WorldWideScience

Sample records for american civil war

  1. Pharmacy in the American Civil War.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasegawa, G R

    2000-03-01

    The role of pharmacists and the process of military drug supply in the American Civil War are described. Most raw drugs used in the United States in the mid-1800s were imported. During the Civil War, imports into the North continued, but the Union blockade forced the Confederacy to obtain medicines through means such as smuggling, capture of enemy supplies, and processing of indigenous medicinal plants. Medical supplies for Civil War troops were typically purchased by military physicians called medical purveyors and sometimes by pharmacists serving as acting medical purveyors. In the latter half of the war, U.S. Army medical laboratories, in which many pharmacists were employed, inspected purchases, repackaged supplies bought in bulk, and manufactured medicines from raw materials. The Confederacy also had medical laboratories, which were primarily responsible for manufacturing medicines from indigenous plant material but also inspected drugs that had been smuggled into the South. At a few large Union medical depots, pharmacists called medical storekeepers assumed many of the responsibilities of medical purveyors by receiving, storing, issuing, and accounting for supplies. Noncommissioned officers called hospital stewards assumed diverse duties that included dispensing drugs prescribed by military physicians. Although many hospital stewards were pharmacists or physicians, others had no previous pharmaceutical experience. Civilian pharmacists were employed in the medical laboratories and in military general hospitals. Pharmacists participated in nearly every aspect of military drug supply during the Civil War.

  2. The American Home Front. Revolutionary War, Civil War, World War 1, World War 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    mankind. and they used the war to test and purify American society in prepza.ation for that millennial task. As a consequence. political theorists...Revolution also lost many civil and economic rights. They could neither vote nor hold office. They could neither collect debts nor buy and sell land. They...little economic levelling-because only the Revolutionary elite had the funds to buy the seized property-but a lot of propeny did change hands. More

  3. Auroral omens of the American Civil War

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, Jeffrey J.

    2014-01-01

    Aurorae are a splendid night-time sight: coruscations of green, purple, and red fluorescent light in the form of gently wafting ribbons, billowing curtains, and flashing rays. Mostly seen at high latitudes, in the north aurorae are often called the northern lights or aurora borealis, and, in the south, the southern lights or aurora australis. The mystery of their cause has historically been the subject of wonder. The folklore and mythology of some far-northern civilizations attributed auroral light to celestial deities. And, in ironic contrast with their heavenly beauty, unusual auroral displays, such as those seen on rare occasions at lower southern latitudes, have sometimes been interpreted as portending unfavorable future events. Today we understand aurorae to be a visual manifestation of the dynamic conditions in the space environment surrounding the earth. Important direct evidence in support of this theory came on September 1, 1859. On that day, an English astronomer named Richard Carrington was situated at his telescope, which was pointed at the sun. While observing and sketching a large group of sunspots, he saw a solar flare—intense patches of white light that were superimposed upon the darker sunspot group and which were illuminated for about a minute. One day later, a magnetic storm was recorded at specially designed observatories in Europe, across Russia, and in India. By many measures, the amplitude of magnetic disturbance was the greatest ever recorded. In the United States, the effects of the Carrington storm could be seen as irregular backand-forth deflections of a few degrees in the magnetized needle of a compass. Rapid magnetic variation also induced electric fields in the earth’s conducting lithosphere, and interfered with the operation of telegraph systems. The Carrington magnetic storm, and an earlier storm that had occurred on August 28, 1859, caused spectacular displays of aurora borealis in the night-time sky over the entire United

  4. Civil War

    OpenAIRE

    Christopher Blattman; Edward Miguel

    2010-01-01

    Most nations have experienced an internal armed conflict since 1960. The past decade has witnessed an explosion of research into the causes and consequences of civil wars, belatedly bringing the topic into the economics mainstream. This article critically reviews this interdisciplinary literature and charts productive paths forward. Formal theory has focused on a central puzzle: why do civil wars occur at all when, given the high costs of war, groups have every incentive to reach an agreement...

  5. Sacrifice and Commitment: American Volunteers in the Spanish Civil War

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anders Greenspan

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The Spanish Civil War (1936-1939 was the last European war before the start of World War II. The war, an ideological struggle between Francisco Franco and his nationalist supporters, aided by the Germans and Italians, sought to remove from power the Spanish Republic, which was aided by the Soviet Union. On both sides of the conflict were volunteers from many countries, including the United States of America. American volunteers fought on both sides of the war, yet more chose the side of the Republicans. Many, but not all, were motivated by political beliefs. Others wanted the perceived romance and excitement of battle, or the sense that they were being of help. The volunteers discussed in this study came from all of these categories, with the ones having political motivation the largest group. They detailed their experiences and their views of the war to their friends, families and comrades back home in the United States. These letters, which come from the Abraham Lincoln Brigade Archives at New York University, form the main part of the study and provide a deeper insight into what these men and women were thinking, as well as providing insight into their desire to fight in Spain. Through their eyes it is possible to gain a deeper understanding of their experiences and their motivations. For many of them, their experiences in Spain formed an important part of their journey in life. Some of them remained loyal to the Communist ideology throughout their lives, while others changed their views as the ruthlessness of Stalin became better known. A modern audience can benefit from a chance to read their thoughts and ideas in an attempt to better understand the events that helped drive the world into the Second World War.

  6. Sacrifice and Commitment: American Volunteers in the Spanish Civil War

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anders Greenspan

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The Spanish Civil War (1936-1939 was the last European war before the start of World War II. The war, an ideological struggle between Francisco Franco and his nationalist supporters, aided by the Germans and Italians, sought to remove from power the Spanish Republic, which was aided by the Soviet Union. On both sides of the conflict were volunteers from many countries, including the United States of America. American volunteers fought on both sides of the war, yet more chose the side of the Republicans.  Many, but not all, were motivated by political beliefs. Others wanted the perceived romance and excitement of battle, or the sense that they were being of help. The volunteers discussed in this study came from all of these categories, with the ones having political motivation the largest group. They detailed their experiences and their views of the war to their friends, families and comrades back home in the United States.  These letters, which come from the Abraham Lincoln Brigade Archives at New York University, form the main part of the study and provide a deeper insight into what these men and women were thinking, as well as providing insight into their desire to fight in Spain. Through their eyes it is possible to gain a deeper understanding of their experiences and their motivations.  For many of them, their experiences in Spain formed an important part of their journey in life.  Some of them remained loyal to the Communist ideology throughout their lives, while others changed their views as the ruthlessness of Stalin became better known.  A modern audience can benefit from a chance to read their thoughts and ideas in an attempt to better understand the events that helped drive the world into the Second World War.

  7. The American Home Front: Revolutionary War, Civil War, World War I, World War II

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    millennial task. As a consequence. political theorists and statesmen re- placed clergymen as the leaders of American thought, and politics supplanted...nor buy and sell land. They %%ere barred from the practice of law and such other professions as teaching. For any act of opposition. they felt the pain...of 22 THE AMERICAN REVOLUTION Loyalist property probably produced little economic levelling-because only the Revolutionary elite had the funds to buy

  8. Fiction as Reconstruction of History: Narratives of the Civil War in American Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reinhard Isensee

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Even after more than 140 years the American Civil War continues to serve as a major source of inspiration for a plethora of literature in various genres. While only amounting to a brief period in American history in terms of years, this war has proved to be one of the central moments for defining the American nation since the second half of the nineteenth century. The facets of the Civil War, its protagonists, places, events, and political, social and cultural underpinnings seem to hold an ongoing fascination for both academic studies and fictional representations. Thus, it has been considered by many the most written-about war in the United States.

  9. Bodily Pain, Combat, and the Politics of Memoirs: Between the American Civil War and the War in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourke, Joanna

    2013-05-01

    This article analyses the languages of wartime pain as seen in British and American memoirs from the American Civil War to the present. How did the rhetoric of wounding in these war memoirs change over time? One of the central shifts lies in the way that wounded men presented themselves as stoic in spite of severe wounding. From 1939, and in an even more dramatic fashion by the war in Vietnam, physical suffering remained a test of manliness, but the tone was defiant and aggressive rather than stoic or resigned. The article also looks at the role of individual publishers and the introduction of psychological dimensions of wounding in latter memoirs.

  10. The American History of PTSD: Civil War -- Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-21

    War essential historical tenants and lessons learned appear. The good and bad practices resulting through much trial and error must be codified... hypnosis . The vastness of psychiatric problems during the Second World War necessitated the requirement to provide neuropsychiatric services for troops...scientists to find lasting solutions to battle fatigue problems.൤ Lastly, hypnosis as a treatment technique for "battle fatigue" proved to be one

  11. Women in American History: A Series. Book Three, Women during and after the Civil War 1860-1890.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Beverly

    The document, one in a series of four on women in American history, discusses the role of women during and after the Civil War (1860-1890). Designed to supplement high school U.S. history textbooks, the book is comprised of five chapters. Chapter I describes the work of Union and Confederate women ln the Civil War. Topics include the army nursing…

  12. S. Weir Mitchell's prose and poetry on the American Civil War.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canale, D J

    2004-03-01

    The prose and poetry of S. Weir Mitchell (1829-1914)--related to the American Civil War--encompass a very significant portion of his non-medical writings. The Civil War, more than any other single event, shaped his future career as one of the founders of American neurology. Indeed, it should not be surprising how the war was also such a driving force in his non-medical writings. His novels, once widely read, now are scarcely noted. His accounts of the social, political and economic events of the Civil War are of historical interest to students of the period. Neuroscientists as a group, like others, are apt to be unfamiliar with these writings, with the possible exception of "The Case of George Dedlow." A major purpose of this essay is to introduce readers, especially neuroscientists, to Weir Mitchell's fictional works in which neurological cases so often appear. One appreciates more the medical aspects of his novels, written as they were by a first-hand observer. His non-medical writings, poetry and prose, are to a large extent timeless and can be appreciated by today's readers.

  13. Coercion and Reconciliation: Post-Conflict Resolution After the American Civil War

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-26

    elements, in general: capacity and authority. Figure 5. Comparative Troops per 1,000 Residents – January 1866 to January 1870 Source : Data...Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited Coercion and Reconciliation: Post- Conflict Resolution After the American Civil War A...estimated to average 1 hour per response, including the time for reviewing instructions, searching existing data sources , gathering and maintaining the

  14. Racism Toward the Blacks During the American Civil War as Depicted in Edgar Lawrence Doctorow's the March

    OpenAIRE

    CHOLIFAH, NUR

    2014-01-01

    Keywords : racism, stereotype, prejudice, discrimination Slavery in the United States is closely connected to the American CivilWar between the North and the South which was happened in 1861-1865. Slavery deals with the ill-treatment of the Whites to the Blacks. Moreover, thosetreatments to the Blacks became the bad issues in illustrating the racism duringAmerican Civil War. Besides, the writer conducted a study by using sociologicalapproach about racism of critical race theory during the Ame...

  15. Getting the Civil War Right

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loewen, James W.

    2011-01-01

    William Faulkner famously wrote, "The past is never dead. It's not even past." He would not be surprised to learn that Americans, 150 years after the Civil War began, are still getting it wrong. Did America's most divisive war start over slavery or states' rights? The author says that too many people--including educators--get it wrong. The author…

  16. United States Army Counter Partisan Operations in Northern Virginia During the American Civil War

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-10

    destruction of the reserve brigade’s [supply] 18 Walter Coffee , The Civil War Months: A Month by Month...privileges of the prisoner of war.”57 The perceptions of senior Union leadership on partisan prisoners changed in 1864 when General Grant...CMH_Pub_73-3.pdf. Coffee , Walter. The Civil War Months: A Month by Month Compendium of the War Between the States. Bloomington: Author House, 2012

  17. Civil War and Inoperativity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flohr, Mikkel

    2017-01-01

    This article analyses the penultimate publication in Giorgio Agambens Homo Sacer-series Stasis: Civil War as a Political Paradigm. It compares and contrasts the paradigm of civil war with the preceding paradigm of the exception, and identifies a significant displacement in the relationship between...... civil war and the sovereign state, in spite of Agamben’s insistence on their continuity. Agamben’s decoupling of civil war and the sovereign state facilitates novel political possibilities that unfortunately remain underdeveloped in the book. The article proceeds to develop Agamben’s brief intimations...... of inoperativity towards a concept of destituent power drawing on his other writings. It makes the argument for thinking civil war and inoperativity – stasis and stasis – together to derive a concept of destituent power as a form of revolution against the sovereign state, which does not constitute a new sovereign...

  18. Legalisation of Civil Wars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buhl, Kenneth Øhlenschlæger

    2009-01-01

    This article is concerned with the legal challenges of regulating civil wars in international humanitarian law. Civil war is not a term used in international law; it falls however, withing the context of the legal term 'armed conflicts not of an international character', although the shorter 'non......-international armed conflict' is used here. Civil wars are usually limited to the territory of a state. Considering that international law is generally concerned with the legal relations between states – being a legal system based on the system of states with states as its subjects – the main question is how civil...

  19. Intelligence Collection within The Army of Northern Virginia during the American Civil War

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-01

    men, visible all at once. Two whole Union Corps.”1 - Michael Shaara, The Killer Angels The above quote was taken from Michael Shaara’s Civil...War novel, The Killer Angels . As expected in a novel, much of the narrative is fiction, but in this case, “Shaara introduced a real spy, one of the...discussed earlier. In his seminal book On War, Prussian military theorist Carl von Clausewitz stated “many intelligence reports in war are

  20. American War for Independence, 1775-1783: Revolution or Civil War?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-04

    per response, including the time for reviewing instructions, searching data sources, galhering and maintaining the data needed , and completing and... conect . One English historian wrote that America was "an anarchy of local autonomy," but that system suited the people .. Each colony had its own...fighting of the Seven Years War appalled the British ruling elite. Skyrocketing debt led the crown to levy painful taxes. Because the need for postwar

  1. An Analysis of Medical Ethic Practice by Union and Confederate Medical Departments During the American Civil War

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-05

    Rutkow, 96. 30 .1 8 Adams, 5. 19 Ballet , 10 . . 20 Adams, 7-8. 21 Francis Trevelyan Miller and Robert Sampson Lanier: The Photographic History of...1989 Dammann, Gordon and Alfred Jay Ballet . The Images of Civil War Medicine, a photographic history . New York:Demos Medical Publishing, 2008 Denny...Winfree Professor of American History at Penn State University and CDR : . " Timothy Atmajian, MC, USN who provided me guidance and insight to the

  2. Fickle Allies: Regular and Irregular Confederate Forces in Missouri during the American Civil War

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-22

    experiences of Civil War Missouri. Three such accounts are Thomas Snead’s The Fight for Missouri: From the Election of Lincoln to the Death of Lyon...role of irregular forces in modern warfare. As a means of roadmap, the monograph begins with an orientation to the strategic context and operational...incredible advantage to either side.22 21Paul C. Nagel , Missouri, a History (Lawrence, KS: University Press of Kansas, 1977), 130-132. 22David Nevin

  3. Military influence upon the development of anaesthesia from the American Civil War (1861-1865) to the outbreak of the First World War.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metcalfe, N H

    2005-12-01

    The American Civil War (1861-1865) helped cement the place of anaesthesia in American medical practice and offered new insights into the specialty. The advantages that ensued were to offer long-term security to anaesthesia but the short-term gains were negligible. The Franco-Prussian War (1870-1871) exerted a negative influence upon nitrous oxide and oxygen research through the loss of leading civilian scientists to military duty. Later, the Boer Wars (1899-1902) helped stabilise the popularity of chloroform after the Hyderabad Commissions but were of little experimental value to anaesthesia. In the early 20th Century, the military continued to be operational without either specialist anaesthetists or an interest in developing military anaesthesia. However, the lack of anaesthetic development was largely due to problems with economics and academic infrastructure rather than to simple military neglect.

  4. The Decisive General : Ulysses S. Grant and the American Civil War in 1864

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-23

    www.americancivilwar.asn.au/meet/2009_02_lincoln_as_comm_in_chief.pdf. Aron , Raymond . Clausewitz, Philosopher of War. Englewood Cliffs N.J.: Prentice-Hall, 1985...2007): 849–874. Raymond , Henry J., and Abraham Lincoln. “History of the Administration of President Abraham Lincoln.” The North American Review 100, no

  5. Post Civil War African American History: Brief Periods of Triumph, and Then Despair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graff, Gilda

    2016-01-01

    During Reconstruction, which is often called the most progressive period in American history, African Americans made great strides. By 1868 African American men constituted a majority of registered voters in South Carolina and Mississippi, and by 1870 eighty-five percent of Mississippi's black jurors could read and write. However, Reconstruction was followed by approximately one hundred years of Jim Crow laws, lynching, disenfranchisement, sharecropping, unequal educational resources, terrorism, racial caricatures, and convict leasing. The Civil Rights Revolution finally ended that period of despair, but the era of mass incarceration can be understood as a reaction to the Civil Rights Movement. This article attempts to understand the persistence of racism in the United States from slavery's end until the present.

  6. Military Service and Economic Mobility: Evidence from the American Civil War.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chulhee

    2012-07-01

    How did geographic and occupational mobility after the Civil War differ between Union Army veterans and nonveterans? By 1880, Union veterans were more likely to migrate to a different state or region than nonveterans. The higher geographic mobility of veterans is likely attributable to their experience of traveling away from their hometowns while in service. Union veterans who held unskilled jobs prior to enlistment were more likely to move up to white-collar or farming jobs by 1880 than unskilled nonveterans. In contrast, unskilled veterans were less likely to become artisans than nonveterans. The differences in occupational mobility by veteran status might be explained by the effects of military experiences such as learning from comrades in the company.

  7. Algeria: An Uncivilized Civil War

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Robling, Terry

    1995-01-01

    .... Moderates on both sides are seeking peace from the undeclared civil war that resulted when the military-backed regime canceled elections that Islamic fundamentalists were certain to win in 1992...

  8. Effect of the Civil-Military Relationship on the Philippine-American War

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-04

    fraught with insurgency which is, historically, incredibly difficult to win . 1 S. SUBJECT TERMS Civi l Military Relations, Philippine War 16...Accepted this 101h day of May 2016 by: Robert F. Baumann, PhD The opinions and conclusions expressed herein are those of the student author and do not...proved to be the key to victory in a contentious and dynamic war fraught with insurgency which is, historically, incredibly difficult to win . The

  9. Ending Afghanistan's Civil War

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dobbins, James

    2007-01-01

    The RAND Corporation has conducted a several studies on nation building and counterinsurgency drawing on the experience from dozens of American and non-American led operations over the past century...

  10. The Effects of Railroads on the Emergence of Operational Art During the American Civil War, 1861-1865

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-23

    L&N Railroad in the Civil War: A Vital North–South Link and the Struggle to Control It. Jefferson: McFarland & Company, 2011. Lord, Francis A...Battlefield 1861-1863. Amherst: Prometheus Books, 2008. Reynolds, Paul Davidson. A Primer in Theory Construction. Boston: Allyn and Bacon Classics

  11. The Civil War Online: Using the Internet To Teach U.S. History.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shawhan, Joanne Parnes

    1998-01-01

    Research topics are described for class projects on the American Civil War and presented in the following seven categories: causes of the Civil War; The Election of 1860; Abraham Lincoln; music and poetry of the era; slavery; Civil War soldiers; and women during the war. Web resources are shown for each section in box displays. (AEF)

  12. Elephants for Mr. Lincoln: American Civil War-Era Diplomacy in Southeast Asia, William Strobridge & Anita Hibler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adela Baer

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This curious book, which begins with events in the 1810s, emphasizes Burma and Siam but undervalues other parts of Southeast Asia. The title refers to the offer by the king of Siam to send elephants to the United States to help President Lincoln win the Civil War. The book rightly discusses commerce, diplomats, and military actions in Southeast Asia. Missionaries are, for unclear reasons, also given prominence; in fact, much of the authors’ information comes from Protestant missionary sources...

  13. The Civil War in Literature: English.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boone, Dave

    The Civil War in Literature is a course in which investigation is made into the legacy that this war left to humanity. Through the reading and discussion of literary works written during or about the Civil War, including "Jubilee,""Gone with the Wind,""Red Badge of Courage," poetry by Walt Whitman, and the essays of…

  14. From the American Civil War to the War on Terror: Three Models of Emergency Law in the United States Supreme Court

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartz, Emily

    the Supreme Court justices have to grapple in these cases are therefore as philosophical as they are legal. In this book the Court's arguments are systematized according to categories informed by constitutional law as well as classic philosophical discussions of the problem of emergency. On this basis......This book offers a systematic and comprehensive account of the key cases that have come to shape the jurisprudence on emergency law in the United States from the Civil War to the War on Terror. The legal questions raised in these cases concern fundamental constitutional issues such as the status...... of fundamental rights, the role of the court in times of war, and the question of how to interpret constitutional limitations to executive power. At stake in these difficult legal questions is the issue of how to conceive of the very status of law in liberal democratic states. The questions with which...

  15. United States Foreign Policy and the Second Liberian Civil War

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    chifaou.amzat

    2013-09-28

    Sep 28, 2013 ... has been referred to as the 'Somalia overhang' (Crocker 1995). This mindset, which is based on the failed American-led peacekeeping mission in Somalia in. 1992, militates against any American 'armed humanitarianism' in civil war ravaged African countries that are enveloped by humanitarian crisis.

  16. Medical advances during the Civil War.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaisdell, F W

    1988-09-01

    The contributions to medical care that developed during the Civil War have not been fully appreciated, probably because the quality of care administered was compared against modern standards rather than the standards of the time. The specific accomplishments that constituted major advances were as follows. 1. Accumulation of adequate records and detailed reports for the first time permitted a complete military medical history. This led to the publication of the Medical and Surgical History of the War of the Rebellion, which was identified in Europe as the first major academic accomplishment by US medicine. 2. Development of a system of managing mass casualties, including aid stations, field hospitals, and general hospitals, set the pattern for management of the wounded in World War I, World War II, and the Korean War. 3. The pavilion-style general hospitals, which were well ventilated and clean, were copied in the design of large civilian hospitals over the next 75 years. 4. The importance of immediate, definitive treatment of wounds and fractures was demonstrated and it was shown that major operative procedures, such as amputation, were optimally carried out in the first 24 hours after wounding. 5. The importance of sanitation and hygiene in preventing infection, disease, and death among the troops in the field was demonstrated. 6. Female nurses were introduced to hospital care and Catholic orders entered the hospital business. 7. The experience and training of thousands of physicians were upgraded and they were introduced to new ideas and standards of care. These included familiarity with prevention and treatment of infectious disease, with anesthetic agents, and with surgical principles that rapidly advanced the overall quality of American medical practice. 8. The Sanitary Commission was formed, a civilian-organized soldier's relief society that set the pattern for the development of the American Red Cross.

  17. Securing the peace after civil war

    OpenAIRE

    Ware, David M.

    2009-01-01

    Approved for public release, distribution unlimited This thesis focuses on the problem of recurring conflict in post-civil war states and seeks to understand the actions undertaken by the international community to alleviate this problem. Specifically, the thesis asks if the strategies of democratization, peacekeeping, and economic assistance have a positive impact on a post-civil war state's likelihood of sustaining the peace. The thesis uses a multi-prong approach to explore this questio...

  18. The African Impact in American Civilizations, 1500-1800 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study of American history shows that Africans were involved in the development of the American continents.1 But the facts are not in an inclusive document. This article highlights their major contributions to the exploration of the Americas, American War of Independence, and the Civil War. Others are the development of ...

  19. William Cain Ruffin, M.D., and some history of the Ruffin family as it pertains to the American Civil War.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enoch, Jay M

    2012-01-01

    In the late 1970s, Prof. Herbert ("Herb") Kaufman, M.D., a fine Harvard-trained ophthalmologist who had both developed and chaired the Department of Ophthalmology, College of Medicine, University of Florida. Gainesville, FL, chose to resign his appointment there. Prof. Kaufman had accepted the Chair in Ophthalmology at Louisiana State U. in New Orleans. The writer was a member of the Department of Ophthalmology faculty in Gainesville, FL, at the time. Following Herb Kaufman's resignation, Professor William Cain Ruffin, M.D., a psychiatrist with academic credentials, was assigned to serve as the Interim Chairman of the Department of Ophthalmology at Gainesville for a few years by the then Dean of the Medical School at the U. of Florida. This paper addresses some interesting facts regarding Prof./Dr. Ruffin and his family history, particularly as that history relates to the American Civil War.

  20. Intimate Parallels: The Art, History, and Activism of Civil War-Era Women's Quilt Art

    OpenAIRE

    Beebe, William B.

    2016-01-01

    The Civil War era was the most chronicled and transformational period in United States history. Narrated in art and text by mainstream publications, information regarding the era was readily available to most Americans. Distant from the white male dominated mainstream forms of art and journalism, a less renowned art form also chronicled the Civil War era. Denied the vote, and social and political equality, many Civil War-era women expressed their sentiments through the symbolic messaging of q...

  1. Pro-Government Interventions and Civil Wars : Examining Legitimacy-focused Pro-Government Interventions in Asymmetric Civil Wars

    OpenAIRE

    Ali, Amr

    2017-01-01

    External unilateral intervention in civil wars has been always a subject of interest in international relations, especially during the Cold War and after the Bosnian civil war. Unilateral interventions have come to the surface again with recent examples in Syria, Yemen, Ukraine, and Libya. This research examines the relation between pro-government intervention and governmental victory in civil wars. Previous studies of external interventions in civil wars point to the limited effect of extern...

  2. Yugoslav Historiography and the Civil War

    OpenAIRE

    Vjeran PAVLAKOVI?

    2015-01-01

    This article examines a national historiographic tradition relatively unknown in Spain. It differs from the mainstream tradition in former Soviet bloc countries. The author first discusses the number of Yugoslav volunteers in Spain (among whom Tito was never present) and explains to Spanish readers the meaning of the Spanish Civil War with regard to the construction of a new Yugoslav identity, in the wake of Tito’s victory after the second world war and the break with Stalin. Veterans of the ...

  3. Yugoslav Historiography and the Civil War

    OpenAIRE

    Pavlakovi?, Vjeran

    2014-01-01

    This article examines a national historiographic tradition relatively unknown in Spain. It differs from the mainstream tradition in former Soviet bloc countries. The author first discusses the number of Yugoslav volunteers in Spain (among whom Tito was never present) and explains to Spanish readers the meaning of the Spanish Civil War with regard to the construction of a new Yugoslav identity, in the wake of Tito’s victory after the second world war and the break with Stalin. Veterans of the ...

  4. The Spanish Catholicism in the Civil War

    OpenAIRE

    Cuenca Toribio, Jose Manuel

    2014-01-01

    This article examines some of publications of the last seven years. It focuses in particular on Cardinal Goma’s enormous collection of letters and writings. One can say nothing sensible about the relationship between Catholicism and the Civil War without reference to this work, which has been carefully edited and annotated. The Civil War period is considered within the context of the historical evolution of the Catholic Church in the preceding century. The hotly debated issue of Catholic mart...

  5. Explaining Violence in Sierra Leone's Civil War

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Explaining the violence of civil war is never a simple task for the scholar. In the case of the Sierra Leone, paradoxically, the task has in some ways been rendered more difficult by the sheer variety of compelling scholarship on the question. This paper seeks to identify the most useful of the explanations offered thus far, and ...

  6. Civil War. NBER Working Paper No. 14801

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blattman, Christopher; Miguel, Edward

    2009-01-01

    Most nations have experienced an internal armed conflict since 1960. The past decade has witnessed an explosion of research into the causes and consequences of civil wars, belatedly bringing the topic into the economics mainstream. This article critically reviews this interdisciplinary literature and charts productive paths forward. Formal theory…

  7. Inequality, Social Protests and Civil War

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F.A. Diaz Sr. (Fabio Andres)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractThe following article presents a series of hypotheses to analyze the possible transitions between protest and civil war and their relation to inequality. To do so, the article presents an analysis on the emergence of protests and its relation with the increase in inequality across the

  8. Aurora painting pays tribute to Civil War's end

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, Jeffrey J.

    2015-01-01

    This year marks the sesquicentennial anniversary of the end of the American Civil War, a conflict that Abraham Lincoln called a “mighty scourge.” It was one of the most poignant periods in U.S. history, laying bare political, economic, social, and moral divergence between Northern and Southern states. The cause of the divergence that led to war was slavery [e.g., McPherson, 1988, chap. 3]—an institution that, by the 19th century, had been effectively abolished in the North but remained firmly entrenched in the South.

  9. The Civil War in cyberspace today

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matilde EIROA

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The appeal of the Spanish Civil War in the online world is a phenomenon deserving of attention, as an event that took place more than 75 years ago which still arouses debate and the curiosity of many. It is surprising that the media world considers it “newsworthy” and that it has an important presence on the Internet — on blogs, websites, You Tube, and even social media platforms such as Facebook and Twitter. This article examines all mention of the Civil War in online media. We start from the idea that the features of the online world allow for an extensive and multifaceted production of media of content which is more cultural, more social, and more attuned to the passing of time.

  10. South Africa's role in the Civil War in Russia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    South Africa's role in the Civil War in Russia. 1918-1920. Cdr W.M. Bisset*. South Africa's role in the Civil War in ... the war or were later to receive awards for their services in Russia. Perhaps the most remarkable ... Bolshevik territory and he was taken prisoner. Another remarkable South African officer who served in North ...

  11. Drought and Civil War in Sub-Saharan Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Mathieu Couttenier; Raphael Soubeyran

    2010-01-01

    We show that civil war is strongly related to drought in sub-Saharan Africa. We consider the e ect of variations in the Palmer Drought Severity Index (Palmer 1965) - a cumulative index that combines precipitation, temperature and the local characteristics of the soil - on the risk of civil war. While the recent, contentious debate on the link between climate and civil war has mainly focused on precipitation and temperature, without obtaining converging results, the Palmer index describes soci...

  12. Yugoslav Historiography and the Civil War

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vjeran PAVLAKOVI?

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This article examines a national historiographic tradition relatively unknown in Spain. It differs from the mainstream tradition in former Soviet bloc countries. The author first discusses the number of Yugoslav volunteers in Spain (among whom Tito was never present and explains to Spanish readers the meaning of the Spanish Civil War with regard to the construction of a new Yugoslav identity, in the wake of Tito’s victory after the second world war and the break with Stalin. Veterans of the Spanish conflict held high positions in Tito’s Yugoslavia and contributed to maintaining the memory and meaning of their commitment. The article ends with a reference to the grotesque exploitation of several myths by both left and right-wing forces in those States resulting from the disintegration of former Yugoslavia.

  13. Making Good on a Promise: The Education of Civil War Orphans in Pennsylvania, 1863-1893

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bair, Sarah D.

    2011-01-01

    During and after the American Civil War, individual state governments, faced with numerous economic demands, struggled to meet the needs of soldiers and their families. Among other pressing questions, they had to decide what to do with the massive number of dependent children orphaned by the war. In order to protect children, it became more…

  14. Childhood casualties during civil war: Syrian experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çelikel, Adnan; Karbeyaz, Kenan; Kararslan, Bekir; Arslan, M Mustafa; Zeren, Cem

    2015-08-01

    In war areas a lot of children die as well as adults. According to UNICEF, almost 2 million children have died in the wars took place in the last 10 years. In this study, we aimed to evaluate demographical data and injury characteristics of Syrian children who were wounded in Syria Civil War and died while being treated in Turkey. Postmortem examination and autopsy reports of 985 forensic deaths from Hatay -a Syrian neighborhood city of Turkey-between January 2012 and August 2014 were analyzed retrospectively. Among 763 Syrian people who were wounded in the war and died while being treated in Turkey, 140 cases (18.3%) who were younger than 18 years of age were taken into the scope of this study. Among those cases 77.9% (n = 109) were male and 22.1% were female. Median ages of female cases are 14 (min-max: 2-18) and median age of female cases are 9 (min-max: 1-18). Frequency distribution is highest between 13 and 18 years of age (n: 71, 50.7%). In 70% (n: 98) of cases, cause of death is bombing and shrapnel injuries, 13.6% (19) of them were killed by gunshot wounds. According to injury sites most of the injuries were reported to be on multiple body parts (54.3%, n: 76) and only head and neck injuries (%30). Cause of death was intracranial bleeding and cerebral parenchymal injury in most of the cases (n: 66, %47.1) followed by vascular damage with external bleeding (n: 15, %10.7) and internal organ damage with internal bleeding (n: 15, %10.7). The cases had very high level Abbreviated Injury Scales and Injury Severity Sores. In conclusion, a lot of children have died in the Civil War of Syria. Their average abbreviated injury scale and injury severity score values reported very high. Children that we evaluated were mostly died of head and neck injuries predominantly caused by bombing attacks and Autopsies of them revealed fatal intracranial hemorrhages and parenchymal injuries. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights

  15. PROBLEMS IN ANALYZING INFLATION DURING THE CIVIL WAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul R. Auerbach

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available In the American Civil War, a drastic increase in the level of “high powered money” with the issuance of the greenbacks had a relatively modest effect on the measured price level. The existence of a free market in gold and the presence of specie are offered as an explanation for the constrained movements both in the money multiplier and in movements in measured income velocity. These unusual results largely reflect the fact that in such a world of freely fluctuating multiple currencies, a rise in the measured price level does not reflect the decline in the value of money.

  16. Brigadier General Jefferson C. Davis: Civil War General

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sones, Bruce

    2000-01-01

    .... Davis' life with special emphasis on his division's performance during the Civil War. The thesis will discuss Davis' quick rise through the military ranks, which led to his eventual assumption of a corps command by the end of the Civil War...

  17. United States Foreign Policy and the Second Liberian Civil War ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    After about three years following the end of its first civil war in 1996, Liberia was again plunged into another civil war, when the Liberian United for Reconciliation and Democracy (LURD), a group of rebels, attacked the country from neighbouring Guinea. The efforts by the Taylor regime to repel the attack occasioned a ...

  18. The Role of Education in Sudan's Civil War

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breidlid, Anders

    2013-01-01

    This article addresses the role that education plays in conflict, with specific reference to the civil war in Sudan. It analyses the ideological basis of the Sudanese government (GoS) during the civil war, with special reference to the role of religion and ethnicity. It shows how the primary education system was based on the Islamist ideology of…

  19. Representing the Algerian Civil War: Literature, History, and the State

    OpenAIRE

    Landers, Neil Grant

    2013-01-01

    "Representing the Algerian Civil War: Literature, History, and the State" addresses the way the Algerian civil war has been portrayed in 1990s novelistic literature. In the words of one literary critic, "The Algerian war has been, in a sense, one big murder mystery." This may be true, but literary accounts portray the "mystery" of the civil war--and propose to solve it--in sharply divergent ways. The primary aim of this study is to examine how three of the most celebrated 1990s novels depict...

  20. Climate not to blame for African civil wars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buhaug, Halvard

    2010-09-21

    Vocal actors within policy and practice contend that environmental variability and shocks, such as drought and prolonged heat waves, drive civil wars in Africa. Recently, a widely publicized scientific article appears to substantiate this claim. This paper investigates the empirical foundation for the claimed relationship in detail. Using a host of different model specifications and alternative measures of drought, heat, and civil war, the paper concludes that climate variability is a poor predictor of armed conflict. Instead, African civil wars can be explained by generic structural and contextual conditions: prevalent ethno-political exclusion, poor national economy, and the collapse of the Cold War system.

  1. Civil Discourse or Civil War? The Influence of Civil-Military Relations on Iraq and Afghanistan War Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-04

    Hopkins Univ. Press, 2009), 44. 10 Mackubin T. Owens (professor, Naval War College, Newport, RI), interview by the author, 5 April 2011. 11 Risa A...www.esquire.com/features/fox-fallon (accessed 18 March 2011). Brooks, Risa A. Shaping Strategy: The Civil-Military Politics of Strategic Assessment

  2. Old and new memories of the Civil War

    OpenAIRE

    Dominguez Prats, Pilar

    2014-01-01

    This article examines autobiographical narratives of the Spanish Civil War by way of war diaries, letters and memoirs which have been published between 2006 and 2013. Since the beginning of the war the trauma caused to Spanish society has led to a substantial number of personal narratives. These sources, based upon individual experiences, are of great value for constructing a multi-faceted history of the war itself. We examine memoirs and diaries which for various reasons have not been publis...

  3. Cholera in the time of civil war. Liberia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barth, J

    1991-01-01

    170 years of strife in Liberia between freed slaves from the Americas (Americo-Liberians) and indigenous tribes erupted in 1980 when a member of the indigenous ethnic group the Khran overthrew and killed the president. Contrary to what he promised, an equitable distribution of goods and services did not occur, human rights abuses continued, and civil service jobs went to Khran members. Many Americo-Liberians left. The US government recognized his government in 1986. US government and corporate interest in Liberia included a Voice of American transmitter, a navigation station, and rubber plantations. A civil war followed. An African American teacher ran a cholera ward during the war at Island Hospital where staff was not used to treating the lower class. She also started an orphanage next to the hospital, initially, for the well children from the ward. She operated the ward because the physician had left and cholera treatment included double-dosing patients with chloramphenicol and tetracycline. Moreover, patients also received an anti-parasitic. Further, kwashiorkor was common in Liberia. Only soldiers received intravenous therapy, so cholera patients were not rehydrated. The teacher and 3 student nurses began administering oral rehydration fluids orally every 5 minutes and saved lives. Despite evidence that the patients indeed had cholera, the US embassy physician refused to admit it for a long time. Eventually, the embassy sent medicine stored for weeks to the ward. A long time after widespread diarrhea started, the British Broadcasting Corporation began a radio program about oral rehydration. Yet many people did not understand its message without seeing a demonstration of mixing oral rehydration salts. Moreover, many people treated diarrhea with a diuretic medication which only complicated it. Nevertheless, the teacher and her efforts stopped cholera. She also helped a woman set up a home for handicapped children who survived the war.

  4. Civil war, climate change, and development: a scenario study for Sub-Saharan Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Devitt, C.; Tol, R.S.J.

    2012-01-01

    This article presents a model of development, civil war and climate change. There are multiple interactions. Economic growth reduces the probability of civil war and the vulnerability to climate change. Climate change increases the probability of civil war. The impacts of climate change, civil war

  5. Slaves, Contrabands, and Freedmen: Union Policy in the Civil War

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Howard, Michelle

    1998-01-01

    This study examines Union slave policy in the Civil War. Prior to the initiation of hostilities, President Abraham Lincoln stated that the conflict between the states was over the preservation of the Union, and not over slavery...

  6. Slaves, Contrabands, and Freedmen: Union Policy in the Civil War

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Howard, Michelle

    1998-01-01

    This study examines Union slave policy in the Civil War. Prior to the initiation of hostilities, President Abraham Lincoln stated that the conflict between the states was over the preservation of the Union, and not over...

  7. Norwich University: Citizen Soldiers in the Civil War

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Coakley, Shawn

    2002-01-01

    .... This paper examines the contributions of Norwich University and its graduates to the Union Army during the Civil War to determine the extent to which Partridge's system of education may have contributed to their success.

  8. Rent, Greed and Civil War : A Critical Evaluation of Natural Resources and Civil War

    OpenAIRE

    Gjendem, Stein Omar

    2012-01-01

    Do natural resources cause civil war? Scholars disagree on the resource-conflict link. One common model of explanation, the greed model, asserts that natural resource provide an incentive to rebel. Natural resource, however, only increases the exposure to conflict at first. When a certain threshold of rent from natural resources is reached, the government’s control allows it to overbid the rebels in the battle for “labor”. With more resources the incumbent(s) can also spend more on defense an...

  9. The Alligator Farther From the Canoe: Shaping the Post-Civil War Syrian Army

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-30

    CIVIL WAR SYRIAN ARMY POST- CIVIL WAR SYRIAN ARMY SHAPING THE POST- CIVIL WAR SYRIAN ARMY 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT...Department of the Navy. 14. ABSTRACT Over the last four years, the Syrian Civil War has created a horrific internal humanitarian disaster, displaced...within the Levant region the United States should pursue the creation of a post- Civil War Syrian

  10. Greed and Grievance: Economic Agendas in Civil Wars | CRDI ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Current scholarship on civil wars and transitions from war to peace has made significant progress in understanding the political dimensions of internal conflict. However, the economic motivations spurring political violence have been comparatively neglected. This pathbreaking book identifies the economic and social factors ...

  11. Greed and Grievance: Economic Agendas in Civil Wars | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Current scholarship on civil wars and transitions from war to peace has made significant progress in understanding the political dimensions of internal conflict. However, the economic motivations spurring political violence have been comparatively neglected. This pathbreaking book identifies the economic and social factors ...

  12. Ogbemudia's regime and post-civil war reconstruction of economic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Biafran incursion into the Midwest State on 9 August, 1967 and the Federal forces re-conquest and occupation turned Western Igboland into a theatre of war and contest between the contending forces which led to devastations of economic and social infrastructure in the area. At the end of the Civil War, the Federal ...

  13. Dermatological face of Syrian civil war

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahime İnci

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Design: The frequency and variety of dermatological diseases significantly changed after 2011 in the regions where the Syrian refugees migrated because of the civil war in Syria where is bordered by our country. To reveal these changing, the demographic and dermatological data of the Syrian refugees were retrospectively examined in faculty of medicine, department of dermatology of our city where a significant amount of Syrian refugees have been living. Materials and Methods: A total of 326 refugees immigrated to our city and have been living in tent cities, and applied to our department between September 2012-July 2014 were included to our study. Age, gender, dermatological and laboratory findings were retrospectively examined. Skin diseases were examined in 16 groups according to the their frequency. The patients were divided into 4 age groups as 0-20, 21-40, 41-60 and, 61 and over; three most common diseases for each age group were analyzed. Results: Of 326 patients, 126 (38.7% were males, 200 (61.3% were females and the difference was significant in term of gender. The age range of the patients was 0 to 77 years, and the mean age was 21.6±10.5. The majority of patients were in 0-20 age group. Dermatological infectious diseases were the most frequent diseases group and cutaneous leishmaniasis was the most diagnosed dermatological disease among patients. Conclusion: Preventive health care services should be performed to prevent dermatological infectious diseases which are commonly seen in Syrian refugees, especially cutaneous leishmaniasis which is already endemic in our country, and limitations to reach physicians of these patients should be amended.

  14. From the Epic to the Allegorical Sublime: A Multilingual Reading of Spanish Civil War Poetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cueto Asín, Elena

    2016-01-01

    This article examines poetry written during the Spanish Civil War that reflects on the modern character of the conflict: the novel tactic of aerial bombing civilian populations as it was disseminated through the mass media. A comparative reading of this body of poetry written by Spanish, British, and American authors allows for the examination of…

  15. The restoration of the gold standard after the US Civil War : A volatility analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meulemann, Max; Uebele, Martin; Wilfling, Bernd

    This paper presents a new view on the gold price of greenbacks during and after the American Civil War by analyzing exchange-rate volatility rather than exchange-rate levels. Our empirical investigation detects regimes of high and low volatility alternating in a way that is consistent with a

  16. Gangrene therapy and antisepsis before lister: the civil war contributions of Middleton Goldsmith of Louisville.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trombold, John M

    2011-09-01

    It is commonly accepted that Louis Pasteur is the father of microbiology and Joseph Lister is the father of antisepsis. Middleton Goldsmith, a surgeon in the Union Army during the American Civil War, meticulously studied hospital gangrene and developed a revolutionary treatment regimen. The cumulative Civil War hospital gangrene mortality was 45 per cent. Goldsmith's method, which he applied to over 330 cases, yielded a mortality under 3 per cent. His innovative work predated Pasteur and Lister, making his success truly remarkable and worthy of historical and surgical note.

  17. In Pursuit Of Personal Conviction: Upon The Civil War Pocket Diaries Of Emilie Frances Davis, A Freeborn Black Woman [A Short Communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela K. Brown

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Emilie Davis was an African-American woman living in Philadelphia during the U.S. Civil War. Emile's diaries are a transcription of Emilie’s three pocket diaries for the years 1863, 1864, and 1865. In them, she recounts black Philadelphians’ celebration of the Emancipation Proclamation, nervous excitement during the battle of Gettysburg, and their collective mourning of President Lincoln. The diary allows readers to experience the war in real time, as events unfolded for Civil War Americans.

  18. Patterns of Force: System Strength, Terrorism and Civil War

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Freytag, Andreas; Meierrieks, Daniel; Münch, Angela

    2010-01-01

    in response to the strengths and weaknesses of the system they challenge. An empirical test of this hypothesis for 104 countries for 1992 to 2004 indeed shows that the socio-economic strength of a system positively correlates with the likelihood of terrorism, but negatively with the incidence of civil war....... Institutional quality and political participation of opponents reduce the risk of civil war, but do not affect the likelihood of terrorism. We also show that system stability reduces the likelihood of all forms of violent opposition....

  19. Myths and Truths. Rumanian historians and the Civil War

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiza IORDACHE CÂRSTEA

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on different visions of the Spanish Civil War in Romania, which can be found in the historiography, memoirs and national press of the various regimes from 1936 to the present. Combining chronological order with a typology of Romanian regimes, this study delves into Romanian policy concerning the Spanish conflict, the participation of Romanian volunteers in the Civil War, interpretations of “the Moscow Gold” saga and Soviet aid to the Spanish Republic.

  20. Soviet civil defense plans make nuclear war winnable

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goure, L.

    1985-01-01

    In this paper, the author expresses his opinion that the U.S. is naive and suicidal in its lack of civil defense preparation for nuclear war. The Soviets' extensive civil defense planning is evidence that they plan to use their nuclear weapons and survive a counterattack by the U.S. The author compares the two systems and explains why the Soviets' system is superior

  1. Explaining the Violence Pattern of the Algerian Civil War

    OpenAIRE

    Roman Hagelstein

    2008-01-01

    I draw a geographically and temporally disaggregated model of the location and course of the Algerian civil war, using new battle event and location data from press reports. I show that the war was located in areas and at moments in time in which both the rebels and the government were about equally strong, according to my novel relative strength index. Additional factors that can robustly predict high location-specific war intensity are the severity of violence at a location in the past peri...

  2. Countering Irregular Activity in Civil War Arkansas -- A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-03-27

    the minds of many from early in the war. Lincoln, in a letter to Secretary of War Edwin M. Stanton in July 1863, wrote "as the rebellion grows...carcasses into them. Daniel E. Sutherland , “1864: A Strange, Wild Time,” in Rugged and Sublime: The Civil War in Arkansas, ed. Mark K. Christ...Activities/Arkansas/HubPages/CommentaryPage.asp?Co mmentary=Opt10; Internet; accessed 4 December 2006. 13 Sutherland , 143. 14 Mackey, 71. 15 Ibid, 29

  3. The Crimean War: a Clash of Civilizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatyana V. Vakulova

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The need to use the civilizational approach to the analysis of the causes and outcomes of the Crimean war (campaign 1854-1855 is revealed in this article. The author analyzes the causes of the war related to the religious factor. The Soviet historiography had not considered the religious factor to be relevant for the progressive development of the state, and therefore the provisions of the mentioned approach had not been used in the analysis of historical events. The conflict that arose between France and Russia about the Holy places, is characterized by the fact that the keys of the Bethlehem Church had been taken from the Orthodox community, which they traditionally belonged to, and had been handed over to the Catholic community by the Turkish authorities of Palestine under France’s constraint. The author points to the main cause of the war – violation of the Russian law on the protection of Orthodoxy in Turkey fixed by international treaties. It is argued that it is natural to name this war – The battle for the Manger of the Lord. That is why the main events of inter-civilizational conflict took place in the Crimea and in Sevastopol, which had not only been the military base of Russia on the Black Sea, but also the cradle of Russian Orthodoxy. Analyzing the events, the author comes to the conclusion that the outcome of the war testifies to the victory of the Orthodox state and the Russian diplomacy, because the status quo of the Holy places was maintained in accordance with the state of Affairs which had existed in the Byzantine Empire. The preservation of the integrity and sovereignty of Orthodox state is the confirmation of this victory. It is shown the ability to evaluate the results of the war is based on the positions of a civilizational approach.

  4. International commodity prices and civil war outbreak: new evidence for Sub-Saharan Africa and beyond

    OpenAIRE

    Ciccone, Antonio

    2018-01-01

    A new dataset by Bazzi and Blattman (2014) allows examining the effects of international commodity prices on the risk of civil war outbreak with more comprehensive data. I find that international commodity price downturns sparked civil wars in Sub-Saharan Africa. Another finding with the new dataset is that commodity price downturns also sparked civil wars beyond Sub-Saharan Africa since 1980. Effects are sizable relative to the baseline risk of civil war outbreak. My conclusions contrast wit...

  5. International commodity prices, growth and the outbreak of Civil War in Sub-Saharan Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Markus Brückner; Antonio Ciccone

    2007-01-01

    To learn more about the effect of economic conditions on civil war, we examine whether Sub-Saharan civil wars are more likely to start following downturns in the international price of countries’ main export commodities. The data show a robust effect of commodity price downturns on the outbreak of civil wars. We also find that Sub-Saharan countries are more likely to see civil wars following economic downturns in their main OECD export destinations.

  6. International Commodity Prices, Growth, and the Outbreak of Civil War in Sub-Saharan Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Markus Brückner; Antonio Ciccone

    2009-01-01

    To learn more about the effect of economic conditions on civil war, we examine whether Sub-Saharan civil wars are more likely to start following downturns in the international price of countries main export commodities. The data show a robust effect of commodity price downturns on the outbreak of civil wars. We also find that Sub-Saharan countries are more likely to see civil wars following economic downturns in their main OECD export destinations.

  7. Communal conflict, civil war, and the state: Complexities ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The bottom line is that what constitutes the basis for a communal identity may differ across time and space; hence, leaving the definition of this term more open allows for a broader contextual range. Communal conflict contrasted to civil war violence. In categorising different types of collective violence and analysing how they.

  8. The Role of Religion During and After the Civil War in Sierra Leone ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Civil wars in Africa are renowned for their strong religious elements, with religion being used for different purposes and in different capacities. Sierra Leone's civil war (1991-2002), known also as the “rebel war,” had significant religious dimensions. The warring factions used religion for their gain. Beyond that, Muslim and ...

  9. Warming increases the risk of civil war in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Marshall B; Miguel, Edward; Satyanath, Shanker; Dykema, John A; Lobell, David B

    2009-12-08

    Armed conflict within nations has had disastrous humanitarian consequences throughout much of the world. Here we undertake the first comprehensive examination of the potential impact of global climate change on armed conflict in sub-Saharan Africa. We find strong historical linkages between civil war and temperature in Africa, with warmer years leading to significant increases in the likelihood of war. When combined with climate model projections of future temperature trends, this historical response to temperature suggests a roughly 54% increase in armed conflict incidence by 2030, or an additional 393,000 battle deaths if future wars are as deadly as recent wars. Our results suggest an urgent need to reform African governments' and foreign aid donors' policies to deal with rising temperatures.

  10. 76 FR 21223 - Civil War Sesquicentennial

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-15

    ... serving in battles whose names reach across our history. The meaning of freedom and the very soul of our... secure in the rightness of his cause--brought a new birth of freedom to a country still mending its divisions. On this milestone in American history, we remember the great cost of the unity and liberty we now...

  11. The Catholic Propaganda abroad two Spains during the Civil War

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luis GONZÁLEZ GULLÓN

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This research analyzes the propaganda abroad developed the priests Leocadio Lobo and Alberto Bonet during the Spanish Civil War, both the service of republican government and the insurgent coalition, respectively. This has been resorted to important documentary sources and texts of the time, which gives us a fairly detailed picture of the dialectic that generated intense fighting in various European countries the performance of the Spanish Church between 1936 and 1939.

  12. Photographic Histories of the Civil War and the First World War and Rebirth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Meigs

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The article compares The Photographic History of the Civil War published in 1912, with A Photographic History of the First World War, published in 1933. The author is looking for similarities in the reworking of interpretations of war photography after the war and discovers that the photographs in conjunction with their editing can be made to cover up as much as they reveal. The Photographic History of the Civil War, published at the height of the Jim Crow era, with its hugely elaborate editorial structure, manages to deny the importance of slavery to the war and the importance of freed slaves afterwards. Even photographs of the dead of Gettysburg take on a meaning more appropriate to 1912 than to the event that produced them. The comparatively direct A Photographic History of the First World War, manages loyalty only to the thought of the author at the moment of its publication. Other interpretations were possible at other times as the author editor followed literary fashion and history.

  13. The Problem of Civil War In Agamben's Thought

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flohr, Mikkel

    2014-01-01

    This essay departs from the largely obscure theme of civil war in Agamben’s Homo Sacer: Sovereign Power and Bare Life to elucidate a fundamental aporia of his early political thought inherited from the work of Carl Schmitt. It begins with an analysis of the topology of the exception, as the inclu......This essay departs from the largely obscure theme of civil war in Agamben’s Homo Sacer: Sovereign Power and Bare Life to elucidate a fundamental aporia of his early political thought inherited from the work of Carl Schmitt. It begins with an analysis of the topology of the exception......, as the inclusion of civil war within the sovereign order – a conceptual move which forecloses the possibility of political contestation. This analysis permits an interrogation and critique of Agamben’s controversial claim regarding the inevitable shipwreck of the revolutions of the twentieth century....... This is followed by an exploration of Agamben’s failed attempts to move past this aporia via the strategy of exodus. Finally, the political impasse identified by Agamben is revealed to be a conceptual limitation, rather than a practical and political aporia, thus recovering the possibility of contesting...

  14. The Role of Officer Selection and Training on the Successful Formation and Employment of U.S. Colored Troops in the American Civil War, 1863-1865

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-10

    August 1862, Brigadier General Rufus Saxton revived a program begun by his predecessor, Major General David Hunter, and recruited, armed, and trained...Carolina under Major General David Hunter, commander Department of the South. In January 1863, he was sent to South Carolina to raise a regiment of black...imaginative strategist. He was, for example, the first American commander to 64Robert S. Holzman

  15. Rhetoric of civil conflict management: United Nations Security Council debates over the Syrian civil war

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juraj Medzihorsky

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces a spatial model of civil conflict management rhetoric to explore how the emerging norm of responsibility to protect shapes major power rhetorical responses to civil war. Using framing theory, we argue that responsibility to protect functions like a prescriptive norm, such that representing a conflict as one of (1 human rights violations (problem definition, implies rhetorical support for (2 coercive outside intervention (solution identification. These dimensions reflect the problem-solution form of a prescriptive norm. Using dictionary scaling with a dynamic model, we analyze the positions of UN Security Council members in debates over the Syrian Civil War separately for each dimension. We find that the permanent members who emphasized human rights violations also used intervention rhetoric (UK, France, and the US, and those who did not used non-intervention rhetoric (Russia and China. We conclude that, while not a fully consolidated norm, responsibility to protect appears to have structured major power rhetorical responses to the Syrian Civil War.

  16. Library of American Civilization Demonstration. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Napier, Paul A.; And Others

    In August, 1971, The National Home Library Foundation of Washington, D.C., awarded to The George Washington University a grant to install a set of the ultra-microfiche "Library of American Civilization" (produced by Encyclopaedia Britannica's subsidiary, Library Resources, Inc.), together with all available associated equipment and bibliographic…

  17. Cold War Conflict: American Intervention in Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-05-01

    the name "Meligalas" translates to the serenely beautiful meaning: "the village of milk and honey." 27. McNeill, 170. 28. Averoff-Tossizza, 118. 29...only encourage the rebels, and undermine the morale of the Greek army. To this charge MacVeagh replied to the State Department, " childish and petulant...to the communist belligerents in the Civil War, and thus loss of Greece would symbolize a loss for the United States in the Cold War contest

  18. American growth and Napoleonic Wars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vergil Hasan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Four years after the French Revolution, in 1793 a series of wars among France and other major powers of Europe began and they lasted until 1815. There is disagreement among economic historians about the effects of these wars on the trend of US economic growth. This paper aims to answer the following question. Did America as a neutral nation take advantage of economic possibilities caused by Europe at war through trade? To put it differently, this paper questions whether there was an export-led growth due to the war. To answer this question, we re-examined the export-led growth hypothesis for the period 1790-1860 using the ARDL methodology. Based on this methodology, a cointegrated relationship is found among the variables of real GDP, labor, exports and exchange rates. The results suggest that the economic growth of the US was not export-driven. In addition, parallel to the results of unit root tests with structural breaks, the coefficient of the dummy variable was statistically significant in the long run, implying that the war did have a significant effect on the economic growth trend of the US.

  19. The Civil War Soldier: Romantic and Realist. Teacher and Student Manuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caton, Jay; And Others

    This social studies unit provides an impressionistic study of the Civil War soldier and of his changing attitudes toward that war. It contrasts the periods of his optimism early in the war and his nostalgic recollection of events after the war with the despair he experienced from 1862 to 1865. The materials are essentially anecdotal in character…

  20. International Commodities Prices, Growth and the Outbreak of Civil War in Sub-Saharan Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Markus Bruckner; Antonio Ciccone

    2010-01-01

    To learn more about the effect of economic conditions on civil war, we examine whether Sub-Saharan civil wars are more likely to start following downturns in the international price of countries’ main export commodities. The data show a robust effect of commodity price downturns on the outbreak of civil wars. We also find that Sub-Saharan countries are more likely to see civil wars following economic downturns in their main OECD export destinations.

  1. Surgical outcomes of a civil war in a neighbouring country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akkucuk, Seckin; Aydogan, A; Yetim, I; Ugur, M; Oruc, C; Kilic, E; Paltaci, I; Kaplan, A; Temiz, M

    2016-08-01

    The civil war in Syria began on 15 March 2011, and many of the injured were treated in the neighbouring country of Turkey. This study reports the surgical outcomes of this war, in a tertiary centre in Turkey. 159 patients with civilian war injuries in Syria who were admitted to the General Surgery Department in the Research and Training Hospital of the Medical School of Mustafa Kemal University, Hatay, Turkey, between 2011 and 2012 were analysed regarding the age, sex, injury type, history of previous surgery for the injury, types of abdominal injuries (solid or luminal organ), the status of isolated abdominal injuries or multiple injuries, mortality, length of hospital stay and injury severity scoring. The median age of the patients was 30.05 (18-66 years) years. Most of the injuries were gunshot wounds (99 of 116 patients, 85.3%). Primary and previously operated patients were transferred to our clinic in a median time of 6.28±4.44 h and 58.11±44.08 h, respectively. Most of the patients had intestinal injuries; although a limited number of patients with colorectal injuries were treated with primary repair, stoma was the major surgical option due to the gross peritoneal contamination secondary to prolonged transport time. Two women and 21 men died. The major cause of death was multiorgan failure secondary to sepsis (18 patients). In the case of civil war in the bordering countries, it is recommended that precautions are taken, such as transformation of nearby civilian hospitals into military ones and employment of experienced trauma surgeons in these hospitals to provide effective medical care. Damage control procedures can avoid fatalities especially before the lethal triad of physiological demise occurs. Rapid transport of the wounded to the nearest medical centre is the key point in countries neighbouring a civil war. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  2. Our Experiences with Chest Trauma Patients in Syrian Civil War

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samil Gunay

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Thoracic surgery is a branch, the efficiency of which is unquestionable for war. And during the civil war in Syria, thoracic surgery specialists have been feeling this efficiency so closely. So we want to share our experiences on patients sent from this region. Material and Method: The cases comprised of 41 patients in total, 33 men and 8 women, between the ages of 16-75, who were brought from Syria between the dates of August 2012 %u2013 November 2013. The files of the patients were received from archive. Results: Except 11 isolated thorax trauma patients, it was determined thorax and abdomen injuries at 9 patients (21.9%, thorax and extremity injuries at 8 patients (19.5%, thorax and vertebra injuries at 3 patients (7.3%, thorax, abdomen and cranium injuries at 5 patients (12.1%, thorax, abdomen and eye injuries at one patient (2.4%, thorax, abdomen and vertebra injuries at 3 patients (7.3%, thorax, abdomen and extremity injuries at one patient (2.4%. Discussion: Thoracic surgery is a lifesaving branch in case of fast and effectual medical intervention to injuries during war.

  3. The Peloponnesian War, the Spanish Requirement and the Clash of Civilizations: An Application of Plato's Theaetetus

    OpenAIRE

    Wendy C. Hamblet

    2008-01-01

    This paper challenges the notion of “civilization” as focal to, and originative of, the problem of suffering in the world, a legacy that continues to betray its heritage in the third millennium of the Common Era. The current global crisis of terrorism is, on both sides of this confrontation, being posed as a war of “civilizations.” Both sides, the terrorists and the current American administration and its allies, argue for the righteous, divinely-ordained nature of their cause and the demonic...

  4. Secession, the EU, and Lessons from the U.S. Civil War

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sweeney, Richard J.

    2003-01-01

    for continuing the fight with the type of bushwacking that occurred in Missouri andKansas. Reconstruction is often thought of as harsh, but compared to the standards of historyConfederates were by and large treated well after the Civil War. Within a decade or so of the endof the Civil War, conservative white...

  5. Role of the Southern Baptist Chaplains and Missionaries in the Civil War

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bineham, Michael

    2003-01-01

    .... The United States Civil War from 1861 to 1865 was no different. The purpose of this thesis is to look at the events leading up to the Civil War and the conflict itself from the viewpoint of the Southern Baptist denomination...

  6. Origins and Phenomenon of the Civil War in Russia: Glance Through a Hundred years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladislav I. Goldin

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper studies the modern understanding of the origins, genesis and contents of the Civil War in Russia. The author discovers peculiarities of the First World War and its interrelations with the Russian Civil War. A special attention gives to the revolutionary process in Russia at the beginning of XX century and first of all in 1917. The Russian Revolution is characterized as a multifaceted upheaval and a series of different, concurrent and overlapping revolutions. Author analyzes the drama of the Russian Revolution, increasing number of contradictions and conflicts during its development in 1917–1918. The article examines different aspects of interaction between the Russian Revolution and Civil War, movement from “small” to the full-scaled, front and bloody Civil War in Russia, the processes and events of May – summer 1918, which led to the new stage of the war. The paper discovers the unique phenomenon of the Russian Civil War as a complex or series of wars of different characters and with different participants. The main wars, military and other counteractions are enumerated and characterized in the article. Author comes to the conclusion about the actuality of the historical lessons of the Russian Civil War at the beginning of XX century for nowadays.

  7. The Jewish War and the Roman Civil War of 68-69 C.E. : Jewish, Pagan, and Christian Perspectives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Kooten, G.H.; Popović, M.

    2011-01-01

    George H. van Kooten, “The Jewish War and the Roman Civil War of 68-69 C.E.: Jewish, Pagan, and Christian Perspectives,” in The Jewish Revolt against Rome: Interdisciplinary Perspectives (ed. Mladen Popović; Supplements to the Journal for the Study of Judaism 154; Leiden and Boston: Brill, 2011),

  8. Post-civil war adaptation and need in Managua, Nicaragua.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahearn, Frederick L; Noble, John H

    2004-07-01

    Within seven years after the end of the Nicaraguan civil war in 1990, forced migrants, whose lives had been most disrupted by the conflict, were self-settled in a squatter community in the capital city of Managua and lived in extreme poverty with minimal health, education, security and social service supports. Compared with voluntary migrant neighbours, whose lives had been less affected by the conflict, forced migrants exhibited equal clinically significant symptoms of physical and mental health and psychosocial maladaptation. These findings run counter to generally held theory and assumptions about the negative long-lasting effects of the trauma and stress of war, forced migration and resettlement. Explanations are offered to explain the discrepancies between theory and the study findings as well as the dominance of poverty and socioeconomic status. Implications are also drawn for increasing social support and other durable forms of assistance that emerge from the study as important to meeting the needs of equally poor and unhealthy forced and voluntary migrants in proliferating squatter communities throughout the Third World.

  9. Our vascular surgery experiences in Syrian civil war

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İyad Fansa

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Due to the ongoing civil war in Syria, numerous vascular injured patients are admitted to our hospital with gunshot wounds. In this study, patients who admitted our hospital, diagnosed with vascular trauma due to gunshot were evaluated with the respect of injury site, additional injuries, surgical interventions and outcomes. Methods: The study included 58 patients wounded in Syrian war and admitted to our hospital between 01.01.2012 and 01.09.2014. Results= There were 5.1% (n=3 female and 94.9% (n=55 male patients. Age range is 5-75 years and the average of age was identified as 28.61. In 12.1% (n=7 of patients with extensive tissue defects of the muscle-nerve-bone injury has been identified, despite the vascular interventions in these patients, 8.6% (n=5 of patients, the limb has been amputated. Totally 15.5% (n=9 of 58 operated patients died. Two patients died because of major vascular injury with intra-abdominal organ injuries. In one patient; infection induced sepsis and multi organ failure was detected. Six patients were lost due to hypovolemic shock as a result of late arriving. Conclusion: In patients admitted with gunshot vascular injury arrival time, the presence of additional injuries and the location of injury affect mortality rates.

  10. Rethinking the Insulator State: Turkey’s Border Security and the Syrian Civil War

    OpenAIRE

    Imai, Kohei

    2016-01-01

    This article examines Turkey’s border security after the outbreak of the Syrian civil war from the viewpoint of the concept of the insulator state. First, it aims to explore Turkey’s border security policies with regard to the Syrian civil war. Turkey’s attempts to overcome and solve the difficulties rooted of Syrian civil war have been vital to its own border security in recent years. Second purpose is to rethink the concept of the insulator state. This article attempts to sophis...

  11. Dignity and Dawn: Libya’s Escalating Civil War

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daveed Gartenstein-Ross

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In this Research Paper, ICCT Associate Fellow Dr. Daveed Gartenstein-Ross and Nathaniel Barr provides a detailed examination of the armed conflict in Libya between the Operation Dignity and Libya Dawn military coalitions. The conflict erupted in May 2014, when Dignity leader Khalifa Hifter announced the launch of his campaign, which was aimed at ridding eastern Libya of Islamist militias, beginning with Benghazi. This offensive shattered a fragile status quo. Revolutionary forces concentrated in the city of Misrata and Islamist politicians perceived Hifter’s offensive as a direct affront and, following parliamentary elections that these factions lost, the Misrata-Islamist bloc announced the launch of the Libya Dawn offensive, aimed at driving pro-Dignity forces out of Tripoli. More broadly, the Dawn offensive was an effort to change facts on the ground in order to ensure that the Misrata-Islamist bloc retained political influence. The Dignity and Dawn offensives have contributed to the continuing political and geographic fragmentation of Libya. Libya now has two separate parliaments and governments, while much of the country has been carved into spheres of influence by warring factions. The Dignity-Dawn conflict has also caused a deterioration of security, which has played into the hands of a variety of violent non-state actors, including al-Qaeda and Islamic State affiliates that have capitalized on Libya’s security vacuum to establish bases of operation. This report provides a blow-by-blow account of the military conflict between Dignity and Dawn forces, then assesses the implications of the Libyan civil war on regional security and potential policy options for Western states.

  12. Assessment of the perioperative period in civilians injured in the Syrian Civil War

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sedat Hakimoglu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: wars and its challenges have historically afflicted humanity. In Syria, severe injuries occurred due to firearms and explosives used in the war between government forces and civilians for a period of over 2 years. MATERIALS AND METHODS: the study included 364 cases, who were admitted to Mustafa Kemal University Hospital, Medicine School (Hatay, Turkey, and underwent surgery. Survivors and non-survivors were compared regarding injury site, injury type and number of transfusions given. The mortality rate found in this study was also compared to those reported in other civil wars. RESULTS: the mean age was 29 (3-68 years. Major sites of injury included extremities (56.0%, head (20.1%, abdomen (16.2%, vascular structures (4.4% and thorax (3.3%. Injury types included firearm injury (64.4%, blast injury (34.4% and miscellaneous injuries (1.2%. Survival rate was 89.6% while mortality rate was 10.4%. A significant difference was observed between mortality rates in this study and those reported for the Bosnia and Lebanon civil wars; and the difference became extremely prominent when compared to mortality rates reported for Vietnam and Afghanistan civil wars. CONCLUSION: among injuries related to war, the highest rate of mortality was observed in head-neck, abdomen and vascular injuries. We believe that the higher mortality rate in the Syrian Civil War, compared to the Bosnia, Vietnam, Lebanon and Afghanistan wars, is due to seeing civilians as a direct target during war.

  13. Lebanon: Consociation, Civil War, and the Search for Stability. ACSC Quick-Look 05-07

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hemmer, Christopher

    2005-01-01

    .... With the onset of a 15-year civil war in 1975, however, the Lebanese model quickly took a darker meaning, signifying violent internal conflict exacerbated by external intervention leading eventually to a failed state...

  14. Civil war: is it all about disease and xenophobia? A comment on Letendre, Fincher & Thornhill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendrix, Cullen S; Gleditsch, Kristian Skrede

    2012-02-01

    Letendre, Fincher & Thornhill (2010) argue that pathogen intensity provides the ultimate explanation for why some countries are more prone to civil war than others. They argue that the economic and political factors highlighted in previous research on civil war are largely caused by underlying differences in pathogen intensity, and contend that disease proneness increases the risk of civil war through its effects on resource competition and xenophobia. They present empirical evidence that they interpret as consistent with their argument: a statistically significant correlation between pathogen intensity and civil war onset. In this comment, we raise concerns over their interpretation of the empirical evidence and their proposed causal mechanisms. We find that the data provide stronger evidence for the reverse causal relationship, namely that civil war causes disease to become more prevalent. This finding is consistent with the literatures on the public health effects of civil war as well as research on state capacity and public health. © 2011 The Authors. Biological Reviews © 2011 Cambridge Philosophical Society.

  15. Learning about Each Other: Two Teachers Negotiate Race, Class, and Gender in the Civil War South

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breitborde, Mary-Lou

    2013-01-01

    The Civil War ended slavery but not the pernicious inequality of power and status that still characterizes relations between black and white America. As soon as they could, with the help of presidents bent on appeasement and the benign neglect of northerners who had fought the war to preserve the union but not necessarily to invite former slaves…

  16. Ancient Political Autobiography and Civil War : Anchoring Fortuna in the commentarii of Sulla, Cicero and Caesar

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klooster, Julia

    2015-01-01

    To analyze changes in mentality during and after the Civil Wars, this paper studies a number of commentarii and hypomnemata, political autobiographies or memoirs, from the late Roman Republic. (a.o. the fragments of the works of Sulla, and Cicero, and the Bellum Civile of Caesar). Previous

  17. Advertising as a Communicative Phenomenon during the Spanish Civil War

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dra. Araceli Rodríguez Mateos

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Advertising is a phenomenon that has helped to model societies during the last century. In order to know how it has participated in some change processes it is essential to analyse its communicative dimension. Within the theoretical framework of the History of Social Communication, this research studies the function of the commercial discourse during the Spanish Civil War. Results in three levels have been concluded with an analytic model focused on the messages spread in the press. First, the modern evolution of the advertising technique is confirmed. Second, the different alignment of advertising is compared with the propagandistic discourse of each faction, as well as with its ideological and commercial interests, and with the different relationship with consumers about events. Third, advertisements allow us to observe many details about current life better than the information censored does; specifically, the struggle to survive in the most damaged republican cities is clearly perceived. - Traducción supervisada por la Dra. María del Pino Montesdeoca (ULL.La publicidad es un fenómeno que ha ayudado a modelar las sociedades durante el último siglo y, para saber cómo ha participado en los procesos de cambio, es imprescindible analizar su dimensión comunicativa. Desde el marco teórico de la Historia de la Comunicación Social, este estudio aborda la función del discurso comercial durante la Guerra Civil española. Con un modelo analítico centrado en los mensajes difundidos en prensa se han obtenido resultados en tres niveles. Primero, se confirma la evolución moderna de la técnica publicitaria. Segundo, se compara la diferente alineación de la publicidad con el discurso propagandístico de las zonas enfrentadas, los intereses a los que respondía y la distinta interpelación a los consumidores respecto a los acontecimientos. Tercero, los anuncios permiten observar, mejor que la información censurada, ciertos detalles relativos a la

  18. The Peloponnesian War, the Spanish Requirement and the Clash of Civilizations: An Application of Plato's Theaetetus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wendy C. Hamblet

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper challenges the notion of “civilization” as focal to, and originative of, the problem of suffering in the world, a legacy that continues to betray its heritage in the third millennium of the Common Era. The current global crisis of terrorism is, on both sides of this confrontation, being posed as a war of “civilizations.” Both sides, the terrorists and the current American administration and its allies, argue for the righteous, divinely-ordained nature of their cause and the demonic nature of their infidel enemy. Both legitimate their violences by claims of superior “civilization” and both cite the god as in their “civilizational” court.

  19. Gendered spaces, gendered pages: Union women in Civil War nurse narratives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telford, Jennifer Casavant; Long, Thomas Lawrence

    2012-12-01

    This interdisciplinary analysis joins literary and culture studies with history using Daphne Spain's theory of gendered spaces. Specifically, we examine the reconfiguration of the spaces of military medical work and of book publishing that produced popular literary representations of those medical spaces. As a social historian of nursing and a scholar of American literature and culture, we argue that the examination of Civil War narratives by or about Northern female nurses surveys a landscape in which women penetrated the masculine spaces of the military hospital and the literary spaces of the wartime narrative. In so doing, these women transformed these spaces into places acknowledging and even relying upon what had been traditionally considered male domains. Like many historiographical papers written about nurses and the impact of their practice over time, this work is relevant to those practicing nursing today, specifically those issues related to professional authority and professional autonomy.

  20. Public health and nutrition after the Spanish Civil War. An intervention by the Rockefeller Foundation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Cura, Isabel; Huertas, Rafael

    2009-10-01

    We describe a nutritional intervention by the Rockefeller Foundation's International Health Division in Spain after the Spanish Civil War, delineating the relationships between the technicians sent by the Rockefeller Foundation and the Spanish health authorities. We analyze reports of the nutritional situation in Spain in the early 1940s and the design and outcomes of a nutrition survey conducted in a district of Madrid by American and Spanish nutritionists. This nutritional survey, which was based on food intake interviews and was complemented with anthropometric measurements, clinical examinations, and blood tests, found several symptoms and signs of malnutrition. The Rockefeller Foundation's nutritional research was an important historical precedent for later studies made in emergency situations or armed conflicts. Similar surveys have been carried out in the last several decades by distinguished academic departments of public health and epidemiology and by humanitarian aid agencies.

  1. American Women and the Great War.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumenil, Lynn

    2002-01-01

    Provides information on the idealized images of women during World War I. Features the use of posters and propaganda during the war. Focuses on voluntary activities in which women participated, the fight for women's suffrage during the war, and the effect of the war on women working. Includes poster reproductions. (CMK)

  2. Impact of Battalion and Smaller African-American Combat Units on Integration of the U.S. Army in the European Theater of Operations During World War II

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-12

    using the vote to get non- discriminatory policies in place for government job opportunities.57 African American leaders realized they could challenge...... promote equality. African American civil rights leaders believed World War I would prove to European Americans that African Americans deserved

  3. Secularism, Civil Religion, and the Religious Freedom of American Indians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deloria, Vine, Jr.

    1992-01-01

    Argues that traditional religions of American Indians (and other persons) are under the secular attack because the civil religion of the United States will tolerate no value higher than the state. Cites court decisions suggesting that civil laws have become the definitive statement of what is acceptable religious behavior. (SV)

  4. Towards a phenomenology of civil war: Hobbes meets Benjamin in Beirut.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Cauter, Lieven

    2011-01-01

    Based on interviews with Beirut intellectuals and architects, this essay endeavours to trace the contours for a phenomenology or anthropology of civil war. Thomas Hobbes serves as a guide, with his idea of civil war representing a relapse into the ‘state of nature’; as absence of sovereignty resulting in a ‘war of everybody against everybody’. The effects of ever-latent civil war in Beirut are far-reaching: the fragmentation of urban space and the disappearance of public space, the loss of memory and the fragmentation of time, even the reification of language. In the collective imagination and in the arts, Beirut appears as a ghost town, a spectral city with a spectral civility. What we discover is a city, its inhabitants, its social behaviour, but also its art and literature, in the grip of post-traumatic stress syndrome. From all this, we take home two things: first, any city can (at least in principle) relapse into a similar state of nature — Beirut can become a paradigm of latent civil war; and second, the traumatic modernity of Beirut mirrors the traumatic artistic expressions of modernism — the shock of modernity is also always a modernity of shock.

  5. Characteristics of the injuries of Syrian refugees sustained during the civil war.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocamer Şimşek, Betül; Dokur, Mehmet; Uysal, Erdal; Çalıker, Necdet; Gökçe, Oruç Numan; Deniz, İbrahim Kürşat; Uğur, Murat; Geyik, Murat; Kaya, Mehmet; Dağlı, Güner

    2017-05-01

    During a war, many civilians are severely injured by firearms, bombs, and shrapnel. The triage of war injuries involves difficult and complicated processes requiring surgical procedures and patient monitoring in the Intensive Care Unit (ICU) of hospitals. In this study, we examine the demographic, traumatic, and critical care characteristics of cases injured during the civil war in Syria and requiring emergency surgery. Electronic data of the traumatic, surgical, and ICU monitoring features of 707 patients admitted to Kilis Public Hospital between March 2012 and January 2013 were analyzed retrospectively RESULTS: Most of the patients reported having been injured due to firearms (83.75%). Of the 707 cases studied in this work, 93.2% was male. Male patients reported a mean age of 26.1±12.1 years, while pediatric cases reported a mean age of 11.7±3.41 years. The most frequently injured region of the body was the head-neck region (52.7%). The New Injury Severity Score (NISS) of the cases was 42.5±11.2 and their American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) score was 3.2±0.7. The number of cases with intraoperative exitus was 7, while the number of cases who had undergone damage control surgery was 204. The number of cases hospitalized in the ICU during the postoperative period was 233, and the average hospitalization duration in the ICU was 4.67±1.32 days. Among survivor patients, the first 24-hour invasive measurements (i.e., pH, hemoglobin, body temperature, and mean arterial blood pressure) and international normalized ratio were found to be high. The number of blood products used for surviving patients was fewer relative to that used for non-surviving patients, and these NISS of these patients was 29.7±10.1. The mortality rate of all patients followed up in the ICU after emergency surgery was 45%, and neurosurgical cases showed the lowest level of survival (24.1%). The results of this study indicated that head-neck, chest-abdomen, and multiple body injuries are

  6. Assessment of the perioperative period in civilians injured in the Syrian Civil War.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakimoglu, Sedat; Karcıoglu, Murat; Tuzcu, Kasım; Davarcı, Isıl; Koyuncu, Onur; Dikey, İsmail; Turhanoglu, Selim; Sarı, Ali; Acıpayam, Mehmet; Karatepe, Celalettin

    2015-01-01

    wars and its challenges have historically afflicted humanity. In Syria, severe injuries occurred due to firearms and explosives used in the war between government forces and civilians for a period of over 2 years. the study included 364 cases, who were admitted to Mustafa Kemal University Hospital, Medicine School (Hatay, Turkey), and underwent surgery. Survivors and non-survivors were compared regarding injury site, injury type and number of transfusions given. The mortality rate found in this study was also compared to those reported in other civil wars. the mean age was 29 (3-68) years. Major sites of injury included extremities (56.0%), head (20.1%), abdomen (16.2%), vascular structures (4.4%) and thorax (3.3%). Injury types included firearm injury (64.4%), blast injury (34.4%) and miscellaneous injuries (1.2%). Survival rate was 89.6% while mortality rate was 10.4%. A significant difference was observed between mortality rates in this study and those reported for the Bosnia and Lebanon civil wars; and the difference became extremely prominent when compared to mortality rates reported for Vietnam and Afghanistan civil wars. among injuries related to war, the highest rate of mortality was observed in head-neck, abdomen and vascular injuries. We believe that the higher mortality rate in the Syrian Civil War, compared to the Bosnia, Vietnam, Lebanon and Afghanistan wars, is due to seeing civilians as a direct target during war. Copyright © 2014 Sociedade Brasileira de Anestesiologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  7. [Assessment of the perioperative period in civilians injured in the Syrian Civil War].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakimoglu, Sedat; Karcıoglu, Murat; Tuzcu, Kasım; Davarcı, Isıl; Koyuncu, Onur; Dikey, İsmail; Turhanoglu, Selim; Sarı, Ali; Acıpayam, Mehmet; Karatepe, Celalettin

    2015-01-01

    Wars and its challenges have historically afflicted humanity. In Syria, severe injuries occurred due to firearms and explosives used in the war between government forces and civilians for a period of over 2 years. The study included 364 cases, who were admitted to Mustafa Kemal University Hospital, Medicine School (Hatay, Turkey), and underwent surgery. Survivors and non-survivors were compared regarding injury site, injury type and number of transfusions given. The mortality rate found in this study was also compared to those reported in other civil wars. The mean age was 29 (3-68) years. Major sites of injury included extremities (56.0%), head (20.1%), abdomen (16.2%), vascular structures (4.4%) and thorax (3.3%). Injury types included firearm injury (64.4%), blast injury (34.4%) and miscellaneous injuries (1.2%). Survival rate was 89.6% while mortality rate was 10.4%. A significant difference was observed between mortality rates in this study and those reported for the Bosnia and Lebanon civil wars; and the difference became extremely prominent when compared to mortality rates reported for Vietnam and Afghanistan civil wars. Among injuries related to war, the highest rate of mortality was observed in head-neck, abdomen and vascular injuries. We believe that the higher mortality rate in the Syrian Civil War, compared to the Bosnia, Vietnam, Lebanon and Afghanistan wars, is due to seeing civilians as a direct target during war. Copyright © 2014 Sociedade Brasileira de Anestesiologia. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  8. Wladimir Krzyzanowski, 123 Polish Hero of the Civil War in the USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PIYUK T.G.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The article is dedicated to the young Polish revolutionist Wladimir Krzyzanowski who emigrated from Great Poland to the US after failed uprising in 1846 against Prussia in order to avoid possible arrest. He went to Hamburg, Germany and sailed from there to the United States.W. Krzyzanowski managed to become a successful and prosperous businessman and politician, and he was lucky in his personal life, he married a girl with a name and a significant dowry. He considered slavery not only anachronistic, but also a disgrace to the young state, and at the same time, he admired American democracy and American people. In Washington he recruited the company of Polish immigrants which became one of the first companies of Union Soldiers. Krzyzanowski then moved his company to New York and enlisted more immigrants and soon became a Colonel of the 58th Infantry Division, listed in the official Army Register as the “Polish Legion”. He participated in the Civil War battles of Cross-Keys, Bull Run, Chancellorsville, and Gettysburg. “Polish Legion”, led by Krzyzanowski, made himself famous in the main battle at Gettysburg. Subsequently, the memorial of granite was erected to legion in the immediate vicinity of the city.The author’s attention was attracted by the eccentric personality of the Pole, known in Poland and in America. In her work she explores Krzyzanowski’s life and service to the American people

  9. Kalimat – Kalimat Minor Dalam Film Captain America: Civil War Disutradarai Oleh Anthony & Joe Russo

    OpenAIRE

    WILAR, JULIO DAVID

    2017-01-01

    This study aims at describing the use of minor sentences in the film Captain America: Civil War directed by Anthony and Joe Russo. The writer used the theory of Charles Hockett (1958) to identify and analize the data that have been found in the film. The focus of this research is the minor sentences in the film Captain America: Civil War directed by Anthony and Joe Russo. The data in this research are minor sentences which obtained from the film. The collected data were analyzed by using des...

  10. Between Propaganda and Truth: changing patterns in the Polish historiography about the Civil War

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga GLONDYS

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the transformation of public and historiographical discourse on the Spanish Civil War in Poland, exploring the post-Stalinist period and current democratic Poland. It explains how, during these two very different eras: the dictatorial, communist past and the capitalist, liberal-democratic present, historical discourse concerning the past has been transformed so as to meet the prevailing political needs and demands of today. The conclusions reached here point to a change of paradigm in historiographical discourse on the Civil War, and encourage reflection on the epistemological and methodological implications that historical processes raise for the historian’s task.

  11. Los Zetas Inc: Criminal Corporations, Energy and Civil War in Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William H. Godnick

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Disclaimer: The views expressed in this paper are those of the author and are not an official policy nor position of the National Defense University, the Department of Defense nor the U.S. Government.   This article reviews Los Zetas Inc: Criminal Corporations, Energy and Civil War in Mexico by Guadalupe Cabrera-Correa. Her book attempts to address some of the inaccuracies of journalistic descriptions of organized criminal activities. The review challenges some of the author’s hypotheses, in particular the characterization of the current context of Mexico as one in the midst of a ‘new’ civil war.

  12. Protest Campaigns and Civil Wars : Can continuous processes be studied with a ‘discrete ’ theory?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F.A. Diaz Sr. (Fabio Andres)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractThe presence of protests, sometimes during violent conflict and civil war, across the globe, seems to contradict the common view that civil war and protests are mutually exclusive episodes and do not belong to a continuum. Instead, peaceful – and less peaceful – protests can coincide

  13. Civil Rights Issues Facing Arab Americans in Michigan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michigan State Advisory Committee to the U.S. Commission on Civil Rights.

    This report is a summary statement of the Michigan Advisory Committee's study on civil rights issues facing Arab American communities in Michigan. It is based on information received by the Committee at a community forum held in Dearborn, Michigan, in 1999. Six sections focus on: (1) "Introduction," including Arab American demographics…

  14. American historians on the Cold War: A historiographical interpretation

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article categorizes the American historical scholarship on the Cold War into five, perhaps six, clusters. After discussing these clusters, it argues that in spite of paradigmatic differences, there are also areas of agreement in the literature. For one thing, it is clear that before the end of World War II, and therefore before the ...

  15. The Crime-Conflict Nexus and the Civil War in Syria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Steenkamp

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available There is a strong relationship between organised crime and civil war. This article contributes to the crime-conflict nexus literature by providing a consideration of the role of organised crime in the Syrian conflict. It provides an overview of pre- and post-war organised crime in Syria. The article then builds the argument that war provides opportunities for organised crime through the state’s diminished law enforcement ability; the economic hardship which civilians face during war; and the abundance of armed groups who all need to generate revenue. Secondly, the paper argues that organised crime also affects the intensity and duration of war by enabling militants to reproduce themselves materially and to build institutions amongst the communities where they are active. The relationships between armed groups and local populations emerge as a central theme in understanding the crime-conflict nexus.

  16. American Orthopaedic Surgeons in World War I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, David P; DeLee, Jesse C

    2017-04-05

    On April 6, 1917, the United States declared war on Germany and entered what was then called the Great War. Among the first officers sent to Europe were 21 orthopaedic surgeons in the so-called First Goldthwait Unit. Prior to the war, orthopaedics had been a nonoperative "strap-and-buckle" specialty that dealt primarily with infections, congenital abnormalities, and posttraumatic deformity. The Great War changed all of that forever, creating a new surgical specialty with emphasis on acute treatment, prevention of deformity, restoration of function, and rehabilitation.

  17. Commanding in Chief, Strategic Leader Relationships in the Civil War

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-12

    Secretary of War, initially Simon Cameron and after January 1862, Edwin Stanton. No longer having to render reports through Scott simplified the lines of...Lincoln’s Chief of Staff, 63. 59 Hennessy, Return to Bull Run, 16. 60 Ibid., 21. 61 Daniel E. Sutherland , “Abraham Lincoln, John Pope, and the Origins...Life for the Nation, 199-200. 68 Ibid. 69 Sutherland , “Abraham Lincoln, John Pope, and the Origins of Total War”, 585. 70 U.S. Government, War of

  18. A Jewish America and a Protestant Civil Religion: Will Herberg, Robert Bellah, and Mid-Twentieth Century American Religion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronit Y. Stahl

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This essay reads Will Herberg’s Protestant-Catholic-Jew alongside Robert Bellah’s “Civil Religion in America” to illuminate how mid-century thinkers constructed, rather than merely observed, a vision of, and for, American religion. Placing Herberg in direct conversation with Bellah illuminates why Herberg’s religious triptych depiction of America endured while his argument for an “American Way of Life”—the prototype for Bellah’s widely accepted idea of civil religion—flailed. Although Herberg’s “American Way of Life” and Bellah’s “Civil Religion” resemble one another as systems built on but distinct from faith traditions, they emerged from intellectual struggles with two distinct issues. Herberg’s work stemmed from the challenges wrought by ethnic and religious diversity in America, while Bellah wrote out of frustration with Cold War conformity. Both men used civil religion to critique American complacency, but Herberg agonized over trite formulations of faith while Bellah derided uncritical affirmations of patriotism. Bellah’s civil religion co-existed with and, more importantly, contained Herberg’s “Protestant-Catholic-Jew” triad and obscured the American Way of Life. In an increasingly diverse and divisive America, Bellah’s civil religion provided a more optimistic template for national self-critique, even as Herberg’s American Way of Life more accurately described the limits of national self-understanding.

  19. Warlords of the Somali Civil War (1988-1995)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-01

    Mogadishu between warring factions. The area between them has become a ghost town, haunted by the memories of splendor and of failure. The hopes of...the one-time residents have been crushed and twisted beyond repair, like the metal gates to the local palaces of commerce, art and religion.“23

  20. Book Review: "Nigeria/Biafra Civil War: My Experience" by Achike ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This book has seven chapters covering aspects of Nigeria's history, the author's experience during the Civil War, 1967–1970 and his reflection on Nigeria as a nation. The purpose of the book as the author makes clear is “to fill the gap and further highlight the role played by the lower command – the platoons, companies, ...

  1. Generational Dimensions to Igbo Nationalism in Post-Civil War Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    the Sovereign State of Biafra (MASSOB) - a second-generation Igbo nationalist movement- this article .... pronounced since Nigeria's return to democracy on 29 May 1999 (Akinyele 2001: 264-. 5; Nolte 2004: 61; ... civil war in 1970, the latter defines itself as the pan-Igbo socio-cultural organization that represents the views of ...

  2. Auxiliary Armed Forces and Innovations in Security Governance in Mozambique’s Civil War

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jentzsch, C.

    2017-01-01

    Who rules during the civil war? This article argues that the concept of armed group governance must be expanded to include auxiliary armed forces linked to rebels or the government. Comparing the organization of rebel and government auxiliaries, the article demonstrates that security governance

  3. Shocks, civil war and economic development in Sub-Saharan Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nillesen, E.E.M.

    2010-01-01

    Foreign aid, low institutional quality and civil wars are associated with slow economic development in many Sub-Sahara African countries. I aim to identify causal relations and mechanisms that explain significant correlations. I use both macro- and micro-economic data and show that results are not

  4. Civil Wars, Child Soldiers and Post Conflict Peace Building in West

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Toshiba

    Sierra Leonean (1991-2002) civil wars that ensued there-from caused untold consequences on sub-Saharan Africa: violation of the African. Charter on the Right of the African Child, child soldier phenomenon and their atrocities, refugees resulting from internal displacement, a threatened sub-regional peace, etc (see Sriram ...

  5. Generational Dimensions to Igbo Nationalism in Post-Civil War Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    organization for the Igbo and also assume the role of the former Igbo State Union (ISU) in the post-civil war Nigerian public space. In the process of its evolution, issues began to emerge around its structure and management systems, and there were perceptions from the Igbo at the grassroots level that the organization was ...

  6. Mediation With Muscle: Understanding When Mediators Commit Resources to Civil War Negotiations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    additional mediation events not listed in the original dataset. I also identified additional mediation events during the course of my research that had...NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL MONTEREY, CALIFORNIA THESIS Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited MEDIATION WITH MUSCLE...UNDERSTANDING WHEN MEDIATORS COMMIT RESOURCES TO CIVIL WAR NEGOTIATIONS by Michael D. Caplan December 2015 Thesis Advisor: T. Camber Warren Second Reader

  7. 38 CFR 3.712 - Improved pension elections; surviving spouses of Spanish-American War veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... elections; surviving spouses of Spanish-American War veterans. 3.712 Section 3.712 Pensions, Bonuses, and... spouses of Spanish-American War veterans. (a) General. A surviving spouse of a Spanish-American War... and attendance. A surviving spouse of a Spanish-American War veteran who is receiving or entitled to...

  8. Building State Capacity to Achieve Government Victory during Civil War

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-01

    previously grew illegal crops. This brought 330,000 hectares of land back into the legal economy producing: coffee, cacao , rubber, palm oil, and forestry...percent of its exports , whereas industrial exports provided roughly six percent of Vietnams’ output.126 On the eve of World War II (WWII) 74 percent of... exporter of rice needed to import 750,000 tons of the commodity to feed its people.150 The combination of an unpopular government and improperly

  9. Greed and Grievance : Economic Agendas in Civil Wars | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Les études théoriques en cours sur les guerres civiles et les transitions de la guerre à la paix ont fait progresser considérablement la compréhension des dimensions politiques des conflits internes. On a toutefois négligé les motifs économiques à l'origine de la violence politique. Cet ouvrage novateur décrit les facteurs ...

  10. Greed and Grievance : Economic Agendas in Civil Wars | CRDI ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Les études théoriques en cours sur les guerres civiles et les transitions de la guerre à la paix ont fait progresser considérablement la compréhension des dimensions politiques des conflits internes. On a toutefois négligé les motifs économiques à l'origine de la violence politique. Cet ouvrage novateur décrit les facteurs ...

  11. Satellite imagery-based monitoring of archaeological site damage in the Syrian civil war.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesse Casana

    Full Text Available Since the start of the Syrian civil war in 2011, the rich archaeological heritage of Syria and northern Iraq has faced severe threats, including looting, combat-related damage, and intentional demolition of monuments. However, the inaccessibility of the conflict zone to archaeologists or cultural heritage specialists has made it difficult to produce accurate damage assessments, impeding efforts to develop mitigation strategies and policies. This paper presents results of a project, undertaken in collaboration with the American Schools of Oriental Research (ASOR and the US Department of State, to monitor damage to archaeological sites in Syria, northern Iraq, and southern Turkey using recent, high-resolution satellite imagery. Leveraging a large database of archaeological and heritage sites throughout the region, as well as access to continually updated satellite imagery from DigitalGlobe, this project has developed a flexible and efficient methodology to log observations of damage in a manner that facilitates spatial and temporal queries. With nearly 5000 sites carefully evaluated, analysis reveals unexpected patterns in the timing, severity, and location of damage, helping us to better understand the evolving cultural heritage crisis in Syria and Iraq. Results also offer a model for future remote sensing-based archaeological and heritage monitoring efforts in the Middle East and beyond.

  12. Satellite imagery-based monitoring of archaeological site damage in the Syrian civil war.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casana, Jesse; Laugier, Elise Jakoby

    2017-01-01

    Since the start of the Syrian civil war in 2011, the rich archaeological heritage of Syria and northern Iraq has faced severe threats, including looting, combat-related damage, and intentional demolition of monuments. However, the inaccessibility of the conflict zone to archaeologists or cultural heritage specialists has made it difficult to produce accurate damage assessments, impeding efforts to develop mitigation strategies and policies. This paper presents results of a project, undertaken in collaboration with the American Schools of Oriental Research (ASOR) and the US Department of State, to monitor damage to archaeological sites in Syria, northern Iraq, and southern Turkey using recent, high-resolution satellite imagery. Leveraging a large database of archaeological and heritage sites throughout the region, as well as access to continually updated satellite imagery from DigitalGlobe, this project has developed a flexible and efficient methodology to log observations of damage in a manner that facilitates spatial and temporal queries. With nearly 5000 sites carefully evaluated, analysis reveals unexpected patterns in the timing, severity, and location of damage, helping us to better understand the evolving cultural heritage crisis in Syria and Iraq. Results also offer a model for future remote sensing-based archaeological and heritage monitoring efforts in the Middle East and beyond.

  13. Impact of long-term civil disorders and wars on the trajectory of HIV epidemics in sub-Saharan Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gisselquist, David

    2004-08-01

    From the mid-1970s, seven countries in sub-Saharan Africa have experienced civil disorders and wars lasting for at least 10 years. In two-- Sierra Leone during 1991-2002, and Somalia from 1988 and continuing--adult HIV prevalence remained below 1%. In the Democratic Republic of the Congo, HIV prevalence appears to have stabilised during post-1991 civil disorder and war. Limited information from Angola (civil war 1975 -2002) and Liberia (civil disorder and war from 1989 and continuing) suggests low HIV prevalence. Mozambique's HIV prevalence was near 1% after its 1975 - 1992 civil war, but increased dramatically in the first post-war decade. Across African countries with long-term wars, HIV seems to have spread more slowly than in most neighbouring countries at peace. This evidence contributes to the ongoing debate about the factors that explain differential epidemic trajectories, a debate which is crucial to the design of HIV prevention programmes. One possible explanation for slow epidemic growth in wartime is that unsterile health care accounts for an important proportion of HIV transmission during peacetime, but much less when wars disrupt health services. However, other explanations are also possible. The roles of sex and blood exposures in HIV epidemics in war and peace await empirical determination.

  14. Democratization in the Gulf Monarchies and American Civil Society

    OpenAIRE

    Azam, M. Nazrul Islam and Muhammad; Azam, Muhammad

    2015-01-01

    The paper deals with the efforts made by American private sector and civil society actors after 2000 to popularize democratic values and norms in the six Gulf states, namely Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, and the United Arab Emirates. The study is focused on areas including politics, education, culture, media, human rights, and women empowerment. The paper also deals with approaches adopted, goals and objectives set and strategies devised and employed by the American NGOs regardi...

  15. Democratization in the Gulf Monarchies and American Civil Society

    OpenAIRE

    Azam, M. Nazrul Islam and Muhammad

    2010-01-01

    The paper deals with the efforts made by American private sector and civil society actors after 2000 to popularize democratic values and norms in the six Gulf states, namely Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, and the United Arab Emirates. The study is focused on areas including politics, education, culture, media, human rights, and women empowerment. The paper also deals with approaches adopted, goals and objectives set and strategies devised and employed by the American NGOs regardi...

  16. [Nursing in the movies: its image during the Spanish Civil War].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siles González, J; García Hernández, E; Cibanal Juan, L; Gallardo Frías, Y; Lillo Crespo, M

    1998-12-01

    The cinema had carried out a determining role in the development of stereotypes and in a wide gamut of models related to real life situations. The objective of this analysis is to determine the influence cinema had on the image of nurses during the Spanish Civil War from 1936-1939. These are the initial hypotheses: the role of Spanish nurses during the civil war was reflected by both sides in their respective movie productions; and the image of nurses shown in these films, on both sides, presents a conflicting role concept for women in society. Following strategies developed by specialists in film analysis (Bondwell 1995, Uneso 1995, Carmona 1991) a total of 453 movie productions, 360 on the republican side and 93 on the national side, were reviewed. These films were listed in the Spanish National Films Library records. After analyzing the Spanish cinema productions during the Spanish Civil War, data relating to 453 films were identified. The genre included documents, news programs and fiction movies. 77 were produced in 1936, 235 in 1937, 102 in 1938 and 39 in 1939. A tremendous difference exists between the republican productions, 79% of the total, and the national productions. By genres, the types produced on the republican side were: in 1936, 53 documentals, 4 news programs and 9 fiction films; in 1937, 186 documentals, 5 news programs and 19 fiction films; in 1938, 72 documentals, 1 news programs and 2 fiction films; in 1939, 2 documentals and 2 fiction films. On the national side, their productions were: in 1936, 10 documentals and 1 fiction film; in 1937, 22 documentals, 2 news programs and 1 fiction film; in 1938, 19 documentals and 3 news programs; in 1939, 29 documentals and 6 fiction films. During the Spanish Civil War, movies produced by both sides made an effort to reflect their ideal woman as a stereotypical ideal nurse. This ideal nurse showed the values, ideas, aesthetics and prejudices each side held in the war.

  17. The Ongoing Legacy of the Spanish Civil War for One Family

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Angulo Menasse

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the health consequences of the Spanish Civil War for a family of Repub-lican militiamen who defended the socialist project in a divided Spain between 1936 and 1939. The consequences of the Civil War are traced in their children and grandchildren. Interviews with members of a family of socialist political exiles revealed how the war against Spanish fascism affected their lives and their bodies. As children, the adults had been forced to flee Spain for their very lives, accompanying their parents first to France and later to America. Once the war was over, those who remained in Spain were enveloped in a wave of terror which forced them to hide and then escape across the border. As socialist families in resistance, they were under constant threat of death. Based on the testimony of various generations, this paper traces the messages transmitted from grandparents to parents, from parents to children, and from grandparents to grandchildren, focusing on how those messages affected their mental health. This evidence supports my hypothesis that, in the context of war, it is not necessary to have been on the front lines to suffer the trauma caused by the material conditions of terror and persecution. Nor was it necessary to have personally suffered the experiences of exile and the persecution in 1939 to carry the burden of what the Civil War meant in terms of the loss and failure of a utopian political project. The violence was like a tattoo engraved on all generations of the family, even - and perhaps especially - on those born in the country of refuge.

  18. Depression and anxiety among war-widows of Nepal: a post-civil war cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basnet, Syaron; Kandel, Pragya; Lamichhane, Prabhat

    2018-02-01

    Thousands of Nepalese women were widowed as a consequence of a decade (1996-2006) long civil war in Nepal. These women are at grave risk of mental health problems due to both traumatic experiences and violation of natural order of widowhood. The present study explores the depression and anxiety among war-widows. In 2012, a cross-sectional study was designed to interview 358 war-widows using validitated Beck Depression Inventory and Beck Anxiety Inventory in four districts of Nepal - Bardiya, Surkhet, Sindhupalchowk and Kavrepalanchowk with history of high conflict intensity. The prevalence of depression and anxiety was 53% and 63% respectively. Financial stress was significantly associated with depression (2.67, 95% CI: 1.40-5.07) and anxiety (2.37, 95% CI: 1.19-4.72). High autonomy of women as compared to low autonomy, high social support as compared to low social support and literacy as opposed to illiteracy was associated with less likelihood of depression and anxiety. Our results suggest high magnitude of depression and anxiety among war-widows in Nepal. Future policy efforts should be directed at providing mental health services to identify mental health issues among conflict affected individuals with focus on education, employment and activities to promote social support and autonomy at community.

  19. The monkeys' sworn oath : cultures of engagement for reconciliation and healing in the aftermath of the civil war in Mozambique

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Igreja, Victor

    2007-01-01

    This study examines the social world of reconciliation and healing in the aftermath of the protracted Mozambican civil war. Using a multidisciplinary approach (sociology, history, legal and medical anthropology, and international law) this research explores how reconciliation and healing unfold

  20. The past in contemporary Spanish Novel: the topic of the Civil War

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Becerra Mayor

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In Spain, a great number of novels about our most recent past, specifically on the Spanish Civil War, have been published in the last years. This paper aims to offer an explanation for the proliferation of such a large number of titles on the Spanish Civil War. The paper first presents a research hypothesis, analysing this return to the past such that in contemporary Spanish narrative the past appears as if it were a product of advanced capitalism: once authors have accepted and internalized the premise, as suggested by the post-modern mantra of the “end of history”, that we live in the best of possible worlds and that there is no opposition or contradiction in our present, the novelist must seek recourse in the conflictual past in order to be able to evoke narrative complexity. The paper also attempts to define a paradigm that shows the aesthetic and ideological mechanisms used in the reconstruction of the war which these novels propose. The following techniques – the equidistant and symmetrical description of the national war, its “aideological” image of reality, its questioning of the objectivist paradigms and the ontological balance established between History and fiction – are some of the features by which it is possible to characterise this literary trend of the Spanish Civil War today, in line with the dominant postmodern ideology.

  1. Terrorism, civil war, one-sided violence and global burden of disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerridge, Bradley T; Khan, Maria R; Sapkota, Amir

    2012-01-01

    Armed conflict and related violence, including terrorism and one-sided violence, has profound effects on people's health and lives. The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between deaths due to terrorism, civil war and one-sided violence from 1994-2000 and disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) occurring in 2002 attributable to all causes and specific communicable and noncommunicable diseases. Deaths resulting from terrorism, war and one-sided violence were positively associated with all cause as well as a number of communicable and noncommunicable disease-specific DALYs across the majority of sex and age subgroups of the populace, controlling for an array of economic factors empirically shown to affect public health. Overall, a 1.0% increase in deaths due to terrorism, civil war and one-sided violence from 1994-2000 was associated with a 0.16% increase in DALYs lost to all causes in 2002 in the total world population. There was little variation in the magnitude of these associations between males and females and between communicable and noncommunicable diseases. The results of the present study can begin to guide post-conflict recovery by focusing on interventions targeting both noncommunicable as well as communicable diseases, thereby highlighting the full health costs of war and ultimately providing a strong rationale for promoting peace.

  2. Civil war and child health: regional and ethnic dimensions of child immunization and malnutrition in Angola.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agadjanian, Victor; Prata, Ndola

    2003-06-01

    This study arises from a general proposition that different levels and types of exposure to war are crucial in shaping health outcomes in a population under war-induced duress. We analyze civil war-related regional and ethnolinguistic differentials in age-adequate immunization (complete vaccination for age) and levels of malnutrition in Angola. Our analysis is based on data from a nationally representative survey conducted in 1996, some 2 years after the end of one of the most destructive periods of hostilities in the history of Angolan civil war. The data show that despite Angola's unique mineral wealth, the nation's levels of child age-adequate immunization is lower and malnutrition rates are higher than in most of sub-Saharan Africa. To examine age-adequate immunization and chronic malnutrition we fit logistic regression models that include the regional degree of war impact and ethnolinguistic group, in addition to rural-urban differences and other conventional sociodemographic characteristics. The tests reveal a significant disadvantage of rural children relative to urban children in both immunization and chronic malnutrition. Net of the rural-urban differences, we also detect a significant disadvantage of children residing in parts of the country that had been most affected by the fighting. The tests also point to a lower level of immunization and higher level of chronic malnutrition among children from the ethnolinguistic group commonly identified with the opposition. These associations tend to be stronger among children who were born and/or grew up during war than among children who were born after peace was re-established.

  3. Determining If the Actions of African American Combat Forces during World War I Positively Affected the Employment of African American Combat Soldiers during World War II

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Doward, Jr, Oscar W

    2007-01-01

    .... The War Department's recruitment, assessment, and induction practices in its preparation for the Great War are explored, and the impact of Jim Crow practices on the process of African American troop...

  4. The Syrian civil war: The experience of the Surgical Intensive Care Units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozdogan, Hatice Kaya; Karateke, Faruk; Ozdogan, Mehmet; Cetinalp, Sibel; Ozyazici, Sefa; Gezercan, Yurdal; Okten, Ali Ihsan; Celik, Muge; Satar, Salim

    2016-01-01

    Since the civilian war in Syria began, thousands of seriously injured trauma patients from Syria were brought to Turkey for emergency operations and/or postoperative intensive care. The aim of this study was to present the demographics and clinical features of the wounded patients in Syrian civil war admitted to the surgical intensive care units in a tertiary care centre. The records of 80 trauma patients admitted to the Anaesthesia, General Surgery and Neurosurgery ICUs between June 1, 2012 and July 15, 2014 were included in the study. The data were reviewed regarding the demographics, time of presentation, place of reference, Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II (APACHE II) score and Injury Severity Score (ISS), surgical procedures, complications, length of stay and mortality. A total of 80 wounded patients (70 males and 10 females) with a mean age of 28.7 years were admitted to surgical ICUs. The most frequent cause of injury was gunshot injury. The mean time interval between the occurrence of injury and time of admission was 2.87 days. Mean ISS score on admission was 21, and mean APACHE II score was 15.7. APACHE II scores of non-survivors were significantly increased compared with those of survivors (P=0.001). No significant differences was found in the age, ISS, time interval before admission, length of stay in ICU, rate of surgery before or after admission. The most important factor affecting mortality in this particular trauma-ICU patient population from Syrian civil war was the physiological condition of patients on admission. Rapid transport and effective initial and on-road resuscitation are critical in decreasing the mortality rate in civil wars and military conflicts.

  5. Racial differences in diabetes among Union Forces during the US Civil War.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Jeffrey A; Frueh, B Christopher; Campbell, Jennifer; Egede, Leonard

    2015-01-01

    Diabetes is the seventh leading cause of death in the United States and disproportionately affects ethnic minorities. While research examining health disparities is well-established, an historical understanding of how the disparities evolved over time may be warranted. This article examined racial differences in prevalence of diabetes and associated mortality in Blacks and Whites during the US Civil War. Data were extracted from the Medical and Surgical History of the War of Rebellion, 1861-1865, representing segregated White and Black Union Forces who served during the war. Data were collapsed by war theater (Atlantic, Central, Pacific). Results by race show that, from 1861 to 1866, the rates of Whites diagnosed with diabetes ranged overall from 0% to .11% and was distributed throughout the war theaters as: Atlantic 0.3% to .05%; Central 0.3% to .08%, and Pacific 0% to .11%. For Blacks, Atlantic ranged from .02% to .07% and Central .03% to .06%. None were reported for Pacific. Mortality was approximately .01% for both Blacks and Whites. These data suggest no racial differences in diabetes prevalence and mortality existed between Blacks and Whites during this time, implying that disparities may have evolved more recently.

  6. The Cold War and American Aid to Nigeria | Adeniji | Lagos ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Cold War and American Aid to Nigeria. Abolade Adeniji. Abstract. No Abstract Available Lagos Historical Review Vol.3 2003: 112-131. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/lhr.v3i1.32508 · AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO ...

  7. Native Americans in Cold War Public Diplomacy: Indian Politics, American History, and the US Information Agency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denson, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    This essay examines the depiction of Native Americans by the US Information Agency (USIA), the bureau charged with explaining American politics to the international public during the Cold War. In the 1950s and 1960s, the USIA broadcast the message that Americans had begun to acknowledge their nation's history of conquest and were working to…

  8. Singing American History.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Fred

    2001-01-01

    Discusses how to use music when teaching U.S. History. Provides examples such as teaching about the Civil War, the Great Depression, and the Vietnam War and showing the contributions of African Americans. Includes a discography. (CMK)

  9. “A Late Encounter with the Enemy”: The “Hyperreality” of the Civil War in Southern Mentality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria-Viorica Arnăutu

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In the United States, Southerners have created a simulated reality of the Civil War and of the Old South. They focus on the bravery and resilience of the soldiers and disregard the actual horrors of the war. The genuine perspective on the war can no longer be retrieved – “never again will the real have the chance to produce itself.” It is irreversibly lost on account of forgetfulness and overproduction of copies (motion pictures, books, celebrations, etc. that distort the reality of war by “filtering” the past through Southern mentality. Southerners’ need to create a hyper-reality of the Civil War (and of the past in general is perfectly illustrated in “A Late Encounter with the Enemy” by Flannery O’Connor.

  10. Demobilization and social reintegration of Brazilian and American troops of World War II: a comparative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Cesar Alves Ferraz

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to discuss the results of a comparative study of demobilization and social reintegration of Brazilian and American veterans of World War II. . In spite of the obvious difference in scale of the two military experiences, I argue that the study of the two experiences can offer new insights into lights on various common issues to both countries: the relationship between the societies and their armed forces, between the governments and their citizens, social and racial inequalities and, finally, the experiences of building welfare state structures during the war and postwar periods. Based on international studies of demobilization and social integration war veterans, the variables that were decisive for the success or failure of adaptation were: a past experiences in the reintegration of war veterans; b the nature and consequences of recruitment of future veterans; c planning by the State and the Armed Forces of procedures for post-bellum demobilization and reintegration; d the implementation of demobilization and the effects within the military institution and in civil society.

  11. Western Interventions in Current Wars: Political Justification and Civil Society´s Response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noelia Bueno Gómez

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available On the one hand, it seems to be an agreement in Western countries in favor of values included in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. On the other hand, Western countries initiate or intervene in armed conflicts outside their territories, which implies actions contrary to such values. This article examines this apparent contradiction: it describes briefly the international context of contemporary conflicts and it refers to the just-war tradition in order to analyze both the position of the Charter of the United Nations and the justifications given by Western countries. Moreover, the arguments used by the US and the Spanish Governments to justify their interventions in the Afghanistan (2001 and Iraq (2008 wars, and the responses of civil society are considered.

  12. Family Matters: Noblemen from the Kingdom of Leon in the Portuguese Civil War (1245-1247

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inés Calderón Medina

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article I examine Leonese nobility networks as a means to explain the involvement by Prince Alfonso of Castille (later King Alfonso X in the civil war that confronted King Sancho II of Portugal with his brother Prince Alfonso, later Alfonso III of Portugal. Prosopography allows to reconstruct family bonds linking Leonese and Galician noblemen who had joined Prince Alfonso of Castille with their Portuguese counterparts who had rallied behind King Sancho. I will aim to prove that, following the alarm triggered by their Portuguese relatives, family bonds prompted Leonese and Galician noblemen to take part in the war and to seek Prince Alfonso of Castille’s support, after his father, King Ferdinand III, refused it.

  13. Defining American Heroes: Analyzing the Metamorphosis of the War Hero in Twentieth Century War Films Using Joseph Campbell's, "Hero's Journey."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frith, Luci A.

    In "The Hero's Journey" Joseph Campbell identifies the patterns that inform the myths of the "hero" throughout recorded history. By using Campbell's template, this paper examines how the American war hero is portrayed and has been portrayed in film. The paper states that Americans not only define their war heroes in films but…

  14. Cyber and the American Way of War

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-13

    modem society. The internet , networks , and thereby, cyber, relies on non-military components. Robert Latham uses the tenn "dual-coded" to refer to...should emphasize the possibility of collateral damage from unforeseen spillover due to network connectivity.එ The internet is ubiquitous and ever...8217systemic paralysis ’ of the enemy’s armed forces and infrastructure rather than their annihilation.ൕ To most of the American public, this is also

  15. Burkina Faso and Côte d'Ivoire : transnational aspects of the Ivorian civil war

    OpenAIRE

    Bråten, Gyda Helen Hvam

    2006-01-01

    Côte d Ivoire was traditionally perceived as one of West Africa s most stable countries. Once admired for its successful combination of economic growth and social development, the country faced a political and economic crisis, culminating on September 19, 2002 with a failed coup d état which turned into a civil war. The country was consequently split in two: the North controlled by the insurrectional forces (Forces Nouvelles) and the South controlled by the government. These two parts were se...

  16. The causes of the Roman civil war, 49 B.C.: Julia and Crassus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. P. Koval

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The title of the article is ‘The Causes of the Roman Civil War, 49 B.C.: Julia and Crassus’. The purpose of the article was to examine the theory, provided by ancient writers, according to which deaths of Julia and Marcus Licinius Crassus are interpreted as one of the causes of the Roman Civil war in 49 B.C. This theory wasn’t an object of the special research and many modern scholars take on trust accounts of the ancient writers, following Mommsen’s view. According to the sources, Julia was the «pledge of consent» between Pompey and Caesar, while Crassus was their mediator. In contrast, E. Gruen believed, that the deaths of Julia and Crassus had not been so ruinous for relations of Pompey and Caesar. For example, Julia had died in 54 B.C., but the Civil war started in 49 B.C. – according to the sources, it should have been started immediately after Julia’s death. The study tested, that the main source of such interpretation of Julia’s and Crassus’ deaths was Lucan’s ‘Pharsalia’. Such characterization of those is the most full in his poem. Textual analysis proves, that Lucan’s poem was a source of this theory for many other ancient writers. For example, Plutarch’s and Appian’s characterizations of Julia and Crassus are the same, as in ‘Pharsalia’, considering the translation from Latin to Greek. Further examination established that Lucan was the main propagandist of such characterization, but he wasn’t its author. Julia was described as the «pledge of consent» in writings of Velleius Paterculus and Valerius Maximus that had been written in a few decades before ‘Pharsalia’. However, there is no such characterization in writings of Cicero and Livius, who were the eyewitnesses of the Civil war. As a result, it was concluded, that such characterization had been formed among Roman writers of the early principate and retailed by Lucan. As a conclusion it must be emphasized, that close study of the ancient

  17. The other vanguard of international terrorism: despite setbacks Al-Qaeda profits from Yemen civil war

    OpenAIRE

    Steinberg, Guido

    2016-01-01

    Yemen has been in the grip of open civil war since spring 2015. The biggest beneficiary of the conflict is the Yemeni al-Qaeda, whose recent capture of territory in southern Yemen opens up new opportunities. Its current gains will hinder a future stabilisation of Yemen and exacerbate the terrorist threat to Saudi Arabia. It also presents new dangers to the West, given that the Yemeni al-Qaeda is by far the strongest group in the network, and has already made repeated attempts to bring down tr...

  18. Shocks, civil war and economic development in Sub-Saharan Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Nillesen, E.E.M.

    2010-01-01

    Foreign aid, low institutional quality and civil wars are associated with slow economic development in many Sub-Sahara African countries. I aim to identify causal relations and mechanisms that explain significant correlations. I use both macro- and micro-economic data and show that results are not necessarily far apart. I assess the influence of foreign aid using macro-level data of 30 Sub-Saharan African countries. Opponents argue that foreign aid corrupts, and will end up in the hands of a...

  19. The United States Civil War Causal Agent for Irish Assimilation and Acceptance in US Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-06-01

    ballads displayed the hostilities, as seen in the Civil War era song Paddy’ Lamentation: Well it’s by the hush, me boys, and sure that’s to hold your...and according to Lieutenant James Birmingham of the 88th New York, President Lincoln lifted a corner of the green flag of the 69th New York, kissed it...Sons Were Faithful and They Fought: The Irish Brigade at Antietam. New Jersey: Longstreet House, 1997. Birmingham , Stephen. Real Lace: America’s

  20. American War Narratives: An Analytic Study and Linkage to National Will

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-26

    advancements of the Industrial Revolution , expansionism, and the notion that Americans were beginning to become conscious of their status in the world as...characteristics that also increases the generalizability of this study’s findings. The American Revolution was chosen because it was the first war in American...American Revolutionary War The first case study to be examined is the American Revolution and its respective war

  1. The Second Tennessee Cavalry in the American Civil War

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-13

    three regions based on naturally occuring geographical features within the state. The fertile plains of West Tennessee closely resemble the low...country of Mississippi. Middle Tennessee is primarily composed of foothills and basin with fertile lands. East Tennessee is composed of upland, often...our army that it was surrounded; and on the 17th day of August an order was read placing the men on half rations of everything except beans and rice

  2. Syrian Civil-War-Related Intraocular Foreign Body Injuries: A Four-Year Retrospective Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurler, Bulent; Coskun, Erol; Oner, Veysi; Comez, Aysegul; Erbagci, Ibrahim

    2017-01-01

    To analyze the data of patients who underwent vitreoretinal surgery due to intraocular foreign body (IOFB) injuries that occurred in the Syrian civil war. Seventy-eight eyes of 78 patients who underwent vitreoretinal surgery due to IOFB injuries that occurred during the Syrian civil war were analyzed. Forty-four eyes (56.4%) had traumatic cataract, 44 (56.4%) had retinal tears, 42 (53.8%) had vitreous hemorrhage, 18 (23%) had retinal detachment, 12 (15.3%) had endophthalmitis, and eight eyes had hyphema (10.2%). IOFBs consisted of metal in 62 eyes (79.4%), stone in eight eyes (10.2%), organic material in four eyes (5.1%), and glass in four eyes (5.1%). Approximately 86% of the eyes had initial VAs of 4/200 or worse. However, VAs improved in 64 eyes (82%) after the surgeries. Despite delays in treatment and the severity of injuries, 82% (64/78) of the eyes had an improvement in VA after the surgeries.

  3. Tourism in Conflict Zones. The Promotion of Spanish Civil War Heritage in the Community of Madrid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Navajas Corral

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available For more than a decade, the processes of patrimonialization of spaces and cultural assets of the Spanish Civil War have been strengthened. The Community of Madrid has not been, and is not, alien to this process. Since the creation of the Grupo de Estudios del Frente de Madrid (GEFREMA in 2002, associations whose objective is to investigate this historical period and its material legacy, research, and patrimonialisation processes in the region have continued to increase. Arganda del Rey, Morata de Tajuña, Guadarrama, Buitrago de Lozoya, Madrid, etc., are some of the places where heritage is already available to citizens and is offered as a tourist resource. This article presents an investigation that analyzes the different spaces of the Spanish Civil War that have recovered in the region of Madrid. Based on the museological theories, which provides the communication and interpretation of the heritage, and the methodologies for the collection of quantitative and qualitative data, we have evaluated the different places in which this heritage has been valued in order to be able to Define its main variables and also be able to build proposals for its future and for future interventions elsewhere.

  4. The Balkans and Syria’s Civil War: Realities and Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MA. Perparim Gutaj

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The prime objective of this research paper is to look at the realities and challenges confronting the Balkan states and societies in light of Syria’s civil war. By examining the mobilization process of Balkan militants who are joining Syria’s rebel cause, especially the Islamic radical groups linked to al-Qaeda, this paper proposes a model that explains why and how Balkan militants are joining the fight in Syria. Drawing upon reliable media reports, personal observations, academic accounts, and other consistent sources, this paper argues that Balkan militants are joining Syria’s rebel cause because foreign Islamic radical groups (that have been operating in the Balkans since the early 1990s have successfully indoctrinated them. This paper challenges the argument that Islam in the Balkans is a threat to the region, and the claim that Balkan Islam and Muslims in the region are becoming an increasing threat to the West. The central findings of this paper exemplify that the future of Balkan militants is bleak and that they will be confronted with a massive modern and democratic resistance that offers them nothing but reintegration into Balkan Islam, their natural “religious nest.” Notwithstanding the trends related to Syria’s civil war, Balkan Muslims belong to the West, culturally and mentally.

  5. Children in the Syrian Civil War: the Familial, Educational, and Public Health Impact of Ongoing Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsafti, Abdallah Mohamed; van Berlaer, Gerlant; Al Safadi, Mohammad; Debacker, Michel; Buyl, Ronald; Redwan, Atef; Hubloue, Ives

    2016-12-01

    The Syrian civil war since 2011 has led to one of the most complex humanitarian emergencies in history. The objective of this study was to document the impact of the conflict on the familial, educational, and public health state of Syrian children. A cross-sectional observational study was conducted in May 2015. Health care workers visited families with a prospectively designed data sheet in 4 Northern Syrian governorates. The 1001 children included in this study originated from Aleppo (41%), Idleb (36%), Hamah (15%), and Lattakia (8%). The children's median age was 6 years (range, 0-15 years; interquartile range, 3-11 years), and 61% were boys. Almost 20% of the children were internally displaced, and 5% had deceased or missing parents. Children lacked access to safe drinking water (15%), appropriate sanitation (23%), healthy nutrition (16%), and pediatric health care providers (64%). Vaccination was inadequate in 72%. More than half of school-aged children had no access to education. Children in Idleb and Lattakia were at greater risk of having unmet public health needs. Younger children were at greater risk of having an incomplete vaccination state. After 4 years of civil war in Syria, children have lost parents, live in substandard life quality circumstances, and are at risk for outbreaks because of worsening vaccination states and insufficient availability of health care providers. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2016;10:874-882).

  6. [Medecine, Law, and Knowledge Production about the "Civilized" War in the Long 19th Century].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goltermann, Svenja

    2015-01-01

    The aim to 'civilize' warfare accompanied Medicine and International Law ever since the mid-19th century. However, the entanglement of Medicine and Law, crucial for such an endeavour, has not been taken into consideration so far; likewise, the huge importance of medical knowledge for the perception of wars and their ramifications did not garner much attention in historical research. Hence, by focusing on the 'long' 19th century, this paper shows, firstly, that the production of surgical knowledge during warfare aimed at measuring the effects of combat on human bodies in order to develop prognostic medical knowledge for future wars, as well as maintaining the combat strength of soldiers. Moreover, this knowledge production during warfare strived for the enhancement of medical competence in the diagnosis and treatment of wounds in general. Secondly, I show that this medical knowledge was not only relevant for warfare, but also crucial for the design of International Law: it served to nourish the debates among the so called 'civilized' nations about legitimate and illegitimate weaponry and warfare.

  7. British Muslims and the UK government's 'war on terror' within: evidence of a clash of civilizations or emergent de-civilizing processes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vertigans, Stephen

    2010-03-01

    In the immediate aftermath of the September 2001 attacks on America, defending civilization was quickly established at the core of the 'war on terror'. Unintentionally or otherwise this incorporation of civilization connected with Samuel Huntington's 'Clash of Civilizations' thesis. Within the 'war on terror' the dark side of counterterrorism has become apparent through international practices like extrajudicial killing, extraordinary rendition and torture. The impact of Western governments' policies upon their indigenous Muslim populations has also been problematic but social and political analysis has been relatively limited. This paper seeks to help address the scarcity of sociological contributions. Hidden costs of the UK government's attempts to utilize violence and enhance social constraints within the nation-state are identified. It is argued that although counterterrorism strategies are contributing to a self-fulfilling spiral of hatred that could be considered evidence in support of the 'Clash of Civilizations', the thesis is unhelpful when trying to grasp the underlying processes. Instead the paper draws upon Norbert Elias's application of the concepts of 'civilizing' and 'de-civilizing' to help improve levels of understanding about the processes and consequences of particular Muslim communities being targeted by security forces. The paper concludes with an exploration of the majority of the population's acquiescence and willingness to accept restraints upon Muslims in order to safeguard their own security.

  8. The Hungarian Participants of the American War of Independence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrik Kunec

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Thousands of soldiers coming from different parts of Europe have participated in the American War of Independence. While the British crown received support from the German mercenaries, the secessionists Americans were helped by a special unit of the French army and by other volunteers from the territory of the Holy Roman Empire, the Kingdom of Sweden, and Poland. Less known are the issues of participation of troops from the Kingdom of Hungary who fought for American freedom. The following article brings information on the four foreigner fighters who arrived on the American battlefield: Maurice August Benyovszky, Baron Francisc Seraph Benyovszky, Mihály Kováts of Fabricy and Jean Ladislau Poleretzy. Having the spirit of adventure as a main characteristic, the four characters are the protagonists of some exciting stories, with ups and downs, with twists and unexpected denouement.

  9. Analyses of demographical and injury characteristics of adult and pediatric patients injured in Syrian civil war.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Er, Erhan; Çorbacıoğlu, Şeref Kerem; Güler, Sertaç; Aslan, Şahin; Seviner, Meltem; Aksel, Gökhan; Bekgöz, Burak

    2017-01-01

    Aimed to analyze demographical data and injury characteristics of patients who were injured in the Syrian Civil War (SCW) and to define differences in injury characteristics between adult and pediatric patients. Patients who were injured in the SCW and transferred to our emergency department were retrospectively analyzed in this study during the 15-month period between July 2013 and October 2014. During the study period, 1591 patients who were the victims of the SCW and admitted to our emergency department due to war injury enrolled in the study. Of these patients, 285 were children (18%). The median of the injury severity score was 16 (interquartile range [IQR]: 9-25) in all patients. The most frequent mechanism of injury was blunt trauma (899 cases, 55%), and the most frequently-injured region of the body was the head (676 cases, 42.5%). Head injury rates among the children's group were higher than those of the adult group (P war. Although the injury severity score values and mortality rates of the child and adult groups were similar, it was determined that the number of head injuries was higher, but the number of abdomen and extremity injuries was lower in the children's group than in the adult group. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Terrorism, civil war and related violence and substance use disorder morbidity and mortality: a global analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerridge, Bradley T; Khan, Maria R; Rehm, Jürgen; Sapkota, Amir

    2014-03-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine associations between deaths owing to terrorism, civil war, and one-sided violence from 1994-2000 and substance use disorder disability-adjusted life years (DALYs). The relationship between terrorism, and related violence and substance use disorder morbidity and mortality among World Health Organization Member States in 2002, controlling for adult per capita alcohol consumption, illicit drug use, and economic variables at baseline in 1994. Deaths as a result of terrorism and related violence were related to substance use disorder DALYs: a 1.0% increase in deaths as a result of terrorism, war and one-sided violence was associated with an increase of between 0.10% and 0.12% in alcohol and drug use disorder DALYs. Associations were greater among males and 15-44 year-old. Terrorism, war and one-sided violence may influence morbidity and mortality attributable to substance use disorders in the longer-term suggests that more attention to be given to rapid assessment and treatment of substance use disorders in conflict-affected populations with due consideration of gender and age differences that may impact treatment outcomes in these settings. Priorities should be established to rebuild substance abuse treatment infrastructures and treat the many physical and mental comorbid disorders. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  11. Irregular Enemies and the Essence of Strategy: Can the American Way of War Adapt?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gray, Colin S

    2006-01-01

    .... Those elements are strategy, irregular enemies, and the American way of war. Carl von Clausewitz offered his theory of war in terms of a "remarkable trinity composed of primordial violence, hatred, and enmity...

  12. Conduct disorder, war zone stress, and war-related posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms in American Indian Vietnam veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dillard, Denise; Jacobsen, Clemma; Ramsey, Scott; Manson, Spero

    2007-02-01

    This study examined whether conduct disorder (CD) was associated with war zone stress and war-related post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms in American Indian (AI) Vietnam veterans. Cross-sectional lay-interview data was analyzed for 591 male participants from the American Indian Vietnam Veterans Project. Logistic regression evaluated the association of CD with odds of high war zone stress and linear regression evaluated the association of CD and PTSD symptom severity. Childhood CD was not associated with increased odds of high war zone stress. Conduct disorder was associated with elevated war-related PTSD symptoms among male AI Vietnam Veterans independent of war zone stress level and other mediators. Future efforts should examine reasons for this association and if the association exists in other AI populations.

  13. The Collective Memory of a Civil War as Reflected in Edutainment and Its Impact on Israeli Youth: A Critical Reading of Consensual Myths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gesser-Edelsburg, Anat

    2012-01-01

    Following the political assassination of Prime Minister Yitzhak Rabin, in 1998 Israel's national theater Habimah produced the play "Civil War." The play addressed the religious/hawkish-secular/dovish rift in Israel through a critical reading of events from Jewish history and raises the potential of civil war and political violence in…

  14. The Unexpected Consequences of War. Thucydides on the Relationship between War, Civil War and the Degradation of Language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dino Piovan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo pretendo aportar un análisis del relato de Tucídides de la guerra en la tercera sección de su obra histórica (3.82-83. A pesar de que algunos de sus primeros comentadores le acusaron de cierta oscuridad, las nociones de polemos y statis que él introduce en este texto merecen ser discutidas y pueden proporcionar ideas nuevas sobre el problema de la guerra civil en la historia de Occidente. Mi principal argumento es que existe una clara analogía entre el concepto de stasis de Tucídides, por un lado, y las reflexiones de Simone Weil sobre el totalitarismo y el cuaderno de Klemperer acerca del vocabulario Nazi, por otro. Dentro de esta perspectiva, no sólo la violencia, sino también la propaganda como manipulación del lenguaje son características importantes de stasis.

  15. Myths and Crises: American Masculinity in 1980s Vietnam War Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-12

    represented by the trials of American soldiers. National self - esteem appears to rely upon military prowess.50 In World War II, the outcome of the war...Male Body at War: American Masculinity During World War II for expanded discussion on the use of images and creation of masculine ideals during this...forced to give a female name. Placing the rifle in his mouth and pulling the trigger, Pyle symbolically delivers the final self -imposed punishment

  16. Nuclear war and other catastrophes. Civil and catastrophe protection in the Federal republic of Germany and the United Kingdom after 1945

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diebel, Martin

    2017-01-01

    The book civil and catastrophe protection in the Federal republic of Germany and the United Kingdom after 1945 discusses the following issues: aerial defense and the atomic bomb (1945 - 1968), crises and catastrophes in the shadow of the bomb (1962 - 1978), civil defense and the comeback of the (nuclear) war (1976 - 1979), civil defense and the second ''Cold War'' (1979 - 1986), Chernobyl and the end of the Cold War (1979 - 1990), war, catastrophe and safety in the 20th century - a conclusion.

  17. Effects of Organizational Structure on American Enemy Prisoner of War Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-06-01

    should not be unduly exploited. In the 18th Century, Montesquieu and Rousseau championed basic human rights of prisoners of war and enlarged the...Century, Vattel, Montesquieu , and Rousseau wrote of the humane treatment that civilized na- tions afford prisoners of war. Although not signed and

  18. Transition from civil war to peace: The role of the United Nations and international community in Mozambique

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adedokun, Ayokunu

    2017-01-01

    With the heavy involvement of the United Nations (UN) and the international community, the Rome General Peace Agreement (GPA) of 1992 ended more than 16 years of civil war in Mozambique. The peace agreement and post-conflict initiatives by the international community was successful in transforming

  19. Fertility in New York State in the pre-Civil War era.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haines, Michael R; Guest, Avery M

    2008-05-01

    Knowledge is quite limited about the extent and social correlates of marital fertility decline for the United States in the early part of the nineteenth century. Manuscripts from the New York State census of 1865 indicate a very slow decline in marital fertility during the initial decades of the nineteenth century and more rapid decline as the Civil War approached. Little evidence of fertility control within marriage is found for the very oldest women in the sample, but analysis of parity progression ratios indicates that some control had emerged by the midpoint of the nineteenth century. Fertility decline was most evident in the urban, more economically developed areas, but our data also indicate that the limited availability of agricultural land may have affected the transition. While a marital fertility transition occurred in nineteenth-century New York, many couples in various geographic areas and social strata continued to have quite high levels of fertility, indicating difficulties that were probably faced in controlling reproduction.

  20. Relies of reconciliation: the Confederate Museum and Civil War memory in the New South.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillyer, Reiko

    2011-11-01

    This article examines the Confederate Memorial Literary Society (CMLS), an organization of elite white women in Richmond, Virginia who founded the Confederate Museum in the 1890s. Faced with the plunder of Civil War relics and cultural homogenization on northern terms, the CMLS founded the Confederate Museum to document and defend the Confederate cause and to uphold the antebellum mores that the New South's business ethos threatened to erode. In the end, however, the museum's version of the Lost Cause served the New South. By focusing on military sacrifice, the Confederate Museum aided the process of sectional reconciliation. By depicting slavery as benevolent, the museum's exhibits reinforced the notion that Jim Crow was a just and effective means of managing postwar southern society. Lastly, by glorifying the common soldier and portraying the South as "solid," the museum promoted obedience to the mandates of industrial capitalism. Thus, the Confederate Museum both critiqued and eased the economic transformations of the New South.

  1. The heavy and shadowy burden of the Spanish Civil War in children’s narrative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Belmonte

    Full Text Available Literature intended for adults –especially in narrative-, which tackles with the Spanish Civil War in a deep and critical way, is also clearly and specifically reflected in those others books written for a younger Reading public. In this sub-category, two of the earliest and most outstanding works where this controversial topic is treated are Elena Fortún’s Celia en la revolución, written in 1943 but not published till 1987, and José Luis Castillo-Puche’s El perro loco, which appeared in 1965 and commendably got round the rigid censorship of the period. In these and later works (analysed here down to the present day, issues that are polemical even today, such as the violence perpetrated by both sides, children’s suffering, painful exile, the difficult reconciliation between victors and defeated, as well as the Francoist repression in postwar era.

  2. Application of new technologies in archeology of the Civil War: The Yesares, Pinto (Madrid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Ángel Díaz Moreno

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The surveys carried out in the municipality of Pinto (Madrid have enabled us to locate various structural remains linked to the military operations that took place around the capital during the Spanish Civil War (1936-1939. In order to identify and record them, surveys were complemented with the use of GPS and air photographs from different time periods. Afterwards, and in collaboration with researchers from various universities, further methods aimed at generating a complete special representation of the area were applied directly to one of the sites which produced the best results, known as "los Yesares". These methods include topographic mapping that resulted in cartographic material at different scales, the photographic recording with flying Unmanned Aerial Vehicles, and the use of land scanners and GPS-corrected photogrammetrics with which to obtain 3D models.

  3. Effect of the Syrian Civil War on Prevalence of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in Southeastern Anatolia, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inci, Rahime; Ozturk, Perihan; Mulayim, Mehmet Kamil; Ozyurt, Kemal; Alatas, Emine Tugba; Inci, Mehmet Fatih

    2015-07-20

    Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is a vector-mediated skin disease, characterized by chronic wounds on the skin and caused by macrophages in protozoan parasites. It is an endemic disease in the southern and southeastern Anatolia region and is still an important public health problem in Turkey. Because of the civil war in Syria, immigrants to this region in the last 3 years have begun to more frequently present with this disease. The aim of this study was to draw attention to the dramatic increase in new cases with CL after the beginning of the civil war in Syria. In this retrospective study, we evaluated demographic, epidemiological, and clinical features of 110 patients diagnosed with cutaneous leishmaniasis who were admitted to the Department of Dermatology at Kahramanmaras Sutcu Imam University Faculty of Medicine between January 2011 and June 2014. A total of 110 patients included in the study; 50 (45%) were males, and 60 (55%) were females. The age range of the study group was 1-78 years, and the infection was more prevalent in the 0-20 year age group. Of these patients, 76 (69%) were Syrian refugees living in tent camps and 34 (31%) were Turkish citizens. The majority of the cases were diagnosed between October and December. Immigrations to endemic regions of Turkey from neighbouring countries where CL incidence is higher may lead to large increases in case numbers. In order to decrease the risk of exposure, housing conditions of the refugees must be improved, routine health controls must be performed, effective measures must be set in place for vector control, and infected individuals must be diagnosed and treated to prevent spread of the infection.

  4. Policy Debate | Humanitarian Protection in the Midst of Civil War: Lessons from Sri Lanka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norah Niland

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Editor’s note: This paper is a contribution to the ‘Policy Debate’ section of International Development Policy. In this section, academics, policy-makers and practioners engage in a dialogue on global development challenges. Papers are copy-edited but not peer-reviewed. Instead, the initial thematic contribution is followed by critical comments and reactions from scholars and/or policy-makers.Authored by Norah Niland, the initial paper addresses the protection dimension of humanitarian action in the Sri Lankan Civil War. The end phase of this long-standing war and subsequent internment of survivors illustrate the limited capacity of the international relief system to adequately protect civilians. The author argues that the failure of intergovernmental crisis management and the human rights machinery was exacerbated by the relief system’s lack of agency in safeguarding humanitarian space and the protected status of civilians. According to Norah Niland, relief actors largely ignored the instrumentalisation of humanitarianism and the use of sovereignty and Global War on Terror (GWOT narratives to rationalise the slaughter of thousands. The lack of accountability for and reflection on the humanitarian  operation  in Sri Lanka will likely complicate future relief efforts and add to the suffering of  civilians in other crisis settings. The paper  is followed by critical comments by Sir John Holmes, Former UN Under-Secretary General and Emergency Relief Coordinator, Head of the UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs, and Miriam Bradley, Postdoctoral Researcher, Programme for the Study of International Governance, the Graduate Institute, Geneva.This debate can be pursued on the eJournal’s blog http://devpol.hypotheses.org/69Download the full debate in .pdf

  5. Building a Planning Transition Capability into the New American Way of War

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hickey, Christopher M

    2007-01-01

    ... and Japan in World War II. A major problem for Joint Force commanders and their staffs is that the speed of the campaign in this "New American Way of War" challenges their ability to adequately plan for both the decisive war...

  6. War and Education in the United States: Racial Ideology and Inequality in Three Historical Episodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rury, John L.; Darby, Derrick

    2016-01-01

    This paper examines the impact of war on African-American education. This question is considered in three different periods: the eras of the American Revolution, the Civil War and the Second World War. Large-scale conflict, such as these instances of total war, can afford historical moments when oppressed groups are able take steps to improve…

  7. Understanding the Causes of Civil Wars in Post-Colonial Sub-Saharan Africa. Case study: Sierra Leone and the Role of women in the Search for Peace

    OpenAIRE

    Sesay, Adama

    2013-01-01

    It is widely understood or assumed among scholars like Thomas Weiss, that civil wars in Africa are mainly wars for natural resources. This statement needs careful evaluation, and it is for this reason that this study will use Weiss`s theories on the causes of wars in sub-Sahara Africa as a background for understanding the Sierra Leone conflict. In addition, as the title implies, this paper further aims to investigate the war in Sierra Leone and most...

  8. Determining If the Actions of African American Combat Forces during World War I Positively Affected the Employment of African American Combat Soldiers during World War II

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Doward, Jr, Oscar W

    2007-01-01

    ... them to be combat multipliers for future conflicts. The thesis identifies trends in African Americans' military service from the Revolutionary War through their actions along the Mexican border during the first decade of the 20th century...

  9. Stasis and Bellum Civile

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lange, Carsten Hjort

    2017-01-01

    David Armitage’s new monograph Civil Wars: A History in Ideas (2017) will undoubtedly long remain a standard reference work. It presents readers with a vision of civil war as part of the longue durée. The argument might be further strengthened, however, if a more inclusive Greco-Roman approach...... to ancient civil war is accepted. This essay focuses on stasis vs. bellum civile, the origins of the concept of civil war, the approach of later Roman writers (such as Appian and Cassius Dio) to the concepts of stasis and bellum civile, and, finally, the question of what makes a civil war a civil war...

  10. 38 CFR 3.950 - Helpless children; Spanish-American and prior wars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Helpless children; Spanish-American and prior wars. 3.950 Section 3.950 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF... § 3.950 Helpless children; Spanish-American and prior wars. Marriage is not a bar to the payment of...

  11. The reflection of the Syrian civil war on the emergency department and assessment of hospital costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karakuş, Ali; Yengil, Erhan; Akkücük, Seçkin; Cevik, Cengiz; Zeren, Cem; Uruc, Vedat

    2013-09-01

    In the present study, it was aimed to assess the demographics, clinical features, and treatment costs of cases referred to our hospital after the Syrian civil war. Of 1355 Syrian civil war victims referred to our hospital during the 14-month period between June 2011 and July 2012, 482 cases presenting to the emergency department were included in the study. The electronic data of these patients were retrospectively analyzed. Of 482 cases, 428 were male (88.8%) and 54 (11.2%) were female, with a mean age of 30.4±14.9 years (1-79 years). The mean age was 30.8±17.2 years (1-79 years) in males and 27.3±16.9 years (1.5-66 years) in females. There was a significant difference in terms of sex (p=0.007). It was found that the majority of the cases (41.1%) were aged 21-30 years. The highest number of admissions was recorded in June 2011 (159 patients, 33%), whereas the lowest number of admissions was in September 2011 (5 patients, 1%). All cases were transported to our hospital from nearby district hospitals and camps by emergency medical services. The most frequent presenting complaint was gunshot injury (338 cases, 70.1%). The most common diagnosis was extremity injury (153 cases, 31.7%). The number of forensic cases was found as 364 (75.5%). Of all the cases, 136 cases (28.2%) were managed in the emergency service, and the remaining cases were admitted to other services. They were most frequently admitted to the orthopedics ward (146 cases, 30.3%). The mean length of the hospital stay was 9.9 days (1-141).Overall, 456 cases (94.6%) were discharged, 22 cases died, and 4 cases were transferred to other facilities. The mean cost per case was estimated as 3723Turkish lira (TL) (15-69556). A positive correlation was found between cost and length of hospital stay. Among all Syrian cases, the majorities of young males and gunshot injuries was striking. Most of the cases were discharged after appropriate management. Preventive measures can avoid these negative outcomes and so

  12. Chinese intervention in the second Sudanese civil war : a case study of China's role as a third party and its effects on the second civil war in Sudan, 1989-2005

    OpenAIRE

    Holte, Ane Tosterud

    2013-01-01

    China is increasing its presence in the global South. This has not gone unnoticed by the world and China has experienced criticism for its engagement with ‘rogue states’ and its lack of transparency. Sudan is one of the cases where China has received the most criticism for its engagement. Sudan has experienced over 40 years of civil wars and conflicts. External actors like Ethiopia, Israel, the US, and regional and international organizations have been important supporters of the combatants. ...

  13. Retrospective analysis of patients with burn injury treated in a burn center in Turkey during the Syrian civil war

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yucel Yuce

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To report the management of burn injuries that occured in the Syria civil war, which were referred to our burn center. Methods: Forty-three patients with burns, injured in the civil war in Syria and whom were referred to Dr. Lütfi Kırdar Kartal Educating and Training Hospital Burn Centre of İstanbul, Turkey between 2011-2015 were analyzed in a retrospective study. Results: Most of our patients were in major burn classification (93%; 40/43 and most of them had burns >15% total on body surface area. Most of them were admitted to our center late after first management at centers with improper conditions and in cultures of these patients unusual and resistant strains specific to the battlefield were produced. Conclusion: Immediate transfer of the patients from the scene of incidence to burn centers ensures early treatment, this factor may be effective on the outcome of these patients.

  14. Deficiency neuropathy in wartime: the "paraesthetic-causalgic syndrome" described by Manuel Peraita during the Spanish Civil War.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huertas, Rafael; Del Cura, Maria Isabel

    2010-04-08

    This paper discusses the contribution of Spanish neurologist Manuel Peraita (1908-1950) to the study of deficiency neuropathy in the setting of the Spanish Civil War (1936-1939). The clinical characteristics of "paraesthetic-causalgic syndrome" or "Madrid syndrome" as described by Peraita are discussed, and the syndrome is presented in relation to other similar conditions, including Strachan's syndrome and burning feet syndrome.

  15. Gender Dynamics During And Post The Lebanese Civil War 1975-1990 Through A Marxist Feminist Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reham ElMorally

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In the following paper I wish to investigate the status of women and their socio-economic conditions during the second civil war. As it was common during that period of time the war was transferred to the womb of women and sectarian conflicts during that time and even later usually involved mudding the blood of future generations of one sect. Therefore I wish to examine whether this was the case in Lebanon. In order to do so I will divide my paper into five sections. The first section of the paper will discuss the socio-economic background of the working class families of different sects in Lebanon. The second section of the paper will investigate the other means that were used during the war to weaken the Other i.e. the focus will be directed at unarmed forms of violence. The third part of the paper will discuss the effects of the war and more specifically it will focus on how women perceived experienced and the extent to which they were affected by the war. The fourth section will attempt to draw a comparative analysis in which the situation of women in Syria Lebanon and Palestine have been affected similarly during different conflicts at different locations and periods. The last part of the paper will attempt to draw some conclusions about the eruption of the war and whether its consequences still cause distress to Lebanese women today.

  16. Fertility in New York State in the Pre–Civil War Era

    Science.gov (United States)

    HAINES, MICHAEL R.; GUEST, AVERY M.

    2008-01-01

    Knowledge is quite limited about the extent and social correlates of marital fertility decline for the United States in the early part of the nineteenth century. Manuscripts from the New York State census of 1865 indicate a very slow decline in marital fertility during the initial decades of the nineteenth century and more rapid decline as the Civil War approached. Little evidence of fertility control within marriage is found for the very oldest women in the sample, but analysis of parity progression ratios indicates that some control had emerged by the midpoint of the nineteenth century. Fertility decline was most evident in the urban, more economically developed areas, but our data also indicate that the limited availability of agricultural land may have affected the transition. While a marital fertility transition occurred in nineteenth-century New York, many couples in various geographic areas and social strata continued to have quite high levels of fertility, indicating difficulties that were probably faced in controlling reproduction. PMID:18613485

  17. The Freedom Schools, the Civil Rights Movement, and Refocusing the Goals of American Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hale, Jon N.

    2011-01-01

    This article examines the history of the 1964 Mississippi Freedom Schools to illustrate how integrating the Civil Rights Movement into the social studies curriculum refocuses the aims of American education on participatory democracy. Teaching the Civil Rights Movement and employing the teaching strategies used in the Freedom Schools leads to the…

  18. 76 FR 11935 - Death of Army Corporal Frank W. Buckles, the Last Surviving American Veteran of World War I

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-03

    ... of Army Corporal Frank W. Buckles, the Last Surviving American Veteran of World War I By the... Corporal Frank W. Buckles, the last surviving American veteran of World War I, and in remembrance of the generation of American veterans of World War I, I hereby order, by the authority vested in me by the...

  19. Analysis of the First 100 Patients From the Syrian Civil War Treated in an Israeli District Hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, Seema; Waksman, Igor; Baron, Shay; Fuchs, David; Rechnitzer, Hagai; Dally, Najib; Kassis, Shokrey; Hadary, Amram

    2016-01-01

    An analysis of the injuries and treatment of the first 100 patients from the Syrian civil war was conducted to monitor quality of care and outcome. As reports of the collapse of health care systems in regions within Syria reach the media, patients find themselves crossing the border into Israel for the treatment of war injuries. Among these patients are combatants, noncombatants, women, and children. Treatment, that is free at the point of care, is a humanitarian imperative for war wounded, and this paper reports the care in an Israeli district hospital of the first 100 patients received. With ethics committee approval, data from the Trauma Registry and electronic patient records were collected and analyzed. No identifying data are presented. Most patients (94) were male. Seventeen patients were younger than the age of 18 years; 52 patients were in their twenties. Most injuries were the results of gunshot or blast injury (50 and 29 patients, respectively). Two multiple-trauma patients died, 8 were transferred for specialist care, and 90 patients returned from Ziv Hospital to Syria after discharge. The experience of the care of patients across a hostile border has been unprecedented. Hospital protocols required adjustment to deliver quality clinical and social care to patients suffering from both the acute and chronic effects of civil war.

  20. Hanoi and the American War: Two International Histories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geoffrey C. Stewart

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Pierre Asselin, Hanoi’s Road to the Vietnam War, 1954-1965. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2013. 319 pp. $55 (cloth Lien-Hang T. Nguyen, Hanoi’s War: An International History of the War for Peace in Vietnam. Chapel Hill: The University of North Carolina Press, 2012. 444 pp. $34.95 (cloth.

  1. Children's Education and Mental Health in Spain during and after the Civil War: Psychiatry, Psychology and "Biological Pedagogy" at the Service of Franco's Regime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, Amparo; Canales, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    This article analyses the child psychiatry and psychology developed during the Spanish Civil War and immediate postwar period. The aim is to demonstrate that, despite the existence of a certain degree of disciplinary continuity in relation to the pre-war period, both disciplines were placed at the service of Francoism. This meant that the…

  2. Ground Penetrating Radar at Alcatraz Island: Imaging Civil-War Era Fortifications Beneath the Recreation Yard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everett, M. E.; de Smet, T. S.; Warden, R.; Komas, T.; Hagin, J.

    2013-12-01

    As part of a cultural resources assessment and historical preservation project supported by the U.S. National Park Service, GPR surveys using 200 MHz antennas, with ~3.0 m depth of penetration and ~0.1 m lateral and vertical resolution, were conducted by our team in June 2012 over the recreation yard and parade ground at historic Alcatraz Island in order to image the underlying buried Civil War-era fortifications. The recreation yard at the Alcatraz high-security federal penitentiary served as a secure outdoor facility where the prisoners could take exercise. The facility, enclosed by a high perimeter wall and sentry walk, included basketball courts, a baseball diamond, and bleacher-style seating. The site previously consisted of coastal batteries built by the U.S. Army in the early to mid 1850's. As the need for harbor defense diminished, the island was converted into a military prison during the 1860's. In 1933, the military prison was transferred to federal control leading to the establishment of the high-security penitentiary. The rec yard was constructed in 1908-1913 directly over existing earthen fortifications, namely a trio of embankments known as 'traverses I, J, and K.' These mounds of earth, connected by tunnels, were in turn built over concrete and brick magazines. The processed GPR sections show good correlations between radar reflection events and the locations of the buried fortification structures derived from historical map analysis. A 3-D data cube was constructed and two of the cut-away perspective views show that traverse K, in particular, has a strong radar signature.

  3. Refugees of the Syrian Civil War: Impact on Reemerging Infections, Health Services, and Biosecurity in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doganay, Mehmet; Demiraslan, Hayati

    2016-01-01

    After the Arab Spring uprising, Syria descended into a civil war in 2011. By March 2016, the United Nations reported that 13.5 million Syrians required humanitarian assistance, including 6.6 million internally displaced persons and more than 4.8 million refugees outside of Syria. Turkey is currently hosting the largest number of Syrian refugees-more than 2.7 million. A limited number of refugees are living in camps settled around the border, and others are spread throughout Turkey. This explosive and unexpected increase in the Syrian population in Turkey has had several negative impacts on health and social determinants. The overload of healthcare facilities has led to shortages in childhood immunization programs, drugs, and access to clean water and food supplies. According to Ministry of Health data, more than 7.5 million Syrians were examined at outpatient clinics, and 299,240 were hospitalized; most of those hospitalized were injured and wounded victims who require and have been occupying intensive care units. The refugees generally live in crowded and unsanitary conditions, which may lead to the spread of respiratory, skin, gastrointestinal, and genital system infections. Currently, measles, poliomyelitis, leishmaniasis, and multidrug-resistant tuberculosis are the reemerging infections being most frequently recorded. Multidrug-resistant gram-negative bacterial infections seem to be an increasing problem in gunshot or surgical wounds. Hepatitis A, malaria, and varicella have been seen with a high incidence among the refugees. There are many problems waiting to be resolved for health and living standards in Turkey.

  4. Syria civil war: Outcomes of humanitarian neurosurgical care provided to Syrian wounded refugees in Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barhoum, Masad; Tobias, Samuel; Elron, Moshe; Sharon, Aviram; Heija, Tariq; Soustiel, Jean F

    2015-01-01

    As an expected consequence of the civil war in Syria, emergent neurosurgical care for battlefield trauma has been provided for severely head-injured Syrians transferred to Northern Israel. Sixty-six patients suffering from brain injury were brought to the border and then referred to the institution after initial resuscitation. Both the time and type of injury were recorded based on paramedic testimony, forensic material or on details provided by patients. A retrospective analysis of all medical charts and imaging material was performed. Most injuries were combat-related, either caused by blast (13.6%), shrapnel (24.2%), assault (28.8%) or gunshot wound (15.2%). Only a minority of patients (18.2%) suffered from injuries that were not directly caused by weapon. A total of 55 surgical procedures were performed in 46 out of 66 patients, including craniotomies in 40 patients, burr hole alone for placement of intraparenchymal intracranial pressure (ICP) sensor in nine instances and ventricle peritoneal shunt in two patients. Decompressive craniectomy was used only for the treatment of gunshot wound and was performed in eight out of 10 patients. The most common complication consisted in cerebrospinal fluid fistulas (16.7%). Post-operative infections occurred in seven patients (10.6%). Short-term outcomes were favourable in 60.7%, with a mortality rate of 4.5%. The present findings suggest that aggressive surgery and neuro-intensive care measures may lead to good functional results, even in the presence of seemingly devastating injuries in some selected patients.

  5. Frequency and outcomes of new patients with pulmonary tuberculosis in Hatay province after Syrian civil war.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doğru, Sibel; Döner, Pınar

    2017-04-01

    It is known that tuberculosis is frequently seen among refugees. Hatay province is one of the cities that substantially expose to migration of refugees after Syrian civil war. In this study, it was aimed to compare frequency of new pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) cases and treatment success/cure rates between Turkish and Syrian patients. The study included 211 patients with PTB (178 Turkish and 33 Syrian patients) registered to Hatay Tuberculosis Outpatient Clinic between 2010 and 2013. On the basis of years, number of PTB patients registered was 53 (Turkish/Syrian: 52/1) in 2010, 44 (44/0) in 2011, 41 (39/2) in 2012, and 73 (43/30) in 2013. There were no significant differences between Turkish and Syrian patients regarding age groups, gender, marital status, contact history, smear result, and drug sensitivity assays when treatment success was considered (p>0.05). Directly observed therapy (DOT) rate was higher in patients who achieved successful treatment (97.6% vs. 2.4%; pSyrian patients (63.6% vs. 88.8%; pSyrian patients (30.3% vs. 3.9%; pSyrian and 3 Turkish patients. Although PTB frequency has increased in Hatay province within prior 4 years, treatment success among local population is still within limits established by World Health Organization (WHO). However, the treatment goal could not be achieved when considered together with refugees. To improve treatment success in refugees, implementation of a new national tuberculosis is needed control program in this population. Copyright © 2016 Tuberculosis Association of India. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Maoism, Violence and Mass Murders: The Long Chinese Civil War and its Consequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felix Wemheuer

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In 1970s, many Western leftist intellectuals considered Maoism as a less violent alternative to Stalinist Socialism. After Soviet and Chinese party archives became assessable in the 1990s, this perception seems to be dated. Felix Wemheuer discusses the origins of »red terror« in the Chinese revolution and shows that mass killings of »enemies« were an important element of several mass campaigns and mobilization launched by the Communist Party of China between the late 1920s and early 1950s. According to official records, 710,000 people were executed during the campaign to suppress counter-revolutionaties (1950–1952. This is a higher number of victims than of Stalin’s “Great Purge” (1937–1938. The article will show how terror and mass participation were linked in the early campaigns. Mao believed in the liberating act of violence, when the masses would turn »society upside down«. Furthermore, it will work out the dialectic of promoting terror and taming the uncontrollable escalation of it. Especially, during the violent land reform in the »old liberated areas« (1946–1948, the party developed certain techniques of managing terror. The question of how the CCP leadership dealt with the problem that people are beaten to death during struggle meetings will serve as an example. Last but not least, it will be argued that »red terror« could only be understood in the context of Chinese long enduring civil war.

  7. Guerrilla War in Little Dixie: Understanding Conflict Escalation in Missouri during the American Civil War

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-22

    Samuel Churchill Clark, C.S.A.,” Missouri Historical Review 92, no. 1 (October 1997): 1–17; O.R., ser. 1, 3:185–93; “Colonel Mulligan,” Harpers...1995. Beckett , I. F. W. Encyclopedia of Guerrilla Warfare. New York: Checkmark Books, 2001. ———. Modern Insurgencies and Counter-Insurgencies...of Moore’s Mill.” Missouri Historical Review 66, no. 4 (July 1972): 539–548. Winter, William. “‘Amidst Trials and Troubles’: Captain Samuel

  8. Meeting Yesterday Head-On: The Vietnam War in Vietnamese, American, and World History.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockard, Craig A.

    1994-01-01

    Asserts that the American-Vietnamese War can be analyzed best in the context of three distinct entities: (1) Vietnam; (2) the United States; and (3) the larger world. Discusses Vietnam's revolutionary tradition, U.S. Cold War foreign policy, and the global context of anticolonialism and antiimperialism. (CFR)

  9. The American abortion debate: culture war or normal discourse?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dillon, M

    1995-01-01

    This paper investigates whether James Hunter's culture war thesis is an apt characterization of the American abortion debate. The author focuses on three arguments central to Hunter's analysis: 1) that the abortion debate involves two paradigmatically opposed world views; 2) that debate about abortion, since it involves moral discourse, is structurally different than other political debates; and 3) that the new alignments in abortion politics are culturally significant. Examining existing research in each of these three domains, the author finds that the debate over abortion is more complex than suggested by Hunter. World views of pro-life and pro-choice activists, for example, share a commitment to some overlapping values; the argumentative structure of abortion discourse has a pattern rather similar to that of political debate more generally, and new alignments on abortion, such as that between the Catholic Church and the Southern Baptist Convention, do not displace historically embedded differences in symbolic resources and cultural orientation. As suggested by the author, it may be more helpful, therefore, to think of the abortion debate as an ongoing public conversation about America's cultural tradition and how it should be variously expressed in contemporary laws and practices.

  10. American Material Culture: Investigating a World War II Trash Dump

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Julie Braun

    2005-10-01

    The Idaho National Laboratory: An Historical Trash Trove Historians and archaeologists love trash, the older the better. Sometimes these researchers find their passion in unexpected places. In this presentation, the treasures found in a large historic dump that lies relatively untouched in the middle of the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) will be described. The U.S. military used the central portion of the INL as one of only six naval proving grounds during World War II. They dumped trash in dry irrigation canals during and after their wartime activities and shortly before the federal government designated this arid and desolate place as the nation’s nuclear reactor testing station in 1949. When read critically and combined with memories and photographs, the 60-year old trash provides a glimpse into 1940s’ culture and the everyday lives of ordinary people who lived and worked during this time on Idaho’s desert. Thanks to priceless stories, hours of research, and the ability to read the language of historic artifacts, the dump was turned from just another trash heap into a treasure trove of 1940s memorabilia. Such studies of American material culture serve to fire our imaginations, enrich our understanding of past practices, and humanize history. Historical archaeology provides opportunities to integrate inanimate objects with animated narrative and, the more recent the artifacts, the more human the stories they can tell.

  11. Stability in the Offense: The Evolution of Civil Affairs During World War II

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-22

    US Historical Experience with Civil Affairs: 10Harry L. Coles and Albert K. Weinberg, Civil Affairs: Soldiers Become Governors, CMH Pub 11-5...Weinberg. Civil Affairs: Soldiers Become Governors. CMH Pub 11-5 edition. Washington, DC: Center of Military History Department of the Army, 1964

  12. The Threshold of the State: Civil Defence, the Blackout and the Home in Second World War Britain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenhalgh, James

    2017-06-01

    This article reconsiders the way that the British state extended its control of the home during the Second World War, using the implementation of air raid precautions and the blackout as a lens through which to view the state's developing attitudes to domestic space. Presented here is not the familiar story of pitch-dark, dangerous streets or altered cityscapes of fear and destruction; instead, by examining personal testimony the article inverts traditional treatments of the blackout to look at the interior of dwellings, demonstrating how the realities of total warfare impinged upon the psychological elements that constituted the home. What emerges not only expands historical understandings of the wartime experience of civilians, it also shows civil defence measures as highly visible points on an often antagonistic trajectory of state interactions with citizens concerning the privacy and security of the dwelling in the modern city. The requirements of civil defence, I argue, were not merely the product of exceptional wartime circumstances, but symptomatic of long-standing attempts to open up dwellings to state scrutiny. These attempts had both a significant pre-war lineage and, crucially, implications beyond the end of the war in private homes and on social housing estates. © The Author [2017]. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Experts in the cold war. War experiences and peace conceptions of US-American physicists 1920-1963

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wunderle, Ulrike

    2015-01-01

    The study is dedicated to the American elite of nuclear physicists, which explained after the second world war the possibilities of their science for war and peace. What induced their thinking and handling? The focus lies on the scientific shapings and war experiences of the first really international generation of physicists, which began in the 1920th years their career before many of their representatives had to fly from the NS regime from Europe and cooperated in the Manhattan project in the construction of the atomic bomb. These experiences the author refers to in order to get on the track of the explanations of the exper elite in the immediate afterwar time and in the cold war. How far their internationally and by actual war experiences shaped thinking about their own contribution as scientist to the national security - in the sense of discouragement or the cooperative conflict regulation - found its expression in the cold war, is drawn on different action levels of the participants from the Geneve conference ''Atoms for Peace'' of 1955 until the signing of the so-called Limited Test Ban Treaty of 1963.

  14. The Civil War in Spain, 1936-1939 and the Image of Enemy in the British Fascist Press

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera V. Malay

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the analysis of publications of British Fascists newspapers 'Action' and 'The Blackshirt' during the Spanish Civil War, 1936-1939. The main directions of image of enemy formation are studied on the example of these papers. Forms of presentation and ways of international problems interpreting by far-right publications are studied. The fascist newspaper Action, The Fascist Week and The Blackshirt spoke from the position of nationalism, Imperial identity, anti-liberalism, anti-Soviet and anti-Semitism. The concept of "communism" in the pages of the fascist press has accumulated the most precisely the image of enemy. Articles and notes shaped confusion between "Soviet", "red" and "Communist". The USSR seemed to be "the warmonger" and the "architect of the Civil war in Spain". The destructive role of Soviet Russia in the conflict was proved in the British fascist press. Soviet Union was accused of seeking to plunge Spain and Europe into anarchy. In British fascist publications trend towards stereotyping and myth-making were noticeable, they were opposed to "Western" civilization (as individualistic and "Eastern", "Communist" (oppressive, traditionalist.

  15. Online Answers Dealing with the Internment of Japanese Americans during World War II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazar, Alon; Hirsch, Tal Litvak

    2017-01-01

    The internment of Americans of Japanese descent during World War II lies at the heart of ongoing discussions in American social studies. We analyzed inputs of members of the Yahoo! Answers Q&A online community following students' questions dealing with differential treatment of Japanese and German and Italian American citizens during World War…

  16. Discovery of a mass grave from the Spanish Civil War using Ground Penetrating Radar and forensic archaeology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Álvarez, José-Paulino; Rubio-Melendi, David; Martínez-Velasco, Antxoka; Pringle, Jamie K; Aguilera, Hector-David

    2016-10-01

    An estimated 500,000 people died from all causes during the Spanish Civil War between 1936 and 1939, with a further 135,000 killed after the war ended. There are currently over 2000 known mass burial locations throughout Spain but many more are unknown. This study details the successful search for an unmarked mass grave in mountainous terrain in the Asturias region of Northern Spain. Two approximate locations were known due to eyewitness accounts. A phased site investigation approach was undertaken, which included Ground Penetrating Radar. Results showed a clear geophysical anomaly on 2D GPR profiles. The identified area was subsequently intrusively investigated by forensic archaeologists and human remains were successfully discovered. Careful and sensitive investigations are essential in these approaches where living relatives are involved. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. The development of blood transfusion: the contributions of Norman Bethune in the Spanish Civil War (1936-1939).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco, A; Cortes, J; Alvarez, J; Diz, J C

    1996-10-01

    Although the Spanish Civil War (1936-1939) has been the focus of many papers in many countries, there are few references concerning medicine during this war, and many of the related events and medical progress are not well known. Some of these events came to influence civilian and military medicine. Among these were advances in blood transfusion, in which the Canadian surgeon, Norman Bethune, played an important role, particularly in advocating transfusion of blood to soldiers at the front rather than at medical centres behind the lines. While much of Bethune's work, especially in Canada and China, is well known, 1-3 certain aspects of Bethune's work and his stay in Spain are worth reviewing.

  18. Franco and José Antonio: Chief and Prophet of Spain. Construction of Charisma during the Civil War

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Luisa RICO GÓMEZ

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines how the person of the general Francisco Franco and of the Falangist leader Jose Antonio Primo de Rivera were transfigured symbolically by means of the construction and spread of its charismatic image into the speech, the rites and the liturgies of the ‘new State’ during the civil war into Spain from 1936 to 1939. The charismatic thing like carrier of an essence transcendente appeared in a dual way between the exaltation of Franco, the Caudillo, hero recognized as political chief for his warlike exploits, and the worship in memory of Jose Antonio, prophet dedicated to the death as redeeming sacrifice of Spain.

  19. The Development of Peasant Household in the Kursk Province during the Revolutionary Events of 1917 and the Civil War

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrey A. Kolupaev

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The article is concerned with the integrated study of certain elements of a peasant household in the Kursk Province during the revolutionary events of 1917 and the Civil War on the basis of the unresearched sources. The article studies labor forces and the activities of peasant population, land ownership and land management, the level of material and technical basis, farm production. The author concludes that failures of reforms, establishment of a state trade monopoly resulted in the reduction of crop yields, decrease in cultivated areas and livestock. After October 1917 the crisis of industry and inflation contributed to further decrease in farm production, as a result peasant household became natural.

  20. Obolo (Andoni) Women in The Nigerian Civil War, 1967-1970 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Second are their socio-economic roles during the war. The third concerns their enlistment in the army and paramilitary forces. Obolo women also performed broadcasting and propaganda duties. Their presence in the paramedical corps, with which they saved lives, was equally significant. After the war they did not relent in ...

  1. Civilization versus Barbarism: The Franco-Prussian War in French History Textbooks, 1875-1895

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehmann, Jörg

    2015-01-01

    In French history textbooks published after France's defeat in the Franco-Prussian War of 1870 to 1871, the presentation of the war and its outcome frequently include the myth of France's revanche and depictions of the Prussian enemy as barbarians. Other textbooks presented a narrative of progress in which the French Third Republic is shown as the…

  2. Remembering Limited War: Reflections of the Korean War in Selected American Novels

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kerin, James

    2000-01-01

    The novel is a time-honored and effective way of remembering war insofar as it records the human implications of politics, strategy, and policy as ultimately reflected in the soldier's quotidian existence...

  3. The AEF Way of War: The American Army and Combat in the First World War

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Grotelueschen, Mark

    2003-01-01

    Many scholars of the First World War have examined the European armies in new ways that have shown not only how those armies actually fought along the Western Front, but how they changed their ideas...

  4. Retrospective analysis of patients with burn injury treated in a burn center in Turkey during the Syrian civil war.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuce, Yucel; Acar, Hakan A; Erkal, Kutlu H; Arditi, Nur B

    2017-01-01

    To report the management of burn injuries that occured in the Syria civil war, which were referred to our burn center. Methods: Forty-three patients with burns, injured in the civil war in Syria and whom were referred to Dr. Lütfi Kırdar Kartal Educating and Training Hospital Burn Centre of İstanbul, Turkey between 2011-2015 were analyzed in a retrospective study. Results: Most of our patients were in major burn classification (93%; 40/43) and most of them had burns greater than 15% total on body surface area. Most of them were admitted to our center late after first management at centers with improper conditions and in cultures of these patients unusual and resistant strains specific to the battlefield were produced. Conclusion: Immediate transfer of the patients from the scene of incidence to burn centers ensures early treatment, this factor may be effective on the outcome of these patients.

  5. Liberation and Franco-American Relations in Post-War Cherbourg

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-06-13

    size became an issue. Despite an initial climate of nationalism and triumph, France’s post-war mood reflected pessimism and uncertainty. France...Americans document the French recalling that the Americans helped the French and provided them food and water, and occasionally chocolate and cigarettes

  6. FLYING DOWN TO RIO: AMERICAN COMMERCIAL AVIATION, THE GOOD NEIGHBOR POLICY AND WORLD WAR TWO, 1939-45

    OpenAIRE

    Erik Benson

    2001-01-01

    This article will address the role of American commercial aviation in the Good Neighbor policy during the period of World War Two. The Good Neighbor was a complex policy, and American commercial aviation both reflected and augmented this complexity. Through the early years of thew orld war, American commercial aviation proved to be a valuable instrument for promoting hemispheric unity. Yet as the war progressed, commercial aviation became a catalyst for conflict and an indicator of the demise...

  7. [Cutaneous leishmaniasis cases in Nizip, Turkey after the Syrian civil war].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salman, Ismail Serkan; Vural, Ahmet; Unver, Ahmet; Saçar, Suzan

    2014-01-01

    Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL), seen endemically in many countries, is a widespread protozoon disease all around the world. The neighboring countries of Turkey namely Iran, Iraq and Syria are highly endemic regions for CL, and more than 98% of the cases in Turkey are reported from South and Southeastern Anatolian regions. The aim of this study was to detect the prevalence of CL in Nizip, a district of Gaziantep province of southeastern Turkey, for three and half year period and to call attention to the dramatic increase of CL cases observed after the Syrian civil war. A total of 416 samples obtained from clinically suspected CL patients (of them 341 were Syrian refugees) who were admitted to Nizip State Hospital between January 1st 2010 and March 19th 2013 were included in the study. Lesion samples were collected according to the notice issued by Turkish Ministry of Health and Giemsa-stained smears were examined under the microscope (x1000). Samples from 77 patients (18.5%) yielded positive results with the observation of Leishmania amastigote forms. Fourty-seven (61%) of patients were female and 30 (39%) were male. Of the positive patients 52 (67.5%) belonged to 0-19 age group, 13 (16.9%) 20-39 and 12 (15.6%) 40-60 age groups. In the evaluation of the lesion characteristics, 33 (43%) patients had single and 44 (57%) had multiple lesions with a distribution mainly on face, arm and lower extremities, in a decreasing order. The period of time for the development of the lesions varied from 1.5 month to one year with the mean value of 3.4 months. There was no statistically significant relationship between the age and gender of patients, and the characteristics (quantity, distribution and time of occurence) of lesions (p> 0.05). The number of domestic and Syrian CL cases detected in Nizip in the years of 2010, 2011, 2012 and 2013 (the first three months) were as follows; 1 and 0, 2 and 0, 7 and 0, 5 and 62, respectively. So a total of 62 (80.5%) and 15 (19.5%) of CL

  8. Military Medical Entomology During the Mexican-American and First World Wars: A Coming of Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-11-16

    22 Churchman, J. W. 1906. The use of quinine show of the big show. Inge, M. T. (ed.) Plume, during the Civil War. Johns Hopkins Hospital Penguin... malaria in 1807 (Bryan Yellow Fever Commission and became et al. 2004). Doctor Josiah Nott had extremely influential in the growth and expressed similar...Disease - Mosquitoes and the consequences of inadequate medical Malaria " before the Washington resources, particularly in preventive Philosophical

  9. the internment of japanese americans during world war ii

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Arianne

    components such as estrangement, detachment, eating disorders, amnesia, psychological numbness .... received from both the news media and from interactions among citizens. Deep levels of sadness, fear, and ... media reports circulated, assumptions about the likelihood of an invasion, or the course of the war, remained ...

  10. Nuclear war and other catastrophes. Civil and catastrophe protection in the Federal republic of Germany and the United Kingdom after 1945; Atomkrieg und andere Katastrophen. Zivil- und Katastrophenschutz in der Bundesrepublik und Grossbritannien nach 1945

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diebel, Martin [Zentrum fuer Zeithistorische Forschung, Potsdam (Germany)

    2017-07-01

    The book civil and catastrophe protection in the Federal republic of Germany and the United Kingdom after 1945 discusses the following issues: aerial defense and the atomic bomb (1945 - 1968), crises and catastrophes in the shadow of the bomb (1962 - 1978), civil defense and the comeback of the (nuclear) war (1976 - 1979), civil defense and the second ''Cold War'' (1979 - 1986), Chernobyl and the end of the Cold War (1979 - 1990), war, catastrophe and safety in the 20th century - a conclusion.

  11. Religious Justification for War in American History. A Savage Embrace: The Pequot War 1636-37

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-06-13

    the seventeenth century have often been identified as the tinder for the conflict between the Indians and the English in New England. The...became the tinder for a war of annihilation. What the practical demands of commerce had brought into proximity, the absolute requirements of religion

  12. Operations in California during the Mexican American War

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-26

    consisted of the sloops-of-war United States, Cyane, Dale, Yorktown, Saint Louis, the schooner Shark , and the storeship Relief. His mission was to protect...making myself as strong as possible… if we are unjustly attacked we will fight to extremity and refuse quarter, trusting our country to avenge our...provoked into an attack , which would justify actions through self-defense. Ezekiel Merritt was elected to lead the raid, which was highly successful

  13. From Forge to Fast Food: A History of Child Labor in New York State. Volume II: Civil War to the Present.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernstein, Richard B.; And Others

    This volume of essays and activities is written for use in the eighth grade course "United States and New York State History." The volume follows the chronology from the Civil War to the present, emphasizing child labor during those years. The essays are intended for teachers but can be mastered by many students. The activities focus on…

  14. Foreign awakenings: rig work in war-torn Sudan convinces Canadians their civilized version of industry is needed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lorenz, A.

    2000-01-01

    Experiences of some Canadian geologists working in Sudan are described. Glad to be back in Canada after several years of exploration work for various international exploration companies, they have fond memories of the people, who for the most part live under very primitive conditions, and constant exposure to the ravages of tribal wars. They characterize the attitude of Canadians working in Sudan towards the native population as one that puts high values on human rights, safety, work ethics, and individual responsibility. They defend Canadian presence in these far-off regions as beneficial to the native population, by bringing Canadian standards and a civilized version of industry to an area that has seen very little of that in the past. In contrast to the situation on Canadian rigs, on Chinese oil rigs favoritism and racism are the rule; the Chinese do not see that humanitarian issues are any of their concerns

  15. Foreign awakenings: rig work in war-torn Sudan convinces Canadians their civilized version of industry is needed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lorenz, A.

    2000-05-01

    Experiences of some Canadian geologists working in Sudan are described. Glad to be back in Canada after several years of exploration work for various international exploration companies, they have fond memories of the people, who for the most part live under very primitive conditions, and constant exposure to the ravages of tribal wars. They characterize the attitude of Canadians working in Sudan towards the native population as one that puts high values on human rights, safety, work ethics, and individual responsibility. They defend Canadian presence in these far-off regions as beneficial to the native population, by bringing Canadian standards and a civilized version of industry to an area that has seen very little of that in the past. In contrast to the situation on Canadian rigs, on Chinese oil rigs favoritism and racism are the rule; the Chinese do not see that humanitarian issues are any of their concerns.

  16. Other Than War: The American Military Experience and Operations in the Post-Cold War Decade

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    hurricanes, droughts, the devastating San Francisco earth - quake and fire of 1906, and other fires, including the great conflagration in Chicago during...assisted victims of the San Francisco earth - quake and fire of 1906, and assisted Greek nationals forced out of Asia Minor by the Turkish government...observers accustomed to the relatively static background of the Cold War, the large number, frequency , and diverse nature of the activities demanded

  17. Gorky’s Editorial Project The History of the Civil War: On the Materials of the A.M. Gorky (IWL RAS and RGASPI Archives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga V. Bystrova

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The article focuses on the history of Maksim Gorky’s design — the publication of the History of the Civil War volumes. The analysis of Gorky’s correspondence (1929–1930 from the A.M. Gorky archives (IWL RAS reveals that the idea of the collection emerged at the beginning of 1928. In the course of the preparatory work, the Central Committee of the CPSU(b obliged Communist party officials, Soviet and military functionaries in all Soviet republics and regions to collect documents and memories of the Civil War, to write and review materials for the collection. Gorky conceived the volumes of The History of the Civil War to be popular and accessible to the average reader. For this purpose, he considered inviting talented Soviet authors who took part in the Civil War. Gorky’s recommendations were taken into account while forming the Editorial Board. The CC of the CPSU(b on July 31, 1931 established the Editorial Board (comprised of Chief, Historical and Artistic Boards that Gorky also joined. Under his guidance, the Secretariat of the Chief Editorial Board issued instructions that were intended to direct a wide range of research subjects and provide researchers with methodology. Gorky’s letters from the RGASPI collection give us idea of the huge amount of work done by the writer in the process of preparing the first volume for publication. If the first, 1935 volume reflects Gorky’s vision and concept of the collection, the subsequent 4 volumes published after his death departed from the original design. Despite this and the fact that only 5 volumes out of 15 were issued, we can state that Gorky’s design was realized and that the History of the Civil War still remains an authoritative book in the field.

  18. Records About Japanese Americans Relocated During World War II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Archives and Records Administration — This series contains personal descriptive data about Japanese Americans evacuated from the states of Washington, Oregon, and California to ten relocation centers...

  19. The Statesman and Commander: Civil-Military Dialogue in the Korean War

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-26

    U) (U) (U) (U) 49 19b. TELEPHONE NUMBER (Include area code) Standard Form 298 (Rev. 8/98) Prescribed by ANSI Std. Z39.18 Adobe Professional 7 .0...conflict, both requiring an unforeseen commitment of resources. As the war drags on and with it time and effort, the ability to sustain the conflict...within the White House that the military had failed to provide feasible options and had attempted to influence political decision-making by using the

  20. Terrorism, civil war and related violence and substance use disorder morbidity and mortality: A global analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bradley T. Kerridge

    2014-03-01

    Conclusion: Terrorism, war and one-sided violence may influence morbidity and mortality attributable to substance use disorders in the longer-term suggests that more attention to be given to rapid assessment and treatment of substance use disorders in conflict-affected populations with due consideration of gender and age differences that may impact treatment outcomes in these settings. Priorities should be established to rebuild substance abuse treatment infrastructures and treat the many physical and mental comorbid disorders.

  1. Strategy in Fragmented Civil Wars: Iraq, Syria, and the Challenge of External Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-01

    agendas in semi- anarchic conditions. The US struggled for more than seven years to win by re-stabilizing Iraq’s social system, illustrating the...Chicago Press, 2012 ). 15 Simpson, Emile, War from the Ground Up: Twenty-First Century Combat as Politics (New York, NY: Columbia University Press...JP-1, 1-3. 29 JP-1, 1-6. 18 Third, JP-1 largely assumes that actors are unified entities. However, the publica - tion hints that divisions within

  2. Exploiting Social Media for Army Operations: Syrian Civil War Use Case

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-07-01

    widely a new idea or action spreads through communication channels3. In fact, it has been shown that ‘retweeted’ tweets are read by an average of 1,000...language translation and intercultural communication . Local expertise goes beyond language and cultural gaps though, in that it provides a naturalistic way...political, economic, and social actions can be taken by the national and international communities to reduce polarization and support stable civil

  3. Extreme weather and civil war in Somalia: Does drought fuel conflict through livestock price shocks?

    OpenAIRE

    Maystadt, Jean-Francois; Ecker, Olivier; Mabiso, Athur

    2013-01-01

    Climate change leads to more frequent and more intense droughts in Somalia. In a global context, weather shocks have been found to perpetuate poverty and fuel civil conflict. By relating regional and temporal variations in violent conflict outbreaks with drought incidence and severity, we show that this causality is valid also for Somalia at the local level. We find that livestock price shocks drive drought-induced conflicts through reducing the opportunity costs of conflict participation. Ou...

  4. Public Education--America's Civil Religion: A Social History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bankston, Carl L., III; Caldas, Stephen J.

    2009-01-01

    In this provocative volume, the authors argue that public education is a central part of American civil religion and, thus, gives us an unquestioning faith in the capacity of education to solve all of our social, economic, and political problems. The book traces the development of America's faith in public education from before the Civil War up to…

  5. The authoritarian castling of the Syrian regime: from popular uprising to civil war

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignacio Álvarez-Ossorio Alvariño

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Instead of hastening political change, the Syrian uprising has led to greater authoritarianism. At first, president Bashar al-Assad adopted various cosmetic reforms (a party law and constitutional referendum, which were designed more as a survival strategy than a genuine process of political liberalisation. In its first four years, the Syrian crisis has gone from being an anti-authoritarian popular uprising to a proxy war with the active presence of Saudi Arabia, Iran, Qatar and Turkey. Control of the state apparatus on the part of the Alawite minority has been instrumentalised by the Salafist and jihadist groups to intensify sectarianism and claim the establishment of an Islamic State.

  6. Citizens, Soldiers, and War: Comparing American Societal-Military Relationships with the Use of Forces Abroad, 1975-2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    presidents have been precluded from emulating Washington’s example entirely, and most citizens will not become the archetype citizen- soldier of the...military force in the country’s counter-terrorism efforts. The literature on civil-military relations raises several important questions that...Global War on Terror provides the environmental context for the present study. Literature from the field of civil-military relations provides the

  7. Specters of War in Pyongyang: The Victorious Fatherland Liberation War Museum in North Korea

    OpenAIRE

    Suzy Kim

    2015-01-01

    While North Korea accused South Korea of starting a “civil war” (naeran) during the Korean War, it has now moved away from such depictions to paint the war as an American war of imperialist aggression against Korea that was victoriously thwarted under the leadership of Kim Il Sung. In this regard, it may be more than a coincidence that the Victorious Fatherland Liberation War Museum in Pyongyang was built in the early 1970s, just as the Vietnam War drew to a close with a Vietnamese victory. T...

  8. Why American civilization? American literature and academic exchange in occupied Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blaustein, G.

    2012-01-01

    After 1945, many American writers and intellectuals devoted themselves to European reconstruction, tying American literature and culture to an agenda of reeducation and democratization. At the nexus of these efforts was American Studies, then a new and ideologically diffuse movement of writers,

  9. Irregular Enemies and the Essence of Strategy: Can the American Way of War Adapt?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-03-01

    American way of war. Carl von Clausewitz offered his theory of war in terms of a “remarkable trinity composed of primordial violence , hatred, and...its style of warfare in order to meet the distinctive challenges posed by an irregular enemy. In both periods, new technology was harnessed to “the...oversimplified manner. Bear in mind the ambiguity about the notion of “irregular enemies.” That can mean enemies of any genus who choose to fight in an

  10. Between Myth and Memory: Images of Spanish Civil War | Entre el mito y la memoria: imágenes de una guerra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Payá López

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the role of the cinema in forming the image of the Spanish civil war over the last seventy years, or, to put it another way, how this image has passed from myth to memory. We have taken the generational element into consideration, distinguishing three periods in the forming of the image of the civil war from the perspective of the cinema: that of the protagonists, covering films produced by both camps during the war, as well as those made during the forty years of the dictatorship; that of the «war babies» who carried out the political transition, a period that covers films produced during the last years of the Franco regime and up to the 1980s; that of the «grandchildren of the war», who, with the change of century, have moved to vindicate the memory of the victims of the civil war and the Franco regime as a means of securing recognition. | El presente trabajo aborda el papel de las imágenes (cinematográficas en la formación de la imagen (mental de la guerra civil española durante los últimos setenta años o, lo que es lo mismo, cómo estas imágenes han pasado del mito a la memoria. El análisis tiene en cuenta el componente generacional, de tal forma que distingue claramente tres periodos en la formación de la memoria cinematográfica de la guerra civil: el de los protagonistas, que comprende las producciones realizadas en ambos bandos durante el conflicto bélico, además de las llevadas a cabo durante cuarenta años de dictadura; el de los «hijos de la guerra», que realizaron la transición política, etapa que abarca las producciones realizadas desde el tardo-franquismo hasta la década de los ochenta; y el de los «nietos de la guerra», que con el cambio de siglo han reivindicado la recuperación de la memoria de las víctimas de la guerra civil y la dictadura franquista en clave de reparación.

  11. Creating the Past, and Still Counting the Losses: Evaluating Narrative of the Nigerian Civil War in Buchi Emecheta’s DESTINATION BIAFRA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niyi Akingbe

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Buchi Emecheta's Destination Biafra chronicles happenings of the Nigerian civil war. The criticism in the novel is directed at the greed, corruption and sadism of many of the protagonists on all sides which suitably demonstrates the illogicality of seeking to explain the war. This paper articulates how Emecheta's Destination Biafra brings new perspectives to bear upon a significant aspect of Nigerian history that has been dominated by one segment of society. In this particular case, interpretations of the Nigerian civil war, hitherto controlled by men, are moderated by an essentially female account. The paper historicizes the trauma and scars borne by women and children during the war, focusing mainly on how the war is stripped of the glamour which masculinist accounts often endow it with, and how this is seen in all its senselessness and brutality. Just as the belligerents fight over resources and territory, so are accounts of what took place during the conflict being fought over between those who prosecuted it and those who were its victims.

  12. Greek silver drachmae of the roman civil war period, (first century BC) as reflected in external beam PIXE analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Constantinescu, B.; Bugoi, R.; Catana, D.; Plostinaru, D.; Sasianu, A.; Kiss, A.; Uzonyi, I.

    1999-01-01

    The great number of Greek silver coins from the first century BC found in the Balkan - Carpathian region have aroused a sharp interest among numismatic researchers. The problem is to classify these coins - tetradrachmae of Thasos and drachmae of Apollonia and Dyrrachium into originals, copies and imitations, in relation to their provenance. Well known are Celtic Thasos tetradrachmae copies (good quality coins), and also Barbarian imitations (absence or misspelling of the legend, disproportionate and simplified figures). Thracians, Dacians and Celts used to produce the same type of coins. The dies used for coining were bought or stolen from the Greeks, while some local engravers manufactured their own dies. Visual examination, the first step of a numismatist's work, is insufficient to classify the coins. This is the reason why elemental analysis is required (X-Ray Fluorescence and Proton Induced X-ray Emission methods). 36 Thasos tetradrachmae and 145 Apollonia and Dyrrachium drachmae, struck between 60 and 48 BC, a very intense period of civil Roman wars, belonging to Tarii Crisurilor Museum in Oradea and to Budapest National Museum were analyzed. The fingerprint of the third group of Thasian tetradrachmae is the bromine. The presence of this element in silver coins is mentioned in the literature, where bromine is linked to marine spray (the hoard was found near the seacoast). In our case, the coins were found in a region far away from the Black Sea coast. Taking into account the presence of bromine in silver ore from the Transylvania mine Rodna and supposing an imperfect procedure of refinement , these coins could be attributed to local workshops. As for the Apollonia and Dyrrachium drachmae, a similar situation can be retraced. Because of the high silver content and refined aspect of the coins belonging to the first group, one can assume that these drachmae are the original ones, minted of Macedonian silver. The percentage of copper in the second group of coins

  13. the internment of japanese americans during world war ii

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Arianne

    Japan (Igarashi, 2000), Mexico (Benjamin, 2000), among others. The formative assumption of this paper is that the attack on Pearl Harbour induced a collective ... hotly debated today, Americans faltered by developing stereotypes of the Japanese as mentally inferior and lacking in the capability of developing a sophisticated.

  14. A visiting doctor's perspective in Afghanistan: poverty, civil war, and private medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilsczek, F H

    1996-12-07

    Starvation, disease, death, war, and migration in many developing countries underscore the need for support from the richer nations of the world. In Afghanistan, for example, resources for hospital medicine are appallingly few, as I witnessed during a visit to the department of internal medicine in the Public Health Hospital, Jalalabad, during 1994-95. Infectious disease accounted for more than half of all admissions (mostly malaria and typhoid), and giving multiple drugs was common. According to a WHO report in 1994, conditions in the wards of the department were "the worst ... anywhere in the world". Doctors' salaries were so low that income was supplemented by work in private clinics, where only the better-off could afford to pay for consultation and laboratory tests. While poverty and political instability remain, there is little hope for Afghanistan.

  15. The new situation of cutaneous leishmaniasis after Syrian civil war in Gaziantep city, Southeastern region of Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özkeklikçi, Ahmet; Karakuş, Mehmet; Özbel, Yusuf; Töz, Seray

    2017-02-01

    Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is an important public health problem with around 2.000 autochthonous reported cases each year in Turkey. Due to the civil war in Syria, Turkey received around three million refugees and they are mainly located at either camps or homes in south/southeastern part of Turkey. In the present study, we aimed to collect samples from CL suspected patients admitting to State Hospital in Gaziantep City and perform parasitological and DNA-based techniques for diagnosis as well as species identification of the parasite for better understanding the prevalence of each species among Turkish and Syrian patients in the region. The collection of samples was carried out between January 2009 and July 2015. The lesion aspiration samples were taken and stained with Giemsa stain followed by microscopical examination for parasitological diagnosis. After the DNA extraction from Giemsa stained slides, real time and semi-nested PCRs both targeting ITS1 region were performed for molecular diagnosis and species identification. A total of 567 people were admitted to the hospital with the suspicion of CL and 263 (46.4%) of them were found to be positive by parasitological examination. One hundred seventy-four (66.15%), 88 (33.46%) and 1 (0.38%) of them were Turkish, Syrians and Afghan, respectively. Slide samples obtained from 34 CL suspected patients were analyzed by PCR and 20 of them were found positive. Eighteen (13 Turkish and 13 Syrians) of the positive samples were identified as L. tropica, while two (1 Turkish and 1 Syrian) of them were L. infantum. In conclusion, the effects of Syrian civil war on the epidemiology of CL in Gaziantep city is demonstrated in the present study. The use of molecular tool in the diagnosis of leishmaniasis is effective, sensitive and time saving which will enable the species typing. Species typing of the causative agent in endemic areas will bring valuable data to epidemiological knowledge. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All

  16. Music for the injured soldier: a contribution of American women's military bands during World War II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Jill M

    2007-01-01

    This study is an investigation of the contributions of women's military bands in the United States to the reconditioning of the injured American troops during World War II. Primary and secondary sources revealed that these bands welcomed home hospital ships, performed for convalescing soldiers in hospitals, and provided music for hospital dances. While each of the bands investigated served in similar capacities, only one, the 403rd Women's Army Corps (WAC) Band, was stationed at a hospital. While entertainment by women's bands was an important part of the Army Reconditioning Program for the injured, the study also revealed a working partnership that developed between these musicians and the medical community. Sixty years after the war, band members believe their performances in hospitals were the most important contribution of their service. Some historians have concluded that music used in military hospitals during the war was the impetus for the music therapy profession.

  17. Stigma, sexual risks, and the war on drugs: Examining drug policy and HIV/AIDS inequities among African Americans using the Drug War HIV/AIDS Inequities Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, Jelani; Jackson, Trinidad

    2016-11-01

    The relationship between drug policy and HIV vulnerability is well documented. However, little research examines the links between racial/ethnic HIV disparities via the Drug War, sexual risk, and stigma. The Drug War HIV/AIDS Inequities Model has been developed to address this dearth. This model contends that inequitable policing and sentencing promotes sexual risks, resource deprivation, and ultimately greater HIV risk for African-Americans. The Drug War also socially marginalizes African Americans and compounds stigma for incarcerated and formerly incarcerated persons living with HIV/AIDS. This marginalization has implications for sexual risk-taking, access to health-promoting resources, and continuum of care participation. The Drug War HIV/AIDS Inequities Model may help illuminate mechanisms that promote increased HIV vulnerability as well as inform structural intervention development and targeting to address racial/ethnic disparities. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. American ways and their meaning: Edith Wharton’s post-war fiction and American history, ideology, and national identity

    OpenAIRE

    Jenny Lynn Glennon

    2011-01-01

    This thesis argues that Edith Wharton’s assessment of American ways and their meaning in her post-war fiction has been widely misread. Its title derives from French Ways and Their Meaning (1919), which she wrote to educate her countrymen about French culture and society. Making sense of America was as great a challenge to Wharton. Much of her later fiction was for a long time dismissed by critics on the grounds that she had failed to ‘make sense’ of America. Wharton was troubled by American m...

  19. Comorbidity of psychiatric disorders and personality profiles of American World War II prisoners of war.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engdahl, B E; Speed, N; Eberly, R E; Schwartz, J

    1991-04-01

    To characterize the effects of trauma sustained more than 40 years ago, prevalence of psychiatric disorders and personality dimensions were examined in a sample of 62 former World War II POWs. The negative effects of their experiences are reflected in their multiple lifetime diagnoses and in their current personality profiles. Fifty percent met DSM-III posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) criteria within 1 year of release; 18 (29%) continued to meet the criteria 40 years later at examination (chronic PTSD). A lifetime diagnosis of generalized anxiety disorder was found for over half the entire sample; in 42% of those who never had PTSD, 38% of those with recovery from PTSD, and 94% of those with chronic PTSD. Ten percent of those without a PTSD diagnosis had experienced a depressive disorder, as had 23% of those with recovery from PTSD and 61% of the POWs with chronic PTSD. The combination of depressive and anxiety disorders also was frequent in the total sample (61%). Current MMPIs of three groups with psychiatric diagnosis were compared with those of POWs who had no diagnoses and with a group of Minnesota normal men. Profile elevations for the groups, from highest to lowest, were: POWs with chronic PTSD, POWs with recovery from PTSD, POWs with other psychiatric diagnoses, POWs with no disorders, and Minnesota normal men. Symptoms of anxiety, depression, and somatic concerns combined with the personality styles of suppression and denial characterize the current adjustment of negatively affected POWs.

  20. American Sammys and French Poilus in the Great War: sport, masculinities and vulnerability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terret, Thierry

    2011-01-01

    The violence and duration of fighting throughout the Great War created an intense feeling of vulnerability among the men engaged in battle, which challenged their perception of manliness. When the Americans joined the war in 1917, the balance between the two opposing armies was modified and the psychological crises of French soldiers brought to an end. The confidence shown by the American soldiers and their first successes on the battlefield changed the way the French Poilus perceived their new allies. From scepticism to admiration, Frenchmen's feelings extended beyond the fighting. Indeed, by living with American soldiers in the trenches and camps behind the front, French soldiers discovered a new culture where games and sport played a major role and contributed to building manliness. The Foyers Franco-Americains du Soldat (Franco-American hostels for soldiers) provided an ideal place for the cultural transfer of a model of masculinity from Sammys to Poilus. The foyers were managed by the American YMCA and eventually reached the number of 1,500 in France during the war. These hostels afforded soldiers numerous opportunities to develop cultural and sports practices, by bringing together Americans and Frenchmen. Mainly based on the archives of the American Expeditionary Forces, the YMCA and the French Army, the paper argues that the Foyers du Soldat brought to light a new model of masculinity based on sport, which challenged the Frenchmen's vision. It aims to show the rapid transformation of masculine identity within a context of extreme vulnerability and confirms the changes in representations of men in French society at this time.

  1. Maintaining presence : Catholic aid agencies in Sri Lanka's civil war − towards a socio-theoretical perspective to humanitarian access and power

    OpenAIRE

    Mustonen, Anni

    2017-01-01

    Maintaining presence and proximity is an increasing challenge for humanitarian agencies. The final phase of Sri Lanka’s civil war (1983-2009) was characterised by humanitarian crisis. The government of Sri Lanka denounced a demarcated safe zone in Vanni, the Northern Province of Sri Lanka, claiming it was providing a haven for civilians but prohibited humanitarian agencies accessing the area. In my research, I focused on the Catholic aid agencies who were authorised to remain or to pay s...

  2. Modern Processing Capabilities of Analog Data from Documentation of the Great Omayyad Mosque in Aleppo, Syria, Damaged in Civil War

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavelka, K.; Šedina, J.; Raeva, P.; Hůlková, M.

    2017-08-01

    In 1999, a big project for the documentation of the Great Omayyad mosque in Aleppo / Syria under UNESCO was conducted. By end of the last century, still analogue cameras were still being used, like the UMK Zeiss, RolleiMetric System. Digital cameras and digital automatic data processing were just starting to be on the rise and laser scanning was not relevant. In this situation, photogrammetrical measurement used stereo technology for complicated situations, and object and single-image technology for creating photoplans. Hundreds of photogrammetric images were taken. However, data processing was carried out on digital stereo plotters or workstations; it was necessary that all analogue photos were converted to digital form using a photogrammetric scanner. The outputs were adequate to the end of the last century. Nowadays, after 19 years, the photogrammetric materials still exist, but the technology and processing is completely different. Our original measurement is historical and nowadays quite obsolete. So we was it decided to explore the possibilities of the new processing of historical materials. Why? The reason is that in the last few years there has been civil war in Syria and the above mentioned monument was severely damaged. The existing historical materials therefore provide a unique opportunity for possible future reconstruction. This paper refers to the completion of existing materials, their evaluation and possibilities of new processing with today's technologies.

  3. Scandinavia’s Daughters in the Syrian Civil War: What can we Learn from their Family Members’ Lived Experiences?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Aasgaard

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The phenomenon of Scandinavians joining Salafi-jihadi groups in the Syrian civil war is high on the political agendas of Scandinavian countries. To counter the phenomenon, authorities are increasingly focused on the inclusivity of families in efforts to counter violent extremism. However, research on the topic is limited. This article seeks to remedy this, by investigating the insights that can be gained from the lived experiences of relatives of three Scandinavian women who have joined Syrian Salafi-jihadi groups, primarily the Islamic State, based on ethnographic fieldwork. Through a narrative analysis of family members’ stories, this article critically discusses two different ways that family members’ lived experiences are used within the field of violent extremism. Firstly, media and researchers use the lived experiences of family members to explain why European Muslims join Salafi-Jihadi groups. Secondly, political initiatives increasingly emphasise that families should be involved in efforts to stop young men and women from becoming foreign fighters. This article employs these insights to discuss how the narratives of family members can be used to understand why people become foreign fighters, and to consider the role of the family in countering violent extremism efforts.

  4. [HIGH VELOCITY PENETRATING HEAD AND NECK INJURIES OF SYRIAN CIVIL WAR CASUALTIES TREATED IN THE GALILEE MEDICAL CENTER].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronen, Ohad; Assadi, Nidal; Sela, Eyal

    2017-05-01

    For two years the State of Israel has been treating casualties from the Syrian civil war. The Galilee Medical Center in Nahariya is the main hospital for this humanitarian mission. Objectives: To evaluate the demographic and clinical characteristics of the casualties that were treated in our department. Information from medical records of all Syrian casualties evacuated to the Galilee Medical Center were evaluated. Between March 2013 and December 2014, 450 casualties were evacuated to the Galilee Medical Center. Of those, 45 were treated in the Department of Otolaryngology - Head and Neck Surgery. Of the 45 cases, 43 were male (95.5%) and the mean age was 30.4 years (range 1-79 years). There was a significant difference in terms of gender (p Syrian injured treated in the ENT department, the vast majority were young men. The main cause of injury was gunshot wounds. It is likely that the lack of protective gear that exist in western armies is a factor in the complex injuries treated at the Galilee Medical Center.

  5. 'That thing of human rights': discourse, emergency assistance, and sexual violence in South Sudan's current civil war.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luedke, Alicia Elaine; Logan, Hannah Faye

    2018-01-01

    One of the most widely covered aspects of the current conflict in South Sudan has been the use sexual violence by rival factions of the Sudan People's Liberation Movement/Army (SPLM/A) and other armed groups. While this has had the positive effect of ensuring that sexual violence is an integral component of intervention strategies in the country, it has also had a number of unintended consequences. This paper demonstrates how the narrow focus on sexual violence as a 'weapon of war', and the broader emergency lens through which the plight of civilians, especially women, has been viewed, are overly simplistic, often neglecting the root causes of such violence. More specifically, it highlights how dominant discourses on sexual violence in South Sudan's conflict have disregarded the historically violent civil-military relations that have typified the SPLM/A's leadership, and the structural violence connected with the local political economy of bride wealth and the associated commodification of feminine identities and bodies. © 2018 The Author(s). Disasters © Overseas Development Institute, 2018.

  6. The Propaganda Uses of the Francoist Women during the Spanish Civil War: 'Noticiario Español' (1938-1939

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fátima Gil Gascón

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This research analyze how Noticiario Español (Spanish newcast used different mechanics to construct an ideal and stereotyped image about female in francoist association women activist (Sección Femenina and Auxilio Social. To achieve this purpose, this paper set out to study, quantitative and qualitatively, the newcast produced during Spanish Civil War, emphasizing on the formal elements and the meaning of the content used in the creation of the accepted models. The reseach shows the utilization of some visual and sonorous tools with an obvious persuasive purpose. The use of the first plane (infrequents in the news with different thematic in order to generate a feeling of proximity and individuality in the spectators or the abuse of sensitive adjectives –as love or affection– to describe the work of these women shows that, in spite of it infrarepresentation with respect to masculine, the activities realised by those associations have an important propagandistic use that, sometimes, build in models of behavior, even in symbols of the “New Spain”.

  7. MODERN PROCESSING CAPABILITIES OF ANALOG DATA FROM DOCUMENTATION OF THE GREAT OMAYYAD MOSQUE IN ALEPPO, SYRIA, DAMAGED IN CIVIL WAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Pavelka

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In 1999, a big project for the documentation of the Great Omayyad mosque in Aleppo / Syria under UNESCO was conducted. By end of the last century, still analogue cameras were still being used, like the UMK Zeiss, RolleiMetric System. Digital cameras and digital automatic data processing were just starting to be on the rise and laser scanning was not relevant. In this situation, photogrammetrical measurement used stereo technology for complicated situations, and object and single-image technology for creating photoplans. Hundreds of photogrammetric images were taken. However, data processing was carried out on digital stereo plotters or workstations; it was necessary that all analogue photos were converted to digital form using a photogrammetric scanner. The outputs were adequate to the end of the last century. Nowadays, after 19 years, the photogrammetric materials still exist, but the technology and processing is completely different. Our original measurement is historical and nowadays quite obsolete. So we was it decided to explore the possibilities of the new processing of historical materials. Why? The reason is that in the last few years there has been civil war in Syria and the above mentioned monument was severely damaged. The existing historical materials therefore provide a unique opportunity for possible future reconstruction. This paper refers to the completion of existing materials, their evaluation and possibilities of new processing with today’s technologies.

  8. Did the spanish electricity sector greatly benefit from the ‘Hydraulic Policy’ before the Civil War? (1911-1936

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Bartolomé Rodríguez

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The discussion on the hydraulics policy in the 20th century is a classic of Spanish historiography, and has been expanded thanks to productive investigations on hydraulic policy in some basins. Over the course of the last 20 years, our understanding of these past events in the electrical industry and the contribution of infrastructure from the Spanish economy has improved greatly. Thus, the pre-civil war period has been shown to be the most relevant phase of expansion of hydroelectricity in Spain. From 1911 to 1936, 90 percent of the electricity produced in Spain was water-powered and it represented 25 percent of the total energy consumption in the country. We also know that in Spain, like in other countries equipped to take advantage of hydroelectric power, public grants were awarded in order to build reservoir infrastructure under the Gasset Law and during the dictatorship. We know the importance of this aid in France and Italy, but its total impact in Spain is unknown. This article tries to clarify this issue and the first three sections are dedicated to exploring the opportunity and finality of said aid, while the next two sections examine its application. Direct and indirect procedures are used to break down the exact nature of aid received by the hydroelectric companies. The conclusion reached is that public backing for the construction of reservoirs and dikes was, during this period, as slight as the period of industrialist orientation of Spain’s hydraulic policies was short.

  9. Malaria outbreak in a malaria-free region in Oman 1998: unknown impact of civil war in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baomar, A; Mohamed, A

    2000-11-01

    Beginning in April 1998, the surveillance system in Dhofar region, Oman, detected malaria cases among individuals who had no risk factors for the acquisition of malaria. An investigation was conducted to describe the outbreak and to identify its possible causes. A malaria case was defined as an unexplained fever (>38 degrees C) in a resident of the Dhofar region from April to September 1998. The investigation consisted of enhanced passive case detection, active case finding through contact screening, mass blood survey and school survey. Also an entomological survey was conducted and meteorological data was reviewed. Over a period of seven months, 1279 patients with fever were examined for malaria parasites. Sixty-five cases were positive; 60 (92%) males and 5 (8%) females. Cases occurred in all age groups (range: 2-63 years, median 25 years). Most cases were among illegal Somali immigrants (28, 43%) followed by Omanis (20, 31%). Out of the 2323 slides collected from the community and 2487 from school children, 21 slides were positive. All of them were from illegal immigrants. The entomological survey detected three vectors, previously found in the region: A. d'thali, A. sergenti and A. stephensi. Although the region is classified as a malaria-free region, it has the potential for malaria introduction. This outbreak most likely occurred due to the influx of hundreds of illegal Somali immigrants due to the civil war into the Dhofar region, providing a sufficient number of gametocyte carriers for local anopheline mosquitoes to feed on.

  10. Persistent psychopathology in the wake of civil war: long-term posttraumatic stress disorder in Nimba County, Liberia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galea, Sandro; Rockers, Peter C; Saydee, Geetor; Macauley, Rose; Varpilah, S Tornorlah; Kruk, Margaret E

    2010-09-01

    We assessed the geographical distribution of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in postconflict Nimba County, Liberia, nearly 2 decades after the end of primary conflict in the area, and we related this pattern to the history of conflict. We administered individual surveys to a population-based sample of 1376 adults aged 19 years or older. In addition, we conducted a historical analysis of conflict in Nimba County, Liberia, where the civil war started in 1989. The prevalence of PTSD in Nimba County was high at 48.3% (95% confidence interval=45.7, 50.9; n=664). The geographical patterns of traumatic event experiences and of PTSD were consistent with the best available information about the path of the intranational conflict that Nimba County experienced in 1989-1990. The demonstration of a "path of PTSD" coincident with the decades-old path of violence dramatically underscores the direct link between population burden of psychopathology and the experience of violent conflict. Persistent postconflict disruptions of social and physical context may explain some of the observed patterns.

  11. Putting Their Lives on the Line: Personal Narrative as Political Discourse among Japanese Petitioners in American World War II Internment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okawa, Gail Y.

    2011-01-01

    One of the more complex and premeditated acts of covert violence during World War II concerns the American surveillance, arrest, and incarceration of thousands of resident Japanese immigrants prior to and upon the outbreak of the Pacific War. While briefly outlining the historical and political context of this mass incarceration, specifically…

  12. "Silence and Cowardice" at the University of Michigan: World War I and the Pursuit of Un-American Faculty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cain, Timothy Reese

    2011-01-01

    Numerous faculty members at the University of Michigan and institutions across the nation found themselves victims of hysteria and anti-German extremism during World War I. Through an examination of restrictions on speech before American entry into the war, investigations into the loyalty of more than a dozen educators, and considerations of the…

  13. Psychological reactions to redress: diversity among Japanese Americans interned during World War II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagata, Donna K; Takeshita, Yuzuru J

    2002-02-01

    The psychological reactions of 2nd-generation (Nisei) Japanese Americans to receiving redress from the U.S. government for the injustices of their World War II internment were investigated. The respondents, all of whom had been interned during the war, rated the degree to which the receipt of redress nearly 50 years after their incarceration was associated with 8 different areas of personal impact. Results indicated that redress was reported to be most effective in increasing faith in the government and least effective in reducing physical suffering from the internment. Women and older respondents reported more positive redress effects. In addition, lower levels of current income, an attitudinal preference for Japanese Americans, and preredress support for seeking monetary compensation each increased the prediction of positive redress effects. Findings are discussed in relation to theories of social and retributive justice.

  14. "Noi Donne" and "Famiglia Cristiana": Communists, Catholics, and American Female Culture in Cold War Italy

    OpenAIRE

    Harris, Jessica L

    2017-01-01

    Italy's Cold War cultural contest for the hearts and minds of Italian women was a three way struggle between the Catholic Church, the Italian Communists, and the United States. The arrival of American consumer products and models in postwar Italy and their growing influence on upper to middle-class, and eventually working-class women, provided the two domestic groups, who previously had been engaged in a bipolar struggle with each other, with a common enemy - the materialistic, immoral, and a...

  15. The National Guard in the Spanish-American War and Philippine Insurrection, 1898-1899

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-17

    Henry Scott, Ilocano Responses to American Aggression 1900-1901 (Quezon City, P.I.: New Day Publishers, 1986). 5 Graham A. Cosmas, An Army for...preparation before movement into their theater of war over a week prior to President McKinley’s call for volunteers. Adjutant-General Corbin notified...on May 12, 1898. On May 17, 1898, Adjutant-General Corbin ordered them to Chickamauga Park, Georgia for encampment for potential service in Cuba.29

  16. US-Mexico Borderland Narratives: Geopoetic Representations from the Mexican American War to the Present

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-05-03

    Reforma , the broad, tree-lined, luxurious thoroughfare in Mexico City, the most modern and progressive city in Mexico . Later in All the Pretty... MEXICO BORDERLAND NARRATIVES: GEOPOETIC REPRESENTATIONS FROM THE MEXICAN AMERICAN WAR TO THE PRESENT 6. AUTHOR(S) MAJ KING ROSEMARY A 5. FUNDING...Standard Form 298 (Rev. 2-89) (EG) Prescribed by ANSI Std. 239.18 Designed using Perform Pro, WHS/DIOR, Oct 94 US- MEXICO BORDERLAND NARRATIVES

  17. WAR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Þórarinsson, Elfar; Lindgreen, Stinus

    2008-01-01

    We present an easy-to-use webserver that makes it possible to simultaneously use a number of state of the art methods for performing multiple alignment and secondary structure prediction for noncoding RNA sequences. This makes it possible to use the programs without having to download the code an...... into account is also calculated. This website is free and open to all users and there is no login requirement. The webserver can be found at: http://genome.ku.dk/resources/war....

  18. Impact of civil war on emotion recognition: the denial of sadness in Sierra Leone.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Alessandra eUmilta'

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Studies of children with atypical emotional experience demonstrate that childhood exposure to high levels of hostility and threat biases emotion perception. This study investigates emotion processing, in former child soldiers and non-combatant civilians. All participants have experienced prolonged violence exposure during childhood. The study, carried out in Sierra Leone, aimed to examine the effects of exposure to and forced participation in acts of extreme violence on the emotion processing of young adults war survivors. A total of 76 young, male adults (38 former child soldier survivors and 38 civilian survivors were tested in order to assess participants’ ability to identify four different facial emotion expressions from photographs and movies. Both groups were able to recognize facial expressions of emotion. However, despite their general ability to correctly identify facial emotions, participants showed a significant response bias in their recognition of sadness. Both former soldiers and civilians made more errors in identifying expressions of sadness than in the other three emotions and when mislabeling sadness participants most often described it as anger. Conversely, when making erroneous identifications of other emotions, participants were most likely to label the expressed emotion as sadness. In addition, while for three of the four emotions participants were better able to make a correct identification the greater the intensity of the expression, this pattern was not observed for sadness. During movies presentation the recognition of sadness was significantly worse for soldiers. While both former child soldiers and civilians were found to be able to identify facial emotions, a significant response bias in their attribution of negative emotions was observed. Such bias was particularly pronounced in former child soldiers. These findings point to a pervasive long-lasting effect of childhood exposure to violence on emotion processing

  19. European Wars, Civil Conflicts, and National Projects. The Neapolitan Restorations (1799-1866 Revisited | Guerras europeas, conflictos civiles, proyectos nacionales. Una interpretación de las restauraciones napolitanas (1799-1866

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmine Pinto

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Examining counter-revolution through its greater achievements, that is, the four winning restorations, and also their disastrous fall, that is, the defeated restoration, may contribute to enrich traditional perspectives on the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies’ resistance and the crisis. European conflicts, civil wars, state constructions and modern national identity shaping are phenomena which intertwine the complicated history of the Neapolitan Kingdom. It is from the perspective of the dynastic (1799 and 1815 and absolutist restorations (1821, that we may insert in a general interpretative scheme the controversy between internal conflict and international crisis, their relationship with the shaping of ideas and nationalist affiliation and, finally, their comparison with the counter-revolution in the Bourbon world. The paradigm represented by this conflict allows for a contrast with the wider French and Spanish-American Bourbon world. We may thus consider both the success of Neapolitan legitimism and its collapse in 1860, as well as the reasons for its recent recovery in the Italian collective awareness. | La elección de examinar la contrarrevolución a través de sus mayores éxitos, las cuatro restauraciones victoriosas, y su derrota, la restauración fallida, puede enriquecer las perspectivas tradicionales sobre la resistencia y la crisis del Reino de las dos Sicilias. Los conflictos europeos, las guerras civiles, las construcciones estatales y la creación de identidades nacionales modernas son fenómenos que se entrecruzan con la complicada historia del reino napolitano. A través de la perspectiva de las restauraciones, bien dinásticas (1799 y 1815, o bien absolutistas (1821 y 1849, podemos insertar en un esquema interpretativo general la dialéctica entre conflicto interno y crisis internacionales, la interrelación con la formación de las ideas y adscripciones nacionalistas y la comparación con la contrarrevolución en el mundo borb

  20. Notes on Colombian Foreign Policy Since the American Involvement in the Second World War

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andres Felipe Mesa Valencia

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes Colombian foreign policy following the rupture of American neutrality. It focuses on the second stage of the Second World War, i.e., from the participation of the United States until the end of the conflict. The article also examines national defense as an indispensable mechanism to preserve national sovereignty, emphasizing the significance of the Third Meeting of Foreign Ministers, held in Rio de Janeiro, on continental security and strengthening of Pan-Americanism.

  1. Transnational science during the Cold War: the case of Chinese/American scientists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zuoyue

    2010-06-01

    This essay examines the experiences of about five thousand Chinese students/scientists in the United States after the Communist takeover of mainland China in 1949. These experiences illustrate the often hidden transnational movements of people, instruments, and ideas in science and technology across the Iron Curtain during the Cold War. I argue that those hundreds who returned to China represented a partial "Americanization" of Chinese science and technology, while the rest of the group staying in the United States contributed to a transnationalization of the American scientific community.

  2. American physicians and dual loyalty obligations in the "war on terror"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh Jerome Amir

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Post-September 11, 2001, the U.S. government has labeled thousands of Afghan war detainees "unlawful combatants". This label effectively deprives these detainees of the protection they would receive as "prisoners of war" under international humanitarian law. Reports have emerged that indicate that thousands of detainees being held in secret military facilities outside the United States are being subjected to questionable "stress and duress" interrogation tactics by U.S. authorities. If true, American military physicians could be inadvertently becoming complicit in detainee abuse. Moreover, the American government's openly negative views towards such detainees could result in military physicians not wanting to provide reasonable care to detainees, despite it being their ethical duty to do so. Discussion This paper assesses the physician's obligations to treat war detainees in the light of relevant instruments of international humanitarian law and medical ethics. It briefly outlines how detainee abuse flourished in apartheid South Africa when state physicians became morally detached from the interests of their detainee patients. I caution U.S physicians not to let the same mindset befall them. I urge the U.S. medical community to advocate for detainee rights in the U.S, regardless of the political culture the detainee emerged from. I offer recommendations to U.S physicians facing dual loyalty conflicts of interest in the "war on terror". Summary If U.S. physicians are faced with a conflict of interest between following national policies or international principles of humanitarian law and medical ethics, they should opt to adhere to the latter when treating war detainees. It is important for the U.S. medical community to speak out against possible detainee abuse by the U.S. government.

  3. 77 FR 18897 - Greek Independence Day: A National Day of Celebration of Greek and American Democracy, 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-28

    ... ancient Hellas, where Greeks brought forth the world's first democracy and kindled a philosophical... partnerships between our people. During the American Civil War, Greek Americans served and fought to preserve our Union. Through two World Wars and a long Cold War, America and Greece stood as allies in the...

  4. The American nursing shortage during World War I: the debate over the use of nurses' aids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telford, Jennifer Casavant

    2010-01-01

    This article explores the history of the creation of the Army and Navy Female Nurse Corps and the debate that ensued between American nursing leaders Jane Delano, director of the Red Cross Nursing Service, M. Adelaide Nutting, president of the American Federation of Nurses, and Annie Goodrich, dean of the Army School of Nursing, over the use of untrained nurses' aids to offset the nursing shortage that resulted from the United States entry into the Great War in 1917. The recruitment of minimally or untrained nurses' aids to offset the nursing shortage of the World War I era was a logical solution for American nursing leaders who had to meet the needs for nursing personnel. The exclusion of trained African American nurses, however, was a gross oversight on the part of these leaders. Whether or not this action compromised the status of nursing as a profession is still a matter of interest. Moreover, the debate about the delivery of care by unlicensed personnel continues.

  5. King Philip’s war: American Indians in British colonial society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nesterov Dmitriy Aleksandrovich

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This article is about the problem of the perception of the North American Indians by the British colonial community during the King Philip’s war; this is the first time when the problem is considered in Russian historiography. The author pays attention to events that means a starting point for the formation of public opinion of the British colonies’ inhabitants towards to the Indian population and its modifications, which is connected with King Philip’s war. The preconditions, causes and implications of these changes are identified in this article. Also there is the direct dependence of views of any part of British society from its social status and position which were among of the factors that determined and affected to the behaviour of the British. All the author’s conclusions are supported by appeals to historical sources.

  6. Chronic gastrointestinal symptoms of Thomas "Stonewall" Jackson following Mexican-American War exposure: a medical hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Timothy R; Kirsner, Joseph B

    2007-01-01

    In a recent study, a large proportion of veterans seen for chronic heartburn or dyspepsia after the Persian Gulf War had evidence for Helicobacter pylori. Thomas Jackson was born and raised in an area of West Virginia that has a high prevalence of H. pylori. He suffered chronic dyspeptic symptoms following his service in the Mexican-American War. Therapies that he tried included treatment with a variant of the Sippy diet. Following a bullet wound to the left arm at the battle of Chancellorsville on Saturday, May 2, 1863, Thomas Jackson underwent amputation of the left arm below the left shoulder. He died 1 week later with a diagnosis of pleuropneumonia. The records of the postsurgical course are incomplete. The available clinical information raises the hypothesis that his chronic dyspepsia and his cause of death could have been related to chronic peptic ulcer disease due to gastric H. pylori infection.

  7. Monstrosity and War Memories in Latin American Post-conflict Cinema

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Chiara D'Argenio

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the relationship between inhumanity, monstrosity, war and memory in two Latin American films: Días de Santiago (Peru, 2004 and La sombra del caminante (Colombia, 2004. These aesthetically innovative films tackle the internal armed conflicts that have occurred in Colombia and Peru in recent years. Focusing on former soldiers’ reintegration into civilian life, they display war as a traumatic experience that produces monstrosity, understood as a dehumanisation of the individual. By analysing the tropes of monstrosity and the haunting past, and the films’ aesthetics, I show how the performance of the monster articulates a tension between inhumanity and humanness, which can be read as a metaphor for the tension between the acts of remembering, investigating and forgetting within post-conflict societies.

  8. Women’s image as used in the context of republican political propaganda during The Spanish Civil War / La mujer en la propaganda política republicana de la Guerra Civil española

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Gómez Escarda

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available During the civil war the republican political propaganda used the image of woman many times. This paper analyses the posters addressed to women, the posters which used women’s images and the propaganda of the Antifascist Women Association. This propaganda used to depict women as men or in a very man like fashion, when talking on militia women or about the work of women in the agricultural sector. However the propaganda used to be much more extreme, either being softer or sometimes by being more dramatic about women when talking on bombings, help petitions and the role of women in the battlefield.

  9. State, market and civil society: Latin American development in comparative perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Menno Vellinga

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available In the 1980s Latin America made a radical break with the model of development that had been pursued by most countries on the continent for the last fifty years and implemented a new development strategy, defined along neo-liberal lines. These changes have taken place under conditions of increasing globalization, e.g. they had to be realized increasingly within globally defined parameters and structures. The relationship between the state, the market and civil society was redefined. The traditional structures of interest representation of groups and classes, their legitimacy and effectiveness underwent significant changes in many countries. In this article we will explore the nature of these changes and their consequences for state reform and the relation to problems of national development. We will do so in a comparative perspective, including experiences from South East Asia. The debate about the relationship between state, market and civil society has received a new impetus from the 2008 crisis of the international financial system and the widely spread criticism of the workings of the market capitalism that it has generated. For Latin American development the conclusions of this debate and their possible translation into concrete policies are of the utmost importance.

  10. Latin American World War I Historiography: the Cases of Argentina, Mexico and Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renzo Ramírez Bacca

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.17227/01234870.41folios187.204 The text provides a critical review of the Latin American historiography during the First World War. The author focuses on Argentina, Mexico and Colombia in order to account for the lines of work, categories of analysis and the recent contributions on the issue. In the same way, it takes into account the Western historiographical context, poses questions and dialogues based on recent studies as well as highlights the limitations and explains the reason for the identified historiographical gaps.

  11. African-American Medical Personnel in the US Army in the First World War.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marble, Sanders

    2018-02-01

    In WWI, the United States was segregated by custom and law, and the Army obeyed the laws, reducing opportunities for Black medical professionals to serve their country in uniform. This article surveys African-American medical personnel serving in the US Army in World War I. It includes physicians, dentists, veterinarians, and other commissioned officers, as well as medical enlisted men. Overall, despite segregation and associated professional limitations, determined individuals still served with distinction in a variety of roles, opening doors for future advances. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  12. Romance, revolution and regulation: colonialism and the US-Mexico border in American Cold War film.

    OpenAIRE

    Fuller, Stephanie

    2013-01-01

    The 1950s saw perhaps the largest number of American films set on and around the US-Mexico border of any period of the twentieth century. This thesis investigates why this concentration of films appeared at this point in time. It argues that rather than responding to the changes in policy and practice along the borderline that were taking place in the 1950s, these films engage with cold war politics as they explore the relationship between the United States and Mexico through ideas of romance...

  13. Draft Genome Sequences of Acinetobacter baumannii Strains Harboring the blaNDM-1 Gene Isolated in Lebanon from Civilians Wounded during the Syrian Civil War.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokajian, Sima; Eisen, Jonathan A; Jospin, Guillaume; Hamze, Monzer; Rafei, Rayane; Salloum, Tamara; Ibrahim, Joe; Coil, David A

    2016-01-28

    We present here the draft genome sequences of multidrug-resistant blaNDM-1-positive Acinetobacter baumannii strains ACMH-6200 and ACMH-6201, isolated in north Lebanon from civilians wounded during the Syrian civil war. The draft genomes were contained in 217 contigs for ACMH-6200 and 83 contigs for ACMH-6201, including a combined 3,997,237 bases for ACMH-6200 and 3,983,110 bases for ACMH-6201, with 39% and 38.9% G+C content, respectively. Copyright © 2016 Tokajian et al.

  14. Savages in a Civilized War: The Native Americans as French Allies in the Seven Years War, 1754-1763

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-14

    periods through drying and storing in their villages.90 This diet was supplanted through hunting and gathering of nearby animals and wild plants and...... akin to their treatment of animals. Indian cosmology also made no distinction between animals and people and the torture fulfilled a ritualistic

  15. Diagnoses, infections and injuries in Northern Syrian children during the civil war: A cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Berlaer, Gerlant; Elsafti, Abdallah Mohamed; Al Safadi, Mohammad; Souhil Saeed, Saad; Buyl, Ronald; Debacker, Michel; Redwan, Atef; Hubloue, Ives

    2017-01-01

    The civil war in Syria including the deliberate targeting of healthcare services resulted in a complex humanitarian emergency, seriously affecting children's health. The objectives of this study are to document diagnoses and disease categories in Northern Syrian children after four years of conflict, and to document infectious diseases and injuries in this vulnerable population. In a prospective cross-sectional observational sample study conducted in May 2015, healthcare workers registered demographics, comorbidities, and diagnoses (categorised according to the International Classification of Diseases version 10) in children visited at home and in internally displaced persons camps in four Syrian governorates. Of 1080 filled-out records, 1002 were included. Children originated from Aleppo (41%), Idleb (36%), Hamah (15%) and Lattakia (8%). Median age was 6 years (0-15; IQR 3-11), 61% were boys, 40% were younger than 5 years old. Children suffered from respiratory (29%), neurological (19%), digestive (17%), eye (5%) and skin (5%) diseases. Clinical malnutrition was seen in 4%, accidental injury in 3%, intentional injury in 1%, and mental disorders in 2%. Overall, 64% had features of infectious diseases (OR 0.635; CI 0.605-0.665). Most common comorbidities were chronic respiratory diseases (14, malnutrition (5%), acute flaccid paralysis (5%), and epilepsy (4%). Logistic regression analysis indicated that the risk for children to have communicable diseases was higher in Aleppo than in Idleb (OR 1.7; CI 1.2-2.3), Hamah (OR 4.9; CI 3.3-7.5), or Lattakia (OR 5.5; CI 3.3-9.3). Children in Aleppo and Lattakia were more at risk to be injured than in Idleb (OR 5.6; CI 2.1-14.3), or in Hamah (OR 5.9; CI 1.4-25.6), but more often from intentional violence in Lattakia. Mental problems were more prominent in Hamah. Four years far in the conflict, 64% of the studied children in four Northern Syrian governorates suffer from infections, mostly from respiratory, neurological and

  16. Pathology and Laboratory Medicine Support for the American Expeditionary Forces by the US Army Medical Corps During World War I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, James R; Baskin, Leland B

    2015-09-01

    Historical research on pathology and laboratory medicine services in World War I has been limited. In the Spanish American War, these efforts were primarily focused on tropical diseases. World War I problems that could be addressed by pathology and laboratory medicine were strikingly different because of the new field of clinical pathology. Geographic differences, changing war tactics, and trench warfare created new issues. To describe the scope of pathology and laboratory medicine services in World War I and the value these services brought to the war effort. Available primary and secondary sources related to American Expeditionary Forces' laboratory services were analyzed and contrasted with the British and German approaches. The United States entered the war in April 1917. Colonel Joseph Siler, MD, a career medical officer, was the director, and Colonel Louis B. Wilson, MD, head of pathology at the Mayo Clinic, was appointed assistant director of the US Army Medical Corps Division of Laboratories and Infectious Disease, based in Dijon, France. During the next year, they organized 300 efficient laboratories to support the American Expeditionary Forces. Autopsies were performed to better understand treatment of battlefield injuries, effects of chemical warfare agents, and the influenza pandemic; autopsies also generated teaching specimens for the US Army Medical Museum. Bacteriology services focused on communicable diseases. Laboratory testing for social diseases was very aggressive. Significant advances in blood transfusion techniques, which allowed brief blood storage, occurred during the war but were not primarily overseen by laboratory services. Both Siler and Wilson received Distinguished Service Medals. Wilson's vision for military pathology services helped transform American civilian laboratory services in the 1920s.

  17. The Failure of American Civil War Reconstruction: Lessons for Post-Conflict Operations in Iraq

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wadsworth, Douglas J

    2005-01-01

    .... Instead, white Southerners resented the North, despised the idea of equality for their former slaves, and spawned an insurgency that resulted in their dominance over blacks in the South--arguably...

  18. Robert E. Lee as Operational Artist During the American Civil War

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-21

    Johnston was just as arrogant as Davis. During his tenure as a student at the United States Military Academy Johnston eamed the nickname "Colonel" from his...shown previous subordinate leaders .. Lee had certainly eamed it based on his reputation and performance at Second Manassas and during his tenure as...Washington, PA: EasternNational. Roland, Charles P. 1964. The Generalship of Robert E. Lee. In Grant, Lee, Lincoln and The Radicals; Essays on

  19. Socialization into a Civilization: The Dewey-Kaplan Synthesis in American Jewish Schooling in the Early 20th Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Benjamin M.

    2009-01-01

    This historical study focuses on how John Dewey's theory of education as socialization and Mordecai Kaplan's theory of Judaism as a civilization together served as an ideological base and pedagogical framework for the creation of "progressive," "reconstructed" American Jewish school programs in the early 20th century…

  20. 48 CFR 52.225-7 - Waiver of Buy American Act for Civil Aircraft and Related Articles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Waiver of Buy American Act for Civil Aircraft and Related Articles. 52.225-7 Section 52.225-7 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION (CONTINUED) CLAUSES AND FORMS SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT...

  1. The voice of American botanists: the founding and establishment of the American Journal of Botany, "American botany," and the Great War (1906-1935).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smocovitis, Vassiliki Betty

    2014-03-01

    This paper examines the crucial early history of the American Journal of Botany from the years following the founding of the Botanical Society of America in 1906 to the termination of the agreement for publication with the Brooklyn Botanic Garden in 1935. It examines the efforts of individuals like F. C. Newcombe, who did the most to raise support for the journal and became the first Editor-in-Chief, in the context of the growing numbers of professional botanists and plant scientists who were actively engaged in research requiring appropriate publication venues and in the process of forming an independent identity as "American botanists." It also examines the launching of the journal in the context of the Great War in Europe and the transition from German botany to American botany in the second decade of the 20th century.

  2. Marks of autopsy and identification of victims of human rights violations exhumed from cemeteries: the case of the Spanish Civil War (1936-1939).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ríos, Luis; Martínez, Berta; García-Rubio, Almudena; Herrasti, Lourdes; Etxeberria, Francisco

    2014-09-01

    The presence of autopsy marks in human skeletal remains indicates a medicolegal procedure related to ascertaining the cause and manner of death. We present here four cases where signs of autopsy were observed in the remains recovered from mass graves and cemeteries of prisoners from the Spanish Civil War (1936-1939), victims of extrajudicial executions, and of death in prison, respectively. With respect to the former, historical evidence indicate that during the first weeks after the coup, official removal of cadavers and autopsy procedures were carried out to the first victims of extrajudicial killings, whose corpses were found abandoned in the road. Once the civil war was established and systematic extrajudicial killings were systematic, official military orders were issued to stop standard forensic proceedings. Therefore, autopsy marks observed in the remains exhumed from mass graves located in cemeteries may be indicative of an earlier chronology of the killings, and this information proved to be relevant for the identification process in one of the cases presented. In a cemetery of political prisoners, autopsy signs were also observed in two skeletal remains and in the official records of two prisoners, a corroboration of information also relevant for the identification process. These findings indicate that autopsy marks can be found in the remains of victims of human rights violations exhumed from cemeteries. Skeletal and archival information could be useful for the identification process in other cases of large-scale violence, where the first victims of extrajudicial executions were buried unidentified in cemeteries after autopsy procedures.

  3. Major Harvey Cushing's difficulties with the British and American armies during World War I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, Michael E

    2014-08-01

    This historical review explores Harvey Cushing's difficulties with both the British and American armies during his World War I service to definitively examine the rumor of his possible court martial. It also provides a further understanding of Cushing the man. While in France during World War I, Cushing was initially assigned to British hospital units. This service began in May 1917 and ended abruptly in May 1918 when the British cashiered him for repeated censorship violations. Returning to American command, he feared court martial. The army file on this matter (retrieved from the United States National Archives) indicates that US Army authorities recommended that Cushing be reprimanded and returned to the US for his violations. The army carried out neither recommendation, and no evidence exists that a court martial was considered. Cushing's army career and possible future academic life were protected by the actions of his surgical peers and Merritte Ireland, Chief Surgeon of the US Army in France. After this censorship episode, Cushing was made a neurosurgical consultant but was also sternly warned that further rule violations would not be tolerated by the US Army. Thereafter, despite the onset of a severe peripheral neuropathy, probably Guillian Barré's syndrome, Cushing was indefatigable in ministering to neurosurgical needs in the US sector in France. Cushing's repeated defying of censorship regulations reveals poor judgment plus an initial inability to be a "team player." The explanations he offered for his censorship violations showed an ability to bend the truth. Cushing's war journal is unclear as to exactly what transpired between him and the British and US armies. It also shows no recognition of the help he received from others who were instrumental in preventing his ignominious removal from service in France. Had that happened, his academic future and ability to train future neurosurgical leaders may have been seriously threatened. Cushing's foibles

  4. Different Places, Different Ideas: Reimagining Practice in American Psychiatric Nursing After World War II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Kylie M

    2018-01-01

    In 1952, Hildegard Peplau published her textbook Interpersonal Relations in Nursing: A Conceptual Frame of Reference for Psychodynamic Nursing. This was the same year the American Psychiatric Association (APA) published the first edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (1st ed.; DSM-I; APA). These events occurred in the context of a rapidly changing policy and practice environment in the United States after World War II, where the passing of the National Mental Health Act in 1946 released vast amounts of funding for the establishment of the National Institute of Mental Health and the development of advanced educational programs for the mental health professions including nursing. This article explores the work of two nurse leaders, Hildegard Peplau and Dorothy Mereness, as they developed their respective graduate psychiatric nursing programs and sought to create new knowledge for psychiatric nursing that would facilitate the development of advanced nursing practice. Both nurses had strong ideas about what they felt this practice should look like and developed distinct and particular approaches to their respective programs. This reflected a common belief that it was only through nurse-led education that psychiatric nursing could shape its own practice and control its own future. At the same time, there are similarities in the thinking of Peplau and Mereness that demonstrate the link between the specific social context of mental health immediately after World War II and the development of modern psychiatric nursing. Psychiatric nurses were able to gain significant control of their own education and practice after the war, but this was not without a struggle and some limitations, which continue to impact on the profession today.

  5. Farming the Desert: agriculture in the World War II-era Japanese-American relocation centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lillquist, Karl

    2010-01-01

    In 1942 over 110,000 Japanese Americans were evacuated from the West Coast to ten inland, barbed wire-enclosed relocation centers in the name of national security. Agriculture was a key component of the eight arid to semi-arid centers located in the western United States. Each center's agricultural program included produce for human consumption, feed crops, and livestock. Some centers also grew seed, ornamental, and war crops. Evacuees raised and consumed five types of livestock and sixty-one produce varieties, including many traditional foods. Seasonal surpluses were preserved, shipped to other centers, or sold on the open market. Short growing seasons, poor soils, initially undeveloped lands, pests, equipment shortages, and labor issues hampered operations. However, imprisoned evacuee farmers proved that diverse agricultural programs could succeed in the harsh settings primarily because of labor-intensive farming methods, ingenuity, and the large markets provided by the centers. These agricultural programs played major roles in feeding, providing meaningful employment, and preparing evacuees for life outside the centers, and readied lands for post-war "homesteaders."

  6. Fighting for business: the limits of professional cooperation among American doctors during the First World War.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schafer, James A

    2015-04-01

    The American medical profession participated extensively in preparedness and mobilization for the First World War, with more than one in five doctors voluntarily enlisting in various branches of the Army and Navy Medical Corps. Medical officers were widely valorized for suspending their civilian careers and for sacrificing their professional income while in service. Because of the meager commissions that medical officers received by comparison with fees many doctors earned in established private medical practices, scores of county medical societies implemented organizational solutions to this business problem, with the hopes of removing a significant disincentive to enlistment. In these "practice protection plans," a civilian doctor promised to take care of the patients of a military doctor, to forward a portion of the fees collected thereby to the family of the military doctor, and to refer these patients to the military doctor upon his return. Despite initial enthusiasm and promotion, these plans ultimately failed to achieve their objectives, leading some medical officers to accuse civilian doctors of being opportunistic, unpatriotic "slackers." This episode reveals the limits of professional cooperation in American medicine at the time and the need to explain organizational failures in the grand narrative of professionalization during the "Golden Age" of American medicine. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. THE ROLE OF REMOTE SENSING AND GIS IN IDENTIFYING BURIED WORLD WAR I MUNITIONS AT THE AMERICAN UNIVERSITY, WASHINGTON, DC

    Science.gov (United States)

    During World War 1, The American University in Washington D.C. was used by the U.S. Army as an experiment station for the development and testing of a variety of battlefield munitions including chemical weapons such as Mustard Gas, Phosgene, Ricin and Lewisite, among others. Afte...

  8. THE ROLE OF REMOTE SENSING IN IDENTIFYING BURIED WORLD WAR I MUNITIONS AT THE AMERICAN UNIVERSITY, WASHINGTON, D.C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    During World War 1, The American University in Washington D.C. was used by the U.S. Army as an experiment station for the development and testing of a variety of battlefield munitions including chemical weapons such as Mustard Gas, Phosgene, Ricin and Lewisite, among others. Afte...

  9. THE ROLE OF REMOTE SENSING IN IDENTIFYING BURIED WORLD WAR 1 MUNITIONS AT THE AMERICAN UNIVERSITY, WASHINGTON, D.C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    During World War 1, The American University in Washington D.C. was used by the U.S. Army as an experiment station for the development and testing of a variety of battlefield munitions including chemical weapons such as Mustard Gas, Phosgene, Ricin and Lewisite, among others. Afte...

  10. On the Border of Orient: The Perception of Serbia in English and American Travel Accounts Between Two Wars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir V. Mihajlović

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Review of a book by Sanja Lazarević Radak. 2011. Na granicama orijenta. Predstave o Srbiji u engleskim i američkim putopisima između dva svetska rata. [On the Border of Orient: The Perception of Serbia in English and American Travel Accounts Between Two Wars]. Pančevo: Mali Nemo, pp. 321

  11. Military Spending and Economic Well-Being in the American States: The Post-Vietnam War Era

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borch, Casey; Wallace, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Using growth curve modeling techniques, this research investigates whether military spending improved or worsened the economic well-being of citizens within the American states during the post-Vietnam War period. We empirically test the military Keynesianism claim that military spending improves the economic conditions of citizens through its use…

  12. Entrepreneur for Equality: Governor Rufus Brown Bullock and the Politics of Race and Commerce in Post-Civil War Georgia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duncan, Russell

    Rufus Bullock, reconstruction, Georgia, United States history, African American, race relations, Gilded age......Rufus Bullock, reconstruction, Georgia, United States history, African American, race relations, Gilded age...

  13. No Good Wars: Teaching the History of Modern American Wars as a Means of Resisting Current Ones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Kenneth

    2008-01-01

    In the fall 2005 semester, the author designed a course in the history of America's modern wars hoping to encourage students to criticize and oppose the country's current aggressions in Afghanistan and Iraq. Surveys of student attitude change suggest that the course did promote criticism but did far less to facilitate student activism. The author…

  14. The Civil War in Castile and León: a dress rehearsal for the Franco Dictatorship | La Guerra Civil en Castilla y León: ensayo general para la dictadura franquista

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Severiano Delgado Cruz

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This article gives a brief description of the evolution of the Spanish Civil War in Castile and León, characterized by the rapid seizure of power by the rebel military forces, the formation of improvised armed columns focused on the conquest of Madrid, and the violent repression against the social support of Republican-Socialist reform, through physical extermination and mass imprisonment. A third form of repression was of an economic nature, consisting of confiscations, requisitions, fines and compulsory fees. Patriotic subscriptions and special taxes were added to fund the war effort. At the same time, from Valladolid, Salamanca and Burgos, the first steps were taken to build the institutional and ideological framework of the Francoist “New State”. | En este artículo se hace una somera descripción del desarrollo de la Guerra Civil en Castilla y León, caracterizado por la rápida toma del poder por parte de los militares sublevados, la formación de columnas armadas improvisadas con el objetivo de conquistar Madrid y una virulenta represión dirigida contra las bases sociales del reformismo republicano-socialista, tanto por medio del exterminio físico como del encarcelamiento masivo. La tercera forma de represión fue la económica, mediante incautaciones, requisas, multas y cuotas contributivas, a lo que se unieron las suscripciones patrióticas e impuestos especiales para financiar el esfuerzo bélico. Al mismo tiempo, desde Valladolid, Salamanca y Burgos se daban los primeros pasos del entramado institucional e ideológico del Nuevo Estado franquista.

  15. Secrets of the collective memory: the Civil War, the Franco regime and oral sources in Almería | Los secretos de la memoria: Guerra Civil, franquismo y fuentes orales en Almería

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofía Rodríguez López

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the particular experience of the people of Almería during the civil war and the post-war period, through the analysis of more than fifty oral testimonies. These have been collated in the course of two official research projects concerning the recovery of historical memory in Andalusia, and are the product of interviews carried out in this province. This memory, which merges with history, and has been much in the news in recent months, comes mainly from men and women from rural backgrounds, who, through the thread of their narrative, provide us with the keys to different individual experiences and a cosmogony of our collective past. | En este artículo dedicamos un espacio a la recuperación de la experiencia insólita de los almerienses en la guerra civil y la posguerra, mediante el análisis de más de cincuenta testimonios orales. Éstos se han recogido en el curso de dos proyectos oficiales de investigación para la recuperación de la memoria histórica en Andalucía, y hacen balance de las entrevistas desarrolladas en esta provincia. La memoria, confundida con la historia, y en boca de todos en los últimos meses, proviene de hombres y mujeres del campo, en su mayoría, que a través de su hilo narrativo nos vienen proporcionando las claves de distintas experiencias individuales y de una cosmogonía de nuestro pasado colectivo.

  16. Improving Vocational Rehabilitation Access and Return to Work and Career Outcomes among African American Wounded Warriors, Gulf War, and Vietnam War Era Veterans with Disabilities: A White Paper Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Corey L., Ed.: Johnson, Jean E., Ed.; Washington, Andre L., Ed.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this monograph is to present documents that discuss issues related to improving access to vocational rehabilitation services and return to work rates of African American Wounded Warriors, Gulf War and Vietnam War Era veterans with disabilities. This monograph also includes a review of relevant literature on barriers to employment…

  17. Soviet and American Airwomen During World War II: A Comparison of Their Formation, Treatment and Dismissal

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Myers, Beth

    2003-01-01

    .... World War II provides an interesting setting to study women and warfare because the belligerent countries mobilized millions of women for the war effort, both in civilian and military capacities...

  18. The Second Republic and the Civil War in the current political debate | La II República y la Guerra Civil en el debate político actual

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Sotillos Palet

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Seven decades on, the Second Republic and the civil war are still controversial topics that generate heated debate in numerous social groups, particularly among political parties and certain sectors of the media. Different individuals and groups express their sympathies towards either one of the two opposing factions. After the long years of silence imposed by Franco’s dictatorship, and once democracy had been firmly established in Spain, a powerful social movement emerged to vindicate the memory of those defeated in 1939, ignored and reviled by the Franco regime. | Después de setenta años, la II República y la Guerra Civil siguen siendo dos temas que generan un debate polémico en amplios sectores sociales, y en particular entre los partidos políticos y en determinados medios de comunicación. Unos y otros expresan sus simpatías hacia cada uno de los dos bandos en conflicto. Tras muchos años de silencio impuesto por la dictadura franquista y tras el proceso de transición a la democracia, y una vez que ésta está plena y sólidamente asentada, ha surgido un potente movimiento social que reivindica la memoria de los vencidos en 1939, ignorados y denostados por el franquismo.

  19. Criminological and criminalistic research opportunities in Spain on the subject of the spanish civil war/Oportunidades de investigación criminológica y criminalística bajo la guerra civil española

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derek Congram (Canadá

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Tens of thousands of Spanish and foreign non-combatants were illegally detained and executed during the Spanish Civil War and postwar repression. Their bodies are believed to lie in unmarked mass graves throughout the country. The need for criminological and criminalistic research is great. This article discusses different aspects of the work and suggests the involvement of Mexican academics and forensic practitioners. Justifications for such foreign involvement are outlined as are points of mutual Spanish-Mexican benefit. Decenas de miles de no-combatientes españoles y extranjeros fueron ilegalmente detenidos y ejecutados durante la guerra civil española y durante la represión de la posguerra. Muchos de los cuerpos yacen en fosas comunes no marcadas en todo el país. La necesidad de investigación criminológica y criminalística es grande en este contexto. Este articulo habla de aspectos diferentes del trabajo y sugiere la participación de académicos y forenses mexicanos. Se resumen las justificaciones para tal colaboración y los aspectos del beneficio mutuo Español-Mexicano.

  20. Specters of War in Pyongyang: The Victorious Fatherland Liberation War Museum in North Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzy Kim

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available While North Korea accused South Korea of starting a “civil war” (naeran during the Korean War, it has now moved away from such depictions to paint the war as an American war of imperialist aggression against Korea that was victoriously thwarted under the leadership of Kim Il Sung. In this regard, it may be more than a coincidence that the Victorious Fatherland Liberation War Museum in Pyongyang was built in the early 1970s, just as the Vietnam War drew to a close with a Vietnamese victory. This article examines the memorialization of the Korean War in North Korea at two pivotal historical points—the end of the Vietnam War in the 1970s and the end of the Cold War in the 1990s—with a particular focus on contemporary exhibitions at the war museum in Pyongyang. Rather than offering a simple comparison of divergent narratives about the war, the article seeks to illustrate that North Korea’s conception of history and its account of the war are staunchly modernist, with tragic consequences.

  1. Physicians confront the apocalypse: the American medical profession and the threat of nuclear war

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyer, P.

    1985-08-02

    Physicians figured prominently in the resurgence of nuclear weapons activism and cultural awareness that swept the US in the early 1980s. This discussion seeks to place this activism in historical context. It explores the American medical profession's shifting engagement with the issue of nuclear war. Attention is focused on the period 1945 to 1954, with a brief evaluation of the period 1954 to 1963, the years to which the activism of the 1980s may be traced. Radiation studies are reviewed including Hiroshima and Nagasaki survivors. Radiological studies were begun within days of Japan's surrender. The delayed effects of radiation exposure on some 14,000 persons in Hiroshima and Nagasaki include hemorrhage, leukocyte destruction, bone marrow damage, anemia, sterility, and the suppression of menstruation. In contrast, the American medical profession in the late 1940s focused much attention on the atom's potential medical benefits, especially the diagnostic and treatment value of radioisotopes. 90 references.

  2. Convincing American Women to Join in the Efforts to Win World War I: A Lesson Plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunal, Cynthia S.; Haas, Mary E.

    1994-01-01

    Asserts that World War I, unlike previous wars, was not fought by small groups of professional soldiers, but with large groups of citizens, including women. Presents a lesson plan using poster and postcards that examines methods used by the U.S. government to rally women to join the war effort. (CFR)

  3. War, Education and State Formation: Problems of Territorial and Political Integration in the United States, 1848-1912

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beadie, Nancy

    2016-01-01

    After the Civil War (1861-1865), the United States faced a problem of "reconstruction" similar to that confronted by other nations at the time and familiar to the US since at least the Mexican-American War (1846-1848). The problem was one of territorial and political (re)integration: how to take territories that had only recently been…

  4. Orientalizing Vietnam: The American Cold War, its “Problems” with Refugee Handicraft Artisans, and their Relationship to Barthes’s Mythology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Way

    2012-11-01

    At issue are the ways those who implemented the program narrated the Vietnamese handicraft artisans as problems by treating both their plight as political refugees fleeing from communist forces in the north and the vulnerability of their fledgling nation in the south to communism, as a Cold War American Orientalist tale of the U.S. salvaging Vietnam from political uncertainty including the destruction of its potential democracy and capitalism. To this point, the Orientalizing saturates Russel Wright’s article, “Gold Mine in Southeast Asia,” which overlays relationships of Western power and civilization as well as anthropological notions of salvage over references to the ways an ostensibly timeless albeit primitive culture of a non-western society (Vietnam could maintain its essential identity by serving the needs of an overly industrialized one. Of particular interest are thematic correspondences between the Orientalist thrust of the American cultural diplomacy as evidenced in Wright’s article, and Roland Barthes’ early work, especially “Myth Today”.

  5. World War II : won by American planes and ships, or by the poor bloody Russian infantry?

    OpenAIRE

    Harrison, Mark

    2016-01-01

    This short paper reviews a new book about World War II. In most such books, what is new is not usually important, and what is important is not new. This one is an exception. How the War Was Won: Air-Sea Power and Allied Victory in World War II, by Phillips Payson O'Brien, sets out a new perspective on the war. An established view is that World War II was decided on the Eastern front, where multi-million armies struggled for supremacy on land and millions died. According to O’Brien, this negle...

  6. George Washington and Civil-Military Relations During the Revolutionary War: A Study of the Establishment of Civilian Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-08

    They advocated the use of force only when needed for the defense of their personal property or general livelihood . Conciliationists were the...for his own cause and the better politician came out on top. This period of the war was a power grab by both the military and politicians alike and...through its ranks in 1777. Lawrence Washington eventually died of his afflictions and bequeathed to his half brother the land later known as Mount

  7. Design at the Edge of the World: The Birth of American Air Intelligence in the China, Burma, India, and the Pacific Theaters during World War II

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-01

    the Pacific theater intersect with the story of air intelligence in the very first minutes of World War II. Japan’s surprise attack on Pearl Harbor...DESIGN AT THE EDGE OF THE WORLD : THE BIRTH OF AMERICAN AIR INTELLIGENCE IN THE CHINA, BURMA, INDIA, AND THE PACIFIC THEATERS DURING WORLD WAR ...Burma-India Theater during World War II. Growing up, he imparted a love for my nation, history and learning which motivated me to select and pursue a

  8. War Finance: Economic and Historic Lessons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boldt, David J.; Kassis, Mary Mathewes

    2004-01-01

    In this article, the authors provide a historical review of how the U.S. government has funded its participation in major wars during the past 150 years. They focus attention on five conflicts--the Civil War, World War I, World War II, the Korean War and the Vietnam War. Those conflicts were funded in different ways, with each funding method…

  9. The effects of regime cooptation on the geographical distribution of violence: Evidence from the Syrian civil war

    OpenAIRE

    De Juan, Alexander; Bank, André

    2013-01-01

    Is violent opposition less likely to occur in subnational regions that have been treated preferentially by the respective country’s ruling elite? Many authoritarian regimes try to secure political support by providing critical segments of the population with privileged access to economic or political rents. This study is interested in the effects of this strategy. Our empirical analysis is based on crowdsourcing data on the number and geospatial distribution of fatalities in the Syrian civil ...

  10. Sowing the Seeds of Civil War: Regime Destabilization and the Adoption of Neoliberal Economic Policies in Syria

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-01

    which included the licensing of wells and regulating drilling procedures.128 Violation of such laws was supposed to be punishable with fine and prison ... prisoners . This period, known as the “Damascus Spring” saw a precipitous growth of civil society organizations and protest that caught the newly-minted...local manufacturing firms.95 Archaic laws that had previously made the possession of and trading in foreign currency punishable by law were revoked

  11. Bibliographies of Microforms Relating to African-Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ransom, Charles G.

    1994-01-01

    Lists approximately 250 microforms from the University of Michigan library that relate to African Americans. Headings are biographies, civil rights, Civil War, colonization, economics, employment, freedmen, history, Michigan, music, news, papers, periodicals, politics, race, Reconstruction, religion, riots, segregation, slavery, social conditions,…

  12. Yale University's Institute of Human Relations and the Spanish Civil War: Dollard and Miller's study of fear and courage under battle conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gondra, José María; Sánchez de Miguel, Manuel

    2009-11-01

    In the late 1930s, the Institute of Human Relations of Yale University developed a research program on conflict and anxiety as an outcome of Clark Hull's informal seminar on the integration of Freud's and Pavlov's theories. The program was launched at the 1937 Annual Meeting of the APA in a session chaired by Clark L. Hull, and the experiments continued through 1941, when the United States entered the Second World War. In an effort to apply the findings from animal experiments to the war situation, John Dollard and Neal E. Miller decided to study soldiers' fear reactions in combat. As a first step, they arranged interviews with a few veterans of the Abraham Lincoln Brigade. Taking these interviews as a point of departure, Dollard devised a questionnaire to which 300 former Lincoln brigaders responded. The present paper analyzes the main outcomes of the questionnaire, together with the war experiences reported in the interview transcripts. Our purpose was to evaluate a project which was initially investigated by the FBI because of the communists among the Lincoln ranks, but eventually supported by the American Army, and which exerted great influence on the military psychology of the time.

  13. Being a neighbor to Syria: a retrospective analysis of patients brought to our clinic for cranial gunshot wounds in the Syrian civil war.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aras, M; Altaş, M; Yilmaz, A; Serarslan, Y; Yilmaz, N; Yengil, E; Urfali, B

    2014-10-01

    Toward the end of 2010, the Arab spring, the waves of revolutionary demonstrations and protests influenced also Syria, where violent clashes turned into a civil war. Hundreds of thousands of people became refugees. The use of excessive force unfortunately culminated in numerous deaths and injuries in many cities. Being the closest city to Aleppo, Damascus and Homs, the biggest cities of Syria, Antioch/Hatay has been the city where initial emergency treatments were performed. For this reason, we examined and retrospectively analyzed the medical records of the patients treated in the clinics of our hospital due to cranial gunshot wounds during the war. The medical records of 186 patients who were injured in the Syrian War and brought to, followed up and treated in the Neurosurgery Clinic of Mustafa Kemal University, Faculty of Medicine in Hatay, a Turkish city on the Syrian border, between April 2011 and June 2013. A total of 186 patients were evaluated in a period of more than 2 years. Of all 91.4% of the patients were adults (male/female: 152/18) and 8.6% of them were pediatric patients (male/female: 14/2). The average age of the patients was 31 years, with an age range of between 2 months and 67 years. According to Glasgow coma score (GCS) of the patients at the time of admission, GCS was 3 in 32 patients (17.2%), between 4 and 7 in 70 patients (37.6%), and between 8 and 15 in 84 patients (45.1%). We observed that the patients with GCS of 4-7 had a significantly lower mortality among the 56 patients treated surgically compared with the 14 patients treated medically. Cranial gunshot wounds are responsible for high mortality and morbidity. A multiplicity of factors plays a role on morbidity and mortality. These are the duration of transport, the injury pattern, the velocities of the weapons used, and the Glasgow Coma Scales of the patients at the time of admission. The authors recommend that the patients with cranial gunshot wounds who has GCS of 4-7 should be

  14. Fear of failure: why american science is not winning the war on cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ness, Roberta B

    2010-02-01

    How to maximize creativity in biological science is a topic rarely discussed and yet critical to success in improving health. I believe that the needed approaches are not simply to flog individuals to try harder but to build systems and infrastructures that enhance creative effort. Lateral thinking can and should be taught. My hope for the future is that every graduate science curriculum will have a course in innovation. Institutions must provide time, space, and individual credit to the long and slow process of creative output. Highly multidisciplinary science should be supported, some of which may require seed or infrastructure support. Funders can separate idea generation from implementation. Scientists can minimize costs of failure by piloting and modeling ideas through incremental research, if supported by funders. But perhaps the very first step is to initiate a vibrant discussion of what we can do to enhance creativity in American biological science-it is time to stop complaining and to start winning the war on cancer.

  15. Effectiveness of the Geneva Convention Relative to American POW’s (Prisoner of War)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1973-05-01

    without ransom, thus ending the era of widespread enslavement of prisoners of war. In 1748 Montesquieu , the French philosopher, stated that "the only... Montesquieu and Rousseau were very influential on the treatment of prisoners of war. Montesquieu maintained that, "War gives no other right over prisoner than...Geneva Conventions. The World owes a great deal of gratitude to men like Montesquieu , Jean Jacques Rousseau, Professor Lieber, and Henry Dunant for

  16. Implications of Sino-American Strategic Competition on Southeast Asia's Post-Cold War Regional Order

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Suryodipuro, Sidharto

    2003-01-01

    .... The study of international politics after the Cold War has rediscovered the importance of regional interaction as the framework for understanding countries' security strategies and the great powers...

  17. The Underappreciated Doctors of The American Civil Rights Movement. Part I: Theodore Roosevelt Mason Howard, MD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    deShazo, Richard D; Parker, Sara B

    2017-07-01

    During the fight to end segregation in the United States, most of the 25 or so black physicians who had not already left Mississippi took risks to become active in civil rights locally and nationally. One of the first was T.R.M. Howard, MD, whose life story is both an encouragement and warning for today's physicians. Howard, the protégé of a white Adventist physician, became active in civil rights during medical school. While serving as chief surgeon of the all-black hospital in Mississippi, he formed his own civil rights organization in 1951 and worked to solve the shootings of 2 of its members, George Lee and Gus Courts, and the murder of Emmett Till in 1955. His reports of these events and collaborations with other civil rights icons helped trigger the modern civil rights movement. At the same time, he became a nationally known proponent of abortion rights and then fled to Chicago in 1956, after arming his Delta mansion with long guns and a Thompson machine gun. Howard will be remembered for many things, including his activism for the social determinants of health as president of the National Medical Association. Copyright © 2017 Southern Society for Clinical Investigation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Women of the Second Republic and the Civil War from the present-day democratic perspective | Las mujeres de la República y la Guerra Civil desde la perspectiva democrática actual

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mónica Moreno Seco

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The strong social interest which women of the Second Republic and the civil war arouse, together with the wealth of solid historical works with a gender perspective, justify female experiences having a place in the debate on the memory of these two periods. The survival to the present day of stereotypes and myths about Republican women, despite the historiographical progress, has served to consolidate a depoliticized view of the past, which presents women as heroines without a clear ideological profile and as innocent victims of the changes and upheaval of the 1930s. These myths and stereotypes, which emphasize the idea of change experienced by women, rather than continuity and resistance to change, have influenced the current perception of the extension of female citizenship in Spanish society. | El especial interés social que las mujeres de la República y la Guerra Civil despiertan, así como la existencia de una nutrida y sólida historiografía de género justifican que las experiencias femeninas ocupen un lugar en el debate sobre la memoria de estos dos periodos. La pervivencia, en la actualidad, de estereotipos y mitos sobre las mujeres republicanas, a pesar de los avances historiográficos, contribuye a consolidar una visión despolitizada del pasado, que presenta a las mujeres como heroínas sin un perfil ideológico claro y víctimas inocentes de las transformaciones y convulsiones de los años treinta. Estos mitos y estereotipos, que refuerzan la idea del cambio experimentado por las mujeres, olvidando las permanencias y las resistencias al mismo, influyen en la percepción actual sobre la ampliación de la ciudadanía femenina en la sociedad española.

  19. Cinema and the Great War - Andrew Kelly, 1997. History by Hollywood. The use and abuse of the American past - Robert Brant Toplin, 1996

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kester, Bernadette

    1998-01-01

    textabstractReview of: Cinema and the Great War. Andrew Kelly, Londen, New York (Routledge), 1997, 219 p.History by Hollywood. The use and abuse of the American past. Robert Brant Toplin, Chicago (Urbana), 1996, 267 p.

  20. El dispositivo venezolano de sanidad y la incorporación de los médicos exiliados de la Guerra Civil española The Venezuelan sanitation authority and the incorporation of physicians exiled from the Spanish Civil War

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan José Martin-Frechilla

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available En 1914, mientras España establecía acuerdos para modernizar su estructura científica y sanitaria, al hilo del panamericanismo y de los controles por la apertura del Canal de Panamá, Venezuela comenzó a estructurar un dispositivo sanitario ajustado a pautas internacionales, auspiciado, desde 1913, por la Fundación Rockefeller. En 1931, la Segunda República aceleró en España el envío de becarios a Estados Unidos y creó un sistema de salud pública bajo el modelo administrativo de unidades sanitarias y unidades técnicas de investigación y control propugnado por la Fundación. La Guerra Civil interrumpió ese proceso y Venezuela aprovechó el momento para contratar a médicos y enfermeras exiliados y los incorporó al nuevo Ministerio de Sanidad y Asistencia Social creado 1936.In 1914, while Spain was making agreements to modernize its scientific and sanitary structure, Venezuela started to structure a sanitation authority following international models, in line with Pan Americanism and the controls for the opening of the Panama Canal, for which is received sponsorship from the Rockefeller Foundation as of 1913. In 1931, the Second Spanish Republic sent ever greater numbers of scholars to study in the United States and established a public health system along the lines of the administrative models for sanitation and technical units for investigation and control as proposed by the Foundation. The Spanish Civil War interrupted this process and Venezuela seized the moment to hire the exiled doctors and nurses and incorporate them into its new Ministry for Sanitation and Social Welfare, created in 1936.

  1. The First World War, Sex Education, and the American Social Hygiene Association's Campaign against Venereal Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imber, Michael

    1984-01-01

    Prior to the First World War, the public's attitude toward sex education was apathetic. With venereal disease posing a threat to America's "military efficiency" during the war, however, military programs in sex education were instituted that then gave rise to similar programs in secondary schools in the 1920s. (JBM)

  2. The Use of Evidence Obtained in US-American Discovery in International Civil Procedure Law and Arbitration in Switzerland

    OpenAIRE

    Müller-Chen, Markus

    2009-01-01

    The gathering of evidence is a key element in legal proceedings. Contrary to the regulations in Switzerland, the US legal order allows for pre-trial discovery, i.e. the parties are entrusted with the collecting of evidence at an early stage. This diverging approach becomes relevant in civil proceedings or arbitral proceedings in Switzerland with a linkage to the USA. The question arises if and how parties may profit from the US-American discovery procedure. This paper wants to answer the ques...

  3. The Vanishing West: 1964-2010--The Disappearance of Western Civilization from the American Undergraduate Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricketts, Glenn; Wood, Peter R.; Balch, Stephen H.; Thorne, Ashley

    2011-01-01

    "The Vanishing West" traces the decline and near extinction of the Western Civilization history survey course in America's top colleges and universities from 1964 to 2010. This course, covering classical antiquity to the present, was once part of the undergraduate curriculum's intellectual bedrock, not only because it was often a graduation…

  4. Masculinity, War and Violence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Addressing the relationship between masculinity, war and violence, the book covers these themes broadly and across disciplines. The ten contributions encompass four recurring themes: violent masculinities and how contemporary societies and regimes cope with them; popular written and visual fiction...... about war and masculine rationalties; gender relations in social movements of rebellion and national transformation; and masculinity in civil society under conditions of war and post-war....

  5. Emerging Patterns of American Civil-Military Relations in Sub-Saharan Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-05-19

    Research Service, August :25, 2008. Us. Military Operations in the Global War on Terrorism: Afghanistan, Africa, the Philippines, and Colombia . RL32758...17,2009). Mani, Kristina. "Militaries in Business State-Making and Entrepreneurship in the Developing World." Armed Forces & Society 33, no. 4...Approved for Public Release; Distribution is Unlimited REPORT DOCUMENTATION PAGE Form Approved OMB No. 0704-0188 The public reporting burden for this

  6. The Angolan Proxy War: A Study of Foreign Intervention and Its Impact on War Fighting

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bissonnette, Brian

    2008-01-01

    .... This study examines the influence of foreign intervention on war fighting during the Angolan Civil War and analyzes how the various levels of support impacted the successes and failures of the internal warring factions...

  7. An assessment of a massively parallel sequencing approach for the identification of individuals from mass graves of the Spanish Civil War (1936-1939).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calafell, Francesc; Anglada, Roger; Bonet, Núria; González-Ruiz, Mercedes; Prats-Muñoz, Gemma; Rasal, Raquel; Lalueza-Fox, Carles; Bertranpetit, Jaume; Malgosa, Assumpció; Casals, Ferran

    2016-10-01

    Next-generation sequencing technologies have opened new opportunities in forensic genetics. Here, we assess the applicability and performance of the MiSeq FGx™ & ForenSeq™ DNA Signature Prep Kit (Illumina) for the identification of individuals from the mass graves of the Spanish Civil War (1936-1939). The main limitations for individual identification are the low number of possible first-degree living relatives and the high levels of DNA degradation reported in previous studies. Massively parallel sequencing technologies enabling the analysis of hundreds of regions and prioritizing short length amplicons constitute a promising tool for this kind of approaches. In this study, we first explore the power of this new technology to detect first- and second-degree kinship given different scenarios of DNA degradation. Second, we specifically assess its performance in a set of low DNA input samples previously analyzed with CE technologies. We conclude that this methodology will allow identification of up to second-degree relatives, even in situations with low sequencing performance and important levels of allele drop-out; it is thus a technology that resolves previous drawbacks and that will allow a successful approximation to the identification of remains. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Japan’s Role in Conflict Resolution and Effective Governance in Tajikistan: Case of the Tajik civil war, 1992-1997

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farrukh Usmonov

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Tajikistan faced Civil War in 1992-1997, which damaged country’s economy and infrastructure. Thus from 1994 Government and United Opposition with support of International society started Inter-Tajik negotiation process, which ended up with signing Peace Treaty in 1997. Japan unlike other countries of the region wasn’t much involved into conflict in Tajikistan, but in opposite, it was supportive into the peace enhancement in country. In 1999 Japanese government created platform for the Inter-Tajik Peace negotiators (including officials from government and opposition of Tajikistan, UN envoys, representatives from IOs and NGOs, Japanese MoFA and other experts and invited them to Japan to discuss outcome of the Peace Treaty and to look forward on solving remaining issues before Parliamentary election in year 2000. This project considered as final international dialogue between Tajikistani side and International society before country moves onward. Current paper focuses on topic which was discussed in Tokyo, and define outcome of this project.

  9. Sharing the Prize: The Economics of the Civil Rights Revolution in the American South [Book Review

    OpenAIRE

    Kousser, J. Morgan

    2014-01-01

    Stanford University economic historian Gavin Wright's clear, accessible, and deeply researched book argues persuasively, first, that it was civil rights laws and federal court decisions from Brown v. Board of Education (1954) on that substantially enhanced the economic well-being of southern blacks after 1960. These improvements in black status, he demonstrates with both statistical evidence and qualitative case studies, would not have come about through the operation of mar...

  10. Vietnam: Historians at War

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyar, Mark

    2008-01-01

    Although the Vietnam War ended more than thirty years ago, historians remain as divided on what happened as the American people were during the war. Mark Moyar maps the ongoing battle between "orthodox" and "revisionist" Vietnam War historians: the first group, those who depict Vietnam as a bad war that the United States should…

  11. Media, a President, and His Generals: How the Media Shaped Civil-Military Relations during the Mexican War

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-19

    He concluded his thoughts by calling Whig editors “unpatriotic” and “anti- American.” 161 On May 15, 1847, the city of Puebla fell with little...should have advanced at once rather than wait in Puebla to “suck oranges.”163 Meanwhile, the Whig controlled New Orleans Picayune harshly criticized...force of approximately 11,000 men. When Scott left Puebla , he made a decision that affected embedded news correspondents. By breaking contact with

  12. Segregation, civil rights, and health disparities: the legacy of African American physicians and organized medicine, 1910-1968.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washington, Harriet A; Baker, Robert B; Olakanmi, Ololade; Savitt, Todd L; Jacobs, Elizabeth A; Hoover, Eddie; Wynia, Matthew K; Blanchard, Janice; Boulware, L Ebony; Braddock, Clarence; Corbie-Smith, Giselle; Crawley, LaVera; LaVeist, Thomas A; Maxey, Randall; Mills, Charles; Moseley, Kathryn L; Williams, David R

    2009-06-01

    Between 1910 and 1968, the National Medical Association (NMA) repeatedly clashed with the American Medical Association (AMA) over the latter organization's racial bars to membership and other health policy issues. The NMA, founded in 1895 as a nonexclusionary medical society to provide a voice for disenfranchised black physicians and patients, struggled in its early years, during which AMA leadership took scant notice of it. But skirmishes ensued over such actions as stigmatizing racial labels in the AMA's American Medical Directory, which, beginning in 1906, listed all U.S. physicians but designated African Americans with the notation col. The NMA also repeatedly asked the AMA to take action against overt racial bars on blacks' membership in its constituent state and county societies. During the civil rights era, African American physicians received no AMA support in seeking legal remedies to hospital segregation. And the NMA and AMA found themselves opposed on other policy issues, including Medicaid and Medicare. These differences eventually catalyzed a series of direct confrontations. The 1965 AMA meeting in New York City, for example, was protested by about 200 NMA-led picketers. The NMA's quest for racial equality in medicine was supported by some other medical organizations, such as the Medical Committee for Human Rights. In 1966, the AMA House voted to amend the AMA Constitution and Bylaws, giving its Judicial Council (now the Council on Ethical and Judicial Affairs) the authority to investigate allegations of discrimination. This paved the way for a subsequent era of increasing cooperation and understanding.

  13. Civil Affairs in Unconventional Warfare

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-23

    Affairs Team CIM Civil Information Management CCDR Combatant Commander CF Conventional Forces CLT Civil Liaison Team CME Civil Military...this strategy from the 1930s to 1940s against the Japanese invaders in China in World War II and then against the Chinese ruling party, the

  14. Hitler's bible: an analysis of the relationship between American and German eugenics in pre-war Nazi Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Susan

    2009-06-01

    Throughout the last century the wellbeing of those with disability has been threatened by the idea of eugenics. The most notable and extreme example of this could be considered to have been carried out during World WarTwo, within Nazi eugenic programmes. These resulted in the sterilisation and killing of hundreds of thousands of disabled people. Through research of a wide range of sources it has been established that much of the inspiration and encouragement for this rapidly progressing movement in Germany initially came from America, most notably from California. American eugenicists expressed interest, and at times jealousy, at the speed of the progression in German eugenics. German Sterilisation laws were drafted following careful study of American experiments and research, while financial support from a number of American individuals encouraged further German research. Correspondence between influential leaders, including Hitler, Grant and Whitney, Verschuer and Popenoe, on both sides also added to the developing relationship. In conclusion, although there are a number of vital differences between the progress of the eugenics programme in America and in pre-war Nazi Germany, and eugenics in America never produced the massive genocide that occurred in Germany, it is clear that the research, encouragement and enthusiasm from America had a profound influence on the rapidly growing Nazi eugenics movement.

  15. The Republic of Mexico and the United States of America: The Mexican-American War -- In Retrospect. Fulbright-Hays Summer Seminar Abroad 1996 (Mexico).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juarez, Pablo Hill

    The unit is intended as part of a world cultures curriculum taught at the 10th grade level. The lessons include: (1) "Mexico in Brief"; (2) "The Mexican American War 1846-1848"; and (3) "History and Educational Status of Americans of Mexican Descent (Chicanos) in the Southwest." Additional resources and a 32-item…

  16. The Problem of Emergency in the American Supreme Court

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartz, Emily; ugilt, rasmus

    2011-01-01

    Sixty years before Carl Schmitt wrote his Political Theology, and more than a 100 years before President Bush announced a ‘war on terrorism’ the American Supreme Court grappled with the difficult issue of emergency powers in connection with issues arising out of the American Civil War (1861......–1865). The question confronting the Court in a set of cases named the Prize Cases was whether President Lincoln’s decision to respond to acts of aggression by the secessionist Southern states with measures of war was lawful. The legal problem was that Lincoln had made this decision unilaterally although the American...

  17. The Development of the American Theory of Limited War, 1945-63

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-04-21

    deterring a global catastrophe 26 Two writers came to the fore in presenting the unpalatable to the citizens of the U S - - Oskar Morgenstern and Albert...Wohistetter Morgenstern trumpeted the fact that the Soviet nuclear accomplishments were "so formidable" that in 1959 the U S "was approaching a peak of...171 137 Weigley, Way of War pp 426-7. 138 Morgenstern summarized from Weigley, Way of War pp. 430-2. 139 Wohlstetter RAND P-1472 p 1 140 Ibid, p 10

  18. Gli Stati Uniti e la Spagna. Repubblica e Guerra Civile (1931-1939

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrico Gori

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the United States’ foreign policy towards Spain during the Spanish Civil War, focusing on the diplomatic relationships with the Second Spanish Republic, the reasons behind neutrality, the reactions of the American public opinon and the failed attempts by President F. D. Roosevelt to help the beleaguered Spanish Government.

  19. Charles Edouard Brown-Séquard's departure from the Medical College of Virginia: incompatible science or incompatible social views in pre-Civil War southern United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Joseph C; Ho, Stephen V

    2011-01-01

    Charles Edouard Brown-Séquard was one of the most colorful characters in modern physiology. His scientific methods of self-experimentation and animal vivisection led to many great observations, including the eponymous syndrome of hemisection of the spinal cord. Despite his renown, he stayed but one year in his first major academic post. Details of his sojourn at the Medical College of Virginia (now part of Virginia Commonwealth University) in Richmond were divined from perusal of archival material, letters, and from the available literature. His notoriety in the field of physiology landed him a post at the Medical College of Virginia in 1854 as the chair of physiology. During a brief time here, he was able to publish his landmark monograph of 1855 on the pathways of the spinal cord "Experimental and Clinical Researches on the Physiology and Pathology of the Spinal Cord." He had a near-death experience while experimenting on himself to determine the function of the skin. It was rumored that his English was poor, his lectures unintelligible, and his scientific methods disturbing to the neighbors and that for those reasons he was asked to vacate his post. Personal communications and other accounts indicate a different view: his mixed-blood heritage and his views on slavery were unpopular in the pre-Civil War southern United States. These disparate viewpoints lend an insight into the life and career of this pioneer in modern medicine and experimental design and to the clash of science and social views. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Digging up the recent Spanish memory: genetic identification of human remains from mass graves of the Spanish Civil War and posterior dictatorship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baeta, Miriam; Núñez, Carolina; Cardoso, Sergio; Palencia-Madrid, Leire; Herrasti, Lourdes; Etxeberria, Francisco; de Pancorbo, Marian M

    2015-11-01

    The Spanish Civil War (1936-1939) and posterior dictatorship (until 1970s) stands as one of the major conflicts in the recent history of Spain. It led to nearly two hundred thousand men and women executed or murdered extra-judicially or after dubious legal procedures. Nowadays, most of them remain unidentified or even buried in irretraceable mass graves across Spain. Here, we present the genetic identification of human remains found in 26 mass graves located in Northern Spain. A total of 252 post-mortem remains were analyzed and compared to 186 relatives, allowing the identification of 87 victims. Overall, a significant success of DNA profiling was reached, since informative profiles (≥ 12 STRs and/or mitochondrial DNA profile) were obtained in 85.71% of the remains. This high performance in DNA profiling from challenging samples demonstrated the efficacy of DNA extraction and amplification methods used herein, given that only around 14.29% of the samples did not provide an informative genetic profile for the analysis performed, probably due to the presence of degraded and/or limited DNA in these remains. However, this study shows a partial identification success rate, which is clearly a consequence of the lack of both appropriate family members for genetic comparisons and accurate information about the victims' location. Hence, further perseverance in the exhumation of other intact graves as well as in the search of more alleged relatives is crucial in order to facilitate and increase the number of genetic identifications. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Wars in the history of rheumatology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Marson

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Some important discoveries in the history of rheumatology happened during war periods. It is well known that arthritis associated with conjunctivitis and urethritis, following dysenteric episodes, has been described during the First World War from the German Hans Reiter and, nearly contemporarily, from the French Nöel Fiessinger and Edgar Leroy. Less known is instead the fact that the first cases of sympathetic algoneurodystrophy have been reported by the American Silas Weir Mitchell in soldiers wounded by fire-arms, during the Civil War of Secession. Other war episodes have been crucial for the development of some drugs now abundantly applied to the care of rheumatic diseases. The discovery of therapeutic effects of immunosuppressive agents, in fact, happened as an indirect consequence of the use of poison gas, already during the First World War (mustard gas, but above all after an episode in the port of Bari in 1943, where an American cargo boat was sunk. It had been loaded with a quantity of cylinders containing a nitrogenous mustard, whose diffusion in the environment provoked more than 80 deaths owing to bone marrow aplasia.Moreover, the history of the cortisone shows a strict link to the Second World War, when Germany imported large quantities of bovine adrenal glands from Argentina, with the purpose of producing some gland extracts for the Luftwasse aviators, in order to increase their performance ability.

  2. The calamus root: a study of American gay poetry since World War II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, W

    1998-01-01

    This paper traces the development of gay poetry in America after World War II. A taxonomy and publishing history is outlined for various poetic movements. An overview is given of the aesthetic and thematic characteristics of the tradition and its connection to homosexual writing in the nineteenth century.

  3. Enduring Lessons of Justice from the World War II Japanese American Internment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallavan, Nancy P.; Roberts, Teresa A.

    2005-01-01

    In 1942, less than four months after Japan's attack on Pearl Harbor and the subsequent United States entry into World War II , nearly 120,000 persons of Japanese ancestry living along the west coast of the United States were ordered to evacuate their homes and sent to internment camps. The evacuees, separated from their extended families, former…

  4. The American-Israeli Relationship Relevance in a Post-Cold War Environment

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hoff, Michael

    2003-01-01

    .... This relationship has been critical during the period of cold war politics from 1948-1989. However, since the breakup of the Soviet Union, this relationship has been the basis for much of the intensified hatred aimed at the U.S...

  5. Advising Success: Lessons from American Military Assistance Efforts Since World War II

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-01

    scholarly research of Columbia in the 50s and 60s and the long-term impacts that the violent period known as La Violencia has on the problems the...parties occasionally erupts into violence, most notably in the Thousand Days War (1899–1902) and La Violencia , beginning in 1948.130 A generation of

  6. The Influence of the Cold War on the Racial Desegregation of American Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watras, Joseph

    2013-01-01

    With the rise of the Cold War, federal officials in the United States sought to end the racial segregation that the U.S. Supreme Court had accepted in the 1896 decision of "Plessy v. Ferguson." Although the reforms began with changes in the armed services, they moved to reduce racial segregation in schools. Many forces brought about the…

  7. The Hope for American School Reform: The Cold War Pursuit of Inquiry Learning in Social Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Ronald W.

    2010-01-01

    As the issue of school reform grows ever more intense, it is imperative that we learn what we can from previous efforts. The new social studies was a 1960's attempt to transform the teaching of history and the social sciences in schools. With origins in the Cold War, the movement sought to develop critical thinkers through "inquiry" and…

  8. International Education during the Cold War: Soviet Social Transformation and American Social Reproduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsvetkova, Natalia

    2008-01-01

    During the Cold War, the United States and Soviet Union employed various cultural and informational and educational tools to establish and maintain friendly political regimes in foreign states. In this context international education programs became a major part of their strategy to win the "minds" and "allegiance" and to…

  9. Education, Nation-Building and Modernization after World War I: American Ideas for the Peace Conference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ment, David M.

    2005-01-01

    The First World War ended with the collapse of the Austro-Hungarian, Russian, German and Ottoman Empires. In planning for the peace negotiations the allied governments considered not only the European boundaries but especially the national aspirations and future development of the peoples of the Balkans, the Caucasus, the Middle East, Africa and…

  10. America's First Carl Sagan: Ormsby MacKnight Mitchel, Pre-Civil War Astronomer and Lecturer on the Cosmos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osterbrock, D. E.

    2002-12-01

    In the years before television, videos, radio. movies, or even loudspeakers, Ormsby MacKnight Mitchel (1809-1862) was the best-known popularizer of astronomy and the scientific study of the universe in nineteenth-century America. Each winter he traveled the country by railroad, steamer, and stagecoach, speaking to large paying crowds in principal cities from Boston, New York, and Philadelphia through Cincinnati to New Orleans on the cosmos and our place in it, with special attention to possible inhabitants of planers orbiting other stars. Mitchel had much the same attraction as Sagan did in our time, and awakened many people's interest in astronomy through the human angle, as Carl did. His argument was simple, and according to Frank Triplett goes back thousands of years: other stars are suns, our sun has planets with people on one of them, why should not other stars also have populated planets? But first Mitchel, like Sagan, always explained clearly the discoveries of astronomy that fleshed out this argument with facts. He emphasized the ``clockwork universe", governed by gravity, that Newton, Herschel, and Laplace had investigated and found to be stable. There were many other similarities between these two great popularizers. Mitchel's base was the Cincinnati Observatory, which he had founded, raising the funds for it himself in small contributions from hundreds of ``members", which he publicised as far more democratic than support from European kings and lords. He went abroad to get a telescope, and finally found his ``Great [12-inch] Refractor" in Munich, with help from John Quincy Adams, Astronomer Royal George Biddle Airy, and Paris Observatory Director Fracois Arago, in spite of a rebuff by President John Tyler. These episodes have similarities in Sagan's lobbying NASA for close-up images of Mars. Views of other American professional astronomers on life on other worlds will also be described briefly, from Denison Olmsted, Elias Loomis, Charles A. Young (who

  11. Experts in the cold war. War experiences and peace conceptions of US-American physicists 1920-1963; Experten im Kalten Krieg. Kriegserfahrungen und Friedenskonzeptionen US-amerikanischer Kernphysiker 1920-1963

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wunderle, Ulrike

    2015-07-01

    The study is dedicated to the American elite of nuclear physicists, which explained after the second world war the possibilities of their science for war and peace. What induced their thinking and handling? The focus lies on the scientific shapings and war experiences of the first really international generation of physicists, which began in the 1920th years their career before many of their representatives had to fly from the NS regime from Europe and cooperated in the Manhattan project in the construction of the atomic bomb. These experiences the author refers to in order to get on the track of the explanations of the exper elite in the immediate afterwar time and in the cold war. How far their internationally and by actual war experiences shaped thinking about their own contribution as scientist to the national security - in the sense of discouragement or the cooperative conflict regulation - found its expression in the cold war, is drawn on different action levels of the participants from the Geneve conference ''Atoms for Peace'' of 1955 until the signing of the so-called Limited Test Ban Treaty of 1963.

  12. The Presence of the American Troops in Romania: Civil-Military Challenges Beyond a Military Relationship

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-03-01

    practical point of view, but also from a political and psychological point of view, as American Ambassador, Taubman, states in the July 4 edition of the...These actions included also the eastern sector of Berlin gaining psychological values in responding to the Soviets’ action. “As Berlin’s fate became... EBSCO Publishing, Vital Speeches of the Day, Vol LII No 18, July 1, 1986. 148 There also is agreement among NATO countries that the defense

  13. Coffee Beans and Rice Paddies - War on the Cheap: American Advisors in El Salvador and Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-19

    that can be influenced, the more success the overall counterinsurgent effort eventually has. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Operational Art , Vietnam, El...Practice, 52-53. 23Sun Tzu, The Art of War, trans. Samuel B. Griffith (New York: Oxford University Press, 1963), 76. 24Joes, Resisting Rebellion...tenuous peace only through power and wealth sharing initiatives, near-homogeneous ethnography , and a noteworthy post-conflict reconciliation

  14. From Militant to Military: The Ambivalent Politics of Liberal Feminism in the American War on Terror

    OpenAIRE

    Liao, Amanda

    2015-01-01

    The widespread use of feminist, human rights, and international development discourse for justifying military intervention is part of a long and storied tradition of imperial feminism – a tradition which is deeply embedded into the normative Western ideologies of neoliberalism and modernization. However, the narrative of feminism that has been appropriated by the US military in order to justify the war on terror is that of liberal feminism; it is a discourse of feminism that privileges a whit...

  15. Post-Cold War American Foreign Policy: What, When, and Why

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-01

    The Compulsive Empire,‖ Foreign Policy no. 137 (July/August 2003), 83. 8 Robert Gilpin, War and Change in World Politics (Cambridge: Cambridge...of the Twenty-First Century (New York: Council on Foreign Relations, 2002), 203 & 120. 25 Robert Jervis, ―The Compulsive Empire,‖ Foreign Policy no...producing excess GHG. It also allowed an option for states unable to afford the cost of GHG reduction to buy carbon credits instead. 7 The Clinton

  16. Anticommunism as cultural praxis : South Vietnam, war, and refugee memories in the Vietnamese American community

    OpenAIRE

    Vo Dang, Thanh Thuy

    2008-01-01

    In dialogue with new critical scholarship on immigration, refugee, war, and memory studies as well as drawing from the methodologies of cultural studies and ethnography, this dissertation examines "anticommunism" as a set of cultural discourses and practices that shape the past, present, and future of Vietnamese diasporic communities by exploring when, where, and for what purposes South Vietnam emerges in refugee memories. That anticommunism continues to be an important paradigm for Vietnames...

  17. French Intervention: British Failure To Anticipate Transition In The American War of Independence

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-26

    Franco-American Alliance of 1778, eds. Peter J. Albert and Ronald Hoffman (Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia, 1981), 109-115. 30 It...Revolution: The Franco-American Alliance of 1778, eds. Peter J. Albert and Ronald Hoffman (Charlottesville: University of Virginia Press, 1981), 155...104 Simms, Europe, 136-137. 43 Bibliography Albert , Peter J. and Ronald Hoffman , eds. Diplomacy and the Revolution: The Franco-American

  18. Poker, Blackjack, Rummy, and War: The Face of American Strategic Culture

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Skuta, Philip C

    2006-01-01

    .... The American strategic culture is an amalgam of beliefs, values, ideas, attitudes, habits, patterns, and preferences of behavior that, over time, has created a distinctive national strategic style...

  19. Ethnicity, class, and civil war

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hechter, Michael Norman; Siroky, David

    2016-01-01

    Why are some countries prone to ethno-nationalist conflict, whereas others are plagued by class conflict? This is a question that has seldom been raised and rarely been examined empirically. This paper presents a social-structural theory to account for the variable incidence of these two forms...

  20. Ground Wars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Rasmus Kleis

    Political campaigns today are won or lost in the so-called ground war--the strategic deployment of teams of staffers, volunteers, and paid part-timers who work the phones and canvass block by block, house by house, voter by voter. Ground Wars provides an in-depth ethnographic portrait of two...... such campaigns, New Jersey Democrat Linda Stender's and that of Democratic Congressman Jim Himes of Connecticut, who both ran for Congress in 2008. Rasmus Kleis Nielsen examines how American political operatives use "personalized political communication" to engage with the electorate, and weighs the implications...... of ground war tactics for how we understand political campaigns and what it means to participate in them. He shows how ground wars are waged using resources well beyond those of a given candidate and their staff. These include allied interest groups and civic associations, party-provided technical...

  1. Positive Adjustment Among American Repatriated Prisoners of the Vietnam War: Modeling the Long-Term Effects of Captivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Daniel W; King, Lynda A; Park, Crystal L; Lee, Lewina O; Kaiser, Anica Pless; Spiro, Avron; Moore, Jeffrey L; Kaloupek, Danny G; Keane, Terence M

    2015-11-01

    A longitudinal lifespan model of factors contributing to later-life positive adjustment was tested on 567 American repatriated prisoners from the Vietnam War. This model encompassed demographics at time of capture and attributes assessed after return to the U.S. (reports of torture and mental distress) and approximately 3 decades later (later-life stressors, perceived social support, positive appraisal of military experiences, and positive adjustment). Age and education at time of capture and physical torture were associated with repatriation mental distress, which directly predicted poorer adjustment 30 years later. Physical torture also had a salutary effect, enhancing later-life positive appraisals of military experiences. Later-life events were directly and indirectly (through concerns about retirement) associated with positive adjustment. Results suggest that the personal resources of older age and more education and early-life adverse experiences can have cascading effects over the lifespan to impact well-being in both positive and negative ways.

  2. Sermons in American History: Selected Issues in the American Pulpit 1630-1967.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, DeWitte, Ed.; And Others

    This anthology presents 43 American sermons in the context of the social, cultural, and historical development of America. Two or more sermons treat the pro and con viewpoints on nineteen specific issues--from seventeenth century Puritan debates on the authority of God, to the pre-Civil War slavery controversy, to the current questions of Popular…

  3. A Study of the Leadership Displayed by Lieutenant General Thomas Jonathan Jackson During the American Civil War

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-06-05

    Jackson then accused French of sexual misconduct with a family maid. While the whole affair seems to have been based more on the ambition of the two... assualt against the same flank. The plan was bold and very ambitious. Jackson was to move his army over one hundred miles, join with a force already

  4. Involving older Americans in the war on tobacco. The American Stop Smoking Intervention Study for Cancer Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummings, K M

    1994-10-01

    The American Stop Smoking Intervention Study for Cancer Prevention (ASSIST) is a collaborative effort of the National Cancer Institute, the American Cancer Society, state health departments, and other public and private organizations to develop comprehensive tobacco use control programs in 17 states. The two main goals of the project are to reduce adult smoking prevalence to 15% or less and to reduce the rates of smoking initiation among adolescents by 50% by the year 2000. There is strong consensus within the tobacco-control field of what needs to be done to accomplish these goals. The key elements of a comprehensive tobacco control effort include (1) an excise tax policy based on raising the real price of tobacco, (2) a ban on all forms of tobacco advertising and promotion, (3) product regulation to reduce the harmful constituents found in tobacco and enforce the use of strong and prominent package warnings, (4) the enactment of policies that protect nonsmokers from inhaling tobacco smoke, (5) comprehensive efforts to eliminate minors' access to tobacco products, (6) ongoing and adequately funded efforts to educate the public about the harmful effects of tobacco, (7) the availability of cessation assistance to persons interested in discontinuing the use of tobacco, and (8) the ending of all financial assistance to the tobacco-growing industry. Because older Americans represent a growing and political influential segment of our society, the enactment of effective tobacco control policies depends in part on generating support for such measures among older citizens. This article outlines several ways in which organizations such as American Association of Retired Persons and the American Cancer Society can work together to advocate meaningful tobacco control policies (e.g., higher excise taxes, clean indoor air laws, etc.).

  5. THER ROLE OF REMOTE SENSING AND GIS IN IDENTIFYING AND REMOVING BURIED WORLD WAR I MUNITIONS AT THE AMERICAN UNIVERSITY, WASHINGTON, DC

    Science.gov (United States)

    During World War I, The American University in Washington D.C. was used by the U.S. Am1y as an experiment station for the development and testing of a variety of battlefield munitions including chemical weapons such as Mustard Gas, Phosgene, Ricin and Lewisite, among others. Afte...

  6. THE ROLE OF THE REMOTE SENSING IN IDENTIFYING BURIED WORLD WAR I MUNITIONS AT THE AMERICAN UNIVERSITY, WASHINGTON, D.C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    During World War 1, The American University in Washington D.C. was used by the U.S. Army as an experiment station for the development and testing of a variety of battlefield munitions including chemical weapons such as Mustard Gas, Phosgene, Ricin and Lewisite, among othe...

  7. Nuclear Weapons and Nuclear War. Papers Based on a Symposium of the Forum on Physics and Society of the American Physical Society, (Washington, D.C., April 1982).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Philip; And Others

    Three papers on nuclear weapons and nuclear war, based on talks given by distinguished physicists during an American Physical Society-sponsored symposium, are provided in this booklet. They include "Caught Between Asymptotes" (Philip Morrison), "We are not Inferior to the Soviets" (Hans A. Bethe), and "MAD vs. NUTS"…

  8. Extraordinary renditions: reflections upon the war on terror in British and American screen science fiction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alec Charles

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Como la Guerra Fría influenció cuarenta años de ciencia ficción televisiva, así la sombra del 11/S formaliza la ciencia ficción popular en los primeros años del siglo XXI. La destrucción de Nueva York ha ocurrido en muchas películas como El día después de mañana, Cloverfield, La Guerra de los Mundos y La Leyenda. Como La Invasión, la última trilogía que reinventa la fábula de la Guerra Fría –La invasión de los ladrones de cuerpos, la Guerra de los Mundos y El hombre Omega- para la era neoconservadora, como 28 días después, 28 semanas después, Jericho y el remade Superviventes con un resurgimiento en un escenario post-apocalíptico que adolece de la serie Day of the Triffids. Como Star Trek: Enterprise vuelve su tradicional liberalismo como un ejercicio de patriotera paranoia, Batalla estelar (otro restaurada reliquia de la Guerra Fría ha presentado una visión más ambigua y problemática de la batalla de la democracia con el fundamentalismo. El re-hecho Doctor Who y Héroes han avanzado similares argumentos de nuevo en el totalizado seudo-utopismo de los cruzados o de los jihadistas a favor del stablishment de un consenso plural.Palabras clave: 11/S, ciencia ficción televisiva, Doctor Who, escenario post-apocalíptico, paranoia patriotera ___________________________ABSTRACT:As the Cold War influenced forty years of screen science fiction, so the shadow of 9/11 informs popular science fiction in the early twenty-first century. The destruction of New York has recurred in such films as The Day After Tomorrow, Cloverfield, War of the Worlds and I Am Legend. Like The Invasion, the latter pair reinvent Cold War fables – Invasion of the Body Snatchers, War of the Worlds and The Omega Man – for the neoconservative age, while 28 Days Later, 28 Weeks Later, Jericho and the remade Survivors witness a resurgence in post-apocalyptic concerns redolent of Day of the Triffids. While Star Trek: Enterprise turned its franchise

  9. Seeing Off the Bear: Anglo-American Air Power Cooperation During the Cold War,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-01-01

    Legislative History, Executive Orders, Etc., Senate Report No. 1068, Sept 13, 1949, pp. 1991-2039. 14. Hansard’s Parliamentary Debates (Commons), 5th ser...they were in the American hemisphere and they carried that weight of Victorian colonialism about them which makes Americans uncomfortable. They were...Parliament, Hansard’s Parliamentary Debates (Commons), 5th series, vol. 462 (1949), col. 1931. 6. Barnes, Shorts Aircraft, p. 427; Goldberg, "Military

  10. "War" in the Jurisprudence of the Inter American Court of Human Rights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurence Burgorgue - Larsen

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available How have Inter-American Human Rights bodies dealt with the notion of “war”, which has been transformed over time into the notion of internal and international “armed conflicts”? This question provides the analytical foundation of the first part of this study, which sets out the various types of conflicts that have occurred in the American continent. These situations (armed conflicts, internal strife, State terrorism have produced a wide range of legal categorizations, utilized by both the Commission and Inter-American Court of Human Rights in their case-law. This conceptual delimitation carried out by these two bodies is all the more important as it affects the law that applies to armed conflicts. Indeed, by analysing this question, the never-ending debate on the relationship between International Human Rights Law and International Humanitarian Law reappears. The second part of this study therefore focuses on the issue of discovering whether and in which way jus in bello has found its place into the Inter-American Human Rights bodies’ case-law. As the active political life of Latin American societies has shown, the study of the different applicable legal regimes also requires looking into “state of emergency” Law, an issue which has been shaped by the Inter-American Court and Commission’s work.

  11. Recent historiography on the Civil War: historical rigour against rigor mortis. When ‘revisionism’ is nothing more than a return to yesterday’s myths expressed with the indignant voice of the past | La historiografía reciente sobre la Guerra Civil: el rigor histórico contra el rigor mortis. Cuando el «revisionismo» no es nada más que la vuelta a los mitos de ayer expresados con la voz indignada del pasado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris Ealham

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available This article analyses the evolution of the historiography of the Spanish civil war in recent years. Over 70 years on from the conflict, it is possible to say that there are fewer and fewer taboos relating to the war, just as there is growing freedom for researchers to write on the civil war. However, despite the fact that Francoist myths are completely discredited in the universities, they continue to have an impact within civil society, owing to the enduring influence of primitive right-wing opinion. | Este artículo analiza la evolución de la historiografía de la guerra civil española en los últimos años. Mas que setenta años después del conflicto, podemos decir que cada vez son menos los temas tabú sobre la Guerra y cada vez más la libertad de los investigadores para escribir sin trabas sobre éstos. Pero pese a que los mitos franquistas están totalmente desacreditados en las universidades, éstos siguen dando coletazos a través de una derecha primitiva y ejerciendo su influencia dentro de la sociedad civil.

  12. ¡Arrasar la Vendée! Guerra Civil y Columnas Infernales en pleno corazón de la Revolución Francesa. – Raze the Vendée! Civil War and Infernal Columns in the heart of the French Revolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cutillas Victoria, Benjamín

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In the middle of the French Revolution, when the Liberty and the Rights of Man were proclaimed, a part of France decided to turn away from this new political and moral system with the aim of returning to their recent past when the Royal Authority and the Catholic Religion were the creed of the people. This against the revolutionary process took place in the west of the country, causing many internal conflicts that acquired special relevance in the Vendée region, where a true civil war exploded and the French Republic enforced a policy of total war unleashing the so-called Infernal Columns, although they didn’t put an end to the problem. The strife would end three years after with a peace process in the rebel region and terrible consequences for all.

  13. Observations on Occupation and Military Governance: An Analysis of the American Occupation of Japan and Germany in World War II

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Duray, Jr, Paul H

    2007-01-01

    Prior to the current Global War on Terror (GWOT), the United States military had not participated in occupation and military governance mission on as a massive a scale as that experienced in World War II...

  14. Strategic Insights, Volume 5, Issue 2, February 2006. Uribe's Second Mandate, the War, and the Implications for Civil-Military Relations in Colombia

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Porch, Douglas

    2006-01-01

    .... However, hardly was the ink dry on the Constitutional Court's decision than hero of the hard line, take-no-prisoners strategy in the war against Colombia's insurgents appeared to reverse course...

  15. Labor in the US foreign policy during early cold war : the Marshall Plan and American-Turkish labor relations, 1945-1955

    OpenAIRE

    Öner, Sera

    2006-01-01

    Cataloged from PDF version of article. American foreign policy, parallel to the rise of the working class as of the 1860s, has included a new policy actor: labor. Likewise, in the aftermath of World War II and emergence of bipolar world, the United States of America actively made use of labor unions and rendered it an intrinsic Cold War value. This thesis describes America’s use of labor tool in its struggle against communism after providing a general account of labor moveme...

  16. Stasis and Bellum Civile:A Difference in Scale?

    OpenAIRE

    Lange, Carsten Hjort

    2017-01-01

    David Armitage’s new monograph Civil Wars: A History in Ideas (2017) will undoubtedly long remain a standard reference work. It presents readers with a vision of civil war as part of the longue durée. The argument might be further strengthened, however, if a more inclusive Greco-Roman approach to ancient civil war is accepted. This essay focuses on stasis vs. bellum civile, the origins of the concept of civil war, the approach of later Roman writers (such as Appian and Cassius Dio) to the con...

  17. Race, Schools and Opportunity Hoarding: Evidence from a Post-War American Metropolis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rury, John L.; Rife, Aaron Tyler

    2018-01-01

    Opportunity hoarding is a sociological concept first introduced by Charles Tilly. This article explores its utility for historians by examining efforts to exclude different groups of people in a major American metropolis during the 1960s and seventies. This was a period of significant social change, as the racial composition of big city schools…

  18. Screening the 'War on Terror' : the politics and aesthetics of torture in American and European cinema

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bodde, O.C.

    2016-01-01

    Cinema and society interact. This given becomes fascinating when socio-politically sensitive issues are adapted in films that confront spectators with the frames of reference they use to make sense of society. This thesis studies how North-American and European films depict political torture in the

  19. Surviving the War by Singing the Blues: The Contemporary Ethos of American Indian Political Poetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsosie, Rebecca

    1986-01-01

    Explores major themes in contemporary American Indian poetry that comprise the Native ethos of cultural resistance and survival. Correlates certain themes of Indian poetry with those of Black spiritual and blues. Discusses Western and Indian world views, political and social conflict, and art as the agent of criticism and change. Contains 28…

  20. The Rivalry of the French and American Educational Missions during the Vietnam War

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Thuy-Phuong

    2014-01-01

    From 1955 to 1975, the French and the Americans were both active in the educational field in South Vietnam, but their objectives were different. The French were concerned with preserving their influence with the Vietnamese elites and relied on the Mission Culturelle--the heir of the colonial Direction of Education--and its prestigious high…

  1. Cleaning Up the Joint: Command, Control, and Agency in American War Fighting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    hostages held captive in Teheran by Iranian militants. The abortive rescue suffered from numerous problems that were the direct result of the...erased the stigma of Vietnam and fully restored the military to prominence in American statecraft. On the whole, the performance at the tactical

  2. World War II Homefront.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Rachel

    2002-01-01

    Presents an annotated bibliography that provides Web sites focusing on the U.S. homefront during World War II. Covers various topics such as the homefront, Japanese Americans, women during World War II, posters, and African Americans. Includes lesson plan sources and a list of additional resources. (CMK)

  3. World War II : won by American planes and ships, or by the poor bloody Russian infantry?\\ud

    OpenAIRE

    Harrison, Mark

    2015-01-01

    This short paper reviews a new book about World War II. In most such books, what is new is not usually important, and what is important is not new. This one is an exception. How the War Was Won: Air-Sea Power and Allied Victory in World War II, by Phillips Payson O'Brien, sets out a new perspective on the war. An established view is that World War II was decided on the Eastern front, where multi-million armies struggled for supremacy on land and millions died. According to O’Brien, this negle...

  4. War-related Trauma: Increasing the American GI’s Resilience through Marriage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Warren N. Ponder

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Studies have shown PTSD has a negative impact on close relationships among Vietnam War veterans. Recently, studies have replicated these findings in the Operation Iraqi Freedom (OIF and Operation Enduring Freedom (OEF cohort. Currently, over half of the military is married and veterans are returning from combat with elevated rates of PTSD. Thus, investigating which symptom clusters influence marital satisfaction of the veteran the most is important for assisting social workers and other mental health professionals in identifying and prioritizing treatment goals. The current study identifies which of the four PTSD symptom clusters impacts marital satisfaction the most in returning combat veterans using regression analysis. The emotional numbing cluster negatively impacted marital satisfaction whereas the hyper-arousal cluster positively impacted it. Using all 17 Post-traumatic Disorder Checklist-Military (PCL-M questions as possible predictors of veterans’ marital satisfaction, regression analysis revealed five of the questions account for 26 percent of the variance in marital satisfaction. Clinical implications and recommendations are explored.

  5. Byzantine war against Christians – an "emphylios polemos"?

    OpenAIRE

    Ioannis STOURAITIS

    2010-01-01

    The Byzantine civil wars have been the subject of studies which aimed to analyze and interpret the political and military dimension of the phenomenon of armed conflicts inside the Byzantine society. The ideological aspect of civil war in Byzantium has received less attention. During my study on Byzantine war ideology, I noticed that there are some cases of Byzantine authors of the period after the 9th century that present Byzantine war against another Christian people as a civil one. Beginnin...

  6. Performing Transnational Arab American Womanhood: Rosemary Hakim, US Orientalism, and Cold War Diplomacy

    OpenAIRE

    Koegeler-Abdi, Martina

    2016-01-01

    The first Miss Lebanon-America, Rosemary Hakim, landed at Beirut Airport in July 1955 to start a public diplomacy tour. As an American beauty queen from Detroit visiting Lebanon, her parents' homeland, she was greeted enthusiastically by the local press and closely monitored by US government representatives. After her return to the States, she documented her experiences abroad in an unpublished memoir, entitled "Arabian Antipodes." However, this 1955 account does not just chronicle her travel...

  7. American Naval Policy, Strategy, Plans and Operations in the Second Decade of the Twenty-first Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    during most of the 19th century , for example, and riverine warfare during most of its history (except for the American Civil War, the Vietnam War...Select a caveat DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for public release: distribution unlimited. American Naval Policy, Strategy, Plans and...Operations in the Second Decade of the Twenty- first Century Peter M. Swartz January 2017 This work was performed under Federal Government Contract

  8. Black and white population change in small American suburbs since World War II: regional differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahura, J M

    1988-10-01

    "This study examines the relationship between black population concentration (% black), black population change and white population change for small American suburbs for the 1950-1980 period. Linear, tipping point (curvilinear) and interaction models of racial transition are evaluated for each decade by region (South and non-South), controlling for several other suburban characteristics (age, annexation and distance to the Central Business District) which may affect both black and white population change. The analyses show that racial transition in suburbs involves the parallel development of white and black populations with mainly weak and complex causal linkages which are sensitive to broader suburbanization patterns." excerpt

  9. Spinal column injuries among Americans in the global war on terrorism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blair, James A; Patzkowski, Jeanne C; Schoenfeld, Andrew J; Cross Rivera, Jessica D; Grenier, Eric S; Lehman, Ronald A; Hsu, Joseph R

    2012-09-19

    While combat spinal injuries have been documented since the fourth century BC, a comprehensive analysis of such injuries has not been performed for any American military conflict. Recent literature has suggested that spinal injuries account for substantial disability in wounded service members. The Joint Theater Trauma Registry was queried to identify all American military personnel who sustained injuries to the back, spinal column, and/or spinal cord in Iraq or Afghanistan from October 2001 to December 2009. Spinal injuries were categorized according to anatomic location, neurological involvement, mechanism of injury, and concomitant wounds. Of 10,979 evacuated combat casualties, 598 (5.45%) sustained 2101 spinal injuries. Explosions accounted for 56% of spinal injuries, motor vehicle collisions for 29%, and gunshots for 15%. Ninety-two percent of all injuries were fractures, with transverse process, compression, and burst fractures the most common. Spinal cord injuries were present in 17% (104) of the 598 patients. Concomitant injuries frequently occurred in the abdomen, chest, head, and face. The incidence of spine trauma sustained by military personnel in Iraq and Afghanistan is higher than that reported for previous conflicts, and the nature of these injuries may be similar to those in severely injured civilians. Further research into optimal management and rehabilitation is critical for military service members and severely injured civilians with spine trauma.

  10. Long-term heart disease and stroke mortality among former American prisoners of war of World War II and the Korean Conflict: results of a 50-year follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, W F; Brass, L M

    2001-09-01

    For the first 30 years after repatriation, former American prisoners of war (POWs) of World War II and the Korean Conflict had lower death rates for heart disease and stroke than non-POW veteran controls and the U.S. population, but subsequent morbidity data suggested that this survival advantage may have disappeared. We used U.S. federal records to obtain death data through 1996 and used proportional hazards analysis to compare the mortality experience of POWs and controls. POWs aged 75 years and older showed a significantly higher risk of heart disease deaths than controls (hazard ratio = 1.25; 95% confidence interval, 1.01-1.56), and their stroke mortality was also increased, although not significantly (hazard ratio = 1.13; 95% confidence interval, 0.66-1.91). These results suggest that circulatory disease sequelae of serious, acute malnutrition and the stresses associated with imprisonment may not appear until after many decades.

  11. The Chavez Challenge: Venezuela, The United States and the Geo-Politics of Post-Cold War Inter-American Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-03-01

    Foreign Policy,” 1. 151 Mercosur / Venezuela : Regional (Dis)Integration Risks, 1. 152 “Brazil: Ideology Takes Back Seat in Foreign Policy,” 1. 153 Ibid...time/europe/magazine/1999/1227/chavez.html (accessed February 19, 2009). Mercosur / Venezuela : Regional (Dis)Integration Risks. Oxford Analytica... VENEZUELA , THE UNITED STATES AND THE GEO-POLITICS OF POST-COLD WAR INTER-AMERICAN RELATIONS by Mario Perez March 2009 Thesis Co

  12. Peace, Justice, and Human Rights : A Political Analysis of American Unilateralism at the United Nations in the Post-Cold War Era

    OpenAIRE

    Thoresen, Elen Sanness

    2002-01-01

    In the immediate aftermath of the Cold War the United States seemed to move toward a more multilateral foreign policy, yet throughout the 1990s the United States has repeatedly failed to support and promote important United Nations initiatives designed to promote peace, to ensure a more stable system of international justice and to protect human rights everywhere. My hope for this thesis has been to test the American rhetorical commitment to peace, justice and human rights as proclaimed by bo...

  13. A False Sense of Collective Security: How German Intervention in the Spanish Civil War Thwarted British Multilateral Efforts during the Phony Peace

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-09

    1,000 prisoners of war (Republicans) or ordering the aerial bombing of civilian sectors of the city, with up to 2,000 more killed (Nationalists). Eden...flee shelters not designed for such punishment .403 It initially went unmentioned on April 28, the first Cabinet meeting after the bombing had occurred

  14. Girl's Schooling in War-Torn Somalia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyi, Peter

    2012-01-01

    A civil war has raged in Somalia since 1991. The civil war was the final blow to an already collapsed education system. Somalia has received little research and policy attention yet children, especially girls, are very vulnerable during times of conflict. The different gender roles, activities, and status in society create gender differentiated…

  15. Do Territorial Control and the Loss of Territory Determine the use of Indiscriminate Violence by Incumbent Actors? An Examination of the Syrian Civil War in Aleppo over 45 weeks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evan Tyner

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available 'This study tests the ‘control-collaboration’ model detailed by Stathis Kalyvas in 'The Logic of Violence in Civil War '(2006. The control-collaboration model makes various theoretical claims on the relationship between territorial control and the use and motivations of violence (whether selective or indiscriminate. This study tests two of the key claims made in the model: 1. There is an inverse relationship between level of territorial control and the use of indiscriminate violence; and, 2. The loss off territory encourages the use of indiscriminate violence. Using data on civilian and child deaths taken from the ‘Syrian Martyr Database’, this study examines the relationship between territorial control and territorial loss, and the use of indiscriminate violence by incumbent (Syrian state forces. Examining the levels of territorial control/loss and the extent of civilian and child casualties in Aleppo, Syria, results of the study largely support the theoretical assumptions outlined by Kalyvas.'

  16. Análisis bibliométrico de la literatura científica publicada en "Ciencia. Revista hispano-americana de ciencias puras y aplicadas" Ciencia, Spanish researchers, Exile, Hispano-America, Spanish civil War, Bibliometrics, Bibliometric analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Pulgarin

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports the pilot stage of a Project whose objective is to analyse the scientific output of the journal “Ciencia” from its appearance (1940 until its closure (1974. The journal constituted the formal channel for the dissemination of science among Spanish researchers in exile in Hispano-America due to the Spanish civil War (1936-1939. The original articles published in three of the seven sections into which the journal was divided – Modern science (section I, Original communications (section II, and Applied science (section IV – are studied, together with the bibliographical references contained in those articles. The number of articles analysed was 972, and of bibliographical references 14,184.

  17. La evolución de la memoria de la Guerra Civil en el espacio urbano de Bilbao: una mirada comparativa La mémoire de la Guerre Civile dans l’espace urbain de Bilbao : un regard comparatif Memory of the Civil War in the urban space of Bilbao: a comparative view

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Alonso Carballés

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo tiene como objetivo prioritario estudiar las políticas institucionales desplegadas en torno a la memoria de la Guerra Civil en la ciudad de Bilbao. Nuestro trabajo es una tentativa de realizar una «arqueología de la memoria» que nos permita estudiar de forma cronológica la impronta de dichas políticas en el espacio urbano bilbaíno en diferentes momentos históricos : desde la erección de la estatua de Mola en el Arenal bilbaíno en junio de 1937 en el momento de la entrada de las tropas franquistas hasta la reciente inauguración del monumento en homenaje a las víctimas del franquismo. Este estudio de caso se completa con referencias puntuales a la evolución de esta memoria en las simbólicas ciudades de Burgos y de Valencia con el objetivo de ofrecer así una mirada comparativa sobre tres capitales claves del conflicto del 36.Cet article a comme objectif prioritaire d’étudier les politiques institutionnelles développées autour de la mémoire de la Guerre Civile dans la ville de Bilbao. Notre travail est une tentative de réaliser une « archéologie de la mémoire » qui nous permette d’étudier de forme chronologique l’empreinte laissées par ces politiques dans l’espace urbain de Bilbao, depuis l’érection de la statue du général Mola en juin de 1937 au moment de l’entrée des troupes franquistes dans la ville jusqu’à l’érection récente du monument en l’honneur des victimes du franquisme. Cette étude de cas comprend aussi des références ponctuelles à l’évolution de cette mémoire dans les villes symboliques de Burgos et de Valence avec le but d’offrir ainsi un regard comparatif sur trois capitales clés du conflit de 1936.This article’s main objective is to study the institutional politics developed around the memory of the Civil War in the city of Bilbao. Our work is an attempt to develop an «archaeology of memory» which will allow us to study in a chronological fashion the

  18. The Impact of Materialism on the Familial Ties in Post-War American Society: A Study of Saul Bellow's Seize the Day

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Sabbar Abdulbaqi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Saul Bellow (1915 –2005 is an American novelist and the winner of Nobel and Pulitzer Prizes for literature (1976. He is known for his critique of Post-II World War American society. The research discusses Saul Bellow's Seize the Day (1956 in regard of materialism and its impact on the familial ties not only in terms of monetary considerations but also the maltreatment of family members among themselves. It reviews the materialistic relationship between the father and son on the one hand and the husband and wife on the other hand. The study aims to recognize to what extent materialism represents a dispersed element for the family unit.

  19. The Impact of Materialism on the Familial Ties in Post-War American Society: A Study of Saul Bellow's Seize the Day

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammed Sabbar Abdulbaqi

    2017-01-01

    Saul Bellow (1915 –2005) is an American novelist and the winner of Nobel and Pulitzer Prizes for literature (1976). He is known for his critique of Post-II World War American society. The research discusses Saul Bellow's Seize the Day (1956) in regard of materialism and its impact on the familial ties not only in terms of monetary considerations but also the maltreatment of family members among themselves. It reviews the materialistic relationship between the father and son on the one hand an...

  20. Charles Bernard Puestow (1902-1973): American surgeon and commander of the 27th Evacuation Hospital during the Second World War.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosmia, Anand N; Christein, John D

    2017-08-01

    Dr. Charles Bernard Puestow (1902-1973) was an American surgeon who is well known for developing the longitudinal pancreaticojejunostomy, which is known as the "Puestow procedure" in his honor. Puestow served in the American military during the Second World War and commanded the 27th Evacuation Hospital, which provided medical and surgical services to wounded individuals in Europe and North Africa. In 1946, he founded the surgical residency training program at the Hines Veterans Hospital, which was the first such program in the United States based at a veterans hospital.

  1. Education in Time of War: George Johnson and the Commission on American Citizenship of the Catholic University of America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elias, John L.

    2009-01-01

    Times of war are times of crisis for theologians and educators. This article examines how Msgr. George Johnson, the vice president of the Religious Education Association and the most prominent Catholic educator in the 1930s and 1940s, dealt with the ethical and educational issues surrounding U.S. involvement in the Second World War. It argues that…

  2. War and Memory in Lebanon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haugbølle, Sune

    From 1975 to 1990, Lebanon endured one of the most protracted and bloody civil wars of the twentieth century. Sune Haugbolle's timely and poignant book chronicles the battle over ideas that emerged from the wreckage of that war. While the Lebanese state encouraged forgetfulness and political part...

  3. Book review: The Sympathizer. A Vietnamese spy novel and the attempt to de-americanize our view on the war

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schmitz, Britta

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available 1975, the Vietnam War has just ended, but the cold war and the clash of ideologies are still going on. This would of course be the perfect background for some run-of-the-mill thriller written by a white American for a Western audience. And without knowing anything further, we might first think that The Sympathizer, which was recently translated into German and marketed as a “thriller” and “spy novel”, would be just one of those. However, things and people are all too often not what they seem to be – an adage which has never been more true than in this story. Far more than simply a thriller, it is also a political novel, a satirical story, refugee literature and a critique of modern mass media, all interspersed with discursive passages and spiced with literary references and aphorisms. Furthermore, the author is not a white American. The Sympathizer is the debut novel of Vietnamese-American Viet Thanh Nguyen, which won him the Pulitzer Prize in 2016 along with a great many other awards. Nguyen was born in Vietnam and grew up in the USA from where he experienced both cultures and had insight to both perspectives on the Vietnam War. He is a Professor of English and American Studies and Ethnicity primarily focused on “Americanization”, how the American perspective continues to dominate film, literature and pop culture. His book is a critique of this prevailing view and includes the issues of acculturation and identity crisis of immigrants, along with the importance of loyalty and relationships (or the lack of those. The narrator and protagonist of the story is a man who has no name and is only referred to as “the captain” throughout the book. We encounter him fleeing Saigon, accompanying a general of the South Vietnamese army, we know already that he has a secret. In the very first lines he reveals that he is a sleeper agent and actually working for the Viet Cong and spying on the South Vietnamese military and the CIA. The captain

  4. The Capitalist World-System and U.S. Cold War Policies in the Core and the Periphery: A Comparative Analysis of Post-World War II American Nation-building in Germany and Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Hugh Jo

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In response to the emerging cold war, why did the United States stress industrial expansion in Western Europe but focus on primary production alongside policing operations in the non-western world? Examining US postwar occupation in Germany and Korea from a world-systems perspective, this article argues that a given country’s standing in the capitalist economy generally shapes American foreign policy toward that particular country in the early cold war years. A paladin of system-wide prosperity and peace, the United States sought to restore the international division of labor after World War II. Reactions varied across the system, however, because of distinct socio-economic developments. The presence of capital-intensive export-dependent industry afforded western Germany flexible labor-management relations. Politics was overall stable there, and America dispensed with heavy-handed intervention. In southern Korea, labor-exploitive tenancy farming rendered interclass compromise virtually impossible. As intransigent peasants threatened the market economy, the United States used force to keep the ally in the system.

  5. War and Power

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carter, Dale

    2017-01-01

    Whether as context or prospect, reference or substance, warfare invariably features in Pynchon’s fiction: the war of American independence in Mason & Dixon; world war one in Against the Day; world war two in Gravity’s Rainbow; the cold war in The Crying of Lot 49; various culture wars – hippies...... political or military but also social and psychological, economic and technological, cultural and imaginative. Using as its exemplar Pynchon’s treatment of world war two in Gravity’s Rainbow, this essay explores one key modulation in the nature of warfare: from the armed conflicts characteristic...... of an imperial order to the struggles for security – not just physical but also ideological and discursive, conceptual and representational – that mark the post-imperial, cold (and post-cold) war order. Through the personal identities and historical trajectories of a number of the novel’s representative figures...

  6. Development of Society in the United States. American Civilization, Resource Unit II, Grade 10. Providence Social Studies Curriculum Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Providence Public Schools, RI.

    GRADES OR AGES: Grades 10 and 11. SUBJECT MATTER: Social studies; United States civilization. ORGANIZATION AND PHYSICAL APPEARANCE: The major portion of the guide is divided into six subunits, each of which is laid out in three columns, one each for topics, activities, and materials. Other sections are in list form. The guide is mimeographed and…

  7. In Time of War.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Patti Clayton

    2003-01-01

    Examines the role of libraries, particularly public libraries, in times of war. Discusses similarities between responses after World War Two and the September 11, 2001 attacks; government restrictions on information; American Library Association responses, including propaganda and libraries; and the library and the community. (LRW)

  8. Byzantine war against Christians – an "emphylios polemos"?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioannis STOURAITIS

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The Byzantine civil wars have been the subject of studies which aimed to analyze and interpret the political and military dimension of the phenomenon of armed conflicts inside the Byzantine society. The ideological aspect of civil war in Byzantium has received less attention. During my study on Byzantine war ideology, I noticed that there are some cases of Byzantine authors of the period after the 9th century that present Byzantine war against another Christian people as a civil one. Beginning with a short overview of the Byzantines’ understanding of the term emphylios polemos which modern researchers interpret usually with the modern term civil war, this study will concentrate on the ideological and political similarities or differences between Byzantine civil war and Byzantine war against Christian enemies.  

  9. The negro question: slavery in the context of the antebellum and civil war America. Confronting Lincoln's perspective through his own words

    OpenAIRE

    Morala Miguélez, David

    2014-01-01

    El propósito de este trabajo es aportar una visión general sobre la historia americana; desde las décadas anteriores a la Guerra Civil hasta la guerra como tal, centrándo la atención en la institución de la esclavitud: sus orígenes, evolución, condiciones de vida de los esclavos, movimientos a favor y en contra de la esclavitud junto con eventos y personajes relevantes. Asímismo, estudiar su conexión con la figura de Abraham Lincoln como modeo y símbolo de la lucha contra la es...

  10. Focus on Civil Rights; Vietnam; Women's Liberation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Terry H.

    1985-01-01

    Information to help secondary history teachers select appropriate readings on three of the most important issues of the sixties--civil rights, the Vietnam War, and women's liberation--is provided. Significant books on these topics are discussed. (RM)

  11. Novos meridianos da produção editorial em castelhano: o papel de espanhóis exilados pela Guerra Civil na Argentina e no México New axes of editorial production in Castilian: the role of Spanish civil war exiles in Argentina and Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Pellegrino Soares

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo tem por objetivo lançar luz sobre o impacto da Guerra Civil Espanhola sobre a indústria editorial argentina e mexicana. Em particular, pretende enfocar as contribuições oferecidas por refugiados ou exilados espanhóis que, uma vez estabelecidos na outra margem do Atlântico, procuraram retomar seus ofícios de origem, inserindo-se nas gráficas e editoras existentes nesses dois países ou fundando novos negócios livreiros. Tanto o México como, em especial, a Argentina, beneficiaram-se da crise impingida pela guerra à indústria editorial da antiga metrópole para explorar o vasto mercado aberto aos impressos em língua espanhola.This article aims at shedding light on the impact of the Spanish Civil War on the publishing industry in Argentina and in Mexico. Particularly, it intends to analyze the contributions of Spanish refugees or in exile who, once established on the other border of the Atlantic Ocean, tried to go back to their previous jobs, working at preexisting publishing houses in those two countries or creating new ones. Both Mexico and specially Argentina took advantage of the Spanish publishing industry's crises so to explore the vast business opportunities for books in Spanish.

  12. Propaganda e crítica social nas cronologias dos almanaques astrológicos durante a Guerra Civil inglesa no século XVII Propaganda and social criticism in the chronologies of the astrological almanacs during the English Civil War in 17 th century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Mesquita Hidalgo Ferreira

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo é parte de uma ampla investigação sobre a utilização dos almanaques astrológicos durante a Guerra Civil inglesa no século XVII como veículo de propaganda e crítica social. Durante esse conflito, havia astrólogos partidários das forças parlamentaristas, como John Booker, e outros partidários das forças realistas, como George Wharton. O presente trabalho analisa algumas dessas publicações, mostrando como o envolvimento político dos autores se manifestava de forma explícita (e, algumas vezes, não tão direta nos referidos almanaques.This article is part of an extensive investigation carried out concerning the use of astrological almanacs during the English Civil War in the 17th century as a medium for propaganda and social criticism. During that conflict there were astrologers who were partisans of the Parliament, such as John Booker, and other who supported the King, such as George Wharton. This work analyses some of those publications, showing that the political commitment of the authors was noticeable in an explicit form (and sometimes in an indirect way in those almanacs.

  13. American Insurgent Leaders: Insights for Contemporary Warriors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    106 Donald E. Sutherland , A Savage Conflict: The Decisive Role of Guerrillas in the American Civil War, (Chapel Hill, NC: The University of North...Brigadier General Edwin Stoughton was staying. Waking the General from his bed, Mosby stated, “General, did you ever hear of Mosby?” When Stoughton...Paret, 815-862. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1986. Sutherland , Daniel E. A Savage Conflict: The Decisive Role of Guerrillas in the

  14. American nuclear physicists in campaign. The media coverage of the nuclear risk during the immediate post-war years in the USA (1945-1946)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinault, Michel

    2005-01-01

    In the aftermath of Hiroshima, American nuclear scientists won access to the mass media. Conscious that science had become part of the Cold War, they lobbied for a better-informed public and a peace policy for the US. They demanded, among other, the establishment of permanent international scientific organisations and a permanent representation for the scientific community near the head of government. Initially successful, the influence of their movement decreased, efforts at mobilising public opinion proved ineffective and negotiations at the UN's Atomic Energy Commission reached an impasse

  15. Biblical Faith, Ethics and the Quality of Life Quest among Black Americans: Implications for Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marbury, Carl H.

    This paper reviews the role of the black church in black American history and suggests ways in which its role must change to help blacks cope with our modern and technological society. Initially, religion was the one social institution which gave black slaves a common tie before the Civil War. Baptist and Methodist ideologies provided emotional…

  16. The Prussian and American General Staffs: An Analysis of Cross-Cultural Imitation, Innovation, and Adaptation

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-03-30

    first day of Augu.t progressed with " clockwork precision." B2 Colonel Groener, on receipt of the mobilization order, changed his duty title from...exceptions to this; the American war plans against Japan (Plan Orange ) and against Germany (Plan Black) were primarily naval operations, The civil

  17. Preparing for Victory. The U.S. Office of War Information Overseas Branch’s illustrated magazines in the Netherlands and the foundations for the American Century, 1944-1945

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marja Roholl

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Winning the war against the Axis countries was not the only goal the US government had in mind; it was also working towards a new US led world order. Analysis of three illustrated magazines produced by the Office of War Information Overseas Branch for the Netherlands shows that in addition to short-term war-related goals, long-term goals sought to pave the way for the American Century. This essay also shows that, more than previously assumed, the content and approach of the activities undertaken by the OWI Overseas Branch during the last phase of the war anticipated the State Department's and United States Information Agency's post-war programs.

  18. Enfermeras del bando nacional en la Guerra Civil española: según el libro "Princesas del Martirio" de Concha Espina Nurses of the nationalist side during the spanish Civil War: An approach to the situation through the book "Princesas del Martirio" (Concha Espina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Andina Díaz

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Concha Espina escribió a principios de los años cuarenta del pasado siglo un libro titulado Princesas del Martirio, para recordar la hazaña y homenajear a unas particulares "mártires de la Guerra Civil española". Sus protagonistas son tres enfermeras voluntarias de la Cruz Roja de Astorga (León que, en octubre de 1936, acudieron al Puerto de Somiedo (Asturias a prestar su asistencia a los heridos y enfermos del bando nacional, y viéndose envueltas en un episodio bolchevique, cayeron prisioneras y fueron fusiladas. En este artículo utilizaremos dicha fuente literaria para tratar de reconstruir la que pudiera considerarse, en nuestra opinión, imagen de la "enfermera ideal", perteneciente al bando nacional, durante dicha contienda. El método empleado se basará en la exposición y análisis del texto original, centrándonos especialmente en los aspectos relacionados con la imagen de nuestra profesión. Interpretaremos los datos teniendo en cuenta la realidad político-militar, social y profesional de aquel momento. Dado su interés, se ha estimado también oportuno tomar en consideración otros documentos hallados igualmente durante el período de búsqueda de información -poemas escritos, monumentos, nombres de calles relativas a las tres enfermeras-. Gracias a ellos se indagó las conexiones entre ideología y reconocimiento profesional.Concha Espina writes the book Princesas del Martirio at the turn of the 40s, in the last century. This is a book in honour of three nurses, who were killed during the Spanish Civil War. The three nurses, who were voluntaries of The Red Cross in Astorga (León, were called to attend the sick and injured people in Puerto de Somiedo (Asturias, in October 1936. Involuntarily, they found themselves involved in a Bolshevik incident, were taken prisoners and finally shot. In this paper, we draw the inspiration from this book, which allow us to reconstruct what we think would be the likely image of the "ideal

  19. Citizenship, Rights and the Problem of Internal Conflicts and Civil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper undertakes a re-interpretation of the problem of internal conflicts and civil wars in Africa, from the perspective of citizenship and rights. The central argument is that although the genealogy and dimensions of conflicts and civil wars in Africa are quite complex and varied, however, underlying most of those conflicts, ...

  20. Contributions of Psychology to War and Peace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christie, Daniel J.; Montiel, Cristina J.

    2013-01-01

    The contributions of American psychologists to war have been substantial and responsive to changes in U.S. national security threats and interests for nearly 100 years. These contributions are identified and discussed for four periods of armed conflict: World Wars I and II, the Cold War, and the Global War on Terror. In contrast, about 50 years…

  1. Food scarcity as a trigger for civil unrest

    OpenAIRE

    Paveliuc Olariu, Codrin

    2013-01-01

    Throughout history, there have been periods of civil unrest. From religious wars to wars of conquest, historians believe that the causes of wars are closely related with religious, political or economic reasons. But when we discuss about civil unrest inside a country with the power of transforming it into a civil war and expanding at regional level, the triggering factors have yet to be discovered. From the period of the Qing Dinasty (1644-1911) in China to the Great Depression in the 1930s i...

  2. Evolution of civil aeromedical helicopter aviation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, D R; Samper, E R

    1989-07-01

    The rapid increase in the use of helicopters for hospital transport during the 1980s is the culmination of several hundred years of military medical innovation. Mass battefield casualties spurred both technologic and medical changes necessary for today's sophisticated helicopter systems in use worldwide, particularly in the United States. The Napoleonic Era and the American Civil War provided the framework for the evolution of today's state-of-the-art emergency medical techniques. The use of airplanes to evacuate the wounded eventually led to using helicopters for rescue missions in World War II. The combat experiences of the United States in Korea, the British in Malaya, and the French in Indochina proved that rotary-wing aircraft were invaluable in reducing battlefield death rates. Any skepticism about the efficacy of helicopter medical evacuation was erased during the Vietnam conflict. As an integral part of the modern battlefield, these specialized aircraft became a necessity. The observations and experience of American servicemen and medical personnel in Vietnam established the foundation for the acceptance of helicopter transport in modern hospital systems.

  3. World War II Homefront: A Historiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkler, Allan M.

    2002-01-01

    Highlights the scholarship that exists on the World War II homefront covering topics such as World War II as a good war, Franklin D. Roosevelt, economic policy, propaganda, status of women and women's employment, the role of African Americans, racial violence, and the Japanese American experience. (CMK)

  4. Health hazards of uranium dust from radioactive battlefields of the Balkan conflicts, Eastern Afghanistan and Iraq after the Gulf wars. Lessons for civil protection in the terrorist scenario of radiological dispersion devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durakovic, A.; Klimaschewski, F.

    2007-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. Purpose: The purpose of this study is to identify key health hazards of uranium dust from the radioactive battlefields (Balkan, Middle East and Eastern Afghanistan conflicts) to draw lessons for civil protection in the terrorist scenario of radiological dispersion devices (RDD). Gulf War I (GW I) in 1991 resulted in 350 metric tons of depleted uranium (DU) deposited in the environment and 3 to 6 million grams of DU aerosol dust particles released into the atmosphere, by the most conservative estimates. Its possible legacy (Gulf War disease) continues after the military conflicts (Operation Enduring Freedom, OEF, in Afghanistan and Gulf War II in Iraq). The symptoms of the multiorgan incapacitating progressive disease have been as numerous as their names, including incapacitating fatigue, musculoskeletal and joint pains, headaches, neuropsychiatric disorders, affects changes, confusion, visual problems, changes of gait, loss of memory, lympadenopathies, respiratory impairment, impotence, and urinary tract morphological and functional alterations. The disease is still a matter of controversy regarding etiology and pathogenesis of the syndrome commonly named Gulf War disease. It was underestimated and subsequently evolved in its clinical description through recognition of progressive symptomatology. Methods: UMRC's studies of the human contamination with uranium isotopes were conducted with the exposed subjects of Jalalabad, Spin Gar, Tora Bora, and Kabul areas in Afghanistan after OEF as well as Samawah, Baghdad and Basrah in Iraq after GW II. The urine samples of the subjects were analysed by the plasma mass spectrometry. The analytical methodology involved pre-concentration of the uranium using co-precipitation and/or evaporation, oxidation of organic matter, purification of uranium with ion exchange chromatography, and mass spectrometry with a double focusing Thermo-Elemental Plasma54 multi-collector ICP-MS equipped with a

  5. Leadership in Modern Wars: How the French and American Armies Have Implemented Leader Development and Education 2001-2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-10

    definition is used, namely, that culture is “the customary beliefs, social forms, and material traits of a racial, religious, or social group.”13...trauma of Vietnam , in an evolution which led to the RMA, the French developed a twofold culture following the end of the war in Algeria and France’s...but also through their national and military culture , and through their respective operational background. How all these different elements combine to

  6. Biological consequences of nuclear war

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dubinin, N.P.

    1986-01-01

    Irradiation probability due to radionuclide fallout is shown to exceed 1 Gy even for the territories which have not been affected by nuclear weapons direct explosions. If some people survive in the nuclear war, their heredity would be affected. Genetic consequences of nuclear war complete the process of Homo sapiens disappearance from the Earth. Space weapons development will deteriorate the prospects of civilization ruin as a result of biological aftereffects of nuclear war and possible application of new arms, as well as chemical and biologic weapons

  7. War and Memory in Lebanon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haugbølle, Sune

    parties created sectarian interpretations of the war through cults of dead leaders, intellectuals and activists - inspired by the example of truth and reconciliation movements in different parts of the world - advanced the idea that confronting and remembering the war was necessary for political...... and cultural renewal. Through an analysis of different cultural productions - media, art, literature, film, posters and architecture - the author shows how the recollection and reconstruction of political and sectarian violence that took place during the war have helped in Lebanon's healing process. He also......From 1975 to 1990, Lebanon endured one of the most protracted and bloody civil wars of the twentieth century. Sune Haugbolle's timely and poignant book chronicles the battle over ideas that emerged from the wreckage of that war. While the Lebanese state encouraged forgetfulness and political...

  8. Commanders-In-Chief of the American War for Independence: A Leadership Study of George Washington and Sir William Howe

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    White, Haydn

    2001-01-01

    .... By reviewing four leadership theories, two German, one British, and one American, a model developed that contained the enduring interrelated tenets of courage, judgment, determination, integrity, vision, and luck...

  9. Civil Courts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eaneman, Paulette S.; And Others

    These materials are part of the Project Benchmark series designed to teach secondary students about our legal concepts and systems. This unit focuses on the structure and procedures of the civil court systems. The materials outline common law heritage, kinds of cases, jurisdiction, civil pretrial procedure, trial procedure, and a sample automobile…

  10. Civil Procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byer, Robert

    1997-01-01

    Briefly reviews the historical development of civil procedure (the rules that dictate how a civil case can proceed through the courts) and identifies some of its main components. Discusses procedures such as subject matter jurisdiction, personal jurisdiction, venue, discovery, motions practice, pleadings, pretrial conference, and trials. (MJP)

  11. Through tobacco industry eyes: civil society and the FCTC process from Philip Morris and British American Tobacco's perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Mariaelena; Green, Lawrence W; Glantz, Stanton A

    2012-07-01

    To analyse the models Philip Morris (PM) and British American Tobacco (BAT) used internally to understand tobacco control non-governmental organizations (NGOs) and their relationship to the global tobacco control policy-making process that resulted in the Framework Convention for Tobacco Control (FCTC). Analysis of internal tobacco industry documents in the Legacy Tobacco Document Library. PM contracted with Mongoven, Biscoe, and Duchin, Inc. (MBD, a consulting firm specialising in NGO surveillance) as advisors. MBD argued that because NGOs are increasingly linked to epistemic communities, NGOs could insert themselves into the global policy-making process and influence the discourse surrounding the treaty-making process. MBD advised PM to insert itself into the policy-making process, mimicking NGO behaviour. BAT's Consumer and Regulatory Affairs (CORA) department argued that global regulation emerged from the perception (by NGOs and governments) that the industry could not regulate itself, leading to BAT advocating social alignment and self-regulation to minimise the impact of the FCTC. Most efforts to block or redirect the FCTC failed. PM and BAT articulated a global policy-making environment in which NGOs are key, non-state stakeholders, and as a result, internationalised some of their previous national-level strategies. After both companies failed to prevent the FCTC, their strategies began to align. Multinational corporations have continued to successfully employ some of the strategies outlined in this paper at the local and national level while being formally excluded from ongoing FCTC negotiations at the global level.

  12. ANTHROPOLOGY AT WAR: ROBERT H. LOWIE AND THE TRANSFORMATION OF THE CULTURE CONCEPT, 1904 to 1954.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bargheer, Stefan

    2017-03-01

    The concept of culture used in American anthropology has fundamentally transformed throughout the first half of the twentieth century. The changing resonance of the work of Robert H. Lowie offers revealing insights into this development. Lowie was part of the first generation of students of Franz Boas that highlighted the importance of individual variation for the study of both primitive and civilized societies. Yet, its initial resonance notwithstanding, the culture concept that prevailed in the discipline went into a different direction as the result of anthropologists' involvement in the war effort. It was advanced by the second generation of Boas' students such as Ruth Benedict and Margaret Mead, who stressed the homogeneity of cultures. The contrast highlights the diversity of approaches available within anthropology in the first half of the century and the crucial impact of World War II in determining which of these possibilities became institutionalized in the decades after the war. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Edmund Burke, the Atlantic American war and the ‘poor Jews at St. Eustatius’. Empire and the law of nations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guido Abbattista

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This essay is devoted to a relatively minor episode in Edmund Burke’s parliamentary career and political speculation involving the rights of war and international law in the final years of the American War of Independence. The starting point for Burke’s consideration of these questions was the affair of St. Eustatius, that is to say Britain’s conquest in 1781 of the Dutch West-Indian island early in the “fourth Anglo-Dutch War” of 1780-1784. The harsh treatment of the Dutch colony’s cosmopolitan community by the commanding officers of the British Navy and Army provoked a series of reactions in Britain and the colonies. The essay starts by outlining the identity of St. Eustatius with its economic, demographic and social features, its peculiar role in the eighteenth-century West Indies and its emblematic meaning in the historical literature of the Enlightenment as a symbol of the virtues of commerce and of economic liberty. It goes on to analyse the facts of the military conquest in 1781 and the ensuing occupation realized by Admiral George Rodney and Major-General John Vaughan, particularly as this affected the “poor Jews at St. Eustatius” (as Burke himself qualified them in his second speech on 4 December 1781, with the subsequent reactions of the Dutch and especially the British Atlantic world. We then examine Edmund Burke’s reasons for taking up this affair, including the political and ideological motives and the sources of arguments he used in the two parliamentary speeches he made on the topic during 1781, relating this to Burke’s ideas on international relations and imperial government during the 1770s and 1780s. We end by pointing to cultural links between Burke’s positions and a wider political, commercial and civic culture emerging in the British Atlantic world which reflected some of the most typical European Enlightenment values and ideological commitments.

  14. Forms of War

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vogel, H.; Bartelt, D.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: Under war conditions, employed weapons can be identified on radiographs obtained in X-ray diagnostic. The analysis of such X-ray films allows concluding that there are additional information about the conditions of transport and treatment; it shall be shown that there are X-ray findings which are typical and characteristic for certain forms of warfare. Material and method: The radiograms have been collected during thirty years; they come from hospitals, where war casualties had been treated, and personal collections. Results: The material is selected, because in war X-ray diagnostic will be limited and the interest of the opposing parties influence the access to the material; furthermore the possibilities to publish or to communicate facts and thoughts are different. Citizens of the USA, GB, France, or Israel will have easier access to journals than those of Vietnam, Chad, and Zimbabwe. Under war conditions, poor countries, like North Vietnam may develop own concepts of medical care. There are X-ray findings which are typical or even characteristic for air warfare, guerrilla warfare, gas war, desert warfare, conventional warfare, and annihilation warfare, and city guerrilla warfare/civil war. The examples demonstrate that weapons and the conditions of transport and treatment can be recognized by X-ray findings. The radiogram can be read like a document. Conclusion: In War, there are differences between a treatment and imaging diagnostic in countries, which control the air space and in those who do not. Medical care of the poor, i.e. in countries (in general those opposing the western nations) will hardly be published, and poverty has no advocate

  15. CAN POLITICIANS SPEED UP LONG-TERM TECHNOLOGICAL CHANGE? SOME INSIGHTS FROM A COMPARISON OF THE GERMAN AND US-AMERICAN SYNTHETIC RUBBER PROGRAMS BEFORE, DURING AND AFTER WORLD WAR II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jochen Streb

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available I investigated the effect of government demand on firms’ innovation activities comparing the German and American synthetic rubber industries before, during and after World War II. I obtained three main results. 1. Because of the low price of natural rubber, price and sales guarantees were needed to motivate firms to produce the synthetic rubber BUNA S. 2. Facing fixed prices I.G. Farben improved their efficiency more than the American firms working under cost plus contracts. 3. The patent sharing agreement of the American synthetic rubber program caused firms to hold back advanced synthetic rubber inventions.

  16. ‘Defensive Liberal Wars’: The Global War on Terror and the Return of Illiberalism in American Foreign Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashmi Singh

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper offers an analysis of the illiberal practices and discourse of the Global War on Terror (GWoT and demonstrates how the United States of America used the liberal argument as a qualitative metric of its success and failure in the GWoT. I argue that ‘the othering’ of Salafi Jihadists as well the full military involvement in Afghanistan and Iraq were both philosophically rooted in the liberal thinking of Immanuel Kant and John Stuart Mill, which have traditionally guided US foreign policy. More significantly, these liberal philosophies of history and international relations hold within them the seeds of illiberalism by depicting non-liberal, undemocratic societies/organisations as ‘barbaric’ – and as such prime candidates for intervention and regime change. Predicated upon this logic, the discourse of the GWoT framed Al Qaeda as a key existential threat to not only the United States but also the ‘civilised world’ in general and one which required a ‘liberal defensive war’ in response. It was the successful securitisation of Al Qaeda that essentially enabled the United States to adopt deeply illiberal policies to counter this so-called existential threat by using any means at its disposal.

  17. Civil Identity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Lars Axel

    scanning, etc., to discussions of Shari'a law versus common civil law in India; from the study of religious cult in ancient city states to the processes of constitutional reconstruction in former Communist countries; and from attempts at conflict resolution and prevention between Jewish and Arab citizens......In this paper I will go through a catalogue of examples of contexts in which the term civil identity is currently used, ranging from the formal and technical process of linking a set of administrative and other events to an individual biological person by means of identity cards, fingerprints, iris...... of Israel to Luce Irigaray's Feminist agenda of elaborating gender specific civil identities. My intention is to investigate whether these different employments of 'civil identity' point towards a common, and fairly well defined object field asking questions of contemporary relevance to the philosophy...

  18. Women, Gender, and the War.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffords, Susan

    1989-01-01

    Examines the representation of women in Vietnam War literature and films within a context of changing gender relationships in American society. Argues that critical attention needs to be given to the structure of masculinity and its relationship to warfare. (MS)

  19. Securing the Peace After Civil War

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-03-01

    2007)  NS            Natural Resources        General          de  Soya  (2002)  S  pɘ.05    Addison, Le Billon & Murshed (2003)  S  pɘ.05    Fearon...2008)  NS    Oil  de  Soya  (2002)  S  pɘ.01    Addison, Le Billon & Murshed (2003)  S  pɘ.01    Fearon & Laitin (2003)  S  pɘ.05    Ross (2003)  S

  20. Internationalization of the Syrian Civil War

    OpenAIRE

    Kovačić, Kristijan

    2016-01-01

    Autor u radu prikazuje studiju slučaju Sirijskog građanskog rata. Pritom postavlja tezu da Sirijski građanski rat ne predstavlja konvencionalni građanski rat, već internacionalizirani građanski rat, odnosno rat preko posrednika. Koristi se argument da je sirijski građanski rat internacionaliziran je iz dva temeljna razloga. Prvo, zbog uplitanja vanjskih sila u tijek građanskog rata, bilo izravnim vojnim sudjelovanjem ili sponzoriranjem skupina koje sudjeluju u ratu od strane drugih država. Dr...

  1. A Guerilla War At Sea: The Sri Lankan Civil War

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-09

    even as it promoted Sinhalese preeminence. The Prime Minister, S. W. R. D. Bandaranaike, was assassinated in 1959 by a Buddhist monk . Bandaranaike...missionary schools that were predominantly located in the northern areas of the island and learn their new overlord‟s language. The Buddhist Sinhalese...the council, while the smaller minority Muslim population received none. Christian educated Sinhalese were favored over the Buddhist Sinhalese, both

  2. The American challenge in uniform: the arrival of America’s armies in World War II and European women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Ellwood

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available A vast body of material exists – memoirs, diaries, films, plays, novels, official records – on the impact and reception of America’s armed forces armies in Europe after 1942. Britain, Italy, France, Austria and of course Germany all offer relevant evidence. The popular British phrase about the GI’s being ‘over-paid, over-sexed and over here’ brilliantly sums up many of the tensions the encounter threw up: over money and life-styles, courtship rituals and the treatment of local women, over sovereignty and the American impulse to requisition every local resource they could get their hands on. Local men thought ‘their’ women were being requisitioned.  The Americans had not come to do ‘nation-building’, and yet their presence left memories, changed attitudes and altered prospects on the future, especially among women. Afterwards American experts claimed that their armed forces had set off a ‘revolution of rising expectations’. Although a contradictory, complex encounter, there is enough evidence to suggest they might have been right.

  3. Operational Art Requirements in the Korean War

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-17

    the Korean War, these works primarily fall into three broad areas of scholarship: the American strategy concerning Korea and the Cold War...17 The Korean Peninsula’s borders are defined by the Yellow sea on the west, the Sea of Japan on the East, the Korea Strait in the south, and the...22 Summers, Korean War Almanac, 11. 23 Allan R. Millett, The War For Korea , 1945-1950: A House Burning (Lawrence

  4. Disclosure of Sensitive National Security Information during Civil Litigation in Poland and in the United States

    OpenAIRE

    Dobrzeniecki, Karol

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the article is to compare the American evidentiary rule of “state secrets privilege” with the Polish regulation of Article 248 § 1 of the Code of Civil Procedure. This issue, in particular, gains importance in the light of legal changes that occurred in the USA and most developed countries in the aftermath of the 11th September 2001 attacks and the so-called “war against terrorism”. The author presents the genesis and evolution of the privilege, the history of its application, ...

  5. Figurations of the Spiritual Squalid in Allen Ginsberg's Indian Journals: Transformation of India in Post-War Beat and American Imagination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gayathri Prabhu

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the impact that India had on Beat imagination with specific emphasis on Ginsberg's under-studied Indian Journals, written during his travels in India in 1962-63, and published in 1970. The earlier American literary view of India was dominated by the notion of the spiritual East, and was evoked in the high prose of Emerson and Whitman. In the new context and historical time of post-war counterculture, India came to constitute a different kind of repertoire: 1 the trope of physical travel (unlike the earlier literary forebears who had never actually visited India and its sense of encounter with the un-transcendable physical 'dirt' of India; 2 India as a new realm of the sexual (in contrast with the more traditional dominant trend of India as 'ascetic spiritual' and the intertwining of the sexual and spiritual; and 3 Experimenting with drugs to explore the spaces between pilgrimage and tourism wherein India as a whole and in itself offers alternate states of bodily being. Moving away from conventional postcolonial notions of 'representation' in modes that might still be seen as quasi-Orientalist, I read the Ginsberg's text as creating a new kind of literary and aesthetic density, mixing genres of travelogue, diary, poetry, confession, doodle, photography. Further, in contrast to the entirely uni-directional notions of Orientalist representation, I argue that this encounter re-defined Beat notions of space, sexuality, and alternate consciousness.

  6. WAR HORSES:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    War Horses: Helhesten and the Danish Avant-Garde During World War II This exhibition is the first to explore the history and significance of the accomplishments of Danish artists working during the Nazi occupation of their country (1940-45), who called themselves Helhesten, such as Ejler Bille......-1951), which they became part of. Cobra greatly influenced the development of European modern art after World War II. The exhibition includes over 100 works and reconstructs for the first time the most important exhibition these artists staged in Denmark during the war, 13 Artists in a Tent (1941). It draws...

  7. Civil Disobedience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martz, Carlton

    2000-01-01

    This theme issue looks at three historical and recent instances of civil disobedience. The first article examines the Free Speech Movement, which arose on the Berkeley campus of the University of California in the 1960s. The second article recounts the struggle of Mahatma Gandhi to free India from the British Empire. The final article explores the…

  8. Civil Society and Islamism in Iraq | CRDI - Centre de recherches ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Islamic civil society organizations have been especially successful in this role, and in doing so have acquired the reputation for honesty and integrity, gained public confidence and built political capital. In Iraq, the weakness of civil society, the devastating consequences of decades of war and an international embargo have ...

  9. Conceptual Readings into the Cold War: Towards Transnational Approaches from the Perspective of Latin American Studies in Eastern and Western Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albert Manke

    Full Text Available Abstract This bibliographical and conceptual essay summarizes recent research in Cold War Studies in Europe and the Americas, especially on smaller states in historiographical studies. Against the background of an increasing connectedness and globalization of research about the Cold War, the authors highlight the importance of the full-scale integration of countries and regions of the 'Global South' into Cold War Studies. Critical readings of the newly available resources reveal the existence of important decentralizing perspectives resulting from Cold War entanglements of the 'Global South' with the 'Global North.' As a result, the idea that these state actors from the former 'periphery' of the Cold War should be considered as passive recipients of superpower politics seems rather troubled. The evidence shows (at least partially autonomous and active multiple actors.

  10. The Long Itinerary to Normalization: The Cuban – Latin American Relations

    OpenAIRE

    Kruijt, Dirk

    2017-01-01

    After its Revolution Cuba was forced into a Latin American and Caribbean diplomatic quarantine by the United States. In the 1960s, Cuba’s relations with the region were basically characterized by its support to insurgency and guerrilla movements. In the 1970s, Cuba overcame its isolation by normalizing relations in Latin America and with the newly independent Caribbean island-states. Support to the Armed Left was only given in the case of civil war against dictatorships; Cuba also assisted in...

  11. The Hurtline and the Colorline: Race and Racism in American Stand-up Comedy from Civil Rights to Color-Blindness

    OpenAIRE

    Perez, Raul

    2015-01-01

    In this dissertation, I examine race and racism in U.S. stand-up comedy, with particular attention to discursive and demographic shifts from the civil rights era to the present. I situate an examination of race-talk in stand-up comedy within the broader literature on post-civil rights racial discourse in the U.S., which contends that offensive public race-talk is on the decline. I argue comedians occupy a critical and central role in the matter of racial speech, but that sociologists have la...

  12. Andersonville: Prisoner of War Camp. Teaching with Historic Places.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, Alan

    1994-01-01

    Presents a classroom lesson based on the Civil War prison camp at Andersonville, Georgia. Includes drawings, three maps, two photographs, and two student readings from the National Register of Historic Places registration file on the Andersonville National Historic Site. (CFR)

  13. The Guatemalan Military: Transition from War to Peace

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Saenz, James

    2001-01-01

    ... to civilian control within a democracy. In December of 1996, the Guatemalan government and the insurgent representatives signed the final Peace Accord that brought an end to the country's thirty-six years of civil war...

  14. Liberia's Post-War Recovery: Key Issues and Developments

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cook, Nicolas

    2006-01-01

    .... It held elections in October 2005, with a presidential run-off vote in November -- a key step in a post-conflict transition and peace-building process that began following its second civil war in a decade...

  15. Liberia's Post-War Recovery: Key Issues and Developments

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cook, Nicolas

    2005-01-01

    This report describes recent developments in Liberia, a small, poor West African country that is undergoing a post-conflict transition and peace-building process after its second civil war in a decade...

  16. Reflexiones sobre el concepto de guerra civil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    González Calleja, Eduardo

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available This article shows the phenomenon of war as the highest intensity point in an armed conflict. The work looks over his juridical typification, the special dialectical relation established between situations of war and peace, and the ethiology, characteristics and consequences of civil war as a big scale political conflict whose aim is the preservation or conquest of state power.

    El artículo describe el fenómeno de la guerra como un conflicto armado de máxima intensidad. Estudia su caracterización jurídica, la peculiar relación dialéctica que se establece entre el estado de guerra y el de paz, y la etiología, características y efectos de la guerra civil como conflicto político en gran escala dirigido a la conservación o conquista del poder estatal.

  17. 46 CFR 308.551 - War risk insurance clearing agency agreement for cargo, Form MA-321.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false War risk insurance clearing agency agreement for cargo... EMERGENCY OPERATIONS WAR RISK INSURANCE War Risk Cargo Insurance Iv-General § 308.551 War risk insurance... American War Risk Agency or MARAD. ...

  18. Filming, faking and propaganda: The origins of the war film, 1897-1902

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bottomore, S.

    2007-01-01

    The origins of the war film, 1897-1902 In this thesis I present the first detailed treatment of war and early cinema, describing the representation of conflicts in film from the Greco-Turkish War of 1897 through the Spanish-American War, Boer War, and others up to about 1902. I show that in

  19. A lot of leaders? Robert Parris Moses, SNCC, and leadership in the production of social change during the American Civil Rights Movement, 1960-1965

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser-Maessen, Laura Gerarda Maria

    2013-01-01

    This is the definitive biography of one of the most influential, yet relatively unstudied, leaders of the civil rights movement: SNCC-worker Robert Parris Moses. Uniquely written with his rare personal cooperation and based on new primary source material, it fills the gap in historical knowledge

  20. The Derg-SPLM/A Cooperation: An Aspect of Ethio-Sudan Proxy Wars

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The warm and friendly Ethio-Sudan diplomatic relations that followed Sudan's independence in 1956 and the long standing frontier trade between the two countries have been severely damaged by the outbreak of civil wars in southern Sudan in 1955 as well as in Eritrea in 1962. As the civil wars intensified in both countries ...