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Sample records for american civil war

  1. The American Home Front. Revolutionary War, Civil War, World War 1, World War 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    Union officer become Supreme Court Justice, spoke of the Civil War’s psychic effect on those who had fought. Determined to act greatly, Holmes and his...than psychic and hardiy limited to those who, like himself, had served in the Union armies. Institutions as well as individuals had emerged from the war...to match unemployed workers with vacant jobs. 39 If by the close of 1918, the government reacted to possible strikes with threatened removal of a

  2. Proposals for chemical weapons during the American Civil War.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasegawa, Guy R

    2008-05-01

    Proposals for chemical weapons that arose during the American Civil War are described. Most incendiary and all biological agents are excluded. The described proposals appeared primarily in periodicals or letters to government officials on both sides. The weapons were usually meant to temporarily disable enemy combatants, but some might have been lethal, and Civil War caregivers were ill-prepared to deal with the weapons' effects. Evidently, none of the proposed weapons were used. In only one instance was use against civilians mentioned. Among the agents most commonly proposed were cayenne pepper or other plant-based irritants such as black pepper, snuff, mustard, and veratria. Other suggested agents included chloroform, chlorine, hydrogen cyanide, arsenic compounds, sulfur, and acids. Proponents usually suggested that the chemicals be included in explosive artillery projectiles. Less commonly proposed vehicles of delivery included fire engines, kites, and manned balloons. Some of the proposed weapons have modern counterparts.

  3. Auroral omens of the American Civil War

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, Jeffrey J.

    2014-01-01

    Aurorae are a splendid night-time sight: coruscations of green, purple, and red fluorescent light in the form of gently wafting ribbons, billowing curtains, and flashing rays. Mostly seen at high latitudes, in the north aurorae are often called the northern lights or aurora borealis, and, in the south, the southern lights or aurora australis. The mystery of their cause has historically been the subject of wonder. The folklore and mythology of some far-northern civilizations attributed auroral light to celestial deities. And, in ironic contrast with their heavenly beauty, unusual auroral displays, such as those seen on rare occasions at lower southern latitudes, have sometimes been interpreted as portending unfavorable future events. Today we understand aurorae to be a visual manifestation of the dynamic conditions in the space environment surrounding the earth. Important direct evidence in support of this theory came on September 1, 1859. On that day, an English astronomer named Richard Carrington was situated at his telescope, which was pointed at the sun. While observing and sketching a large group of sunspots, he saw a solar flare—intense patches of white light that were superimposed upon the darker sunspot group and which were illuminated for about a minute. One day later, a magnetic storm was recorded at specially designed observatories in Europe, across Russia, and in India. By many measures, the amplitude of magnetic disturbance was the greatest ever recorded. In the United States, the effects of the Carrington storm could be seen as irregular backand-forth deflections of a few degrees in the magnetized needle of a compass. Rapid magnetic variation also induced electric fields in the earth’s conducting lithosphere, and interfered with the operation of telegraph systems. The Carrington magnetic storm, and an earlier storm that had occurred on August 28, 1859, caused spectacular displays of aurora borealis in the night-time sky over the entire United

  4. Sacrifice and Commitment: American Volunteers in the Spanish Civil War

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anders Greenspan

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The Spanish Civil War (1936-1939 was the last European war before the start of World War II. The war, an ideological struggle between Francisco Franco and his nationalist supporters, aided by the Germans and Italians, sought to remove from power the Spanish Republic, which was aided by the Soviet Union. On both sides of the conflict were volunteers from many countries, including the United States of America. American volunteers fought on both sides of the war, yet more chose the side of the Republicans. Many, but not all, were motivated by political beliefs. Others wanted the perceived romance and excitement of battle, or the sense that they were being of help. The volunteers discussed in this study came from all of these categories, with the ones having political motivation the largest group. They detailed their experiences and their views of the war to their friends, families and comrades back home in the United States. These letters, which come from the Abraham Lincoln Brigade Archives at New York University, form the main part of the study and provide a deeper insight into what these men and women were thinking, as well as providing insight into their desire to fight in Spain. Through their eyes it is possible to gain a deeper understanding of their experiences and their motivations. For many of them, their experiences in Spain formed an important part of their journey in life. Some of them remained loyal to the Communist ideology throughout their lives, while others changed their views as the ruthlessness of Stalin became better known. A modern audience can benefit from a chance to read their thoughts and ideas in an attempt to better understand the events that helped drive the world into the Second World War.

  5. Sacrifice and Commitment: American Volunteers in the Spanish Civil War

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anders Greenspan

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The Spanish Civil War (1936-1939 was the last European war before the start of World War II. The war, an ideological struggle between Francisco Franco and his nationalist supporters, aided by the Germans and Italians, sought to remove from power the Spanish Republic, which was aided by the Soviet Union. On both sides of the conflict were volunteers from many countries, including the United States of America. American volunteers fought on both sides of the war, yet more chose the side of the Republicans.  Many, but not all, were motivated by political beliefs. Others wanted the perceived romance and excitement of battle, or the sense that they were being of help. The volunteers discussed in this study came from all of these categories, with the ones having political motivation the largest group. They detailed their experiences and their views of the war to their friends, families and comrades back home in the United States.  These letters, which come from the Abraham Lincoln Brigade Archives at New York University, form the main part of the study and provide a deeper insight into what these men and women were thinking, as well as providing insight into their desire to fight in Spain. Through their eyes it is possible to gain a deeper understanding of their experiences and their motivations.  For many of them, their experiences in Spain formed an important part of their journey in life.  Some of them remained loyal to the Communist ideology throughout their lives, while others changed their views as the ruthlessness of Stalin became better known.  A modern audience can benefit from a chance to read their thoughts and ideas in an attempt to better understand the events that helped drive the world into the Second World War.

  6. Civil War

    OpenAIRE

    Christopher Blattman; Edward Miguel

    2010-01-01

    Most nations have experienced an internal armed conflict since 1960. The past decade has witnessed an explosion of research into the causes and consequences of civil wars, belatedly bringing the topic into the economics mainstream. This article critically reviews this interdisciplinary literature and charts productive paths forward. Formal theory has focused on a central puzzle: why do civil wars occur at all when, given the high costs of war, groups have every incentive to reach an agreement...

  7. The Second Tennessee Cavalry in the American Civil War

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-13

    Hereafter cited as OR. 6Andrew Williams, Andrew Jackson Williams Papers , 1908-1910, Archives of Appalachia, East Tennessee State University...Centennial Commission of Tennessee, Tennesseans, 25-27; OR, series 1, vol. 4, 244. 63Colonel (Ret.) Armando Alfaro, “The Paper Trail of the Civil War in...observer noted that Ashby “served the balance of the war on crutches ” after receiving this wound.141 Colonel John Scott’s Kentucky Raid In July

  8. The American Home Front: Revolutionary War, Civil War, World War I, World War II

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    Banking Act and the introduction of protectionism. The Union was also more successful in both the suspension of the writ of habeas corpus and the use of its...Americans could "’turn with fresh interests to our own tyrannies-to our Colorado mines. our autocratic steel industries, our sweatshops . and our slums...conservation programs and the introduction of hybrid seeds, added another 14 percent, and more scientific disease control and better feeding, breeding

  9. Fiction as Reconstruction of History: Narratives of the Civil War in American Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reinhard Isensee

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Even after more than 140 years the American Civil War continues to serve as a major source of inspiration for a plethora of literature in various genres. While only amounting to a brief period in American history in terms of years, this war has proved to be one of the central moments for defining the American nation since the second half of the nineteenth century. The facets of the Civil War, its protagonists, places, events, and political, social and cultural underpinnings seem to hold an ongoing fascination for both academic studies and fictional representations. Thus, it has been considered by many the most written-about war in the United States.

  10. Women of Valor in the American Civil War

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Heimerman, Cheryl

    1999-01-01

    .... At the outset of the war, more women were forced into working in factories or for the government, not only to support the war effort but also to provide for the family when the husband was at war...

  11. Bodily Pain, Combat, and the Politics of Memoirs: Between the American Civil War and the War in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourke, Joanna

    2013-05-01

    This article analyses the languages of wartime pain as seen in British and American memoirs from the American Civil War to the present. How did the rhetoric of wounding in these war memoirs change over time? One of the central shifts lies in the way that wounded men presented themselves as stoic in spite of severe wounding. From 1939, and in an even more dramatic fashion by the war in Vietnam, physical suffering remained a test of manliness, but the tone was defiant and aggressive rather than stoic or resigned. The article also looks at the role of individual publishers and the introduction of psychological dimensions of wounding in latter memoirs.

  12. The Civil War Diet

    OpenAIRE

    Brennan, Matthew Philip

    2005-01-01

    The soldierâ s diet in the Civil War has been known as poor, and a number of illnesses and disorders have been associated with it. However, a nutritional analysis placed within the context of mid-nineteenth century American nutrition has been lacking. Such an approach makes clear the connection between illness and diet during the war for the average soldier and defines the importance of nutritionâ s role in the war. It also provides a bridge from the American diet to the soldier diet, ou...

  13. The Lauramann Howe Russell Papers: a Window into Critical Care Medicine during the American Civil War.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorbaty, Benjamin

    2017-10-01

    The Civil War influenced all aspects of American society and culture, including the field of medicine and critical care. Union physician Lauramann Howe Russell's letter to his daughter, Ellen Howe, written on October 19, 1862, illustrates the changes in hospital construction, gender roles in healthcare and medical treatments which revolutionized healthcare during the Civil War. This letter offers a glimpse of the medical care of wounded soldiers during the early years of the Civil War. In describing his conversion hospital, he reveals the precursor to the new hospital construction which would greatly influence hospital design for decades to come. His description of women volunteers hints at the evolving role and growing importance of women in healthcare. Finally, the advancements in surgical and medical practice which developed during the Civil War are embodied in Russell's descriptions of his patients. His letter freezes a moment in medical history, bridging the gap between archaic medical practice and modern critical care. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Racism Toward the Blacks During the American Civil War as Depicted in Edgar Lawrence Doctorow's the March

    OpenAIRE

    CHOLIFAH, NUR

    2014-01-01

    Keywords : racism, stereotype, prejudice, discrimination Slavery in the United States is closely connected to the American CivilWar between the North and the South which was happened in 1861-1865. Slavery deals with the ill-treatment of the Whites to the Blacks. Moreover, thosetreatments to the Blacks became the bad issues in illustrating the racism duringAmerican Civil War. Besides, the writer conducted a study by using sociologicalapproach about racism of critical race theory during the Ame...

  15. Legalisation of Civil Wars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buhl, Kenneth Øhlenschlæger

    2009-01-01

    This article is concerned with the legal challenges of regulating civil wars in international humanitarian law. Civil war is not a term used in international law; it falls however, withing the context of the legal term 'armed conflicts not of an international character', although the shorter 'non......-international armed conflict' is used here. Civil wars are usually limited to the territory of a state. Considering that international law is generally concerned with the legal relations between states – being a legal system based on the system of states with states as its subjects – the main question is how civil...... wars as internal conflicts have become subject to international humanitarian law....

  16. Civil War and Inoperativity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flohr, Mikkel

    2017-01-01

    This article analyses the penultimate publication in Giorgio Agambens Homo Sacer-series Stasis: Civil War as a Political Paradigm. It compares and contrasts the paradigm of civil war with the preceding paradigm of the exception, and identifies a significant displacement in the relationship between...... civil war and the sovereign state, in spite of Agamben’s insistence on their continuity. Agamben’s decoupling of civil war and the sovereign state facilitates novel political possibilities that unfortunately remain underdeveloped in the book. The article proceeds to develop Agamben’s brief intimations...... of inoperativity towards a concept of destituent power drawing on his other writings. It makes the argument for thinking civil war and inoperativity – stasis and stasis – together to derive a concept of destituent power as a form of revolution against the sovereign state, which does not constitute a new sovereign...

  17. "Nothing to Fear from the Influence of Foreigners:" The Patriotism of Richmond's German-Americans during the Civil War

    OpenAIRE

    Bright, Eric W.

    1999-01-01

    Before and during the Civil War, Richmond's German-Americans were divided by their diverse politics, economic interests, cultures, and religions. Some exhibited Confederate sentiments and others Unionist. At the start of the war, scores of Richmond's German-born men volunteered for Confederate military service while others fled to the North. Those who remained found that they were not fully accepted as members of the Confederate citizenry. Political allegiances within the German-Ame...

  18. Trepanation Procedures/Outcomes: Comparison of Prehistoric Peru with Other Ancient, Medieval, and American Civil War Cranial Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kushner, David S; Verano, John W; Titelbaum, Anne R

    2018-06-01

    More prehistoric trepanned crania have been found in Peru than any other location worldwide. We examine trepanation practices and outcomes in Peru over nearly 2000 years from 400 BC to provide a perspective on the procedure with comparison with procedures/outcomes of other ancient, medieval, and American Civil War cranial surgery. Data on trepanation demographics, techniques, and survival rates were collected through the scientific analysis of more than 800 trepanned crania discovered in Peru, through field studies and the courtesy of museums and private collections in the United States and Peru, over nearly 3 decades. Data on procedures and outcomes of cranial surgery ancient, medieval, and during 19th-century through the American Civil war were obtained via a literature review. Successful trepanations from prehistoric times through the American Civil War likely involved shallow surgeries that did not pierce the dura mater. Although there are regional and temporal variations in ancient Peru, overall long-term survival rates for the study series were about 40% in the earliest period (400-200 BC), with improvement to a high of 91% in samples from AD 1000-1400, to an average of 75%-83% during the Inca Period (AD 1400s-1500). In comparison, the average cranial surgery mortality rate during the American Civil war was 46%-56%, and short- and long-term survival rates are unknown. The contrast in outcomes highlights the astonishing success of ancient cranial surgery in Peru in the treatment of living patients. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Fickle Allies: Regular and Irregular Confederate Forces in Missouri during the American Civil War

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-22

    238-239, 242. 58Kel N. Pickens, “The Battle of Wilson’s Creek, Missouri, August 10, 1861,” in Civil War Battles in the West, ed. LeRoy H. Fischer ...force with nearby Confederate Army Brigadier General William Hardee and MSG Brigadier General M. Jeff . Thompson, and open a new front to ultimately...West, ed. LeRoy H. Fischer (Manhattan, KS: Sunflower University Press, 1981), 40. 101Shea, War in the West, 18-19, 26, 34-35. 30

  20. Military influence upon the development of anaesthesia from the American Civil War (1861-1865) to the outbreak of the First World War.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metcalfe, N H

    2005-12-01

    The American Civil War (1861-1865) helped cement the place of anaesthesia in American medical practice and offered new insights into the specialty. The advantages that ensued were to offer long-term security to anaesthesia but the short-term gains were negligible. The Franco-Prussian War (1870-1871) exerted a negative influence upon nitrous oxide and oxygen research through the loss of leading civilian scientists to military duty. Later, the Boer Wars (1899-1902) helped stabilise the popularity of chloroform after the Hyderabad Commissions but were of little experimental value to anaesthesia. In the early 20th Century, the military continued to be operational without either specialist anaesthetists or an interest in developing military anaesthesia. However, the lack of anaesthetic development was largely due to problems with economics and academic infrastructure rather than to simple military neglect.

  1. Post Civil War African American History: Brief Periods of Triumph, and Then Despair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graff, Gilda

    2016-01-01

    During Reconstruction, which is often called the most progressive period in American history, African Americans made great strides. By 1868 African American men constituted a majority of registered voters in South Carolina and Mississippi, and by 1870 eighty-five percent of Mississippi's black jurors could read and write. However, Reconstruction was followed by approximately one hundred years of Jim Crow laws, lynching, disenfranchisement, sharecropping, unequal educational resources, terrorism, racial caricatures, and convict leasing. The Civil Rights Revolution finally ended that period of despair, but the era of mass incarceration can be understood as a reaction to the Civil Rights Movement. This article attempts to understand the persistence of racism in the United States from slavery's end until the present.

  2. Algeria: An Uncivilized Civil War

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Robling, Terry

    1995-01-01

    .... Moderates on both sides are seeking peace from the undeclared civil war that resulted when the military-backed regime canceled elections that Islamic fundamentalists were certain to win in 1992...

  3. The Aftermath of Civil War

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Siyan; Loayza, Norman V.; Reynal-Querol, Marta

    2007-01-01

    Using an event-study methodology, the article analyzes the aftermath of civil war in a cross-section of countries. It focuses on cases where the end of conflict marks the beginning of relatively lasting peace. The analysis considers 41 countries involved in internal wars over the period 1960--2003. To provide a comprehensive evaluation of the aftermath of war, a range of social areas is considered: basic indicators of economic performance, health and education, political development, demograp...

  4. The Civil War and Iowa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gore, Deborah, Ed.

    1987-01-01

    This journal issue explores Iowa's participation in the U.S. Civil War and primarily focuses on what happened to the men, women, and children who remained at home. A number of social, political, and economic changes are examined, including: (1) the increased responsibilities of women and children; (2) the growth of abolitionism; (3) the role of…

  5. Savages in a Civilized War: The Native Americans as French Allies in the Seven Years War, 1754-1763

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-14

    Mission, worked ceaselessly to convert Indians to Catholicism. Though this mission would be destroyed and its priests martyred in the Beaver Wars (the...and beavers . These shots were first made with a bow, but were easily adapted to the flintlock musket when the Europeans introduced the weapons to the...pittance compared to what they feel they justly deserved for their part in the campaign. To add insult to injury, smallpox was prevalent in the fort

  6. The Effects of Railroads on the Emergence of Operational Art During the American Civil War, 1861-1865

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-23

    L&N Railroad in the Civil War: A Vital North–South Link and the Struggle to Control It. Jefferson: McFarland & Company, 2011. Lord, Francis A...Battlefield 1861-1863. Amherst: Prometheus Books, 2008. Reynolds, Paul Davidson. A Primer in Theory Construction. Boston: Allyn and Bacon Classics

  7. Ending Afghanistan's Civil War

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dobbins, James

    2007-01-01

    The RAND Corporation has conducted a several studies on nation building and counterinsurgency drawing on the experience from dozens of American and non-American led operations over the past century...

  8. Intelligence Collection within The Army of Northern Virginia during the American Civil War

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-01

    PREFACE “He rode into the dark of the woods and dismounted. He crawled upward on his belly over the cool rocks out into the sunlight , and suddenly he...Gen Lee wanted to take the fight away from “war-ravaged Virginia,” and intended to “threaten Northern cities , weaken the AU/ACSC/SCHMELZER, B/AY16...potentially the outcome, may have changed. 1 Michael Shaara, The Killer Angels (New York City , NY: Ballantine Books, 1976), 3. 2 Peter Maslowski

  9. Effect of the Civil-Military Relationship on the Philippine-American War

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-04

    centennial /benevolent.html. 32 It is still unclear whether the Americans or the Filipinos shot first, with each side blaming the other after...his political career was over. He fell into a state of depression and wrote to his friend, William H. Taft, that he began to make plans to attend...Benevolent Assimilation Proclamation,” December 21, 1898. Accessed on December 21, 2015. http://www.msc.edu.ph/ centennial /benevolent.html. 51 ___. State

  10. From the American Civil War to the War on Terror: Three Models of Emergency Law in the United States Supreme Court

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartz, Emily

    This book offers a systematic and comprehensive account of the key cases that have come to shape the jurisprudence on emergency law in the United States from the Civil War to the War on Terror. The legal questions raised in these cases concern fundamental constitutional issues such as the status...... of fundamental rights, the role of the court in times of war, and the question of how to interpret constitutional limitations to executive power. At stake in these difficult legal questions is the issue of how to conceive of the very status of law in liberal democratic states. The questions with which...... the Supreme Court justices have to grapple in these cases are therefore as philosophical as they are legal. In this book the Court's arguments are systematized according to categories informed by constitutional law as well as classic philosophical discussions of the problem of emergency. On this basis...

  11. The United States Civil War Causal Agent for Irish Assimilation and Acceptance in US Society

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gillespie, William

    2001-01-01

    The American Civil War was a cornerstone event for the Irish in America. Their participation proved their duty to Union and Confederate causes, increased their acceptance in American society, and hastened assimilation...

  12. Explaining Violence in Sierra Leone's Civil War

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Explaining the violence of civil war is never a simple task for the scholar. In the case of the Sierra Leone, paradoxically, the task has in some ways been rendered more difficult by the sheer variety of compelling scholarship on the question. This paper seeks to identify the most useful of the explanations offered thus far, and ...

  13. Forty-Sixth Indiana Regiment: A Tactical Analysis of Amphibious Operations and Major Combat Engagements during the American Civil War

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-14

    cohesion and morale of the 46th Indiana. The monotony of camp life, severe weather, illness and disease , high casualty rates, and lack of food and...sickness and disease were a common cause of casualties during the war and the regiment experienced the same hardships caused by the harsh conditions... Carrion Crow Bayou. 161Bernard F. Schermerhorn, letter to wife, 9 November 1863, Bernard Schermerhorn Papers, 1862-1864, Indiana Historical Society

  14. Aurora painting pays tribute to Civil War's end

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, Jeffrey J.

    2015-01-01

    This year marks the sesquicentennial anniversary of the end of the American Civil War, a conflict that Abraham Lincoln called a “mighty scourge.” It was one of the most poignant periods in U.S. history, laying bare political, economic, social, and moral divergence between Northern and Southern states. The cause of the divergence that led to war was slavery [e.g., McPherson, 1988, chap. 3]—an institution that, by the 19th century, had been effectively abolished in the North but remained firmly entrenched in the South.

  15. The Civil War in cyberspace today

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matilde EIROA

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The appeal of the Spanish Civil War in the online world is a phenomenon deserving of attention, as an event that took place more than 75 years ago which still arouses debate and the curiosity of many. It is surprising that the media world considers it “newsworthy” and that it has an important presence on the Internet — on blogs, websites, You Tube, and even social media platforms such as Facebook and Twitter. This article examines all mention of the Civil War in online media. We start from the idea that the features of the online world allow for an extensive and multifaceted production of media of content which is more cultural, more social, and more attuned to the passing of time.

  16. Securing the Peace After Civil War

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-03-01

    transportation infrastructure has been destroyed. The currency is often devalued . Institutions are weak and corrupt with dysfunctional legal, governmental...increases to an average of five percent during a civil war.28 A 1997 IMF study estimated that an additional 2.2 percent of GDP spent on the military...to rule in an arbitrary and repressive manner. The recent examples in Venezuela and Nigeria suggest that even when the governments of oil states

  17. South Africa's role in the Civil War in Russia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    South Africa's role in the Civil War in Russia. 1918-1920. Cdr W.M. Bisset*. South Africa's role in the Civil War in ... the war or were later to receive awards for their services in Russia. Perhaps the most remarkable ... Bolshevik territory and he was taken prisoner. Another remarkable South African officer who served in North ...

  18. Drought and Civil War in Sub-Saharan Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Mathieu Couttenier; Raphael Soubeyran

    2010-01-01

    We show that civil war is strongly related to drought in sub-Saharan Africa. We consider the e ect of variations in the Palmer Drought Severity Index (Palmer 1965) - a cumulative index that combines precipitation, temperature and the local characteristics of the soil - on the risk of civil war. While the recent, contentious debate on the link between climate and civil war has mainly focused on precipitation and temperature, without obtaining converging results, the Palmer index describes soci...

  19. Making Good on a Promise: The Education of Civil War Orphans in Pennsylvania, 1863-1893

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bair, Sarah D.

    2011-01-01

    During and after the American Civil War, individual state governments, faced with numerous economic demands, struggled to meet the needs of soldiers and their families. Among other pressing questions, they had to decide what to do with the massive number of dependent children orphaned by the war. In order to protect children, it became more…

  20. Childhood casualties during civil war: Syrian experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çelikel, Adnan; Karbeyaz, Kenan; Kararslan, Bekir; Arslan, M Mustafa; Zeren, Cem

    2015-08-01

    In war areas a lot of children die as well as adults. According to UNICEF, almost 2 million children have died in the wars took place in the last 10 years. In this study, we aimed to evaluate demographical data and injury characteristics of Syrian children who were wounded in Syria Civil War and died while being treated in Turkey. Postmortem examination and autopsy reports of 985 forensic deaths from Hatay -a Syrian neighborhood city of Turkey-between January 2012 and August 2014 were analyzed retrospectively. Among 763 Syrian people who were wounded in the war and died while being treated in Turkey, 140 cases (18.3%) who were younger than 18 years of age were taken into the scope of this study. Among those cases 77.9% (n = 109) were male and 22.1% were female. Median ages of female cases are 14 (min-max: 2-18) and median age of female cases are 9 (min-max: 1-18). Frequency distribution is highest between 13 and 18 years of age (n: 71, 50.7%). In 70% (n: 98) of cases, cause of death is bombing and shrapnel injuries, 13.6% (19) of them were killed by gunshot wounds. According to injury sites most of the injuries were reported to be on multiple body parts (54.3%, n: 76) and only head and neck injuries (%30). Cause of death was intracranial bleeding and cerebral parenchymal injury in most of the cases (n: 66, %47.1) followed by vascular damage with external bleeding (n: 15, %10.7) and internal organ damage with internal bleeding (n: 15, %10.7). The cases had very high level Abbreviated Injury Scales and Injury Severity Sores. In conclusion, a lot of children have died in the Civil War of Syria. Their average abbreviated injury scale and injury severity score values reported very high. Children that we evaluated were mostly died of head and neck injuries predominantly caused by bombing attacks and Autopsies of them revealed fatal intracranial hemorrhages and parenchymal injuries. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights

  1. "Commissioned by God": Mother Bickerdyke during the Civil War.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sartin, Jeffrey S

    2003-10-01

    Mary Ann Bickerdyke, nurse, herbalist, and humanitarian, stood out as a singular figure during the American Civil War and afterward. She advocated nutrition and herbal medicines at a time when "heroic," if futile, treatments were often the rule. Her compassion toward ill soldiers was legendary and provided her with the nickname "Mother." Nevertheless, she did not hesitate to stand up to the bureaucratic and occasionally incompetent physician administrators who opposed her. Working in an arena typically off limits for women, she exceeded the bounds proscribed for her sex during the 19th century as a naturopathic physician, humanitarian, and social reformer.

  2. PROBLEMS IN ANALYZING INFLATION DURING THE CIVIL WAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul R. Auerbach

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available In the American Civil War, a drastic increase in the level of “high powered money” with the issuance of the greenbacks had a relatively modest effect on the measured price level. The existence of a free market in gold and the presence of specie are offered as an explanation for the constrained movements both in the money multiplier and in movements in measured income velocity. These unusual results largely reflect the fact that in such a world of freely fluctuating multiple currencies, a rise in the measured price level does not reflect the decline in the value of money.

  3. United States Foreign Policy and the Second Liberian Civil War ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    After about three years following the end of its first civil war in 1996, Liberia was again plunged into another civil war, when the Liberian United for Reconciliation and Democracy (LURD), a group of rebels, attacked the country from neighbouring Guinea. The efforts by the Taylor regime to repel the attack occasioned a ...

  4. The Role of Education in Sudan's Civil War

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breidlid, Anders

    2013-01-01

    This article addresses the role that education plays in conflict, with specific reference to the civil war in Sudan. It analyses the ideological basis of the Sudanese government (GoS) during the civil war, with special reference to the role of religion and ethnicity. It shows how the primary education system was based on the Islamist ideology of…

  5. Climate not to blame for African civil wars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buhaug, Halvard

    2010-01-01

    Vocal actors within policy and practice contend that environmental variability and shocks, such as drought and prolonged heat waves, drive civil wars in Africa. Recently, a widely publicized scientific article appears to substantiate this claim. This paper investigates the empirical foundation for the claimed relationship in detail. Using a host of different model specifications and alternative measures of drought, heat, and civil war, the paper concludes that climate variability is a poor predictor of armed conflict. Instead, African civil wars can be explained by generic structural and contextual conditions: prevalent ethno-political exclusion, poor national economy, and the collapse of the Cold War system. PMID:20823241

  6. Climate not to blame for African civil wars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buhaug, Halvard

    2010-09-21

    Vocal actors within policy and practice contend that environmental variability and shocks, such as drought and prolonged heat waves, drive civil wars in Africa. Recently, a widely publicized scientific article appears to substantiate this claim. This paper investigates the empirical foundation for the claimed relationship in detail. Using a host of different model specifications and alternative measures of drought, heat, and civil war, the paper concludes that climate variability is a poor predictor of armed conflict. Instead, African civil wars can be explained by generic structural and contextual conditions: prevalent ethno-political exclusion, poor national economy, and the collapse of the Cold War system.

  7. Syria: Land of history, civilizations and war

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    As the Syrians are welcomed into Canada, it is useful to learn about where they are coming from. Syria is an ancient land with a rich history and has always been home to diverse cultures, ethnicities and religions. Palmyra was an ancient civilization that arose during the second century. Syria became part of the land of Islam in AD 640 and was a cultural, religious and artistic center. During the Middle Ages, Syria came under the control of the Crusaders and was part of the Ottoman Empire from the early fifteen hundreds until the end of the nineteenth century. During World War I it came under French influence and was recognized as an independent nation after World War II. In 1963, Hafez al-Assad led a military coup and since then, Syria has been ruled under emergency law. After al-Assad died in 2000, his son Bashar al-Assad was elected President in an uncontested presidential campaign. Before the current conflict, Syria had a population of approximately 22 million people but now about half the population have been displaced internally and into neighbouring countries, including approximately four million refugees. It is estimated that 250,000 people have died during the Syrian conflict. PMID:29770036

  8. Old and new memories of the Civil War

    OpenAIRE

    Dominguez Prats, Pilar

    2014-01-01

    This article examines autobiographical narratives of the Spanish Civil War by way of war diaries, letters and memoirs which have been published between 2006 and 2013. Since the beginning of the war the trauma caused to Spanish society has led to a substantial number of personal narratives. These sources, based upon individual experiences, are of great value for constructing a multi-faceted history of the war itself. We examine memoirs and diaries which for various reasons have not been publis...

  9. Civil war, climate change, and development: a scenario study for Sub-Saharan Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Devitt, C.; Tol, R.S.J.

    2012-01-01

    This article presents a model of development, civil war and climate change. There are multiple interactions. Economic growth reduces the probability of civil war and the vulnerability to climate change. Climate change increases the probability of civil war. The impacts of climate change, civil war

  10. Slaves, Contrabands, and Freedmen: Union Policy in the Civil War

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Howard, Michelle

    1998-01-01

    This study examines Union slave policy in the Civil War. Prior to the initiation of hostilities, President Abraham Lincoln stated that the conflict between the states was over the preservation of the Union, and not over slavery...

  11. Norwich University: Citizen Soldiers in the Civil War

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Coakley, Shawn

    2002-01-01

    .... This paper examines the contributions of Norwich University and its graduates to the Union Army during the Civil War to determine the extent to which Partridge's system of education may have contributed to their success.

  12. Slaves, Contrabands, and Freedmen: Union Policy in the Civil War

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Howard, Michelle

    1998-01-01

    This study examines Union slave policy in the Civil War. Prior to the initiation of hostilities, President Abraham Lincoln stated that the conflict between the states was over the preservation of the Union, and not over...

  13. Climate change and the Syrian civil war revisited

    OpenAIRE

    Selby, Jan; Dahi, Omar S; Fröhlich, Christiane; Hulme, Mike

    2017-01-01

    For proponents of the view that anthropogenic climate change will become a ‘threat multiplier’ for instability in the decades ahead, the Syrian civil war has become a recurring reference point, providing apparently compelling evidence that such conflict effects are already upon us. According to proponents of this thesis, human-induced climatic change was a contributory factor in the extreme drought experienced by Syria prior to its civil war; this drought in turn led to large-scale migration;...

  14. Greed and Grievance: Economic Agendas in Civil Wars | CRDI ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Current scholarship on civil wars and transitions from war to peace has made significant progress in understanding the political dimensions of internal conflict. However, the economic motivations spurring political violence have been comparatively neglected. This pathbreaking book identifies the economic and social factors ...

  15. Dermatological face of Syrian civil war

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahime İnci

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Design: The frequency and variety of dermatological diseases significantly changed after 2011 in the regions where the Syrian refugees migrated because of the civil war in Syria where is bordered by our country. To reveal these changing, the demographic and dermatological data of the Syrian refugees were retrospectively examined in faculty of medicine, department of dermatology of our city where a significant amount of Syrian refugees have been living. Materials and Methods: A total of 326 refugees immigrated to our city and have been living in tent cities, and applied to our department between September 2012-July 2014 were included to our study. Age, gender, dermatological and laboratory findings were retrospectively examined. Skin diseases were examined in 16 groups according to the their frequency. The patients were divided into 4 age groups as 0-20, 21-40, 41-60 and, 61 and over; three most common diseases for each age group were analyzed. Results: Of 326 patients, 126 (38.7% were males, 200 (61.3% were females and the difference was significant in term of gender. The age range of the patients was 0 to 77 years, and the mean age was 21.6±10.5. The majority of patients were in 0-20 age group. Dermatological infectious diseases were the most frequent diseases group and cutaneous leishmaniasis was the most diagnosed dermatological disease among patients. Conclusion: Preventive health care services should be performed to prevent dermatological infectious diseases which are commonly seen in Syrian refugees, especially cutaneous leishmaniasis which is already endemic in our country, and limitations to reach physicians of these patients should be amended.

  16. The restoration of the gold standard after the US Civil War : A volatility analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meulemann, Max; Uebele, Martin; Wilfling, Bernd

    This paper presents a new view on the gold price of greenbacks during and after the American Civil War by analyzing exchange-rate volatility rather than exchange-rate levels. Our empirical investigation detects regimes of high and low volatility alternating in a way that is consistent with a

  17. In Pursuit Of Personal Conviction: Upon The Civil War Pocket Diaries Of Emilie Frances Davis, A Freeborn Black Woman [A Short Communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela K. Brown

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Emilie Davis was an African-American woman living in Philadelphia during the U.S. Civil War. Emile's diaries are a transcription of Emilie’s three pocket diaries for the years 1863, 1864, and 1865. In them, she recounts black Philadelphians’ celebration of the Emancipation Proclamation, nervous excitement during the battle of Gettysburg, and their collective mourning of President Lincoln. The diary allows readers to experience the war in real time, as events unfolded for Civil War Americans.

  18. Patterns of Force: System Strength, Terrorism and Civil War

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Freytag, Andreas; Meierrieks, Daniel; Münch, Angela

    2010-01-01

    We jointly analyze the genesis of terrorism and civil war, providing a simple conceptual framework to explain why violent opposition groups choose distinct forms of violence (i.e., terrorism and open rebellion). We argue that the distinct modes of violent opposition are chosen by opposition groups...... in response to the strengths and weaknesses of the system they challenge. An empirical test of this hypothesis for 104 countries for 1992 to 2004 indeed shows that the socio-economic strength of a system positively correlates with the likelihood of terrorism, but negatively with the incidence of civil war....... Institutional quality and political participation of opponents reduce the risk of civil war, but do not affect the likelihood of terrorism. We also show that system stability reduces the likelihood of all forms of violent opposition....

  19. Race, Civil War Memory, and Sisterhood in the Woman's Relief Corps

    OpenAIRE

    Kennedy, John C.

    2015-01-01

    This paper explores the intersections of race and the public remembrances of the American Civil War in the Woman's Relief Corps (WRC), auxiliary to the Grand Army of the Republic (GAR). It specifically examines the role of slavery, emancipation, and sectional reconciliation in the WRC's discourse about the meaning of the conflict, and how Jim Crow-era racial ideology influenced the scope and effectiveness of African American members within the organization. The extent to which the model of bl...

  20. Soviet civil defense plans make nuclear war winnable

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goure, L.

    1985-01-01

    In this paper, the author expresses his opinion that the U.S. is naive and suicidal in its lack of civil defense preparation for nuclear war. The Soviets' extensive civil defense planning is evidence that they plan to use their nuclear weapons and survive a counterattack by the U.S. The author compares the two systems and explains why the Soviets' system is superior

  1. International commodity prices and civil war outbreak: new evidence for Sub-Saharan Africa and beyond

    OpenAIRE

    Ciccone, Antonio

    2018-01-01

    A new dataset by Bazzi and Blattman (2014) allows examining the effects of international commodity prices on the risk of civil war outbreak with more comprehensive data. I find that international commodity price downturns sparked civil wars in Sub-Saharan Africa. Another finding with the new dataset is that commodity price downturns also sparked civil wars beyond Sub-Saharan Africa since 1980. Effects are sizable relative to the baseline risk of civil war outbreak. My conclusions contrast wit...

  2. International commodity prices, growth and the outbreak of Civil War in Sub-Saharan Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Markus Brückner; Antonio Ciccone

    2007-01-01

    To learn more about the effect of economic conditions on civil war, we examine whether Sub-Saharan civil wars are more likely to start following downturns in the international price of countries’ main export commodities. The data show a robust effect of commodity price downturns on the outbreak of civil wars. We also find that Sub-Saharan countries are more likely to see civil wars following economic downturns in their main OECD export destinations.

  3. International Commodity Prices, Growth, and the Outbreak of Civil War in Sub-Saharan Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Markus Brückner; Antonio Ciccone

    2009-01-01

    To learn more about the effect of economic conditions on civil war, we examine whether Sub-Saharan civil wars are more likely to start following downturns in the international price of countries main export commodities. The data show a robust effect of commodity price downturns on the outbreak of civil wars. We also find that Sub-Saharan countries are more likely to see civil wars following economic downturns in their main OECD export destinations.

  4. RUSSIAN PEASANTRY IN THE CIVIL WAR: ISTORIOGRAPHY ASPECT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. N. Grehova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article examines the position of the peasantry during the civil war of 1918-1920 Soviet History. The article is an analysis of the nature of peasant uprisings by historians. It's attention is turned towards the reasons, causes and extent of the uprisings.

  5. Iroquois in Blue: From Reservation to Civil War Battlefield.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauptman, Laurence M.

    1988-01-01

    Uses excerpts from letters and personal narratives to present the experiences of Iroquois soldiers in the Civil War. Describes initial U.S. resistance to Indian enlistment, Iroquois eagerness to enlist, heroic deeds, and conditions of starvation, filth, and disease in Confederate prisons. (SV)

  6. 155 RETHINKING THE IMPACT OF NIGERIAN CIVIL WAR ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ugo-Paschal

    2017-02-02

    Feb 2, 2017 ... cooperation. ... this, the independence of 1960 further promoted integration and ... This also applied to other cities across Nigeria. ... the Nigerian Civil War, Nnewi was a rural town with little commercial ... It is mainly on the account of this that large and medium-scale ..... networks. ... Following the synergy.

  7. Precision and Purpose: Airpower in the Libyan Civil War

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Civil War Zara after seeing leaflets emblazoned with attacking helicopters descend on the area. In Tripoli, residents recalled hearing a radio program...operational night flight (March 4, 1912); his colleague, Tenente Giulio Gavotti, dropped the first bombs on November 1, 1911, striking Ain Zara and

  8. The Role of Religion During and After the Civil War in Sierra Leone ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Civil wars in Africa are renowned for their strong religious elements, with religion being used for different purposes and in different capacities. Sierra Leone's civil war (1991-2002), known also as the “rebel war,” had significant religious dimensions. The warring factions used religion for their gain. Beyond that, Muslim and ...

  9. Warming increases the risk of civil war in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Marshall B; Miguel, Edward; Satyanath, Shanker; Dykema, John A; Lobell, David B

    2009-12-08

    Armed conflict within nations has had disastrous humanitarian consequences throughout much of the world. Here we undertake the first comprehensive examination of the potential impact of global climate change on armed conflict in sub-Saharan Africa. We find strong historical linkages between civil war and temperature in Africa, with warmer years leading to significant increases in the likelihood of war. When combined with climate model projections of future temperature trends, this historical response to temperature suggests a roughly 54% increase in armed conflict incidence by 2030, or an additional 393,000 battle deaths if future wars are as deadly as recent wars. Our results suggest an urgent need to reform African governments' and foreign aid donors' policies to deal with rising temperatures.

  10. Civil war, social integration and mental health in Croatia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunovich, R M; Hodson, R

    1999-12-01

    Research has shown that social relationships are generally beneficial for mental health (Thoits 1995). However, few scholars have examined this association after the occurrence of a significant shock to the social system as a whole. The purpose of this article is to examine the relationship between social integration and war-related distress in Croatia immediately following the recent civil war. Does social integration decrease war-related distress? Does social integration buffer the effect of traumatic events on war-related distress? We analyze these questions using nationally representative survey data collected in Croatia in 1996. Results suggest that social integration has both positive and negative direct effects on distress. Being a member of informal organizations, such as sports clubs, and participating in social activities are beneficial for mental health. On the other hand, being a member of some formal organizations, such as church organizations and unions, is detrimental to mental health. There is little support for the idea that social integration buffers the effect of traumatic events on distress. Only one of thirty-six possible interactions is significant and supports the buffer hypothesis. Frequent participation in social activities buffers the effect of experiencing violence on war-related distress. Also, some forms of social integration appear to aggravate the effect of traumatic events on war-related distress. In sum, social integration does affect war-related distress after a system shock, but in complex and sometimes unexpected ways.

  11. Three Generations, Three Wars: African American Veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Helen K

    2016-02-01

    This article emerged from pilot research exploring experiences of war and suffering among African American veterans who served in World War II, Korean War, and Vietnam War. Men's experiences as soldiers reflected both racism and the social change that occurred in the Unites States while they served. We used techniques of narrative elicitation, conducting qualitative, ethnographic interviews with each of five veterans in his home. Interviews focused on unique and shared experiences as an African American man and a soldier. Three important themes emerged: (a) Expectations related to War--Although men viewed service to country as an expected part of life, they also expected equal treatment in war, which did not occur; (b) Suffering as an African American--Informants interpreted experiences of suffering in war as related to the lower status of African American servicemen; and (c) Perception of present identity--Each man was honed by the sum of his experiences, including those of combat, racism, and postwar opportunities and obstacles. From 40 to 70 years after the wars were fought, there are few scholarly narrative studies on African American veterans, despite the fact that Korean War Veterans are entering old-old age and few World War II Veterans are alive. The value of pilot research that offers narratives of unheard voices is significant; larger studies can interview more African American veterans to advance knowledge that might soon be lost. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. The Role of Officer Selection and Training on the Successful Formation and Employment of U.S. Colored Troops in the American Civil War, 1863-1865

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-10

    into Kansas from Missouri.35 Throughout the end of 1861 and the beginning of 1862, the mood in Kansas shifted from a begrudging acceptance of former...their own right. With knowledge and confidence they worked to uplift all black Americans. Many USCT veterans went on to hold political office and

  13. The Catholic Propaganda abroad two Spains during the Civil War

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luis GONZÁLEZ GULLÓN

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This research analyzes the propaganda abroad developed the priests Leocadio Lobo and Alberto Bonet during the Spanish Civil War, both the service of republican government and the insurgent coalition, respectively. This has been resorted to important documentary sources and texts of the time, which gives us a fairly detailed picture of the dialectic that generated intense fighting in various European countries the performance of the Spanish Church between 1936 and 1939.

  14. The Problem of Civil War In Agamben's Thought

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flohr, Mikkel

    2014-01-01

    This essay departs from the largely obscure theme of civil war in Agamben’s Homo Sacer: Sovereign Power and Bare Life to elucidate a fundamental aporia of his early political thought inherited from the work of Carl Schmitt. It begins with an analysis of the topology of the exception, as the inclu......This essay departs from the largely obscure theme of civil war in Agamben’s Homo Sacer: Sovereign Power and Bare Life to elucidate a fundamental aporia of his early political thought inherited from the work of Carl Schmitt. It begins with an analysis of the topology of the exception......, as the inclusion of civil war within the sovereign order – a conceptual move which forecloses the possibility of political contestation. This analysis permits an interrogation and critique of Agamben’s controversial claim regarding the inevitable shipwreck of the revolutions of the twentieth century....... This is followed by an exploration of Agamben’s failed attempts to move past this aporia via the strategy of exodus. Finally, the political impasse identified by Agamben is revealed to be a conceptual limitation, rather than a practical and political aporia, thus recovering the possibility of contesting...

  15. APPROACHES TO CIVIL WARS: ‘HOW DO LEADERS LEAD, AND WHY DO FOLLOWERS FOLLOW?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pizwak Imtiaz

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses the theories of civil wars as envisioned by three civil war theories presented by Stathis Kalivas (2000, 2009, Michael Brown (1996 and Fearon and Laitin (2003. The paper begins with the definitions and typology of civil wars, as envisioned by the three theories and highlights possible points of convergence among the three, in terms of the causes and process of civil war onset. Further, it comments upon individual nuances of the theories, and criticizes common aspects to present a comparative framework regarding theories of civil wars. The argument favours a systematic understanding of civil wars as presented by Stathis Kalyvas, through a thorough depiction of his structural and multifaceted understanding of the causes of civil war, based on the idea of violence. Although Brown’s contribution regarding the permissive and proximate causes of civil wars is critical towards distinguishing catalysts from underlying causes of civil wars, his reliance on elite-centred theories has been criticized. Fearon and Laitin’s empirical analysis although invaluable towards dispelling the centrality given to ethnic and religious diversity earlier, lacks in an understanding of what leads to actual violence. Towards the end, a more interpretative form of research is required to see how several factors cause internal conflict and are also endogenous and interconnected with the actors (government, insurgents, civilians, to understand the persistence of different forms of violence in civil wars.

  16. Rhetoric of civil conflict management: United Nations Security Council debates over the Syrian civil war

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juraj Medzihorsky

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces a spatial model of civil conflict management rhetoric to explore how the emerging norm of responsibility to protect shapes major power rhetorical responses to civil war. Using framing theory, we argue that responsibility to protect functions like a prescriptive norm, such that representing a conflict as one of (1 human rights violations (problem definition, implies rhetorical support for (2 coercive outside intervention (solution identification. These dimensions reflect the problem-solution form of a prescriptive norm. Using dictionary scaling with a dynamic model, we analyze the positions of UN Security Council members in debates over the Syrian Civil War separately for each dimension. We find that the permanent members who emphasized human rights violations also used intervention rhetoric (UK, France, and the US, and those who did not used non-intervention rhetoric (Russia and China. We conclude that, while not a fully consolidated norm, responsibility to protect appears to have structured major power rhetorical responses to the Syrian Civil War.

  17. American growth and Napoleonic Wars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vergil Hasan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Four years after the French Revolution, in 1793 a series of wars among France and other major powers of Europe began and they lasted until 1815. There is disagreement among economic historians about the effects of these wars on the trend of US economic growth. This paper aims to answer the following question. Did America as a neutral nation take advantage of economic possibilities caused by Europe at war through trade? To put it differently, this paper questions whether there was an export-led growth due to the war. To answer this question, we re-examined the export-led growth hypothesis for the period 1790-1860 using the ARDL methodology. Based on this methodology, a cointegrated relationship is found among the variables of real GDP, labor, exports and exchange rates. The results suggest that the economic growth of the US was not export-driven. In addition, parallel to the results of unit root tests with structural breaks, the coefficient of the dummy variable was statistically significant in the long run, implying that the war did have a significant effect on the economic growth trend of the US.

  18. Secession, the EU, and Lessons from the U.S. Civil War

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sweeney, Richard J.

    2003-01-01

    The post-Civil War reconciliation between the North and the South is a very rare eventin the history of civil wars. The South was thoroughly beaten. Top generals, particularly Robert E.Lee, saw further fighting as `useless effusion of blood.' There was no call by top Confederateleaders for contin......The post-Civil War reconciliation between the North and the South is a very rare eventin the history of civil wars. The South was thoroughly beaten. Top generals, particularly Robert E.Lee, saw further fighting as `useless effusion of blood.' There was no call by top Confederateleaders...... for continuing the fight with the type of bushwacking that occurred in Missouri andKansas. Reconstruction is often thought of as harsh, but compared to the standards of historyConfederates were by and large treated well after the Civil War. Within a decade or so of the endof the Civil War, conservative white...

  19. Assessment of the perioperative period in civilians injured in the Syrian Civil War

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sedat Hakimoglu

    2015-11-01

    Conclusion: among injuries related to war, the highest rate of mortality was observed in head–neck, abdomen and vascular injuries. We believe that the higher mortality rate in the Syrian Civil War, compared to the Bosnia, Vietnam, Lebanon and Afghanistan wars, is due to seeing civilians as a direct target during war.

  20. International Commodities Prices, Growth and the Outbreak of Civil War in Sub-Saharan Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Markus Bruckner; Antonio Ciccone

    2010-01-01

    To learn more about the effect of economic conditions on civil war, we examine whether Sub-Saharan civil wars are more likely to start following downturns in the international price of countries’ main export commodities. The data show a robust effect of commodity price downturns on the outbreak of civil wars. We also find that Sub-Saharan countries are more likely to see civil wars following economic downturns in their main OECD export destinations.

  1. Malnutrition, Subsequent Risk of Mortality and Civil War in Burundi

    OpenAIRE

    Philip Verwimp

    2011-01-01

    The paper investigates the effect of child malnutrition on the risk of mortality in Burundi, a very poor country heavily affected by civil war. We use anthropometric data from a longitudinal survey (1998-2007). We find that undernourished children, as measured by the height-for-age z-scores (HAZ) in 1998 had a higher probability to die during subsequent years. In order to address the problem of omitted variables correlated with both nutritional status and the risk of mortality, we use the len...

  2. Surgical outcomes of a civil war in a neighbouring country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akkucuk, Seckin; Aydogan, A; Yetim, I; Ugur, M; Oruc, C; Kilic, E; Paltaci, I; Kaplan, A; Temiz, M

    2016-08-01

    The civil war in Syria began on 15 March 2011, and many of the injured were treated in the neighbouring country of Turkey. This study reports the surgical outcomes of this war, in a tertiary centre in Turkey. 159 patients with civilian war injuries in Syria who were admitted to the General Surgery Department in the Research and Training Hospital of the Medical School of Mustafa Kemal University, Hatay, Turkey, between 2011 and 2012 were analysed regarding the age, sex, injury type, history of previous surgery for the injury, types of abdominal injuries (solid or luminal organ), the status of isolated abdominal injuries or multiple injuries, mortality, length of hospital stay and injury severity scoring. The median age of the patients was 30.05 (18-66 years) years. Most of the injuries were gunshot wounds (99 of 116 patients, 85.3%). Primary and previously operated patients were transferred to our clinic in a median time of 6.28±4.44 h and 58.11±44.08 h, respectively. Most of the patients had intestinal injuries; although a limited number of patients with colorectal injuries were treated with primary repair, stoma was the major surgical option due to the gross peritoneal contamination secondary to prolonged transport time. Two women and 21 men died. The major cause of death was multiorgan failure secondary to sepsis (18 patients). In the case of civil war in the bordering countries, it is recommended that precautions are taken, such as transformation of nearby civilian hospitals into military ones and employment of experienced trauma surgeons in these hospitals to provide effective medical care. Damage control procedures can avoid fatalities especially before the lethal triad of physiological demise occurs. Rapid transport of the wounded to the nearest medical centre is the key point in countries neighbouring a civil war. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  3. Civil Wars Hijacked: A Case Study of the Lebanese Civil War

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    researcher bias and data availability. After an initial assessment of the conflict, the three most significant external state actors were selected and...research focused on each state’s strategy throughout the war. While conducting the research, there was a subconscious effort by the researcher to...of sources focused on different historical periods, organizations, and individuals across the conflict mitigated 115 this selectivity bias

  4. Undernutrition, subsequent risk of mortality and civil war in Burundi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verwimp, Philip

    2012-07-01

    The paper investigates the effect of child undernutrition on the risk of mortality in Burundi. Using anthropometric data from a longitudinal survey (1998-2007) we find that undernourished children, measured by the height-for-age z-scores (HAZ) in 1998 had a higher probability to die during subsequent years. In order to address the problem of omitted variables correlated with both nutritional status and the risk of mortality, we use the length of exposure to civil war prior to 1998 as a source of exogenous variation in a child's nutritional status. Children exposed to civil war in their area of residence have worse nutritional status. The results indicate that one year of exposure translates into a 0.15 decrease in the HAZ, resulting in a 10% increase in the probability to die. For boys, we find a 0.34 decrease in HAZ per year of exposure, resulting in 25% increase in the probability to die. For girls, the results are statistically not significant at the usual thresholds. We show the robustness of our results and we derive policy conclusion for a nutrition intervention in times of conflict. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Our Experiences with Chest Trauma Patients in Syrian Civil War

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samil Gunay

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Thoracic surgery is a branch, the efficiency of which is unquestionable for war. And during the civil war in Syria, thoracic surgery specialists have been feeling this efficiency so closely. So we want to share our experiences on patients sent from this region. Material and Method: The cases comprised of 41 patients in total, 33 men and 8 women, between the ages of 16-75, who were brought from Syria between the dates of August 2012 %u2013 November 2013. The files of the patients were received from archive. Results: Except 11 isolated thorax trauma patients, it was determined thorax and abdomen injuries at 9 patients (21.9%, thorax and extremity injuries at 8 patients (19.5%, thorax and vertebra injuries at 3 patients (7.3%, thorax, abdomen and cranium injuries at 5 patients (12.1%, thorax, abdomen and eye injuries at one patient (2.4%, thorax, abdomen and vertebra injuries at 3 patients (7.3%, thorax, abdomen and extremity injuries at one patient (2.4%. Discussion: Thoracic surgery is a lifesaving branch in case of fast and effectual medical intervention to injuries during war.

  6. Role of the Southern Baptist Chaplains and Missionaries in the Civil War

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bineham, Michael

    2003-01-01

    .... The United States Civil War from 1861 to 1865 was no different. The purpose of this thesis is to look at the events leading up to the Civil War and the conflict itself from the viewpoint of the Southern Baptist denomination...

  7. Burden of HIV/AIDS infection before and during the civil war in Somalia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, B H; Giovagnoli, M R; Mahad, H; Tarsitani, G G

    2010-08-01

    Somalia has suffered a massive internal population displacement and exodus that began in 1988 and is still ongoing during the prolonged and intermittent civil war. This review looks at the burden of HIV infection in Somali and the impact of civil war on its epidemiology. Serosurveys have indicated that HIV was not present in Somalia before the civil war and to date Somalia has had an HIV prevalence markedly below that of its neighbours. However, due to the ongoing war HIV sentinel surveillance cannot reach most of the affected areas in Somalia and the current HIV infection problem may be greater than the figures indicate.

  8. Latin American Civil-Military Relationships in a Historical Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Skaar, Elin

    2013-01-01

    Civil-military relationships constitute a crucial element in the transition to substantive democracy all over the world. During periods of authoritarianism or civil war, the military in Latin America has historically speaking been responsible for extensive violations of human rights and humanitarian law. Since the reintroduction of democracy in the region in the 1980s and 1990s, the military has gradually been brought back under civilian rule. The balance of power between military and civil p...

  9. Our vascular surgery experiences in Syrian civil war

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İyad Fansa

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Due to the ongoing civil war in Syria, numerous vascular injured patients are admitted to our hospital with gunshot wounds. In this study, patients who admitted our hospital, diagnosed with vascular trauma due to gunshot were evaluated with the respect of injury site, additional injuries, surgical interventions and outcomes. Methods: The study included 58 patients wounded in Syrian war and admitted to our hospital between 01.01.2012 and 01.09.2014. Results= There were 5.1% (n=3 female and 94.9% (n=55 male patients. Age range is 5-75 years and the average of age was identified as 28.61. In 12.1% (n=7 of patients with extensive tissue defects of the muscle-nerve-bone injury has been identified, despite the vascular interventions in these patients, 8.6% (n=5 of patients, the limb has been amputated. Totally 15.5% (n=9 of 58 operated patients died. Two patients died because of major vascular injury with intra-abdominal organ injuries. In one patient; infection induced sepsis and multi organ failure was detected. Six patients were lost due to hypovolemic shock as a result of late arriving. Conclusion: In patients admitted with gunshot vascular injury arrival time, the presence of additional injuries and the location of injury affect mortality rates.

  10. Post-civil war adaptation and need in Managua, Nicaragua.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahearn, Frederick L; Noble, John H

    2004-07-01

    Within seven years after the end of the Nicaraguan civil war in 1990, forced migrants, whose lives had been most disrupted by the conflict, were self-settled in a squatter community in the capital city of Managua and lived in extreme poverty with minimal health, education, security and social service supports. Compared with voluntary migrant neighbours, whose lives had been less affected by the conflict, forced migrants exhibited equal clinically significant symptoms of physical and mental health and psychosocial maladaptation. These findings run counter to generally held theory and assumptions about the negative long-lasting effects of the trauma and stress of war, forced migration and resettlement. Explanations are offered to explain the discrepancies between theory and the study findings as well as the dominance of poverty and socioeconomic status. Implications are also drawn for increasing social support and other durable forms of assistance that emerge from the study as important to meeting the needs of equally poor and unhealthy forced and voluntary migrants in proliferating squatter communities throughout the Third World.

  11. The American Civil-Military Relationship: A Delicate Balance

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Harms, Bradley J

    2008-01-01

    An effective civil-military relationship represents a critical component of the American governmental system and requires mutual understanding, uncensored debate, and institutional trust to produce...

  12. The Crime-Conflict Nexus and the Civil War in Syria

    OpenAIRE

    Christina Steenkamp

    2017-01-01

    There is a strong relationship between organised crime and civil war. This article contributes to the crime-conflict nexus literature by providing a consideration of the role of organised crime in the Syrian conflict. It provides an overview of pre- and post-war organised crime in Syria. The article then builds the argument that war provides opportunities for organised crime through the state’s diminished law enforcement ability; the economic hardship which civilians face during war; and the ...

  13. Dignity and Dawn: Libya’s Escalating Civil War

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daveed Gartenstein-Ross

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In this Research Paper, ICCT Associate Fellow Dr. Daveed Gartenstein-Ross and Nathaniel Barr provides a detailed examination of the armed conflict in Libya between the Operation Dignity and Libya Dawn military coalitions. The conflict erupted in May 2014, when Dignity leader Khalifa Hifter announced the launch of his campaign, which was aimed at ridding eastern Libya of Islamist militias, beginning with Benghazi. This offensive shattered a fragile status quo. Revolutionary forces concentrated in the city of Misrata and Islamist politicians perceived Hifter’s offensive as a direct affront and, following parliamentary elections that these factions lost, the Misrata-Islamist bloc announced the launch of the Libya Dawn offensive, aimed at driving pro-Dignity forces out of Tripoli. More broadly, the Dawn offensive was an effort to change facts on the ground in order to ensure that the Misrata-Islamist bloc retained political influence. The Dignity and Dawn offensives have contributed to the continuing political and geographic fragmentation of Libya. Libya now has two separate parliaments and governments, while much of the country has been carved into spheres of influence by warring factions. The Dignity-Dawn conflict has also caused a deterioration of security, which has played into the hands of a variety of violent non-state actors, including al-Qaeda and Islamic State affiliates that have capitalized on Libya’s security vacuum to establish bases of operation. This report provides a blow-by-blow account of the military conflict between Dignity and Dawn forces, then assesses the implications of the Libyan civil war on regional security and potential policy options for Western states.

  14. Assessment of the perioperative period in civilians injured in the Syrian Civil War

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sedat Hakimoglu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: wars and its challenges have historically afflicted humanity. In Syria, severe injuries occurred due to firearms and explosives used in the war between government forces and civilians for a period of over 2 years. MATERIALS AND METHODS: the study included 364 cases, who were admitted to Mustafa Kemal University Hospital, Medicine School (Hatay, Turkey, and underwent surgery. Survivors and non-survivors were compared regarding injury site, injury type and number of transfusions given. The mortality rate found in this study was also compared to those reported in other civil wars. RESULTS: the mean age was 29 (3-68 years. Major sites of injury included extremities (56.0%, head (20.1%, abdomen (16.2%, vascular structures (4.4% and thorax (3.3%. Injury types included firearm injury (64.4%, blast injury (34.4% and miscellaneous injuries (1.2%. Survival rate was 89.6% while mortality rate was 10.4%. A significant difference was observed between mortality rates in this study and those reported for the Bosnia and Lebanon civil wars; and the difference became extremely prominent when compared to mortality rates reported for Vietnam and Afghanistan civil wars. CONCLUSION: among injuries related to war, the highest rate of mortality was observed in head-neck, abdomen and vascular injuries. We believe that the higher mortality rate in the Syrian Civil War, compared to the Bosnia, Vietnam, Lebanon and Afghanistan wars, is due to seeing civilians as a direct target during war.

  15. American Society of Civil Engineers | ASCE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Membership Your New Membership: Getting Started Member Value Civil Engineering Salaries Manage Your Account Vote Now Education & Careers Training & Courses Getting Licensed & Certified Live Exam Reviews Specialty Certifications Civil Engineering Body of Knowledge Volunteer Opportunities Jobs Ethics

  16. Rebuilding after emergency: Revamping agricultural research in Sierra Leone after civil war

    OpenAIRE

    Asenso-Okyere, Kwadwo; Workneh, Sindu; Rhodes, Edward; Sutherland, John

    2009-01-01

    "The civil war in Sierra Leone, caused by a mix of political, social, and economic factors, had a huge impact on the overall economy in general and on the performance of the agricultural sector in particular. The agricultural research system of Sierra Leone was severely affected by the civil war. Research infrastructure was destroyed, laboratories were damaged and abandoned, and well-trained researchers and scientists fled from the country. With the cessation of hostilities in 2002, the gover...

  17. Civil war: is it all about disease and xenophobia? A comment on Letendre, Fincher & Thornhill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendrix, Cullen S; Gleditsch, Kristian Skrede

    2012-02-01

    Letendre, Fincher & Thornhill (2010) argue that pathogen intensity provides the ultimate explanation for why some countries are more prone to civil war than others. They argue that the economic and political factors highlighted in previous research on civil war are largely caused by underlying differences in pathogen intensity, and contend that disease proneness increases the risk of civil war through its effects on resource competition and xenophobia. They present empirical evidence that they interpret as consistent with their argument: a statistically significant correlation between pathogen intensity and civil war onset. In this comment, we raise concerns over their interpretation of the empirical evidence and their proposed causal mechanisms. We find that the data provide stronger evidence for the reverse causal relationship, namely that civil war causes disease to become more prevalent. This finding is consistent with the literatures on the public health effects of civil war as well as research on state capacity and public health. © 2011 The Authors. Biological Reviews © 2011 Cambridge Philosophical Society.

  18. Civil Wars, Child Soldiers and Post Conflict Peace Building in West

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Toshiba

    The collapse of the cold war and the attendant eruption of violence and civil wars in parts of the ... conscription of children, etc, from schools, orphanages, refugee camps, etc, and (ii) ... Chapter two deserves two observations. First, except for a ...

  19. Learning about Each Other: Two Teachers Negotiate Race, Class, and Gender in the Civil War South

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breitborde, Mary-Lou

    2013-01-01

    The Civil War ended slavery but not the pernicious inequality of power and status that still characterizes relations between black and white America. As soon as they could, with the help of presidents bent on appeasement and the benign neglect of northerners who had fought the war to preserve the union but not necessarily to invite former slaves…

  20. Ancient Political Autobiography and Civil War : Anchoring Fortuna in the commentarii of Sulla, Cicero and Caesar

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klooster, Julia

    2015-01-01

    To analyze changes in mentality during and after the Civil Wars, this paper studies a number of commentarii and hypomnemata, political autobiographies or memoirs, from the late Roman Republic. (a.o. the fragments of the works of Sulla, and Cicero, and the Bellum Civile of Caesar). Previous

  1. Advertising as a Communicative Phenomenon during the Spanish Civil War

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dra. Araceli Rodríguez Mateos

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Advertising is a phenomenon that has helped to model societies during the last century. In order to know how it has participated in some change processes it is essential to analyse its communicative dimension. Within the theoretical framework of the History of Social Communication, this research studies the function of the commercial discourse during the Spanish Civil War. Results in three levels have been concluded with an analytic model focused on the messages spread in the press. First, the modern evolution of the advertising technique is confirmed. Second, the different alignment of advertising is compared with the propagandistic discourse of each faction, as well as with its ideological and commercial interests, and with the different relationship with consumers about events. Third, advertisements allow us to observe many details about current life better than the information censored does; specifically, the struggle to survive in the most damaged republican cities is clearly perceived. - Traducción supervisada por la Dra. María del Pino Montesdeoca (ULL.La publicidad es un fenómeno que ha ayudado a modelar las sociedades durante el último siglo y, para saber cómo ha participado en los procesos de cambio, es imprescindible analizar su dimensión comunicativa. Desde el marco teórico de la Historia de la Comunicación Social, este estudio aborda la función del discurso comercial durante la Guerra Civil española. Con un modelo analítico centrado en los mensajes difundidos en prensa se han obtenido resultados en tres niveles. Primero, se confirma la evolución moderna de la técnica publicitaria. Segundo, se compara la diferente alineación de la publicidad con el discurso propagandístico de las zonas enfrentadas, los intereses a los que respondía y la distinta interpelación a los consumidores respecto a los acontecimientos. Tercero, los anuncios permiten observar, mejor que la información censurada, ciertos detalles relativos a la

  2. Gendered spaces, gendered pages: Union women in Civil War nurse narratives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telford, Jennifer Casavant; Long, Thomas Lawrence

    2012-12-01

    This interdisciplinary analysis joins literary and culture studies with history using Daphne Spain's theory of gendered spaces. Specifically, we examine the reconfiguration of the spaces of military medical work and of book publishing that produced popular literary representations of those medical spaces. As a social historian of nursing and a scholar of American literature and culture, we argue that the examination of Civil War narratives by or about Northern female nurses surveys a landscape in which women penetrated the masculine spaces of the military hospital and the literary spaces of the wartime narrative. In so doing, these women transformed these spaces into places acknowledging and even relying upon what had been traditionally considered male domains. Like many historiographical papers written about nurses and the impact of their practice over time, this work is relevant to those practicing nursing today, specifically those issues related to professional authority and professional autonomy.

  3. Public health and nutrition after the Spanish Civil War. An intervention by the Rockefeller Foundation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Cura, Isabel; Huertas, Rafael

    2009-10-01

    We describe a nutritional intervention by the Rockefeller Foundation's International Health Division in Spain after the Spanish Civil War, delineating the relationships between the technicians sent by the Rockefeller Foundation and the Spanish health authorities. We analyze reports of the nutritional situation in Spain in the early 1940s and the design and outcomes of a nutrition survey conducted in a district of Madrid by American and Spanish nutritionists. This nutritional survey, which was based on food intake interviews and was complemented with anthropometric measurements, clinical examinations, and blood tests, found several symptoms and signs of malnutrition. The Rockefeller Foundation's nutritional research was an important historical precedent for later studies made in emergency situations or armed conflicts. Similar surveys have been carried out in the last several decades by distinguished academic departments of public health and epidemiology and by humanitarian aid agencies.

  4. The Peloponnesian War, the Spanish Requirement and the Clash of Civilizations: An Application of Plato's Theaetetus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wendy C. Hamblet

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper challenges the notion of “civilization” as focal to, and originative of, the problem of suffering in the world, a legacy that continues to betray its heritage in the third millennium of the Common Era. The current global crisis of terrorism is, on both sides of this confrontation, being posed as a war of “civilizations.” Both sides, the terrorists and the current American administration and its allies, argue for the righteous, divinely-ordained nature of their cause and the demonic nature of their infidel enemy. Both legitimate their violences by claims of superior “civilization” and both cite the god as in their “civilizational” court.

  5. Museums, Memory, and the Just Nation in Post-Civil War El Salvador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robin DeLugan

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In 1992 El Salvador ended a 12-year civil war infamous in part for the high level of state violence against innocent civilians. A United Nations Truth Commission report, which detailed these and other excesses, recommended that state and society commemorate the war and its violence to advance the establishment of a more just nation. The postwar government did construct an impressive new National Museum of Anthropology to actively promote national culture, history, and identity. However, this important museum remains silent about the civil war. In contrast, new public—though not official - museums and monuments are finally bringing attention to the civil war and past state violence. This paper explores the social memory work of non-official museums, arguing that by combating silence and forgetting, their truth-telling aims to shape ideas about the nation and improve state-society dynamics.

  6. American Women and the Great War.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumenil, Lynn

    2002-01-01

    Provides information on the idealized images of women during World War I. Features the use of posters and propaganda during the war. Focuses on voluntary activities in which women participated, the fight for women's suffrage during the war, and the effect of the war on women working. Includes poster reproductions. (CMK)

  7. Characteristics of the injuries of Syrian refugees sustained during the civil war.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocamer Şimşek, Betül; Dokur, Mehmet; Uysal, Erdal; Çalıker, Necdet; Gökçe, Oruç Numan; Deniz, İbrahim Kürşat; Uğur, Murat; Geyik, Murat; Kaya, Mehmet; Dağlı, Güner

    2017-05-01

    During a war, many civilians are severely injured by firearms, bombs, and shrapnel. The triage of war injuries involves difficult and complicated processes requiring surgical procedures and patient monitoring in the Intensive Care Unit (ICU) of hospitals. In this study, we examine the demographic, traumatic, and critical care characteristics of cases injured during the civil war in Syria and requiring emergency surgery. Electronic data of the traumatic, surgical, and ICU monitoring features of 707 patients admitted to Kilis Public Hospital between March 2012 and January 2013 were analyzed retrospectively RESULTS: Most of the patients reported having been injured due to firearms (83.75%). Of the 707 cases studied in this work, 93.2% was male. Male patients reported a mean age of 26.1±12.1 years, while pediatric cases reported a mean age of 11.7±3.41 years. The most frequently injured region of the body was the head-neck region (52.7%). The New Injury Severity Score (NISS) of the cases was 42.5±11.2 and their American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) score was 3.2±0.7. The number of cases with intraoperative exitus was 7, while the number of cases who had undergone damage control surgery was 204. The number of cases hospitalized in the ICU during the postoperative period was 233, and the average hospitalization duration in the ICU was 4.67±1.32 days. Among survivor patients, the first 24-hour invasive measurements (i.e., pH, hemoglobin, body temperature, and mean arterial blood pressure) and international normalized ratio were found to be high. The number of blood products used for surviving patients was fewer relative to that used for non-surviving patients, and these NISS of these patients was 29.7±10.1. The mortality rate of all patients followed up in the ICU after emergency surgery was 45%, and neurosurgical cases showed the lowest level of survival (24.1%). The results of this study indicated that head-neck, chest-abdomen, and multiple body injuries are

  8. Towards a phenomenology of civil war: Hobbes meets Benjamin in Beirut.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Cauter, Lieven

    2011-01-01

    Based on interviews with Beirut intellectuals and architects, this essay endeavours to trace the contours for a phenomenology or anthropology of civil war. Thomas Hobbes serves as a guide, with his idea of civil war representing a relapse into the ‘state of nature’; as absence of sovereignty resulting in a ‘war of everybody against everybody’. The effects of ever-latent civil war in Beirut are far-reaching: the fragmentation of urban space and the disappearance of public space, the loss of memory and the fragmentation of time, even the reification of language. In the collective imagination and in the arts, Beirut appears as a ghost town, a spectral city with a spectral civility. What we discover is a city, its inhabitants, its social behaviour, but also its art and literature, in the grip of post-traumatic stress syndrome. From all this, we take home two things: first, any city can (at least in principle) relapse into a similar state of nature — Beirut can become a paradigm of latent civil war; and second, the traumatic modernity of Beirut mirrors the traumatic artistic expressions of modernism — the shock of modernity is also always a modernity of shock.

  9. Wladimir Krzyzanowski, 123 Polish Hero of the Civil War in the USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PIYUK T.G.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The article is dedicated to the young Polish revolutionist Wladimir Krzyzanowski who emigrated from Great Poland to the US after failed uprising in 1846 against Prussia in order to avoid possible arrest. He went to Hamburg, Germany and sailed from there to the United States.W. Krzyzanowski managed to become a successful and prosperous businessman and politician, and he was lucky in his personal life, he married a girl with a name and a significant dowry. He considered slavery not only anachronistic, but also a disgrace to the young state, and at the same time, he admired American democracy and American people. In Washington he recruited the company of Polish immigrants which became one of the first companies of Union Soldiers. Krzyzanowski then moved his company to New York and enlisted more immigrants and soon became a Colonel of the 58th Infantry Division, listed in the official Army Register as the “Polish Legion”. He participated in the Civil War battles of Cross-Keys, Bull Run, Chancellorsville, and Gettysburg. “Polish Legion”, led by Krzyzanowski, made himself famous in the main battle at Gettysburg. Subsequently, the memorial of granite was erected to legion in the immediate vicinity of the city.The author’s attention was attracted by the eccentric personality of the Pole, known in Poland and in America. In her work she explores Krzyzanowski’s life and service to the American people

  10. Assessment of the perioperative period in civilians injured in the Syrian Civil War.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakimoglu, Sedat; Karcıoglu, Murat; Tuzcu, Kasım; Davarcı, Isıl; Koyuncu, Onur; Dikey, İsmail; Turhanoglu, Selim; Sarı, Ali; Acıpayam, Mehmet; Karatepe, Celalettin

    2015-01-01

    wars and its challenges have historically afflicted humanity. In Syria, severe injuries occurred due to firearms and explosives used in the war between government forces and civilians for a period of over 2 years. the study included 364 cases, who were admitted to Mustafa Kemal University Hospital, Medicine School (Hatay, Turkey), and underwent surgery. Survivors and non-survivors were compared regarding injury site, injury type and number of transfusions given. The mortality rate found in this study was also compared to those reported in other civil wars. the mean age was 29 (3-68) years. Major sites of injury included extremities (56.0%), head (20.1%), abdomen (16.2%), vascular structures (4.4%) and thorax (3.3%). Injury types included firearm injury (64.4%), blast injury (34.4%) and miscellaneous injuries (1.2%). Survival rate was 89.6% while mortality rate was 10.4%. A significant difference was observed between mortality rates in this study and those reported for the Bosnia and Lebanon civil wars; and the difference became extremely prominent when compared to mortality rates reported for Vietnam and Afghanistan civil wars. among injuries related to war, the highest rate of mortality was observed in head-neck, abdomen and vascular injuries. We believe that the higher mortality rate in the Syrian Civil War, compared to the Bosnia, Vietnam, Lebanon and Afghanistan wars, is due to seeing civilians as a direct target during war. Copyright © 2014 Sociedade Brasileira de Anestesiologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  11. [Assessment of the perioperative period in civilians injured in the Syrian Civil War].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakimoglu, Sedat; Karcıoglu, Murat; Tuzcu, Kasım; Davarcı, Isıl; Koyuncu, Onur; Dikey, İsmail; Turhanoglu, Selim; Sarı, Ali; Acıpayam, Mehmet; Karatepe, Celalettin

    2015-01-01

    Wars and its challenges have historically afflicted humanity. In Syria, severe injuries occurred due to firearms and explosives used in the war between government forces and civilians for a period of over 2 years. The study included 364 cases, who were admitted to Mustafa Kemal University Hospital, Medicine School (Hatay, Turkey), and underwent surgery. Survivors and non-survivors were compared regarding injury site, injury type and number of transfusions given. The mortality rate found in this study was also compared to those reported in other civil wars. The mean age was 29 (3-68) years. Major sites of injury included extremities (56.0%), head (20.1%), abdomen (16.2%), vascular structures (4.4%) and thorax (3.3%). Injury types included firearm injury (64.4%), blast injury (34.4%) and miscellaneous injuries (1.2%). Survival rate was 89.6% while mortality rate was 10.4%. A significant difference was observed between mortality rates in this study and those reported for the Bosnia and Lebanon civil wars; and the difference became extremely prominent when compared to mortality rates reported for Vietnam and Afghanistan civil wars. Among injuries related to war, the highest rate of mortality was observed in head-neck, abdomen and vascular injuries. We believe that the higher mortality rate in the Syrian Civil War, compared to the Bosnia, Vietnam, Lebanon and Afghanistan wars, is due to seeing civilians as a direct target during war. Copyright © 2014 Sociedade Brasileira de Anestesiologia. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  12. The Other Clash of Civilizations: Samuel Huntington and American Civil Military Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-17

    Marxism , fascism and conservatism. Of the four, two are pertinent when examining the American system--liberalism and conservatism. Individualism is...cadets while instructing at West Point.42 During the Spanish American War, Pershing served with the United States 10th Cavalry in Cuba and following

  13. Persistent Social Networks: Civil War Veterans Who Fought Together Co-Locate in Later Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Dora L; Kahn, Matthew E; Roudiez, Christopher; Wilson, Sven

    2018-05-01

    We demonstrate the long reach of early social ties in the location decision of individuals and in their older age mortality risk using data on Union Army veterans of the US Civil War (1861-5). We estimate discrete choice migration models to quantify the trade-offs across locations faced by veterans. Veterans were more likely to move to a neighborhood or county where men from their same war company lived and were more likely to move to such areas than to areas where other veterans were located. Veterans also were less likely to move far from their origin and avoided urban immigrant areas and high mortality risk areas. They also avoided areas that opposed the Civil War. This co-location evidence highlights the existence of persistent social networks. Such social networks had long-term consequences: veterans living close to war-time comrades had a 6% lower probability of dying.

  14. United States Foreign Policy and the Second Liberian Civil War

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    chifaou.amzat

    2013-09-28

    Sep 28, 2013 ... Council for the Development of Social Science Research in Africa, 2013 .... Diaspora groups based in the United States to intervene in the war. Ulti- .... take security sector reform as required by the Abuja II Peace Accord.

  15. Between Propaganda and Truth: changing patterns in the Polish historiography about the Civil War

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga GLONDYS

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the transformation of public and historiographical discourse on the Spanish Civil War in Poland, exploring the post-Stalinist period and current democratic Poland. It explains how, during these two very different eras: the dictatorial, communist past and the capitalist, liberal-democratic present, historical discourse concerning the past has been transformed so as to meet the prevailing political needs and demands of today. The conclusions reached here point to a change of paradigm in historiographical discourse on the Civil War, and encourage reflection on the epistemological and methodological implications that historical processes raise for the historian’s task.

  16. Kalimat – Kalimat Minor Dalam Film Captain America: Civil War Disutradarai Oleh Anthony & Joe Russo

    OpenAIRE

    WILAR, JULIO DAVID

    2017-01-01

    This study aims at describing the use of minor sentences in the film Captain America: Civil War directed by Anthony and Joe Russo. The writer used the theory of Charles Hockett (1958) to identify and analize the data that have been found in the film. The focus of this research is the minor sentences in the film Captain America: Civil War directed by Anthony and Joe Russo. The data in this research are minor sentences which obtained from the film. The collected data were analyzed by using des...

  17. Parallels in Conflict: The American Revolution and the Vietnam War

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-05-01

    in World War * 14 II. American forces were psychologically ill-prepared to fight a jungle war against highly motivated, indigenous Communist forces... atar - : a by/ necessity a realistic consequLence cf that ob 1,ecz~e The- ’::nm- tainment" objective spawned a political polt- wh-c :ra’-e dilemma

  18. American historians on the Cold War: A historiographical interpretation

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article categorizes the American historical scholarship on the Cold War into five, perhaps six, clusters. After discussing these clusters, it argues that in spite of paradigmatic differences, there are also areas of agreement in the literature. For one thing, it is clear that before the end of World War II, and therefore before the ...

  19. Training of the American Soldier During World War I and World War II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-06-05

    smallpox, chicken pox , meningitis, typhoid, diptheria and other diseases resulted in the deaths of between 17,000 to 19,000 men during the course of...lessons of previous wars in both periods. The Spanish-American War and the United States’ incursion into Mexico provided valuable experience in

  20. The Influence of Biblical Culture on American Spiritual Civilization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李惠子

    2014-01-01

    Biblical culture is deeply rooted into current American society and culture,widely impacting every aspect of American people’s life.Through discussing about the historical accumulation of biblical culture reflected in America’s societal and spiritual civilization,this essay analyses the importance and function of biblical culture from the aspect of society inheritance,value,literature creation and customs etc.,helping us to further understand and study American society and culture.

  1. The Influence of Biblical Culture on American Spiritual Civilization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李惠子

    2014-01-01

    Biblical culture is deeply rooted into current American society and culture, widely impacting every aspect of American people’s life. Through discussing about the historical accumulation of biblical culture reflected in America’s societal and spiritual civilization, this essay analyses the importance and function of biblical culture from the aspect of society inheritance, value, literature creation and customs etc., helping us to further understand and study American society and culture.

  2. The Crime-Conflict Nexus and the Civil War in Syria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Steenkamp

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available There is a strong relationship between organised crime and civil war. This article contributes to the crime-conflict nexus literature by providing a consideration of the role of organised crime in the Syrian conflict. It provides an overview of pre- and post-war organised crime in Syria. The article then builds the argument that war provides opportunities for organised crime through the state’s diminished law enforcement ability; the economic hardship which civilians face during war; and the abundance of armed groups who all need to generate revenue. Secondly, the paper argues that organised crime also affects the intensity and duration of war by enabling militants to reproduce themselves materially and to build institutions amongst the communities where they are active. The relationships between armed groups and local populations emerge as a central theme in understanding the crime-conflict nexus.

  3. 38 CFR 3.712 - Improved pension elections; surviving spouses of Spanish-American War veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... elections; surviving spouses of Spanish-American War veterans. 3.712 Section 3.712 Pensions, Bonuses, and... spouses of Spanish-American War veterans. (a) General. A surviving spouse of a Spanish-American War... and attendance. A surviving spouse of a Spanish-American War veteran who is receiving or entitled to...

  4. Resources for Teaching about Nationalism, 1812 to the Civil War.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seiter, David

    1987-01-01

    Highlights five resources for teaching about the rise of U.S. nationalism between 1812 and 1865 available from the Educational Resource Information Center (ERIC). Items included are: (1) the War of 1812; (2) the annexation of Texas; (3) the Kansas-Nebraska Act; and (4) the question of slavery. (BSR)

  5. Revolutionary Self-Sufficiency: the Diggers' Digging in the English Civil War, 1648-1650

    OpenAIRE

    Levi, Jane

    2016-01-01

    The Diggers were small groups that appeared after the English Civil War who cultivated common land with carrots, beans and corn. This paper looks at the religiosity of the Diggers and how their ideas about bread, creation and the right use of land underpinned their thinking about every aspect of society.

  6. Does infectious disease cause global variation in the frequency of intrastate armed conflict and civil war?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Letendre, Kenneth; Fincher, Corey L; Thornhill, Randy

    2010-08-01

    Geographic and cross-national variation in the frequency of intrastate armed conflict and civil war is a subject of great interest. Previous theory on this variation has focused on the influence on human behaviour of climate, resource competition, national wealth, and cultural characteristics. We present the parasite-stress model of intrastate conflict, which unites previous work on the correlates of intrastate conflict by linking frequency of the outbreak of such conflict, including civil war, to the intensity of infectious disease across countries of the world. High intensity of infectious disease leads to the emergence of xenophobic and ethnocentric cultural norms. These cultures suffer greater poverty and deprivation due to the morbidity and mortality caused by disease, and as a result of decreased investment in public health and welfare. Resource competition among xenophobic and ethnocentric groups within a nation leads to increased frequency of civil war. We present support for the parasite-stress model with regression analyses. We find support for a direct effect of infectious disease on intrastate armed conflict, and support for an indirect effect of infectious disease on the incidence of civil war via its negative effect on national wealth. We consider the entanglements of feedback of conflict into further reduced wealth and increased incidence of disease, and discuss implications for international warfare and global patterns of wealth and imperialism.

  7. The Netherlands and Liberia : Dutch policies and interventions with respect to the Liberian civil war

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Walraven, van K.

    1999-01-01

    This study analyses Dutch foreign policy towards Liberia during the civil war between 1990 and 1997 with the aim of identifying policy options for the improvement of the Dutch contribution to international interventions in violent conflicts in Third World countries. An introductory chapter on

  8. Auxiliary Armed Forces and Innovations in Security Governance in Mozambique’s Civil War

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jentzsch, C.

    2017-01-01

    Who rules during the civil war? This article argues that the concept of armed group governance must be expanded to include auxiliary armed forces linked to rebels or the government. Comparing the organization of rebel and government auxiliaries, the article demonstrates that security governance

  9. Book Review: "Nigeria/Biafra Civil War: My Experience" by Achike ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This book has seven chapters covering aspects of Nigeria's history, the author's experience during the Civil War, 1967–1970 and his reflection on Nigeria as a nation. The purpose of the book as the author makes clear is “to fill the gap and further highlight the role played by the lower command – the platoons, companies, ...

  10. America in the Civil War Era: A History Institute for Teachers. Footnotes. Volume 13, Number 13

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuehner, Trudy

    2008-01-01

    On May 17-18, 2008, FPRI's Wachman Center presented a weekend of discussion on America in the Civil War Era, 1829-77, for 43 teachers selected from across the country, held at and co-sponsored by Carthage College, Kenosha, Wisconsin. Sessions included: (1) Throes of Democracy (Walter A. McDougall); (2) What Hath God Wrought: The Transformation of…

  11. Shocks, civil war and economic development in Sub-Saharan Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nillesen, E.E.M.

    2010-01-01

    Foreign aid, low institutional quality and civil wars are associated with slow economic development in many Sub-Sahara African countries. I aim to identify causal relations and mechanisms that explain significant correlations. I use both macro- and micro-economic data and show that results are not

  12. Multiperspectivism in the Novels of the Spanish Civil War

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Hans Lauge

    2011-01-01

    stereotyp-opfattelsen af borgerkrigen som en konfrontation mellem det Gode og det Onde. De fire romaner er Javier Cercas' Soldados de Salamina (2001), Alberto Méndez' Los girasoles ciegos (2004), Antonio Muñoz Molina's La noche de los tiempos (2009) og Isaac Rosas Otra maldita novela sobre la guerra civil...

  13. Leadership Principles Leveraged from Key Civil War Battles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-05-15

    war answer book . Canton, MI: Visible Ink Press. Foote, S. (1994). Stars in their courses: the Gettysburg campaign june-july 1863. New York , NY... York , NY: Ballantine Books . Shaara, M. (1975). The killer angels. New York , NY: Random House Publishing Group. Snow D.M. & Drew D.M. (2015). From...pertinent data from books , journals, periodicals, and videos in this area of leadership research. The review of literature will entail analyzing

  14. Greed and Grievance : Economic Agendas in Civil Wars | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Les études théoriques en cours sur les guerres civiles et les transitions de la guerre à la paix ont fait progresser considérablement la compréhension des dimensions politiques des conflits internes. On a toutefois négligé les motifs économiques à l'origine de la violence politique. Cet ouvrage novateur décrit les facteurs ...

  15. Greed and Grievance : Economic Agendas in Civil Wars | CRDI ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Les études théoriques en cours sur les guerres civiles et les transitions de la guerre à la paix ont fait progresser considérablement la compréhension des dimensions politiques des conflits internes. On a toutefois négligé les motifs économiques à l'origine de la violence politique. Cet ouvrage novateur décrit les facteurs ...

  16. Satellite imagery-based monitoring of archaeological site damage in the Syrian civil war.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casana, Jesse; Laugier, Elise Jakoby

    2017-01-01

    Since the start of the Syrian civil war in 2011, the rich archaeological heritage of Syria and northern Iraq has faced severe threats, including looting, combat-related damage, and intentional demolition of monuments. However, the inaccessibility of the conflict zone to archaeologists or cultural heritage specialists has made it difficult to produce accurate damage assessments, impeding efforts to develop mitigation strategies and policies. This paper presents results of a project, undertaken in collaboration with the American Schools of Oriental Research (ASOR) and the US Department of State, to monitor damage to archaeological sites in Syria, northern Iraq, and southern Turkey using recent, high-resolution satellite imagery. Leveraging a large database of archaeological and heritage sites throughout the region, as well as access to continually updated satellite imagery from DigitalGlobe, this project has developed a flexible and efficient methodology to log observations of damage in a manner that facilitates spatial and temporal queries. With nearly 5000 sites carefully evaluated, analysis reveals unexpected patterns in the timing, severity, and location of damage, helping us to better understand the evolving cultural heritage crisis in Syria and Iraq. Results also offer a model for future remote sensing-based archaeological and heritage monitoring efforts in the Middle East and beyond.

  17. Satellite imagery-based monitoring of archaeological site damage in the Syrian civil war.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesse Casana

    Full Text Available Since the start of the Syrian civil war in 2011, the rich archaeological heritage of Syria and northern Iraq has faced severe threats, including looting, combat-related damage, and intentional demolition of monuments. However, the inaccessibility of the conflict zone to archaeologists or cultural heritage specialists has made it difficult to produce accurate damage assessments, impeding efforts to develop mitigation strategies and policies. This paper presents results of a project, undertaken in collaboration with the American Schools of Oriental Research (ASOR and the US Department of State, to monitor damage to archaeological sites in Syria, northern Iraq, and southern Turkey using recent, high-resolution satellite imagery. Leveraging a large database of archaeological and heritage sites throughout the region, as well as access to continually updated satellite imagery from DigitalGlobe, this project has developed a flexible and efficient methodology to log observations of damage in a manner that facilitates spatial and temporal queries. With nearly 5000 sites carefully evaluated, analysis reveals unexpected patterns in the timing, severity, and location of damage, helping us to better understand the evolving cultural heritage crisis in Syria and Iraq. Results also offer a model for future remote sensing-based archaeological and heritage monitoring efforts in the Middle East and beyond.

  18. Democratization in the Gulf Monarchies and American Civil Society

    OpenAIRE

    Azam, M. Nazrul Islam and Muhammad; Azam, Muhammad

    2015-01-01

    The paper deals with the efforts made by American private sector and civil society actors after 2000 to popularize democratic values and norms in the six Gulf states, namely Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, and the United Arab Emirates. The study is focused on areas including politics, education, culture, media, human rights, and women empowerment. The paper also deals with approaches adopted, goals and objectives set and strategies devised and employed by the American NGOs regardi...

  19. Democratization in the Gulf Monarchies and American Civil Society

    OpenAIRE

    Azam, M. Nazrul Islam and Muhammad

    2010-01-01

    The paper deals with the efforts made by American private sector and civil society actors after 2000 to popularize democratic values and norms in the six Gulf states, namely Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, and the United Arab Emirates. The study is focused on areas including politics, education, culture, media, human rights, and women empowerment. The paper also deals with approaches adopted, goals and objectives set and strategies devised and employed by the American NGOs regardi...

  20. Impact of long-term civil disorders and wars on the trajectory of HIV epidemics in sub-Saharan Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gisselquist, David

    2004-08-01

    From the mid-1970s, seven countries in sub-Saharan Africa have experienced civil disorders and wars lasting for at least 10 years. In two-- Sierra Leone during 1991-2002, and Somalia from 1988 and continuing--adult HIV prevalence remained below 1%. In the Democratic Republic of the Congo, HIV prevalence appears to have stabilised during post-1991 civil disorder and war. Limited information from Angola (civil war 1975 -2002) and Liberia (civil disorder and war from 1989 and continuing) suggests low HIV prevalence. Mozambique's HIV prevalence was near 1% after its 1975 - 1992 civil war, but increased dramatically in the first post-war decade. Across African countries with long-term wars, HIV seems to have spread more slowly than in most neighbouring countries at peace. This evidence contributes to the ongoing debate about the factors that explain differential epidemic trajectories, a debate which is crucial to the design of HIV prevention programmes. One possible explanation for slow epidemic growth in wartime is that unsterile health care accounts for an important proportion of HIV transmission during peacetime, but much less when wars disrupt health services. However, other explanations are also possible. The roles of sex and blood exposures in HIV epidemics in war and peace await empirical determination.

  1. [Nursing in the movies: its image during the Spanish Civil War].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siles González, J; García Hernández, E; Cibanal Juan, L; Gallardo Frías, Y; Lillo Crespo, M

    1998-12-01

    The cinema had carried out a determining role in the development of stereotypes and in a wide gamut of models related to real life situations. The objective of this analysis is to determine the influence cinema had on the image of nurses during the Spanish Civil War from 1936-1939. These are the initial hypotheses: the role of Spanish nurses during the civil war was reflected by both sides in their respective movie productions; and the image of nurses shown in these films, on both sides, presents a conflicting role concept for women in society. Following strategies developed by specialists in film analysis (Bondwell 1995, Uneso 1995, Carmona 1991) a total of 453 movie productions, 360 on the republican side and 93 on the national side, were reviewed. These films were listed in the Spanish National Films Library records. After analyzing the Spanish cinema productions during the Spanish Civil War, data relating to 453 films were identified. The genre included documents, news programs and fiction movies. 77 were produced in 1936, 235 in 1937, 102 in 1938 and 39 in 1939. A tremendous difference exists between the republican productions, 79% of the total, and the national productions. By genres, the types produced on the republican side were: in 1936, 53 documentals, 4 news programs and 9 fiction films; in 1937, 186 documentals, 5 news programs and 19 fiction films; in 1938, 72 documentals, 1 news programs and 2 fiction films; in 1939, 2 documentals and 2 fiction films. On the national side, their productions were: in 1936, 10 documentals and 1 fiction film; in 1937, 22 documentals, 2 news programs and 1 fiction film; in 1938, 19 documentals and 3 news programs; in 1939, 29 documentals and 6 fiction films. During the Spanish Civil War, movies produced by both sides made an effort to reflect their ideal woman as a stereotypical ideal nurse. This ideal nurse showed the values, ideas, aesthetics and prejudices each side held in the war.

  2. Civil-Military Relations in Post Cold War Central America

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-04-07

    territorial del Estado. Para la conservació del orden público, la protección de la vida , honra y bienes de quienes se encuentren bajo jurisdicción del...espacios jurisdiccionales de la República. El Presidente de la República es el jefe de todos los servicios establecidos en el presente Título; y éstos, como...agentes de la autoridad, estarán subordinados al poder civil; por tanto, acatarán las órdenes que emitan la autoridades nacionales, provinciales o

  3. Depression and anxiety among war-widows of Nepal: a post-civil war cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basnet, Syaron; Kandel, Pragya; Lamichhane, Prabhat

    2018-02-01

    Thousands of Nepalese women were widowed as a consequence of a decade (1996-2006) long civil war in Nepal. These women are at grave risk of mental health problems due to both traumatic experiences and violation of natural order of widowhood. The present study explores the depression and anxiety among war-widows. In 2012, a cross-sectional study was designed to interview 358 war-widows using validitated Beck Depression Inventory and Beck Anxiety Inventory in four districts of Nepal - Bardiya, Surkhet, Sindhupalchowk and Kavrepalanchowk with history of high conflict intensity. The prevalence of depression and anxiety was 53% and 63% respectively. Financial stress was significantly associated with depression (2.67, 95% CI: 1.40-5.07) and anxiety (2.37, 95% CI: 1.19-4.72). High autonomy of women as compared to low autonomy, high social support as compared to low social support and literacy as opposed to illiteracy was associated with less likelihood of depression and anxiety. Our results suggest high magnitude of depression and anxiety among war-widows in Nepal. Future policy efforts should be directed at providing mental health services to identify mental health issues among conflict affected individuals with focus on education, employment and activities to promote social support and autonomy at community.

  4. Civil-Military Relations in the French Fourth Republic during the First Indochina War

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-21

    occupation from 1941 to 1945. His life was marked by tragedy as his father and wife, both ardent Communists, died in French prisons in Indochina...the latter half of 1949, the Soviets detonated their first atomic weapon and Mao Zedong’s Communist forces triumphed in the Chinese Civil War, leading...Gaulle’s Greatest General. Havertown, PA: Casemate Publishers, 2011. Morgan, Ted. Valley of Death: The Tragedy at Dien Bien Phu that Led America into

  5. Mediation Outcomes from the Second Sudan Civil War: An Analysis of Abuja and Igad Peace Initiatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-01

    Grasping the Nettle : Analyzing Cases of Intractable Conflict, eds. Chester A. Crocker, Fen Osler Hampson, and Pamela Aall (Washington, DC: United...Issues: The Root Causes of Sudan’s Civil Wars (Bloomington, IN: Indiana University, 2003): xi; Ruth Iyob and Gilbert M. Khadiagala, Sudan: The Elusive...however, considered the possibility of a unified identity in the New Sudan.148 Countering the GoS’s assertions that Sudan had historical roots in

  6. COUNTING THE COST: THE POLITICS OF RELIEF OPERATIONS IN THE NIGERIAN CIVIL WAR, A CRITICAL APPRAISAL

    OpenAIRE

    NWOKO, Kenneth Chukwuemeka

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the role of international humanitarian organizations and the politics of relief operations during the Nigerian Civil War. It investigates the nexus between the politicization of humanitarian operations during the three-year conflict, and the death, hunger and starvation of millions of Biafrans. The study explores how the triangular politics among the Federal Military Government of Nigeria, the Biafran authorities, and the humanitarian organizations, in particular, the Inte...

  7. Mediation With Muscle: Understanding When Mediators Commit Resources to Civil War Negotiations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    unified and cohesive as to allow its negotiators to act without extensive consensus building and persuasion among their own side—certain elements will...UNDERSTANDING WHEN MEDIATORS COMMIT RESOURCES TO CIVIL WAR NEGOTIATIONS by Michael D. Caplan December 2015 Thesis Advisor: T. Camber Warren Second Reader... NEGOTIATIONS 5. FUNDING NUMBERS 6. AUTHOR(S) Michael D. Caplan 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) Naval Postgraduate School Monterey, CA

  8. GPR and ERT detection and characterization of a mass burial, Spanish Civil War, Northern Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubio-Melendi, David; Gonzalez-Quirós, Andrés; Roberts, Daniel; García García, María Del Carmen; Caunedo Domínguez, Amaya; Pringle, Jamie K; Fernández-Álvarez, José-Paulino

    2018-06-01

    Around 27,000 people were killed in the province of Asturias during the Spanish Civil War, with several thousands killed after the war ended. There are currently over 2,000 known mass burial locations throughout Spain, but many more are unknown. Geophysics is a useful tool employed to help in the active attempts to document and improve knowledge about victims from this conflict. This paper details a non-invasive study of the Cementerio de El Salvador, in the city of Oviedo, Northern Spain. Part of the cemetery contains a known mass burial with approximately 1,300 individuals from the Spanish Civil War and post-war repression eras. Multi-frequency near-surface geophysical techniques were undertaken, after permission, to enhance knowledge about which, if any, techniques should be used to detect, delineate and analyse such mass graves. Multi-frequency (250MHz and 500MHz) ground-penetrating radar surveys were acquired together with 2D and 3D Electrical Resistivity Tomography datasets. The results have established the limits of the mass grave and improve the knowledge of the internal mass grave structure. The paper also shows the importance of considering the climatic conditions during data acquisition. This has important implications for the successful detection of recent historical mass burials using near-surface geophysics. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Terrorism, civil war, one-sided violence and global burden of disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerridge, Bradley T; Khan, Maria R; Sapkota, Amir

    2012-01-01

    Armed conflict and related violence, including terrorism and one-sided violence, has profound effects on people's health and lives. The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between deaths due to terrorism, civil war and one-sided violence from 1994-2000 and disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) occurring in 2002 attributable to all causes and specific communicable and noncommunicable diseases. Deaths resulting from terrorism, war and one-sided violence were positively associated with all cause as well as a number of communicable and noncommunicable disease-specific DALYs across the majority of sex and age subgroups of the populace, controlling for an array of economic factors empirically shown to affect public health. Overall, a 1.0% increase in deaths due to terrorism, civil war and one-sided violence from 1994-2000 was associated with a 0.16% increase in DALYs lost to all causes in 2002 in the total world population. There was little variation in the magnitude of these associations between males and females and between communicable and noncommunicable diseases. The results of the present study can begin to guide post-conflict recovery by focusing on interventions targeting both noncommunicable as well as communicable diseases, thereby highlighting the full health costs of war and ultimately providing a strong rationale for promoting peace.

  10. Civil war and child health: regional and ethnic dimensions of child immunization and malnutrition in Angola.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agadjanian, Victor; Prata, Ndola

    2003-06-01

    This study arises from a general proposition that different levels and types of exposure to war are crucial in shaping health outcomes in a population under war-induced duress. We analyze civil war-related regional and ethnolinguistic differentials in age-adequate immunization (complete vaccination for age) and levels of malnutrition in Angola. Our analysis is based on data from a nationally representative survey conducted in 1996, some 2 years after the end of one of the most destructive periods of hostilities in the history of Angolan civil war. The data show that despite Angola's unique mineral wealth, the nation's levels of child age-adequate immunization is lower and malnutrition rates are higher than in most of sub-Saharan Africa. To examine age-adequate immunization and chronic malnutrition we fit logistic regression models that include the regional degree of war impact and ethnolinguistic group, in addition to rural-urban differences and other conventional sociodemographic characteristics. The tests reveal a significant disadvantage of rural children relative to urban children in both immunization and chronic malnutrition. Net of the rural-urban differences, we also detect a significant disadvantage of children residing in parts of the country that had been most affected by the fighting. The tests also point to a lower level of immunization and higher level of chronic malnutrition among children from the ethnolinguistic group commonly identified with the opposition. These associations tend to be stronger among children who were born and/or grew up during war than among children who were born after peace was re-established.

  11. Civil Society Organizations in Post-War Liberia: The Role of Education and Training in Strengthening Organizational Capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duo, Samuel N.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to understand the role of non-formal education and training in the organizational change process of Civil society organizations (CSOs) in post war Liberia. CSOs are the local foundation for democracy and development in Liberia, and serve a wide range of roles in local communities. For example, in post-war Liberia,…

  12. Native Americans in Cold War Public Diplomacy: Indian Politics, American History, and the US Information Agency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denson, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    This essay examines the depiction of Native Americans by the US Information Agency (USIA), the bureau charged with explaining American politics to the international public during the Cold War. In the 1950s and 1960s, the USIA broadcast the message that Americans had begun to acknowledge their nation's history of conquest and were working to…

  13. The Syrian civil war: The experience of the Surgical Intensive Care Units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozdogan, Hatice Kaya; Karateke, Faruk; Ozdogan, Mehmet; Cetinalp, Sibel; Ozyazici, Sefa; Gezercan, Yurdal; Okten, Ali Ihsan; Celik, Muge; Satar, Salim

    2016-01-01

    Since the civilian war in Syria began, thousands of seriously injured trauma patients from Syria were brought to Turkey for emergency operations and/or postoperative intensive care. The aim of this study was to present the demographics and clinical features of the wounded patients in Syrian civil war admitted to the surgical intensive care units in a tertiary care centre. The records of 80 trauma patients admitted to the Anaesthesia, General Surgery and Neurosurgery ICUs between June 1, 2012 and July 15, 2014 were included in the study. The data were reviewed regarding the demographics, time of presentation, place of reference, Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II (APACHE II) score and Injury Severity Score (ISS), surgical procedures, complications, length of stay and mortality. A total of 80 wounded patients (70 males and 10 females) with a mean age of 28.7 years were admitted to surgical ICUs. The most frequent cause of injury was gunshot injury. The mean time interval between the occurrence of injury and time of admission was 2.87 days. Mean ISS score on admission was 21, and mean APACHE II score was 15.7. APACHE II scores of non-survivors were significantly increased compared with those of survivors (P=0.001). No significant differences was found in the age, ISS, time interval before admission, length of stay in ICU, rate of surgery before or after admission. The most important factor affecting mortality in this particular trauma-ICU patient population from Syrian civil war was the physiological condition of patients on admission. Rapid transport and effective initial and on-road resuscitation are critical in decreasing the mortality rate in civil wars and military conflicts.

  14. Demobilization and social reintegration of Brazilian and American troops of World War II: a comparative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Cesar Alves Ferraz

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to discuss the results of a comparative study of demobilization and social reintegration of Brazilian and American veterans of World War II. . In spite of the obvious difference in scale of the two military experiences, I argue that the study of the two experiences can offer new insights into lights on various common issues to both countries: the relationship between the societies and their armed forces, between the governments and their citizens, social and racial inequalities and, finally, the experiences of building welfare state structures during the war and postwar periods. Based on international studies of demobilization and social integration war veterans, the variables that were decisive for the success or failure of adaptation were: a past experiences in the reintegration of war veterans; b the nature and consequences of recruitment of future veterans; c planning by the State and the Armed Forces of procedures for post-bellum demobilization and reintegration; d the implementation of demobilization and the effects within the military institution and in civil society.

  15. Defining American Heroes: Analyzing the Metamorphosis of the War Hero in Twentieth Century War Films Using Joseph Campbell's, "Hero's Journey."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frith, Luci A.

    In "The Hero's Journey" Joseph Campbell identifies the patterns that inform the myths of the "hero" throughout recorded history. By using Campbell's template, this paper examines how the American war hero is portrayed and has been portrayed in film. The paper states that Americans not only define their war heroes in films but…

  16. Western Interventions in Current Wars: Political Justification and Civil Society´s Response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noelia Bueno Gómez

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available On the one hand, it seems to be an agreement in Western countries in favor of values included in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. On the other hand, Western countries initiate or intervene in armed conflicts outside their territories, which implies actions contrary to such values. This article examines this apparent contradiction: it describes briefly the international context of contemporary conflicts and it refers to the just-war tradition in order to analyze both the position of the Charter of the United Nations and the justifications given by Western countries. Moreover, the arguments used by the US and the Spanish Governments to justify their interventions in the Afghanistan (2001 and Iraq (2008 wars, and the responses of civil society are considered.

  17. THE DESTRUCTION OF THE ZULU KINGDOM: THE CIVIL WAR IN ZULULAND 1879-1884

    OpenAIRE

    D.H. Makobe

    2012-01-01

    The Destruction of the Zulu Kingdom: The civil war in Zululand 1879-1884, was originally submitted as a Ph.D dissertation in History at the University of London in 1975.Professor Jeff Guy, a well known historian on Zulu history and the present head of the History Department at the University of Natal, Durban branch has divided his work into three main parts. In the first part, entitled the "Invasion" he details the foundations of the Zulu Kingdom, the political structure of the Kingdom during...

  18. The causes of the Roman civil war, 49 B.C.: Julia and Crassus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. P. Koval

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The title of the article is ‘The Causes of the Roman Civil War, 49 B.C.: Julia and Crassus’. The purpose of the article was to examine the theory, provided by ancient writers, according to which deaths of Julia and Marcus Licinius Crassus are interpreted as one of the causes of the Roman Civil war in 49 B.C. This theory wasn’t an object of the special research and many modern scholars take on trust accounts of the ancient writers, following Mommsen’s view. According to the sources, Julia was the «pledge of consent» between Pompey and Caesar, while Crassus was their mediator. In contrast, E. Gruen believed, that the deaths of Julia and Crassus had not been so ruinous for relations of Pompey and Caesar. For example, Julia had died in 54 B.C., but the Civil war started in 49 B.C. – according to the sources, it should have been started immediately after Julia’s death. The study tested, that the main source of such interpretation of Julia’s and Crassus’ deaths was Lucan’s ‘Pharsalia’. Such characterization of those is the most full in his poem. Textual analysis proves, that Lucan’s poem was a source of this theory for many other ancient writers. For example, Plutarch’s and Appian’s characterizations of Julia and Crassus are the same, as in ‘Pharsalia’, considering the translation from Latin to Greek. Further examination established that Lucan was the main propagandist of such characterization, but he wasn’t its author. Julia was described as the «pledge of consent» in writings of Velleius Paterculus and Valerius Maximus that had been written in a few decades before ‘Pharsalia’. However, there is no such characterization in writings of Cicero and Livius, who were the eyewitnesses of the Civil war. As a result, it was concluded, that such characterization had been formed among Roman writers of the early principate and retailed by Lucan. As a conclusion it must be emphasized, that close study of the ancient

  19. Shocks, civil war and economic development in Sub-Saharan Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Nillesen, E.E.M.

    2010-01-01

    Foreign aid, low institutional quality and civil wars are associated with slow economic development in many Sub-Sahara African countries. I aim to identify causal relations and mechanisms that explain significant correlations. I use both macro- and micro-economic data and show that results are not necessarily far apart. I assess the influence of foreign aid using macro-level data of 30 Sub-Saharan African countries. Opponents argue that foreign aid corrupts, and will end up in the hands of a...

  20. [Neurological changes related to malnutrition during the spanish civil war (1936-1939)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culebras, Jesús M

    2014-04-01

    In this lecture, given at the International Conferences on Neuroscience, in Quito, May 31st-June 1st of 2013, the topic of famine situations during the Spanish Civil War, 1936-1939, was approached. Madrid, the capital of Spain, was under food, water and milk rationing during that period. This situation led to conditions that showed the relationships between the nervous system and nutrition. The Madrilenian population was submitted to a real experiment of hyponutrition, similar to the one that may be reproduced at the laboratory. At the end of the war, the National Direction on Health and the Institute of Medical Investigations, with the collaboration of the Rockefeller Foundation, carried out a series of clinical and food consumption surveys among the Madrilenian population. There were three medical situations that were of particular relevance during the Civil War and after it: the pellagra epidemics, the onset of lathyrism, and the socalled Vallecas syndrome. The occurrence of pellagra cases was paramount because it allowed reconsidering all the unspecific symptoms observed from an already known vitamin deficiency. Pellagra became the most prevalent deficitrelated disease, and most clearly related to nutrition. Lathyrism is a chronic intoxication produced by the accumulation of neurotoxins. It is due to common intake of chickling peas (Lathyrus sativus). Chickling peas are toxic only if they represent more than 30% of the daily calories consumed for a prolonged period greater than two to three months. Lathyrism would reoccur in the Spanish population after the war, in 1941 and 1942, the so called "famine years", when due to the scarcity of foods chickling pea flour was again consumed in high amounts. Deficiency-related neuropathies observed in Madrid during the Civil War led to new and original clinical descriptions. In children from schools of the Vallecas neighborhood, a deficiency syndrome, likely related to vitamin B complex deficiency, was described, which

  1. Latin American Civil-Military Relations in a Historical Perspective: A Literature Review

    OpenAIRE

    Skaar, Elin; Malca, Camila Gianella

    2014-01-01

    Civil-military relationships constitute a crucial element in the transition to substantive democracy all over the world. During periods of authoritarianism or civil war, the military in Latin America has been responsible for extensive violations of human rights and humanitarian law. Since the reintroduction of democracy in the region in the 1980s and 1990s, the military has gradually been brought back under civilian rule. The balance of power between military and civil political actors has sh...

  2. Games, civil war and mutiny: metaphors of conflict for the nurse-doctor relationship in medical television programmes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, Roslyn

    2013-12-01

    Metaphors of medicine are common, such as war, which is evident in much of our language about health-care where patients and healthcare professionals fight disease, or the game, which is one way to frame the nurse-doctor professional relationship. This study analyses six pilot episodes of American (Grey's Anatomy, Hawthorne, Mercy, Nurse Jackie) and Australian (All Saints, RAN) medical television programmes premiering between 1998 and 2009 to assess one way that our contemporary culture understands and constructs professional relationships between nurses and doctors. Analysis shows that these popular television programmes frequently depict conflict, with games, civil war and mutiny between nurses and doctors over patient safety rather than professionals working collaboratively in teams to deliver health-care. Although the benefit of this televised conflict is the implication that nurses are knowledgeable, skilled professionals, the negative connotations include a dysfunctional and dangerous healthcare system, and also ongoing power struggles. Given that popular culture can sometimes influence the public's understanding of real-life nursing practice, it is important to explore what these metaphors of conflict are communicating about the nurse-doctor relationship. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. The American History of PTSD: Civil War -- Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-21

    affects. Notably, they contended that the cure rested in the restoration of the repressed memory. Additionally, doctors understood two key components...Additional manifestation characteristics included somatic preoccupations, clinical depression, interpersonal attachment, negative ruminations , social...negative ruminations , social alienation, and self- devaluation Nervous, jumpy, irritable, suffering from insomnia, short fuse, survivors guilt

  4. The Hungarian Participants of the American War of Independence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrik Kunec

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Thousands of soldiers coming from different parts of Europe have participated in the American War of Independence. While the British crown received support from the German mercenaries, the secessionists Americans were helped by a special unit of the French army and by other volunteers from the territory of the Holy Roman Empire, the Kingdom of Sweden, and Poland. Less known are the issues of participation of troops from the Kingdom of Hungary who fought for American freedom. The following article brings information on the four foreigner fighters who arrived on the American battlefield: Maurice August Benyovszky, Baron Francisc Seraph Benyovszky, Mihály Kováts of Fabricy and Jean Ladislau Poleretzy. Having the spirit of adventure as a main characteristic, the four characters are the protagonists of some exciting stories, with ups and downs, with twists and unexpected denouement.

  5. [Medecine, Law, and Knowledge Production about the "Civilized" War in the Long 19th Century].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goltermann, Svenja

    2015-01-01

    The aim to 'civilize' warfare accompanied Medicine and International Law ever since the mid-19th century. However, the entanglement of Medicine and Law, crucial for such an endeavour, has not been taken into consideration so far; likewise, the huge importance of medical knowledge for the perception of wars and their ramifications did not garner much attention in historical research. Hence, by focusing on the 'long' 19th century, this paper shows, firstly, that the production of surgical knowledge during warfare aimed at measuring the effects of combat on human bodies in order to develop prognostic medical knowledge for future wars, as well as maintaining the combat strength of soldiers. Moreover, this knowledge production during warfare strived for the enhancement of medical competence in the diagnosis and treatment of wounds in general. Secondly, I show that this medical knowledge was not only relevant for warfare, but also crucial for the design of International Law: it served to nourish the debates among the so called 'civilized' nations about legitimate and illegitimate weaponry and warfare.

  6. Children in the Syrian Civil War: the Familial, Educational, and Public Health Impact of Ongoing Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsafti, Abdallah Mohamed; van Berlaer, Gerlant; Al Safadi, Mohammad; Debacker, Michel; Buyl, Ronald; Redwan, Atef; Hubloue, Ives

    2016-12-01

    The Syrian civil war since 2011 has led to one of the most complex humanitarian emergencies in history. The objective of this study was to document the impact of the conflict on the familial, educational, and public health state of Syrian children. A cross-sectional observational study was conducted in May 2015. Health care workers visited families with a prospectively designed data sheet in 4 Northern Syrian governorates. The 1001 children included in this study originated from Aleppo (41%), Idleb (36%), Hamah (15%), and Lattakia (8%). The children's median age was 6 years (range, 0-15 years; interquartile range, 3-11 years), and 61% were boys. Almost 20% of the children were internally displaced, and 5% had deceased or missing parents. Children lacked access to safe drinking water (15%), appropriate sanitation (23%), healthy nutrition (16%), and pediatric health care providers (64%). Vaccination was inadequate in 72%. More than half of school-aged children had no access to education. Children in Idleb and Lattakia were at greater risk of having unmet public health needs. Younger children were at greater risk of having an incomplete vaccination state. After 4 years of civil war in Syria, children have lost parents, live in substandard life quality circumstances, and are at risk for outbreaks because of worsening vaccination states and insufficient availability of health care providers. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2016;10:874-882).

  7. Tourism in Conflict Zones. The Promotion of Spanish Civil War Heritage in the Community of Madrid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Navajas Corral

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available For more than a decade, the processes of patrimonialization of spaces and cultural assets of the Spanish Civil War have been strengthened. The Community of Madrid has not been, and is not, alien to this process. Since the creation of the Grupo de Estudios del Frente de Madrid (GEFREMA in 2002, associations whose objective is to investigate this historical period and its material legacy, research, and patrimonialisation processes in the region have continued to increase. Arganda del Rey, Morata de Tajuña, Guadarrama, Buitrago de Lozoya, Madrid, etc., are some of the places where heritage is already available to citizens and is offered as a tourist resource. This article presents an investigation that analyzes the different spaces of the Spanish Civil War that have recovered in the region of Madrid. Based on the museological theories, which provides the communication and interpretation of the heritage, and the methodologies for the collection of quantitative and qualitative data, we have evaluated the different places in which this heritage has been valued in order to be able to Define its main variables and also be able to build proposals for its future and for future interventions elsewhere.

  8. The Balkans and Syria’s Civil War: Realities and Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MA. Perparim Gutaj

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The prime objective of this research paper is to look at the realities and challenges confronting the Balkan states and societies in light of Syria’s civil war. By examining the mobilization process of Balkan militants who are joining Syria’s rebel cause, especially the Islamic radical groups linked to al-Qaeda, this paper proposes a model that explains why and how Balkan militants are joining the fight in Syria. Drawing upon reliable media reports, personal observations, academic accounts, and other consistent sources, this paper argues that Balkan militants are joining Syria’s rebel cause because foreign Islamic radical groups (that have been operating in the Balkans since the early 1990s have successfully indoctrinated them. This paper challenges the argument that Islam in the Balkans is a threat to the region, and the claim that Balkan Islam and Muslims in the region are becoming an increasing threat to the West. The central findings of this paper exemplify that the future of Balkan militants is bleak and that they will be confronted with a massive modern and democratic resistance that offers them nothing but reintegration into Balkan Islam, their natural “religious nest.” Notwithstanding the trends related to Syria’s civil war, Balkan Muslims belong to the West, culturally and mentally.

  9. Terrorism, civil war and related violence and substance use disorder morbidity and mortality: a global analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerridge, Bradley T; Khan, Maria R; Rehm, Jürgen; Sapkota, Amir

    2014-03-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine associations between deaths owing to terrorism, civil war, and one-sided violence from 1994-2000 and substance use disorder disability-adjusted life years (DALYs). The relationship between terrorism, and related violence and substance use disorder morbidity and mortality among World Health Organization Member States in 2002, controlling for adult per capita alcohol consumption, illicit drug use, and economic variables at baseline in 1994. Deaths as a result of terrorism and related violence were related to substance use disorder DALYs: a 1.0% increase in deaths as a result of terrorism, war and one-sided violence was associated with an increase of between 0.10% and 0.12% in alcohol and drug use disorder DALYs. Associations were greater among males and 15-44 year-old. Terrorism, war and one-sided violence may influence morbidity and mortality attributable to substance use disorders in the longer-term suggests that more attention to be given to rapid assessment and treatment of substance use disorders in conflict-affected populations with due consideration of gender and age differences that may impact treatment outcomes in these settings. Priorities should be established to rebuild substance abuse treatment infrastructures and treat the many physical and mental comorbid disorders. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  10. Sounds and Memories of El Salvador’s Civil War in the Songs of Los Torogoces de Morazán

    OpenAIRE

    Azahar, Christina

    2015-01-01

    Authored by a multiracial Salvadoran/U.S. American graduate student, this paper marks an effort to engage both an autobiographical and a historical perspective on Los Torogoces de Morazán’s role in the evolution of Salvadoran cultural memory. The group’s formation in 1981 established them as the primary musical expression of the FMLN guerilla forces throughout the civil war that lasted until 1992, and they now continue performing to honor those lost during the conflict’s numerous state-sancti...

  11. Conduct disorder, war zone stress, and war-related posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms in American Indian Vietnam veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dillard, Denise; Jacobsen, Clemma; Ramsey, Scott; Manson, Spero

    2007-02-01

    This study examined whether conduct disorder (CD) was associated with war zone stress and war-related post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms in American Indian (AI) Vietnam veterans. Cross-sectional lay-interview data was analyzed for 591 male participants from the American Indian Vietnam Veterans Project. Logistic regression evaluated the association of CD with odds of high war zone stress and linear regression evaluated the association of CD and PTSD symptom severity. Childhood CD was not associated with increased odds of high war zone stress. Conduct disorder was associated with elevated war-related PTSD symptoms among male AI Vietnam Veterans independent of war zone stress level and other mediators. Future efforts should examine reasons for this association and if the association exists in other AI populations.

  12. The Unexpected Consequences of War. Thucydides on the Relationship between War, Civil War and the Degradation of Language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dino Piovan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo pretendo aportar un análisis del relato de Tucídides de la guerra en la tercera sección de su obra histórica (3.82-83. A pesar de que algunos de sus primeros comentadores le acusaron de cierta oscuridad, las nociones de polemos y statis que él introduce en este texto merecen ser discutidas y pueden proporcionar ideas nuevas sobre el problema de la guerra civil en la historia de Occidente. Mi principal argumento es que existe una clara analogía entre el concepto de stasis de Tucídides, por un lado, y las reflexiones de Simone Weil sobre el totalitarismo y el cuaderno de Klemperer acerca del vocabulario Nazi, por otro. Dentro de esta perspectiva, no sólo la violencia, sino también la propaganda como manipulación del lenguaje son características importantes de stasis.

  13. Nuclear war and other catastrophes. Civil and catastrophe protection in the Federal republic of Germany and the United Kingdom after 1945

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diebel, Martin

    2017-01-01

    The book civil and catastrophe protection in the Federal republic of Germany and the United Kingdom after 1945 discusses the following issues: aerial defense and the atomic bomb (1945 - 1968), crises and catastrophes in the shadow of the bomb (1962 - 1978), civil defense and the comeback of the (nuclear) war (1976 - 1979), civil defense and the second ''Cold War'' (1979 - 1986), Chernobyl and the end of the Cold War (1979 - 1990), war, catastrophe and safety in the 20th century - a conclusion.

  14. War Games: Staging the Histories in an American Presidential Year

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bradley Kath

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the ways in which the seldom performed collaborative play, Edward III, was re-contextualised by Barbara Gaines, Artistic Director of the Shakespeare Theater of Chicago, in order to create a specifically presentist piece of theatre making a forceful political statement during the 2016 US presidential election. Edward III formed the opening section of a trilogy entitled Tug of War: Foreign Fire, which continued with Henry V, and Henry VI Part I. The second trilogy, Tug of War: Civil Strife, comprised the remaining two parts of Henry VI and Richard III. The paper will address the rationale behind the selection of these specific plays, and why it was felt unnecessary to fill the historical lacuna created by the exclusion of Richard II and Henry IV Parts I and II. In addition, it will also examine the limitations inherent in the available archival material when researching an ephemeral theatrical event, particularly one which has been edited and directed in order to address issues of immediate political concern. Selected extracts from my own review of the first of these two trilogies will seek to offer a more detailed response than is possible for journalistic reviewers and to provide sufficient background to prove of benefit for future researchers.

  15. THE ECONOMICS OF THE UNION DRAFT: INSTITUTIONAL FAILURE AND GOVERNMENT MANIPULATION OF THE LABOR MARKET DURING THE CIVIL WAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cady Alpert

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The Civil War is still the bloodiest of all wars in which the United States has fought. The number of men who died and the reduction in the labor force had profound effects on the economy for years. In this paper we examine the methods used by the Union Government to procure a fighting force. We argue that institutional failure by the Union Government to raise and put into battle a sufficient number of men in the early years of the war prolonged the inevitable. Had the North either raised the wages of soldiers or created an effective draft, which for various institutional reasons it did not do until late in the war, fewer lives would have been lost and the war would have come to an end sooner.

  16. Art of urgency. Contributions to the Critical Debate of the Spanish Civil War Propaganda art.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Ángel Gamonal Torres

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The concept «arte de urgencia» defined, during the Spanish Civil War propaganda art, the artistic practice of agit-prop of Leninist inspiration. This article provides a critical review of the debate held by the artists and writers to the dissatisfaction produced by this type of art. Authors of Marxist affiliation or linked to the Spanish Popular Front positions, took part in the debate about Realism and the modern meanings of agitation (poster, photomontage, typography. This discussion took place in some important press and literary ambience, reflects a common concern to the artistic environments of the European left-wing parties and it had also a general objection from the anarchist positions.

  17. The heavy and shadowy burden of the Spanish Civil War in children’s narrative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Belmonte

    Full Text Available Literature intended for adults –especially in narrative-, which tackles with the Spanish Civil War in a deep and critical way, is also clearly and specifically reflected in those others books written for a younger Reading public. In this sub-category, two of the earliest and most outstanding works where this controversial topic is treated are Elena Fortún’s Celia en la revolución, written in 1943 but not published till 1987, and José Luis Castillo-Puche’s El perro loco, which appeared in 1965 and commendably got round the rigid censorship of the period. In these and later works (analysed here down to the present day, issues that are polemical even today, such as the violence perpetrated by both sides, children’s suffering, painful exile, the difficult reconciliation between victors and defeated, as well as the Francoist repression in postwar era.

  18. Effect of the Syrian Civil War on Prevalence of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in Southeastern Anatolia, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inci, Rahime; Ozturk, Perihan; Mulayim, Mehmet Kamil; Ozyurt, Kemal; Alatas, Emine Tugba; Inci, Mehmet Fatih

    2015-07-20

    Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is a vector-mediated skin disease, characterized by chronic wounds on the skin and caused by macrophages in protozoan parasites. It is an endemic disease in the southern and southeastern Anatolia region and is still an important public health problem in Turkey. Because of the civil war in Syria, immigrants to this region in the last 3 years have begun to more frequently present with this disease. The aim of this study was to draw attention to the dramatic increase in new cases with CL after the beginning of the civil war in Syria. In this retrospective study, we evaluated demographic, epidemiological, and clinical features of 110 patients diagnosed with cutaneous leishmaniasis who were admitted to the Department of Dermatology at Kahramanmaras Sutcu Imam University Faculty of Medicine between January 2011 and June 2014. A total of 110 patients included in the study; 50 (45%) were males, and 60 (55%) were females. The age range of the study group was 1-78 years, and the infection was more prevalent in the 0-20 year age group. Of these patients, 76 (69%) were Syrian refugees living in tent camps and 34 (31%) were Turkish citizens. The majority of the cases were diagnosed between October and December. Immigrations to endemic regions of Turkey from neighbouring countries where CL incidence is higher may lead to large increases in case numbers. In order to decrease the risk of exposure, housing conditions of the refugees must be improved, routine health controls must be performed, effective measures must be set in place for vector control, and infected individuals must be diagnosed and treated to prevent spread of the infection.

  19. Building a Planning Transition Capability into the New American Way of War

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hickey, Christopher M

    2007-01-01

    ... and Japan in World War II. A major problem for Joint Force commanders and their staffs is that the speed of the campaign in this "New American Way of War" challenges their ability to adequately plan for both the decisive war...

  20. Travels and Memory: the sciences in Spain before and after the Civil War

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santesmases, María Jesús

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available This essay revisits the influence of the Junta para Ampliación de Estudios (JAE, the effect in the trajectory of the Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas of JAE grants and scholarships policy for Spanish young graduates to study abroad. It proposes grantee’s travel as a source of knowledge and its practices. It develops the argument that institutional memory, as that of ideas, is not blurred by either a civil war or a dictatorship, repressive as it was. It also suggests genealogy of scientific practices and training during the 20th century in Spain.

    Este artículo repasa la influencia de la Junta para Ampliación de Estudios y el efecto de la política de pensiones en el extranjero en la trayectoria del Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas. Se proponen el viaje de los pensionados de la JAE como fuente de saber científico y de sus prácticas. Se sugiere que la memoria institucional, como la de las ideas, no se borra en guerras civiles y dictaduras, por represoras que sean, que hay genealogía también de las prácticas de las ciencias y en la formación experimental a lo largo del siglo xx en España.

  1. War and Education in the United States: Racial Ideology and Inequality in Three Historical Episodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rury, John L.; Darby, Derrick

    2016-01-01

    This paper examines the impact of war on African-American education. This question is considered in three different periods: the eras of the American Revolution, the Civil War and the Second World War. Large-scale conflict, such as these instances of total war, can afford historical moments when oppressed groups are able take steps to improve…

  2. Understanding the Causes of Civil Wars in Post-Colonial Sub-Saharan Africa. Case study: Sierra Leone and the Role of women in the Search for Peace

    OpenAIRE

    Sesay, Adama

    2013-01-01

    It is widely understood or assumed among scholars like Thomas Weiss, that civil wars in Africa are mainly wars for natural resources. This statement needs careful evaluation, and it is for this reason that this study will use Weiss`s theories on the causes of wars in sub-Sahara Africa as a background for understanding the Sierra Leone conflict. In addition, as the title implies, this paper further aims to investigate the war in Sierra Leone and most...

  3. Determining If the Actions of African American Combat Forces during World War I Positively Affected the Employment of African American Combat Soldiers during World War II

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Doward, Jr, Oscar W

    2007-01-01

    ... them to be combat multipliers for future conflicts. The thesis identifies trends in African Americans' military service from the Revolutionary War through their actions along the Mexican border during the first decade of the 20th century...

  4. The Operational Capability of the American Expeditionary Forces in the World War

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-04

    attend the Advance Military Studies Program, COLs Michael Getchell, John Marr, and John Norris . Finally, to my college mentor, Dario Lorenzetti, killed...the United States Army and the War Department was selecting a general to lead the American Army in France. Since the end of the Spanish -American...formation since the end of the Spanish -American War. This proved to be a great challenge for the American Army in finding leaders to command the large

  5. 38 CFR 3.950 - Helpless children; Spanish-American and prior wars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Helpless children; Spanish-American and prior wars. 3.950 Section 3.950 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF... § 3.950 Helpless children; Spanish-American and prior wars. Marriage is not a bar to the payment of...

  6. The Freedom Schools, the Civil Rights Movement, and Refocusing the Goals of American Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hale, Jon N.

    2011-01-01

    This article examines the history of the 1964 Mississippi Freedom Schools to illustrate how integrating the Civil Rights Movement into the social studies curriculum refocuses the aims of American education on participatory democracy. Teaching the Civil Rights Movement and employing the teaching strategies used in the Freedom Schools leads to the…

  7. Retrospective analysis of patients with burn injury treated in a burn center in Turkey during the Syrian civil war

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yucel Yuce

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To report the management of burn injuries that occured in the Syria civil war, which were referred to our burn center. Methods: Forty-three patients with burns, injured in the civil war in Syria and whom were referred to Dr. Lütfi Kırdar Kartal Educating and Training Hospital Burn Centre of İstanbul, Turkey between 2011-2015 were analyzed in a retrospective study. Results: Most of our patients were in major burn classification (93%; 40/43 and most of them had burns >15% total on body surface area. Most of them were admitted to our center late after first management at centers with improper conditions and in cultures of these patients unusual and resistant strains specific to the battlefield were produced. Conclusion: Immediate transfer of the patients from the scene of incidence to burn centers ensures early treatment, this factor may be effective on the outcome of these patients.

  8. Poker, Blackjack, Rummy, and War: The Face of American Strategic Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-03-15

    international relations. The result of this geographic advantage was the belief over time that “the need to fight 4 a war was a decision to be made... international relationships; political culture and ideology; military culture— military history, traditions, and education ; civil-military...Studies Degree. The U.S. Army War College is accredited by the Commission on Higher Education of the Middle States Association of Colleges and

  9. 76 FR 11935 - Death of Army Corporal Frank W. Buckles, the Last Surviving American Veteran of World War I

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-03

    ... of Army Corporal Frank W. Buckles, the Last Surviving American Veteran of World War I By the... Corporal Frank W. Buckles, the last surviving American veteran of World War I, and in remembrance of the generation of American veterans of World War I, I hereby order, by the authority vested in me by the...

  10. Representations of the Spanish Civil War in early Francoist history textbooks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian ROITH

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Textbooks are effective tools to understand the idiosyncrasies of certain historical time periods as they allow us to examine the ideologies, concepts and values of the social groups in power. Those textbooks which were in use in the areas occupied by the Fascist National troops under the insurgent General Francisco Franco’s command and in all of Spain after his victory permit us to draw conclusions about the characteristics of the Francoist ideology. The analysis of original material collected and classified by the Spanish research project of textbooks (manes, as well as the review of theoretical studies demonstrates that Francoist schoolbooks to a large extent reproduced contents proceeding from the monarchic period before the Second Republic. The representations of the Civil War in these textbooks condense the most important doctrinal principles of the Franco dictatorship and reveal the existing ideological differences between different tendencies represented in the regime. Furthermore, the analysis of these texts shows that the ideological indoctrination through schoolbooks was an essential element of the totalitarian efforts of the Franco regime.

  11. Gender Dynamics During And Post The Lebanese Civil War 1975-1990 Through A Marxist Feminist Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reham ElMorally

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In the following paper I wish to investigate the status of women and their socio-economic conditions during the second civil war. As it was common during that period of time the war was transferred to the womb of women and sectarian conflicts during that time and even later usually involved mudding the blood of future generations of one sect. Therefore I wish to examine whether this was the case in Lebanon. In order to do so I will divide my paper into five sections. The first section of the paper will discuss the socio-economic background of the working class families of different sects in Lebanon. The second section of the paper will investigate the other means that were used during the war to weaken the Other i.e. the focus will be directed at unarmed forms of violence. The third part of the paper will discuss the effects of the war and more specifically it will focus on how women perceived experienced and the extent to which they were affected by the war. The fourth section will attempt to draw a comparative analysis in which the situation of women in Syria Lebanon and Palestine have been affected similarly during different conflicts at different locations and periods. The last part of the paper will attempt to draw some conclusions about the eruption of the war and whether its consequences still cause distress to Lebanese women today.

  12. Hanoi and the American War: Two International Histories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geoffrey C. Stewart

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Pierre Asselin, Hanoi’s Road to the Vietnam War, 1954-1965. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2013. 319 pp. $55 (cloth Lien-Hang T. Nguyen, Hanoi’s War: An International History of the War for Peace in Vietnam. Chapel Hill: The University of North Carolina Press, 2012. 444 pp. $34.95 (cloth.

  13. Analysis of the First 100 Patients From the Syrian Civil War Treated in an Israeli District Hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, Seema; Waksman, Igor; Baron, Shay; Fuchs, David; Rechnitzer, Hagai; Dally, Najib; Kassis, Shokrey; Hadary, Amram

    2016-01-01

    An analysis of the injuries and treatment of the first 100 patients from the Syrian civil war was conducted to monitor quality of care and outcome. As reports of the collapse of health care systems in regions within Syria reach the media, patients find themselves crossing the border into Israel for the treatment of war injuries. Among these patients are combatants, noncombatants, women, and children. Treatment, that is free at the point of care, is a humanitarian imperative for war wounded, and this paper reports the care in an Israeli district hospital of the first 100 patients received. With ethics committee approval, data from the Trauma Registry and electronic patient records were collected and analyzed. No identifying data are presented. Most patients (94) were male. Seventeen patients were younger than the age of 18 years; 52 patients were in their twenties. Most injuries were the results of gunshot or blast injury (50 and 29 patients, respectively). Two multiple-trauma patients died, 8 were transferred for specialist care, and 90 patients returned from Ziv Hospital to Syria after discharge. The experience of the care of patients across a hostile border has been unprecedented. Hospital protocols required adjustment to deliver quality clinical and social care to patients suffering from both the acute and chronic effects of civil war.

  14. Children's Education and Mental Health in Spain during and after the Civil War: Psychiatry, Psychology and "Biological Pedagogy" at the Service of Franco's Regime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, Amparo; Canales, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    This article analyses the child psychiatry and psychology developed during the Spanish Civil War and immediate postwar period. The aim is to demonstrate that, despite the existence of a certain degree of disciplinary continuity in relation to the pre-war period, both disciplines were placed at the service of Francoism. This meant that the…

  15. Guerrilla War in Little Dixie: Understanding Conflict Escalation in Missouri during the American Civil War

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-22

    Hannibal and St. Louis opened in 1856 and 1858, respectively, linking Missouri to growing manufacturing cities like Chicago and Cincinnati. Further, the... Hannibal and St. Joseph Railroad opened in 1856 and spanned the state, which made it a competitive candidate for a possible eastern link for a...Railroad Question: On the Bill Proposing a Loan of the Credit of the State to Expedite the Construction of the Pacific Reailroad, and of the Hannibal and

  16. Myths and Crises: American Masculinity in 1980s Vietnam War Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-12

    in the interim that films could start to address the war and the 3 Stephen Prince, American Cinema ...for cinematic revenge against the Japanese .64 The narrative film and its ability to trace the life of an individual over the course of the war...

  17. The Image of War Correspondents in Anglo-American Fiction. Journalism Monographs Number Ninety-Seven.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Good, Howard

    The work of war correspondents involves violence, danger, and drama; and what they endure to get a story is often as interesting as the actual news itself. Anglo-American fiction tends toward an ironic, even cynical, view of combat reporting that serves as a corrective to the notion, fostered in journalists' autobiographies, that war is fun. It…

  18. Meeting Yesterday Head-On: The Vietnam War in Vietnamese, American, and World History.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockard, Craig A.

    1994-01-01

    Asserts that the American-Vietnamese War can be analyzed best in the context of three distinct entities: (1) Vietnam; (2) the United States; and (3) the larger world. Discusses Vietnam's revolutionary tradition, U.S. Cold War foreign policy, and the global context of anticolonialism and antiimperialism. (CFR)

  19. Mexican Americans on the Home Front: Community Organizations in Arizona during World War II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marin, Christine

    During World War II Arizona's Mexican-American communities organized their own patriotic activities and worked, in spite of racism, to support the war effort. In Phoenix the Lenadores del Mundo, an active fraternal society, began this effort by sponsoring a festival in January 1942. Such "mutualistas" provided an essential support system…

  20. American Material Culture: Investigating a World War II Trash Dump

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Julie Braun

    2005-10-01

    The Idaho National Laboratory: An Historical Trash Trove Historians and archaeologists love trash, the older the better. Sometimes these researchers find their passion in unexpected places. In this presentation, the treasures found in a large historic dump that lies relatively untouched in the middle of the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) will be described. The U.S. military used the central portion of the INL as one of only six naval proving grounds during World War II. They dumped trash in dry irrigation canals during and after their wartime activities and shortly before the federal government designated this arid and desolate place as the nation’s nuclear reactor testing station in 1949. When read critically and combined with memories and photographs, the 60-year old trash provides a glimpse into 1940s’ culture and the everyday lives of ordinary people who lived and worked during this time on Idaho’s desert. Thanks to priceless stories, hours of research, and the ability to read the language of historic artifacts, the dump was turned from just another trash heap into a treasure trove of 1940s memorabilia. Such studies of American material culture serve to fire our imaginations, enrich our understanding of past practices, and humanize history. Historical archaeology provides opportunities to integrate inanimate objects with animated narrative and, the more recent the artifacts, the more human the stories they can tell.

  1. Refugees of the Syrian Civil War: Impact on Reemerging Infections, Health Services, and Biosecurity in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doganay, Mehmet; Demiraslan, Hayati

    2016-01-01

    After the Arab Spring uprising, Syria descended into a civil war in 2011. By March 2016, the United Nations reported that 13.5 million Syrians required humanitarian assistance, including 6.6 million internally displaced persons and more than 4.8 million refugees outside of Syria. Turkey is currently hosting the largest number of Syrian refugees-more than 2.7 million. A limited number of refugees are living in camps settled around the border, and others are spread throughout Turkey. This explosive and unexpected increase in the Syrian population in Turkey has had several negative impacts on health and social determinants. The overload of healthcare facilities has led to shortages in childhood immunization programs, drugs, and access to clean water and food supplies. According to Ministry of Health data, more than 7.5 million Syrians were examined at outpatient clinics, and 299,240 were hospitalized; most of those hospitalized were injured and wounded victims who require and have been occupying intensive care units. The refugees generally live in crowded and unsanitary conditions, which may lead to the spread of respiratory, skin, gastrointestinal, and genital system infections. Currently, measles, poliomyelitis, leishmaniasis, and multidrug-resistant tuberculosis are the reemerging infections being most frequently recorded. Multidrug-resistant gram-negative bacterial infections seem to be an increasing problem in gunshot or surgical wounds. Hepatitis A, malaria, and varicella have been seen with a high incidence among the refugees. There are many problems waiting to be resolved for health and living standards in Turkey.

  2. Syria civil war: Outcomes of humanitarian neurosurgical care provided to Syrian wounded refugees in Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barhoum, Masad; Tobias, Samuel; Elron, Moshe; Sharon, Aviram; Heija, Tariq; Soustiel, Jean F

    2015-01-01

    As an expected consequence of the civil war in Syria, emergent neurosurgical care for battlefield trauma has been provided for severely head-injured Syrians transferred to Northern Israel. Sixty-six patients suffering from brain injury were brought to the border and then referred to the institution after initial resuscitation. Both the time and type of injury were recorded based on paramedic testimony, forensic material or on details provided by patients. A retrospective analysis of all medical charts and imaging material was performed. Most injuries were combat-related, either caused by blast (13.6%), shrapnel (24.2%), assault (28.8%) or gunshot wound (15.2%). Only a minority of patients (18.2%) suffered from injuries that were not directly caused by weapon. A total of 55 surgical procedures were performed in 46 out of 66 patients, including craniotomies in 40 patients, burr hole alone for placement of intraparenchymal intracranial pressure (ICP) sensor in nine instances and ventricle peritoneal shunt in two patients. Decompressive craniectomy was used only for the treatment of gunshot wound and was performed in eight out of 10 patients. The most common complication consisted in cerebrospinal fluid fistulas (16.7%). Post-operative infections occurred in seven patients (10.6%). Short-term outcomes were favourable in 60.7%, with a mortality rate of 4.5%. The present findings suggest that aggressive surgery and neuro-intensive care measures may lead to good functional results, even in the presence of seemingly devastating injuries in some selected patients.

  3. Maoism, Violence and Mass Murders: The Long Chinese Civil War and its Consequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felix Wemheuer

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In 1970s, many Western leftist intellectuals considered Maoism as a less violent alternative to Stalinist Socialism. After Soviet and Chinese party archives became assessable in the 1990s, this perception seems to be dated. Felix Wemheuer discusses the origins of »red terror« in the Chinese revolution and shows that mass killings of »enemies« were an important element of several mass campaigns and mobilization launched by the Communist Party of China between the late 1920s and early 1950s. According to official records, 710,000 people were executed during the campaign to suppress counter-revolutionaties (1950–1952. This is a higher number of victims than of Stalin’s “Great Purge” (1937–1938. The article will show how terror and mass participation were linked in the early campaigns. Mao believed in the liberating act of violence, when the masses would turn »society upside down«. Furthermore, it will work out the dialectic of promoting terror and taming the uncontrollable escalation of it. Especially, during the violent land reform in the »old liberated areas« (1946–1948, the party developed certain techniques of managing terror. The question of how the CCP leadership dealt with the problem that people are beaten to death during struggle meetings will serve as an example. Last but not least, it will be argued that »red terror« could only be understood in the context of Chinese long enduring civil war.

  4. Experts in the cold war. War experiences and peace conceptions of US-American physicists 1920-1963

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wunderle, Ulrike

    2015-01-01

    The study is dedicated to the American elite of nuclear physicists, which explained after the second world war the possibilities of their science for war and peace. What induced their thinking and handling? The focus lies on the scientific shapings and war experiences of the first really international generation of physicists, which began in the 1920th years their career before many of their representatives had to fly from the NS regime from Europe and cooperated in the Manhattan project in the construction of the atomic bomb. These experiences the author refers to in order to get on the track of the explanations of the exper elite in the immediate afterwar time and in the cold war. How far their internationally and by actual war experiences shaped thinking about their own contribution as scientist to the national security - in the sense of discouragement or the cooperative conflict regulation - found its expression in the cold war, is drawn on different action levels of the participants from the Geneve conference ''Atoms for Peace'' of 1955 until the signing of the so-called Limited Test Ban Treaty of 1963.

  5. The Threshold of the State: Civil Defence, the Blackout and the Home in Second World War Britain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenhalgh, James

    2017-06-01

    This article reconsiders the way that the British state extended its control of the home during the Second World War, using the implementation of air raid precautions and the blackout as a lens through which to view the state's developing attitudes to domestic space. Presented here is not the familiar story of pitch-dark, dangerous streets or altered cityscapes of fear and destruction; instead, by examining personal testimony the article inverts traditional treatments of the blackout to look at the interior of dwellings, demonstrating how the realities of total warfare impinged upon the psychological elements that constituted the home. What emerges not only expands historical understandings of the wartime experience of civilians, it also shows civil defence measures as highly visible points on an often antagonistic trajectory of state interactions with citizens concerning the privacy and security of the dwelling in the modern city. The requirements of civil defence, I argue, were not merely the product of exceptional wartime circumstances, but symptomatic of long-standing attempts to open up dwellings to state scrutiny. These attempts had both a significant pre-war lineage and, crucially, implications beyond the end of the war in private homes and on social housing estates. © The Author [2017]. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Age-specific mortality patterns in Central Mozambique during and after the end of the Civil War

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pearson R John C

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In recent years, vigorous debate has developed concerning how conflicts contribute to the spread of infectious diseases, and in particular, the role of post-conflict situations in the epidemiology of HIV/AIDS. This study details the age-specific mortality patterns among the population in the central provincial capital of Beira, Mozambique, during and after the Mozambican civil war which ended in 1992. Methods Data was collected from the death register at Beira's Central Hospital between 1985 and 2003 and descriptively analyzed. Results The data show two distinct periods: before and after the peace agreements in 1992. Before 1992 (during the civil war, the main impact of mortality was on children below 5 years of age, including still births, accounting for 58% of all deaths. After the war ended in 1992, the pattern shifted dramatically and rapidly to the 15-49 year old age group which accounted for 49% of all deaths by 2003. Conclusions As under-5 mortality rates were decreasing at the end of the conflict, rates for 24-49 year old adults began to dramatically increase due to AIDS. This study demonstrates that strategies can be implemented during conflicts to decrease mortality rates in one vulnerable population but post-conflict dynamics can bring together other factors which contribute to the rapid spread of other infectious diseases in other vulnerable populations.

  7. Age-specific mortality patterns in Central Mozambique during and after the end of the Civil War.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noden, Bruce H; Pearson, R John C; Gomes, Aurelio

    2011-05-26

    In recent years, vigorous debate has developed concerning how conflicts contribute to the spread of infectious diseases, and in particular, the role of post-conflict situations in the epidemiology of HIV/AIDS. This study details the age-specific mortality patterns among the population in the central provincial capital of Beira, Mozambique, during and after the Mozambican civil war which ended in 1992. Data was collected from the death register at Beira's Central Hospital between 1985 and 2003 and descriptively analyzed. The data show two distinct periods: before and after the peace agreements in 1992. Before 1992 (during the civil war), the main impact of mortality was on children below 5 years of age, including still births, accounting for 58% of all deaths. After the war ended in 1992, the pattern shifted dramatically and rapidly to the 15-49 year old age group which accounted for 49% of all deaths by 2003. As under-5 mortality rates were decreasing at the end of the conflict, rates for 24-49 year old adults began to dramatically increase due to AIDS. This study demonstrates that strategies can be implemented during conflicts to decrease mortality rates in one vulnerable population but post-conflict dynamics can bring together other factors which contribute to the rapid spread of other infectious diseases in other vulnerable populations.

  8. The Civil War in Spain, 1936-1939 and the Image of Enemy in the British Fascist Press

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera V. Malay

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the analysis of publications of British Fascists newspapers 'Action' and 'The Blackshirt' during the Spanish Civil War, 1936-1939. The main directions of image of enemy formation are studied on the example of these papers. Forms of presentation and ways of international problems interpreting by far-right publications are studied. The fascist newspaper Action, The Fascist Week and The Blackshirt spoke from the position of nationalism, Imperial identity, anti-liberalism, anti-Soviet and anti-Semitism. The concept of "communism" in the pages of the fascist press has accumulated the most precisely the image of enemy. Articles and notes shaped confusion between "Soviet", "red" and "Communist". The USSR seemed to be "the warmonger" and the "architect of the Civil war in Spain". The destructive role of Soviet Russia in the conflict was proved in the British fascist press. Soviet Union was accused of seeking to plunge Spain and Europe into anarchy. In British fascist publications trend towards stereotyping and myth-making were noticeable, they were opposed to "Western" civilization (as individualistic and "Eastern", "Communist" (oppressive, traditionalist.

  9. Morocco : Spanish postal administration after 1912 and Morocco during the Spanish Civil War and the Second World War

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dietz, A.J.

    2017-01-01

    An earlier version of (parts of) APH 5 was published as African Studies Centre Leiden Working Paper 125 / 2016: "A postal history of the First World War in Africa and its aftermath - German colonies/postal areas : V Morocco", written by Ton Dietz.

  10. Stasis and Bellum Civile

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lange, Carsten Hjort

    2017-01-01

    David Armitage’s new monograph Civil Wars: A History in Ideas (2017) will undoubtedly long remain a standard reference work. It presents readers with a vision of civil war as part of the longue durée. The argument might be further strengthened, however, if a more inclusive Greco-Roman approach...... to ancient civil war is accepted. This essay focuses on stasis vs. bellum civile, the origins of the concept of civil war, the approach of later Roman writers (such as Appian and Cassius Dio) to the concepts of stasis and bellum civile, and, finally, the question of what makes a civil war a civil war....... Whatever concepts were used, the Romans were not the first to experience internal war as a civil war—that is, a war between the citizens of a polity....

  11. Franco and José Antonio: Chief and Prophet of Spain. Construction of Charisma during the Civil War

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Luisa RICO GÓMEZ

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines how the person of the general Francisco Franco and of the Falangist leader Jose Antonio Primo de Rivera were transfigured symbolically by means of the construction and spread of its charismatic image into the speech, the rites and the liturgies of the ‘new State’ during the civil war into Spain from 1936 to 1939. The charismatic thing like carrier of an essence transcendente appeared in a dual way between the exaltation of Franco, the Caudillo, hero recognized as political chief for his warlike exploits, and the worship in memory of Jose Antonio, prophet dedicated to the death as redeeming sacrifice of Spain.

  12. Obolo (Andoni) Women in The Nigerian Civil War, 1967-1970 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Second are their socio-economic roles during the war. The third concerns their enlistment in the army and paramilitary forces. Obolo women also performed broadcasting and propaganda duties. Their presence in the paramedical corps, with which they saved lives, was equally significant. After the war they did not relent in ...

  13. The AEF Way of War: The American Army and Combat in the First World War

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Grotelueschen, Mark

    2003-01-01

    Many scholars of the First World War have examined the European armies in new ways that have shown not only how those armies actually fought along the Western Front, but how they changed their ideas...

  14. Electing Not to Fight: Elections as a Mechanism of Deradicalisation after the Irish Civil War 1922–1938

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bill Kissane

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Much research into the relationship between democratisation and conflict argues that holding elections soon after civil war, when nationalist issues still resonate, is likely to see voters elect to fight. This paper explores a case where elections had the opposite effect. Examination of the relationship between election results and political developments, as well as geographical voting patterns, demonstrates that elections were the primary mechanism for the deradicalisation of Irish politics after the civil war of 1922–23. Elections served as a mechanism for arbitration, selection, and coordination between more and less radical elites and their bases of support. Once the new state had shown its strength it had to accommodate gradual change, while electoral losers had to show they could reconcile change with stability. Elections helped establish credibility in both respects without altering the state-society relationship, suggesting that deradicalisation was dependent on state performance, and thus on some shared conception of the state. This combination of credibility, electoral legitimacy, and state performance, enabled a revolutionary elite, schooled in both constitutional and revolutionary politics, to deradicalise Irish nationalism after independence.

  15. Retrospective analysis of patients with burn injury treated in a burn center in Turkey during the Syrian civil war.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuce, Yucel; Acar, Hakan A; Erkal, Kutlu H; Arditi, Nur B

    2017-01-01

    To report the management of burn injuries that occured in the Syria civil war, which were referred to our burn center. Methods: Forty-three patients with burns, injured in the civil war in Syria and whom were referred to Dr. Lütfi Kırdar Kartal Educating and Training Hospital Burn Centre of İstanbul, Turkey between 2011-2015 were analyzed in a retrospective study. Results: Most of our patients were in major burn classification (93%; 40/43) and most of them had burns greater than 15% total on body surface area. Most of them were admitted to our center late after first management at centers with improper conditions and in cultures of these patients unusual and resistant strains specific to the battlefield were produced. Conclusion: Immediate transfer of the patients from the scene of incidence to burn centers ensures early treatment, this factor may be effective on the outcome of these patients.

  16. The role of war trauma survivors in managing their own mental conditions, Syria civil war as an example.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almoshmosh, Nadim

    2016-01-01

    War trauma leads to a wide range of psychological consequences and disorders that can be quite disabling to individuals and their families. At times of war, existing resources become strained to cope with all demands of trauma sufferers. The survivors' role of managing their own mental conditions becomes highly important and relevant as a way of reducing the resulted suffering. Unfortunately, this role is often ignored or trivialized by all concerned. The self-efficacy and resilience of people are the factors not to be underestimated and should be built upon. Reaching solutions are generally more satisfying and long-lasting when the affected person has taken a positive active part in finding them. Encouraging the use of own resources and experiences and using own problem-solving skills can be all that is needed for survivors to feel enabled. Engaging survivors and focusing on promoting recovery and social inclusion along with the use of self-help skills make them feel more positive about their own conditions. Being more involved, taking even small steps reduces the development of learned helplessness and reduces the psychiatric morbidities.

  17. Generational Dimensions to Igbo Nationalism in Post-Civil War Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    war for Igbo self-determination between 1967 and 1970. It rejects .... forces from above in the quest for Igbo self-determination in Nigeria. Drawing ...... Cole, J., 2004, “Fresh Contact in Tamatave, Magadascar: Sex, Money and Intergenerational.

  18. The American War on Human Rights: Current Issues

    OpenAIRE

    Boutrup, Louise Skovgaard; Jørgensen, Merete Gro

    2017-01-01

    The War on Terror (WoT), has been defended by its proponents, with a claim that all means, illegal and legal, are justified when fighting the WoT. Critics have questioned if the standards of the human right norms have been met. The use of targeted killings by drones have posed new questions, specifically the Central Intelligence Agency’s (CIA) drone-program, which uses targeted killings as a tool to fight terrorism. The research study aims to answer the following question: “Can the War on Ter...

  19. [Cutaneous leishmaniasis cases in Nizip, Turkey after the Syrian civil war].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salman, Ismail Serkan; Vural, Ahmet; Unver, Ahmet; Saçar, Suzan

    2014-01-01

    Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL), seen endemically in many countries, is a widespread protozoon disease all around the world. The neighboring countries of Turkey namely Iran, Iraq and Syria are highly endemic regions for CL, and more than 98% of the cases in Turkey are reported from South and Southeastern Anatolian regions. The aim of this study was to detect the prevalence of CL in Nizip, a district of Gaziantep province of southeastern Turkey, for three and half year period and to call attention to the dramatic increase of CL cases observed after the Syrian civil war. A total of 416 samples obtained from clinically suspected CL patients (of them 341 were Syrian refugees) who were admitted to Nizip State Hospital between January 1st 2010 and March 19th 2013 were included in the study. Lesion samples were collected according to the notice issued by Turkish Ministry of Health and Giemsa-stained smears were examined under the microscope (x1000). Samples from 77 patients (18.5%) yielded positive results with the observation of Leishmania amastigote forms. Fourty-seven (61%) of patients were female and 30 (39%) were male. Of the positive patients 52 (67.5%) belonged to 0-19 age group, 13 (16.9%) 20-39 and 12 (15.6%) 40-60 age groups. In the evaluation of the lesion characteristics, 33 (43%) patients had single and 44 (57%) had multiple lesions with a distribution mainly on face, arm and lower extremities, in a decreasing order. The period of time for the development of the lesions varied from 1.5 month to one year with the mean value of 3.4 months. There was no statistically significant relationship between the age and gender of patients, and the characteristics (quantity, distribution and time of occurence) of lesions (p> 0.05). The number of domestic and Syrian CL cases detected in Nizip in the years of 2010, 2011, 2012 and 2013 (the first three months) were as follows; 1 and 0, 2 and 0, 7 and 0, 5 and 62, respectively. So a total of 62 (80.5%) and 15 (19.5%) of CL

  20. Combat Multipliers: African-American Soldiers in Four Wars

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    historical record should also be commended. Reginal G. Clemmons Major General, U.S. Army Commandant, National War College Washington, DC May 2003 ii...Adjutant and Inspector General Maurice Grivot had approved and endorsed, respectively, the raising of the Native Guards in May 1861, they never

  1. Religious Justification for War in American History. A Savage Embrace: The Pequot War 1636-37

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-06-13

    the seventeenth century have often been identified as the tinder for the conflict between the Indians and the English in New England. The...became the tinder for a war of annihilation. What the practical demands of commerce had brought into proximity, the absolute requirements of religion

  2. Nuclear war and other catastrophes. Civil and catastrophe protection in the Federal republic of Germany and the United Kingdom after 1945; Atomkrieg und andere Katastrophen. Zivil- und Katastrophenschutz in der Bundesrepublik und Grossbritannien nach 1945

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diebel, Martin [Zentrum fuer Zeithistorische Forschung, Potsdam (Germany)

    2017-07-01

    The book civil and catastrophe protection in the Federal republic of Germany and the United Kingdom after 1945 discusses the following issues: aerial defense and the atomic bomb (1945 - 1968), crises and catastrophes in the shadow of the bomb (1962 - 1978), civil defense and the comeback of the (nuclear) war (1976 - 1979), civil defense and the second ''Cold War'' (1979 - 1986), Chernobyl and the end of the Cold War (1979 - 1990), war, catastrophe and safety in the 20th century - a conclusion.

  3. Guns, culture and moors : racial stereotypes and the cultural impact of the Moroccan participation in the Spanish Civil War (1936-1939)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tuma, al A.

    2016-01-01

    The presence of tens of thousands of Moroccan soldiers in Spain during its Civil War was an encounter between two culturally different people. This thesis researches the impact of the racial stereotypes the Spaniards had about the Moroccans on how the Moroccans were treated in the Spanish Army, how

  4. Educating the Communists of the Future: Notes on the Educational Life of the Spanish Children Evacuated to the USSR during the Spanish Civil War

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sierra Blas, Verónica

    2015-01-01

    The high rate of child mortality registered during the early months of the Civil War led the Republican authorities to initiate several operations to evacuate youngsters with the purpose of protecting and saving the children of Spain. At the beginning, the children were evacuated to zones in the interior of the country far removed from the front…

  5. Foreign awakenings: rig work in war-torn Sudan convinces Canadians their civilized version of industry is needed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lorenz, A.

    2000-01-01

    Experiences of some Canadian geologists working in Sudan are described. Glad to be back in Canada after several years of exploration work for various international exploration companies, they have fond memories of the people, who for the most part live under very primitive conditions, and constant exposure to the ravages of tribal wars. They characterize the attitude of Canadians working in Sudan towards the native population as one that puts high values on human rights, safety, work ethics, and individual responsibility. They defend Canadian presence in these far-off regions as beneficial to the native population, by bringing Canadian standards and a civilized version of industry to an area that has seen very little of that in the past. In contrast to the situation on Canadian rigs, on Chinese oil rigs favoritism and racism are the rule; the Chinese do not see that humanitarian issues are any of their concerns

  6. Foreign awakenings: rig work in war-torn Sudan convinces Canadians their civilized version of industry is needed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lorenz, A.

    2000-05-01

    Experiences of some Canadian geologists working in Sudan are described. Glad to be back in Canada after several years of exploration work for various international exploration companies, they have fond memories of the people, who for the most part live under very primitive conditions, and constant exposure to the ravages of tribal wars. They characterize the attitude of Canadians working in Sudan towards the native population as one that puts high values on human rights, safety, work ethics, and individual responsibility. They defend Canadian presence in these far-off regions as beneficial to the native population, by bringing Canadian standards and a civilized version of industry to an area that has seen very little of that in the past. In contrast to the situation on Canadian rigs, on Chinese oil rigs favoritism and racism are the rule; the Chinese do not see that humanitarian issues are any of their concerns.

  7. Records About Japanese Americans Relocated During World War II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Archives and Records Administration — This series contains personal descriptive data about Japanese Americans evacuated from the states of Washington, Oregon, and California to ten relocation centers...

  8. Impact of long-term civil disorders and wars on the trajectory of HIV ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chantel

    A partir du milieu des années 1970, sept pays de l'Afrique sous-Sahara ont connu des désordres civils et des guerres qui ont ...... cases among recent Rwandan immigrants of Kaposi's sarcoma and other diseases now recognised as oppor-.

  9. Gorky’s Editorial Project The History of the Civil War: On the Materials of the A.M. Gorky (IWL RAS and RGASPI Archives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga V. Bystrova

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The article focuses on the history of Maksim Gorky’s design — the publication of the History of the Civil War volumes. The analysis of Gorky’s correspondence (1929–1930 from the A.M. Gorky archives (IWL RAS reveals that the idea of the collection emerged at the beginning of 1928. In the course of the preparatory work, the Central Committee of the CPSU(b obliged Communist party officials, Soviet and military functionaries in all Soviet republics and regions to collect documents and memories of the Civil War, to write and review materials for the collection. Gorky conceived the volumes of The History of the Civil War to be popular and accessible to the average reader. For this purpose, he considered inviting talented Soviet authors who took part in the Civil War. Gorky’s recommendations were taken into account while forming the Editorial Board. The CC of the CPSU(b on July 31, 1931 established the Editorial Board (comprised of Chief, Historical and Artistic Boards that Gorky also joined. Under his guidance, the Secretariat of the Chief Editorial Board issued instructions that were intended to direct a wide range of research subjects and provide researchers with methodology. Gorky’s letters from the RGASPI collection give us idea of the huge amount of work done by the writer in the process of preparing the first volume for publication. If the first, 1935 volume reflects Gorky’s vision and concept of the collection, the subsequent 4 volumes published after his death departed from the original design. Despite this and the fact that only 5 volumes out of 15 were issued, we can state that Gorky’s design was realized and that the History of the Civil War still remains an authoritative book in the field.

  10. Ephemeral architecture and scenographies of francoist propaganda during the Spanish Civil War

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amparo Bernal López-Sanvicente

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available In Franco’s provisional government established during the war, the Department of Plastic Arts of the National Propaganda Service brought together a small group of plastic artists who had the opportunity of being relieved of military duty in order to create the image of the “New State”. The Architecture Section of this department was in charge of designing the architecture and scenography required for the acts and ceremonies of the government in order to show a city dignified by the new social order. This architecture of propaganda designed during the war was ephemeral and a mere stage setting, but likewise during this period another architecture was built under military initiative, aimed at consolidating the formal stereotype of Franco period propaganda architecture.

  11. Terrorism, civil war and related violence and substance use disorder morbidity and mortality: A global analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bradley T. Kerridge

    2014-03-01

    Conclusion: Terrorism, war and one-sided violence may influence morbidity and mortality attributable to substance use disorders in the longer-term suggests that more attention to be given to rapid assessment and treatment of substance use disorders in conflict-affected populations with due consideration of gender and age differences that may impact treatment outcomes in these settings. Priorities should be established to rebuild substance abuse treatment infrastructures and treat the many physical and mental comorbid disorders.

  12. The Sunni Spring: Counter-Attack in the War for Islamic Civilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-06

    cannot stamp out such practices like the British were able to stamp out sati in India . Unlike the Raj, however, we are in no position to superimpose...The United States toppled the Arab World’s leading secular tyrant and proceeded to rebuild the country’s political system in such a way as to...few thought much about the commonality during the tense years of the Cold War. Pope and Patriarch may have excommunicated each other in the Great

  13. A critique of “resource-based” theories of colombia’s civil war

    OpenAIRE

    Medina, Luis Fernando

    2008-01-01

    In recent years, several Colombian scholars have studied this country’s civil conflict through the lenses of economic reasoning and state-of-the-art statistical testing. Their analyses place most of the explanatory burden of the conflict on the existence of lootable resources and organized crime, not on any specific socio-economic factor of Colombia’s reality (“objective causes”). This paper criticizes their claims while accepting their criteria and methods. In particular, it contends that th...

  14. Extreme Weather and Civil War in Somalia: Does Drought Fuel Conflict through Livestock Price Shocks?

    OpenAIRE

    Maystadt, Jean-Francois; Ecker, Olivier; Mabiso, Athur

    2013-01-01

    Climate change leads to more frequent and more intense droughts in Somalia. In a global context, weather shocks have been found to perpetuate poverty and fuel civil conflict. By relating regional and temporal variations in violent conflict outbreaks with drought incidence and severity, we show that this causality is valid also for Somalia at the local level. We find that livestock price shocks drive drought-induced conflicts through reducing the opportunity costs of conflict participation. Ou...

  15. The authoritarian castling of the Syrian regime: from popular uprising to civil war

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignacio Álvarez-Ossorio Alvariño

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Instead of hastening political change, the Syrian uprising has led to greater authoritarianism. At first, president Bashar al-Assad adopted various cosmetic reforms (a party law and constitutional referendum, which were designed more as a survival strategy than a genuine process of political liberalisation. In its first four years, the Syrian crisis has gone from being an anti-authoritarian popular uprising to a proxy war with the active presence of Saudi Arabia, Iran, Qatar and Turkey. Control of the state apparatus on the part of the Alawite minority has been instrumentalised by the Salafist and jihadist groups to intensify sectarianism and claim the establishment of an Islamic State.

  16. On the eve of war: authoritarianism, social dominance, and American students' attitudes toward attacking Iraq.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFarland, Sam G

    2005-03-01

    In the week before the 2003 American attack on Iraq, the effects of authoritarianism and the social dominance orientation on support for the attack were examined. Based on prior research on the nature of these constructs, a structural model was developed and tested. As predicted, authoritarianism strengthened support for the attack by intensifying the perception that Iraq threatened America. Social dominance increased support by reducing concern for the likely human costs of the war. Both also increased blind patriotism, which in turn reduced concern for the war's human costs and was reciprocally related to the belief that Iraq threatened America.

  17. Cold War Kitchen: Americanization, Technology, and European users

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oldenziel, R.; Zachmann, K.

    2009-01-01

    Richard Nixon and Nikita Khrushchev's famous "kitchen debate" in 1958 involved more than the virtues of American appliances. Both Nixon and Khrushchev recognized the political symbolism of the modern kitchen; the kind of technological innovation represented in this everyday context spoke to the

  18. Processing the War in Iraq while Learning about American Politics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rankin, David M.

    2010-01-01

    When political knowledge is scarce, affective attitudes, which can consist of emotion-driven feelings regarding political figures, government, country, and foreign nations, often assist policy judgment. Based on pre- and post-surveys administered in Introduction to American Politics courses, fall 2003-fall 2005, this study examines how political…

  19. Categories of Analysis and Categories of Practice since the Tajik Civil War

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie Roche

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available They said, ‘we won’t say anything to Kyrgyz people, you can come back,’ and my husband believed. Akai Ibrohim, the one who just died, people said that Afghans had made him a slave, that they took his wife and daughter, and we believed. Today they say we came back because of our money. […] We came so that our children should not suffer, let’s go to our homeland we thought, but nobody asked in this war whether you have weapons or not, whether you are guilty or not. During this war, those who had no sins came back, those who were guilty didn’t go, they knew they were guilty and left; those without sin came and were taken instead of the guilty. […] We came to Shahrituz and they made us climb a truck, bigger than our house. They brought us to this school PTU and picked out the men. […] If you were Tajik, that’s it, you died.

  20. Specters of War in Pyongyang: The Victorious Fatherland Liberation War Museum in North Korea

    OpenAIRE

    Suzy Kim

    2015-01-01

    While North Korea accused South Korea of starting a “civil war” (naeran) during the Korean War, it has now moved away from such depictions to paint the war as an American war of imperialist aggression against Korea that was victoriously thwarted under the leadership of Kim Il Sung. In this regard, it may be more than a coincidence that the Victorious Fatherland Liberation War Museum in Pyongyang was built in the early 1970s, just as the Vietnam War drew to a close with a Vietnamese victory. T...

  1. Asian American and African American masculinities : race, citizenship, and culture in post-civil rights

    OpenAIRE

    Chon-Smith, Chong

    2006-01-01

    Through the interpretation of labor department documents, journalism, and state discourses, I historicize the formation of both the construction of black "pathology" and the Asian "model minority" by analyzing the comparative racialization of African Americans and Asian Americans in the United States. Beginning with the Moynihan Report and journalistic reports about Asian Americans as "model minority," Black and Asian men were racialized together, as if "racially magnetized," in an attempt to...

  2. Between Myth and Memory: Images of Spanish Civil War | Entre el mito y la memoria: imágenes de una guerra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Payá López

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the role of the cinema in forming the image of the Spanish civil war over the last seventy years, or, to put it another way, how this image has passed from myth to memory. We have taken the generational element into consideration, distinguishing three periods in the forming of the image of the civil war from the perspective of the cinema: that of the protagonists, covering films produced by both camps during the war, as well as those made during the forty years of the dictatorship; that of the «war babies» who carried out the political transition, a period that covers films produced during the last years of the Franco regime and up to the 1980s; that of the «grandchildren of the war», who, with the change of century, have moved to vindicate the memory of the victims of the civil war and the Franco regime as a means of securing recognition. | El presente trabajo aborda el papel de las imágenes (cinematográficas en la formación de la imagen (mental de la guerra civil española durante los últimos setenta años o, lo que es lo mismo, cómo estas imágenes han pasado del mito a la memoria. El análisis tiene en cuenta el componente generacional, de tal forma que distingue claramente tres periodos en la formación de la memoria cinematográfica de la guerra civil: el de los protagonistas, que comprende las producciones realizadas en ambos bandos durante el conflicto bélico, además de las llevadas a cabo durante cuarenta años de dictadura; el de los «hijos de la guerra», que realizaron la transición política, etapa que abarca las producciones realizadas desde el tardo-franquismo hasta la década de los ochenta; y el de los «nietos de la guerra», que con el cambio de siglo han reivindicado la recuperación de la memoria de las víctimas de la guerra civil y la dictadura franquista en clave de reparación.

  3. Creating the Past, and Still Counting the Losses: Evaluating Narrative of the Nigerian Civil War in Buchi Emecheta’s DESTINATION BIAFRA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niyi Akingbe

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Buchi Emecheta's Destination Biafra chronicles happenings of the Nigerian civil war. The criticism in the novel is directed at the greed, corruption and sadism of many of the protagonists on all sides which suitably demonstrates the illogicality of seeking to explain the war. This paper articulates how Emecheta's Destination Biafra brings new perspectives to bear upon a significant aspect of Nigerian history that has been dominated by one segment of society. In this particular case, interpretations of the Nigerian civil war, hitherto controlled by men, are moderated by an essentially female account. The paper historicizes the trauma and scars borne by women and children during the war, focusing mainly on how the war is stripped of the glamour which masculinist accounts often endow it with, and how this is seen in all its senselessness and brutality. Just as the belligerents fight over resources and territory, so are accounts of what took place during the conflict being fought over between those who prosecuted it and those who were its victims.

  4. American ways and their meaning: Edith Wharton’s post-war fiction and American history, ideology, and national identity

    OpenAIRE

    Jenny Lynn Glennon

    2011-01-01

    This thesis argues that Edith Wharton’s assessment of American ways and their meaning in her post-war fiction has been widely misread. Its title derives from French Ways and Their Meaning (1919), which she wrote to educate her countrymen about French culture and society. Making sense of America was as great a challenge to Wharton. Much of her later fiction was for a long time dismissed by critics on the grounds that she had failed to ‘make sense’ of America. Wharton was troubled by American m...

  5. Greek silver drachmae of the roman civil war period, (first century BC) as reflected in external beam PIXE analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Constantinescu, B.; Bugoi, R.; Catana, D.; Plostinaru, D.; Sasianu, A.; Kiss, A.; Uzonyi, I.

    1999-01-01

    The great number of Greek silver coins from the first century BC found in the Balkan - Carpathian region have aroused a sharp interest among numismatic researchers. The problem is to classify these coins - tetradrachmae of Thasos and drachmae of Apollonia and Dyrrachium into originals, copies and imitations, in relation to their provenance. Well known are Celtic Thasos tetradrachmae copies (good quality coins), and also Barbarian imitations (absence or misspelling of the legend, disproportionate and simplified figures). Thracians, Dacians and Celts used to produce the same type of coins. The dies used for coining were bought or stolen from the Greeks, while some local engravers manufactured their own dies. Visual examination, the first step of a numismatist's work, is insufficient to classify the coins. This is the reason why elemental analysis is required (X-Ray Fluorescence and Proton Induced X-ray Emission methods). 36 Thasos tetradrachmae and 145 Apollonia and Dyrrachium drachmae, struck between 60 and 48 BC, a very intense period of civil Roman wars, belonging to Tarii Crisurilor Museum in Oradea and to Budapest National Museum were analyzed. The fingerprint of the third group of Thasian tetradrachmae is the bromine. The presence of this element in silver coins is mentioned in the literature, where bromine is linked to marine spray (the hoard was found near the seacoast). In our case, the coins were found in a region far away from the Black Sea coast. Taking into account the presence of bromine in silver ore from the Transylvania mine Rodna and supposing an imperfect procedure of refinement , these coins could be attributed to local workshops. As for the Apollonia and Dyrrachium drachmae, a similar situation can be retraced. Because of the high silver content and refined aspect of the coins belonging to the first group, one can assume that these drachmae are the original ones, minted of Macedonian silver. The percentage of copper in the second group of coins

  6. Images of Inherited War: Three American Presidents in Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-02-01

    from his notorious Tuesday Lunches to his un- dulating bombing campaign to what he did and did not permit the military to do—reveals his deep-rooted...Americans voted—with television replacing the old-fashioned hand-shaking and convention format. Moreover, Nixon staffer and biographer Roger Morris ...as a personal challenge from Hanoi, Moscow, Beijing, the Cambodian rebels, the Vietcong, and his critics at home. Roger Morris said Nixon be- lieved

  7. Decisive Force -- The New American Way of War

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-03-02

    New York: Penguin , 1993, pp. 303-311; Lou Cannon, President Re•Mn: The Role of a Lifetime, New York: Simon & Schuster, 1991, pp. 390-395. 4. For some...Washington DC: Woodrow Wilson Center Press, 1991. Finer, S. E. The Man on Horseback: Military Intervention into Politics, Harmonsworth, Engand: Penguin ...p. 19. Hennelly, Michael J. *U.S. Policy in El Salvador: Creating Beauty or Beast?* fta ~dlM Spring 1993, pp. 66. Herring, George C. ’American

  8. The new situation of cutaneous leishmaniasis after Syrian civil war in Gaziantep city, Southeastern region of Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özkeklikçi, Ahmet; Karakuş, Mehmet; Özbel, Yusuf; Töz, Seray

    2017-02-01

    Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is an important public health problem with around 2.000 autochthonous reported cases each year in Turkey. Due to the civil war in Syria, Turkey received around three million refugees and they are mainly located at either camps or homes in south/southeastern part of Turkey. In the present study, we aimed to collect samples from CL suspected patients admitting to State Hospital in Gaziantep City and perform parasitological and DNA-based techniques for diagnosis as well as species identification of the parasite for better understanding the prevalence of each species among Turkish and Syrian patients in the region. The collection of samples was carried out between January 2009 and July 2015. The lesion aspiration samples were taken and stained with Giemsa stain followed by microscopical examination for parasitological diagnosis. After the DNA extraction from Giemsa stained slides, real time and semi-nested PCRs both targeting ITS1 region were performed for molecular diagnosis and species identification. A total of 567 people were admitted to the hospital with the suspicion of CL and 263 (46.4%) of them were found to be positive by parasitological examination. One hundred seventy-four (66.15%), 88 (33.46%) and 1 (0.38%) of them were Turkish, Syrians and Afghan, respectively. Slide samples obtained from 34 CL suspected patients were analyzed by PCR and 20 of them were found positive. Eighteen (13 Turkish and 13 Syrians) of the positive samples were identified as L. tropica, while two (1 Turkish and 1 Syrian) of them were L. infantum. In conclusion, the effects of Syrian civil war on the epidemiology of CL in Gaziantep city is demonstrated in the present study. The use of molecular tool in the diagnosis of leishmaniasis is effective, sensitive and time saving which will enable the species typing. Species typing of the causative agent in endemic areas will bring valuable data to epidemiological knowledge. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All

  9. Darlene J. Sadlier. Americans All. Good Neighbor Cultural Diplomacy in World War II.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gisela Cramer

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This publication adds to a rapidly growing volume of scholarship on U.S. cultural diplomacy. Most of this scholarship focuses on the Cold War and on Europe. This volume, in turn, is concerned with a lesser-known episode that came to fruition during World War II and that focused not on Europe but on Latin America. As Nazi German troops entered Paris, the Franklin D. Roosevelt administration set out to launch a massive campaign to win hearts and minds for inter-American cooperation and solidarity. This campaign came to be spearheaded by an emergency agency, the Office of the Coordinator of Inter-American Affairs or CIAA. Headed by the young multimillionaire and entrepreneur Nelson A. Rockefeller, the CIAA existed for only six years, but during its brief existence it helped to construct a dense State-private network that managed cultural relations with foreign countries and that continued to operate and expand long after the war was over. Of course, by then Latin America was no longer at the center of geopolitical attention. Well before the end of hostilities, the State Department began to prepare for the winding down of the CIAA’s cultural programs. The agency itself was abolished in 1946. With the onset of the Cold War, the State-private network reshuffled, its main attention now focusing elsewhere and mainly on Europe.

  10. American Sammys and French Poilus in the Great War: sport, masculinities and vulnerability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terret, Thierry

    2011-01-01

    The violence and duration of fighting throughout the Great War created an intense feeling of vulnerability among the men engaged in battle, which challenged their perception of manliness. When the Americans joined the war in 1917, the balance between the two opposing armies was modified and the psychological crises of French soldiers brought to an end. The confidence shown by the American soldiers and their first successes on the battlefield changed the way the French Poilus perceived their new allies. From scepticism to admiration, Frenchmen's feelings extended beyond the fighting. Indeed, by living with American soldiers in the trenches and camps behind the front, French soldiers discovered a new culture where games and sport played a major role and contributed to building manliness. The Foyers Franco-Americains du Soldat (Franco-American hostels for soldiers) provided an ideal place for the cultural transfer of a model of masculinity from Sammys to Poilus. The foyers were managed by the American YMCA and eventually reached the number of 1,500 in France during the war. These hostels afforded soldiers numerous opportunities to develop cultural and sports practices, by bringing together Americans and Frenchmen. Mainly based on the archives of the American Expeditionary Forces, the YMCA and the French Army, the paper argues that the Foyers du Soldat brought to light a new model of masculinity based on sport, which challenged the Frenchmen's vision. It aims to show the rapid transformation of masculine identity within a context of extreme vulnerability and confirms the changes in representations of men in French society at this time.

  11. Putting Their Lives on the Line: Personal Narrative as Political Discourse among Japanese Petitioners in American World War II Internment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okawa, Gail Y.

    2011-01-01

    One of the more complex and premeditated acts of covert violence during World War II concerns the American surveillance, arrest, and incarceration of thousands of resident Japanese immigrants prior to and upon the outbreak of the Pacific War. While briefly outlining the historical and political context of this mass incarceration, specifically…

  12. Psychological reactions to redress: diversity among Japanese Americans interned during World War II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagata, Donna K; Takeshita, Yuzuru J

    2002-02-01

    The psychological reactions of 2nd-generation (Nisei) Japanese Americans to receiving redress from the U.S. government for the injustices of their World War II internment were investigated. The respondents, all of whom had been interned during the war, rated the degree to which the receipt of redress nearly 50 years after their incarceration was associated with 8 different areas of personal impact. Results indicated that redress was reported to be most effective in increasing faith in the government and least effective in reducing physical suffering from the internment. Women and older respondents reported more positive redress effects. In addition, lower levels of current income, an attitudinal preference for Japanese Americans, and preredress support for seeking monetary compensation each increased the prediction of positive redress effects. Findings are discussed in relation to theories of social and retributive justice.

  13. The Reverend Moses Drury Hoge and the South's Constitutional Apologia for the Civil War.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulmer, Hal W.

    The Reverend Moses Drury Hoge, one-time personal minister to Stonewall Jackson, defended secession as the South's attempt to preserve the Constitution in its original mission while eulogizing Jackson at a ceremony in 1875. Hoge drew upon the historical legacy of the American Revolution to suggest that the colonies had also formed a separate…

  14. "Noi Donne" and "Famiglia Cristiana": Communists, Catholics, and American Female Culture in Cold War Italy

    OpenAIRE

    Harris, Jessica L

    2017-01-01

    Italy's Cold War cultural contest for the hearts and minds of Italian women was a three way struggle between the Catholic Church, the Italian Communists, and the United States. The arrival of American consumer products and models in postwar Italy and their growing influence on upper to middle-class, and eventually working-class women, provided the two domestic groups, who previously had been engaged in a bipolar struggle with each other, with a common enemy - the materialistic, immoral, and a...

  15. American War Narratives: An Analytic Study and Linkage to National Will

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-26

    and forms the war narrative that would ultimately serve as the motivation for the American people to engage in the worthy, and thus desirable...the British had to pay for their service. This reinforced a perception at the time that the British soldiers lacked motivation . This was seen in common...patriotism geared towards attaining revenge. For example, theater audiences would emotionally react by weeping and stamping their feet and then cheer

  16. ‘NONSENCE IS REBELLION’: JOHN TAYLOR’S NONSENCE UPON SENCE, OR SENCE, UPON NONSENCE (1651–1654) AND THE ENGLISH CIVIL WAR

    OpenAIRE

    Emily Cock

    2015-01-01

    This article examines the political content of John Taylor’s Nonsence upon Sence, or Sence Upon Nonsence: Chuse you either, or neither (1651–1654), challenging the customary dismissal of this poem as light-hearted nonsense verse. Taylor was a staunch Royalist who had openly criticised the divisions of the English Civil War, and the proliferation of religious separatists; I argue that Nonsence continues this project under a mask of playful ambiguity. The literary disorder created in this text,...

  17. Maintaining presence : Catholic aid agencies in Sri Lanka's civil war − towards a socio-theoretical perspective to humanitarian access and power

    OpenAIRE

    Mustonen, Anni

    2017-01-01

    Maintaining presence and proximity is an increasing challenge for humanitarian agencies. The final phase of Sri Lanka’s civil war (1983-2009) was characterised by humanitarian crisis. The government of Sri Lanka denounced a demarcated safe zone in Vanni, the Northern Province of Sri Lanka, claiming it was providing a haven for civilians but prohibited humanitarian agencies accessing the area. In my research, I focused on the Catholic aid agencies who were authorised to remain or to pay s...

  18. 'That thing of human rights': discourse, emergency assistance, and sexual violence in South Sudan's current civil war.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luedke, Alicia Elaine; Logan, Hannah Faye

    2018-01-01

    One of the most widely covered aspects of the current conflict in South Sudan has been the use sexual violence by rival factions of the Sudan People's Liberation Movement/Army (SPLM/A) and other armed groups. While this has had the positive effect of ensuring that sexual violence is an integral component of intervention strategies in the country, it has also had a number of unintended consequences. This paper demonstrates how the narrow focus on sexual violence as a 'weapon of war', and the broader emergency lens through which the plight of civilians, especially women, has been viewed, are overly simplistic, often neglecting the root causes of such violence. More specifically, it highlights how dominant discourses on sexual violence in South Sudan's conflict have disregarded the historically violent civil-military relations that have typified the SPLM/A's leadership, and the structural violence connected with the local political economy of bride wealth and the associated commodification of feminine identities and bodies. © 2018 The Author(s). Disasters © Overseas Development Institute, 2018.

  19. Modern Processing Capabilities of Analog Data from Documentation of the Great Omayyad Mosque in Aleppo, Syria, Damaged in Civil War

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavelka, K.; Šedina, J.; Raeva, P.; Hůlková, M.

    2017-08-01

    In 1999, a big project for the documentation of the Great Omayyad mosque in Aleppo / Syria under UNESCO was conducted. By end of the last century, still analogue cameras were still being used, like the UMK Zeiss, RolleiMetric System. Digital cameras and digital automatic data processing were just starting to be on the rise and laser scanning was not relevant. In this situation, photogrammetrical measurement used stereo technology for complicated situations, and object and single-image technology for creating photoplans. Hundreds of photogrammetric images were taken. However, data processing was carried out on digital stereo plotters or workstations; it was necessary that all analogue photos were converted to digital form using a photogrammetric scanner. The outputs were adequate to the end of the last century. Nowadays, after 19 years, the photogrammetric materials still exist, but the technology and processing is completely different. Our original measurement is historical and nowadays quite obsolete. So we was it decided to explore the possibilities of the new processing of historical materials. Why? The reason is that in the last few years there has been civil war in Syria and the above mentioned monument was severely damaged. The existing historical materials therefore provide a unique opportunity for possible future reconstruction. This paper refers to the completion of existing materials, their evaluation and possibilities of new processing with today's technologies.

  20. Scandinavia’s Daughters in the Syrian Civil War: What can we Learn from their Family Members’ Lived Experiences?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Aasgaard

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The phenomenon of Scandinavians joining Salafi-jihadi groups in the Syrian civil war is high on the political agendas of Scandinavian countries. To counter the phenomenon, authorities are increasingly focused on the inclusivity of families in efforts to counter violent extremism. However, research on the topic is limited. This article seeks to remedy this, by investigating the insights that can be gained from the lived experiences of relatives of three Scandinavian women who have joined Syrian Salafi-jihadi groups, primarily the Islamic State, based on ethnographic fieldwork. Through a narrative analysis of family members’ stories, this article critically discusses two different ways that family members’ lived experiences are used within the field of violent extremism. Firstly, media and researchers use the lived experiences of family members to explain why European Muslims join Salafi-Jihadi groups. Secondly, political initiatives increasingly emphasise that families should be involved in efforts to stop young men and women from becoming foreign fighters. This article employs these insights to discuss how the narratives of family members can be used to understand why people become foreign fighters, and to consider the role of the family in countering violent extremism efforts.

  1. Persistent Psychopathology in the Wake of Civil War: Long-Term Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in Nimba County, Liberia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rockers, Peter C.; Saydee, Geetor; Macauley, Rose; Varpilah, S. Tornorlah; Kruk, Margaret E.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives. We assessed the geographical distribution of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in postconflict Nimba County, Liberia, nearly 2 decades after the end of primary conflict in the area, and we related this pattern to the history of conflict. Methods. We administered individual surveys to a population-based sample of 1376 adults aged 19 years or older. In addition, we conducted a historical analysis of conflict in Nimba County, Liberia, where the civil war started in 1989. Results. The prevalence of PTSD in Nimba County was high at 48.3% (95% confidence interval = 45.7, 50.9; n = 664). The geographical patterns of traumatic event experiences and of PTSD were consistent with the best available information about the path of the intranational conflict that Nimba County experienced in 1989–1990. Conclusions. The demonstration of a “path of PTSD” coincident with the decades-old path of violence dramatically underscores the direct link between population burden of psychopathology and the experience of violent conflict. Persistent postconflict disruptions of social and physical context may explain some of the observed patterns. PMID:20634461

  2. [HIGH VELOCITY PENETRATING HEAD AND NECK INJURIES OF SYRIAN CIVIL WAR CASUALTIES TREATED IN THE GALILEE MEDICAL CENTER].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronen, Ohad; Assadi, Nidal; Sela, Eyal

    2017-05-01

    For two years the State of Israel has been treating casualties from the Syrian civil war. The Galilee Medical Center in Nahariya is the main hospital for this humanitarian mission. Objectives: To evaluate the demographic and clinical characteristics of the casualties that were treated in our department. Information from medical records of all Syrian casualties evacuated to the Galilee Medical Center were evaluated. Between March 2013 and December 2014, 450 casualties were evacuated to the Galilee Medical Center. Of those, 45 were treated in the Department of Otolaryngology - Head and Neck Surgery. Of the 45 cases, 43 were male (95.5%) and the mean age was 30.4 years (range 1-79 years). There was a significant difference in terms of gender (p Syria, and 12 died. Of all Syrian injured treated in the ENT department, the vast majority were young men. The main cause of injury was gunshot wounds. It is likely that the lack of protective gear that exist in western armies is a factor in the complex injuries treated at the Galilee Medical Center.

  3. MODERN PROCESSING CAPABILITIES OF ANALOG DATA FROM DOCUMENTATION OF THE GREAT OMAYYAD MOSQUE IN ALEPPO, SYRIA, DAMAGED IN CIVIL WAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Pavelka

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In 1999, a big project for the documentation of the Great Omayyad mosque in Aleppo / Syria under UNESCO was conducted. By end of the last century, still analogue cameras were still being used, like the UMK Zeiss, RolleiMetric System. Digital cameras and digital automatic data processing were just starting to be on the rise and laser scanning was not relevant. In this situation, photogrammetrical measurement used stereo technology for complicated situations, and object and single-image technology for creating photoplans. Hundreds of photogrammetric images were taken. However, data processing was carried out on digital stereo plotters or workstations; it was necessary that all analogue photos were converted to digital form using a photogrammetric scanner. The outputs were adequate to the end of the last century. Nowadays, after 19 years, the photogrammetric materials still exist, but the technology and processing is completely different. Our original measurement is historical and nowadays quite obsolete. So we was it decided to explore the possibilities of the new processing of historical materials. Why? The reason is that in the last few years there has been civil war in Syria and the above mentioned monument was severely damaged. The existing historical materials therefore provide a unique opportunity for possible future reconstruction. This paper refers to the completion of existing materials, their evaluation and possibilities of new processing with today’s technologies.

  4. Transnational science during the Cold War: the case of Chinese/American scientists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zuoyue

    2010-06-01

    This essay examines the experiences of about five thousand Chinese students/scientists in the United States after the Communist takeover of mainland China in 1949. These experiences illustrate the often hidden transnational movements of people, instruments, and ideas in science and technology across the Iron Curtain during the Cold War. I argue that those hundreds who returned to China represented a partial "Americanization" of Chinese science and technology, while the rest of the group staying in the United States contributed to a transnationalization of the American scientific community.

  5. Impact of civil war on emotion recognition: the denial of sadness in Sierra Leone.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Alessandra eUmilta'

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Studies of children with atypical emotional experience demonstrate that childhood exposure to high levels of hostility and threat biases emotion perception. This study investigates emotion processing, in former child soldiers and non-combatant civilians. All participants have experienced prolonged violence exposure during childhood. The study, carried out in Sierra Leone, aimed to examine the effects of exposure to and forced participation in acts of extreme violence on the emotion processing of young adults war survivors. A total of 76 young, male adults (38 former child soldier survivors and 38 civilian survivors were tested in order to assess participants’ ability to identify four different facial emotion expressions from photographs and movies. Both groups were able to recognize facial expressions of emotion. However, despite their general ability to correctly identify facial emotions, participants showed a significant response bias in their recognition of sadness. Both former soldiers and civilians made more errors in identifying expressions of sadness than in the other three emotions and when mislabeling sadness participants most often described it as anger. Conversely, when making erroneous identifications of other emotions, participants were most likely to label the expressed emotion as sadness. In addition, while for three of the four emotions participants were better able to make a correct identification the greater the intensity of the expression, this pattern was not observed for sadness. During movies presentation the recognition of sadness was significantly worse for soldiers. While both former child soldiers and civilians were found to be able to identify facial emotions, a significant response bias in their attribution of negative emotions was observed. Such bias was particularly pronounced in former child soldiers. These findings point to a pervasive long-lasting effect of childhood exposure to violence on emotion processing

  6. Impact of civil war on emotion recognition: the denial of sadness in Sierra Leone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umiltà, Maria Allessandra; Wood, Rachel; Loffredo, Francesca; Ravera, Roberto; Gallese, Vittorio

    2013-01-01

    Studies of children with atypical emotional experience demonstrate that childhood exposure to high levels of hostility and threat biases emotion perception. This study investigates emotion processing, in former child soldiers and non-combatant civilians. All participants have experienced prolonged violence exposure during childhood. The study, carried out in Sierra Leone, aimed to examine the effects of exposure to and forced participation in acts of extreme violence on the emotion processing of young adults war survivors. A total of 76 young, male adults (38 former child soldier survivors and 38 civilian survivors) were tested in order to assess participants' ability to identify four different facial emotion expressions from photographs and movies. Both groups were able to recognize facial expressions of emotion. However, despite their general ability to correctly identify facial emotions, participants showed a significant response bias in their recognition of sadness. Both former soldiers and civilians made more errors in identifying expressions of sadness than in the other three emotions and when mislabeling sadness participants most often described it as anger. Conversely, when making erroneous identifications of other emotions, participants were most likely to label the expressed emotion as sadness. In addition, while for three of the four emotions participants were better able to make a correct identification the greater the intensity of the expression, this pattern was not observed for sadness. During movies presentation the recognition of sadness was significantly worse for soldiers. While both former child soldiers and civilians were found to be able to identify facial emotions, a significant response bias in their attribution of negative emotions was observed. Such bias was particularly pronounced in former child soldiers. These findings point to a pervasive long-lasting effect of childhood exposure to violence on emotion processing in later life.

  7. European Wars, Civil Conflicts, and National Projects. The Neapolitan Restorations (1799-1866 Revisited | Guerras europeas, conflictos civiles, proyectos nacionales. Una interpretación de las restauraciones napolitanas (1799-1866

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmine Pinto

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Examining counter-revolution through its greater achievements, that is, the four winning restorations, and also their disastrous fall, that is, the defeated restoration, may contribute to enrich traditional perspectives on the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies’ resistance and the crisis. European conflicts, civil wars, state constructions and modern national identity shaping are phenomena which intertwine the complicated history of the Neapolitan Kingdom. It is from the perspective of the dynastic (1799 and 1815 and absolutist restorations (1821, that we may insert in a general interpretative scheme the controversy between internal conflict and international crisis, their relationship with the shaping of ideas and nationalist affiliation and, finally, their comparison with the counter-revolution in the Bourbon world. The paradigm represented by this conflict allows for a contrast with the wider French and Spanish-American Bourbon world. We may thus consider both the success of Neapolitan legitimism and its collapse in 1860, as well as the reasons for its recent recovery in the Italian collective awareness. | La elección de examinar la contrarrevolución a través de sus mayores éxitos, las cuatro restauraciones victoriosas, y su derrota, la restauración fallida, puede enriquecer las perspectivas tradicionales sobre la resistencia y la crisis del Reino de las dos Sicilias. Los conflictos europeos, las guerras civiles, las construcciones estatales y la creación de identidades nacionales modernas son fenómenos que se entrecruzan con la complicada historia del reino napolitano. A través de la perspectiva de las restauraciones, bien dinásticas (1799 y 1815, o bien absolutistas (1821 y 1849, podemos insertar en un esquema interpretativo general la dialéctica entre conflicto interno y crisis internacionales, la interrelación con la formación de las ideas y adscripciones nacionalistas y la comparación con la contrarrevolución en el mundo borb

  8. WAR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Þórarinsson, Elfar; Lindgreen, Stinus

    2008-01-01

    We present an easy-to-use webserver that makes it possible to simultaneously use a number of state of the art methods for performing multiple alignment and secondary structure prediction for noncoding RNA sequences. This makes it possible to use the programs without having to download the code an...... into account is also calculated. This website is free and open to all users and there is no login requirement. The webserver can be found at: http://genome.ku.dk/resources/war....

  9. Boosting the Bugle Boy: The Role of Music in American Patriotism During World War II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brittany L. Roberts

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available When the Japanese attacked Pearl Harbor on the morning of December 7, 1941, they little realized what a formidable foe they had aroused. An enraged America immediately declared war on Japan. As a result, Germany declared war on America. Now facing enemies on both fronts, America mobilized her troops for action and prepared weapons of mass destruction. The unity experienced by the American people during this time had never been and would never be matched. Both soldiers and civilians launched themselves into the war effort. This great national endeavor called for anthems of reflection and encouragement. While they continued to sing national favorites such as "The Star-Spangled Banner" and "America the Beautiful," contemporary musicians wrote pieces that directly pertained to the country’s present trials and triumphs. New works remembering Pearl Harbor, praising the soldiers and comforting the sweethearts saturated the airwaves and were featured in performance venues. Music gave a tangibility and expression to the deeply felt emotional turmoil of the American people. They identified with and drew comfort from the subject matters it explored. Musicians such as Artie Shaw, Glenn Miller and the Andrews Sisters took tours entertaining troops at home and abroad, giving them courage and strength for the daunting fight they faced. When victory was finally achieved for the Allies on September 2, 1945, the people again turned to music as an outlet for their jubilant celebrations. Thus, music played a significant part in boosting American patriotism and troop support throughout the entirety of World War II.

  10. Regional Climate Modeling and Remote Sensing to Characterize Impacts of Civil War Driven Land Use Change on Regional Hydrology and Climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maksimowicz, M.; Masarik, M. T.; Brandt, J.; Flores, A. N.

    2016-12-01

    Land use/land cover (LULC) change directly impacts the partitioning of surface mass and energy fluxes. Regional-scale weather and climate are potentially altered by LULC if the resultant changes in partitioning of surface energy fluxes are extensive enough. Dynamics of land use, particularly those related to the social dimensions of the Earth System, are often simplified or not represented in regional land-atmosphere models. This study explores the role of LULC change on a regional hydroclimate system, focusing on potential hydroclimate changes arising from an extended civil conflict in Mozambique. Civil war from 1977-1992 in Mozambique led to land use change at a regional scale as a result of the collapse of large herbivore populations due to poaching. Since the war ended, farming has increased, poaching was curtailed, and animal populations were reintroduced. In this study LULC in a region encompassing Gorongosa is classified at three instances between 1977 to 2015 using Landsat imagery. We use these derived LULC datasets to inform lower boundary conditions in the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model. To quantify potential hydrometeorological changes arising from conflict-driven land use change, we performed a factorial-like experiment by mixing input LULC maps and atmospheric forcing data from before, during, and after the civil war. Analysis of the Landsat data shows measurable land cover change from 1977-present as tree cover encroached into grasslands. Initial tests show corresponding sensitivities to different LULC schemes within the WRF model. Preliminary results suggest that the war did indeed impact regional hydroclimate in a significant way via its direct and indirect impacts on land-atmosphere interactions. Results of this study suggest that LULC change arising from regional conflicts are a potentially understudied, yet important human process to capture in both regional reanalyses and climate change projections.

  11. Monstrosity and War Memories in Latin American Post-conflict Cinema

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Chiara D'Argenio

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the relationship between inhumanity, monstrosity, war and memory in two Latin American films: Días de Santiago (Peru, 2004 and La sombra del caminante (Colombia, 2004. These aesthetically innovative films tackle the internal armed conflicts that have occurred in Colombia and Peru in recent years. Focusing on former soldiers’ reintegration into civilian life, they display war as a traumatic experience that produces monstrosity, understood as a dehumanisation of the individual. By analysing the tropes of monstrosity and the haunting past, and the films’ aesthetics, I show how the performance of the monster articulates a tension between inhumanity and humanness, which can be read as a metaphor for the tension between the acts of remembering, investigating and forgetting within post-conflict societies.

  12. Resource wars and conflict ivory: the impact of civil conflict on elephants in the Democratic Republic of Congo--the case of the Okapi Reserve.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rene L Beyers

    Full Text Available Human conflict generally has substantial negative impacts on wildlife and conservation. The recent civil war (1995-2006 in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC resulted in a significant loss of wildlife, including elephants, due to institutional collapse, lawlessness and unbridled exploitation of natural resources such as minerals, wood, ivory and bushmeat. We used data from distance sampling surveys conducted before and after the war in a protected forest, the Okapi Faunal Reserve, to document changes in elephant abundance and distribution. We employed Generalized Additive Models to relate changes in elephant distribution to human and environmental factors. Populations declined by nearly fifty percent coinciding with a major increase in elephant poaching as indicated by reports of ivory trade during the war. Our results suggest that humans influenced elephant distribution far more than habitat, both before and after the war, but post-war models explained more of the variation. Elephant abundance declined more, closer to the park boundary and to areas of intense human activity. After the war, elephant densities were relatively higher in the centre of the park where they were better protected, suggesting that this area may have acted as a refuge. In other sites in Eastern DRC, where no protection was provided, elephants were even more decimated. Post-war dynamics, such as weakened institutions, human movements and availability of weapons, continue to affect elephants. Survival of remaining populations and recovery will be determined by these persistent factors and by new threats associated with growing human populations and exploitation of natural resources. Prioritizing wildlife protection, curbing illegal trade in ivory and bushmeat, and strengthening national institutions and organizations in charge of conservation will be crucial to counter these threats.

  13. State, market and civil society: Latin American development in comparative perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Menno Vellinga

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available In the 1980s Latin America made a radical break with the model of development that had been pursued by most countries on the continent for the last fifty years and implemented a new development strategy, defined along neo-liberal lines. These changes have taken place under conditions of increasing globalization, e.g. they had to be realized increasingly within globally defined parameters and structures. The relationship between the state, the market and civil society was redefined. The traditional structures of interest representation of groups and classes, their legitimacy and effectiveness underwent significant changes in many countries. In this article we will explore the nature of these changes and their consequences for state reform and the relation to problems of national development. We will do so in a comparative perspective, including experiences from South East Asia. The debate about the relationship between state, market and civil society has received a new impetus from the 2008 crisis of the international financial system and the widely spread criticism of the workings of the market capitalism that it has generated. For Latin American development the conclusions of this debate and their possible translation into concrete policies are of the utmost importance.

  14. Women’s image as used in the context of republican political propaganda during The Spanish Civil War / La mujer en la propaganda política republicana de la Guerra Civil española

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Gómez Escarda

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available During the civil war the republican political propaganda used the image of woman many times. This paper analyses the posters addressed to women, the posters which used women’s images and the propaganda of the Antifascist Women Association. This propaganda used to depict women as men or in a very man like fashion, when talking on militia women or about the work of women in the agricultural sector. However the propaganda used to be much more extreme, either being softer or sometimes by being more dramatic about women when talking on bombings, help petitions and the role of women in the battlefield.

  15. Latin American World War I Historiography: the Cases of Argentina, Mexico and Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renzo Ramírez Bacca

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.17227/01234870.41folios187.204 The text provides a critical review of the Latin American historiography during the First World War. The author focuses on Argentina, Mexico and Colombia in order to account for the lines of work, categories of analysis and the recent contributions on the issue. In the same way, it takes into account the Western historiographical context, poses questions and dialogues based on recent studies as well as highlights the limitations and explains the reason for the identified historiographical gaps.

  16. African-American Medical Personnel in the US Army in the First World War.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marble, Sanders

    2018-02-01

    In WWI, the United States was segregated by custom and law, and the Army obeyed the laws, reducing opportunities for Black medical professionals to serve their country in uniform. This article surveys African-American medical personnel serving in the US Army in World War I. It includes physicians, dentists, veterinarians, and other commissioned officers, as well as medical enlisted men. Overall, despite segregation and associated professional limitations, determined individuals still served with distinction in a variety of roles, opening doors for future advances. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  17. Pathology and Laboratory Medicine Support for the American Expeditionary Forces by the US Army Medical Corps During World War I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, James R; Baskin, Leland B

    2015-09-01

    Historical research on pathology and laboratory medicine services in World War I has been limited. In the Spanish American War, these efforts were primarily focused on tropical diseases. World War I problems that could be addressed by pathology and laboratory medicine were strikingly different because of the new field of clinical pathology. Geographic differences, changing war tactics, and trench warfare created new issues. To describe the scope of pathology and laboratory medicine services in World War I and the value these services brought to the war effort. Available primary and secondary sources related to American Expeditionary Forces' laboratory services were analyzed and contrasted with the British and German approaches. The United States entered the war in April 1917. Colonel Joseph Siler, MD, a career medical officer, was the director, and Colonel Louis B. Wilson, MD, head of pathology at the Mayo Clinic, was appointed assistant director of the US Army Medical Corps Division of Laboratories and Infectious Disease, based in Dijon, France. During the next year, they organized 300 efficient laboratories to support the American Expeditionary Forces. Autopsies were performed to better understand treatment of battlefield injuries, effects of chemical warfare agents, and the influenza pandemic; autopsies also generated teaching specimens for the US Army Medical Museum. Bacteriology services focused on communicable diseases. Laboratory testing for social diseases was very aggressive. Significant advances in blood transfusion techniques, which allowed brief blood storage, occurred during the war but were not primarily overseen by laboratory services. Both Siler and Wilson received Distinguished Service Medals. Wilson's vision for military pathology services helped transform American civilian laboratory services in the 1920s.

  18. ‘NONSENCE IS REBELLION’: JOHN TAYLOR’S NONSENCE UPON SENCE, OR SENCE, UPON NONSENCE (1651–1654 AND THE ENGLISH CIVIL WAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily Cock

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the political content of John Taylor’s Nonsence upon Sence, or Sence Upon Nonsence: Chuse you either, or neither (1651–1654, challenging the customary dismissal of this poem as light-hearted nonsense verse. Taylor was a staunch Royalist who had openly criticised the divisions of the English Civil War, and the proliferation of religious separatists; I argue that Nonsence continues this project under a mask of playful ambiguity. The literary disorder created in this text, which Taylor calls ‘nonsence’, is made to mirror the social, religious and political fragmentation of post-war London, as sentences and words are broken down and rearranged in unfamiliar and disturbing ways. The paper serves not only as a stylistic assessment of Taylor’s satire as a reflection of the political and social instability of the time, but to historicise his engagement with nonsense and place within that literary tradition.

  19. The political evolution and the legal framework during the Civil War. Scarcity of monographs and a proliferation of biographies and witness accounts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier GARCÍA FERNÁNDEZ

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the literature relating to the organisation of the Republican State and the State in the rebel area during the Spanish Civil War. We identify in both cases the works relating to the organs of the State at the international, national and local levels. Literature concerning official repression in the Republican and rebel areas is included as well. We have also added analyses of the more relevant political events, ideological trends, main political parties and singular political groups in both areas.

  20. Physicians confront the apocalypse: the American medical profession and the threat of nuclear war

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyer, P.

    1985-01-01

    Physicians figured prominently in the resurgence of nuclear weapons activism and cultural awareness that swept the US in the early 1980s. This discussion seeks to place this activism in historical context. It explores the American medical profession's shifting engagement with the issue of nuclear war. Attention is focused on the period 1945 to 1954, with a brief evaluation of the period 1954 to 1963, the years to which the activism of the 1980s may be traced. Radiation studies are reviewed including Hiroshima and Nagasaki survivors. Radiological studies were begun within days of Japan's surrender. The delayed effects of radiation exposure on some 14,000 persons in Hiroshima and Nagasaki include hemorrhage, leukocyte destruction, bone marrow damage, anemia, sterility, and the suppression of menstruation. In contrast, the American medical profession in the late 1940s focused much attention on the atom's potential medical benefits, especially the diagnostic and treatment value of radioisotopes. 90 references

  1. Diagnoses, infections and injuries in Northern Syrian children during the civil war: A cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Berlaer, Gerlant; Elsafti, Abdallah Mohamed; Al Safadi, Mohammad; Souhil Saeed, Saad; Buyl, Ronald; Debacker, Michel; Redwan, Atef; Hubloue, Ives

    2017-01-01

    The civil war in Syria including the deliberate targeting of healthcare services resulted in a complex humanitarian emergency, seriously affecting children's health. The objectives of this study are to document diagnoses and disease categories in Northern Syrian children after four years of conflict, and to document infectious diseases and injuries in this vulnerable population. In a prospective cross-sectional observational sample study conducted in May 2015, healthcare workers registered demographics, comorbidities, and diagnoses (categorised according to the International Classification of Diseases version 10) in children visited at home and in internally displaced persons camps in four Syrian governorates. Of 1080 filled-out records, 1002 were included. Children originated from Aleppo (41%), Idleb (36%), Hamah (15%) and Lattakia (8%). Median age was 6 years (0-15; IQR 3-11), 61% were boys, 40% were younger than 5 years old. Children suffered from respiratory (29%), neurological (19%), digestive (17%), eye (5%) and skin (5%) diseases. Clinical malnutrition was seen in 4%, accidental injury in 3%, intentional injury in 1%, and mental disorders in 2%. Overall, 64% had features of infectious diseases (OR 0.635; CI 0.605-0.665). Most common comorbidities were chronic respiratory diseases (14, malnutrition (5%), acute flaccid paralysis (5%), and epilepsy (4%). Logistic regression analysis indicated that the risk for children to have communicable diseases was higher in Aleppo than in Idleb (OR 1.7; CI 1.2-2.3), Hamah (OR 4.9; CI 3.3-7.5), or Lattakia (OR 5.5; CI 3.3-9.3). Children in Aleppo and Lattakia were more at risk to be injured than in Idleb (OR 5.6; CI 2.1-14.3), or in Hamah (OR 5.9; CI 1.4-25.6), but more often from intentional violence in Lattakia. Mental problems were more prominent in Hamah. Four years far in the conflict, 64% of the studied children in four Northern Syrian governorates suffer from infections, mostly from respiratory, neurological and

  2. Socialization into a Civilization: The Dewey-Kaplan Synthesis in American Jewish Schooling in the Early 20th Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Benjamin M.

    2009-01-01

    This historical study focuses on how John Dewey's theory of education as socialization and Mordecai Kaplan's theory of Judaism as a civilization together served as an ideological base and pedagogical framework for the creation of "progressive," "reconstructed" American Jewish school programs in the early 20th century…

  3. 48 CFR 52.225-7 - Waiver of Buy American Act for Civil Aircraft and Related Articles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Waiver of Buy American Act for Civil Aircraft and Related Articles. 52.225-7 Section 52.225-7 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION (CONTINUED) CLAUSES AND FORMS SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT...

  4. United States Army Counter Partisan Operations in Northern Virginia During the American Civil War

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-10

    retribution against civilians occurred on August 21, 1863, when following an ambush on a Union picket site, Brevet Brigadier General George A. Custer...Additionally, northern newspapers reported that these “vandal acts” of retribution were not effective in deterring the partisans, nor gaining

  5. Coercion and Reconciliation: Post-Conflict Resolution After the American Civil War

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-26

    must be destroyed…[and] that the franchise act would be enforced by the military if necessary.”19 As a result, a significant portion of the...cast. Following a revised franchise law passed on 1 May 1866, only 50,000 people would be eligible to... franchise law was passed, a riot broke out in Memphis, “which 20 Fertig, Secession and

  6. The Failure of American Civil War Reconstruction: Lessons for Post-Conflict Operations in Iraq

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wadsworth, Douglas J

    2005-01-01

    .... Instead, white Southerners resented the North, despised the idea of equality for their former slaves, and spawned an insurgency that resulted in their dominance over blacks in the South--arguably...

  7. Robert E. Lee as Operational Artist During the American Civil War

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-21

    the ability to master operational mt and design is invaluable. The current operational environment in which our nation is involved requires us to be...of Antietam, ed. Stephen W. Sears. VoL Compact Disc. Ashland, OR: Blackstone Audiobooks. ---.2003. Gettysburg. Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin

  8. Architect of Union Victory? Montgomery Meigs, Jomini, and Union Success in the American Civil War

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-23

    Floyd, ultimately caused Captain Meigs to be “exiled” to the Tortugas in Florida.20 16 Russell F...Washington for the Tortugas late in 1860. There was a great deal of unrest as he travelled through the south to Florida. As he was settling into Fort

  9. The voice of American botanists: the founding and establishment of the American Journal of Botany, "American botany," and the Great War (1906-1935).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smocovitis, Vassiliki Betty

    2014-03-01

    This paper examines the crucial early history of the American Journal of Botany from the years following the founding of the Botanical Society of America in 1906 to the termination of the agreement for publication with the Brooklyn Botanic Garden in 1935. It examines the efforts of individuals like F. C. Newcombe, who did the most to raise support for the journal and became the first Editor-in-Chief, in the context of the growing numbers of professional botanists and plant scientists who were actively engaged in research requiring appropriate publication venues and in the process of forming an independent identity as "American botanists." It also examines the launching of the journal in the context of the Great War in Europe and the transition from German botany to American botany in the second decade of the 20th century.

  10. Tenth Annual "Brown" Lecture in Education Research: A New Civil Rights Agenda for American Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orfield, Gary

    2014-01-01

    This article reviews the impacts of the civil rights policies framed in the 1960s and the anti-civil rights political and legal movements that reversed them. It documents rising segregation by race and poverty. The policy reversals and transformation of U.S. demography require a new civil rights strategy. Vast immigrations, the sinking White…

  11. Major Harvey Cushing's difficulties with the British and American armies during World War I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, Michael E

    2014-08-01

    This historical review explores Harvey Cushing's difficulties with both the British and American armies during his World War I service to definitively examine the rumor of his possible court martial. It also provides a further understanding of Cushing the man. While in France during World War I, Cushing was initially assigned to British hospital units. This service began in May 1917 and ended abruptly in May 1918 when the British cashiered him for repeated censorship violations. Returning to American command, he feared court martial. The army file on this matter (retrieved from the United States National Archives) indicates that US Army authorities recommended that Cushing be reprimanded and returned to the US for his violations. The army carried out neither recommendation, and no evidence exists that a court martial was considered. Cushing's army career and possible future academic life were protected by the actions of his surgical peers and Merritte Ireland, Chief Surgeon of the US Army in France. After this censorship episode, Cushing was made a neurosurgical consultant but was also sternly warned that further rule violations would not be tolerated by the US Army. Thereafter, despite the onset of a severe peripheral neuropathy, probably Guillian Barré's syndrome, Cushing was indefatigable in ministering to neurosurgical needs in the US sector in France. Cushing's repeated defying of censorship regulations reveals poor judgment plus an initial inability to be a "team player." The explanations he offered for his censorship violations showed an ability to bend the truth. Cushing's war journal is unclear as to exactly what transpired between him and the British and US armies. It also shows no recognition of the help he received from others who were instrumental in preventing his ignominious removal from service in France. Had that happened, his academic future and ability to train future neurosurgical leaders may have been seriously threatened. Cushing's foibles

  12. Marks of autopsy and identification of victims of human rights violations exhumed from cemeteries: the case of the Spanish Civil War (1936-1939).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ríos, Luis; Martínez, Berta; García-Rubio, Almudena; Herrasti, Lourdes; Etxeberria, Francisco

    2014-09-01

    The presence of autopsy marks in human skeletal remains indicates a medicolegal procedure related to ascertaining the cause and manner of death. We present here four cases where signs of autopsy were observed in the remains recovered from mass graves and cemeteries of prisoners from the Spanish Civil War (1936-1939), victims of extrajudicial executions, and of death in prison, respectively. With respect to the former, historical evidence indicate that during the first weeks after the coup, official removal of cadavers and autopsy procedures were carried out to the first victims of extrajudicial killings, whose corpses were found abandoned in the road. Once the civil war was established and systematic extrajudicial killings were systematic, official military orders were issued to stop standard forensic proceedings. Therefore, autopsy marks observed in the remains exhumed from mass graves located in cemeteries may be indicative of an earlier chronology of the killings, and this information proved to be relevant for the identification process in one of the cases presented. In a cemetery of political prisoners, autopsy signs were also observed in two skeletal remains and in the official records of two prisoners, a corroboration of information also relevant for the identification process. These findings indicate that autopsy marks can be found in the remains of victims of human rights violations exhumed from cemeteries. Skeletal and archival information could be useful for the identification process in other cases of large-scale violence, where the first victims of extrajudicial executions were buried unidentified in cemeteries after autopsy procedures.

  13. War on!

    OpenAIRE

    Simon , Jonathan

    2008-01-01

    Abstract 'War on' is the leading form of anti-policy in the United States. Since the late 1950s we have seen wars on cancer, poverty, drugs and terror. Thus far, the most far-reaching of these, the war on crime, has transformed American democracy since the 1960s. The deformation of our population and institutions now requires not simply an end to that war and its extension (the 'War on Terror'), but the deployment of a new 'war on' to stimulate change in the governmentalities which...

  14. Different Places, Different Ideas: Reimagining Practice in American Psychiatric Nursing After World War II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Kylie M

    2018-01-01

    In 1952, Hildegard Peplau published her textbook Interpersonal Relations in Nursing: A Conceptual Frame of Reference for Psychodynamic Nursing. This was the same year the American Psychiatric Association (APA) published the first edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (1st ed.; DSM-I; APA). These events occurred in the context of a rapidly changing policy and practice environment in the United States after World War II, where the passing of the National Mental Health Act in 1946 released vast amounts of funding for the establishment of the National Institute of Mental Health and the development of advanced educational programs for the mental health professions including nursing. This article explores the work of two nurse leaders, Hildegard Peplau and Dorothy Mereness, as they developed their respective graduate psychiatric nursing programs and sought to create new knowledge for psychiatric nursing that would facilitate the development of advanced nursing practice. Both nurses had strong ideas about what they felt this practice should look like and developed distinct and particular approaches to their respective programs. This reflected a common belief that it was only through nurse-led education that psychiatric nursing could shape its own practice and control its own future. At the same time, there are similarities in the thinking of Peplau and Mereness that demonstrate the link between the specific social context of mental health immediately after World War II and the development of modern psychiatric nursing. Psychiatric nurses were able to gain significant control of their own education and practice after the war, but this was not without a struggle and some limitations, which continue to impact on the profession today.

  15. Invisible Infantry: Mexicans in World War II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique Plasencia de la Parra

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses the  participation of Mexican  and  Mexican- American troops in the United States army during World War II. Recruiting, discrimination, their  role  in the  armed forces  and their reinsertion into society once the war ended, are examined. Special emphasis is placed  on the  Hispanics  fight for their  civil and political rights that was carried on very actively by many War veterans.

  16. The evolution of American nuclear doctrine 1945-1980: from massive retaliation to limited nuclear war

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richani, N.

    1983-01-01

    This thesis attempts to demonstrate the evolutionary character of American nuclear doctrine from the beginning of the nuclear age in 1945 until 1980. It also aims at disclosing some of the most important factors that contributed to the doctrine's evolution, namely, technological progress and developments in weaponry and the shifts that were taking place in the correlation of forces between the two superpowers, the Soviet Union and the United States. The thesis tries to establish the relation, if any, between these two variables (technology and balance of forces) and the evolution of the doctrine from Massive Retaliation to limited nuclear war. There are certainly many other factors which influenced military doctrine, but this thesis focuses on the above mentioned factors. touching on others when it was thought essential.The thesis concludes by trying to answer the question of whether the purpose of the limited nuclear war doctrine is to keep the initiative in US hands, that is putting itself on the side with the positive purpose, or not. Refs

  17. The evolution of American nuclear doctrine 1945-1980: from massive retaliation to limited nuclear war

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richani, N [Public Administration Dpt. American Univ. of Beirut (Lebanon)

    1983-12-31

    This thesis attempts to demonstrate the evolutionary character of American nuclear doctrine from the beginning of the nuclear age in 1945 until 1980. It also aims at disclosing some of the most important factors that contributed to the doctrine`s evolution, namely, technological progress and developments in weaponry and the shifts that were taking place in the correlation of forces between the two superpowers, the Soviet Union and the United States. The thesis tries to establish the relation, if any, between these two variables (technology and balance of forces) and the evolution of the doctrine from Massive Retaliation to limited nuclear war. There are certainly many other factors which influenced military doctrine, but this thesis focuses on the above mentioned factors. touching on others when it was thought essential.The thesis concludes by trying to answer the question of whether the purpose of the limited nuclear war doctrine is to keep the initiative in US hands, that is putting itself on the side with the positive purpose, or not. Refs.

  18. Fighting for business: the limits of professional cooperation among American doctors during the First World War.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schafer, James A

    2015-04-01

    The American medical profession participated extensively in preparedness and mobilization for the First World War, with more than one in five doctors voluntarily enlisting in various branches of the Army and Navy Medical Corps. Medical officers were widely valorized for suspending their civilian careers and for sacrificing their professional income while in service. Because of the meager commissions that medical officers received by comparison with fees many doctors earned in established private medical practices, scores of county medical societies implemented organizational solutions to this business problem, with the hopes of removing a significant disincentive to enlistment. In these "practice protection plans," a civilian doctor promised to take care of the patients of a military doctor, to forward a portion of the fees collected thereby to the family of the military doctor, and to refer these patients to the military doctor upon his return. Despite initial enthusiasm and promotion, these plans ultimately failed to achieve their objectives, leading some medical officers to accuse civilian doctors of being opportunistic, unpatriotic "slackers." This episode reveals the limits of professional cooperation in American medicine at the time and the need to explain organizational failures in the grand narrative of professionalization during the "Golden Age" of American medicine. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. War, religion, and white supremacy in comparative perspective: South Africa and the American South

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R M�ller

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available The southern states of the United States of America and South Africa share a number of analogous historical realities. One of these, which is the main subject of� this article,� is� the way in which the memory of a lost war had fused cultural mythology and religious symbolism to provide a foundation for the formation and maintenance of attitudes of white supremacy in both contexts.� This article seeks to achieve a historical� understanding of the complex interrelationship between the development of cultural identity and Protestant Christianity by� focusing on these issues in the histories of the Afrikaner and the white American Southerner in comparative perspective.�

  20. Military Spending and Economic Well-Being in the American States: The Post-Vietnam War Era

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borch, Casey; Wallace, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Using growth curve modeling techniques, this research investigates whether military spending improved or worsened the economic well-being of citizens within the American states during the post-Vietnam War period. We empirically test the military Keynesianism claim that military spending improves the economic conditions of citizens through its use…

  1. Civil defense should be mandatory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kearney, C.H.

    1985-01-01

    In this paper, the author exposes myths about the effects of nuclear weapons so that the U.S. can begin the necessary task of a mandatory civil defense program. An all-out nuclear war between Russia and the United States would be the worst catastrophe in history, a tragedy so huge it is difficult to comprehend. Even so, it would be far from the end of human life on earth. The dangers from nuclear weapons have been distorted and exaggerated for varied reasons. These exaggerations have become demoralizing myths, believed by millions of Americans. The author has found that many people see no sense in talking about details of survival skills. Only after they have begun to question the truth of these myths do they become interested, under normal peacetime conditions, in acquiring nuclear war survival skills. The author examines the most harmful of the myths about nuclear war dangers, along with some of the grim facts

  2. Greed, grievance, leadership and external interventions in the initiation and intensification of the civil war in Angola

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Real P. Sousa

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the initiation of conflict is fundamental for the success of efforts in conflict prevention. The validity of the mechanisms of the “Greed and Grievance” model, alongside leadership and external interventions are tested in four periods of initiation and intensification of the conflict in Angola. All mechanisms are present but their relative relevance varies throughout the conflict. Among the mechanisms identified in each period the most relevant in the Cold War period are the international and regional interventions in 1961 and 1975 and in the post-Cold War period, the “greed” factors in 1992 (oil and diamonds, poverty and war capital and the UNITA leadership of Jonas Savimbi in 1998. The case study provides evidence that “greed” and “grievance” can be interlinked (such as in 1992 and confirms the relevance of leadership and external interventions mechanisms.

  3. Improving Vocational Rehabilitation Access and Return to Work and Career Outcomes among African American Wounded Warriors, Gulf War, and Vietnam War Era Veterans with Disabilities: A White Paper Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Corey L., Ed.: Johnson, Jean E., Ed.; Washington, Andre L., Ed.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this monograph is to present documents that discuss issues related to improving access to vocational rehabilitation services and return to work rates of African American Wounded Warriors, Gulf War and Vietnam War Era veterans with disabilities. This monograph also includes a review of relevant literature on barriers to employment…

  4. Secrets of the collective memory: the Civil War, the Franco regime and oral sources in Almería | Los secretos de la memoria: Guerra Civil, franquismo y fuentes orales en Almería

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofía Rodríguez López

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the particular experience of the people of Almería during the civil war and the post-war period, through the analysis of more than fifty oral testimonies. These have been collated in the course of two official research projects concerning the recovery of historical memory in Andalusia, and are the product of interviews carried out in this province. This memory, which merges with history, and has been much in the news in recent months, comes mainly from men and women from rural backgrounds, who, through the thread of their narrative, provide us with the keys to different individual experiences and a cosmogony of our collective past. | En este artículo dedicamos un espacio a la recuperación de la experiencia insólita de los almerienses en la guerra civil y la posguerra, mediante el análisis de más de cincuenta testimonios orales. Éstos se han recogido en el curso de dos proyectos oficiales de investigación para la recuperación de la memoria histórica en Andalucía, y hacen balance de las entrevistas desarrolladas en esta provincia. La memoria, confundida con la historia, y en boca de todos en los últimos meses, proviene de hombres y mujeres del campo, en su mayoría, que a través de su hilo narrativo nos vienen proporcionando las claves de distintas experiencias individuales y de una cosmogonía de nuestro pasado colectivo.

  5. The Civil War in Castile and León: a dress rehearsal for the Franco Dictatorship | La Guerra Civil en Castilla y León: ensayo general para la dictadura franquista

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Severiano Delgado Cruz

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This article gives a brief description of the evolution of the Spanish Civil War in Castile and León, characterized by the rapid seizure of power by the rebel military forces, the formation of improvised armed columns focused on the conquest of Madrid, and the violent repression against the social support of Republican-Socialist reform, through physical extermination and mass imprisonment. A third form of repression was of an economic nature, consisting of confiscations, requisitions, fines and compulsory fees. Patriotic subscriptions and special taxes were added to fund the war effort. At the same time, from Valladolid, Salamanca and Burgos, the first steps were taken to build the institutional and ideological framework of the Francoist “New State”. | En este artículo se hace una somera descripción del desarrollo de la Guerra Civil en Castilla y León, caracterizado por la rápida toma del poder por parte de los militares sublevados, la formación de columnas armadas improvisadas con el objetivo de conquistar Madrid y una virulenta represión dirigida contra las bases sociales del reformismo republicano-socialista, tanto por medio del exterminio físico como del encarcelamiento masivo. La tercera forma de represión fue la económica, mediante incautaciones, requisas, multas y cuotas contributivas, a lo que se unieron las suscripciones patrióticas e impuestos especiales para financiar el esfuerzo bélico. Al mismo tiempo, desde Valladolid, Salamanca y Burgos se daban los primeros pasos del entramado institucional e ideológico del Nuevo Estado franquista.

  6. Soviet and American Airwomen During World War II: A Comparison of Their Formation, Treatment and Dismissal

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Myers, Beth

    2003-01-01

    .... World War II provides an interesting setting to study women and warfare because the belligerent countries mobilized millions of women for the war effort, both in civilian and military capacities...

  7. Physicians confront the apocalypse: the American medical profession and the threat of nuclear war

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyer, P.

    1985-08-02

    Physicians figured prominently in the resurgence of nuclear weapons activism and cultural awareness that swept the US in the early 1980s. This discussion seeks to place this activism in historical context. It explores the American medical profession's shifting engagement with the issue of nuclear war. Attention is focused on the period 1945 to 1954, with a brief evaluation of the period 1954 to 1963, the years to which the activism of the 1980s may be traced. Radiation studies are reviewed including Hiroshima and Nagasaki survivors. Radiological studies were begun within days of Japan's surrender. The delayed effects of radiation exposure on some 14,000 persons in Hiroshima and Nagasaki include hemorrhage, leukocyte destruction, bone marrow damage, anemia, sterility, and the suppression of menstruation. In contrast, the American medical profession in the late 1940s focused much attention on the atom's potential medical benefits, especially the diagnostic and treatment value of radioisotopes. 90 references.

  8. Convincing American Women to Join in the Efforts to Win World War I: A Lesson Plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunal, Cynthia S.; Haas, Mary E.

    1994-01-01

    Asserts that World War I, unlike previous wars, was not fought by small groups of professional soldiers, but with large groups of citizens, including women. Presents a lesson plan using poster and postcards that examines methods used by the U.S. government to rally women to join the war effort. (CFR)

  9. Criminological and criminalistic research opportunities in Spain on the subject of the spanish civil war/Oportunidades de investigación criminológica y criminalística bajo la guerra civil española

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derek Congram (Canadá

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Tens of thousands of Spanish and foreign non-combatants were illegally detained and executed during the Spanish Civil War and postwar repression. Their bodies are believed to lie in unmarked mass graves throughout the country. The need for criminological and criminalistic research is great. This article discusses different aspects of the work and suggests the involvement of Mexican academics and forensic practitioners. Justifications for such foreign involvement are outlined as are points of mutual Spanish-Mexican benefit. Decenas de miles de no-combatientes españoles y extranjeros fueron ilegalmente detenidos y ejecutados durante la guerra civil española y durante la represión de la posguerra. Muchos de los cuerpos yacen en fosas comunes no marcadas en todo el país. La necesidad de investigación criminológica y criminalística es grande en este contexto. Este articulo habla de aspectos diferentes del trabajo y sugiere la participación de académicos y forenses mexicanos. Se resumen las justificaciones para tal colaboración y los aspectos del beneficio mutuo Español-Mexicano.

  10. Simone Weil y la Guerra Civil española. Una participación esperanzada y crítica || Simone Weil and the Spanish Civil War. A Hopeful and Critic Participation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilia Bea Pérez

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN: El artículo analiza la participación de Simone Weil en la Guerra Civil española (en la columna Durruti durante el mes de agosto de 1936 como un momento crucial de su evolución personal e intelectual. Esta experiencia repercutirá en su reflexión sobre la barbarie, en la elaboración de la noción de fuerza y en la búsqueda de una resistencia activa frente a la dinámica de la lucha por el poder y de la violencia.   ABSTRACT: This essay analyses Simone Weil’s participation in the Spanish Civil War (in the Durruti column, August 1936 and interprets it as a crucial moment in her personal and intellectual evolution. This experience will have an impact on Weil’s reflection on barbarism, her elaboration of the notion of force and her searching for an active resistance to the dynamics of the struggle for power and violence.

  11. "No God and no Norway": collective resource loss among members of Tamil NGO's in Norway during and after the last phase of the civil war in Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guribye, Eugene

    2011-08-17

    Studies on the mental health of refugees have tended to focus upon the impact of traumatic experiences in the country of origin, and acculturation processes in exile. The effects of crises in the country of origin on refugees living in exile have been little studied. This article examines how the final stages of the civil war in Sri Lanka in 2009 influenced members of pro-LTTE Tamil NGO's in Norway. Ethnographic fieldwork methods were employed within Tamil NGO's in the two largest cities in Norway between November 2008 and June 2011. The findings suggest that collective resources became severely drained as a result of the crisis, severely disrupting the fabric of social life. Public support from the majority community remained scarce throughout the crisis. The study suggests that there is a need for public support to exile groups indirectly affected by man-made crises in their country of origin.

  12. "No God and no Norway": collective resource loss among members of Tamil NGO's in Norway during and after the last phase of the civil war in Sri Lanka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guribye Eugene

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies on the mental health of refugees have tended to focus upon the impact of traumatic experiences in the country of origin, and acculturation processes in exile. The effects of crises in the country of origin on refugees living in exile have been little studied. This article examines how the final stages of the civil war in Sri Lanka in 2009 influenced members of pro-LTTE Tamil NGO's in Norway. Method Ethnographic fieldwork methods were employed within Tamil NGO's in the two largest cities in Norway between November 2008 and June 2011. Results The findings suggest that collective resources became severely drained as a result of the crisis, severely disrupting the fabric of social life. Public support from the majority community remained scarce throughout the crisis. Conclusions The study suggests that there is a need for public support to exile groups indirectly affected by man-made crises in their country of origin.

  13. Specters of War in Pyongyang: The Victorious Fatherland Liberation War Museum in North Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzy Kim

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available While North Korea accused South Korea of starting a “civil war” (naeran during the Korean War, it has now moved away from such depictions to paint the war as an American war of imperialist aggression against Korea that was victoriously thwarted under the leadership of Kim Il Sung. In this regard, it may be more than a coincidence that the Victorious Fatherland Liberation War Museum in Pyongyang was built in the early 1970s, just as the Vietnam War drew to a close with a Vietnamese victory. This article examines the memorialization of the Korean War in North Korea at two pivotal historical points—the end of the Vietnam War in the 1970s and the end of the Cold War in the 1990s—with a particular focus on contemporary exhibitions at the war museum in Pyongyang. Rather than offering a simple comparison of divergent narratives about the war, the article seeks to illustrate that North Korea’s conception of history and its account of the war are staunchly modernist, with tragic consequences.

  14. War, Education and State Formation: Problems of Territorial and Political Integration in the United States, 1848-1912

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beadie, Nancy

    2016-01-01

    After the Civil War (1861-1865), the United States faced a problem of "reconstruction" similar to that confronted by other nations at the time and familiar to the US since at least the Mexican-American War (1846-1848). The problem was one of territorial and political (re)integration: how to take territories that had only recently been…

  15. Literature of a Crisis: The Great War in Anglo-American Modernism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shadi Neimneh

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper looks at the representation of war in fiction as a catastrophic social event. In studying or teaching the Great War as represented in modernist literature, we have to acknowledge that fiction, and despite its overlap with history or historical value, is not mere history. War literature retains a powerful sociological orientation. The novels discussed in this paper push real war action to the background and highlight, instead, the impact of war on the subjective lives of individuals and their social interaction. Modernism is not primarily concerned with accurately reproducing the war, but rather with impressionistic details, i.e. the impact of war on introverted lives. Therefore, the real value of such novels is not documentary or historical but social and psychological.

  16. Oversimplifying Iraq's challenges: Bush's Fort Bragg speech and americans' declining support for the war

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos L. Yordan

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo examina el porqué el presidente George W. Bush no pudo recolectar la ayuda de la ciudadanía americana para su estrategia para la estabilización y la transformación de Iraq. De hecho, esta estrategia ha sido afectada por el desplegar de los acontecimientos que sucedieron en Iraq, pero el problema principal reside en las posiciones que el presidente utilizó para simplificar los desafíos que el ejército americano y la diplomacia tenían que hacer frente en Iraq, buscando la aprobación de las criticas periodisticas, de los expertos gubernamentales y de los juristas. En más de una perspectiva la falta de aprobación del gobierno Bush en Iraq es una consecuencia de la carencia de la confianza que la opinión pública tuvo por su presidente y sus consejeros para lograr sus objetivos en Iraq. Para constatar esta tesis, el artículo analiza el discurso del presidente a la nación, difundida en horario de punta el 28 de julio de 2005, que demuestra que los americanos no estaban demasiado convencidos de la estrategia de Bush._____________ABSTRACT:This article puts in context why President of the United States of America George W. Bush has been unable to rally American support for his strategy to stabilize and transform Iraq. Since the summer of 2003, when Iraqis started to challenge the authority of the Anglo-American occupation, the White House has been on the defensive, while American support for post-war efforts has dwindled. While developments in Iraq have affected the strategy’s execution, the main problem is the president’s inclination to oversimplify the challenges American troops and diplomats are facing in Iraq, inviting criticism from journalists, experts on nation-building and lawmakers. In many ways, declining approval of Bush’s handling of Iraq results in the public’s lack of confidence that the president and his advisors will be able to accomplish its goals in Iraq. To test this argument, the article analyzes

  17. The Presence of the American Troops in Romania: Civil-Military Challenges Beyond a "Military Relationship"

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Simion, Valentin

    2008-01-01

    This thesis analyzes the civil-military relations of the growing U.S. military presence in Romania and the implications of this development for bi-lateral relations beyond the barracks and the maneuver field...

  18. Reconsidering American Indian historical trauma: lessons from an early Gros Ventre war narrative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gone, Joseph P

    2014-06-01

    Professional clinicians and human services providers are increasingly attributing the mental health problems of American Indians (AIs) to historical trauma (HT). As an alternative to established psychiatric disorders, AI HT was formulated to explain enduring mental health disparities as originating in tribal experiences of Euro-American colonization. As a result, AI HT has been described as the collective, cumulative, and intergenerational psychosocial disability resulting from massive group-based oppression, such as forced relocation, political subjugation, cultural domination, and genocide. One objective of the HT construct is to frame AI distress and dysfunction in social and historical terms. Given widespread indigenous experiences of colonization, the debilitating effects of HT are presumed to affect most AI communities today. With this background in mind, I explore AI HT with specific reference to a "war narrative" obtained by an anthropologist in 1901 from an elderly Gros Ventre woman. In this account, Watches All described her participation in a historic intertribal battle, and her subsequent captivity and escape from the enemy during the late 1860s. This historical narrative references many first-hand experiences that would today be identified as traumatogenic. Interestingly, however, this account complicates several assumptions underlying AI HT, leading to vexing questions of whether Watches All's ordeal actually qualifies as an instance of AI HT. No matter how one answers these questions, such ambiguity highlights serious theoretical confusions requiring elaboration and refinement if AI HT is to remain a useful construct in the behavioral health sciences. © The Author(s) 2013 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  19. Fear of failure: why american science is not winning the war on cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ness, Roberta B

    2010-02-01

    How to maximize creativity in biological science is a topic rarely discussed and yet critical to success in improving health. I believe that the needed approaches are not simply to flog individuals to try harder but to build systems and infrastructures that enhance creative effort. Lateral thinking can and should be taught. My hope for the future is that every graduate science curriculum will have a course in innovation. Institutions must provide time, space, and individual credit to the long and slow process of creative output. Highly multidisciplinary science should be supported, some of which may require seed or infrastructure support. Funders can separate idea generation from implementation. Scientists can minimize costs of failure by piloting and modeling ideas through incremental research, if supported by funders. But perhaps the very first step is to initiate a vibrant discussion of what we can do to enhance creativity in American biological science-it is time to stop complaining and to start winning the war on cancer.

  20. The Underappreciated Doctors of The American Civil Rights Movement. Part I: Theodore Roosevelt Mason Howard, MD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    deShazo, Richard D; Parker, Sara B

    2017-07-01

    During the fight to end segregation in the United States, most of the 25 or so black physicians who had not already left Mississippi took risks to become active in civil rights locally and nationally. One of the first was T.R.M. Howard, MD, whose life story is both an encouragement and warning for today's physicians. Howard, the protégé of a white Adventist physician, became active in civil rights during medical school. While serving as chief surgeon of the all-black hospital in Mississippi, he formed his own civil rights organization in 1951 and worked to solve the shootings of 2 of its members, George Lee and Gus Courts, and the murder of Emmett Till in 1955. His reports of these events and collaborations with other civil rights icons helped trigger the modern civil rights movement. At the same time, he became a nationally known proponent of abortion rights and then fled to Chicago in 1956, after arming his Delta mansion with long guns and a Thompson machine gun. Howard will be remembered for many things, including his activism for the social determinants of health as president of the National Medical Association. Copyright © 2017 Southern Society for Clinical Investigation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Implications of Sino-American Strategic Competition on Southeast Asia's Post-Cold War Regional Order

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Suryodipuro, Sidharto

    2003-01-01

    .... The study of international politics after the Cold War has rediscovered the importance of regional interaction as the framework for understanding countries' security strategies and the great powers...

  2. Being a neighbor to Syria: a retrospective analysis of patients brought to our clinic for cranial gunshot wounds in the Syrian civil war.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aras, M; Altaş, M; Yilmaz, A; Serarslan, Y; Yilmaz, N; Yengil, E; Urfali, B

    2014-10-01

    Toward the end of 2010, the Arab spring, the waves of revolutionary demonstrations and protests influenced also Syria, where violent clashes turned into a civil war. Hundreds of thousands of people became refugees. The use of excessive force unfortunately culminated in numerous deaths and injuries in many cities. Being the closest city to Aleppo, Damascus and Homs, the biggest cities of Syria, Antioch/Hatay has been the city where initial emergency treatments were performed. For this reason, we examined and retrospectively analyzed the medical records of the patients treated in the clinics of our hospital due to cranial gunshot wounds during the war. The medical records of 186 patients who were injured in the Syrian War and brought to, followed up and treated in the Neurosurgery Clinic of Mustafa Kemal University, Faculty of Medicine in Hatay, a Turkish city on the Syrian border, between April 2011 and June 2013. A total of 186 patients were evaluated in a period of more than 2 years. Of all 91.4% of the patients were adults (male/female: 152/18) and 8.6% of them were pediatric patients (male/female: 14/2). The average age of the patients was 31 years, with an age range of between 2 months and 67 years. According to Glasgow coma score (GCS) of the patients at the time of admission, GCS was 3 in 32 patients (17.2%), between 4 and 7 in 70 patients (37.6%), and between 8 and 15 in 84 patients (45.1%). We observed that the patients with GCS of 4-7 had a significantly lower mortality among the 56 patients treated surgically compared with the 14 patients treated medically. Cranial gunshot wounds are responsible for high mortality and morbidity. A multiplicity of factors plays a role on morbidity and mortality. These are the duration of transport, the injury pattern, the velocities of the weapons used, and the Glasgow Coma Scales of the patients at the time of admission. The authors recommend that the patients with cranial gunshot wounds who has GCS of 4-7 should be

  3. Cinema and the Great War - Andrew Kelly, 1997. History by Hollywood. The use and abuse of the American past - Robert Brant Toplin, 1996

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kester, Bernadette

    1998-01-01

    textabstractReview of: Cinema and the Great War. Andrew Kelly, Londen, New York (Routledge), 1997, 219 p.History by Hollywood. The use and abuse of the American past. Robert Brant Toplin, Chicago (Urbana), 1996, 267 p.

  4. "To Boldly Go" versus "Last, Best Hope" : The Future of Human Civilization as Depicted in American Science Fiction

    OpenAIRE

    Glasø, Alexander

    2012-01-01

    "'To Boldly Go" versus "Last, Best Hope'" examines a total of four American television series from the Star Trek and Babylon 5 franchises, and the portrayal of human civilization in the future. The thesis traces how Star Trek set out "to boldly go" and how Babylon 5 was the "last, best hope" in depicting a coherent, futuristic vision for humanity. The initial chapter focuses on the background of the series and also the ways they differed from one another, while chapter 2 is devoted to the por...

  5. Women of the Second Republic and the Civil War from the present-day democratic perspective | Las mujeres de la República y la Guerra Civil desde la perspectiva democrática actual

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mónica Moreno Seco

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The strong social interest which women of the Second Republic and the civil war arouse, together with the wealth of solid historical works with a gender perspective, justify female experiences having a place in the debate on the memory of these two periods. The survival to the present day of stereotypes and myths about Republican women, despite the historiographical progress, has served to consolidate a depoliticized view of the past, which presents women as heroines without a clear ideological profile and as innocent victims of the changes and upheaval of the 1930s. These myths and stereotypes, which emphasize the idea of change experienced by women, rather than continuity and resistance to change, have influenced the current perception of the extension of female citizenship in Spanish society. | El especial interés social que las mujeres de la República y la Guerra Civil despiertan, así como la existencia de una nutrida y sólida historiografía de género justifican que las experiencias femeninas ocupen un lugar en el debate sobre la memoria de estos dos periodos. La pervivencia, en la actualidad, de estereotipos y mitos sobre las mujeres republicanas, a pesar de los avances historiográficos, contribuye a consolidar una visión despolitizada del pasado, que presenta a las mujeres como heroínas sin un perfil ideológico claro y víctimas inocentes de las transformaciones y convulsiones de los años treinta. Estos mitos y estereotipos, que refuerzan la idea del cambio experimentado por las mujeres, olvidando las permanencias y las resistencias al mismo, influyen en la percepción actual sobre la ampliación de la ciudadanía femenina en la sociedad española.

  6. El dispositivo venezolano de sanidad y la incorporación de los médicos exiliados de la Guerra Civil española The Venezuelan sanitation authority and the incorporation of physicians exiled from the Spanish Civil War

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan José Martin-Frechilla

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available En 1914, mientras España establecía acuerdos para modernizar su estructura científica y sanitaria, al hilo del panamericanismo y de los controles por la apertura del Canal de Panamá, Venezuela comenzó a estructurar un dispositivo sanitario ajustado a pautas internacionales, auspiciado, desde 1913, por la Fundación Rockefeller. En 1931, la Segunda República aceleró en España el envío de becarios a Estados Unidos y creó un sistema de salud pública bajo el modelo administrativo de unidades sanitarias y unidades técnicas de investigación y control propugnado por la Fundación. La Guerra Civil interrumpió ese proceso y Venezuela aprovechó el momento para contratar a médicos y enfermeras exiliados y los incorporó al nuevo Ministerio de Sanidad y Asistencia Social creado 1936.In 1914, while Spain was making agreements to modernize its scientific and sanitary structure, Venezuela started to structure a sanitation authority following international models, in line with Pan Americanism and the controls for the opening of the Panama Canal, for which is received sponsorship from the Rockefeller Foundation as of 1913. In 1931, the Second Spanish Republic sent ever greater numbers of scholars to study in the United States and established a public health system along the lines of the administrative models for sanitation and technical units for investigation and control as proposed by the Foundation. The Spanish Civil War interrupted this process and Venezuela seized the moment to hire the exiled doctors and nurses and incorporate them into its new Ministry for Sanitation and Social Welfare, created in 1936.

  7. The Imperial Republic and Pax-Americana: State Formation, Inequality, and the New American Way of War

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott Timcke

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This article plots the complex historical interplay between state formation and militarized technology. What emerges is a portrayal of distributional consequences of particular means of rule and particular modes of warfare. I apply this framework to the New American Way of War, demonstrating that it structurally contributes to the widening economic inequality currently being experienced in the United States. In state formation literature, inequality is partly caused by how key technologies are militarized and deployed by the state for internal and/or external state building. Thus, inequality is the result of how the employment of particular kinds of military technologies affects the emergence and distribution of economic resources under different political regimes. By inference, the degree of inequality is a by-product of a state’s means of rule. Hence, prior to the redistribution of wealth and economic chances by various state institutions, particular kinds of states are historically endowed with a predisposition to create and solidify social stratification. I offer a critical engagement with the new American Way of War through the lens of the means of rule. In my case study, I argue that due to technological choices, the American state no longer needs to be accountable to citizens or its subject population as a whole. In short, the American state can afford to disengage itself from wider negotiation and bargaining with its subjects. From the state’s perspective, there is nothing these subjects offer to accent the current military capacity attuned to a particular military strategy. Simply, there is very little these subjects have that the state requires. Subsequently, if the current American Way of War continues, it is likely that arbitrary rule, militarization, and wide inequality will be the order of the day irrespective of who the particular governors happen to be.

  8. Political Participation of Mexican Americans in California. A Report of the California State Advisory Committee to the United States Commission on Civil Rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    California State Advisory Committee to the United States Commission on Civil Rights.

    The California State Advisory Committee to the U.S. Commission on Civil Rights met on January 21-22, 1971, to discuss the political participation of Mexican Americans. This paper presents the committee's discussion and recommendations. Matters that are pertinent to the participation of Mexican Americans in the Political life of California are…

  9. Civil Law Glossary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Update on Law-Related Education, 1997

    1997-01-01

    Presents a glossary of civil law terms originally compiled for journalists by the American Bar Association. Defines many essential civil law concepts and practices including compensatory damages, jurisdiction, motion to dismiss, discovery, and remedy. (MJP)

  10. Feeding the Devil Dogs of War

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-03

    is comprised of all efforts associated with translating the fruits of the US industrial base (government and commercial industry) to sustaining the...navies in the 1800s. Advances in food dehydration during the American Civil War, and the increasing availability of refrigeration, also...what was prescribed, since they were able to augment their simple, monotonous rations with an abundance of tropical fruit and seafood available in

  11. The American University of Beirut

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertelsen, Rasmus Gjedssø

    2016-01-01

    with American society through its board of trustees. American civil society has been a major financial partner since the missionary days to modern day foundation philanthropy. American business has supported the university and recruited its graduates. American government has supported the university financially...... and politically. The chapter compares the transnational relations of the AUB, the other classical American overseas universities with missionary roots in the Middle East (AUC and LAU), the more than 20 American higher education institutions founded in China around 1900 (which did not survive the Korean War...

  12. The Case of the Suzhou Hospital of National Medicine (1939-41): War, Medicine, and Eastern Civilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daidoji, Keiko; Karchmer, Eric I

    2017-06-01

    This article explores the founding of the Suzhou Hospital of National Medicine in 1939 during the Japanese occupation of Suzhou. We argue that the hospital was the culmination of a period of rich intellectual exchange between traditional Chinese and Japanese physicians in the early twentieth century and provides important insights into the modern development of medicine in both countries. The founding of this hospital was followed closely by leading Japanese Kampo physicians. As the Japanese empire expanded into East Asia, they hoped that they could revitalize their profession at home by disseminating their unique interpretations of the famous Treatise on Cold Damage abroad. The Chinese doctors that founded the Suzhou Hospital of National Medicine were close readers of Japanese scholarship on the Treatise and were inspired to experiment with a Japanese approach to diagnosis, based on new interpretations of the concept of "presentation" ( shō / zheng ). Unfortunately, the Sino-Japanese War cut short this fascinating dialogue on reforming medicine and set the traditional medicine professions in both countries on new nationalist trajectories.

  13. Segregation, civil rights, and health disparities: the legacy of African American physicians and organized medicine, 1910-1968.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washington, Harriet A; Baker, Robert B; Olakanmi, Ololade; Savitt, Todd L; Jacobs, Elizabeth A; Hoover, Eddie; Wynia, Matthew K; Blanchard, Janice; Boulware, L Ebony; Braddock, Clarence; Corbie-Smith, Giselle; Crawley, LaVera; LaVeist, Thomas A; Maxey, Randall; Mills, Charles; Moseley, Kathryn L; Williams, David R

    2009-06-01

    Between 1910 and 1968, the National Medical Association (NMA) repeatedly clashed with the American Medical Association (AMA) over the latter organization's racial bars to membership and other health policy issues. The NMA, founded in 1895 as a nonexclusionary medical society to provide a voice for disenfranchised black physicians and patients, struggled in its early years, during which AMA leadership took scant notice of it. But skirmishes ensued over such actions as stigmatizing racial labels in the AMA's American Medical Directory, which, beginning in 1906, listed all U.S. physicians but designated African Americans with the notation col. The NMA also repeatedly asked the AMA to take action against overt racial bars on blacks' membership in its constituent state and county societies. During the civil rights era, African American physicians received no AMA support in seeking legal remedies to hospital segregation. And the NMA and AMA found themselves opposed on other policy issues, including Medicaid and Medicare. These differences eventually catalyzed a series of direct confrontations. The 1965 AMA meeting in New York City, for example, was protested by about 200 NMA-led picketers. The NMA's quest for racial equality in medicine was supported by some other medical organizations, such as the Medical Committee for Human Rights. In 1966, the AMA House voted to amend the AMA Constitution and Bylaws, giving its Judicial Council (now the Council on Ethical and Judicial Affairs) the authority to investigate allegations of discrimination. This paved the way for a subsequent era of increasing cooperation and understanding.

  14. Japan’s Role in Conflict Resolution and Effective Governance in Tajikistan: Case of the Tajik civil war, 1992-1997

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farrukh Usmonov

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Tajikistan faced Civil War in 1992-1997, which damaged country’s economy and infrastructure. Thus from 1994 Government and United Opposition with support of International society started Inter-Tajik negotiation process, which ended up with signing Peace Treaty in 1997. Japan unlike other countries of the region wasn’t much involved into conflict in Tajikistan, but in opposite, it was supportive into the peace enhancement in country. In 1999 Japanese government created platform for the Inter-Tajik Peace negotiators (including officials from government and opposition of Tajikistan, UN envoys, representatives from IOs and NGOs, Japanese MoFA and other experts and invited them to Japan to discuss outcome of the Peace Treaty and to look forward on solving remaining issues before Parliamentary election in year 2000. This project considered as final international dialogue between Tajikistani side and International society before country moves onward. Current paper focuses on topic which was discussed in Tokyo, and define outcome of this project.

  15. The Angolan Proxy War: A Study of Foreign Intervention and Its Impact on War Fighting

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bissonnette, Brian

    2008-01-01

    .... This study examines the influence of foreign intervention on war fighting during the Angolan Civil War and analyzes how the various levels of support impacted the successes and failures of the internal warring factions...

  16. Vietnam: Historians at War

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyar, Mark

    2008-01-01

    Although the Vietnam War ended more than thirty years ago, historians remain as divided on what happened as the American people were during the war. Mark Moyar maps the ongoing battle between "orthodox" and "revisionist" Vietnam War historians: the first group, those who depict Vietnam as a bad war that the United States should…

  17. Hitler's bible: an analysis of the relationship between American and German eugenics in pre-war Nazi Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Susan

    2009-06-01

    Throughout the last century the wellbeing of those with disability has been threatened by the idea of eugenics. The most notable and extreme example of this could be considered to have been carried out during World WarTwo, within Nazi eugenic programmes. These resulted in the sterilisation and killing of hundreds of thousands of disabled people. Through research of a wide range of sources it has been established that much of the inspiration and encouragement for this rapidly progressing movement in Germany initially came from America, most notably from California. American eugenicists expressed interest, and at times jealousy, at the speed of the progression in German eugenics. German Sterilisation laws were drafted following careful study of American experiments and research, while financial support from a number of American individuals encouraged further German research. Correspondence between influential leaders, including Hitler, Grant and Whitney, Verschuer and Popenoe, on both sides also added to the developing relationship. In conclusion, although there are a number of vital differences between the progress of the eugenics programme in America and in pre-war Nazi Germany, and eugenics in America never produced the massive genocide that occurred in Germany, it is clear that the research, encouragement and enthusiasm from America had a profound influence on the rapidly growing Nazi eugenics movement.

  18. The Problem of Emergency in the American Supreme Court

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ugilt, Rasmus; Hartz, Emily

    2011-01-01

    Sixty years before Carl Schmitt wrote his Political Theology, and more than a 100 years before President Bush announced a ‘war on terrorism’ the American Supreme Court grappled with the difficult issue of emergency powers in connection with issues arising out of the American Civil War (1861......–1865). The question confronting the Court in a set of cases named the Prize Cases was whether President Lincoln’s decision to respond to acts of aggression by the secessionist Southern states with measures of war was lawful. The legal problem was that Lincoln had made this decision unilaterally although the American...... Constitution specifically allocates the power to declare war to Congress. The Court solved the dilemma by arguing that in cases where no war has been declared, the decision whether the country is in a state of war is ultimately ‘a question to be decided by him [the President], and [the Supreme] Court must...

  19. American Newspaper Editorials on the Vietnam War: An Experimental Approach to Editorial Content Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elias, Stephen N.

    The editorials about four Vietnam War news events that appeared in five newspapers were examined for content, tone, page placement, and length to discover what trends in editorial coverage occurred. The 131 editorials that were examined appeared in the "New York Times," the "Los Angeles Times," the "Wall Street…

  20. The Hope for American School Reform: The Cold War Pursuit of Inquiry Learning in Social Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Ronald W.

    2010-01-01

    As the issue of school reform grows ever more intense, it is imperative that we learn what we can from previous efforts. The new social studies was a 1960's attempt to transform the teaching of history and the social sciences in schools. With origins in the Cold War, the movement sought to develop critical thinkers through "inquiry" and…

  1. International Education during the Cold War: Soviet Social Transformation and American Social Reproduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsvetkova, Natalia

    2008-01-01

    During the Cold War, the United States and Soviet Union employed various cultural and informational and educational tools to establish and maintain friendly political regimes in foreign states. In this context international education programs became a major part of their strategy to win the "minds" and "allegiance" and to…

  2. The American-Israeli Relationship Relevance in a Post-Cold War Environment

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hoff, Michael

    2003-01-01

    .... This relationship has been critical during the period of cold war politics from 1948-1989. However, since the breakup of the Soviet Union, this relationship has been the basis for much of the intensified hatred aimed at the U.S...

  3. The Influence of the Cold War on the Racial Desegregation of American Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watras, Joseph

    2013-01-01

    With the rise of the Cold War, federal officials in the United States sought to end the racial segregation that the U.S. Supreme Court had accepted in the 1896 decision of "Plessy v. Ferguson." Although the reforms began with changes in the armed services, they moved to reduce racial segregation in schools. Many forces brought about the…

  4. Charles Edouard Brown-Séquard's departure from the Medical College of Virginia: incompatible science or incompatible social views in pre-Civil War southern United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Joseph C; Ho, Stephen V

    2011-01-01

    Charles Edouard Brown-Séquard was one of the most colorful characters in modern physiology. His scientific methods of self-experimentation and animal vivisection led to many great observations, including the eponymous syndrome of hemisection of the spinal cord. Despite his renown, he stayed but one year in his first major academic post. Details of his sojourn at the Medical College of Virginia (now part of Virginia Commonwealth University) in Richmond were divined from perusal of archival material, letters, and from the available literature. His notoriety in the field of physiology landed him a post at the Medical College of Virginia in 1854 as the chair of physiology. During a brief time here, he was able to publish his landmark monograph of 1855 on the pathways of the spinal cord "Experimental and Clinical Researches on the Physiology and Pathology of the Spinal Cord." He had a near-death experience while experimenting on himself to determine the function of the skin. It was rumored that his English was poor, his lectures unintelligible, and his scientific methods disturbing to the neighbors and that for those reasons he was asked to vacate his post. Personal communications and other accounts indicate a different view: his mixed-blood heritage and his views on slavery were unpopular in the pre-Civil War southern United States. These disparate viewpoints lend an insight into the life and career of this pioneer in modern medicine and experimental design and to the clash of science and social views. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Digging up the recent Spanish memory: genetic identification of human remains from mass graves of the Spanish Civil War and posterior dictatorship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baeta, Miriam; Núñez, Carolina; Cardoso, Sergio; Palencia-Madrid, Leire; Herrasti, Lourdes; Etxeberria, Francisco; de Pancorbo, Marian M

    2015-11-01

    The Spanish Civil War (1936-1939) and posterior dictatorship (until 1970s) stands as one of the major conflicts in the recent history of Spain. It led to nearly two hundred thousand men and women executed or murdered extra-judicially or after dubious legal procedures. Nowadays, most of them remain unidentified or even buried in irretraceable mass graves across Spain. Here, we present the genetic identification of human remains found in 26 mass graves located in Northern Spain. A total of 252 post-mortem remains were analyzed and compared to 186 relatives, allowing the identification of 87 victims. Overall, a significant success of DNA profiling was reached, since informative profiles (≥ 12 STRs and/or mitochondrial DNA profile) were obtained in 85.71% of the remains. This high performance in DNA profiling from challenging samples demonstrated the efficacy of DNA extraction and amplification methods used herein, given that only around 14.29% of the samples did not provide an informative genetic profile for the analysis performed, probably due to the presence of degraded and/or limited DNA in these remains. However, this study shows a partial identification success rate, which is clearly a consequence of the lack of both appropriate family members for genetic comparisons and accurate information about the victims' location. Hence, further perseverance in the exhumation of other intact graves as well as in the search of more alleged relatives is crucial in order to facilitate and increase the number of genetic identifications. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Wars in the history of rheumatology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Marson

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Some important discoveries in the history of rheumatology happened during war periods. It is well known that arthritis associated with conjunctivitis and urethritis, following dysenteric episodes, has been described during the First World War from the German Hans Reiter and, nearly contemporarily, from the French Nöel Fiessinger and Edgar Leroy. Less known is instead the fact that the first cases of sympathetic algoneurodystrophy have been reported by the American Silas Weir Mitchell in soldiers wounded by fire-arms, during the Civil War of Secession. Other war episodes have been crucial for the development of some drugs now abundantly applied to the care of rheumatic diseases. The discovery of therapeutic effects of immunosuppressive agents, in fact, happened as an indirect consequence of the use of poison gas, already during the First World War (mustard gas, but above all after an episode in the port of Bari in 1943, where an American cargo boat was sunk. It had been loaded with a quantity of cylinders containing a nitrogenous mustard, whose diffusion in the environment provoked more than 80 deaths owing to bone marrow aplasia.Moreover, the history of the cortisone shows a strict link to the Second World War, when Germany imported large quantities of bovine adrenal glands from Argentina, with the purpose of producing some gland extracts for the Luftwasse aviators, in order to increase their performance ability.

  7. America's First Carl Sagan: Ormsby MacKnight Mitchel, Pre-Civil War Astronomer and Lecturer on the Cosmos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osterbrock, D. E.

    2002-12-01

    In the years before television, videos, radio. movies, or even loudspeakers, Ormsby MacKnight Mitchel (1809-1862) was the best-known popularizer of astronomy and the scientific study of the universe in nineteenth-century America. Each winter he traveled the country by railroad, steamer, and stagecoach, speaking to large paying crowds in principal cities from Boston, New York, and Philadelphia through Cincinnati to New Orleans on the cosmos and our place in it, with special attention to possible inhabitants of planers orbiting other stars. Mitchel had much the same attraction as Sagan did in our time, and awakened many people's interest in astronomy through the human angle, as Carl did. His argument was simple, and according to Frank Triplett goes back thousands of years: other stars are suns, our sun has planets with people on one of them, why should not other stars also have populated planets? But first Mitchel, like Sagan, always explained clearly the discoveries of astronomy that fleshed out this argument with facts. He emphasized the ``clockwork universe", governed by gravity, that Newton, Herschel, and Laplace had investigated and found to be stable. There were many other similarities between these two great popularizers. Mitchel's base was the Cincinnati Observatory, which he had founded, raising the funds for it himself in small contributions from hundreds of ``members", which he publicised as far more democratic than support from European kings and lords. He went abroad to get a telescope, and finally found his ``Great [12-inch] Refractor" in Munich, with help from John Quincy Adams, Astronomer Royal George Biddle Airy, and Paris Observatory Director Fracois Arago, in spite of a rebuff by President John Tyler. These episodes have similarities in Sagan's lobbying NASA for close-up images of Mars. Views of other American professional astronomers on life on other worlds will also be described briefly, from Denison Olmsted, Elias Loomis, Charles A. Young (who

  8. Experts in the cold war. War experiences and peace conceptions of US-American physicists 1920-1963; Experten im Kalten Krieg. Kriegserfahrungen und Friedenskonzeptionen US-amerikanischer Kernphysiker 1920-1963

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wunderle, Ulrike

    2015-07-01

    The study is dedicated to the American elite of nuclear physicists, which explained after the second world war the possibilities of their science for war and peace. What induced their thinking and handling? The focus lies on the scientific shapings and war experiences of the first really international generation of physicists, which began in the 1920th years their career before many of their representatives had to fly from the NS regime from Europe and cooperated in the Manhattan project in the construction of the atomic bomb. These experiences the author refers to in order to get on the track of the explanations of the exper elite in the immediate afterwar time and in the cold war. How far their internationally and by actual war experiences shaped thinking about their own contribution as scientist to the national security - in the sense of discouragement or the cooperative conflict regulation - found its expression in the cold war, is drawn on different action levels of the participants from the Geneve conference ''Atoms for Peace'' of 1955 until the signing of the so-called Limited Test Ban Treaty of 1963.

  9. Tragedy into Drama: An American History of Tourniquet Use in the Current War

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-01

    Tourniquet doctrine refined, expanded in Emergency War Surgery manual 2004 Tourniquets proposed in theater, wait for data is a recipe for inaction; delay...Holcomb adopted a strategy of companies developing field tour- niquets and the Army testing promising candidates, and Walters had a chili cook off–like...the Food and Drug Administration for device consultation (510k pan - elist). In 2007, he received some funds for work for the National Institutes of

  10. Cleaning Up the Joint: Command, Control, and Agency in American War Fighting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    served as the commander of the 586th Flight Test Squadron, Holloman Air Force Base, New Mexico . Colonel Cannon is a graduate of the University of...chose, maintain reasonably tight control. Presidents Polk and Lincoln, for example, were very active in the direction of the war with Mexico and the...including cholera , typhoid, and severe gastroenteritis” at times reaching “epidemic proportions.”50 Another interdisciplinary team, operating under the

  11. Anticommunism as cultural praxis : South Vietnam, war, and refugee memories in the Vietnamese American community

    OpenAIRE

    Vo Dang, Thanh Thuy

    2008-01-01

    In dialogue with new critical scholarship on immigration, refugee, war, and memory studies as well as drawing from the methodologies of cultural studies and ethnography, this dissertation examines "anticommunism" as a set of cultural discourses and practices that shape the past, present, and future of Vietnamese diasporic communities by exploring when, where, and for what purposes South Vietnam emerges in refugee memories. That anticommunism continues to be an important paradigm for Vietnames...

  12. French Intervention: British Failure To Anticipate Transition In The American War of Independence

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-26

    responsibility of the war, especially because the colonists benefited greatly from the outcome of the conflict.26 In 1764, Parliament implemented the...coercive taxes were being placed on them to benefit wealthy British businessmen who had influence in Parliament and financial interest in the East...elite recognized the importance of the colonies to the British economy and feared tax hikes if the colonies were lost. Britain faced a difficult set

  13. Thucydides: Theorist of War

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Karl Marx trumpeted in the nineteenth century and that contributed to the ruthless and mur- derous civil wars characterizing so much of the blood...occurs, in 431 bC, greece is teetering on the brink of a long-awaited war between athens and sparta. the thebans decide to capitalize on that fact to

  14. Poker, Blackjack, Rummy, and War: The Face of American Strategic Culture

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Skuta, Philip C

    2006-01-01

    .... The American strategic culture is an amalgam of beliefs, values, ideas, attitudes, habits, patterns, and preferences of behavior that, over time, has created a distinctive national strategic style...

  15. War and Power

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carter, Dale

    2018-01-01

    Whether as context or prospect, reference or substance, warfare invariably features in Pynchon’s fiction: the war of American independence in Mason & Dixon; colonial wars in V.; world war one in Against the Day; world war two in Gravity’s Rainbow; the cold war in The Crying of Lot 49; various...... culture wars – hippies against straights, dopers versus The Man, nerds contra jocks – in Vineland and Inherent Vice; and the war on terror in Bleeding Edge. In these novels warfare occasions, illuminates and interrogates the lineaments of power, not only political or military but also social...... and representational – that mark the post-imperial, cold (and post-cold) war order; from the concentration camps and nuclear explosions of world war two to the ballistic missiles of the cold war, the irregular engagements of terrorism and counter-terrorism, and the digitalized fall-out of cyber-warfare....

  16. Leveraging Strength: The Pillars of American Grand Strategy in World War II

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    yearning for peace—and doing so in a single, one-page package —was a particular genius of American wartime advertisers. The Anglo-American Relationship...41 Morison explains: ‘‘When Mr. Churchill proposed a peripheral landing, anywhere between Norway and Dakar, Mr. Roosevelt was apt to retort , ‘All

  17. Positive Adjustment Among American Repatriated Prisoners of the Vietnam War: Modeling the Long-Term Effects of Captivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Daniel W; King, Lynda A; Park, Crystal L; Lee, Lewina O; Kaiser, Anica Pless; Spiro, Avron; Moore, Jeffrey L; Kaloupek, Danny G; Keane, Terence M

    2015-11-01

    A longitudinal lifespan model of factors contributing to later-life positive adjustment was tested on 567 American repatriated prisoners from the Vietnam War. This model encompassed demographics at time of capture and attributes assessed after return to the U.S. (reports of torture and mental distress) and approximately 3 decades later (later-life stressors, perceived social support, positive appraisal of military experiences, and positive adjustment). Age and education at time of capture and physical torture were associated with repatriation mental distress, which directly predicted poorer adjustment 30 years later. Physical torture also had a salutary effect, enhancing later-life positive appraisals of military experiences. Later-life events were directly and indirectly (through concerns about retirement) associated with positive adjustment. Results suggest that the personal resources of older age and more education and early-life adverse experiences can have cascading effects over the lifespan to impact well-being in both positive and negative ways.

  18. FATES OF RUSSIAN ART IN THE YEARS OF REVOLUTION AND CIVIL WAR (PECULIARITIES OF A.A. RYBNIKOV’S CREATIVE WORK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Галина Владимировна Аксенова

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the fate of the intellectuals who came over to the Soviet power and participated in the revolutionary process. The analysis is carried out on the example of the life and work of artist Alexei Rybnikov (1887-1949, who came from a merchant family, initially received economic education, graduated from Kharkov school of painting and drawin-gand participated in the exhibitions of “Jack of diamonds”.There are considered the peculiarities of his pre-revolutionary art. The author notes the role of the artist in the rescue of the unique art collections in the years of his work in the People’s Commissariat for Education. There is shownhow the Revolution and the Civil war, the nationalization and requisition of artistic values changed the processes of museum construction in Russia and then the Soviet Union. The author points out that the process of nationalization of the historical and artistic values revealed one of the important issues related to the conservation of works of art - the problem of restoration. The solution to this problem was associated with the need to study the technological characteristics of the paintings by old masters, to record the physical condition of all existing works of art, to describe its technical condition. There is shown that the practical work of rescue and restoration of the old masters’ heritage, which was carried out at the State Tretyakov gallery and the Hermitage by artists, technologists, photographers and scientists (chemists and physicists, led to the discovery of new methods of paintings salvation. Russian artist Alexei Rybnikov began his career before the revolution of 1917 as a painter, book designer and muralist.Like many other representatives of this profession, at first he became an officer of the People’s Commissariat for Education, then an employee of a museum. This path of a free artist’s transformation into a serious museum employee gave the world a new way of

  19. Sermons in American History: Selected Issues in the American Pulpit 1630-1967.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, DeWitte, Ed.; And Others

    This anthology presents 43 American sermons in the context of the social, cultural, and historical development of America. Two or more sermons treat the pro and con viewpoints on nineteen specific issues--from seventeenth century Puritan debates on the authority of God, to the pre-Civil War slavery controversy, to the current questions of Popular…

  20. Ethnicity, class, and civil war

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hechter, Michael Norman; Siroky, David

    2016-01-01

    of political instability. These two types of conflict result from distinct principles of group solidarity – ethnicity and class – and since each individual is simultaneously a member of an ethnic group (or many such groups) and a particular class, these two principles vary in the degree to which......Why are some countries prone to ethno-nationalist conflict, whereas others are plagued by class conflict? This is a question that has seldom been raised and rarely been examined empirically. This paper presents a social-structural theory to account for the variable incidence of these two forms......-group inequalities are high, and within-group inequalities low, ethnicity should be the dominant principle of group solidarity and serve as the primary basis of group conflict. By contrast, in countries where between-group inequalities are low, and within-group inequalities high, class is more likely to serve...

  1. Intelligence in the Civil War

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-03-01

    something that sounded very much like a kiss ," the officer left. Pinkerton followed the officer to a building he did not recognize. Suddenly, four...Wilkes Booth . Booth had been in Canada in October 1864, but little is known about his visit with conspirators there. Richard Montgomery, the double...agent in Canada, claimed that Booth and others had met to plot the kidnapping of President Lincoln. (The ransom was to be the freeing of Confederate

  2. An Analysis of Medical Ethic Practice by Union and Confederate Medical Departments During the American Civil War

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-05

    27 CITATIONS AND FOOTNOTES...to the wounded during this’time in history. Special thanks also goes to the librarians and resource assistants at the Gray Research Center of the...included improvements in public health, the advancement of ambulance systems and the building of pavilion style hospitals. Had knowledge of antiseptic

  3. Extraordinary renditions: reflections upon the war on terror in British and American screen science fiction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alec Charles

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Como la Guerra Fría influenció cuarenta años de ciencia ficción televisiva, así la sombra del 11/S formaliza la ciencia ficción popular en los primeros años del siglo XXI. La destrucción de Nueva York ha ocurrido en muchas películas como El día después de mañana, Cloverfield, La Guerra de los Mundos y La Leyenda. Como La Invasión, la última trilogía que reinventa la fábula de la Guerra Fría –La invasión de los ladrones de cuerpos, la Guerra de los Mundos y El hombre Omega- para la era neoconservadora, como 28 días después, 28 semanas después, Jericho y el remade Superviventes con un resurgimiento en un escenario post-apocalíptico que adolece de la serie Day of the Triffids. Como Star Trek: Enterprise vuelve su tradicional liberalismo como un ejercicio de patriotera paranoia, Batalla estelar (otro restaurada reliquia de la Guerra Fría ha presentado una visión más ambigua y problemática de la batalla de la democracia con el fundamentalismo. El re-hecho Doctor Who y Héroes han avanzado similares argumentos de nuevo en el totalizado seudo-utopismo de los cruzados o de los jihadistas a favor del stablishment de un consenso plural.Palabras clave: 11/S, ciencia ficción televisiva, Doctor Who, escenario post-apocalíptico, paranoia patriotera ___________________________ABSTRACT:As the Cold War influenced forty years of screen science fiction, so the shadow of 9/11 informs popular science fiction in the early twenty-first century. The destruction of New York has recurred in such films as The Day After Tomorrow, Cloverfield, War of the Worlds and I Am Legend. Like The Invasion, the latter pair reinvent Cold War fables – Invasion of the Body Snatchers, War of the Worlds and The Omega Man – for the neoconservative age, while 28 Days Later, 28 Weeks Later, Jericho and the remade Survivors witness a resurgence in post-apocalyptic concerns redolent of Day of the Triffids. While Star Trek: Enterprise turned its franchise

  4. "War" in the Jurisprudence of the Inter American Court of Human Rights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurence Burgorgue - Larsen

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available How have Inter-American Human Rights bodies dealt with the notion of “war”, which has been transformed over time into the notion of internal and international “armed conflicts”? This question provides the analytical foundation of the first part of this study, which sets out the various types of conflicts that have occurred in the American continent. These situations (armed conflicts, internal strife, State terrorism have produced a wide range of legal categorizations, utilized by both the Commission and Inter-American Court of Human Rights in their case-law. This conceptual delimitation carried out by these two bodies is all the more important as it affects the law that applies to armed conflicts. Indeed, by analysing this question, the never-ending debate on the relationship between International Human Rights Law and International Humanitarian Law reappears. The second part of this study therefore focuses on the issue of discovering whether and in which way jus in bello has found its place into the Inter-American Human Rights bodies’ case-law. As the active political life of Latin American societies has shown, the study of the different applicable legal regimes also requires looking into “state of emergency” Law, an issue which has been shaped by the Inter-American Court and Commission’s work.

  5. Observations on Occupation and Military Governance: An Analysis of the American Occupation of Japan and Germany in World War II

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Duray, Jr, Paul H

    2007-01-01

    Prior to the current Global War on Terror (GWOT), the United States military had not participated in occupation and military governance mission on as a massive a scale as that experienced in World War II...

  6. Black Chronicle: An American History Textbook Supplement. Third Edition. Bulletin No. 91546.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kailin, Clarence S.

    This book, a revision and updating of a work first published under the same title in 1974, presents a detailed chronological history of African Americans in the United States. The description begins with the origins of Homo sapiens in Africa, and traces the African American story from slavery in North America through the U.S. Civil War, the…

  7. Recent historiography on the Civil War: historical rigour against rigor mortis. When ‘revisionism’ is nothing more than a return to yesterday’s myths expressed with the indignant voice of the past | La historiografía reciente sobre la Guerra Civil: el rigor histórico contra el rigor mortis. Cuando el «revisionismo» no es nada más que la vuelta a los mitos de ayer expresados con la voz indignada del pasado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris Ealham

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available This article analyses the evolution of the historiography of the Spanish civil war in recent years. Over 70 years on from the conflict, it is possible to say that there are fewer and fewer taboos relating to the war, just as there is growing freedom for researchers to write on the civil war. However, despite the fact that Francoist myths are completely discredited in the universities, they continue to have an impact within civil society, owing to the enduring influence of primitive right-wing opinion. | Este artículo analiza la evolución de la historiografía de la guerra civil española en los últimos años. Mas que setenta años después del conflicto, podemos decir que cada vez son menos los temas tabú sobre la Guerra y cada vez más la libertad de los investigadores para escribir sin trabas sobre éstos. Pero pese a que los mitos franquistas están totalmente desacreditados en las universidades, éstos siguen dando coletazos a través de una derecha primitiva y ejerciendo su influencia dentro de la sociedad civil.

  8. ¡Arrasar la Vendée! Guerra Civil y Columnas Infernales en pleno corazón de la Revolución Francesa. – Raze the Vendée! Civil War and Infernal Columns in the heart of the French Revolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cutillas Victoria, Benjamín

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In the middle of the French Revolution, when the Liberty and the Rights of Man were proclaimed, a part of France decided to turn away from this new political and moral system with the aim of returning to their recent past when the Royal Authority and the Catholic Religion were the creed of the people. This against the revolutionary process took place in the west of the country, causing many internal conflicts that acquired special relevance in the Vendée region, where a true civil war exploded and the French Republic enforced a policy of total war unleashing the so-called Infernal Columns, although they didn’t put an end to the problem. The strife would end three years after with a peace process in the rebel region and terrible consequences for all.

  9. Building a Planning Transition Capability into the New American Way of War

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-05-14

    Noriega was linked to the Medellin drug cartel of Columbia. 61 Ibid., 7. 31 years, in multiple assignments, in Latin American.62 He was...the echelon of headquarters, is more of what modern, digitally equipped commands strive to achieve. Compartmentalization is not conducive to

  10. Surviving the War by Singing the Blues: The Contemporary Ethos of American Indian Political Poetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsosie, Rebecca

    1986-01-01

    Explores major themes in contemporary American Indian poetry that comprise the Native ethos of cultural resistance and survival. Correlates certain themes of Indian poetry with those of Black spiritual and blues. Discusses Western and Indian world views, political and social conflict, and art as the agent of criticism and change. Contains 28…

  11. Screening the 'War on Terror' : the politics and aesthetics of torture in American and European cinema

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bodde, O.C.

    2016-01-01

    Cinema and society interact. This given becomes fascinating when socio-politically sensitive issues are adapted in films that confront spectators with the frames of reference they use to make sense of society. This thesis studies how North-American and European films depict political torture in the

  12. The Rivalry of the French and American Educational Missions during the Vietnam War

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Thuy-Phuong

    2014-01-01

    From 1955 to 1975, the French and the Americans were both active in the educational field in South Vietnam, but their objectives were different. The French were concerned with preserving their influence with the Vietnamese elites and relied on the Mission Culturelle--the heir of the colonial Direction of Education--and its prestigious high…

  13. The New Criticism and the Crisis of American Liberalism: The Poetics of the Cold War.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walhout, Mark

    1987-01-01

    Contends that arguments against New Criticism should place the movement in historical context. Suggests that historians of American criticism rethink the institutionalization of New Criticism as the work of both liberal intellectuals and pragmatic neoconservatives for whom both traditional liberalism and right-wing ideology were part of the…

  14. Mammography Screening Trends: The Perspective of African American Women Born Pre/Post World War II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Karen Patricia; Mabiso, Athur; Lo, Yun-Jia; Penner, Louis A.

    2013-01-01

    Researchers have traditionally combined aging women (aged ≥50 years) when reporting their mammography use. This may inadvertently mask important cohort effects in mammography use, which are likely to result from distinct personal life experiences and generational differences. Using the Health and Retirement Study samples of 1998, 2000, and 2004, we examined cohort differences in mammography use between African American women born before 1946 (non–baby boomers) and those born in 1946 to 1953 (baby boomers). Between 1998 and 2004, screening rates for non–baby boomers declined, while those for baby boomers remained relatively steady. Hierarchical linear modeling (HLM) analyses suggest that while screening rates decreased with age (OR, 0.957; 95% CI, 0.947–0.968) cohort effects may have partially reversed the age effect, with non–baby boomers having an increased likelihood of receiving a mammogram compared to baby boomers (OR, 1.697; 95% CI, 1.278–2.254). Because African American women are diagnosed at later stages of breast cancer, documentation of cohort differences in mammography use among older African American women is important as health care professionals design intervention programs that are maximally effective for women from different cohorts. This is particularly critical as more African American women in the baby boomer cohort become part of the aging population. PMID:20575209

  15. Strategic Insights, Volume 5, Issue 2, February 2006. Uribe's Second Mandate, the War, and the Implications for Civil-Military Relations in Colombia

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Porch, Douglas

    2006-01-01

    .... However, hardly was the ink dry on the Constitutional Court's decision than hero of the hard line, take-no-prisoners strategy in the war against Colombia's insurgents appeared to reverse course...

  16. War-related Trauma: Increasing the American GI’s Resilience through Marriage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Warren N. Ponder

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Studies have shown PTSD has a negative impact on close relationships among Vietnam War veterans. Recently, studies have replicated these findings in the Operation Iraqi Freedom (OIF and Operation Enduring Freedom (OEF cohort. Currently, over half of the military is married and veterans are returning from combat with elevated rates of PTSD. Thus, investigating which symptom clusters influence marital satisfaction of the veteran the most is important for assisting social workers and other mental health professionals in identifying and prioritizing treatment goals. The current study identifies which of the four PTSD symptom clusters impacts marital satisfaction the most in returning combat veterans using regression analysis. The emotional numbing cluster negatively impacted marital satisfaction whereas the hyper-arousal cluster positively impacted it. Using all 17 Post-traumatic Disorder Checklist-Military (PCL-M questions as possible predictors of veterans’ marital satisfaction, regression analysis revealed five of the questions account for 26 percent of the variance in marital satisfaction. Clinical implications and recommendations are explored.

  17. World War II Homefront.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Rachel

    2002-01-01

    Presents an annotated bibliography that provides Web sites focusing on the U.S. homefront during World War II. Covers various topics such as the homefront, Japanese Americans, women during World War II, posters, and African Americans. Includes lesson plan sources and a list of additional resources. (CMK)

  18. The Quest. Haywood Hansell and American Strategic Bombing in World War II

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-09-01

    Tigers . The Chinese government made it profit- abu for Americans to |cin their struggle against the Japanese. Luke Williamson and Billy McDonald...Calif.: Redwood Press, 1981], DE-14, 15, F-15, 16, 0-4, 5, 6. 31. Martha Byrd, Chennault: Giving Wings to the Tiger (Tuscaloosa, Ala.: University...college. She was able to rent the home of a professor on sabbatical leave and take care of her brother, who suffered from asthma . She remained in

  19. Performing Transnational Arab American Womanhood: Rosemary Hakim, US Orientalism, and Cold War Diplomacy

    OpenAIRE

    Koegeler-Abdi, Martina

    2016-01-01

    The first Miss Lebanon-America, Rosemary Hakim, landed at Beirut Airport in July 1955 to start a public diplomacy tour. As an American beauty queen from Detroit visiting Lebanon, her parents' homeland, she was greeted enthusiastically by the local press and closely monitored by US government representatives. After her return to the States, she documented her experiences abroad in an unpublished memoir, entitled "Arabian Antipodes." However, this 1955 account does not just chronicle her travel...

  20. Being at war: Cognitive Approaches to Observational War Documentaries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bondebjerg, Ib

    2017-01-01

    : Janus Metz’s Danish ‘Armadillo’ (2010) following a group of soldiers to Afghanistan, and Andreas Dalsgaard and Obiada Zytoon’s Danish-Syrian ‘The War Show’ following a group of young Syrians during the Syrian spring to the civil war and beyond. Based on theories of cognition and emotion and evolutionary......In this article I primarily analyse observational war documentaries in order to deal with how this particular form of documentary contribute to our understanding of how it is to be at war as a soldier or as a civilian in a war zone. I analyse two very different observational war documentaries...... biology the article argues for the importance of this type of documentaries in developing and understanding of what war really is and it is experience, how it is to be at war. The article also puts the films in the broader context of both fictional and documentary war genres trying to map how...

  1. What Does Playing Cards Have to Do with Science? A Resource-Rich View of African American Young Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schademan, Alfred R.

    2011-01-01

    The study examines the resources related to science that African American young men learn and develop by playing a card game called Spades, a common cultural practice in African American communities that dates back to the Civil War Era. The qualitative study examines what the Spades players at a local high school consider when making decisions…

  2. Long-term heart disease and stroke mortality among former American prisoners of war of World War II and the Korean Conflict: results of a 50-year follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, W F; Brass, L M

    2001-09-01

    For the first 30 years after repatriation, former American prisoners of war (POWs) of World War II and the Korean Conflict had lower death rates for heart disease and stroke than non-POW veteran controls and the U.S. population, but subsequent morbidity data suggested that this survival advantage may have disappeared. We used U.S. federal records to obtain death data through 1996 and used proportional hazards analysis to compare the mortality experience of POWs and controls. POWs aged 75 years and older showed a significantly higher risk of heart disease deaths than controls (hazard ratio = 1.25; 95% confidence interval, 1.01-1.56), and their stroke mortality was also increased, although not significantly (hazard ratio = 1.13; 95% confidence interval, 0.66-1.91). These results suggest that circulatory disease sequelae of serious, acute malnutrition and the stresses associated with imprisonment may not appear until after many decades.

  3. The Chavez Challenge: Venezuela, The United States and the Geo-Politics of Post-Cold War Inter-American Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-03-01

    the downtrodden, he stresses his own childhood experience with poverty to connect with followers...29 Cammack, “Democracy and Dictatorship in Latin America, 1930-1980,” 163. 30 Castañeda, Utopia Unarmed: The Latin American Left after the Cold War...46. 31 Cammack, “Democracy and Dictatorship in Latin America, 1930-1980,” 164. 32 Ibid., 165. 12 Nationalism is an integral part of his appeal. In

  4. Habitat analysis of North American sand flies near veterans returning from leishmania-endemic war zones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keep Lisa

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Nearly 1300 cases of leishmaniasis have been identified in American military personnel deployed to Iraq and Afghanistan. The symptoms of this disease can range from a mild, self-limiting cutaneous infection to a deadly visceral infection and are not prevented by chemoprophylaxis or immunization. Effective treatments, however, are available. The disease-causing parasite is spread through the bite of the female sand fly. Although the disease occurs in both the Old World and the New World, the parasite species differ between the hemispheres. The large number of cases in military veterans has caused some concern that Old World, temperate-adapted parasite species could be introduced into the native sand fly populations of American military facilities where veterans of the current conflicts return following their deployments. This paper reports part of a larger study to analyze the risk of such an accidental importation. Four potential habitats on two large Army facilities in the Southeast United States were surveyed to determine relative sand fly density. The National Land Cover Map was used to provide sand fly density prediction maps by habitat. Results Sand fly density was significantly higher in deciduous forest and even higher at the interface between forest and open grassland. The evergreen forest and agricultural fields supported very low densities. On Fort Campbell, KY, the percentage of land covered by suitable habitat was very high. A sand fly density prediction map identified large tracts of land where infected individuals would be at higher risk of exposure to sand fly bites, resulting in an increased risk of introducing the parasite to a native insect population. On Fort Bragg, NC, however, commercial farming of long leaf pine reduced the percentage of the land covered in vegetation suitable for the support of sand flies. The risk of introducing an exotic Leishmania spp. on Fort Bragg, therefore, is considered to be

  5. The Impact of Materialism on the Familial Ties in Post-War American Society: A Study of Saul Bellow's Seize the Day

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Sabbar Abdulbaqi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Saul Bellow (1915 –2005 is an American novelist and the winner of Nobel and Pulitzer Prizes for literature (1976. He is known for his critique of Post-II World War American society. The research discusses Saul Bellow's Seize the Day (1956 in regard of materialism and its impact on the familial ties not only in terms of monetary considerations but also the maltreatment of family members among themselves. It reviews the materialistic relationship between the father and son on the one hand and the husband and wife on the other hand. The study aims to recognize to what extent materialism represents a dispersed element for the family unit.

  6. The Impact of Materialism on the Familial Ties in Post-War American Society: A Study of Saul Bellow's Seize the Day

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammed Sabbar Abdulbaqi

    2017-01-01

    Saul Bellow (1915 –2005) is an American novelist and the winner of Nobel and Pulitzer Prizes for literature (1976). He is known for his critique of Post-II World War American society. The research discusses Saul Bellow's Seize the Day (1956) in regard of materialism and its impact on the familial ties not only in terms of monetary considerations but also the maltreatment of family members among themselves. It reviews the materialistic relationship between the father and son on the one hand an...

  7. Charles Bernard Puestow (1902-1973): American surgeon and commander of the 27th Evacuation Hospital during the Second World War.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosmia, Anand N; Christein, John D

    2017-08-01

    Dr. Charles Bernard Puestow (1902-1973) was an American surgeon who is well known for developing the longitudinal pancreaticojejunostomy, which is known as the "Puestow procedure" in his honor. Puestow served in the American military during the Second World War and commanded the 27th Evacuation Hospital, which provided medical and surgical services to wounded individuals in Europe and North Africa. In 1946, he founded the surgical residency training program at the Hines Veterans Hospital, which was the first such program in the United States based at a veterans hospital.

  8. Girl's Schooling in War-Torn Somalia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyi, Peter

    2012-01-01

    A civil war has raged in Somalia since 1991. The civil war was the final blow to an already collapsed education system. Somalia has received little research and policy attention yet children, especially girls, are very vulnerable during times of conflict. The different gender roles, activities, and status in society create gender differentiated…

  9. Children and war.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearn, J

    2003-04-01

    Children bear disproportionate consequences of armed conflict. The 21st century continues to see patterns of children enmeshed in international violence between opposing combatant forces, as victims of terrorist warfare, and, perhaps most tragically of all, as victims of civil wars. Innocent children so often are the victims of high-energy wounding from military ordinance. They sustain high-energy tissue damage and massive burns - injuries that are not commonly seen in civilian populations. Children have also been deliberately targeted victims in genocidal civil wars in Africa in the past decade, and hundreds of thousands have been killed and maimed in the context of close-quarter, hand-to-hand assaults of great ferocity. Paediatricians serve as uniformed military surgeons and as civilian doctors in both international and civil wars, and have a significant strategic role to play as advocates for the rights and welfare of children in the context of the evolving 'Laws of War'. One chronic legacy of contemporary warfare is blast injury to children from landmines. Such blasts leave children without feet or lower limbs, with genital injuries, blindness and deafness. This pattern of injury has become one of the post-civil war syndromes encountered by all intensivists and surgeons serving in four of the world's continents. The continued advocacy for the international ban on the manufacture, commerce and military use of antipersonnel landmines is a part of all paediatricians' obligation to promote the ethos of the Laws of War. Post-traumatic stress disorder remains an undertreated legacy of children who have been trapped in the shot and shell of battle as well as those displaced as refugees. An urgent, unfocused and unmet challenge has been the increase in, and plight of, child soldiers themselves. A new class of combatant comprises these children, who also become enmeshed in the triad of anarchic civil war, light-weight weaponry and drug or alcohol addiction. The

  10. Análisis bibliométrico de la literatura científica publicada en "Ciencia. Revista hispano-americana de ciencias puras y aplicadas" Ciencia, Spanish researchers, Exile, Hispano-America, Spanish civil War, Bibliometrics, Bibliometric analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Pulgarin

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports the pilot stage of a Project whose objective is to analyse the scientific output of the journal “Ciencia” from its appearance (1940 until its closure (1974. The journal constituted the formal channel for the dissemination of science among Spanish researchers in exile in Hispano-America due to the Spanish civil War (1936-1939. The original articles published in three of the seven sections into which the journal was divided – Modern science (section I, Original communications (section II, and Applied science (section IV – are studied, together with the bibliographical references contained in those articles. The number of articles analysed was 972, and of bibliographical references 14,184.

  11. Do Territorial Control and the Loss of Territory Determine the use of Indiscriminate Violence by Incumbent Actors? An Examination of the Syrian Civil War in Aleppo over 45 weeks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evan Tyner

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available 'This study tests the ‘control-collaboration’ model detailed by Stathis Kalyvas in 'The Logic of Violence in Civil War '(2006. The control-collaboration model makes various theoretical claims on the relationship between territorial control and the use and motivations of violence (whether selective or indiscriminate. This study tests two of the key claims made in the model: 1. There is an inverse relationship between level of territorial control and the use of indiscriminate violence; and, 2. The loss off territory encourages the use of indiscriminate violence. Using data on civilian and child deaths taken from the ‘Syrian Martyr Database’, this study examines the relationship between territorial control and territorial loss, and the use of indiscriminate violence by incumbent (Syrian state forces. Examining the levels of territorial control/loss and the extent of civilian and child casualties in Aleppo, Syria, results of the study largely support the theoretical assumptions outlined by Kalyvas.'

  12. Why We Fight: Mass Persuasion, Morale, and American Public Opinion from World War I Until the Present

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    fascist and Japanese imperial aggression, is generally considered straightforward. Can the same be said for propaganda’s effectiveness during the...multimedia propaganda include Film Propaganda in Britain and Nazi Germany: World War II Cinema , Jo Fox; Imagined Battles: Reflections on War in

  13. Education in Time of War: George Johnson and the Commission on American Citizenship of the Catholic University of America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elias, John L.

    2009-01-01

    Times of war are times of crisis for theologians and educators. This article examines how Msgr. George Johnson, the vice president of the Religious Education Association and the most prominent Catholic educator in the 1930s and 1940s, dealt with the ethical and educational issues surrounding U.S. involvement in the Second World War. It argues that…

  14. Book review: The Sympathizer. A Vietnamese spy novel and the attempt to de-americanize our view on the war

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schmitz, Britta

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available 1975, the Vietnam War has just ended, but the cold war and the clash of ideologies are still going on. This would of course be the perfect background for some run-of-the-mill thriller written by a white American for a Western audience. And without knowing anything further, we might first think that The Sympathizer, which was recently translated into German and marketed as a “thriller” and “spy novel”, would be just one of those. However, things and people are all too often not what they seem to be – an adage which has never been more true than in this story. Far more than simply a thriller, it is also a political novel, a satirical story, refugee literature and a critique of modern mass media, all interspersed with discursive passages and spiced with literary references and aphorisms. Furthermore, the author is not a white American. The Sympathizer is the debut novel of Vietnamese-American Viet Thanh Nguyen, which won him the Pulitzer Prize in 2016 along with a great many other awards. Nguyen was born in Vietnam and grew up in the USA from where he experienced both cultures and had insight to both perspectives on the Vietnam War. He is a Professor of English and American Studies and Ethnicity primarily focused on “Americanization”, how the American perspective continues to dominate film, literature and pop culture. His book is a critique of this prevailing view and includes the issues of acculturation and identity crisis of immigrants, along with the importance of loyalty and relationships (or the lack of those. The narrator and protagonist of the story is a man who has no name and is only referred to as “the captain” throughout the book. We encounter him fleeing Saigon, accompanying a general of the South Vietnamese army, we know already that he has a secret. In the very first lines he reveals that he is a sleeper agent and actually working for the Viet Cong and spying on the South Vietnamese military and the CIA. The captain

  15. War and Memory in Lebanon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haugbølle, Sune

    From 1975 to 1990, Lebanon endured one of the most protracted and bloody civil wars of the twentieth century. Sune Haugbolle's timely and poignant book chronicles the battle over ideas that emerged from the wreckage of that war. While the Lebanese state encouraged forgetfulness and political part...

  16. The Capitalist World-System and U.S. Cold War Policies in the Core and the Periphery: A Comparative Analysis of Post-World War II American Nation-building in Germany and Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Hugh Jo

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In response to the emerging cold war, why did the United States stress industrial expansion in Western Europe but focus on primary production alongside policing operations in the non-western world? Examining US postwar occupation in Germany and Korea from a world-systems perspective, this article argues that a given country’s standing in the capitalist economy generally shapes American foreign policy toward that particular country in the early cold war years. A paladin of system-wide prosperity and peace, the United States sought to restore the international division of labor after World War II. Reactions varied across the system, however, because of distinct socio-economic developments. The presence of capital-intensive export-dependent industry afforded western Germany flexible labor-management relations. Politics was overall stable there, and America dispensed with heavy-handed intervention. In southern Korea, labor-exploitive tenancy farming rendered interclass compromise virtually impossible. As intransigent peasants threatened the market economy, the United States used force to keep the ally in the system.

  17. In Time of War.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Patti Clayton

    2003-01-01

    Examines the role of libraries, particularly public libraries, in times of war. Discusses similarities between responses after World War Two and the September 11, 2001 attacks; government restrictions on information; American Library Association responses, including propaganda and libraries; and the library and the community. (LRW)

  18. WHY NATIONS GO TO WAR

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Francois Vrey

    This 11th edition of Why nations go to war analyses ten case studies covering major ... of the time (Germany, Russia, Serbia and Austria in particular), Stoessinger depicts ... The section on the war in Vietnam depicts how five consecutive American ... to war. The nuclear option is available to both countries and the strategic.

  19. Guerra Civil y franquismo en los libros de texto actuales de Educación Primaria: análisis de contenido y orientación didáctica en el marco de la LOMCE. Spanish Civil War and francoism in the current textbooks of Primary Education: content analysis and didactic orientation in the framework of LOMCE.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Carlos Bel Martínez

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available (ES El presente estudio pretende analizar el tratamiento que se da a la Guerra Civil y al franquismo dentro del currículo vigente y especialmente en los materiales curriculares derivados del mismo. Para ello tomaremos los principales libros de texto utilizados en las aulas valencianas de Educación Primaria dentro del marco normativo de la Ley Orgánica para la Mejora de la Calidad Educativa –LOMCE– de 2013. El análisis de la situación curricular, del contenido discursivo de los manuales y de las imágenes incluidas en ellos nos permitirá comprobar qué papel se otorga al conflicto dentro del aula de Historia en Educación Primaria. (EN The present study aims to analyse the treatment given to the Spanish Civil War and Francoism in the current curriculum and especially in the curricular materials derived from it. For this we take the main textbooks used in the valencian classrooms of Primary Education within the legal frame-work of the ‘Ley Orgánica para la Mejora de la Calidad Educativa’ –LOMCE– of 2013. The anal-ysis of the curricular situation, discursive content of textbooks and the images included in them will allow us to verify what role is given to the conflict inside the History classroom in Primary Education.

  20. Propaganda e crítica social nas cronologias dos almanaques astrológicos durante a Guerra Civil inglesa no século XVII Propaganda and social criticism in the chronologies of the astrological almanacs during the English Civil War in 17 th century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Mesquita Hidalgo Ferreira

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo é parte de uma ampla investigação sobre a utilização dos almanaques astrológicos durante a Guerra Civil inglesa no século XVII como veículo de propaganda e crítica social. Durante esse conflito, havia astrólogos partidários das forças parlamentaristas, como John Booker, e outros partidários das forças realistas, como George Wharton. O presente trabalho analisa algumas dessas publicações, mostrando como o envolvimento político dos autores se manifestava de forma explícita (e, algumas vezes, não tão direta nos referidos almanaques.This article is part of an extensive investigation carried out concerning the use of astrological almanacs during the English Civil War in the 17th century as a medium for propaganda and social criticism. During that conflict there were astrologers who were partisans of the Parliament, such as John Booker, and other who supported the King, such as George Wharton. This work analyses some of those publications, showing that the political commitment of the authors was noticeable in an explicit form (and sometimes in an indirect way in those almanacs.

  1. Novos meridianos da produção editorial em castelhano: o papel de espanhóis exilados pela Guerra Civil na Argentina e no México New axes of editorial production in Castilian: the role of Spanish civil war exiles in Argentina and Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Pellegrino Soares

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo tem por objetivo lançar luz sobre o impacto da Guerra Civil Espanhola sobre a indústria editorial argentina e mexicana. Em particular, pretende enfocar as contribuições oferecidas por refugiados ou exilados espanhóis que, uma vez estabelecidos na outra margem do Atlântico, procuraram retomar seus ofícios de origem, inserindo-se nas gráficas e editoras existentes nesses dois países ou fundando novos negócios livreiros. Tanto o México como, em especial, a Argentina, beneficiaram-se da crise impingida pela guerra à indústria editorial da antiga metrópole para explorar o vasto mercado aberto aos impressos em língua espanhola.This article aims at shedding light on the impact of the Spanish Civil War on the publishing industry in Argentina and in Mexico. Particularly, it intends to analyze the contributions of Spanish refugees or in exile who, once established on the other border of the Atlantic Ocean, tried to go back to their previous jobs, working at preexisting publishing houses in those two countries or creating new ones. Both Mexico and specially Argentina took advantage of the Spanish publishing industry's crises so to explore the vast business opportunities for books in Spanish.

  2. American nuclear physicists in campaign. The media coverage of the nuclear risk during the immediate post-war years in the USA (1945-1946)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinault, Michel

    2005-01-01

    In the aftermath of Hiroshima, American nuclear scientists won access to the mass media. Conscious that science had become part of the Cold War, they lobbied for a better-informed public and a peace policy for the US. They demanded, among other, the establishment of permanent international scientific organisations and a permanent representation for the scientific community near the head of government. Initially successful, the influence of their movement decreased, efforts at mobilising public opinion proved ineffective and negotiations at the UN's Atomic Energy Commission reached an impasse

  3. Preparing for Victory. The U.S. Office of War Information Overseas Branch’s illustrated magazines in the Netherlands and the foundations for the American Century, 1944-1945

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marja Roholl

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Winning the war against the Axis countries was not the only goal the US government had in mind; it was also working towards a new US led world order. Analysis of three illustrated magazines produced by the Office of War Information Overseas Branch for the Netherlands shows that in addition to short-term war-related goals, long-term goals sought to pave the way for the American Century. This essay also shows that, more than previously assumed, the content and approach of the activities undertaken by the OWI Overseas Branch during the last phase of the war anticipated the State Department's and United States Information Agency's post-war programs.

  4. Enfermeras del bando nacional en la Guerra Civil española: según el libro "Princesas del Martirio" de Concha Espina Nurses of the nationalist side during the spanish Civil War: An approach to the situation through the book "Princesas del Martirio" (Concha Espina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Andina Díaz

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Concha Espina escribió a principios de los años cuarenta del pasado siglo un libro titulado Princesas del Martirio, para recordar la hazaña y homenajear a unas particulares "mártires de la Guerra Civil española". Sus protagonistas son tres enfermeras voluntarias de la Cruz Roja de Astorga (León que, en octubre de 1936, acudieron al Puerto de Somiedo (Asturias a prestar su asistencia a los heridos y enfermos del bando nacional, y viéndose envueltas en un episodio bolchevique, cayeron prisioneras y fueron fusiladas. En este artículo utilizaremos dicha fuente literaria para tratar de reconstruir la que pudiera considerarse, en nuestra opinión, imagen de la "enfermera ideal", perteneciente al bando nacional, durante dicha contienda. El método empleado se basará en la exposición y análisis del texto original, centrándonos especialmente en los aspectos relacionados con la imagen de nuestra profesión. Interpretaremos los datos teniendo en cuenta la realidad político-militar, social y profesional de aquel momento. Dado su interés, se ha estimado también oportuno tomar en consideración otros documentos hallados igualmente durante el período de búsqueda de información -poemas escritos, monumentos, nombres de calles relativas a las tres enfermeras-. Gracias a ellos se indagó las conexiones entre ideología y reconocimiento profesional.Concha Espina writes the book Princesas del Martirio at the turn of the 40s, in the last century. This is a book in honour of three nurses, who were killed during the Spanish Civil War. The three nurses, who were voluntaries of The Red Cross in Astorga (León, were called to attend the sick and injured people in Puerto de Somiedo (Asturias, in October 1936. Involuntarily, they found themselves involved in a Bolshevik incident, were taken prisoners and finally shot. In this paper, we draw the inspiration from this book, which allow us to reconstruct what we think would be the likely image of the "ideal

  5. Nonviolent civil insecurity is negatively associated with subsequent height-for-age in children aged <5 y born between 1998 and 2014 in rural areas of Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darrouzet-Nardi, Amelia F

    2017-02-01

    Civil wars and wars between states have occurred less frequently since the start of the 21st century, but civil insecurity outside the contexts of official wars continues to plague many parts of the world. The nutritional consequences of civil insecurity may disproportionately affect children, especially if experienced during sensitive developmental periods. This study estimated the associations between localized nonviolent and violent civil insecurity during key child nutritional periods and subsequent height-for-age z scores (HAZs) in 145,948 children born between 1998 and 2014 in Africa and examined the type of place of residence as a mediating factor. A collection of 61 geo-referenced Demographic and Health Surveys implemented between 1998 and 2014 were merged with data from the high-resolution Armed Conflict Location and Event Data Project to construct a repeat cross-sectional database, which was analyzed by using a difference-in-differences model with maternal fixed-effects. Exposure to 1 nonviolent localized civil insecurity event (mean ± SD: 0.42 ± 1.87 events) during pregnancy for children living in rural areas was associated with a reduction of 0.01 SD in HAZ (P = 0.024). Exposure to 5 localized civil conflict fatalities (mean ± SD: 1.41 ± 10.21 fatalities) for children living in rural areas during the complementary feeding stage was associated with a 0.002-SD decrease in HAZ (P = 0.030). There were no measurable associations between civil insecurity and child heights in urban areas, even though children in urban areas experience more civil insecurity. Exposure to both violent and nonviolent civil insecurity had negative associations with subsequent HAZ, but only in rural areas. The associations found were small in magnitude but still meaningful from a child-development perspective, because these events do not necessarily occur in the context of official wars, they are often nonviolent, and they are endemic to the region. © 2017 American Society for

  6. Educating the Female Citizen in a Post-war World: Competing Ideologies for American Women, 1945-1965.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenmann, Linda

    2002-01-01

    In post-World War II United States, women were caught between competing patriotic, economic, cultural, and psychological ideologies dictating their behavior. Differences between these expectations and challenges to behavioral norms provoked tensions in women's education that lasted until the women's movement of the 1960s. (Contains 25 references.)…

  7. Examining the Seven-Flag "Chieu Hoi" Pass: A Primary Document from the American War in Viet Nam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelmann, Ted

    2006-01-01

    During the Viet Nam war, U.S. military helicopters dropped "Chieu Hoi" (safe conduct) passes over suspected enemy locations to encourage enemy soldiers to surrender. This article presents a classroom activity that encourages students to examine a "Chieu Hoi" pass as a primary historical document, identify its various elements,…

  8. World War II Homefront: A Historiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkler, Allan M.

    2002-01-01

    Highlights the scholarship that exists on the World War II homefront covering topics such as World War II as a good war, Franklin D. Roosevelt, economic policy, propaganda, status of women and women's employment, the role of African Americans, racial violence, and the Japanese American experience. (CMK)

  9. Citizens, Soldiers, and War: Comparing American Societal-Military Relationships with the Use of Forces Abroad, 1975-2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    connection is the same as a smaller gap. Both manners of speech seek to explain the convergence or divergence between a society and its military...the Military Establishment,” 100-122. 23 Morris Janowitz, The Professional Soldier: A Social and Political Portrait (New York: Free Press, 1960...indications of discomfort between non-military citizens and some of the service members who have been fighting in the Global War on Terror. Although it is

  10. Spartans in Darkness: American SIGINT and the Indochina War, 1945-1975. Series 6, Volume 7 (REDACTED)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    all colo- nial financial , industrial, and agricultural activi- ties. As elsewhere in Asia, the primary economic activity was agriculture and was...were mired in China, and no end to the fighting was in sight. Jiang Jieshi refused to surrender, and the war was bleeding Japan dry financially . CU...istration was perplexed by the Ngo family’s shenanigans in Saigon. In the previous month there had been rumors of a coup by Diem’s broth- er, Nhu. On 11

  11. Health hazards of uranium dust from radioactive battlefields of the Balkan conflicts, Eastern Afghanistan and Iraq after the Gulf wars. Lessons for civil protection in the terrorist scenario of radiological dispersion devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durakovic, A.; Klimaschewski, F.

    2007-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. Purpose: The purpose of this study is to identify key health hazards of uranium dust from the radioactive battlefields (Balkan, Middle East and Eastern Afghanistan conflicts) to draw lessons for civil protection in the terrorist scenario of radiological dispersion devices (RDD). Gulf War I (GW I) in 1991 resulted in 350 metric tons of depleted uranium (DU) deposited in the environment and 3 to 6 million grams of DU aerosol dust particles released into the atmosphere, by the most conservative estimates. Its possible legacy (Gulf War disease) continues after the military conflicts (Operation Enduring Freedom, OEF, in Afghanistan and Gulf War II in Iraq). The symptoms of the multiorgan incapacitating progressive disease have been as numerous as their names, including incapacitating fatigue, musculoskeletal and joint pains, headaches, neuropsychiatric disorders, affects changes, confusion, visual problems, changes of gait, loss of memory, lympadenopathies, respiratory impairment, impotence, and urinary tract morphological and functional alterations. The disease is still a matter of controversy regarding etiology and pathogenesis of the syndrome commonly named Gulf War disease. It was underestimated and subsequently evolved in its clinical description through recognition of progressive symptomatology. Methods: UMRC's studies of the human contamination with uranium isotopes were conducted with the exposed subjects of Jalalabad, Spin Gar, Tora Bora, and Kabul areas in Afghanistan after OEF as well as Samawah, Baghdad and Basrah in Iraq after GW II. The urine samples of the subjects were analysed by the plasma mass spectrometry. The analytical methodology involved pre-concentration of the uranium using co-precipitation and/or evaporation, oxidation of organic matter, purification of uranium with ion exchange chromatography, and mass spectrometry with a double focusing Thermo-Elemental Plasma54 multi-collector ICP-MS equipped with a

  12. WAR AND PEACE IN AFRICA: PHILOSOPHY, THEOLOGY AND ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Blaine

    spots in the world is stark: civil wars, wars against rebel groups and Islamists, ... peace in Africa, trying to answer questions on the meaning of true peace and the ... salaries and preferential treatment for politicians by civil society and the media, .... in mutual tolerance, mutual acceptance and mutual friendship, which will ...

  13. The Longitudinal Studies of Prisoners of War and Their Families. The Prisoner of War and His Family. The Captivity Experience of American Prisoners of War in Southeast Asia. Positive and Negative Residuals of Prolonged Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-08-08

    was characterized by a formal prison system complete with detailed camp rules. Food was barely adequate for survival and consisted of bread and pumpkin ...without ever com- municating with another American. For an outgoing, action-oriented aviator, this time spent alone was pure agony. He had to learn

  14. The Frequency of MEFV Gene Mutations and Genotypes in Sanliurfa Province, South-Eastern Region of Turkey, after the Syrian Civil War by Using Next Generation Sequencing and Report of a Novel Exon 4 Mutation (I423T

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evren Gumus

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Familial Mediterranean Fever (FMF is a genetic disorder characterized by recurrent episodes of fever and abdominal pain. Mutations in the Mediterranean fever (MEFV gene are localized on the p arm of chromosome 16. Over 333 MEFV sequence variants have been identified so far in FMF patients, which occur mostly in the 2nd and 10th exons of the gene. Methods: In this study, 296 unrelated patients with clinical suspicion of FMF, which were admitted during January–December 2017, were retrospectively reviewed to identify the frequency of MEFV gene mutations by using next generation sequencing. Results: Eighteen different mutations, 45 different genotypes and a novel exon 4 (I423T mutation were identified in this study. This mutation is the fourth mutation identified in exon 4.The most frequent mutation was R202Q, followed by M694V, E148Q, M680I, R761H, V726A and R354W. Conclusions: One of the most important aims of this study is to investigate the MEFV mutation type and genotype of migrants coming to Sanliurfa after the civil war of Syria. This study also examines the effect of the condition on the region’s gene pool and the distribution of different types of mutations. Our results indicated that MEFV mutations are highly heterogeneous in our patient population, which is consistent with the findings of other studies in our region. Previously used methods, such as Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (RFLP, do not define uncommon or especially novel mutations. Therefore, Next Generation Sequencing (NGS analysis of the MEFV gene could be useful for finding novel mutations, except for those located on exon 2 and 10.

  15. The Frequency of MEFV Gene Mutations and Genotypes in Sanliurfa Province, South-Eastern Region of Turkey, after the Syrian Civil War by Using Next Generation Sequencing and Report of a Novel Exon 4 Mutation (I423T).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gumus, Evren

    2018-05-07

    Familial Mediterranean Fever (FMF) is a genetic disorder characterized by recurrent episodes of fever and abdominal pain. Mutations in the Mediterranean fever (MEFV) gene are localized on the p arm of chromosome 16. Over 333 MEFV sequence variants have been identified so far in FMF patients, which occur mostly in the 2nd and 10th exons of the gene. In this study, 296 unrelated patients with clinical suspicion of FMF, which were admitted during January⁻December 2017, were retrospectively reviewed to identify the frequency of MEFV gene mutations by using next generation sequencing. Eighteen different mutations, 45 different genotypes and a novel exon 4 (I423T) mutation were identified in this study. This mutation is the fourth mutation identified in exon 4.The most frequent mutation was R202Q, followed by M694V, E148Q, M680I, R761H, V726A and R354W. One of the most important aims of this study is to investigate the MEFV mutation type and genotype of migrants coming to Sanliurfa after the civil war of Syria. This study also examines the effect of the condition on the region’s gene pool and the distribution of different types of mutations. Our results indicated that MEFV mutations are highly heterogeneous in our patient population, which is consistent with the findings of other studies in our region. Previously used methods, such as Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (RFLP), do not define uncommon or especially novel mutations. Therefore, Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) analysis of the MEFV gene could be useful for finding novel mutations, except for those located on exon 2 and 10.

  16. Commanders-In-Chief of the American War for Independence: A Leadership Study of George Washington and Sir William Howe

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    White, Haydn

    2001-01-01

    .... By reviewing four leadership theories, two German, one British, and one American, a model developed that contained the enduring interrelated tenets of courage, judgment, determination, integrity, vision, and luck...

  17. Through tobacco industry eyes: civil society and the FCTC process from Philip Morris and British American Tobacco's perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Mariaelena; Green, Lawrence W; Glantz, Stanton A

    2012-07-01

    To analyse the models Philip Morris (PM) and British American Tobacco (BAT) used internally to understand tobacco control non-governmental organizations (NGOs) and their relationship to the global tobacco control policy-making process that resulted in the Framework Convention for Tobacco Control (FCTC). Analysis of internal tobacco industry documents in the Legacy Tobacco Document Library. PM contracted with Mongoven, Biscoe, and Duchin, Inc. (MBD, a consulting firm specialising in NGO surveillance) as advisors. MBD argued that because NGOs are increasingly linked to epistemic communities, NGOs could insert themselves into the global policy-making process and influence the discourse surrounding the treaty-making process. MBD advised PM to insert itself into the policy-making process, mimicking NGO behaviour. BAT's Consumer and Regulatory Affairs (CORA) department argued that global regulation emerged from the perception (by NGOs and governments) that the industry could not regulate itself, leading to BAT advocating social alignment and self-regulation to minimise the impact of the FCTC. Most efforts to block or redirect the FCTC failed. PM and BAT articulated a global policy-making environment in which NGOs are key, non-state stakeholders, and as a result, internationalised some of their previous national-level strategies. After both companies failed to prevent the FCTC, their strategies began to align. Multinational corporations have continued to successfully employ some of the strategies outlined in this paper at the local and national level while being formally excluded from ongoing FCTC negotiations at the global level.

  18. Biological consequences of nuclear war

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dubinin, N.P.

    1986-01-01

    Irradiation probability due to radionuclide fallout is shown to exceed 1 Gy even for the territories which have not been affected by nuclear weapons direct explosions. If some people survive in the nuclear war, their heredity would be affected. Genetic consequences of nuclear war complete the process of Homo sapiens disappearance from the Earth. Space weapons development will deteriorate the prospects of civilization ruin as a result of biological aftereffects of nuclear war and possible application of new arms, as well as chemical and biologic weapons

  19. Through tobacco industry eyes: civil society and the FCTC process from Philip Morris and British American Tobacco’s perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Mariaelena; Green, Lawrence W; Glantz, Stanton A

    2011-01-01

    Objective To analyse the models Philip Morris (PM) and British American Tobacco (BAT) used internally to understand tobacco control non-governmental organizations (NGOs) and their relationship to the global tobacco control policy-making process that resulted in the Framework Convention for Tobacco Control (FCTC). Methods Analysis of internal tobacco industry documents in the Legacy Tobacco Document Library. Results PM contracted with Mongoven, Biscoe, and Duchin, Inc. (MBD, a consulting firm specialising in NGO surveillance) as advisors. MBD argued that because NGOs are increasingly linked to epistemic communities, NGOs could insert themselves into the global policy-making process and influence the discourse surrounding the treaty-making process. MBD advised PM to insert itself into the policy-making process, mimicking NGO behaviour. BAT’s Consumer and Regulatory Affairs (CORA) department argued that global regulation emerged from the perception (by NGOs and governments) that the industry could not regulate itself, leading to BAT advocating social alignment and self-regulation to minimise the impact of the FCTC. Most efforts to block or redirect the FCTC failed. Conclusions PM and BAT articulated a global policy-making environment in which NGOs are key, non-state stakeholders, and as a result, internationalised some of their previous national-level strategies. After both companies failed to prevent the FCTC, their strategies began to align. Multinational corporations have continued to successfully employ some of the strategies outlined in this paper at the local and national level while being formally excluded from ongoing FCTC negotiations at the global level. PMID:21636611

  20. Civil law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hesselink, M.W.; Gibbons, M.T.

    2014-01-01

    The concept of civil law has two distinct meanings. that is, disputes between private parties (individuals, corporations), as opposed to other branches of the law, such as administrative law or criminal law, which relate to disputes between individuals and the state. Second, the term civil law is

  1. Brothers at War? Reflections on an Internecine Conflict between ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1999-01-08

    Jan 8, 1999 ... by civil wars, inter-state wars, conventional wars and ethnic conflicts. ... Over the past three decades, the political conflicts in Africa resulted in humanitarian crises and ... management roles to regional and sub-regional organisations. ... the origins of this conflict, to be immediately followed by an analysis of ...

  2. American Naval Thinking in the Post-Cold War Era: The U.S. Navy and the Emergence of a Maritime Strategy, 1989-2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-01

    reoccurrence of global depression and world war by establishing regimes soon after the Second World War that addressed the factors that were thought to have...Princeton, NJ: Princeton University, 1986), 164. 8 John B. Hattendorf, John R. Wadleigh, and B. Mitchell Simpson, Sailors and Scholars: The Centennial ...Simpson. Sailors and Scholars: The Centennial History of the United States Naval War College. Newport, RI: U.S. Naval War College, 1984. 387

  3. ANTHROPOLOGY AT WAR: ROBERT H. LOWIE AND THE TRANSFORMATION OF THE CULTURE CONCEPT, 1904 to 1954.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bargheer, Stefan

    2017-03-01

    The concept of culture used in American anthropology has fundamentally transformed throughout the first half of the twentieth century. The changing resonance of the work of Robert H. Lowie offers revealing insights into this development. Lowie was part of the first generation of students of Franz Boas that highlighted the importance of individual variation for the study of both primitive and civilized societies. Yet, its initial resonance notwithstanding, the culture concept that prevailed in the discipline went into a different direction as the result of anthropologists' involvement in the war effort. It was advanced by the second generation of Boas' students such as Ruth Benedict and Margaret Mead, who stressed the homogeneity of cultures. The contrast highlights the diversity of approaches available within anthropology in the first half of the century and the crucial impact of World War II in determining which of these possibilities became institutionalized in the decades after the war. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Edmund Burke, the Atlantic American war and the ‘poor Jews at St. Eustatius’. Empire and the law of nations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guido Abbattista

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This essay is devoted to a relatively minor episode in Edmund Burke’s parliamentary career and political speculation involving the rights of war and international law in the final years of the American War of Independence. The starting point for Burke’s consideration of these questions was the affair of St. Eustatius, that is to say Britain’s conquest in 1781 of the Dutch West-Indian island early in the “fourth Anglo-Dutch War” of 1780-1784. The harsh treatment of the Dutch colony’s cosmopolitan community by the commanding officers of the British Navy and Army provoked a series of reactions in Britain and the colonies. The essay starts by outlining the identity of St. Eustatius with its economic, demographic and social features, its peculiar role in the eighteenth-century West Indies and its emblematic meaning in the historical literature of the Enlightenment as a symbol of the virtues of commerce and of economic liberty. It goes on to analyse the facts of the military conquest in 1781 and the ensuing occupation realized by Admiral George Rodney and Major-General John Vaughan, particularly as this affected the “poor Jews at St. Eustatius” (as Burke himself qualified them in his second speech on 4 December 1781, with the subsequent reactions of the Dutch and especially the British Atlantic world. We then examine Edmund Burke’s reasons for taking up this affair, including the political and ideological motives and the sources of arguments he used in the two parliamentary speeches he made on the topic during 1781, relating this to Burke’s ideas on international relations and imperial government during the 1770s and 1780s. We end by pointing to cultural links between Burke’s positions and a wider political, commercial and civic culture emerging in the British Atlantic world which reflected some of the most typical European Enlightenment values and ideological commitments.

  5. CAN POLITICIANS SPEED UP LONG-TERM TECHNOLOGICAL CHANGE? SOME INSIGHTS FROM A COMPARISON OF THE GERMAN AND US-AMERICAN SYNTHETIC RUBBER PROGRAMS BEFORE, DURING AND AFTER WORLD WAR II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jochen Streb

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available I investigated the effect of government demand on firms’ innovation activities comparing the German and American synthetic rubber industries before, during and after World War II. I obtained three main results. 1. Because of the low price of natural rubber, price and sales guarantees were needed to motivate firms to produce the synthetic rubber BUNA S. 2. Facing fixed prices I.G. Farben improved their efficiency more than the American firms working under cost plus contracts. 3. The patent sharing agreement of the American synthetic rubber program caused firms to hold back advanced synthetic rubber inventions.

  6. Civil Identity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Lars Axel

    In this paper I will go through a catalogue of examples of contexts in which the term civil identity is currently used, ranging from the formal and technical process of linking a set of administrative and other events to an individual biological person by means of identity cards, fingerprints, iris...... of Israel to Luce Irigaray's Feminist agenda of elaborating gender specific civil identities. My intention is to investigate whether these different employments of 'civil identity' point towards a common, and fairly well defined object field asking questions of contemporary relevance to the philosophy...

  7. ‘Defensive Liberal Wars’: The Global War on Terror and the Return of Illiberalism in American Foreign Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashmi Singh

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper offers an analysis of the illiberal practices and discourse of the Global War on Terror (GWoT and demonstrates how the United States of America used the liberal argument as a qualitative metric of its success and failure in the GWoT. I argue that ‘the othering’ of Salafi Jihadists as well the full military involvement in Afghanistan and Iraq were both philosophically rooted in the liberal thinking of Immanuel Kant and John Stuart Mill, which have traditionally guided US foreign policy. More significantly, these liberal philosophies of history and international relations hold within them the seeds of illiberalism by depicting non-liberal, undemocratic societies/organisations as ‘barbaric’ – and as such prime candidates for intervention and regime change. Predicated upon this logic, the discourse of the GWoT framed Al Qaeda as a key existential threat to not only the United States but also the ‘civilised world’ in general and one which required a ‘liberal defensive war’ in response. It was the successful securitisation of Al Qaeda that essentially enabled the United States to adopt deeply illiberal policies to counter this so-called existential threat by using any means at its disposal.

  8. Forms of War

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vogel, H. [Asklepios Klinik St. Georg, Roentgenabteilung, Lohmuehlenstrasse 5, 20099 Hamburg (Germany)], E-mail: Hermann.vogel@ak-stgeorg.lbk-hh.de; Bartelt, D. [Asklepios Klinik St. Georg, Roentgenabteilung, Lohmuehlenstrasse 5, 20099 Hamburg (Germany)

    2007-08-15

    Purpose: Under war conditions, employed weapons can be identified on radiographs obtained in X-ray diagnostic. The analysis of such X-ray films allows concluding that there are additional information about the conditions of transport and treatment; it shall be shown that there are X-ray findings which are typical and characteristic for certain forms of warfare. Material and method: The radiograms have been collected during thirty years; they come from hospitals, where war casualties had been treated, and personal collections. Results: The material is selected, because in war X-ray diagnostic will be limited and the interest of the opposing parties influence the access to the material; furthermore the possibilities to publish or to communicate facts and thoughts are different. Citizens of the USA, GB, France, or Israel will have easier access to journals than those of Vietnam, Chad, and Zimbabwe. Under war conditions, poor countries, like North Vietnam may develop own concepts of medical care. There are X-ray findings which are typical or even characteristic for air warfare, guerrilla warfare, gas war, desert warfare, conventional warfare, and annihilation warfare, and city guerrilla warfare/civil war. The examples demonstrate that weapons and the conditions of transport and treatment can be recognized by X-ray findings. The radiogram can be read like a document. Conclusion: In War, there are differences between a treatment and imaging diagnostic in countries, which control the air space and in those who do not. Medical care of the poor, i.e. in countries (in general those opposing the western nations) will hardly be published, and poverty has no advocate.

  9. Forms of War

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vogel, H.; Bartelt, D.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: Under war conditions, employed weapons can be identified on radiographs obtained in X-ray diagnostic. The analysis of such X-ray films allows concluding that there are additional information about the conditions of transport and treatment; it shall be shown that there are X-ray findings which are typical and characteristic for certain forms of warfare. Material and method: The radiograms have been collected during thirty years; they come from hospitals, where war casualties had been treated, and personal collections. Results: The material is selected, because in war X-ray diagnostic will be limited and the interest of the opposing parties influence the access to the material; furthermore the possibilities to publish or to communicate facts and thoughts are different. Citizens of the USA, GB, France, or Israel will have easier access to journals than those of Vietnam, Chad, and Zimbabwe. Under war conditions, poor countries, like North Vietnam may develop own concepts of medical care. There are X-ray findings which are typical or even characteristic for air warfare, guerrilla warfare, gas war, desert warfare, conventional warfare, and annihilation warfare, and city guerrilla warfare/civil war. The examples demonstrate that weapons and the conditions of transport and treatment can be recognized by X-ray findings. The radiogram can be read like a document. Conclusion: In War, there are differences between a treatment and imaging diagnostic in countries, which control the air space and in those who do not. Medical care of the poor, i.e. in countries (in general those opposing the western nations) will hardly be published, and poverty has no advocate

  10. Civil Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Social Media Facebook @oasofficial Facebook Twitter @oas_official Twitter Newsletters Documents OAS Technology Social Development Summits of the Americas Sustainable Development T Telecommunications Terrorism Tourism Trade Treaties and Agreements W Women Y Youth Strategic Partners Permanent Observers Civil Society

  11. The American challenge in uniform: the arrival of America’s armies in World War II and European women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Ellwood

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available A vast body of material exists – memoirs, diaries, films, plays, novels, official records – on the impact and reception of America’s armed forces armies in Europe after 1942. Britain, Italy, France, Austria and of course Germany all offer relevant evidence. The popular British phrase about the GI’s being ‘over-paid, over-sexed and over here’ brilliantly sums up many of the tensions the encounter threw up: over money and life-styles, courtship rituals and the treatment of local women, over sovereignty and the American impulse to requisition every local resource they could get their hands on. Local men thought ‘their’ women were being requisitioned.  The Americans had not come to do ‘nation-building’, and yet their presence left memories, changed attitudes and altered prospects on the future, especially among women. Afterwards American experts claimed that their armed forces had set off a ‘revolution of rising expectations’. Although a contradictory, complex encounter, there is enough evidence to suggest they might have been right.

  12. Could rebel child soldiers prolong civil wars?

    OpenAIRE

    Haer, Roos; Böhmelt, Tobias

    2017-01-01

    While we know why rebels may recruit children for their cause, our understanding of the consequences of child soldiering by non-state armed groups remains limited. The following research contributes to addressing this by examining how rebels’ child recruitment practice affects the duration of internal armed conflicts. We advance the argument that child soldiering increases the strength of rebel organizations vis-a-vis the government. This, in turn, lowers the capability asymmetry between thes...

  13. 76 FR 21223 - Civil War Sesquicentennial

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-15

    ... was secured, blue and gray would unite under one flag and the institution of slavery would be forever... prohibit slavery and indentured servitude, establish equal protection under the law, and extend the right...

  14. A Guerilla War At Sea: The Sri Lankan Civil War

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-09

    support export crop agriculture. During the coffee and tea growing economic bubbles in the mid nineteenth century approximately one million Tamils were...but tended to limit economic growth on the island, such as the nationalization of the nation‟s oil companies in the 1960s.19 Obsessed with the

  15. Institutional Challenges to Viable Civil-Military Relations in Malawi

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Phiri, Mphatso J

    2008-01-01

    Malawi is one of the few African countries that has experienced neither a military coup nor a civil war, and has remained peaceful since independence despite being under a dictatorial regime for three decades...

  16. Population structure in chicory (Cichorium intybus): A successful U.S. weed since the American revolutionary war.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Závada, Tomáš; Malik, Rondy J; Kesseli, Rick V

    2017-06-01

    Plant invasions are recognized as major drivers of ecosystem change, yet the precise cause of these invasions remains unknown for many species. Frequency and modes of introductions during the first, transport and colonization, stages of the invasion process as well as phenotypic changes due to plasticity or changing genetic diversity and adaptation during later establishment and expansion stages can all influence the "success" of invasion. Here, we examine some of these factors in, and the origin of, a very successful weed, Cichorium intybus (chicory) which was introduced to North America in the 18th century and which now can be found in all 48 continental U.S. states and much of Canada. We genotyped a Eurasian collection of 11 chicory cultivars, nine native populations and a North American collection of 20 introduced wild populations which span the species range (592 individuals in total). To detect the geographic sources of North American chicory populations and to assess the genetic diversity among cultivars, native, and introduced populations, we used both a sequenced cpDNA region and 12 nuclear simple sequence repeat (SSR), microsatellite loci. Four cpDNA haplotypes were identified and revealed clear geographic subdivisions in the chicory native range and an interspecific hybrid origin of Radicchio group. Nuclear data suggested that domesticated lines deliberately introduced to North America were major contributors to extant weedy populations, although unintended sources such as seed contaminants likely also played important roles. The high private allelic richness and novel genetic groups were detected in some introduced populations, suggesting the potential for local adaptation in natural sites such as deserts and nature reserves. Our findings suggest that the current populations of weedy U.S. chicory have evolved primarily from several sources of domesticated and weedy ancestors and subsequent admixture among escaped lineages.

  17. Civil Disobedience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martz, Carlton

    2000-01-01

    This theme issue looks at three historical and recent instances of civil disobedience. The first article examines the Free Speech Movement, which arose on the Berkeley campus of the University of California in the 1960s. The second article recounts the struggle of Mahatma Gandhi to free India from the British Empire. The final article explores the…

  18. WAR HORSES:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    War Horses: Helhesten and the Danish Avant-Garde During World War II This exhibition is the first to explore the history and significance of the accomplishments of Danish artists working during the Nazi occupation of their country (1940-45), who called themselves Helhesten, such as Ejler Bille......-1951), which they became part of. Cobra greatly influenced the development of European modern art after World War II. The exhibition includes over 100 works and reconstructs for the first time the most important exhibition these artists staged in Denmark during the war, 13 Artists in a Tent (1941). It draws...

  19. Conceptual Readings into the Cold War: Towards Transnational Approaches from the Perspective of Latin American Studies in Eastern and Western Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albert Manke

    Full Text Available Abstract This bibliographical and conceptual essay summarizes recent research in Cold War Studies in Europe and the Americas, especially on smaller states in historiographical studies. Against the background of an increasing connectedness and globalization of research about the Cold War, the authors highlight the importance of the full-scale integration of countries and regions of the 'Global South' into Cold War Studies. Critical readings of the newly available resources reveal the existence of important decentralizing perspectives resulting from Cold War entanglements of the 'Global South' with the 'Global North.' As a result, the idea that these state actors from the former 'periphery' of the Cold War should be considered as passive recipients of superpower politics seems rather troubled. The evidence shows (at least partially autonomous and active multiple actors.

  20. Medicolegal characteristics of firearm homicides in Belgrade, Serbia: before, during, and after the war in the Former Yugoslavia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rancic, Nemanja; Erceg, Milena; Radojevic, Nemanja; Savic, Slobodan

    2013-11-01

    A comparative analysis of firearm homicides committed in Belgrade was performed including four representative years: 1987 (before the civil war in the Former Yugoslavia), 1991 (beginning of the war), 1997 (end of the war), and 2007 (period of social stabilization). The increase in the number of homicides was established in 1991 and 1997 compared with 1987, with the decrease in 2007, but with the continuous increase in the percentage of firearm homicides in the total number of homicides, from 12% in 1987 up to 56% in 2007. The significant increase in firearm homicides during the last decade of the 20th century can be explained by the social disturbances and the high availability of firearms, while their reduction in 2007 could be linked to the gradual stabilization of social circumstances. The results showed that the actual social, political, and economical changes strongly influenced medicolegal characteristics of homicides and particularly firearm homicides. © 2013 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  1. The Arab Spring and civil-military relations

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abel

    power interplay between the civil elites and the military elites using the term 'civil- military relations' ..... the American military, whose 5th Fleet is headquartered in Bahrain. The advice was that the ..... Embassy Madrid. 23 Danopoulos, C (ed).

  2. Liberia's Post-War Recovery: Key Issues and Developments

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cook, Nicolas

    2005-01-01

    This report describes recent developments in Liberia, a small, poor West African country that is undergoing a post-conflict transition and peace-building process after its second civil war in a decade...

  3. Liberia's Post-War Recovery: Key Issues and Developments

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cook, Nicolas

    2006-01-01

    .... It held elections in October 2005, with a presidential run-off vote in November -- a key step in a post-conflict transition and peace-building process that began following its second civil war in a decade...

  4. 46 CFR 308.551 - War risk insurance clearing agency agreement for cargo, Form MA-321.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false War risk insurance clearing agency agreement for cargo... EMERGENCY OPERATIONS WAR RISK INSURANCE War Risk Cargo Insurance Iv-General § 308.551 War risk insurance... American War Risk Agency or MARAD. ...

  5. Filming, faking and propaganda: The origins of the war film, 1897-1902

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bottomore, S.

    2007-01-01

    The origins of the war film, 1897-1902 In this thesis I present the first detailed treatment of war and early cinema, describing the representation of conflicts in film from the Greco-Turkish War of 1897 through the Spanish-American War, Boer War, and others up to about 1902. I show that in

  6. The Collision of Romanticism and Modernism in Post-World War II American Cinema: A Theoretical Defense of Intellectual History in the Undergraduate Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferris, Daniel Hunter

    2013-01-01

    The post-World War II era in the United States, which ran from 1945 to 1970, has long been divided into two distinct periods; the late 1940s and 1950s and the 1960s. Out of this separation has come a view of the late 1940s and 1950s as a time dominated by a conservative conformist culture that did little to rival pre-war norms. On the other hand,…

  7. Civil liberties and nuclear terrorism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldberg, S.

    1987-01-01

    The importance of preventing nuclear terrorism is so great that it is easy to believe that the usual concern with civil liberties must take a back seat. But it is precisely when emergencies are invoked that the authors must not forget the importance of freedoms. Emergency powers are easily abused, and, even in the absence of abuse, mistakes can be made. It is hard to understand why they care about civil liberties if every suspect is guilty, every wiretap is necessary, and every search is justified. But sometimes suspects are innocent, wiretaps are used for political ends, and searches disrupt lives to no end. Civil liberties do not exist in a vacuum. If society is destroyed, civil liberties are likely to be destroyed as well. Virtually every legal doctrine this study addresses involves a recognition that individual rights must be balanced against valid social needs. The civil liberties focus on here fall under the general headings of freedom of speech and association, privacy, due process rights for suspects, and freedom from unreasonable searches and seizures. One essential point applied to all these areas: although a counterterrorist activity is legal, that does not mean the activity has no impact on civil liberties. It may be legal, for example, to have a massive federal police force that provides hundreds of guards for every shipment of plutonium. Even so, that procedure still raises civil liberties concerns, since many Americans would feel less free in a society of that type

  8. The Derg-SPLM/A Cooperation: An Aspect of Ethio-Sudan Proxy Wars

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The warm and friendly Ethio-Sudan diplomatic relations that followed Sudan's independence in 1956 and the long standing frontier trade between the two countries have been severely damaged by the outbreak of civil wars in southern Sudan in 1955 as well as in Eritrea in 1962. As the civil wars intensified in both countries ...

  9. Dardanel Wars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet EYİCİL

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The reason for the opening of the Dardanel Front was to establish a link between allies and Russia and to push The Ottoman Empire out of the war. In order to reach this cause, upon Churchill’s suggestion, the English War Commitee met on 28 January 1915 and decided to attack the Dardanels on February 19. The allies fleet tried to pass the Dardanels several times but they failed. Their biggest attack for the Straits took place on 18 March, which was failed and the fleet lost one third of its power. After the failure on the sea to pass the Straits the allies landed on Gallipoli to invade İstanbul. Landing took place from April 1 to December 22 the wars on lands lasted more than 8 months, during which Turkish army fought heroic battles. Fierce battles took place on Kabatepe, Seddülbahir, Alçıtepe, Kilitbahir, Anafartalar, Arıburnu. Upon failure on the land the allies started to withdraw from this front on 8 January 1915. The Dardanels wars which was lost by the allies caused the First World War to continue two more years. Tsarist regime was collapsed in Russia and its place Bolshevik regime came. The Turks put aside bad results of the Balkan Wars and became again a heroic nation. Because of his successes Mustafa Kemal became a genious commander. Most importantly Dardanels wars gave its honours to the Turkish army

  10. Gulf War

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalgaard-Nielsen, Anja

    2003-01-01

    As it became a non‐permanent member of the UN Security Council in January 2003, Germany stepped up its opposition to war with Iraq. The stage was set for a repeat of Germany's uncomfortable position during the 1991 Gulf War. At that time, as most of Germany's allies rallied behind Washington......, Germany made only financial contributions, and hundreds of thousands of Germans took to the streets to protest against the war. Yet, since 1991, Germany had come a long way in its attitudes towards military force. From a policy of complete abstention from military deployments beyond NATO's area (so...

  11. Information War in Syria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikita A. Smirnov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, in many countries around the world the role of society in political decision making quickly strengthened, and the population is increasingly affects the position of the state leaders. For countries pretending to have the support of its policies in other regions, public diplomacy is an essential tool. Today, public diplomacy is regularly used in various conflicts, one of which is the civil war in Syria. Media, Internet, social networks and other tools are used daily to cover the events and create the necessary views of the population in different countries. At the beginning of the article the reasons for the outbreak of the war are discussed from the standpoints of the main actors - the current Syrian government and its opposition, as well as their allies and enemies. The causes of the conflict are essential for further evaluation of the evs, so diametrically opposite points of view of the main actors of the events are analyzed in the material. Then we consider the coverage of the war, because period of direct military action is important to assess the behavior of its members. Among the most important and controversial topics covered by the international media in the conflict, are the use of prohibited weapons, killing of civilians, a violation of international agreements. Determination of the prospects of civil war in Syria is also critical when planning further action by all these events. To get the necessary public support, the parties are trying to have different interpretation of further scenarios. Much depends on this: whether the country's population supports the direction of further assistance or troops, how residents of other countries would react to a further continuation of the conflict, or how the representatives of international organizations would answer the question about the legitimacy of any move. The formation of public opinion in different countries aimed at obtaining approval of its policy on the part of the

  12. Civil Engineering: Improving the Quality of Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    One Feather, Sandra

    2002-01-01

    American Indian civil engineers describe the educational paths that led them to their engineering careers, applications of civil engineering in reservation communities, necessary job skills, opportunities afforded by internship programs, continuing education, and the importance of early preparation in math and science. Addresses of 12 resource Web…

  13. Promoting Civil Discourse on Campus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bornstein, Rita

    2010-01-01

    During the past several decades, off campus and on, much of the discourse on controversial issues has been personal, vicious, and divisive. On the national scene, politics has become permeated with incivility. It now appears that Americans have been naive about their ability and willingness to engage in civil discourse and compromise. How can…

  14. New wars, new morality?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akkerman, T.

    2009-01-01

    Has war fundamentally changed? If so, it may be time for reconsidering accepted moral standards for waging wars and for conduct in war. The new war thesis holds that wars have fundamentally altered since the end of the Cold War. Proponents such as Kaldor and Weiss hold that wars today are intrastate

  15. Identifying Post-War Growth and Economic Opportunities for Women ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    After suffering through the 30-year civil war that ended in 2009, women ... programs available to women - Analyze the post-war development programs in the north ... addressing barriers to women's economic empowerment and gender gaps in ... Call for new OWSD Fellowships for Early Career Women Scientists now open.

  16. Gypsies, Wars and Other Instances of the Wild

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Port, van de Mattijs

    1998-01-01

    What does civilization mean to the inhabitants of a Serbian town after yet another bloody war on the Balkan Peninsula? How was it possible that people who had been friends and neighbors for so long ended up killing each other? And how do they deal with this barbarity in the post-war period?The

  17. Changing therapeutic geographies of the Iraqi and Syrian wars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dewachi, O.; Skelton, M.; Nguyen, V.K.; Fouad, F.M.; Ghassan, A.S.; Maasri, Z.; Giacaman, R.

    2014-01-01

    The health consequences of the ongoing US-led war on terror and civil armed conflicts in the Arab world are much more than the collateral damage inflicted on civilians, infrastructure, environment, and health systems. Protracted war and armed conflicts have displaced populations and led to lasting

  18. Winning hearts and minds in the Namibian border war

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lieneke

    2010-08-13

    Aug 13, 2010 ... During the Namibian border war, South African counterinsurgency doctrine ... US Army General Staff in 1966 his book, The Art of Counter-Revolutionary War –. The Strategy of Counter-Insurgency, was published. .... of ability, management capabilities or work ethic, the white civil servant opted to do the job ...

  19. The FARC a way into new wars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Fernando Valencia Grajales

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available This text, first comparing the FARC with the texts of Mao Tse-Tung, Strategic Issues in Guerrilla War Against Japan, with Diana Hernández Hoyos, International Humanitarian Law: How and why to apply international humanitarian law to the law and the internal conflict in Colombia, also Mary Kaldor, New Wars, Chapter 2 and 3, with Peter Waldman and Fernando Reinares, in companies in the Civil War, Chapter 1 and 3, and also that of Eduardo Pizarro Leon Gomez. The FARC, Defense to the Combination of All Forms of Struggle. Chapter 1, second in the comparisons were attempted an analysis of the historical circumstances, to finely make conclusions

  20. Wars, Redistribution and Civilian Federal Expenditures in the US over the 20th Century

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beetsma, R.M.W.J.; Cukierman, A.; Giuliodori, M.

    2005-01-01

    We provide empirical evidence on two, major war-related, regularities of U.S. fiscal policy. First, while during and around World War I there is a positive correlation between defense spending and civil non-defense spending, this correlation becomes negative during World War II. This may be

  1. William Knocke receives 2008 Virginia Outstanding Civil Engineer Award

    OpenAIRE

    Daniilidi, Christina

    2008-01-01

    William R. Knocke, W.C. English Professor and head of the Charles E. Via, Jr. Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering at Virginia Tech, was awarded the 2008 Virginia Outstanding Civil Engineer Award at the Virginia Section of the American Society of Civil Engineers' (ASCE) banquet, held recently in Williamsburg, Va.

  2. Updates in the War against Terrorism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strickland, Lee S.

    2002-01-01

    Provides an update of new court cases related to Part IV of the series on Information and the War Against Terrorism. Discusses civil liberties versus security involving the legality of mandatory commercial use of biometrics as identification; and communication of privileged information between a person and his or her attorney. (LRW)

  3. Policy Failures in the Graveyard of Empires: How Policymakers Let the Soldiers Down in the British, the Soviet, and the American Wars in Afghanistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-19

    Afghanistan’s history and its socio -cultural environment, the study critically analyzes the negative impact of policy failures - acts of both omission as well...wars in Afghanistan. Set in the context of Afghanistan’s history and its socio -cultural environment, the study critically analyzes the negative... franchise and Westminster democracy. 83 Rubin, The Fragmentation of Afghanistan, 28

  4. Design at the Edge of the World: The Birth of American Air Intelligence in the China, Burma, India, and the Pacific Theaters during World War II

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-01

    reconnaissance mission was complete, the film was processed by a photo lab and then interpreted for intelligence value. Photo interpretation typically...The stark contrast in philosophies amongst the different Tenth Air Force leadership teams significantly influenced the organizational design of...regarding post-war interests of the French and British prevented the sharing of intelligence amongst allies.102 The political sensitivity associated

  5. War Atmospheres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engberg-Pedersen, Anders

    2018-01-01

    This article examines warfare as a problem of knowledge in the military theory, realist literature, and cartography of the nineteenth century. Against the background of the Napoleonic Wars, Carl von Clausewitz, Stendhal, and Charles Joseph Minard in different ways conceived of warfare as a profou......This article examines warfare as a problem of knowledge in the military theory, realist literature, and cartography of the nineteenth century. Against the background of the Napoleonic Wars, Carl von Clausewitz, Stendhal, and Charles Joseph Minard in different ways conceived of warfare...

  6. Animated war

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frølunde, Lisbeth

    2012-01-01

    in production: Gzim Rewind (Sweden, 2011) by Knutte Wester, and In-World War (USA, expected 2011) by DJ Bad Vegan. These films have themes of war and include film scenes that are ‘machinima’ (real-time animation made in 3D graphic environments) within live action film scenes. Machinima harnesses...... DIY multimedia storytellers explore new ways to tell and to ‘animate’ stories. The article contains four parts: introduction to machinima and the notions of resemiosis and authorial practice, presentation of DIY filmmaking as a practice that intertwines with new networked economics, analysis...

  7. Civil Discourse or Civil War? The Influence of Civil-Military Relations on Iraq and Afghanistan War Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-04

    asserted that only a full-scale counterinsurgency strategy—requiring tens of thousands more troops— would succeed in Afghanistan. Prima facie , such...acknowledge each other‟s role as established in the Constitution; specifically, that while commanders are obligated to offer their best...six years of Donald Rumsfeld‟s intimidation and abuse have encouraged in the officer corps a conviction that military leaders ought to—are obliged to

  8. Utopia and torture in the Hollywood war film

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schubart, Rikke

    2010-01-01

    The article discusses the symbolic use of torture as rite of masculinization for the hero character in Three Kings (1999) and Body of Lies (2008). It discusses the idea of minor utopia in the American war film and if this is reflected in the pre-9/11 war films and not in the post 9/11 war films....

  9. Adaptability - A New Principle of War

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dickerson, Brian

    2003-01-01

    .... military establishment across a wide spectrum outside of war. These include, but are by no means limited to visioning the future military, weapons development and acquisition, and education of American military leadership...

  10. Lyndon B. Johnson and the Civil Right Act of 1964

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karatzas Konstantinos D.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The Civil Rights Movement is deeply intertwined with Lyndon B. Johnson. Throughout his career, Johnson supported the quest of African-Americans for political and civil rights. They found in him an ally whose role was fundamental in fullfilling the goals of Martin Luther King, Jr, and the Civil Rights Movement. This paper will examine the role of the Johnson presidency in the passage of the Civil Rights Acts of 1957 and 1964.

  11. Unionised Faculty and the Political Left: Communism and the American Federation of Teachers on the Eve of the Second World War

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cain, Timothy Reese

    2012-01-01

    During the contentious late 1930s and early 1940s, American education and American labour struggled with both internal and external concerns over Communist infiltration. These struggles converged on the American Federation of Teachers (AFT), a union of 30,000 K-12 and college teachers. Through its focus on leftist politics and organised college…

  12. Whose History? An Analysis of the Korean War in History Textbooks from the United States, South Korea, Japan, and China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Lin; Zhao, Yali; Ogawa, Masato; Hoge, John; Kim, Bok Young

    2009-01-01

    This article examines how recent history textbooks from the United States, Japan, China, and South Korea present the Korean War. The comparative analysis focuses on four areas: the causes of the Korean War, American involvement in the war, Chinese involvement in the war, and the results of the war. Analysis of the central story lines reveals that…

  13. War games

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kural, René

    2005-01-01

    Artiklen omhandler Imperial War Museum North tegnet af den polsk-amerikanske arkitekt Daniel Libeskind. Det er hans første projekt i Storbritannien og Englands femte krigsmuseum. Libeskind vand konkurrencen allerede i 1997, men først 5. juli 2002 kunne dørene slås op. Artiklen diskuterer om der er...

  14. Sketching War

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engberg-Pedersen, Anders

    2014-01-01

    During the Napoleonic Wars the military croquis, or sketch map, played an important role in the spatial management of the various campaigns. Presumably, many of these sketch maps were destroyed or discarded after their immediate use. Those that survive have received little scholarly notice...

  15. Rutherford's war

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, John

    2016-02-01

    Seagulls, sea lions and the comic-book hero Professor Radium were all recruited to fight the threat of submarines during the First World War. But as John Campbell explains, it was Ernest Rutherford who led the way a century ago in using acoustics to deter these deadly craft.

  16. War Termination

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-21

    Hills seemed especially urgent. An economic depression hit the country in 1873 followed by the discovery of gold in the Black Hills the next year...University of Oklahoma Press, 1994). 84 Endnotes 1. John S. Gray, “ Centennial Campaign: The Sioux War of 1876,” (n.p.: The Old Army Press, 1976) p. 211

  17. The Politics of Star Wars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkins, Lee

    George Lucas's Star Wars trilogy is used as the basis for the creation of a political subtext arising from one of America's most enduring literary myths--the American Adam. That subtext, when translated into a modern political context, pinpoints two central issues to face this democracy in the coming years, as well as a national ambivalence about…

  18. Civil implications of commercial nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilkinson, P.; Gallie, N.

    1985-01-01

    The following aspects are discussed; spent fuel transport by rail, routes and possible accidents; reactors, possible accidents and effects of radioactive releases to the environment; possible effects of sabotage and terrorist attacks; possible hazards from fuel reprocessing plants; radioactive wastes, inventories and possible effects of escape to environment; biological radiation effects; civil war effects and democratic freedoms; the miners' strike and its implications. (U.K.)

  19. Chemistry Progress and Civilization in Ancient China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG Yu-Qian; RUAN Shu-Xiang; TANG Shan; SHUAI Zhi-Gang

    2011-01-01

    @@ During the 6,000 years of Chinese civilization, chemistry has played an essential role.The bronzed chime bells of the Warring States Period (475-221 BC) unearthed in Hubei Province shows not only the excellence in musical instruments in ancient China, but also the technological advances in metallurgy.Chinese alchemy was not originated from the quest to turn common metals to gold, instead, it was for searching medicines for longevity of human beings, mostly practised by Taoists.

  20. Social science in the Cold War.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engerman, David C

    2010-06-01

    This essay examines ways in which American social science in the late twentieth century was--and was not--a creature of the Cold War. It identifies important work by historians that calls into question the assumption that all social science during the Cold War amounts to "Cold War social science." These historians attribute significant agency to social scientists, showing how they were enmeshed in both long-running disciplinary discussions and new institutional environments. Key trends in this scholarship include a broadening historical perspective to see social scientists in the Cold War as responding to the ideas of their scholarly predecessors; identifying the institutional legacies of World War II; and examining in close detail the products of extramural--especially governmental--funding. The result is a view of social science in the Cold War in which national security concerns are relevant, but with varied and often unexpected impacts on intellectual life.

  1. Current Obstacles to Fully Preparing Title 10 Forces for Homeland Defense and Civil Support

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Campbell, James S

    2008-01-01

    The National Strategy for Homeland Security, The National Military Strategic Plan for the War of Terrorism, the Strategy for Homeland Defense and Civil Support, numerous CONPLANS and DOD instructions...

  2. Croatian Civil-Military Reform and Its Impact on NATO Membership

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Donahoe, John

    2003-01-01

    Croatia emerged from war in the mid- 1990s to embark on a path of accession to Euro-Atlantic institutions, The present thesis examines the connections between civil military and security sector reform...

  3. Humanity cannot survive a nuclear war

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ehrlich, P.R.

    1985-01-01

    The author documents the unprecedented disaster that a nuclear war would wreak. He and his colleagues conclude that a nuclear war may mean the end of the human species. The environment that will confront most human beings and other organisms after a thermonuclear holocaust will be so altered, and so malign, that extreme and widespread damage to living systems is inevitable. It is, for example, entirely possible that the biological impacts of a war, apart from those resulting directly from a blast, fire, and prompt radiation, could result in the end of civilization in the Northern Hemisphere. The author's primary task in this paper is to give some technical background to explain why numerous biologists, especially ecologists, are convinced that decision-makers in many nations vastly underrate the potential risks of nuclear war

  4. Three wars that never happened.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, W M S

    2002-01-01

    This article discusses three serious wars that were averted and the three men who averted them. In 1478-79, Pope Sixtus IV's hatred of the Medici culminated in aggressive war against Florence, supported by his powerful ally King Ferrante of Naples. The initial stags of this war were indecisive, but it was about to become much more serious, probably involving all the Italian states and possibly meaning the total destruction of Florence. Lorenzo il Magnifico sailed to Naples, convinced Ferrante this more serious war was against his interests and obtained a generous peace. In 1861, the British Government responded to the boarding of a British ship by a vessel of the American North with a peremptory letter. Albert, Prince Consort, though dying of typhoid fever amended the letter to save Lincoln's face and thus averted war with the North. From 1871 to 1890, Otto von Bismarck worked for a stable peace between the European powers to be attained by arranging meetings of most or all of them to accustom them to solving disputes by negotiation. Two such meetings in Berlin secured 36 years of peace between the powers, despite many disputes, and in particular averted war for possessions in Africa, which could have involved them all.

  5. Perpetual War?

    OpenAIRE

    Clark, General Wesley; Mann, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Michael Mann documents the increasing substitution of war for diplomacy by US policy elites. In part, the substitution has come about because of ideological change but also because the "Military-Industrial-Congressional Complex" maintains a high level of military spending due to the fact that most congressional districts receive some form of military expenditure from bases to munitions production. General Wesley Clark considers foreign policy under the Bush administration. He argues ...

  6. Currency wars?

    OpenAIRE

    Gros, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    Treball final de Grau en Finances i Comptabilitat. Codi: FC1049. Curs academic 2015-2016 A currency war (also known as the competitive depreciation or a policy of impoverish the neighbor) occurs when a country wants to obtain a competitive advantage which improve its trade balancethrough a series of changes in its currency. With these currency movements exports become cheaper for foreigners while imports become more expensive for residents in the own nation. These advantages produce strong...

  7. Soviet civil defense is inadequate and meaningless

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaplan, F.M.

    1985-01-01

    In this paper, the author argues that Soviet civil defense plans exist primarily on paper and are used to pacify the Soviet people, not as plans to survive and prevail in a nuclear confrontation with the U.S. The author describes how the Soviet people have little faith in the civil defense programs. They don't believe they can survive an attack. Furthermore, he says the Soviets have never staged an evacuation exercise in any major city nor, even in smaller towns, has an entire community been evacuated. The author says there are numerous problems with the shelter programs as well. Very few existing shelters have any food stocks, only a few more have any water. There is little evidence that Soviet leaders have planned their economy with civil defense in mind. Nor - given the blatant inadequacies of Soviet civil defense programs, the marked vulnerabilities of the Soviet economy, and the intrinsic limitation and uncertainties about civil defense generally - is there much basis for claiming that Soviet leaders, even in desperate straits, would risk war with the United States while counting on civil defense measures to limit the damage wreaked on the Soviet Union

  8. World War, Then and Now: World War III in the 21st Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    groups. Fascism is a form of radical authoritarianism that became prominent in early 20th-century Europe. Fascists sought to unify their nations or...strong leader, and an emphasis on elimina- tion of diversity and of civil and human rights and the rule of law. Fascism views political violence, war

  9. Ungoverned Spaces and Armed Civil Conflicts: The Predicament of Developing Nations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    questions about deviance , collective action, and civil war in a society. The second, Section B, deals with the dynamic relationship between the state...influencing this dynamic relationship. A. SOCIOLOGY OF POWER, AUTHORITY, AND CIVIL WAR Why do some people effectively control the behavior of others? Why...do people even go farther to legitimize control by some people over their behavior ? What causes some people to be opposed to the control of their

  10. Globalizing Contemporary War

    OpenAIRE

    Melissa Zisler

    2009-01-01

    There are a plethora of social problems present throughout theworld in which America has deemed a type of ‘war.’ Some of theseunconventional wars include: The War on Poverty presented in 1964; The War on Drugs announced in 1971; The War on Cancer commencing in1971; The War Against Illiteracy beginning in the 1970s; and afterSeptember 11, 2001 The War on Terror was announced (Raz, 2008).These contemporary ‘wars’ have transformed the meaning of the word‘war.’ Labeling these missions ‘wars,’ pre...

  11. Reconciling after civil conflict increases social capital but decreases individual well-being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cilliers, Jacobus; Dube, Oeindrila; Siddiqi, Bilal

    2016-05-13

    Civil wars divide nations along social, economic, and political cleavages, often pitting one neighbor against another. To restore social cohesion, many countries undertake truth and reconciliation efforts. We examined the consequences of one such effort in Sierra Leone, designed and implemented by a Sierra Leonean nongovernmental organization called Fambul Tok. As a part of this effort, community-level forums are set up in which victims detail war atrocities, and perpetrators confess to war crimes. We used random assignment to study its impact across 200 villages, drawing on data from 2383 individuals. We found that reconciliation had both positive and negative consequences. It led to greater forgiveness of perpetrators and strengthened social capital: Social networks were larger, and people contributed more to public goods in treated villages. However, these benefits came at a substantial cost: The reconciliation treatment also worsened psychological health, increasing depression, anxiety, and posttraumatic stress disorder in these same villages. For a subset of villages, we measured outcomes both 9 months and 31 months after the intervention. These results show that the effects, both positive and negative, persisted into the longer time horizon. Our findings suggest that policy-makers need to restructure reconciliation processes in ways that reduce their negative psychological costs while retaining their positive societal benefits. Copyright © 2016, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  12. Civil liability for nuclear and radiological damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puig, D.

    2001-10-01

    The present work gives details of the nuclear damage, the accidents of Chernobil, three Mile Inland and Tokaimura with their respective legal consequences, the nature of the responsibility and bases for their establishment, conventions about civil responsibility for nuclear damages to regional and world level as well as other condition of conventions of the Ibero-American countries with regard to the approval of the conventions it has more than enough civil responsibility for nuclear and radiological accident damages

  13. Panel 6 -- Contracting for Support of Military Operations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Greenfield, Victoria; Dunn, Richard L; Parsons, Jeffrey P

    2007-01-01

    .... The conflicts include the American Revolution, the Mexican-American war, the Civil War, World War I, World War II, the Korean War, the Vietnam War, the Balkans, Operation Desert Storm, and Operation Iraqi Freedom. Dr...

  14. War and Political Participation the Impact of the Vietnam Conflict and Gulf War in America

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Marine, Daniel

    2002-01-01

    .... By exploring the impact of the Vietnam Conflict and the Gulf War on political participation in the United States, this research provides evidence that American citizens participate at higher rates...

  15. The First Afro-American Theater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molette, Carlton W., II

    1970-01-01

    Article focuses on the pre-Civil War black theater, and sees narrative story telling, story telling in dialogue form, persuasive speeches, sermons, song, dance, and instrumental music as part of the black theatrical heritage. (KG)

  16. Smog wars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gospodarek, M.P.

    1979-04-12

    International discussions of transboundary pollution, which have not been able to find a way to effect the agreed-upon principle that no nation should have to suffer another nation's pollution, parallel the smog wars across state boundaries. The states, however, can blame the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) as well as each other because of relaxed and unevenly applied standards. Several EPA decisions are cited to illustrate tensions between states and the alienation of the environmental lobby. Of particular concern are the application of smog and ozone standards in rural areas and the effect of offset policy on industrial development.

  17. The Great Migration and African-American Genomic Diversity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soheil Baharian

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available We present a comprehensive assessment of genomic diversity in the African-American population by studying three genotyped cohorts comprising 3,726 African-Americans from across the United States that provide a representative description of the population across all US states and socioeconomic status. An estimated 82.1% of ancestors to African-Americans lived in Africa prior to the advent of transatlantic travel, 16.7% in Europe, and 1.2% in the Americas, with increased African ancestry in the southern United States compared to the North and West. Combining demographic models of ancestry and those of relatedness suggests that admixture occurred predominantly in the South prior to the Civil War and that ancestry-biased migration is responsible for regional differences in ancestry. We find that recent migrations also caused a strong increase in genetic relatedness among geographically distant African-Americans. Long-range relatedness among African-Americans and between African-Americans and European-Americans thus track north- and west-bound migration routes followed during the Great Migration of the twentieth century. By contrast, short-range relatedness patterns suggest comparable mobility of ∼15-16km per generation for African-Americans and European-Americans, as estimated using a novel analytical model of isolation-by-distance.

  18. Educational Exchange as a Cold War Weapon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Anders Bo

    2014-01-01

    American President Harry S. Truman called the Cold War a "struggle for the minds of men," and assigned journalists an important role in the conflict. This study finds that the U.S. Depeartment of State, via the American Embassy in Copenhagen, consciously attempted to shape Danish journalits' view...

  19. Citizenship in civil society?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ossewaarde, Marinus R.R.

    2007-01-01

    This article seeks to provide a conceptual framework to complement and guide the empirical analysis of civil society. The core argument is that civil society must be understood, not as a category of (post)industrialized society, but as one of individualized society. Civil society is characterized by

  20. UNJUST LAW AS A JUSTIFICATION FOR CIVIL DISOBEDIENCE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PAUL

    of life and property, through the avoidance of war and uncertainties; it behooves ... aimed at making a change of government policy or part of it perceived to be wrong or ..... Amendment, to the restoration of the proper balance of power in the ... In his work, Concerning Civil Government, John Locke tells us the essence of the.