where equal parts of copper and aluminum are heated then cooled to show extremely large crystals. Suggestions are given for changing the orientation of crystals by varying cooling rates. Students are more receptive to concepts of microstructure after seeing this experiment. (DH)

  20. Photonic crystal fibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lægsgaard, Jesper; Hansen, K P; Nielsen, M D

    2003-01-01

    Photonic crystal fibers having a complex microstructure in the transverse plane constitute a new and promising class of optical fibers. Such fibers can either guide light through total internal reflection or the photonic bandgap effect, In this paper, we review the different types and applications...... of photonic crystal fibers with particular emphasis on recent advances in the field....

  1. Crystal growth and crystallography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chernov, A. A.

    1998-01-01

    Selected topics that may be of interest for both crystal-structure and crystal-growth communities are overviewed. The growth of protein crystals, along with that of some other compounds, is one of the topics, and recent insights into related phenomena are considered as examples of applications of general principles. The relationship between crystal growth shape and structure is reviewed and an attempt to introduce semiquantitative characterization of binding for proteins is made. The concept of kinks for complex structures is briefly discussed. Even at sufficiently low supersaturations, the fluctuation of steps may not be sufficient to implement the Gibbs-Thomson law if the kink density is low enough. Subsurface ordering of liquids and growth of rough interfaces from melts is discussed. Crystals growing in microgravity from solution should be more perfect if they preferentially trap stress-inducing impurities, thus creating an impurity-depleted zone around themselves. Evidently, such a zone is developed only around the crystals growing in the absence of convection. Under terrestrial conditions, the self-purified depleted zone is destroyed by convection, the crystal traps more impurity and grows stressed. The stress relief causes mosaicity. In systems containing stress-inducing but poorly trapped impurities, the crystals grown in the absence of convection should be worse than those of their terrestrial counterparts.

  2. Thermotropic Ionic Liquid Crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Axenov, Kirill V; Laschat, Sabine

    2011-01-14

    The last five years' achievements in the synthesis and investigation of thermotropic ionic liquid crystals are reviewed. The present review describes the mesomorphic properties displayed by organic, as well as metal-containing ionic mesogens. In addition, a short overview on the ionic polymer and self-assembled liquid crystals is given. Potential and actual applications of ionic mesogens are also discussed.

  3. Thermotropic Ionic Liquid Crystals

    OpenAIRE

    Axenov, Kirill V.; Laschat, Sabine

    2011-01-01

    The last five years’ achievements in the synthesis and investigation of thermotropic ionic liquid crystals are reviewed. The present review describes the mesomorphic properties displayed by organic, as well as metal-containing ionic mesogens. In addition, a short overview on the ionic polymer and self-assembled liquid crystals is given. Potential and actual applications of ionic mesogens are also discussed.

  4. Crystals in the LHC

    CERN Multimedia

    Antonella Del Rosso

    2012-01-01

    Bent crystals can be used to deflect charged particle beams. Their use in high-energy accelerators has been investigated for almost 40 years. Recently, a bent crystal was irradiated for the first time in the HiRadMat facility with an extreme particle flux, which crystals would have to withstand in the LHC. The results were very encouraging and confirmed that this technology could play a major role in increasing the beam collimation performance in future upgrades of the machine.   UA9 bent crystal tested with a laser. Charged particles interacting with a bent crystal can be trapped in channelling states and deflected by the atomic planes of the crystal lattice (see box). The use of bent crystals for beam manipulation in particle accelerators is a concept that has been well-assessed. Over the last three decades, a large number of experimental findings have contributed to furthering our knowledge and improving our ability to control crystal-particle interactions. In modern hadron colliders, su...

  5. SYMMETRY OF COMPOSITE CRYSTALS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VANSMAALEN, S

    1991-01-01

    Composite crystals are crystals that consist of two or more subsystems, in first approximation each one having its own three-dimensional periodicity. The symmetry of these subsystems is then characterized by an ordinary space group. Due to their mutual interaction the true structure consists of a

  6. Immunizations and African Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Data > Minority Population Profiles > Black/African American > Immunizations Immunizations and African Americans African American adults are less ... 19 to 35 months had comparable rates of immunization. African American women are as likely to have ...

  7. On the pull: periplasmic trapping of sugars before transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Gavin H

    2017-06-01

    Bacteria have evolved many routes for taking up nutrients, demonstrating great versatility in the types and mechanism of uptake used in different physiological conditions. The discovery of a single transporter in the bacterium Advenella mimigardefordensis for the uptake of five different sugars, including L-glucose and D-xylose, is described in this issue (Meinert et al., ), providing yet another example of the surprising adaptability of bacterial transport strategies. The transporter identified is a tripartite ATP-independent (TRAP) transporter, not previously associated with sugar transport, and in fact does not transport the sugars directly at all, rather requiring them to be converted in the periplasm to their respective sugar acid forms before transport through what appears to be a novel general sugar acid transporter. In this commentary, I describe how this process is consistent with the known mechanisms of TRAP transporters and consider how the role of sugar oxidation, or oxidative fermentation, operates with multiple hexose and pentose sugars. Finally I suggest that the periplasmic conversion of nutrients acquired across the outer membrane, before transport across the inner membrane, could have potentially useful biological functions in Gram negative bacteria. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Structural confirmation of oligosaccharides newly isolated from sugar beet molasses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abe Tatsuya

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sugar beet molasses is a viscous by-product of the processing of sugar beets into sugar. The molasses is known to contain sucrose and raffinose, a typical trisaccharide, with a well-established structure. Although sugar beet molasses contains various other oligosaccharides as well, the structures of those oligosaccharides have not been examined in detail. The purpose of this study was isolation and structural confirmation of these other oligosaccharides found in sugar beet molasses. Results Four oligosaccharides were newly isolated from sugar beet molasses using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC and carbon-Celite column chromatography. Structural confirmation of the saccharides was provided by methylation analysis, matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionaization time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS, and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR measurements. Conclusion The following oligosaccharides were identified in sugar beet molasses: β-D-galactopyranosyl-(1- > 6-β-D-fructofuranosyl-(2 1-α-D-glucopyranoside (named β-planteose, α-D-galactopyranosyl-(1- > 1-β-D-fructofuranosyl-(2 1-α-D-glucopyranoside (named1-planteose, α-D-glucopyranosyl-(1- > 6-α-D-glucopyranosyl-(1 2-β-D-fructofuranoside (theanderose, and β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1- > 3-α-D-glucopyranosyl-(1 2-β-D-fructofuranoside (laminaribiofructose. 1-planteose and laminaribiofructose were isolated from natural sources for the first time.

  9. Active Photonic Crystal Waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ek, Sara

    This thesis deals with the fabrication and characterization of active photonic crystal waveguides, realized in III-V semiconductor material with embedded active layers. The platform offering active photonic crystal waveguides has many potential applications. One of these is a compact photonic...... crystal semiconductor optical amplier. As a step towards such a component, photonic crystal waveguides with a single quantum well, 10 quantum wells and three layers of quantum dots are fabricated and characterized. An experimental study of the amplied spontaneous emission and a implied transmission...... are presented in this thesis. A variation of photonic crystal design parameters are used leading to a spectral shift of the dispersion, it is veried that the observed effects shift accordingly. An enhancement of the amplified spontaneous emission was observed close to the band edge, where light is slowed down...

  10. Progress on photonic crystals

    CERN Document Server

    Lecoq, P; Gundacker, S; Hillemanns, H; Jarron, P; Knapitsch, A; Leclercq, J L; Letartre, X; Meyer, T; Pauwels, K; Powolny, F; Seassal, C

    2010-01-01

    The renewal of interest for Time of Flight Positron Emission Tomography (TOF PET) has highlighted the need for increasing the light output of scintillating crystals and in particular for improving the light extraction from materials with a high index of refraction. One possible solution to overcome the problem of total internal reflection and light losses resulting from multiple bouncing within the crystal is to improve the light extraction efficiency at the crystal/photodetector interface by means of photonic crystals, i.e. media with a periodic modulation of the dielectric constant at the wavelength scale. After a short reminder of the underlying principles this contribution proposes to present the very encouraging results we have recently obtained on LYSO pixels and the perspectives on other crystals such as BGO, LuYAP and LuAG. These results confirm the impressive predictions from our previously published Monte Carlo simulations. A detailed description of the sample preparation procedure is given as well ...

  11. Optically Anomalous Crystals

    CERN Document Server

    Shtukenberg, Alexander; Kahr, Bart

    2007-01-01

    Optical anomalies in crystals are puzzles that collectively constituted the greatest unsolved problems in crystallography in the 19th Century. The most common anomaly is a discrepancy between a crystal’s symmetry as determined by its shape or by X-ray analysis, and that determined by monitoring the polarization state of traversing light. These discrepancies were perceived as a great impediment to the development of the sciences of crystals on the basis of Curie’s Symmetry Principle, the grand organizing idea in the physical sciences to emerge in the latter half of the 19th Century. Optically Anomalous Crystals begins with an historical introduction covering the contributions of Brewster, Biot, Mallard, Brauns, Tamman, and many other distinguished crystallographers. From this follows a tutorial in crystal optics. Further chapters discuss the two main mechanisms of optical dissymmetry: 1. the piezo-optic effect, and 2. the kinetic ordering of atoms. The text then tackles complex, inhomogeneous crystals, and...

  12. Organic semiconductor crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chengliang; Dong, Huanli; Jiang, Lang; Hu, Wenping

    2018-01-22

    Organic semiconductors have attracted a lot of attention since the discovery of highly doped conductive polymers, due to the potential application in field-effect transistors (OFETs), light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) and photovoltaic cells (OPVs). Single crystals of organic semiconductors are particularly intriguing because they are free of grain boundaries and have long-range periodic order as well as minimal traps and defects. Hence, organic semiconductor crystals provide a powerful tool for revealing the intrinsic properties, examining the structure-property relationships, demonstrating the important factors for high performance devices and uncovering fundamental physics in organic semiconductors. This review provides a comprehensive overview of the molecular packing, morphology and charge transport features of organic semiconductor crystals, the control of crystallization for achieving high quality crystals and the device physics in the three main applications. We hope that this comprehensive summary can give a clear picture of the state-of-art status and guide future work in this area.

  13. Bioengineered magnetic crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasyutich, O; Sarua, A; Schwarzacher, W

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we report on the successful application of a protein crystallization technique to fabricate a three-dimensionally ordered array of magnetic nanoparticles, i.e. a novel type of metamaterial with unique magnetic properties. We utilize ferritin protein cages for the template-constrained growth of superparamagnetic nanoparticles of magnetite/maghemite Fe 3 O 4 -γ-Fe 2 O 3 (magnetoferritin), followed by thorough nanoparticle bioprocessing and purification, and finally by protein crystallization. Protein crystallization is driven by the natural response of proteins to the supersaturation of the electrolyte, which leads to spontaneous nucleation and 3D crystal growth. Within a short period of time (hours to days) we were able to grow functional crystals on the meso-scale, with sizes of the order of tens, up to a few hundred micrometres. We present initial magnetic and Raman spectroscopy characterization results for the obtained 3D arrays of magnetic nanoparticles

  14. Solubility and physical properties of sugars in pressurized water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saldaña, Marleny D.A.; Alvarez, Víctor H.; Haldar, Anupam

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Sugar solubility in pressurized water and density at high pressures were measured. ► Glucose solubility was higher than that of lactose as predicted by their σ-profiles. ► Sugar aqueous solubility decreased with an increase in pressure from 15 to 120 bar. ► Aqueous glucose molecular packing shows high sensitivity to pressure. ► The COSMO-SAC model qualitatively predicted the sugar solubility data. - Abstract: In this study, the solubility, density, and refractive index of glucose and lactose in water as a function of temperature were measured. For solubility of sugars in pressurized water, experimental data were obtained at pressures of (15 to 120) bar and temperatures of (373 to 433) K using a dynamic flow high pressure system. Density data for aqueous sugar solutions were obtained at pressures of (1 to 300) bar and temperatures of (298 to 343) K. The refractive index of aqueous sugar solutions was obtained at 293 K and atmospheric pressure. Activity coefficient models, Van Laar and the Conductor-like Screening Model-Segment Activity Coefficient (COSMO-SAC), were used to fit and predict the experimental solubility data, respectively. The results obtained showed that the solubility of both sugars in pressurized water increase with an increase in temperature. However, with the increase of pressure from 15 bar to 120 bar, the solubility of both sugars in pressurized water decreased. The Van Laar model fit the experimental aqueous solubility data with deviations lower than 13 and 53% for glucose and lactose, respectively. The COSMO-SAC model predicted qualitatively the aqueous solubility of these sugars.

  15. Amino Sugars Enhance the Competitiveness of Beneficial Commensals with Streptococcus mutans through Multiple Mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Lin; Farivar, Tanaz; Burne, Robert A

    2016-06-15

    greater capacity to utilize amino sugars than the dental pathogen Streptococcus mutans and that the ability of the model commensal Streptococcus gordonii to compete against S. mutans is substantively enhanced by the presence of amino sugars commonly found in the oral cavity. The mechanisms underlying the greater capacity and competitive enhancements of the commensal are shown to depend on how the genes for the catabolic enzymes are regulated, the role of the allosteric modulators affecting such regulation, and the ability of amino sugars to enhance certain activities of the commensal that are antagonistic to S. mutans. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  16. Crystallization phenomena of isotactic polystyrene

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lemstra, Peter Jan

    1975-01-01

    In this thesis the crystallization behavior of isotactic polystyrene has been described. The kinetics of the crystallization process and the crystalline structure were studied both for crystallization in the bulk and from dilute solutions. ... Zie Summary

  17. Crystal structure of the vitamin B3 transporter PnuC, a full-length SWEET homolog

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jähme, Michael; Guskov, Albert; Slotboom, Dirk Jan

    2014-01-01

    PnuC transporters catalyze cellular uptake of the NAD(+) precursor nicotinamide riboside (NR) and belong to a large superfamily that includes the SWEET sugar transporters. We present a crystal structure of Neisseria mucosa PnuC, which adopts a highly symmetrical fold with 3 + 1 + 3 membrane topology

  18. Preservation of sugar content in ensiled sweet sorghum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt, J.; Sipocz, J.; Kaszas, I. [Pannon Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Mosonmagyarovar (Hungary). Dept. of Animal Nutrition; Szakacs, G.; Gyepes, A. [Technical Univ. of Budapest (Hungary). Dept. of Agricultural Chemical Technology; Tengerdy, R.P. [Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins, CO (United States). Dept. of Microbiology

    1997-04-01

    Ensiling in the presence of 0.5% formic acid preserved the sugar content of sweet sorghum, while in enzyme-assisted ensiling (ENLAC) with in situ produced enzymes, the sugar loss in 30 days was 28.6%. The ENLAC silage contained 1.5% lactic acid and 0.6% ethanol which might be recovered as value-added secondary products, in addition to the high quality residue as animal feed. Overall the formic acid ensiling is the better choice for sugar preservation, storage and prolonged bioprocessing for biofuel production. (Author)

  19. Combustion of thermochemically torrefied sugar cane bagasse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valix, M; Katyal, S; Cheung, W H

    2017-01-01

    This study compared the upgrading of sugar bagasse by thermochemical and dry torrefaction methods and their corresponding combustion behavior relative to raw bagasse. The combustion reactivities were examined by non-isothermal thermogravimetric analysis. Thermochemical torrefaction was carried out by chemical pre-treatment of bagasse with acid followed by heating at 160-300°C in nitrogen environment, while dry torrefaction followed the same heating treatment without the chemical pretreatment. The results showed thermochemical torrefaction generated chars with combustion properties that are closer to various ranks of coal, thus making it more suitable for co-firing applications. Thermochemical torrefaction also induced greater densification of bagasse with a 335% rise in bulk density to 340kg/m 3 , increased HHV mass and HHV volume , greater charring and aromatization and storage stability. These features demonstrate the potential of thermochemical torrefaction in addressing the practical challenges in using biomass such as bagasse as fuel. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Mineral induced formation of sugar phosphates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitsch, S.; Eschenmoser, A.; Gedulin, B.; Hui, S.; Arrhenius, G.

    1995-01-01

    Glycolaldehyde phosphate, sorbed from highly dilute, weakly alkaline solution into the interlayer of common expanding sheet structure metal hydroxide minerals, condenses extensively to racemic aldotetrose-2, 4-diphophates, and aldohexose-2, 4, 6-triphosphates. The reaction proceeds mainly through racemic erythrose-2, 4-phosphate, and terminates with a large fraction of racemic altrose-2, 4, 6-phosphate. In the absence of an inductive mineral phase, no detectable homogeneous reaction takes place in the concentration- and pH range used. The reactant glycolaldehyde phosphate is practically completely sorbed within an hour from solutions with concentrations as low as 50 micron; the half-time for conversion to hexose phosphates is of the order of two days at room temperature and pH 9.5. Total production of sugar phosphates in the mineral interlayer is largely independent of the glycolaldehyde phosphate concentration in the external solution, but is determined by the total amount of GAP offered for sorption up to the capacity of the mineral. In the presence of equimolar amounts of rac-glyceraldehyde-2-phosphate, but under otherwise similar conditions, aldopentose-2, 4, -diphosphates also form, but only as a small fraction of the hexose-2, 4, 6-phosphates.