WorldWideScience

Sample records for american crystal sugar

  1. RECOVERY OF LACTIC ACID FROM AMERICAN CRYSTAL SUGAR COMPANY WASTEWATER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daniel J. Stepan; Edwin S. Olson; Richard E. Shockey; Bradley G. Stevens; John R. Gallagher

    2001-04-30

    , self-supporting thin films and have, therefore, been used for adhesives, safety glass, and finishes. If the bacterial culture produces the L-lactic acid enanatiomer form exclusively, the L-lactide prepared from this form can be used for making polymers with good fiber-forming properties. We have not currently achieved the exclusive production of L-lactate in our efforts. However, markets in films and structural shapes are available for polymers and copolymers prepared from the mixed D,L-lactide forms that result from processing the D,L-lactic acid obtained from fermentation such as that occurring naturally in sugar beet wastewater. These materials are slowly biodegraded to harmless compounds in the environment, and they burn with a clean blue flame when incinerated. These materials represent excellent opportunities for utilization of the D,L-lactic mixture produced from natural fermentation of the ACS flume water. Esters can be converted into a lactide, and the alcohol released from the ester can be recycled with no net consumption of the alcohol. Lactide intermediates could be produced locally and shipped to polymer producers elsewhere. The polymer and copolymer markets are extremely large, and the role of lactides in these markets is continuously expanding. The overall process can be readily integrated into existing factory wastewater operations. There are several environmental benefits that would be realized at the factories with incorporation of the lactate recovery process. The process reduces the organic loading to the existing wastewater treatment system that should result in enhanced operability with respect to both solids handling and treated-water quality. A higher-quality treated water will also help reduce odor levels from holding ponds. Several water reuse opportunities are probable, depending on the quality of treated water from the FT process.

  2. Potentialities of molasses from cane sugar crystallization in food formulations

    OpenAIRE

    Payet, Bertrand; Shum Cheong Sing, Alain; Smadja, Jacqueline

    2005-01-01

    Molasses are produced together with granulated sugar. Three kinds of molasses are obtained during fractional crystallization : A, B, C molasses issued respectively from the first, the second and the third step of crystallization. Several parameters as the sucrose inversion, the presence of aminoacids, of water, of mineral salts, the alkaline pH, the sugar process duration (3 days) and the high temperature (90°C) favour Maillard reactions. These reactions generate coloured macromolecules and h...

  3. Multifractal modeling of the production of concentrated sugar syrup crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheng, Bi; Jianbo, Gao

    2016-07-01

    High quality, concentrated sugar syrup crystal is produced in a critical step in cane sugar production: the clarification process. It is characterized by two variables: the color of the produced sugar and its clarity degree. We show that the temporal variations of these variables follow power-law distributions and can be well modeled by multiplicative cascade multifractal processes. These interesting properties suggest that the degradation in color and clarity degree has a system-wide cause. In particular, the cascade multifractal model suggests that the degradation in color and clarity degree can be equivalently accounted for by the initial “impurities” in the sugarcane. Hence, more effective cleaning of the sugarcane before the clarification stage may lead to substantial improvement in the effect of clarification.

  4. Multifractal modeling of the production of concentrated sugar syrup crystal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闭胜; 高剑波

    2016-01-01

    High quality, concentrated sugar syrup crystal is produced in a critical step in cane sugar production:the clarification process. It is characterized by two variables: the color of the produced sugar and its clarity degree. We show that the temporal variations of these variables follow power-law distributions and can be well modeled by multiplicative cascade multifractal processes. These interesting properties suggest that the degradation in color and clarity degree has a system-wide cause. In particular, the cascade multifractal model suggests that the degradation in color and clarity degree can be equivalently accounted for by the initial“impurities”in the sugarcane. Hence, more effective cleaning of the sugarcane before the clarification stage may lead to substantial improvement in the effect of clarification.

  5. Sugar Cane: A Bitter-Sweet Legacy. A Study of the Disappearing African-American Worker on the Sugar Cane Plantations in Southern Louisiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, John A., Jr.; And Others

    This resource/study guide is designed to accompany the instructional video, "Sugar Cane: A Bitter-Sweet Legacy," which explores the significance of cultivating, harvesting, and refining sugar cane. It is also a brief study of the disappearing African-American workers on the sugar cane plantations in southern Louisiana. Seven main ideas are…

  6. Performance enhancement for crystallization unit of a sugar plant using genetic algorithm technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tewari, P. C.; Khanduja, Rajiv; Gupta, Mahesh

    2012-05-01

    This paper deals with the performance enhancement for crystallization unit of a sugar plant using genetic algorithm. The crystallization unit of a sugar industry has three main subsystems arranged in series. Considering exponential distribution for the probable failures and repairs, the mathematical formulation of the problem is done using probabilistic approach, and differential equations are developed on the basis of Markov birth-death process. These equations are then solved using normalizing conditions so as to determine the steady-state availability of the crystallization unit. The performance of each subsystem of crystallization unit in a sugar plant has also been optimized using genetic algorithm. Thus, the findings of the present paper will be highly useful to the plant management for the timely execution of proper maintenance decisions and, hence, to enhance the system performance.

  7. Sugars as bulking agents to prevent nano-crystal aggregation during spray or freeze-drying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Sumit; Gokhale, Rajeev; Burgess, Diane J

    2014-08-25

    In this study, the effect of low and high molecular weight sugars on indomethacin nano-crystalline suspension powders prepared by spray or freeze-drying was evaluated. Dowfax 2A1 (negatively charged surfactant) was utilized as indomethacin nanosuspensions stabilizer. Dried crystalline powders with or without sugars were characterized for crystallinity, particle size and powder yield. Interactions between the nanosuspension stabilizer (i.e. Dowfax 2A1) and sugars were investigated by utilizing IR spectroscopy and contact angle measurements. The nanosuspension formulations containing small molecular weight sugars were non-aggregating compared to those containing polysaccharides. Additionally, higher powder yields were observed with formulations containing sugars with higher glass transition temperature during spray drying. The formulations containing low glass transition temperature sugars were sticking to the spray drier glass walls and thus resulted in lower yields. The small molecular weight sugars showed favorable interactions with Dowfax 2A1, as evident by the IR and contact angle data, possibly resulting in minimal nano-crystal aggregation during spray or freeze-drying. A combination of sugars (i.e. small molecular weight and polysaccharides) may be utilized to achieve higher spray-drying yields and non-aggregating nano-crystalline powders.

  8. Thorium and rare earth elements in crystal and brown sugar consumed in Brazil and Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Human exposure to contaminants in foods is a matter of general health concern. There is a growing interest in determine and quantify contaminants in food chain including natural radionuclides and rare earth elements (REE). Irradiation effects of radioactive nuclides and REE may cause lesions from their interaction with the human body. This study aimed to identify the presence of thorium and rare earth elements in crystal and brown sugar samples available for consumption in Brazil and Argentina. To determine the chemical elements, the 5g-sample methodology established at CDTN/CNEN, in Belo Horizonte, using the neutron activation technique, k0-method, was applied. The element Sm was determined in crystal sugar samples analyzed that were available to consumption in both countries. Similarly to the brown sugar samples which presented La, Sc and Sm. The elements Ce and Th were found in brown sugar sample available to consumption in Brazil. Thus, the detection of these elements in sugar samples is important insofar as the increasing consumption of sugar around the world. The presence of impurities and its concentration may contribute to health issues to consumers. (author)

  9. Thorium and rare earth elements in crystal and brown sugar consumed in Brazil and Argentina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salles, Paula M.B. de; Campos, Tarcisio P. R. de, E-mail: pauladesalles@yahoo.com.br [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (DEN/UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Departamento de Engenharia Nuclear; Menezes, Maria Angela de B.C., E-mail: menezes@cdtn.br [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    Human exposure to contaminants in foods is a matter of general health concern. There is a growing interest in determine and quantify contaminants in food chain including natural radionuclides and rare earth elements (REE). Irradiation effects of radioactive nuclides and REE may cause lesions from their interaction with the human body. This study aimed to identify the presence of thorium and rare earth elements in crystal and brown sugar samples available for consumption in Brazil and Argentina. To determine the chemical elements, the 5g-sample methodology established at CDTN/CNEN, in Belo Horizonte, using the neutron activation technique, k{sub 0}-method, was applied. The element Sm was determined in crystal sugar samples analyzed that were available to consumption in both countries. Similarly to the brown sugar samples which presented La, Sc and Sm. The elements Ce and Th were found in brown sugar sample available to consumption in Brazil. Thus, the detection of these elements in sugar samples is important insofar as the increasing consumption of sugar around the world. The presence of impurities and its concentration may contribute to health issues to consumers. (author)

  10. Restaurant foods, sugar-sweetened soft drinks, and obesity risk among young African American women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boggs, Deborah A.; Rosenberg, Lynn; Coogan, Patricia F.; Makambi, Kepher H.; Adams-Campbell, Lucile L.; Palmer, Julie R.

    2013-01-01

    Background The prevalence of obesity is disproportionately high in African American women, and consumption of fast foods and sugar-sweetened soft drinks is also especially high among African Americans. Objective We investigated the relation of intakes of sugar-sweetened soft drinks and specific types of restaurant foods to obesity in the Black Women's Health Study. Design In this prospective cohort study, 19,479 non-obese women aged 21–39 years at baseline were followed for 14 years (1995–2009). Dietary intake was assessed by validated food frequency questionnaire in 1995 and 2001. Main outcome measures Cox regression models were used to estimate hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for the association of intakes of restaurant foods and sugar-sweetened soft drinks with incident obesity. Results Higher intakes of burgers from restaurants and sugar-sweetened soft drinks were associated with greater risk of becoming obese. The associations were present in models that included both factors and adjusted for overall dietary pattern. The HR of obesity in relation to restaurant burger consumption of ≥2 times/week compared with <5 times/year was 1.26 (95% CI: 1.14–1.40; P-trend<0.001). For sugar-sweetened soft drink intake, the HR was 1.10 (95% CI: 0.99–1.23; P-trend=0.14) for ≥2 drinks/day compared with <1 drink/month. The associations were stronger among women younger than age 30 with normal weight at baseline. Conclusions Frequent consumption of burgers from restaurants and sugar-sweetened soft drinks contribute to obesity among young African American women. PMID:24392607

  11. Obesity and sugar-sweetened beverages in African-American preschool children: a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Sungwoo; Zoellner, Jamie M; Lee, Joyce M; Burt, Brian A; Sandretto, Anita M; Sohn, Woosung; Ismail, Amid I; Lepkowski, James M

    2009-06-01

    A representative sample of 365 low-income African-American preschool children aged 3-5 years was studied to determine the association between sugar-sweetened beverage consumption (soda, fruit drinks, and both combined) and overweight and obesity. Children were examined at a dental clinic in 2002-2003 and again after 2 years. Dietary information was collected using the Block Kids Food Frequency Questionnaire. A BMI score was computed from recorded height and weight. Overweight and obesity were defined by national reference age-sex specific BMI: those with an age-sex specific BMI>or=85th, but or=95th age-sex specific percentile as obese. The prevalence of overweight was 12.9% in baseline, and increased to 18.7% after 2 years. The prevalence of obesity increased from 10.3 to 20.4% during the same period. Baseline intake of soda and all sugar-sweetened beverages were positively associated with baseline BMI z-scores. After adjusting for covariates, additional intake of fruit drinks and all sugar-sweetened beverages at baseline showed significantly higher odds of incidence of overweight over 2 years. Among a longitudinal cohort of African-American preschool children, high consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages was significantly associated with an increased risk for obesity.

  12. New insights on the risk for cardiovascular disease in African Americans: the role of added sugars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saab, Karim R; Kendrick, Jessica; Yracheta, Joseph M; Lanaspa, Miguel A; Pollard, Maisha; Johnson, Richard J

    2015-02-01

    African Americans are at increased risk for cardiovascular and metabolic diseases, including obesity, high BP, diabetes, CKD, myocardial infarction, and stroke. Here we summarize the current risks and provide an overview of the underlying risk factors that may account for these associations. By reviewing the relationship between cardiovascular and renal diseases and the African-American population during the early 20th century, the historic and recent associations of African heritage with cardiovascular disease, and modern population genetics, it is possible to assemble strong hypotheses for the primary underlying mechanisms driving the increased frequency of disease in African Americans. Our studies suggest that underlying genetic mechanisms may be responsible for the increased frequency of high BP and kidney disease in African Americans, with particular emphasis on the role of APOL1 polymorphisms in causing kidney disease. In contrast, the Western diet, particularly the relatively high intake of fructose-containing sugars and sweetened beverages, appears to be the dominant force driving the increased risk of diabetes, obesity, and downstream complications. Given that intake of added sugars is a remediable risk factor, we recommend clinical trials to examine the reduction of sweetened beverages as a primary means for reducing cardiovascular risk in African Americans. PMID:25090991

  13. Influence of fluid structure upon the shape of RTD curve at a sugar crystallizer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The influence of fluid structure over the shape of the RTD curve at a pilot sugar crystallizer has been tested by the radiotracer method. For Newtonian pure molasses B sugar fluid the pattern flux was close to a perfect mixing cells with backmixing model with a back flow-rate ratio lower than one. In the case of molasses B transformed to a non-Newtonian fluid the pattern flux approaches the same model but with extreme values of the back flow-rate ration (higher than one). A direct relationship was founded between the back flow rate ratio and the flow index of the tested fluids, showing that a special attention has to be pay during data processing of the RTD curves for non-Newtonian fluids. (author)

  14. Stability and plasticizing and crystallization effects of vitamins in amorphous sugar systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yankun; Roos, Yrjö H

    2012-02-01

    Increased molecular mobility and structural changes resulting from water plasticization of glassy solids may lead to loss of the entrapped compounds from encapsulant systems. In the present study, the stability of water-soluble vitamins, vitamin B(1) (vB(1), thiamin hydrochloride) and vitamin C (vC, ascorbic acid), in freeze-dried lactose and trehalose at various water activities was studied. Water sorption of lactose-vB(1), lactose-vC, trehalose-vB(1), and trehalose-vC systems was determined gravimetrically. Glass transition and crystallization of anhydrous and plasticized sugar-vitamin systems were determined using thermal analysis. Critical water activity was calculated using water sorption and glass transition data. The retention of the vitamins was measured spectrophotometrically. The results showed that the amorphous structure protected the entrapped vitamins at low a(w). Crystallization of lactose accelerated vitamin degradation, whereas trehalose retained much higher amounts of the vitamins. Glass transition and critical water activity of solids and crystallization of component sugars should be considered in the stabilization of sensitive components. PMID:22220563

  15. Conformational dynamics of dry lamellar crystals of sugar based lipids: an atomistic simulation study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijayan ManickamAchari

    Full Text Available The rational design of a glycolipid application (e.g. drug delivery with a tailored property depends on the detailed understanding of its structure and dynamics. Because of the complexity of sugar stereochemistry, we have undertaken a simulation study on the conformational dynamics of a set of synthetic glycosides with different sugar groups and chain design, namely dodecyl β-maltoside, dodecyl β-cellobioside, dodecyl β-isomaltoside and a C12C10 branched β-maltoside under anhydrous conditions. We examined the chain structure in detail, including the chain packing, gauche/trans conformations and chain tilting. In addition, we also investigated the rotational dynamics of the headgroup and alkyl chains. Monoalkylated glycosides possess a small amount of gauche conformers (∼20% in the hydrophobic region of the lamellar crystal (LC phase. In contrast, the branched chain glycolipid in the fluid Lα phase has a high gauche population of up to ∼40%. Rotational diffusion analysis reveals that the carbons closest to the headgroup have the highest correlation times. Furthermore, its value depends on sugar type, where the rotational dynamics of an isomaltose was found to be 11-15% and more restrained near the sugar, possibly due to the chain disorder and partial inter-digitation compared to the other monoalkylated lipids. Intriguingly, the present simulation demonstrates the chain from the branched glycolipid bilayer has the ability to enter into the hydrophilic region. This interesting feature of the anhydrous glycolipid bilayer simulation appears to arise from a combination of lipid crowding and the amphoteric nature of the sugar headgroups.

  16. Crystal structure of the sugar binding domain of the archaeal transcriptional regulator TrmB.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krug, Michael; Lee, Sung-Jae; Diederichs, Kay; Boos, Winfried; Welte, Wolfram

    2006-04-21

    TrmB is an alpha-glucoside-sensing transcriptional regulator controlling two operons encoding maltose/trehalose and maltodextrin ABC transporters of Pyrococcus furiosus. The crystal structure of an N-terminal truncated derivative of TrmB (amino acids 2-109 deleted; TrmB(delta2-109)) was solved at 1.5 A resolution. This protein has lost its DNA binding domain but has retained its sugar recognition site. The structure represents a novel sugar-binding fold. TrmB(delta2-109) bound maltose, glucose, sucrose, and maltotriose, exhibiting Kd values of 6.8, 25, 34, and 160 microM, respectively. TrmB(delta2-109) behaved as a monomer in dilute buffer solution in contrast to the full-length protein, which is a dimer. Co-crystallization with bound maltose identified a binding site involving seven amino acid residues: Ser229, Asn305, Gly320, Met321, Val324, Ile325, and Glu326. Six of these residues interact with the nonreducing glucosyl residue of maltose. The nonreducing glucosyl residue is shared by all substrates bound to TrmB, suggesting it as a common recognition motif.

  17. No Effect of Added Sugar Consumed at Median American Intake Level on Glucose Tolerance or Insulin Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowndes, Joshua; Sinnett, Stephanie S.; Rippe, James M.

    2015-01-01

    Excess sugar consumption may promote adverse changes in hepatic and total body insulin resistance. Debate continues over the effects of sugars at more typically consumed levels and whether the identity of the sugar consumed is important. In the present study participants (20–60 years old) were randomly assigned to one of five groups, three that consumed low fat milk with added fructose containing sugars in amounts equivalent to the 50th percentile of fructose consumption (US), one which consumed low-fat milk sweetened with glucose, and one unsweetened low-fat milk control group. The intervention lasted ten weeks. In the entire study population there was less than 1 kg increase in weight (73.6 ± 13.0 vs. 74.5 ± 13.3 kg, p 0.05). There were no changes in fasting glucose (49 ± 0.4 vs. 5.0 ± 0.5 mmol/L), insulin (56.9 ± 38.9 vs. 61.8 ± 50.0 pmol/L), or insulin resistance, as measured by the Homeostasis Model Assessment method (1.8 ± 1.3 vs. 2.0 ± 1.5, all p > 0.05). These data suggest that added sugar consumed at the median American intake level does not produce changes in measures of insulin sensitivity or glucose tolerance and that no sugar has more deleterious effects than others. PMID:26512691

  18. No Effect of Added Sugar Consumed at Median American Intake Level on Glucose Tolerance or Insulin Resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua Lowndes

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Excess sugar consumption may promote adverse changes in hepatic and total body insulin resistance. Debate continues over the effects of sugars at more typically consumed levels and whether the identity of the sugar consumed is important. In the present study participants (20–60 years old were randomly assigned to one of five groups, three that consumed low fat milk with added fructose containing sugars in amounts equivalent to the 50th percentile of fructose consumption (US, one which consumed low-fat milk sweetened with glucose, and one unsweetened low-fat milk control group. The intervention lasted ten weeks. In the entire study population there was less than 1 kg increase in weight (73.6 ±13.0 vs. 74.5 ± 13.3 kg, p < 0.001, but the change in weight was comparable among groups (p > 0.05. There were no changes in fasting glucose (49 ± 0.4 vs. 5.0 ± 0.5 mmol/L, insulin (56.9 ± 38.9 vs. 61.8 ± 50.0 pmol/L, or insulin resistance, as measured by the Homeostasis Model Assessment method (1.8 ± 1.3 vs. 2.0 ± 1.5, all p > 0.05. These data suggest that added sugar consumed at the median American intake level does not produce changes in measures of insulin sensitivity or glucose tolerance and that no sugar has more deleterious effects than others.

  19. Effects of copper, iron and fluoride co-crystallized with sugar on caries development and acid formation in deslivated rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosalen, P L; Pearson, S K; Bowen, W H

    1996-11-01

    The purpose was to explore the effects of combinations of copper, iron and fluoride (Cu, Fe and F) incorporated in sucrose by co-crystallization on caries development in the deslivated rat model and to examine acid formation by bacteria in the rat mouth. Ninety-six Sprague-Dawley rats were infected with Streptococcus sobrinus 6715 and desalivated when aged 26 days. Eight groups were placed in a König-Höfer programmed feeder and received 17 meals daily at hourly intervals, and essential nutrition (NCP No. 2) by gavage twice daily for 21 days. The groups received (1) plain sucrose, (2) F (8 parts/10(6)) co-crystallized with sucrose, (3) Fe (88 parts/10(6)) sucrose, (4) Cu (75 parts/10(6)) sucrose, (5) Cu + F sucrose, (6) Cu + L Fe sucrose, (7) F + Fe sucrose, and (8) Cu + Fe + F sucrose. At death the jaws were removed and sonicated in 0.9% saline solution for microbial assessment. In addition, organic acid assays were performed for each animal. Keyes smooth-surface and sulcal caries scores were lowest in the Cu + Fe + F sucrose group, but not statistically significantly different from those of the other Cu groups. The numbers of Strep. sobrinus found in the groups that received Cu, Cu + Fe, Cu + F, F + Fe and Cu + Fe + F sugar were lower than in the control group. Lactic acid was found in lower concentrations in Fe, Cu, Cu + F, Cu + Fe and F + Fe groups than in the other groups. It appears that combinations of Cu; Fe and F co-crystallized with sugar may have an additive effect in reducing the cariogenic potential of sugar by affecting lactic acid formation and reducing bacterial colonization.

  20. Mathematical modeling and fuzzy availability analysis for serial processes in the crystallization system of a sugar plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggarwal, Anil Kr.; Kumar, Sanjeev; Singh, Vikram

    2016-08-01

    The binary states, i.e., success or failed state assumptions used in conventional reliability are inappropriate for reliability analysis of complex industrial systems due to lack of sufficient probabilistic information. For large complex systems, the uncertainty of each individual parameter enhances the uncertainty of the system reliability. In this paper, the concept of fuzzy reliability has been used for reliability analysis of the system, and the effect of coverage factor, failure and repair rates of subsystems on fuzzy availability for fault-tolerant crystallization system of sugar plant is analyzed. Mathematical modeling of the system is carried out using the mnemonic rule to derive Chapman-Kolmogorov differential equations. These governing differential equations are solved with Runge-Kutta fourth-order method.

  1. Effect of copper co-crystallized with sugar on caries development in desalivated rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosalen, P L; Bowen, W H; Pearson, S K

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to explore the effects of varying levels of copper incorporated in sucrose by co-crystallization on caries development in the desalivated rat model and to examine the retention of copper in the oral cavity and its influence on protein and carbohydrate composition of plaque. Forty-eight Sprague-Dawley rats were infected by Streptococcus sobrinus 6715 and desalivated when aged 26 days. Four groups were placed in a König-Höfer programmed feeder and received 17 meals daily at hourly intervals, and essential nutrition (NCP No. 2) by gavage twice daily. The control group (1) received meals of plain sucrose, and groups 2, 3, and 4 received sucrose co-crystallized with 300 ppm Cu2+(2), 150 Cu2+(3), and 75 Cu2+(4). After 3 weeks, the animals were killed, and blood was collected for determination of copper. The lower jaw was removed and sonicated in 0.9% saline solution. Microbial assessment and copper, protein and carbohydrate assays were performed for each animal. Smooth-surface and [sulcal] caries scores were: (1) 92.0[41.4]; (2) 6.1[34.2]; (3) 16.7[32.0]; (4) 24.0[36.0]. Copper in sucrose drastically affected the population of S. sobrinus when compared with the control. Also, Cu2+ sucrose groups had significantly more copper per unit of protein and carbohydrate in jaw suspension than the control group. Concentration of copper in the blood was apparently unaffected by any dietary regimen. It is concluded that Cu2+ in a range of concentrations (75-300 ppm Cu2+) when delivered co-crystallized with sucrose is an effective cariostatic agent. The co-crystallization of a cariostatic agent with sucrose may be an effective method to decrease the cariogenic potential of sucrose.

  2. Purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of RafE, a sugar-binding lipoprotein from Streptococcus pneumoniae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paterson, Neil G., E-mail: neison@chem.gla.ac.uk; Riboldi-Tunnicliffe, Alan [Department of Chemistry and WestCHEM, Glasgow Biomedical Research Centre (GBRC), University of Glasgow, 120 University Place, Glasgow G12 8TA,Scotland (United Kingdom); Mitchell, Timothy J. [Division of Infection and Immunity (IBLS), Glasgow Biomedical Research Centre (GBRC), University of Glasgow, 120 University Place, Glasgow G12 8TA,Scotland (United Kingdom); Isaacs, Neil W. [Department of Chemistry and WestCHEM, Glasgow Biomedical Research Centre (GBRC), University of Glasgow, 120 University Place, Glasgow G12 8TA,Scotland (United Kingdom)

    2006-07-01

    The mature form of RafE has been expressed, purified and crystallized. X-ray diffraction data have been collected to 3.65 and 2.90 Å resolution from native and selenomethionine-derivative crystals, respectively. Streptococcus pneumoniae contains a large number of sugar-transport systems and the system responsible for raffinose uptake has recently been identified. The substrate-binding protein component of this system shares strong sequence homology with the multiple sugar metabolism substrate-binding protein MsmE from S. mutans and contains a lipoprotein-attachment site at cysteine residue 23. A truncated form (residues 24–419) of RafE from S. pneumoniae was cloned and overexpressed in Escherichia coli. Native and selenomethionine-labelled protein have been crystallized in the hexagonal space group P6{sub 1}22. Diffraction data have been successfully phased to 2.90 Å using Se SAD data and model building is in progress.

  3. Frequently Asked Questions about Sugar

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in Americans' diets? Sugar-sweetened beverages including regular soft drinks, sports drinks and fruit drinks (fruitades and fruit ... milk). Does this mean I should avoid all soft drinks and other sugar-sweetened beverages? You can choose ...

  4. Black crystal: a novel color mutant in the American mink (Mustela vision Schreber).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trapezov, O V

    1997-01-01

    Black crystal, a new mutant of coat color pattern occurring in the American mink in the course of selection for domestic behavior, is described. A salient feature of the mutation is the appearance of white guard hairs producing a veil-like covering of the body. In the Black crystal homozygote, coat color is of the Himalayan type. Breeding data demonstrate that the novel color phase is inherited as a monogenic autosomal semidominant trait. The mutant gene is designated as Black crystal and is symbolized by Cr. The Cr gene is not allelic to the multiple-allelic series at the Black cross locus.

  5. Sugar concentration of fruits and their detection via color in the Central American spider monkey (Ateles geoffroyi).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riba-Hernández, Pablo; Stoner, Kathryn E; Lucas, Peter W

    2005-12-01

    Although most arguments explaining the predominance of polymorphic color vision in platyrrhine monkeys are linked to the advantage of trichromacy over dichromacy for foraging for ripe fruits, little information exists on the relationship between nutritional reward and performance in fruit detection with different types of color vision. The principal reward of most fruits is sugar, and thus it seems logical to investigate whether fruit coloration provides a long-distance sensory cue to primates that correlates with sugar content. Here we test the hypothesis that fruit detection performance via trichromatic color vision phenotypes provides better information regarding sugar concentration than dichromatic phenotypes (i.e., is a color vision phenotype with sufficient red-green (RG) differentiation necessary to "reveal" the concentration of major sugars in fruits?). Accordingly, we studied the fruit foraging behavior of Ateles geoffroyi by measuring both the reflectance spectra and the concentrations of major sugars in the consumed fruits. We modeled detection performance with different color phenotypes. Our results provide some support for the hypothesis. The yellow-blue (YB) color signal, which is the only one available to dichromats, was not significantly related to sugar concentration. The RG color vision signal, which is present only in trichromats, was significantly correlated with sugar content, but only when the latter was defined by glucose. There was in fact a consistent negative relationship between fruit detection performance and sucrose concentration, although this was not significant for the 430 nm and 550 nm phenotypes. The regular trichromatic phenotypes (430 nm, 533 nm, and 565 nm) showed higher correlations between fruit performance and glucose concentration than the other two trichromatic phenotypes. Our study documents a trichromatic foraging advantage in terms of fruit quality, and suggests that trichromatic color vision is advantageous over

  6. Sweeteners - sugars

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... rise in blood sugar after meals or cause tooth decay. Unlike other sugar alcohols, it does not cause ... and other sweeteners with calories can lead to tooth decay . Large amounts of sugar-containing foods lead to ...

  7. Sugar (sucrose) holograms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponce-Lee, E. L.; Olivares-Pérez, A.; Fuentes-Tapia, I.

    2004-06-01

    Computer holograms made with sugar crystals are reported. This material is well known as a good sweetener; the sugar from sugar cane or sugar beet (sucrose). These sweetener can be applied as honey "water and diluted sugar" easily on any substrate such as plastics or glasses without critical conditions for developed process. This step corresponds only to the cured sucrose as a photopolymer process. The maximum absorption spectra is localized at UV region λ=240 nm. We record with lithographic techniques some gratings, showing a good diffraction efficiency around 45%. This material has good resolution to make diffraction gratings. These properties are attractive because they open the possibility to make phase holograms on candies. Mainly the phase modulation is by refraction index.

  8. 振荡多晶体冰糖结晶工艺研究%Crystallization of multicrystal rock sugar based on oscillation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何树珍; 于淑娟

    2011-01-01

    研究了糖浆沸点与锤度的关系,结果表明两者呈线性相关.在多晶体冰糖保温静止结晶的基础上,研究了浓缩终点温度和糖浆pH对基于振荡的多晶体冰糖结晶工艺的影响,得出浓缩终点温度最低为115℃,此时的锤度为83.1° Bx,过饱和度为1.2;当浓缩终点温度为120℃时,最终冰糖的结晶率为71.91%;煮糖所用糖浆的适宜pH范围为7~8.为多晶体冰糖结晶器的设计提供了一定的理论基础.%The relationship between boiling point of syrup and its brix, and the influence of syrup concentrate terminal temperature and pH on the crystallization of multicrystal rock sugar based on oscillation were investigated in this paper. Results showed that a linear correlation was found between boiling point of syrup and its brix, while, the lowest concentrate terminal temperature, the brix and the degree of supersaturation were 115℃, 83. 1 and 1. 2, respectively. As the concentrate terminal temperature was 120℃, the crystallization rate increased to 71. 91%. The appropriate pH values for syrup were ranged from 7 to 8. This research provided an essential theory for the design of the new crystallizer for multicrystal rock sugar.

  9. Sweeteners - sugars

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... at much higher risk for type 2 diabetes , metabolic syndrome , and high blood pressure . Sugar alcohols such as ... limiting the amount of added sugars in your diet. The recommendation extends to all types of added ...

  10. Crystal structure of lactose permease in complex with an affinity inactivator yields unique insight into sugar recognition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaptal, Vincent; Kwon, Seunghyug; Sawaya, Michael R.; Guan, Lan; Kaback, H. Ronald; Abramson, Jeff (UCLA); (TTU)

    2011-08-29

    Lactose permease of Escherichia coli (LacY) with a single-Cys residue in place of A122 (helix IV) transports galactopyranosides and is specifically inactivated by methanethiosulfonyl-galactopyranosides (MTS-gal), which behave as unique suicide substrates. In order to study the mechanism of inactivation more precisely, we solved the structure of single-Cys122 LacY in complex with covalently bound MTS-gal. This structure exhibits an inward-facing conformation similar to that observed previously with a slight narrowing of the cytoplasmic cavity. MTS-gal is bound covalently, forming a disulfide bond with C122 and positioned between R144 and W151. E269, a residue essential for binding, coordinates the C-4 hydroxyl of the galactopyranoside moiety. The location of the sugar is in accord with many biochemical studies.

  11. 冰糖增加口服四环素吸收作用机理的初步研究%Primary Study on the Mechanism of Enhanced Absorption of Tetracycline by Crystal Sugar in the Rat Intestine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韦玉先; 陈海东; 唐祖年

    2001-01-01

    Aims:To study the mechanism by which crystal sugar enhances absorption of tetracycline in the rat intestine. Methods:Animal experiments were performed following the methods described by Fukahori at al;rats fasted for 24h were gavaged with tetracycline hydrochloride with or without concomitant of different concentrations of crystal sugar, i.e, 20%,40%,60% and 80% crystal sugar solution. Blood sample was collected then animal was sacrificed for intestinal content collection. Tetracycline in plasma and intestinal content was determined by fluorespectro-photometry method. Results:Theoretical plasma peak concentrations of tetracycline were significantly elevated by coadministration of crystal sugar (P<0.05),and the tetracycline remaining in the intestine decreased (P<0.05),showing a well correlation with concentrations of crystal sugar used. The intestinal contents. however, did not show correlation with the concentrations of crystal sugar.Conclusions:Co-administration of crystal sugar enhances absorption of tetracycline in rat intestine, and the intestinal content may not be affected by the concentrations of crystal sugar, indicating that the enhancing effect of crystal sugar on tetracycline absorption in intestine may be mediated by an active transport process.%目的:对中药冰糖增加口服四环素吸收作用机理进行初步的实验研究。方法:参考Masahiro Fukahori等介绍的方法,分别给大白鼠单独口服(灌胃)四环素或合并不同浓度冰糖溶液(20%、40%、60%、80%)口服(灌胃)后,采用改进的荧光光度法测定血药浓度及肠内液药物浓度及含量,并称量与比较肠内容物量。结果:合并使用冰糖可使大白鼠血中四环素的浓度明显提高(P<0.05),并在20%~60%范围内呈明显的线性关系,而肠道内液四环素的含量则明显降低(P<0.05)。但肠道内容物量与冰糖浓度并无明显相关性。结论:冰糖可明显增加大白鼠口服四环素在肠

  12. 无水葡萄糖生产中煮糖结晶研究%Research of boiled sugar crystallization in production of anhydrous glucose

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吉小兵; 刘剑侠; 郭玉波

    2014-01-01

    ObjectiveTo improve the degree of uniformity and liquidity of anhydrous glucose crystal products and to satisfy high-end customer's demand for product feeding and granularity.Methods Take the anhydrous glucose liquidity as an index and selects 100 mesh sieve anhydrous glucose as the seed crystal. The influencing factors of finished product’s liquidity are determined by the single factor experiment, and the four-factor and three-level orthogonal experiment design.Results Add anhydrous glucose and anhydrous ethanol under the volume ratio of 1:1 in stainless steel ball mill, grinding for 4 h and take the suspension liquid as the boiling sugar crystallization seed. Under the condition of glucose content is 98.5%. When the concentration of glucose in the liquid reaches 78%, add 75 mL seed, then continue to boil sugar crystallization for about 14 h, centrifugal separation and fluidized bed drying. The liquidity of the anhydrous glucose product is the best.Conclusion It not only solves the granularity differences between batches and poor liquidity problems, but also improves the separation efficiency of products, thus ensures the drying process smoothly and the homogeneity and stability between batches. At the same time, liquidity detection method for the product is more convenient for staff control and operation, it is good for adjusting and controlling during manufacturing.%目的:为了提高无水葡萄糖产品晶体的均匀程度,改善产品的流动性,以最大限度满足高端食品客户对产品投料及颗粒度的需求。方法以所得无水葡萄糖产品的流动性为指标,选取100目筛上物的无水葡萄糖作为制备晶种母体,通过单因素试验确定了与成品流动性有关的因素,选取四因素三水平进行正交试验设计。结果以无水葡萄糖、无水乙醇的体积比为1:1比例下,连续研磨4 h,并将研磨所得混悬液作为煮糖结晶用晶种,在葡萄糖含量为98.5%条件下,当煮

  13. Added Sugars

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Restaurant Deciphering the Menu Ordering Your Meal Eating Fast Food Dining Out Tips by Cuisine Physical Activity Fitness ... Learn more about reading food labels . Limit your consumption of foods with high amounts of added sugars, ...

  14. PROCESS OF OBTAINING OF SUGAR FROM SUGAR BEET AND INFLUENCE ON ITS QUALITY

    OpenAIRE

    Marián Tokár; Helena Frančáková; Tatiana Bojňanská; Marek Bennár

    2011-01-01

    Cooking of massecuites has been study in the connection with different particle size distribution of white sugar. During the crystallization is possible to operate with parameters which have influence on particle size of white sugar. Dry matter of juice in crystallizer, volume of the standard syrup in crystallizer and heating curve of crystallization process are constant parameters in this process. Quantity of slurry (seed magma crystallizate) and volume of slurry massecuite are parameters wh...

  15. 基于遗传神经网络模型的蔗糖结晶过程预测控制%Predictive Control for the Crystallizing Process of Cane Sugar with Genetic Neural Network Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗飞; 莫鸿强; 毛宗源

    2000-01-01

    针对蔗糖结晶过程控制中存在的模型复杂性和检测困难等问题,建立了蔗糖结晶过程的遗传神经网络模型.该模型用一种改进的实数编码提高了遗传算法的搜索能力,并根据该模型建立了结晶过程的预测控制系统.仿真和实验的结果表明,该方法在确定成糖时间和浓度方面是有效的.%In view of the model nonlinearity, the complexity, and the measuring difficulty in the crystallizing process of cane sugar, a genetic neural network model is established. In this model, the coding scheme of real numbers is applied to the genetic algorithm to improve search efficiency. Based on the model, a predictive control system of the crystallizing process is constructed. The results of the simulation and experiment show that the method is effective in calculating the content of sugar crystals and the boiling time of a strike.

  16. Managing your blood sugar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyperglycemia - control; Hypoglycemia - control; Diabetes - blood sugar control; Blood glucose - managing ... Know how to: Recognize and treat low blood sugar (hypoglycemia) Recognize and treat high blood sugar (hyperglycemia) ...

  17. PROCESS OF OBTAINING OF SUGAR FROM SUGAR BEET AND INFLUENCE ON ITS QUALITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marián Tokár

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Cooking of massecuites has been study in the connection with different particle size distribution of white sugar. During the crystallization is possible to operate with parameters which have influence on particle size of white sugar. Dry matter of juice in crystallizer, volume of the standard syrup in crystallizer and heating curve of crystallization process are constant parameters in this process. Quantity of slurry (seed magma crystallizate and volume of slurry massecuite are parameters which can be changed for control the particle size distribution of white sugar. Five variants of viable parameters have been trying for obtain ideal particle size distribution of white sugar. As a best has been evaluated variant with 1100 cm3 of slurry and 20 % of volume of slurry massecuite in crystallizer. This variant has had the crystals proportions captured by the sieves between 1.00 and 0.40 mm with minimal differences in weight. More results have been related to reduction of losses of sugar in molasses with the right setting for the line of cooling crystallization process. The looses of sugar can be reduced by adding two coolers in the end of cooling crystalization process what will decrease a temperature to 40 ° C. This temperature will lead to more efficient crystallization in the cooling crystallization process.doi:10.5219/122

  18. 蔗糖形态对氢化棕榈仁油/可可脂混合体系结晶性质的影响%Influence of sugar forms on crystallization properties of hydrogenated palm kernel oil/cocoa butter mixture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林雯雯; 王风艳; 王兴国; 刘元法

    2012-01-01

    The mixture system of hydrogenated palm kernel oil and cocoa butter( mass ratio 9:1) was used as material, and the effects of different forms of sugar (crystaline sugar, powder sugar) and lecithin on the crystallization and melting behavior were evaluated by using differential scanning calorimeter (DSC). The results showed that the influence of sugar forms on the crystallization and melting behavior of oil was not remarkable without adding lecithin; however, with the addition of lecithin, the melting point and crystallization point increased as the sugar particle size decreased; lecithin decreased the crystallization point of the oil mixture in both sugar forms.%以氢化棕榈仁油/可可脂(质量比9∶1)混合体系为基料油,采用差示扫描量热仪( DSC)考察不同形态蔗糖(结晶糖、糖粉)和卵磷脂对熔化结晶性质的影响.结果表明:未添加卵磷脂时,蔗糖形态对基料油的熔化结晶性质影响不大;添加卵磷脂后,蔗糖颗粒越细,熔化和结晶温度越高;两种形态的蔗糖体系,添加卵磷脂均使结晶温度显著降低.

  19. Inorganic elements in sugar samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salles, Paulo M.B. de; Campos, Tarcisio P.R. de, E-mail: pauladesalles@yahoo.com.br, E-mail: tprcampos@pq.cnpq.br [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (DEN/UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Departamento de Engenharia Nuclear; Menezes, Maria Angela de B.C., E-mail: menezes@cdtn.br [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    Sugar is considered a safe food ingredient; however, it can be contaminated by organic elements since its planting until its production process. Thus, this study aims at checking the presence of inorganic elements in samples of crystal, refined and brown sugar available for consumption in Brazil. The applied technique was neutron activation analysis, the k{sub 0} method, using the TRIGA MARK - IPR-R1 reactor located at CDTN/CNEN, in Belo Horizonte. It was identified the presence of elements such as, Au, Br, Co, Cr, Hf, K, Na, Sb, Sc and Zn in the samples of crystal/refined sugar and the presence of As, Au, Br, Ca, Co, Cr, Cs, Fe, Hf, K, Na, Sb, Sc, Sm, Sr, Th and Zn in the brown sugar samples. The applied technique was appropriate to this study because it was not necessary to put the samples in solution, essential condition in order to apply other techniques, avoiding contaminations and sample losses, besides allowing a multi elementary detection in different sugar samples. (author)

  20. Sugar 101

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... American Heart area Search by State SELECT YOUR LANGUAGE Español (Spanish) 简体中文 (Traditional Chinese) 繁体中文 (Simplified Chinese) ... Smoking Tips for Friends and Family of Quitters Workplace Health Employer Resources Workplace Health Index Recognition & Awards ...

  1. Sugar Substitutes: Artificial Sweeteners and Sugar Alcohols

    OpenAIRE

    Washburn, Carolyn; Christensen, Nedra

    2012-01-01

    Most people enjoy the sweet taste of food. Artificial sweeteners and sugar alcohols can provide the sweet flavor and be beneficial for people with diabetes or those choosing to avoid sugars because they contain lower calories and carbohydrates than regular sugars. These products are also beneficial in that they do not cause tooth decay.

  2. A single amino acid change converts the sugar sensor SGLT3 into a sugar transporter.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Bianchi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Sodium-glucose cotransporter proteins (SGLT belong to the SLC5A family, characterized by the cotransport of Na(+ with solute. SGLT1 is responsible for intestinal glucose absorption. Until recently the only role described for SGLT proteins was to transport sugar with Na(+. However, human SGLT3 (hSGLT3 does not transport sugar but causes depolarization of the plasma membrane when expressed in Xenopus oocytes. For this reason SGLT3 was suggested to be a sugar sensor rather than a transporter. Despite 70% amino acid identity between hSGLT3 and hSGLT1, their sugar transport, apparent sugar affinities, and sugar specificity differ greatly. Residue 457 is important for the function of SGLT1 and mutation at this position in hSGLT1 causes glucose-galactose malabsorption. Moreover, the crystal structure of vibrio SGLT reveals that the residue corresponding to 457 interacts directly with the sugar molecule. We thus wondered if this residue could account for some of the functional differences between SGLT1 and SGLT3. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We mutated the glutamate at position 457 in hSGLT3 to glutamine, the amino acid present in all SGLT1 proteins, and characterized the mutant. Surprisingly, we found that E457Q-hSGLT3 transported sugar, had the same stoichiometry as SGLT1, and that the sugar specificity and apparent affinities for most sugars were similar to hSGLT1. We also show that SGLT3 functions as a sugar sensor in a living organism. We expressed hSGLT3 and E457Q-hSGLT3 in C. elegans sensory neurons and found that animals sensed glucose in an hSGLT3-dependent manner. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: In summary, we demonstrate that hSGLT3 functions as a sugar sensor in vivo and that mutating a single amino acid converts this sugar sensor into a sugar transporter similar to SGLT1.

  3. Highly ordered crystals of channel-forming membrane proteins, of nucleoside-monophosphate kinases, of FAD-containing oxidoreductases and of sugar-processing enzymes and their mutants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, G. E.; Dreyer, M.; Klein, C.; Kreusch, A.; Mittl, P.; Mu¨ller, C. W.; Mu¨ller-Dieckmann, J.; Muller, Y. A.; Proba, K.; Schlauderer, G.; Spu¨rgin, P.; Stehle, T.; Weiss, M. S.

    1992-08-01

    Preparation and crystallization procedures as well as crystal properties are reported for 12 proteins plus numerous site-directed mutants. The proteins are: the integral membrane protein porin from Rhodobacter capsulatus which diffracts to at least 1.8A˚resolution, porin from Rhodopseudomonas blastica which diffracts to at least 2.0A˚resolution, adenylate kinase from yeast and mutants, adenylate kinase from Escherichia coli and mutants, bovine liver mitochondrial adenylate kinase, guanylate kinase from yeast, uridylate kinase from yeast, glutathione reductase from E. coli and mutants, NADH peroxidase from Streptococcus faecalis containing a sulfenic acid as redox-center, pyruvate oxidase from Lactobacillus plantarum containing FAD and TPP, cyclodextrin glycosyltransferase from Bacillus circulans and mutants, and a fuculose aldolase from E. coli.

  4. "Big Momma Had Sugar, Imma Have It Too" Medical Fatalism and the Language of Faith Among African-American Women in Memphis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hotz, Kendra G

    2015-12-01

    This essay offers a theological exploration of the relationship between medical fatalism and religious belonging among African-American women in Memphis. Drawing on the work of black and womanist theologians and on conversations with participants in a diabetes intervention program administered by a faith-based community health provider, I argue that how we narrate the meanings of our bodies is irreducibly religious. The language we use to interpret and communicate the meaning of our bodily existence emerges from a set of assumptions, often unarticulated, about what is of ultimate value to us. The essay focuses on three interlocking features that link faith with fatalism or hope: (1) The idea that if "I don't claim that" disease cannot enter my body; (2) the role of faith-based clinics in re-establishing trust with marginalized communities; and (3) how nuanced attention to the social location of health seekers can re-frame our understanding of patient compliance. Disrupting fatalism can only be done from within a health seeker's own narrative, and therefore, healthcare providers who learn these narratives and respect their holiness will develop more effective interventions.

  5. Monitoring Blood Sugar: The Importance of Checking Blood Sugar Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Monitoring Blood Sugar KidsHealth > For Parents > Monitoring Blood Sugar Print ... Other Tests Record Keeping The Importance of Checking Blood Sugar Levels Besides helping to keep blood sugar ...

  6. Hydrophobic sugar holograms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mejias-Brizuela, N. Y.; Olivares-Pérez, A.; Páez-Trujillo, G.; Hernández-Garay, M. P.; Fontanilla-Urdaneta, R.; Fuentes-Tapia, I.

    2008-02-01

    The sugar matrix is used to record of phase holograms; it was modified with the purpose of obtaining a hydrophobic material to improve the stability of the registered image and to stimulate the photosensitivity of the sugar. The new material is formed by a sugar, pectin and vanillin dissolution. The diffraction efficiency parameter increases in comparison with only the sugar matrix, obtaining already of 10%.

  7. Q学习对制糖结晶遗传神经网络收敛性的改进%Improving the Convergence of the Genetic Neural Network in the Crystallizing of Sugar Using Q-Learning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗飞; 毛宗源; 莫鸿强; 卢子广

    2001-01-01

    The crystallizing speed of cane sugar is learned and predicted by the model of feedforward neural network using genetic algorithms. To counter the problem in the model which needs a lot of calculations but has slow speed of convergence, we use Q-learning with reinforcement to decide on the variation probability of genetic algorithms and to increase the convergence speed of learning. The results of the simulation show the effectiveness of the method.%采用多层前馈遗传神经网络模型对甘蔗制糖结晶速度进行学习和预测,并针对该模型存在的计算量大,收敛慢的问题,采用具有强化作用的Q学习确定遗传算法的变异概率,以提高学习的收敛速度,仿真结果表明了该方法的有效性.

  8. Sugar exported: sugar packed in containers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Alberto Yemal

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a study in the port sector specialized in handling of bagged sugar. Sugar has always been exported in bags of 50 kg, placed directly in the holds of ships for general cargo. It appears that this form of transport has become obsolete now, the market for the direct form of transport of sugar packed in containers. Companies involved in this type of port handling need understand the reasons that are influencing this new mode of transportation as a way to fit and remain active and competitive in the industry.

  9. Sugar, ethics and legislation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azize, Joseph

    2010-05-01

    There are serious ethical and legal issues concerning the sale of sugar products, especially to children, yet one cannot address children's consumption without addressing consumption across society. The ethical principles are not even controversial. However, sugar has been insufficiently scrutinised, probably because sweetness is popular and plays a prominent, but dispensable, cultural role. Sugar is both addictive and toxic, although it is a very mild, very slow-working poison. Yet, over time, its effects can be quite serious. The social and health problems have proved grave and intractable. Given the nature of sugar, it should be regulated like alcohol and tobacco, if not more stringently, given its greater social and cultural penetration across all ages. That is, sales of sugar products at school canteens should be banned, advertising severely limited, full disclosure of sugar content made mandatory, warnings placed on certain products, and sugar itself should be taxed. PMID:20552941

  10. Food Crystals: the Role of Eggs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugar, salt, lactose, tartaric acid and ice are examples of constituents than can crystallize in foods. Crystallization in a food product can be beneficial or detrimental and is of particular importance in candy and frozen desserts. The most common crystal in foods is sugar which affects the quali...

  11. 78 FR 45441 - Sugar Program; Feedstock Flexibility Program for Bioenergy Producers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-29

    ... ] bioenergy producers. The sugar producers are not small businesses according to the North American Industry... Corporation 7 CFR Part 1435 RIN 0560-AH86 Sugar Program; Feedstock Flexibility Program for Bioenergy Producers... dispose of its sugar inventory and establishes the new Feedstock Flexibility Program (FFP). Through...

  12. Total, Added, and Free Sugars: Are Restrictive Guidelines Science-Based or Achievable?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Erickson

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Sugar consumption, especially added sugars, is under attack. Various government and health authorities have suggested new sugar recommendations and guidelines as low as 5% of total calories from free sugars. Definitions for total sugars, free sugars, and added sugars are not standardized, nor are there accepted nutrient databases for this information. Our objective was to measure total sugars and added sugars in sample meal plans created by the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA and the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics (AND. Utilizing the Nutrition Data System for Research (NDSR nutritional database, results found that plans created by the USDA and AND averaged 5.1% and 3.1% calories from added sugar, 8.7% and 3.1% from free sugar, and 23.3% and 21.1% as total sugars respectively. Compliance with proposed added sugar recommendations would require strict dietary compliance and may not be sustainable for many Americans. Without an accepted definition and equation for calculating added sugar, added sugar recommendations are arbitrary and may reduce intakes of nutrient-rich, recommended foods, such as yogurt, whole grains, and tart fruits including cranberries, cherries, and grapefruit. Added sugars are one part of excess calorie intake; however, compliance with low added sugar recommendations may not be achievable for the general public.

  13. Total, added, and free sugars: are restrictive guidelines science-based or achievable?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Jennifer; Slavin, Joanne

    2015-04-01

    Sugar consumption, especially added sugars, is under attack. Various government and health authorities have suggested new sugar recommendations and guidelines as low as 5% of total calories from free sugars. Definitions for total sugars, free sugars, and added sugars are not standardized, nor are there accepted nutrient databases for this information. Our objective was to measure total sugars and added sugars in sample meal plans created by the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) and the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics (AND). Utilizing the Nutrition Data System for Research (NDSR) nutritional database, results found that plans created by the USDA and AND averaged 5.1% and 3.1% calories from added sugar, 8.7% and 3.1% from free sugar, and 23.3% and 21.1% as total sugars respectively. Compliance with proposed added sugar recommendations would require strict dietary compliance and may not be sustainable for many Americans. Without an accepted definition and equation for calculating added sugar, added sugar recommendations are arbitrary and may reduce intakes of nutrient-rich, recommended foods, such as yogurt, whole grains, and tart fruits including cranberries, cherries, and grapefruit. Added sugars are one part of excess calorie intake; however, compliance with low added sugar recommendations may not be achievable for the general public.

  14. Sugar and Other Sweeteners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godshall, Mary An

    Sugar and starch are among the most abundant plant products available, and large industries exist worldwide to extract and process them from agricultural sources. The world production of sugar (sucrose from cane and beet) in 2004/2005 was 142 million metric tons, raw value, 1 with 24.8 percent of that being beet sugar and 75.1 percent being cane sugar.2 The proportion of beet sugar to cane sugar has fallen steadily since about 1971, when it constituted 42.8 percent of total sugar production. The decline in total beet sugar proportion over the last ten years represents not so much a decline in beet production, which has remained in a range of 33-39 million metric tons, but rather a continued increase in cane sugar production from around 70 million metric tons in 1991 to 112 million metric tons.2 The production of total world sugar has also risen dramatically since 1971/72, when it was 71.7 million tons.3

  15. Sugar - a harmless indulgence?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Lone Banke; Andersen, Niels Lyhne; Ovesen, L.

    1998-01-01

    and mineral deficiency, especially in low energy consumers. The sugar intake and the fat intake, expressed as percentage of energy, usually show an inverse association. This has lead to the statement that a diet with both a low sugar content and a low fat content is incompatible, but we will argue...... that this is not the fact. The significance of sugar for the development of obesity is not clarified. A high fat content in the diet seems to promote the development of obesity, while a high carbohydrate content tends to reduce obesity. It is not known if sugar in this connection is comparable to the other carbohydrates......The consumption of sugar is relatively high in Denmark - and other industrial countries - and many persons have a consumption which exceeds the recommended level of maximally 10% of energy intake. A high sugar consumption may reduce the nutrient density of the diet and increase the risk of vitamin...

  16. Research on Processing of a Ginger Beverage from Residual Sugar Solution of Crystallized Ginger%姜脯废糖液开发姜味饮料的工艺研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋凯; 张亦美仰; 朱传合

    2014-01-01

    A ginger beverage was made from the residual sugar solution of crystallized ginger as the main material, with the addition of some ingredients such as ginger additives, acidifiers and sweeteners. The process and formula concerned were studied. A single-factor sensory evaluation and an orthogonal test were conducted to determine the dilution ratio and the types and dosages of ginger additives, acidifiers and sweeteners. The results showed that solid-liquid ratio 1∶8.5, honey 37.5g/L, acidifiers 0.7g/L (citric acid∶malic acid = 1∶2), ginger flavor 0.2% and gingerols 0.19g/L gave a beverage with the best sensory quality.%以姜脯废糖液为主原料,对加入姜味添加剂、酸味剂、甜味剂等配料的姜味饮料的工艺配方进行了研究。通过单因素感官品评及正交试验确定了稀释倍数、姜味添加剂、酸味剂和甜味剂的种类与用量。实验结果表明,当料液比1∶8.5、蜂蜜37.5g/L、酸味剂0.7g/L(柠檬酸与苹果酸按1∶2复合)、姜味香精0.2%、姜辣素0.19g/L时,获得的饮料感官品质最佳。

  17. Sugar from Palms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barfod, Anders

    Throughout the tropics and subtropics a large number of products are derived from the sugar-rich sap tapped from palms. I will give an overview of the most important species being exploited, harvesting practices and yields. I will further provide insights in the biomechanmics of sugar...... transportation in palms, which remain an enigma. Finally, the prospects for developing palm sugar into a commodity of worlswide significance will be discussed....

  18. Transport of sugars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Li-Qing; Cheung, Lily S; Feng, Liang; Tanner, Widmar; Frommer, Wolf B

    2015-01-01

    Soluble sugars serve five main purposes in multicellular organisms: as sources of carbon skeletons, osmolytes, signals, and transient energy storage and as transport molecules. Most sugars are derived from photosynthetic organisms, particularly plants. In multicellular organisms, some cells specialize in providing sugars to other cells (e.g., intestinal and liver cells in animals, photosynthetic cells in plants), whereas others depend completely on an external supply (e.g., brain cells, roots and seeds). This cellular exchange of sugars requires transport proteins to mediate uptake or release from cells or subcellular compartments. Thus, not surprisingly, sugar transport is critical for plants, animals, and humans. At present, three classes of eukaryotic sugar transporters have been characterized, namely the glucose transporters (GLUTs), sodium-glucose symporters (SGLTs), and SWEETs. This review presents the history and state of the art of sugar transporter research, covering genetics, biochemistry, and physiology-from their identification and characterization to their structure, function, and physiology. In humans, understanding sugar transport has therapeutic importance (e.g., addressing diabetes or limiting access of cancer cells to sugars), and in plants, these transporters are critical for crop yield and pathogen susceptibility.

  19. Intake of added sugar in Malaysia: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amarra, Maria Sofia V; Khor, Geok Lin; Chan, Pauline

    2016-01-01

    The term 'added sugars' refers to sugars and syrup added to foods during processing or preparation, and sugars and syrups added at the table. Calls to limit the daily intakes of added sugars and its sources arose from evidence analysed by WHO, the American Heart Association and other organizations. The present review examined the best available evidence regarding levels of added sugar consumption among different age and sex groups in Malaysia and sources of added sugars. Information was extracted from food balance sheets, household expenditure surveys, nutrition surveys and published studies. Varying results emerged, as nationwide information on intake of sugar and foods with added sugar were obtained at different times and used different assessment methods. Data from the 2003 Malaysian Adult Nutrition Survey (MANS) using food frequency questionnaires suggested that on average, Malaysian adults consumed 30 grams of sweetened condensed milk (equivalent to 16 grams sugar) and 21 grams of table sugar per day, which together are below the WHO recommendation of 50 grams sugar for every 2000 kcal/day to reduce risk of chronic disease. Published studies suggested that, for both adults and the elderly, frequently consumed sweetened foods were beverages (tea or coffee) with sweetened condensed milk and added sugar. More accurate data should be obtained by conducting population-wide studies using biomarkers of sugar intake (e.g. 24-hour urinary sucrose and fructose excretion or serum abundance of the stable isotope 13C) to determine intake levels, and multiple 24 hour recalls to identify major food sources of added sugar. PMID:27222405

  20. Intake of added sugar in Malaysia: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amarra, Maria Sofia V; Khor, Geok Lin; Chan, Pauline

    2016-01-01

    The term 'added sugars' refers to sugars and syrup added to foods during processing or preparation, and sugars and syrups added at the table. Calls to limit the daily intakes of added sugars and its sources arose from evidence analysed by WHO, the American Heart Association and other organizations. The present review examined the best available evidence regarding levels of added sugar consumption among different age and sex groups in Malaysia and sources of added sugars. Information was extracted from food balance sheets, household expenditure surveys, nutrition surveys and published studies. Varying results emerged, as nationwide information on intake of sugar and foods with added sugar were obtained at different times and used different assessment methods. Data from the 2003 Malaysian Adult Nutrition Survey (MANS) using food frequency questionnaires suggested that on average, Malaysian adults consumed 30 grams of sweetened condensed milk (equivalent to 16 grams sugar) and 21 grams of table sugar per day, which together are below the WHO recommendation of 50 grams sugar for every 2000 kcal/day to reduce risk of chronic disease. Published studies suggested that, for both adults and the elderly, frequently consumed sweetened foods were beverages (tea or coffee) with sweetened condensed milk and added sugar. More accurate data should be obtained by conducting population-wide studies using biomarkers of sugar intake (e.g. 24-hour urinary sucrose and fructose excretion or serum abundance of the stable isotope 13C) to determine intake levels, and multiple 24 hour recalls to identify major food sources of added sugar.

  1. Are restrictive guidelines for added sugars science based?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Jennifer; Slavin, Joanne

    2015-01-01

    Added sugar regulations and recommendations have been proposed by policy makers around the world. With no universal definition, limited access to added sugar values in food products and no analytical difference from intrinsic sugars, added sugar recommendations present a unique challenge. Average added sugar intake by American adults is approximately 13% of total energy intake, and recommendations have been made as low 5% of total energy intake. In addition to public health recommendations, the Food and Drug Administration has proposed the inclusion of added sugar data to the Nutrition and Supplemental Facts Panel. The adoption of such regulations would have implications for both consumers as well as the food industry. There are certainly advantages to including added sugar data to the Nutrition Facts Panel; however, consumer research does not consistently show the addition of this information to improve consumer knowledge. With excess calorie consumption resulting in weight gain and increased risk of obesity and obesity related co-morbidities, added sugar consumption should be minimized. However, there is currently no evidence stating that added sugar is more harmful than excess calories from any other food source. The addition of restrictive added sugar recommendations may not be the most effective intervention in the treatment and prevention of obesity and other health concerns. PMID:26652250

  2. Design of Evaporation Systems and Heaters Networks in Sugar Cane Factories Using a Thermoeconomic Optimization Procedure

    OpenAIRE

    Adriano V. Ensinas; Nebra, Silvia Azucena; Miguel A. Lozano; Serra, Luis M.

    2007-01-01

    Sugar cane production in Brazil is one of the most competitive segments of the national economy, producing sugar and ethanol for internal and external markets. Sugar production is done basically in several steps: juice extraction, juice clarification and evaporation, syrup treatment and sugar boiling, crystallization, centrifugation and drying. Much heat exchange equipment is used in this process.. An optimized design of the evaporation system with the correct distribution of the vapor bleed ...

  3. Design of Evaporation Systems and Heaters Networks in Sugar Cane Factories Using a Thermoeconomic Optimization Procedure

    OpenAIRE

    Serra, Luis M.; Miguel A. Lozano; Silvia Azucena Nebra; Adriano V. Ensinas

    2007-01-01

    Sugar cane production in Brazil is one of the most competitive segments of the national economy, producing sugar and ethanol for internal and external markets. Sugar production is done basically in several steps: juice extraction, juice clarification and evaporation, syrup treatment and sugar boiling, crystallization, centrifugation and drying. Much heat exchange equipment is used in this process.. An optimized design of the evaporation system with the correct distribution of the vap...

  4. What Price Sugar? Land, Labor, and Revolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel C. Littlefield

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available [First paragraph] Sugar, Slavery, and Society: Perspectives on the Caribbean, India, the Mascarenes, and the United States. Bernard Moitt (ed.. Gainesville: University Press of Florida, 2004. vii + 203 pp. (Cloth US $ 65.00 Tropical Babylons: Sugar and the Making of the Atlantic World, 1450-1680. Stuart B. Schwartz (ed.. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2004. xiii + 347 pp. (Paper US $ 22.50 These two books illustrate the fascination that sugar, slavery, and the plantation still exercise over the minds of scholars. One of them also reflects an interest in the influence these have had on the modern world. For students of the history of these things the Schwartz collection is in many ways the more useful. It seeks to fill a lacuna left by the concentration of monographs on the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, suggesting that we know less about the history of sugar than we thought we did. Perhaps in no other single place is such a range of information on so wide an area presented in such detail for so early a period. Ranging from Iberia to the Caribbean and including consumption as well as production of sugar, with a nod to the slave trade and a very useful note on weights and currencies, this volume is a gold mine of information. It considers (briefly the theoretical meaning as well as the growing of this important crop, contrasting its production in Iberia with that on the Atlantic islands of Madeira and the Canaries, colonized by Iberian powers, and continuing the contrast with São Tomé, off the coast of Africa, and on to Brazil and the Spanish American empire before ending with the British in Barbados. In the transit, it of necessity considers and complicates the meaning of “sugar revolution” and shows how scholars using that term do not always mean the same thing. John McCusker and Russell Menard, for example, tackling a cornerstone of the traditional interpretation of the development of sugar, argue that there

  5. World Sugar Market – Basic Development Trends and Tendencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Svatoš

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This article is devoted to the issues of the world‘s sugar production and cultivation of sugar crops (sugar beet and sugar cane. It also analyzes the development of the global sugar trade. The main aim of this paper is to define the basic developmental trends and tendencies that affect the current situation on the market for sugar and sugar crops and then outline a process of gradual profiling of the world markets for these commodities. The article identifies the most important players operating in the global market, both in terms of production and in terms of trade. It also identifies not only the most important subjects of the global market from the viewpoint of the realized volume of production and trade, but also in terms of available comparative advantages and growth dynamics of the realized volume of production and trade. Finally, the paper highlights the significant differences existing in unit prices of the realized export and import flows in individual countries and regions. The results of this study show clearly that the world sugar market is extremely concentrated. A narrow group of entities localized mainly in Latin America, Southeast Asia, Europe and North America controls most of the world production of sugar beet and sugar cane. Furthermore, the results of the analysis show that the production and export of sugar are logically closely linked with the regions cultivating sugar crops, which again suggests that a limited number of entities controls most of the global sugar market. Currently, this market is dominated mainly by Latin American countries and Southeast Asia together with Europe.

  6. Sugars in Antarctic aerosol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbaro, Elena; Kirchgeorg, Torben; Zangrando, Roberta; Vecchiato, Marco; Piazza, Rossano; Barbante, Carlo; Gambaro, Andrea

    2015-10-01

    The processes and transformations occurring in the Antarctic aerosol during atmospheric transport were described using selected sugars as source tracers. Monosaccharides (arabinose, fructose, galactose, glucose, mannose, ribose, xylose), disaccharides (sucrose, lactose, maltose, lactulose), alcohol-sugars (erythritol, mannitol, ribitol, sorbitol, xylitol, maltitol, galactitol) and anhydrosugars (levoglucosan, mannosan and galactosan) were measured in the Antarctic aerosol collected during four different sampling campaigns. For quantification, a sensitive high-pressure anion exchange chromatography was coupled with a single quadrupole mass spectrometer. The method was validated, showing good accuracy and low method quantification limits. This study describes the first determination of sugars in the Antarctic aerosol. The total mean concentration of sugars in the aerosol collected at the "Mario Zucchelli" coastal station was 140 pg m-3; as for the aerosol collected over the Antarctic plateau during two consecutive sampling campaigns, the concentration amounted to 440 and 438 pg m-3. The study of particle-size distribution allowed us to identify the natural emission from spores or from sea-spray as the main sources of sugars in the coastal area. The enrichment of sugars in the fine fraction of the aerosol collected on the Antarctic plateau is due to the degradation of particles during long-range atmospheric transport. The composition of sugars in the coarse fraction was also investigated in the aerosol collected during the oceanographic cruise.

  7. Sugar Coated Taro

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1997-01-01

    Taro is smooth and sticky in texture and rich in fat,protein and sugar.According to Chinese traditional medicine, taro nourishes the spine and stomach and helps energy. Ingredients:500 grams taro (peeled and chopped into diamond-shaped cubes), 15 grams sugar. 250 grams vegetable oil. Method: 1. Heat oil in a wok and add taro cubes. Fry unti they turn golden brown. 2. Take out the taro with a sieve and pour the oil into a container for later use. Add sugar and one tablespoon oil.Stir continuously to prevent burning. When the

  8. Blood Sugar and Fats

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... hyperglycemia) can be a sign of the disease diabetes mellitus. High blood sugar levels can eventually damage ... treated with the same medications used to treat diabetes. There is no simple blood test for insulin ...

  9. Does Consuming Sugar and Artificial Sweeteners Change Taste Preferences?

    OpenAIRE

    Bartolotto, Carole

    2015-01-01

    Americans consume 22.3 teaspoons of added caloric sweeteners a day. Sweeteners range from 180 to 13,000 times sweeter than sugar. In summer 2014, 20 people from Kaiser Permanente California facilities cut out all added sugars and artificial sweeteners for 2 weeks: 95% of participants found that sweet foods and drinks tasted sweeter or too sweet, 75% found that other foods tasted sweeter, and 95% said moving forward they would use less or even no sugar. Additionally, 86.6% of participants stop...

  10. Apparatus for drying sugar cubes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Derckx, H.A.J.; Torringa, H.M.

    1999-01-01

    Device for drying sugar cubes containing a heating apparatus for heating and dehumidifying the sugar cubes, a conditioning apparatus for cooling off and possibly further dehumidifying the sugar cubes and a conveying apparatus for conveying the sugar cubes through the heating apparatus and the condit

  11. Sugar recognition by human galactokinase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timson David J

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Galactokinase catalyses the first committed step of galactose catabolism in which the sugar is phosphorylated at the expense of MgATP. Recent structural studies suggest that the enzyme makes several contacts with galactose – five side chain and two main chain hydrogen bonds. Furthermore, it has been suggested that inhibition of galactokinase may help sufferers of the genetic disease classical galactosemia which is caused by defects in another enzyme of the pathway galactose-1-phosphate uridyl transferase. Galactokinases from different sources have a range of substrate specificities and a diversity of kinetic mechanisms. Therefore only studies on the human enzyme are likely to be of value in the design of therapeutically useful inhibitors. Results Using recombinant human galactokinase expressed in and purified from E. coli we have investigated the sugar specificity of the enzyme and the kinetic consequences of mutating residues in the sugar-binding site in order to improve our understanding of substrate recognition by this enzyme. D-galactose and 2-deoxy-D-galactose are substrates for the enzyme, but N-acetyl-D-galactosamine, L-arabinose, D-fucose and D-glucose are all not phosphorylated. Mutation of glutamate-43 (which forms a hydrogen bond to the hydroxyl group attached to carbon 6 of galactose to alanine results in only minor changes in the kinetic parameters of the enzyme. Mutation of this residue to glycine causes a ten-fold drop in the turnover number. In contrast, mutation of histidine 44 to either alanine or isoleucine results in insoluble protein following expression in E. coli. Alteration of the residue that makes hydrogen bonds to the hydroxyl attached to carbons 3 and 4 (aspartate 46 results in an enzyme that although soluble is essentially inactive. Conclusions The enzyme is tolerant to small changes at position 2 of the sugar ring, but not at positions 4 and 6. The results from site directed mutagenesis could

  12. International Competitiveness of Sugar Production

    OpenAIRE

    Zimmermann, Beate; Zeddies, Jurgen

    2002-01-01

    Sugar market is one of the most protected markets for agricultural products world wide. In almost every sugar producing country the sugar market is regulated in some way. With an increasing liberalization of agricultural trade in the "Millennium Round" of the WTO trade negotiations, the question of international competitiveness is of increasing importance. Based on empirical studies, in this article the competitiveness of sugar production in the most important sugar producing countries is ana...

  13. Intestinal sugar transport

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Laurie A Drozdowski; Alan BR Thomson

    2006-01-01

    Carbohydrates are an important component of the diet.The carbohydrates that we ingest range from simple monosaccharides (glucose, fructose and galactose) to disaccharides (lactose, sucrose) to complex polysaccharides. Most carbohydrates are digested by salivary and pancreatic amylases, and are further broken down into monosaccharides by enzymes in the brush border membrane (BBM) of enterocytes. For example, lactase-phloridzin hydrolase and sucraseisomaltase are two disaccharidases involved in the hydrolysis of nutritionally important disaccharides. Once monosaccharides are presented to the BBM, mature enterocytes expressing nutrient transporters transport the sugars into the enterocytes. This paper reviews the early studies that contributed to the development of a working model of intestinal sugar transport, and details the recent advances made in understanding the process by which sugars are absorbed in the intestine.

  14. Characterization of in vitro antifungal activities of small and American cranberry (Vaccinium oxycoccos L. and V. macrocarpon Aiton) and lingonberry (Vaccinium vitis-idaea L.) concentrates in sugar reduced fruit spreads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ermis, Ertan; Hertel, Christian; Schneider, Christin; Carle, Reinhold; Stintzing, Florian; Schmidt, Herbert

    2015-07-01

    In this study, cranberry and lingonberry concentrates were added to commercial sugar-reduced fruit spreads (raspberry-Aloe vera, strawberry-guava, and strawberry-lime), and tested for their antifungal activities. Selected strains of the species Absidia glauca, Penicillium brevicompactum, Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Zygosaccharomyces bailii, as well as xerophilic environmental isolates of the genera Penicillium and Eurotium were used for challenge testing. Initially, varying concentrations of synthetic antifungal agents, such as sodium benzoate, potassium sorbate and butyl 4-hydroxybenzoate were tested against these fungi on wort agar containing 31% fructose at different pH values. Subsequently, the experiments were conducted in fruit spreads containing different concentrations of cranberry and lingonberry concentrates. The results of this study demonstrate that these concentrates were able to inhibit growth of visible colonies of xerophilic and non-xerophilic fungi. Cranberry and lingonberry concentrates are interesting candidates for natural preservation against fungal growth in sugar reduced fruit spreads. PMID:25868124

  15. Hybrid modelling of a sugar boiling process

    CERN Document Server

    Lauret, Alfred Jean Philippe; Gatina, Jean Claude

    2012-01-01

    The first and maybe the most important step in designing a model-based predictive controller is to develop a model that is as accurate as possible and that is valid under a wide range of operating conditions. The sugar boiling process is a strongly nonlinear and nonstationary process. The main process nonlinearities are represented by the crystal growth rate. This paper addresses the development of the crystal growth rate model according to two approaches. The first approach is classical and consists of determining the parameters of the empirical expressions of the growth rate through the use of a nonlinear programming optimization technique. The second is a novel modeling strategy that combines an artificial neural network (ANN) as an approximator of the growth rate with prior knowledge represented by the mass balance of sucrose crystals. The first results show that the first type of model performs local fitting while the second offers a greater flexibility. The two models were developed with industrial data...

  16. U.S. Sugar Policy Options and Their Consequences under NAFTA and Doha

    OpenAIRE

    David Abler; Beghin, John C.; David Blandford; Amani Elobeid

    2006-01-01

    We analyze the potential impact of continuing the existing U.S. sugar program, replacing it with a standard program, and implementing the standard program with multilateral trade liberalization. Under the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), duty-free sugar imports from Mexico will undermine the program's ability to operate on a "no-cost" basis to U.S. taxpayers. As the Mexican beverage industry is likely to expand considerably its high-fructose corn syrup use, the sugar thereby displ...

  17. Sugar Cane Magic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mower, Nancy Alpert

    The booklet contains a story for middle-grade students which shows how the roles of men and women change through the years. The main characters are three sixth graders in Hawaii: one girl has Hawaiian ancestors, one girl has Japanese ancestors, and one boy has New England missionary ancestors. The children discover a magic stalk of sugar cane…

  18. Future sustainability of the sugar and sugar-ethanol industries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Like many other food and chemical industries, the sugar and sugar-ethanol industries are facing important sustainability issues. The relatively low and fluctuating profit for sugar, the world-wide impetus to produce alternatives to petroleum-based fuels and reduce green house gases, and water- and ...

  19. Low blood sugar symptoms (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... nervousness and irritability are signs that a person's blood sugar is getting dangerously low. A person showing any of these symptoms should check their blood sugar. If the level is low (70 mg/dl), ...

  20. Know Your Blood Sugar Numbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Your Heart Alternate Language URL Español Know Your Blood Sugar Numbers: Use Them to Manage Your Diabetes Page Content Checking your blood sugar, also called blood glucose, is an important part ...

  1. Manage your blood sugar (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Checking your blood sugar levels often and writing down the results will tell you how well you are managing your diabetes so you ... possible. The best times to check your blood sugar are before meals and at bedtime. Your blood ...

  2. Know Your Blood Sugar Numbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... with your health care team. What are target blood sugar levels for people with diabetes? A target is something ... gly- see -mee-uh). It means that your blood sugar level is higher than your target level or over ...

  3. Carbohydrates, Sugar, and Your Child

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... are: simple carbohydrates (or simple sugars): these include fructose, glucose, and lactose, which also are found in nutritious ... look at the ingredient list for sugar, corn syrup or sweetener, dextrose, fructose, honey, or molasses, to name just a few. ...

  4. Sugar-water hemolysis test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003673.htm Sugar-water hemolysis test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The sugar-water hemolysis test is a blood test to detect ...

  5. Sugar Market Liberalization: Modeling the EU Supply of "C" Sugar

    OpenAIRE

    Gohin, Alexandre; Bureau, Jean-Christophe

    2005-01-01

    The various assessments of the effects of a liberalization of world sugar markets are largely inconsistent. One cause seems to be the modeling of the EU supply response. We investigate three possible linkages between production quota sugar and the out-of-quota or "C" sugar supply: i/ the existence of fixed costs covered by the in-quota sugar; ii /the "overshooting" behavior as prevention against poor yields; iii/ the production of C sugar as "reference building" in view of expected reforms. M...

  6. 75 FR 60715 - Domestic Sugar Program-FY 2010 and FY 2011 Cane Sugar and Beet Sugar Marketing Allotments and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Commodity Credit Corporation Domestic Sugar Program--FY 2010 and FY 2011 Cane Sugar and Beet Sugar Marketing... 2010 (FY 2010) State sugar marketing allotments and company allocations to sugarcane and sugar beet processors. This applies to all domestic sugar marketed for human consumption in the United States...

  7. Preliminary crystallographic analysis of sugar cane phosphoribosylpyrophosphate synthase

    OpenAIRE

    Napolitano, H. B.; Sculaccio, S. A.; Thiemann, O H; G Oliva

    2004-01-01

    X-ray diffraction data have been collected from crystals of recombinant sugar cane phosphoribosylpyrophosphate synthase (PRS) and analysis has revealed its quaternary structure, localizing this PRS into the class of enzymes forming an hexameric oligomer of 223 kDa.

  8. Starches, Sugars and Obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik E. J. G. Aller

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The rising prevalence of obesity, not only in adults but also in children and adolescents, is one of the most important public health problems in developed and developing countries. As one possible way to tackle obesity, a great interest has been stimulated in understanding the relationship between different types of dietary carbohydrate and appetite regulation, body weight and body composition. The present article reviews the conclusions from recent reviews and meta-analyses on the effects of different starches and sugars on body weight management and metabolic disturbances, and provides an update of the most recent studies on this topic. From the literature reviewed in this paper, potential beneficial effects of intake of starchy foods, especially those containing slowly-digestible and resistant starches, and potential detrimental effects of high intakes of fructose become apparent. This supports the intake of whole grains, legumes and vegetables, which contain more appropriate sources of carbohydrates associated with reduced risk of cardiovascular and other chronic diseases, rather than foods rich in sugars, especially in the form of sugar-sweetened beverages.

  9. Fermentation of various sugars and sugar substitutes by oral microorganisms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Boonyanit Thaweboon; Sroisiri Thaweboon; Doan Minh Tri

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To examine acid production of caries-associated strains of oral microorganisms and salivary microorganisms from sugar and sugar substitutes. Methods:Standard and clinical strains of Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans), Lactobacillus casei (L. casei) and Candida albicans were incubated in peptone-yeast-extract media containing 1% test sugar (sucrose, glucose, fructose) or sugar substitutes (xylitol, sorbitol, trehalulose and palatinose) at 37 ℃in 5% CO2 for 24-48 h. The pH of each culture was measured and microbial growth was determined as optical density at 660 nm. Paraffin-stimulated saliva collected from high caries-risk persons were added to media containing 10%test sugar or sugar substitutes. The pH of medium was measured at each time interval from 0-90 minutes. Results:All types of sugar and trehalulose could be fermented by all test microorganisms in pH lower than 5.5 except sucrose by standard strain of L. casei. All sugar and sugar substitutes supported growth of all organisms except xylitol for S. mutans. In the fermentation assay by salivary microorganisms, all sugar could be utilized and produced pH< 5.5 within 10 minutes of incubation and the pH drop was prolonged to until 90 minutes. Conversely, xylitol and palatinose were not fermented by microorganisms in saliva. Conclusions:All test microorganisms could ferment sucrose, glucose, fructose and trehalulose to pH lower than 5.5. Sugar alcohols and palatinose were not utilized well by organisms and may be used as sugar substitutes to reduce dental caries incidence. However, further studies particularly clinical investigations are required to evaluate the cariogenicity of these sugar substitutes.

  10. Sweeteners - sugar substitutes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Not used in cooking and baking FDA approved Stevia (Truvia, Pure Via, Sun Crystals): Non-caloric plant-based sweetener Made from the plant Stevia rebaudiana , which is grown for its sweet leaves ...

  11. Free Sugar Profile in Cycads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Edward Marler

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The sugars fructose, glucose, maltose, and sucrose were quantified in seven tissues of Zamia muricata Willd. to determine their distribution throughout various organs of a model cycad species, and in lateral structural roots of 18 cycad species to determine the variation in sugar concentration and composition among species representing every cycad genus. Taproot and lateral structural roots contained more sugars than leaf, stem, female strobilus, or coralloid roots. For example, taproot sugar concentration was 6.4-fold greater than stem sugar concentration. The dominant root sugars were glucose and fructose, and the only detected stem sugar was sucrose. Sucrose also dominated the sugar profile for leaflet and coralloid root tissue, and fructose was the dominant sugar in female strobilus tissue. Maltose was a minor constituent of taproot, leaflet, and female strobilus tissue, but absent in other tissues. The concentration of total free sugars and each of the four sugars did not differ among genera or families. Stoichiometric relationships among the sugars, such as the quotient hexoses/disaccharides, differed among organs and families. Although anecdotal reports on cycad starch have been abundant due to its historical use as human food and the voluminous medical research invested into cycad neurotoxins, this is the first report on the sugar component of the non-structural carbohydrate profile of cycads. Fructose, glucose, and sucrose are abundant in cycad tissues, with their relative abundance highly contrasting among organs. Their importance as forms of carbon storage, messengers of information, or regulators of cycad metabolism have not been determined to date.

  12. Evaluation of some natural products on sugar beet contamined with coliform bacteria group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogéria Maria Alves de Almeida

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available The sugar beet crop has great importance because its ability on sugar production that can be extracted and crystallized. The use of wastewater in the irrigation has increased because this water has some nutrients sources. However the use of wastewater may cause some health problems due to the presence of coliform bacteria group. In this trial, the objective was to contribute for the sugar beet decontamination. Some products as lemon juice, NaClO and ascetic acid were used by sugar beet immersion during a little time. In conclusion, the lemon juice showed best results by reducing coliform bacteria group.

  13. Preliminary crystallographic analysis of sugar cane phosphoribosylpyrophosphate synthase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    X-ray diffraction data have been collected from crystals of recombinant sugar cane phosphoribosylpyrophosphate synthase (PRS) and analysis has revealed its quaternary structure, localizing this PRS into the class of enzymes forming an hexameric oligomer of 223 kDa. Phosphoribosylpyrophosphate synthases (PRS; EC 2.7.6.1) are enzymes that are of central importance in several metabolic pathways in all cells. The sugar cane PRS enzyme contains 328 amino acids with a molecular weight of 36.6 kDa and represents the first plant PRS to be crystallized, as well as the first phosphate-independent PRS to be studied in molecular detail. Sugar cane PRS was overexpressed in Escherichia coli, purified and crystallized using the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method. Using X-ray diffraction experiments it was determined that the crystals belong to the orthorhombic system, with space group P21212 and unit-cell parameters a = 213.2, b = 152.6, c = 149.3 Å. The crystals diffract to a maximum resolution of 3.3 Å and a complete data set to 3.5 Å resolution was collected and analysed

  14. Reforming the EU Sugar Policy

    OpenAIRE

    Frandsen, Soren E.; Jensen, Hans Grinsted

    2002-01-01

    This article presents and analyses the impacts of the EU sugar policy. Particular attention is given to the modelling of the quite complex policy and the calibration of the global general equilibrium model at the member state level. Two scenarios are analysed, namely a reduction in the intervention price of sugar and the sugar quota. It is found that the economic impacts of the two scenarios are quite different in terms of the effects on European production and trade in sugar as well in terms...

  15. 76 FR 62339 - Domestic Sugar Program-2011-Crop Cane Sugar and Beet Sugar Marketing Allotments and Company...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-07

    ... Commodity Credit Corporation Domestic Sugar Program--2011-Crop Cane Sugar and Beet Sugar Marketing... Commodity Credit Corporation (CCC) is issuing this notice to publish the fiscal year (FY) 2012 State sugar marketing allotments and company allocations to sugarcane and sugar beet processors, which apply to...

  16. Knowledge, perceptions, and behaviors of adults concerning nonalcoholic beverages suggest some lack of comprehension related to sugars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rampersaud, Gail C; Kim, Hyeyoung; Gao, Zhifeng; House, Lisa A

    2014-02-01

    Key recommendations in the 2010 Dietary Guidelines for Americans and US Department of Agriculture's MyPlate are to reduce the intake of added sugars, particularly from sugar-sweetened beverages, and drink water instead of "sugary" beverages. However, little is known about consumer knowledge, perceptions, and behaviors regarding sugars in beverages. We hypothesized that consumers would have limited or inaccurate knowledge of the sugars in beverages and that their beverage consumption behaviors would not reflect their primary concerns related to sugars in beverages. An online survey was completed by 3361 adults 18 years and older residing throughout the United States. Water was consumed in the highest amounts followed by (in descending amounts) other beverages (includes coffee and tea), added sugar beverages, milk, diet drinks, and 100% fruit juice and blends. Participants primarily associated the term "sugary" with beverages containing added sugars; however, almost 40% identified 100% fruit juice as sugary. Some participants misidentified the types of sugars in beverages, particularly with respect to milk and 100% fruit juices. Generally, beverage choices were consistent with stated concerns about total, added, or natural sugars; however, less than 40% of participants identified added sugars as a primary concern when choosing beverages despite public health recommendations to reduce the intake of added sugars and sugar-sweetened beverages. Results suggest that there may be a considerable level of consumer misunderstanding or confusion about the types of sugars in beverages. More consumer research and education are needed with the goal of helping consumers make more informed and healthy beverage choices.

  17. Method for determining the composition of the sugar moiety of a sugar containing compound

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2016-01-01

    The present invention relates to methods of labeling sugar moieties of sugar containing compounds including glycopeptides. The compounds presented in the present invention facilitate reliable detection of sugar moieties of sugar containing compounds by a combination of spectroscopy methods...

  18. Sugar intolerance complicating acute gastroenteritis.

    OpenAIRE

    Evans-Jones, G; McDowell, H P

    1986-01-01

    Sugar intolerance occurred in 31 of 200 children admitted to hospital with acute gastroenteritis. In 28 this was transient and settled rapidly, but in the remaining three it indicated a more serious and persistent problem. The most important predisposing factor was viral infection, in particular with rotavirus. The current regimen for the management of sugar intolerance complicating acute gastroenteritis at this hospital is outlined.

  19. Urinary Sugars--A Biomarker of Total Sugars Intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tasevska, Natasha

    2015-07-01

    Measurement error in self-reported sugars intake may explain the lack of consistency in the epidemiologic evidence on the association between sugars and disease risk. This review describes the development and applications of a biomarker of sugars intake, informs its future use and recommends directions for future research. Recently, 24 h urinary sucrose and fructose were suggested as a predictive biomarker for total sugars intake, based on findings from three highly controlled feeding studies conducted in the United Kingdom. From this work, a calibration equation for the biomarker that provides an unbiased measure of sugars intake was generated that has since been used in two US-based studies with free-living individuals to assess measurement error in dietary self-reports and to develop regression calibration equations that could be used in future diet-disease analyses. Further applications of the biomarker include its use as a surrogate measure of intake in diet-disease association studies. Although this biomarker has great potential and exhibits favorable characteristics, available data come from a few controlled studies with limited sample sizes conducted in the UK. Larger feeding studies conducted in different populations are needed to further explore biomarker characteristics and stability of its biases, compare its performance, and generate a unique, or population-specific biomarker calibration equations to be applied in future studies. A validated sugars biomarker is critical for informed interpretation of sugars-disease association studies.

  20. Eliminate Sweetened Drinks, Cut Kids' Sugar Intake

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... fullstory_161163.html Eliminate Sweetened Drinks, Cut Kids' Sugar Intake Average U.S. child consumes about 80 grams ... Looking for the quickest way to cut added sugar from your kid's diet? Eliminate sugar-sweetened drinks, ...

  1. When Blood Sugar Is Too Low

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Homework? Here's Help White House Lunch Recipes When Blood Sugar Is Too Low KidsHealth > For Kids > When ... they get too low. The Causes of Low Blood Sugar Low blood sugar levels can happen to ...

  2. SILAGE CANE SUGAR ADDED WITH DRIED BREWER

    OpenAIRE

    W. J. R. Castro; A. M. Zanine; D.J. Ferreira

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this experiment was to evaluate the fermentative parameters and chemical composition of silage cane sugar added with residue dried brewery. The experimental design was completely randomized with four treatments and four replications: 100% cane sugar; 90% of cane sugar + 10% residue dried brewer; 80% of cane sugar + 20% residue dried brewer and 70% cane sugar + 30% dried brewer based on natural matter, composed silages. The sugar cane was chopped in a stationary machine with f...

  3. Life Cycle Assessment of Sugar Production (VB)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Teljigovic, Mehmed; Mengiardi, Jon; Factor, Gabriela;

    1999-01-01

    will be made between sugar from sugar beet produced in Denmark versus sugar produces from sugar cane in a tropical country, Brazil, and transported afterwards to Denmark. To evaluate the environmental aspects of these two product systems a Life Cycle Assessement (LCA) will be carried out.From the results...... a personal choice. What the danish consumer should be aware of is that no big difference has been found between sugar from sugar cane and sugar from sugar beet with regard to environmental impacts and resource consumption....

  4. ECONOMIC ANALYSIS OF SUGAR BEAT PRODUCTION

    OpenAIRE

    Jozo Kanisek; Jadranka Deže; Ljubica Ranogajec; Mirjana Miljević

    2008-01-01

    Croatian quota of 180.000 tones of sugar beet per year is approved for export to EU countries. For that amount of sugar it is necessary to produce about 30.000 ha of sugar beet. Sugar beet production requires deep and fertile soils, and crop rotation requirement is at least five year. Therefore, Slavonia and Baranya do t have enough areas under sugar beet. An additional problem is so called “sugar reform” applied by EUaiming to decrease price of sugar produced from sugar beet root and its eq...

  5. Pilot Findings from a Randomized Controlled Trial Targeting Sugar-Sweetened Beverage Behaviors

    OpenAIRE

    Cook, Emily Ryland

    2012-01-01

    Background: Low health literacy and increased sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) consumption are two broad public health concerns facing the United States. For example, it is estimated that 90 million Americans have insufficient literacy skills (IOMC, 2004) and low health literacy is associated with poorer health outcomes (Berkman et. al., 2011). Furthermore, SSBs contribute about 80% of added sugars in the diet (Nielsen & Popkin, 2004) and have been associated with poor health outcomes, includin...

  6. Smashing Bubbles and Vanishing Sugar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Alan

    1979-01-01

    Science activities with soap bubbles for primary school children are described in this article. Another activity involves children in determining the whereabouts of sugar as it dissolves in water. (SA)

  7. Sugar Cane Nutrient Distribution Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA), Molecular Absorption Spectrometry (UV-Vis), and Flame Photometry techniques were applied to measure plant nutrient concentrations of Br, Ca, Cl, K, Mn, N, Na and P in sugar-cane root, stalk and leaves. These data will be used to explore the behavior of element concentration in different parts of the sugar-cane to better understand the plant nutrient distribution during its development.

  8. The water footprint of sweeteners and bio-ethanol from sugar cane, sugar beet and maize

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerbens-Leenes, P.W.; Hoekstra, A.Y.

    2009-01-01

    Sugar cane and sugar beet are used for sugar for human consumption. In the US, maize is used, amongst others, for the sweetener High Fructose Maize Syrup (HFMS). Sugar cane, sugar beet and maize are also important for bio-ethanol production. The growth of crops requires water, a scarce resource. The

  9. 76 FR 36512 - USDA Increases the Domestic Sugar Overall Allotment Quantity, Reassigns Domestic Cane Sugar...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-22

    ... Office of the Secretary USDA Increases the Domestic Sugar Overall Allotment Quantity, Reassigns Domestic Cane Sugar Allotments, and Increases the Fiscal Year 2011 Raw Sugar Tariff-Rate Quota AGENCY: Office of... in the domestic sugar Overall Allotment Quantity (OAQ); a reassignment of surplus sugar...

  10. Optimal concentration for sugar transport in plants

    OpenAIRE

    Jensen, Kaare H.; Savage, Jessica A.; HOLBROOK, N. MICHELE

    2013-01-01

    Vascular plants transport energy in the form of sugars from the leaves where they are produced to sites of active growth. The mass flow of sugars through the phloem vascular system is determined by the sap flow rate and the sugar concentration. If the concentration is low, little energy is transferred from source to sink. If it is too high, sap viscosity impedes flow. An interesting question is therefore at which concentration is the sugar flow optimal. Optimization of sugar flow and transpor...

  11. Technical Efficiency in Louisiana Sugar Cane Processing

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson, Jason L.; Zapata, Hector O.; Heagler, Arthur M.

    1995-01-01

    Participants in the Louisiana sugar cane industry have provided little information related to the efficiency of sugar processing operations. Using panel data from the population of Louisiana sugar processors, alternative model specifications are estimated using stochastic frontier methods to measure the technical efficiency of individual sugar factories. Results suggest the Louisiana sugar processing industry is characterized by a constant returns to scale Cobb-Douglas processing function wit...

  12. Sugar substitutes: Health controversy over perceived benefits

    OpenAIRE

    Tandel, Kirtida R.

    2011-01-01

    Sugar is an inseparable part of the food we consume. But too much sugar is not ideal for our teeth and waistline. There have been some controversial suggestions that excessive sugar may play an important role in certain degenerative diseases. So artificial sweeteners or artificially sweetened products continue to attract consumers. A sugar substitute (artificial sweetener) is a food additive that duplicates the effect of sugar in taste, but usually has less food energy. Besides its benefits, ...

  13. Synthesis of D-Desosamine and Analogs by Rapid Assembly of 3-Amino Sugars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ziyang; Fukuzaki, Takehiro; Myers, Andrew G

    2016-01-11

    D-Desosamine is synthesized in 4 steps from methyl vinyl ketone and sodium nitrite. The key step in this chromatography-free synthesis is the coupling of (R)-4-nitro-2-butanol and glyoxal (trimeric form) mediated by cesium carbonate, which affords in crystalline form 3-nitro-3,4,6-trideoxy-α-D-glucose, a nitro sugar stereochemically homologous to D-desosamine. This strategy has enabled the syntheses of an array of analogous 3-nitro sugars. In each case the 3-nitro sugars are obtained in pure form by crystallization.

  14. Methods for dehydration of sugars and sugar alcohols

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holladay, Johnathan E [Kennewick, WA; Hu, Jianli [Kennewick, WA; Zhang, Xinjie [Burlington, MA; Wang, Yong [Richland, WA

    2010-08-10

    The invention includes a method of dehydration of a sugar using a dehydration catalyst and a co-catalyst within a reactor. A sugar is introduced and H.sub.2 is flowed through the reactor at a pressure of less than or equal to about 300 psig to convert at least some of the sugar into an anhydrosugar product. The invention includes a process for producing isosorbide. A starting material comprising sorbitol is flowed into a reactor. H.sub.2 is counter flowed through the reactor. The starting material is exposed to a catalyst in the presence of a co-catalyst which comprises at least one metal. The exposing is conducted at a hydrogen pressure of less than or equal to 300 psig within the reactor and the hydrogen removes at least some of any water present during the exposing and inhibits formation of colored byproducts.

  15. Worldwide trends in dietary sugars intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittekind, Anna; Walton, Janette

    2014-12-01

    Estimating trends in dietary intake data is integral to informing national nutrition policy and monitoring progress towards dietary guidelines. Dietary intake of sugars is a controversial public health issue and guidance in relation to recommended intakes is particularly inconsistent. Published data relating to trends in sugars intake are relatively sparse. The purpose of the present review was to collate and review data from national nutrition surveys to examine changes and trends in dietary sugars intake. Only thirteen countries (all in the developed world) appear to report estimates of sugars intake from national nutrition surveys at more than one point in time. Definitions of dietary sugars that were used include 'total sugars', 'non-milk extrinsic sugars', 'added sugars', sucrose' and 'mono- and disaccharides'. This variability in terminology across countries meant that comparisons were limited to within countries. Hence trends in dietary sugars intake were examined by country for the whole population (where data permitted), and for specific or combined age and sex subpopulations. Findings indicate that in the majority of population comparisons, estimated dietary sugars intake is either stable or decreasing in both absolute (g/d) and relative (% energy) terms. An increase in sugars intake was observed in few countries and only in specific subpopulations. In conclusion, the findings from the present review suggest that, in the main, dietary sugars intake are decreasing or stable. A consistent approach to estimation of dietary sugars intake from national nutrition surveys is required if more valid estimates of changes in dietary sugars intakes are required in the future.

  16. Sugar sensing by enterocytes combines polarity, membrane bound detectors and sugar metabolism.

    OpenAIRE

    Le Gall, Maude; Tobin, Vanessa; Stolarczyk, Emilie; Dalet, Véronique; Leturque, Armelle; Brot-Laroche, Edith

    2007-01-01

    Sugar consumption and subsequent sugar metabolism are known to regulate the expression of genes involved in intestinal sugar absorption and delivery. Here we investigate the hypothesis that sugar-sensing detectors in membranes facing the intestinal lumen or the bloodstream can also modulate intestinal sugar absorption. We used wild-type and GLUT2-null mice, to show that dietary sugars stimulate the expression of sucrase-isomaltase (SI) and L-pyruvate kinase (L-PK) by GLUT2-dependent mechanism...

  17. American Religion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田甜

    2008-01-01

    It is said that American religion,as a great part of American culture,plays an important role in American culture. It is hoped that some ideas can be obtained from this research paper,which focuses on analyzing the great impact is produced to American culture by American religion. Finally, this essay gives two useful standpoints to English learners:Understunding American religion will help understand the American history, culture and American people,and help you to communic.ate with them better. Understanding American religion will help you understand English better.

  18. Efficiency Dynamics of Sugar Industry of Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    Abdul Raheman; Abdul Qayyum; Talat Afza

    2009-01-01

    Pakistan is the 15th largest producer of sugar in the world, 5th largest in terms of area under sugar cultivation and 60th in yield. The sugar industry is the 2nd largest agro based industry which comprises of 81 sugar mills. With this scenario, Pakistan has to import sugar which exposes it to the effects of shortage and rising prices in the world. The present sugar crisis has opened up new avenues for researcher to analyse the performance and efficiency of the firms in this sector. Total fac...

  19. Price Transmission in the German Sugar Market

    OpenAIRE

    Nolte, Stephan; Natanelov, Valeri; Buysse, Jeroen; Huylenbroeck, Guido Van

    2012-01-01

    The German sugar market is governed by the European Union’s common market organization (CMO). In 2006, the CMO was subject to its first major reform. Among others, the administered price for sugar was reduced by 36%. We use a data set with monthly prices for sugar and sugar containing products to perform a cointegration analysis. Results show that the reduction of the institutional price has led to a reduction of wholesale prices and of retail prices for table sugar. Prices for sugar containi...

  20. Pyrolytic sugars from cellulosic biomass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzhiyil, Najeeb

    Sugars are the feedstocks for many promising advanced cellulosic biofuels. Traditional sugars derived from starch and sugar crops are limited in their availability. In principle, more plentiful supply of sugars can be obtained from depolymerization of cellulose, the most abundant form of biomass in the world. Breaking the glycosidic bonds between the pyranose rings in the cellulose chain to liberate glucose has usually been pursued by enzymatic hydrolysis although a purely thermal depolymerization route to sugars is also possible. Fast pyrolysis of pure cellulose yields primarily levoglucosan, an anhydrosugar that can be hydrolyzed to glucose. However, naturally occurring alkali and alkaline earth metals (AAEM) in biomass are strongly catalytic toward ring-breaking reactions that favor formation of light oxygenates over anhydrosugars. Removing the AAEM by washing was shown to be effective in increasing the yield of anhydrosugars; but this process involves removal of large amount of water from biomass that renders it energy intensive and thereby impractical. In this work passivation of the AAEM (making them less active or inactive) using mineral acid infusion was explored that will increase the yield of anhydrosugars from fast pyrolysis of biomass. Mineral acid infusion was tried by previous researchers, but the possibility of chemical reactions between infused acid and AAEM in the biomass appears to have been overlooked, possibly because metal cations might be expected to already be substantially complexed to chlorine or other strong anions that are found in biomass. Likewise, it appears that previous researchers assumed that as long as AAEM cations were in the biomass, they would be catalytically active regardless of the nature of their complexion with anions. On the contrary, we hypothesized that AAEM can be converted to inactive or less active salts using mineral acids. Various biomass feedstocks were infused with mineral (hydrochloric, nitric, sulfuric and

  1. Sugar cane and sugar beet molasses, antioxidant-rich alternatives to refined sugar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valli, Veronica; Gómez-Caravaca, Ana María; Di Nunzio, Mattia; Danesi, Francesca; Caboni, Maria Fiorenza; Bordoni, Alessandra

    2012-12-26

    Molasses, the main byproduct of sugar production, is a well-known source of antioxidants. In this study sugar cane molasses (SCM) and sugar beet molasses (SBM) were investigated for their phenolic profile and in vitro antioxidant capacity and for their protective effect in human HepG2 cells submitted to oxidative stress. According to its higher phenolic concentration and antioxidant capacity in vitro, SCM exhibited an effective protection in cells, comparable to or even greater than that of α-tocopherol. Data herein reported emphasize the potential health effects of molasses and the possibility of using byproducts for their antioxidant activity. This is particularly important for consumers in developing countries, as it highlights the importance of consuming a low-price, yet very nutritious, commodity. PMID:23190112

  2. Molecular Mobility in Sugar Glasses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dries, van den I.J.

    2000-01-01

    Glasses are liquids that exhibit solid state behavior as a result of their extremely high viscosity. Regarding their application to foods, glasses play a role in the preservation of foods, due to their high viscosity and the concomitant low molecular mobility. This thesis focuses on sugar glasses. S

  3. The UK sugar tax - a healthy start?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, C M

    2016-07-22

    The unexpected announcement by the UK Chancellor of the Exchequer of a levy on sugar sweetened beverages (SSBs) on the 16 March 2016, should be welcomed by all health professionals. This population based, structural intervention sends a strong message that there is no place for carbonated drinks, neither sugared nor sugar-free, in a healthy diet and the proposed levy has the potential to contribute to both general and dental health. The sugar content of drinks exempt from the proposed sugar levy will still cause tooth decay. Improving the proposed tax could involve a change to a scaled volumetric tax of added sugar with a lower exemption threshold. External influences such as the Common Agricultural Policy and the Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership may negate the benefits of the sugar levy unless it is improved. However, the proposed UK sugar tax should be considered as a start in improving the nation's diet.

  4. When Blood Sugar Is Too High

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Can I Help a Friend Who Cuts? When Blood Sugar Is Too High KidsHealth > For Teens > When Blood ... it often can be unhealthy. What Is High Blood Sugar? The blood glucose level is the amount of ...

  5. OMICS Technologies and Applications in Sugar Beet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yongxue; Nan, Jingdong; Yu, Bing

    2016-01-01

    Sugar beet is a species of the Chenopodiaceae family. It is an important sugar crop that supplies approximately 35% of the sugar in the world. Sugar beet M14 line is a unique germplasm that contains genetic materials from Beta vulgaris L. and Beta corolliflora Zoss. And exhibits tolerance to salt stress. In this review, we have summarized OMICS technologies and applications in sugar beet including M14 for identification of novel genes, proteins related to biotic and abiotic stresses, apomixes and metabolites related to energy and food. An OMICS overview for the discovery of novel genes, proteins and metabolites in sugar beet has helped us understand the complex mechanisms underlying many processes such as apomixes, tolerance to biotic and abiotic stresses. The knowledge gained is valuable for improving the tolerance of sugar beet and other crops to biotic and abiotic stresses as well as for enhancing the yield of sugar beet for energy and food production. PMID:27446130

  6. The UK sugar tax - a healthy start?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, C M

    2016-07-22

    The unexpected announcement by the UK Chancellor of the Exchequer of a levy on sugar sweetened beverages (SSBs) on the 16 March 2016, should be welcomed by all health professionals. This population based, structural intervention sends a strong message that there is no place for carbonated drinks, neither sugared nor sugar-free, in a healthy diet and the proposed levy has the potential to contribute to both general and dental health. The sugar content of drinks exempt from the proposed sugar levy will still cause tooth decay. Improving the proposed tax could involve a change to a scaled volumetric tax of added sugar with a lower exemption threshold. External influences such as the Common Agricultural Policy and the Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership may negate the benefits of the sugar levy unless it is improved. However, the proposed UK sugar tax should be considered as a start in improving the nation's diet. PMID:27444594

  7. Sugar in the diet of adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Klemenčič, Mojca

    2014-01-01

    Sugar and sweetened beverages are increasingly present in the nutrition of adolescents. Sugars added to food usually do not contain essential nutrients and inhibit the consumption of nutritionally rich foods. The aim of this diploma thesis is to determine how much sugar is present in the diets of adolescents, how and when most frequently adolescents eat sugar and whether the consumption of sweet foods among adolescents vary according to gender, age, and body weight. Data were collected using ...

  8. Knowledge, perceptions, and behaviors of adults concerning nonalcoholic beverages suggest some lack of comprehension related to sugars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rampersaud, Gail C; Kim, Hyeyoung; Gao, Zhifeng; House, Lisa A

    2014-02-01

    Key recommendations in the 2010 Dietary Guidelines for Americans and US Department of Agriculture's MyPlate are to reduce the intake of added sugars, particularly from sugar-sweetened beverages, and drink water instead of "sugary" beverages. However, little is known about consumer knowledge, perceptions, and behaviors regarding sugars in beverages. We hypothesized that consumers would have limited or inaccurate knowledge of the sugars in beverages and that their beverage consumption behaviors would not reflect their primary concerns related to sugars in beverages. An online survey was completed by 3361 adults 18 years and older residing throughout the United States. Water was consumed in the highest amounts followed by (in descending amounts) other beverages (includes coffee and tea), added sugar beverages, milk, diet drinks, and 100% fruit juice and blends. Participants primarily associated the term "sugary" with beverages containing added sugars; however, almost 40% identified 100% fruit juice as sugary. Some participants misidentified the types of sugars in beverages, particularly with respect to milk and 100% fruit juices. Generally, beverage choices were consistent with stated concerns about total, added, or natural sugars; however, less than 40% of participants identified added sugars as a primary concern when choosing beverages despite public health recommendations to reduce the intake of added sugars and sugar-sweetened beverages. Results suggest that there may be a considerable level of consumer misunderstanding or confusion about the types of sugars in beverages. More consumer research and education are needed with the goal of helping consumers make more informed and healthy beverage choices. PMID:24461314

  9. 7 CFR 58.934 - Sugars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Sugars. 58.934 Section 58.934 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections....934 Sugars. Any sugar used in the manufacture of sweetened condensed or sterilized milk products...

  10. Keeping Track of Your Blood Sugar

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a Friend Who Cuts? Keeping Track of Your Blood Sugar KidsHealth > For Teens > Keeping Track of Your Blood Sugar Print A A A Text Size What's in ... and prevent future problems, you have to keep blood sugar levels in a healthy range. To do that, ...

  11. Diabetes - low blood sugar - self-care

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000085.htm Diabetes - low blood sugar - self-care To use the sharing features on ... enable JavaScript. Hypoglycemia - self-care What is low Blood Sugar? Low blood sugar is called hypoglycemia. A blood ...

  12. 21 CFR 184.1859 - Invert sugar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Invert sugar. 184.1859 Section 184.1859 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1859 Invert sugar. (a) Invert sugar (CAS Reg. No. 8013-17-0) is an...

  13. 27 CFR 24.317 - Sugar record.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sugar record. 24.317... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Records and Reports § 24.317 Sugar record. A proprietor who receives, stores, or uses sugar shall maintain a record of receipt and use. The record will show the date...

  14. Saccharification of recalcitrant biomass and integration options for lignocellulosic sugars from Catchlight Energy’s sugar process (CLE Sugar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gao Johnway

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Woody biomass is one of the most abundant biomass feedstocks, besides agriculture residuals in the United States. The sustainable harvest residuals and thinnings alone are estimated at about 75 million tons/year. These forest residuals and thinnings could produce the equivalent of 5 billion gallons of lignocellulosic ethanol annually. Softwood biomass is the most recalcitrant biomass in pretreatment before an enzymatic hydrolysis. To utilize the most recalcitrant lignocellulosic materials, an efficient, industrially scalable and cost effective pretreatment method is needed. Results Obtaining a high yield of sugar from recalcitrant biomass generally requires a high severity of pretreatment with aggressive chemistry, followed by extensive conditioning, and large doses of enzymes. Catchlight Energy’s Sugar process, CLE Sugar, uses a low intensity, high throughput variation of bisulfite pulping to pretreat recalcitrant biomass, such as softwood forest residuals. By leveraging well-proven bisulfite technology and the rapid progress of enzyme suppliers, CLE Sugar can achieve a high yield of total biomass carbohydrate conversion to monomeric lignocellulosic sugars. For example, 85.8% of biomass carbohydrates are saccharified for un-debarked Loblolly pine chips (softwood, and 94.0% for debarked maple chips (hardwood. Furan compound formation was 1.29% of biomass feedstock for Loblolly pine and 1.10% for maple. At 17% solids hydrolysis of pretreated softwood, an enzyme dose of 0.075 g Sigma enzyme mixture/g dry pretreated (unwashed biomass was needed to achieve 8.1% total sugar titer in the hydrolysate and an overall prehydrolysate liquor plus enzymatic hydrolysis conversion yield of 76.6%. At a much lower enzyme dosage of 0.044 g CTec2 enzyme product/g dry (unwashed pretreated softwood, hydrolysis at 17% solids achieved 9.2% total sugar titer in the hydrolysate with an overall sugar yield of 85.0% in the combined prehydrolysate

  15. Clinical epidemiological profile of American tegumentary leishmaniasis at the Pinto Sugar Mill in Moreno Municipality, Greater Metropolitan Recife, Pernambuco State, Brazil Perfil clínico-epidemiológico da leishmaniose tegumentar americana no Engenho Pinto, Município de Moreno, Região Metropolitana do Recife, Pernambuco, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Edileuza Felinto de Brito

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available American tegumentary leishmaniasis (ATL is present in all regions of Pernambuco State, Brazil, where it is spreading, with the emergence of foci in new areas like the Municipality (County of Moreno in Greater Metropolitan Recife. The objective of the current study was to assess the prevalence of infection and identify autochthonous cases of ATL. In April 2006 a population survey was performed using a questionnaire and the Montenegro skin test (MST in 481 individuals from the Pinto Sugar Mill, of whom 47% were males and 74% were younger than 30 years. One hundred forty-four individuals (30% showed a positive MST. Of these, five presented active lesions, 41 were cured after meglumine antimoniate treatment, and one showed a spontaneous cure. Indirect immunofluorescence (IIF was performed on sera from 89 individuals and showed a 36% positive rate. The high ATL prevalence demonstrates the epidemiological spread of the disease in Greater Metropolitan Recife, a worrisome development since there are no effective measures for ATL control except ecological awareness raising to minimize the risk of infection.A leishmaniose tegumentar americana incide em todas as regiões do Estado de Pernambuco, Brasil, onde se apresenta em expansão, com o surgimento de focos em novas áreas, como o Município de Moreno, na região metropolitana do Recife. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a prevalência da infecção e identificar os casos autóctones de leishmaniose tegumentar americana. Em abril de 2006, realizou-se um inquérito populacional por meio da aplicação de um questionário e do teste de intradermoreação de Montenegro a 481 indivíduos do Engenho Pinto, dos quais 47% eram do sexo masculino e 74% menores de 30 anos. Cento e quarenta e quatro (30% indivíduos apresentaram reação positiva ao teste. Dentre estes, cinco apresentaram lesões ativas, 41 foram curados após quimioterapia e um curado espontaneamente. A RIFI realizada nos soros de 89 indiv

  16. Response of Anastrepha suspensa (Diptera: Tepritidae) to white and brown cane, coconut, date, date jaggery and panela sugar solutions with varying degrees of fermentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    We measured the EAG response of Anastrepha suspensa (Loew), the Caribbean fruit fly to six different sugars (white and brown cane, coconut, date, date jaggery and panela sugars). Wild and lab female flies of different physiological states (immature and mature) were tested in dry crystals and 10% su...

  17. Sugar Companies Shifted Focus to Fat as Heart Harm: Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... sugar increased, a trade group for the sugar industry -- the Sugar Research Foundation -- commissioned a research review by Harvard ... also served on scientific advisory boards for the sugar industry, the authors of the new study said. Besides ...

  18. Why Anticancer Nanomedicine Needs Sugars?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouffard, E; El Cheikh, K; Gallud, A; Da Silva, A; Maynadier, M; Basile, I; Gary-Bobo, M; Morere, A; Garcia, M

    2015-01-01

    Nowadays, nanomedicine brings new opportunities for diagnosis and treatment through innovative combinations of materials structured at the nanoscale, biomolecules and physicochemical processes. If the intrinsic properties of nanomaterials appear of major importance in this new discipline, the functionalization of these nanotools with biomolecules improves both their biocompatibility and efficacy. This is the case of carbohydrate derivatives, natural or synthetic, which are increasingly being used in nanostructures for medical purposes. As in current medicine, sugars are used to mimic their physiological roles. Indeed, carbohydrates enhance the solubility and reduce the clearance of drugs. They are used to mask immunogenic components of nano-objects and escape the body defenses and finally facilitate the delivery to the target tissue. All these properties explain the growing importance of sugars in nanomedicine.

  19. Irradiation of cane sugar spirit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present study deals with the effect of irradiation on the gas-chromatographic profile of irradiated cane sugar spirit irradiated in glass containers in the presence of oak chops with doses of 0-10 kGy. Volatile constituents were analyzed in a CG gas chromatographer with a flame ionization detector using a Megabore CG-745 column. The results are discussed considering the contribution of irradiation to the quality of the spirit and the contribution of the irradiated oak wood. (author)

  20. Sugar recognition by human galactokinase

    OpenAIRE

    Timson David J; Reece Richard J

    2003-01-01

    Abstract Background Galactokinase catalyses the first committed step of galactose catabolism in which the sugar is phosphorylated at the expense of MgATP. Recent structural studies suggest that the enzyme makes several contacts with galactose – five side chain and two main chain hydrogen bonds. Furthermore, it has been suggested that inhibition of galactokinase may help sufferers of the genetic disease classical galactosemia which is caused by defects in another enzyme of the pathway galactos...

  1. Production of clean pyrolytic sugars for fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rover, Marjorie R; Johnston, Patrick A; Jin, Tao; Smith, Ryan G; Brown, Robert C; Jarboe, Laura

    2014-06-01

    This study explores the separate recovery of sugars and phenolic oligomers produced during fast pyrolysis with the effective removal of contaminants from the separated pyrolytic sugars to produce a substrate suitable for fermentation without hydrolysis. The first two stages from a unique recovery system capture "heavy ends", mostly water-soluble sugars and water-insoluble phenolic oligomers. The differences in water solubility can be exploited to recover a sugar-rich aqueous phase and a phenolic-rich raffinate. Over 93 wt % of the sugars is removed in two water washes. These sugars contain contaminants such as low-molecular-weight acids, furans, and phenols that could inhibit successful fermentation. Detoxification methods were used to remove these contaminants from pyrolytic sugars. The optimal candidate is NaOH overliming, which results in maximum growth measurements with the use of ethanol-producing Escherichia coli.

  2. Scientists Discover Sugar in Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-06-01

    The prospects for life in the Universe just got sweeter, with the first discovery of a simple sugar molecule in space. The discovery of the sugar molecule glycolaldehyde in a giant cloud of gas and dust near the center of our own Milky Way Galaxy was made by scientists using the National Science Foundation's 12 Meter Telescope, a radio telescope on Kitt Peak, Arizona. "The discovery of this sugar molecule in a cloud from which new stars are forming means it is increasingly likely that the chemical precursors to life are formed in such clouds long before planets develop around the stars," said Jan M. Hollis of the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, MD. Hollis worked with Frank J. Lovas of the University of Illinois and Philip R. Jewell of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) in Green Bank, WV, on the observations, made in May. The scientists have submitted their results to the Astrophysical Journal Letters. "This discovery may be an important key to understanding the formation of life on the early Earth," said Jewell. Conditions in interstellar clouds may, in some cases, mimic the conditions on the early Earth, so studying the chemistry of interstellar clouds may help scientists understand how bio-molecules formed early in our planet's history. In addition, some scientists have suggested that Earth could have been "seeded" with complex molecules by passing comets, made of material from the interstellar cloud that condensed to form the Solar System. Glycolaldehyde, an 8-atom molecule composed of carbon, oxygen and hydrogen, can combine with other molecules to form the more-complex sugars Ribose and Glucose. Ribose is a building block of nucleic acids such as RNA and DNA, which carry the genetic code of living organisms. Glucose is the sugar found in fruits. Glycolaldehyde contains exactly the same atoms, though in a different molecular structure, as methyl formate and acetic acid, both of which were detected previously in interstellar clouds

  3. 29 CFR 516.18 - Employees employed in certain tobacco, cotton, sugar cane or sugar beet services, who are...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Employees employed in certain tobacco, cotton, sugar cane....18 Employees employed in certain tobacco, cotton, sugar cane or sugar beet services, who are... cigar leaf tobacco, cotton, cottonseed, cotton ginning, sugar cane, sugar processing or sugar beets...

  4. 29 CFR 780.815 - Basic conditions of exemption; second part, processing of sugar beets, sugar-beet molasses...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... sugar beets, sugar-beet molasses, sugarcane, or maple sap. 780.815 Section 780.815 Labor Regulations... Cotton and Processing of Sugar Beets, Sugar-Beet Molasses, Sugarcane, or Maple Sap into Sugar or Syrup... Quantities § 780.815 Basic conditions of exemption; second part, processing of sugar beets,...

  5. 75 FR 53013 - Fiscal Year 2011 Tariff-rate Quota Allocations for Raw Cane Sugar, Refined and Specialty Sugar...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-30

    ... TRADE REPRESENTATIVE Fiscal Year 2011 Tariff-rate Quota Allocations for Raw Cane Sugar, Refined and Specialty Sugar, and Sugar-containing Products; Revision AGENCY: Office of the United States Trade... allocations of raw cane sugar, refined and special sugar, and sugar-containing products. USTR is revising...

  6. 21 CFR 173.320 - Chemicals for controlling microorganisms in cane-sugar and beet-sugar mills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...-sugar and beet-sugar mills. 173.320 Section 173.320 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION... controlling microorganisms in cane-sugar and beet-sugar mills. Agents for controlling microorganisms in cane-sugar and beet-sugar mills may be safely used in accordance with the following conditions: (a) They...

  7. 78 FR 146 - Determination of Trade Surplus in Certain Sugar and Syrup Goods and Sugar-Containing Products of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-02

    ... STATES TRADE REPRESENTATIVE Determination of Trade Surplus in Certain Sugar and Syrup Goods and Sugar... certain sugar and syrup goods and sugar containing products of Determination of Trade Surplus in Certain Sugar and Syrup Goods and Sugar-Containing Products of Chile, Morocco, Costa Rica, the...

  8. Energy and Fructose From Beverages Sweetened With Sugar or High-Fructose Corn Syrup Pose a Health Risk for Some People 1 2

    OpenAIRE

    Bray, George A

    2013-01-01

    Sugar intake in the United States has increased by >40 fold since the American Revolution. The health concerns that have been raised about the amounts of sugar that are in the current diet, primarily as beverages, are the subject of this review. Just less than 50% of the added sugars (sugar and high-fructose corn syrup) are found in soft drinks and fruit drinks. The intake of soft drinks has increased 5-fold between 1950 and 2000. Most meta-analyses have shown that the risk of obesity, diabet...

  9. Acceptance of sugar reduction in flavored yogurt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chollet, M; Gille, D; Schmid, A; Walther, B; Piccinali, P

    2013-09-01

    To investigate what level of sugar reduction is accepted in flavored yogurt, we conducted a hedonic test focusing on the degree of liking of the products and on optimal sweetness and aroma levels. For both flavorings (strawberry and coffee), consumers preferred yogurt containing 10% added sugar. However, yogurt containing 7% added sugar was also acceptable. On the just-about-right scale, yogurt containing 10% sugar was more often described as too sweet compared with yogurt containing 7% sugar. On the other hand, the sweetness and aroma intensity for yogurt containing 5% sugar was judged as too low. A second test was conducted to determine the effect of flavoring concentration on the acceptance of yogurt containing 7% sugar. Yogurts containing the highest concentrations of flavoring (11% strawberry, 0.75% coffee) were less appreciated. Additionally, the largest percentage of consumers perceived these yogurts as "not sweet enough." These results indicate that consumers would accept flavored yogurts with 7% added sugar instead of 10%, but 5% sugar would be too low. Additionally, an increase in flavor concentration is undesirable for yogurt containing 7% added sugar.

  10. Sugar industry dilemma in NWFP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugarcane is an important cash-crop in Pakistan, ranking fourth in average cultivation after wheat, rice and cotton. It contributed 6.3 percent to the national agricultural value addition and 1.3 percent of the GDP during 2002-2003. It provides direct employment to more than 10,000 persons in NWFP. Sugarcane is grown over an area of more or less one million hectares in Pakistan, the Punjab shares 66.8%, Sindh 23.5% and NWFP shares 9.5% of the total area and 63.7, 26.5 and 9.7% of the production, respectively (Agriculture statistics of Pakistan FRS 2003). The national average cane-yield (47 tonnes per hectare) is far below the existing potential, Sindh with 53 tonnes per hectare is the leading province, followed by NWFP (48 tonnes) and Punjab (45 tonnes per hectare), respectively. In Pakistan, 73 mills are in operation. On the average, these Sugar Mills produce 3.52 million tons Sugar and employed labour force of 1.06 million persons, involving about nine million people of rural population in the production of sugarcane in 2002. In the year 2002-03, cane production was over 52 million tonnes; the Mills utilized (80.28%) of the total cane production with a yield of 3.66 million tonnes of sugar. Part 1 of this paper discusses the importance of sugarcane crop and sugarcane industry towards national economy. In part 2, problems of varied horizon have been covered, in detail, with sound viable recommendations. Finally, conclusions have been drawn in part 3 for consideration by all relevant stakeholders of the sector. To avert problems like low cane-yield, minimum return to farmers, negative attitude and delaying tactics in payments, policy makers and decision-support unit of the province should ensure the following: no further expansion of sugar-mills on political grounds and without viable feasibility; immediate improvement in water-courses, improvement of irrigation efficiency, develop cane-varieties with high sucrose-recovery percentage, reduce cost of production of

  11. Crystal Meth

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for: Navigation Home / Stories of Hope / Crystal meth Crystal meth Story Of Hope By giovanni January 3rd, ... about my drug addiction having to deal with Crystal meth. I am now in recovery and fighting ...

  12. Plastid transformation in sugar beet: Beta vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Marchis, Francesca; Bellucci, Michele

    2014-01-01

    Chloroplast biotechnology has assumed great importance in the past 20 years and, thanks to the numerous advantages as compared to conventional transgenic technologies, has been applied in an increasing number of plant species but still very much limited. Hence, it is of utmost importance to extend the range of species in which plastid transformation can be applied. Sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) is an important industrial crop of the temperate zone in which chloroplast DNA is not transmitted trough pollen. Transformation of the sugar beet genome is performed in several research laboratories; conversely sugar beet plastome genetic transformation is far away from being considered a routine technique. We describe here a method to obtain transplastomic sugar beet plants trough biolistic transformation. The availability of sugar beet transplastomic plants should avoid the risk of gene flow between these cultivated genetic modified sugar beet plants and the wild-type plants or relative wild species.

  13. Plastid transformation in sugar beet: Beta vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Marchis, Francesca; Bellucci, Michele

    2014-01-01

    Chloroplast biotechnology has assumed great importance in the past 20 years and, thanks to the numerous advantages as compared to conventional transgenic technologies, has been applied in an increasing number of plant species but still very much limited. Hence, it is of utmost importance to extend the range of species in which plastid transformation can be applied. Sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) is an important industrial crop of the temperate zone in which chloroplast DNA is not transmitted trough pollen. Transformation of the sugar beet genome is performed in several research laboratories; conversely sugar beet plastome genetic transformation is far away from being considered a routine technique. We describe here a method to obtain transplastomic sugar beet plants trough biolistic transformation. The availability of sugar beet transplastomic plants should avoid the risk of gene flow between these cultivated genetic modified sugar beet plants and the wild-type plants or relative wild species. PMID:24599867

  14. Sustainability of the sugar and sugar-ethanol industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Studies in agricultural sustainability require expertise in many fields, and the contents of this book reflect that. The seventeen chapters came out of a symposium presented at the Spring 2010 meeting of the American Chemical Society, and represent contributions from a wide variety of authors with e...

  15. Supply Response of Sugar Cane in Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Noer Soetrisno

    1984-01-01

    The paper investigates the supply response of sugar cane using an extended Nerlovian model, The analysis is separated into sugar mills and farmers’ responses. Output response is decomposed into area response and yield response. An important finding shows farmers to be responsive to price while millers are not, The insignificant results on sugar mills indicate that when they are under strict control, and are no longer profit maximizing, the Nerlovian supply response does not apply.

  16. Natural sweet substances - alternative of sugar

    OpenAIRE

    Kratochvílová, Kateřina

    2014-01-01

    Natural sweet substances – alternative of sugar Summary Sugar (sucrose) is undoubtedly the most commonly used sweetening agent of natural origin, but certainly not the only one. Large amount of sweet substances with different structure has been isolated from the plants. These non-carbohydrate sweetening agents have several advantages over sucrose. They are low-energy substances, which have much higher sweetening effect than sucrose, and therefore become a suitable alternative sugar. U...

  17. Pullulan production from sugar beat molasses

    OpenAIRE

    Kassim, Mohammad Bashir Ismail [محمد بشيراسماعيل قاسم; Sultan, Raad Hussani

    1997-01-01

    Sugar beet molasses was used as the substrate for the production of pullulan with Aureobasidum pullulans ATCC 42023. In addition biomass, residual sugar and final pH of the culture medium were investigated. In comparing sugar beet molasses and glucose media, it was found that production of pullulan from glucose medium highly exceeded that produced from molasses medium. Treatment of molasses with sodium sulphate slightly enhanced pullulan production. Highest pullulan production from molasses o...

  18. The Mexican sugar industry : problems and prospects

    OpenAIRE

    Borrell, Brent

    1991-01-01

    The Mexican sugar industry operates under strict government controls. The sugar parastatal, AZUCAR, and other state agencies govern virturally all aspects of pricing and, until recently, AZUCAR controlled virtually all aspects of marketing. The purpose of this study is to make transparent the main economic effects of existing sugar policies. Three broad measures are used to estimate the resource misallocation effects of intervention: the nominal rate of protection, the effective rate of assis...

  19. Sugar and Alcoholic Fair Closed in Chengdu

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Zhen

    2009-01-01

    @@ The 80th China National Sugar and Alcoholic Commodities Fair was held in Chengdu (capital of Sichuan province) from March 24 to 28.Sponsored by China National Sugar and Alcohol Group Corp.,this is the 20th time for Chengdu to host such a big event.Since the fair was initially held in 1955,Sugar and Alcoholic Fair has become increasingly well-known in both China and abroad while sticking to the principle of serving enterprises.

  20. Nuclear analytical techniques in Cuban Sugar Industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper is a review concerning the applications of Nuclear Analytical Techniques in the Cuban sugar industry. The most complete elemental composition of final molasses (34 elements ) and natural zeolites (38) this last one employed as an auxiliary agent in sugar technological processes has been performed by means of Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) and X-Ray Fluorescence Analysis (XRFA). The trace elements sugar cane soil plant relationship and elemental composition of different types of Cuban sugar (rawr, blanco directo and refine) were also studied. As a result, valuable information referred to the possibilities of using these products in animal and human foodstuff so as in other applications are given

  1. Sugar palm (Argena pinnata). Potential of sugar palm for bio-ethanol production

    OpenAIRE

    Elbersen, H.W.; Oyen, L.P.A.

    2010-01-01

    The energetic and economic feasibility of bioethanol production from sugar palm is virtually unknown. A positive factor are the potentially very high yields while the long non-productive juvenile phase and the high labor needs can be seen as problematic. Expansion to large scale sugar palm cultivation comes with risks. Small-scale cultivation of sugar palm perfectly fits into local farming systems. In order to make a proper assessment of the value palm sugar as bio-ethanol crop more informati...

  2. 7 CFR 1435.304 - Beet and cane sugar allotments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Beet and cane sugar allotments. 1435.304 Section 1435... For Sugar § 1435.304 Beet and cane sugar allotments. (a) The allotment for beet sugar will be 54.35 percent of the overall allotment quantity. (b) The allotment for cane sugar will be 45.65 percent of...

  3. Sugars present in tobacco extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, S C; Pollack, R L; Hsu, A F; Going, R E

    1980-12-01

    The presence of fructose, glucose, sucrose, maltose, and isomaltose in commercial tobacco products was identified and quantitated. Gas-liquid chromatographic studies showed that these five types of sugar were present in the water-soluble extracts of pouch and plug chewing tobacco, yet only fructose and glucose were found in extracts of snuff and unprocessed natural tobaccos. The amount of sucrose present in pouch chewing tobacco was twice that in plug chewing tobacco. No detectable amount of sucrose was found in snuff or unprocessed natural tobaccos. The content of maltose and isomaltose was much less than the content of fructose, glucose, or sucrose. All unprocessed natural tobacco leaves studied as controls contained low amounts of fructose and glucose, and no detectable amounts of sucrose, maltose, or isomaltose. The larger amounts of fructose and glucose, and the additional sucrose, maltose, and isomaltose present in pouch and plug chewing tobaccos are probably added during the manufacturing process. PMID:6935284

  4. The sugar industry in Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klaren, Peter F.

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Since the early Colonial times sugar production has been a key sector in the Peruvian export economy. This article analyzes its evolution as from the beginning of its modern phase by mid 19th Century, its consolidation in the Northern coastal region, and its concentration in scale-economy plants. The prosperity of this type of production contributed to the formation of both an oligarchy which governed the country until 1968, and the populist party (APRA and its electoral basis (the so-called «Aprista North». In the sixties Velasco Alvarado’s military revolution nationalized the sugar industry, which underwent structural changes leading to a serious crisis in the eighties that has not been overcome up-todate.

    La producción de azúcar ha constituido un importante sector en la economía exportadora del Perú desde el período colonial temprano. Este artículo analiza su evolución, sobre todo tras el inicio de su fase moderna, fechada a partir de mediados del siglo XIX, cuando se modernizó, se consolidó en la región costera septentrional y se concentró en fábricas que operaban con economías de escala. Su prosperidad, contribuyó, además, a la formación de una oligarquía que gobernó el país hasta 1968 y del partido populista, APRA, y su base electoral (el llamado «sólido Norte aprista». La revolución militar de Velasco Alvarado nacionalizó la industria en la década de 1960 y los cambios estructurales que sufrió posteriormente le condujeron a una grave crisis en los años ochenta que aún no ha superado.

  5. Simple Potentiometric Determination of Reducing Sugars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moresco, Henry; Sanson, Pedro; Seoane, Gustavo

    2008-01-01

    In this article a potentiometric method for reducing sugar quantification is described. Copper(II) ion reacts with the reducing sugar (glucose, fructose, and others), and the excess is quantified using a copper wire indicator electrode. In order to accelerate the kinetics of the reaction, working conditions such as pH and temperature must be…

  6. Characterization of sugar beet pulp derived oligosaccharides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leijdekkers, M.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract This thesis aimed at characterizing complex mixtures of sugar beet pulp derived oligosaccharides, in order to be able to monitor and optimize the enzymatic saccharification of sugar beet pulp. Hydrophilic interaction chromatography with on-line evaporative light scattering

  7. Diabetes: Monitoring Your Blood Sugar Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to Web version Diabetes | Monitoring Your Blood Sugar Level What tests can I use to check my blood sugar level? There are 2 blood tests that can help ... the past 2-3 months. Testing your A1C level every 3 months is the best way for ...

  8. PROSPECTS OF SUGAR PRODUCTION AND IMPORTS: MEETING THE SUGAR DEMAND OF NIGERIA BY YEAR 2020

    OpenAIRE

    J.N. Nmadu; M.A. Ojo; F.D. Ibrahim

    2013-01-01

    The trend of sugar cane production and refined sugar imports for the period 1960-2010 were analysed and forecasted to year 2020. Results show that sugar cane output will rise to 2.8m tonnes from about 88 thousand hectares of land by year 2020. The total refined sugar that will be available from production and import is about 720 thousand tonnes but with Nigerian population growing at the rate of 2.27%, potential demand for refined sugar will rise to 1.6B tonnes by the year 2020 creating a def...

  9. How a change in Brazil's sugar policies would affect the world sugar market

    OpenAIRE

    Borrell, Brent

    1991-01-01

    Although Brazil is the world's largest sugarcane producer, only one-third of the cane it grows is used to produce sugar; the rest is used to produce ethanol as fuel for automobiles. Still, Brazil is the world's fourth largest sugar producer. This paper asks what it would mean for Brazil and for the world sugar market if Brazil were to shift largely away from ethanol to sugar production. This question is of keen interest for the world sugar market because such a shift -- although politically d...

  10. Comparative anatomy of the peduncles of Thai Sugar Palms provides insight on putative sugar transport mechanisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Somjaiai, Pananun; Barfod, Anders; Jampeetong, Arunothai

    Inflorescences of sugar palms exude copious amounts of sugar-rich sap, when their peduncles are scarred. In Thailand this phenomenon form the basis of a widespread cottage industry based on species such as Arenga pinnata, Borassus flabellifera, Cocos nucifera and Nypa fruticans. The extracted sugar...... sap is used mainly for jaggery, syrup and different types of beverages. In this study we looked for anatomical correlates of the elevated sap flow in injured peduncles of sugar palms. Despite a limited sample size we observed that sugar producing palms differ from the reference palm Chamaedorea...

  11. Alkaline degradation of invert sugar from molasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Byung Y; Montgomery, Rex

    2007-11-01

    Sugar beet and sugar cane molasses have been shown to be suitable starting materials for producing de-icer preparations. The sucrose in the molasses is hydrolyzed to glucose and fructose by invertase. The reducing sugars are then degraded by NaOH, the alkali being neutralized by the sugar acids produced, resulting in an increase of the ionic strength and consequently depression of the freezing point of the resulting solution. For the preparation of de-icers, the desired freezing point depression to a temperature of less than about -20 degrees C can be achieved by adjusting the amount and concentration of the alkali metal hydroxide used. The resulting products are biodegradable and eliminate the corrosive effects associated with the use of conventional chloride salts. Degradation of invert sugar by NaOH has been achieved without an external heat source. The reaction products showed the same freezing point depression as seen in the degradation products from pure glucose. PMID:17222551

  12. Two Islands, One Commodity: Cuba, Java, and the Global Sugar Trade (1790-1930

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Curry-Machado

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Sugar had become, by the eighteenth century, a global commodity. Originating in East Asia, plantations in the Americas fed the growing taste for its use in Europe, with its consumption increasingly popularised. The 1791 Revolution in Saint Domingue (Haiti and the 1807 British abolition of the slave trade prompted shifts in the epicentres of sugar, the most important of these being arguably to Cuba and Java. These two fertile islands saw the burgeoning development of sugar-plantation systems with major inputs of foreign capital and forced labour. In the process the two islands each, respectively, became central to the very much truncated Spanish and Dutch colonial empires left after the Napoleonic wars and the Latin American wars of liberation; and by the mid-nineteenth century in the case of Cuba, and by the late nineteenth century in the case of Java, they had been catapulted to global sugar pre-eminence. There has been an abundance of study on the two islands each in their own right, but none systematically examines their parallel trajectories. Yet the question arises as to how sugar came to dominate the agriculture, industry and trade of these two islands; and how these two islands in particular, in two different colonial systems and parts of the world, should rise to sugar pre-eminence in the way they did and when they did. Are there connections and similarities between the two that help explain this phenomenon? This article analyses the conditions that led Java and Cuba to become the prime cane-sugar exporters of the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. Initiative for this came from the linkages between their dominant elites and the transnational, transimperial networks of trade and capital. This furthered the stimulation of technological and scientific innovation in both, enabled not only through the introduction of the latest advances in machinery and method, but also the immigration of technical skilled workers from Europe and North

  13. Coordination chemistry of sugar-phosphate complexes with palladium(II), rhenium(V) and zinc(II)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steinborn, Christian Martin

    2013-05-21

    As described before, some studies dealing with coordination chemistry of sugar phosphates are available but no analogous complexes of Zn{sup II} have been investigated yet. The primary goal of this work is, therefore, to fill this gap. In order to stay close to the active sites of enzymes such as class-II-aldolase, the simple metal fragment Zn{sup II}(dien) is used. NMR spectroscopy is used primarily as analytical method since it enables the investigation of both complex equilibria in solution and pH dependence of metal-binding sites. Since this approach is challenging due to the fast metal-ligand exchange and the absence of CIS values, it is necessary to improve the significance of NMR data collected from sugar-phosphate complexes with Zn{sup II}. Hence, further experiments are performed with molecules similar to sugar phosphates such as reducing and methylated sugars or polyols. Beside NMR spectroscopy, crystal-structure analysis will be used to get more detailed information about the binding pattern of the complexes. Additionally, sugar-phosphate complexes of Pd{sup II} are investigated. Further experiments are conducted, on the one hand, to synthesise more sugarphosphate complexes with ReVON2 fragments, and, on the other hand, to grow crystals confirming the theory about mixed sugar-core-phosphate chelation.

  14. Insecticidal sugar baits for adult biting midges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, D; Cernicchiaro, N; Allan, S A; Cohnstaedt, L W

    2016-06-01

    The mixing of an insecticide with sugar solution creates an oral toxin or insecticidal sugar bait (ISB) useful for reducing adult insect populations. The ability of ISBs to kill the biting midge Culicoides sonorensis Wirth and Jones (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae), a vector of bluetongue virus, epizootic hemorrhagic disease and vesicular stomatitis viruses, was tested. The commercial insecticide formulations (percentage active ingredient) tested included bifenthrin, cyfluthrin, deltamethrin, permethrin, dinotefuran, imidacloprid, thiamethoxam and spinosad. Mortality rates were determined for various concentrations of commercial formulations (0.01, 0.05, 0.1, 1, 2 and 3%) and observed at 1, 4, 10 and 24 h post-exposure to the ISB. In the first set of assays, laboratory-reared midges were fed sugar ad libitum and then exposed to insecticide-treated sugar solutions to measure mortality. The second assay assessed competitive feeding: midges were provided with a control sugar solution (10% sucrose) in one vial, and a sugar and insecticide solution in another. Pyrethroid treatments resulted in the greatest mortality in the first hour at the lowest concentrations and spinosad consumption resulted in the least mortality. Biting midges were not deterred from feeding on the 1% ISB solutions despite the presence of an insecticide-free alternative source of sugar. PMID:26789534

  15. BREAK-EVEN POINT IN SUGAR-BEET PRODUCTION

    OpenAIRE

    Ilija Nedić

    2015-01-01

    World sugar consumption has been recording a steady growth in the past 70 years and, according to all relevant estimates, it will continue to grow also in the next decade, which puts sugar in the category of the most significant foods and commodities in the world. Of the total world sugar production, around 77% is derived from sugar cane and 23% from sugar beet. Brazil has been the world leader in sugar production for a long period of time, producing white sugar from sugar cane only, whereas ...

  16. Phenolics, sugars, antimicrobial and free-radical-scavenging activities of Melicoccus bijugatus Jacq. fruits from the Dominican Republic and Florida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bystrom, Laura M; Lewis, Betty A; Brown, Dan L; Rodriguez, Eloy; Obendorf, Ralph L

    2009-06-01

    Edible fruits of the native South American tree Melicoccus bijugatus Jacq. are consumed fresh or in traditional food, drink and medicinal preparations. Some therapeutic effects of these fruits may be due to phenolics and sugars. Aqueous acetone, methanol or ethanol tissue extracts of different cultivars or collections of M. bijugatus fruits from the Dominican Republic and Florida were analyzed for total phenolics and free radical scavenging activity by UV-vis spectroscopy, sugars by gas chromatography, and antimicrobial activity by the disc diffusion assay. Total phenolics and free radical scavenging activities ranked: seed coat > embryo > pulp extracts. Montgomery cultivar fruits had the highest total phenolics. For sugars: pulp > embryo and highest in Punta Cana fruit pulp. In all extracts: sucrose > glucose and fructose. Glucose:fructose ratios were 1:1 (pulp) and 0.2:1 (embryo). Pulp extracts had dose-response antibacterial activity and pulp and embryo extracts had antifungal activity against one yeast species. Phenolics and sugars were confirmed with thin-layer chromatography and nuclear magnetic resonance. Sugar-free pulp fractions containing phenolics had slightly more antimicrobial activity than H2O-soluble pulp fractions with sugars. Results indicate M. bijugatus fruits contain phenolics, sugars and other H2O-soluble compounds consistent with therapeutic uses. PMID:19444610

  17. Cuba and origins of the US sugar quota

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dye, Alan D.

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available In the history of Cuban sugar industry, the most significant institutional factor after 1930 was the export quota gained in the 1934 United States market, which has been regarded in a positive perspective. This is here re-examined in the light of later events which prove that the quota system was detrimental to the island economy, particularly in the fifties. The analysis is based on the examination of sugar companies’ stock prices which are a useful indicator of investment expectations. Finally, it is concluded that the 1934 North American quota system issued from the conviction that the tariff system applied until then was not enough to protect the domestic sugar beet production.

    El factor institucional más importante en la historia de la industria del azúcar en Cuba después de 1930 fue la cuota de exportación que obtuvo en el mercado de los Estados Unidos en 1934. Este artículo revisa las tesis que consideran ese hecho como relativamente positivo y lo hace a la luz de los acontecimientos posteriores, que muestran que dicho sistema de cuotas perjudicó a la economía insular, sobre todo en la década de 1950, y examinando los stock prices de las empresas del sector, un buen indicador de las expectativas de retorno de las inversiones. Como conclusión afirma que el reparto del consumo azucarero norteamericano entre diferentes abastecedores fue fruto de la convicción de que el instrumento arancelario usado hasta entonces para proteger a la producción remolachera interna ya no era eficaz.

  18. The anaerobic digestion of sugar beet pulp

    OpenAIRE

    Suhartini, Sri

    2014-01-01

    World-wide there are substantial quantities of sugar beet pulp, which arises as a residue after the processing of whole beet to extract sugar for refining as a foodstuff or for use in fermentation, in particular for the production of ethanol for the biofuel market. In both cases the resulting pulp residue is still rich in pentose sugars and fibre, and the research considered anaerobic digestion (AD) as a potential technology for the conversion of this material into renewable energy in the for...

  19. A comparative study of the word sugar and of its equivalents in Hindustani as traceable to Chinese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahdihassan, S

    1981-01-01

    Etymology enables words to deliver past facts and can become an independent source of knowledge. Here the word sugar is traced to the Chinese term Sha-Che, literally "Sand-Sugar plant," signifying a sand-like product from the sugar plant, which is sugar. Sha-Che underwent the following phonetic changes: Sha-Che = Sha-Ke = Shar-Ker = Sharkera, which became the Sanskrit word for sugar, with the variant Sha-Kera. Its popular vernacular form became Shak-Ker. This entered Arabic as Al-Shakker, changing into Al-Sukker, pronounced as "Assuker." Muslims in Spain gave the Spanish their word when Assuker = Azucar (Spanish). Sukker, the real Arabic word, entered Old French as Suker-e, Italian as Zuker-o or Zucckero, and German as Zucker. When "k" is emphasized it can become aspirated as "kh" or doubled as "kk," or mutate into "g." Sukker then changed into Sugar with the "s" further mutating into "sh," giving the final form Shugar, written as Sugar. The Greeks directly borrowed the popular vernacular word Shakker. It was Hellenized as Sakkharon, mentioned by Discoredes in 56 A.D. From the Greek it passed into Latin as Saccharum. In India the large crystalline form of sugar is called Misri. Its Chinese original is Mi-Sha-Li, "sweet-pebble-glassy," a sweet crystalline (glassy) substance the size of pebbles. Another form of sugar is in small crystals, which in a heap appear opaque-white or porcelain-white rather than transparent salt-white. Porcelain-white sugar was called Cheeni, where Cheeni = Porcelain. Thus, Cheeni does not mean Chinese sugar, nor Misri Egyptian sugar. Both these forms of sugar were sweetening agents not intended to be directly consumed. But a sweet, composed of sugar and an article of food, was known in Chinese as Kan-Di, "Sweet-Drop." This became Candy in English, Qand in Arabic, Khanda in Sanskrit and Khand in vernaculars. PMID:6764089

  20. Electrochemical and optical sugar sensors based on phenylboronic acid and its derivatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Egawa, Yuya; Seki, Toshinobu [Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Josai University, Keyakidai, Sakado, Saitama 350-0295 (Japan); Takahashi, Shigehiro [Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciecnes, Tohoku University, Aramaki, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8578 (Japan); Anzai, Jun-ichi, E-mail: junanzai@mail.pharm.tohoku.ac.jp [Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciecnes, Tohoku University, Aramaki, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8578 (Japan)

    2011-10-10

    indicators. Anthracene, pyranine, fluorescein, and rhodamine dyes have been used as fluorophores for fluorescence sensors. These dyes have been used in solution or immobilized in films, hydrogels, nanospheres, and quantum dots (QDs) to enhance the sensitivity. QDs-based sensors have been successfully applied for continuous monitoring of glucose in cells. Holographic glucose sensors have also been developed by combining PBA-immobilized hydrogels and photonic crystal colloidal arrays. Highlights: {yields} Phenylboronic acid-based optical and electrochemical sensors are reviewed. {yields} Dye-modified phenylboronic acids are useful as optical sugar sensor. {yields} Ferrocene-modified phenylboronic acids are used for electrochemical sugar detection. {yields} Phenylboronic acid is an alternative of enzymes for constructing sugar sensors.

  1. Electrochemical and optical sugar sensors based on phenylboronic acid and its derivatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    . Anthracene, pyranine, fluorescein, and rhodamine dyes have been used as fluorophores for fluorescence sensors. These dyes have been used in solution or immobilized in films, hydrogels, nanospheres, and quantum dots (QDs) to enhance the sensitivity. QDs-based sensors have been successfully applied for continuous monitoring of glucose in cells. Holographic glucose sensors have also been developed by combining PBA-immobilized hydrogels and photonic crystal colloidal arrays. Highlights: → Phenylboronic acid-based optical and electrochemical sensors are reviewed. → Dye-modified phenylboronic acids are useful as optical sugar sensor. → Ferrocene-modified phenylboronic acids are used for electrochemical sugar detection. → Phenylboronic acid is an alternative of enzymes for constructing sugar sensors.

  2. Treatment of biomass to obtain fermentable sugars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunson, Jr., James B.; Tucker, Melvin; Elander, Richard; Hennessey, Susan M.

    2011-04-26

    Biomass is pretreated using a low concentration of aqueous ammonia at high biomass concentration. Pretreated biomass is further hydrolyzed with a saccharification enzyme consortium. Fermentable sugars released by saccharification may be utilized for the production of target chemicals by fermentation.

  3. Nuclear analytical techniques in Cuban sugar industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper is a review concerning the application of Nuclear Analytical Techniques in the Cuban sugar industry. The most complete elemental composition of final molasses (34 elements) and natural zeolites (38) this last one employed as an auxiliary agent in sugar technological processe4s has been performed by means of instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) and X-Ray Fluorescence Analysis (XRFA). The trace elemental sugar cane soill-plant relationship and elemental composition of different types of Cuban sugar (raw, blanco-directo and refine) were also studied. As a result, valuable information referred to the possibilities of using these products in animal and human foodstuff so as in the other applications are given. (author). 34 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab

  4. Blood Sugar - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Supplements Videos & Tools You Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Blood Sugar URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/languages/bloodsugar.html Other topics A-Z A B ...

  5. Enzymatic conversion of lignocellulose into fermentable sugars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Henning; Kristensen, Jan Bach; Felby, Claus

    2007-01-01

    The economic dependency on fossil fuels and the resulting effects on climate and environment have put tremendous focus on utilizing fermentable sugars from lignocellulose, the largest known renewable carbohydrate source. The fermentable sugars in lignocellulose are derived from cellulose...... into fermentable sugars requires a number of different cellulases and hemicellulases. The hydrolysis of cellulose is a sequential breakdown of the linear glucose chains, whereas hemicellulases must be capable of hydrolysing branched chains containing different sugars and functional groups. The technology...... issues within pretreatment and hydrolysis remain to be solved. However, significant improvements in yield and cost reductions are expected, thus making large-scale fermentation of lignocellulosic substrates possible. © 2007 Society of Chemical Industry and John Wiley & Sons, Ltd...

  6. Root rot diseases of sugar beet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacobsen Barry J.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Root rot diseases of sugar beet caused by Rhizoctonia solani (AG 2-2 IIIB and AG 2-2 IV, R. crocorum, Aphanomyces cochlioides, Phoma betae, Macrophomina phaeseolina, Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. radicis-betae, Pythium aphanidermatum Phytophthora drechsleri, Rhizopus stolonifer, R. arrhizus and Sclerotium rolfsii cause significant losses wherever sugar beets are grown. However, not all these soil-borne pathogens have been reported in all sugar beet production areas. Losses include reduced harvestable tonnage and reduced white sugar recovery. Many of these pathogens also cause post harvest losses in storage piles. Control for diseases caused by these pathogens include disease resistant cultivars, avoidance of stresses, cultural practices such as water management and the use of fungicides.

  7. Sustainability Issues and Opportunities in the Sugar and Sugar-Bioproduct Industries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gillian Eggleston

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Like many other industries, the sugar and sugar-bioproduct industries are facing important sustainability issues and opportunities. The relatively low and fluctuating profit for sugar, surpluses of sugar, world-wide trend to produce alternative, renewable bio-based fuels and chemicals to those derived from petroleum and reduce greenhouse gases, water- and energy-intensive factories and refineries, and increased consumer demands for sustainably manufactured products are putting pressure on the industries to diversify for sustainability. Sugar crops, including sugar and energy cane (Saccharum officinarum, sugar and energy beets (Beta vulgaris, and sweet sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench, are excellent, renewable biomass feedstocks because of their availability, their being amongst the plants that give the highest yields of carbohydrates per hectare, and high sugar contents. While much research has been focused on conversion technologies for advanced biofuels and bioproducts, attention is now focused on developing sustainable supply chains of sugar feedstocks for the new, flexible biorefineries, with customers wanting maximum feedstock reliability and quality, while minimizing cost. All biomass from sugar crops are potential feedstocks. The cogeneration of bioelectricity from bagasse and leaf residues is being increasingly manufactured in more countries and, due to the high carbon content of bagasse and leaves, can also be converted into value-added products such as biochar. Sugar crops are superior feedstocks for the production of platform chemicals for the manufacture of a range of end-products, e.g., bioplastics, chemicals, and biomaterials. In several countries and regions, green sustainability criteria are now in place and have to be met to count against national biofuel targets. Processes to convert high-fiber sugar crop biomass into biofuel have been developed but there has only been limited commercialization at the large-scale.

  8. SUGAR-SWEETENED BEVERAGE, SUGAR INTAKE OF INDIVIDUALS AND THEIR BLOOD PRESSURE: INTERMAP STUDY

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, Ian J; Stamler, Jeremiah; Van Horn, Linda; Robertson, Claire E; Chan, Queenie; Dyer, Alan R; Huang, Chiang-Ching; Rodriguez, Beatriz L.; Zhao, Liancheng; Daviglus, Martha L; Ueshima, Hirotsugu; Elliott, Paul

    2011-01-01

    The obesity epidemic has focused attention on relationships of sugars and sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB) to cardiovascular risk factors. Here we report cross-sectional associations of SSB, diet beverages, sugars with blood pressure (BP) for UK and USA participants of the International Study of Macro/Micro-nutrients and Blood Pressure (INTERMAP). Data collected includes four 24-h dietary recalls, two 24-h urine collections, eight BP readings, questionnaire data for 2,696 people ages 40-59 fro...

  9. UDP-sugar pyrophosphorylase controls the activity of proceeding sugar-1-kinases enzymes

    OpenAIRE

    Geserick, Claudia; Tenhaken, Raimund

    2013-01-01

    Plant cell wall synthesis requires a number of different nucleotide sugars which provide the building blocks of the different polymers. These nucleotide sugars are mainly provided by de novo synthesis but recycling pathways also contribute to the pools. The last enzyme of the recycling pathway is UDP-sugar pyrophosphorylase (USP), a single copy gene in Arabidopsis, of which a knockout is lethal for pollen development. Here we analyze the dependency between USP enzyme activity and the upstream...

  10. Growth of sugar cane varieties under salinity

    OpenAIRE

    Welson Lima Simões; Marcelo Calgaro; Daniela Siqueira Coelho; Delfran Batista dos Santos; Moisés Alves de Souza

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Large salty areas in the Brazilian semi-arid region have limited farming in Northeastern Brazil. One example is the sugar cane cultivation, which reinforces the need of selecting varieties that are more tolerant to salinity. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of salinity on growth of ten varieties of sugar cane. The experiment was conducted in a greenhouse, set in the experimental field of Embrapa Semiárido, in Petrolina, Pernambuco State. The experimental design ...

  11. Sugar Reduction: Responding to the Challenge

    OpenAIRE

    Public Health England

    2014-01-01

    In ‘Sugar Reduction: Responding to the Challenge’, PHE is calling on charities, non-governmental organisations (NGOs), academics, businesses, retailers and consumers to work together to reduce the amount of sugar we eat as a nation. By analysing dietary data and discussing food habits with stakeholders, we have identified a range of areas that need exploring further. PHE already runs successful marketing campaigns designed to promote healthy living. To build on this, we also...

  12. Holograms recorded in dichromated with simple sugars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mejias-Brizuela, N Y; Olivares-Perez, A [Instituto Tecnologico Superior de Atlixco, Coordinacion de Bioquimica, Prolongacion Heliotropo N0 1201, Vista Hermosa Atlixco, Puebla (Mexico); Grande-Grande, A, E-mail: nilyame@inaoep.mx, E-mail: olivares@inaoep.mx

    2011-01-01

    Sugars as glucose and fructose can be used to holographic record. These materials have the advantage to mix very well with K{sub 2}Cr{sub 2}O{sub 7}.Holographic gratings recorded in sugars, were made by a lineal setup to producing interference pattern using a wavelength at 473 nm. These materials have the ability to register information in real time.

  13. Study of fiber optic sugar sensor

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A Jayanth Kumar; N M Gowri; R Venkateswara Raju; G Nirmala; B S Bellubbi; T Radha Krishna

    2006-08-01

    Over the last two decades, the fiber optic technology has passed through many analytical stages. Some commercially available fiber optic sensors, though in a small way, are being used for automation in mechanical and industrial environments. They are also used for instrumentation and controls. In the present work, an intensity-modulated intrinsic fiber optic sugar sensor is presented. This type of sensor, with slight modification, can be used for on-line determination of the concentration of sugar content in sugarcane juice in sugar industry. In the present set-up, a plastic fiber made of polymethylmethacrylate is used. A portion of the cladding (1 cm, 2 cm, 3 cm) at the mid-point along the length of the fiber is removed. This portion is immersed in sugar solution of known concentration and refractive index. At one end of the fiber an 850 nm source is used and at the other end a power meter is connected. By varying the concentration of sugar solution, the output power is noted. These studies are made due to the change in refractive index of the fluid. The device was found to be very sensitive which is free from EMI and shock hazards, stable and repeatable and they can be remotely interfaced with a computer to give on-line measurements and thus become useful for application in sugar industries.

  14. Sugar substitutes: Health controversy over perceived benefits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirtida R Tandel

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Sugar is an inseparable part of the food we consume. But too much sugar is not ideal for our teeth and waistline. There have been some controversial suggestions that excessive sugar may play an important role in certain degenerative diseases. So artificial sweeteners or artificially sweetened products continue to attract consumers. A sugar substitute (artificial sweetener is a food additive that duplicates the effect of sugar in taste, but usually has less food energy. Besides its benefits, animal studies have convincingly proven that artificial sweeteners cause weight gain, brain tumors, bladder cancer and many other health hazards. Some kind of health related side effects including carcinogenicity are also noted in humans. A large number of studies have been carried out on these substances with conclusions ranging from "safe under all conditions" to "unsafe at any dose". Scientists are divided in their views on the issue of artificial sweetener safety. In scientific as well as in lay publications, supporting studies are often widely referenced while the opposing results are de-emphasized or dismissed. So this review aims to explore the health controversy over perceived benefits of sugar substitutes.

  15. Aerosol Chemistry of Furfural and Sugars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srithawirat, T.; Brimblecombe, P.

    2008-12-01

    Furfural and sugars (as levoglucosan equivalent) are derived from biomass burning and contribute to aerosol composition. This study examined the potential of furfural and levoglucosan to be tracers of biomass burning. Furfural is likely to be oxidized quickly so comparison with levoglucosan may give a sense of the age of the aerosols in forest fire smoke. However, few furfural emissions are available for biomass combustion. Furfural and sugars were determined in coarse aerosols (>2.4μm aerodynamic diameter) and fine aerosols (Furfural and sugars dominated in fine fractions, especially in the UK autumn. Sugars were found at 5.96-18.37 nmol m-3 in fine mode and 1.36-5.75 nmol m-3 in coarse mode aerosols in the UK. Furfural was found at 0.18-0.91 nmol m-3 and 0.05-0.51 nmol m-3 respectively in the same aerosols. Sugars were a dominant contributor to aerosol derived from biomass burning. Sugars and furfural were about 10 and 20 times higher during haze episodes in Malaysia. Laboratory experimental simulation suggested furfural is more rapid destroyed by UV and sunlight than levoglucosan.

  16. Axion Crystals

    CERN Document Server

    Ozaki, Sho

    2016-01-01

    The low-energy effective theories for gapped insulators are classified by three parameters: permittivity $\\epsilon$, permeability $\\mu$, and theta angle $\\theta$. Crystals with periodic $\\epsilon$ are known as photonic crystals. We here study the band structure of photons in a new type of crystals with periodic $\\theta$ (modulo $2\\pi$) in space, which we call the axion crystals. We find that the axion crystals have a number of new properties that the usual photonic crystals do not possess, such as the helicity-dependent photonic band gaps and the nonrelativistic gapless dispersion relation at small momentum. We briefly discuss possible realizations of axion crystals in condensed matter systems as well as high-energy physics.

  17. BREAK-EVEN POINT IN SUGAR-BEET PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilija Nedić

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available World sugar consumption has been recording a steady growth in the past 70 years and, according to all relevant estimates, it will continue to grow also in the next decade, which puts sugar in the category of the most significant foods and commodities in the world. Of the total world sugar production, around 77% is derived from sugar cane and 23% from sugar beet. Brazil has been the world leader in sugar production for a long period of time, producing white sugar from sugar cane only, whereas the leader in the production of sugar derived from sugar beet is the EU-28. When the Republic of Croatia joined the EU, the Croatian sugar industry became part of the single European sugar market, so the break-even point was used in the research to determine the competitiveness level of the Croatian sugar beet production. Based on the expected selling price of sugar beet amounting to EUR 34 per ton of standard quality sugar beet, and using the break-even method, it was determined that the quantity required to cover total costs in sugar beet production in the Republic of Croatia amounts to 55.26 tons per hectare of payable sugar beet, standard quality, i.e. 8.84 tons of polarized sugar per hectare. As the average sugar beet production in the Republic of Croatia, expressed in the equivalent of polarized sugar, amounts to 7.8 tons per hectare, it is obvious that an average Croatian producer of sugar beet, without income from subsidies, operates at a loss.

  18. 15 CFR 2011.204 - Entry of specialty sugars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Entry of specialty sugars. 2011.204... UNITED STATES TRADE REPRESENTATIVE ALLOCATION OF TARIFF-RATE QUOTA ON IMPORTED SUGARS, SYRUPS AND MOLASSES Specialty Sugar § 2011.204 Entry of specialty sugars. An importer or the importer's agent...

  19. 7 CFR 1435.305 - State cane sugar allotments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false State cane sugar allotments. 1435.305 Section 1435... For Sugar § 1435.305 State cane sugar allotments. (a) Hawaii and Puerto Rico will be allotted a total of 325,000 short tons, raw value, of the cane sugar allotment. (b) A new entrant cane State...

  20. 19 CFR 151.24 - Unlading facilities for bulk sugar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Unlading facilities for bulk sugar. 151.24 Section... OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) EXAMINATION, SAMPLING, AND TESTING OF MERCHANDISE Sugars, Sirups, and Molasses § 151.24 Unlading facilities for bulk sugar. When dutiable sugar is to be imported in bulk, a...

  1. 27 CFR 24.181 - Use of sugar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Use of sugar. 24.181... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Production of Wine § 24.181 Use of sugar. Only sugar, as defined in § 24.10, may be used in the production of standard wine. The quantity of sugar used will be...

  2. Supply optimization for the production of raw sugar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grunow, Martin; Günther, H.O.; Westinner, R.

    2007-01-01

    Based on a case study from Venezuela, the production of raw sugar is investigated. Ideally, sugar mills operate at a constant production rate. However, safety stocks of the raw material cannot be maintained as sugar cane quality deteriorates very rapidly. Sugar cane is therefore continuously...

  3. 40 CFR 409.30 - Applicability; description of the liquid cane sugar refining subcategory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... liquid cane sugar refining subcategory. 409.30 Section 409.30 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Cane Sugar Refining Subcategory § 409.30 Applicability; description of the liquid cane sugar refining... cane sugar into liquid refined sugar....

  4. Crystal Shrimp

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1996-01-01

    Ingredients: One egg white, 500 grams of shredded river shrimp, 10 grams of soda, 750 grams of cooking oil, sesame oil, sugar, salt, corn starch and hot pepper, and half ladle of soup-stock. Directions: 1. Clean the shrimp with salt, then wash away the salt and strain off the

  5. Practical problems in use of sugar substitutes in preventive dentistry

    OpenAIRE

    N M Roshan; Sakeenabi, B.

    2011-01-01

    Sugar (sucrose) being most acceptable sweetening agent in use by mankind is considered as the “Arch Criminal” in dental caries initiation. Search for suitable sweetening agent which will satisfy all the characteristics of sugar along with being non-cariogenic is going on since decades. At this given point of time, there is no such substitute which will replace sugar in all aspects, but, cariogenic potential can certainly be reduced by using sugar substitutes. Recently, few sugar substitutes a...

  6. Power generation from fuelwood by the Nicaraguan sugar mills

    OpenAIRE

    Carneiro de Miranda, R.; Broek, R. van den

    2002-01-01

    With new concept development for the sugar industry and with new power market opportunities, two sugar mills in Nicaragua initiated projects aimed at becoming power plants during the sugar cane off-season. Basically the idea is to use more efficient boilers and turbines, and generate power beyond the mill's needs fueled by bagasse during the sugar cane crushing season ,and by fuelwood from eucalyptus plantations during the sugar cane off season. The surplus power in both seasons will be sold ...

  7. Structural confirmation of oligosaccharides newly isolated from sugar beet molasses

    OpenAIRE

    Abe Tatsuya; Horiuchi Kenichi; Kikuchi Hiroto; Aritsuka Tsutomu; Takata Yusuke; Fukushi Eri; Fukushi Yukiharu; Kawabata Jun; Ueno Keiji; Onodera Shuichi; Shiomi Norio

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Sugar beet molasses is a viscous by-product of the processing of sugar beets into sugar. The molasses is known to contain sucrose and raffinose, a typical trisaccharide, with a well-established structure. Although sugar beet molasses contains various other oligosaccharides as well, the structures of those oligosaccharides have not been examined in detail. The purpose of this study was isolation and structural confirmation of these other oligosaccharides found in sugar beet...

  8. RNA Crystallization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golden, Barbara L.; Kundrot, Craig E.

    2003-01-01

    RNA molecules may be crystallized using variations of the methods developed for protein crystallography. As the technology has become available to syntheisize and purify RNA molecules in the quantities and with the quality that is required for crystallography, the field of RNA structure has exploded. The first consideration when crystallizing an RNA is the sequence, which may be varied in a rational way to enhance crystallizability or prevent formation of alternate structures. Once a sequence has been designed, the RNA may be synthesized chemically by solid-state synthesis, or it may be produced enzymatically using RNA polymerase and an appropriate DNA template. Purification of milligram quantities of RNA can be accomplished by HPLC or gel electrophoresis. As with proteins, crystallization of RNA is usually accomplished by vapor diffusion techniques. There are several considerations that are either unique to RNA crystallization or more important for RNA crystallization. Techniques for design, synthesis, purification, and crystallization of RNAs will be reviewed here.

  9. ESST Proceedings Rotterdam 2009. Beet Quality. Sustainability of beet sugar production. Energy usage - future challenges. General process technology developments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    Within the conference of the European Society for Sugar Technology (Berlin, Federal Republic of Germany) between 17th and 20th June, 2009 in Rotterdam (The Netherlands) the following lectures were held: (1) Sugar beet quality during long-term storage in clamp and field (A.W.M. Huijbregts); (2) Methods used in the Netherlands to limit frost damage and to process frost-deteriorated beets (J. Strujis, M. Jaspers, M. van Dijk); (3) Biotech in sugarbeet and sugarcane: Current status (T.K. Schwartz, C. Richard); (4) Separation of water through gas hydrate (T. Boech Andersen); (5) Optimised standard of sugar manufacturing - first calculations (F. Lorenz, T. Frankenfeld); (6) Reconsidering vapour compression for sugar crystallization (A. Dolls, M. Bruhns); (7) The development of sustainability standards in the sugar industry (P. Rein); (8) Bioethanol: sugar beet, sugar cane or second generation? (W.J. Corre, J.G. Conijin); (9) The sustainability of beet sugar production in comparison with other sugar crops (P. Christodoulou, V. Kazantzi, S. Bezergianni, K. Gounaris); (10) Alternative products from sugar beets (J. Iciek, S. Wawro); (11) Alternative products from sugar beets (M. Wojtczak); (12) Increase of sugar yield by electrodialysis (J.P. Jenen, P.B. Hansen, M.P. Carter); (13) Optimal dosing of alkalizing agents in the juice purification (G. Roesner, W. Hein, F. Emerstorfer); (14) Affinity based separation technologies and their role in the current and future sugar industry (V. Kochergin); (15) Four to three-stage sugarhouse with two white sugar products (J. Jeppesen, M. Carter); (16) Practical experience of juice decalcification using a weak acid cation exchange resin plant incorporating fractal fluid distribution (E. West, P. Burroughs, P. Seymour); (17) A new process for the production of 'seed crystals' - Process development and field report from the factories (M. Walter, B. Ekelhof, S. Heppner, D. Wullbrandt); (18) Application possibilities and Properties

  10. PROSPECTS OF SUGAR PRODUCTION AND IMPORTS: MEETING THE SUGAR DEMAND OF NIGERIA BY YEAR 2020

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.N. Nmadu

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The trend of sugar cane production and refined sugar imports for the period 1960-2010 were analysed and forecasted to year 2020. Results show that sugar cane output will rise to 2.8m tonnes from about 88 thousand hectares of land by year 2020. The total refined sugar that will be available from production and import is about 720 thousand tonnes but with Nigerian population growing at the rate of 2.27%, potential demand for refined sugar will rise to 1.6B tonnes by the year 2020 creating a deficit of over 1.5B tonnes. This require a drastic action which if not taken will lead to sugar crisis. Three major options are advocated in this paper i.e. hectarage expansion, massive funding of research to improve sugar cane production technology such that yield will rise to 150 tonnes per hectare and import expansion. Of the three options, only increase funding of research will encourage local technology and save Nigeria foreign exchange of more than $100B annually and will make Nigeria self-reliant in sugar production by the year 2020 and facilitate the emergence of Nigeria as a developed nation.

  11. Aromatics extraction from pyrolytic sugars using ionic liquid to enhance sugar fermentability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, X.; Luque-Moreno, L.C.; Oudenhoven, S.R.G; Rehmann, L.; Kersten, S.R.A.; Schuur, B.

    2016-01-01

    Fermentative bioethanol production from pyrolytic sugars was improved via aromatics removal by liquid–liquid extraction. As solvents, the ionic liquid (IL) trihexyltetradecylphosphonium dicyanamide (P666,14[N(CN)2]) and ethyl acetate (EA) were compared. Two pyrolytic sugar solutions were created fro

  12. Process innovation in the sugar industry : Chromatographic sugar separation using SMB technology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bussmann, P.; Vroon, R.; Timmer, J.; Boon, F.; Bruijn, J.M. de

    2007-01-01

    The chromatographic separation of sugar from raw juice was identified as a promising alternative for the current juice purification. Simulated moving bed technology (SMB) was chosen as the most suitable technology on the basis of the purification, limited degree of dilution and increased sugar yield

  13. Sugar palm (Argena pinnata). Potential of sugar palm for bio-ethanol production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elbersen, H.W.; Oyen, L.P.A.

    2010-01-01

    The energetic and economic feasibility of bioethanol production from sugar palm is virtually unknown. A positive factor are the potentially very high yields while the long non-productive juvenile phase and the high labor needs can be seen as problematic. Expansion to large scale sugar palm cultivati

  14. Protein Crystallization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chernov, Alexander A.

    2005-01-01

    Nucleation, growth and perfection of protein crystals will be overviewed along with crystal mechanical properties. The knowledge is based on experiments using optical and force crystals behave similar to inorganic crystals, though with a difference in orders of magnitude in growing parameters. For example, the low incorporation rate of large biomolecules requires up to 100 times larger supersaturation to grow protein, rather than inorganic crystals. Nucleation is often poorly reproducible, partly because of turbulence accompanying the mixing of precipitant with protein solution. Light scattering reveals fluctuations of molecular cluster size, its growth, surface energies and increased clustering as protein ages. Growth most often occurs layer-by-layer resulting in faceted crystals. New molecular layer on crystal face is terminated by a step where molecular incorporation occurs. Quantitative data on the incorporation rate will be discussed. Rounded crystals with molecularly disordered interfaces will be explained. Defects in crystals compromise the x-ray diffraction resolution crucially needed to find the 3D atomic structure of biomolecules. The defects are immobile so that birth defects stay forever. All lattice defects known for inorganics are revealed in protein crystals. Contribution of molecular conformations to lattice disorder is important, but not studied. This contribution may be enhanced by stress field from other defects. Homologous impurities (e.g., dimers, acetylated molecules) are trapped more willingly by a growing crystal than foreign protein impurities. The trapped impurities induce internal stress eliminated in crystals exceeding a critical size (part of mni for ferritin, lysozyme). Lesser impurities are trapped from stagnant, as compared to the flowing, solution. Freezing may induce much more defects unless quickly amorphysizing intracrystalline water.

  15. American Dream in Early American Literatuer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    屈彩娥; 李小玺

    2008-01-01

    American dream has often been closely rehted to American literature.Many say that the American literary history can be seen as the history of American dreams.In most periods in history,writers,whose dreams have been infused in a variety of characters create the American literature.While in Early American literature,American dream had been presented in a dif-ferent way.

  16. Computational crystallization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altan, Irem; Charbonneau, Patrick; Snell, Edward H

    2016-07-15

    Crystallization is a key step in macromolecular structure determination by crystallography. While a robust theoretical treatment of the process is available, due to the complexity of the system, the experimental process is still largely one of trial and error. In this article, efforts in the field are discussed together with a theoretical underpinning using a solubility phase diagram. Prior knowledge has been used to develop tools that computationally predict the crystallization outcome and define mutational approaches that enhance the likelihood of crystallization. For the most part these tools are based on binary outcomes (crystal or no crystal), and the full information contained in an assembly of crystallization screening experiments is lost. The potential of this additional information is illustrated by examples where new biological knowledge can be obtained and where a target can be sub-categorized to predict which class of reagents provides the crystallization driving force. Computational analysis of crystallization requires complete and correctly formatted data. While massive crystallization screening efforts are under way, the data available from many of these studies are sparse. The potential for this data and the steps needed to realize this potential are discussed.

  17. Computational crystallization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altan, Irem; Charbonneau, Patrick; Snell, Edward H

    2016-07-15

    Crystallization is a key step in macromolecular structure determination by crystallography. While a robust theoretical treatment of the process is available, due to the complexity of the system, the experimental process is still largely one of trial and error. In this article, efforts in the field are discussed together with a theoretical underpinning using a solubility phase diagram. Prior knowledge has been used to develop tools that computationally predict the crystallization outcome and define mutational approaches that enhance the likelihood of crystallization. For the most part these tools are based on binary outcomes (crystal or no crystal), and the full information contained in an assembly of crystallization screening experiments is lost. The potential of this additional information is illustrated by examples where new biological knowledge can be obtained and where a target can be sub-categorized to predict which class of reagents provides the crystallization driving force. Computational analysis of crystallization requires complete and correctly formatted data. While massive crystallization screening efforts are under way, the data available from many of these studies are sparse. The potential for this data and the steps needed to realize this potential are discussed. PMID:26792536

  18. Sugar as an optimal carbon source for the enhanced performance of MgB2 superconductors at high magnetic fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shcherbakova, O. V.; Pan, A. V.; Wang, J. L.; Shcherbakov, A. V.; Dou, S. X.; Wexler, D.; Babić, E.; Jerčinović, M.; Husnjak, O.

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we report the results of an extended study of the effect of sugar doping on the structural and electromagnetic properties of MgB2 superconductors. High values of the upper critical field (Bc2) of 36 T and the irreversibility field (Birr) of 27 T have been estimated at the temperature of 5 K in a bulk MgB2 sample with the addition of 10 wt% of sugar. The critical current density (Jc(Ba)) of sugar-doped samples has been significantly improved in the high field region. The value of transport Jc has reached as high as 108 A m-2 at 10 T and 5 K for Fe-sheathed sugar-doped MgB2 wire. The analysis of the pinning mechanism in the samples investigated indicated that dominant vortex pinning occurs on the surface type of pinning defects, such as grain boundaries, dislocations, stacking faults etc, for both pure and doped MgB2. In sugar-doped samples, pinning is governed by numerous crystal lattice defects, which appear in MgB2 grains as a result of crystal lattice distortion caused by carbon substitution for boron and nano-inclusions. The drastically improved superconducting properties of sugar-doped samples are also attributed to the highly homogeneous distribution and enhanced reactivity of this dopant with host Mg and B powders. The results of this work suggest that sugar is the optimal source of carbon for doping MgB2 superconductor, especially for application at high magnetic fields.

  19. Temperature effect on microstructure and electromagnetic performance of polycarbosilane and sugar-doped MgB2 wires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shcherbakov, A. V.; Horvat, J.; Shcherbakova, O. V.; Novosel, N.; Babić, E.; Dou, S. X.

    2010-06-01

    The effect of processing temperature on structural and superconducting properties of 10 wt.% sugar- and 10 wt.% PCS-doped MgB2 wires is systematically investigated. It is demonstrated that these dopants significantly enhance the electromagnetic performance of Fe-clad MgB2 superconductor and increase its potential for practical application. The enhancement of in-field critical current density (Jc(Ba)) and upper critical field (Bc2) is due to formation of a large amount of lattice defects caused by impurities and C substitution into the MgB2 crystal lattice. High temperature sintering of sugar-doped sample results in as high Bc2 value as 37 T (at 5 K), which correlates with higher level of C substitution into MgB2 crystal lattice in this sample. In contrast, for PCS doped MgB2 wire higher Bc2 value (32 T at 5 K) is observed at lower sintering temperatures. In spite of the fact that the level of C in the crystal lattice and Bc2 value are higher in the sugar doped MgB2 sample, this sample has lower Jc(Ba) when compared to the sample with PCS addition. We speculate that it is due to a higher level of MgO impurities in the sugar doped sample (18.6 wt.% compared to 9.15 wt.% in the PCS doped sample), which results in the dissipation of supercurrent flowing through this sample.

  20. Native Americans and Diabetes

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... three months, Rachel needed medication to bring her blood sugar levels under control, but now she's able to ... gradually over many years, people can have high blood sugar and not necessarily recognize the symptoms, not know ...

  1. Native Americans and Diabetes

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... three months, Rachel needed medication to bring her blood sugar levels under control, but now she's able ... gradually over many years, people can have high blood sugar and not necessarily recognize the symptoms, not ...

  2. Sugar Transport and Metabolism in Thermotoga

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noll, Kenneth M.; Romano, Antonio H.

    2003-02-11

    The work conducted under this grant demonstrated that the hyperthermophilic bacterium Thermotoga neapolitana carries out glucose and lactose transport in a sodium-dependent manner and that energization of anaerobic cells is required to observe transport. We also demonstrated that Thermotoga maritima carries out maltose and glucose transport using periplasmic sugar binding proteins. We began defining patterns of expression of genes encoding sugar transport and catabolic functions in both T. maritima and T. neapolitana. We began a collaborative effort to identify all the genes regulated at the transcriptional level in response to sugars substrates. These funds also allowed us to begin an examination of the functions of several periplasmic substrate binding proteins encoded in the genome of T. maritima.

  3. Sap flow and sugar transport in plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, K. H.; Berg-Sørensen, K.; Bruus, H.;

    2016-01-01

    Green plants are Earth's primary solar energy collectors. They harvest the energy of the sun by converting light energy into chemical energy stored in the bonds of sugar molecules. A multitude of carefully orchestrated transport processes are needed to move water and minerals from the soil to sites...... of photosynthesis, and to distribute energy-rich sugars throughout the plant body to support metabolism and growth. The long-distance transport happens in the plants' vascular system, where water and solutes are moved along the entire length of the plant. In this review, we discuss the current understanding...... of the mechanism and the quantitative description of these flows, connecting theory and experiments as far as possible. We begin begin with an overview of low-Reynolds-number transport processes, followed by an introduction to the anatomy and physiology of vascular transport in the phloem and xylem. Next, sugar...

  4. Sap flow and sugar transport in plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kaare Hartvig; Berg-Sørensen, Kirstine; Bruus, Henrik;

    2016-01-01

    Green plants are Earth’s primary solar energy collectors. They harvest the energy of the Sun by converting light energy into chemical energy stored in the bonds of sugar molecules. A multitude of carefully orchestrated transport processes are needed to move water and minerals from the soil to sites...... of photosynthesis and to distribute energy-rich sugars throughout the plant body to support metabolism and growth. The long-distance transport happens in the plants’ vascular system, where water and solutes are moved along the entire length of the plant. In this review, the current understanding of the mechanism...... and the quantitative description of these flows are discussed, connecting theory and experiments as far as possible. The article begins with an overview of low-Reynolds-number transport processes, followed by an introduction to the anatomy and physiology of vascular transport in the phloem and xylem. Next, sugar...

  5. The substitution of iodine 131 by Technetium 99m in the application of radiotracers in the sugar cane industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study of the behaviour of Technetium 99m is performed to know if it is possible its use as radiotracer in the evaluation of massecuite crystalizer C or of third. After positive results, it was done a comparative study of the measured doses provoked by the use of iodine 131 and of Technetium 99m on this sugar cane installation. We reached the conclusion that technetium 99m is an obliged substitute of Iodine 131 because it is a radiotracer with better radiologic characteristics to be used on the food-production industry, for example in the sugar cane industry

  6. American Culture Reflected in American English

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李华芳

    2013-01-01

    Language is a vehicle for culture. It is also a key component of culture. It not only reflects culture but also influences culture. As a variety of British English, American English, especially American words and expressions can reflect American culture from many aspects. This paper studies some typical traits of American culture reflected in words and expressions of American Eng-lish.

  7. Crystal Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    SRD 3 NIST Crystal Data (PC database for purchase)   NIST Crystal Data contains chemical, physical, and crystallographic information useful to characterize more than 237,671 inorganic and organic crystalline materials. The data include the standard cell parameters, cell volume, space group number and symbol, calculated density, chemical formula, chemical name, and classification by chemical type.

  8. Sugar and Sugar Derivatives in Residues Produced from the UV Irradiation of Astrophysical Ice Analogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuevo, M.; Sandford, S. A.; Cooper, G.

    2016-01-01

    A large variety and number of organic compounds of prebiotic interest are known to be present in carbonaceous chondrites. Among them, one sugar (dihydroxyacetone) as well as several sugar acids, sugar alcohols, and other sugar derivatives have been reported in the Murchison and Murray meteorites. Their presence, along with amino acids, amphiphiles, and nucleobases strongly suggests that molecules essential to life can form abiotically under astrophysical conditions. This hypothesis is supported by laboratory studies on the formation of complex organic molecules from the ultraviolet (UV) irradiation of simulated astrophysical ice mixtures consisting of H2O, CO, CO2, CH3OH, CH4, NH3, etc., at low temperature. In the past 15 years, these studies have shown that the organic residues recovered at room temperature contain amino acids, amphiphiles, nucleobases, as well as other complex organics. However, no systematic search for the presence of sugars and sugar derivatives in laboratory residues have been reported to date, despite the fact that those compounds are of primary prebiotic significance. Indeed, only small (up to 3 carbon atoms) sugar derivatives including glycerol and glyceric acid have been detected in residues so far.

  9. Software Development Of Sugar Cane Plantation And Harvesting Management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This software is a management system based on database-driven computer software application. It is intended to improve the quality of sugar cane through increased efficiency in managing, harvesting and transporting of sugar cane, as part of a sugar factory operation. The software was developed using the Borland Delphi development platform, with database manipulation using Microsoft Access. The software is intended for Personal Computer with Windows 95 (or later) installed. The application has been tested with acceptable result and can be used in Sragi Sugar Factory's related activities; namely sugar cane plantation management, harvesting and transporting of sugar cane, payment process and other related administrative processes

  10. American Houses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张梦华

    2004-01-01

    American houses usually have private kitchens,a living room and sometimes separate areas for eating and watching television,A house usually has its own mailbox,a yard with plants or perhaps a lawn,and a place to store garbage out of sight.

  11. American Occupation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Angry Americans across the country are protesting against inequality, greed and corruption The "Occupy Wall Street" protests have grown from an insignificant lower Manhattan gathering of around 1,500 people to tens of thousands of people across the United States, from Anchorage,

  12. Ambient aerosol concentrations of sugars and sugar-alcohols at four different sites in Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. E. Yttri

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Sugars and sugar-alcohols are demonstrated to be important constituents of the ambient aerosol water-soluble organic carbon fraction, and to be tracers for primary biological aerosol particles (PBAP. In the present study, levels of four sugars (fructose, glucose, sucrose, trehalose and three sugar-alcohols (arabitol, inositol, mannitol in ambient aerosols have been quantified using a novel HPLC/HRMS-TOF (High Performance Liquid Chromatography in combination with High Resolution Mass Spectrometry – Time of Flight method to assess the contribution of PBAP to PM>sub>10 and PM2.5. Samples were collected at four sites in Norway at different times of the year in order to reflect the various contributing sources and the spatial and seasonal variation of the selected compounds.

    Sugars and sugar-alcohols were present at all sites investigated, underlining the ubiquity of these highly polar organic compounds. The highest concentrations were reported for sucrose, reaching a maximum concentration of 320 ng m−3 in PM10 and 55 ng m−3 in PM2.5. The mean concentration of sucrose was up to 10 times higher than fructose, glucose and the dimeric sugar trehalose. The mean concentrations of the sugar-alcohols were typically lower, or equal, to that of the monomeric sugars and trehalose. Peak concentrations of arabitol and mannitol did not exceed 30 ng m−3 in PM10, and for PM2.5 all concentrations were below 6 ng m−3.

    Sugars and sugar-alcohols were associated primarily with coarse aerosols except during wintertime at the suburban site in Elverum, where a shift towards sub micron aerosols was observed. It is proposed that this shift was due to the intensive use of wood burning for residential heating at this site during winter, confirmed by high concurrent concentrations of levoglucosan. Elevated concentrations of sugars in PM2

  13. Preparing polished crystal slices with high precision orientation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathiesen, S. Ipsen; Gerward, Leif; Pedersen, O.

    1974-01-01

    A polishing procedure is described which utilizes a high precision Laue technique for crystal orientation. Crystal slices with their final polished surfaces parallel to a crystallographic plane within 0.02° can be prepared. ©1974 The American Institute of Physics......A polishing procedure is described which utilizes a high precision Laue technique for crystal orientation. Crystal slices with their final polished surfaces parallel to a crystallographic plane within 0.02° can be prepared. ©1974 The American Institute of Physics...

  14. Cancer and African Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Population Profiles > Black/African American > Cancer Cancer and African Americans African Americans have the highest mortality rate ... 65MB] At a glance – Top Cancer Sites for African Americans (2008-2012) Cancer Incidence Rates per 100, ...

  15. American Sign Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Health Info » Voice, Speech, and Language American Sign Language On this page: What is American Sign Language? ... signs "I love you." What is American Sign Language? American Sign Language (ASL) is a complete, complex ...

  16. Forecasting Sales in a Sugar Factory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vassilios ASSIMAKOPOULOS

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Beets’ cultivation and sugar production represent one of the most important parts of Greek agricultural economy. A careful and well-organized planning of the production as well as the determination of an accurate safety stock is important for sugar industry, as for many other companies and organizations, in order to define the production quantity which leads to maximum revenues and profits. Forecasting, and especially widely used statistical forecasting techniques, is the best way for policymakers to organize their activities and company’s production and make the appropriate adjustments. Apparently, management information systems and forecasting support packages play a leading role in this area, since the amount of data under process is usually quite large and demands an automated procedure to effectively produce and evaluate forecasts. In this case study, “Pythia”, an expert forecasting platform developed by the Forecasting and Strategy Unit of the National Technical University of Athens, was implemented on a monthly data series regarding sugar sales of a Greek sugar factory for the years 2000-2005, bringing theory and practice together. Additionally, the methods or combinations of methods which are well suited for this time series are highlighted based on three error indices. Finally, the results of the study and conclusions are considered and perspectives of progress and development in the field of forecasting are contemplated.

  17. Growth of sugar cane varieties under salinity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Welson Lima Simões

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Large salty areas in the Brazilian semi-arid region have limited farming in Northeastern Brazil. One example is the sugar cane cultivation, which reinforces the need of selecting varieties that are more tolerant to salinity. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of salinity on growth of ten varieties of sugar cane. The experiment was conducted in a greenhouse, set in the experimental field of Embrapa Semiárido, in Petrolina, Pernambuco State. The experimental design was randomized blocks arranged in a 6 X 10 factorial arrangement, comprised of six levels of salinity (0, 1.0, 2.0, 4.0, 6.0 and 8.0 dS m-1 and ten sugar cane varieties (VAT 90212; RB 72454; RB 867515; Q 124; RB 961003; RB 957508; SP791011; RB 835089; RB 92579 and SP 943206. Salt levels of irrigation water were obtained by adding NaCl, CaCl2.2H2O and MgSO4.7H2O to achieve an equivalent ratio among Na:Ca:Mg of 7:2:1. Sixty days later, plant height, stem diameter (base, number of leaves, stalks and sprouts, leaf area and fresh and dry mass of the aerial part and roots were all measured. The varieties of sugar cane showed similar responses for growth reduction as soil salinity increases, being considered moderately sensitive to salinity.

  18. Sugars in peach fruit: a breeding perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cirilli, Marco; Bassi, Daniele; Ciacciulli, Angelo

    2016-01-01

    The last decade has been characterized by a decrease in peach (Prunus persica) fruit consumption in many countries, foremost due to unsatisfactory quality. The sugar content is one of the most important quality traits perceived by consumers, and the development of novel peach cultivars with sugar-enhanced content is a primary objective of breeding programs to revert the market inertia. Nevertheless, the progress reachable through classical phenotypic selection is limited by the narrow genetic bases of peach breeding material and by the complex quantitative nature of the trait, which is deeply affected by environmental conditions and agronomical management. The development of molecular markers applicable in MAS or MAB has become an essential strategy to boost the selection efficiency. Despite the enormous advances in 'omics' sciences, providing powerful tools for plant genotyping, the identification of the genetic bases of sugar-related traits is hindered by the lack of adequate phenotyping methods that are able to address strong within-plant variability. This review provides an overview of the current knowledge of the metabolic pathways and physiological mechanisms regulating sugar accumulation in peach fruit, the main advances in phenotyping approaches and genetic background, and finally addressing new research priorities and prospective for breeders. PMID:26816618

  19. Idiomatic Control used in Sugar Plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kirsten Mølgaard; Nielsen, Jens Frederik Dalsgaard; Pedersen, Tom Søndergaard

    1993-01-01

    A description of a control system for a large scale industrial plant - the evaporator section of a sugar plant. The control system is based on the idiomatic control concept, causing decomposition into loop control units - idioms. Dynamic decoupling, feedforward- and feedback loops eg. have been...

  20. Liquid crystal tunable photonic crystal dye laser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buss, Thomas; Christiansen, Mads Brøkner; Smith, Cameron;

    2010-01-01

    We present a dye-doped liquid crystal laser using a photonic crystal cavity. An applied electric field to the liquid crystal provides wavelength tunability. The photonic crystal enhances resonant interaction with the gain medium.......We present a dye-doped liquid crystal laser using a photonic crystal cavity. An applied electric field to the liquid crystal provides wavelength tunability. The photonic crystal enhances resonant interaction with the gain medium....

  1. Measurement and analysis of the mannitol partition coefficient in sucrose crystallization under simulated industrial conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mannitol is a major deterioration product of Leuconstoc mesenteroides bacterial deterioration of both sugarcane and sugar beet. The effect of crystallization conditions on the mannitol partition coefficient (Keff) between impure sucrose syrup and crystal has been investigated in a batch laboratory c...

  2. Detection of Sugar-Lectin Interactions by Multivalent Dendritic Sugar Functionalized Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes

    CERN Document Server

    Vasu, K S; Bagul, R S; Jayaraman, N; Sood, A K; 10.1063/1.4739793

    2012-01-01

    We show that single walled carbon nanotubes (SWNT) decorated with sugar functionalized poly (propyl ether imine) (PETIM) dendrimer is a very sensitive platform to quantitatively detect carbohydrate recognizing proteins, namely, lectins. The changes in electrical conductivity of SWNT in field effect transistor device due to carbohydrate - protein interactions form the basis of present study. The mannose sugar attached PETIM dendrimers undergo charge - transfer interactions with the SWNT. The changes in the conductance of the dendritic sugar functionalized SWNT after addition of lectins in varying concentrations were found to follow the Langmuir type isotherm, giving the concanavalin A (Con A) - mannose affinity constant to be 8.5 x 106 M-1. The increase in the device conductance observed after adding 10 nM of Con A is same as after adding 20 \\muM of a non - specific lectin peanut agglutinin, showing the high specificity of the Con A - mannose interactions. The specificity of sugar-lectin interactions was chara...

  3. Sweet Stuff: How Sugars and Sweeteners Affect Your Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in calories and offer none of the healthful benefits of fruits and other naturally sweet foods. Sugar-sweetened beverages like soda, energy drinks, and sports drinks are the leading source of added sugars ...

  4. Measurements of particulate sugars at urban and forested suburban sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tominaga, Sae; Matsumoto, Kiyoshi; Kaneyasu, Naoki; Shigihara, Ado; Katono, Koichi; Igawa, Manabu

    2011-04-01

    Neutral sugars (arabinose, fucose, galactose, glucose, mannose, rhamnose, and xylose) in fine and coarse aerosols were measured at urban and forested suburban sites in Japan. The most dominant compound in the sugar group was glucose at both sites. Size partitioning of the sugars generally showed dominance in the fine mode range but shifted toward the coarse mode range in summer. Seasonal trends in the sugar concentrations in the fine and coarse mode ranges were opposite: higher concentrations of fine mode sugars were found in winter, although coarse mode sugars increased in summer. Fine mode glucose consisted dominantly of the combined form, whereas free glucose increased in the coarse mode range. Although the sources of the sugars in the aerosols remain largely uncertain, primary biogenic particles can be considered as candidates of main sources of the sugars in both coarse and fine mode ranges.

  5. Efficient Synthesis of Primary Nitrocarbamates of Sugar Alcohols: From Food to Energetic Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Axthammer, Quirin J; Klapötke, Thomas M; Krumm, Burkhard

    2016-02-18

    The synthesis of various new polyvalent nitrocarbamates derived from sugar alcohols was accomplished by an economically benign two-step synthesis. The precursor carbamates were synthesized with the reagent chlorosulfonyl isocyanate (CSI) and further nitrated using mixed acid. The starting materials, sugar alcohols, are renewable biomass, mainly used in food and cosmetic industry. The structures of one carbamate and one nitrocarbamate were exemplary described by single-crystal X-ray-analysis. The heat of formation is calculated by the use of isodesmic reactions and the energetic performance data were estimated. All compounds were fully characterized by elemental analysis, vibrational spectroscopy, (1)H, (13)C, and (14/15)N NMR spectroscopy and thermal analysis (DSC). The nitrocarbamates exhibit good detonation performance and have significantly lower sensitivities compared to the commonly used nitrate ester explosive PETN.

  6. Study of the swelling behavior of Spherical water-gels in Sugar Solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudipto Roy

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available In the present study a simple experiment has been performed with the most commonly used and widely available spherical water-gel crystals in the shape of beads. Immersing the beads in sugar solution of variable concentrations the mass of the swallowed beads were measured at regular time intervals. The experimental results so obtained have been explained using an analytical approach. A theoretical model has been developed based on the consideration of water absorption through vacant polymer sites in a highly porous hydro-gel. Considerations of cylindrical and spherical pores in this model predicted almost the same swelling behavior. It has been shown that the characteristic time of growth of the hydro-gels is linearly related with the sugar concentration. Some references have been cited which agree well with the results found in this experiment, thus validating the assumptions made in the analytical model used.

  7. The role of sugars and sugar metabolism genes (sucrose synthase) in arabidopsis thaliana seed development

    OpenAIRE

    Odunlami, Benjamin Oladipo

    2009-01-01

    Seed development in Arabidopsis thaliana, has been studied at several levels. However, little has been done to study the role of sugar metabolism genes in seed pod development in this species. As the fertilized egg progresses to a mature seed, the sugars composition during different stages of the developing changes. These changes are related to metabolic processes in the developing seeds, but also to the activity of sucrose- converting and transporting genes, active at the interphase between ...

  8. CMS rewards its best suppliers with the Crystal Award

    CERN Multimedia

    Patrice Loiez

    2002-01-01

    A. Ingman of the Finnish company Outokumpu Pori Oy, F. Krähenbuhl of the Swiss firm Nexans Suisse and M. Niemerski of the American company Plascore receive the highest distinction in the CMS supplier awards - the Crystal Award.

  9. Consumers’ Attitudes towards Country of Origin Labeling for Sugar

    OpenAIRE

    Lewis, Karen E.; Grebitus, Carola

    2013-01-01

    Given the ongoing debate regarding country of origin labeling (COOL) for certain agricultural products, it is very important to understand why certain consumers prefer COOL. Utilizing a consumer survey, 566 participants’ preferences for COOL for sugar and for sugar in soft drinks was analyzed. Using a bivariate ordered probit model, it was discovered that high levels of consumer ethnocentrism and consumer patriotism positively impacted consumers’ preference that sugar and sugar in soft drinks...

  10. Kinetic modelling of the Maillard reaction between proteins and sugars

    OpenAIRE

    Brands, C.M.J.

    2002-01-01

    Keywords: Maillard reaction, sugar isomerisation, kinetics, multiresponse modelling, brown colour formation, lysine damage, mutagenicity, casein, monosaccharides, disaccharides, aldoses, ketosesThe aim of this thesis was to determine the kinetics of the Maillard reaction between proteins and sugars, taking into account other simultaneously occurring sugar reactions. Model systems of foods, consisting of the protein casein and various sugars in a buffered solution, were studied. The reaction c...

  11. From nanometer aggregates to micrometer crystals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schultz, Logan Nicholas; Dideriksen, Knud; Lakshtanov, Leonid;

    2014-01-01

    and crystal shapes. Grain coarsening of calcite, CaCO3, is relevant for biomineralization and commercial products and is an important process in diagenesis of sediments to rock during geological time. We investigated coarsening of pure, synthetic calcite powder of sub-micrometer diameter crystals and...... one growth mechanism to the other. This has been poorly described by mean field coarsening models and offers predictive power to grain coarsening models. © 2014 American Chemical Society....

  12. Sugar convertibility in the parasitoid Cotesia glomerata (Hymenoptera: Braconidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hausmann, C.; Wäckers, F.L.; Dorn, S.

    2005-01-01

    Lack of suitable sugar sources for adult parasitic wasps is an important cause of failure in biological control programs, but the metabolic constraints of sugar feeding are poorly understood. Here we investigated the suitability of 11 naturally occurring sugars as energy sources for the parasitoid C

  13. Sugar signalling during germination and early seedling establishment in Arabidopsis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dekkers, S.J.W.

    2006-01-01

    Sugars have pronounced effects on many plant processes like gene expression, germination and early seedling development. Several screens for sugar insensitive mutants were performed to identify genes involved in sugar response pathways using the model plant Arabidopsis. These include sun, gin and si

  14. Ethanol production in fermentation of mixed sugars containing xylose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Viitanen, Paul V. (West Chester, PA); Mc Cutchen, Carol M. (Wilmington, DE); Li; Xu (Newark, DE); Emptage, Mark (Wilmington, DE); Caimi, Perry G. (Kennett Square, PA); Zhang, Min (Lakewood, CO); Chou, Yat-Chen (Lakewood, CO); Franden, Mary Ann (Centennial, CO)

    2009-12-08

    Xylose-utilizing Z. mobilis strains were found to have improved ethanol production when grown in medium containing mixed sugars including xylose if sorbitol or mannitol was included in the medium. The effect was seen in concentrations of mixed sugars where no growth lag period occurs, as well as in higher sugars concentrations.

  15. Privatization and human resource issues in the Caribbean sugar industry.

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas, C Y

    1995-01-01

    Examines privatization of the sugar plantations and sugar processing industry in the Caribbean region. Provides a detailed account of the current state of the Caribbean sugar industry. Examines the modalities and activities of the privatization process in the six countries. Identifies the forces which led to the nationalization policies of the 1970s and their reversal in the 1990s.

  16. 19 CFR 151.22 - Estimated duties on raw sugar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Estimated duties on raw sugar. 151.22 Section 151.22 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF... Molasses § 151.22 Estimated duties on raw sugar. Estimated duties shall be taken on raw sugar, as...

  17. 19 CFR 151.25 - Mixing classes of sugar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Mixing classes of sugar. 151.25 Section 151.25... TREASURY (CONTINUED) EXAMINATION, SAMPLING, AND TESTING OF MERCHANDISE Sugars, Sirups, and Molasses § 151.25 Mixing classes of sugar. No regulations relative to the weighing, taring, sampling,...

  18. Power generation from fuelwood by the Nicaraguan sugar mills

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carneiro de Miranda, R.; Broek, R. van den

    2002-01-01

    With new concept development for the sugar industry and with new power market opportunities, two sugar mills in Nicaragua initiated projects aimed at becoming power plants during the sugar cane off-season. Basically the idea is to use more efficient boilers and turbines, and generate power beyond th

  19. Ratiometric fluorescence sensing of sugars via a reversible disassembly and assembly of the peptide aggregates mediated by sugars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neupane, Lok Nath; Han, Song Yee; Lee, Keun-Hyeung

    2014-06-01

    An amphiphilic dipeptide (1) bearing pyrene and phenylboronic acid was demonstrated as a unique example of a ratiometric sensing system for sugars by reversibly converting the peptide aggregates into the monomer form of the complex with sugars in aqueous solutions.

  20. 关注你的血糖%Watching Your Blood Sugar

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许桂梅

    2003-01-01

    @@ Some 16 million Americans have diabetes mellitus, a serious,chronic disease that impairs the body' s ability to convert blood sugar, or glucose, into energy. 1 Persons with diabetes cannot either produce or respond to insulin, a hormone instrumental in glucose metabolism. 2 Because all human body tissues3must have a steady supply of glucose, diabetes can affect every organ.In particular, it can lead to heart disease, kidney failure, 4 blindness and nerve problems. Diabetes is the leading cause of amputations5 in the U. S. and the fourth leading cause of death, both of which can often be prevented by early, effective treatment.

  1. 29 CFR 780.819 - Production must be of unrefined sugar or syrup.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... apply to the manufacture of sugar that is produced by melting sugar, purifying the melted sugar solution through a carbon medium process and the recrystallization of the sugar from this solution. Nor does...

  2. Fuel bio ethanol production from experimental crops of sugar cane, sweet sorghum and sugar beet in Uruguay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article is about the fuel bio ethanol production. Its requires the use of raw materials, process, integration with food producing chains, and social inclusion. Agricultural and fermentability assays of three sugar crops were performed: sugar beet, sugar cane and sweet sorghum grown in fields of small producers .

  3. 75 FR 22095 - USDA Reassigns Domestic Cane Sugar Allotments and Increases the Fiscal Year 2010 Raw Sugar Tariff...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-27

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Office of the Secretary USDA Reassigns Domestic Cane Sugar Allotments and Increases the Fiscal Year 2010 Raw Sugar Tariff-Rate Quota AGENCY: Office of the Secretary, USDA. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Secretary of Agriculture today announced a reassignment of surplus sugar under domestic...

  4. 75 FR 50796 - Fiscal Year 2011 Tariff-Rate Quota Allocations for Raw Cane Sugar, Refined and Specialty Sugar...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-17

    ... United States Trade Representative under Presidential Proclamation 6763 (60 FR 1007). On July 30, 2010... TRADE REPRESENTATIVE Fiscal Year 2011 Tariff-Rate Quota Allocations for Raw Cane Sugar, Refined and Specialty Sugar, and Sugar-Containing Products AGENCY: Office of the United States Trade...

  5. 76 FR 20305 - USDA Reassigns Domestic Cane Sugar Allotments and Increases the Fiscal Year 2011 Raw Sugar Tariff...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-12

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Office of the Secretary USDA Reassigns Domestic Cane Sugar Allotments and Increases the Fiscal Year 2011 Raw Sugar Tariff-Rate Quota AGENCY: Office of the Secretary, USDA. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Secretary of Agriculture today announced a reassignment of surplus sugar under domestic...

  6. 75 FR 23631 - Sugar Re-Export Program, the Sugar-Containing Products Re-Export Program, and the Polyhydric...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-04

    ... withdrawing the proposed rule published at 70 FR 3150 on January 21, 2005, to implement Chapter 17 of the...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Foreign Agricultural Service 7 CFR Part 1530 Sugar Re-Export Program, the Sugar... cane sugar under subheading 1701.11.20 of the HTS for the production of polyhydric alcohols,...

  7. 77 FR 57180 - Fiscal Year 2013 Tariff-rate Quota Allocations for Raw Cane Sugar, Refined and Specialty Sugar...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-17

    ... Trade Representative in Presidential Proclamation 6763 (60 FR 1007). On September 10, 2012, the... REPRESENTATIVE Fiscal Year 2013 Tariff-rate Quota Allocations for Raw Cane Sugar, Refined and Specialty Sugar, and Sugar-Containing Products AGENCY: Office of the United States Trade Representative. ACTION:...

  8. 75 FR 38764 - USDA Reassigns Domestic Cane Sugar Allotments and Increases the Fiscal Year 2010 Raw Sugar Tariff...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-06

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Office of the Secretary USDA Reassigns Domestic Cane Sugar Allotments and Increases the Fiscal Year 2010 Raw Sugar Tariff-Rate Quota AGENCY: Office of the Secretary, USDA. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Secretary of Agriculture today announced a reassignment of surplus sugar under domestic...

  9. 76 FR 50285 - Fiscal Year 2012 Tariff-Rate Quota Allocations for Raw Cane Sugar, Refined and Specialty Sugar...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-12

    ... under Presidential Proclamation 6763 (60 FR 1007). On August 1, 2011, the Secretary of Agriculture... TRADE REPRESENTATIVE Fiscal Year 2012 Tariff-Rate Quota Allocations for Raw Cane Sugar, Refined and Specialty Sugar and Sugar-Containing Products AGENCY: Office of the United States Trade...

  10. Urinary sugars (sucrose and fructose) associations with self-reported sugars intake: the influence of plausibility of reported energy intake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urinary sucrose and fructose may serve as biomarkers of sugars intake, the latter which are thought to be underreported in dietary assessment. We examined associations of urinary sugars with reported sugars intake in adults recruited for a study on diet and chronic disease risk. Methods: Healthy, no...

  11. Catalytic Hydrogenolysis of 5-Carbon Sugar Alcohols

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zacher, Alan H.; Frye, John G.; Werpy, Todd A.; Miller, Dennis J.

    2005-01-01

    PNNL, in cooperation with the USDOE and CRADA partners, National Corn Growers Association and Archer Daniels Midland, has developed a new class of catalysts based on Nickel and Rhenium with very effective performance for highly selective, high conversion hydrogenolysis of five–carbon sugar alcohols to useful glycols. The Ni-Re catalyst appears to exhibit preferential hydrogenolysis of the carbon-carbon bonds of secondary carbons over primary carbons of the 5-carbon sugar alcohols tested. In addition, the catalyst has demonstrated significant and unique primary C-O bond hydrogenolysis activity in its ability to convert glycerol into 1,2- propylene glycol, which is then stable in the presence of this class of catalysts. The rhenium containing catalysts are found to have higher activity and better selectivity to desired glycols than previously reported catalysts. A continuous flow reactor lifetime test of over 1500 hours also demonstrated the requisite high stability for an industrially attractive process.

  12. Fermentable sugars from biopolymers of bagasse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramachandran, K.; Das, K.; Sharma, D.K.

    1987-11-01

    Ethanol can replace oil as a fuel and its use would help in the conservation of the meagre oil reserves in India. The article indicates some convenient and cost-effective processes for the production of ethanol from biopolymers available in bagasse, an agricultural residue. A two-stage acid hydrolysis process produced a maximum of fermentable sugars at 35%. Calcium chloride used as a promoter enhanced production by 3.5%. Other promoters are under investigation. Agitation had a significant effect on production, complete hydrolysis being possible between 10-45 minutes depending on temperature. The fermentable sugars obtained, xylose and glucose, can then be fermented to ethanol in an integrated three-stage process. 11 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  13. Blood sugar monitoring with laser diode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiqin; Chen, Jianhong; Yeo, Joon Hock

    2006-09-01

    In this paper, the non-invasive measurement of blood sugar level was studied by use of near infrared laser diode. The in-vivo experiments were carried out using laser diodes with wavelength 1625nm and 1650nm. Several volunteers were tested before and after drinking glucose solution. We took blood from a fingertip and measured its concentration with a glucose meter while taking signal voltage from laser diode system. The signal voltage was processed by using a computer and blood absorption was obtained. The results show that blood sugar level and blood absorption have similar trends before and after drinking glucose solution. We also compared the trends of drinking glucose solution and pure water and the results show that the difference of blood absorption is obvious. From the results we can see that laser diode is suitable for blood glucose monitoring.

  14. High risk pesticides in sugar beet protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šovljanski Radmila A.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available According to traits of pesticides permitted to use in sugar beet (oral percutaneus and inhalation toxicity, toxicity to wildlife, bees and aquatic organisms, re-entry interval, maximum number of treatments, effects on reproduction do not present health risk in sugar production/technology. However, the danger exists for workers by chronic exposure during the application, especially from pesticide being potential endocrine disruptors (EDS (fentin acetate, benomyl, endosulfan, methomyl, methidathion. EDS can cause sterility or decreased fertility, impaired development, birth defects of the reproductive tract and metabolic disorders. Authors recommend limited application of EDS pesticides (to limit the number of treatments to only one during the vegetation, replacement with pesticides with low risk to humans game and fishes, as well as mandatory submission of re-entry data for registration.

  15. Strip-till seeder for sugar beets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Schulze Lammers

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Strip-till save costs by reducing tillage on the area of sugar beet rows only. The seeding system is characterized by a deep loosening of soil with a tine combined with a share and by following tools generating fine-grained soil as seed bed. In cooperation with the Kverneland company group Soest/Germany a strip tiller combined with precision seeder was designed and tested in field experiments. Tilling and seeding was performed in one path on fields with straw and mustard mulch. Even the plant development was slower as compared to conventional sawn sugar beets the yield was on equivalent level. Further field experiments are planned to attest constant yield, cost and energy efficiency of the seeding system.

  16. Sugar as a substitute for natural oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-09-01

    Sugar may either be used as a fuel after fermentation to ethanol or after gasification to synthetic natural gas, or it may be directly used as a raw material for the chemical industry. It is technically possible to produce methane, methanol, and ethanol/ethylene on a saccharose basis. In some countries, such processes are already being implemented on a technical scale. When using saccharose as a chemical raw material, a number of by-products are obtained which make it much harder to separate and clean individual compounds and which also use up a considerable amount of the sugar. In spite of this in Japan, France, Brazil, and other countries, tensides (1,000 t/a), softeners and, by purposeful fermentation processes, xanthane (a water-thickening agent) are produced from saccharose, and plants for alginate production are being planned. The main problems still remain in the complicated and expensive processing procedure for the reaction products.

  17. Liquid Crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    Thermochromic liquid crystals, or TLCs, are a type of liquid crystals that react to changes in temperature by changing color. The Hallcrest/NASA collaboration involved development of a new way to visualize boundary layer transition in flight and in wind tunnel testing of aircraft wing and body surfaces. TLCs offered a new and potentially better method of visualizing the boundary layer transition in flight. Hallcrest provided a liquid crystal formulation technique that afforded great control over the sensitivity of the liquid crystals to varying conditions. Method is of great use to industry, government and universities for aerodynamic and hydrodynamic testing. Company's principal line is temperature indicating devices for industrial use, such as non-destructive testing and flaw detection in electric/electronic systems, medical application, such as diagnostic systems, for retail sale, such as room, refrigerator, baby bath and aquarium thermometers, and for advertising and promotion specials. Additionally, Hallcrest manufactures TLC mixtures for cosmetic applications, and liquid crystal battery tester for Duracell batteries.

  18. Structural studies of sugar binding proteins

    OpenAIRE

    Sooriyaarachchi, Sanjeewani

    2010-01-01

    Binding proteins, which are themselves non-enzymatic, play an important role in enzymatic reactions as well as non-enzymatic processes by providing a binding platform for the specific recognition of particular molecules. For example, periplasmic binding proteins play a vital role in nutrient uptake in Gram-negative bacteria. In the present study, three sugar binding proteins, including two periplasmic binding proteins and a β-glucan binding protein, are described. The glucose/galactose bindin...

  19. American Houses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    严双红

    2008-01-01

    <正>American houses usually have private kitchens,a living room and sometimes separate areas for eating and watching television.A house usually has its own mailbox,a yard with plants or perhaps a lawn,and a place to store garbage.美国住房通常有私人厨房,一间起居室,有时吃饭和看电视的地方是分开的。一所房子通常有自己的邮箱,一个种有植物或者有草坪的院子,还有存放垃圾的地方。

  20. An econometrics method to estimate demand of sugar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Negar Seyed Soleimany

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Sugar is one of the strategic goods in the basket of households in each country and it plays an important role in supplying the required energy. On the other hand, it is one of the goods, which Iranian government is about to change its subsidy strategies. To design useful sugar subsidy strategies, it is necessary to know sugar position in the basket of households and be familiar with households' sugar demand or consumption behavior. This research estimates sugar demand for Iranian households by using time series of 1984-2008, which is taken from central bank of Iran. In this paper, first independent and dependent variables of household sugar demand model are chosen based on the literature review and theory of demand. Then, sugar demand is estimated by OLS technique and linear regression. The preliminary statistical observations such as Durbin-Watson, F statistic and R2 indicate that the regression is admissible. The results seem plausible and consistent with theory and show that sugar demand in Iranian households is associated with household expenditure, relative sugar price, family size and indicate that demand of sugar is affected during the war time. The results also show the income elasticity is 0.8 and price elasticity is -0.2 which means sugar is essential good for Iranian households and is inelastic to price.

  1. Fabrication of carbon nanowires by pyrolysis of aqueous solution of sugar within asbestos nanofibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butko, V. Yu.; Fokin, A. V.; Nevedomskii, V. N.; Kumzerov, Yu. A.

    2015-05-01

    Carbon nanowires have been fabricated by pyrolysis of an aqueous solution of sugar in nanochannels of asbestos fibers. Electron microscopy demonstrates that the diameter of these nanochannels corresponds to the diameter of the thinnest of the carbon nanowires obtained. Some of these nanowires have a graphite crystal lattice and internal pores. After asbestos is etched out, the carbon nanowires can retain the original shape of the asbestos fibers. Heating in an inert atmosphere reduces the electrical resistivity of the carbon nanowires to ˜0.035 Ω cm.

  2. Oxidative enzymatic gelation of sugar beet pectin for emulsion stabilization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abang Zaidel, Dayang Norulfairuz; Meyer, Anne S.

    2013-01-01

    Pectin from sugar beet is derived from the sugar beet pulp residue which results when sugar beets are processed for sucrose extraction. The sugar beet pectin has poor gelationability by the classic divalentcation molecular mechanism because of a relatively high acetylation degree and short...... polygalacturonate backbone chain length. However, due to the feruloyl-substitutions on the side chains, the sugar beet pectic polysaccharides can be cross-linked via enzyme catalyzed oxidation. The enzyme kinetics and functionality of such oxidativelycross-linked sugar beet pectin, in relation to stabilizing...... emulsions has recently been investigated in model food emulsions. This paper reviews the pectin chemistry, enzymatic oxidative gelation mechanisms, interaction mechanisms of the sugar beet pectin with the emulsion droplets and explores how the gelation affects the rheology and stability of emulsion systems...

  3. Photonic crystals

    CERN Document Server

    Busch, Kurt; Wehrspohn, Ralf B; Föll, Helmut

    2006-01-01

    The majority of the contributions in this topically edited book stems from the priority program SPP 1113 ""Photonische Kristalle"" run by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG), resulting in a survey of the current state of photonic crystal research in Germany. The first part of the book describes methods for the theoretical analysis of their optical properties as well as the results. The main part is dedicated to the fabrication, characterization and modeling of two- and three-dimensional photonic crystals, while the final section presents a wide spectrum of applications: gas sensors, micr

  4. THE EFFECT OF NITROGEN INPUT ON POLARISED SUGAR PRODUCTION AND QUALITATIVE PARAMETERS OF SUGAR BEET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MILAN MACÁK

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available During 1998-2002, the application of different forms and doses of nitrogen on quantitative (polarised sugar productionand qualitative parameters (digestion, molasses forming components - potassium, sodium and α-amino nitrogen content of sugar beet in vulnerable zones (Nitrate directive was studied. Calculated input of nitrogen ranged from 12 kg up to 240 kg N.ha-1. By increasing input of N from FYM application into the soil causes an increases of α- amino nitrogen content in root, which in consequence causes a decreases the sugar content (negative correlation r= -0.8659+. The application of straw instead FYM of analogues treatments caused significant decrease (straw versus FYM and highly significant decrease (straw plus N fertilizers versus FYM plus N fertilizers of α-amino nitrogen content in sugar beet root living the productive parameters unchanged. The content of α-amino nitrogen in root of sugar beet indicate an environmentally friendly management practices with causal relation to water protection from nitrate.

  5. Aromatics extraction from pyrolytic sugars using ionic liquid to enhance sugar fermentability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaohua; Luque-Moreno, Luis C; Oudenhoven, Stijn R G; Rehmann, Lars; Kersten, Sascha R A; Schuur, Boelo

    2016-09-01

    Fermentative bioethanol production from pyrolytic sugars was improved via aromatics removal by liquid-liquid extraction. As solvents, the ionic liquid (IL) trihexyltetradecylphosphonium dicyanamide (P666,14[N(CN)2]) and ethyl acetate (EA) were compared. Two pyrolytic sugar solutions were created from acid-leached and untreated pinewood, with levoglucosan contents (most abundant sugar) of 29.0% and 8.3% (w/w), respectively. In a single stage extraction, 70% of the aromatics were effectively removed by P666,14[N(CN)2] and 50% by EA, while no levoglucosan was extracted. The IL was regenerated by vacuum evaporation (100mbar) at 220°C, followed by extraction of aromatics from fresh pyrolytic sugar solutions. Regenerated IL extracted aromatics with similar extraction efficiency as the fresh IL, and the purified sugar fraction from pretreated pinewood was hydrolyzed to glucose and fermented to ethanol, yielding 0.46g ethanol/(g glucose), close to the theoretical maximum yield. PMID:27214164

  6. Aromatics extraction from pyrolytic sugars using ionic liquid to enhance sugar fermentability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaohua; Luque-Moreno, Luis C; Oudenhoven, Stijn R G; Rehmann, Lars; Kersten, Sascha R A; Schuur, Boelo

    2016-09-01

    Fermentative bioethanol production from pyrolytic sugars was improved via aromatics removal by liquid-liquid extraction. As solvents, the ionic liquid (IL) trihexyltetradecylphosphonium dicyanamide (P666,14[N(CN)2]) and ethyl acetate (EA) were compared. Two pyrolytic sugar solutions were created from acid-leached and untreated pinewood, with levoglucosan contents (most abundant sugar) of 29.0% and 8.3% (w/w), respectively. In a single stage extraction, 70% of the aromatics were effectively removed by P666,14[N(CN)2] and 50% by EA, while no levoglucosan was extracted. The IL was regenerated by vacuum evaporation (100mbar) at 220°C, followed by extraction of aromatics from fresh pyrolytic sugar solutions. Regenerated IL extracted aromatics with similar extraction efficiency as the fresh IL, and the purified sugar fraction from pretreated pinewood was hydrolyzed to glucose and fermented to ethanol, yielding 0.46g ethanol/(g glucose), close to the theoretical maximum yield.

  7. Regulation of sucrose synthase activity and sugar yield by nitrogen in sugar beet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Caifeng; MA Fengming; LI Wenhua; WANG Rui; CHEN Shengyong; LUO Yu

    2007-01-01

    The content of sugar is influenced by sucrose synthase (SS) activity in roots. The effects of nitrogen level in the aminonitrate ratio on SS activity of leaves and roots, roots yield and sugar content in sugar beet were studied in the field experiment by nutrient solution culture. The results showed that SS activity in leaves was lower than that in roots. With nitrogen level increasing,SS decomposition activity enhanced, and synthesis activity reduced. SS activity was regulated by different nitrogen forms and the ratio of NO3- and NH4+. SS synthesis activity was enhanced as NH4+ increasing when NO3-: NH4+≥ 1, and it decreased as increasing NH4+ when NO3-: NH4+≤1, and it was the highest when NO3-: NH4+=1. SS decomposition activity was enhanced as NO3- increasing.Sucrose content in root was lowed as nitrogen level increasing, but it was enhanced as NH4+ increasing in the same nitrogen level.Root and sugar yield were the highest in the medium nitrogen level and NO3-: NH4+=1. The result in field experiment corresponded with that in the nutrient fluid culture. It provides a basis for using reasonably nitrogen fertilizer in sugar beet production.

  8. Energy and fructose from beverages sweetened with sugar or high-fructose corn syrup pose a health risk for some people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bray, George A

    2013-03-01

    Sugar intake in the United States has increased by >40 fold since the American Revolution. The health concerns that have been raised about the amounts of sugar that are in the current diet, primarily as beverages, are the subject of this review. Just less than 50% of the added sugars (sugar and high-fructose corn syrup) are found in soft drinks and fruit drinks. The intake of soft drinks has increased 5-fold between 1950 and 2000. Most meta-analyses have shown that the risk of obesity, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and metabolic syndrome are related to consumption of beverages sweetened with sugar or high-fructose corn syrup. Calorically sweetened beverage intake has also been related to the risk of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, and, in men, gout. Calorically sweetened beverages contribute to obesity through their caloric load, and the intake of beverages does not produce a corresponding reduction in the intake of other food, suggesting that beverage calories are "add-on" calories. The increase in plasma triglyceride concentrations by sugar-sweetened beverages can be attributed to fructose rather than glucose in sugar. Several randomized trials of sugar-containing soft drinks versus low-calorie or calorie-free beverages show that either sugar, 50% of which is fructose, or fructose alone increases triglycerides, body weight, visceral adipose tissue, muscle fat, and liver fat. Fructose is metabolized primarily in the liver. When it is taken up by the liver, ATP decreases rapidly as the phosphate is transferred to fructose in a form that makes it easy to convert to lipid precursors. Fructose intake enhances lipogenesis and the production of uric acid. By worsening blood lipids, contributing to obesity, diabetes, fatty liver, and gout, fructose in the amounts currently consumed is hazardous to the health of some people.

  9. Energy and fructose from beverages sweetened with sugar or high-fructose corn syrup pose a health risk for some people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bray, George A

    2013-03-01

    Sugar intake in the United States has increased by >40 fold since the American Revolution. The health concerns that have been raised about the amounts of sugar that are in the current diet, primarily as beverages, are the subject of this review. Just less than 50% of the added sugars (sugar and high-fructose corn syrup) are found in soft drinks and fruit drinks. The intake of soft drinks has increased 5-fold between 1950 and 2000. Most meta-analyses have shown that the risk of obesity, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and metabolic syndrome are related to consumption of beverages sweetened with sugar or high-fructose corn syrup. Calorically sweetened beverage intake has also been related to the risk of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, and, in men, gout. Calorically sweetened beverages contribute to obesity through their caloric load, and the intake of beverages does not produce a corresponding reduction in the intake of other food, suggesting that beverage calories are "add-on" calories. The increase in plasma triglyceride concentrations by sugar-sweetened beverages can be attributed to fructose rather than glucose in sugar. Several randomized trials of sugar-containing soft drinks versus low-calorie or calorie-free beverages show that either sugar, 50% of which is fructose, or fructose alone increases triglycerides, body weight, visceral adipose tissue, muscle fat, and liver fat. Fructose is metabolized primarily in the liver. When it is taken up by the liver, ATP decreases rapidly as the phosphate is transferred to fructose in a form that makes it easy to convert to lipid precursors. Fructose intake enhances lipogenesis and the production of uric acid. By worsening blood lipids, contributing to obesity, diabetes, fatty liver, and gout, fructose in the amounts currently consumed is hazardous to the health of some people. PMID:23493538

  10. Photonic crystals principles and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Gong, Qihuang

    2013-01-01

    IntroductionPrimary Properties of Photonic CrystalsFabrication of Photonic CrystalsPhotonic Crystal All-Optical SwitchingTunable Photonic Crystal FilterPhotonic Crystal LaserPhotonic Crystal Logic DevicesPhotonic Crystal Sensors

  11. Obesity and African Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Data > Minority Population Profiles > Black/African American > Obesity Obesity and African Americans African American women have the ... ss6304.pdf [PDF | 3.38MB] HEALTH IMPACT OF OBESITY More than 80 percent of people with type ...

  12. Pollen dispersal in sugar beet production fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darmency, Henri; Klein, Etienne K; De Garanbé, Thierry Gestat; Gouyon, Pierre-Henri; Richard-Molard, Marc; Muchembled, Claude

    2009-04-01

    Pollen-mediated gene flow has important implications for biodiversity conservation and for breeders and farmers' activities. In sugar beet production fields, a few sugar beet bolters can produce pollen as well as be fertilized by wild and weed beet. Since the crop, the wild beets, and the weed beets are the same species and intercross freely, the question of pollen flow is an important issue to determine the potential dispersal of transgenes from field to field and to wild habitats. We report here an experiment to describe pollen dispersal from a small herbicide-resistant sugar beet source towards male sterile target plants located along radiating lines up to 1,200 m away. Individual dispersal functions were inferred from statistical analyses and compared. Pollen limitation, as expected in root-production fields, was confirmed at all the distances from the pollen source. The number of resistant seeds produced by bait plants best fitted a fat-tailed probability distribution curve of pollen grains (power-law) dependent on the distance from the pollen source. A literature survey confirmed that power-law function could fit in most cases. The b coefficient was lower than 2. The number of fertilized flowers by background (herbicide-susceptible) pollen grains was uniform across the whole field. Airborne pollen had a fertilization impact equivalent to that of one adjacent bolter. The individual dispersal function from different pollen sources can be integrated to provide the pollen cloud composition for a given target plant, thus allowing modeling of gene flow in a field, inter-fields in a small region, and also in seed-production area. Long-distance pollen flow is not negligible and could play an important role in rapid transgene dispersal from crop to wild and weed beets in the landscape. The removing of any bolting, herbicide-resistant sugar beet should be compulsory to prevent the occurrence of herbicide-resistant weed beet, thus preventing gene flow to wild

  13. Computational Design of Non-natural Sugar Alcohols to Increase Thermal Storage Density: Beyond Existing Organic Phase Change Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inagaki, Taichi; Ishida, Toyokazu

    2016-09-14

    Thermal storage, a technology that enables us to control thermal energy, makes it possible to reuse a huge amount of waste heat, and materials with the ability to treat larger thermal energy are in high demand for energy-saving societies. Sugar alcohols are now one promising candidate for phase change materials (PCMs) because of their large thermal storage density. In this study, we computationally design experimentally unknown non-natural sugar alcohols and predict their thermal storage density as a basic step toward the development of new high performance PCMs. The non-natural sugar alcohol molecules are constructed in silico in accordance with the previously suggested molecular design guidelines: linear elongation of a carbon backbone, separated distribution of OH groups, and even numbers of carbon atoms. Their crystal structures are then predicted using the random search method and first-principles calculations. Our molecular simulation results clearly demonstrate that the non-natural sugar alcohols have potential ability to have thermal storage density up to ∼450-500 kJ/kg, which is significantly larger than the maximum thermal storage density of the present known organic PCMs (∼350 kJ/kg). This computational study suggests that, even in the case of H-bonded molecular crystals where the electrostatic energy contributes mainly to thermal storage density, the molecular distortion and van der Waals energies are also important factors to increase thermal storage density. In addition, the comparison between the three eight-carbon non-natural sugar alcohol isomers indicates that the selection of preferable isomers is also essential for large thermal storage density. PMID:27505107

  14. Computational Design of Non-natural Sugar Alcohols to Increase Thermal Storage Density: Beyond Existing Organic Phase Change Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inagaki, Taichi; Ishida, Toyokazu

    2016-09-14

    Thermal storage, a technology that enables us to control thermal energy, makes it possible to reuse a huge amount of waste heat, and materials with the ability to treat larger thermal energy are in high demand for energy-saving societies. Sugar alcohols are now one promising candidate for phase change materials (PCMs) because of their large thermal storage density. In this study, we computationally design experimentally unknown non-natural sugar alcohols and predict their thermal storage density as a basic step toward the development of new high performance PCMs. The non-natural sugar alcohol molecules are constructed in silico in accordance with the previously suggested molecular design guidelines: linear elongation of a carbon backbone, separated distribution of OH groups, and even numbers of carbon atoms. Their crystal structures are then predicted using the random search method and first-principles calculations. Our molecular simulation results clearly demonstrate that the non-natural sugar alcohols have potential ability to have thermal storage density up to ∼450-500 kJ/kg, which is significantly larger than the maximum thermal storage density of the present known organic PCMs (∼350 kJ/kg). This computational study suggests that, even in the case of H-bonded molecular crystals where the electrostatic energy contributes mainly to thermal storage density, the molecular distortion and van der Waals energies are also important factors to increase thermal storage density. In addition, the comparison between the three eight-carbon non-natural sugar alcohol isomers indicates that the selection of preferable isomers is also essential for large thermal storage density.

  15. Just a Spoonful of Sugar Will Land You Six Feet Underground: Should the Food and Drug Administration Revoke Added Sugar's GRAS Status?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Card, Melissa Marie; Abela, John Francis

    2015-01-01

    This article assesses whether added sugar meets FDA's standard to be generally recognized as safe ("GRAS"). If added sugar is not GRAS, then manufacturers are subject to premarket approval prior to using added sugar in their products. This article advocates that FDA should issue a Federal Register notice determining that added sugar is not GRAS, allowing FDA to regulate the amount of added sugar used in processed foods, decreasing the health adversities that stem from added sugar consumption. PMID:26630822

  16. The African American Image in American Cinema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourne, St. Clair

    1990-01-01

    Political conditions have influenced the screen images of U.S. cinema, and the images of African Americans have reflected prevailing social stereotypes. The history of African-American representation in films is traced, and it is noted that the tendency to portray African Americans stereotypically has not changed. (SLD)

  17. Historiography, American Theatre, and the First Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Linda Walsh

    American theatre history should include a study of Native American performances, since these performances are rich with "American" symbolic materials such as imagery, symbols, and heraldic visions of animals and landscapes. Indian cultures understood the importance of performance for both the visionary and the community at large. Even the pow-wow…

  18. Optimal Control for Industrial Sucrose Crystallization with Action Dependent Heuristic Dynamic Programming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaofeng Lin

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper applies a neural-network-based approximate dynamic programming (ADP method, namely, the action dependent heuristic dynamic programming (ADHDP, to an industrial sucrose crystallization optimal control problem. The industrial sucrose crystallization is a nonlinear and slow time-varying process. It is quite difficult to establish a precise mechanism model of the crystallization, because of complex internal mechanism and interacting variables. We developed a neural network model of the crystallization based on the data from the actual sugar boiling process of sugar refinery. The ADHDP is a learningand approximation-based approach which can solve the optimization control problem of nonlinear system. The paper covers the basic principle of this learning scheme and the design of neural network controller based on the approach. The result of simulation shows the controller based on action dependent heuristic dynamic programming approach can optimize industrial sucrose crystallization.

  19. Insights revealed by rodent models of sugar binge eating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Susan M; Tulloch, Alastair J; Chen, Eunice Y; Avena, Nicole M

    2015-12-01

    Binge eating is seen across the spectrum of eating disorder diagnoses as well as among individuals who do not meet diagnostic criteria. Analyses of the specific types of foods that are frequently binged upon reveal that sugar-rich items feature prominently in binge-type meals, making the effects of binge consumption of sugar an important focus of study. One avenue to do this involves the use of animal models. Foundational and recent studies of animal models of sugar bingeing, both outlined here, lend insight into the various neurotransmitters and neuropeptides that may participate in or be altered by this behavior. Further, several preclinical studies incorporating sugar bingeing paradigms have explored the utility of pharmacological agents that target such neural systems for reducing sugar bingeing in an effort to enhance clinical treatment. Indeed, the translational implications of findings generated using animal models of sugar bingeing are considered here, along with potential avenues for further study.

  20. An Update on the Consequences of EU Sugar Reform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sibusiso Moyo

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Since its formation the European Union (EU has employed a rather complicated policy to ensure high prices to domestic sugar growers and trade preferences to certain sugar exporting countries, e.g. the African Caribbean and Pacific (ACP group. One result of this policy is that the EU has been both the second largest importer and second largest exporter in the world market. Under pressure from the World Trade Organization (WTO, the EU agreed to reform its policies toward sugar in 2001, with the full effect of the reforms being fully implemented in 2006. In this paper, the impact of the sugar reform on EU production, consumption, imports, and exports is examined especially with regard to how it all affects the ACP countries who receive preferential treatment regarding access to EU sugar markets. Preliminary analysis indicates that lowering domestic EU prices, while quotas requirements for ACP countries remain intact might have negative revenue implications for poor sugar producers.

  1. Recent advances in biological production of sugar alcohols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Yong-Cheol; Oh, Eun Joong; Jo, Jung-Hyun; Jin, Yong-Su; Seo, Jin-Ho

    2016-02-01

    Sugar alcohols, such as xylitol, mannitol, sorbitol, and erythritol are emerging food ingredients that provide similar or better sweetness/sensory properties of sucrose, but are less calorigenic. Also, sugar alcohols can be converted into commodity chemicals through chemical catalysis. Biotechnological production offers the safe and sustainable supply of sugar alcohols from renewable biomass. In contrast to early studies that aimed to produce sugar alcohols with microorganisms capable of producing sugar alcohols naturally, recent studies have focused on rational engineering of metabolic pathways to improve yield and productivity as well as to use inexpensive and abundant substrates. Metabolic engineering strategies to utilize inexpensive substrates, alleviate catabolite repression, reduce byproduct formation, and manipulate redox balances led to enhanced production of sugar alcohols.

  2. Recent advances in biological production of sugar alcohols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Yong-Cheol; Oh, Eun Joong; Jo, Jung-Hyun; Jin, Yong-Su; Seo, Jin-Ho

    2016-02-01

    Sugar alcohols, such as xylitol, mannitol, sorbitol, and erythritol are emerging food ingredients that provide similar or better sweetness/sensory properties of sucrose, but are less calorigenic. Also, sugar alcohols can be converted into commodity chemicals through chemical catalysis. Biotechnological production offers the safe and sustainable supply of sugar alcohols from renewable biomass. In contrast to early studies that aimed to produce sugar alcohols with microorganisms capable of producing sugar alcohols naturally, recent studies have focused on rational engineering of metabolic pathways to improve yield and productivity as well as to use inexpensive and abundant substrates. Metabolic engineering strategies to utilize inexpensive substrates, alleviate catabolite repression, reduce byproduct formation, and manipulate redox balances led to enhanced production of sugar alcohols. PMID:26723007

  3. Discrimination of genetically modified sugar beets based on terahertz spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Tao; Li, Zhi; Yin, Xianhua; Hu, Fangrong; Hu, Cong

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this paper was to apply terahertz (THz) spectroscopy combined with chemometrics techniques for discrimination of genetically modified (GM) and non-GM sugar beets. In this paper, the THz spectra of 84 sugar beet samples (36 GM sugar beets and 48 non-GM ones) were obtained by using terahertz time-domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS) system in the frequency range from 0.2 to 1.2 THz. Three chemometrics methods, principal component analysis (PCA), discriminant analysis (DA) and discriminant partial least squares (DPLS), were employed to classify sugar beet samples into two groups: genetically modified organisms (GMOs) and non-GMOs. The DPLS method yielded the best classification result, and the percentages of successful classification for GM and non-GM sugar beets were both 100%. Results of the present study demonstrate the usefulness of THz spectroscopy together with chemometrics methods as a powerful tool to distinguish GM and non-GM sugar beets.

  4. Separate circuitries encode the hedonic and nutritional values of sugar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tellez, Luis A; Han, Wenfei; Zhang, Xiaobing; Ferreira, Tatiana L; Perez, Isaac O; Shammah-Lagnado, Sara J; van den Pol, Anthony N; de Araujo, Ivan E

    2016-03-01

    Sugar exerts its potent reinforcing effects via both gustatory and post-ingestive pathways. It is, however, unknown whether sweetness and nutritional signals engage segregated brain networks to motivate ingestion. We found in mice that separate basal ganglia circuitries mediated the hedonic and nutritional actions of sugar. During sugar intake, suppressing hedonic value inhibited dopamine release in ventral, but not dorsal, striatum, whereas suppressing nutritional value inhibited dopamine release in dorsal, but not ventral, striatum. Consistently, cell-specific ablation of dopamine-excitable cells in dorsal, but not ventral, striatum inhibited sugar's ability to drive the ingestion of unpalatable solutions. Conversely, optogenetic stimulation of dopamine-excitable cells in dorsal, but not ventral, striatum substituted for sugar in its ability to drive the ingestion of unpalatable solutions. Our data indicate that sugar recruits a distributed dopamine-excitable striatal circuitry that acts to prioritize energy-seeking over taste quality.

  5. Detection of sugar-lectin interactions by multivalent dendritic sugar functionalized single-walled carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasu, K. S.; Naresh, K.; Bagul, R. S.; Jayaraman, N.; Sood, A. K.

    2012-07-01

    We show that single walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) decorated with sugar functionalized poly (propyl ether imine) (PETIM) dendrimer is a very sensitive platform to quantitatively detect carbohydrate recognizing proteins, namely, lectins. The changes in electrical conductivity of SWNT in field effect transistor device due to carbohydrate-protein interactions form the basis of present study. The mannose sugar attached PETIM dendrimers undergo charge-transfer interactions with the SWNTs. The changes in the conductance of the dendritic sugar functionalized SWNT after addition of lectins in varying concentrations were found to follow the Langmuir type isotherm, giving the concanavalin A (Con A)-mannose affinity constant to be 8.5 × 106 M-1. The increase in the device conductance observed after adding 10 nM of Con A is same as after adding 20 μM of a non-specific lectin peanut agglutinin, showing the high specificity of the Con A-mannose interactions. The specificity of sugar-lectin interactions was characterized further by observing significant shifts in Raman modes of the SWNTs.

  6. Technical and Economical Feasibility of Production of Ethanol from Sugar Cane and Sugar Cane Bagasse

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Efe, C.; Straathof, A.J.J.; Van der Wielen, L.A.M.

    2005-01-01

    The primary aim of this study is to investigate and analyze the sugar-ethanol plants operating in Brazil to construct a raw model to gain better understanding and insight about the technical and economical aspects of the currently operating plants. And, the secondary aim is to combine the knowledge

  7. Understanding the Effect of Sugar and Sugar Replacement in Short Dough Biscuits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laguna, L.; Vallons, K.J.R.; Jurgens, A.; Sanz, T.

    2013-01-01

    Sucrose is the main sugar used in short dough biscuit formula, and it plays an important role in the biscuit manufacturing as well as in the biscuits final quality. However, for health reasons, high levels of sucrose are undesirable, making sucrose replacement an important issue to study. The presen

  8. Policy induced substitution of high fructose corn syrup for sugar in the United States

    OpenAIRE

    Hafi, Ahmed; Connell, Peter; Roberts, Ivan

    1996-01-01

    US sugar policies have depressed the world sugar price markedly, and tlte substitution of high fructose com syrup for sugar brought about by US sugar policies has contributed a major part of this price depressing effect. Current US sugar policies impose substantial costs on US consumers. the US economy and sugar exporters, most of which are developing countries. This paper measures the impact that the increased consumption of high fructose com has had on both the USand world sugar economies. ...

  9. PRICE VARIABILITY AND FINANCIAL RISK FOR SUGAR BEET GROWERS

    OpenAIRE

    Nganje, William E.; Stoltman, Gwen

    2000-01-01

    This paper develops a portfolio framework to characterize and analyze the impact of price risk faced by sugar beet growers in the Red River Valley and derives implications for capital markets. Other sources of risk incorporated in the analysis are yields and production cost. Results from stochastic simulation analysis reveal that sugar beet growers incur significant price and financial risk. The hypothesis that the loan rate for sugar truncates the distribution of net returns and protects gro...

  10. The EU Sugar Policy Regime and Implications of Reform

    OpenAIRE

    Elbehri, Aziz; Umstaetter, Johannes; Kelch, David R.

    2008-01-01

    The European Union’s sugar policy, in place since 1968, underwent its first major reform in 2005 in response to mounting and unsustainable imbalances in supply and demand. The reform, however, targeted only a few policy instruments (intervention price cut, voluntary production quota buyout, and restrictions on nonquota sugar exports), while leaving other key policies unchanged (interstate quota trading, sugar-substitute competition, and import barriers). Consequently, the extent of the reform...

  11. Water requirements of sugar cane grown in tropical environment

    OpenAIRE

    Vicente de Paulo Rodrigues da Silva; Cícera Josefa Rozangela Borges; Walker Gomes de Albuquerque

    2014-01-01

    An accurate estimation of water consumption of cane sugar crop is important for maximum productivity with less investment. The objective of this study was to determine the water requirements of sugar cane grown in tropical environments. The field experiment was carried out in Paraiba state, during the productive cycle of sugar cane crop variety RB 92 579 irrigated by central pivot irrigation (sprinkler) from October 2009 to September 2011. The crop evapotranspiration was obtained based on soi...

  12. Sugar transporters for intercellular exchange and nutrition of pathogens

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Li-Qing; Hou, Bi-Huei; Lalonde, Sylvie; Takanaga, Hitomi; Hartung, Mara L; Qu, Xiao-Qing; Guo, Woei-Jiun; Kim, Jung-Gun; Underwood, William; Chaudhuri, Bhavna; Chermak, Diane; Antony, Ginny; White, Frank F; Somerville, Shauna C.; Mudgett, Mary Beth

    2010-01-01

    Sugar efflux transporters are essential for the maintenance of animal blood glucose levels, plant nectar production, and plant seed and pollen development. Despite broad biological importance, the identity of sugar efflux transporters has remained elusive. Using optical glucose sensors, we identified a new class of sugar transporters, named SWEETs, and show that at least six out of seventeen Arabidopsis, two out of over twenty rice and two out of seven homologues in Caenorhabditis elegans, an...

  13. The future of global sugar markets: Policies, reforms, and impact

    OpenAIRE

    Bureau, Jean-Christophe; Gohin, Alexandre; Guindé, Loïc; Millet, Guy; Brandão, Antônio Salazar P.; Haley, Stephen; Wagner, Owen; Orden, David; Sandrey, Ron; Vink, Nick

    2008-01-01

    "Sugar is one of the most highly protected agricultural commodities worldwide. This protection depresses trade opportunities and the prices received by exporters without preferential market access. For this reason, dialogues about sugar policy are often polarized and short sound bites caustic. Yet today's sugar markets are being driven by a complex array of dynamic and emerging supply, demand, and policy forces that need to be understood. A number of these forces have the potential to reshape...

  14. Bioenergy productivity of sugar beet irrigated with reclaimed wastewaters

    OpenAIRE

    Pasquale Campi; Alejandra Navarro; A. Domenico Palumbo; Marcello Mastrangelo; Antonio Lonigro; Marcello Mastrorilli

    2015-01-01

    The use of treated wastewater to irrigate the sugar beet (Beta Vulgaris L. var. saccharifera) for bioethanol could play a strategic role to contrast the use of natural water resources and increase the productivity of the crop. The 2-year experiment (2013-2014) was performed on sugar beet irrigated with fresh water and wastewater at different steps of the reclamation process (secondary and tertiary treatments). The data obtained showed that the root sugar beet yield and ethanol production unde...

  15. EU SUGAR POLICY REFORM: QUOTA REDUCTION AND DEVALUATION

    OpenAIRE

    Witzke, Heinz Peter; Heckelei, Thomas

    2002-01-01

    The research presented is part of a larger study aiming at the analysis of reform options for the EU sugar policy regime. This paper focuses on the effects of quota reduction and support price cuts. A thorough theoretical analysis investigates the implications of farm heterogeneity for aggregate supply modeling purposes under the current sugar regime. It can be shown that the treatment of sugar quantities produced under the different quotas and without quota can be treated as different produc...

  16. Consumer understanding of sugars claims on food and drink products

    OpenAIRE

    Patterson, N J; Sadler, M J; Cooper, J. M.

    2012-01-01

    Consumer understanding of nutrition and health claims is a key aspect of current regulations in the European Union (EU). In view of this, qualitative and quantitative research techniques were used to investigate consumer awareness and understanding of product claims in the UK, focusing particularly on nutrition claims relating to sugars. Both research methods identified a good awareness of product claims. No added sugars claims were generally preferred to reduced sugars claims, and there was ...

  17. Perceptions of sugar mommy practices in South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Phaswana-Mafuya, Nancy; Shisana, Olive; Davids, Adlai; Tabane, Cily; Mbelle, Margaret; Matseke, Gladys; Banyini, Mercy; Kekana, Queen

    2014-01-01

    The study sought to explore sugar mommy practices regarding their occurrence, acceptability as well as perceived reasons why older women and younger men enter into sugar mommy relationships. An exploratory qualitative study involving 135 participants from 11 diverse focus groups in terms of age, gender (females=27%) and geotype throughout the nine South African provinces was conducted. Data on the participants’ views, opinions and experiences of sugar mommy practices were collected using focu...

  18. Multilateral Trade and Agricultural Policy Reforms in Sugar Markets

    OpenAIRE

    Amani Elobeid; John C. Beghin

    2004-01-01

    We analyze the removal of current market interventions in world sugar markets using a partial-equilibrium international sugar model calibrated on 2002 market data and current policies. We analyze the impact of trade liberalization and the removal of production subsidies and consumption distortions. The removal of trade distortions alone induces a 27 percent price increase by the end of the decade relative to the baseline level for sugar. The removal of all trade and production distortions ind...

  19. Biofuel production from plant biomass derived sugars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cripps, R.

    2007-03-15

    This report details the results of a project that aimed to develop a recombinant thermophilic microorganism able to produce ethanol in a commercial yield from mixed C5 (xylose and arabinose) and C6 (mainly glucose) sugar substrates typically found in biomass hydrolysates. The main focus of the project was on producing a stable recombinant which formed ethanol as its major product and did not produce significant quantities of by-products. The costs of bioethanol could be substantially reduced if cheap plant-based feedstocks could be utilised. This study focussed on a strain of Geobacillus thermoglucosidasius known to be a thermophilic ethanol producer and developed the genetic manipulation techniques necessary to engineer its metabolism such that unwanted products (mainly organic acids) were no longer formed and ethanol became the overwhelming product. An appropriate genetic took kit to allow the required metabolic engineering was acquired and used to inactivate the genes of the metabolic pathways involved in the formation of the organic acids (e.g. lactic acid) and to up-regulate genes concerned with the formation of ethanol. This allowed the flow of metabolites derived from the sugar substrates to be redirected to the desired product. Stable mutants lacking the ability to form lactic acid were created and shown to give enhanced levels of ethanol, with yields from glucose approaching those achieved in yeast fermentations and low by-product formation.

  20. Sugar cane bagasse prehydrolysis using hot water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Abril

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Results are presented on the hot water prehydrolysis of sugar cane bagasse for obtaining ethanol by fermentation. The experimental study consisted of the determination of the effect of temperature and time of prehydrolysis on the extraction of hemicelluloses, with the objective of selecting the best operating conditions that lead to increased yield of extraction with a low formation of inhibitors. The study, carried out in a pilot plant scale rotational digester, using a 3² experimental design at temperatures of 150-190ºC and times of 60-90 min, showed that it is possible to perform the hot water prehydrolysis process between 180-190ºC in times of 60-82 min, yielding concentrations of xylose > 35 g/L, furfural < 2.5 g/L, phenols from soluble lignin < 1.5 g/L, and concentrations < 3.0 g/L of hemicelluloses in the cellolignin residue. These parameters of temperature and prehydrolysis time could be used for the study of the later hydrolysis and fermentation stages of ethanol production from sugar cane bagasse.

  1. pH Regulation of Electrogenic Sugar/H+ Symport in MFS Sugar Permeases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazzone, Andre; Madej, M. Gregor; Kaback, H. Ronald

    2016-01-01

    Bacterial sugar symporters in the Major Facilitator Superfamily (MFS) use the H+ (and in a few cases Na+) electrochemical gradients to achieve active transport of sugar into the cell. Because a number of structures of MFS sugar symporters have been solved recently, molecular insight into the transport mechanism is possible from detailed functional analysis. We present here a comparative electrophysiological study of the lactose permease (LacY), the fucose permease (FucP) and the xylose permease (XylE), which reveals common mechanistic principles and differences. In all three symporters energetically downhill electrogenic sugar/H+ symport is observed. Comparison of the pH dependence of symport at symmetrical pH exhibits broad bell-shaped pH profiles extending over 3 to 6 pH units and a decrease at extremely alkaline pH ≥ 9.4 and at acidic to neutral pH = 4.6–7.5. The pH dependence can be described by an acidic to neutral apparent pK (pKapp) and an alkaline pKapp. Experimental evidence suggests that the alkaline pKapp is due to H+ depletion at the protonation site, while the acidic pKapp is due to inhibition of deprotonation. Since previous studies suggest that a single carboxyl group in LacY (Glu325) may be the only side chain directly involved in H+ translocation and a carboxyl side chain with similar properties has been identified in FucP (Asp46) and XylE (Asp27), the present results imply that the pK of this residue is switched during H+/sugar symport in all three symporters. PMID:27227677

  2. pH Regulation of Electrogenic Sugar/H+ Symport in MFS Sugar Permeases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazzone, Andre; Madej, M Gregor; Kaback, H Ronald; Fendler, Klaus

    2016-01-01

    Bacterial sugar symporters in the Major Facilitator Superfamily (MFS) use the H+ (and in a few cases Na+) electrochemical gradients to achieve active transport of sugar into the cell. Because a number of structures of MFS sugar symporters have been solved recently, molecular insight into the transport mechanism is possible from detailed functional analysis. We present here a comparative electrophysiological study of the lactose permease (LacY), the fucose permease (FucP) and the xylose permease (XylE), which reveals common mechanistic principles and differences. In all three symporters energetically downhill electrogenic sugar/H+ symport is observed. Comparison of the pH dependence of symport at symmetrical pH exhibits broad bell-shaped pH profiles extending over 3 to 6 pH units and a decrease at extremely alkaline pH ≥ 9.4 and at acidic to neutral pH = 4.6-7.5. The pH dependence can be described by an acidic to neutral apparent pK (pKapp) and an alkaline pKapp. Experimental evidence suggests that the alkaline pKapp is due to H+ depletion at the protonation site, while the acidic pKapp is due to inhibition of deprotonation. Since previous studies suggest that a single carboxyl group in LacY (Glu325) may be the only side chain directly involved in H+ translocation and a carboxyl side chain with similar properties has been identified in FucP (Asp46) and XylE (Asp27), the present results imply that the pK of this residue is switched during H+/sugar symport in all three symporters. PMID:27227677

  3. pH Regulation of Electrogenic Sugar/H+ Symport in MFS Sugar Permeases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andre Bazzone

    Full Text Available Bacterial sugar symporters in the Major Facilitator Superfamily (MFS use the H+ (and in a few cases Na+ electrochemical gradients to achieve active transport of sugar into the cell. Because a number of structures of MFS sugar symporters have been solved recently, molecular insight into the transport mechanism is possible from detailed functional analysis. We present here a comparative electrophysiological study of the lactose permease (LacY, the fucose permease (FucP and the xylose permease (XylE, which reveals common mechanistic principles and differences. In all three symporters energetically downhill electrogenic sugar/H+ symport is observed. Comparison of the pH dependence of symport at symmetrical pH exhibits broad bell-shaped pH profiles extending over 3 to 6 pH units and a decrease at extremely alkaline pH ≥ 9.4 and at acidic to neutral pH = 4.6-7.5. The pH dependence can be described by an acidic to neutral apparent pK (pKapp and an alkaline pKapp. Experimental evidence suggests that the alkaline pKapp is due to H+ depletion at the protonation site, while the acidic pKapp is due to inhibition of deprotonation. Since previous studies suggest that a single carboxyl group in LacY (Glu325 may be the only side chain directly involved in H+ translocation and a carboxyl side chain with similar properties has been identified in FucP (Asp46 and XylE (Asp27, the present results imply that the pK of this residue is switched during H+/sugar symport in all three symporters.

  4. Characterization of Sugar Insensitive (sis) Mutants of Arabidopsis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gibson, Susan I.

    2009-06-08

    Despite the fact that soluble sugar levels have been postulated to play an important role in the control of a wide variety of plant metabolic and developmental pathways, the mechanisms by which plants respond to soluble sugar levels remain poorly understood. Plant responses to soluble sugar levels are also important in bioenergy production, as plant sugar responses are believed to help regulate both carbon fixation and carbon partitioning. For example, accumulation of soluble sugars, such as sucrose and glucose, in source tissues leads to feedback inhibition of photosynthesis, thereby decreasing rates of carbon fixation. Soluble sugar levels can also affect sink strengths, affecting the rates of accumulation of carbon-based compounds into both particular molecular forms (e.g. carbohydrates versus lipids versus proteins) and particular plant organs and tissues. Mutants of Arabidopsis that are defective in the ability to respond to soluble sugar levels were isolated and used as tools to identify some of the factors involved in plant sugar response. These sugar insensitive (sis) mutants were isolated by screening mutagenized seeds for those that were able to germinate and develop relatively normal shoot systems on media containing 0.3 M glucose or 0.3 M sucrose. At these sugar concentrations, wild-type Arabidopsis germinate and produce substantial root systems, but show little to no shoot development. Twenty-eight sis mutants were isolated during the course of four independent mutant screens. Based on a preliminary characterization of all of these mutants, sis3 and sis6 were chosen for further study. Both of these mutations appear to lie in previously uncharacterized loci. Unlike many other sugar-response mutants, sis3 mutants exhibit a wild-type or near wild-type response in all phytohormone-response assays conducted to date. The sis6-1 mutation is unusual in that it appears to be due to overexpression of a gene, rather than representing a loss of function mutation

  5. [True place of simple sugars in the cause of caries].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Julien, M G

    1991-02-01

    A recent leaflet published for dental patients by the Canadian Association of Confectioners promotes the consumption of sweets, considering them on an equal basis, in regard to caries, as any other foods containing simple sugars, such as: fruits, vegetables, bread or pasta. This article intends to demistify such inference. While it is true that most foods containing simple sugars can lower plaque pH when considered alone, in the context of a total diet, the relationship between simple sugars and caries is much more complex. Also, in regard to total health, one can not equate all simple sugars since they differ considerably in terms of nutritional value. PMID:1869698

  6. Food gap and food security of sugar in Egypt

    OpenAIRE

    SHEHATA, Gaber Ahmed Bassyouni

    2015-01-01

    The research aims mainly to study food gap and food security of sugar in Egypt through studying of several sub-goals represented in: estimating models of general trends function for some economic indicators of sugar in Egypt during the period (1995- 2012), studying of the most important indicators of food security of sugar, estimating the size of the food gap of sugar and knowledge of the most important factors responsible for, and studying the policies and means to achieve food security of s...

  7. Sugar ester surfactants: enzymatic synthesis and applications in food industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neta, Nair S; Teixeira, José A; Rodrigues, Lígia R

    2015-01-01

    Sugar esters are non-ionic surfactants that can be synthesized in a single enzymatic reaction step using lipases. The stability and efficiency of lipases under unusual conditions and using non-conventional media can be significantly improved through immobilization and protein engineering. Also, the development of de novo enzymes has seen a significant increase lately under the scope of the new field of synthetic biology. Depending on the esterification degree and the nature of fatty acid and/or sugar, a range of sugar esters can be synthesized. Due to their surface activity and emulsifying capacity, sugar esters are promising for applications in food industry.

  8. Synergistic Interactions of Sugars/Polyols and Monovalent Salts with Phospholipids Depend upon Sugar/Polyol Complexity and Anion Identity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Ginevra A; Henderson, J Michael; Heffern, Charles; Akgün, Bülent; Majewski, Jaroslaw; Lee, Ka Yee C

    2015-11-24

    We found that interactions of dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC) lipid monolayers with sugars are influenced by addition of NaCl. This work is of general importance in understanding how sugar-lipid-salt interactions impact biological systems. Using Langmuir isothermal compressions, fluorescence microscopy, atomic force microscopy, and neutron reflectometry, we examined DPPC monolayers upon addition of sugars/polyols and/or monovalent salts. Sugar-lipid interactions in the presence of NaCl increased with increasing complexity of the sugar/polyol in the order glycerol ≪ glucose lithium ions may also compete with glucose for binding sites. Thus, both cooperative and competitive factors contribute to the overall influence of salts on sugar-lipid interactions. PMID:26496486

  9. Association of δ13C in Fingerstick Blood with Added Sugars and Sugar-sweetened Beverage Intake

    OpenAIRE

    Davy, Brenda M.; Jahren, A. Hope; Hedrick, Valisa E.; Comber, Dana L.

    2011-01-01

    A reliance on self-reported dietary intake measures is a common research limitation, thus the need for dietary biomarkers. Added sugar intake may play a role in the development and progression of obesity and related co-morbidities; common sweeteners include corn and sugar cane derivatives. These plants contain a high amount of 13C, a naturally-occurring stable carbon isotope. Consumption of these sweeteners, of which sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB) are the primary dietary source, may be refle...

  10. Baby bottle tooth decay in Native American children in Head Start centers.

    OpenAIRE

    Broderick, E; Mabry, J.; Robertson, D.; Thompson, J.

    1989-01-01

    Baby bottle tooth decay is a unique pattern of dental caries (tooth decay) affecting the dentition of young children. It is associated with the practice of putting the child to sleep with a nursing bottle filled with liquid that contains sugar. Practitioners who treat Native American children have noted that this population suffers from a high prevalence of the condition. In order to establish specific program priorities and treatment needs for this segment of the Native American population, ...

  11. Sugar regulation of harvest-related genes in asparagus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, K M; Seelye, J F; Irving, D E; Borst, W M; Hurst, P L; King, G A

    1996-07-01

    The signals controlling the abundance of transcripts up-regulated (pTIP27, pTIP31, and pTIP32) or down-regulated (pTIP20 and pTIP21) after harvest in asparagus (Asparagus officinalis L.) spears were examined. pTIP27 and pTIP31 are known to encode asparagine synthetase (AS) and a beta-galactosidase (beta-gal) homolog, respectively. The nucleotide sequences of pTIP20, pTIP21, and pTIP32 were determined, and they encode histone 3, histone 2B, and an unknown product, respectively. Changes in respiration, soluble sugars, and abundance of the five mRNAs were similar in the tips stored as 30-mm lengths or as part of 180-mm spears. We previously hypothesized that sugars may regulate the level of AS transcripts in asparagus tissue. Asparagus cell cultures were used to test the role of sugar status may regulate the level of AS transcripts in asparagus tissue. Asparagus cell cultures were used to test the role of sugar status in regulating gene expression. Transcript abundance for AS, beta-gal, and pTIP32 was low in cells in sugar-containing medium but increased within 12 h after transferring cells to a sugar-free medium. Histone 3 and histone 2B transcripts were, in general, abundant in cells on sugar-containing medium but declined in abundance when transferred to sugar-free medium. When cells were returned to sugar-containing medium the abundance of transcripts for histone 3 and histone 2B increased, whereas that for AS, beta-gal, and pTIP32 decreased. Soluble sugar levels are known to decline rapidly in the tips of harvested spears. Metabolic regulation by sugar status may have a major influence on gene expression in asparagus spears and other tissue after harvest. PMID:8754687

  12. Total and Free Sugar Content of Canadian Prepackaged Foods and Beverages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jodi T. Bernstein

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available A number of recommendations for policy and program interventions to limit excess free sugar consumption have emerged, however there are a lack of data describing the amounts and types of sugar in foods. This study presents an assessment of sugar in Canadian prepackaged foods including: (a the first systematic calculation of free sugar contents; (b a comprehensive assessment of total sugar and free sugar levels; and (c sweetener and free sugar ingredient use, using the University of Toronto’s Food Label Information Program (FLIP database 2013 (n = 15,342. Food groups with the highest proportion of foods containing free sugar ingredients also had the highest median total sugar and free sugar contents (per 100 g/mL: desserts (94%, 15 g, and 12 g, sugars and sweets (91%, 50 g, and 50 g, and bakery products (83%, 16 g, and 14 g, proportion with free sugar ingredients, median total sugar and free sugar content in Canadian foods, respectively. Free sugar accounted for 64% of total sugar content. Eight of 17 food groups had ≥75% of the total sugar derived from free sugar. Free sugar contributed 20% of calories overall in prepackaged foods and beverages, with the highest at 70% in beverages. These data can be used to inform interventions aimed at limiting free sugar consumption.

  13. 40 CFR 409.20 - Applicability; description of the crystalline cane sugar refining subcategory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... crystalline cane sugar refining subcategory. 409.20 Section 409.20 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Crystalline Cane Sugar Refining Subcategory § 409.20 Applicability; description of the crystalline cane sugar... processing of raw cane sugar into crystalline refined sugar....

  14. Monitoring the Health of Sugar Maple, "Acer Saccharum"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Martha

    2013-01-01

    The sugar maple, "Acer saccharum," is projected to decline and die in 88 to 100 percent of its current range in the United States. An iconic symbol of the northeastern temperate forest and a dominant species in this forest, the sugar maple is identified as the most sensitive tree in its ecosystem to rising temperatures and a warming…

  15. A methodological approach to sugar mill diversification and conversion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noé Aguilar Rivera

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Sugar industry diversification is complex, being constrained by biophysical and socioeconomic conditions. Ongoing work has shown the sugarcane industry’s potential as biorefinery or its sustainable use by offering products as raw material. However, few studies have studied how such potential could be achieved by promoting a conventional sugar mill through integrating its indicators for developing an efficient diversified processing plant which would contribute towards fossil energy saving and competitiveness. This paper presents a conceptual framework for analysis based on existing knowledge regarding sugar industry state-of-the-art for evaluating diversification, using analytical hierarchy process (AHP as a tool for analysing complex systems, identifying alternatives to the current situation and discussing them to facilitate collective decision-making. Sugar mill AHP scores enabled discussion about the variables most affecting sugar mill diversification (0.332 factory yield, 0.327 sugar mill products and 0.121 sugarcane quality. The results serve as a useful guidance for formulating strategies for the optimum use of by-products in a sugar mill while maximising benefits to modify/convert a traditional sugar mill to a so-called bio-refinery.

  16. Countering Children's Sugared Food Commercials: Do Rebuttals Help?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufman, Lois; Sandman, Peter M.

    To assist the Federal Trade Commission (FTC) in policy making decisions concerning sugared food advertisements on television, a study was conducted to assess the effects on children of counter advertisements and disclaimers as a means of lessening the undesirable impact of sugared food ads. Approximately 1,200 children, aged 5 to 10 years,…

  17. Sugar and polyol solutions as effective solvent for biopolymers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sman, van der R.G.M.

    2016-01-01

    Ternary mixtures of biopolymers, sugars or polyols and water can be treated as a pseudo binary system with respect to melting of the biopolymer. Sugar and polyol solutions can be treated as an effective solvent, characterized by the density of hydroxyl groups available for intermolecular hydrogen

  18. Investigation of Copper Sorption by Sugar Beet Processing Lime Waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    In the western United States, sugar beet processing for sugar recovery generates a lime-based waste product (~250,000 Mg yr-1) that has little liming value in the region’s calcareous soils. This area has recently experienced an increase in dairy production, with dairi...

  19. Two Step Wittig/Dihydroxylation Synthetic Route to Higher Sugars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Morten; Madsen, Robert

    1999-01-01

    Higher carbon sugars are obtained by a two carbon, two step chain elongation of aldoses involving first a Wittig reaction and then an osmium tetroxide catalyzed dihydroxylation......Higher carbon sugars are obtained by a two carbon, two step chain elongation of aldoses involving first a Wittig reaction and then an osmium tetroxide catalyzed dihydroxylation...

  20. Sugar Cane Genome Numbers Assumption by Ribosomal DNA FISH Techniques

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thumjamras, S.; Jong, de H.; Iamtham, S.; Prammanee, S.

    2013-01-01

    Conventional cytological method is limited for polyploidy plant genome study, especially sugar cane chromosomes that show unstable numbers of each cultivar. Molecular cytogenetic as fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) techniques were used in this study. A basic chromosome number of sugar cane w

  1. "Sugar" jõuab lavale / Ülle Hallik

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Hallik, Ülle, 1963-

    2008-01-01

    Vanemuises esietendub 5. juunil "Sugar", lavastaja Mare Tommingas. Muusikal põhineb Jule Styne muusikalil "Sugar ehk Dzhässis ainult tüdrukud". Muusikali libreto kirjutas Peter Stone Robert Thoereni jutustuse ning Billy Wilderi ja I. A. L. Dimanondi filmi "Some Like It Hot" põhjal

  2. Effects of sugar intake on body weight: A review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermunt, S.H.F.; Pasman, W.J.; Schaafsma, G.; Kardinaal, A.F.M.

    2003-01-01

    Weight reduction programmes are mainly focused on reducing intake of fat and sugar. In this review we have evaluated whether the replacement of dietary (added) sugar by low-energy sweeteners or complex carbohydrates contributes to weight reduction. In two experimental studies, no short-term differen

  3. Structural confirmation of novel oligosaccharides isolated from sugar beet molasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, Tatsuya; Kikuchi, Hiroto; Aritsuka, Tsutomu; Takata, Yusuke; Fukushi, Eri; Fukushi, Yukiharu; Kawabata, Jun; Ueno, Keiji; Onodera, Shuichi; Shiomi, Norio

    2016-07-01

    Eleven oligosaccharides were isolated from sugar beet molasses using carbon-Celite column chromatography and HPLC. The constituent sugars and linkage positions were determined using methylation analysis, MALDI-TOF-MS, and NMR measurements. The configurations of isolated oligosaccharides were confirmed based on detailed NMR analysis. Based on our results, three of the 11 oligosaccharides were novel. PMID:26920296

  4. Protein abundance changes of Zygosaccharomyces rouxii in different sugar concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Hong; Niu, Chen; Liu, Bin; Wei, JianPing; Wang, HuXuan; Yuan, YaHong; Yue, TianLi

    2016-09-16

    Zygosaccharomyces rouxii is a yeast which can cause spoilage in the concentrated juice industries. It exhibits resistance to high sugar concentrations but genome- and proteome-wide studies on Z. rouxii in response to high sugar concentrations have been poorly investigated. Herein, by using a 2-D electrophoresis based workflow, the proteome of a wild strain of Z. rouxii under different sugar concentrations has been analyzed. Proteins were extracted, quantified, and subjected to 2-DE analysis in the pH range 4-7. Differences in growth (lag phase), protein content (13.97-19.23mg/g cell dry weight) and number of resolved spots (196-296) were found between sugar concentrations. ANOVA test showed that 168 spots were different, and 47 spots, corresponding to 40 unique gene products have been identified. These protein species are involved in carbohydrate and energy metabolism, amino acid metabolism, response to stimulus, protein transport and vesicle organization, cell morphogenesis regulation, transcription and translation, nucleotide metabolism, amino-sugar nucleotide-sugar pathways, oxidoreductases balancing, and ribosome biogenesis. The present study provides important information about how Z. rouxii acts to cope with high sugar concentration at molecular levels, which might enhance our global understanding of Z. rouxii's high sugar-tolerance trait. PMID:27322723

  5. The ionic balance of the sugar-beet plant

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Egmond, van F.

    1975-01-01

    The ionic balance of the sugar-beet plant was studied by measuring dry weight and chemical composition of every leaf, the crown and the root during the growing season.The sugar-beet plant has an almost neutral uptake. The nitrate and sulphate reduction determines the amount of carboxylates in the pl

  6. REMOVAL OF INHIBITORS FROM BIOMASS SUGARS USING A BIOLOGICAL PROCESS

    Science.gov (United States)

    A major constraint to fermentation of sugars in biomass hydrolysates is the presence of side-products of hydrolysis that are toxic to microorganisms. These chemicals include products of sugar degradation (furfural, 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF), and levulinic acid), organic acids released from hemi...

  7. Root rot in sugar beet piles at harvest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugar beet root rots are not only a concern because of reduced yields, but can also be associated with losses in storage. Our primary sugar beet root rot disease problem in the Amalgamated production area is Rhizoctonia root rot. However, this rot frequently only penetrates a short distance past t...

  8. Asian American-Pacific American Relations: The Asian American Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Sucheng

    This paper examines the migration and settlement history of Asians into the United States and the interaction of the major Asian immigrants with each other and with American society. An important thesis is that, because the differences between Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders are much greater than the similarities between them, they should no…

  9. Effect of commonly consumed sugar containing and sugar free fruit drinks on the hydrogen ion modulation of human dental plaque

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nanika Mahajan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: With the increased awareness of healthy diet among the population, the intake of fruit juices as health drinks has been increased. This study has been designed to check the potential cariogenicity of fruit drinks frequently consumed by infants and young children. Aim: To compare the acidogenic potential of sugar free fruit juices with fruit juices containing sugar by evaluating the plaque pH changes, following consumption of the above drinks. Design: The study was carried out on 10 children in the age group of 8-15 years. The four fruit juices used were 1 orange juice with added sugar 2 orange juice with no added sugar 3 apple juice with added sugar 4 apple juice with no added sugar. Sucrose rinse of 10% was used as control group. The endogenous pH of the fruit juices and control was assessed using digital pH meter. The plaque pH was assessed at the baseline and after the consumption of the drinks at 5, 10, 20, 30, 40, and 60 minutes time interval using the plaque-harvesting technique. The obtained results were compiled and subjected to statistical analysis using paired t-test. Result: All the fruit juices showed drop in plaque pH. A drop in pH was also observed in the juices despite of no added sugar content. Conclusion: The fruit juices labeled with "no added sugar" or "free from added sugar", contained substantial quantities of sugar and are equally cariogenic as are fruit drinks with added sugar.

  10. DETERMINATION OF THERMODYNAMIC AND KINETIC PARAMETERS OF LARGE SCALE CHROMATOGRAPHIC SEPARATION OF SUGAR AND REDUCING SUGAR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LiZhong; ShuWenli; 等

    1996-01-01

    The parameter identification model of large scale chromatography separation process is proposed.The phase equilibrium constants and lumped mass transfer coefficients of sugar and reducing sugar adsorption on D1,D2 and D3 resins as well as the axial dispersion coefficients of the fluid through packed columns are determined by means of the pulse-response experiment technique with an inert substance as a tracer and the chromatography measuring technique.The elution curve calculated from these parameters is good agreement with the experimental elution curve.The sensitivity analysis of these parameters is carried out ,and the result shows that the elution curves of chromatography separation are more sensitive to the variations of the phase equilibrium relationship than to the variation of the axial dispersion as well as the lumped mass transfer coefficients.

  11. Substrate induced crystallization of amorphous solid water at low temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We show that N2 monolayer desorption from ice surfaces is a quantitative, highly sensitive method for following the surface crystallization kinetics at low temperatures. Vapor deposited water films on a crystalline ice substrate exhibit amorphous growth at temperatures below ∼110 K. The rate of crystallization for these amorphous films is dramatically accelerated compared to the rate of crystallization observed for the amorphous films deposited directly on Pt(111). We find that the crystalline ice substrate acts as a two-dimensional nucleus for the growth of the crystalline phase, thereby accelerating the crystallization kinetics. copyright 1999 American Institute of Physics

  12. Biological Macromolecule Crystallization Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    SRD 21 Biological Macromolecule Crystallization Database (Web, free access)   The Biological Macromolecule Crystallization Database and NASA Archive for Protein Crystal Growth Data (BMCD) contains the conditions reported for the crystallization of proteins and nucleic acids used in X-ray structure determinations and archives the results of microgravity macromolecule crystallization studies.

  13. Water sorption and glass transition of amorphous sugars containing BSA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Imamura, K.; Suzuki, T.; Tatsumichi, T.; Kirii, S.; Okazaki, M. [Kyoto Univ., Kyoto (Japan). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    2000-08-01

    Water sorption and glass transition of four amorphous sugars (lactose, maltose, sucrose, and trehalose) containing bovine serum albumin (BSA) are investigated. Freeze-dried sugar-BSA samples equilibrated at several water activities ranging from 0 to 0.43 were prepared. Moisture content and glass transition temperature (T{sub g}) were measured. For the all sugars, it is found that BSA lowers T{sub g} at low water activity, and raises it at high water activity. It is also found that the difference between T{sub g} of the sugar-BSA samples and that of the corresponding amorphous sugar samples (T{sub g0}) depends mainly on T{sub g0}. (author)

  14. Effect of genotype on sugar beet yield and quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nenadić N.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of a considerable number of both domestic and foreign sugar beet genotypes on root yield and quality was investigated. The data demonstrated the most favorable results of some genotypes for root yield and sugar content. Trials were conducted on rhizomania infested soil, thus tolerant genotypes were used. Susceptible cultivars represented the control. In the trial root yield was high and sugar content low. On average, in the genotypes tested, root yield varied from 73.98 to 93.30 t/ha and sugar content from 11.90 to 13.36%, depending on weather conditions. Root yield of the genotypes investigated varied from 30.61 to 112.64 t/ha and sugar content from 10.60 to 14.20%. The Swedish cultivar Dorotea (tolerant to both rhizomania and cercospora was the most yielding. The least yielding (susceptible to both rhizomania and cercospora was the domestic cultivar Dana.

  15. Capillary electrophoretic study on UDP-sugars in cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许国旺; R.Lehmann; 路鑫; H.M.Liebich; 张玉奎; 卢佩章

    2000-01-01

    Glucose is an important regulator of cell growth and metabolism. Uridine diphosphate sugars (UDP-sugars), as the intermediate products of metabolism, play pivotal roles as precursors in the synthesis of complex carbohydrates and glycolipids as well as lectose. It is very important to study their metabolism in cells in clinical biochemistry. A capillary electrophoretic method has been developed for the analysis of UDP-sugars and nucleotides. By using an uncoated capillary (70cm×50μm) and 20 mmol/L borax buffer (pH 9), 4 important UDP-sugars can be analyzed in 15 min at 22 kV with satisfactory precision and sensitivity. The developed method has been applied to analyze UDP-sugars concentrations in lymphocytes, fibroblasts and mesangial cells, and the results show it not only is much better than HPLC method, but also can be used to measure the energy charge of cells.

  16. Capillary electrophoretic study on UDP-sugars in cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Glucose is an important regulator of cell growth and metabolism. Uridine diphosphate sugars (UDP-sugars), as the intermediate products of metabolism, play pivotal roles as precursors in the synthesis of complex carbohydrates and glycolipids as well as lectose. It is very important to study their metabolism in cells in clinical biochemistry. A capillary electrophoretic method has been developed for the analysis of UDP-sugars and nucleotides. By using an uncoated capillary (70cm×50 μm) and 20 mmol/L borax buffer (pH 9), 4 important UDP-sugars can be analyzed in 15 min at 22 kV with satisfactory precision and sensitivity. The developed method has been applied to analyze UDP-sugars concentrations in lymphocytes, fibroblasts and mesangial cells, and the results show it not only is much better than HPLC method, but also can be used to measure the energy charge of cells.

  17. Sugar transport across lactose permease probed by steered molecular dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Morten Østergaard; Yin, Ying; Tajkhorshid, Emad;

    2007-01-01

    Escherichia coli lactose permease (LacY) transports sugar across the inner membrane of the bacterium using the proton motive force to accumulate sugar in the cytosol. We have probed lactose conduction across LacY using steered molecular dynamics, permitting us to follow molecular and energetic......, forcing it to interact with channel lining residues. Lactose forms a multitude of direct sugar-channel hydrogen bonds, predominantly with residues of the flexible N-domain, which is known to contribute a major part of LacY's affinity for lactose. In the periplasmic half-channel lactose predominantly...... interacts with hydrophobic channel lining residues, whereas in the cytoplasmic half-channel key protein-substrate interactions are mediated by ionic residues. A major energy barrier against transport is found within a tight segment of the periplasmic half-channel where sugar hydration is minimal and protein-sugar...

  18. Native Americans and Diabetes

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... gradually over many years, people can have high blood sugar and not necessarily recognize the symptoms, not know that they're developing the eye disease or the heart or kidney disease of ...

  19. Variability in the occurrence of the sugar cane froghopper Aeneolamia flavilatera (Homoptera: Cercopidae), on sugar estates in Guyana and Surinam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiedijk, F.

    1982-01-01

    Significant numbers of the sugar cane froghopper, Aeneolamia flavilatera, are generally not found to be present on sugar cane during the periodically occurring prolonged dry periods. This is primarily attributable to drought induced quiescence in the froghopper eggs, which delays the appearence of t

  20. Exploration of Sugar Functionality in Sugar-Snap and Wire-Cut Cookie Baking: Implications for Sucrose Reduction or Replacement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugars are plasticizers of the biopolymers of wheat flour, but concentrated sugar solutions act as anti-plasticizers, compared to water alone. As a result, gluten development during dough mixing and starch gelatinization/pasting during cookie baking are delayed or prevented. In great excess, aqueou...

  1. What are Asian-American youth consuming? A systematic literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diep, Cassandra S; Foster, Margaret J; McKyer, E Lisako J; Goodson, Patricia; Guidry, Jeffrey J; Liew, Jeffrey

    2015-04-01

    Numerous studies have explored dietary practices among children, but there are limited studies on children of Asian background in the US. This review had three aims: (a) review literature regarding Asian-American youth's dietary behaviors, (b) critically evaluate the methodological quality of such research, and (c) provide recommendations for future nutrition-related research on Asian-American youth. The authors conducted a systematic literature review through MEDLINE (EBSCO), CINAHL Plus with Full Text (EBSCO), and Embase (Ovid); extracted descriptive data; and evaluated methodological quality. Thirteen articles were included. Major findings included: (a) frequent consumption of milk, fruit, meat, unenriched white rice, vegetables, and high-fat and high-sugar items among Asian-American children and (b) acculturation's influences on diet, resulting in Asian-American youth consuming diets characterized by both Asian and American foods. Findings from this review may inform education and promotion programs and services for Asian Americans in the US.

  2. Crystallization process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adler, Robert J.; Brown, William R.; Auyang, Lun; Liu, Yin-Chang; Cook, W. Jeffrey

    1986-01-01

    An improved crystallization process is disclosed for separating a crystallizable material and an excluded material which is at least partially excluded from the solid phase of the crystallizable material obtained upon freezing a liquid phase of the materials. The solid phase is more dense than the liquid phase, and it is separated therefrom by relative movement with the formation of a packed bed of solid phase. The packed bed is continuously formed adjacent its lower end and passed from the liquid phase into a countercurrent flow of backwash liquid. The packed bed extends through the level of the backwash liquid to provide a drained bed of solid phase adjacent its upper end which is melted by a condensing vapor.

  3. Ribbon crystals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakob Bohr

    Full Text Available A repetitive crystal-like pattern is spontaneously formed upon the twisting of straight ribbons. The pattern is akin to a tessellation with isosceles triangles, and it can easily be demonstrated with ribbons cut from an overhead transparency. We give a general description of developable ribbons using a ruled procedure where ribbons are uniquely described by two generating functions. This construction defines a differentiable frame, the ribbon frame, which does not have singular points, whereby we avoid the shortcomings of the Frenet-Serret frame. The observed spontaneous pattern is modeled using planar triangles and cylindrical arcs, and the ribbon structure is shown to arise from a maximization of the end-to-end length of the ribbon, i.e. from an optimal use of ribbon length. The phenomenon is discussed in the perspectives of incompatible intrinsic geometries and of the emergence of long-range order.

  4. Modeling sugar content of farmer-managed sugar beets (Beta vulgaris L..

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah A. Jaradat

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available We measured or estimated leaf and root physical and chemical traits of spatio-temporally heterogeneousfield-grown sugar beet throughout its ontogeny during three growing seasons. The objective was toquantify the impact of temporal changes in these traits on root sugar content [S(R; g 100 g-1 root dryweight]. Artificial Neural Network (ANN, in conjunction with thermal time (ºCd, adequately delineatedthe boundaries (mean ± standard deviation, S.D. between S(R during early (41.6 ± 6.2, med (54.5 ± 3.0,and late ontogeny (63.4 ± 2.4, corresponding, respectively to low, medium, and high S(R. Calibrationand validation Partial Least Squares (PLS regression models, using plant physical and chemical traits,predicted and validated sugar content of sugar beet leaves [S(L] and roots [S(R] throughout its ontogenywith significant probabilities. Most physical and all chemical traits exhibited dynamic changesthroughout plant ontogeny and, consequently, negatively or positively impacted S(R. The positiveimpact of S(L and root volume (RV on S(R diminished towards the end of the growing season;whereas, the positive impact of root density (RD and carbon:nitrogen (C:N ratio in leaves [C:N(L] androots [C:N(R] persisted throughout plant ontogeny. Specific leaf area (SLA, in particular, exhibitednegative, then positive impact on S(R. The utility of physical and chemical traits of field-grown sugarbeets in building reliable PLS models was confirmed using multivariate analysis on secondary statistics(residual mean square errors, RMSE and validation coefficients of determination, Q2 whichdiscriminated between and correctly classified low (100%, medium (95% and high (97% S(R groups.The findings may have implications to design management practices that can enhance C:N ratio and Csequestrationin roots, maintain optimum, but not excessive, N level in developing leaves and roots,optimize root sugar content and minimize its variation under field conditions

  5. Acid-catalyzed conversion of mono- and poly-sugars into platform chemicals: effects of molecular structure of sugar substrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xun; Wu, Liping; Wang, Yi; Song, Yao; Mourant, Daniel; Gunawan, Richard; Gholizadeh, Mortaza; Li, Chun-Zhu

    2013-04-01

    Hydrolysis/pyrolysis of lignocellulosic biomass always produces a mixture of sugars with distinct structures as intermediates or products. This study tried to elucidate the effects of molecular structure of sugars on their acid-catalyzed conversions in ethanol/water. Location of carbonyl group in sugars (fructose versus glucose) and steric configuration of hydroxyl groups (glucose versus galactose) significantly affected yields of levulinic acid/ester (fructose>glucose>galactose). The dehydration of fructose to 5-(hydroxymethyl)furfural produces much less soluble polymer than that from glucose and galactose, which results in high yields of levulinic acid/ester from fructose. Anhydrate sugar such as levoglucosan tends to undergo the undesirable decomposition to form less levulinic acid/ester. Catalytic behaviors of the poly-sugars (sucrose, maltose, raffinose, β-cyclodextrins) were determined much by their basic units. However, their big molecular sizes create the steric hindrance that significantly affects their followed conversion over solid acid catalyst. PMID:23454803

  6. Biosynthesis, translocation, and accumulation of betaine in sugar beet and its progenitors in relation to salinity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, A D; Wyse, R

    1982-10-01

    Like other halophytic chenopods, sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) can accumulate high betaine levels in shoots and roots. N,N,N-trimethylglycine impedes sucrose crystallization and so lowers beet quality. The objective of this research was to examine the genetic variability and physiological significance of betaine accumulation in sugar beet and its relatives. Three cultivated genotypes of B. vulgaris and two genotypes of the wild progenitor B. maritima L. were grown with and without gradual salinization (final NaCl concentration = 150 millimolar). At 6 weeks old, all five genotypes had moderately high betaine levels in shoots and roots when unsalinized (averages for all genotypes: shoots = 108 micromoles per gram dry weight; roots = 99 micromoles per gram dry weight). Salinization raised betaine levels of shoots and roots 2- to 3-fold, but did not greatly depress shoot or root growth. The genotype WB-167-an annual B. maritima type-always had approximately 40% lower betaine levels in roots than the other four genotypes, although the betaine levels in the shoots were not atypically low.THE SITE AND PATHWAY OF BETAINE SYNTHESIS WERE INVESTIGATED IN YOUNG, SALINIZED SUGAR BEET PLANTS BY: (a) supplying 1 micromole [(14)C]ethanolamine to young leaf blades or to the taproot sink of intact plants; (b) supplying tracer [(14)C]formate to discs of leaf, hypocotyl, and taproot tissues in darkness. Conversion of both (14)C precursors to betaine was active only in leaf tissue. Very little (14)C appeared in the phospholipid phosphatidylcholine before betaine was heavily labeled; this was in marked contrast to the labeling patterns in salinized barley. Phosphorylcholine was a prominent early (14)C metabolite of both [(14)C]ethanolamine and [(14)C]formate in all tissues of sugar beet. Betaine translocation was examined in young plants of sugar beet and WB-167 by applying tracer [methyl-(14)C]betaine to a young expanded leaf and determining the distribution of (14)C after 3 days. In

  7. Enzymatic saccharification of sugar cane bagasse by continuous xylanase and cellulase production from cellulomonas flavigena PR-22.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas-Rejón, Óscar A; Poggi-Varaldo, Héctor M; Ramos-Valdivia, Ana C; Ponce-Noyola, Teresa; Cristiani-Urbina, Eliseo; Martínez, Alfredo; de la Torre, Mayra

    2016-03-01

    Cellulase (CMCase) and xylanase enzyme production and saccharification of sugar cane bagasse were coupled into two stages and named enzyme production and sugar cane bagasse saccharification. The performance of Cellulomonas flavigena (Cf) PR-22 cultured in a bubble column reactor (BCR) was compared to that in a stirred tank reactor (STR). Cells cultured in the BCR presented higher yields and productivity of both CMCase and xylanase activities than those grown in the STR configuration. A continuous culture with Cf PR-22 was run in the BCR using 1% alkali-pretreated sugar cane bagasse and mineral media, at dilution rates ranging from 0.04 to 0.22 1/h. The highest enzymatic productivity values were found at 0.08 1/h with 1846.4 ± 126.4 and 101.6 ± 5.6 U/L·h for xylanase and CMCase, respectively. Effluent from the BCR in steady state was transferred to an enzymatic reactor operated in fed-batch mode with an initial load of 75 g of pretreated sugar cane bagasse; saccharification was then performed in an STR at 55°C and 300 rpm for 90 h. The constant addition of fresh enzyme as well as the increase in time of contact with the substrate increased the total soluble sugar concentration 83% compared to the value obtained in a batch enzymatic reactor. This advantageous strategy may be used for industrial enzyme pretreatment and saccharification of lignocellulosic wastes to be used in bioethanol and chemicals production from lignocellulose. © 2016 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Biotechnol. Prog., 32:321-326, 2016. PMID:26701152

  8. Effects of sugar solutions on hypothalamic appetite regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colley, Danielle L; Castonguay, Thomas W

    2015-02-01

    Several hypotheses for the causes of the obesity epidemic in the US have been proposed. One such hypothesis is that dietary intake patterns have significantly shifted to include unprecedented amounts of refined sugar. We set out to determine if different sugars might promote changes in the hypothalamic mechanisms controlling food intake by measuring several hypothalamic peptides subsequent to overnight access to dilute glucose, sucrose, high fructose corn syrup, or fructose solutions. Rats were given access to food, water and a sugar solution for 24h, after which blood and tissues were collected. Fructose access (as opposed to other sugars that were tested) resulted in a doubling of circulating triglycerides. Glucose consumption resulted in upregulation of 7 satiety-related hypothalamic peptides whereas changes in gene expression were mixed for remaining sugars. Also, following multiple verification assays, 6 satiety related peptides were verified as being affected by sugar intake. These data provide evidence that not all sugars are equally effective in affecting the control of intake.

  9. Is extrinsic sugar a vehicle for dietary fat?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmett, P M; Heaton, K W

    1995-06-17

    Although many guidelines to healthy eating recommend restriction of the intake of extrinsic (refined) sugar, there are concerns that such restriction might result in an increase in the amount and the proportion of dietary fats with a consequent possible increase in the risk of cardiovascular disease. We used regression analysis to examine the determinants of fat intake in subjects from a population survey who had weighed their food for 4 days. In men (n = 77) and women (n = 83), fat eaten was positively related to the intake of extrinsic sugar. When intakes were expressed as percent of calories the relation became negative. A survey in a semi-random sample of 739 men aged 40-69 yr and 976 women aged 25-69 yr showed that, in both sexes, an increase in extrinsic sugar was associated with a linear increase in the intake of sweetened fat and hence of fat combined with carbohydrate. This was due mainly to a higher intake of cakes and biscuits. Foods containing sugar and fat provided an extra 12.0 g per day of fat in the men and 13.8 g per day in the women when the highest quartile of extrinsic sugar consumers were compared with the lowest quartile. We conclude that lowering the intake of extrinsic sugar is unlikely to be associated with higher fat intake. Instead extrinsic sugar may act as a vehicle for fat intake, encouraging consumption by making the fat more palatable.

  10. Enantiomeric and Isotopic Analysis of Sugar Derivatives in Carbonaceous Meteorites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, George; Asiyo, Cynthia; Turk, Kendra; DeVincenzi, Donald (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Several classes of organic compounds are found in carbonaceous meteorites including amino acids, carboxylic acids, hydroxy acids, purines, and pyrimidines. Such compounds are thought to have been delivered to the early Earth in asteroids and comets and may have played a role in the origin of life. Likewise, sugar derivatives are critical to all known lifeforms. Recent analyses of the Murchison and Murray carbonaceous meteorites revealed a diverse suite of such derivatives, i.e., sugar alcohols, and sugar acids. This presentation will focus primarily on the analysis of individual sugar acids - their enantiomeric and isotopic composition. Analysis of these compounds may reveal the nature of past (or present) meteoritic sugars themselves. For example, if parent sugars decomposed (by well-known mechanisms) to give the present acids, were their enantiomeric ratios preserved? Combined with other evidence, the enantiomeric composition of such compounds as glyceric acid and (especially) rare acids may help to answer such questions. C-13 and D isotope analysis of meteoritic sugar alcohols (glycerol, threitol, ribitol, etc.) as a group revealed that they were indigenous to the meteorite. Preliminary C-13 analysis of glyceric acid shows that it is also extraterrestrial.

  11. Effects of sugar solutions on hypothalamic appetite regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colley, Danielle L; Castonguay, Thomas W

    2015-02-01

    Several hypotheses for the causes of the obesity epidemic in the US have been proposed. One such hypothesis is that dietary intake patterns have significantly shifted to include unprecedented amounts of refined sugar. We set out to determine if different sugars might promote changes in the hypothalamic mechanisms controlling food intake by measuring several hypothalamic peptides subsequent to overnight access to dilute glucose, sucrose, high fructose corn syrup, or fructose solutions. Rats were given access to food, water and a sugar solution for 24h, after which blood and tissues were collected. Fructose access (as opposed to other sugars that were tested) resulted in a doubling of circulating triglycerides. Glucose consumption resulted in upregulation of 7 satiety-related hypothalamic peptides whereas changes in gene expression were mixed for remaining sugars. Also, following multiple verification assays, 6 satiety related peptides were verified as being affected by sugar intake. These data provide evidence that not all sugars are equally effective in affecting the control of intake. PMID:25449399

  12. Crystal structure of a symbiosis-related lectin from octocoral.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kita, Akiko; Jimbo, Mitsuru; Sakai, Ryuichi; Morimoto, Yukio; Miki, Kunio

    2015-09-01

    D-Galactose-binding lectin from the octocoral, Sinularia lochmodes (SLL-2), distributes densely on the cell surface of microalgae, Symbiodinium sp., an endosymbiotic dinoflagellate of the coral, and is also shown to be a chemical cue that transforms dinoflagellate into a non-motile (coccoid) symbiotic state. SLL-2 binds with high affinity to the Forssman antigen (N-acetylgalactosamine(GalNAc)α1-3GalNAcβ1-3Galα1-4Galβ1-4Glc-ceramide), and the presence of Forssman antigen-like sugar on the surface of Symbiodinium CS-156 cells was previously confirmed. Here we report the crystal structures of SLL-2 and its GalNAc complex as the first crystal structures of a lectin involved in the symbiosis between coral and dinoflagellate. N-Linked sugar chains and a galactose derivative binding site common to H-type lectins were observed in each monomer of the hexameric SLL-2 crystal structure. In addition, unique sugar-binding site-like regions were identified at the top and bottom of the hexameric SLL-2 structure. These structural features suggest a possible binding mode between SLL-2 and Forssman antigen-like pentasaccharide. PMID:26022515

  13. Solubility and physical properties of sugars in pressurized water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Sugar solubility in pressurized water and density at high pressures were measured. ► Glucose solubility was higher than that of lactose as predicted by their σ-profiles. ► Sugar aqueous solubility decreased with an increase in pressure from 15 to 120 bar. ► Aqueous glucose molecular packing shows high sensitivity to pressure. ► The COSMO-SAC model qualitatively predicted the sugar solubility data. - Abstract: In this study, the solubility, density, and refractive index of glucose and lactose in water as a function of temperature were measured. For solubility of sugars in pressurized water, experimental data were obtained at pressures of (15 to 120) bar and temperatures of (373 to 433) K using a dynamic flow high pressure system. Density data for aqueous sugar solutions were obtained at pressures of (1 to 300) bar and temperatures of (298 to 343) K. The refractive index of aqueous sugar solutions was obtained at 293 K and atmospheric pressure. Activity coefficient models, Van Laar and the Conductor-like Screening Model-Segment Activity Coefficient (COSMO-SAC), were used to fit and predict the experimental solubility data, respectively. The results obtained showed that the solubility of both sugars in pressurized water increase with an increase in temperature. However, with the increase of pressure from 15 bar to 120 bar, the solubility of both sugars in pressurized water decreased. The Van Laar model fit the experimental aqueous solubility data with deviations lower than 13 and 53% for glucose and lactose, respectively. The COSMO-SAC model predicted qualitatively the aqueous solubility of these sugars.

  14. American Society of Echocardiography

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Society of Echocardiography Join Ase Member Portal Log In Membership Member Portal Log In Join ASE Renew Benefits Rates FASE – Fellow of the American Society of Echocardiography Member Referral Program FAQs Initiatives Advocacy ...

  15. African Americans and Glaucoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Involved News About Us Donate In This Section African Americans and Glaucoma email Send this article to ... glaucoma is the leading cause of blindness in African Americans. Half of those with glaucoma don't ...

  16. American Vitiligo Research Foundation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... life can acquire vitiligo Welcome to The American Vitiligo Foundation "Embracing Diversity" bracelets are available to help ... animal testing. Please Visit Our Donations Page American Vitiligo Research Foundation "We Walk By Faith, Not By ...

  17. Obesity and Hispanic Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Data > Minority Population Profiles > Hispanic/Latino > Obesity Obesity and Hispanic Americans Among Mexican American women, 77 ... ss6304.pdf [PDF | 3.38MB] HEALTH IMPACT OF OBESITY More than 80 percent of people with type ...

  18. Obesity and Asian Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Data > Minority Population Profiles > Asian American > Obesity Obesity and Asian Americans Non-Hispanic whites are 60% ... youthonline . [Accessed 05/25/2016] HEALTH IMPACT OF OBESITY More than 80 percent of people with type ...

  19. Culture and Personality Among European American and Asian American Men

    OpenAIRE

    Eap, Sopagna; DeGarmo, David S.; Kawakami, Ayaka; Hara, Shelley N.; Hall, Gordon C.N.; Teten, Andra L.

    2008-01-01

    Personality differences between Asian American (N = 320) and European American men (N = 242) and also among Asian American ethnic groups (Korean, Chinese, Japanese, Filipino, and mixed Asian) are examined on the Big Five personality dimension. Personality structures for Asian Americans and European Americans closely replicate established norms. However, congruence is greater for European American and highly acculturated Asian American men than for low acculturated Asian American men. Similar ...

  20. EVALUATION OF APPROPRIATENESS OF SUGAR CANE PURCHASE RATE GIVEN BY SUGAR FACTORIES TO SUGAR CANE GROWERS IN KOLHAPUR DISTRICT, MAHARASHTRA (A Case Study of Shri. Chhatrapati Shahu Sahakari Sakhar Karkhana Ltd., Kagal, Tehsil-Kagal)

    OpenAIRE

    Patil, P. T.

    2015-01-01

    Sugarcane occupies an area of 20.42 million ha with a total production of 1333 million metric tons worldwide. Now, in India sugar industries are categorized as a co-operative, private and public sectors. Now few crises were come up in case of cooperative sugar factories in Kolhapur district particularly associated with sugar cane purchase rate given to the sugar cane growers by sugar cane factory. For in-depth analysis out of 14 efficiently working co-operative sugar factories in Kolhapur ...

  1. Sugarcane, sugar and ethanol technlogical information

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, M.I.F.; Oliveira, D.R.M.S.; Marin, F.R.; Santos, A.D.; Hanashiro, M.M. [Embrapa Agriculture Informatics, Campinas, SP (Brazil); Vian, C.E.F; Sollero, G.C.; Andrioli, K.G. [Luiz de Queiroz College of Agriculture/University of Sao Paulo, Piracicaba, SP (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    This work describes Embrapa's (Brazilian Agricultural Research Corporation) pioneer initiative creating an online service which provides sugarcane, sugar and ethanol technological information. Embrapa has developed software tools for structuring Knowledge Trees, management contents, graphic visualization (hyperbolic tree) and it has also developed its own methodologies for organizing information. The Knowledge Tree is designed in the patterns of the productive chain of sugarcane; the sets of data present the main instructions, recommendations and technologies produced by Brazilian public research institutions. It is intended to offer an ample amount of pertinent and relevant technical information - displayed at Embrapa Information Agency website - to many professionals in the sugarcane sector, especially for producers, students and technical support staff. Moreover, it is expected to contribute to the enhancement of the technology transference process to allow competitive gains in Brazilian agri-business and to socialize knowledge - which is the mission of Embrapa in its business. It is still expected to contribute to the diffusion of technological information and the knowledge of sugarcane for the areas of tropical agriculture around the world.

  2. Stochastic steps in secondary active sugar transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adelman, Joshua L; Ghezzi, Chiara; Bisignano, Paola; Loo, Donald D F; Choe, Seungho; Abramson, Jeff; Rosenberg, John M; Wright, Ernest M; Grabe, Michael

    2016-07-01

    Secondary active transporters, such as those that adopt the leucine-transporter fold, are found in all domains of life, and they have the unique capability of harnessing the energy stored in ion gradients to accumulate small molecules essential for life as well as expel toxic and harmful compounds. How these proteins couple ion binding and transport to the concomitant flow of substrates is a fundamental structural and biophysical question that is beginning to be answered at the atomistic level with the advent of high-resolution structures of transporters in different structural states. Nonetheless, the dynamic character of the transporters, such as ion/substrate binding order and how binding triggers conformational change, is not revealed from static structures, yet it is critical to understanding their function. Here, we report a series of molecular simulations carried out on the sugar transporter vSGLT that lend insight into how substrate and ions are released from the inward-facing state of the transporter. Our simulations reveal that the order of release is stochastic. Functional experiments were designed to test this prediction on the human homolog, hSGLT1, and we also found that cytoplasmic release is not ordered, but we confirmed that substrate and ion binding from the extracellular space is ordered. Our findings unify conflicting published results concerning cytoplasmic release of ions and substrate and hint at the possibility that other transporters in the superfamily may lack coordination between ions and substrate in the inward-facing state. PMID:27325773

  3. Quality and management of wastewater in sugar industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poddar, Pradeep Kumar; Sahu, Omprakash

    2015-02-01

    Wastewater from sugar industries is one that has complex characteristics and is considered a challenge for environmental engineers in terms of treatment as well as utilization. Before treatment and recycling, determination of physicochemical parameter is an important mechanism. Many different types of techniques are introduced and modified for the purpose, but depend upon the water quality parameters. The main aim of this study is to determine the physicochemical characteristics of sugar industry waste water by the standard method and minimize the fresh water consumption in sugar industry by water pinch methodology.

  4. Sugar Supplementation Stimulates Growth Performance in Calves with Growth Retardation

    OpenAIRE

    Sato, Tomohiro; HIDAKA, Yuichi; KAMIMURA, Shunichi

    2010-01-01

    The growth effect of sugar supplementation was determined in 49 retarded growth calves. Calves were supplemented with sugar at 1 g/kg BW 2 times weekly for 8 weeks. Glucose tolerance tests prior to the experiment showed no difference between the retarded growth calves and normal growth controls. After sugar supplementation, the calves were classified into 4 groups characterized by high (H) or low (L) periodic changes in daily weight gain (DG) with a breakpoint of 0.8 kg/d in three periods, bi...

  5. Heart Disease and African Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Minority Population Profiles > Black/African American > Heart Disease Heart Disease and African Americans Although African American adults are ... were 30 percent more likely to die from heart disease than non-Hispanic whites. African American women are ...

  6. African American Suicide

    Science.gov (United States)

    African American Suicide Fact Sheet Based on 2012 Data (2014) Overview • In 2012, 2,357 African Americans completed suicide in the U.S. Of these, ... 46 per 100,000. • The suicide rate for African Americans ages 10-19 was 2.98 per ...

  7. American Indian Recipes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurnoe, Katherine J.; Skjervold, Christian, Ed.

    Presenting some 60 to 70 Native American recipes, this document includes a brief introduction and a suggested reading list (15 citations related to American Indian foods). The introduction identifies five regional Native American cuisines as follows: in the Southwest, peppers and beans were made into chili, soups, guacamole, and barbecue sauces by…

  8. Taxation as prevention and as a treatment for obesity: the case of sugar-sweetened beverages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novak, Nicole L; Brownell, Kelly D

    2011-01-01

    The contemporary American food environment makes energy-dense, nutrient-poor foods and beverages the "default" option for most consumers. Economic interventions like taxes can shift the relative prices of unhealthy foods to nudge consumers towards healthier options. Beverages with added sugar are a good starting point for food taxation; they constitute over 10 percent of caloric intake nationwide and provide little or no nutritional value. Current levels of taxation on sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) are too low to affect consumer behavior, but the implementation of a penny-per-ounce excise tax could lead to substantial public health benefits. Current estimates predict that a tax that raised the cost of SSBs by 20 percent could lead to an average reduction of 3.8 pounds per year for adults, causing the prevalence of obesity to decline from 33 to 30 percent. SSB taxes would also generate considerable revenue for public health and obesity prevention programs. Although the beverage industry is fighting such taxes with massive lobbying and public relations campaigns, support for the policies is increasing, especially when revenue is earmarked for obesity prevention. PMID:21492083

  9. Dynamic QTLs for sugars and enzyme activities provide an overview of genetic control of sugar metabolism during peach fruit development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desnoues, Elsa; Baldazzi, Valentina; Génard, Michel; Mauroux, Jehan-Baptiste; Lambert, Patrick; Confolent, Carole; Quilot-Turion, Bénédicte

    2016-05-01

    Knowledge of the genetic control of sugar metabolism is essential to enhance fruit quality and promote fruit consumption. The sugar content and composition of fruits varies with species, cultivar and stage of development, and is controlled by multiple enzymes. A QTL (quantitative trait locus) study was performed on peach fruit [Prunus persica (L.) Batsch], the model species for Prunus Progeny derived from an interspecific cross between P. persica cultivars and P. davidiana was used. Dynamic QTLs for fresh weight, sugars, acids, and enzyme activities related to sugar metabolism were detected at different stages during fruit development. Changing effects of alleles during fruit growth were observed, including inversions close to maturity. This QTL analysis was supplemented by the identification of genes annotated on the peach genome as enzymes linked to sugar metabolism or sugar transporters. Several cases of co-locations between annotated genes, QTLs for enzyme activities and QTLs controlling metabolite concentrations were observed and discussed. These co-locations raise hypotheses regarding the functional regulation of sugar metabolism and pave the way for further analyses to enable the identification of the underlying genes. In conclusion, we identified the potential impact on fruit breeding of the modification of QTL effect close to maturity. PMID:27117339

  10. Association of Dietary Sugars and Sugar-Sweetened Beverage Intake with Obesity in Korean Children and Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyungho Ha

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Few studies have examined the association between dietary sugar intake and obesity in Asian children and adolescents. We evaluated the association of dietary sugar intake and its food source with obesity in Korean children and adolescents. In this cross-sectional analysis, data were obtained from five studies conducted between 2002 and 2011. The study included 2599 children and adolescents who had completed more than three days of dietary records and had anthropometric data. Total sugar intake was higher in girls than in boys (54.3 g for girls and 46.6 g for boys, p < 0.0001. Sugar intake from milk and fruits was inversely associated with overweight or obesity in girls only (OR for overweight, 0.52; 95% CI, 0.32–0.84; p for trend = 0.0246 and OR for obesity, 0.42; 95% CI, 0.23–0.79; p for trend = 0.0113. Sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB consumption was not associated with obesity in girls, while boys had lower odds ratios for obesity (OR for obesity, 0.52; 95% CI, 0.26–1.05; p for trend = 0.0310. These results suggest that total sugars and SSB intake in Asian children and adolescents remains relatively low and sugar intake from milk and fruits is associated with a decreased risk of overweight or obesity, especially in girls.

  11. Role of Sugar and Sugar Substitutes in Dental Caries: A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Prahlad Gupta; Nidhi Gupta; Atish Prakash Pawar; Smita Shrishail Birajdar; Amanpreet Singh Natt; Harkanwal Preet Singh

    2013-01-01

    Dental caries is a chronic disease which can affect us at any age. The term “caries” denotes both the disease process and its consequences, that is, the damage caused by the disease process. Dental caries has a multifactorial aetiology in which there is interplay of three principal factors: the host (saliva and teeth), the microflora (plaque), and the substrate (diet), and a fourth factor: time. The role of sugar (and other fermentable carbohydrates such as highly refined flour) as a risk fac...

  12. 甘蔗制糖降低废蜜糖分损失技术措施%Techenical Measures to Reduce Sugar Loss with Molasses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李覃平; 马必声; 黄猛; 覃领平; 周庆荣; 唐秋香

    2013-01-01

    Sugar loss along with Molasses is a major factor to reduce sugar yield in sugar manufacturing process. As a new cane sugar mill, we applied technical measures of purification, evaporation, boiling process and crystallization to increase the recovery of sugar in boiling process, to reduce the molasses yield and its gravity purity by continuous exploration and practice in last five years.%甘蔗制糖生产过程中废蜜带走糖分是造成蔗糖损失、影响产糖率的主要因素。作为一家新型制糖企业,5年来不断探索实践,通过清净、蒸发、煮糖、助晶系列技术措施应用,提高了煮炼收回,取得降低废蜜量及废蜜重力纯度生产实绩。

  13. Structure and Mechanism of ORF36, an Amino Sugar Oxidizing Enzyme in Everninomicin Biosynthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vey, Jessica L.; Al-Mestarihi, Ahmad; Hu, Yunfeng; Funk, Michael A.; Bachmann, Brian O.; Iverson, T.M. (Vanderbilt)

    2010-12-07

    Everninomicin is a highly modified octasaccharide that belongs to the orthosomycin family of antibiotics and possesses potent Gram-positive antibiotic activity, including broad-spectrum efficacy against multidrug resistant enterococci and Staphylococcus aureus. Among its distinctive structural features is a nitro sugar, L-evernitrose, analogues of which decorate a variety of natural products. Recently, we identified a nitrososynthase enzyme encoded by orf36 from Micromonospora carbonacea var. africana that mediates the flavin-dependent double oxidation of synthetically generated thymidine diphosphate (TDP)-L-epi-vancosamine to the corresponding nitroso sugar. Herein, we utilize a five-enzyme in vitro pathway both to verify that ORF36 catalyzes oxidation of biogenic TDP-L-epi-vancosamine and to determine whether ORF36 exhibits catalytic competence for any of its biosynthetic progenitors, which are candidate substrates for nitrososynthases in vivo. Progenitors solely undergo single-oxidation reactions and terminate in the hydroxylamine oxidation state. Performing the in vitro reactions in the presence of {sup 18}O{sub 2} establishes that molecular oxygen, rather than oxygen from water, is incorporated into ORF36-generated intermediates and products and identifies an off-pathway product that correlates with the oxidation product of a progenitor substrate. The 3.15 {angstrom} resolution X-ray crystal structure of ORF36 reveals a tetrameric enzyme that shares a fold with acyl-CoA dehydrogenases and class D flavin-containing monooxygenases, including the nitrososynthase KijD3. However, ORF36 and KijD3 have unusually open active sites in comparison to these related enzymes. Taken together, these studies map substrate determinants and allow the proposal of a minimal monooxygenase mechanism for amino sugar oxidation by ORF36.

  14. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray characterization of the Vitis vinifera fucokinase:GDP-fucose pyrophosphorylase

    OpenAIRE

    Quirk, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    The Vitis vinifera dual-activity fucose and nucleotide-sugar metabolizing enzyme l-fucokinase:GDP-fucose pyrophosphorylase (FKP) has been purified to homogeneity and the 118.8 kDa monomeric protein has been crystallized by vapor diffusion in Zeppezauer tubes at 277 K.

  15. Measuring competition using the Profit Elasticity: American Sugar Industry, 1890-1914

    OpenAIRE

    Boone, J.; M. van Leuvensteijn

    2010-01-01

    The Profit Elasticity (PE) is a new competition measure introduced in Boone (2008). So far, there was no direct proof that this measure can identify regimes of competition empirically. This paper focuses on this issue using data of Genesove and Mullin (1998) in which different regimes of competition are identified. We derive a version of PE suitable for this data set. This competition measure correctly classifies the monopoly/cartel regime as being less competitive than both the price war reg...

  16. Progressive deconstruction of Arundo donax Linn. to fermentable sugars by acid catalyzed ionic liquid pretreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Ting-Ting; Zhang, Li-Ming; Xu, Feng

    2016-01-01

    Acid enhanced ionic liquid (IL) 1-n-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride ([C4 mim]Cl) pretreatment has shown great potential for boosting the yield of sugars from biomass cost-effectively and environmental-friendly. Pretreatment with shorter processing time will promote the commercial viability. In this work, pretreatment of reduced Amberlyst catalysis time of 34 min was demonstrated to be the most effective among time-varying pretreatments, evidenced by partial removal of hemicellulose and cellulose crystal transformation of Arundo donax Linn. A higher fermentable sugar concentration of 10.42 g/L (2% substrate) was obtained after 72 h of saccharification than the others. Total processing time to reach 92% glucose yield was cut down to approximately 26 h. Progressive deconstruction of crop cell wall was occurred with increased catalysis time by gradual releasing of H3O(+) of Amberlyst. However, vast lignin re-deposited polymers on fibers could hinder further enzymatic hydrolysis. These discoveries provide new insights into a more economic pretreatment for bioethanol production. PMID:26363822

  17. Energy potential of sugar cane biomass in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rípoli Tomaz Caetano Cannavam

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Brazil is a developing tropical country with abundant biomass resources. Sugar cane (Saccahrum spp. is primarily produced to obtain sugar and alcohol. Presently sugar cane is burned before harvest. If the cane were not burned before harvest, the trash (tops and leaves could be collected and burned to produce steam to generate electricity, or be converted into alcohol fuel and decrease the severe air pollution problems caused by sugar cane burning. Based upon logical assumptions and appropriate data, we estimate the number of people that could be served each year by this biomass if its energy was converted into electricity. From trash and bagasse, 7.0x10(6 and 5.5x10(6 people y-1 could be served, respectively.

  18. Enzymatic gelation of sugar beet pectin in food products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergsøe, Merete Norsker; Jensen, Mette; Adler-Nissen, Jens

    2000-01-01

    in standard gels. Protein reduced the hardness, stiffness and chewiness of the gels whereas there were some variation in the effect of protein on the adhesiveness of the gels. Sugar beet pectin in black currant juice formed a gel and a gelation also took place in milk. In luncheon meat a cohesive gel......Sugar beet pectin is a food ingredient with specific functional properties. It may form gels by an oxidative cross-linking of ferulic acid. In the present study, the gel forming properties of three oxidative enzymes were examined in different food relevant conditions. The enzymes chosen were two...... laccases and one peroxidase. The textural properties of the produced gels were measured on a texture analyser. The influence of sugar, salt and protein were analysed. Finally, the enzymatic gelation was studied in three food products with added sugar beet pectin. These were black currant juice, milk...

  19. Association Mapping of Main Tomato Fruit Sugars and Organic Acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jiantao; Xu, Yao; Ding, Qin; Huang, Xinli; Zhang, Yating; Zou, Zhirong; Li, Mingjun; Cui, Lu; Zhang, Jing

    2016-01-01

    Association mapping has been widely used to map the significant associated loci responsible for natural variation in complex traits and are valuable for crop improvement. Sugars and organic acids are the most important metabolites in tomato fruits. We used a collection of 174 tomato accessions composed of Solanum lycopersicum (123 accessions) and S. lycopersicum var cerasiforme (51 accessions) to detect significantly associated loci controlling the variation of main sugars and organic acids. The accessions were genotyped with 182 SSRs spreading over the tomato genome. Association mapping was conducted on the main sugars and organic acids detected by gas chromatography-mass spectrometer (GC-MS) over 2 years using the mixed linear model (MLM). We detected a total of 58 significantly associated loci (P architecture of tomato fruit sugars and organic acids and for tomato quality breeding. PMID:27617019

  20. Small angle scattering from protein/sugar conjugates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Andrew; White, John

    2006-11-01

    The Maillard reaction between free amine groups on proteins and sugars is well known. We have examined the effect of the reaction of the casein group of milk proteins with sugars on their nanoscale structure and aggregation. The small angle neutron scattering from beta casein and sodium caseinate and their sugar conjugates have been studied as a function of solution concentration. At high conjugate concentration (greater than ca. 5 mg/ml) the addition of sugar reduces supra-micellar aggregation of the protein whilst at lower concentration, where the protein is expected to be deaggregated already, little effect is seen. Guinier analysis of the scattering data show a radius of gyration of around 75 A˚ for beta casein in solution and around 80 A˚ for the sucrose conjugate.

  1. Small angle scattering from protein/sugar conjugates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jackson, Andrew [Research School of Chemistry, Australian National University, Canberra, ACT 0200 (Australia)]. E-mail: ajj@nist.gov; White, John [Research School of Chemistry, Australian National University, Canberra, ACT 0200 (Australia)

    2006-11-15

    The Maillard reaction between free amine groups on proteins and sugars is well known. We have examined the effect of the reaction of the casein group of milk proteins with sugars on their nanoscale structure and aggregation. The small angle neutron scattering from beta casein and sodium caseinate and their sugar conjugates have been studied as a function of solution concentration. At high conjugate concentration (greater than ca. 5mg/ml) the addition of sugar reduces supra-micellar aggregation of the protein whilst at lower concentration, where the protein is expected to be deaggregated already, little effect is seen. Guinier analysis of the scattering data show a radius of gyration of around 75A-bar for beta casein in solution and around 80A-bar for the sucrose conjugate.

  2. Sugar expressions on the vaginal epithelium in pregnant mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasunaga, Youhei; Takeuchi, Takashi; Shimokawa, Tetsuya; Nabeta, Motowo; Matsuu, Aya; Asano, Atsushi; Ohta, Yasuhiko

    2012-06-01

    Sugar expressions were examined on the epithelium of both the middle portion of the vagina and the vaginal portion of the cervical canal (CC) in pregnant mice to understand the pathogenesis of bacterial infection in the female reproductive organ by using a panel of lectins. As a result, N-acetylglucosamine was positive before pregnant day (P) 7 but negative after P10 and at diestrus on both the vagina and the CC. In addition, some differences in sugar expressions were seen between them. These results suggest that sugar expressions on the mucosal surface would change not only site-specifically but also time-dependently, and these sugar differences indicate the possibility of the alteration of the settled bacterial species on the vaginal mucosa in pregnancy.

  3. Dicarbonyl compounds and sugar contents of Thai commercial beverages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monthana Weerawatanakorn

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Glyoxal (GO and methylglyoxal (MGO, two -dicarbonyl compounds (RCS found in humans, cause carbonyl stress following the formation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs. Both are linked to many chronic diseases. Foods, the extrinsic source, could cause the increase of RCS levels in physiological conditions. Previous data showed that high fructose corn syrup is the major source of RCS in beverages. Because of increasing consumption of syrup-sweetened beverages in Thailand, we aimed to find the GO, MGO, sugar contents, and their quantity relationship. We discovered that 70 different types of beverages contained extremely high levels of GO and MGO at maximum level of 333 and 1,208 μg/ml, respectively. All commercial syrup tested contained dicarbonyl contents, and statistics tests showed strong significant correlation between monosaccharide sugar and RCS. The total sugar contents of more than 20 tested was higher than the current daily recommendation for sugar intake to maintain health.

  4. Converting bulk sugars into prebiotics: semi-rational design of a transglucosylase with controlled selectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhaeghe, Tom; De Winter, Karel; Berland, Magali; De Vreese, Rob; D'hooghe, Matthias; Offmann, Bernard; Desmet, Tom

    2016-03-01

    Despite the growing importance of prebiotics in nutrition and gastroenterology, their structural variety is currently still very limited. The lack of straightforward procedures to gain new products in sufficient amounts often hampers application testing and further development. Although the enzyme sucrose phosphorylase can be used to produce the rare disaccharide kojibiose (α-1,2-glucobiose) from the bulk sugars sucrose and glucose, the target compound is only a side product that is difficult to isolate. Accordingly, for this biocatalyst to become economically attractive, the formation of other glucobioses should be avoided and therefore we applied semi-rational mutagenesis and low-throughput screening, which resulted in a double mutant (L341I_Q345S) with a selectivity of 95% for kojibiose. That way, an efficient and scalable production process with a yield of 74% could be established, and with a simple yeast treatment and crystallization step over a hundred grams of highly pure kojibiose (>99.5%) was obtained.

  5. Enzymatic Synthesis and Characterization of Hydrophilic Sugar Based Polyesters and Their Modification with Stearic Acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Humayun Bilal

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Biodegradable and hydrophilic functional polyesters were synthesized enzymatically using xylitol or d-sorbitol together with divinyl adipate and lipase B from Candida antartica (CAL-B. The resulting polyesters had pendant OH-groups from their sugar units which were esterified to different degrees with stearic acid chloride. The structure and the degrees of polymerization of the resulting graft copolymers based on poly(xylitol adipate and poly(d-sorbitol adipate were characterized by 1H NMR spectroscopy and SEC. DSC, WAXS and SAXS measurements indicated that a phase separation between polymer backbone and stearoyl side chains occurred in the graft copolymers, and, additionally, the side chains were able to crystallize which resulted in the formation of a lamellar morphology. Additionally, nanoparticles of the graft copolymers in an aqueous environment were studied by DLS and negative stain TEM.

  6. Fermentation of lignocellulosic sugars to acetic acid by Moorella thermoacetica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehsanipour, Mandana; Suko, Azra Vajzovic; Bura, Renata

    2016-06-01

    A systematic study of bioconversion of lignocellulosic sugars to acetic acid by Moorella thermoacetica (strain ATCC 39073) was conducted. Four different water-soluble fractions (hydrolysates) obtained after steam pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass were selected and fermented to acetic acid in batch fermentations. M. thermoacetica can effectively ferment xylose and glucose in hydrolysates from wheat straw, forest residues, switchgrass, and sugarcane straw to acetic acid. Xylose and glucose were completely utilized, with xylose being consumed first. M. thermoacetica consumed up to 62 % of arabinose, 49 % galactose and 66 % of mannose within 72 h of fermentation in the mixture of lignocellulosic sugars. The highest acetic acid yield was obtained from sugarcane straw hydrolysate, with 71 % of theoretical yield based on total sugars (17 g/L acetic acid from 24 g/L total sugars). The lowest acetic acid yield was observed in forest residues hydrolysate, with 39 % of theoretical yield based on total sugars (18 g/L acetic acid from 49 g/L total sugars). Process derived compounds from steam explosion pretreatment, including 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (0.4 g/L), furfural (0.1 g/L) and total phenolics (3 g/L), did not inhibit microbial growth and acetic acid production yield. This research identified two major factors that adversely affected acetic acid yield in all hydrolysates, especially in forest residues: (i) glucose to xylose ratio and (ii) incomplete consumption of arabinose, galactose and mannose. For efficient bioconversion of lignocellulosic sugars to acetic acid, it is imperative to have an appropriate balance of sugars in a hydrolysate. Hence, the choice of lignocellulosic biomass and steam pretreatment design are fundamental steps for the industrial application of this process. PMID:26992903

  7. Colorimetric Sugar Sensing Using Boronic Acid-Substituted Azobenzenes

    OpenAIRE

    Yuya Egawa; Ryotaro Miki; Toshinobu Seki

    2014-01-01

    In association with increasing diabetes prevalence, it is desirable to develop new glucose sensing systems with low cost, ease of use, high stability and good portability. Boronic acid is one of the potential candidates for a future alternative to enzyme-based glucose sensors. Boronic acid derivatives have been widely used for the sugar recognition motif, because boronic acids bind adjacent diols to form cyclic boronate esters. In order to develop colorimetric sugar sensors, boronic acid-conj...

  8. Conventional coefficient of elasticity for sugar beet roots

    OpenAIRE

    M. Brzowska-Bakalarz

    1998-01-01

    One of the more important mechanical characteristics of sugar beet roots is the conventional coefficient of elasticity. It is a modulus describing elasticity a basic parameter classifying quality of raw material that is strictly connected with the tissue turgor. A static experiment on compression was carried out using Instron testers on a range of sugar beet varieties grown with differentiated doses and types of nitrogen fertilizers, and tested in differentiated periods. The present studies w...

  9. Fermentation of lignocellulosic sugars to acetic acid by Moorella thermoacetica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehsanipour, Mandana; Suko, Azra Vajzovic; Bura, Renata

    2016-06-01

    A systematic study of bioconversion of lignocellulosic sugars to acetic acid by Moorella thermoacetica (strain ATCC 39073) was conducted. Four different water-soluble fractions (hydrolysates) obtained after steam pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass were selected and fermented to acetic acid in batch fermentations. M. thermoacetica can effectively ferment xylose and glucose in hydrolysates from wheat straw, forest residues, switchgrass, and sugarcane straw to acetic acid. Xylose and glucose were completely utilized, with xylose being consumed first. M. thermoacetica consumed up to 62 % of arabinose, 49 % galactose and 66 % of mannose within 72 h of fermentation in the mixture of lignocellulosic sugars. The highest acetic acid yield was obtained from sugarcane straw hydrolysate, with 71 % of theoretical yield based on total sugars (17 g/L acetic acid from 24 g/L total sugars). The lowest acetic acid yield was observed in forest residues hydrolysate, with 39 % of theoretical yield based on total sugars (18 g/L acetic acid from 49 g/L total sugars). Process derived compounds from steam explosion pretreatment, including 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (0.4 g/L), furfural (0.1 g/L) and total phenolics (3 g/L), did not inhibit microbial growth and acetic acid production yield. This research identified two major factors that adversely affected acetic acid yield in all hydrolysates, especially in forest residues: (i) glucose to xylose ratio and (ii) incomplete consumption of arabinose, galactose and mannose. For efficient bioconversion of lignocellulosic sugars to acetic acid, it is imperative to have an appropriate balance of sugars in a hydrolysate. Hence, the choice of lignocellulosic biomass and steam pretreatment design are fundamental steps for the industrial application of this process.

  10. Characterisation of a phenolic resin and sugar cane pulp composite

    OpenAIRE

    Leite, J.L.; A. T. N. Pires; S. M. A. G. Ulson de Souza; A.A.Ulson de Souza

    2004-01-01

    Polymeric materials are increasingly replacing metallic materials as a result of their properties. In this work a composite of phenolic resin and sugar cane pulp was developed. The sugar cane pulp has been previously alkalinised, dried, and milled and the particles had been classified in a range of grain sizes. Experimental assays were performed, varying the proportion of the resin and the reinforcement and the size of the cane pulp fibre, keeping the pressure and moulding temperature constan...

  11. Factors affecting Maillard induced gelation of protein-sugar systems

    OpenAIRE

    Azhar, Mat Easa

    1996-01-01

    Gelation due to the Maillard reaction took place when solutions containing a low level of bovine serum albumin were heated in the presence of carbonyl compounds. The Maillard reaction caused a change in colour, a decrease in the pH and induced gelation. These changes were dependent on the type and concentration of sugars or protein and on the heating conditions used. Reducing sugar and Maillard reaction products (e.g. glyoxal) affected these changes, yet their order of reactivity for browning...

  12. Everybody loves sugar: first report of plant feeding in triatomines

    OpenAIRE

    Diaz-Albiter, Hector M; Dillon, Viv M.; Dillon, Roderick James

    2016-01-01

    Background Triatomines, which are the vectors of Trypanosoma cruzi, have been considered to be exclusive blood feeders for more than 100 years, since the discovery of Chagas disease. Methods We offered artificial sugar meals to the laboratory model-insect Rhodnius prolixus, which is considered a strict haematophagous insect. We registered feeding by adding colorant to sugar meals. To assess putative phytophagy, fruits of the tomato Solanum lycopersicum were offered to R. prolixus and the pres...

  13. Pyridylamination as a means of analyzing complex sugar chains

    OpenAIRE

    Hase, Sumihiro

    2010-01-01

    Herein, I describe pyridylamination for versatile analysis of sugar chains. The reducing ends of the sugar chains are tagged with 2-aminopyridine and the resultant chemically stable fluorescent derivatives are used for structural/functional analysis. Pyridylamination is an effective “operating system” for increasing sensitivity and simplifying the analytical procedures including mass spectrometry and NMR. Excellent separation of isomers is achieved by reversed-phase HPLC. However, separation ...

  14. Giant optical activity of sugar in thin soap films.

    OpenAIRE

    Emile, Janine; Emile, Olivier; Ghoufi, Aziz; Moréac, Alain; Casanova, Federico; Ding, Minxia; Houizot, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    We report on enhanced experimental optical activity measurements of thin soap films in the presence of sugar. This unusual optical activity is linked to the intramolecular chiral conformation of the glucose molecules at the air/liquid interface. Choosing sodium dodecylsulfate (SDS) as a model surfactant and glucose as model sugar, favorable interactions between the anionic group -OSO3(-)- and the glucose molecules are highlighted. This induces an interfacial anchoring of glucose molecules lea...

  15. Toxoplasmosis in a colony of sugar gliders (Petaurus breviceps).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrows, Michelle

    2006-09-01

    Eleven of a group of 16 sugar gliders died acutely over a period of 2 to 3 weeks. Histopathologic examination revealed a protozoal infection with tachyzoites present in multiple organs, including the intestine, heart, brain, spleen, pancreas, adrenal gland, and kidney. Immunostaining confirmed disseminated toxoplasmosis. Marsupials are susceptible to toxoplasmosis. It was thought that the sugar gliders acquired the infection through foraging in wood chips used as a substrate that were contaminated with feline fecal material.

  16. Fundamental research enables process optimization in the sugar industry

    OpenAIRE

    Justé, Annelies; Lievens, Bart; Klingeberg, M; Michiels, Chris; Willems, Kris

    2010-01-01

    Storing sugar extracts as thick juice, a form of sucrose syrup, is common practice in the sugar industry. However, this thick juice storage commonly faces problems due to juice degradation. The precise cause for this problem was ill defined but believed to be of microbial origin. In this research, the microbial population dynamics during thick juice storage was described and we identified the causative degradation flora. Finally, optimal good storage practices were defined with the ultimate g...

  17. Association between sugar consumption, sociodemographic, anthropometric and biochemical profiles

    OpenAIRE

    Zorada Hattingh; Bester, Catharina J.; Walsh, Corinna M

    2013-01-01

    Background: The increase in prevalence of coronary heart disease, type 2 diabetes, obesity and abnormal blood lipid levels has raised the question of a possible relationship between these conditions and the consumption of sugar.Objectives: This study investigated the sugar consumption of financially-restricted Black women in Mangaung, South Africa.Method: Five hundred women were selected randomly and divided into younger (25–34 years) and older (35–44 years) groups. Dietary intake, sociodemog...

  18. Impacts of WTO restrictions on subsidized EU sugar exports

    OpenAIRE

    Poonyth, Daneswar; Westhoff, Patrick; Womack, Abner; Adams, Gary M.

    2000-01-01

    The study evaluates the impact of World Trade Organization (WTO) restrictions on the European Union (EU) sugar sector and the world sugar market. A small reduction in production quotas would be sufficient to satisfy the export subsidy limitations of the Uruguay Round agreement. Complete elimination of export subsidies by 2005 would require either a 10% reduction in production quotas or the combination of an 8% reduction in quotas and an 11% reduction in intervention prices. Higher world price...

  19. Corrosion of Modified Concrete with Sugar Cane Bagasse Ash

    OpenAIRE

    Núñez-Jaquez, R. E.; J. E. Buelna-Rodríguez; C. P. Barrios-Durstewitz; Gaona-Tiburcio, C.; Almeraya-Calderón, F.

    2012-01-01

    Concrete is a porous material and the ingress of water, oxygen, and aggressive ions, such as chlorides, can cause the passive layer on reinforced steel to break down. Additives, such as fly ash, microsilica, rice husk ash, and cane sugar bagasse ash, have a size breakdown that allows the reduction of concrete pore size and, consequently, may reduce the corrosion process. The objective of this work is to determine the corrosion rate of steel in reinforced concrete by the addition of 20% sugar ...

  20. Hydrogenolysis of sugar beet fiber by supported metal catalyst

    OpenAIRE

    Guha, Samar K.; Kobayashi, Hirokazu; Hara, Kenji; Kikuchi, Hiroto; Aritsuka, Tsutomu; Fukuoka, Atsushi

    2011-01-01

    Sugar beet fiber is an agricultural by-product in the sugar manufacturing and an available biomass source with a rich hemicellulose component. So far, there has been no report on the catalytic conversion of the beet fiber for the synthesis of chemicals. In this work, the hydrogenolysis of the beet fiber was studied by using supported metal catalysts under pressurized hydrogen conditions. Activated carbon supported Ru was found to show the highest catalytic activity to give arabitol as a major...

  1. [Rapid determination of beet sugar content using near infrared spectroscopy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yong; Ren, Jian; Zheng, Xi-Qun; Zhao, Li-Ying; Li, Mao-Mao

    2014-10-01

    In order to classify and set different prices on basis of difference of beet sugar content in the acquisition process and promote the development of beet sugar industry healthily, a fast, nondestructive, accurate method to detect sugar content of beet was determined by applying near infrared spectroscopy technology. Eight hundred twenty samples from 28 representative varieties of beet were collected as calibration set and 70 samples were chosen as prediction set. Then near infrared spectra of calibration set samples were collected by scanning, effective information was extracted from NIR spectroscopy, and the original spectroscopy data was optimized by data preprocessing methods appropriately. Then partial least square(PLS)regression was used to establish beet sugar quantitative prediction mathematical model. The performances of the models were evaluated by the root mean square of cross-validation (RMSECV), the coefficient of determination (R2) of the calibration model and the standard error of prediction (SEP), and the predicted results of these models were compared. Results show that the established mathematical model by using first derivative (FD) and standard normal variate transformation (SNV) coupled with partial least squares has good predictive ability. The R2 of calibration models of sugar content of beet is 0.908 3, and the RMSECV is 0.376 7. Using this model to forecast the prediction set including 70 samples, the correlation coefficient is 0.921 4 between predicted values and measured values, and the standard error of prediction (SEP) is 0.439, without significant difference (p > 0.05) between predicted values and measured values. These results demonstrated that NIRS can take advantage of simple, rapid, nondestructive and environmental detection method and could be applied to predict beet sugar content. This model owned high accuracy and can meet the precision need of determination of beet sugar content. This detection method could be used to classify

  2. Inclusion complexation involving sugar-containing species: β-cyclodextrin and sugar surfactants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Surface tension, proton NMR, and computer modeling studies were undertaken in nonionic alkylpolyglycoside (APG) solutions containing β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) with a view to characterize the inclusion complexes formed and to determine if the sugar entities of the host and guest molecules played a significant role in the process. The APGs investigated were four glucopyranosides (octyl G8, decyl G10, dodecyl G12, tetradecyl G14) and two maltosides (decyl M10, dodecyl M12). Critical micelle concentrations (CMC) were obtained in the surfactant-β-CD systems, which in all cases increased with increasing β-CD concentration. The 1:1 APG-β-CD inclusion complex was principally formed with binding constants of 425 (mol L-1)-1 for the G12 complex, 340 (mol L-1)-1 for the G10 complex, and 125 (mol L-1)-1 for the M12 complex. The preferred configuration of the G-12-β-CD complex has the surfactant tail coiled in the CD cavity with the surfactant sugar moiety sealing off the narrower opening of the CD torus. (author)

  3. The Physiological Mechanism of Postphloem Sugar Transport in Citrus Fruit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Jun-wei; ZHANG Shang-long; ZHANG Liang-cheng; Ruan Yong-ling; XIE Ming; TAO Jun

    2003-01-01

    The dynamics of translocation and partitioning of 14C-phothsynthates, the concentration of sucrose in fruit tissues and the effects of the membrane carrier- and ATPase-specific inhibitors on 14C-sucrose uptake by juice sacs of the satsuma mandarin (Citrus unshiu Marc. cv. Miyagawa wase) fruit were examined at the stage of fruit enlargement and fruit full ripe. Kinetic data of 14C-photosynthate translocation indicated that the rate of photosynthate transport into juice sacs decreased with fruit maturation and sugar accumulation. Along the photosynthate translocation path, i.e. from vascular bundles to segment epidermis then to juice sacs, a descending sugar gradient was observed. With fruit maturation and sugar accumulation in juice sacs, the 14C photosynthate gradient increased, whereas the static sucrose concentration gradient decreased with fruit maturation and sugar accumulation. The higher gradient of specific 14C radioactivity was considered to favor diffusion and sugar transport into juice sacs at the later stage of fruit development. The rate of uptake 14C-sucrose by juice sacs of satsuma mandarin fruit was markedly reduced by PCMBS, EB, DNP and NO-3 treatment. The above results suggested the participation of a carrier-mediated, energy-dependent sugar active transport process in juice sacs of satsuma mandarin fruit.

  4. Seasonal hydroclimatic impacts of Brazilian sugar cane expansion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgescu, M.; Lobell, D. B.; Field, C. B.; Mahalov, A.

    2012-12-01

    Brazil is the leading producer of sugar cane in the world with roughly half used for ethanol production. Because of suitable climatic growing conditions, the majority of biofuel production is derived from sugar plantations in southeastern states. Anticipated increases in global demand for biofuels are expected to lead to future sugar cane expansion extending into Brazilian pasturelands and native cerrado. Prior to undergoing large-scale expansion an evaluation of impacts on the region's hydroclimate is warranted. Using a suite of multi-year ensemble-based simulations with the WRF modeling system, we quantify hydroclimatic consequences of sugar cane expansion across portions of south-central Brazil. Conversion from current land use to sugar cane causes opposing seasonal impacts on near-surface temperature. Proggresively greater cooling is simulated during the course of the growing season, followed by an abrupt warming shift post-harvest. Although seasonal impacts on near-surface temperature are significant, with cooling of 1C occurring during the peak of the growing season followed by warming of similar magnitude, impacts are small when annually averaged. Ensemble mean differences between the imposed sugar cane expansion and non-expansion scenario are suggestive of a drying precipitation trend, yet large uncertainty among individual members precludes definitive statements about impacts on the region's rainfall.

  5. Investigation of the Insecticide Seed Dressing on the Sugar Beet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasminka Igrc Barčić

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available The results of three year trials with various sugar beet seed treatments on the most important sugar beet pests, wireworms, flea beetles, sugar beet weevil and aphids are presented. The task of the investigation was to establish whether or not the sugar beet seed should be treated with insecticides and when granulars should be applied. In threeyear investigations 6 trials on different localities were carried out. Gaucho 70WS, Montur 190 FS, Geocid ST 35, Carbofuran 500 FS and a combination of Geocid ST 35 and Geocid G-5 were applied. The results showed that the imidacloprid seed treatment was satisfactory efficient on wireworms ensuring 20-42% more plants than on untreated plots. The efficacy of all treatments on the flea beetles was sufficient: Gaucho 70 WS 63-70%, the combined carbofuran treatment 65-67%, Geocid ST 35 54-55% and Montur 190 FS 52-55%. Therefore on imidacloprid and carbofuran treated crops the foliar treatment against flea beetles is mostly unnecassary. Insecticides based on imidacloprid showed a very good efficacy on aphids until 64 days after the sowing time with a somewhat longer residual action than the standard carbofuran treatments. All investigated insecticides were not satisfactorily efficient against sugar beet weevil. The seed dressing with a systemic insecticide is a justified measure. But, if the attack of wirevorms is strong or if a positive sugar beet weevil forecast is present, granulars shoud be applied additionaly.

  6. Pressure cryocooling protein crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Chae Un; Gruner, Sol M.

    2011-10-04

    Preparation of cryocooled protein crystal is provided by use of helium pressurizing and cryocooling to obtain cryocooled protein crystal allowing collection of high resolution data and by heavier noble gas (krypton or xenon) binding followed by helium pressurizing and cryocooling to obtain cryocooled protein crystal for collection of high resolution data and SAD phasing simultaneously. The helium pressurizing is carried out on crystal coated to prevent dehydration or on crystal grown in aqueous solution in a capillary.

  7. Application of Ultrafiltration Membrane System in Refined Cane Sugar Process%超滤膜系统在甘蔗糖精炼工艺中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    扶雄; 于淑娟; 周重吉

    2003-01-01

    Reported here is a new sugar processing method (membrane process) providing an energy efficient and environmentally friendly process for the production of refined cane sugar. The UF (Ultra Filtration) membranes used in cane sugar process can remove color with minimal effect on environmental quality. The color removal ranges from 48.7% for raw sugar to 58.2% for affination syrup. The treatment of affination syrup using the membrane process removes impurities which affects the rate of crystallization, and improves the crystal growth rate by up to 48.9%, 38.2% and 37.0% respectively for the first hour, the second hour, and the third hour. The subsequent increase in crystal growth rate will increase the plant capacity, reduce sucrose loss, and increase yield. The result shows the reduction in viscosity by 17% due to the ultra filtration treatment. Application of the membrane process in raw sugar mills in conjunction with a sugar refinery can eliminate one or more of the various refining processes, such as affination, carbonation, phosphatation, and/or granular carbon/bone char/ion exchange for decolorization. In summary, the membrane process can produce high quality food grade sugar products meeting customers' needs with a considerable reduction of both capital and operating costs.%研究了一种能效高、环境友好的膜法生产精炼糖的方法.超滤膜的应用可以有效去除色素而对环境影响很小,对原糖溶液的脱色率为48.7%,对蜜洗糖浆为58.2%.采用超滤膜处理蜜洗糖浆可以去除大部分影响结晶的杂质,同时粘度降低17%,第一、第二、第三小时的结晶速度分别增加48.9%,38.2%和37.0%,结晶速度增加会降低蔗糖损失、提高生产能力和收率.膜法工艺的应用可以省去精炼糖脱色工序的部分环节,在投资和操作费用显著降低的同时生产出高品质的精炼糖产品以满足消费者的需求.

  8. Modified sugar beet pectin induces apoptosis of colon cancer cells via an interaction with the neutral sugar side-chains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxwell, Ellen G; Colquhoun, Ian J; Chau, Hoa K; Hotchkiss, Arland T; Waldron, Keith W; Morris, Victor J; Belshaw, Nigel J

    2016-01-20

    Pectins extracted from a variety of sources and modified with heat and/or pH have previously been shown to exhibit activity towards several cancer cell lines. However, the structural basis for the anti-cancer activity of modified pectin requires clarification. Sugar beet and citrus pectin extracts have been compared. Pectin extracted from sugar beet pulp only weakly affected the viability of colon cancer cells. Alkali treatment increased the anti-cancer effect of sugar beet pectin via an induction of apoptosis. Alkali treatment decreased the degree of esterification (DE) and increased the ratio of rhamnogalacturonan I (RGI) to homogalacturonan. Low DE per se did not play a significant role in the anti-cancer activity. However, the enzymatic removal of galactose and, to a lesser extent, arabinose from the pectin decreased the effect on cancer cells indicating that the neutral sugar-containing RGI regions are important for pectin bioactivity.

  9. 76 FR 61074 - USDA Increases the Fiscal Year 2011 Tariff-Rate Quota for Refined Sugar

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-03

    ... Office of the Secretary USDA Increases the Fiscal Year 2011 Tariff-Rate Quota for Refined Sugar AGENCY... increase in the fiscal year (FY) 2011 refined sugar tariff-rate quota (TRQ) of 136,078 metric tons raw... MTRV for sugars, syrups, and molasses (collectively referred to as refined sugar) described...

  10. 7 CFR 1435.504 - Timing of distribution of CCC-owned sugar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Timing of distribution of CCC-owned sugar. 1435.504... CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS SUGAR PROGRAM Processor Sugar Payment-In-Kind (PIK) Program § 1435.504 Timing of distribution of CCC-owned sugar. Distribution of...

  11. Environmentally Benign Synthesis of Sugar Orthoesters Promoted by Anhydrous Sodium Acetate and Ultrasound

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵晋忠; 魏善巧; 岳爱琴; 邵华武

    2012-01-01

    A convenient and alternative procedure for the synthesis of sugar orthoesters from glycosyl bromides with an- hydrous sodium acetate as base under ultrasound irradiation is described. Various sugar and sugar-sugar orthoesters were prepared in 70%-91% isolated yields.

  12. Anaerobic co-digestion of by-products from sugar production with cow manure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fang, Cheng; Boe, Kanokwan; Angelidaki, Irini

    2011-01-01

    Sugar beet leaves (SBL), sugar beet top (SBT), sugar beet pulp (SBP) and desugared molasses (DM) are by-products from the sugar production. In the present study we investigated the potential of SBL, SBT and SBP as feedstock for biogas production. The maximum methane potential of SBL, SBT and SBP...

  13. Effect of commonly consumed sugar containing and sugar free fruit drinks on the hydrogen ion modulation of human dental plaque

    OpenAIRE

    Nanika Mahajan; Bhanu Kotwal; Vinod Sachdev; Nivedita Rewal; Rakesh Gupta; Shefally Goyal

    2014-01-01

    Background: With the increased awareness of healthy diet among the population, the intake of fruit juices as health drinks has been increased. This study has been designed to check the potential cariogenicity of fruit drinks frequently consumed by infants and young children. Aim: To compare the acidogenic potential of sugar free fruit juices with fruit juices containing sugar by evaluating the plaque pH changes, following consumption of the above drinks. Design: The study was carried out on 1...

  14. Textual analysis of sugar industry influence on the World Health Organization’s 2015 sugars intake guideline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeves, Aaron; Loopstra, Rachel; McKee, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective To determine whether sugar industry-related organizations influenced textual changes between the draft and final versions of the World Health Organization’s (WHO’s) 2015 guideline Sugars intake for adults and children. Methods Stakeholder consultation submissions on the draft guideline from seven sugar industry-related and 10 public health organizations were assessed using the Wordscores program. Document scores were rescaled using the Martin–Vanberg transformation to improve comparability. Draft and final guidelines were compared to identify changes influenced by the sugar industry and public health organizations. Findings There was a small shift in transformed Wordscores score between the draft and final guidelines, from 0.25 to 0.24, towards the industry position. The change was linked to increased use of the word “low” to describe the quality of the evidence, consistent with industry arguments. There was also a shift from use of the word “consumption” to “intake”, irrespective of policy position. Scores for World Sugar Research Organisation and Sugar Nutrition UK submissions ( 0.11 and 0.18, respectively) represented strong pro-industry positions and scores for European Public Health Alliance and Wemos submissions (1.00 and 0.88, respectively) represented the strongest public health positions. Industry tactics included challenging the quality of the evidence, distinguishing between different types of sugar and advocating harm reduction. Conclusion There was little change between draft and final versions of the WHO sugars intake guideline 2015, following industry consultation. The main change was linked to emphasizing the low quality of the evidence on sugar’s adverse effects. Guideline development appeared relatively resistant to industry influence at the stakeholder consultation stage.

  15. Restricting lignin and enhancing sugar deposition in secondary cell walls enhances monomeric sugar release after low temperature ionic liquid pretreatment

    OpenAIRE

    Scullin, Chessa; Cruz, Alejandro G; Chuang, Yi-De; Simmons, Blake A.; Loque, Dominique; Singh, Seema

    2015-01-01

    Background Lignocellulosic biomass has the potential to be a major source of renewable sugar for biofuel production. Before enzymatic hydrolysis, biomass must first undergo a pretreatment step in order to be more susceptible to saccharification and generate high yields of fermentable sugars. Lignin, a complex, interlinked, phenolic polymer, associates with secondary cell wall polysaccharides, rendering them less accessible to enzymatic hydrolysis. Herein, we describe the analysis of engineere...

  16. Coping with the Fallout for Preference-receiving Countries from EU Sugar Reform

    OpenAIRE

    Chaplin, Hannah; Matthews, Alan

    2006-01-01

    Developing countries can produce sugar at much lower cost than in the EU, yet reform of the EU sugar policy will result in both winners and losers among them. This is because the EU is both an exporter and importer of sugar. Sugar policy reform will mean a reduction in EU sugar production, benefiting competitive sugar exporters such as Brazil. But sugar policy reform will adversely affect those developing countries which currently benefit from preferential import access to the EU’s high-price...

  17. Multiple applications of ion chromatography oligosaccharide fingerprint profiles to solve a variety of sugar and sugar-biofuel industry problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eggleston, Gillian; Borges, Eduardo

    2015-03-25

    Sugar crops contain a broad variety of carbohydrates used for human consumption and the production of biofuels and bioproducts. Ion chromatography with integrated pulsed amperometric detection (IC-IPAD) can be used to simultaneously detect mono-, di-, and oligosaccharides, oligosaccharide isomers, mannitol, and ethanol in complex matrices from sugar crops. By utilizing a strong NaOH/NaOAc gradient method over 45 min, oligosaccharides of at least 2-12 dp can be detected. Fingerprint IC oligosaccharide profiles are extremely selective, sensitive, and reliable and can detect deterioration product metabolites from as low as 100 colony-forming units/mL lactic acid bacteria. The IC fingerprints can also be used to (i) monitor freeze deterioration, (ii) optimize harvesting methods and cut-to-crush times, (iii) differentiate between white refined sugar from sugar cane and from sugar beets, (iv) verify the activities of carbohydrate enzymes, (v) select yeasts for ethanol fermentations, and (vi) isolate and diagnose infections and processing problems in sugar factories.

  18. Multiple applications of ion chromatography oligosaccharide fingerprint profiles to solve a variety of sugar and sugar-biofuel industry problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eggleston, Gillian; Borges, Eduardo

    2015-03-25

    Sugar crops contain a broad variety of carbohydrates used for human consumption and the production of biofuels and bioproducts. Ion chromatography with integrated pulsed amperometric detection (IC-IPAD) can be used to simultaneously detect mono-, di-, and oligosaccharides, oligosaccharide isomers, mannitol, and ethanol in complex matrices from sugar crops. By utilizing a strong NaOH/NaOAc gradient method over 45 min, oligosaccharides of at least 2-12 dp can be detected. Fingerprint IC oligosaccharide profiles are extremely selective, sensitive, and reliable and can detect deterioration product metabolites from as low as 100 colony-forming units/mL lactic acid bacteria. The IC fingerprints can also be used to (i) monitor freeze deterioration, (ii) optimize harvesting methods and cut-to-crush times, (iii) differentiate between white refined sugar from sugar cane and from sugar beets, (iv) verify the activities of carbohydrate enzymes, (v) select yeasts for ethanol fermentations, and (vi) isolate and diagnose infections and processing problems in sugar factories. PMID:25708094

  19. Association of Dietary Sugars and Sugar-Sweetened Beverage Intake with Obesity in Korean Children and Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Kyungho; Chung, Sangwon; Lee, Haeng-Shin; Kim, Cho-il; Joung, Hyojee; Paik, Hee-Young; Song, YoonJu

    2016-01-01

    Few studies have examined the association between dietary sugar intake and obesity in Asian children and adolescents. We evaluated the association of dietary sugar intake and its food source with obesity in Korean children and adolescents. In this cross-sectional analysis, data were obtained from five studies conducted between 2002 and 2011. The study included 2599 children and adolescents who had completed more than three days of dietary records and had anthropometric data. Total sugar intake was higher in girls than in boys (54.3 g for girls and 46.6 g for boys, p obesity in girls only (OR for overweight, 0.52; 95% CI, 0.32-0.84; p for trend = 0.0246 and OR for obesity, 0.42; 95% CI, 0.23-0.79; p for trend = 0.0113). Sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) consumption was not associated with obesity in girls, while boys had lower odds ratios for obesity (OR for obesity, 0.52; 95% CI, 0.26-1.05; p for trend = 0.0310). These results suggest that total sugars and SSB intake in Asian children and adolescents remains relatively low and sugar intake from milk and fruits is associated with a decreased risk of overweight or obesity, especially in girls.

  20. Reducing added sugar intake in Norway by replacing sugar sweetened beverages with beverages containing intense sweeteners - a risk benefit assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husøy, T; Mangschou, B; Fotland, T Ø; Kolset, S O; Nøtvik Jakobsen, H; Tømmerberg, I; Bergsten, C; Alexander, J; Frost Andersen, L

    2008-09-01

    A risk benefit assessment in Norway on the intake of added sugar, intense sweeteners and benzoic acid from beverages, and the influence of changing from sugar sweetened to diet beverages was performed. National dietary surveys were used in the exposure assessment, and the content of added sugar and food additives were calculated based on actual contents used in beverages and sales volumes provided by the manufactures. The daily intake of sugar, intense sweeteners and benzoic acid were estimated for children (1- to 13-years-old) and adults according to the current intake level and a substitution scenario where it was assumed that all consumed beverages contained intense sweeteners. The change from sugar sweetened to diet beverages reduced the total intake of added sugar for all age groups but especially for adolescent. This change did not result in intake of intense sweeteners from beverages above the respective ADIs. However, the intake of acesulfame K approached ADI for small children and the total intake of benzoic acid was increased to above ADI for most age groups. The highest intake of benzoic acid was observed for 1- to 2-year-old children, and benzoic acid intake in Norwegian children is therefore considered to be of special concern. PMID:18639604

  1. Pozzolanic evaluation of the sugar cane leaf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guzmán, A.

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of the evaluation of the sugarcane leaf, burnt under controlled conditions in order to obtain a reactive ash with pozzolanic properties. Chemical analysis, amorphousity and surface structure of the sugar cane straw ash (SCSA were studied by X-ray diffraction, X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy and scanning electron microscope (SEM. The results of this research showed that SCSA has significant presence of amorphous material and a high content of silica (81.0%. The pozzolanic activity of the SCSA was evaluated by the Fratini test and the pozzolanic activity index. In order to interpretate the pozzolan activity, the Feret method was used. It is conclude that the SCSA presents pozzolanic characteristics for blending Portland cement.

    En el siguiente artículo se presenta una evaluación de la hoja de caña de azúcar calcinada bajo condiciones controladas en aras a obtener ceniza reactiva (con propiedades puzolánicas. La ceniza fue analizada mediante las técnicas de difracción de rayos X, fluorescencia de rayos X y microscopía electrónica de barrido. Los resultados del estudio mostraron que la ceniza de hoja de caña de azúcar sí contiene una significante presencia de material amorfo y un alto porcentaje de sílice (81,0%. Se valoró la aptitud de las cenizas obtenidas como puzolana mediante métodos químicos, como el ensayo de Frattini y métodos mecánicos, como el índice de actividad puzolánica. Como modelo a seguir para la interpretación de la puzolanicidad de la ceniza de hoja de caña se utilizó el método de Feret. Se concluye que la ceniza de hoja de caña sí es apta para ser utilizada como adición puzolánica.

  2. Separation of enantiomers by continuous preferential crystallization: Experimental realization using a coupled crystallizer configuration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chaaban, Joussef Hussein; Dam-Johansen, Kim; Kiil, Søren;

    2013-01-01

    . Successful enantioseparation by crystal growth, with the repeatability being within ±10% deviation, was obtained. However, slow crystal growth, due to a low surface integration rate, led to a negligible consumption of the desired enantiomer added in the feed solution, resulting in low productivities...... in the amount of solvent used. The application is currently limited to conglomerate-forming systems, but the separation concept may open new possibilities for process improvements regarding enantioseparation of racemic compound-forming systems as well. © 2013 American Chemical Society....

  3. Mechanical properties and microstructure of frozen carrots during storage as affected by blanching in water and sugar solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neri, Lilia; Hernando, Isabel; Pérez-Munuera, Isabel; Sacchetti, Giampiero; Mastrocola, Dino; Pittia, Paola

    2014-02-01

    Raw carrots and carrots blanched in water and in 4% trehalose and maltose solutions at 75°C for 3 (A) and 10 min (C) and at 90°C for 3 (B) and 10 min (D) were frozen and stored at -18°C for eight months. The effects of heating conditions and exogenous added sugars on the mechanical properties and microstructure of the vegetable after blanching and during frozen storage were studied. By scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis no significant differences were observed among samples A and B water-blanched and raw carrot while a thermo-protective effect due to the sugars addition was evidenced in sample D, undergone to the most severe thermal treatment. Freezing and frozen storage determined several fractures on both raw and blanched carrots due to ice crystals formation and re-crystallisation. The cryo-protective effect of the sugars on the vegetable microstructure was observed only in the 'over-blanched' sample D. The mechanical properties of carrots were affected by blanching which caused a hardness decrease but after freezing and one month of frozen storage, all samples showed a further dramatic reduction of hardness. Only samples characterised by a pectinesterase residual activity showed a softening also after one month of frozen storage likely for a competitive effect of the thermo-protective ability of trehalose on this enzyme. The exogenous trehalose was able to limit the hardness loss of carrots undergone to B, C and D blanching pre-treatments.

  4. Energy compensation following consumption of sugar-reduced products: a randomized controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Markey, Oonagh; Le Jeurne, J.; Lovegrove, Julie A.

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE: Consumption of sugar-reformulated products (commercially available foods and beverages that have been reduced in sugar content through reformulation) is a potential strategy for lowering sugar intake at a population level. The impact of sugar-reformulated products on body weight, energy balance (EB) dynamics and cardiovascular disease risk indicators has yet to be established. The REFORMulated foods (REFORM) study examined the impact of an 8-week sugar-reformulated product exchang...

  5. The Mexican Sweeteners Market and Sugar Exports to the United States

    OpenAIRE

    Andino, Jose; Taylor, Richard D.; Koo, Won W.

    2006-01-01

    This study analyzes the effect of a potential increase in sugar imports from Mexico on the U.S. sugar price, and its consequences for producers and consumers. Additional sugar imports would cause a substantial reduction of sugar prices in the United States and consequently an increase in consumption. Due to low commodity prices, acreage and total production of beet and cane sugar in the United States are expected to fall. Under these circumstances, social welfare in the United States may incr...

  6. Oxidative Stress as a Mechanism of Added Sugar-Induced Cardiovascular Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Prasad, Kailash; Dhar, Indu

    2014-01-01

    Added sugars comprising of table sugar, brown sugar, corn syrup, maple syrup, honey, molasses, and other sweeteners in the prepared processed foods and beverages have been implicated in the pathophysiology of cardiovascular diseases. This article deals with the reactive oxygen species (ROS) as a mechanism of sugar-induced cardiovascular diseases. There is an association between the consumption of high levels of serum glucose with cardiovascular diseases. Various sources of sugar-induced gener...

  7. Impetus, Options and Consequences for Sugar Policy Reform in the United States

    OpenAIRE

    Wagner, Owen C.

    2007-01-01

    Sugar has a long history of being a contentious commodity important in international trade. Initially, the global framework for sugar trade was based on sugarcane, a grass grown in the tropics with trade being dictated largely by the British. In the Napoleonic wars, commercialization of the beet sugar industry arose on the continent in response to and a direct challenge to British control over the industry. The advent of the temperate sugar beet as an alternative to tropical cane in sugar ...

  8. Functional Dissection of Sugar Signals Affecting Gene Expression in Arabidopsis thaliana

    OpenAIRE

    Sabine Kunz; Edouard Pesquet; Kleczkowski, Leszek A.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Sugars modulate expression of hundreds of genes in plants. Previous studies on sugar signaling, using intact plants or plant tissues, were hampered by tissue heterogeneity, uneven sugar transport and/or inter-conversions of the applied sugars. This, in turn, could obscure the identity of a specific sugar that acts as a signal affecting expression of given gene in a given tissue or cell-type. Methodology/Principal Findings: To bypass those biases, we have developed a novel biologic...

  9. Production of rare sugars from common sugars in subcritical aqueous ethanol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Da-Ming; Kobayashi, Takashi; Adachi, Shuji

    2015-05-15

    A new isomerization reaction was developed to synthesize rare ketoses. D-tagatose, D-xylulose, and D-ribulose were obtained in the maximum yields of 24%, 38%, and 40%, respectively, from the corresponding aldoses, D-galactose, D-xylose, and D-ribose, by treating the aldoses with 80% (v/v) subcritical aqueous ethanol at 180°C. The maximum productivity of D-tagatose was ca. 80 g/(Lh). Increasing the concentration of ethanol significantly increased the isomerization of D-galactose. Variation in the reaction temperature did not significantly affect the production of D-tagatose from D-galactose. Subcritical aqueous ethanol converted both 2,3-threo and 2,3-erythro aldoses to the corresponding C-2 ketoses in high yields. Thus, the treatment of common aldoses in subcritical aqueous ethanol can be regarded as a new method to synthesize the corresponding rare sugars.

  10. SNPs in Genes Functional in Starch-Sugar Interconversion Associate with Natural Variation of Tuber Starch and Sugar Content of Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Schreiber, Lena; Nader-Nieto, Anna Camila; Schönhals, Elske Maria; Walkemeier, Birgit; Gebhardt, Christiane

    2014-01-01

    Starch accumulation and breakdown are vital processes in plant storage organs such as seeds, roots, and tubers. In tubers of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) a small fraction of starch is converted into the reducing sugars glucose and fructose. Reducing sugars accumulate in response to cold temperatures. Even small quantities of reducing sugars affect negatively the quality of processed products such as chips and French fries. Tuber starch and sugar content are inversely correlated complex trait...

  11. American College Health Association

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Dollars at Work Recognizing Donors Find us on social media! Home Contact Us Marketplace Cart Copyright © 2016 American College Health Association | Privacy and Usage Policies | Spokesperson and ...

  12. Native Americans and Diabetes

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... tested for it. Lona Brown: Do you take blood pressure medicine? Announcer: Back in St. Paul, Lona, who is a nurse by profession, learned she had diabetes when she started her ... she had suffered from high blood sugar for at least 15 years. Lona Brown: ...

  13. Crystallization and crystal properties of squid rhodopsin

    OpenAIRE

    Murakami, Midori; Kitahara, Rei; Gotoh, Toshiaki; Kouyama, Tsutomu

    2007-01-01

    Truncated rhodopsin from the retina of the squid Todarodes pacificus was extracted and crystallized by the sitting-drop vapour-diffusion method. Hexagonal crystals grown in the presence of octylglucoside and ammonium sulfate diffracted to 2.8 Å resolution.

  14. Performance of dairy females fed dried yeast from sugar cane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcia de Oliveira Franco

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This study was performed in order to evaluate the effect of dried yeast from sugar cane when replacing soybean meal in dairy heifers’ diets. Twenty-four heifers, with an initial body weight (BW of 178 kg, were distributed in a completely randomized design. The treatments were four levels of inclusion of dried yeast from sugar cane replacing to soybean meal (0, 33, 67 and 100% on a dry matter (DM basis. While there was no difference in DM, neutral detergent fiber (NDF, metabolizable energy or roughage intakes, the intakes of non-fiber carbohydrates and concentrate were increased. The crude protein intake decreased according to the dried yeast from sugar cane when replacing soybean meal. The digestibility coefficients of DM and NDF showed no difference. Replacement of soybean meal with dried yeast from sugar cane had no effect on performance, because average daily gain and body measurements studied were similar for all animals and inclusion levels. Soybean meal can be completely replaced with dried yeast from sugar cane in diets for growing dairy heifers without restrictions; this will not affect the intake, digestibility, physical development of animals or metabolization of protein compounds.

  15. Preservation of Sugar Content in Ensiled Sweet Sorghum Silage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Z. (Inst. of Grassland Research, Agricultural Univ., Beijing 100094 (China)). e-mail: yuzhu3@sohu.com; Sun, Q.Z. (Grassland Research Inst. of Chinese Academy of Agriculture Science, Hohhot 010010 (China)). E-mail:sunqz@126.com

    2008-10-15

    This experiment chose Sweet sorghum as material, analyzing its sugar and other ingredients by adding different additives (formic acid, formaldehyde, formic acid + formaldehyde, formic acid + propionic acid, Na{sub 2}S{sub 2}O{sub 5} and ammonia). The results showed that adding formic acid and formaldehyde individual or together preserved the sugar well. When adding individual, the best leaves were both 0.5%. When adding together, 0.7% formic acid and formaldehyde was better than others. Adding formic acid and propionic acid together also had good effect on the preservation of sugar, and 0.5% leave was better. 0.5% Na{sub 2}S{sub 2}O{sub 5} and 0.7% Na{sub 2}S{sub 2}O{sub 5} can preserve the sugar well, while 0.3% Na{sub 2}S{sub 2}O{sub 5} and ammonia had no effect on the preservation of sugar

  16. Water requirements of sugar cane grown in tropical environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicente de Paulo Rodrigues da Silva

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available An accurate estimation of water consumption of cane sugar crop is important for maximum productivity with less investment. The objective of this study was to determine the water requirements of sugar cane grown in tropical environments. The field experiment was carried out in Paraiba state, during the productive cycle of sugar cane crop variety RB 92 579 irrigated by central pivot irrigation (sprinkler from October 2009 to September 2011. The crop evapotranspiration was obtained based on soil water balance and reference evapotranspiration by Penman-Monteith method (FAO/56, using the data of air temperature, relative humidity, wind speed and solar radiation from Data Collection Platform, next to the experimental site. Soil water moisture was monitored by TDR probes (Frequency Domain Reflectometry, Model PR2/6, Delta-T. The results showed that the crop coefficients values proposed by the FAO for sugar cane are not suitable for tropical regions. The water consumption of sugar cane ranged from 2.6 mm day-1, at initial crop growth stage, to 6.38 mm day-1, with an average of 4.3 mm day-1 for all cycle. Similarly, the crop coefficient ranged from 0.56 to 1.43, with an average of 0.99 for the same development crop growth stages.

  17. Sources and fate of amino sugars in coastal Peruvian sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niggemann, Jutta; Schubert, Carsten J.

    2006-05-01

    Amino sugars are involved in the marine carbon and nitrogen cycles and comprise a geochemically significant fraction of marine organic material (OM). However, information on abundance and distribution of these compounds in marine sediments is scarce. Three sediment cores (cell wall remains rather than with living bacteria, since bacterial abundances estimated based on Mur concentrations were up to 500 times higher than cell counts reported for sediments from this area. GlcN/GalN-ratios (1.1-1.7) indicated that chitin, a polymer of GlcN, was not a major contributor to the amino sugar pool of the investigated sediments. Furthermore, GlcN/Mur-ratios (13-68) are inconsistent with a predominant contribution of intact peptidoglycan, which exhibits a 1:1-ratio. The present study includes a compilation of previously published information on distribution and abundance of amino sugars in the marine environment. Both concentrations and ratios observed in the Peruvian sediments fall in the range of values reported for OM in water column and sediments from different oceanic regions and water depths. Although specific sources for the majority of sedimentary amino sugars remain unidentified, there are indications for a major prokaryotic origin. As suggested in previous studies, the uniform amino sugar compositions of altered marine OM and particularly the close association of GlcN and GalN, which is similar to the ratio observed in living bacteria, are consistent with a transformation of planktonic into bacterial OM.

  18. Sugar cane stillage: a potential source of natural antioxidants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caderby, Emma; Baumberger, Stéphanie; Hoareau, William; Fargues, Claire; Decloux, Martine; Maillard, Marie-Noëlle

    2013-11-27

    Biorefinery of sugar cane is the first economic activity of Reunion Island. Some sugar cane manufactured products (juice, syrup, molasses) have antioxidant activities and are sources of both phenolic compounds and Maillard Reaction Products (MRP). The study aimed to highlight the global antioxidant activity of sugar cane stillage and understand its identity. Chromatographic fractionation on Sephadex LH-20 resin allowed the recovery of a MRP-rich fraction, responsible for 58 to 66% of the global antioxidant activity according to the nature of the sugar cane stillage (DPPH test), and a phenolic compounds-rich fraction for 37 to 59% of the activity. A good correlation was recorded between the antioxidant activity of the sugar cane stillage and its content in total reducing compounds amount (Folin-Ciocalteu assay), among them 2.8 to 3.9 g/L of phenolic compounds (in 5-caffeoylquinic acid equivalent). Preliminary experiments by HPLC-DAD-MS allowed to identify several free phenolic acids and gave clues to identify esters of quinic acids. PMID:24228787

  19. Salt and sugar: their effects on blood pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Feng J; MacGregor, Graham A

    2015-03-01

    Both dietary salt and sugar are related to blood pressure (BP). The evidence for salt is much stronger, and various types of studies have consistently shown that salt is a major cause of raised BP, and a reduction from the current intake of ≈ 9-12 g/day in most countries of the world to the recommended level of 5-6 g/day lowers BP in both hypertensive and normotensive individuals, in men and women, in all age groups and in all ethnic groups. Countries such as Finland and the UK that have successfully reduced salt intake have demonstrated a reduction in population BP and cardiovascular mortality, with major cost savings to the health service. The mechanisms whereby salt raises BP are not fully understood. The traditional concepts focus on the tendency for an increase in extracellular fluid volume. Increasing evidence suggests that small increases in plasma sodium may play an important role. There are several other factors that also increase BP, one of which is added sugars. The current high intake of added sugars increases obesity which, in turn, raises BP. Recent studies also suggest that added sugars, particularly those in soft drinks, may have a direct effect on BP. However, the relationship between soft drink consumption and BP could be, at least partially, mediated by the effect of salt intake on increasing soft drink consumption. Actions to reduce salt and sugar intake across the whole population will have major beneficial effects on health along with major cost savings. PMID:25547872

  20. Solubility data and modeling for sugar alcohols in ionic liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Solubility of D-sorbitol and xylitol in six ILs. • The (liquid + liquid) phase equilibrium of (SA + IL) with UCST. • Interesting properties of [BMIM][TDI] IL. • The correlation with NRTL model. - Abstract: Ionic liquids (ILs) are novel media characterized by strong interactions with different organic substances which leads to a wide spectrum of applications involving extraction. Ionic liquids have been used as a solvent for sugar alcohols, sugars and hydrates. This work demonstrates the experimental and theoretical study of (liquid + liquid) phase equilibria for two sugar alcohols, D-sorbitol and xylitol in a few ILs based on different cations and anions (namely, 1-ethyl-1-methylpiperidinium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide [EMPIP][NTf2], 1-hexyl-1-methylpiperidinium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide [HMPIP][NTf2], N-hexylquinolinium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide [HQuin][NTf2], N-hexylisoquinolinium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide [HiQuin][NTf2], 1-butyl-1-methylimidazolium 4,5-dicyano-2-(trifluoromethyl)-imidazolide [BMIM][TDI] and 1-(cyanomethyl)-3-methylimidazolium 4,5-dicyano-2-(trifluoromethyl)-imidazolide [CCNMIM][TDI]). This study was conducted to assess the applicability of the studied ILs for dissolution of these biomass-related materials. (Liquid + liquid) phase equilibrium diagrams (LLE) in binary systems (sugar alcohol + ionic liquid) were measured using the dynamic technique. The influence of the chemical structure of both the ionic liquids and sugar alcohols were established and is discussed

  1. Nucleotide-sugar transporters: structure, function and roles in vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Handford M.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The glycosylation of glycoconjugates and the biosynthesis of polysaccharides depend on nucleotide-sugars which are the substrates for glycosyltransferases. A large proportion of these enzymes are located within the lumen of the Golgi apparatus as well as the endoplasmic reticulum, while many of the nucleotide-sugars are synthesized in the cytosol. Thus, nucleotide-sugars are translocated from the cytosol to the lumen of the Golgi apparatus and endoplasmic reticulum by multiple spanning domain proteins known as nucleotide-sugar transporters (NSTs. These proteins were first identified biochemically and some of them were cloned by complementation of mutants. Genome and expressed sequence tag sequencing allowed the identification of a number of sequences that may encode for NSTs in different organisms. The functional characterization of some of these genes has shown that some of them can be highly specific in their substrate specificity while others can utilize up to three different nucleotide-sugars containing the same nucleotide. Mutations in genes encoding for NSTs can lead to changes in development in Drosophila melanogaster or Caenorhabditis elegans, as well as alterations in the infectivity of Leishmania donovani. In humans, the mutation of a GDP-fucose transporter is responsible for an impaired immune response as well as retarded growth. These results suggest that, even though there appear to be a fair number of genes encoding for NSTs, they are not functionally redundant and seem to play specific roles in glycosylation.

  2. The Structure of a Sugar Transporter of the Glucose EIIC Superfamily Provides Insight into the Elevator Mechanism of Membrane Transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCoy, Jason G; Ren, Zhenning; Stanevich, Vitali; Lee, Jumin; Mitra, Sharmistha; Levin, Elena J; Poget, Sebastien; Quick, Matthias; Im, Wonpil; Zhou, Ming

    2016-06-01

    The phosphoenolpyruvate:carbohydrate phosphotransferase systems are found in bacteria, where they play central roles in sugar uptake and regulation of cellular uptake processes. Little is known about how the membrane-embedded components (EIICs) selectively mediate the passage of carbohydrates across the membrane. Here we report the functional characterization and 2.55-Å resolution structure of a maltose transporter, bcMalT, belonging to the glucose superfamily of EIIC transporters. bcMalT crystallized in an outward-facing occluded conformation, in contrast to the structure of another glucose superfamily EIIC, bcChbC, which crystallized in an inward-facing occluded conformation. The structures differ in the position of a structurally conserved substrate-binding domain that is suggested to play a central role in sugar transport. In addition, molecular dynamics simulations suggest a potential pathway for substrate entry from the periplasm into the bcMalT substrate-binding site. These results provide a mechanistic framework for understanding substrate recognition and translocation for the glucose superfamily EIIC transporters. PMID:27161976

  3. The Structure of a Sugar Transporter of the Glucose EIIC Superfamily Provides Insight into the Elevator Mechanism of Membrane Transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCoy, Jason G; Ren, Zhenning; Stanevich, Vitali; Lee, Jumin; Mitra, Sharmistha; Levin, Elena J; Poget, Sebastien; Quick, Matthias; Im, Wonpil; Zhou, Ming

    2016-06-01

    The phosphoenolpyruvate:carbohydrate phosphotransferase systems are found in bacteria, where they play central roles in sugar uptake and regulation of cellular uptake processes. Little is known about how the membrane-embedded components (EIICs) selectively mediate the passage of carbohydrates across the membrane. Here we report the functional characterization and 2.55-Å resolution structure of a maltose transporter, bcMalT, belonging to the glucose superfamily of EIIC transporters. bcMalT crystallized in an outward-facing occluded conformation, in contrast to the structure of another glucose superfamily EIIC, bcChbC, which crystallized in an inward-facing occluded conformation. The structures differ in the position of a structurally conserved substrate-binding domain that is suggested to play a central role in sugar transport. In addition, molecular dynamics simulations suggest a potential pathway for substrate entry from the periplasm into the bcMalT substrate-binding site. These results provide a mechanistic framework for understanding substrate recognition and translocation for the glucose superfamily EIIC transporters.

  4. Crystallization inhibition of an amorphous sucrose system using raffinose

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LEINEN K.M.; LABUZA T.P.

    2006-01-01

    The shelf life of pure amorphous sucrose systems, such as cotton candy, can be very short. Previous studies have shown that amorphous sucrose systems held above the glass transition temperature will collapse and crystallize. One study,however, showed that adding a small percent of another type of sugar, such as trehalose, to sucrose can extend the shelf life of the amorphous system by slowing crystallization. This study explores the hypothesis that raffinose increases the stability of an amorphous sucrose system. Cotton candy at 5 wt% raffinose and 95 wt% sucrose was made and stored at room temperature and three different relative humidities (%RH) 11%RH, 33%RH, and 43%RH. XRD patterns, and glass transition temperatures were obtained to determine the stability as a function of %RH. The data collected showed that raffinose slows sucrose crystallization in a low moisture amorphous state above the glass transition temperature and therefore improves the stability of amorphous sucrose systems.

  5. Growth of dopamine crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, Vidya; Patki, Mugdha

    2016-05-01

    Many nonlinear optical (NLO) crystals have been identified as potential candidates in optical and electro-optical devices. Use of NLO organic crystals is expected in photonic applications. Hence organic nonlinear optical materials have been intensely investigated due to their potentially high nonlinearities, and rapid response in electro-optic effect compared to inorganic NLO materials. There are many methods to grow organic crystals such as vapor growth method, melt growth method and solution growth method. Out of these methods, solution growth method is useful in providing constraint free crystal. Single crystals of Dopamine have been grown by evaporating the solvents from aqueous solution. Crystals obtained were of the size of orders of mm. The crystal structure of dopamine was determined using XRD technique. Images of crystals were obtained using FEG SEM Quanta Series under high vacuum and low KV.

  6. 我国甘蔗糖厂节能减排技术发展%Technogical Development for Saving Energy and Reducing Pollution in Sugar Factories

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    房晓玉; 庞秋霞

    2014-01-01

    节能和减排是糖厂的重要课题,近年制糖工作者在这方面做了大量的工作,取得了良好的效果。我国2012/13年榨季制糖平均标煤耗对蔗比为4.69%,最好的甘蔗糖厂(集团)标煤耗对蔗比达到3.63%。通过制糖废水的闭合循环综合利用系统,使生产中工艺用水及非工艺用水得到分类处理和循环利用,实现了生产用水零取水,工艺废水零排放。本文对糖厂主要工艺过程的节能和减排技术措施进行阐述。%Saving energy and reducing pollution is an important project for sugar factories. A lot of jobs had been done and good results had been obtained. In 2012/13 crushing season the average standard coal consumption was 4.69% in cane sugar factories in China. In the top sugar factory (group) the standard coal consumption was 3.63%. Because of the closed circulation and integrated use for wastewater in sugar processing, the process water and other water can been heated with classification and used with circulation. The zero water service and zero drainage of wastewater had been achieved in many factories. Sugar yield can be increased 2%(absolute value) and electricity consumption can be increased by 1/3 in the new crystallization process for producing brown sugar by the decreasing temperature method.

  7. Use of sugarcane molasses "B" as an alternative for ethanol production with wild-type yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae ITV-01 at high sugar concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-López, C L; Torrestiana-Sánchez, B; Salgado-Cervantes, M A; García, P G Mendoza; Aguilar-Uscanga, M G

    2012-05-01

    Molasses "B" is a rich co-product of the sugarcane process. It is obtained from the second step of crystallization and is richer in fermentable sugars (50-65%) than the final molasses, with a lower non-sugar solid content (18-33%); this co-product also contains good vitamin and mineral levels. The use of molasses "B" for ethanol production could be a good option for the sugarcane industry when cane sugar prices diminish in the market. In a complex medium like molasses, osmotolerance is a desirable characteristic for ethanol producing strains. The aim of this work was to evaluate the use of molasses "B" for ethanol production using Saccharomyces cerevisiae ITV-01 (a wild-type yeast isolated from sugarcane molasses) using different initial sugar concentrations (70-291 g L(-1)), two inoculum sizes and the addition of nutrients such as yeast extract, urea, and ammonium sulphate to the culture medium. The results obtained showed that the strain was able to grow at 291 g L(-1) total sugars in molasses "B" medium; the addition of nutrients to the culture medium did not produce a statistically significant difference. This yeast exhibits high osmotolerance in this medium, producing high ethanol yields (0.41 g g(-1)). The best conditions for ethanol production were 220 g L(-1) initial total sugars in molasses "B" medium, pH 5.5, using an inoculum size of 6 × 10(6) cell mL(-1); ethanol production was 85 g L(-1), productivity 3.8 g L(-1 )h(-1) with 90% preserved cell viability.

  8. Use of sugarcane molasses "B" as an alternative for ethanol production with wild-type yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae ITV-01 at high sugar concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-López, C L; Torrestiana-Sánchez, B; Salgado-Cervantes, M A; García, P G Mendoza; Aguilar-Uscanga, M G

    2012-05-01

    Molasses "B" is a rich co-product of the sugarcane process. It is obtained from the second step of crystallization and is richer in fermentable sugars (50-65%) than the final molasses, with a lower non-sugar solid content (18-33%); this co-product also contains good vitamin and mineral levels. The use of molasses "B" for ethanol production could be a good option for the sugarcane industry when cane sugar prices diminish in the market. In a complex medium like molasses, osmotolerance is a desirable characteristic for ethanol producing strains. The aim of this work was to evaluate the use of molasses "B" for ethanol production using Saccharomyces cerevisiae ITV-01 (a wild-type yeast isolated from sugarcane molasses) using different initial sugar concentrations (70-291 g L(-1)), two inoculum sizes and the addition of nutrients such as yeast extract, urea, and ammonium sulphate to the culture medium. The results obtained showed that the strain was able to grow at 291 g L(-1) total sugars in molasses "B" medium; the addition of nutrients to the culture medium did not produce a statistically significant difference. This yeast exhibits high osmotolerance in this medium, producing high ethanol yields (0.41 g g(-1)). The best conditions for ethanol production were 220 g L(-1) initial total sugars in molasses "B" medium, pH 5.5, using an inoculum size of 6 × 10(6) cell mL(-1); ethanol production was 85 g L(-1), productivity 3.8 g L(-1 )h(-1) with 90% preserved cell viability. PMID:21971607

  9. Designing finite-height two-dimensional photonic crystal waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Thomas; Bjarklev, Anders Overgaard; Kristensen, Martin;

    2000-01-01

    Guidelines for designing planar waveguides based on introducing line-defects in two-dimensional photonic-crystal slabs are obtained by comparing calculations on two-dimensional structures with dispersion relations for the media above and below the slab. (C) 2000 American Institute of Physics....

  10. ALICE photon spectrometer crystals

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2006-01-01

    Members of the mechanical assembly team insert the last few crystals into the first module of ALICE's photon spectrometer. These crystals are made from lead-tungstate, a crystal as clear as glass but with nearly four times the density. When a high-energy particle passes through one of these crystals it will scintillate, emitting a flash of light allowing the energy of photons, electrons and positrons to be measured.

  11. Crystallization from Gels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayana Kalkura, S.; Natarajan, Subramanian

    Among the various crystallization techniques, crystallization in gels has found wide applications in the fields of biomineralization and macromolecular crystallization in addition to crystallizing materials having nonlinear optical, ferroelectric, ferromagnetic, and other properties. Furthermore, by using this method it is possible to grow single crystals with very high perfection that are difficult to grow by other techniques. The gel method of crystallization provides an ideal technique to study crystal deposition diseases, which could lead to better understanding of their etiology. This chapter focuses on crystallization in gels of compounds that are responsible for crystal deposition diseases. The introduction is followed by a description of the various gels used, the mechanism of gelling, and the fascinating phenomenon of Liesegang ring formation, along with various gel growth techniques. The importance and scope of study on crystal deposition diseases and the need for crystal growth experiments using gel media are stressed. The various crystal deposition diseases, viz. (1) urolithiasis, (2) gout or arthritis, (3) cholelithiasis and atherosclerosis, and (4) pancreatitis and details regarding the constituents of the crystal deposits responsible for the pathological mineralization are discussed. Brief accounts of the theories of the formation of urinary stones and gallstones and the role of trace elements in urinary stone formation are also given. The crystallization in gels of (1) the urinary stone constituents, viz. calcium oxalate, calcium phosphates, uric acid, cystine, etc., (2) the constituents of the gallstones, viz. cholesterol, calcium carbonate, etc., (3) the major constituent of the pancreatic calculi, viz., calcium carbonate, and (4) cholic acid, a steroidal hormone are presented. The effect of various organic and inorganic ions, trace elements, and extracts from cereals, herbs, and fruits on the crystallization of major urinary stone and gallstone

  12. Analysis of sugars and sugar polyols in atmospheric aerosols by chloride attachment in liquid chromatography/negative ion electrospray mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Eric C H; Yu, Jian Zhen

    2007-04-01

    Sugars and sugar polyols are relatively abundant groups of water-soluble constituents in atmospheric aerosols. This paper describes a method that uses liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) to analyze sugars and sugar polyols in atmospheric aerosols, ranging from C3 sugar alcohols to trisaccharides. Postcolumn addition of chloroform in acetonitrile was found to greatly enhance ionization of these compounds by forming chloride adduct ions in the negative-ion mode using electrospray ionization. A gradient elution program starting at 5%:95% H20/acetonitrile and ending at 30%:70% H2O/acetonitrile provides baseline separations of the sugars and sugar polyols on an amino-based carbohydrate column. The detection limits based on quantification of [M + 35Cl]- adduct ions were in the order of 0.1 microM. By eliminating the need for derivatization, this LC-MS based method provides a simpler alternative method to the commonly used and more laborious gas-chromatography based methods. It also has an additional advantage of being able to quantify trisaccharide sugars. The method was applied to analyze 30 ambient samples of fine particulate matter collected at a site away from urban centers in Hong Kong. The sugar compounds positively identified and detected in the ambient samples included four sugar alcohols (glycerol, erythritol, xylitol, and mannitol), three monosacchride sugars (xylose, fructose, and glucose), two disaccharides (sucrose, trehalose), two trisaccharides (melezitose, raffinose), and one anhydrosugar (levoglucosan). The sum of these sugar and sugar polyol compounds ranged from 38 to 1316 ng m(-3), accounting for an average of 1.3% organic carbon mass. Through the use of a principal component analysis of the ambient measurements, the mono- to trisactharide sugars and C3-C5 sugar polyols were identified to be mainly associated with soil/soil microbiota while the anhydrosugar (levoglucosan) was associated with biomass burning. PMID:17438800

  13. Spectrophotometric total reducing sugars assay based on cupric reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Başkan, Kevser Sözgen; Tütem, Esma; Akyüz, Esin; Özen, Seda; Apak, Reşat

    2016-01-15

    As the concentration of reducing sugars (RS) is controlled by European legislation for certain specific food and beverages, a simple and sensitive spectrophotometric method for the determination of RS in various food products is proposed. The method is based on the reduction of Cu(II) to Cu(I) with reducing sugars in alkaline medium in the presence of 2,9-dimethyl-1,10-phenanthroline (neocuproine: Nc), followed by the formation of a colored Cu(I)-Nc charge-transfer complex. All simple sugars tested had the linear regression equations with almost equal slope values. The proposed method was successfully applied to fresh apple juice, commercial fruit juices, milk, honey and onion juice. Interference effect of phenolic compounds in plant samples was eliminated by a solid phase extraction (SPE) clean-up process. The method was proven to have higher sensitivity and precision than the widely used dinitrosalicylic acid (DNS) colorimetric method.

  14. Method of performing sugar dehydration and catalyst treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jianli [Kennewick, WA; Holladay, Johnathan E [Kennewick, WA; Zhang, Xinjie [Burlington, MA; Wang, Yong [Richland, WA

    2010-06-01

    The invention includes a method of treating a solid acid catalyst. After exposing the catalyst to a mixture containing a sugar alcohol, the catalyst is washed with an organic solvent and is then exposed to a second reaction mixture. The invention includes a process for production of anhydrosugar alcohol. A solid acid catalyst is provided to convert sugar alcohol in a first sample to an anhydrosugar alcohol. The catalyst is then washed with an organic solvent and is subsequently utilized to expose a second sample. The invention includes a method for selective production of an anhydrosugar. A solid acid catalyst is provided within a reactor and anhydrosugar alcohol is formed by flowing a starting sugar alcohol into the reactor. The acid catalyst is then exposed to an organic solvent which allows a greater amount of additional anhydrosugar to be produced than would occur without exposing the acid catalyst to the organic solvent.

  15. Shock Chemistry of Sugars and Implications for Delivery by Meteorites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zellner, N B

    2003-10-16

    Recent detection of the sugar glycolaldehyde in the interstellar molecular cloud Sagittarius B2(N) (Hollis et al. 2000) and models of its formation (Sorrell, 2001) have helped fuel the idea that biologically-relevant organic compounds can form easily in space and can be delivered to Earth or other planets by comets, meteorites, and asteroids. Glycolaldehyde is a useful bio-ingredient because it can polymerize into higher forms of carbohydrates, such as ribose, the sugar that makes up the backbone for RNA, and glucose, the sugar found in plant saps and fruits (Hollis et al. 2000; see Figure 1). Glycolaldehyde is reactive and can form various kinds of complex organic compounds; therefore, it may be an important ingredient for starting life on the early Earth. Its presence in space, while not ubiquitous, is an important clue for understanding the chemical routes that can lead to the formation of other molecules, both simple and complex. Meteorites contain materials coalesced from dense molecular clouds during or prior to formation of the Solar System. Carbonaceous chondrites are of special interest to studies of the origin of life because they contain carbon-based compounds, such as amino acids (e.g. Pizzarello et al. 1991; Botta and Bada, 2002) and sugars (Cooper et al. 2001, 2002), essential constituents of terrestrial organisms. Dihydroxyacetone, sugar acids, and sugar alcohols have been identified in the Murchison and Murray meteorites (Cooper et al. 2001, 2002), and laboratory analyses of simple sugar mass spectra have suggested that similar features exist in Comet Halley spectra (Robinson and Wdowiak, 1994). While shock experiments have already been carried out to understand the effects of pressure and temperature on the chemistry of amino acids with relevance to their delivery to Earth by comets (e.g. Blank et al. 2001), to date, no experiments regarding the impact delivery and survivability of sugars have been done. Here we propose studies that will focus on

  16. Feeding behavior and nutrition of the sugar glider (Petaurus breviceps).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dierenfeld, Ellen S

    2009-05-01

    Despite the sugar glider's popularity as a pet and a long-term history of captive management in zoologic institutions, little is known concerning their specific nutritional requirements, apart from low basal energy and protein needs. Sugar gliders feed on plant and insect exudates-saps, gums, nectar, manna, honeydew, and lerp-as energy sources and rely on pollen and arthropods for dietary protein. Captive diets based on nutritionally balanced, commercially available products developed for other species, with added produce, have been fed successfully in zoo and private glider colonies, but these diets may not promote optimal gut function or feeding behaviors. Diets commonly fed by private owners were examined in feeding trials and were found to be highly digestible, but contained excess protein that was likely imbalanced in amino acids, as well as in calcium and phosphorus, because of improper supplementation. Suggestions are outlined for areas of relevant research to improve nutritional husbandry of sugar gliders.

  17. SugarCRM亚洲总部落户上海

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    商业开源客户关系管理软件公司SugarCRM近日在上海召开精英联合峰会,宣布在上海设立亚洲总部、并任命资深软件管理专家徐允文为中国区总经理。据了解,徐允平于2005年加入SugarCRM,担任全球工程部副总裁期间带领组建全球研发团队,并设计实现了三代SugarCRM产品。会上。创始人Clint Oram重点介绍了公司的开源策略,并公布了中国市场扩张计划,

  18. Polysaccharides enriched in rare sugars: bacterial sources, production and applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christophe eRoca

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Microbial extracellular polysaccharides (EPS, produced by a wide range of bacteria, are high molecular weight biopolymers, presenting an extreme diversity in terms of chemical structure and composition. They may be used in many applications, depending on their chemical and physical properties. A rather unexplored aspect is the presence of rare sugars in the composition of some EPS. Rare sugars, such as rhamnose or fucose, may provide EPS with additional biological properties compared to those composed of more common sugar monomers.This review gives a brief overview of these specific EPS and their producing bacteria. Cultivation conditions are summarized, demonstrating their impact on the EPS composition, together with downstream processing. Finally, their use in different areas, including cosmetics, food products, pharmaceuticals and biomedical applications, are discussed.

  19. Spectrophotometric total reducing sugars assay based on cupric reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Başkan, Kevser Sözgen; Tütem, Esma; Akyüz, Esin; Özen, Seda; Apak, Reşat

    2016-01-15

    As the concentration of reducing sugars (RS) is controlled by European legislation for certain specific food and beverages, a simple and sensitive spectrophotometric method for the determination of RS in various food products is proposed. The method is based on the reduction of Cu(II) to Cu(I) with reducing sugars in alkaline medium in the presence of 2,9-dimethyl-1,10-phenanthroline (neocuproine: Nc), followed by the formation of a colored Cu(I)-Nc charge-transfer complex. All simple sugars tested had the linear regression equations with almost equal slope values. The proposed method was successfully applied to fresh apple juice, commercial fruit juices, milk, honey and onion juice. Interference effect of phenolic compounds in plant samples was eliminated by a solid phase extraction (SPE) clean-up process. The method was proven to have higher sensitivity and precision than the widely used dinitrosalicylic acid (DNS) colorimetric method. PMID:26592591

  20. Enzymatic gelation of sugar beet pectin in food products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergsøe, Merete Norsker; Jensen, Mette; Adler-Nissen, Jens

    2000-01-01

    was formed which bound the meat pieces together thereby making the product sliceable. However, in two of the food products some unwanted side effects were observed. The enzymes did not only catalyse the cross-linking, but also oxidised the anthocyanins in the black currant juice and short chained fatty acids......Sugar beet pectin is a food ingredient with specific functional properties. It may form gels by an oxidative cross-linking of ferulic acid. In the present study, the gel forming properties of three oxidative enzymes were examined in different food relevant conditions. The enzymes chosen were two...... laccases and one peroxidase. The textural properties of the produced gels were measured on a texture analyser. The influence of sugar, salt and protein were analysed. Finally, the enzymatic gelation was studied in three food products with added sugar beet pectin. These were black currant juice, milk...

  1. Protein Crystal Based Nanomaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Jeffrey A.; VanRoey, Patrick

    2001-01-01

    This is the final report on a NASA Grant. It concerns a description of work done, which includes: (1) Protein crystals cross-linked to form fibers; (2) Engineering of protein to favor crystallization; (3) Better knowledge-based potentials for protein-protein contacts; (4) Simulation of protein crystallization.

  2. Artistic Crystal Creations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, Catherine

    2008-01-01

    In this inquiry-based, integrative art and science activity, Grade 5-8 students use multicolored Epsom salt (magnesium sulfate) crystallizing solutions to reveal beautiful, cylindrical, 3-dimensional, needle-shaped structures. Through observations of the crystal art, students analyze factors that contribute to crystal size and formation, compare…

  3. Potential Role of Sugar Transporters in Cancer and Their Relationship with Anticancer Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moisés Blanco Calvo

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Sugars, primarily glucose and fructose, are the main energy source of cells. Because of their hydrophilic nature, cells use a number of transporter proteins to introduce sugars through their plasma membrane. Cancer cells are well known to display an enhanced sugar uptake and consumption. In fact, sugar transporters are deregulated in cancer cells so they incorporate higher amounts of sugar than normal cells. In this paper, we compile the most significant data available about biochemical and biological properties of sugar transporters in normal tissues and we review the available information about sugar carrier expression in different types of cancer. Moreover, we describe the possible pharmacological interactions between drugs currently used in anticancer therapy and the expression or function of facilitative sugar transporters. Finally, we also go into the insights about the future design of drugs targeted against sugar utilization in cancer cells.

  4. American Culture Through Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman, Clair Michael; Pulliam, William E.

    1976-01-01

    In honor of the Bicentennial, current instructional materials concerned with American lifestyles--past and present--American music, art, education, customs and traditions, and language are reviewed. The reviews are presented in a narrative format and value judgments are made where appropriate. Address and price information are found in a list at…

  5. Teaching American Indian Architecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winchell, Dick

    1991-01-01

    Reviews "Native American Architecture," by Nabokov and Easton, an encyclopedic work that examines technology, climate, social structure, economics, religion, and history in relation to house design and the "meaning" of space among tribes of nine regions. Describes this book's use in a college course on Native American architecture. (SV)

  6. Asian American Cultural Resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Libretti, Tim

    1997-01-01

    Explores the encounter of Marxism and Asian American literary theory and imagines an Asian American Marxism. To do so requires theorizing race, class, and gender not as substantive categories of antagonisms but as complementary and coordinated elements of a totality of social relations structuring racial patriarchal capitalism. (SLD)

  7. Clarification properties of trash and stalk tissues from sugar cane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eggleston, Gillian; Grisham, Michael; Antoine, April

    2010-01-13

    The effect of the U.S. and worldwide change from burnt to unburnt (green) sugar cane harvesting on processing and the use of sugar cane leaves and tops as a biomass source has not been fully characterized. Sugar cane whole-stalks were harvested from the first ratoon (repeat) crop of five commercial, Louisiana sugar cane varieties (LCP 85-384, HoCP 96-540, L 97-128, L 99-226, and L 99-233). Replicated sample tissues of brown, dry leaves (BL), green leaves (GL), growing point region (GPR), and stalk (S) were separated. Composite juice from each tissue type was clarified following a hot lime clarification process operated by most U.S. factories. Only GPR and GL juices foamed on heating and followed the normal settling behavior of factory sugar cane juice, although GL was markedly slower than GPR. GPR juice aided settling. S juice tended to thin out rather than follow normal settling and exhibited the most unwanted upward motion of flocs. Most varietal variation in settling, mud, and clarified juice (CJ) characteristics occurred for GL. The quality rather than the quantity of impurities in the different tissues mostly affected the volume of mud produced: After 30 min of settling, mud volume per unit tissue juice degrees Brix (% dissolved solids) varied markedly among the tissues (S 1.09, BL 11.3, GPR 3.0, and GL 3.1 mL/degrees Brix). Heat transfer properties of tissue juices and CJs are described. Clarification was unable to remove all BL cellulosic particles. GL and BL increased color, turbidity, and suspended particles in CJs with BL worse than GL. This will make the future attainment of very high pol (VHP) raw sugar in the U.S. more difficult. Although optimization of factory unit processes will alleviate extra trash problems, economical strategies to reduce the amount of green and brown leaves processed need to be identified and implemented.

  8. Analytical color analysis of irradiated sugar cane spirit with grapes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pires, Juliana A.; Delabio, Aline S., E-mail: jujuba_angelo@yahoo.com.br, E-mail: aline_sd_timao@hotmail.com [Faculdade de Tecnologia em Piracicaba (FATEP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil); Harder, Marcia N.C.; Moraes, Liz M.B.; Silva, Lucia C.A.; Arthur, Paula B.; Arthur, Valter, E-mail: mnharder@terra.com.br, E-mail: lizmarybueno@gmail.com, E-mail: lcasilva@cena.usp.br, E-mail: paula.arthur@hotmail.com, E-mail: arthur@cena.usp.br [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    The aim of this work was to irradiate a Sugar Cane Spirit with grapes by gamma radiation (Co60) aiming the color alteration like an aging parameter. The Sugar Cane Spirit is a distilled beverage and in order that bouquet and flavor are enhanced, usually the Sugar Cane Spirit goes through a process of maturation in wooden barrels or in bottles with the presence of wood chips, which alters their appearance. However, is possible to get this same result with the use of gamma radiation from Co60 and there is a possibility of indicative the premature aging by the Sugar Cane Spirit color change, through the extraction of grape phenolic compounds. The Sugar Cane Spirit samples were prepared with grapes type Crimson in polypropylene bottles. The samples was irradiated at doses of 0 (control); 0.3KGy; 2kGy and 6kGy, subsequently were performed the colorimetric analyzes in periods of 5; 10; 20 and 50 days after the irradiation treatment. There was no significant statistical difference for the parameters L; a; b; Chrome and Hue-Angle, at 5; 10 and 20 days. On the 50th day only the parameter a shows significant statistical difference at the dose of 0.3kGy, that was higher than 2kGy and 6kGy doses, but not differ the between the control sample. So by the showed results was concluded that the irradiation at doses of 0.3Gy, 2kGy and 6kGy, do not change the color of the Sugar Cane Spirit. (author)

  9. Association between sugar consumption, sociodemographic, anthropometric and biochemical profiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zorada Hattingh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The increase in prevalence of coronary heart disease, type 2 diabetes, obesity and abnormal blood lipid levels has raised the question of a possible relationship between these conditions and the consumption of sugar.Objectives: This study investigated the sugar consumption of financially-restricted Black women in Mangaung, South Africa.Method: Five hundred women were selected randomly and divided into younger (25–34 years and older (35–44 years groups. Dietary intake, sociodemographic status, anthropometry and biochemical data were obtained. Total sugar (TS and added sugar (AS consumption were compared between older and younger women as well as sociodemographic, anthropometric and biochemical categories.Results: AS intake contributed 12% and 13% of total energy intake in younger and older women, respectively. AS consumption was higher in younger women living in brick houses and those who possessed a microwave oven. In older women, it was higher in husband-headed households. Underweight women with the lowest body mass index had higher sugar consumption than overweight and/or obese women. Women with a lower body fat percentage had a higher AS consumption than women with a high body fat percentage. Sugar consumption was significantly lower in younger women with elevated serum lymphocytecounts. TS and AS consumption was higher in younger women with elevated serum glucose levels. Older women with elevated serum insulin had a significantly higher TS consumption compared to those with normal insulin concentrations.Conclusion: The amounts of TS and AS consumed by women in this observational study were unlikely to contribute to overweight and/or obesity.

  10. Sugar Beet Performance Affected by Uniformity of N Fertigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Nouri

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In common with the majority of crop species, in sugar beet nutrition nitrogen is an important element due to its role in sucrose utilization and plant growth. Application of precision agriculture, in order to apply the right amount of input at the right time in the right area, is appropriate to decrease chemical use and increase plant growth. Problem statement: More often farmers apply fertilizers with low efficiency, low uniformity and high price such as spinner spreader, boom spreader or application with planting machines simultaneously. Fertigation can reduce labor cost and may improve uniformity, effectiveness and timeliness of application. Approach: The main objective of this study was to determine spatial variability of sugar beet performance affected by urea fertigation as well as established a management strategy based on spatial variability of tubers and soil total N. This study was conducted in Fesaran village, Isfahan Province of Iran and limited to sugar beet (monogerm seed. Urea applied through sprinklers. Soil samples were taken to determine soil total N as well as sugar beet tubers samples to specify yield. Results of soil and crop analysis were used to produce spatial variability maps through GS+ and ArcGIS 9.2 software. Semivariogram results were used to perform an ordinary kriging to obtain interpolated values of selected variables from the sample points through and across the study area. Results: It was found that there was a low spatial variability of soil total N and yield which indicates that the soil has a homogenous total N as well as homogenous yield through and across the field. Yield variability map of sugar beet properties demonstrated that the higher yield was seen in the southern part of the study area where laterals were closer to pump. Conclusion: The results of urea fertigation through sprinklers showed pipeline layout and pump station position impact on variability of sugar beet properties.

  11. Sugar supplementation stimulates growth performance in calves with growth retardation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Tomohiro; Hidaka, Yuichi; Kamimura, Shunichi

    2010-01-01

    The growth effect of sugar supplementation was determined in 49 retarded growth calves. Calves were supplemented with sugar at 1 g/kg BW 2 times weekly for 8 weeks. Glucose tolerance tests prior to the experiment showed no difference between the retarded growth calves and normal growth controls. After sugar supplementation, the calves were classified into 4 groups characterized by high (H) or low (L) periodic changes in daily weight gain (DG) with a breakpoint of 0.8 kg/d in three periods, birth to sugar supplementation (Birth-Pre), the 8 weeks during supplementation (Pre-Post) and after feeding to delivery to market (Post-Market). The periodic DG showed a marked increase after supplementation in Pre-Post and Post-Market compared with before supplementation during Birth-Pre in 2 groups (0.93 and 1.11 vs. 0.51 kg/day for L-H-H [n=19], 0.66 and 1.19 vs. 0.42 kg/day for L-L-H [n=24]), but no difference was observed in L-H-L (n=3) and L-L-L (n=3). Peripheral blood was collected on the day before supplementation (Pre), 8 weeks after supplementation (Post) and eight weeks after cease of supplementation. The blood concentrations of both insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) and glucose showed significant increases in L-H-H and L-L-H, but decreases in non-esterified fatty acid were observed in L-H-H and L-L-L on day Post compared with day Pre, respectively (pcalves had body weights similar to the market average. The growth effect of sugar supplementation could be stimulated through rumen papillae development induce by sucrose, the main component of table sugar.

  12. American Academy of Cosmetic Dentistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... APRIL 21 A winning approach to comprehensive cosmetic dentistry education The Venetian Hotel & Resort 33rd Annual Scientific ... 9540 Contact Us © 2015 American Academy of Cosmetic Dentistry American Academy of Cosmetic Dentistry (AACD) © 2015 American ...

  13. African-Americans and Alzheimer's

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Share Plus on Google Plus African-Americans and Alzheimer's alz.org | IHaveAlz Introduction 10 Warning Signs Brain ... African-Americans are at a higher risk for Alzheimer's disease. Many Americans dismiss the warning signs of ...

  14. Olive stones as a source of fermentable sugars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heredia-Moreno, A.; Guillen-Bejarano, R.; Fernandez-Bolanos, J.; Rivas-Moreno, M.

    1987-01-01

    The composition of the olive stone and its woody fraction has been investigated for the varieties Gordal, Manzanilla, Hojiblanca and Verdial. The neutral detergent fiber method (NDF) of Van Soest was used to estimate dietary fiber. Cellulose was the main component of the fiber, followed by hemicelluloses and lignin. The NDF was hydrolyzed enzymatically and the sugars identified by gas chromatography. Glucose was the main sugar (46-51% in the stone and 47-63% in the woody fraction), followed by galactose (25%) and xylose (14%). Arabinose and mannose were also detected.

  15. Nitrogen dynamics in a soil-sugar cane system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Results of an organic matter management experiment of a sugar cane crop are reported for the first cropping year. Sugar cane was planted in October 1997, and labeled with a 15N fertilizer pulse to study the fate of organic matter in the soil-plant system. A nitrogen balance is presented, partitioning the system in plant components (stalk, tip and straw), soil components (five soil organic matter fractions) and evaluating leaching losses. The 15N label permitted to determine, at the end of the growing season, amounts of nitrogen derived from the fertilizer, present in the above mentioned compartments. (author)

  16. Payback time for soil carbon and sugar-cane ethanol

    OpenAIRE

    Mello, F. F. C.; Cerri, C. E. P.,; Davies, C. A.; Holbrook, N M; K. Paustian; Maia, S. M. F.,; Galdos, M. V.,; BERNOUX, MARTIAL,; Cerri, C. C.,

    2014-01-01

    Thee effects of land-use change (LUC) on soil carbon (C) balance has to be taken into account in calculating the CO2 savings attributed to bioenergy crops(1-3). There have been few direct fieldmeasurements that quantify thee effects of LUC on soil C for the most common land-use transitions into sugar cane in Brazil, the world's largest producer(1-3). We quantified the C balance for LUC as a net loss (carbon debt) or net gain (carbon credit) in soil C for sugar-cane expansion in Brazil. We sam...

  17. Nitrogen dynamics in a soil-sugar cane system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Julio Cesar Martins de; Reichardt, Klaus; Bacchi, Osny O.S.; Timm, Luis Carlos; Tominaga, Tania Toyomi; Castro Navarro, Roberta de; Cassaro, Fabio Augusto Meira [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Lab. de Fisica do Solo. E-mail: lctimm@carpa.ciagri.usp.br; Dourado-Neto, Durval [Sao Paulo Univ., Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz. Dept. de Producao Vegertal; Trivelin, Paulo Cesar Ocheuse [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Lab. de Isotopos Estaveis; Piccolo, Marisa de Cassia [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Lab. de Biogeoquimica

    2000-09-01

    Results of an organic matter management experiment of a sugar cane crop are reported for the first cropping year. Sugar cane was planted in October 1997, and labeled with a {sup 15}N fertilizer pulse to study the fate of organic matter in the soil-plant system. A nitrogen balance is presented, partitioning the system in plant components (stalk, tip and straw), soil components (five soil organic matter fractions) and evaluating leaching losses. The {sup 15}N label permitted to determine, at the end of the growing season, amounts of nitrogen derived from the fertilizer, present in the above mentioned compartments. (author)

  18. Neutron activation analysis of final molasses from cuban sugar industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thermal and epithermal non-destructive activation analyses have been performed on samples of final molasses from 14 different sugar factories , covering the most important regions in Cuba. From the first measurement after irradiation at the Triga Mark reactor (VTT), the concentration of more than 15 elements is reported. The almost constant elemental composition shows that they can be used equally for different purposes as animal foodstuff and for the manufacture of biotechnological products. This work is part of a research project developed in order to establish a complete characterization of Cuban sugar molasses. (author). 7 refs., 2 tabs

  19. American Indian Influence on the American Pharmacopeia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, Virgil J.

    The first U.S. Pharmacopeia, issued in 1820, listed 296 substances of animal, mineral, or vegetable origin in its primary and secondary lists. Of these 130, nearly all of vegetable origin, represented drugs used by American Indians. The number grew at each decennial revision during the 19th century, though some drugs were listed only for a decade.…

  20. Cooler for obtaining crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cabric, B.; Danilovic, N. [Faculty of Sciences, P.O. Box 60, 34000 Kragujevac (RS); Pavlovic, T. [Faculty of Sciences, P.O. Box 224, 18000 Nis (RS)

    2011-03-15

    A modular air-cooled tube, with a series of movable Tamman test tubes or plugs (modular unilateral and bilateral ''crystallization comb''), installed in a laboratory tube furnace is presented. The setup allows easy regulation and simultaneous crystallization tests of a series of different crystallization parameters in crucible columns, enabling rapid acquisition of crystals. The relationship between the crystallization parameters has been given and numerically analyzed. This method can also be applied in crucible and chamber furnaces. (copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)