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Sample records for american civil war

  1. Native Americans and the Civil War.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Arrell Morgan

    1985-01-01

    Details combat and conflicts between Native Americans and settlers before, during, and following the Civil War. Shows how the involvement of tribes in the Civil War and Reconstruction diminished their martial power and made them certain marks for conquest and relegation to reservations. (JHZ)

  2. Proposals for chemical weapons during the American Civil War.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasegawa, Guy R

    2008-05-01

    Proposals for chemical weapons that arose during the American Civil War are described. Most incendiary and all biological agents are excluded. The described proposals appeared primarily in periodicals or letters to government officials on both sides. The weapons were usually meant to temporarily disable enemy combatants, but some might have been lethal, and Civil War caregivers were ill-prepared to deal with the weapons' effects. Evidently, none of the proposed weapons were used. In only one instance was use against civilians mentioned. Among the agents most commonly proposed were cayenne pepper or other plant-based irritants such as black pepper, snuff, mustard, and veratria. Other suggested agents included chloroform, chlorine, hydrogen cyanide, arsenic compounds, sulfur, and acids. Proponents usually suggested that the chemicals be included in explosive artillery projectiles. Less commonly proposed vehicles of delivery included fire engines, kites, and manned balloons. Some of the proposed weapons have modern counterparts. PMID:18543573

  3. Cowards and Heroes: Group Loyalty in the American Civil War

    OpenAIRE

    Costa, Dora L.; Kahn, Matthew E

    2001-01-01

    What motivated men to risk death in the most horrific war in U.S. history when pay was low and irregular and military punishment strategies were weak? In such a situation creating group loyalty by promoting social capital is of paramount importance and in the Civil War was the cement of both armies. We find that individual and company socio-economic and demographic characteristics, ideology, and morale were important predictors of group loyalty in the Union Army. Company characteristics were ...

  4. Mexican and Central-American Contributions to the Study of the Civil War: Two Historical Traditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge de HOYOS PUENTE

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This article analyses the historiography about the Spanish Civil War from Mexico and Central America. The result is quite different from the point of view of the interest raised by the Spanish conflict. This is can be explained by the different levels of involvement of the Mexican and Central American authorities in the war. However, the importance of the Republican exile in Mexico and its relative insignificance in Central America is also a contributing factor. The present day interest in the civil war is still based on that involvement and not of the evolution of the conflict.

  5. Getting the Civil War Right

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loewen, James W.

    2011-01-01

    William Faulkner famously wrote, "The past is never dead. It's not even past." He would not be surprised to learn that Americans, 150 years after the Civil War began, are still getting it wrong. Did America's most divisive war start over slavery or states' rights? The author says that too many people--including educators--get it wrong. The author…

  6. Legalisation of Civil Wars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buhl, Kenneth Øhlenschlæger

    2009-01-01

    This article is concerned with the legal challenges of regulating civil wars in international humanitarian law. Civil war is not a term used in international law; it falls however, withing the context of the legal term 'armed conflicts not of an international character', although the shorter 'non......-international armed conflict' is used here. Civil wars are usually limited to the territory of a state. Considering that international law is generally concerned with the legal relations between states – being a legal system based on the system of states with states as its subjects – the main question is how civil...... wars as internal conflicts have become subject to international humanitarian law....

  7. Civil War and Inoperativity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flohr, Mikkel

    2016-01-01

    This article analyses the penultimate publication in Giorgio Agambens Homo Sacer-series Stasis: Civil War as a Political Paradigm. It compares and contrasts the paradigm of civil war with the preceding paradigm of the exception, and identifies a significant displacement in the relationship between...

  8. Silas Weir Mitchell: Neurologists and Neurology during the American Civil War.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boller, François; Birnbaum, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    With few exceptions, neurology was nonexistent in the United States until the Civil War years. From 1861 to 1865, the United States saw a bitter armed conflict between the North (the Union) and the South (the Confederate States or Confederacy), and during those years, neurology was born in the United States. In 1861, Silas Weir Mitchell, together with George Morehouse and William Keen, opened and operated the first neurological hospital in Philadelphia, with the backing of the Surgeon General William Hammond. They treated and studied many peripheral nerve diseases, which led to their making the medical world aware of several conditions, including causalgia (now known as complex regional pain syndrome) and the phantom limb phenomenon. Progress in neurology, both at that time and in subsequent years, owed a great deal to cross-fertilization from Europe. Charles Edouard Brown-Séquard exemplified this. He held multiple medical positions on both sides of the Atlantic, including a position at Harvard in 1864. His teachings, to some extent, contributed to the development of neurology in the United States. In the Confederate states, medical care was less well organized, and neurology only developed later. After the war, in 1874, Mitchell, Hammond, and a few others founded the American Neurological Association. While war influenced the development of medicine, and neurology in particular, medicine also helped to shape the outcome of the war. PMID:27035676

  9. The Impact of War on Resource Allocation: 'Creative Destruction' and the American Civil War

    OpenAIRE

    B. Zorina Khan

    2015-01-01

    What is the effect of wars on industrialization, technology and commercial activity? In economic terms, such events as wars comprise a large exogenous shock to labor and capital markets, aggregate demand, the distribution of expenditures, and the rate and direction of technological innovation. In addition, if private individuals are extremely responsive to changes in incentives, wars can effect substantial changes in the allocation of resources, even within a decentralized structure with litt...

  10. The Civil War in Afghanistan

    OpenAIRE

    Liakhovsky, Alexander

    2000-01-01

    Author analyses (a) the causes leading to the Afghan Civil War 1979-1989 (the war is above all the result of global rivalries between the super-power states and conflicting political systems); (b) Politburo decision to send Soviet troops into Afghanistan (there is reason to believe that the leaders of the Soviet Union became "victims" of strategic misinformation, skillfully put into effect by American intelligence agencies); (c) the deployment of Soviet troops in Afghanistan (brought about an...

  11. Understanding Attitudes and Perceptions For Civil War Battlefield, Interpretive Images

    OpenAIRE

    Abu Bakar, Shamsul

    2013-01-01

    Civil War images are important visual records that captured and depict the realities endured by the American people during the Civil War. These images are a powerful visual platform that depicts the vivid representation of past history. Images of Civil War are frequently used as interpretive media, particularly at historic battlefields to enhance the visitor experience and understanding. However, empirical studies of the characteristics of Civil War images that can influence visitors\\' experi...

  12. Leaders: Privilege, Sacrifice, Opportunity, and Personnel Economics in the American Civil War.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Dora L

    2014-08-01

    US Civil War data allow examinations of theories of leadership. By observing both leaders and followers during the war and 40 years after it, I establish that the most able became wartime leaders, that leading by example from the front was an effective strategy in reducing desertion rates, and that leaders later migrated to the larger cities because this is where their superior skills would have had the highest payoffs. I find mixed evidence on whether leaders were created or born. I find that US cities were magnets for the most able and provided training opportunities for both leaders and followers: Men might start in a low social status occupation in a city but then move to a higher status occupation. (JEL M50, N31). PMID:25221788

  13. Post Civil War African American History: Brief Periods of Triumph, and Then Despair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graff, Gilda

    2016-01-01

    During Reconstruction, which is often called the most progressive period in American history, African Americans made great strides. By 1868 African American men constituted a majority of registered voters in South Carolina and Mississippi, and by 1870 eighty-five percent of Mississippi's black jurors could read and write. However, Reconstruction was followed by approximately one hundred years of Jim Crow laws, lynching, disenfranchisement, sharecropping, unequal educational resources, terrorism, racial caricatures, and convict leasing. The Civil Rights Revolution finally ended that period of despair, but the era of mass incarceration can be understood as a reaction to the Civil Rights Movement. This article attempts to understand the persistence of racism in the United States from slavery's end until the present. PMID:27108470

  14. Primary Sources Enliven Civil War

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robelen, Erik W.

    2011-01-01

    Today, a growing number of teachers are moving beyond the textbook in teaching about the war, and U.S. history more broadly. Teachers are digging directly into primary sources and harnessing technology, all in an attempt to help students better understand the past and bring it to life. Doing so may be especially important with the Civil War,…

  15. Voices from the past: Mental and physical outcomes described by American Civil War amputees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnan-White, Jess; Yep, Jewelry; Hetzel-Riggin, Melanie D

    2016-01-01

    Studies of trauma commonly concentrate on the psychological and physiological effects of recent violent events. Although today connections are becoming more explicitly drawn, early studies of the aftermath of amputation serve to shed light on modern understanding of the interaction of the physical and emotional. The study of combat amputation, dissociation, and related posttraumatic stress largely began with the work of 19th-century Philadelphia physician Silas Weir Mitchell, who brought attention to the phenomenon of phantom limb pain. Less known, however, are the data he and his son, John K. Mitchell, also collected on the mental outcomes of trauma. Using an archived collection of original surveys of double-amputee patients dating largely from 1893 housed at the Historical Medical Library at the College of Physicians of Philadelphia, an interdisciplinary team explored the historical, anthropological, and psychological background of the study of combat trauma. Almost 30 years following the end of hostilities, the majority of the sample of U.S. Civil War veterans indicated that their general disposition, general health, and sleeping or eating patterns had changed following limb amputation. More telling, possibly, are the written comments on the surveys and letters that indicate frustration with the continuous suffering and the knowledge of their mental and physical changes. These data illustrate the value of historical archives in documenting the development of the study of trauma and modern concepts of combat experiences. PMID:26158228

  16. Slavery, the Civil War Era, and African American Representation in U.S. History: An Analysis of Four States' Academic Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Carl B.; Metzger, Scott Alan

    2011-01-01

    This study is a mixed-methods text analysis of African American representation within K-12 U.S. History content standards treating the revolutionary era, the early U.S. republic, the Civil War era, and Reconstruction. The states included in the analysis are Michigan, New Jersey, South Carolina, and Virginia. The analysis finds that the reviewed…

  17. Introducing the Civil Wars mediation (CWM) dataset

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Mediation is one of the few mechanisms the international community can deploy that will affect civil wars. This article introduces the dataset on mediation in civil wars – termed the Civil War Mediation (CWM) dataset. This is the first dataset to focus solely on civil war mediation. These data contribute to the present state of quantitative research on mediation in three important respects: the data are collected for the period of 1946–2004, are organized by mediation cases and by civil war e...

  18. From the American Civil War to the War on Terror: Three Models of Emergency Law in the United States Supreme Court

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartz, Emily

    This book offers a systematic and comprehensive account of the key cases that have come to shape the jurisprudence on emergency law in the United States from the Civil War to the War on Terror. The legal questions raised in these cases concern fundamental constitutional issues such as the status of...... fundamental rights, the role of the court in times of war, and the question of how to interpret constitutional limitations to executive power. At stake in these difficult legal questions is the issue of how to conceive of the very status of law in liberal democratic states. The questions with which the...... Supreme Court justices have to grapple in these cases are therefore as philosophical as they are legal. In this book the Court's arguments are systematized according to categories informed by constitutional law as well as classic philosophical discussions of the problem of emergency. On this basis, the...

  19. Lest We Remember: Civil War Memory and Commemoration among the Five Tribes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortney, Jeff

    2012-01-01

    This study addresses the ways in which Natives practiced self-silence in regard to public Civil War commemoration. Notwithstanding the incredible impact on Indian Territory and Indian lives, Oklahoma Indians themselves did not typically commemorate the Civil War. Therefore, Native American contribution to the Civil War was largely skewed in the…

  20. Slavery and the Civil War in Cultural Memory

    OpenAIRE

    Adkins, Christina Katherine

    2014-01-01

    That slavery was largely excised from the cultural memory of the Civil War in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, particularly by white Americans, is well documented; Slavery and the Civil War in Cultural Memory moves beyond that story of omission to ask how slavery has been represented in U.S. culture and, necessarily, how it figures into some of the twentieth century's most popular Civil War narratives. The study begins in the 1930s with the publication of Gone with the Wind...

  1. Poverty and Civil War: Revisiting the Evidence

    OpenAIRE

    Djankov, Simeon; Reynal-Querol, Marta

    2010-01-01

    Previous research has interpreted the correlation between per capita income and civil war as evidence that poverty is a main determinant of conflict. In this paper, we find that the relationship between poverty and civil war is spurious and is accounted for by historical phenomena that jointly determine income evolution and conflict. In particular, the statistical association between poverty and civil wars disappears once we include country fixed effects. Also, using cross-section data for 19...

  2. 76 FR 21223 - Civil War Sesquicentennial

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-15

    ... States of America the two hundred and thirty-fifth. (Presidential Sig.) [FR Doc. 2011-9368 Filed 4-14-11...#0;#0; ] Proclamation 8654 of April 12, 2011 Civil War Sesquicentennial By the President of the... in an attack on Fort Sumter. These were the first shots of a civil war that would stretch across...

  3. 'War neurosis' during the Spanish Civil War (1936-39).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villasante, Olga

    2010-12-01

    The aim of this contribution is to analyse the incidence and treatment of war neurosis in Madrid during the Spanish Civil War. First, the scientific papers published on war neurosis during and after the war are examined. Then the work of Gregorio Bermann (1894-1972), a member of the International Brigades who organized the frontline Neuropsychiatric Service at the Hospital de Chamartín de La Rosa (Madrid), is analysed. Las neurosis en la guerra, published in 1941, which recounts Bermann's personal experience in the care of war neurosis in Spain, is also discussed. PMID:21877420

  4. Class conflict and civil war duration the FARC insurgency

    OpenAIRE

    Akar, Mine

    2013-01-01

    This study explores the effects of class conflicts on civil war duration. Colombian civil war, the FARC insurgency, is examined from a class-based perspective. I argue that class-based civil wars last longer than non-class based civil wars such as identity conflicts because class conflicts have deeper roots embedded in the social, political, and economic aspects of the society. Through the examination of existing theories in the civil war duration literature, I propose four arguments in the c...

  5. Francis Lieber, Terrorism, and the American Way of War

    OpenAIRE

    Erik Ringmar

    2010-01-01

    This article investigates the distinction between wars fought against "civilized states" and wars fought against "savages". It concludes that the United States has been disproportionately engaged in wars of the latter kind. This fact, the argument will be, has given a particular character to the way Americans deal with foreign threats. There is an "American way of war" of which the Bush administration's response to the terrorist attacks of 2001 is a characteristic expression.

  6. Francis Lieber, Terrorism, and the American Way of War

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik Ringmar

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available This article investigates the distinction between wars fought against "civilized states" and wars fought against "savages". It concludes that the United States has been disproportionately engaged in wars of the latter kind. This fact, the argument will be, has given a particular character to the way Americans deal with foreign threats. There is an "American way of war" of which the Bush administration's response to the terrorist attacks of 2001 is a characteristic expression.

  7. Nordic visions of the Civil War

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morten HEIBERG

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available There is a rich body of Scandinavian literature written by surviving volunteers of the International Brigades which concerns the Spanish Civil War. However, when it comes to scientific studies the situation is an altogether different one. Only a small number of academic studies can be found available, often limited in scope and of modest quality. The Civil War seems to be of marginal interest to the Nordic research community, which is generally more interested in national history than in European and world history. There are, however, some exceptions to this, as this article will demonstrate. The most interesting conclusion - from an international historiographical point of view - to be drawn from a number of new studies is that the Spanish Civil War produced political and military repercussions in Scandinavia during the German occupation of Denmark and Norway from 1940-1945.

  8. Yugoslav Historiography and the Civil War

    OpenAIRE

    Pavlakovi?, Vjeran

    2015-01-01

    This article examines a national historiographic tradition relatively unknown in Spain. It differs from the mainstream tradition in former Soviet bloc countries. The author first discusses the number of Yugoslav volunteers in Spain (among whom Tito was never present) and explains to Spanish readers the meaning of the Spanish Civil War with regard to the construction of a new Yugoslav identity, in the wake of Tito’s victory after the second world war and the break with Stalin. Veterans of the ...

  9. Designing an interactive multimedia instructional environment: The Civil War Interactive

    OpenAIRE

    Ward M. Cates; Fontana, Lynn A.; Charles S. White

    1993-01-01

    This article describes the rationales behind the design decisions made in creating The Civil War Interactive, an interactive multimedia instructional product based on Ken Burns''s film series The Civil War.DOI:10.1080/0968776930010202

  10. The Spanish Civil War in Catalan narrative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Campillo

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The first part of this article presents the literary output on the subject of the Spanish Civil War written during the war and immediately after it, between 1936 and 1939. What stand out from this time are brief, non-fictional narrative forms which were often meant for the press, such as chronicles from both the battlefront (where Pere Calders excels and the home front. Among the fictional genres, short stories prevailed during the war, while the novel, a genre which requires the slow assimilation of experience, found its maximum expression in the post-war period in two canonical works by Joan Sales and Mercè Rodoreda, which shall be analysed in the second part of this article.

  11. The Civil War in cyberspace today

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matilde EIROA

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The appeal of the Spanish Civil War in the online world is a phenomenon deserving of attention, as an event that took place more than 75 years ago which still arouses debate and the curiosity of many. It is surprising that the media world considers it “newsworthy” and that it has an important presence on the Internet — on blogs, websites, You Tube, and even social media platforms such as Facebook and Twitter. This article examines all mention of the Civil War in online media. We start from the idea that the features of the online world allow for an extensive and multifaceted production of media of content which is more cultural, more social, and more attuned to the passing of time.

  12. Making Good on a Promise: The Education of Civil War Orphans in Pennsylvania, 1863-1893

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bair, Sarah D.

    2011-01-01

    During and after the American Civil War, individual state governments, faced with numerous economic demands, struggled to meet the needs of soldiers and their families. Among other pressing questions, they had to decide what to do with the massive number of dependent children orphaned by the war. In order to protect children, it became more…

  13. How Authoritarian Survival Strategies Affect Civil War Onset

    OpenAIRE

    Paine, John

    2015-01-01

    This dissertation studies causes of civil war from a game theoretic perspective. It aims to understand not only how authoritarian leaders can strategically mitigate prospects for civil war, but also why authoritarian rulers may pursue activities that increase conflict propensity—despite the large adverse welfare consequences of civil wars. Each essay focuses primarily on one particular authoritarian survival strategy: building military capacity, extracting resources from society, and excludin...

  14. Impact of the civil war in Sierra Leone on deforestation

    OpenAIRE

    Minářová, Barbora

    2012-01-01

    The process of deforestation in Sierra Leone already started before the civil war, but it is generally assumed that the conflict exacerbated it. The present study investigated the impact of the civil war on deforestation, fallow periods and commercial logging, in the region around the Gola Rainforests National Park. Forest covers were affected by the civil war in two ways: directly through farm abandonment (i) and indirectly through defined channels (ii), such as preferences towards natural r...

  15. PROBLEMS IN ANALYZING INFLATION DURING THE CIVIL WAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul R. Auerbach

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available In the American Civil War, a drastic increase in the level of “high powered money” with the issuance of the greenbacks had a relatively modest effect on the measured price level. The existence of a free market in gold and the presence of specie are offered as an explanation for the constrained movements both in the money multiplier and in movements in measured income velocity. These unusual results largely reflect the fact that in such a world of freely fluctuating multiple currencies, a rise in the measured price level does not reflect the decline in the value of money.

  16. Civil war, climate change and development: A scenario study for Sub-Saharan Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Devitt, Conor; Tol, Richard S.J.

    2010-01-01

    We construct a model of development, civil war, and climate change. There are multiple interactions. Economic growth reduces the probability of civil war and the vulnerability to climate change. Climate change increases the probability of civil war. The impacts of climate change, civil war, and civil war in the neighbouring countries reduce economic growth. The model has two potential poverty traps ? a climate-change-induced one and a civil-war-induced one ? and the two poverty traps may rein...

  17. The American way of war: Afghanistan and Iraq

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Luisa Parraguez Kobek; Mariana Gonzalez Rodriguez

    2013-01-01

    The terrorist attacks of 9/11 placed the United States in a position to exercise its political objectives of securing national interests through military means. The War on Terror waged in Afghanistan and Iraq shifted the development of U.S. foreign policy, allowing for American leadership to exercise its right to sovereignty and power. The doctrine required a victory in each of the scenarios, and the inability to secure these aims resulted in civil war and insurgency in both countries. Import...

  18. “棉花王国”与“小麦王国”的斗争%The Struggle between “Cotton Kingdom” and“Wheat Kingdom”---Analysis of the Impact of Agricultural Economy on American Civil War

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘鹏

    2015-01-01

    In the American Civil War , the agricultural economy played an important role for the cause and re-sults of the war .It is the direct cause of the South provoking the Civil War that the “cotton kingdom” in the South misjudged for the position , role and importance of the cotton .The “animal kingdom” of the western was estab-lished, and gradually closed to the North for promoting agricultural product market , which had a direct impact on the trend of development of the war .In north, the“wheat kingdom” improved its status in the international market of agricultural products and enhanced its economic strength; also provide food for the northern army and people , which ensured the victory of the North .%棉花、小麦、畜牧产品等农产品作为农业经济的代表对美国内战的起因、走向、结果发挥了重要影响。南方“棉花王国”对棉花的地位、作用、重要性的错误判断是南方挑起内战的直接原因;西部“畜牧王国”在农产品消费市场的推动下逐步靠近北方直接影响了战争的走向;北方“小麦王国”提高了北方在国际农产品市场上的地位,增强了北方的经济实力,为北方军队和人民提供了坚实的粮食保障,从物质上保证了北方的胜利。

  19. Neighbors at Risk : A Quantitative Study of Civil War Contagion

    OpenAIRE

    Forsberg, Erika

    2009-01-01

    While previous research shows that civil wars can spread to neighboring states, we do not know why certain neighbors are more at risk than others. To address this research gap, this dissertation proposes a contagion process approach that can identify the most likely targets of contagion effects from an ongoing conflict. Using data with global coverage, theoretical expectations about why and where civil wars would have contagion effects, are examined in a series of statistical analyses. Paper ...

  20. Use Primary Sources to Develop a Soap Opera: As the Civil War Turns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Ronald V.

    2002-01-01

    In this article, the author describes a social studies class activity that uses primary sources to develop a soap opera based on the American Civil War. In the soap opera activity, students can watch historical characters as they grow, develop, and change. Not only do people in the soap opera develop over a long period, but their accumulated…

  1. African Americans and the Spanish-American War and Philippine Insurrection: Military Participation, Recognition, and Memory, 1898-1904

    OpenAIRE

    Russell, Timothy Dale

    2013-01-01

    The Spanish-American War, which began in 1898, coincided with a virulent campaign of racial violence and legal segregation directed at African Americans throughout the "Jim Crow" South. As the jingoism of the day stirred American nationalism, the question of whether to support the war against Spain was much more complicated to even the most patriotic African Americans as they faced an unceasing assault on their civil rights. Utilizing numerous editorials from the black press, and letters fr...

  2. Civil War, Revolutionary Heritage, and the Chinese Garden

    OpenAIRE

    Tobie Meyer-Fong

    2014-01-01

    The Chinese garden now symbolizes timeless national, cultural, and aesthetic values. But as real property in the past, gardens inevitably were subject to the vicissitudes of their times. This article focuses on gardens and the Taiping Civil War (1851–1864). During the war, many gardens were reduced to tile shards and ash. Surviving gardens functioned as objects of longing and nostalgia, sites of refuge (physical and emotional), or a means to display status under the new regime. In the postwar...

  3. Patterns of Force: System Strength, Terrorism and Civil War

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Freytag, Andreas; Meierrieks, Daniel; Münch, Angela;

    2010-01-01

    in response to the strengths and weaknesses of the system they challenge. An empirical test of this hypothesis for 104 countries for 1992 to 2004 indeed shows that the socio-economic strength of a system positively correlates with the likelihood of terrorism, but negatively with the incidence of...... civil war. Institutional quality and political participation of opponents reduce the risk of civil war, but do not affect the likelihood of terrorism. We also show that system stability reduces the likelihood of all forms of violent opposition....

  4. Commemoration, Race, and World War II: History and Civil Rights at the Tuskegee Airmen National Historic Site

    OpenAIRE

    Renée Ater

    2015-01-01

    History and civil rights are intertwined at the Tuskegee Airmen National Historic Site at Moton Field in Tuskegee, Alabama. Moton Field was a training flight facility for African American pilot candidates in the U.S. Army Air Corps during World War II, operating from 1941–45. Through the extant buildings and interpretive exhibits, the National Park Service commemorates the Tuskegee Airmen’s contributions to World War II, recognizing the first African American military aviators and their strug...

  5. The Problem of Civil War In Agamben's Thought

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flohr, Mikkel

    2014-01-01

    This essay departs from the largely obscure theme of civil war in Agamben’s Homo Sacer: Sovereign Power and Bare Life to elucidate a fundamental aporia of his early political thought inherited from the work of Carl Schmitt. It begins with an analysis of the topology of the exception, as the inclu...

  6. [Psychology of war (civilization as Thanatos or civilization as Eros)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comparato, S

    1975-09-12

    Freud saw war as the prevailing of death over love, this being a metapsychological concept whose roots lie in the dynamics of urges within the individual and civilisation in general. In his opinion, this dialectic tension could not be overcome. Reich noted that the analytic theory was in conflict with practice. Freud's premisses concerning the philosophy of civilisation and their implications have been taken up by Marcuse, who solves the conflict between the love-death urges by treating work as reduced to love or a game, in which death is merely the negative to be overcome. PMID:1161184

  7. Old and new memories of the Civil War

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pilar DOMINGUEZ PRATS

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This article examines autobiographical narratives of the Spanish Civil War by way of war diaries, letters and memoirs which have been published between 2006 and 2013. Since the beginning of the war the trauma caused to Spanish society has led to a substantial number of personal narratives. These sources, based upon individual experiences, are of great value for constructing a multi-faceted history of the war itself. We examine memoirs and diaries which for various reasons have not been published until recently. We deal first with military memoirs from the Francoist side, which show a striking continuity with present-day neo-Francoist approaches. Second, we examine memoirs by members of the Republican élite and of the popular classes, all of them coming from different political cultures. Finally, we account for the writing of women in exile and of a Chilean diplomat in Madrid.

  8. Understanding Civil War Violence through Military Intelligence: Mining Civilian Targeting Records from the Vietnam War

    OpenAIRE

    Douglass, Rex W.

    2015-01-01

    Military intelligence is underutilized in the study of civil war violence. Declassified records are hard to acquire and difficult to explore with the standard econometrics toolbox. I investigate a contemporary government database of civilians targeted during the Vietnam War. The data are detailed, with up to 45 attributes recorded for 73,712 individual civilian suspects. I employ an unsupervised machine learning approach of cleaning, variable selection, dimensionality reduction, and clusterin...

  9. A New View of Civil War Photography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Percoco, James A.

    2014-01-01

    Students today are used to a rich visual dimension of living. Students carry with them to school each day devices that allow them to capture their lives in real time. This is possible because of the hard labor of men who toiled for hours to capture for time immemorial images that have become engrained in the American narrative. When teaching the…

  10. Propaganda and the construction of a war culture in Spain during the Civil War

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco SEVILLANO CALERO

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This article analyses the war propaganda during the Civil War and the first years of the Francoist “New State». Recent work has addressed the construction of the image of the enemy on the basis of the prevailing stereotypes, and how General Franco’s persona was transfigured symbolically through the development of a charismatic image within the rhetoric, rites and liturgies of the ‘New State». This propaganda helped spread a culture of war from 1936 to 1939 and beyond.

  11. American growth and Napoleonic Wars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vergil Hasan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Four years after the French Revolution, in 1793 a series of wars among France and other major powers of Europe began and they lasted until 1815. There is disagreement among economic historians about the effects of these wars on the trend of US economic growth. This paper aims to answer the following question. Did America as a neutral nation take advantage of economic possibilities caused by Europe at war through trade? To put it differently, this paper questions whether there was an export-led growth due to the war. To answer this question, we re-examined the export-led growth hypothesis for the period 1790-1860 using the ARDL methodology. Based on this methodology, a cointegrated relationship is found among the variables of real GDP, labor, exports and exchange rates. The results suggest that the economic growth of the US was not export-driven. In addition, parallel to the results of unit root tests with structural breaks, the coefficient of the dummy variable was statistically significant in the long run, implying that the war did have a significant effect on the economic growth trend of the US.

  12. How the French Are Looking at the Civil War

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Marc DELAUNAY

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available As currently demonstrated by the relatively low-key affair that is the sale of the private Parisian home in which Picasso painted Guernica in 1937, the Spanish Civil War remains, both culturally and politically, a major point of reference in France’s contemporary history. A distinct set of commemorations was included in the decennial celebrations of 1996 and 2006, fuelled by the opening up of multiple written and visual archives as well as by the behaviour of the grandchildren of exiles, long-conditioned by the history of their parents and grandparents. Debate has been further fuelled by the ebb and flow of politics south of the Pyrenees and the subsequent rivalry between the tenets of neo-Francoism and republicanism. as well as the debate between regionalists/nationalists and centralists. France (mainland and North Africa is far more concerned with the Spanish Civil War than other countries as it housed a substantially higher number of exiles. That said, true French specialists on the Spanish Civil War are a rarity - although everyone seems to have something to say in his/her capacity as a descendant of an exile or political activist, especially in the Midi region. All forms of media seem affected by this wave of attention, from historical literature to the Internet; from scholarly works to popular books also aimed at youth-, stemming from torn memories; from conference proceedings to graphic novels, photo albums and documentaries (always pro-republican. At the same time however, general or military historical works evidence the continuous support of a rather anti-communist view. France was divided by the Spanish Civil War and remains so today, despite all attempts at scientific mediation.

  13. Patterns of Force: System Strength, Terrorism and Civil War

    OpenAIRE

    Freytag, Andreas; Meierrieks, Daniel; Münch, Angela; Schneider, Friedrich

    2010-01-01

    We jointly analyze the genesis of terrorism and civil war, providing a simple conceptual framework to explain why violent opposition groups choose distinct forms of violence (i.e., terrorism and open rebellion). We argue that the distinct modes of violent opposition are chosen by violent opposition groups in response to the strengths and weaknesses of the system they challenge. An empirical test of this hypothesis for 103 countries for the period of 1992 to 2004 indeed shows that the socio-ec...

  14. About Women and Civil War: New Books and Narratives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana MARTÍNEZ RUS

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with publications of the last ten years which have examined the role of women in the Civil War. These studies reveal the decisive action of women on both parts to the conflict, at the front and also in the rear areas. The methodology and sources of local and oral history have led to better understanding of the images, ideology and concerns of women, as well as of the different roles they played in the war. In general studies of Republican women, both famous and anonymous, have predominated due to the interest in recovering the work of the defeated. The discourses on emancipation and the search for equality of the various political forces that kept the war effort of the Republic have also attracted great attention.

  15. On the establishment of the Freedmen’s Bureau at the end of American Civil War%论美国内战时期自由民局的创建

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王淑霞

    2014-01-01

    During the American Civil War, a large number of escaped slaves and liberated blacks lived on nothing. At first, it was the Federal Army and Folk Group and Charitable Organization that adopted some measures to keep them alive. At the same time, the military and folk limitation precipitated the federal government to undertake the duty of caring the of blacks, and the Congress disputed the necessity and constitutionality to establish the Freedmen’s Bureau to support the feeble majority, which resulted in the establishing of the Freedmen’s Bureau that helped the freedmen and refugees reconstruct the order of the social life and production. Its foundation was the breakthrough of the welfare system, presaging the change of power layout under the Federal System.%内战期间,大量逃奴及获得自由的数百万黑人无以为生。起初,是联邦军队、民间团体及慈善组织采取种种措施帮助他们生存。军队及民间力量的不足促使联邦政府承担起解决黑人生活问题的责任,国会对建立自由民局的必要性、合宪性等问题进行了辩论,支持建立者获得微弱优势,最终建立起统一的帮助自由民、难民重建社会生活与生产秩序的联邦机构自由民局。它的创建是美国福利制度发展史上的突破,预示了联邦制下权力布局的改变。

  16. The American way of war: Afghanistan and Iraq

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Luisa Parraguez Kobek

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The terrorist attacks of 9/11 placed the United States in a position to exercise its political objectives of securing national interests through military means. The War on Terror waged in Afghanistan and Iraq shifted the development of U.S. foreign policy, allowing for American leadership to exercise its right to sovereignty and power. The doctrine required a victory in each of the scenarios, and the inability to secure these aims resulted in civil war and insurgency in both countries. Important lessons can be learned from analyzing foreign policy implementations through the use of force, applying responsible sovereignty to pressing transnational security threats and strengthening the international architecture through a multidimensional response.

  17. Civil war: is it all about disease and xenophobia? A comment on Letendre, Fincher & Thornhill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendrix, Cullen S; Gleditsch, Kristian Skrede

    2012-02-01

    Letendre, Fincher & Thornhill (2010) argue that pathogen intensity provides the ultimate explanation for why some countries are more prone to civil war than others. They argue that the economic and political factors highlighted in previous research on civil war are largely caused by underlying differences in pathogen intensity, and contend that disease proneness increases the risk of civil war through its effects on resource competition and xenophobia. They present empirical evidence that they interpret as consistent with their argument: a statistically significant correlation between pathogen intensity and civil war onset. In this comment, we raise concerns over their interpretation of the empirical evidence and their proposed causal mechanisms. We find that the data provide stronger evidence for the reverse causal relationship, namely that civil war causes disease to become more prevalent. This finding is consistent with the literatures on the public health effects of civil war as well as research on state capacity and public health. PMID:21707908

  18. Civil War, Revolutionary Heritage, and the Chinese Garden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tobie Meyer-Fong

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The Chinese garden now symbolizes timeless national, cultural, and aesthetic values. But as real property in the past, gardens inevitably were subject to the vicissitudes of their times. This article focuses on gardens and the Taiping Civil War (1851–1864. During the war, many gardens were reduced to tile shards and ash. Surviving gardens functioned as objects of longing and nostalgia, sites of refuge (physical and emotional, or a means to display status under the new regime. In the postwar period, gardens served as status symbols, places to commemorate loss or celebrate restoration, and venues for renewed sociability. This article uses a series of case studies to explore the multiple meanings associated with gardens, the Taiping Heavenly Kingdom, and the Qing dynasty—in the past and today.

  19. Nationality, rationality and misperception : building blocks of civil war and the effects of intervention

    OpenAIRE

    2005-01-01

    In this paper I intend to study the framework of civil war and the effectiveness of in-ternational intervention into intrastate violent conflict. My aim is to provide policy suggestions for international players seeking conflict management and to describe possible mechanisms that influence the intensity and the duration of civil wars. I pre-sent briefly theories of civil war and different forms of interventions, mainly from an economic and material perspective, and try to show essential aspec...

  20. Natural Resources, Weak States and Civil War : Can Rents Stabilize Coup Prone Regimes?

    OpenAIRE

    Bodea, Cristina

    2012-01-01

    This paper argues that state weakness is broader than implied previously in the civil war literature, and that particular types of weakness in interaction with natural resources have aggravating or mitigating consequences for the risk of civil war. While in anocracies or unstable regimes natural resources can be expected to increase the risk of civil war, we suggest that resource wealth allows weak leaders to stabilize their relationship with their inner elite circle. In particular, for regim...

  1. The Businessman as Artist in American Civilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Dean

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available This Transatlantica dossier tries to offer the reader a concise, provocative gathering of questions, subjects, and possible answers to a core issue of American Civilization—the dynamic tension between profit and creativity, money and the muse. A great deal of orthodox social and aesthetic analysis since the advent of the industrial revolution has understood business and art to be at odds with each other. Many an artist in Anglo-American Civilization and elsewhere have not been comfortable wit...

  2. The 1918 Finnish Civil War Revisited: The Digital Aftermath

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    Anne Heimo

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Today heritage sites not only preserve the memory of grandiose moments of history, but also include the darker ones, which were previously either preferably forgotten or went unrecognised. In Finnish history, it is difficult to find a more painful example of these “sites of pain and shame” than the 1918 Civil War. This article examines the different ways that the 1918 Finnish Civil War is commemorated and represented on the Internet today, on both private and institutional websites as well as in social media, from the perspective of participatory history culture and vernacular authority. People have always shared information concerning the past with each other, but the way that this can be observed on the Internet today is novel. Only after the rise of new technology, the Internet and especially Web 2.0, people have had the possibility to share their experiences and interpretations side by side with history professionals to this degree. In relation to memory and heritage politics, this means that we need to re-examine the boundaries between private and public memory and official and unofficial heritage, and recognise new forms of collaboration between audiences and institutions.

  3. Our Experiences with Chest Trauma Patients in Syrian Civil War

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    Samil Gunay

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Thoracic surgery is a branch, the efficiency of which is unquestionable for war. And during the civil war in Syria, thoracic surgery specialists have been feeling this efficiency so closely. So we want to share our experiences on patients sent from this region. Material and Method: The cases comprised of 41 patients in total, 33 men and 8 women, between the ages of 16-75, who were brought from Syria between the dates of August 2012 %u2013 November 2013. The files of the patients were received from archive. Results: Except 11 isolated thorax trauma patients, it was determined thorax and abdomen injuries at 9 patients (21.9%, thorax and extremity injuries at 8 patients (19.5%, thorax and vertebra injuries at 3 patients (7.3%, thorax, abdomen and cranium injuries at 5 patients (12.1%, thorax, abdomen and eye injuries at one patient (2.4%, thorax, abdomen and vertebra injuries at 3 patients (7.3%, thorax, abdomen and extremity injuries at one patient (2.4%. Discussion: Thoracic surgery is a lifesaving branch in case of fast and effectual medical intervention to injuries during war.

  4. Library of American Civilization Demonstration. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Napier, Paul A.; And Others

    In August, 1971, The National Home Library Foundation of Washington, D.C., awarded to The George Washington University a grant to install a set of the ultra-microfiche "Library of American Civilization" (produced by Encyclopaedia Britannica's subsidiary, Library Resources, Inc.), together with all available associated equipment and bibliographic…

  5. Understanding Civil War Violence through Military Intelligence: Mining Civilian Targeting Records from the Vietnam War

    CERN Document Server

    Douglass, Rex W

    2015-01-01

    Military intelligence is underutilized in the study of civil war violence. Declassified records are hard to acquire and difficult to explore with the standard econometrics toolbox. I investigate a contemporary government database of civilians targeted during the Vietnam War. The data are detailed, with up to 45 attributes recorded for 73,712 individual civilian suspects. I employ an unsupervised machine learning approach of cleaning, variable selection, dimensionality reduction, and clustering. I find support for a simplifying typology of civilian targeting that distinguishes different kinds of suspects and different kinds targeting methods. The typology is robust, successfully clustering both government actors and rebel departments into groups that mirror their known functions. The exercise highlights methods for dealing with high dimensional found conflict data. It also illustrates how aggregating measures of political violence masks a complex underlying empirical data generating process as well as a comple...

  6. Becoming visible and real: Images of Republican Women during the Spanish Civil War

    OpenAIRE

    Martin Moruno, Dolorès

    2010-01-01

    Following Donna Haraway’s (1988) doctrine of embodied objectivity, I analyze the construction of the notion of woman in the visual culture produced during the Spanish Civil War, by considering different women’s roles as militiawomen, political leaders, nurses, and workers in the munitions factories. A selection of photographs of the Republican women during the Spanish Civil War reveals how the modern wars of the first half of the 20th century should not be considered exclusively a male domain...

  7. Our vascular surgery experiences in Syrian civil war

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İyad Fansa

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Due to the ongoing civil war in Syria, numerous vascular injured patients are admitted to our hospital with gunshot wounds. In this study, patients who admitted our hospital, diagnosed with vascular trauma due to gunshot were evaluated with the respect of injury site, additional injuries, surgical interventions and outcomes. Methods: The study included 58 patients wounded in Syrian war and admitted to our hospital between 01.01.2012 and 01.09.2014. Results= There were 5.1% (n=3 female and 94.9% (n=55 male patients. Age range is 5-75 years and the average of age was identified as 28.61. In 12.1% (n=7 of patients with extensive tissue defects of the muscle-nerve-bone injury has been identified, despite the vascular interventions in these patients, 8.6% (n=5 of patients, the limb has been amputated. Totally 15.5% (n=9 of 58 operated patients died. Two patients died because of major vascular injury with intra-abdominal organ injuries. In one patient; infection induced sepsis and multi organ failure was detected. Six patients were lost due to hypovolemic shock as a result of late arriving. Conclusion: In patients admitted with gunshot vascular injury arrival time, the presence of additional injuries and the location of injury affect mortality rates.

  8. THE AMERICAN CULTURE WARS AND AMERICAN LITERATURE TEXTBOOKS IN CHINA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZhouJingqiong

    2004-01-01

    The American Culture Wars have had a great impact on gender and racial relations in the US and have triggered the transformation of its literary canon. American literature textbooks in China. however, are not reaping the fruits of the US cultural debates, a conclusion based on a survey of eight popular textbooks recently published by prestigious publishing houses.Given the significance of the US sociopolitical base in shaping the canon and the lecturers' dependence on the textbooks, they need immediate and drastic improvement. The paper is rounded off with some cues on what to improve.

  9. The American South: From Civil Rights Struggle to Civil Rights Tourism

    OpenAIRE

    Dorit Wagner

    2012-01-01

    In recent years the American South has become the platform for an authenticity seeking tourism industry. Former sites of civil rights action have been revived and transformed into tourist attractions. The following paper introduces the notion of so-called civil rights tourism and presents a critical analysis of current sites of civil rights commemoration throughout the American South.

  10. Assessment of the perioperative period in civilians injured in the Syrian Civil War

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sedat Hakimoglu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: wars and its challenges have historically afflicted humanity. In Syria, severe injuries occurred due to firearms and explosives used in the war between government forces and civilians for a period of over 2 years. MATERIALS AND METHODS: the study included 364 cases, who were admitted to Mustafa Kemal University Hospital, Medicine School (Hatay, Turkey, and underwent surgery. Survivors and non-survivors were compared regarding injury site, injury type and number of transfusions given. The mortality rate found in this study was also compared to those reported in other civil wars. RESULTS: the mean age was 29 (3-68 years. Major sites of injury included extremities (56.0%, head (20.1%, abdomen (16.2%, vascular structures (4.4% and thorax (3.3%. Injury types included firearm injury (64.4%, blast injury (34.4% and miscellaneous injuries (1.2%. Survival rate was 89.6% while mortality rate was 10.4%. A significant difference was observed between mortality rates in this study and those reported for the Bosnia and Lebanon civil wars; and the difference became extremely prominent when compared to mortality rates reported for Vietnam and Afghanistan civil wars. CONCLUSION: among injuries related to war, the highest rate of mortality was observed in head-neck, abdomen and vascular injuries. We believe that the higher mortality rate in the Syrian Civil War, compared to the Bosnia, Vietnam, Lebanon and Afghanistan wars, is due to seeing civilians as a direct target during war.

  11. A post-cold war cash of civilizations? : a new attempt to testing Huntington's thesis

    OpenAIRE

    2002-01-01

    A Post-Cold War Clash of Civilizations? A New Approach to Testing Huntington’s Thesis 1 Background A major area of interest after the Cold War, among academics as well as world leaders, has been to reveal new sources of armed conflict. What will be the causes of war in the post-Cold War era? The “grand theories” of international relations have been applied also in this field, although the debate has been more focused on the extent of war in the new era rather than on specific caus...

  12. Scientific inquiry and the causes of civil war : the feasibility thesis and beyond

    OpenAIRE

    Rhea, Randolph Wallace

    2011-01-01

    This Master's Thesis uses Collier, Hoeffler, and Rohner's (2009) Feasibility Thesis as a field for a thorough inquiry into the question of how we can best study the causes of civil war. We advocate a pluralist research strategy, with set-theoretic (especially fuzzy-set) methods as a key component, as the most promising strategy for the study of the causes of civil war.

  13. Gendered spaces, gendered pages: Union women in Civil War nurse narratives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telford, Jennifer Casavant; Long, Thomas Lawrence

    2012-12-01

    This interdisciplinary analysis joins literary and culture studies with history using Daphne Spain's theory of gendered spaces. Specifically, we examine the reconfiguration of the spaces of military medical work and of book publishing that produced popular literary representations of those medical spaces. As a social historian of nursing and a scholar of American literature and culture, we argue that the examination of Civil War narratives by or about Northern female nurses surveys a landscape in which women penetrated the masculine spaces of the military hospital and the literary spaces of the wartime narrative. In so doing, these women transformed these spaces into places acknowledging and even relying upon what had been traditionally considered male domains. Like many historiographical papers written about nurses and the impact of their practice over time, this work is relevant to those practicing nursing today, specifically those issues related to professional authority and professional autonomy. PMID:22851701

  14. Advertising as a Communicative Phenomenon during the Spanish Civil War

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dra. Araceli Rodríguez Mateos

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Advertising is a phenomenon that has helped to model societies during the last century. In order to know how it has participated in some change processes it is essential to analyse its communicative dimension. Within the theoretical framework of the History of Social Communication, this research studies the function of the commercial discourse during the Spanish Civil War. Results in three levels have been concluded with an analytic model focused on the messages spread in the press. First, the modern evolution of the advertising technique is confirmed. Second, the different alignment of advertising is compared with the propagandistic discourse of each faction, as well as with its ideological and commercial interests, and with the different relationship with consumers about events. Third, advertisements allow us to observe many details about current life better than the information censored does; specifically, the struggle to survive in the most damaged republican cities is clearly perceived. - Traducción supervisada por la Dra. María del Pino Montesdeoca (ULL.La publicidad es un fenómeno que ha ayudado a modelar las sociedades durante el último siglo y, para saber cómo ha participado en los procesos de cambio, es imprescindible analizar su dimensión comunicativa. Desde el marco teórico de la Historia de la Comunicación Social, este estudio aborda la función del discurso comercial durante la Guerra Civil española. Con un modelo analítico centrado en los mensajes difundidos en prensa se han obtenido resultados en tres niveles. Primero, se confirma la evolución moderna de la técnica publicitaria. Segundo, se compara la diferente alineación de la publicidad con el discurso propagandístico de las zonas enfrentadas, los intereses a los que respondía y la distinta interpelación a los consumidores respecto a los acontecimientos. Tercero, los anuncios permiten observar, mejor que la información censurada, ciertos detalles relativos a la

  15. Wladimir Krzyzanowski, 123 Polish Hero of the Civil War in the USA

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    PIYUK T.G.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The article is dedicated to the young Polish revolutionist Wladimir Krzyzanowski who emigrated from Great Poland to the US after failed uprising in 1846 against Prussia in order to avoid possible arrest. He went to Hamburg, Germany and sailed from there to the United States.W. Krzyzanowski managed to become a successful and prosperous businessman and politician, and he was lucky in his personal life, he married a girl with a name and a significant dowry. He considered slavery not only anachronistic, but also a disgrace to the young state, and at the same time, he admired American democracy and American people. In Washington he recruited the company of Polish immigrants which became one of the first companies of Union Soldiers. Krzyzanowski then moved his company to New York and enlisted more immigrants and soon became a Colonel of the 58th Infantry Division, listed in the official Army Register as the “Polish Legion”. He participated in the Civil War battles of Cross-Keys, Bull Run, Chancellorsville, and Gettysburg. “Polish Legion”, led by Krzyzanowski, made himself famous in the main battle at Gettysburg. Subsequently, the memorial of granite was erected to legion in the immediate vicinity of the city.The author’s attention was attracted by the eccentric personality of the Pole, known in Poland and in America. In her work she explores Krzyzanowski’s life and service to the American people

  16. Towards a phenomenology of civil war: Hobbes meets Benjamin in Beirut.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Cauter, Lieven

    2011-01-01

    Based on interviews with Beirut intellectuals and architects, this essay endeavours to trace the contours for a phenomenology or anthropology of civil war. Thomas Hobbes serves as a guide, with his idea of civil war representing a relapse into the ‘state of nature’; as absence of sovereignty resulting in a ‘war of everybody against everybody’. The effects of ever-latent civil war in Beirut are far-reaching: the fragmentation of urban space and the disappearance of public space, the loss of memory and the fragmentation of time, even the reification of language. In the collective imagination and in the arts, Beirut appears as a ghost town, a spectral city with a spectral civility. What we discover is a city, its inhabitants, its social behaviour, but also its art and literature, in the grip of post-traumatic stress syndrome. From all this, we take home two things: first, any city can (at least in principle) relapse into a similar state of nature — Beirut can become a paradigm of latent civil war; and second, the traumatic modernity of Beirut mirrors the traumatic artistic expressions of modernism — the shock of modernity is also always a modernity of shock. PMID:21542204

  17. EXPLORATION ON PERFORMANCE AND CAUSES OF EDUCATIONAL PROGRESS OF AFRICAN-AMERICAN IN WORLD WAR II---LEAVING ASIDE THE DISCUSSION OF THE POSTWAR BLACK CIVIL RIGHTS MOVEMENT%二战后美国黑人教育进步的表现及原因探析--撇开战后黑人民权运动的讨论

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李浩; 周磊

    2014-01-01

    Education is particularly important for enlightening wisdom and heritage of national culture of a nation, but as a "second-class citizens", the African-American’ right to receive education was denied when they came to the American continent. The African Americans not only struggle for freedom, but also for the right to receive education at all times. The blacks’right to receive education after World War II has been continuously improved and achieved great progress. The progress in educational advancement is due to the post-war turbulent black civil rights movement and more importantly, the main reason is due to the enhancement of the political and economic status of African Americans;In addition, Postwar America needs high-quality labor of African Americans; Postwar U.S. domestic and international situation have also played a significant role in promoting the educational progress of African Americans;certainly the progress also benefits from the support of liberal American politicians.%教育对于启迪一个民族的智慧和传承民族文化尤为重要,而作为“二等公民”的美国黑人接受教育的权力在其来到美洲大陆,就被剥夺。美国黑人在争取自由的同时,也在无时不刻的争取接受教育的权利。二战后黑人受教育权利不断得到改善,进步明显。这些进步不仅是战后风起云涌的黑人民权运动所致,更主要的是美国黑人自身政治经济地位的提升;战后对于高素质黑人劳动力的需要;同时战后美国国内和国际形势对于黑人教育进步也起到了很大的促进作用;当然也得益于开明美国政治人物的支持。

  18. Commemoration, Race, and World War II: History and Civil Rights at the Tuskegee Airmen National Historic Site

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renée Ater

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available History and civil rights are intertwined at the Tuskegee Airmen National Historic Site at Moton Field in Tuskegee, Alabama. Moton Field was a training flight facility for African American pilot candidates in the U.S. Army Air Corps during World War II, operating from 1941–45. Through the extant buildings and interpretive exhibits, the National Park Service commemorates the Tuskegee Airmen’s contributions to World War II, recognizing the first African American military aviators and their struggle for civil rights during the 1940s. This essay examines the way in which race, personal narratives, historical objects, and sensorial experience (sight, sound, touch, and smell are used at the historic site to suggest the significance of the Tuskegee Airmen. Despite the segregation and racism that they experienced in the U.S. military, the African American pilots and the men and women who worked alongside them believed staunchly in the idea of service to the nation as a means of participating in democracy and gaining full citizenship.

  19. The Post Cold War Civil Engineer Corps : what has changed and why

    OpenAIRE

    Ammons, Tony L

    1997-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited With the end of the Cold War the military services have experienced significant cuts in endstrength. Within the Navy, the Civil Engineer Corps (CEC) has also experienced some reductions. This thesis sought to determine how CEC endstrength is derived and whether it declined commensurate with overall naval officer endstrength. The command and billet structures for the CEC in 1986 and 1996 were used to represent the Cold War and Post Cold...

  20. Media and conflict in Sierra Leone: national and international perspectives of the civil war

    OpenAIRE

    Valentina Bau

    2011-01-01

    The rise of the media in Sierra Leone. The media and the civil conflict. The evolution of the conflict. The Western media perspective of a "barbaric" Africa. Western media coverage of the civil war in Sierra Leone: the British example. The role of NGOs in news reporting.

    The end of the twentieth century saw an adverse escalation in armed conflict. A characteristic of this was that whilst the majority of wars that took place before the 1990s were fought between state...

  1. Crescent City Radicals: Black Working People and the Civil War Era in New Orleans

    OpenAIRE

    Illingworth, James

    2015-01-01

    AbstractCrescent City Radicals: Black Working People and the Civil War Era in New OrleansJames W. IllingworthThis study examines the rise and fall of an alliance between black working people and the Republican Party in Civil War-era New Orleans. Between 1862, when Union troops invaded and occupied New Orleans, and 1877, when Reconstruction came to an end, the making and unmaking of this alliance had a crucial impact on the history of the Crescent City. In particular, the fate of this coalitio...

  2. Asian American Transnational Literature and United States American Cold War History

    OpenAIRE

    Šesnič, Jelena

    2015-01-01

    Starting with the observation that the Korean War is not properly represented in American historiography nor accounted for in American cultural memory, the article contends that it is only recently with the new wave of Asian (Korean) American authors that the war gets the recognition it deserves. The revision of the Korean War takes place in the ambit of an Asian American critique, as recently articulated by Jodi Kim, that re-centers attention from the European to the Asian axis of the Cold W...

  3. Are civil wars to blame for crime in Central America?

    OpenAIRE

    Ana Sofia Cardenal Izquierdo

    2008-01-01

    The countries of Central America are high up on the list of nations with the highest crime rates in the world. According to the literature, the most common argument is that these high crimerates are a legacy of the armed conflicts of the 1980s. This article subjects this theory to an empirical examination. Even though the analysis is preliminary and limited, the results serve to question theexistence of such a link between war and crime. The data show that the areas most affected by war in E...

  4. Control, ideology and identity in civil war: the Angolan Central Highlands 1965-2002

    OpenAIRE

    Pearce, Justin; Alexander, Jocelyn; Soares de Oliveira, Ricardo

    2011-01-01

    This thesis examines the relationship between political movements and people during the civil war between Angola’s MPLA government and the UNITA rebels in the Central Highlands region. It shows how conflicting ideas about political legitimacy originating in anticolonial struggle informed leaders’ decisions and formed the basis of their efforts to politicise people.Much existing literature sees civil conflict in terms of rebellion against a state, motivated by grievance or by the desire for l...

  5. Are civil wars to blame for crime in Central America?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Sofia Cardenal Izquierdo

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The countries of Central America are high up on the list of nations with the highest crime rates in the world. According to the literature, the most common argument is that these high crimerates are a legacy of the armed conflicts of the 1980s. This article subjects this theory to an empirical examination. Even though the analysis is preliminary and limited, the results serve to question theexistence of such a link between war and crime. The data show that the areas most affected by war in El Salvador and Guatemala are not the ones that show the highest rates of crime. Furthermore, no direct relation exists between the presence of armed conflict and crime rates at a national level. The presence of armed conflict is neither a necessary factor nor a sufficient one for criminal violence. Onthe contrary, this work points to a close link between inequality and crime rates at a national level.

  6. Does infectious disease cause global variation in the frequency of intrastate armed conflict and civil war?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Letendre, Kenneth; Fincher, Corey L; Thornhill, Randy

    2010-08-01

    Geographic and cross-national variation in the frequency of intrastate armed conflict and civil war is a subject of great interest. Previous theory on this variation has focused on the influence on human behaviour of climate, resource competition, national wealth, and cultural characteristics. We present the parasite-stress model of intrastate conflict, which unites previous work on the correlates of intrastate conflict by linking frequency of the outbreak of such conflict, including civil war, to the intensity of infectious disease across countries of the world. High intensity of infectious disease leads to the emergence of xenophobic and ethnocentric cultural norms. These cultures suffer greater poverty and deprivation due to the morbidity and mortality caused by disease, and as a result of decreased investment in public health and welfare. Resource competition among xenophobic and ethnocentric groups within a nation leads to increased frequency of civil war. We present support for the parasite-stress model with regression analyses. We find support for a direct effect of infectious disease on intrastate armed conflict, and support for an indirect effect of infectious disease on the incidence of civil war via its negative effect on national wealth. We consider the entanglements of feedback of conflict into further reduced wealth and increased incidence of disease, and discuss implications for international warfare and global patterns of wealth and imperialism. PMID:20377573

  7. Revolutionary Self-Sufficiency: the Diggers' Digging in the English Civil War, 1648-1650

    OpenAIRE

    Levi, Jane

    2016-01-01

    The Diggers were small groups that appeared after the English Civil War who cultivated common land with carrots, beans and corn. This paper looks at the religiosity of the Diggers and how their ideas about bread, creation and the right use of land underpinned their thinking about every aspect of society.

  8. Chemistry, Civil War (U.S.), Drawing & Cartooning, Gravity & Magnetism, Motion, Pets, Science Fiction & Fantasy Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Web Feet, 2002

    2002-01-01

    This annotated subject guide to Web sites for grades K-8 focuses on chemistry, U.S. Civil War, drawing and cartooning, gravity and magnetism, motion, pets, science fiction and fantasy literature, and calendar connections for May observances. Specific grade levels are indicated for each annotation. (LRW)

  9. Catalan historians and the Civil War: a step forwards is needed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luis MARTIN RAMOS

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Although much of it communicational and even propagandistic in nature, there is now an abundance of Catalan literature on the Civil War. The study of the war in Catalonia has obviously made progress, in particular through a larger exploitation of primary sources, and has overcome its over-reliance on personal memoirs, recollections and oral testimonies. However, there is still a predominant focus on the period ending in May 1937. The consequence is a significant lack of scientific knowledge on what happened from that date until the end of the war. Moreover, some recurring stereotypes subsist, such as the notion that the Civil War was not truly an internal, civil confrontation but rather an act of aggression against Catalonia. There exists also the “moral excuse” for so-called “revolutionary violence” during the first months of the war, as opposed to the unreserved condemnation of the institutional repression carried out by the Government of the Republic in legitimate self-defence.

  10. The Influence of Biblical Culture on American Spiritual Civilization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李惠子

    2014-01-01

    Biblical culture is deeply rooted into current American society and culture,widely impacting every aspect of American people’s life.Through discussing about the historical accumulation of biblical culture reflected in America’s societal and spiritual civilization,this essay analyses the importance and function of biblical culture from the aspect of society inheritance,value,literature creation and customs etc.,helping us to further understand and study American society and culture.

  11. Defining American Heroes: Analyzing the Metamorphosis of the War Hero in Twentieth Century War Films Using Joseph Campbell's, "Hero's Journey."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frith, Luci A.

    In "The Hero's Journey" Joseph Campbell identifies the patterns that inform the myths of the "hero" throughout recorded history. By using Campbell's template, this paper examines how the American war hero is portrayed and has been portrayed in film. The paper states that Americans not only define their war heroes in films but also use these film…

  12. Foreign Interventions and Abuse of Civilians during the Peruvian Civil War

    OpenAIRE

    Fielding, David; Shortland, Anja

    2010-01-01

    The international community has a declared intention to protect innocent civilians from direct and deliberate violence in civil conflicts, but its track record of actually doing so is mixed. Using a new monthly time-series data set, we explore the factors associated with variations in the number of civilians killed or wounded by participants in the civil war in Peru during the 1980s and 1990s. We find that an increase in the level of abuse by one side is strongly associated with subsequent in...

  13. The conflict trap in the Greek Civil War 1946-1949: an economic approach

    OpenAIRE

    Christodoulakis, Nicos

    2014-01-01

    The paper provides a quantitative analysis of the armed confrontation that took place in Greece between the Communist Party and the Centre-Right Government during 1946-1949. Using monthly data for battle casualties a dynamic Lotka-Volterra framework is estimated, pointing to the existence of a conflict trap that explains the prolongation of the civil war and its dire consequences for the country. To examine the extent to which the confrontation was influenced by socio-economic factors, a regi...

  14. Violent crime in post-civil war Guatemala: causes and policy implications

    OpenAIRE

    Turner, Duilia Mora

    2015-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited Guatemala is one of the most violent countries in Latin America, and thus the world. The primary purpose of this thesis is to answer the following question: what factors explain the rise of violent crime in post-civil war Guatemala? The secondary focus of this thesis is to identify the transnational implications of Guatemala’s violence for U.S. policy. Guatemala’s critical security environment requires the identification of causal rela...

  15. Using a new medium for propaganda: the role of transborder broadcasts during the Spanish Civil War

    OpenAIRE

    Ribeiro, Nelson

    2014-01-01

    This article presents an analysis of the role of transborder broadcasts during the Spanish Civil War. As a new medium at that time, radio had a strong impact not only on increasing the morale of the Franquist forces, but also on influencing military operations through the dissemination of strategic information concerning the progress of military operations. Mostly focusing on the role of Portuguese broadcasters, which clearly took the lead in supporting Franco during the first year of his rev...

  16. The Effect of Management on Erosion of Civil War Battlefield Earthworks

    OpenAIRE

    Azola, Anthony

    2001-01-01

    Since 1936 National Park Service has been charged with preserving Civil War Earthworks while allowing public access. Soil erosion, both natural and human-induced, is a major concern facing the preservation of the earthworks. Currently, the National Park Service is committed to preserving these earthworks for future generations by determining which maintenance activities cause the least soil erosion. This study was undertaken to determine which management practice; burned, mowed, park-fores...

  17. Short Term and Event Interdependence Matter: A Political Economy Continuous Model of Civil War

    OpenAIRE

    Kauffmann Mayeul

    2007-01-01

    This paper builds on several existing empirical models that have been widely used in studying the causes of civil war and/or internal political instability. It begins by showing that some widespread models have been inadequate in both accurately modeling causal relations and time dependence among several kinds of events, and to take advantage of some highly disaggregated (daily) datasets. It does so thanks to graphical comparisons of several existing models and dataset arrangements, followed ...

  18. The past in contemporary Spanish Novel: the topic of the Civil War

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Becerra Mayor

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In Spain, a great number of novels about our most recent past, specifically on the Spanish Civil War, have been published in the last years. This paper aims to offer an explanation for the proliferation of such a large number of titles on the Spanish Civil War. The paper first presents a research hypothesis, analysing this return to the past such that in contemporary Spanish narrative the past appears as if it were a product of advanced capitalism: once authors have accepted and internalized the premise, as suggested by the post-modern mantra of the “end of history”, that we live in the best of possible worlds and that there is no opposition or contradiction in our present, the novelist must seek recourse in the conflictual past in order to be able to evoke narrative complexity. The paper also attempts to define a paradigm that shows the aesthetic and ideological mechanisms used in the reconstruction of the war which these novels propose. The following techniques – the equidistant and symmetrical description of the national war, its “aideological” image of reality, its questioning of the objectivist paradigms and the ontological balance established between History and fiction – are some of the features by which it is possible to characterise this literary trend of the Spanish Civil War today, in line with the dominant postmodern ideology.

  19. Media and conflict in Sierra Leone: national and international perspectives of the civil war

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    Valentina Bau

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available

    The rise of the media in Sierra Leone. The media and the civil conflict. The evolution of the conflict. The Western media perspective of a "barbaric" Africa. Western media coverage of the civil war in Sierra Leone: the British example. The role of NGOs in news reporting.

    The end of the twentieth century saw an adverse escalation in armed conflict. A characteristic of this was that whilst the majority of wars that took place before the 1990s were fought between states, conflicts post 1990 progressively began to take place within countries. The doctrines of major world powers no longer seemed to determine the ideologies and objectives of warring groups and, almost as a new war strategy, combatants started to target civilians rather than fighting sections in order to achieve their objectives. Atrocities began to be the statements that publicised political positions. In countries that were rich in natural resources, such as diamonds, the political goals of wars were often linked to the complex logics of resource appropriation (Bangura, 2004.
    Rather than providing an account of the events that shaped the unfolding of the civil war in Sierra Leone, this paper focuses on the analysis of the role that the media played in elaborating the perception of those events, both at a national and international level. A theoretical examination of the impact of the conflict’s media coverage - which has been explored and reviewed by authors such as Khan (1998 and Shaw (2006 - is conducted and its effect of the war explained.
    The growth of the Sierra Leonean press is discussed and its limitations reviewed, examining both the financial and legislative constraints that characterised it, some of which derive from the colonial period. The role of the media is then evaluated in relation to the internal influence that “biased” journalism had on the shaping of the war, and how it impacted on the fighting. Finally, an example of the Western media

  20. Demobilization and social reintegration of Brazilian and American troops of World War II: a comparative study

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    Francisco Cesar Alves Ferraz

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to discuss the results of a comparative study of demobilization and social reintegration of Brazilian and American veterans of World War II. . In spite of the obvious difference in scale of the two military experiences, I argue that the study of the two experiences can offer new insights into lights on various common issues to both countries: the relationship between the societies and their armed forces, between the governments and their citizens, social and racial inequalities and, finally, the experiences of building welfare state structures during the war and postwar periods. Based on international studies of demobilization and social integration war veterans, the variables that were decisive for the success or failure of adaptation were: a past experiences in the reintegration of war veterans; b the nature and consequences of recruitment of future veterans; c planning by the State and the Armed Forces of procedures for post-bellum demobilization and reintegration; d the implementation of demobilization and the effects within the military institution and in civil society.

  1. Democratization in the Gulf Monarchies and American Civil Society

    OpenAIRE

    Azam, M. Nazrul Islam and Muhammad

    2010-01-01

    The paper deals with the efforts made by American private sector and civil society actors after 2000 to popularize democratic values and norms in the six Gulf states, namely Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, and the United Arab Emirates. The study is focused on areas including politics, education, culture, media, human rights, and women empowerment. The paper also deals with approaches adopted, goals and objectives set and strategies devised and employed by the American NGOs regardi...

  2. The Syrian civil war: The experience of the Surgical Intensive Care Units

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozdogan, Hatice Kaya; Karateke, Faruk; Ozdogan, Mehmet; Cetinalp, Sibel; Ozyazici, Sefa; Gezercan, Yurdal; Okten, Ali Ihsan; Celik, Muge; Satar, Salim

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Since the civilian war in Syria began, thousands of seriously injured trauma patients from Syria were brought to Turkey for emergency operations and/or postoperative intensive care. The aim of this study was to present the demographics and clinical features of the wounded patients in Syrian civil war admitted to the surgical intensive care units in a tertiary care centre. Methods: The records of 80 trauma patients admitted to the Anaesthesia, General Surgery and Neurosurgery ICUs between June 1, 2012 and July 15, 2014 were included in the study. The data were reviewed regarding the demographics, time of presentation, place of reference, Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II (APACHE II) score and Injury Severity Score (ISS), surgical procedures, complications, length of stay and mortality. Results: A total of 80 wounded patients (70 males and 10 females) with a mean age of 28.7 years were admitted to surgical ICUs. The most frequent cause of injury was gunshot injury. The mean time interval between the occurrence of injury and time of admission was 2.87 days. Mean ISS score on admission was 21, and mean APACHE II score was 15.7. APACHE II scores of non-survivors were significantly increased compared with those of survivors (P=0.001). No significant differences was found in the age, ISS, time interval before admission, length of stay in ICU, rate of surgery before or after admission. Conclusion: The most important factor affecting mortality in this particular trauma-ICU patient population from Syrian civil war was the physiological condition of patients on admission. Rapid transport and effective initial and on-road resuscitation are critical in decreasing the mortality rate in civil wars and military conflicts.

  3. Spying by American Archaeologists in World War I

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    David L. Browman

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available I am interested in detailing two aspects linked to the issue of several archaeologists working for the U.S. Office of Naval Intelligence (ONI during the First World War. These spying activities were part of the controversy surrounding the censure of Franz Boas by the American Anthropological Association (AAA for his published letter of October 1919, in which Boas claimed that four unnamed researchers were involved in espionage activities using archaeological research as a front. As they were unnamed, who were these four archaeologists?

  4. [Travels and memory: the sciences in Spain before and after the Civil War].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santesmases, María Jesús

    2007-01-01

    This essay revisits the influence of the Junta para Ampliación de Estudios (JAE), the effect in the trajectory of the Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas of JAE grants and scholarships policy for Spanish young graduates to study abroad. It proposes grantee's travel as a source of knowledge and its practices. It develops the argument that institutional memory, as that of ideas, is not blurred by either a civil war or a dictatorship, repressive as it was. It also suggests genealogy of scientific practices and training during the 20th century in Spain. PMID:19847964

  5. The relationship between panel and synthetic control estimators of the effect of civil war

    OpenAIRE

    Vincenzo Bove; Leandro Eliay; Ron P. Smith

    2014-01-01

    We examine the relationship between the case-study, synthetic control and large-N panel-data approaches using the costs of conflict as an example. In particular, we show that effects estimated from panel data models and effects estimated by the comparison of a treated case with a synthetic control are closely related. We then illustrate the similarities by studying the impact of civil war on the level and growth rate of GDP and discuss how to overcome some of the methodological challenges inv...

  6. What Explains Changes in the Level of Abuse Against Civilians during the Peruvian Civil War?

    OpenAIRE

    David Fielding; Anja Shortland

    2010-01-01

    Using a new monthly time-series data set, we explore the factors associated with variations in the number of civilians killed or wounded by participants in the civil war in Peru during the 1980s and 1990s. We find that an increase in the level of abuse by one side is strongly associated with subsequent increases in the level of abuse by the other. Certain types of foreign intervention have a large and statistically significant impact on the level of abuse; some types of intervention raise the...

  7. Effect of the Syrian Civil War on Prevalence of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in Southeastern Anatolia, Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Inci, Rahime; Ozturk, Perihan; Mulayim, Mehmet Kamil; Ozyurt, Kemal; Alatas, Emine Tugba; Inci, Mehmet Fatih

    2015-01-01

    Background Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is a vector-mediated skin disease, characterized by chronic wounds on the skin and caused by macrophages in protozoan parasites. It is an endemic disease in the southern and southeastern Anatolia region and is still an important public health problem in Turkey. Because of the civil war in Syria, immigrants to this region in the last 3 years have begun to more frequently present with this disease. The aim of this study was to draw attention to the dramat...

  8. New approaches and new perspectives in the study of the Civil War

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel IÑIGUEZ CAMPOS

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Since 2006, several gaps have been filled in the historiography of the Spanish Civil War. Despite market saturation, important works have been published on the basis of new approaches. This article examines the most relevant novelties in the areas of historical memory, microhistory, social and cultural history, and oral history. The opening up of history to other academic disciplines, such as social anthropology, cultural studies or collective mobilisation sociology, has proved enormously enriching. Nevertheless, there are still areas remaining to be covered.

  9. [Neurological changes related to malnutrition during the spanish civil war (1936-1939)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culebras, Jesús M

    2014-01-01

    In this lecture, given at the International Conferences on Neuroscience, in Quito, May 31st-June 1st of 2013, the topic of famine situations during the Spanish Civil War, 1936-1939, was approached. Madrid, the capital of Spain, was under food, water and milk rationing during that period. This situation led to conditions that showed the relationships between the nervous system and nutrition. The Madrilenian population was submitted to a real experiment of hyponutrition, similar to the one that may be reproduced at the laboratory. At the end of the war, the National Direction on Health and the Institute of Medical Investigations, with the collaboration of the Rockefeller Foundation, carried out a series of clinical and food consumption surveys among the Madrilenian population. There were three medical situations that were of particular relevance during the Civil War and after it: the pellagra epidemics, the onset of lathyrism, and the socalled Vallecas syndrome. The occurrence of pellagra cases was paramount because it allowed reconsidering all the unspecific symptoms observed from an already known vitamin deficiency. Pellagra became the most prevalent deficitrelated disease, and most clearly related to nutrition. Lathyrism is a chronic intoxication produced by the accumulation of neurotoxins. It is due to common intake of chickling peas (Lathyrus sativus). Chickling peas are toxic only if they represent more than 30% of the daily calories consumed for a prolonged period greater than two to three months. Lathyrism would reoccur in the Spanish population after the war, in 1941 and 1942, the so called "famine years", when due to the scarcity of foods chickling pea flour was again consumed in high amounts. Deficiency-related neuropathies observed in Madrid during the Civil War led to new and original clinical descriptions. In children from schools of the Vallecas neighborhood, a deficiency syndrome, likely related to vitamin B complex deficiency, was described, which

  10. Sounds and Memories of El Salvador’s Civil War in the Songs of Los Torogoces de Morazán

    OpenAIRE

    Azahar, Christina

    2015-01-01

    Authored by a multiracial Salvadoran/U.S. American graduate student, this paper marks an effort to engage both an autobiographical and a historical perspective on Los Torogoces de Morazán’s role in the evolution of Salvadoran cultural memory. The group’s formation in 1981 established them as the primary musical expression of the FMLN guerilla forces throughout the civil war that lasted until 1992, and they now continue performing to honor those lost during the conflict’s numerous state-sancti...

  11. A Contrast Study on Chinese and American Feminism Reflected in Martial Security War and Desperate Housewives

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵凌志

    2015-01-01

    Both Marital Security War and Desperate Housewives reflect modern Chinese and American women's double pressure and challenges in marriage, career, life etc. This paper made a contrast study on Chinese and American feminism.

  12. A Contrast Study on Chinese and American Feminism Reflected in Martial Security War and Desperate Housewives

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵凌志

    2015-01-01

    Both Marital Security War and Desperate Housewives reflect modern Chinese and American women’s double pressure and challenges in marriage, career, life etc. This paper made a contrast study on Chinese and American feminism.

  13. War and Education in the United States: Racial Ideology and Inequality in Three Historical Episodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rury, John L.; Darby, Derrick

    2016-01-01

    This paper examines the impact of war on African-American education. This question is considered in three different periods: the eras of the American Revolution, the Civil War and the Second World War. Large-scale conflict, such as these instances of total war, can afford historical moments when oppressed groups are able take steps to improve…

  14. Conflict and Social and Political Preferences: Evidence from World War II and Civil Conflict in 35 European countries

    OpenAIRE

    Pauline Grosjean

    2013-01-01

    This paper uses new micro-level evidence from a nationally representative survey of 39,500 individuals in 35 countries to shed light on how individual experiences of conflict shape political and social preferences. The investigation covers World War II and recent civil conflict. Overwhelmingly, the results point to the negative and enduring legacy of war-related violence on political trust and perceived effectiveness of national institutions, although the effects are heterogeneous across diff...

  15. THE ECONOMICS OF THE UNION DRAFT: INSTITUTIONAL FAILURE AND GOVERNMENT MANIPULATION OF THE LABOR MARKET DURING THE CIVIL WAR

    OpenAIRE

    Cady Alpert; Kyle D. Kauffman

    1999-01-01

    The Civil War is still the bloodiest of all wars in which the United States has fought. The number of men who died and the reduction in the labor force had profound effects on the economy for years. In this paper we examine the methods used by the Union Government to procure a fighting force. We argue that institutional failure by the Union Government to raise and put into battle a sufficient number of men in the early years of the war prolonged the inevitable. Had the North either raised the...

  16. Forging a New Identity: The Costs and Benefits of Diversity in Civil War Combat Units for Black Slaves and Freemen

    OpenAIRE

    Costa, Dora L.; Kahn, Matthew E.

    2004-01-01

    By the end of the Civil War, 186,017 black men had fought for the Union Army and roughly three-quarters of these men were former slaves. Because most of the black soldiers who served were illiterate farm workers, the war exposed them to a much broader world. The war experience of these men depended upon their peers, their commanding officers, and where their regiment toured. These factors affected the later life outcomes of black slaves and freemen. This paper documents both the short run cos...

  17. 'Grease and Slide Back into the Union': Patriotic Essentialism, the Civil War, and Postbellum Reunification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Thomas

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available [In speeches, Robert Barnwell Rhett and Abraham lincoln espouse the] views of a Union leader and an outspoken and extreme proponent of the Confederate cause. Both cite the memory and philosophy of the founding fathers, both use rhetoric from the Revolution, and both refer to the doctrines of the government they created. Two politicians, fundamentally opposed and at war, evoked the same brand of American patriotism to justify their beliefs. This was by no means a unique occurrence; men on both sides of the conflict, from foot soldiers to Presidents, believed that their cause was the true defence of American ideals and that their opponents’ viewpoint would only corrupt their country’s ideology. Even when the South formed its own nation, it did so not to separate itself from the ideals of the United States, but to return to them, feeling they had been lost in the North. The Confederate Constitution, with few exceptions (most notably the legitimisation of slavery reflected verbatim the original (Rable 1994, 44. As Anne Sarah Rubin states, ‘new Confederates created a national culture in a large part by drawing on the usable American past’ (Rubin 2005, 11. The first paradox is: two sides, bitterly opposed fought a violent war, but with matching adoration for the same country and the same confidence in their righteousness.

  18. THE ECONOMICS OF THE UNION DRAFT: INSTITUTIONAL FAILURE AND GOVERNMENT MANIPULATION OF THE LABOR MARKET DURING THE CIVIL WAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cady Alpert

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The Civil War is still the bloodiest of all wars in which the United States has fought. The number of men who died and the reduction in the labor force had profound effects on the economy for years. In this paper we examine the methods used by the Union Government to procure a fighting force. We argue that institutional failure by the Union Government to raise and put into battle a sufficient number of men in the early years of the war prolonged the inevitable. Had the North either raised the wages of soldiers or created an effective draft, which for various institutional reasons it did not do until late in the war, fewer lives would have been lost and the war would have come to an end sooner.

  19. On the Razor's Edge: The Irish-American Press on the Eve of World War One.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulcrone, Mick

    A study examined three partisan Irish-American newspapers ("Irish World,""Gaelic-American," and the "Leader") representative of the Irish-American press before the First World War. The newspapers appealed to different constituencies, had contrasting orientations, and enjoyed substantial influence within the Irish-American community. The primary…

  20. The Collective Memory of a Civil War as Reflected in Edutainment and Its Impact on Israeli Youth: A Critical Reading of Consensual Myths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gesser-Edelsburg, Anat

    2012-01-01

    Following the political assassination of Prime Minister Yitzhak Rabin, in 1998 Israel's national theater Habimah produced the play "Civil War." The play addressed the religious/hawkish-secular/dovish rift in Israel through a critical reading of events from Jewish history and raises the potential of civil war and political violence in Israel over…

  1. Delays in childhood immunization in a conflict area: a study from Sierra Leone during civil war

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gage George N

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sierra Leone has undergone a decade of civil war from 1991 to 2001. From this period few data on immunization coverage are available, and conflict-related delays in immunization according to the Expanded Programme on Immunization (EPI schedule have not been investigated. We aimed to study delays in childhood immunization in the context of civil war in a Sierra Leonean community. Methods We conducted an immunization survey in Kissy Mess-Mess in the Greater Freetown area in 1998/99 using a two-stage sampling method. Based on immunization cards and verbal history we collected data on immunization for tuberculosis, diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis, polio, and measles by age group (0–8/9–11/12–23/24–35 months. We studied differences between age groups and explored temporal associations with war-related hostilities taking place in the community. Results We included 286 children who received 1690 vaccine doses; card retention was 87%. In 243 children (85%, 95% confidence interval (CI: 80–89% immunization was up-to-date. In 161 of these children (56%, 95%CI: 50–62% full age-appropriate immunization was achieved; in 82 (29%, 95%CI: 24–34% immunization was not appropriate for age. In the remaining 43 children immunization was partial in 37 (13%, 95%CI: 9–17 and absent in 6 (2%, 95%CI: 1–5. Immunization status varied across age groups. In children aged 9–11 months the proportion with age-inappropriate (delayed immunization was higher than in other age groups suggesting an association with war-related hostilities in the community. Conclusion Only about half of children under three years received full age-appropriate immunization. In children born during a period of increased hostilities, immunization was mostly inappropriate for age, but recommended immunizations were not completely abandoned. Missing or delayed immunization represents an additional threat to the health of children living in conflict areas.

  2. SYRIAN CIVIL WAR (2011-2015, AND THE POSITIONS OF RUSSIA AND IRAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. S. Klepikov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Currently, the situation in the Middle East greatly exacerbated by the situation surrounding the Syrian Republic. Fights demonstrators dissatisfied with the government of President B. Assad, a few years after its inception, have turned into a bloody civil war. All sectors of Syrian society have been included in this military conflict, not only social, but also ethnic. For example, the active role played in the war, Syrian Kurds, who were even able to declare an independent Kurdistan in the north of Syria. An important part of this article was the role of a terrorist organization ISIL in the Syrian war and ways of confronting it, which have a friendly country to Syria - Russia and Iran. For Syria, the Russian Federation, the Islamic Republic of Iran are longtime partners, who support each other for the past 25 years. Cooperation between the two began when the father of the current Syrian President Bashar al-Assad, Hafez al-Assad and dynamically developed before the conflict between the government and the opposition. Given the fact that the current position of Assad on the world stage is not strong enough, Russia and Iran as the main partners of the Syrian Republic, are trying to provide adequate assistance to the policy pursued by President Assad, considering that the legitimate elected president has the legitimate right to security citizens in their country, including the conduct of combat operations on the territory of the state. Thus, the main purpose of this article is to examine the causes of the conflict in Syria, as well as the analysis of Russia and Iran as a major strategic partner of the Syrian Republic. Relations between Russia, Syria and Iran, also have a special place in the article, as these countries have the most support of Syria and President B. Assad. Of course, to describe all the military conflict in Syria in one article is not possible, however, the author tried to present in detail the most basic aspects of the Syrian civil

  3. The heavy and shadowy burden of the Spanish Civil War in children’s narrative

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    José Belmonte

    Full Text Available Literature intended for adults –especially in narrative-, which tackles with the Spanish Civil War in a deep and critical way, is also clearly and specifically reflected in those others books written for a younger Reading public. In this sub-category, two of the earliest and most outstanding works where this controversial topic is treated are Elena Fortún’s Celia en la revolución, written in 1943 but not published till 1987, and José Luis Castillo-Puche’s El perro loco, which appeared in 1965 and commendably got round the rigid censorship of the period. In these and later works (analysed here down to the present day, issues that are polemical even today, such as the violence perpetrated by both sides, children’s suffering, painful exile, the difficult reconciliation between victors and defeated, as well as the Francoist repression in postwar era.

  4. Application of new technologies in archeology of the Civil War: The Yesares, Pinto (Madrid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Ángel Díaz Moreno

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The surveys carried out in the municipality of Pinto (Madrid have enabled us to locate various structural remains linked to the military operations that took place around the capital during the Spanish Civil War (1936-1939. In order to identify and record them, surveys were complemented with the use of GPS and air photographs from different time periods. Afterwards, and in collaboration with researchers from various universities, further methods aimed at generating a complete special representation of the area were applied directly to one of the sites which produced the best results, known as "los Yesares". These methods include topographic mapping that resulted in cartographic material at different scales, the photographic recording with flying Unmanned Aerial Vehicles, and the use of land scanners and GPS-corrected photogrammetrics with which to obtain 3D models.

  5. Policy Debate | Humanitarian Protection in the Midst of Civil War: Lessons from Sri Lanka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norah Niland

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Editor’s note: This paper is a contribution to the ‘Policy Debate’ section of International Development Policy. In this section, academics, policy-makers and practioners engage in a dialogue on global development challenges. Papers are copy-edited but not peer-reviewed. Instead, the initial thematic contribution is followed by critical comments and reactions from scholars and/or policy-makers.Authored by Norah Niland, the initial paper addresses the protection dimension of humanitarian action in the Sri Lankan Civil War. The end phase of this long-standing war and subsequent internment of survivors illustrate the limited capacity of the international relief system to adequately protect civilians. The author argues that the failure of intergovernmental crisis management and the human rights machinery was exacerbated by the relief system’s lack of agency in safeguarding humanitarian space and the protected status of civilians. According to Norah Niland, relief actors largely ignored the instrumentalisation of humanitarianism and the use of sovereignty and Global War on Terror (GWOT narratives to rationalise the slaughter of thousands. The lack of accountability for and reflection on the humanitarian  operation  in Sri Lanka will likely complicate future relief efforts and add to the suffering of  civilians in other crisis settings. The paper  is followed by critical comments by Sir John Holmes, Former UN Under-Secretary General and Emergency Relief Coordinator, Head of the UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs, and Miriam Bradley, Postdoctoral Researcher, Programme for the Study of International Governance, the Graduate Institute, Geneva.This debate can be pursued on the eJournal’s blog http://devpol.hypotheses.org/69Download the full debate in .pdf

  6. Native American/span>s in Cold War Public Diplomacy: Indian Politics, American History, and the US Information Agency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denson, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    This essay examines the depiction of Native Americans by the US Information Agency (USIA), the bureau charged with explaining American politics to the international public during the Cold War. In the 1950s and 1960s, the USIA broadcast the message that Americans had begun to acknowledge their nation's history of conquest and were working to…

  7. Travels and Memory: the sciences in Spain before and after the Civil War

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santesmases, María Jesús

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available This essay revisits the influence of the Junta para Ampliación de Estudios (JAE, the effect in the trajectory of the Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas of JAE grants and scholarships policy for Spanish young graduates to study abroad. It proposes grantee’s travel as a source of knowledge and its practices. It develops the argument that institutional memory, as that of ideas, is not blurred by either a civil war or a dictatorship, repressive as it was. It also suggests genealogy of scientific practices and training during the 20th century in Spain.

    Este artículo repasa la influencia de la Junta para Ampliación de Estudios y el efecto de la política de pensiones en el extranjero en la trayectoria del Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas. Se proponen el viaje de los pensionados de la JAE como fuente de saber científico y de sus prácticas. Se sugiere que la memoria institucional, como la de las ideas, no se borra en guerras civiles y dictaduras, por represoras que sean, que hay genealogía también de las prácticas de las ciencias y en la formación experimental a lo largo del siglo xx en España.

  8. Hanoi and the American War: Two International Histories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geoffrey C. Stewart

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Pierre Asselin, Hanoi’s Road to the Vietnam War, 1954-1965. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2013. 319 pp. $55 (cloth Lien-Hang T. Nguyen, Hanoi’s War: An International History of the War for Peace in Vietnam. Chapel Hill: The University of North Carolina Press, 2012. 444 pp. $34.95 (cloth.

  9. Anti-Imperialism during the Philippine-American War: Protesting "Criminal Aggression" and "Benevolent Assimilation"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Erin Leigh

    2009-01-01

    At the conclusion of the Spanish-American War of 1898, the United States purchased the Philippines from Spain in the Treaty of Paris. For over a decade beginning in early 1899, the United States waged a brutal war to suppress Filipinos seeking an end to colonial rule. My dissertation investigates the anti-imperialist movement in the United States…

  10. The American abortion debate: culture war or normal discourse?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dillon, M

    1995-01-01

    This paper investigates whether James Hunter's culture war thesis is an apt characterization of the American abortion debate. The author focuses on three arguments central to Hunter's analysis: 1) that the abortion debate involves two paradigmatically opposed world views; 2) that debate about abortion, since it involves moral discourse, is structurally different than other political debates; and 3) that the new alignments in abortion politics are culturally significant. Examining existing research in each of these three domains, the author finds that the debate over abortion is more complex than suggested by Hunter. World views of pro-life and pro-choice activists, for example, share a commitment to some overlapping values; the argumentative structure of abortion discourse has a pattern rather similar to that of political debate more generally, and new alignments on abortion, such as that between the Catholic Church and the Southern Baptist Convention, do not displace historically embedded differences in symbolic resources and cultural orientation. As suggested by the author, it may be more helpful, therefore, to think of the abortion debate as an ongoing public conversation about America's cultural tradition and how it should be variously expressed in contemporary laws and practices. PMID:12320388

  11. American Material Culture: Investigating a World War II Trash Dump

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Julie Braun

    2005-10-01

    The Idaho National Laboratory: An Historical Trash Trove Historians and archaeologists love trash, the older the better. Sometimes these researchers find their passion in unexpected places. In this presentation, the treasures found in a large historic dump that lies relatively untouched in the middle of the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) will be described. The U.S. military used the central portion of the INL as one of only six naval proving grounds during World War II. They dumped trash in dry irrigation canals during and after their wartime activities and shortly before the federal government designated this arid and desolate place as the nation’s nuclear reactor testing station in 1949. When read critically and combined with memories and photographs, the 60-year old trash provides a glimpse into 1940s’ culture and the everyday lives of ordinary people who lived and worked during this time on Idaho’s desert. Thanks to priceless stories, hours of research, and the ability to read the language of historic artifacts, the dump was turned from just another trash heap into a treasure trove of 1940s memorabilia. Such studies of American material culture serve to fire our imaginations, enrich our understanding of past practices, and humanize history. Historical archaeology provides opportunities to integrate inanimate objects with animated narrative and, the more recent the artifacts, the more human the stories they can tell.

  12. Experts in the cold war. War experiences and peace conceptions of US-American physicists 1920-1963

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study is dedicated to the American elite of nuclear physicists, which explained after the second world war the possibilities of their science for war and peace. What induced their thinking and handling? The focus lies on the scientific shapings and war experiences of the first really international generation of physicists, which began in the 1920th years their career before many of their representatives had to fly from the NS regime from Europe and cooperated in the Manhattan project in the construction of the atomic bomb. These experiences the author refers to in order to get on the track of the explanations of the exper elite in the immediate afterwar time and in the cold war. How far their internationally and by actual war experiences shaped thinking about their own contribution as scientist to the national security - in the sense of discouragement or the cooperative conflict regulation - found its expression in the cold war, is drawn on different action levels of the participants from the Geneve conference ''Atoms for Peace'' of 1955 until the signing of the so-called Limited Test Ban Treaty of 1963.

  13. Waving the Black-and-White Bloody Shirt: Civil War Remembrance and the Fluctuating Functions of Images in the Gilded Age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William GLEESON

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Les avatars des images de guerre après la fin de la guerre de Sécession en disent long sur l’impermanence des images et la lutte incessante pour leur attribuer un sens précis, y compris lorsqu’il s’agit d’un événement aussi grave et important que la guerre de Sécession. Dans les années 1890, la génération des combattants prenant de l’âge, ces images prises pendant la guerre réapparurent, dans des publications, des lanternes magiques etc. Le cas de la « War Photograph and Exhibition Company » dirigée par John Taylor et William Huntington illustre la manière dont politique partisane et image photographique se mêlèrent. L’entreprise dut finalement se plier aux réalités du mouvement de réconciliation Nord-Sud et du changement dans la façon dont les Américains percevaient et comprenaient l’image photographique.The vicissitudes in the post-Civil War period of images made of the conflict tell us a great deal about the lack of permanence and the constant struggle to make images “mean”, even for an event as momentous as the American Civil War. In the 1890s, with the advancing age of the generation of combatants, there was a re-emergence of the images taken during the War, whether it be in lantern slide shows or in publications. The case of the War Photograph & Exhibition Company headed by John Taylor and William Huntington is an example of how partisan associative politics and the photographic image were merged. The Taylor and Huntington enterprise eventually ceded to the realities of sectional reconciliation and a change in how Americans looked at and understood photographic images.

  14. MULTI-FACETED MEDIATION IN THE GUINEA-BISSAU CIVIL WAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Massey

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available An exchange of gunfire in Bissau city between soldiers loyal to President and mutinous troops supporting the recently dismissed army chief of staff Brigadier Ansumane Mané in the early morning of 7 June 1998 heralded the start of 11 months of civil conflict. ‘It was not a huge war’, the Economist noted, ‘but for the 1m people…of Guinea-Bissau, it was devastating…Hundreds of people were killed, the city was destroyed and hundreds of thousands fled into the countryside’. The primary reason for the fighting - irrevocable splits within the government and leading Partido Africano da Independencia da Guiné-Bissau e Cabo Verde (PAIGC - sat amidst a web of geopolitical machinations and posturing.Guinea-Bissau became the locus for mediation based, for a large part, on political opportunism. These efforts resulted in a peace operation with ostensible humanitarian motives which, nonetheless, was also marked by strong political impulses. As William Zartman has remarked, ‘Africa does not lack mediators’. In the case of the war in Bissau the gamut of potential intermediaries – regional, African and extra-African – offered assistance. This confusion of good offices led to rival mediation efforts whose polarisation mirrored that on the battlefield.

  15. Ambiguous endings: Middle East regional security in the wake of the Arab Uprisings and the Syrian civil war

    OpenAIRE

    Malmvig, Helle

    2013-01-01

    Middle East regional security is changing rapidly. The Arab Uprisings and the Syrian civil war are changing not only the relationship between state and society, but also some of the region's core norms and historical divisions. This report analyses key changes in regional security in the Middle East since 2011 with emphasis on five important issues: * The relationship between state and society * Relationship with the West and foreign policy posturing * The impact of the Iran-Syria-Hezbollah r...

  16. The 2011 Libyan Civil War: From the four-decade Qaddafi rule to the French-led NATO intervention

    OpenAIRE

    Yaycı, Fatma

    2016-01-01

    Cataloged from PDF version of thesis. Includes bibliographical references (leaves 82-101). Thesis (M.S.): Bilkent University, Department of International Relations, İhsan Doğramacı Bilkent University, 2016. This thesis aims to investigate the exceptional case of the 2011 Libyan civil war, in which both a revolution and a foreign intervention took place, from a historical perspective based mainly on qualitative content analysis. In this regard, this thesis takes a deeper look at the e...

  17. Children's Education and Mental Health in Spain during and after the Civil War: Psychiatry, Psychology and "Biological Pedagogy" at the Service of Franco's Regime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, Amparo; Canales, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    This article analyses the child psychiatry and psychology developed during the Spanish Civil War and immediate postwar period. The aim is to demonstrate that, despite the existence of a certain degree of disciplinary continuity in relation to the pre-war period, both disciplines were placed at the service of Francoism. This meant that the…

  18. FLYING DOWN TO RIO: AMERICAN COMMERCIAL AVIATION, THE GOOD NEIGHBOR POLICY AND WORLD WAR TWO, 1939-45

    OpenAIRE

    Erik Benson

    2001-01-01

    This article will address the role of American commercial aviation in the Good Neighbor policy during the period of World War Two. The Good Neighbor was a complex policy, and American commercial aviation both reflected and augmented this complexity. Through the early years of thew orld war, American commercial aviation proved to be a valuable instrument for promoting hemispheric unity. Yet as the war progressed, commercial aviation became a catalyst for conflict and an indicator of the demise...

  19. Refugees of the Syrian Civil War: Impact on Reemerging Infections, Health Services, and Biosecurity in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doganay, Mehmet; Demiraslan, Hayati

    2016-01-01

    After the Arab Spring uprising, Syria descended into a civil war in 2011. By March 2016, the United Nations reported that 13.5 million Syrians required humanitarian assistance, including 6.6 million internally displaced persons and more than 4.8 million refugees outside of Syria. Turkey is currently hosting the largest number of Syrian refugees-more than 2.7 million. A limited number of refugees are living in camps settled around the border, and others are spread throughout Turkey. This explosive and unexpected increase in the Syrian population in Turkey has had several negative impacts on health and social determinants. The overload of healthcare facilities has led to shortages in childhood immunization programs, drugs, and access to clean water and food supplies. According to Ministry of Health data, more than 7.5 million Syrians were examined at outpatient clinics, and 299,240 were hospitalized; most of those hospitalized were injured and wounded victims who require and have been occupying intensive care units. The refugees generally live in crowded and unsanitary conditions, which may lead to the spread of respiratory, skin, gastrointestinal, and genital system infections. Currently, measles, poliomyelitis, leishmaniasis, and multidrug-resistant tuberculosis are the reemerging infections being most frequently recorded. Multidrug-resistant gram-negative bacterial infections seem to be an increasing problem in gunshot or surgical wounds. Hepatitis A, malaria, and varicella have been seen with a high incidence among the refugees. There are many problems waiting to be resolved for health and living standards in Turkey. PMID:27362427

  20. Ground Penetrating Radar at Alcatraz Island: Imaging Civil-War Era Fortifications Beneath the Recreation Yard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everett, M. E.; de Smet, T. S.; Warden, R.; Komas, T.; Hagin, J.

    2013-12-01

    As part of a cultural resources assessment and historical preservation project supported by the U.S. National Park Service, GPR surveys using 200 MHz antennas, with ~3.0 m depth of penetration and ~0.1 m lateral and vertical resolution, were conducted by our team in June 2012 over the recreation yard and parade ground at historic Alcatraz Island in order to image the underlying buried Civil War-era fortifications. The recreation yard at the Alcatraz high-security federal penitentiary served as a secure outdoor facility where the prisoners could take exercise. The facility, enclosed by a high perimeter wall and sentry walk, included basketball courts, a baseball diamond, and bleacher-style seating. The site previously consisted of coastal batteries built by the U.S. Army in the early to mid 1850's. As the need for harbor defense diminished, the island was converted into a military prison during the 1860's. In 1933, the military prison was transferred to federal control leading to the establishment of the high-security penitentiary. The rec yard was constructed in 1908-1913 directly over existing earthen fortifications, namely a trio of embankments known as 'traverses I, J, and K.' These mounds of earth, connected by tunnels, were in turn built over concrete and brick magazines. The processed GPR sections show good correlations between radar reflection events and the locations of the buried fortification structures derived from historical map analysis. A 3-D data cube was constructed and two of the cut-away perspective views show that traverse K, in particular, has a strong radar signature.

  1. Reproducing American Identity from Bush to Obama - A Comparative Discourse Analysis of the War on Terror

    OpenAIRE

    Schmidt Hansen, Pernille

    2012-01-01

    Through a discourse analysis of American foreign policy, this rapport examines the development in American identity reproduction from George W. Bush to Barack Obama. Historically, American self-narrative, influenced by Wilsonianism, has reproduced America as a ‘crusader nation’. Along with a poststructuralist perspective, adopted from David Campbell, and employing the case of the war on terror to exemplify the construction of ‘danger’, this rapport seeks to support the thesis that Americ...

  2. The Freedom Schools, the Civil Rights Movement, and Refocusing the Goals of American Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hale, Jon N.

    2011-01-01

    This article examines the history of the 1964 Mississippi Freedom Schools to illustrate how integrating the Civil Rights Movement into the social studies curriculum refocuses the aims of American education on participatory democracy. Teaching the Civil Rights Movement and employing the teaching strategies used in the Freedom Schools leads to the…

  3. Book review: After civil rights: racial realism in the new American workplace by John D. Skrentny

    OpenAIRE

    Saucedo, Leticia M.

    2014-01-01

    "After Civil Rights: Racial Realism in the New American Workplace." John Skrentny. Princeton University Press. December 2013. --- What role should racial difference play in the American workplace? In After Civil Rights, John D. Skrentny contends that after decades of mass immigration, many employers and advocates have adopted a new strategy to manage race and work. Skrentny argues that in today’s workplace, employers routinely practice “racial realism,” where they see racial diversity as a wa...

  4. Greek–American relations in the Yom Kippur War concurrence

    OpenAIRE

    Leonidas Kallivretakis

    2014-01-01

    This article suggests that there is no hard evidence supporting the conspiracy theory that Georgios Papadopoulos’ dictatorial regime was overthrown by the United States in 1973, because the Greek junta leader refused to assist their supply effort in support of Israel during the Yom Kippur War.

  5. Greek–American relations in the Yom Kippur War concurrence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonidas Kallivretakis

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This article suggests that there is no hard evidence supporting the conspiracy theory that Georgios Papadopoulos’ dictatorial regime was overthrown by the United States in 1973, because the Greek junta leader refused to assist their supply effort in support of Israel during the Yom Kippur War.

  6. A country in crisis and two economies face to face. The economic dimension in Civil War historiograpy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos BARCIELA LOPEZ

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the economic historiography of the Spanish Civil War which has been produced since 2006. Firstly,it will review the literature dealing with the most popular and controversial aspects. This part is meant to provide an overview of the main issues which have enjoyed greater historiographical attention. In parallel it highlights the resultant richness in interpretation that has led to the reflections raised in this article. The second part is dedicated to what we have called other war scenarios. These are those which deal with research about lesser known topics, new aspects and the examination ofnew questions. Finally, we address some general works and works of synthesis 

  7. What Students Need To Know about America's Wars, Part I: 1622-1919. Footnotes. Volume 13, Number 21

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuehner, Trudy

    2008-01-01

    On July 26-27, 2008, FPRI's Wachman Center hosted 37 teachers from across the country for a weekend of discussion on teaching U.S. Military history. Sessions included: (1) The Revolutionary War and Early American Military History (Kyle Zelner); (2) The Mexican-American War (Paul Springer); (3) The Civil War (Mark Grimsley); (4) The Frontier Years…

  8. The role of war trauma survivors in managing their own mental conditions, Syria civil war as an example.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almoshmosh, Nadim

    2016-01-01

    War trauma leads to a wide range of psychological consequences and disorders that can be quite disabling to individuals and their families. At times of war, existing resources become strained to cope with all demands of trauma sufferers. The survivors' role of managing their own mental conditions becomes highly important and relevant as a way of reducing the resulted suffering. Unfortunately, this role is often ignored or trivialized by all concerned. The self-efficacy and resilience of people are the factors not to be underestimated and should be built upon. Reaching solutions are generally more satisfying and long-lasting when the affected person has taken a positive active part in finding them. Encouraging the use of own resources and experiences and using own problem-solving skills can be all that is needed for survivors to feel enabled. Engaging survivors and focusing on promoting recovery and social inclusion along with the use of self-help skills make them feel more positive about their own conditions. Being more involved, taking even small steps reduces the development of learned helplessness and reduces the psychiatric morbidities. PMID:27144143

  9. The Development of Peasant Household in the Kursk Province during the Revolutionary Events of 1917 and the Civil War

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrey A. Kolupaev

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The article is concerned with the integrated study of certain elements of a peasant household in the Kursk Province during the revolutionary events of 1917 and the Civil War on the basis of the unresearched sources. The article studies labor forces and the activities of peasant population, land ownership and land management, the level of material and technical basis, farm production. The author concludes that failures of reforms, establishment of a state trade monopoly resulted in the reduction of crop yields, decrease in cultivated areas and livestock. After October 1917 the crisis of industry and inflation contributed to further decrease in farm production, as a result peasant household became natural.

  10. Records About Japanese Americans Relocated During World War II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Archives and Records Administration — This series contains personal descriptive data about Japanese Americans evacuated from the states of Washington, Oregon, and California to ten relocation centers...

  11. National / regional / transnational: the Catalan Diaspora and the humanitarian assistance from the Spanish Civil War at the end of World War II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvina Jensen

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to examine the relationship between Catalan diasporic community in the Southern Cone and solidary regional practices, emphasizing projects and initiatives that were articulated on both sides for help to the desplazed persons (first moved into the peninsula during the Civil War, then moved to France after the "withdrawal" and finally evacuated from France to Latin America. Also, try to think from a set of individual and group trajectories of exile which had as destinations to Chile and Argentina, to what extent these countries functioned as a porous space transits, of fluid relationships, information exchange and joint projects for both individuals and groups receiving assistance to local e internacional institutions that generated it. And all this under the activation of complex family networks, partisan political, professional and ideological border and transnational

  12. "A Is for Atom, B Is for Bomb": Civil Defense in American Public Education, 1948-1963.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, JoAnne

    1988-01-01

    Discusses the development of civil defense education following World War II. Examines its effects on the public as atomic bomb drills became commonplace in schools which also served as fallout shelters. Concludes that inadequate portrayal of the horrors of nuclear war produced anger, fear, and disillusionment as the postwar generation matured.…

  13. 38 CFR 3.712 - Improved pension elections; surviving spouses of Spanish-American War veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Improved pension elections; surviving spouses of Spanish-American War veterans. 3.712 Section 3.712 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS ADJUDICATION Pension, Compensation, and Dependency...

  14. 38 CFR 3.950 - Helpless children; Spanish-American and prior wars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... § 3.950 Helpless children; Spanish-American and prior wars. Marriage is not a bar to the payment of pension or compensation to a helpless child under an award approved prior to April 1, 1944. The presumption, arising from the fact of marriage, that helplessness has ceased may be overcome by positive...

  15. Performing Transnational Arab American Womanhood: Rosemary Hakim, US Orientalism, and Cold War Diplomacy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koegeler-Abdi, Martina

    2016-01-01

    her narrative performance within the histories of American orientalism, the emerging Cold War, and ethnic beauty pageants to provide a better understanding of the specific intersection in these 1950s hegemonic discourses that framed and enabled her public agency. Her analysis then looks at how Hakim...

  16. Electing Not to Fight: Elections as a Mechanism of Deradicalisation after the Irish Civil War 1922–1938

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bill Kissane

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Much research into the relationship between democratisation and conflict argues that holding elections soon after civil war, when nationalist issues still resonate, is likely to see voters elect to fight. This paper explores a case where elections had the opposite effect. Examination of the relationship between election results and political developments, as well as geographical voting patterns, demonstrates that elections were the primary mechanism for the deradicalisation of Irish politics after the civil war of 1922–23. Elections served as a mechanism for arbitration, selection, and coordination between more and less radical elites and their bases of support. Once the new state had shown its strength it had to accommodate gradual change, while electoral losers had to show they could reconcile change with stability. Elections helped establish credibility in both respects without altering the state-society relationship, suggesting that deradicalisation was dependent on state performance, and thus on some shared conception of the state. This combination of credibility, electoral legitimacy, and state performance, enabled a revolutionary elite, schooled in both constitutional and revolutionary politics, to deradicalise Irish nationalism after independence.

  17. [Cutaneous leishmaniasis cases in Nizip, Turkey after the Syrian civil war].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salman, Ismail Serkan; Vural, Ahmet; Unver, Ahmet; Saçar, Suzan

    2014-01-01

    Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL), seen endemically in many countries, is a widespread protozoon disease all around the world. The neighboring countries of Turkey namely Iran, Iraq and Syria are highly endemic regions for CL, and more than 98% of the cases in Turkey are reported from South and Southeastern Anatolian regions. The aim of this study was to detect the prevalence of CL in Nizip, a district of Gaziantep province of southeastern Turkey, for three and half year period and to call attention to the dramatic increase of CL cases observed after the Syrian civil war. A total of 416 samples obtained from clinically suspected CL patients (of them 341 were Syrian refugees) who were admitted to Nizip State Hospital between January 1st 2010 and March 19th 2013 were included in the study. Lesion samples were collected according to the notice issued by Turkish Ministry of Health and Giemsa-stained smears were examined under the microscope (x1000). Samples from 77 patients (18.5%) yielded positive results with the observation of Leishmania amastigote forms. Fourty-seven (61%) of patients were female and 30 (39%) were male. Of the positive patients 52 (67.5%) belonged to 0-19 age group, 13 (16.9%) 20-39 and 12 (15.6%) 40-60 age groups. In the evaluation of the lesion characteristics, 33 (43%) patients had single and 44 (57%) had multiple lesions with a distribution mainly on face, arm and lower extremities, in a decreasing order. The period of time for the development of the lesions varied from 1.5 month to one year with the mean value of 3.4 months. There was no statistically significant relationship between the age and gender of patients, and the characteristics (quantity, distribution and time of occurence) of lesions (p> 0.05). The number of domestic and Syrian CL cases detected in Nizip in the years of 2010, 2011, 2012 and 2013 (the first three months) were as follows; 1 and 0, 2 and 0, 7 and 0, 5 and 62, respectively. So a total of 62 (80.5%) and 15 (19.5%) of CL

  18. WAR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Þórarinsson, Elfar; Lindgreen, Stinus

    2008-01-01

    We present an easy-to-use webserver that makes it possible to simultaneously use a number of state of the art methods for performing multiple alignment and secondary structure prediction for noncoding RNA sequences. This makes it possible to use the programs without having to download the code an...... account is also calculated. This website is free and open to all users and there is no login requirement. The webserver can be found at: http://genome.ku.dk/resources/war....

  19. A concept that is everything and nothing: Why not to study (post-)Yugoslav anti-war and pacifist contention from a civil society perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Bilić Bojan

    2011-01-01

    This paper draws upon a variety of empirical sources to start critically examining the concept of civil society in the context of both (post-)Yugoslav anti-war and pacifist contention and the civic engagement stemming from it in the nationally fragmented post-Yugoslav space. I argue that civil society can no longer be meaningfully used for understanding the complex geometry of social, political and personal interactions, cooperation's and resistances within the regional civic spheres ch...

  20. Nursing in America during the Civil War%内战时期的美国护理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨雪静; 张艳荣

    2012-01-01

    Before the Civil War,nursing was performed by untrained nurses and female religious groups.After the outbreak of the Civil war,more women went out of the family and engaged in nursing service in military hospitals.Nursing in America transferred from religious charity activities and sporadic simple work into an indispensable profession and was developed.In the Civil War,excellent nurses saved soldiers' lives,reduced casualties and were gradually recognized by soldiers,doctors and the society.On the other hand,untrained nurses' lack of ability was exposed.The contradiction made nurses controversial and people began to consider what nursing was.Thus professional training for nurses was necessary,which caused the development of nursing education.This promoted the development of nursing education and professionalization of nursing.%美国内战前,护理工作由未经过专门培训的护士和宗教妇女团体完成.内战的爆发,使得更多的妇女走出家庭,参加到军队医院的护理工作中.美国的护理也从带有宗教色彩的慈善活动和分散进行的简单工作,转变为一项必不可少的职业,并由此发展起来.在内战中,一方面是优秀护士的工作和奉献,挽救了战士的生命,降低了伤亡,并逐渐得到医生、战士和社会的认可;另一方面,也暴露出未受培训护士不具备战争救护和应对灾难的能力.这种矛盾使得内战中的护士饱受争议,同时也促使人们去思考:究竟什么是护理?从而认识到了对护士进行专业培训的势在必行,这也是护理教育得以发展的根本原因.这些都推动了护理教育的发展和护理的职业化进程.

  1. FLYING DOWN TO RIO: AMERICAN COMMERCIAL AVIATION, THE GOOD NEIGHBOR POLICY AND WORLD WAR TWO, 1939-45

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik Benson

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available This article will address the role of American commercial aviation in the Good Neighbor policy during the period of World War Two. The Good Neighbor was a complex policy, and American commercial aviation both reflected and augmented this complexity. Through the early years of thew orld war, American commercial aviation proved to be a valuable instrument for promoting hemispheric unity. Yet as the war progressed, commercial aviation became a catalyst for conflict and an indicator of the demise of the Good Neighbor policy.

  2. Foreign awakenings: rig work in war-torn Sudan convinces Canadians their civilized version of industry is needed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lorenz, A.

    2000-05-01

    Experiences of some Canadian geologists working in Sudan are described. Glad to be back in Canada after several years of exploration work for various international exploration companies, they have fond memories of the people, who for the most part live under very primitive conditions, and constant exposure to the ravages of tribal wars. They characterize the attitude of Canadians working in Sudan towards the native population as one that puts high values on human rights, safety, work ethics, and individual responsibility. They defend Canadian presence in these far-off regions as beneficial to the native population, by bringing Canadian standards and a civilized version of industry to an area that has seen very little of that in the past. In contrast to the situation on Canadian rigs, on Chinese oil rigs favoritism and racism are the rule; the Chinese do not see that humanitarian issues are any of their concerns.

  3. Foreign awakenings: rig work in war-torn Sudan convinces Canadians their civilized version of industry is needed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Experiences of some Canadian geologists working in Sudan are described. Glad to be back in Canada after several years of exploration work for various international exploration companies, they have fond memories of the people, who for the most part live under very primitive conditions, and constant exposure to the ravages of tribal wars. They characterize the attitude of Canadians working in Sudan towards the native population as one that puts high values on human rights, safety, work ethics, and individual responsibility. They defend Canadian presence in these far-off regions as beneficial to the native population, by bringing Canadian standards and a civilized version of industry to an area that has seen very little of that in the past. In contrast to the situation on Canadian rigs, on Chinese oil rigs favoritism and racism are the rule; the Chinese do not see that humanitarian issues are any of their concerns

  4. From Forge to Fast Food: A History of Child Labor in New York State. Volume II: Civil War to the Present.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernstein, Richard B.; And Others

    This volume of essays and activities is written for use in the eighth grade course "United States and New York State History." The volume follows the chronology from the Civil War to the present, emphasizing child labor during those years. The essays are intended for teachers but can be mastered by many students. The activities focus on child…

  5. Educating the Communists of the Future: Notes on the Educational Life of the Spanish Children Evacuated to the USSR during the Spanish Civil War

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sierra Blas, Verónica

    2015-01-01

    The high rate of child mortality registered during the early months of the Civil War led the Republican authorities to initiate several operations to evacuate youngsters with the purpose of protecting and saving the children of Spain. At the beginning, the children were evacuated to zones in the interior of the country far removed from the front…

  6. Civil war, sexual violence and HIV infections: Evidence from the Democratic Republic of the Congo

    OpenAIRE

    Kalonda-Kanyama, Isaac

    2010-01-01

    This paper estimates the effect of conflict and conflict-related vulnerability factors, namely sexual violence and economic vulnerability, on HIV prevalence rates. We find that HIV prevalence rates are higher in conflict-affected regions of the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) than in non-conflict regions, and that sexual violence and economic vulnerability significantly affect HIV prevalence rates. Specifically we find that (i) HIV prevalence is 1.64 % higher in war-affected zones than...

  7. Educative power: the myth of dronic violence in a period of civil war

    OpenAIRE

    Neary, Mike

    2015-01-01

    This paper provides an exposition of police state (‘mythic’) violence through the optic of drone culture, in a moment when the police state has declared war against the civilian population. The moment is contextualised during a period of resistance by academics and students against the capitalist university in England 2010-2011, where the financialisation of academic and student life was seen as an act of intellectual vandalism. Grounded in Walter Benjamin’s concept of ‘educative power’ (19...

  8. Putting Their Lives on the Line: Personal Narrative as Political Discourse among Japanese Petitioners in American World War II Internment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okawa, Gail Y.

    2011-01-01

    One of the more complex and premeditated acts of covert violence during World War II concerns the American surveillance, arrest, and incarceration of thousands of resident Japanese immigrants prior to and upon the outbreak of the Pacific War. While briefly outlining the historical and political context of this mass incarceration, specifically…

  9. "Silence and Cowardice" at the University of Michigan: World War I and the Pursuit of Un-American Faculty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cain, Timothy Reese

    2011-01-01

    Numerous faculty members at the University of Michigan and institutions across the nation found themselves victims of hysteria and anti-German extremism during World War I. Through an examination of restrictions on speech before American entry into the war, investigations into the loyalty of more than a dozen educators, and considerations of the…

  10. Competition and Collusion in the American Automobile Industry: The 1955 Price War.

    OpenAIRE

    Timothy F. Bresnahan

    1987-01-01

    Movements in total quantity and in quality-adjusted price suggest a supply-side shock in the American automobile market in 1955. This paper tests the hypothesis that the shock was a transitory change in industry conduct, a price war. The key ingredients of the test are alternative equilibrium models of oligopoly under product differentiation. In nonnested (Cox) tests of hypotheses, a collusive solution is sustained in 1954 and in 1956, while a competitive solution holds in 1955. The result do...

  11. "Divine" Intervention : American Religious Narratives of the Atomic Bombings, the End of the Pacific War, and the Allied Occupation

    OpenAIRE

    Hilary, Elmendorf

    2007-01-01

    The American memory of World War IPs end in the Pacific often portrays the bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki as a morally appropriate close to a horrifically violent war and suggests that "revisions" to that story, as witnessed at the Smithsonian's Air and Space Museum in 1995, obscure the reality of August 1945. Indeed, many Americans agreed with Truman's decision to introduce the world to atomic warfare, for they believed that it alone forced a reticent Japan to surrender. Using the lens o...

  12. The authoritarian castling of the Syrian regime: from popular uprising to civil war

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignacio Álvarez-Ossorio Alvariño

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Instead of hastening political change, the Syrian uprising has led to greater authoritarianism. At first, president Bashar al-Assad adopted various cosmetic reforms (a party law and constitutional referendum, which were designed more as a survival strategy than a genuine process of political liberalisation. In its first four years, the Syrian crisis has gone from being an anti-authoritarian popular uprising to a proxy war with the active presence of Saudi Arabia, Iran, Qatar and Turkey. Control of the state apparatus on the part of the Alawite minority has been instrumentalised by the Salafist and jihadist groups to intensify sectarianism and claim the establishment of an Islamic State.

  13. American physicians and dual loyalty obligations in the "war on terror"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh Jerome Amir

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Post-September 11, 2001, the U.S. government has labeled thousands of Afghan war detainees "unlawful combatants". This label effectively deprives these detainees of the protection they would receive as "prisoners of war" under international humanitarian law. Reports have emerged that indicate that thousands of detainees being held in secret military facilities outside the United States are being subjected to questionable "stress and duress" interrogation tactics by U.S. authorities. If true, American military physicians could be inadvertently becoming complicit in detainee abuse. Moreover, the American government's openly negative views towards such detainees could result in military physicians not wanting to provide reasonable care to detainees, despite it being their ethical duty to do so. Discussion This paper assesses the physician's obligations to treat war detainees in the light of relevant instruments of international humanitarian law and medical ethics. It briefly outlines how detainee abuse flourished in apartheid South Africa when state physicians became morally detached from the interests of their detainee patients. I caution U.S physicians not to let the same mindset befall them. I urge the U.S. medical community to advocate for detainee rights in the U.S, regardless of the political culture the detainee emerged from. I offer recommendations to U.S physicians facing dual loyalty conflicts of interest in the "war on terror". Summary If U.S. physicians are faced with a conflict of interest between following national policies or international principles of humanitarian law and medical ethics, they should opt to adhere to the latter when treating war detainees. It is important for the U.S. medical community to speak out against possible detainee abuse by the U.S. government.

  14. Tecnologie belliche e danno al proprio combattente: il ruolo della responsabilità civile in una comparazione fra il caso statunitense dell’Agent Orange e il caso italiano dell’uranio impoverito = War technologies and home soldiers injuries: the role of tort law in a comparison between the american “Agent Orange” and the Italian “depleted uranium” litigations

    OpenAIRE

    Rizzetto, Federico

    2010-01-01

    Questo lavoro si prefigge di esplorare in che modo la responsabilità civile interagisce con altri strumenti giuridici contemplati dall’ordinamento per assicurare la riparazione dei danni subiti da appartenenti alle forze armate nazionali durante lo svolgimento di attività belliche a causa dell’impiego di particolari tecnologie adottate per aumentare il potenziale offensivo e il livello di afflittività sul nemico delle proprie azioni di guerra. ENGLISH ABSTRACT The aim of this paper is to expl...

  15. The Reverend Moses Drury Hoge and the South's Constitutional Apologia for the Civil War.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulmer, Hal W.

    The Reverend Moses Drury Hoge, one-time personal minister to Stonewall Jackson, defended secession as the South's attempt to preserve the Constitution in its original mission while eulogizing Jackson at a ceremony in 1875. Hoge drew upon the historical legacy of the American Revolution to suggest that the colonies had also formed a separate…

  16. Greek silver drachmae of the roman civil war period, (first century BC) as reflected in external beam PIXE analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The great number of Greek silver coins from the first century BC found in the Balkan - Carpathian region have aroused a sharp interest among numismatic researchers. The problem is to classify these coins - tetradrachmae of Thasos and drachmae of Apollonia and Dyrrachium into originals, copies and imitations, in relation to their provenance. Well known are Celtic Thasos tetradrachmae copies (good quality coins), and also Barbarian imitations (absence or misspelling of the legend, disproportionate and simplified figures). Thracians, Dacians and Celts used to produce the same type of coins. The dies used for coining were bought or stolen from the Greeks, while some local engravers manufactured their own dies. Visual examination, the first step of a numismatist's work, is insufficient to classify the coins. This is the reason why elemental analysis is required (X-Ray Fluorescence and Proton Induced X-ray Emission methods). 36 Thasos tetradrachmae and 145 Apollonia and Dyrrachium drachmae, struck between 60 and 48 BC, a very intense period of civil Roman wars, belonging to Tarii Crisurilor Museum in Oradea and to Budapest National Museum were analyzed. The fingerprint of the third group of Thasian tetradrachmae is the bromine. The presence of this element in silver coins is mentioned in the literature, where bromine is linked to marine spray (the hoard was found near the seacoast). In our case, the coins were found in a region far away from the Black Sea coast. Taking into account the presence of bromine in silver ore from the Transylvania mine Rodna and supposing an imperfect procedure of refinement , these coins could be attributed to local workshops. As for the Apollonia and Dyrrachium drachmae, a similar situation can be retraced. Because of the high silver content and refined aspect of the coins belonging to the first group, one can assume that these drachmae are the original ones, minted of Macedonian silver. The percentage of copper in the second group of coins

  17. A concept that is everything and nothing: Why not to study (post-Yugoslav anti-war and pacifist contention from a civil society perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bilić Bojan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper draws upon a variety of empirical sources to start critically examining the concept of civil society in the context of both (post-Yugoslav anti-war and pacifist contention and the civic engagement stemming from it in the nationally fragmented post-Yugoslav space. I argue that civil society can no longer be meaningfully used for understanding the complex geometry of social, political and personal interactions, cooperation's and resistances within the regional civic spheres characterized by appreciable power asymmetries. Its definitional volatility and logical incoherence allow civil society to incorporate ideologically and historically extremely divergent phenomena. Due to its conceptual elasticity, civil society is a cognitively easily available device and a depoliticised theoretical paradigm convenient for masking power networks frequently conditioned by foreign political agendas. This paper points to possible alternative perspectives that might prove more productive for analyzing (post-Yugoslav bottom-up civic engagement.

  18. Public Education--America's Civil Religion: A Social History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bankston, Carl L., III; Caldas, Stephen J.

    2009-01-01

    In this provocative volume, the authors argue that public education is a central part of American civil religion and, thus, gives us an unquestioning faith in the capacity of education to solve all of our social, economic, and political problems. The book traces the development of America's faith in public education from before the Civil War up to…

  19. Is Planetary-Scale High Tech Civilization Climatically Sustainable?: The Geophysics v Economics Paradigm War

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffert, M.

    2012-12-01

    Climate/energy policy is gridlocked between (1) a geophysics perspective revealing long-term instabilities from continued energy consumption growth, of which the fossil fuel greenhouse an early symptom; and (2) short-term, fossil-fuel energized-rapid-economic-growth-driven policies likely adaptive for hunter-gatherers competing for scarce food, but climatically fatal to planetary-scale economies dependent on agriculture and "energy slaves." Incorporating social science into climate/energy policy formulation has focused on integrated assessment models (IAMs) exploring scenarios (parallel universes making different social choices) depicting the evolution of GDP, energy consumed, the energy technology mixture, land use, greenhouse gas and aerosol emissions, and radiative forcing). Representative concentration pathways (RCP) scenarios developed for the IPCC AR5 report imply 5-10 degree C warming from fossil fuel burning unless unprecedentedly fast decarbonization rates ~ 7 %/yr are implemented from 2020 to 2100. A massive transition to carbon neutrality by midcentury is needed to keep warming consumption. Even if civilization successfully transitions to carbon-neutrality in time, but energy use continues growing at 2%/year, fossil-fuel-greenhouse level warming would be generated by heat rejecting in only 200-300 years underscoring that sustainability implies a steady state planetary economy (FIG.2). Evolutionary psychology and neuroeconomics are emergent disciplines that may illuminate the physical v social science paradigm conflict threatening human survivability.

  20. The Propaganda Uses of the Francoist Women during the Spanish Civil War: 'Noticiario Español' (1938-1939

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fátima Gil Gascón

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This research analyze how Noticiario Español (Spanish newcast used different mechanics to construct an ideal and stereotyped image about female in francoist association women activist (Sección Femenina and Auxilio Social. To achieve this purpose, this paper set out to study, quantitative and qualitatively, the newcast produced during Spanish Civil War, emphasizing on the formal elements and the meaning of the content used in the creation of the accepted models. The reseach shows the utilization of some visual and sonorous tools with an obvious persuasive purpose. The use of the first plane (infrequents in the news with different thematic in order to generate a feeling of proximity and individuality in the spectators or the abuse of sensitive adjectives –as love or affection– to describe the work of these women shows that, in spite of it infrarepresentation with respect to masculine, the activities realised by those associations have an important propagandistic use that, sometimes, build in models of behavior, even in symbols of the “New Spain”.

  1. Temporal assessment on land use land cover of Somalia after the effect of the civil war using remote sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdulle, Abdinur; Tan, Adhwa Amir; Pradhan, Biswajeet; Abdullahi, Saleh

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study is to analyse land use and cover changes for the studied area during 1992-2015 and particularly evaluate the effect of civil war on these changes. Three Landsat images were used; Landsat 4 (1992), Landsat 7 (2000) and Landsat 8 (2015). Assessment of changes has been applied through three supervised classification algorithms, support vector machine, minimum classifier, and mahalanobis classifier. The result shows that SVM is providing highest overall accuracy of 98.5% for the years 2000 and 2015 with kappa coefficient of 0.9803 in year 2015. The change detection result show that the higher changes is between year 1992-2000 where vegetation land cover has dropped down to 11.1% and undeveloped area has increased to 11.4%. Whereas for year 2000-2015, higher changes belongs to build up area by 3.30% while undeveloped area and vegetation land cover keep decreasing by 2.64% and 1.93% respectively.

  2. Gender disparities in mortality from infectious diseases in Serbia, 1991-2014: a time of civil wars and global crisis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilic, M; Ilic, I

    2016-09-01

    Infectious diseases remain one of the leading causes of death worldwide. The aim of this descriptive epidemiological study was to analyse the trends in mortality from infectious diseases in Serbia (excluding the Autonomous Province of Kosovo & Metohia) from 1991 to 2014 using joinpoint regression analysis. The mortality rates from infectious diseases were found to have increased markedly from 1991 to 1994 (+12·4% per year), followed by a significant decline from 1994 to 2009 (-4·6% per year) and then another increase from 2009 to 2014 (+4·3% per year). Throughout the study period, mortality rates were consistently higher in men than in women. Although a substantial decline was observed for young people of both sexes, no consistent pattern was evident for the middle-aged nor the elderly. Since 1991, septicaemia has emerged as a leading cause of infectious disease mortality, particularly in older men. The Yugoslav civil wars in the 1990s and the global financial crisis in 2008 corresponded with changes in the trends in mortality from infectious diseases in Serbia, with the elderly showing particular vulnerability during those time periods. Data presented in this study might be useful to improve control of infectious diseases in Serbia. PMID:27483375

  3. Impact of civil war on emotion recognition: the denial of sadness in Sierra Leone.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Alessandra eUmilta'

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Studies of children with atypical emotional experience demonstrate that childhood exposure to high levels of hostility and threat biases emotion perception. This study investigates emotion processing, in former child soldiers and non-combatant civilians. All participants have experienced prolonged violence exposure during childhood. The study, carried out in Sierra Leone, aimed to examine the effects of exposure to and forced participation in acts of extreme violence on the emotion processing of young adults war survivors. A total of 76 young, male adults (38 former child soldier survivors and 38 civilian survivors were tested in order to assess participants’ ability to identify four different facial emotion expressions from photographs and movies. Both groups were able to recognize facial expressions of emotion. However, despite their general ability to correctly identify facial emotions, participants showed a significant response bias in their recognition of sadness. Both former soldiers and civilians made more errors in identifying expressions of sadness than in the other three emotions and when mislabeling sadness participants most often described it as anger. Conversely, when making erroneous identifications of other emotions, participants were most likely to label the expressed emotion as sadness. In addition, while for three of the four emotions participants were better able to make a correct identification the greater the intensity of the expression, this pattern was not observed for sadness. During movies presentation the recognition of sadness was significantly worse for soldiers. While both former child soldiers and civilians were found to be able to identify facial emotions, a significant response bias in their attribution of negative emotions was observed. Such bias was particularly pronounced in former child soldiers. These findings point to a pervasive long-lasting effect of childhood exposure to violence on emotion processing

  4. American Physicists, Nuclear Weapons in World War II, and Social Responsibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badash, Lawrence

    2005-06-01

    Social responsibility in science has a centuries-long history, but it was such a minor thread that most scientists were unaware of the concept. Even toward the conclusion of the Manhattan Project, which produced the first nuclear weapons, only a handful of its participants had some reservations about use of a weapon of mass destruction. But the explosions over Hiroshima and Nagasaki not only made society more aware of the importance of science, they made scientists more aware of their responsibility to society. I describe the development of the concept of social responsibility and its appearance among American scientists both before and after the end of World War II.

  5. Criminological and criminalistic research opportunities in Spain on the subject of the spanish civil war/Oportunidades de investigación criminológica y criminalística bajo la guerra civil española

    OpenAIRE

    Derek Congram (Canadá)

    2009-01-01

    Tens of thousands of Spanish and foreign non-combatants were illegally detained and executed during the Spanish Civil War and postwar repression. Their bodies are believed to lie in unmarked mass graves throughout the country. The need for criminological and criminalistic research is great. This article discusses different aspects of the work and suggests the involvement of Mexican academics and forensic practitioners. Justifications for such foreign involvement are outlined as are points of ...

  6. The civil war in Syria shows that to prevent and manage conflicts, the EU needs a more proactive approach with greater regional focus

    OpenAIRE

    Tamminen, Tanja

    2012-01-01

    Since its beginning the European Union has struggled to play a meaningful role in Syria’s civil war, illustrating that there is now a clear need for the EU to pursue a faster, more proactive approach in preventing violent conflicts. Tanja Tamminen writes that the Lisbon Treaty has created structures for a more coherent foreign policy and that the EU should use this to build more comprehensive regional strategies to take advantage of the local knowledge of EU delegations on the ground.

  7. Fire, boycott, threat and harm: social and political violence within the local community. A study of three Munster counties during the Irish Civil War, 1922-23.

    OpenAIRE

    Clark, Gemma M.; Foster, Roy; Wilson, Tim

    2011-01-01

    In its investigation of social and political violence during the Irish Civil War, this thesis tackles the diverse range of deliberate, frightening and harmful actions—largely neglected by military and political histories of the conflict—that surfaced in local communities in Ireland during 1922–23. Through a three-county study of Limerick, Tipperary and Waterford, in the province of Munster, this thesis examines and explains violence perpetrated alongside and away from armed encounters between...

  8. GENRE ORIGINALITY APPROPRIATE FOR THE POETRY PIECES BY T.BEYBULATOV DURING THE PERIOD OF RUSSIAN REVOLUTION AND THE CIVIL WAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Abdulkadyrovna SHABAEVA

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper examined the poetry pieces by T.Beybulatov related to the period of Russian Revolution and the Civil War, in particular, the poems "Peace", "Letter of the Dagestani (soldier from the Battlefront", "Vay, the Cos-sacks Burned Out …" at al. Upon the study outcomes the author made a conclusion that the poetry’ pieces by T.Beybulatov over the mentioned period covered a long path of shaping and further evolution of a variety of poetic genres.

  9. Why American civilization? American literature and academic exchange in occupied Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G. Blaustein

    2012-01-01

    After 1945, many American writers and intellectuals devoted themselves to European reconstruction, tying American literature and culture to an agenda of reeducation and democratization. At the nexus of these efforts was American Studies, then a new and ideologically diffuse movement of writers, publ

  10. Book Review: R. Gregory Lande. Madness, Malingering, and Malfeasance: The Transformation of Psychiatry and the Law in the Civil War Era. Washington, DC: Brassey's Inc., 2003. Pp. xii + 231. $27.95. ISBN 1-57488-352-6

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    Book Review: R. Gregory Lande. Madness, Malingering, and Malfeasance: The Transformation of Psychiatry and the Law in the Civil War Era. Washington, DC: Brassey's Inc., 2003. Pp. xii + 231. $27.95. ISBN 1-57488-352-6

  11. War on!

    OpenAIRE

    Simon, Jonathan

    2008-01-01

    International audience 'War on' is the leading form of anti-policy in the United States. Since the late 1950s we have seen wars on cancer, poverty, drugs and terror. Thus far, the most far-reaching of these, the war on crime, has transformed American democracy since the 1960s. The deformation of our population and institutions now requires not simply an end to that war and its extension (the 'War on Terror'), but the deployment of a new 'war on' to stimulate change in the governmentalities...

  12. War on!

    OpenAIRE

    Simon, Jonathan

    2008-01-01

    'War on' is the leading form of anti-policy in the United States. Since the late 1950s we have seen wars on cancer, poverty, drugs and terror. Thus far, the most far-reaching of these, the war on crime, has transformed American democracy since the 1960s. The deformation of our population and institutions now requires not simply an end to that war and its extension (the 'War on Terror'), but the deployment of a new 'war on' to stimulate change in the governmentalities which have been establish...

  13. War on!

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    Abstract 'War on' is the leading form of anti-policy in the United States. Since the late 1950s we have seen wars on cancer, poverty, drugs and terror. Thus far, the most far-reaching of these, the war on crime, has transformed American democracy since the 1960s. The deformation of our population and institutions now requires not simply an end to that war and its extension (the 'War on Terror'), but the deployment of a new 'war on' to stimulate change in the governmentalities which...

  14. Physicians confront the apocalypse: the American medical profession and the threat of nuclear war

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Physicians figured prominently in the resurgence of nuclear weapons activism and cultural awareness that swept the US in the early 1980s. This discussion seeks to place this activism in historical context. It explores the American medical profession's shifting engagement with the issue of nuclear war. Attention is focused on the period 1945 to 1954, with a brief evaluation of the period 1954 to 1963, the years to which the activism of the 1980s may be traced. Radiation studies are reviewed including Hiroshima and Nagasaki survivors. Radiological studies were begun within days of Japan's surrender. The delayed effects of radiation exposure on some 14,000 persons in Hiroshima and Nagasaki include hemorrhage, leukocyte destruction, bone marrow damage, anemia, sterility, and the suppression of menstruation. In contrast, the American medical profession in the late 1940s focused much attention on the atom's potential medical benefits, especially the diagnostic and treatment value of radioisotopes. 90 references

  15. Asian American and African American masculinities : race, citizenship, and culture in post-civil rights

    OpenAIRE

    Chon-Smith, Chong

    2006-01-01

    Through the interpretation of labor department documents, journalism, and state discourses, I historicize the formation of both the construction of black "pathology" and the Asian "model minority" by analyzing the comparative racialization of African Americans and Asian Americans in the United States. Beginning with the Moynihan Report and journalistic reports about Asian Americans as "model minority," Black and Asian men were racialized together, as if "racially magnetized," in an attempt to...

  16. Orientalizing Vietnam: The American Cold War, its “Problems” with Refugee Handicraft Artisans, and their Relationship to Barthes’s Mythology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Way

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines discourses of orientalism narrating the political and cultural significance of representations of Vietnamese handicraft that the U.S. State Department’s International Cooperation Administration’s handicraft production and export program in Southeast Asia published in American craft, design and art journals and used in trade and department store exhibitions from 1955 to 1961. The American program to bring economic stability to the region developed in response to anxiety about the spread of communism in Southeast Asia, which intensified following the end of the first Indochina War, the French departing Vietnam in 1954 and Vietnam dividing at the 17th Parallel a year later.At issue are the ways those who implemented the program narrated the Vietnamese handicraft artisans as problems by treating both their plight as political refugees fleeing from communist forces in the north and the vulnerability of their fledgling nation in the south to communism, as a Cold War American Orientalist tale of the U.S. salvaging Vietnam from political uncertainty including the destruction of its potential democracy and capitalism. To this point, the Orientalizing saturates Russel Wright’s article, “Gold Mine in Southeast Asia,” which overlays relationships of Western power and civilization as well as anthropological notions of salvage over references to the ways an ostensibly timeless albeit primitive culture of a non-western society (Vietnam could maintain its essential identity by serving the needs of an overly industrialized one. Of particular interest are thematic correspondences between the Orientalist thrust of the American cultural diplomacy as evidenced in Wright’s article, and Roland Barthes’ early work, especially “Myth Today”.

  17. The voice of American botanists: the founding and establishment of the American Journal of Botany, "American botany," and the Great War (1906-1935).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smocovitis, Vassiliki Betty

    2014-03-01

    This paper examines the crucial early history of the American Journal of Botany from the years following the founding of the Botanical Society of America in 1906 to the termination of the agreement for publication with the Brooklyn Botanic Garden in 1935. It examines the efforts of individuals like F. C. Newcombe, who did the most to raise support for the journal and became the first Editor-in-Chief, in the context of the growing numbers of professional botanists and plant scientists who were actively engaged in research requiring appropriate publication venues and in the process of forming an independent identity as "American botanists." It also examines the launching of the journal in the context of the Great War in Europe and the transition from German botany to American botany in the second decade of the 20th century. PMID:24585186

  18. Resource wars and conflict ivory: the impact of civil conflict on elephants in the Democratic Republic of Congo--the case of the Okapi Reserve.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rene L Beyers

    Full Text Available Human conflict generally has substantial negative impacts on wildlife and conservation. The recent civil war (1995-2006 in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC resulted in a significant loss of wildlife, including elephants, due to institutional collapse, lawlessness and unbridled exploitation of natural resources such as minerals, wood, ivory and bushmeat. We used data from distance sampling surveys conducted before and after the war in a protected forest, the Okapi Faunal Reserve, to document changes in elephant abundance and distribution. We employed Generalized Additive Models to relate changes in elephant distribution to human and environmental factors. Populations declined by nearly fifty percent coinciding with a major increase in elephant poaching as indicated by reports of ivory trade during the war. Our results suggest that humans influenced elephant distribution far more than habitat, both before and after the war, but post-war models explained more of the variation. Elephant abundance declined more, closer to the park boundary and to areas of intense human activity. After the war, elephant densities were relatively higher in the centre of the park where they were better protected, suggesting that this area may have acted as a refuge. In other sites in Eastern DRC, where no protection was provided, elephants were even more decimated. Post-war dynamics, such as weakened institutions, human movements and availability of weapons, continue to affect elephants. Survival of remaining populations and recovery will be determined by these persistent factors and by new threats associated with growing human populations and exploitation of natural resources. Prioritizing wildlife protection, curbing illegal trade in ivory and bushmeat, and strengthening national institutions and organizations in charge of conservation will be crucial to counter these threats.

  19. GOVERNMENTAL REPRESSION AND LIKELIHOOD OF CIVIL WAR ONSET: WORLD ANALYSIS, 1981-1997 Represión gubernamental y probabilidad del comienzo de una guerra civil: análisis mundial, 1981-1997

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artur Zimerman

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to investigate governmental repression combined with the type of regime that might determine a civil war. As a rule, scholars have not considered both variables in one quantitative model, in a systematic fashion. No empirical work employing political philosophy approaches can be found among the current quantitative literature on civil war. Therefore, this paper fills the gap, by grounding our work on a more robust theory, complementing the originally data-driven pieces. Three different hypotheses are tested and the findings indicate that poor countries with hybrid regimes and a high level of governmental repression are more likely to become involved in civil wars than countries with democratic or autocratic regimes. This paper can work as a contribution to the failed states discussionEl propósito de este artículo es investigar la represión gubernamental combinada con el tipo de régimen como posible determinante del comienzo de una guerra civil. En general, los académicos no han considerado ambas variables en unúnico modelo, tal y como nosotros lo hacemos de manera cuantitativa y sistemática. En la literatura cuantitativa sobre las guerras civiles no existen trabajos empíricos que hayan empleado enfoques de filosofía política. En consecuencia, tratamos de llenar esta brecha basando nuestro trabajo en una teoría más robusta y complementando las bases de datos tradicionalmente utilizadas. Tres diferentes hipótesis han sido testeadas y los hallazgos indican que países pobres con regímenes híbridos y altos niveles de represión gubernamental son más propensos a verse envueltos en guerras civiles que países con regímenes democráticos y autocráticos. Este trabajo pretende ser una contribución a la discusión sobre los estados fallidos

  20. The evolution of American nuclear doctrine 1945-1980: from massive retaliation to limited nuclear war

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This thesis attempts to demonstrate the evolutionary character of American nuclear doctrine from the beginning of the nuclear age in 1945 until 1980. It also aims at disclosing some of the most important factors that contributed to the doctrine's evolution, namely, technological progress and developments in weaponry and the shifts that were taking place in the correlation of forces between the two superpowers, the Soviet Union and the United States. The thesis tries to establish the relation, if any, between these two variables (technology and balance of forces) and the evolution of the doctrine from Massive Retaliation to limited nuclear war. There are certainly many other factors which influenced military doctrine, but this thesis focuses on the above mentioned factors. touching on others when it was thought essential.The thesis concludes by trying to answer the question of whether the purpose of the limited nuclear war doctrine is to keep the initiative in US hands, that is putting itself on the side with the positive purpose, or not. Refs

  1. Internationalized Civil War

    OpenAIRE

    Karen Rasler

    1983-01-01

    This study involves a longitudinal investigation of the short-term and long-term effects of the Syrian military intervention (June 1976) on Lebanese domestic conflict. The inquiry also includes an analysis of the strategic timing of the intervention in Lebanon. Variables such as the level of Lebanese domestic conflict, social polarization, and linkages of internal-external cooperation are examined as possible precipitating factors. The study reveals that the Syrian intervention increased the ...

  2. Improving Vocational Rehabilitation Access and Return to Work and Career Outcomes among African American Wounded Warriors, Gulf War, and Vietnam War Era Veterans with Disabilities: A White Paper Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Corey L., Ed.: Johnson, Jean E., Ed.; Washington, Andre L., Ed.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this monograph is to present documents that discuss issues related to improving access to vocational rehabilitation services and return to work rates of African American Wounded Warriors, Gulf War and Vietnam War Era veterans with disabilities. This monograph also includes a review of relevant literature on barriers to employment…

  3. The political evolution and the legal framework during the Civil War. Scarcity of monographs and a proliferation of biographies and witness accounts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier GARCÍA FERNÁNDEZ

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the literature relating to the organisation of the Republican State and the State in the rebel area during the Spanish Civil War. We identify in both cases the works relating to the organs of the State at the international, national and local levels. Literature concerning official repression in the Republican and rebel areas is included as well. We have also added analyses of the more relevant political events, ideological trends, main political parties and singular political groups in both areas.

  4. Physicians confront the apocalypse: the American medical profession and the threat of nuclear war

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyer, P.

    1985-08-02

    Physicians figured prominently in the resurgence of nuclear weapons activism and cultural awareness that swept the US in the early 1980s. This discussion seeks to place this activism in historical context. It explores the American medical profession's shifting engagement with the issue of nuclear war. Attention is focused on the period 1945 to 1954, with a brief evaluation of the period 1954 to 1963, the years to which the activism of the 1980s may be traced. Radiation studies are reviewed including Hiroshima and Nagasaki survivors. Radiological studies were begun within days of Japan's surrender. The delayed effects of radiation exposure on some 14,000 persons in Hiroshima and Nagasaki include hemorrhage, leukocyte destruction, bone marrow damage, anemia, sterility, and the suppression of menstruation. In contrast, the American medical profession in the late 1940s focused much attention on the atom's potential medical benefits, especially the diagnostic and treatment value of radioisotopes. 90 references.

  5. Entrepreneur for Equality: Governor Rufus Brown Bullock and the Politics of Race and Commerce in Post-Civil War Georgia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duncan, Russell

    Rufus Bullock, reconstruction, Georgia, United States history, African American, race relations, Gilded age......Rufus Bullock, reconstruction, Georgia, United States history, African American, race relations, Gilded age...

  6. Specters of War in Pyongyang: The Victorious Fatherland Liberation War Museum in North Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzy Kim

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available While North Korea accused South Korea of starting a “civil war” (naeran during the Korean War, it has now moved away from such depictions to paint the war as an American war of imperialist aggression against Korea that was victoriously thwarted under the leadership of Kim Il Sung. In this regard, it may be more than a coincidence that the Victorious Fatherland Liberation War Museum in Pyongyang was built in the early 1970s, just as the Vietnam War drew to a close with a Vietnamese victory. This article examines the memorialization of the Korean War in North Korea at two pivotal historical points—the end of the Vietnam War in the 1970s and the end of the Cold War in the 1990s—with a particular focus on contemporary exhibitions at the war museum in Pyongyang. Rather than offering a simple comparison of divergent narratives about the war, the article seeks to illustrate that North Korea’s conception of history and its account of the war are staunchly modernist, with tragic consequences.

  7. A brief foreword to « Wars and New Beginnings in American History: An American National Rhetoric from the Early Republic to the Obama Presidency »

    OpenAIRE

    Jenel Virden

    2012-01-01

    War has been a defining moment in the history of nations and no more so than in the United States.  It gives the editors of EJAS great pleasure to present this excellent volume of essays focussed on the issue of American national rhetoric and American wars.  This volume is comprised of essays that were presented at a workshop on “Wars and New Beginnings in American History”, which took place in Dublin in 2010 at the biennial conference of the European Association for American Studies, or are ...

  8. A brief foreword to « Wars and New Beginnings in American History: An American National Rhetoric from the Early Republic to the Obama Presidency »

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenel Virden

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available War has been a defining moment in the history of nations and no more so than in the United States.  It gives the editors of EJAS great pleasure to present this excellent volume of essays focussed on the issue of American national rhetoric and American wars.  This volume is comprised of essays that were presented at a workshop on “Wars and New Beginnings in American History”, which took place in Dublin in 2010 at the biennial conference of the European Association for American Studies, or are ...

  9. Oversimplifying Iraq's challenges: Bush's Fort Bragg speech and americans' declining support for the war

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos L. Yordan

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo examina el porqué el presidente George W. Bush no pudo recolectar la ayuda de la ciudadanía americana para su estrategia para la estabilización y la transformación de Iraq. De hecho, esta estrategia ha sido afectada por el desplegar de los acontecimientos que sucedieron en Iraq, pero el problema principal reside en las posiciones que el presidente utilizó para simplificar los desafíos que el ejército americano y la diplomacia tenían que hacer frente en Iraq, buscando la aprobación de las criticas periodisticas, de los expertos gubernamentales y de los juristas. En más de una perspectiva la falta de aprobación del gobierno Bush en Iraq es una consecuencia de la carencia de la confianza que la opinión pública tuvo por su presidente y sus consejeros para lograr sus objetivos en Iraq. Para constatar esta tesis, el artículo analiza el discurso del presidente a la nación, difundida en horario de punta el 28 de julio de 2005, que demuestra que los americanos no estaban demasiado convencidos de la estrategia de Bush._____________ABSTRACT:This article puts in context why President of the United States of America George W. Bush has been unable to rally American support for his strategy to stabilize and transform Iraq. Since the summer of 2003, when Iraqis started to challenge the authority of the Anglo-American occupation, the White House has been on the defensive, while American support for post-war efforts has dwindled. While developments in Iraq have affected the strategy’s execution, the main problem is the president’s inclination to oversimplify the challenges American troops and diplomats are facing in Iraq, inviting criticism from journalists, experts on nation-building and lawmakers. In many ways, declining approval of Bush’s handling of Iraq results in the public’s lack of confidence that the president and his advisors will be able to accomplish its goals in Iraq. To test this argument, the article analyzes

  10. 29 CFR 1601.2 - Terms defined in title VII of the Civil Rights Act, the Americans with Disabilities Act, and the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Terms defined in title VII of the Civil Rights Act, the... REGULATIONS Definitions § 1601.2 Terms defined in title VII of the Civil Rights Act, the Americans with... in this part shall have the meanings set forth in section 701 of title VII of the Civil Rights Act...

  11. From Pride to Profit: One Hundred Years of American Trade Publishing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubbard, Taylor E.

    1984-01-01

    Chronicles rise of American trade publishing industry from end of Civil War to present. Topics covered include prominent publishers, publishing philosophy, careers in publishing, pre-World War I developments, librarianship and library education, new publishers, assertion of rights by authors, development of American economy, and impact of…

  12. War, Education and State Formation: Problems of Territorial and Political Integration in the United States, 1848-1912

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beadie, Nancy

    2016-01-01

    After the Civil War (1861-1865), the United States faced a problem of "reconstruction" similar to that confronted by other nations at the time and familiar to the US since at least the Mexican-American War (1846-1848). The problem was one of territorial and political (re)integration: how to take territories that had only recently been…

  13. Civil disobedience in transnational perspective: American and West German anti-nuclear-power protesters, 1975-1982

    OpenAIRE

    Hughes, Michael L.

    2014-01-01

    "Transnational transfers are in practice transnational adaptations. Ideas and practices from one culture can only be implemented in another in the context of the target culture's values, institutions, and history. So there is no reason to expect that Germans would or should have simply adopted the American nonviolent civil disobedience model - to the contrary. And when Germans did look to that model, they proved more open to violence against things and even against people than their American ...

  14. The Trouble with Unifying Narratives: African Americans and the Civil Rights Movement in U.S. History Content Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Carl B.

    2013-01-01

    This textual analysis is a collective case study of K-12 United States History content standards in light of how they represent the historical experiences of African Americans during the Civil Rights Movement. The study uses a multi-perspective critical conceptual framework to evaluate the standards for nine state-level polities on both the…

  15. Socialization into a Civilization: The Dewey-Kaplan Synthesis in American Jewish Schooling in the Early 20th Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Benjamin M.

    2009-01-01

    This historical study focuses on how John Dewey's theory of education as socialization and Mordecai Kaplan's theory of Judaism as a civilization together served as an ideological base and pedagogical framework for the creation of "progressive," "reconstructed" American Jewish school programs in the early 20th century (1910s-1930s). In the main,…

  16. PERIODICAL PUBLICATIONS ON THE FRONT EVERY DAY LIFE IN THE NORTH CAUCASUS DURING THE CIVIL WAR OF 1917-1920

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polivina M. A.

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the specifics of everyday life, which was reflected in the 1917-1920 war journalism. The article highlights the lack of journalistic freedom and creative choice, since publication on the front everyday life in this period were under especially careful censorship

  17. Vietnam: Historians at War

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyar, Mark

    2008-01-01

    Although the Vietnam War ended more than thirty years ago, historians remain as divided on what happened as the American people were during the war. Mark Moyar maps the ongoing battle between "orthodox" and "revisionist" Vietnam War historians: the first group, those who depict Vietnam as a bad war that the United States should not have fought,…

  18. Information and the War against Terrorism, Part III: New Information-Related Laws and the Impact on Civil Liberties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strickland, Lee S.

    2002-01-01

    Reviews provisions of information-related laws in light of the September 11th attacks and their impact on civil liberties. Highlights include the USA Patriot Act of 2001; law enforcement and the ECPA (Electronic Communications Privacy Act); intelligence and the FISA (Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act of 1978); implications for information…

  19. Civil defense should be mandatory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, the author exposes myths about the effects of nuclear weapons so that the U.S. can begin the necessary task of a mandatory civil defense program. An all-out nuclear war between Russia and the United States would be the worst catastrophe in history, a tragedy so huge it is difficult to comprehend. Even so, it would be far from the end of human life on earth. The dangers from nuclear weapons have been distorted and exaggerated for varied reasons. These exaggerations have become demoralizing myths, believed by millions of Americans. The author has found that many people see no sense in talking about details of survival skills. Only after they have begun to question the truth of these myths do they become interested, under normal peacetime conditions, in acquiring nuclear war survival skills. The author examines the most harmful of the myths about nuclear war dangers, along with some of the grim facts

  20. Criminological and criminalistic research opportunities in Spain on the subject of the spanish civil war/Oportunidades de investigación criminológica y criminalística bajo la guerra civil española

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derek Congram (Canadá

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Tens of thousands of Spanish and foreign non-combatants were illegally detained and executed during the Spanish Civil War and postwar repression. Their bodies are believed to lie in unmarked mass graves throughout the country. The need for criminological and criminalistic research is great. This article discusses different aspects of the work and suggests the involvement of Mexican academics and forensic practitioners. Justifications for such foreign involvement are outlined as are points of mutual Spanish-Mexican benefit. Decenas de miles de no-combatientes españoles y extranjeros fueron ilegalmente detenidos y ejecutados durante la guerra civil española y durante la represión de la posguerra. Muchos de los cuerpos yacen en fosas comunes no marcadas en todo el país. La necesidad de investigación criminológica y criminalística es grande en este contexto. Este articulo habla de aspectos diferentes del trabajo y sugiere la participación de académicos y forenses mexicanos. Se resumen las justificaciones para tal colaboración y los aspectos del beneficio mutuo Español-Mexicano.

  1. Tenth Annual "Brown" Lecture in Education Research: A New Civil Rights Agenda for American Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orfield, Gary

    2014-01-01

    This article reviews the impacts of the civil rights policies framed in the 1960s and the anti-civil rights political and legal movements that reversed them. It documents rising segregation by race and poverty. The policy reversals and transformation of U.S. demography require a new civil rights strategy. Vast immigrations, the sinking White…

  2. "1914-18 : the Death Throes of Civilization. The Elites of Latin America face the Great War "

    OpenAIRE

    Compagnon, Olivier

    2004-01-01

    The historiography of twentieth-century Latin America has neglected the years 1914-1918. Most of those who seek to define the century in terms of identifiable periods choose to concentrate less on the two world wars than on two turning points that mark a true break in continuity in the sub-continent's contemporary history: one consists of the social and political effects of the economic crisis that began in the United States in October 1929, the other is Fidel Castro's assumption of power in ...

  3. Hitler's bible: an analysis of the relationship between American and German eugenics in pre-war Nazi Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Susan

    2009-06-01

    Throughout the last century the wellbeing of those with disability has been threatened by the idea of eugenics. The most notable and extreme example of this could be considered to have been carried out during World WarTwo, within Nazi eugenic programmes. These resulted in the sterilisation and killing of hundreds of thousands of disabled people. Through research of a wide range of sources it has been established that much of the inspiration and encouragement for this rapidly progressing movement in Germany initially came from America, most notably from California. American eugenicists expressed interest, and at times jealousy, at the speed of the progression in German eugenics. German Sterilisation laws were drafted following careful study of American experiments and research, while financial support from a number of American individuals encouraged further German research. Correspondence between influential leaders, including Hitler, Grant and Whitney, Verschuer and Popenoe, on both sides also added to the developing relationship. In conclusion, although there are a number of vital differences between the progress of the eugenics programme in America and in pre-war Nazi Germany, and eugenics in America never produced the massive genocide that occurred in Germany, it is clear that the research, encouragement and enthusiasm from America had a profound influence on the rapidly growing Nazi eugenics movement. PMID:20027757

  4. American physicians and dual loyalty obligations in the "war on terror"

    OpenAIRE

    Singh Jerome Amir

    2003-01-01

    Abstract Background Post-September 11, 2001, the U.S. government has labeled thousands of Afghan war detainees "unlawful combatants". This label effectively deprives these detainees of the protection they would receive as "prisoners of war" under international humanitarian law. Reports have emerged that indicate that thousands of detainees being held in secret military facilities outside the United States are being subjected to questionable "stress and duress" interrogation tactics by U.S. au...

  5. Civil Rights Era Movers and Shakers in Higher Education: From Grassroots to Curricular Reform at San Francisco State College, 1967-1969

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Carolyn J.

    2004-01-01

    Thoughts of college student protests during the late 1960's and early 1970's often ignite memories of demonstrations against the Vietnam War. Stories of college student activism during the these years underplay the Civil Rights focus of African American students that preceded and paralleled the more salient Vietnam War protests. Less attention in…

  6. Comparative Analysis of Labor Relations in the Latin American Civil Service: Argentina, Costa Rica, Mexico, and Peru: Working Paper

    OpenAIRE

    José Alberto Bonifacio; Graciela Falivene

    2002-01-01

    This document is a summary of the study entitled, Comparative Analysis of Labor Relations in the Latin American Civil Service: Argentina, Costa Rica, Mexico, and Peru. The report includes the theoretical framework, the results of the study, and contains conclusions for consideration for a "labor relations development index." This document was commissioned by the Public Management and Transparency Network of the Regional Policy Dialogue for the 2nd Hemispheric Meeting celebrated on April 4th a...

  7. Comparative Analysis of Labor Relations in the Latin American Civil Service: Argentina, Costa Rica, Mexico, and Peru

    OpenAIRE

    José Alberto Bonifacio; Graciela Falivene

    2002-01-01

    This document is a summary of the study entitled, Comparative Analysis of Labor Relations in the Latin American Civil Service: Argentina, Costa Rica, Mexico, and Peru. The report includes the theoretical framework, the results of the study, and contains conclusions for consideration for a "labor relations development index." This document was commissioned by the Public Management and Transparency Network of the Regional Policy Dialogue for the 2nd Hemispheric Meeting celebrated on April 4th a...

  8. “Something isn’t right here”: American exceptionalism and the creative nonfiction of the Vietnam War

    OpenAIRE

    Griffin, Ross

    2015-01-01

    In this thesis, I argue that few attempts were as effective in correcting the exceptionalist ethos of the United States than the creative nonfiction written by the veterans and journalists of the Vietnam War. Using critical works on creative nonfiction, I identify the characteristics of the genre that allowed Paul John Eakin to call it ‘a special kind of fiction.’ I summarise a brief history of creative nonfiction to demonstrate how it became a distinctly American form despite its Old World o...

  9. Japanese American reactions to World War II incarceration redress: Just world belief, locus of control, and coping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jackie H J; Nagata, Donna K; Akiyama, Mark

    2015-07-01

    This study examines second generation (Nisei) Japanese Americans' reactions to government redress for their unjust incarceration during World War II. Structural equation modeling (SEM) was used to explore the roles of individual difference factors-Belief in a Just World (BJW), Locus of Control (LOC)-and Incarceration-Related Coping in predicting (a) reported redress-related Suffering Relief and (b) Positive Redress Impacts. Findings show that BJW was a stronger predictor of redress reactions than LOC, with higher BJW associated with more affirmative views of redress. In addition, Incarceration-Related Coping mediated a majority of the relationships between the individual difference factors and redress reactions. PMID:25181326

  10. A Hero’s Maturation in War--On Henry’s Growth in The Red Badge of Courage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张蓉蓉

    2015-01-01

    Stephen Crane is one of the most famous American writers in late 19th century, and his work of art The Red Badge of Courage is an important masterpiece of naturalism in American literary. With the background of American civil war and the depiction of Henry’s personal experiences and psychological changes durin the war, from inocence to maturation, the author reveals the war’s profound inflence on the charactr’s growth. In this novel, the description of war presents readers a bright war scene. It seems as if the novel is writing about war, in fact, it is exploring the relationship between human and environment, for environment can change a person’s action and mind completely. There is no doubt that The Red Badge of Courage is an excellent novel of war.

  11. Towards Rebuilding a Failed State: The United Nations Intervention in the Post-Civil War Sierra Leone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ’Dele Ogunmola

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The end of the communist ideology, the disintegrationof the Soviet behemoth, the dynamism of glasnost andperestroika introduced by the Gorbachev’s administration inthe defunct USSR, and the fall of communist backedgovernments in Eastern Europe signalled the birth of a newinternational geostrategic, economic, and political order. ANew World Order where the ideological bipolarity and East-West contestations between the United States (US and theformer USSR had given way to a unipolar world on which theUS is riding as a colossus. The thawing of the East-WestCold War and the relaxation of tensions between thesuperpowers made the world to believe, albeit erroneously,that the era of total peace had arrived, and by extension, thesame for the Third World countries (TWCs of which Africa isnot an exception.

  12. From reception of classics to outreach: classical reception and American response to war. A case study. Part II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosanna Lauriola

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available After providing a theoretical framework pertaining to the field of Reception of Classic in the first part of this essay (LAURIOLA, 2014 and after discussing some related issues from a pedagogical viewpoint, I introduced, as case study, works and initiatives by a psychiatrist (SHAY, 1991, 1994, 2002, an American director (DOERRIES, 2008, and two scholars (MEINECK, 2010a, b, 2012; TRITLE, 1998, 2000, 2010 who have been proposing a use of Classical Literature as a therapeutic and awareness-raising tool in response to the problems that modern wars have been causing. Veterans and their family, as well as the whole civic community, are the addressees of their work. What follows is a detailed analysis of those works with the intention both to determine whether they can be classified as work of reception – which, so far, has never been proposed – and to discuss the plausibility of this kind of reception, which also turns into social outreach, and how it can be proposed without risking to completely dismiss changes that have occurred in the vision of war, although we may agree that the sufferings of war did not change too much1. Like in the first part, the discussion will be also carried on within a pedagogical discourse. A personal note based on a personal experience will conclude the analysis.

  13. Wars in the history of rheumatology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Marson

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Some important discoveries in the history of rheumatology happened during war periods. It is well known that arthritis associated with conjunctivitis and urethritis, following dysenteric episodes, has been described during the First World War from the German Hans Reiter and, nearly contemporarily, from the French Nöel Fiessinger and Edgar Leroy. Less known is instead the fact that the first cases of sympathetic algoneurodystrophy have been reported by the American Silas Weir Mitchell in soldiers wounded by fire-arms, during the Civil War of Secession. Other war episodes have been crucial for the development of some drugs now abundantly applied to the care of rheumatic diseases. The discovery of therapeutic effects of immunosuppressive agents, in fact, happened as an indirect consequence of the use of poison gas, already during the First World War (mustard gas, but above all after an episode in the port of Bari in 1943, where an American cargo boat was sunk. It had been loaded with a quantity of cylinders containing a nitrogenous mustard, whose diffusion in the environment provoked more than 80 deaths owing to bone marrow aplasia.Moreover, the history of the cortisone shows a strict link to the Second World War, when Germany imported large quantities of bovine adrenal glands from Argentina, with the purpose of producing some gland extracts for the Luftwasse aviators, in order to increase their performance ability.

  14. International System and Technologies of Rebellion: How the End of the Cold War Shaped Internal Conflict

    OpenAIRE

    Stathis N. Kalyvas; Balcells, L.

    2010-01-01

    Recent research on civil wars finds that the end of the Cold War had no impact on internal conflict. By disaggregating civil wars on the basis of the ways in which civil wars are fought (the technology of rebellion: irregular, conventional, and symmetric non-conventional), we reach a different conclusion: we identify a massive decline of irregular wars or insurgencies following the end of the Cold War, something that amounts to a radical transformation of civil war. This decline is striking a...

  15. Women’s Contributions in African-American Civil Rights Movement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王姗姗

    2015-01-01

    This thesis is devoted to the roles and contributions of black women in the Civil Right Movement against racial discriminations in the U.S.A in 1960 s. The conclusion comes from three aspects of the black women’s involving the Civil Right Movement.

  16. Women’s Contributions in African-American Civil Rights Movement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王姗姗

    2015-01-01

    This thesis is devoted to the roles and contributions of black women in the Civil Right Movement against racial discriminations in the U.S.A in 1960s. The conclusion comes from three aspects of the black women’s involving the Civil Right Movement.

  17. Experts in the cold war. War experiences and peace conceptions of US-American physicists 1920-1963; Experten im Kalten Krieg. Kriegserfahrungen und Friedenskonzeptionen US-amerikanischer Kernphysiker 1920-1963

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wunderle, Ulrike

    2015-07-01

    The study is dedicated to the American elite of nuclear physicists, which explained after the second world war the possibilities of their science for war and peace. What induced their thinking and handling? The focus lies on the scientific shapings and war experiences of the first really international generation of physicists, which began in the 1920th years their career before many of their representatives had to fly from the NS regime from Europe and cooperated in the Manhattan project in the construction of the atomic bomb. These experiences the author refers to in order to get on the track of the explanations of the exper elite in the immediate afterwar time and in the cold war. How far their internationally and by actual war experiences shaped thinking about their own contribution as scientist to the national security - in the sense of discouragement or the cooperative conflict regulation - found its expression in the cold war, is drawn on different action levels of the participants from the Geneve conference ''Atoms for Peace'' of 1955 until the signing of the so-called Limited Test Ban Treaty of 1963.

  18. Digging up the recent Spanish memory: genetic identification of human remains from mass graves of the Spanish Civil War and posterior dictatorship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baeta, Miriam; Núñez, Carolina; Cardoso, Sergio; Palencia-Madrid, Leire; Herrasti, Lourdes; Etxeberria, Francisco; de Pancorbo, Marian M

    2015-11-01

    The Spanish Civil War (1936-1939) and posterior dictatorship (until 1970s) stands as one of the major conflicts in the recent history of Spain. It led to nearly two hundred thousand men and women executed or murdered extra-judicially or after dubious legal procedures. Nowadays, most of them remain unidentified or even buried in irretraceable mass graves across Spain. Here, we present the genetic identification of human remains found in 26 mass graves located in Northern Spain. A total of 252 post-mortem remains were analyzed and compared to 186 relatives, allowing the identification of 87 victims. Overall, a significant success of DNA profiling was reached, since informative profiles (≥ 12 STRs and/or mitochondrial DNA profile) were obtained in 85.71% of the remains. This high performance in DNA profiling from challenging samples demonstrated the efficacy of DNA extraction and amplification methods used herein, given that only around 14.29% of the samples did not provide an informative genetic profile for the analysis performed, probably due to the presence of degraded and/or limited DNA in these remains. However, this study shows a partial identification success rate, which is clearly a consequence of the lack of both appropriate family members for genetic comparisons and accurate information about the victims' location. Hence, further perseverance in the exhumation of other intact graves as well as in the search of more alleged relatives is crucial in order to facilitate and increase the number of genetic identifications. PMID:26378723

  19. Do Territorial Control and the Loss of Territory Determine the use of Indiscriminate Violence by Incumbent Actors? An Examination of the Syrian Civil War in Aleppo over 45 weeks.

    OpenAIRE

    Evan Tyner

    2016-01-01

    'This study tests the ‘control-collaboration’ model detailed by Stathis Kalyvas in 'The Logic of Violence in Civil War '(2006). The control-collaboration model makes various theoretical claims on the relationship between territorial control and the use and motivations of violence (whether selective or indiscriminate). This study tests two of the key claims made in the model: 1. There is an inverse relationship between level of territorial control and the use of indiscriminate violence; and, 2...

  20. Standing on a Strong Foundation of Servitude: The 1960's Civil Rights Movement, Septima Clark and Other South Carolina African American Women Educators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Iris Renell

    2012-01-01

    This research study examines nine African American women educators during the 1960s Civil Rights Movement in South Carolina. Additionally, the study conducts an analogous study of the lifeworks and contributions of Septima Clark, an African American woman educator who made significant community activist contributions during this period. For its…

  1. The geopolitics of hearts and minds : American public diplomacy in the war on terrorism era

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    The years following the terrorist attacks on 9/11, 2001, the US launched a series of communication efforts to improve the country’s standing in Arab and Muslim countries. Some of the effort resonated poorly with the US’ policies in the war on terrorism, and were received with suspicion. Based on interviews with public diplomats and discourse analyses of central campaigns, the thesis explores the geopolitical rationale behind the efforts. A core finding is that the understanding of the post-9/...

  2. From Plowshares to Swords: The American Economy in World War II

    OpenAIRE

    Rockoff, Hugh

    1995-01-01

    This paper examines the U.S. economy in World War II. It argues that the mobilization must be viewed as a rapidly evolving historical process rather than, as is often the case a single undifferentiated event. For example, the employment of unemployed resources, a factor often cited to explain the success of the mobilization, was important during the national defense period, but was relatively unimportant during the period of active U.S. involvement. On the financial side, money creation was m...

  3. Homogamy and Intermarriage of Japanese and Japanese Americans with Whites Surrounding World War II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ono, Hiromi; Berg, Justin

    2010-01-01

    Although some sociologists have suggested that Japanese Americans quickly assimilated into mainstream America, scholars of Japanese America have highlighted the heightened exclusion that the group experienced. This study tracked historical shifts in the exclusion level of Japanese and Japanese Americans in the United States surrounding World War…

  4. World War II Homefront.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Rachel

    2002-01-01

    Presents an annotated bibliography that provides Web sites focusing on the U.S. homefront during World War II. Covers various topics such as the homefront, Japanese Americans, women during World War II, posters, and African Americans. Includes lesson plan sources and a list of additional resources. (CMK)

  5. From reception of classics to outreach: classical reception and American response to war. A case study. Part I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosanna Lauriola

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents as a case study a discussion pertaining to a peculiar approach that some US scholars have applied to texts of ancient Greek literature, as a response to a specific reality that for decades has been afflicting American society: the timeless experience of war and its aftermath. It is a type of reading and re-usage of some ancient texts that can be regarded as a case of Classical Reception, which also, and almost inevitably, involves Outreach: it in fact provides a service beyond conventional limits to reach out to particular segments of the community. The analysis will be articulated into two parts: the first one will consist of (i a theoretical overview of the status of Classical Reception Studies with a survey of a few cases as a sample of ‘how it works’, and (ii an introduction to the above mentioned approach to classical texts to respond to the reality of modern war, such an approach that turns Classics into an important tool of outreach and therapy. The second part (forthcoming in Acta Scientiarum v.36, n.3 will consist of a detailed discussion of the ‘case study’ in terms of reception, outreach, and therapy, with an attention to the pedagogical discourse, and with a conclusion on a personal note of the author of this paper, based on a related personal experience.

  6. La antropología forense al servicio de la justicia y la historia: las fosas de la Guerra Civil Forensic anthropology serving justice and history: the Spanish Civil War mass graves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Malgosa

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available La antropología forense tiene por objeto tanto la identificación del individuo, como la determinación de la causa y circunstancias de la muerte. En este sentido, la antropología forense es esencial para la recuperación de los restos de personas desaparecidas y que fueron enterrados en fosas comunes durante la Guerra Civil y la dictadura franquista, para su posterior retorno a los familiares. En este trabajo se presentan los resultados de la intervención llevada a cabo en la fosa de Gurb, en la que fueron enterrados cuatro soldados republicanos vecinos de Gavà y cuyos familiares habían solicitado su exhumación. El trabajo multidisciplinar llevado a cabo permitió: 1 recuperar toda la información ante mortem disponible en relación a la fosa y los desaparecidos, 2 recuperar mediante metodología arqueológica y directrices antropológico-forenses los restos de los 13 individuos enterrados en la fosa, y 3 analizar los restos en el laboratorio a través de técnicas antropológicas, forenses, moleculares y de superposición craneofacial. Los resultados permitieron tanto la identificación de las cuatro personas buscadas, como la determinación de las causas y circunstancias de su muerte, relacionadas todas ellas con heridas por arma de fuego, acaecidas en un contexto de batalla.Forensic Anthropology seeks both to identify the individual, such as determining the cause and circumstances of death. In this sense, forensic anthropology is essential for recovery remains of missing persons who were buried in mass graves during the Spanish Civil War and Franco's dictatorship, for subsequent return to their families. This paper presents the results of work done at the grave of Gurb, where Republican soldiers were buried; four families of Gavà had applied for exhumation of their relatives buried in it. The multidisciplinary work carried out allowed us: 1 to retrieve all available ante mortem information regarding the pit and the missing persons, 2

  7. War, religion, and white supremacy in comparative perspective: South Africa and the American South

    OpenAIRE

    R M�ller

    2004-01-01

    The southern states of the United States of America and South Africa share a number of analogous historical realities. One of these, which is the main subject of� this article,� is� the way in which the memory of a lost war had fused cultural mythology and religious symbolism to provide a foundation for the formation and maintenance of attitudes of white supremacy in both contexts.� This article seeks to achieve a historical� understanding of the complex interrelationship between the developm...

  8. America's First Carl Sagan: Ormsby MacKnight Mitchel, Pre-Civil War Astronomer and Lecturer on the Cosmos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osterbrock, D. E.

    2002-12-01

    In the years before television, videos, radio. movies, or even loudspeakers, Ormsby MacKnight Mitchel (1809-1862) was the best-known popularizer of astronomy and the scientific study of the universe in nineteenth-century America. Each winter he traveled the country by railroad, steamer, and stagecoach, speaking to large paying crowds in principal cities from Boston, New York, and Philadelphia through Cincinnati to New Orleans on the cosmos and our place in it, with special attention to possible inhabitants of planers orbiting other stars. Mitchel had much the same attraction as Sagan did in our time, and awakened many people's interest in astronomy through the human angle, as Carl did. His argument was simple, and according to Frank Triplett goes back thousands of years: other stars are suns, our sun has planets with people on one of them, why should not other stars also have populated planets? But first Mitchel, like Sagan, always explained clearly the discoveries of astronomy that fleshed out this argument with facts. He emphasized the ``clockwork universe", governed by gravity, that Newton, Herschel, and Laplace had investigated and found to be stable. There were many other similarities between these two great popularizers. Mitchel's base was the Cincinnati Observatory, which he had founded, raising the funds for it himself in small contributions from hundreds of ``members", which he publicised as far more democratic than support from European kings and lords. He went abroad to get a telescope, and finally found his ``Great [12-inch] Refractor" in Munich, with help from John Quincy Adams, Astronomer Royal George Biddle Airy, and Paris Observatory Director Fracois Arago, in spite of a rebuff by President John Tyler. These episodes have similarities in Sagan's lobbying NASA for close-up images of Mars. Views of other American professional astronomers on life on other worlds will also be described briefly, from Denison Olmsted, Elias Loomis, Charles A. Young (who

  9. THE CRISIS OF THE TRADITIONAL FAMILY AND THE EVOLUTION OF MARRIAGE AND FAMILY RELATIONS DURING THE CIVIL WAR (1917 - 1920 YY.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Semenov A. A.

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The given article explores the political and social processes that were occurred in the Civil War in the sphere of existence of the Russian family. The author examines the nature of family and socio-cultural relations of the Russian population in this period, especially the processes of modification and transformation of family values, the policy of the new leadership came to power in October 1917 in traditional Russian family; he also analyzes the reasons of attempts of reforms permanently taken by the authorities in this sphere of life of the Russian society. The changes taking place after the October revolution of 1917 y. in the Russian society were so profound in nature that lead the thoughts of whether to exist at the family as a social unit in its traditional form or there has come the time of complete denial of family values, the elimination of the family as a special social institution or there comes a time of the formation of new forms of sexual interaction between men and women in accordance with the changed social conditions, such forms that will make their relationship more free and relaxed in social terms. New decrees and laws enacted after October 1917 y. by the Bolshevik government contributed to the transformation of the whole system of family ties; they changed the very basis of the existence of previous family and dictated a new social reality in which there was no place for the values of the past. Everything on what the traditional family was based in Russia, in fact was revoked and there came new norms and rules of family life dictated by the views of the Bolshevik ideologists about relations between the sexes

  10. Civil Law Glossary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Update on Law-Related Education, 1997

    1997-01-01

    Presents a glossary of civil law terms originally compiled for journalists by the American Bar Association. Defines many essential civil law concepts and practices including compensatory damages, jurisdiction, motion to dismiss, discovery, and remedy. (MJP)

  11. Extraordinary renditions: reflections upon the war on terror in British and American screen science fiction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alec Charles

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Como la Guerra Fría influenció cuarenta años de ciencia ficción televisiva, así la sombra del 11/S formaliza la ciencia ficción popular en los primeros años del siglo XXI. La destrucción de Nueva York ha ocurrido en muchas películas como El día después de mañana, Cloverfield, La Guerra de los Mundos y La Leyenda. Como La Invasión, la última trilogía que reinventa la fábula de la Guerra Fría –La invasión de los ladrones de cuerpos, la Guerra de los Mundos y El hombre Omega- para la era neoconservadora, como 28 días después, 28 semanas después, Jericho y el remade Superviventes con un resurgimiento en un escenario post-apocalíptico que adolece de la serie Day of the Triffids. Como Star Trek: Enterprise vuelve su tradicional liberalismo como un ejercicio de patriotera paranoia, Batalla estelar (otro restaurada reliquia de la Guerra Fría ha presentado una visión más ambigua y problemática de la batalla de la democracia con el fundamentalismo. El re-hecho Doctor Who y Héroes han avanzado similares argumentos de nuevo en el totalizado seudo-utopismo de los cruzados o de los jihadistas a favor del stablishment de un consenso plural.Palabras clave: 11/S, ciencia ficción televisiva, Doctor Who, escenario post-apocalíptico, paranoia patriotera ___________________________ABSTRACT:As the Cold War influenced forty years of screen science fiction, so the shadow of 9/11 informs popular science fiction in the early twenty-first century. The destruction of New York has recurred in such films as The Day After Tomorrow, Cloverfield, War of the Worlds and I Am Legend. Like The Invasion, the latter pair reinvent Cold War fables – Invasion of the Body Snatchers, War of the Worlds and The Omega Man – for the neoconservative age, while 28 Days Later, 28 Weeks Later, Jericho and the remade Survivors witness a resurgence in post-apocalyptic concerns redolent of Day of the Triffids. While Star Trek: Enterprise turned its franchise

  12. CHARACTERISTICS OF AMERICAN ENGLISH

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韦娟; 黄舜

    2007-01-01

    The large scale colonization of America by British settlers took place in the seventeenth century.During the process,the immigrants brought English to America.They desert great influence to the development of American English.After the civil war,American got political independence,and then there arose a tendency to develop an American brand of English.Famous persons like Thomas Jeffe,Benjamin,Franklin,and Noah Webster began to consider that the country should have a language of its own.

  13. The Vanishing West: 1964-2010--The Disappearance of Western Civilization from the American Undergraduate Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricketts, Glenn; Wood, Peter R.; Balch, Stephen H.; Thorne, Ashley

    2011-01-01

    "The Vanishing West" traces the decline and near extinction of the Western Civilization history survey course in America's top colleges and universities from 1964 to 2010. This course, covering classical antiquity to the present, was once part of the undergraduate curriculum's intellectual bedrock, not only because it was often a graduation…

  14. The Rivalry of the French and American Educational Missions during the Vietnam War

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Thuy-Phuong

    2014-01-01

    From 1955 to 1975, the French and the Americans were both active in the educational field in South Vietnam, but their objectives were different. The French were concerned with preserving their influence with the Vietnamese elites and relied on the Mission Culturelle--the heir of the colonial Direction of Education--and its prestigious high…

  15. Sharing the Prize: The Economics of the Civil Rights Revolution in the American South [Book Review

    OpenAIRE

    Kousser, J. Morgan

    2014-01-01

    Stanford University economic historian Gavin Wright's clear, accessible, and deeply researched book argues persuasively, first, that it was civil rights laws and federal court decisions from Brown v. Board of Education (1954) on that substantially enhanced the economic well-being of southern blacks after 1960. These improvements in black status, he demonstrates with both statistical evidence and qualitative case studies, would not have come about through the operation of mar...

  16. Performing Transnational Arab American Womanhood: Rosemary Hakim, US Orientalism, and Cold War Diplomacy

    OpenAIRE

    Koegeler-Abdi, Martina

    2016-01-01

    The first Miss Lebanon-America, Rosemary Hakim, landed at Beirut Airport in July 1955 to start a public diplomacy tour. As an American beauty queen from Detroit visiting Lebanon, her parents' homeland, she was greeted enthusiastically by the local press and closely monitored by US government representatives. After her return to the States, she documented her experiences abroad in an unpublished memoir, entitled "Arabian Antipodes." However, this 1955 account does not just chronicle her travel...

  17. Unattainable paradise: American Labor's global activities and the petroleum workers during the cold war era

    OpenAIRE

    Van Goethem, Geert

    2014-01-01

    One of the most remarkable pieces of history of the postwar international Labour movement concerns the International Federation of Petroleum and Chemical Workers (IFPCW). It was the only American-based International Trade Secretariat(ITS) which became very active on a global scale during its short-lived existence (1954-1975). This contribution attempts to address a series of issues raised in a recent study on the history of the IFPCW on the basis of additional research of primary sources. Res...

  18. War-related Trauma: Increasing the American GI’s Resilience through Marriage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Warren N. Ponder

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Studies have shown PTSD has a negative impact on close relationships among Vietnam War veterans. Recently, studies have replicated these findings in the Operation Iraqi Freedom (OIF and Operation Enduring Freedom (OEF cohort. Currently, over half of the military is married and veterans are returning from combat with elevated rates of PTSD. Thus, investigating which symptom clusters influence marital satisfaction of the veteran the most is important for assisting social workers and other mental health professionals in identifying and prioritizing treatment goals. The current study identifies which of the four PTSD symptom clusters impacts marital satisfaction the most in returning combat veterans using regression analysis. The emotional numbing cluster negatively impacted marital satisfaction whereas the hyper-arousal cluster positively impacted it. Using all 17 Post-traumatic Disorder Checklist-Military (PCL-M questions as possible predictors of veterans’ marital satisfaction, regression analysis revealed five of the questions account for 26 percent of the variance in marital satisfaction. Clinical implications and recommendations are explored.

  19. When the publicity of debates is used to strengthen the secret of special interests: the American example of civil rights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric AGBESSI

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The ethics of publicity in social sciences may highlight the dark part of parliamentary debates. They do not only aim to explain the stakes of the future law, but can also help, because they make use of the publicity around what is said, to heighten the “unspoken”. Indeed, the analysis of the congregational debates held to adopt the Civil Rights Act of 1964 brings to light the strategy of the southern Senators opposed to a draft law yet introduced by members of their own political party, the Democratic Party. They rely on a range of political, legal or media-centered arguments to show that de jure equality, although enshrined in the amended American Constitution, must not necessarily become de facto equality. In other words, this paper, combining communicative and civilizational perspectives, is trying to highlight how publicity around the debates can also be used to reinforce the secret surrounding individual interests.

  20. Black Chronicle: An American History Textbook Supplement. Third Edition. Bulletin No. 91546.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kailin, Clarence S.

    This book, a revision and updating of a work first published under the same title in 1974, presents a detailed chronological history of African Americans in the United States. The description begins with the origins of Homo sapiens in Africa, and traces the African American story from slavery in North America through the U.S. Civil War, the…

  1. American Innocence and Guilt: Black-White Destiny in Benito Cereno

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Paul David

    1975-01-01

    Asserts that the relationship between the Negro character and the white in American fiction before the Civil War reveals a social mythology which Herman Melville was the first to undercut, by presenting the destiny of Negroes linked to that of America as a symbol of nemesis to white Americans who disregard the impact of slavery on the enslavers…

  2. Application of American Civil Action to Public Interest Action in Environmental Protection of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ye Suping; Li Yanshun

    2006-01-01

    Economic development has made a negative impact on the environment. However, our proceedings on public interest action are almost blank, causing many of the cases related to the environmental protection to be rejected by the court for the reason that the prosecutors fail to provide enough evidence. Therefore, we can take the U.S. system of civil action for reference to improve our public interest action while employing proxy litigation. The measures can be included as follows: relax the plaintiff qualifications; establish the necessary lead procedures; invert the responsibility of providing evidence.

  3. “Oh God! What a Lovely War” 1: Giorgio Agamben’s Clausewitzian Theory of Total/Global (Civil) War

    OpenAIRE

    Kristof K. P. Vanhoutte

    2015-01-01

    When Carl von Clausewitz’s statement that “war is a mere continuation of policy by other means” was inverted by Michel Foucault into “power is war, the continuation of war by other means” during his course entitled Il faut défendre la société, the already-growing interest in von Clausewitz skyrocketed. However, the enormous interest in this particular dictum overshadowed many of the even more intriguing observations discovered and diagnoses made by the Prussian general. The present text aims ...

  4. Habitat analysis of North American sand flies near veterans returning from leishmania-endemic war zones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keep Lisa

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Nearly 1300 cases of leishmaniasis have been identified in American military personnel deployed to Iraq and Afghanistan. The symptoms of this disease can range from a mild, self-limiting cutaneous infection to a deadly visceral infection and are not prevented by chemoprophylaxis or immunization. Effective treatments, however, are available. The disease-causing parasite is spread through the bite of the female sand fly. Although the disease occurs in both the Old World and the New World, the parasite species differ between the hemispheres. The large number of cases in military veterans has caused some concern that Old World, temperate-adapted parasite species could be introduced into the native sand fly populations of American military facilities where veterans of the current conflicts return following their deployments. This paper reports part of a larger study to analyze the risk of such an accidental importation. Four potential habitats on two large Army facilities in the Southeast United States were surveyed to determine relative sand fly density. The National Land Cover Map was used to provide sand fly density prediction maps by habitat. Results Sand fly density was significantly higher in deciduous forest and even higher at the interface between forest and open grassland. The evergreen forest and agricultural fields supported very low densities. On Fort Campbell, KY, the percentage of land covered by suitable habitat was very high. A sand fly density prediction map identified large tracts of land where infected individuals would be at higher risk of exposure to sand fly bites, resulting in an increased risk of introducing the parasite to a native insect population. On Fort Bragg, NC, however, commercial farming of long leaf pine reduced the percentage of the land covered in vegetation suitable for the support of sand flies. The risk of introducing an exotic Leishmania spp. on Fort Bragg, therefore, is considered to be

  5. Huntington or Halliburton? The Real Clash of Civilizations in American Life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine A. James

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available A wide variety of sources, including the Huntington literature and popular mass media, show that Huntington’s “clash of civilizations” idea actually has very little value in understanding the current global political context. The central assumption of Huntington’s view, that cultural kinship ties influence loyalties and agreements on a global scale, has little to do with the daily lives of American citizens and little to do with the decisions made by the current presidential administration. The mass media evidence from the United States shows that the the most important “kinship” ties are not religious or cultural, but economic. The argument involves a deeper analysis of the current trend towards religious programs on American television, a timeline of events relating to the Halliburton – Cheney relationship, and views expressed by members of the United States military in Stars and Stripes.

  6. Study of the relationship between the English Civil War and the separation of the Gentry%论英国内战爆发与乡绅阶层的分裂

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘颖婷

    2013-01-01

    Compared with other historical events, such as the Great Charter, the Glorious Revolution and three Parliament Reforms, the Civil War is known for its universality and violence. However, it fails to change England resulting from its limited influence. Nevertheless, with the rise and separation of the gentry and the crisis of the Crown, the Civil War has great effects on other revolutions in the English history.%17世纪的英国内战,与反约翰王起义、“光荣革命”、三次议会改革相比,无论其参与面还是激烈程度,都要超过后者,但是其结果却要逊色于后者,可以说内战几乎没有改变英国。但是值得一提的是乡绅阶层的崛起、分裂和王室的危机等,这些导致内战爆发的原因在潜移默化中对英国其他革命产生了巨大影响。

  7. The Capitalist World-System and U.S. Cold War Policies in the Core and the Periphery: A Comparative Analysis of Post-World War II American Nation-building in Germany and Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Hugh Jo

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In response to the emerging cold war, why did the United States stress industrial expansion in Western Europe but focus on primary production alongside policing operations in the non-western world? Examining US postwar occupation in Germany and Korea from a world-systems perspective, this article argues that a given country’s standing in the capitalist economy generally shapes American foreign policy toward that particular country in the early cold war years. A paladin of system-wide prosperity and peace, the United States sought to restore the international division of labor after World War II. Reactions varied across the system, however, because of distinct socio-economic developments. The presence of capital-intensive export-dependent industry afforded western Germany flexible labor-management relations. Politics was overall stable there, and America dispensed with heavy-handed intervention. In southern Korea, labor-exploitive tenancy farming rendered interclass compromise virtually impossible. As intransigent peasants threatened the market economy, the United States used force to keep the ally in the system.

  8. ¡Arrasar la Vendée! Guerra Civil y Columnas Infernales en pleno corazón de la Revolución Francesa. – Raze the Vendée! Civil War and Infernal Columns in the heart of the French Revolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cutillas Victoria, Benjamín

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In the middle of the French Revolution, when the Liberty and the Rights of Man were proclaimed, a part of France decided to turn away from this new political and moral system with the aim of returning to their recent past when the Royal Authority and the Catholic Religion were the creed of the people. This against the revolutionary process took place in the west of the country, causing many internal conflicts that acquired special relevance in the Vendée region, where a true civil war exploded and the French Republic enforced a policy of total war unleashing the so-called Infernal Columns, although they didn’t put an end to the problem. The strife would end three years after with a peace process in the rebel region and terrible consequences for all.

  9. Analisis Tingkat Relevansi E-Journal Pada Database American Society Of Civil Engineer ( Asce ) Dalam Memenuhi Kebutuhan Informasi Mahasiswa Magister Teknik Sipil Di Universitas Sumatera Utara

    OpenAIRE

    Laoli, Feriaman

    2010-01-01

    Database ASCE merupakan koleksi e-journal yang dilanggan oleh Perpustakaan Universitas Sumatera Utara ( USU ) untuk bidang ilmu teknik sipil. Koleksi ini diharapkan dapat menunjang proses belajar-mengajar dan bahan acuan dalam penelitian, pembuatan skripsi, tesis dan sebagainya bagi dosen, mahasiswa, karyawan di lingkungan universitas khususnya Universitas Sumatera Utara ( USU ). Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui tingkat relevansi e-journal pada Database American Society of Civil E...

  10. Contributions of Psychology to War and Peace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christie, Daniel J.; Montiel, Cristina J.

    2013-01-01

    The contributions of American psychologists to war have been substantial and responsive to changes in U.S. national security threats and interests for nearly 100 years. These contributions are identified and discussed for four periods of armed conflict: World Wars I and II, the Cold War, and the Global War on Terror. In contrast, about 50 years…

  11. Análisis bibliométrico de la literatura científica publicada en "Ciencia. Revista hispano-americana de ciencias puras y aplicadas" Ciencia, Spanish researchers, Exile, Hispano-America, Spanish civil War, Bibliometrics, Bibliometric analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Pulgarin

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports the pilot stage of a Project whose objective is to analyse the scientific output of the journal “Ciencia” from its appearance (1940 until its closure (1974. The journal constituted the formal channel for the dissemination of science among Spanish researchers in exile in Hispano-America due to the Spanish civil War (1936-1939. The original articles published in three of the seven sections into which the journal was divided – Modern science (section I, Original communications (section II, and Applied science (section IV – are studied, together with the bibliographical references contained in those articles. The number of articles analysed was 972, and of bibliographical references 14,184.

  12. Do Territorial Control and the Loss of Territory Determine the use of Indiscriminate Violence by Incumbent Actors? An Examination of the Syrian Civil War in Aleppo over 45 weeks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evan Tyner

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available 'This study tests the ‘control-collaboration’ model detailed by Stathis Kalyvas in 'The Logic of Violence in Civil War '(2006. The control-collaboration model makes various theoretical claims on the relationship between territorial control and the use and motivations of violence (whether selective or indiscriminate. This study tests two of the key claims made in the model: 1. There is an inverse relationship between level of territorial control and the use of indiscriminate violence; and, 2. The loss off territory encourages the use of indiscriminate violence. Using data on civilian and child deaths taken from the ‘Syrian Martyr Database’, this study examines the relationship between territorial control and territorial loss, and the use of indiscriminate violence by incumbent (Syrian state forces. Examining the levels of territorial control/loss and the extent of civilian and child casualties in Aleppo, Syria, results of the study largely support the theoretical assumptions outlined by Kalyvas.'

  13. New wars and permanent liminality

    OpenAIRE

    Szakolczai, Árpád

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the paper is to give an anthropological and historical background analysis of the new type of wars characteristic of our times. It will start from the point that ‘new wars’ are not a recent phenomena; rather, the modern world can be characterized by an entire series of puzzling ‘new type of wars’, moving backwards through the ‘Cold War’ and the two World Wars, up to the Napoleonic Wars, and probably even the civil and religious wars of the 16th century. This leads to a genuine inte...

  14. La evolución de la memoria de la Guerra Civil en el espacio urbano de Bilbao: una mirada comparativa La mémoire de la Guerre Civile dans l’espace urbain de Bilbao : un regard comparatif Memory of the Civil War in the urban space of Bilbao: a comparative view

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Alonso Carballés

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo tiene como objetivo prioritario estudiar las políticas institucionales desplegadas en torno a la memoria de la Guerra Civil en la ciudad de Bilbao. Nuestro trabajo es una tentativa de realizar una «arqueología de la memoria» que nos permita estudiar de forma cronológica la impronta de dichas políticas en el espacio urbano bilbaíno en diferentes momentos históricos : desde la erección de la estatua de Mola en el Arenal bilbaíno en junio de 1937 en el momento de la entrada de las tropas franquistas hasta la reciente inauguración del monumento en homenaje a las víctimas del franquismo. Este estudio de caso se completa con referencias puntuales a la evolución de esta memoria en las simbólicas ciudades de Burgos y de Valencia con el objetivo de ofrecer así una mirada comparativa sobre tres capitales claves del conflicto del 36.Cet article a comme objectif prioritaire d’étudier les politiques institutionnelles développées autour de la mémoire de la Guerre Civile dans la ville de Bilbao. Notre travail est une tentative de réaliser une « archéologie de la mémoire » qui nous permette d’étudier de forme chronologique l’empreinte laissées par ces politiques dans l’espace urbain de Bilbao, depuis l’érection de la statue du général Mola en juin de 1937 au moment de l’entrée des troupes franquistes dans la ville jusqu’à l’érection récente du monument en l’honneur des victimes du franquisme. Cette étude de cas comprend aussi des références ponctuelles à l’évolution de cette mémoire dans les villes symboliques de Burgos et de Valence avec le but d’offrir ainsi un regard comparatif sur trois capitales clés du conflit de 1936.This article’s main objective is to study the institutional politics developed around the memory of the Civil War in the city of Bilbao. Our work is an attempt to develop an «archaeology of memory» which will allow us to study in a chronological fashion the

  15. Examining the Seven-Flag "Chieu Hoi" Pass: A Primary Document from the American War in Viet Nam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelmann, Ted

    2006-01-01

    During the Viet Nam war, U.S. military helicopters dropped "Chieu Hoi" (safe conduct) passes over suspected enemy locations to encourage enemy soldiers to surrender. This article presents a classroom activity that encourages students to examine a "Chieu Hoi" pass as a primary historical document, identify its various elements, and begin discussing…

  16. War-themed first person shooters: Relationships with pro-American attitudes and racial stereotyping of Arabs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.S. Lemmens

    2011-01-01

    The current exploratory study is the first to empirically examine whether players of war-themed First Person Shooters display more positive attitudes towards U.S. warfare and more racist attitudes towards Arabs than players of other (violent) games, and non-players. For this purpose, online question

  17. "We all go a little mad sometimes": Alfred Hitchcock, American psychoanalysis, and the construction of the Cold War psychopath.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genter, Robert

    2010-01-01

    This article explores the image of the psychopath in Alfred Hitchcock’s 1960 film Psycho. The famed director’s portrayal of a psychologically damaged young man connected with a much larger discussion over political and sexual deviance in the early Cold War, a discussion that cantered on the image of the psychopath as the dominant threat to national security and that played upon normative assumptions about adolescent development and mother-son relations. PMID:20827837

  18. From "Wops and Dagoes and Hunkies" to "Caucasian": Changing Racial Discourse in American Classrooms during World War II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkholder, Zoe

    2010-01-01

    This article focuses on how public schools have functioned in the ideological production of race in America and their critical role in shaping the way Americans understand specific definitions of race as well as the muted rules of racial etiquette. The author analyzes American schools as racializing institutions, that is institutions with the…

  19. Propaganda e crítica social nas cronologias dos almanaques astrológicos durante a Guerra Civil inglesa no século XVII Propaganda and social criticism in the chronologies of the astrological almanacs during the English Civil War in 17 th century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Mesquita Hidalgo Ferreira

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo é parte de uma ampla investigação sobre a utilização dos almanaques astrológicos durante a Guerra Civil inglesa no século XVII como veículo de propaganda e crítica social. Durante esse conflito, havia astrólogos partidários das forças parlamentaristas, como John Booker, e outros partidários das forças realistas, como George Wharton. O presente trabalho analisa algumas dessas publicações, mostrando como o envolvimento político dos autores se manifestava de forma explícita (e, algumas vezes, não tão direta nos referidos almanaques.This article is part of an extensive investigation carried out concerning the use of astrological almanacs during the English Civil War in the 17th century as a medium for propaganda and social criticism. During that conflict there were astrologers who were partisans of the Parliament, such as John Booker, and other who supported the King, such as George Wharton. This work analyses some of those publications, showing that the political commitment of the authors was noticeable in an explicit form (and sometimes in an indirect way in those almanacs.

  20. AN EVALUATION NARRATIVE OF WARS ON HISTORY TEXTBOOKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özgür AKTAŞ

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the current study was to investigate how the phenomenon of war was studied at the history books of secondary education. The method of the research depends on document analysis. For that reason, the history course books were investigated and the wars told in the books were determined. In the course book of Modern Turkish and World History, you can find wars and treaties. Establishment of Bolshevist regime led to new wars in the political history. In this book, it is likely to see something about World War II as well. Following the World War II, the cold war between Soviets Union and the USA had a great impact on era. The civil wars told in the Modern World History mostly intensified in the African countries. As for the twenty first century, the wars have mostly been realized as the civil wars and terrorism.

  1. Civil and Canon Law Issues Affecting American Catholic Higher Education 1948-1998: An Overview and the ACCU Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrington, Peter J.

    1999-01-01

    Discusses civil and canon law issues affecting U.S. Catholic colleges and universities over the past 50 years, including discussions of property ownership, corporate structure, institutional governance, eligibility for public financial assistance, and regulatory compliance. Uses the records of the Association of Catholic Colleges and Universities…

  2. Pedagogies of Protest: African American Teachers and the History of the Civil Rights Movement, 1940-1963

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Scott

    2011-01-01

    Background/Context: Although the dominant narrative of the civil rights movement marginalizes the role of black educators, revisionist scholars have shown that a significant number of black teachers encouraged student protest and activism. There has, however, been little analysis of the work of black teachers inside segregated schools in the…

  3. Depleted uranium during the Kosovo war

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using the depleted uranium (DU) in the war and civil aims is considered. There are characterized the head parts of projectiles (drifts) from DU, used during Balkan wars, are described. The uranium isotope activity and exposure dose rates from β, γ and photon radiation of the drifts are investigated. The content of uranium and plutonium isotopes in the soil samples are measured. It is concluded that DU cannot exercise the acute influence on the health of military man and civil population

  4. Biological consequences of nuclear war

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irradiation probability due to radionuclide fallout is shown to exceed 1 Gy even for the territories which have not been affected by nuclear weapons direct explosions. If some people survive in the nuclear war, their heredity would be affected. Genetic consequences of nuclear war complete the process of Homo sapiens disappearance from the Earth. Space weapons development will deteriorate the prospects of civilization ruin as a result of biological aftereffects of nuclear war and possible application of new arms, as well as chemical and biologic weapons

  5. CAN POLITICIANS SPEED UP LONG-TERM TECHNOLOGICAL CHANGE? SOME INSIGHTS FROM A COMPARISON OF THE GERMAN AND US-AMERICAN SYNTHETIC RUBBER PROGRAMS BEFORE, DURING AND AFTER WORLD WAR II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jochen Streb

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available I investigated the effect of government demand on firms’ innovation activities comparing the German and American synthetic rubber industries before, during and after World War II. I obtained three main results. 1. Because of the low price of natural rubber, price and sales guarantees were needed to motivate firms to produce the synthetic rubber BUNA S. 2. Facing fixed prices I.G. Farben improved their efficiency more than the American firms working under cost plus contracts. 3. The patent sharing agreement of the American synthetic rubber program caused firms to hold back advanced synthetic rubber inventions.

  6. Health hazards of uranium dust from radioactive battlefields of the Balkan conflicts, Eastern Afghanistan and Iraq after the Gulf wars. Lessons for civil protection in the terrorist scenario of radiological dispersion devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Complete text of publication follows. Purpose: The purpose of this study is to identify key health hazards of uranium dust from the radioactive battlefields (Balkan, Middle East and Eastern Afghanistan conflicts) to draw lessons for civil protection in the terrorist scenario of radiological dispersion devices (RDD). Gulf War I (GW I) in 1991 resulted in 350 metric tons of depleted uranium (DU) deposited in the environment and 3 to 6 million grams of DU aerosol dust particles released into the atmosphere, by the most conservative estimates. Its possible legacy (Gulf War disease) continues after the military conflicts (Operation Enduring Freedom, OEF, in Afghanistan and Gulf War II in Iraq). The symptoms of the multiorgan incapacitating progressive disease have been as numerous as their names, including incapacitating fatigue, musculoskeletal and joint pains, headaches, neuropsychiatric disorders, affects changes, confusion, visual problems, changes of gait, loss of memory, lympadenopathies, respiratory impairment, impotence, and urinary tract morphological and functional alterations. The disease is still a matter of controversy regarding etiology and pathogenesis of the syndrome commonly named Gulf War disease. It was underestimated and subsequently evolved in its clinical description through recognition of progressive symptomatology. Methods: UMRC's studies of the human contamination with uranium isotopes were conducted with the exposed subjects of Jalalabad, Spin Gar, Tora Bora, and Kabul areas in Afghanistan after OEF as well as Samawah, Baghdad and Basrah in Iraq after GW II. The urine samples of the subjects were analysed by the plasma mass spectrometry. The analytical methodology involved pre-concentration of the uranium using co-precipitation and/or evaporation, oxidation of organic matter, purification of uranium with ion exchange chromatography, and mass spectrometry with a double focusing Thermo-Elemental Plasma54 multi-collector ICP-MS equipped with a

  7. Helping American Soldiers in Time of War: Reply to Comments on the Comprehensive Soldier Fitness Special Issue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seligman, Martin E. P.

    2011-01-01

    Seligman responds to the comments made about the January 2011 "American Psychologist" "Special Issue on Comprehensive Soldier Fitness" (CSF). Seligman proposed an entire issue of on the topic of CSF to encourage psychologists to come to the aid of our government, and he urges psychologists not to be discouraged by this tactic. He and his coauthors…

  8. Evolution of civil aeromedical helicopter aviation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, D R; Samper, E R

    1989-07-01

    The rapid increase in the use of helicopters for hospital transport during the 1980s is the culmination of several hundred years of military medical innovation. Mass battefield casualties spurred both technologic and medical changes necessary for today's sophisticated helicopter systems in use worldwide, particularly in the United States. The Napoleonic Era and the American Civil War provided the framework for the evolution of today's state-of-the-art emergency medical techniques. The use of airplanes to evacuate the wounded eventually led to using helicopters for rescue missions in World War II. The combat experiences of the United States in Korea, the British in Malaya, and the French in Indochina proved that rotary-wing aircraft were invaluable in reducing battlefield death rates. Any skepticism about the efficacy of helicopter medical evacuation was erased during the Vietnam conflict. As an integral part of the modern battlefield, these specialized aircraft became a necessity. The observations and experience of American servicemen and medical personnel in Vietnam established the foundation for the acceptance of helicopter transport in modern hospital systems. PMID:2665130

  9. Edmund Burke, the Atlantic American war and the ‘poor Jews at St. Eustatius’. Empire and the law of nations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guido Abbattista

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This essay is devoted to a relatively minor episode in Edmund Burke’s parliamentary career and political speculation involving the rights of war and international law in the final years of the American War of Independence. The starting point for Burke’s consideration of these questions was the affair of St. Eustatius, that is to say Britain’s conquest in 1781 of the Dutch West-Indian island early in the “fourth Anglo-Dutch War” of 1780-1784. The harsh treatment of the Dutch colony’s cosmopolitan community by the commanding officers of the British Navy and Army provoked a series of reactions in Britain and the colonies. The essay starts by outlining the identity of St. Eustatius with its economic, demographic and social features, its peculiar role in the eighteenth-century West Indies and its emblematic meaning in the historical literature of the Enlightenment as a symbol of the virtues of commerce and of economic liberty. It goes on to analyse the facts of the military conquest in 1781 and the ensuing occupation realized by Admiral George Rodney and Major-General John Vaughan, particularly as this affected the “poor Jews at St. Eustatius” (as Burke himself qualified them in his second speech on 4 December 1781, with the subsequent reactions of the Dutch and especially the British Atlantic world. We then examine Edmund Burke’s reasons for taking up this affair, including the political and ideological motives and the sources of arguments he used in the two parliamentary speeches he made on the topic during 1781, relating this to Burke’s ideas on international relations and imperial government during the 1770s and 1780s. We end by pointing to cultural links between Burke’s positions and a wider political, commercial and civic culture emerging in the British Atlantic world which reflected some of the most typical European Enlightenment values and ideological commitments.

  10. The Origins of the Cold War.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paterson, Thomas G.

    1986-01-01

    Briefly reviews conventional reasoning about the start of the Cold War. Describes contemporary revisionist views of the Cold War and the reasons they arose. Maintains that American leaders exaggerated the Soviet ideological and military threat, spurring an American arms build-up which ultimately led to the present-day arms race. (JDH)

  11. The American challenge in uniform: the arrival of America’s armies in World War II and European women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Ellwood

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available A vast body of material exists – memoirs, diaries, films, plays, novels, official records – on the impact and reception of America’s armed forces armies in Europe after 1942. Britain, Italy, France, Austria and of course Germany all offer relevant evidence. The popular British phrase about the GI’s being ‘over-paid, over-sexed and over here’ brilliantly sums up many of the tensions the encounter threw up: over money and life-styles, courtship rituals and the treatment of local women, over sovereignty and the American impulse to requisition every local resource they could get their hands on. Local men thought ‘their’ women were being requisitioned.  The Americans had not come to do ‘nation-building’, and yet their presence left memories, changed attitudes and altered prospects on the future, especially among women. Afterwards American experts claimed that their armed forces had set off a ‘revolution of rising expectations’. Although a contradictory, complex encounter, there is enough evidence to suggest they might have been right.

  12. THE INTERNMENT OF JAPANESE AMERICANS DURING WORLD WAR II: A CASE STUDY OF NATIONAL TRAUMA AND INSTITUTIONAL VIOLENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arthur G. Neal

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The events set in motion by the Japanese bombing of Pearl Harbour wereamong the more consequential events in the history of the world (Toland, 1982.The subsequent development of the atomic bomb and its use at Hiroshima andNagasaki permanently changed the conditions under which men and women live(Selden and Selden, 1989 and provided a dramatic illustration of what humanbeings are capable of doing to each other (Lifton and Markusen, 1988. Theimmediate effects of the surprise attack on the United States (US were traumatic asthe nation entered a war for which it was not prepared. The long range-effectsinclude the imprinting of the surprise attack in collective memories and a nationaldetermination by the US to never again be caught unprepared militarily (Neal,2005. Both political leaders and journalists drew upon the memories of PearlHarbour as they attempted to make sense out of the surprise terrorist attack ofSeptember 11, 2001 (9/11, and to mobilize the nation for an effective response.

  13. ‘Defensive Liberal Wars’: The Global War on Terror and the Return of Illiberalism in American Foreign Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashmi Singh

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper offers an analysis of the illiberal practices and discourse of the Global War on Terror (GWoT and demonstrates how the United States of America used the liberal argument as a qualitative metric of its success and failure in the GWoT. I argue that ‘the othering’ of Salafi Jihadists as well the full military involvement in Afghanistan and Iraq were both philosophically rooted in the liberal thinking of Immanuel Kant and John Stuart Mill, which have traditionally guided US foreign policy. More significantly, these liberal philosophies of history and international relations hold within them the seeds of illiberalism by depicting non-liberal, undemocratic societies/organisations as ‘barbaric’ – and as such prime candidates for intervention and regime change. Predicated upon this logic, the discourse of the GWoT framed Al Qaeda as a key existential threat to not only the United States but also the ‘civilised world’ in general and one which required a ‘liberal defensive war’ in response. It was the successful securitisation of Al Qaeda that essentially enabled the United States to adopt deeply illiberal policies to counter this so-called existential threat by using any means at its disposal.

  14. Past as Preface: Civilizational Politics and the `Third' Balkan War

    OpenAIRE

    Lene Hansen

    2000-01-01

    The concept of civilization has gained political as well as theoretical attention in the 1990s owing to Samuel P. Huntington's influential thesis about civilizational conflicts being the new conflict formation of the post-Cold War era. It is the aim of this article to problematize Huntington's claim that one particular reading of the Bosnian War follows from adopting a civilizational optic. Huntington argues that the war took place between three different civilizations and that the West shoul...

  15. Ground Wars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Rasmus Kleis

    Political campaigns today are won or lost in the so-called ground war--the strategic deployment of teams of staffers, volunteers, and paid part-timers who work the phones and canvass block by block, house by house, voter by voter. Ground Wars provides an in-depth ethnographic portrait of two such...... of ground war tactics for how we understand political campaigns and what it means to participate in them. He shows how ground wars are waged using resources well beyond those of a given candidate and their staff. These include allied interest groups and civic associations, party-provided technical...... professionals. Yet he also quashes the romantic idea that canvassing is a purer form of grassroots politics. In today's political ground wars, Nielsen demonstrates, even the most ordinary-seeming volunteer knocking at your door is backed up by high-tech targeting technologies and party expertise. Ground Wars...

  16. 太平洋战争后期美国对中国东北政策的转变%Change of American Policy toward Manchuria during Later Period of Pacific War

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马丁

    2016-01-01

    During the later period of Pacific War, Japan was on the way to be defeated.How to arrange Manchuria ruled by Japan be-came an important issue of American arrangement of Far East after the ending of the war.Considering the goals of accelerating the victo-ry of Anti-Japanese War and the accomplishment of American post-war planning, America has constantly made adjustment according to Chinese situation and attitude towards Soviet Union, which included three phrases:returning all sovereignty of Manchuria to China;cutting part of sovereignty of Manchuria to exchange for the promise of Soviet Union to fight against Japan as soon as possible;contai-ning Soviet Union′s expansion in Manchuria.During most of the time of the late period of Pacific War, the consideration of defeating Ja-pan rapidly determined American strategy towards Manchuria.Only when Soviet Union conformed definitely to join the war, America accomplished the experiment of atomic bomb and Pacific War had a certain end, has Soviet Union′s expansion in Asia become the pri-ority point of American consideration of Manchuria policy.%太平洋战争后期,日本即将失败,对于其占领下的中国东北如何安排成为美国战后远东安排的重要问题。出于加速对日战争胜利和实现美国战后规划的目标,美国对于该地区的政策也根据中国的局势和对苏态度的变化而不断作出调整,可分为归还中国东北全部主权;割让部分东北主权换取苏联早日对日作战;遏制苏联在中国东北扩张势力三个阶段。太平洋战争后期的大部分时间里,迅速击败日本的考虑决定了美国对中国东北的政策,只是到了苏联确定参战,且原子弹试验成功,太平洋战争结局已定,苏联在亚洲的扩张才成为美国对中国东北政策的首要考虑因素。

  17. Endeavors to Make Global Connections. Latin American Contacts and Strategies with Mediterranean Non-Alignment in the Early Cold Wars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rinna Kullaa

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This article explores linkages between Yugoslavia’s influence and the roots of the Non-Aligned Movement in the Mediterranean with Latin America as a region through which the Soviet Union sought to challenge the independence of Yugoslavia and the Movement. It answers directly the question: To what extent did the foundation of the coalition of non-aligned states in 1961 in Belgrade have an impact on relations between Yugoslavia and some Latin American states? The sources used for this article consist principally of primary sources from the Foreign Policy Archive of the Russian Federation and the Archive of the Foreign Ministry of Yugoslavia.

  18. “A Peculiar National Character”: Transatlantic Realignment and the Birth of American Cultural Nationalism after 1815

    OpenAIRE

    Jaap Verheul

    2012-01-01

    This article argues that the emergence of American cultural nationalism after the War of 1812 developed in self-confident opposition to the Old World, yet was thoroughly influenced by European standards of nationhood. American intellectuals who campaigned for cultural independence from Europe at the same time retained European standards of civilization and esthetics, and were thoroughly influenced by ideas about the relationship between culture and nation that developed in England and Germany...

  19. On Civility and Civilizations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DAVID GOSSET

    2010-01-01

    @@ At a time when misunderstand-ings between cultures run rampant, when walls of fear, prejudice and hatred divide the members of the human family, it is urgent to intensify the dialogue between civilizations. Under the new leadership of its Director General lrina Bokova, the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) declared 2010 as the "Year for the Rapprochement of Cultures." In this context, the concerted reflections and actions of Europe and China can be highly meaningful.

  20. WAR HORSES:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    War Horses: Helhesten and the Danish Avant-Garde During World War II This exhibition is the first to explore the history and significance of the accomplishments of Danish artists working during the Nazi occupation of their country (1940-45), who called themselves Helhesten, such as Ejler Bille...

  1. Examining Conflict Escalation Within the Civilizations Context

    OpenAIRE

    Sean Bolks; Richard Stoll

    2003-01-01

    Samuel Huntington's article and book on the clash of civilizations has created a great deal of controversy and interest. The focus of this is his assertion that in the post-Cold War era, there will be significant conflict between states from Western civilization and states from Islamic civilization. This assertion has been the subject of a number of systematic empirical studies (Henderson, 1997, 1998; Henderson and Tucker, 2001; Russett, Oneal and Cox, 2000; Chiozza, 2002). These studies shar...

  2. Gulf War

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalgaard-Nielsen, Anja

    2003-01-01

    As it became a non‐permanent member of the UN Security Council in January 2003, Germany stepped up its opposition to war with Iraq. The stage was set for a repeat of Germany's uncomfortable position during the 1991 Gulf War. At that time, as most of Germany's allies rallied behind Washington......, Germany made only financial contributions, and hundreds of thousands of Germans took to the streets to protest against the war. Yet, since 1991, Germany had come a long way in its attitudes towards military force. From a policy of complete abstention from military deployments beyond NATO's area (so...

  3. 中英版本《法兰西内战》的修辞格对照研究%English Rhetorical Devices and Its Chinese Translation in The Civil War in France

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶惠珍

    2012-01-01

    The application of rhetorical devices in political philosophy works is helpful in image-building and the vivid transferring of writers' intention to the target readers. However the translation of rhetorical devices requires careful decoding and creative reconstruction so as to keep the original meaning and language style to its best possibility. Using the well-known 1871 address of Karl Marx, The Civil War in France, this article explores into the tactic usage of lexical,syntactical and phorietic stylistic devices by Karl Marx and contrasts against the translation of those rhetorical devices in its Chinese version. Findings are that several English rhetorical devices in this address such as alliteration, allusion and oxymoron fail to keep its originally-intended linguistic effect in the officially-released Chinese version. As a conclusion, translators will need to be more cautious and more creative with the handling of rhetorical devices. Researchers of social sciences as well as officials with policy-illustration responsibilities are advised to increase usage of proper rhetorical devices so as to avoid the pitfall of dry preaching.%修辞格在政治哲学作品中的运用有助于增强表达效果,添加艺术感染力。但是修辞格的翻译需正确解码,运用创造性技巧以减少信息损耗。以《法兰西内战》中英版本为例,评析马克思的语义,结构与音韵修辞格运用及中央编译局的相应修辞格翻译技巧。中央编译局对《法兰西内战》文中的隐喻、拟人、反语、设问等英语修辞格的翻译处理较好。研究发现诸如头韵、典故和矛盾修饰等修辞格被译为汉语之后,原有的文体风格受到一定损耗。

  4. How to survive a nuclear war

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In a detailed U.S. Civil Defence research report of May 1979, J.C. Greene discusses survival chances after a nuclear war. There is no doubt that a nuclear war will cause vast damage in the countries under attack - mortality, suffering, and long-term damage of all kinds that will be without precedent in history. Still, does not think this a reason to give the possibility of survival no thought. (orig.)

  5. The Collision of Romanticism and Modernism in Post-World War II American Cinema: A Theoretical Defense of Intellectual History in the Undergraduate Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferris, Daniel Hunter

    2013-01-01

    The post-World War II era in the United States, which ran from 1945 to 1970, has long been divided into two distinct periods; the late 1940s and 1950s and the 1960s. Out of this separation has come a view of the late 1940s and 1950s as a time dominated by a conservative conformist culture that did little to rival pre-war norms. On the other hand,…

  6. Animated war

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frølunde, Lisbeth

    2012-01-01

    in production: Gzim Rewind (Sweden, 2011) by Knutte Wester, and In-World War (USA, expected 2011) by DJ Bad Vegan. These films have themes of war and include film scenes that are ‘machinima’ (real-time animation made in 3D graphic environments) within live action film scenes. Machinima harnesses...... DIY multimedia storytellers explore new ways to tell and to ‘animate’ stories. The article contains four parts: introduction to machinima and the notions of resemiosis and authorial practice, presentation of DIY filmmaking as a practice that intertwines with new networked economics, analysis...

  7. The Cold War: A Yearbook Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graebner, William

    1986-01-01

    Shows how the photographs, valedictorian addresses, nicknames, cartoons and other material contained in high school yearbook can yield information regarding the world views of Americans at the start of the Cold War. (JDH)

  8. 试论一战时期美国战时工业委员会的筹建%The preparation of American industry committee in time of war during world war

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕文娟

    2015-01-01

    Industrial resources play a key role in the first world war, the United States set up the wartime industry committee for its reasonable control. War industry board of the early development of a series of problems, then under the guidance of director Baruch, by supply and demand, priority allocation, the price for approval in institutions such as, to the war supplies reasonable allocation and supply, formulate a reasonable price, adequate for the victory of the war of logistics work, guarantee the stability of the wartime economy. State of the mandatory in the field of industrial integration in order to establish the logistics supply system after the crisis provides an important reference.%对于在一战当中起到关键作用的工业资源,美国专门成立了战时工业委员会对其进行合理的管制.战时工业委员会初期的发展遇到一系列的问题,之后在局长巴鲁克的带领下,通过供需处、优先调拨处、价格核定处等机构,对战争物资予以合理的调拨和供应,制定了合理的价格,为战争的胜利做好了充分的后勤准备工作,保证了战时经济的稳定.国家对工业领域的这种强制性整合为以后出现的危机建立后勤供应体系提供了重要的借鉴.

  9. Two Civilizations and Ethnic Conflict: Islam and the West

    OpenAIRE

    Jonathan Fox

    2001-01-01

    Samuel Huntington's controversial `Clash of Civilizations' argument posits, among other things, that the extent of both international and domestic conflict between `civilizations' will increase with the end of the Cold War. This is expected to be especially true of clashes involving the Western and Islamic civilizations and even more so for clashes between these two civilizations. This article uses the Minorities at Risk dataset, along with independently collected variables, to test these pro...

  10. Rutherford's war

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, John

    2016-02-01

    Seagulls, sea lions and the comic-book hero Professor Radium were all recruited to fight the threat of submarines during the First World War. But as John Campbell explains, it was Ernest Rutherford who led the way a century ago in using acoustics to deter these deadly craft.

  11. War games

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kural, René

    2005-01-01

    Artiklen omhandler Imperial War Museum North tegnet af den polsk-amerikanske arkitekt Daniel Libeskind. Det er hans første projekt i Storbritannien og Englands femte krigsmuseum. Libeskind vand konkurrencen allerede i 1997, men først 5. juli 2002 kunne dørene slås op. Artiklen diskuterer om der er...

  12. Sketching War

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engberg-Pedersen, Anders

    2014-01-01

    During the Napoleonic Wars the military croquis, or sketch map, played an important role in the spatial management of the various campaigns. Presumably, many of these sketch maps were destroyed or discarded after their immediate use. Those that survive have received little scholarly notice...

  13. Utopia and Torture in the Hollywood War Film

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schubart, Rikke

    2010-01-01

    The article discusses the symbolic use of torture as rite of masculinization for the hero character in Three Kings (1999) and Body of Lies (2008). It discusses the idea of minor utopia in the American war film and if this is reflected in the pre-9/11 war films and not in the post 9/11 war films....

  14. The Consequences of the Vietnam War on the Vietnamese Population

    OpenAIRE

    Mizoguchi, Nobuko

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this dissertation is to examine the demographic and socioeconomic consequences of wars, using the case of the Vietnam War and its effects on the Vietnamese population. Using mainly the 1989 and 1999 census microdata, it focuses on the effects of the last ten years of the Vietnam War (or the "American War") from 1965 to 1975, characterized by the escalation of the war with a large presence of American troops in Vietnam and extensive aerial bombings by the United States. The dis...

  15. Baseball and the Cold War: An Examination of Values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briley, Ron

    1986-01-01

    Maintaining that baseball presents a view of American society in microcosm, this article reviews the Cold War history of American baseball, showing how the statements and concerns of the players and managers reflected popular values of that era. (JDH)

  16. Gypsies, Wars and Other Instances of the Wild

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Port, van de Mattijs

    1998-01-01

    What does civilization mean to the inhabitants of a Serbian town after yet another bloody war on the Balkan Peninsula? How was it possible that people who had been friends and neighbors for so long ended up killing each other? And how do they deal with this barbarity in the post-war period?The figur

  17. A new world a new American foreign policy: the Carter administration, Nicaragua, and the legacy of the Vietnam War, 1977-1981

    OpenAIRE

    McLaughlin, Ivan Eugene

    2012-01-01

    The impact of the Vietnam War conditioned the Carter administration’s response to the Nicaraguan revolution in ways that reduced US engagement with both sides of the conflict. It made the countries of Latin America counter the US approach and find their own solution to the crisis, and allowed Cuba to play a greater role in guiding the overthrow of Nicaraguan dictator Anastasio Somoza Debayle. This thesis re-evaluates Carter’s policy through the legacy of the Vietnam War, because US executive...

  18. Civil Identity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Lars Axel

    In this paper I will go through a catalogue of examples of contexts in which the term civil identity is currently used, ranging from the formal and technical process of linking a set of administrative and other events to an individual biological person by means of identity cards, fingerprints, iris...... of Israel to Luce Irigaray's Feminist agenda of elaborating gender specific civil identities. My intention is to investigate whether these different employments of 'civil identity' point towards a common, and fairly well defined object field asking questions of contemporary relevance to the...

  19. Unionised Faculty and the Political Left: Communism and the American Federation of Teachers on the Eve of the Second World War

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cain, Timothy Reese

    2012-01-01

    During the contentious late 1930s and early 1940s, American education and American labour struggled with both internal and external concerns over Communist infiltration. These struggles converged on the American Federation of Teachers (AFT), a union of 30,000 K-12 and college teachers. Through its focus on leftist politics and organised college…

  20. Whose History? An Analysis of the Korean War in History Textbooks from the United States, South Korea, Japan, and China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Lin; Zhao, Yali; Ogawa, Masato; Hoge, John; Kim, Bok Young

    2009-01-01

    This article examines how recent history textbooks from the United States, Japan, China, and South Korea present the Korean War. The comparative analysis focuses on four areas: the causes of the Korean War, American involvement in the war, Chinese involvement in the war, and the results of the war. Analysis of the central story lines reveals that…

  1. On Formation of Chinese Civil Code from Up and Down of American Codification Movement%从美国法典化运动的兴衰看我国民法典的体例选择

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    雷雨

    2011-01-01

    The American codification movement experienced a boom at the beginning of development of science of positive law before it went to decline. This fact was caused by many reasons,the most important of which is related to the tradition of a country. The civil law of China has been derived from German civil law since the late period of Qing dynasty. Given the circumstance concerning draft of the civil code, German civil code should be viewed as a main source.%美国法典化运动在法律实证主义发展的初期经历繁荣之后迅速衰落。这并不是偶然的,美国法典化运动的衰落有许多原因,其中最重要的是来自于历史传统方面。我国民法自清末变法开始,便以继受德国民法为主。我国即将制定的民法典仍应以德国民法典为基本蓝本。

  2. Currency Wars

    OpenAIRE

    Graham Bird; THOMAS D. WILLETT

    2011-01-01

    More than a dozen countries, including Brazil, China, India, Japan, and Korea, have been intervening in the foreign exchange market to prevent their currencies from appreciating. There are fears that the second dose of quantitative easing in the United States (dubbed QE2) may worsen currency appreciation. These developments raise the prospect of a currency war, which the Group of Twenty (G-20) fears is gathering steam. Because many countries are simultaneously seeking to improve their balance...

  3. Women, rape and warfare: a gendered critique of Just War theory and the Immunity principle

    OpenAIRE

    Banwell, Stacy

    2011-01-01

    The just war tradition is based on two principles: jus ad bellum - just war-making, and jus in bello - just war-fighting. Jus in bello contains the non-combatant immunity principle. This “protects” civilians during war giving them “immunity” from the violence of war-fighting. Women are, for the most part, non-combatants. Still, their experiences during war are far from “protected”. Rape has been a feature of both traditional and civil warfare. The just war tradition is fundamentally ill-equ...

  4. Soviet-American Relations: Cold War to New Thinking. Topic #5 in a Series of International Security and Conflict [Curricula] for Grades 9-12 and Community College.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Adrian

    This 12-day unit is designed for use in the social studies classroom for grades 9-12 and community college level. Students first learn about the ideological, political, and military rivalries of the United States and the Soviet Union that marked the Cold War. They are then introduced to the nuclear build-up, and they study its impact on matters of…

  5. Civilizing Processes

    OpenAIRE

    Dolan, Paddy

    2011-01-01

    The theory of “civilizing processes” was developed by Norbert Elias in the 1930s to describe and explain the generation of higher standards of various forms of conduct in the context of unplanned but structured changes in state formation and lengthening chains of social interdependencies (Elias 2000). The idea of civilized conduct may seem a strange companion to popular understandings of consumer culture, when the latter phrase is often associated with hedonism, individualism and excess. But ...

  6. Virginia Tech's Michael Duncan receives civil engineering award

    OpenAIRE

    Nystrom, Lynn A.

    2010-01-01

    J. Michael Duncan, Virginia Tech University Distinguished Professor Emeritus of the Via Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, is the 2010 recipient of the G. Brooks Earnest Award and Lecture from the American Society of Civil Engineers' Cleveland Section.

  7. Fuller’s theory of war and the changes in the concepts of warfare in the second half of XX century: The rise of "creative" war

    OpenAIRE

    Sekulić Nada

    2011-01-01

    Current scientific and scholarly discourse on war, which represents the legitimate knowledge and theory on war today, has been narrowed to the topics and issues related to war doctrine and technology of war. It has become reserved for the privileged „green collars“, highly skilled professionals and officers inside the military structure, which act in cooperation with the political and economic elites, forming the triumvirate of power in contemporary world. The opportunities for civil cr...

  8. Horizontal Inequalities, Political Environment, and Civil Conflict : Evidence from 55 Developing Countries, 1986-2003

    OpenAIRE

    Østby, Gudrun

    2007-01-01

    Several studies of civil war have concluded that economic inequality between individuals does not increase the risk of internal armed conflict. This is perhaps not so surprising. Even though an individual may feel frustrated if he is poor compared with other individuals in society, he will not start a rebellion on his own. Civil wars are organized group conflicts, not a matter of individua...

  9. Educational Exchange as a Cold War Weapon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Anders Bo

    2014-01-01

    American President Harry S. Truman called the Cold War a "struggle for the minds of men," and assigned journalists an important role in the conflict. This study finds that the U.S. Depeartment of State, via the American Embassy in Copenhagen, consciously attempted to shape Danish journalits' view...

  10. Interpretation of the Feminist Ideology in African-American Drama Since the Second World War%解读二战后美国黑人戏剧中的女性主义思想

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张环宇

    2014-01-01

    As a marginalized literary form,African-American drama has experienced a process of imitation,absorption,resistance and self-definition,and it entered its heyday in the Second World War. During this period,a large number of excellent black women writers emerged in American history. In fact,they have made tremendous contributions to promoting the integration and development of African-American drama and the theory of feminist criticism.%同黑人小说和诗歌一样,作为一种被边缘化的文学形式,美国黑人戏剧经历了一个模仿、吸收、反抗与自我定义的过程,并于二战后进入鼎盛时期。这期间,美国历史上涌现出了一大批优秀的黑人女性剧作家,她们在推进美国黑人戏剧与女性主义批评理论的融合与发展方面做出了巨大的贡献。

  11. Humanity cannot survive a nuclear war

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The author documents the unprecedented disaster that a nuclear war would wreak. He and his colleagues conclude that a nuclear war may mean the end of the human species. The environment that will confront most human beings and other organisms after a thermonuclear holocaust will be so altered, and so malign, that extreme and widespread damage to living systems is inevitable. It is, for example, entirely possible that the biological impacts of a war, apart from those resulting directly from a blast, fire, and prompt radiation, could result in the end of civilization in the Northern Hemisphere. The author's primary task in this paper is to give some technical background to explain why numerous biologists, especially ecologists, are convinced that decision-makers in many nations vastly underrate the potential risks of nuclear war

  12. Reflexiones sobre el concepto de guerra civil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    González Calleja, Eduardo

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available This article shows the phenomenon of war as the highest intensity point in an armed conflict. The work looks over his juridical typification, the special dialectical relation established between situations of war and peace, and the ethiology, characteristics and consequences of civil war as a big scale political conflict whose aim is the preservation or conquest of state power.

    El artículo describe el fenómeno de la guerra como un conflicto armado de máxima intensidad. Estudia su caracterización jurídica, la peculiar relación dialéctica que se establece entre el estado de guerra y el de paz, y la etiología, características y efectos de la guerra civil como conflicto político en gran escala dirigido a la conservación o conquista del poder estatal.

  13. War Injuries in the World War I

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Smrčka, V.; Mádlová, Vlasta

    Prague: Charles University, 2014 - (Smrčka, V.; Mádlová, V.), s. 131-155. (Acta Universitatis Carolinae Medica – Monographia. 159 (2013)). ISBN 978-80-246-2290-3. [War Injuries from Past to Present. Prague (CZ), 05.03.2011] Institutional support: RVO:67985921 Keywords : history of medicine * war injuries * World War I Subject RIV: AB - History

  14. Civil Engineering: Improving the Quality of Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    One Feather, Sandra

    2002-01-01

    American Indian civil engineers describe the educational paths that led them to their engineering careers, applications of civil engineering in reservation communities, necessary job skills, opportunities afforded by internship programs, continuing education, and the importance of early preparation in math and science. Addresses of 12 resource Web…

  15. Orientalizing Vietnam: The American Cold War, its “Problems” with Refugee Handicraft Artisans, and their Relationship to Barthes’s Mythology

    OpenAIRE

    Jennifer Way

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines discourses of orientalism narrating the political and cultural significance of representations of Vietnamese handicraft that the U.S. State Department’s International Cooperation Administration’s handicraft production and export program in Southeast Asia published in American craft, design and art journals and used in trade and department store exhibitions from 1955 to 1961. The American program to bring economic stability to the region developed in response to anxiety abo...

  16. Promoting Civil Discourse on Campus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bornstein, Rita

    2010-01-01

    During the past several decades, off campus and on, much of the discourse on controversial issues has been personal, vicious, and divisive. On the national scene, politics has become permeated with incivility. It now appears that Americans have been naive about their ability and willingness to engage in civil discourse and compromise. How can…

  17. Civil liberties and nuclear terrorism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The importance of preventing nuclear terrorism is so great that it is easy to believe that the usual concern with civil liberties must take a back seat. But it is precisely when emergencies are invoked that the authors must not forget the importance of freedoms. Emergency powers are easily abused, and, even in the absence of abuse, mistakes can be made. It is hard to understand why they care about civil liberties if every suspect is guilty, every wiretap is necessary, and every search is justified. But sometimes suspects are innocent, wiretaps are used for political ends, and searches disrupt lives to no end. Civil liberties do not exist in a vacuum. If society is destroyed, civil liberties are likely to be destroyed as well. Virtually every legal doctrine this study addresses involves a recognition that individual rights must be balanced against valid social needs. The civil liberties focus on here fall under the general headings of freedom of speech and association, privacy, due process rights for suspects, and freedom from unreasonable searches and seizures. One essential point applied to all these areas: although a counterterrorist activity is legal, that does not mean the activity has no impact on civil liberties. It may be legal, for example, to have a massive federal police force that provides hundreds of guards for every shipment of plutonium. Even so, that procedure still raises civil liberties concerns, since many Americans would feel less free in a society of that type

  18. An American surgeon's contribution to Chinese health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shumacker, H B

    1981-03-01

    A prominent American thoracic surgeon, Leo Eloesser, while serving with UNICEF, contributed significantly to the health care of the Chinese people in the late 1940s, during the final years of the civil war and before the establishment of the People's Republic of China. The concepts he developed, especially concerning rural health service in poor, medically deprived nations, and the factors he felt must be taken into account in developing a health care system in any nation had lasting value. The story of the origin of his plan and his efforts to implement it is briefly related. PMID:7011075

  19. Fresh Perspectives on the 'War on Terror'

    OpenAIRE

    Mathew, Penelope; Gani, Miriam

    2008-01-01

    On 20 September 2001, in an address to a Joint Session of Congress and the American people, President George W Bush declared a ‘war on terror’. The concept of the ‘war on terror’ has proven to be both an attractive and a potent rhetorical device. It has been adopted and elaborated upon by political leaders around the world, particularly in the context of military action in Afghanistan and Iraq. But use of the rhetoric has not been confined to the military context. The ‘war on terror’ is a dom...

  20. The World of Wars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harste, Gorm

    2014-01-01

    The world of the future will not be one without wars. The many hopes we have about a future peace governed by a more or less confederal state will not make wars obsolete. Regular wars and irregular wars will continue and probably about different subjects than we are used to. The article proposes ...

  1. William Knocke receives 2008 Virginia Outstanding Civil Engineer Award

    OpenAIRE

    Daniilidi, Christina

    2008-01-01

    William R. Knocke, W.C. English Professor and head of the Charles E. Via, Jr. Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering at Virginia Tech, was awarded the 2008 Virginia Outstanding Civil Engineer Award at the Virginia Section of the American Society of Civil Engineers' (ASCE) banquet, held recently in Williamsburg, Va.

  2. Foreign Wars and Domestic Prejudice: How Media Exposure to the Israeli-Palestinian Conflict Predicts Ethnic Stereotyping by Jewish and Arab American Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huesmann, L. Rowell; Dubow, Eric F.; Boxer, Paul; Souweidane, Violet; Ginges, Jeremy

    2012-01-01

    This study was based on the theory that adolescents view scenes of violent ethnic conflicts in the mass media through the lens of their own ethnicity, and that the resulting social-cognitive reactions influence their negative stereotypes about similar ethnic groups in their own country. We interviewed 89 Jewish and 180 Arab American high school…

  3. The Impact of the Russian Civil Judicial Proceedings Act of 1864 on the Polish Civil Proceedings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Rylski

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the influence, which had already been exerted, and which is still exerted by the Russian Civil Judicial Proceedings Act of November 20, 1864 (CJPA on the Polish civil proceedings. First, the authors present the history of CJPA’s presence in the Polish territories. Next, they discuss the general significance of this act and its solutions for the process of shaping the Polish civil procedure in the interwar period. Finally, they present selected examples of the regulations and solutions that demonstrate the CJPA’s impact on the Polish civil proceedings. The authors conclude that CJPA exerted a minor impact on the pre-war and present Polish procedural regulations in comparison to the other codes, i.e. the Austrian and German codes. Even today, however, one can find in the Polish Code of Civil Procedure some provisions patterned after the CJPA.

  4. Controversy Total War

    OpenAIRE

    Segesser, Daniel Marc

    2014-01-01

    Total war is a controversial term used in the past by politicians, publicists and military officers as well as by computer specialists and academics in the present. Since its conception by French politicians during the First World War in a time of severe crisis (1916/17), it has become a term used by historians and other academics to cover a wide array of elements when looking at wars of the past. A real total war was and is impossible. Elements of total war – total war aims, total methods of...

  5. Recuperando uma Memória: A Guerra Civil de Espanha nos Meios de Comunicação

    OpenAIRE

    Bernardo, Filipa

    2014-01-01

    The present study is about a very significant event in the 20th Century History: The Spanish Civil War (1936-1939). The Spanish Civil War was not only a Spanish matter, it was also, and above all, a European one. As such, in the European consciousness, it was inserted not only as a presage of a war with larger proportions, but also as the inauguration of a new and fearful kind of war. The Spanish people was in fact the first one to suffer the consequences of a modern war, in which the civilia...

  6. Drones, the US and the new wars in Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Philip Attuquayefio

    2014-01-01

    Since the early 20th Century, Africa has witnessed varying degrees of subversion from the Mau Mau nationalist campaigners in Kenya in the 1950s to acts by rebel groups in the infamous intrastate wars of Sub-Saharan Africa. While the first movement evolved mainly from political acts geared towards the struggle for independence, the latter was mostly evident in attempts to obtain psychological or strategic advantages by combatants in the brutal civil wars of Liberia, Sierra Leone, the African G...

  7. A century of war. Anglo-American oil politics and the new world order; 2. ed.; Mit der Oelwaffe zur Weltmacht. Der Weg zur neuen Weltordnung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engdahl, F.W.

    1993-12-31

    The book goes into the exiting history of petroleum which has become a weapon for the world domination in the hand of coldly calculation strategists. Already in World War One England was mainly interested in the oil fields. Petroleum flowed through the veins of the special relations between the United States and Great Britain since 1919. They combined big oil and big money in a factor of power which determines world history. The book shows how the two oil crises were arranged in Saltsjoebaden in Sweden at the beginning of 1973, how the present financial crisis results from that and how the new form of a ``colonialism by leasing`` developed. The author draws a plausible convincing picture of the history of our century without getting lost in ``right`` or ``left`` cliches. (orig./HS) [Deutsch] Das Buch erzaehlt die aufregende Geschichte des Erdoels, das in der Hand kalt kalkulierender Strategien zur Waffe um die Weltherrschaft wurde. Schon im Ersten Weltkrieg ging es England in erster Linie um die Erdoelfelder. Oel floss in den Adern der Sonderbeziehungen zwischen den USA und Grossbritannien seit 1919. Sie fassten das grosse Oel und das grosse Geld zu einem die Weltgeschichte bestimmenden Machtfaktor zusammen. Das Buch zeigt, wie die beiden Oelkrisen Anfang 1973 in Saltsjoebaden in Schweden verabredet wurden, wie daraus die gegenwaertige Finanzkrise erwuchs und die neue Form des ``Kolonialismus durch Leasing`` entstanden ist. Der Autor entwirft ein eineluchtendes, ueberzeugendes Bild von der Geschichte unseres Jahrhunderts, ohne in ``rechte`` oder ``linke`` Klischees zu verfallen. (orig./HS)

  8. War and deforestation in Sierra Leone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgess, Robin; Miguel, Edward; Stanton, Charlotte

    2015-09-01

    The impact of armed conflict on the environment is of major public policy importance. We use a geographically disaggregated dataset of civil war violence together with satellite imagery of land cover to test whether war facilitated or prevented forest loss in Sierra Leone. The conflict data set allows us to establish where rebel groups were stationed and where battles and attacks occurred. The satellite data enables to us to monitor the change in forest cover (total, primary, and secondary) in all of Sierra Leone’s 151 chiefdoms, between 1990 (prior to the war) and 2000 (just prior to its end). The results suggest that conflict in Sierra Leone acted as a brake on local deforestation: conflict-ridden areas experienced significantly less forest loss relative to their more conflict-free counterparts.

  9. Teuton vs Slav: The Great War Sinks Chicago's German "Kultur."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holli, Melvin G.

    1981-01-01

    Describes the fervent political and cultural nationalism of German Americans in Chicago during World War I. Discusses how this nationalism, combined with ethnic conflict between Germans and Slavs, helped to sway public opinion against Chicago's German community. (GC)

  10. Les femmes américaines et la guerre du Vietnam : mise en place et utilisation d’un processus de mimétisme American Women, the Vietnam War and Mimetism:  Constructing and Developing an Unconscious Imitation of the Soldier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Boudet-Brugal

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available By and large, women have been maintained at a “reasonable” distance from the war. Their historic identity has mainly been that of mother, and therefore that of those who do not make war. They are not to belong to this sphere; it is to remain masculine, a men’s world. The Vietnam War (1964-1973 is no exception to the rule. This characteristic may be even more visible in the context of Vietnam given the power granted to authenticity: “having been there” has been essential. However, it seems that, just as Vietnam was a confused war, the border between genders has been sometimes blurred as well. We have thus found that some women have constructed and developed a strange process, a(n (unconscious strategy, in order to enter the world of war while not “having been there” really, while not knowing physically what war is and was. If “Vietnam is the land of [their] imagination”, as Barbara Sonneborn put it (Regret to inform, 1999, mimetism has allowed them to fill out the blanks, to uncover and discover their man’s reality, to “see what it was he saw […] to be in the field with him”, says Gail Gilberg (Snake’s Daugher, 1997. I will therefore expose and study this phenomenon that appears in various women’s stories, written or told, by themselves or others, through their own narrative styles and speeches. In doing so, I intend to examine whether the use of this mechanism reinforces the traditional representations of men and women in war: Does it allow a re-writing of these excluded female voices, while putting forward the specificities of women’s experiences in war? Does it grant women a voice and a visible presence? Considering that “societies are, in some sense, the sum total of the war stories” (Jean B. Elshtain, it seems interesting to examine to what extent this strategy allows the American women to find their place in the story of the Vietnam war, in a very specific way.

  11. Early Korean War Coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Raymond S. H.

    1978-01-01

    Examines the themes of the war front news reported in certain South Korean and United States newspapers during the first 16 days of the Korean War; attempts to determine significant differences in the themes of war front news between the Korean and United States papers. (Author/GT)

  12. A Failed War

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The Iraq War has done the United States more harm than good the removal of all U.S. combat troops from Iraq in August signaled the approaching end of the Iraq War,which is the most significant regional war at the beginning of this century.

  13. A Failed War

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TIAN WENLIN

    2010-01-01

    @@ The removal of all U.S. combat troops from Iraq in August signaled the approaching end of the Iraq War, which is the most significant regional war at the beginning of this century. Although there remain quite a few uncertainties, an honest review shows the war is a failure for the United States.

  14. Mathematicians at War

    CERN Document Server

    Mazliak, Laurent

    2009-01-01

    Italian mathematician Volterra struggled to carry Italy into the World War I in May 1915 and then developed a frenetic activity to support the war effort. This activity found an adequate echo what did his French colleagues Borel, Hadamard and Picard. This book proposes the transcription of the correspondence they exchanged during the war

  15. America’s Longest War – the War on Drugs

    OpenAIRE

    Wyrwisz, Anna

    2015-01-01

    The problem of using illicit drugs in the United States, which is the largest drug consumer in the world, is an important and controversial subject. The prohibition, which aimed to eliminate alcohol from the American society, ended in a failure. In the case of federal drug legislation, the first acts appeared exactly one hundred years ago. The next, intense phase began in 1970 during the presidency of Richard Nixon, when the war on drugs has been declared. Until this day, the number of acts a...

  16. Childhood circumstances and adult outcomes: Evidence from World War II

    OpenAIRE

    Enkelejda Havari; Franco Peracchi

    2011-01-01

    This paper studies the effects of episodes of stress, poor health, financial hardship and hunger earlier in life on education and health in later life. As a source of identification, we exploit the huge temporal and regional variation of war-related events in Europe during the period from the beginning of the Spanish Civil War in 1936 to the end of World War II in 1945. We focus on the cohorts born between 1930 and 1954 in 13 European countries, and combine the available historical informatio...

  17. Changing therapeutic geographies of the Iraqi and Syrian wars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewachi, Omar; Skelton, Mac; Nguyen, Vinh-Kim; Fouad, Fouad M; Sitta, Ghassan Abu; Maasri, Zeina; Giacaman, Rita

    2014-02-01

    The health consequences of the ongoing US-led war on terror and civil armed conflicts in the Arab world are much more than the collateral damage inflicted on civilians, infrastructure, environment, and health systems. Protracted war and armed conflicts have displaced populations and led to lasting transformations in health and health care. In this report, we analyse the effects of conflicts in Iraq and Syria to show how wars and conflicts have resulted in both the militarisation and regionalisation of health care, conditions that complicate the rebuilding of previously robust national health-care systems. Moreover, we show how historical and transnational frameworks can be used to show the long-term consequences of war and conflict on health and health care. We introduce the concept of therapeutic geographies--defined as the geographic reorganisation of health care within and across borders under conditions of war. PMID:24452046

  18. Chemistry Progress and Civilization in Ancient China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG Yu-Qian; RUAN Shu-Xiang; TANG Shan; SHUAI Zhi-Gang

    2011-01-01

    @@ During the 6,000 years of Chinese civilization, chemistry has played an essential role.The bronzed chime bells of the Warring States Period (475-221 BC) unearthed in Hubei Province shows not only the excellence in musical instruments in ancient China, but also the technological advances in metallurgy.Chinese alchemy was not originated from the quest to turn common metals to gold, instead, it was for searching medicines for longevity of human beings, mostly practised by Taoists.

  19. Guerre civile et oeuvres pies en Algérie

    OpenAIRE

    Martinez, Luis

    1999-01-01

    [Civil war and charity works in Algeria] After many years of clientelist practice amongst the FLN elite, the charisma of those who fought for independence has expired. A new force - the FIS - has taken over : through a strategy of charity works conducted in the name of Islam, those who were elected to municipal power in 1990 aroused the enthusiasm which led to the Islamist victory in the 1991 legislative elections. The interruption of the electoral process and the civil war gave rise to ot...

  20. Recovering from 30 Years of War: Refugee Women and Children in Angola.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Women's Commission for Refugee Women and Children, New York, NY.

    After 30 years of war, Angola faces the challenge of creating a civil society. This report presents key findings of a visit to Angola, December 1-13, 1996, by the Women's Commission for Refugee Women and Children. The report describes conditions facing women and children affected by war in Angola, addresses the return process of refugees from…

  1. Chaos, Clausewitz, and combat: a critical analysis of operational planning in the Vietnam War, 1966-1971

    OpenAIRE

    Womack, Scott Ellis

    1995-01-01

    What can theory tell us about war and the role of planning therein? This thesis attempts to answer that question by using Carl von Clausewitz's theories on war and the mathematical theory of chaos to analyze war in general and the Vietnam War in particular. It offers a critical analysis of operational planning conducted by the United States Military Assistance Command - Vietnam (MACV) during the years of greatest involvement by American forces, 1966-1971. Viewing war through the dual lenses o...

  2. Globalizing Contemporary War

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa Zisler

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available There are a plethora of social problems present throughout theworld in which America has deemed a type of ‘war.’ Some of theseunconventional wars include: The War on Poverty presented in 1964; The War on Drugs announced in 1971; The War on Cancer commencing in1971; The War Against Illiteracy beginning in the 1970s; and afterSeptember 11, 2001 The War on Terror was announced (Raz, 2008.These contemporary ‘wars’ have transformed the meaning of the word‘war.’ Labeling these missions ‘wars,’ presents a stigma and encourages a dichotomy between good and bad; when in fact these ‘wars’ as they are presented do not have an attainable end in which a winner is declared. The definition of war is, “a state of usually open and declared armed hostile conflict between states or nations” or “a state of hostility, conflict, or antagonism; a struggle or competition between opposing forces or for aparticular end” (War, 2008. This successful attempt to downplay war has produced detrimental effects around the world. The most recent, War on Terror, is perhaps the most misleading of them all. I will examine the semantics behind this struggle, the War on Terror. I will identify key components of how this ‘war’ began. Finally, I will analyze the effects of this struggle in the international arena with respect to several nations’ policies. It is allegedthat several state governments have used this ‘war’ as an opportunity to advance their own ideologies or goals.

  3. Wars, Redistribution and Civilian Federal Expenditures in the US over the 20th Century

    OpenAIRE

    Beetsma, R.M.W.J.; Cukierman, A.; Giuliodori, M.

    2005-01-01

    We provide empirical evidence on two, major war-related, regularities of U.S. fiscal policy. First, while during and around World War I there is a positive correlation between defense spending and civil non-defense spending, this correlation becomes negative during World War II. This may be explained by a combination of complementarities between defense and civilian spending that decrease with the size of government in conjunction with marginal tax distortions that increase with government¿s ...

  4. Wars, Redistribution and Civilian Federal Expenditures in the US over the Twentieth Century

    OpenAIRE

    Roel Beetsma; Alex Cukierman; Massimo Giuliodori

    2005-01-01

    We provide empirical evidence on two, major war-related, regularities of U.S. fiscal policy. First, while during and around World War I there is a positive correlation between defense spending and civil non-defense spending, this correlation becomes negative during World War II. This may be explained by a combination of complementarities between defense and civilian spending that decrease with the size of government in conjunction with marginal tax distortions that increase with government's ...

  5. The Negative Trade-off Between Risk and Incentives: Evidence from the American Whaling Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Eric Hilt

    2006-01-01

    This paper analyzes the trade-off between risk and incentives in the share contracts of the American whaling industry. Using a newly-collected panel of 5,378 individuals who sailed on whaling voyages from 1855-68, the response of sailors' compensation to an increase in risk is estimated. The risks used to identify this response resulted from the commerce-raiding naval vessels of the Confederacy during the Civil War. As the Confederate cruisers sailed primarily in the Atlantic, and therefore p...

  6. Justice and Its Others: On the Politics of Redress for Japanese Latin Americans

    OpenAIRE

    Kozen, Cathleen Kiyomi

    2016-01-01

    In 2013, the Civil Liberties Act (CLA) of 1988, the U.S. government legislation which provided for a formal apology and a payment of $20,000 to each surviving Japanese American citizen and Japanese resident alien interned during World War II, celebrated its twentieth-fifth anniversary. Indeed, since its passage, the CLA has been upheld as a piece of “landmark legislation”—a precedent and even a model for subsequent redress and reparations movements; these are movements not only within the U.S...

  7. Academic Experiences of War-Zone Students in Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stermac, Lana; Elgie, Susan; Clarke, Allyson; Dunlap, Hester

    2012-01-01

    This research examined educational outcomes and experiences of late adolescent immigrant students who entered the Canadian educational system following residence in global war-zone regions or areas of extreme civil unrest. Data from a Statistics Canada data-set of 18- to 20-year-old respondents (N = 658) were used to compare the academic…

  8. History and Civility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefer, Larry

    2015-01-01

    Larry Schaefer's history of civility is a succinct summary of the implicit and evolving definitions of civility over 2500 years of civilization. Beginning with the Romans and the root word "civitas," meaning the rights and duties of citizenship, civility appears in classical literature as integral to the roots of democracy in the context…

  9. The Culture War and Issue Salience

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wroe, Andrew; Ashbee, Edward; Gosling, Amanda

    2014-01-01

    -time data and nonlinear regression. It finds (1) that there was a steady and significant increase in concern about traditional moral issues between the early 1980s and 2000, but (2) that the over-time increase was driven by an upward and equal shift in the importance attached to traditional moral issues by......Despite much talk of a culture war, scholars continue to argue over whether the American public is divided on cultural and social issues. Some of the most prominent work in this area, such as Fiorina's Culture War?, has rejected the idea. However, this work has in turn been criticized for focussing...

  10. “A Peculiar National Character”: Transatlantic Realignment and the Birth of American Cultural Nationalism after 1815

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaap Verheul

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This article argues that the emergence of American cultural nationalism after the War of 1812 developed in self-confident opposition to the Old World, yet was thoroughly influenced by European standards of nationhood. American intellectuals who campaigned for cultural independence from Europe at the same time retained European standards of civilization and esthetics, and were thoroughly influenced by ideas about the relationship between culture and nation that developed in England and Germany. This articles discusses these postcolonial complexities are reflected in debates about American cultural identity in newly founded magazines such as the North American Review that long predated Emerson’s famous “Intellectual Declaration of Independence” of 1837.

  11. Psychiatry in the Korean War: perils, PIES, and prisoners of war.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritchie, Elspeth Cameron

    2002-11-01

    In the initial months of the Korean War, very high numbers of psychological casualties occurred among American troops, 250 per 1,000 per annum. Initially, these men were evacuated to Japan or the United States, and very few of them were returned to duty. Then the principles of early and far-forward treatment, learned in the previous world wars, were reinstituted. Up to 80% of neuropsychiatric casualties were returned to duty. During and after the war, the prisoners of war were believed to have been "brainwashed," have "give-it-upitis," and exhibit apathy and depression. Mistakenly believed to be signs of moral decay, the psychiatric symptoms during and after release were probably a result of extended inhumane treatment and vitamin deficiencies. PMID:12448614

  12. The War Transformed Love

    OpenAIRE

    Perrot, Michelle

    2015-01-01

    Paris Diderot University - Paris 7 “The war transformed love”, wrote Blaise Cendrars, who himself lived through this dramatic experience. But what else? How did men and women experience the Great War, not only in their affective, romantic and sexual relationships, but more generally in everything forging their relationships: family life, intimacy, the public and the private spheres, work, writing, images, the body and the soul? A poilu's postcard, 1916 The war was first the triumph of the or...

  13. Commemoration of a cold war

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farbøl, Rosanna

    2015-01-01

    This article brings together the fields of Cold War studies and memory studies. In Denmark, a remarkable institutionalisation of Cold War memory has taken place in the midst of a heated ideological battle over the past and whether to remember the Cold War as a ‘war’. Using Danish Cold War museums...... and heritage sites as case studies, this article sheds new light on the politics of history involved in Cold War commemoration. It suggests that the Cold War is commemorated as a war, yet this war memory is of a particular kind: it is a war memory without victims....

  14. Nationalist Technologies of Cultural Memory and the Korean War: Militarism and Neo-Liberalism in "The Price of Freedom" and the War Memorial of Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Y. Kim

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the technologies of nationalism that shape how the Korean War is depicted in two museum and memorial sites: The Price of Freedom: Americans at War, a permanent exhibit at the National Museum of American History in Washington, DC, and the War Memorial of Korea in Seoul. It shows how the use of traditional historical artifacts in The Price of Freedom and cinematic and digital technologies in the War Memorial generate structures of cultural memory that celebrate both a nationalist militarism and the ethos of neoliberalism.

  15. WAR TERMINATION IN SOMALIA AND KENYA DEFENSE FORCES’ (KDF ROLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.O.S. ODHIAMBO

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available War causes and conduct have fascinated war planners, war executors and scholars for a long time because little attention has been given to how wars are ended. This oversight is apparent not only in historical accounts of warfare but, more importantly, in contemporary analyses and doctrinal formulations of deterrence and overall defense policies. Just as historians have focused on how wars begin and are fought, military analysts and planners have concentrated on influencing the initiation and conduct of warfare rather than on analyzing the process and requirements for terminating warfare on acceptable terms and at acceptable costs. Conflict termination is the formal end of fighting, not the end of conflict. Despite the volumes of research and literature on the subject, belligerents mismanage war termination. The major objective of wartime strategy is defeating enemy arms as quickly as possible with the least cost in friendly casualties. As long as hostilities endure, diplomacy is subordinated to military requirements. War termination planning, as it is currently accomplished, takes the form of civil affair planning on the details of how the vanquished will be managed following the capitulation of the enemy and cessation of hostilities. We argue that Kenya Defence Forces (KDF prudently terminated its war with the terrorists group Al-Shabaab that merged with Al-Qaeda when they agreed to be integrated into the African Union Mission for Somalia (AMISOM which is backed up by the United Nations.

  16. Arms Diffusion and War

    OpenAIRE

    Bas, Muhammet Ali; Coe, A. J.

    2012-01-01

    The authors present a model of the relationship between the spread of new military technologies and the occurrence of war. A new technology could shift the balance of power, causing anticipatory war as one side tries to prevent the other from obtaining it. When one side already has it, war is more likely when the shift in power is large, likely, and durable. When neither side has it, war is more likely when the expected shift is asymmetric (e.g., one side is more likely to get it) and when th...

  17. A MULTIPOLAR COLD WAR

    OpenAIRE

    GAGIK HARUTYUNYAN

    2007-01-01

    The present article draws parallels between existing political realities and the onesthat occurred during the Cold War in the second half of the 20th century. Similarto the previous one, the new Cold War is consistent with the logic of «the policy ofdeterrence» which nowadays is directed against the United States. «Cold War-1»reflected stiff competition between the two opposite ideological and geopoliticalprograms. Meanwhile, today we have several poles of power and, therefore, «ColdWar-2» is...

  18. 3 CFR 8360 - Proclamation 8360 of April 9, 2009. National Former Prisoner of War Recognition Day, 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... of war, they endured the Bataan Death March, suffering starvation, torture, and unspeakable... infamous Hanoi Hilton—Americans endured torture and other forms of inhumane treatment. There are...

  19. 小动画·大威力--美国动画在第二次世界大战中的影响与作用%Little Animation,Big Power- Influence and Function of American Animation in World War

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏锋; 韩蕉聿

    2015-01-01

    第二次世界大战是人类历史上的一场浩劫,为了争取战争的胜利,美国政府和民间将动画这种艺术表现形式发挥到了极致。为了探究美国动画产业在战争中的重要影响,文章收集整理了二战期间制作的有关战争题材的美国动画片320部,从动画片内容细分入手,整体上分为2大类14小类,全面阐述了美国动画片在战争中发挥的两方面作用:一方面,对内动员国民投身抗战;另一方面,对外联合同盟抨击敌人。在此基础上,从时间、范围和层次三个维度论述了美国动画在战争中的重要作用和贡献,以及在战争中获得的动画艺术创新和动画产业的成长。多方面论证了美国动画与二战之间相得益彰、相互促进的辩证关系。与此同时,二战还激发了美国国民对于动画艺术的追捧与热爱,由此也就培育和形成了享誉全球的美国动画文化。通过反思可以看出:无论对于动画这种艺术形式,还是对于美国动画产业,第二次世界大战都是一个转折点。经历了战争洗礼的美国动画产业,在实现自我革命的过程中,迎来了美国,也是世界动画发展史上的第一个黄金时代。%The Second World War was a great catastrophe in human history.To secure victory of the war,the American government and people gave the fullest play to the art form of animation.In order to explore the significant influence of the American animation industry in the Second World War,this paper collects and straightens out 320 war-related animation films produced in the war period.As far as the content is concerned,they can be classified into 2 general categories and 14 subcategories.This paper completely expounds two functions of animation in the war — mobilizing people to dedicate themselves to the war and forming an alliance to attack the enemy.From the three dimensions of time,scope and depth,this paper elaborates the

  20. New Mayan Hieroglyphics Support For A Mathematical Theory of Civilizations

    CERN Document Server

    Blaha, S

    2002-01-01

    Newly found Mayan hieroglyphics (at Dos Pilas, Guatemala) that describe a series of wars between Mayan "superpowers" Tikal and Calakmul appear to support a new mathematical theory of civilizations. Major events in the history of Teotihuacan (near Mexico City) in Mayan times also are consistent with the predictions of this theory.

  1. The Ongoing Korean War at the Sinch’ŏn Museum in North Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunghoon Han

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This essay analyzes the Sinch’ŏn Massacre and its memorialization at the Sinch’ŏn Museum of American War Atrocities in North Korea by placing the massacre within the context of North Korea’s political history. The museum illustrates Pyongyang’s perspective on the Korean War as a “war of liberation” and the museum’s role in the political education of the North Korean people, not simply as victims of American war atrocities but as “martyrs” and model citizens. Within the geopolitics of confrontation between North Korea and the United States since the Korean War, the Sinch’ŏn Museum has served to foster anti-American nationalism in North Korea. While the museum has served this specific purpose within the North Korean context, it should be compared with other examples of war memorialization that serve the function of identity formation for a sense of national unity.

  2. [Physicians as Experts of the Integration of war invalids of WWI and WWII].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolters, Christine

    2015-12-01

    After the First World War the large number of war invalids posed a medical as well as a socio-political problem. This needed to be addressed, at least to some extent, through healthcare providers (Versorgungsbehörden) and reintegration into the labour market. Due to the demilitarization of Germany, this task was taken on by the civil administration, which was dissolved during the time of National Socialism. In 1950, the Federal Republic of Germany enacted the Federal War Victims Relief Act (Bundesversorgungsgesetz), which created a privileged group of civil and military war invalids, whereas other disabled people and victims of national socialist persecution were initially excluded. This article examines the continuities and discontinuities of the institutions following the First World War. A particular focus lies on the groups of doctors which structured this field. How did doctors become experts and what was their expertise? PMID:26507379

  3. Comparative Analysis of Labor Relations in the Latin American Civil Service: Argentina, Costa Rica, Mexico, and Peru Title: Análisis comparado de las relaciones laborales en la administración pública Latinoamericana: Argentina, Costa Rica, México y Perú

    OpenAIRE

    Graciela Falivene; José Alberto Bonifacio

    2002-01-01

    This document is a summary of the study entitled, Comparative Analysis of Labor Relations in the Latin American Civil Service: Argentina, Costa Rica, Mexico, and Peru. The report includes the theoretical framework, the results of the study, and contains conclusions for consideration for a "labor relations development index." This document was commissioned by the Public Management and Transparency Network of the Regional Policy Dialogue for the 2nd Hemispheric Meeting celebrated on April 4th a...

  4. Train wrecks to typhoid fever: the development of railroad medicine organizations, 1850-World War I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldrich, M

    2001-01-01

    From their beginning American railroads developed medical arrangements to care for the large number of workers and passengers they killed or injured. After the Civil War, both labor unrest and liability concerns led them to expand and formalize these arrangements, and three forms of organization arose. Western roads, facing an almost complete lack of medical facilities, developed employee-funded hospital organizations. In the east, companies created medical organizations under a salaried chief surgeon and contracted with local physicians to provide care. A third model, pioneered by the Baltimore & Ohio Railroad in the 1880s, devised a beneficial society that provided medical care and compensation for injured workers. Although these organizations involved both contract practice and group hospitalization, the AMA seems to have ignored them. In the 1880s railroad physicians developed their own organizations, including the National Association of Railway Surgeons, in which they discussed problems of professionalization and such medical matters as "railway spine." Concern with costs and labor turnover also led the carriers into preventive medicine. Some roads provided smallpox and typhoid vaccinations, campaigned against malaria, improved passenger-car sanitation, required physical examinations of their employees, and trained them in first aid. By World War I, railroad medical organizations provided care to nearly two million employees and employment to about 10 percent of all physicians. PMID:11423683

  5. ‘Giving the dope’: Australian Army Nurse Anaesthetists during World War I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Kirsty Harris

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available More than 2500 trained Australian army nurses served overseas during World War I. Many were called upon to act outside their normal nursing practice and one new area was that of anaesthetics. Due to a lack of medical officers in the latter part of the war, a number of Australian theatre sisters trained and worked as nurse anaesthetists in Casualty Clearing Stations in France. The British Army provided three months’ training for Australian, British and New Zealand nurses in the use of chloroform and ether. Australian nurses were enthusiastic volunteers as trained nurses at home had already carved out a small but unofficial place for the profession in this role. In addition, Canadian and American army and civil nurses were already trained and used as nurse anaesthetists. While nurses were successfully used without recorded incident, at the end of the first training course, the Director General of Medical Services, Australian Imperial Force, decreed that the nurses would not be further trained or used. This was out of step with the other countries participating, and this paper examines some possible reasons for the change of heart.

  6. 珍珠港:美国二战影像的神话学批判——兼论好莱坞战争片的大兵影像崇拜%Pearl Harbor, the Starting Point of the Worship of American Soldier ----the Mythic Study on Hollywood World War II Films

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴冰沁

    2011-01-01

    二战催生了好莱坞西部片、歌舞片之后的第三大类型片——战争片。其间,珍珠港无比重要,它将经典的“复仇”叙事推送到国家级别,由此确立了好莱坞战争片的核心价值。战后好莱坞二战影像以“历史叙事”和“个体叙事”的不同方式先后展开,“美国大兵”形象分别承担了“王朝喜剧”和“个体悲剧”的审美功能。由于强大的影像冲击力,“美国大兵”逐渐成为“泛影像”娱乐产业重要的“资源库”之一,获得了影像中的神话地位。%The World War II facilitated the appearing of the war film, which follows westerns, musical films and becomes the third main genre films. Classic revenge spots are up lifted to a nation level. And through this process, Hollywood war films built up their core values. When WWII ended, Hollywood war films had growing in two ways, historic narrating and individual narrating. American soldier images take on the aesthetic functions of both nation comedy and individual tragedy. Because of the strong shaking from the image, American soldiers granularly become one of the most important resource among the "pan - movie" entertainment industry and gain a misty identity.

  7. Children and war: the work of the Children and War Foundation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Yule

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The Children and War Foundation was established after the authors’ experiences following the civil war in former Yugoslavia in the mid-1990s. Many organizations tried to mitigate the effects of the war on children but few interventions were based on evidence and fewer were properly evaluated. The Foundation was established in Norway with the aim of promoting better evidence-based interventions to help children after wars and natural disasters.The Foundation has developed a number of empirically grounded manuals that aim to help children learn strategies that will lessen the stress reactions that they have developed. The manuals are designed to be delivered by personnel who are not necessarily very experienced in child mental health. They are aimed at groups of children using a public health approach to reach large numbers in a short space of time. The strategies are not intended as individual therapy.The Teaching Recovery Techniques manual has been used following a number of earthquakes and other natural disasters and data from a number of these will be discussed. A Writing for Recovery manual is aimed at helping adolescents and is based on the seminal work of James Pennebaker. It is currently being evaluated in three separate studies. A group-based manual to help children bereaved by war or disaster has recently been developed.

  8. Rape in war: the humanitarian response

    OpenAIRE

    Shanks, Leslie; Schull, Michael J.

    2000-01-01

    Women and children are vulnerable to sexual violence in times of conflict, and the risk persists even after they have escaped the conflict area. The impact of rape goes far beyond the immediate effects of the physical attack and has long-lasting consequences. We describe the humanitarian community's response to sexual violence and rape in times of war and civil unrest by drawing on the experiences of Médecins Sans Frontières/Doctors Without Borders and other humanitarian agencies. Health care...

  9. Intellectual Reflection and Civil-Military Relations in Lithuania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šlekys Deividas

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Civil-military relations in Lithuania have serious deficiencies, which have appeared because of the emulation of a recommended Western model of civilian control. After regaining Independence, Lithuania had the difficult task of creating its armed forces and system of national defence following the Western model. At the same time we had to implement two political programs: to create functioning armed forces and a institutional-legal system of democratic civil-military control. However, this control is not only proper laws and functioning institutions. Equally, an important role must be given to intellectual reflection, which enables the posing of questions such as: what is war; how is the character of war changing; how does this affect Lithuanian defence policies and the perception of threats? Raising such questions inside the armed forces and in wider political and civil society is an essential condition for having effective and flexible civilian control over the military.

  10. Virginia Center for Civil War Studies website redesign

    OpenAIRE

    Ellis, Kevin; Suhas, Avadhuta; Sechrist, Ben; Howell, Richard

    2015-01-01

    The report + presentation + source code for the VCCWS digitized sources website redesign project. Inside the ZIP file is our source code. The contents are as follows: Project folder: The actual PHP/javascript code are in here. UI folder: This folder has the reference material used in the CSS of the website. The UI folder contains libraries that have CSS code from other sources as well (Like Twitter bootstrap). gulpfile.js: The gulp file allows the website to use the gulp utility. package.json...

  11. Multiperspectivism in the Novels of the Spanish Civil War

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Hans Lauge

    2011-01-01

    Siden årtusindeskiftet har Spanien været vidne til en fornyet offentlig og politisk debat om landets historie i det 20 århundrede, med særligt henblik på borgerkrigen 1936-39 og den umiddelbare efterkrigstid. Artiklen diskuterer romanens rolle i konstruktionen af en kulturel erindring om denne pe...

  12. Nepal’s Civil War and Its Economic Costs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gyan Pradhan

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper estimates the macroeconomic effects of increased spending on defense and internal security necessitated by the decade-long Maoist insurgency in Nepal. An investment equation is specified to examine the relationship between defense spending and investment. The estimation results indicate that there is a significant negative effect of defense spending on investment. A simple Harrod-Domar growth relationship is used to estimate the effect of the increase in defense spending on economic growth. This analysis suggests that between 1996 and 2006, the opportunity cost of the conflict in terms of lost output has been about 3 percent of Nepal’s current GDP.

  13. Human rights "naming & shaming" and civil war violence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Ruggeri; B. Burgoon

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this PEPS Letter is to clarify the effects of human rights "Naming and Shaming" by international actors, such as IOs, NGOs and the international media, on the intensity of violence in domestic conflict. The note carries out, evaluates and proposes empirical strategies to study such effect

  14. Patrick County, Virginia and the Civil War, 1860-1880

    OpenAIRE

    Becker, Gertrude Harrington

    1990-01-01

    In 1860, Patrick County. like the rest of Virginia and much of the South. wavered uneasily on the brink of secession. In a county where large planters were few, secession was not overwhelmingly popular. Slaveholding families, however, constituted almost one quarter of the white population in Patrick, as they did across the South, and when Virginia seceded. Patrick Countians flocked to serve in the Confederate Army. Although situated in Virginia, Patrick managed to escape physical decimatio...

  15. Det civile samfund

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Lars Skov

    2014-01-01

    Kapitlet giver en oversigt over de vigtigste teoretiske forståelser af begrebet om det civile samfund. Desuden giver kapitlet en empirisk oversigt over foreninger og organisationer i det danske civilsamfund samt befolkningens civile engagement.......Kapitlet giver en oversigt over de vigtigste teoretiske forståelser af begrebet om det civile samfund. Desuden giver kapitlet en empirisk oversigt over foreninger og organisationer i det danske civilsamfund samt befolkningens civile engagement....

  16. Book review: The economic war against Cuba

    OpenAIRE

    Wingrove, Paul

    2013-01-01

    "The Economic War Against Cuba." Salim Lamrani. Monthly Review Press. April 2013. --- Salim Lamrani aims to explains some of the essential background to the U.S. economic sanctions against Cuba: their origins, their provisions, how they contravene international law, and how they affect the lives of Cubans. Although not detailed enough for an academic audience, this book does offer a short chronicle and discussion of some of the key events and consequences of more than fifty years of American ...

  17. The Ongoing Korean War at the Sinch’ŏn Museum in North Korea

    OpenAIRE

    Sunghoon Han

    2015-01-01

    This essay analyzes the Sinch’ŏn Massacre and its memorialization at the Sinch’ŏn Museum of American War Atrocities in North Korea by placing the massacre within the context of North Korea’s political history. The museum illustrates Pyongyang’s perspective on the Korean War as a “war of liberation” and the museum’s role in the political education of the North Korean people, not simply as victims of American war atrocities but as “martyrs” and model citizens. Within the geopolitics of confront...

  18. The Health Consequences of the Diversion of Resources to War and Preparation for War

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Sidel

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Armed conflict damages health in many ways. These include death and disability directly caused by war, destruction of the societal infrastructure that supports health and safety, forced migration of people both within their own country and as refugees to other countries, promotion of violence as a method to settle conflicts and disputes, and the long-term adverse effects on social relationships. This special issue of Social Medicine examines the impact of war on human health from a geographically diverse set of countries and from diverse perspectives. Dr. Andrea Angulo Menasse, a researcher from Mexico City’s Autonomous University, documents the very personal story of how the violence of the Spanish Civil War affected one family. In her case study the trauma suffered by Spanish Republicans is traced through three generations and crosses the Atlantic Ocean as the family moves is exiled in Mexico. Dr. Sachin Ghimire from the Centre of Social Medicine and Community Health of the Jawaharlal Nehru University reports on his fieldwork in Rolpa, Nepal, the district from which the Nepal Civil War (also called the People’s War originated in 1996. Based on 80 interviews, he documents the difficulties faced by health care workers as they negotiated the sometimes deadly task of remaining in communities where control alternated between Nepalese Special Forces and the Maoist rebels. Finally, Colombian researcher, Carlos Iván Pacheco Sánchez, from the University of Rosario in Bogota, brings an epidemiologist’s tools to examine the impact of the ongoing armed conflict in the border Department of Nariño. His discussion is informed by the current debate over health care in Colombia where a recent Constitutional Court decision has found that the current health care system violates the right to health. These three papers amply demonstrate the depth, breadth and relevance of contemporary social medicine.

  19. Historical and experimental evidence of sexual selection for war heroism

    OpenAIRE

    Rusch, H.; Leunissen, J.M.; Van Vugt, M.

    2015-01-01

    We report three studies which test a sexual selection hypothesis for male war heroism. Based on evolutionary theories of mate choice we hypothesize that men signal their fitness through displaying heroism in combat. First, we report the results of an archival study on US-American soldiers who fought in World War II. We compare proxies for reproductive success between a control sample of 449 regular veterans and 123 surviving Medal of Honor recipients of WWII. Results suggest that the heroes s...

  20. The War of Currency vs. Buy American

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dennis; K.; Zhao

    2009-01-01

    It’s just one month after the Chinese Spring Festival. "Gong Xi Fa Cai!" is heard in every corner of life prior to and during Spring Festival in China when the Year of Ox sets in,heralding an auspicious arrival of Spring. Besides commonly-used greeting words of wising you a happy,healthy and prosperous new year,the "Gong Xi Fa Cai",literally meaning "congratulations on making money and wealth",is the best-echoed expression for new year greetings,and pleasingly evidenced by mascots of toy ox dressed in beautiful clothes with the Yuan(Chinese money) imprints and decorations that can be found in street stalls,department stores and shop malls. Yes,money is conspicuous in the traditional reveling rituals,and will the most likely be more conspicuous for the country and its textile economy as its value issue is reiterated in a tune of different expression.

  1. Nuclear war survival skills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book brings together field-tested instructions that, if followed by a large fraction of Americans during a crisis that preceded an attack, could save millions of lives. Myths and facts about consequences of a massive nuclear attack are discussed. The main emphasis, however, is on preparations that could be made in the last few days of a worsening crisis. This book includes chapters on psychological preparations, warning and communications, and evacuation. These chapters describe the building of expedient shelters, their ventilation and cooling, the purification and storage of adequate water, the processing and cooking of whole grains and legumes, fallout meters, protection against fires and carbon monoxide, and expedient furnishings for shelters. Other chapters cover sanitation and preventive medicine, medical advice for nuclear survivors lacking the help of doctors, improvised footwear and clothing, and advice on minimum preparations that can be made at low cost and should be made before a crisis arises. One appendix gives detailed, field-tested instructions for building six types of earth-covered expedient fallout shelters, with criteria to guide the choice of which shelter to build. The design features of several types of expedient blast shelters are described in another appendix. Two others contain instructions for making an efficient shelter-ventilating pump and a homemade fallout meter that is accurate and dependable using inexpensive materials found in most households. The report is primarily a compilation and summary of civil defense measures and inventions developed at ORNL over the past 14 years and field-tested in six states, from Florida to Utah, for use by untrained citizens

  2. Music Therapy: A War for Ideas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolyn Kenny

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available This week I forced myself to see the film "Black Hawk Down" which is based on the October 1993 incident in Somalia in which 19 American soldiers and a 1000 Somalis were killed. Soon after this incident U.S. military forces left the country and the United Nations took over the watchdog function in the area. It was a difficult film to watch and I almost left the theater several times before the completion of the film. As we have read so often, Americans are not used to the violence prevalent in many countries around the world. The images of violence and war were graphic.

  3. Revisiting and Renegotiating Wars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gade, Solveig

    2014-01-01

    Alley in order to avoid the bullets of the Bosnian Serbian snipers positioned around the city. Based on a close reading of Sala’s work, this article will scrutinize how subjectivating techniques of power, during times of war, affectively work to create boundaries between those excluded from and those...... included within humanity. Conversely, focusing on how these techniques are being questioned within the work, I will discuss the resistance potential of what I will refer to as practices of subjectivization. Eventually, I will seek to position the “war-critical” strategy of the work within a broader context...... of the late modern war paradigm....

  4. The Manhattan Project: Science in the Second World War

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gosling, F.G.

    1990-08-01

    The Manhattan Project: Science in the Second World War'' is a short history of the origins and development of the American atomic bomb program during World War II. Beginning with the scientific developments of the pre-war years, the monograph details of the role of the United States government in conducting a secret, nationwide enterprise that took science from the laboratory and into combat with an entirely new type of weapon. The monograph concludes with a discussion of the immediate postwar period, the debate over the Atomic Energy Act of 1946, and the founding of the Atomic Energy Commission.

  5. Study on US Policy toward Japan after the Cold War

    OpenAIRE

    Yingjie Wang

    2011-01-01

    With ending of the Cold War, Us policy toward Japan also has had great changes. Japan turned from “the Communism Breakwater” in the Cold War into the “fortified point to push forward the global strategy” for US. The Japanese-American relationship after the Cold War almost didn’t break away from the security system in terms of its basic framework, but adjustment was made on the former system in terms of the content and level. The geographical sphere of the security system was expanded to break...

  6. Medical profession and nuclear war: a social history

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since World War II, individual physicians and medical organizations in the US have cooperated with the federal government in preparing for nuclear war. While most physicians have maintained a neutral stance, a minority have resisted federal policies. Health professionals participated actively at the wartime laboratories that developed the atomic bomb and in the medical research that followed Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Professional organizations helped with civil defense planning for nuclear conflict during the Cold War of the late 1950s and early 1960s. Medical resistance to nuclear war began in the same period, gained wide attention with the growth of Physicians for Social Responsibility in the early 1960s, declined during the Vietnam War, and vastly increased in the early 1980s. Activism by health professionals usually has responded to government policies that have increased the perceived risk of nuclear conflict. The recent return of civil defense planning has stimulated opposition in medical circles. Ambiguities of medical professionalism limit the scope of activism in the nuclear arena. These ambiguities concern the interplay of organized medicine and government, tensions between science and politics, and the difficulties of day-to-day work in medicine while the arms race continues

  7. The war hero

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raffaele Menarini

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The article explains the phenomenon of war through the transpersonal perspective as an existential way which is independent from subject's intentionality. Therefore war not as a pondered product but as a reproduction of an unthinkable aggressiveness. Within the transpersonal dynamic, those that Bion defined 'basic assumptions' prevail: dependency, attack-escape and pairing. Bion finds in the myth of Palinuro the typical pattern of destructiveness that prevents the birth of the thinkable. Menarini continues Bion's speculation working on the myth of hero Achilles as an archetypal which founds imagery of war and on the figure of Elena as a motor for the destructive act. In fact Elena is considered as a simulacrum, an object that, through the appearance, gives meaning to what would not make sense in absence of it, that is the transpersonal destructiveness. Like Elena every war has its simulacrum, such as the Washington Mall, and history is full of them.

  8. How Wars Begin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    @@ The Stevenson family was having dinner. The family atewithout talking for several minutes, then Tom said, "Daddy,do you know how wars begin? " Mr. Stevenson thought for a moment, then he said, "Yes,I think so.

  9. The Vietnam War

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Godbolt, James; Larsen, Chris Holmsted; Rasmussen, Søren Hein

    2009-01-01

    This article investigates the role of the Vietnam War in Danish and Norwegian politics. We argue that Danish and Norwegian membership in NATO and an unstable parliamentary situation may explain why these countries, unlike Sweden, did not take on the lead in the international protest against the war....... Non-socialistic coalitions came to power in Norway and Denmark in the latter half of the 1960s which to an extent explains why the social democratic parties in both countries became more critical of the US. By the end of the 1960s, foreign policy as well as public attitudes towards the war converged...... in Denmark, Sweden and Norway, and in all three countries powerful protest movements emerged that were remarkably similar. The Vietnam War strengthened the left in general and promoted a leftist politics of solidarity that influenced Swedish, Danish and Norwegian foreign policy-making of the 1970s....

  10. Commemoration practices of the Dirty War in Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfonso Díaz Tovar

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents some results of an ethnographic research, that during the last three years has been dedicated to record and analyse the practices of commemoration of the "dirty war" (guerra sucia in Mexico. This involves articulating the memories of both violence and resistance. Strategies used by Mexican government during the dirty war, expressed a policy of fear —criminalization of protest, murder, forced disappearance and torture—; at the same time, resistance strategies form civil society such as marches, protests, tributes and commemorative days are presented.

  11. War, violence and masculinities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Ann-Dorte; Rasmussen, Palle Damkjær

    2015-01-01

    The evolution and social constitution of masculinities are intimately linked to violence and to warfare as an organised field of violent practices. The mutual influences between violence, war and masculinities have taken different forms these have taken in different social and cultural contexts. In...... this introductory article we present four key themes in this field and discuss perspectives and challenges for the study of violence, war and masculinities....

  12. The war hero

    OpenAIRE

    Raffaele Menarini

    2014-01-01

    The article explains the phenomenon of war through the transpersonal perspective as an existential way which is independent from subject's intentionality. Therefore war not as a pondered product but as a reproduction of an unthinkable aggressiveness. Within the transpersonal dynamic, those that Bion defined 'basic assumptions' prevail: dependency, attack-escape and pairing. Bion finds in the myth of Palinuro the typical pattern of destructiveness that prevents the birth of the thinkable. Mena...

  13. All-pay war

    OpenAIRE

    Hodler, Roland; Yektas, Hadi

    2010-01-01

    We study a model of war in which the outcome of the war is uncertain from the perspective of the involved countries not because of luck on the battlefield (as in standard models) but because of their lack of information about their opponents. In our model there are two countries characterized by their production and military technologies and their resources. While technologies are common knowledge, resources are private information. Each country decides how to allocate its resources to produc...

  14. Prevention of nuclear war

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Removing the threat of a nuclear war-as the General Assembly formally stated in the Final Document of its first special session devoted to disarmament, in 1978-is considered to be the task of the present day. In that Document, the General Assembly sought to establish principles, guidelines and procedures for preventing nuclear war. It declared that to that end, it was imperative to remove the threat of nuclear weapons, to halt and reverse the nuclear-arms race until the total elimination of nuclear weapons and their delivery systems had been achieved (see chapter iv), and to prevent the proliferation of nuclear weapons (see chapter VII). At the same time, it called for other measures designed to prevent the outbreak of nuclear war and to lessen the danger of the treat or use of nuclear weapons. The Assembly's clear call for action was dictated by the awareness that there was no insuperable barrier dividing peace from war and that, unless nations brought the spiralling nuclear-arms race to an end, the day might come when nuclear weapons would actually be used, with catastrophic consequences. In adopting the Final Document, the international community achieved, for the first time, a consensus on an international disarmament strategy having as its immediate goal the elimination of the danger of a nuclear war and the implementation of measures to halt and reverse the arms race. The General Assembly, at its second special session on disarmament, in 1982, reaffirmed the validity of the 1978 Final Document. This paper reports that nuclear issues and in particular the prevention of nuclear war remain, however, major concerns of all States. Undoubtedly, all nations have a vital interest in the negotiation of effective measures for her prevention of nuclear war, since nuclear weapons pose a unique threat to human survival. If nuclear war were to occur, its consequences would be global, not simple regional

  15. Trade Globalization and Price Wars

    OpenAIRE

    Mbum, Patrick Awok; Nnabuko, Justie O; Odama, Abraham O

    2012-01-01

    This is a library survey of trade globalization and price wars which examine the deepening role trade globalization and the devastations price wars can degenerate. The study went through time, space and contributions of trade to globalization and enlisted a few examples of price wars andproffer solutions. Price wars were identified as plagues that do the nations, industries and individuals no good. Price wars were seen in the Chinese home appliances industry, Brazilian bananas industry, e-boo...

  16. Psychiatric consequences of WTC collapse and the Gulf War

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajai R. Singh

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available Along with political, economic, ethical, rehabilitative and military dimensions, psychopathological sequelae of war and terrorism also deserve our attention. The terrorist attack on the World Trade Centre ( W.T.C. in 2001 and the Gulf War of 1990-91 gave rise to a number of psychiatric disturbances in the population, both adult and children, mainly in the form of Post-traumatic Stress disorder (PTSD. Nearly 75,000 people suffered psychological problems in South Manhattan alone due to that one terrorist attack on the WTC in New York and the Pentagon in Washington. In Gulf War I, morethat 1,00,000 US veterans reported a number of health problems on returning from war, whose claims the concerned government has denied in more than 90% cases. Extensive and comprehensive neurological damage to the brain of Gulf War I veterans has been reported by one study, as has damage to the basal ganglia in another, and Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS in a third,possibly due to genetic mutations induced by exposure to biological and chemical agents, fumes from burning oil wells, landfills,mustard or other nerve gases. The recent Gulf War will no doubt give rise its own crop of PTSD and related disorders. In a cost-benefitanalysis of the post Gulf War II scenario, the psychopathological effects of war and terrorism should become part of the social audit any civilized society engages in. Enlightened public opinion must become aware of the wider ramifications of war and terrorism so that appropriate action plans can be worked out.

  17. THE TRANSFORMATION OF WAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.S. Mnyandu

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available "A ghost is stalking the corridors of general staffs and defence departments all over the 'developed' world - the fear of military impotence, even irrelevance. ...As new forms of armed conflict multiply and spread, they will cause the lines between public and private, government and people, military and civilian to become as blurred as they were before 1648. ...One very important way in which men can attain joy, freedom, happiness is (through war." (Van Creveld, 1991: 1,226,227 These are the words that open and conclude this book whose stated objective is to provide a non-Clausewitzian perspective to 'modern' warfare (p ix. In the first two chapters, Van Creveld perceptively addresses the bankruptcy of nuclear weapons and strategy, the declining utility of conventional armed forces and the resurgence of low intensity conflict as well as the resounding political outcomes accrued through such conflicts. Acknowledging Karl von Clausewitz as an outstanding military theoretician, Van Creveld not only delineates the historical context in which Clausewitz's writings were most relevant, but goes on to evoke the works of Colmar von der Goltz (Das Volk in Waffen, 1883 and Erich Ludendorf (Der Totale Krieg, 1936 in order to clearly distinguish the concept of a trinitarian war in comparison to those of a total war and nontrinitarian war (p 35, 42, 45, 49. "Involving the surgical separation of the state, society and the military, the trinitarian war is compatible with the Clausewitzian prescription and primary notion of war as a continuation of politics" (p 63. While total war appears to be an extreme and perverted form of trinitarian war - it plays a vital role in as far as it nearly obliterated society, facilitated the rise of totalitarian governments and even precipitated the Second World War. This openened the flood gates for the resurgence of nontrinitarian conflict in which individuals and individual societies (not established armies acting on behalf

  18. Policing plutonium: the civil liberties fallout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The most significant social cost of plutonium may be the legal problem of adjusting public safety with individual civil liberties. Safeguards to keep plutonium from criminals and terrorists will require a sacrifice of personal liberties and basic changes in the legal framework. Individuals will be denied many of the rights of privacy, expression, and association they have taken for granted. There will be a division between people associated with the nuclear industry and those outside it. Protective measures could result in a general feeling of suspicion, persecution, and distrust. If an incident should occur, the public would be caught between the perpetrators and the government, with search and seizure conditions similar to a civil war. Significant reduction of energy consumption should be imposed and all other sources of energy fully exploited or proven unworkable before undertaking a program with such consequences

  19. Vascular Surgery in World War II: The Shift to Repairing Arteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barr, Justin; Cherry, Kenneth J; Rich, Norman M

    2016-03-01

    Vascular surgery in World War II has long been defined by DeBakey and Simeone's classic 1946 article describing arterial repair as exceedingly rare. They argued ligation was and should be the standard surgical response to arterial trauma in war. We returned to and analyzed the original records of World War II military medical units housed in the National Archives and other repositories in addition to consulting published accounts to determine the American practice of vascular surgery in World War II. This research demonstrates a clear shift from ligation to arterial repair occurring among American military surgeons in the last 6 months of the war in the European Theater of Operations. These conclusions not only highlight the role of war as a catalyst for surgical change but also point to the dangers of inaccurate history in stymieing such advances. PMID:25719811

  20. Humanity can survive a nuclear war

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, the author expresses his belief that while a nuclear war would be a horrendous experience, the United States could still survive and ultimately recover. The author describes what the United States would be like two weeks after a full-scale attack against major military targets and population centers. He says about one half of the population will survive but their lifestyles will be drastically different. Although water distribution systems could be damaged and water service interrupted, analysis has shown that in most cases enough drinking water would be available. Food would also not be a serious complicating factor. With the right precautions, there is no intrinsic reason why life-support requirements for the survivors of a nuclear attack should not be met. The author also discusses how epidemics and diseases could be avoided. He also explains why the genetic effects of radiation are misunderstood and why a nuclear war would not cause sufficient mutations to threaten the survival of the society. The author concludes that the argument that a nuclear war could eliminate the human species or bring an end to civilization as we know it has not stood up to the light of objective and scientific examination

  1. The Conduct of War 1789-1961; a study of the impact of the French, Industrial and Russian Revolutions on war and its conduct.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.S. Hamman

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available 1 War has been part of Europe for many years and has been the constant occupation of her turbulent peoples. Nevertheless, not one of them since the Thirty Years' War has been so catastrophic as the wars of the present century. Yet the reason is not to be sought in war itself, but in its conduct as related to the great revolutions since 1789: the decay of aristocracy and the advent of democracy, the developments of industry and capitalism, the emergence of the masses and of socialism, the progress of science and the advances in technology, the growth of populations and the popular press, the decay of religion and ever-advancing materialism.2. All these vast changes have recast civilization, and had their impacts on warfare been diagnosed, and the conduct of war shaped accordingly, there is no reason why the world of today should be in its present mess. 

  2. Civil Society and Governance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hulgård, Lars

    An illustration of how important the relationship is between civil society anbd governance. A short historic journey with four snapshots of times and situations that have provided interesting evidence about the connection between civil society and governance. My goal for the short historic journey...... is to make clear and hopefully even verify that providing knowledge about the impact of civil society and citizens’ participation on governance is one of the most urgent research tasks in the current period of time....

  3. Civil Action Exercise Conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Bojinca, Moise

    2010-01-01

    The specialized literature defines civil action as being: “the legal means used by a person in order to ask the court to recognize its right or to fulfil this right, by ending the obstacles put by another person or through an adequate compensation Irrespective of its definition method, civil action is considered a central institution around which the entire activity of the court of law and of the parties gravitates. Next, we will discuss the requirements for exercising civil action: expressio...

  4. Civil engineering terminology

    OpenAIRE

    Kuhta, Milan; Brunčič, Ana

    2015-01-01

    Among all crises, which have struck Slovenian construction industry, the crisis of civil engineering terminology is perhaps less noticeable, but still as important as all the others. The lack of fundamental characteristics of proper terminology causes a reasonable doubt whether Slovenian civil engineering terminology actually exists. After three editions of Splošni tehniški slovar (A General Technical Dictionary), a preparation of the new civil engineering dictionary represents one step towar...

  5. Civil Society and Accountability

    OpenAIRE

    Kaldor, Mary

    2002-01-01

    The paper provides a brief historical overview of the concept of civil society and the relevance of different meanings to the notion of 'voice' as it relates to poor people. It outlines civil society actors that might be helpful in clarifying different forms of accountability. And in the last section, it draws some conclusions and policy recommendations about the accountability of different types of civil society groups.

  6. THE EFFECTS OF THE PUNIC WARS ON ROME

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GongXiuhua

    2003-01-01

    From 264BC to 146BC, the Punic Wars broke out between Rome and Carthage, which lasted more than one hundred years in the ancient word history. There were three wars, this emphasizes the great influence of the Punic Wars on Roman provincial government, culture, economy, military and Romans' concept. Sicily having become the first Roman province, Romans began to establish provincial administration in their expansion. As a model of ruling overseas, the Sicilian province provided important experience for Romans who would carry out their large-scale expanding and rule in the Mediterranean world. The article also discusses how the Punic Wars made the Roman civilization closely blend with Hellenism, thus creating the brilliant Greco-Roman culture, and having betokened that Roman simple, unsophisticated, hardworking and thrifty social atmosphere had suffered the strong shock in the meantime. Furthermore it discusses that the slavery system of the economy was rapidly developing in Rome after the Second Punic War; and that meanwhile, Roman commanders' function and power in office were often lengthened and grew more important in Republic government. As the victor of the Punic Wars, Rome became the ruler of the whole Mediterranean area in 146 BC.

  7. From Civil Wars to Drug Wars: The Limits of Decentralization Policies in Central America

    OpenAIRE

    Alfredo Stein

    2012-01-01

    In recent decades, international donors promoted decentralization policies as vehicles to achieve economic growth, state reform and human development. Although these policies improved national and local governments’ responsiveness, it is not sufficiently clear whether they actually led to poverty reduction, social cohesion and conflict resolution, especially in countries’ ongoing peace and reconciliation processes. This article analyses decentralization in the context of post-conflict reconst...

  8. Doe v. Ashcroft and Its Place in the Judicial Trend: How the Courts Have Advanced Civil Liberties in Step with Advances in Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Craig M. Glasgow

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available As many jurists and scholars have noted, the United States has a long-standing history of encroaching upon the civil liberties of its citizens, especially during times of war or conflict.2 For instance, during the Civil War, President Lincoln unilaterally suspended the writ of habeas corpus in response to increased violence and the threat of Southern succession.3 During World War I, Postmaster General Albert Burleson used the Espionage Act to suspend mailing privileges for certain “non-mailable” materials, such as newspapers and other dissident publications critical of the war effort.4

  9. Long-term Factors Underlying Peace in Contemporary Western Civilization

    OpenAIRE

    MATTHEW MELKO

    1992-01-01

    The absence of war within Western Civilization since World War II may not be the result of nuclear deterrence. It may be that nuclear weapons have not been used because of structural factors that are responsible for the peace. Measured in several ways, the present period looks as though it may be the most peaceful one in the past quarter millennium, probably the most peaceful in modern Western history. The factors behind this peace may have to do with the combination of long-term fluctuations...

  10. Dividing and Ruling the World? A Statistical Test of the Effects of Colonialism on Postcolonial Civil Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, Matthew; Dawson, Andrew

    2009-01-01

    To test claims that postcolonial civil violence is a common legacy of colonialism, we create a dataset on the colonial heritage of 160 countries and explore whether a history of colonialism is related to indicators of inter-communal conflict, political rebellion and civil war in the years 1960-1999. The analysis provides evidence against sweeping…

  11. Relative Resources: Inequality in Ethnic Wars, Revolutions, and Genocides

    OpenAIRE

    Marie L. Besançon

    2005-01-01

    Political scientists and economists have exhaustively examined the nexus between economic inequality and political conflict (EI-PC nexus) in aggregated civil wars. This article revisits the nexus and its related theories, empirically and parsimoniously testing the effects of inequality on disaggregated intrastate conflicts. The results buttress the notion that traditionally deprived identity groups are more likely to engage in conflict under more economically equal conditions, while class or ...

  12. Eyeless in America, the Sequel: Hollywood and Indiewood's Iraq War on Film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackmore, Tim

    2012-01-01

    This article builds on conclusions drawn in the article "Eyeless in America," by the same author and considers how 50 American films about the wars in Iraq and Afghanistan intended to function as what Jacques Ellul called "integration propaganda" fared. This article considers and rejects a number of theories about why most feature war films failed…

  13. Teaching about World War II: An ERIC/ChESS Sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlene, Vickie L.

    1991-01-01

    Presents nine documents from the ERIC database dealing with teaching about World War II. Includes articles addressing the lessons of Pearl Harbor, the Holocaust, the wartime internment of Japanese Americans, industry's response to the war, and the moral lessons of Nazism. (SG)

  14. Wars, disasters and kidneys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lameire, N

    2014-12-01

    This paper summarizes the impact that wars had on the history of nephrology, both worldwide and in the Ghent Medical Faculty notably on the definition, research and clinical aspects of acute kidney injury. The paper briefly describes the role of 'trench nephritis' as observed both during World War I and II, supporting the hypothesis that many of the clinical cases could have been due to Hantavirus nephropathy. The lessons learned from the experience with crush syndrome first observed in World War II and subsequently investigated over many decades form the basis for the creation of the Renal Disaster Relief Task Force of the International Society of Nephrology. Over the last 15 years, this Task Force has successfully intervened both in the prevention and management of crush syndrome in numerous disaster situations like major earthquakes. PMID:25409904

  15. Cultural War of Values

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hervik, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Cultural War of Values: The Proliferation of Moral Identities In the Danish Public Sphere Peter Hervik (Aalborg University) This chapter looks at the drastic shift in the construction of minority others that came with the emergence of neo-nationalism, neo-racism and radical right populism in the...... post-1989 world. Through an analysis of a political philosophy launched in Denmark in the 1990s called the “Cultural War of Values”, I show that the moral identities proliferating in the Danish public sphere are fundamentally anti-political correct, anti-multiculturalist, and anti-Marxist as...... confrontation is also directed at political adversaries. Thus, the chapter’s key argument is that the social construction of thick minority identities can only be understood in relation to the cultural war of value strategy aimed at domestic political opponents....

  16. The role of William Fulbright in the movement against the Vietnam War

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth Erken

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available El articulo trata de una parte importante de las actividades políticas de Fulbright, es decir su papel en el movimiento en contra de la guerra de Vietnam, que ha recibido relativamente poca atención hasta ahora. El autor de este artículo examina el papel del senador americano William Fulbright en la oposición a la guerra de Vietnam. Para una comprensión correcta de esta actitud es necesario, como se defiende en el texto, conocer la trayectoria, tanto vital como política, de este personaje y considerar el despertar de la conciencia de los americanos con respecto a las políticas nacionales e internacionales. Puesto que es muy difícil establecer claramente una fecha exacta para el brote de la guerra de Vietnam, este papel enfoca en el período entre 1960 y 1970. La política interior americana de los años 60 se debe considerar poco atenta a los considerables desafíos sociales. El movimiento de los derechos civiles, a través del cual se luchó para iguales derechos para las mujeres, los negros, las minorías étnicas y los pobres. Uno de estos movimientos sociales era el movimiento pacifista. Por lo tanto, se estudiarán aquellos movimientos determinantes para la protesta en contra de la guerra en Vietnam, el origen y el desarrollo de estos, las reacciones principales a las misma y el papel que William Fulbright tuvo en la situación política y social tensa que el conflicto proporcionó para los Estados Unidos entre los años 60 y de los años 70._______________ABSTRACT:The present paper, is dedicated to an important part of Fulbright’s political activities, i.e. his role in the movement against the Vietnam war, which has received relatively little attention so far. The author of this article examines the role of the American senator William Fulbright in the opposition to the war of Vietnam. For a correct comprehension of this attitude, it is necessary, as she defends itself in the text, to know the path, so much vitally as politics

  17. The war on marijuana: The transformation of the war on drugs in the 1990s

    OpenAIRE

    Mauer Marc; King Ryan S

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Background: As the "war on drugs" enters the latter half of its third decade since being forged into the American lexicon by President Ronald Reagan, the public has grown more skeptical of the current strategy and has proven to be receptive to a broader consideration of alternatives to incarceration. This has been the case most notably with marijuana offenses, where the policy discussion has shifted in some localities to one of decriminalization or de-prioritizing law enforcement res...

  18. A Bicentennial Review of the Black Contribution to American History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, Ella D. Lewis

    1976-01-01

    To illustrate the importance of black people in American history, specific individuals are identified who played major roles in the American Revolution, the War of 1812, exploration and pioneering, and science and technology. (AV)

  19. Refractions of Civil Society

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuzmanovic, Daniella

    The thesis investigates various perceptions of civil society among civic activists in Turkey, and how these perceptions are produced and shaped. The thesis is an anthropological contribution to studies of civil society in general, as well as to studies on political culture in Turkey....

  20. Apps for Ancient Civilizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Stephanie

    2011-01-01

    This project incorporates technology and a historical emphasis on science drawn from ancient civilizations to promote a greater understanding of conceptual science. In the Apps for Ancient Civilizations project, students investigate an ancient culture to discover how people might have used science and math smartphone apps to make their lives…

  1. Arun Kundnani (2014 The Muslims are Coming! Islamophobia, Extremism and the Domestic War on Terror. London: Verso.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Greg Martin

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Martin Luther King Jr understood the link between individual violence at home and state violence abroad. In part of his message that is often downplayed, he told an audience at Riverside Church, New York in 1967 that the promotion of nonviolent direct action (or the prevention of violent extremism among young Americans depended on opposing the violence of US foreign policy in places like Vietnam. Arun Kundnani ends his book arguing this point remains as valid today in the global war on terror. Indeed, in many ways, the material presented in the book paints a depressingly familiar picture of state secrecy and surveillance, the normalisation of preventative measures in the post-9/11 era, governments instilling fear and anxiety across populations, and the criminalisation of formerly lawful activities. It is now beyond dispute that these developments have eroded human rights and civil liberties in Western societies. But they have also impinged, more broadly, upon social relations and political processes. Not surprisingly, this has impacted Muslim communities the most because relations of trust have been eroded in the domestic war on terror. Download the PDF file from this page to read Greg Martin's complete review of Arun Kundnani's book. Download the PDF file to read the complete review of Arun Kundnan's book by Greg Martin.

  2. Radiological Effects of Nuclear War.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, Charles S.

    1988-01-01

    Described are the global effects of nuclear war. Discussed are radiation dosages, limited nuclear attacks, strategic arms reductions, and other results reported at the workshop on nuclear war issues in Moscow in March 1988. (CW)

  3. Islam dan Civil Society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imam Sukardi

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The article tries to address the concept of civil society from varied perspectives. From a historical point of view, civil society demands not only the absent domination of state but also liberates individuals from the hegemony of state. The article shows that in Indonesia and Malaysian discourse, masyarakat madani is often used to represent the term of civil society. Using this conception, major values of civil society also share with basic ideas within the Medina Treaty in the history of Islam. These ideas include egalitarianism, human rights protection, participation, law and justice enforcement and pluralism. In this frame, the question on whether or not Islam is compatible with the concept of civil society is clearly answered. Muslims could benefit such a concept to build their awareness of being progressive and adaptive to social changes.

  4. Reconceptualizing Civil Regulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galang, Roberto Martin; Castello, Itziar

    2011-01-01

    This article re-conceptualizes the notion of civil regulation, through an analysis of 775 projects by firms located in 21 Asian countries, wherein we map the state of civil regulation initiatives in the region. We challenge two established assumptions in the Corporate Social Responsibility...... literature. First, contrary to what is commonly argued, we claim that strong states in Asia promote civil regulation in what we call the “paradox of the weak state”. Second, we not only argue that civil regulation is mainly enforced by multinational enterprises willing to promote international social and...... environmental standards; but also that local, small and medium companies play a key role in the development of Asian civil regulation. We call this second finding the “CSR importation trap”. Our findings are supported by evidence on the limitations in the interchangeable properties of business and governments...

  5. The Iraq war: official and unofficial history

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Garcia Bonfin

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to analyze the motivations and the soldiers who fought in the war in Iraq started in March 2003. The attacks of September 11, 2001 transformed the foreign policy of the United States, the years of relative peace conquered at the end of the cold war is over, Americans now had a new enemy, political Islam. Soon after the attacks, the Bush Administration (2001-2009 tried to relate Islamic fighters belonging to Al-Qaeda with the regime of Saddam Hussein, in a clear attempt to justify an invasion on Iraq internally. Externally, the American Government, along with the Briton, claimed that the Iraqis had weapons of mass destruction, which inflicted the UN resolutions imposed on the Iraqi Government during the years 1990. However, neither the inspections and subsequently the invasion were able to find such weapons. What if you saw after the invasion was the huge profit obtained by private military and oil companies. In the research was analyzed as if formed the Middle East, the Empire of the United States on a global scale, the report of the Chief Inspector of UNMOVIC, the UN agency responsible for weapons inspections in Iraq, and the letters of soldiers who fought in Iraq. In historiography, as in what if notes is that there were three present interests in the war in Iraq, economic order first, with the possibility of profit of the private military companies and the opportunity to extract oil; second related to foreign policy, which had the interest in rearranging geopolitics of the region; and third of domestic politics, to which there was an increase in the popularity of the Bush administration, with the war on Terror.

  6. A Paradox of Public Opinion: Why a Less Interested Public is More Attentive to War

    OpenAIRE

    Baum, Matt

    2000-01-01

    This study argues that even as the American people declares themselves, in countless public opinion surveys, less concerned with foreign affairs in the Post-Cold War era than at any time since the end of World War II, they are nonetheless growing increasingly attentive to foreign policy crises. I develop a theory suggesting that this trend is attributable to a “direct marketing” revolution in television broadcasting, which has for many Americans increased the appeal of information about forei...

  7. Online war memorials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Britta Timm; Stage, Carsten

    2013-01-01

    This article takes a point of departure in Denmark’s decision to use the armed forces as a tool of foreign policy, even when this implies deployment to regions where combat and casualties must be expected. Since war, combat, and violence contradict traditional self-understandings of being Danish,...

  8. The theatre of war

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brigitte M Holzner

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Narrating the fate of the women of Troy, the Greek playwright Euripides provided the script for modern warfare: the murdered children of Hekuba, the sexual slavery of Briseis, Andromache as war prey, Polyxena burned as a sacrifice and Kassandra raped and made bed-maid of the Greek warlord, Agamemnon.

  9. Castles at War

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    April 29th-30th 2013, its topic was "Castles at War" in particular during the period AD 1000–1660. For the last 20 years, archaeological and historic research has dealt with many aspects of castles, their function as a noble family's seat, their role each as an administrative unit's centre, their...

  10. Recent Cold War Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pineo, Ronn

    2003-01-01

    Cold War historiography has undergone major changes since the 1991 collapse of the Soviet Union. For two years (1992-1993) the principal Soviet archives fell open to scholars, and although some of the richest holdings are now once again closed, new information continues to find its way out. Moreover, critical documentary information has become…

  11. The Technological Culture of War

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pretorius, Joelien

    2008-01-01

    The article proceeds from the argument that war is a social institution and not a historical inevitability of human interaction, that is, war can be "unlearned." This process involves deconstructing/dismantling war as an institution in society. An important step in this process is to understand the philosophical and cultural bases on which…

  12. In Defence of New Wars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Kaldor

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This article reviews the literature on ‘new wars’. It argues that ‘new wars’ should be understood not as an empirical category but rather as a way of elucidating the logic of contemporary war that can offer both a research strategy and a guide to policy. It addresses four components of the debate: whether new wars are ‘new’; whether new wars are war or crime; whether the data supports the claims about new wars; and whether new wars are ‘post-Clausewitzean’. It argues that the obsession with the ‘newness’ of wars misses the point about the logic of new wars; that there is a blurring of war and crime but it is important to address the political elements of new wars; that, although the data should be used with caution, it does seem to offer support for some elements of the new war thesis; and that the argument is indeed post-Clausewitzean because new wars are not ‘contests of wills’ but more similar to a mutual enterprise. It concludes that the debate has greatly enriched the overall argument.

  13. Eyeless in America: Hollywood and Indiewood's Iraq War on Film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackmore, Tim

    2012-01-01

    This article examines 50 films produced and released between the years 2001 and 2012 that are concerned with the American wars in Iraq and Afghanistan. Using Jacques Ellul's theories set out in his book "Propaganda," the article argues that while the films have failed at the box office, they were intended to function as integration propaganda. The…

  14. Decision-Making under Stress: World War II and Beyond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johns, Robert

    1986-01-01

    Provides a teaching plan which helps students imaginatively take the roles of leaders in the United States during World War II so that they might more completely understand such difficult decisions as allying with the Soviet Union, relocating Japanese-Americans, and dropping the atomic bomb. Provides a statement of goals and objectives, required…

  15. Is Baseball Essential?: World War I and the National Pastime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarosik, Kris Maldre; Sweeney, Jenny McMillen

    2014-01-01

    In this article, the authors demonstrate how a series of National Archives documents related to professional baseball players and the military draft can launch a lesson on the American home front during World War I, as the 100th anniversary approaches.

  16. “The moaning of the world” and the “words that bring me peace”: Modernism and the First World War

    OpenAIRE

    Haslam, Sara

    2012-01-01

    This chapter takes its place in a huge new project on twentieth-century British and American war literature. It focuses on technology and sense perception in First World War writing in its account of the formal and contextual relationships between modernism and the war.

  17. The Wars of Love’s Labour’s Lost: Performance and Interpretation

    OpenAIRE

    William C. Carroll

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigates the trope of war in relation to the critical and performance history of Love’s Labour’s Lost. The “civil war of wits” has long been recognized as central to the play’s linguistic texture, as has the “war against your own affections” that Navarre urges on his fellow academe-lovers. In addition to these linguistic and psychological threads, the play’s disputed debt between France and Navarre concerns the “wars” waged by Navarre’s father, while the four lords’ names point...

  18. Atoms for war

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This pamphlet discusses the interdependence of 'civil' and 'military' nuclear power, both within Britain and around the world. Section A is a study of 'the first proliferator' -Britain: how Britain acquired the Bomb, how the British 'civil' nuclear industry has supported US and British military nuclear programmes, and how the military origins of nuclear power in Britain created a closed, undemocratic system of decision-making. Section B examines the spread of nuclear technology worldwide, the inadequacy of 'safeguards' to prevent its military use, the hypocrisy of the nuclear weapons states and the irresponsibility of the export policies of states advanced in nuclear technology. (author)

  19. Arkady Babchenko, Voina / Tlom [War

    OpenAIRE

    Mélat, Hélène

    2016-01-01

    War is not an exhausted topic in contemporary Russian literature. World War II, Afghan War and, of course, the Chechen Wars have continued to inspire young and less young writers in post-Soviet Russia. Whether in longer fiction, as in the novels of Andrey Gelasimov—Thirst, recounting the difficult return from Chechnya of a badly disfigured soldier, and The Gods of the Steppe, focusing on the friendship between a Japanese prisoner and a Russian boy during World War II; or narratives close to d...

  20. Cold War in Southern Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Matthew Graham

    2010-01-01

    Review Article: Cold War in Southern Africa Gary Baines, Peter Vale (eds.) (2008), Beyond the Border War: New Perspectives on Southern Africa’s Late-Cold War Conflicts , Pretoria: Unisa Press, ISBN 978 1 86888 456 8, xix + 342 pp. Sue Onslow (ed.) (2009), Cold War in Southern Africa: White Power, Black Liberation , Abingdon: Routledge, ISBN 978 0 415 47420 7, 253 pp. Vladimir Shubin (2008), The Hot “Cold War†: The USSR in Southern Africa , London: Pluto Press, ISBN 978 0745324722, 320 p...

  1. Crime and American Culture. Ethics and Public Policy Essay #43.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, James Q.

    The great waves of foreign immigration, the onset of rapid industrialization, the emergence of an urban working class--all features of the post Civil War United States that might have contributed to rising crime rates--did not. Ted Robert Gurr suggests that a growth of the "civilizing process" occurred in which people turned away from violence and…

  2. New Trends in Cold War History Studiesin China, 2000-2014

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2014-01-01

    The study of Cold War history in China has made great progress in the past decade.The works of Chinese scholars are increasingly operating on a comparable level ofresearch and sophistication to their foreign colleagues. In some areas, such as Sino-Soviet relations, Sino-American relations, Japanese-American relations, and thehistory of the Korean War, Chinese scholarship has really blossomed. A number ofChinese Cold War historians have conducted innovative research in new areas, andpresented their findings on a variety of heretofore untapped issues.

  3. Anglo-American Jurisprudence and the Native American Tribal Quest for Religious Freedom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loftin, John D.

    1989-01-01

    Argues that Native American tribes encounter major legal problems in the practice of traditional religions due to differences between Native and Anglo American worldviews. Examines the ideology of civilization underlying values in American jurisprudence, foundations of American Indian law, and relevant constitutional law. Contains over 200…

  4. The Children's War: Towards Peace in Sierra Leone. A Field Report Assessing the Protection and Assistance Needs of Sierra Leonean Children and Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sommers, Marc

    Based on a 3-week field visit to Sierra Leone and Guinea, this report investigates why children (ages 0-17) have become key figures in Sierra Leone's civil war, and explores the problems that war has caused them. The report describes significant new effects of violence on three groups of Sierra Leonean children, very few of whom have received any…

  5. La liquidación de la Guerra Civil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolás Sánchez-Albornoz

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available The study of the Spanish Civil War cannot be thoroughly understood without a study of the social and political atmosphere previous to the martial confrontation as well as of the process of liquidation of this transcendental historical event. The victorious faction claimed that the ceasing of military operations put an end to the war, but the war did not finish then. For many years, the use of force was still alive, unilaterally, under the form of bloody repression and the long exile of the defeated. Many other facts consist in the imposed moral and psychological suffering, the cultural damage, the banishment and the repercussions of these imponderables on millions of homes. Economic and social afflictions caused to the individuals and to society as a whole are of great weight, In order to appreciate the slow and cruel way chosen by the franquist regime to liquidate the Spanish Civil War it is necessary to illustrate in detail some of the means used. Their failure shows the egoism and meanness of the dictatorial regime.

  6. Civil & Criminal Penalties

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Consumer Product Safety Commission — When CPSC is involved in a civil or criminal investigations into violations of the Consumer Products Safety Act the Commission publishes final determinations and...

  7. Transnationalising Civil Society?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Martin Bak

    The paper takes a transnational perspective on developing an analytical framework for understanding how transnationalism interacts with civil society and how immigrant organisations use transnational strategies to challenge the pre-given positions of immigrants within given integration- and...

  8. Civil Procedure In Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Werlauff, Erik

    The book contains an up-to-date survey of Danish civil procedure after the profound Danish procedural reforms in 2007. It deals with questions concerning competence and function of Danish courts, commencement and preparation of civil cases, questions of evidence and burden of proof, international...... procedural questions, including relations to the Brussels I Regulation and Denmark's participation in this Regulation via a parallel convention with the EU countries, impact on Danish civil procedure of the convention on human rights, preparation and pronouncement of judgment and verdict, questions of appeal...... scientific activities conducted by the author, partly based on the author's experience as a member, through a number of years, of the Danish Standing Committee on Procedural Law (Retsplejeraadet), which on a continuous basis evaluates the need for civil procedural reforms in Denmark, and finally also based...

  9. The Civil Democratic Control on the Army Forces in Romania 1989-2007

    OpenAIRE

    Octavian SOFRONEA

    2016-01-01

    The end of the Cold War meant for the South-Eastern European countries an increased effort for establishing a market based economy and democratic institutions. One raised issue regarding democratization was the reform of the army forces and the democratization of the relationship between the military and the civil society. The civil control on the army forces and the creation of a democratic control system represents key indicators for the process of democratization and stabilizing and legiti...

  10. Civil justice reform II

    OpenAIRE

    McInnis, A

    2002-01-01

    In the column last month our regular contributor Dr Arthur McInnis took our first look at Hong Kong's Civil Justice Reform Interim Report and Consultative Paper. Those reforms as noted and if enacted, would bring the most far-reaching changes to civil - including construction -litigation in more than 100 years. This month, in the second of the two-part series, we look at the key concepts underlying and the details in the specific proposals.

  11. American Studies in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferdinando Fasce

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In the early 1990s, introducing the Journal of American History’s internationalization project, Maurizio Vaudagna urged his Italian colleagues and all “non-English-speaking American historians in Europe […] to abandon the melancholic but somewhat comfortable situation of being marginal in both worlds.” More than a decade later, now that studying American history has been enormously complicated by the seismic changes connected with the end of the Cold War, the tragedy of 9/11, and the attendan...

  12. The oil world war

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since the beginning of the 21. century, a war has started between the USA, China and India. The USA, first oil consuming and importing country in the world, has now to take into account the increasing energy consumption of China and India. China is now, just behind Japan, the third oil importing country and India ranked number seven. From the Gulf of Guinea to the Arabic peninsula, from the Orenoque basin to the Caspian sea banks, Washington, Beijing and New Delhi covet the same oil fields. This rivalry exacerbates the political tensions in many regions of the Earth and already provokes a latent food crisis. This black gold war is changing the World's face and should provoke serious armed conflicts. (J.S.)

  13. "Miniature Cold War?"

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    @@ Fu: Relations between America and Russia are one of the most important bilateral ties that could affect the trend of world situation.What's the matter with U. S. -Russia ties? What's wrong with their bilateral relations? People tend to ask these days. Some observers on both sides suggest that post 9/11 honeymoon has turned sour when joint effort against challenges from nontraditional security issues failed to remove original bilateral contradictions over traditional security concerns.Japanese Jiji News Agency saw "a miniature Cold War" evolving and the British Guardian even bluntly pronounced "a new Cold War" on January 3, asserting that disintegration of the former Soviet Union did not terminate bilateral contention, which has only been performed on an international stage more complicated than ever before, with covert scheming against each other replacing overt, direct confrontation. How about starting our discussion with those comments?

  14. Technology of nuclear war

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Article is the Note of a lecture, which was hold by Engelbert Borda at the Catholic-Theological Faculty of the University of Vienna in 27. 03. 1973. The author describes the development of modern nuclear weapon systems and the resulting war strategies. He is concerned about a possible end of the ‚balance of terror’ and the development in automation of nuclear strike back strategies. (rössner)

  15. Minimalism at War

    OpenAIRE

    Sunstein, Cass Robert

    2004-01-01

    When national security conflicts with individual liberty, reviewing courts might adopt one of three general orientations: National Security Maximalism, Liberty Maximalism, and minimalism. National Security Maximalism calls for a great deal of deference to the President, above all because of his authority as Commander-in-Chief of the Armed Forces. Liberty Maximalism asks courts to assume the same liberty-protecting posture in times of war as in times of peace. Minimalism asks courts to follow ...

  16. Edit wars in Wikipedia

    OpenAIRE

    Sumi, Róbert; Yasseri, Taha; Rung, András; Kornai, András; Kertész, János

    2011-01-01

    We present a new, efficient method for automatically detecting severe conflicts `edit wars' in Wikipedia and evaluate this method on six different language WPs. We discuss how the number of edits, reverts, the length of discussions, the burstiness of edits and reverts deviate in such pages from those following the general workflow, and argue that earlier work has significantly over-estimated the contentiousness of the Wikipedia editing process.

  17. Suicide among War Veterans

    OpenAIRE

    Vsevolod Rozanov; Vladimir Carli

    2012-01-01

    Studies aiming to identify if war veterans are at higher risk of suicide have often produced inconsistent results; this could be due to the complexity of comparisons and different methodological approaches. It should be noted that this contingent has many risk factors, such as stressful exposures, wounds, brain trauma and pain syndrome. Most recent observations confirm that veterans are really more likely to die of suicide as compared to the general population; they are also more likely to ex...

  18. Nuclear energy and civilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The role of energy is indeed very important since without it there will be no living-things in this world. A country's ability to cultivate energy determines the levels of her civilization and wealth. Sufficient energy supply is needed for economic growth, industrialization, and modernization. In a modern civilization, the prosperity and security of a country depends more on the capability of her people rather than the wealth of her natural resources. Energy supplies the wealth, prosperity and security, and sufficient reliable continuous supply of energy secures the sustainable development. The energy supply to sustain the development has to improve the quality of life covering also the quality of environment to support the ever increasing demand of human race civilization. Energy has a closer relationship with civilization in a modern society and will have to become even closer in the future more civilized and more modern society. The utilization of nuclear energy has, however, some problems and challenges, e.g. misleading information and understanding which need serious efforts for public information, public relation, and public acceptance, and possible deviation of nuclear materials for non-peaceful uses which needs serious efforts for technological and administrative barriers, precaution, prevention, safety, physical protection, safeguard, and transparency. These require cooperation among nuclear community. The cooperation should be more pronounced by heterogeneous growing Asian countries to reach harmony for mutual benefits toward better civilization. (J.P.N.)

  19. Who Welcomes Trade War?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sun Yongjian

    2005-01-01

    @@ A special guest visited Beijing. On June 2, Carlos Gutierrez, a name sounds like a South American, flied to Beijing. He is the Minister of Commerce of the USA, who was born in Cuba around 52 years ago and used to be a car driver of the American Kellogg's Company.

  20. Civil Rights: Progress Report, 1970

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diamond, Robert A., Ed.; Alligood, Arlene, Ed.

    Contents of this comprehensive review of civil rights developments from 1968 to 1970 include: Introduction--civil rights 1970: progress continues, priority wanes; Legislative Background--20 years of civil rights; Commission Report--civil rights enforcement; a promise unfulfilled; Supreme Court Decision--key decision on busing, racial balance…

  1. Reforming Russian Civil Procedur

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitry Maleshin

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The II Annual Symposium of the journal Herald of Civil Procedure ‘2015: The Civil Procedure 2.0: Reform and Current State’ took place on October 9, 2015, at the Faculty of Law of Kazan (Volga region Federal University.The Symposium is now an established tradition for the University. In 2015 it brought together in Kazan eminent scholars of civil procedure from cities across the whole of Russia: Moscow, St. Petersburg, Saratov, Ekaterinburg, Omsk, Samara, Nizhnekamsk and others. This large-scale event attracted the attention not only of Russian scholars, but also of legal scholars from abroad: Elisabetta Silvestri (Professor, University of Pavia, Italy, William B. Simons (Professor, University of Tartu, Estonia, Jaroslav Turlukovsky (Professor, Warsaw University, Poland, Stuart H. Schultz (Practising Attorney, USA, Irina Izarova (Associate Professor, Taras Shevchenko National University of Kyiv, Ukraine.The opening ceremony of the Symposium began with greetings to all participants and best wishes for productive discussions. Participants were welcomed with remarks by Marat Khairullin, Deputy Chair of the Supreme Court of the Republic of Tatarstan, Radik Ilyasov, Head of the Federal Bailiff Service of the Republic of Tatarstan, and Ildar Tarkhanov, Academic Supervisor at the Faculty of Law. They expressed their appreciation for the great value of the journal Herald of Civil Procedure in the growth of the science of civil procedure and enforcement procedure, and for its contributions to the development of the judicial system of the Russian Federation.In addition to hearing prepared reports and discussing viewpoints on current issues of civil and arbitration procedure, participants attended presentations by representatives from procedural law periodicals in the frame of the Symposium. The Editor-in-Chief of Herald of Civil Procedure, Damir Valeev, and the Commercial Director of the Statut Publishing House (Moscow, Kirill Samoilov, presented new

  2. The Indian in American History.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, Virgil J.

    The treatment of American Indians is discussed historically with reference to the 4 principal methods used to create or perpetuate false impressions: obliteration, defamation, disembodiment, and disparagement. Indian contributions to American civilization are cited in contrast with historical references to Indians in textbooks. The author suggests…

  3. Meeting on the Elbe (Vstrecha na EI'be) : A visual representation of the incipient Cold War from a Soviet perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Keghel, Isabelle de

    2009-01-01

    The article explores the most important Soviet film covering the incipient Cold War, Meeting on the Elbe. The production involved prominent Soviet filmmakers and actors. By juxtaposing the occupation policies of both superpowers in post-war Germany, the film makes crucial assumptions concerning the Soviet self and the US-American other. It attributes the full responsibility for the outbreak of the Cold War to the US-American political and military elites and argues the USSR has won the trust ...

  4. America's Other Half: Slum Journalism and the War of 1898

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Patrick Leary

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available

    This article treats the links between the 1890s literature of urban reform in the United States, which focused on the downtown "other half" of New York, and the war literature of 1898, when American troops intervened in Cuba's war of independence. The article focuses on the work of Stephen Crane, who worked as a New York police reporter, slum novelist, and Cuba war correspondent in this turbulent decade. Leary shows how, in the martial culture of the American 1890s, the rhetoric of militarism informed the practice of urban reform, while the rhetoric of urban reform informed the military campaign in Cuba. This article argues that the United States' urban underdevelopment, represented famously by the Lower East Side of Manhattan, was imaginatively displaced onto Cuba. The War of 1898 was therefore an important landmark in the creation of a Third World imaginary in the United States, when "underdevelopment" would become a distinctly Latin American condition. In the twentieth century, the gap between modernity and underdevelopment would not be found in the sprawling tenement cities, but in "other Americas" to the south, below the Mason-Dixon line and in Cuba. After 1898, Cuba, once so close to the United States as to be nearly a state in the union, now belonged to another time—indeed, almost another world.

  5. America's Other Half: Slum Journalism and the War of 1898

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Patrick Leary

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available This article treats the links between the 1890s literature of urban reform in the United States, which focused on the downtown "other half" of New York, and the war literature of 1898, when American troops intervened in Cuba's war of independence. The article focuses on the work of Stephen Crane, who worked as a New York police reporter, slum novelist, and Cuba war correspondent in this turbulent decade. Leary shows how, in the martial culture of the American 1890s, the rhetoric of militarism informed the practice of urban reform, while the rhetoric of urban reform informed the military campaign in Cuba. This article argues that the United States' urban underdevelopment, represented famously by the Lower East Side of Manhattan, was imaginatively displaced onto Cuba. The War of 1898 was therefore an important landmark in the creation of a Third World imaginary in the United States, when "underdevelopment" would become a distinctly Latin American condition. In the twentieth century, the gap between modernity and underdevelopment would not be found in the sprawling tenement cities, but in "other Americas" to the south, below the Mason-Dixon line and in Cuba. After 1898, Cuba, once so close to the United States as to be nearly a state in the union, now belonged to another time—indeed, almost another world.

  6. The Finitude of War or the Infinite War

    OpenAIRE

    Alexander Muriel Restrepo

    2014-01-01

    On the basis of the difference between M. Foucault and Th. Hobbes regarding war as a principle and foundation of power, the article shows the importance of this conceptual difference for contemporary political analyses. Foucault argues that in modern Western societies, the political community and, more specifically, politics itself, has been the space of a war waged by other means. By extension, this thesis entails the inversion of von Clausewitz’s principle, namely, that war is the continuat...

  7. Immigration to the Great Plains, 1865-1914: War, Politics, Technology, and Economic Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garver, Bruce

    2011-01-01

    The advent and vast extent of immigration to the Great Plains states during the years 1865 to 1914 is perhaps best understood in light of the new international context that emerged during the 1860s in the aftermath of six large wars whose consequences included the enlargement of civil liberties, an acceleration of economic growth and technological…

  8. Persons with Communication Disabilities in Natural Disasters, War, and/or Conflict

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battle, Dolores E.

    2015-01-01

    The World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that 35 million people around the world have been displaced because of natural disasters such as floods, earthquakes, hurricanes, or tsunamis. In addition, there are a number of persons who have been displaced or who have fled their homeland due to civil conflict or war. The WHO estimates that between…

  9. Training for Innovation: Capacity-Building in Agricultural Research in Post-War Sierra Leone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gboku, Matthew L. S.; Bebeley, Jenneh F.

    2016-01-01

    This paper examines how the Sierra Leone Agricultural Research Institute (SLARI) used training and development to build capacity for innovation in agricultural research following the country's civil war which ended in 2002. The Institute's training for innovation addressed different agricultural product value chains (APVCs) within the framework of…

  10. From old wars to new wars and global terrorism

    OpenAIRE

    Spagat, M; Johnson, N.; Restrepo, J; Bohórquez, J; Suárez, N.; Restrepo, E.; Zarama, R.

    2005-01-01

    Even before 9/11 there were claims that the nature of war had changed fundamentally. The 9/11 attacks created an urgent need to understand contemporary wars and their relationship to older conventional and terrorist wars, both of which exhibit remarkable regularities. The frequency-intensity distribution of fatalities in "old wars", 1968-1980, is a power-law with exponent 1.80(9) 2 . Global terrrist attacks, 1968-present, also follow a power-law with exponent 1.71(3) for G7 countries and 2.5(...

  11. From old wars to new wars and global terrorism

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson, N.; Spagat, M; Restrepo, J; Bohorquez, J.; Suarez, N; Restrepo, E.; Zarama, R.

    2005-01-01

    Even before 9/11 there were claims that the nature of war had changed fundamentally. The 9/11 attacks created an urgent need to understand contemporary wars and their relationship to older conventional and terrorist wars, both of which exhibit remarkable regularities. The frequency-intensity distribution of fatalities in "old wars", 1816-1980, is a power-law with exponent 1.80. Global terrorist attacks, 1968-present, also follow a power-law with exponent 1.71 for G7 countries and 2.5 for non-...

  12. CAPTIVES COURAGEOUS: SOUTH AFRICAN PRISONERS OF WAR WORLD WAR II

    OpenAIRE

    David McLennan

    2012-01-01

    Captives Courageous; South African prisoners of war in World War II is the ninth work in the South Africans at War series published by Ashanti Press. Leigh has divided his book into two parts. In the first part, entitled "Into the bag", he details the capture of South Africans in the Western Desert and their rapid transition from efficient fighting men to often sickly and weak prisoners of war (POW). The Western Desert was an unforgiving environment in which to find oneself a prisoner of wa...

  13. Searching for extraterrestrial civilizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuiper, T B; Morris, M

    1977-05-01

    We have argued that planning for a search for extraterrestrial intelligence should involve a minimum number of assumptions. In view of the feasibility (at our present level of understanding) of using nuclear fusion to effect interstellar travel at a speed of 0.1c, it appears unwarranted (at this time) to assume that it would not occur for at least some technologically advanced civilizations. One cannot even conclude that humans would not attempt this within the next few centuries. On the contrary, the most likely future situation, given the maintenance of technological growth and the absence of extraterrestrial interference, is that our civilization will explore and colonize our galactic neighborhood. A comparison of the time scales of galactic evolution and interstellar travel leads to the conclusion that the galaxy is either essentially empty with respect to technological civilizations or extensively colonized. In the former instance, a SETI would be unproductive. In the latter, a SETI could be fruitful if a signal has been deliberately directed at the earth or at an alien outpost, probe, or communication relay station in our solar system. In the former case, an existing antenna would probably be sufficient to detect the signal. In the latter case, success would depend on the way in which the communications were coded. Failure to detect a signal could permit any of the following conclusions: (i) the galaxy is devoid of technological civilizations, advanced beyond our own, (ii) such civilizations exist, but cannot (for some reason which is presently beyond our ken) engage in interstellar colonization, or (iii) such civilizations are not attempting overt contact with terrestrial civilizations and their intercommunications, if present, are not coded in a simple way. To plan at this time for a high-cost, large-array SETI based on the last two possibilities appears to be rather premature. PMID:17760037

  14. Style and ideology: The cold war 'blend' in Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romanu Keti

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes cultural policy in Greece from the end of World War II up to the fall of the junta of colonels in 1974. The writer's object is to show how the Cold War favoured defeated Western countries, which participated effectively in the globalisation of American culture, as in the Western world de-nazification was transformed into a purge of communism. Using the careers of three composers active in communist resistance organizations as examples (Iannis Xenakis, Mikis Theodorakis and Alecos Xenos, the writer describes the repercussions of this phenomenon in Greek musical life and creativity.

  15. Oil, geopolitics and the coming war with Iran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Many factors show that Iran will play a critical role in the world's future energy equation. Moreover, Iran has the only military in the region that can threaten its neighbors and Gulf security, It is this regional threat that American leaders are most determined to eliminate. And so, as was the case with Irak, while oil may not be the US, Administration's sole reason for going to war with Iran, it is an essential factor in the overall strategies calculations that makes war likely

  16. Physicists in times of war

    CERN Document Server

    Schrör, B

    2006-01-01

    Though the majority of physicists would probably not support preemptive wars, nuclear and other weapons of mass destruction would not exist without their contributions. Einstein's anti-militaristic position has been well-documented and the present essay recalls the role of some contemporary and past physicists on this issue. The idea that the rationality of scientific thought is a reliable antidote against supporting wars in order to achieve political or ideological aims was neither correct in the past nor is it presently valid. In the physics community there always existed a minority of supporters of wars of domination or regime change. The ``preemptive'' war for the US hegemony in the middle east has given the problem of ``physicists in times of war'' new actuality. One of the most perplexing appologists of the agressive war of Nazi-Germany against ``the Bolshevist peril'' has been Pascual Jordan whose interesting scientific and controversial political biography is the main isue of this essay.

  17. From War to Financial Crisis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harste, Gorm

    2014-01-01

    The present article analyzes the transformation of the long-term risks of protracted wars from the battlefield to the economic system. Major wars, supplied with strong capacities due to extended manpower resources, advanced logistic capabilities and permanency of campaign, expose their states to ...... the link between the Vietnam War, the Afghanistan War, the Iraq War, and the background for the financial crisis that began in 2008....... to extremely costly engagements. This includes heavy long-term costs for war veterans. Accordingly, the center of gravity on the battlefield (Clausewitz) is transformed to the financial systems of taxes and credit systems. This is a classical historical lesson; but this story is indeed central to understanding...

  18. Humanism in War—Analysis on Pearl S. Buck's War Outlook in Dragon Seed%Humanism in War—Analysis on Pearl S.Buck's War Outlook in Dragon Seed

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张婷

    2015-01-01

    Pearl S.Buck is a controversial American writer.Dragon Seed is one of her war novels and arouses some readers'mis-understanding because of the vivid description of human loss.This research will focus on the analysis of the characters'person-ality change before and during the enemies'invasion.And then explore Pearl S.Buck's real attitude towards Chinese Anti-Japa-nese War and her buried war outlook.

  19. Leo Szilard Award Lecture: Unwinding the Cold War

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neff, Thomas

    1997-04-01

    Two generations of scientists in the US and the Soviet Union spent their lives in the shadow of the cold war, building the scientific and technical infrastructure and shaping the institutional and policy structures that maintained a stable "balance of terror." The cold war is now over, but the lethal products of it, and the decaying institutions and policies that perpetuated it, are probably more dangerous than ever. At the same time, the loss of cold war imperatives means fewer government resources and less policy attention to the problems of reversing the cold war. Moreover, solving these problems will require that the forces and talents of economics and business be integrated with the technical skill and imagination of physical scientists. Science fundamentally involves skills of problem definition and problem-solving. Both American and Russian scientists and engineers must expand their tool kits and the scope of their imaginations if they are to undo the dangerous legacy of the cold war and find productive new roles in a post-cold war world. This address is intended to illustrate how this can be done, using the past five years' experience in developing and implementing the agreement between the U.S. and Russia to motivate, finance, and institutionalize the destruction of approximately 20,000 Russian nuclear weapons through the commercially-driven recovery and destruction of 500 tonnes of highly enriched uranium from those weapons. Such approaches can have benefits much broader than the destruction of weapons, if we can recognize the opportunities and pursue them wisely. Unfortunately, there is a basic lack of imagination and will, one that is further frustrated by bureaucratic inertia and the parochial interests of cold war institutions. The irony is that Russia is more ready to change than the US, but it is the US that is, in principle but perhaps not in practice, most able to help lead the world out of the cold war era.

  20. Alliance Formation and War Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Jack S. Levy

    1981-01-01

    The question of whether alliance formation contributes to peace or to war is analyzed for the modern Great Power system over the last 500 years. It is found that for none of the last five centuries has alliance formation been correlated (tau-b) with war involving the Great Powers, and has often been correlated with peace. Furthermore, disproportionately few wars have been preceded by alliance formation (compared to random probability models), suggesting that alliances are not among the more i...