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Sample records for american civil war

  1. The American Home Front: Revolutionary War, Civil War, World War I, World War II

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    customs. War, they have also asserted, draws two related political dangers in its train. An ambitious President (or one of his successful generals ) might... general questions about war’s intluence upon the economy. political institutions, and society’s constituent groups. This book takes a preliminary step... millennial task. As a consequence. political theorists and statesmen re- placed clergymen as the leaders of American thought, and politics supplanted

  2. Sacrifice and Commitment: American Volunteers in the Spanish Civil War

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anders Greenspan

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The Spanish Civil War (1936-1939 was the last European war before the start of World War II. The war, an ideological struggle between Francisco Franco and his nationalist supporters, aided by the Germans and Italians, sought to remove from power the Spanish Republic, which was aided by the Soviet Union. On both sides of the conflict were volunteers from many countries, including the United States of America. American volunteers fought on both sides of the war, yet more chose the side of the Republicans.  Many, but not all, were motivated by political beliefs. Others wanted the perceived romance and excitement of battle, or the sense that they were being of help. The volunteers discussed in this study came from all of these categories, with the ones having political motivation the largest group. They detailed their experiences and their views of the war to their friends, families and comrades back home in the United States.  These letters, which come from the Abraham Lincoln Brigade Archives at New York University, form the main part of the study and provide a deeper insight into what these men and women were thinking, as well as providing insight into their desire to fight in Spain. Through their eyes it is possible to gain a deeper understanding of their experiences and their motivations.  For many of them, their experiences in Spain formed an important part of their journey in life.  Some of them remained loyal to the Communist ideology throughout their lives, while others changed their views as the ruthlessness of Stalin became better known.  A modern audience can benefit from a chance to read their thoughts and ideas in an attempt to better understand the events that helped drive the world into the Second World War.

  3. Sacrifice and Commitment: American Volunteers in the Spanish Civil War

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anders Greenspan

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The Spanish Civil War (1936-1939 was the last European war before the start of World War II. The war, an ideological struggle between Francisco Franco and his nationalist supporters, aided by the Germans and Italians, sought to remove from power the Spanish Republic, which was aided by the Soviet Union. On both sides of the conflict were volunteers from many countries, including the United States of America. American volunteers fought on both sides of the war, yet more chose the side of the Republicans. Many, but not all, were motivated by political beliefs. Others wanted the perceived romance and excitement of battle, or the sense that they were being of help. The volunteers discussed in this study came from all of these categories, with the ones having political motivation the largest group. They detailed their experiences and their views of the war to their friends, families and comrades back home in the United States. These letters, which come from the Abraham Lincoln Brigade Archives at New York University, form the main part of the study and provide a deeper insight into what these men and women were thinking, as well as providing insight into their desire to fight in Spain. Through their eyes it is possible to gain a deeper understanding of their experiences and their motivations. For many of them, their experiences in Spain formed an important part of their journey in life. Some of them remained loyal to the Communist ideology throughout their lives, while others changed their views as the ruthlessness of Stalin became better known. A modern audience can benefit from a chance to read their thoughts and ideas in an attempt to better understand the events that helped drive the world into the Second World War.

  4. The Influence of the West in American Civil War

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张铂

    2016-01-01

    After the 19th century, the West was no longer an appendage of the South and the North. During the Civil War, the North had superiority in both economy and politics. This owed much to the West. The share of the same labour system laid the foundation of the union between the North and the West. The victory of the North linked closely to the support of the West. The essay analyzed the contribution made by the West from the perspectives of economy and politics.

  5. Mexican and Central-American Contributions to the Study of the Civil War: Two Historical Traditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge de HOYOS PUENTE

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This article analyses the historiography about the Spanish Civil War from Mexico and Central America. The result is quite different from the point of view of the interest raised by the Spanish conflict. This is can be explained by the different levels of involvement of the Mexican and Central American authorities in the war. However, the importance of the Republican exile in Mexico and its relative insignificance in Central America is also a contributing factor. The present day interest in the civil war is still based on that involvement and not of the evolution of the conflict.

  6. Fiction as Reconstruction of History: Narratives of the Civil War in American Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reinhard Isensee

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Even after more than 140 years the American Civil War continues to serve as a major source of inspiration for a plethora of literature in various genres. While only amounting to a brief period in American history in terms of years, this war has proved to be one of the central moments for defining the American nation since the second half of the nineteenth century. The facets of the Civil War, its protagonists, places, events, and political, social and cultural underpinnings seem to hold an ongoing fascination for both academic studies and fictional representations. Thus, it has been considered by many the most written-about war in the United States.

  7. The Methodist Episcopal Church and the Education of African Americans after the Civil War

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butner, Bonita K.

    2005-01-01

    Religious denominations have a long history of benevolent outreach to individuals considered "less fortunate." The institution of slavery in the United States created an opportunity for most denominations in the North to advance an image of "patron saint" to an oppressed African American community. Immediately following the Civil War, the church…

  8. American War for Independence, 1775-1783: Revolution or Civil War?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-04

    Civil war, Function: noun Date: 15th century: a war between opposing groups of citizens of the same country. Re·bel·lion, Pronunciation : \\ri-Dbel-y...formidable resistance that is oftei1 unsuccessful <open rebellion against the officers>. Rev·o·]u·tion, Pronunciation : \\Dre-V;::l-Dlli-sh;m...Function: noun, Etymology: Middle English revolucioun, from Middle French revolution, from Late Latin revolution-, revolutio, from Latin revolvere to

  9. S. Weir Mitchell's prose and poetry on the American Civil War.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canale, D J

    2004-03-01

    The prose and poetry of S. Weir Mitchell (1829-1914)--related to the American Civil War--encompass a very significant portion of his non-medical writings. The Civil War, more than any other single event, shaped his future career as one of the founders of American neurology. Indeed, it should not be surprising how the war was also such a driving force in his non-medical writings. His novels, once widely read, now are scarcely noted. His accounts of the social, political and economic events of the Civil War are of historical interest to students of the period. Neuroscientists as a group, like others, are apt to be unfamiliar with these writings, with the possible exception of "The Case of George Dedlow." A major purpose of this essay is to introduce readers, especially neuroscientists, to Weir Mitchell's fictional works in which neurological cases so often appear. One appreciates more the medical aspects of his novels, written as they were by a first-hand observer. His non-medical writings, poetry and prose, are to a large extent timeless and can be appreciated by today's readers.

  10. Getting the Civil War Right

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loewen, James W.

    2011-01-01

    William Faulkner famously wrote, "The past is never dead. It's not even past." He would not be surprised to learn that Americans, 150 years after the Civil War began, are still getting it wrong. Did America's most divisive war start over slavery or states' rights? The author says that too many people--including educators--get it wrong. The author…

  11. War and National Renewal: Civil Religion and Blood Sacrifice in American Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Soltysik Monnet

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Wars are often associated with a rhetoric of renewal or new beginnings. This essay explores this claim through the lens of civil religion and a recent book by Carolyn Marvin and David Ingle, Blood Sacrifice and the Nation, which combines Emile Durkheim with Réné Girard in proposing that modern national cohesion depends on blood sacrifice. I unpack some of the paradoxes raised by this theory of national renewal in the context of 9/11, with a special focus on the sacred status of the flag and the special attention given to uniformed serviceman in the American body politic

  12. Dangerous Liaisons: Working Women and Sexual Justice in the American Civil War

    OpenAIRE

    Barber, E. Susan; Ritter, Charles F.

    2015-01-01

    The American Civil War drew thousands of white and black women into paid and unpaid work for the Union and Confederate armies.  While the armies provided some women with a reliable income, their very proximity also represented a dangerous liaison that drew them into closer contact with Union troops that rendered them vulnerable to sexual assault.  By 1865, more than four hundred Union soldiers had been court-martialed for sexual crimes against white and black women and girls. At the war’s ons...

  13. Clara Barton: teacher, nurse, Civil War heroine, founder of the American Red Cross.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Gerald D

    2003-01-01

    Clara Barton was a nineteenth century woman driven to greatness. She was a teacher, a nurse, a Civil War heroine and founder of the American Red Cross. In order to cut a path into the future we must know where we have been. The story of Clara Barton is about someone who cut that path. It is about courage, overcoming obstacles, never giving up and doing the job that needs doing. What makes it fascinating is the human side, the weaknesses that coloured her life. We can learn from her journey as we develop our own path into the future.

  14. Legalisation of Civil Wars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buhl, Kenneth Øhlenschlæger

    2009-01-01

    -international armed conflict' is used here. Civil wars are usually limited to the territory of a state. Considering that international law is generally concerned with the legal relations between states – being a legal system based on the system of states with states as its subjects – the main question is how civil......This article is concerned with the legal challenges of regulating civil wars in international humanitarian law. Civil war is not a term used in international law; it falls however, withing the context of the legal term 'armed conflicts not of an international character', although the shorter 'non...... wars as internal conflicts have become subject to international humanitarian law....

  15. Re-building the Nation-State: The American Civil War in a transnational perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Fiorentino, Daniele

    2015-01-01

    Cet article analyse la façon dont a été perçue et interprétée la Guerre de Sécession en Europe. Il souligne la dimension internationale de ce conflit et insiste sur l’idée selon laquelle la Guerre de Sécession a alimenté les différents affrontements qui ont éclaté sur le continent européen au cours du XIXe siècle. This article analyzes the reading of the American Civil War in Europe, how this conflict was perceived. It shows the international dimension of this war and insists on the idea t...

  16. Civil War and Inoperativity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flohr, Mikkel

    2017-01-01

    This article analyses the penultimate publication in Giorgio Agambens Homo Sacer-series Stasis: Civil War as a Political Paradigm. It compares and contrasts the paradigm of civil war with the preceding paradigm of the exception, and identifies a significant displacement in the relationship between...... civil war and the sovereign state, in spite of Agamben’s insistence on their continuity. Agamben’s decoupling of civil war and the sovereign state facilitates novel political possibilities that unfortunately remain underdeveloped in the book. The article proceeds to develop Agamben’s brief intimations...... of inoperativity towards a concept of destituent power drawing on his other writings. It makes the argument for thinking civil war and inoperativity – stasis and stasis – together to derive a concept of destituent power as a form of revolution against the sovereign state, which does not constitute a new sovereign...

  17. Further Study on the Causes of the American Civil War%再探美国内战诱因

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王建

    2011-01-01

    在美国内战爆发前,南北双方在政治、经济、意识形态和文化方面都存在着巨大差异,而这种差异必然导致在各个方面矛盾的激化,当无法通过相互妥协的方式解决时,进而导致只有通过战争的手段来解决。本文试图从内战前的一些表现来分析美国内战爆发的诱因,作为对美国内战的进一步了解。%Before the American Civil War, the North and South had tremendous differences in politics, economy, ideology and culture, which would inevitably lead to an intensification of contradictions. When these contradictions couldn't be resolved by compromise, the only way left is war. In order to delve more deeply into the American Civil War, this paper attempts to do further study on the causes of the American Civil War through some phenomena before the war.

  18. Fickle Allies: Regular and Irregular Confederate Forces in Missouri during the American Civil War

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-22

    the first move due to the Confederate’s delays and indecisiveness .80 Union forces took to the offensive on August 10, 1861 by advancing on the... career in bushwhacking.123 In the early months of the Civil War, Quantrill traveled to Texas and Oklahoma. He joined a company of pro-Confederate

  19. Robert E. Lee as Operational Artist During the American Civil War

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-21

    USMC AY 09-10 Dr. Paul D. Gelpi, Ph . D. Date: 𔃼 t Klf(l.tl.- 1-01 GO Oral Defense C~tte~Y. Shibuya, Ph . D. Approved: Date: 6l.l f+pRrl.... S.of...cases dming the Civil War, the Confederacy carne to the field of battle sorely outnumbered: Union forces 9 totaled over 75,000 while Confederate

  20. Post Civil War African American History: Brief Periods of Triumph, and Then Despair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graff, Gilda

    2016-01-01

    During Reconstruction, which is often called the most progressive period in American history, African Americans made great strides. By 1868 African American men constituted a majority of registered voters in South Carolina and Mississippi, and by 1870 eighty-five percent of Mississippi's black jurors could read and write. However, Reconstruction was followed by approximately one hundred years of Jim Crow laws, lynching, disenfranchisement, sharecropping, unequal educational resources, terrorism, racial caricatures, and convict leasing. The Civil Rights Revolution finally ended that period of despair, but the era of mass incarceration can be understood as a reaction to the Civil Rights Movement. This article attempts to understand the persistence of racism in the United States from slavery's end until the present.

  1. Slavery, the Civil War Era, and African American Representation in U.S. History: An Analysis of Four States' Academic Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Carl B.; Metzger, Scott Alan

    2011-01-01

    This study is a mixed-methods text analysis of African American representation within K-12 U.S. History content standards treating the revolutionary era, the early U.S. republic, the Civil War era, and Reconstruction. The states included in the analysis are Michigan, New Jersey, South Carolina, and Virginia. The analysis finds that the reviewed…

  2. Primary Sources Enliven Civil War

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robelen, Erik W.

    2011-01-01

    Today, a growing number of teachers are moving beyond the textbook in teaching about the war, and U.S. history more broadly. Teachers are digging directly into primary sources and harnessing technology, all in an attempt to help students better understand the past and bring it to life. Doing so may be especially important with the Civil War,…

  3. The Effects of Railroads on the Emergence of Operational Art During the American Civil War, 1861-1865

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-23

    New York: Prometheus Books, 2008), 20; J.F.C. Fuller, War and Western Civilization, 1832-1932: A Study of War as a Political Instrument and the...including food, fuel, medicine , equipment, etc.) from rear areas to forward positions that supported military operations. Additionally, they are used for...Battlefield 1861-1863. Amherst: Prometheus Books, 2008. Reynolds, Paul Davidson. A Primer in Theory Construction. Boston: Allyn and Bacon Classics

  4. An Analysis of Medical Ethic Practice by Union and Confederate Medical Departments During the American Civil War

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-05

    as the patient understood that there were risks and ben~ fits to utilizing the medication. In such a case the physician would be respecting a modem...with what they had, under the conditions that were presented to them. 29 Citations 1 Alfred Jay Ballet . Civil War Medicine, Challenges and...Triump·hs. (Tucson, AZ: Galen Press, Ltd., 2002), 38. 2 I Ballet , 81. 3 William H. Taliaferro. Medicine and The War. (Chicago: The University of Chicago

  5. Mexican and Central-American Contributions to the Study of the Civil War: Two Historical Traditions

    OpenAIRE

    de Hoyos Puente, Jorge

    2014-01-01

    Este artículo presenta un análisis de la literatura sobre la guerra civil española generada en México y América Central . Los resultados son dispares en lo que se refiere al interés historiográfico por la guerra civil. El distinto nivel de implicación en la misma es, sin duda, un elemento central a la hora de explicar esta situación. La presencia del exilio republicano en México, la actitud de los diplomáticos mexicanos en defensa de la causa legítima de la mayoría parlamentaria surgida en la...

  6. Elephants for Mr. Lincoln: American Civil War-Era Diplomacy in Southeast Asia, William Strobridge & Anita Hibler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adela Baer

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This curious book, which begins with events in the 1810s, emphasizes Burma and Siam but undervalues other parts of Southeast Asia. The title refers to the offer by the king of Siam to send elephants to the United States to help President Lincoln win the Civil War. The book rightly discusses commerce, diplomats, and military actions in Southeast Asia. Missionaries are, for unclear reasons, also given prominence; in fact, much of the authors’ information comes from Protestant missionary sources...

  7. American Civil War:Irrepressible Conflict or Needless ;War%探究美国南北战争可否避免

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑芳华

    2015-01-01

    American Civil War is one of the most important re-search subjects in American Studies. American historians hold different opinions towards the cause of the war. Revisionists argue that had it not been the poor political leadership and the irre-sponsible agitators, the conflict between south and north could have been solved in a peaceful way without a bloody war. They also believe that slavery would die out before the 19th century without a war. However, historians from home and abroad seldom question the rationality of the evidence which revisionists put for-ward. This essay will first analyze three major arguments of revi-sionists and then question the rationality of them. Finally, this es-say will synthesize the major causes of the war and conclude that American Civil War is irrepressible.%在美国史学界,美国南北战争是一个经久不衰的话题,其引发原因也是众说纷纭。修正主义学派史学家认为美国内战本是可以避免的,他们把战争的起因归咎于政治家的恶意煽动,并认为传统主义学派所强调的经济和政治制度上的差异根本不是导致战争爆发的主要原因。修正主义学派还推断假如没有美国内战,奴隶制也会在19世纪前自然消亡,因此美国内战是无用之战。针对修正主义学派所提出的论据,国内外研究者缺乏对其合理性的质疑。本文将详细阐述并分析修正主义学派的观点,并对其合理性提出质疑,最后综述内战的主要起因,得出“美国内战是不可避免”的这一结论。

  8. Medical aid provided by American, Canadian and British Nationals to the Spanish Republic during the Civil War, 1936-1939.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, M F

    1983-01-01

    During international or civil wars, private citizens of noncombatant nations often provide medical aid to one of the contending factions, particularly when they support a participant not favored by their own government. This paper details and analyzes the prominent campaign in the United States, Canada and Great Britain to provide medical aid to the Republicans during the Spanish Civil War (1936 to 1939). The substantial medical aid that was provided clearly alleviated some suffering, but one of the major objectives of the campaign was to arouse public opinion sufficiently to end the boycott of military aid to Republicans; this objective was never achieved. Whether it be in Republican Spain, Vietnam or El Salvador, even a successful medical aid campaign to people in a military conflict may save some lives but may not affect substantially the course of the conflict. Those who are primarily interested in influencing political or military developments, hoping to advance the cause of a particular contending faction, may find tactics other than medical aid campaigns more useful in accomplishing their goals.

  9. From the American Civil War to the War on Terror: Three Models of Emergency Law in the United States Supreme Court

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartz, Emily

    This book offers a systematic and comprehensive account of the key cases that have come to shape the jurisprudence on emergency law in the United States from the Civil War to the War on Terror. The legal questions raised in these cases concern fundamental constitutional issues such as the status...... the Supreme Court justices have to grapple in these cases are therefore as philosophical as they are legal. In this book the Court's arguments are systematized according to categories informed by constitutional law as well as classic philosophical discussions of the problem of emergency. On this basis......, the book singles out three legal paradigms for interpreting the problem of emergency: the rights model, the extra-legal model and the procedural model. This systematic approach helps the reader develop a philosophical and legal overview of central issues in the jurisprudence on emergency....

  10. Prelude to Civil War: Exploring Sectional Differences in Antebellum America through Student-Created Cartograms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Peter William; Moran, Mark

    2015-01-01

    In high school American history classrooms all over the country, the Civil War is a staple in the curriculum. Of course, that is to be expected given the pivotal place that the Civil War occupies in the nation's history. Indeed, it is not unusual for high school teachers to devote weeks of instruction to exploring the causes leading up to the war,…

  11. William Cain Ruffin, M.D., and some history of the Ruffin family as it pertains to the American Civil War.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enoch, Jay M

    2012-01-01

    In the late 1970s, Prof. Herbert ("Herb") Kaufman, M.D., a fine Harvard-trained ophthalmologist who had both developed and chaired the Department of Ophthalmology, College of Medicine, University of Florida. Gainesville, FL, chose to resign his appointment there. Prof. Kaufman had accepted the Chair in Ophthalmology at Louisiana State U. in New Orleans. The writer was a member of the Department of Ophthalmology faculty in Gainesville, FL, at the time. Following Herb Kaufman's resignation, Professor William Cain Ruffin, M.D., a psychiatrist with academic credentials, was assigned to serve as the Interim Chairman of the Department of Ophthalmology at Gainesville for a few years by the then Dean of the Medical School at the U. of Florida. This paper addresses some interesting facts regarding Prof./Dr. Ruffin and his family history, particularly as that history relates to the American Civil War.

  12. 'War neurosis' during the Spanish Civil War (1936-39).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villasante, Olga

    2010-12-01

    The aim of this contribution is to analyse the incidence and treatment of war neurosis in Madrid during the Spanish Civil War. First, the scientific papers published on war neurosis during and after the war are examined. Then the work of Gregorio Bermann (1894-1972), a member of the International Brigades who organized the frontline Neuropsychiatric Service at the Hospital de Chamartín de La Rosa (Madrid), is analysed. Las neurosis en la guerra, published in 1941, which recounts Bermann's personal experience in the care of war neurosis in Spain, is also discussed.

  13. Nordic visions of the Civil War

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morten HEIBERG

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available There is a rich body of Scandinavian literature written by surviving volunteers of the International Brigades which concerns the Spanish Civil War. However, when it comes to scientific studies the situation is an altogether different one. Only a small number of academic studies can be found available, often limited in scope and of modest quality. The Civil War seems to be of marginal interest to the Nordic research community, which is generally more interested in national history than in European and world history. There are, however, some exceptions to this, as this article will demonstrate. The most interesting conclusion - from an international historiographical point of view - to be drawn from a number of new studies is that the Spanish Civil War produced political and military repercussions in Scandinavia during the German occupation of Denmark and Norway from 1940-1945.

  14. African Americans and the Making of Post- Civil War Constitutional Order%非裔美国人与内战后宪政新秩序的建立

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王希

    2012-01-01

    The paper offers an analytic narrative of the can Americans during the Civil War and Reconstruction intellectual and political struggles carried out by Afri- era for gaining equal voting rights. The paper argues that, although no African American representatives had directly involved in the making of Reconstruction laws prior to 1870, a novel political discourse of transformative constitutionalism had been created by such African American leaders as Frederick Douglass and others, who had first foreseen the great potential and opportunity for constitutional transformation as brought by the Civil War. The so - called "African American constitutional- ism", built upon the combination of the American constitutional tradition and the political imagination as in- spired by blacks'act of self- emancipation during the wartime, provided important intellectual and legal sup- port for the Republican lawmakers in Reconstruction Congress. The paper intends to challenge the convention- al Reconstruction study that generally neglects blacks'role in constitutional reconstruction process, as well as to explore the possibility to incorporate into constitutional history such fields of African American studies, social history and intellectual history.%美国内战(1861-1865年)与重建(1863-1877年)时期非裔美国人为争取平等选举权进行了思想和政治斗争。非裔美国人虽然没有直接参与重建时期国会的立法过程,但以弗雷德里克·道格拉斯(Frederick Douglass)为首的黑人领袖们率先意识到内战带来的制度创新的巨大潜能和机会,将美国宪政的传统和寻求自我解放的经历结合起来,创造出一套新的转型宪政主义的话语和思想,为国会共和党人的立法行动提供了思想和法理的支持,推动了美国宪政的重构和美国民主的转型。通过展示和分析围绕黑人选举权而产生的非裔美国人宪政思想,本文一方面意图挑战传统重建宪

  15. The Civil War in cyberspace today

    OpenAIRE

    Eiroa, Matilde

    2015-01-01

    The appeal of the Spanish Civil War in the online world is a phenomenon deserving of attention, as an event that took place more than 75 years ago which still arouses debate and the curiosity of many. It is surprising that the media world considers it “newsworthy” and that it has an important presence on the Internet — on blogs, websites, You Tube, and even social media platforms such as Facebook and Twitter. This article examines all mention of the Civil War in online media. We start from th...

  16. Sick from Freedom: An Unusual Perspective on the Civil War and Reconstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabeth Davis Elder

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Review of: Sick from Freedom: African-American Illness and Suffering during the Civil War and Reconstruction; Jim Downs; (2012. Oxford University Press, Oxford, England. 280 pages.

  17. Aurora painting pays tribute to Civil War's end

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, Jeffrey J.

    2015-01-01

    This year marks the sesquicentennial anniversary of the end of the American Civil War, a conflict that Abraham Lincoln called a “mighty scourge.” It was one of the most poignant periods in U.S. history, laying bare political, economic, social, and moral divergence between Northern and Southern states. The cause of the divergence that led to war was slavery [e.g., McPherson, 1988, chap. 3]—an institution that, by the 19th century, had been effectively abolished in the North but remained firmly entrenched in the South.

  18. Civil War. NBER Working Paper No. 14801

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blattman, Christopher; Miguel, Edward

    2009-01-01

    Most nations have experienced an internal armed conflict since 1960. The past decade has witnessed an explosion of research into the causes and consequences of civil wars, belatedly bringing the topic into the economics mainstream. This article critically reviews this interdisciplinary literature and charts productive paths forward. Formal theory…

  19. The Civil War in cyberspace today

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matilde EIROA

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The appeal of the Spanish Civil War in the online world is a phenomenon deserving of attention, as an event that took place more than 75 years ago which still arouses debate and the curiosity of many. It is surprising that the media world considers it “newsworthy” and that it has an important presence on the Internet — on blogs, websites, You Tube, and even social media platforms such as Facebook and Twitter. This article examines all mention of the Civil War in online media. We start from the idea that the features of the online world allow for an extensive and multifaceted production of media of content which is more cultural, more social, and more attuned to the passing of time.

  20. Sustaining the Peace After Civil War

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-12-01

    GOVERNMENT Fight Quit REBELS Fight Civil War Continues Rebels Win Quit Government Wins Negotiated Settlement Derived from Allan C. Stam III, Win...Approach,” Journal of Conflict Resolution, Vol. 23, No. 4, December 1979, pp. 743-763; Allan C. Stam III, Win, Lose, or Draw: Domestic Politics and...Resolution Vol. 39, No. 3, September 1995, p. 388. 135. Steven C. Poe and C. Neal Tate, “Repression of Human Rights to Personal Integrity in the 1980s: A

  1. Quantitative and Econometric Methodologies in the Study of Civil War

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    This chapter provides an overview of the quantitative study of civil war, focusing on the development of quantitative conflict studies, the basics of the quantitative method, the prominent sources of civil conflict data, and the strengths and weaknesses of using quantitative methods to analyse civil war.

  2. Introduction to US historiography on the Spanish Civil War

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco J. RODRÍGUEZ JIMÉNEZ

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available From the 1940s to the present, the quality and density of American historiography on the Spanish Civil War has fluctuated significantly. Some of the most important factors behind these fluctuations are: 1 Memories of the participation of the Lincoln Brigade’s volunteers and the subsequent suspicion towards them which emerged during the tensest moments of the Cold War; 2 Censorship by the Franco regime, hindering the carrying out of any serious investigation; 3 A relative diminishing of interest in Spain on the part of U.S. historians, as it is no longer the “exotic and different” country “it used to be” in the last century (bearing in mind the necessary precautions as regards such clichés; and 4 A greater maturity and independence of Spanish historians in relation to foreign hispanists. This article will examine the most important American books on the Spanish Civil War and those which generated the most controversies.

  3. PROBLEMS IN ANALYZING INFLATION DURING THE CIVIL WAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul R. Auerbach

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available In the American Civil War, a drastic increase in the level of “high powered money” with the issuance of the greenbacks had a relatively modest effect on the measured price level. The existence of a free market in gold and the presence of specie are offered as an explanation for the constrained movements both in the money multiplier and in movements in measured income velocity. These unusual results largely reflect the fact that in such a world of freely fluctuating multiple currencies, a rise in the measured price level does not reflect the decline in the value of money.

  4. Mexican-American War

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    which were exchanged at Lima on the 31st of October, 1846. The Attorney -General of the United States early in August last completed the... Bolivia , Guatemala, and Ecuador. The manifest importance of cultivating the most friendly relations with all the independent States upon this continent...shall be considered as annulling or suspending the solemn covenant contained in this article. On the contrary, the state of war is precisely that for

  5. The Role of Education in Sudan's Civil War

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breidlid, Anders

    2013-01-01

    This article addresses the role that education plays in conflict, with specific reference to the civil war in Sudan. It analyses the ideological basis of the Sudanese government (GoS) during the civil war, with special reference to the role of religion and ethnicity. It shows how the primary education system was based on the Islamist ideology of…

  6. Using Ken Burns's "The Civil War" in the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, Kevin M.

    2010-01-01

    When it aired in 1989, Ken Burns's epic documentary about America's Civil War garnered the largest audience in PBS history. Viewers who had little interest or knowledge of the Civil War were attracted to the powerful images and sounds as well as the narration by David McCullough and commentary by Shelby Foote--the combination of which served to…

  7. THE AMERICAN WAY OF WAR: AFGHANISTAN AND IRAQ

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Luisa Parraguez Kobek; Mariana Gonzalez Rodriguez

    2013-01-01

    The terrorist attacks of 9/11 placed the United States in a position to exercise its political objectives of securing national interests through military means. The War on Terror waged in Afghanistan and Iraq shifted the development of U.S. foreign policy, allowing for American leadership to exercise its right to sovereignty and power. The doctrine required a victory in each of the scenarios, and the inability to secure these aims resulted in civil war and insurgency in both countries. Import...

  8. “棉花王国”与“小麦王国”的斗争%The Struggle between “Cotton Kingdom” and“Wheat Kingdom”---Analysis of the Impact of Agricultural Economy on American Civil War

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘鹏

    2015-01-01

    In the American Civil War , the agricultural economy played an important role for the cause and re-sults of the war .It is the direct cause of the South provoking the Civil War that the “cotton kingdom” in the South misjudged for the position , role and importance of the cotton .The “animal kingdom” of the western was estab-lished, and gradually closed to the North for promoting agricultural product market , which had a direct impact on the trend of development of the war .In north, the“wheat kingdom” improved its status in the international market of agricultural products and enhanced its economic strength; also provide food for the northern army and people , which ensured the victory of the North .%棉花、小麦、畜牧产品等农产品作为农业经济的代表对美国内战的起因、走向、结果发挥了重要影响。南方“棉花王国”对棉花的地位、作用、重要性的错误判断是南方挑起内战的直接原因;西部“畜牧王国”在农产品消费市场的推动下逐步靠近北方直接影响了战争的走向;北方“小麦王国”提高了北方在国际农产品市场上的地位,增强了北方的经济实力,为北方军队和人民提供了坚实的粮食保障,从物质上保证了北方的胜利。

  9. Mathematical activities in Spain during Civil War

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    González Redondo, Francisco A.

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The process of convergence of Spanish Mathematics with European science had reached its highest moment towards the beginning of the summer of 1936. The civil war consequent to the 18th of July military plot caused a rupture in such a fruitful process. In this paper different remarks are introduced about the mathematical activities that, surprisingly enough, were developed by our scientists during those complicated years.

    El proceso de convergencia con la ciencia europea de la Matemática española había logrado situarla en su momento de mayor esplendor de la historia a las puertas del verano de 1936. La Guerra Civil consecuencia de la rebelión militar del 18 de julio supondrá la brutal ruptura de ese proceso tan fructífero. En este trabajo se presentan diferentes consideraciones en torno a la actividad matemática que, sorprendentemente, consiguieron mantener nuestros científicos durante esos complicados años.

  10. Use Primary Sources to Develop a Soap Opera: As the Civil War Turns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Ronald V.

    2002-01-01

    In this article, the author describes a social studies class activity that uses primary sources to develop a soap opera based on the American Civil War. In the soap opera activity, students can watch historical characters as they grow, develop, and change. Not only do people in the soap opera develop over a long period, but their accumulated…

  11. The restoration of the gold standard after the US Civil War : A volatility analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meulemann, Max; Uebele, Martin; Wilfling, Bernd

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a new view on the gold price of greenbacks during and after the American Civil War by analyzing exchange-rate volatility rather than exchange-rate levels. Our empirical investigation detects regimes of high and low volatility alternating in a way that is consistent with a theoret

  12. In Pursuit Of Personal Conviction: Upon The Civil War Pocket Diaries Of Emilie Frances Davis, A Freeborn Black Woman [A Short Communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela K. Brown

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Emilie Davis was an African-American woman living in Philadelphia during the U.S. Civil War. Emile's diaries are a transcription of Emilie’s three pocket diaries for the years 1863, 1864, and 1865. In them, she recounts black Philadelphians’ celebration of the Emancipation Proclamation, nervous excitement during the battle of Gettysburg, and their collective mourning of President Lincoln. The diary allows readers to experience the war in real time, as events unfolded for Civil War Americans.

  13. Perceptions about civil war in Central Africa: Can war be justified or solve problems?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kitambala Lumbu

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Civil war and ethnic violence are major problems in Central Africa and have caused the death and displacement of millions of people over the years. The aim of this study was to investigate the perceptions of religious leaders, lecturers and students in theology at various tertiary institutions in Central Africa with regard to civil war in the region. A structured questionnaire was used to investigate participants� perceptions about and attitudes towards civil war. The questionnaire was completed by 1 364 participants who originated or lived in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC and Rwanda. The results of the study illustrated the severe effect that civil wars had on the participants or their families and further indicated that Rwandans, Tutsis and males were more inclined toward justifying wars and seeing them as solutions for problems. The role of the Church in countering these perceptions is discussed.

  14. Dermatological face of Syrian civil war

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahime İnci

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Design: The frequency and variety of dermatological diseases significantly changed after 2011 in the regions where the Syrian refugees migrated because of the civil war in Syria where is bordered by our country. To reveal these changing, the demographic and dermatological data of the Syrian refugees were retrospectively examined in faculty of medicine, department of dermatology of our city where a significant amount of Syrian refugees have been living. Materials and Methods: A total of 326 refugees immigrated to our city and have been living in tent cities, and applied to our department between September 2012-July 2014 were included to our study. Age, gender, dermatological and laboratory findings were retrospectively examined. Skin diseases were examined in 16 groups according to the their frequency. The patients were divided into 4 age groups as 0-20, 21-40, 41-60 and, 61 and over; three most common diseases for each age group were analyzed. Results: Of 326 patients, 126 (38.7% were males, 200 (61.3% were females and the difference was significant in term of gender. The age range of the patients was 0 to 77 years, and the mean age was 21.6±10.5. The majority of patients were in 0-20 age group. Dermatological infectious diseases were the most frequent diseases group and cutaneous leishmaniasis was the most diagnosed dermatological disease among patients. Conclusion: Preventive health care services should be performed to prevent dermatological infectious diseases which are commonly seen in Syrian refugees, especially cutaneous leishmaniasis which is already endemic in our country, and limitations to reach physicians of these patients should be amended.

  15. Patterns of Force: System Strength, Terrorism and Civil War

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Freytag, Andreas; Meierrieks, Daniel; Münch, Angela

    2010-01-01

    We jointly analyze the genesis of terrorism and civil war, providing a simple conceptual framework to explain why violent opposition groups choose distinct forms of violence (i.e., terrorism and open rebellion). We argue that the distinct modes of violent opposition are chosen by opposition groups...... in response to the strengths and weaknesses of the system they challenge. An empirical test of this hypothesis for 104 countries for 1992 to 2004 indeed shows that the socio-economic strength of a system positively correlates with the likelihood of terrorism, but negatively with the incidence of civil war....... Institutional quality and political participation of opponents reduce the risk of civil war, but do not affect the likelihood of terrorism. We also show that system stability reduces the likelihood of all forms of violent opposition....

  16. Myths and Truths. Rumanian historians and the Civil War

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiza IORDACHE CÂRSTEA

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on different visions of the Spanish Civil War in Romania, which can be found in the historiography, memoirs and national press of the various regimes from 1936 to the present. Combining chronological order with a typology of Romanian regimes, this study delves into Romanian policy concerning the Spanish conflict, the participation of Romanian volunteers in the Civil War, interpretations of “the Moscow Gold” saga and Soviet aid to the Spanish Republic.

  17. Spanish Civil War caves of Asturias in archaeology and memory

    OpenAIRE

    Fernández Fernández, J.; Moshenska, G.

    2016-01-01

    As the Spanish Civil War drew to a close, retreating Republican troops in the northern region of Asturias took refuge in caves in the mountains from the brutal victor’s justice of the Francoist forces. In this paper we examine three of these caves in the context of the Civil War experiences of the rural municipality of Santo Adriano, based on a combination of archaeological recording and oral history interviews. The paper focuses on the role of the La Ponte-Ecomuseum, a grassroots heritage or...

  18. Civil Rights and Japanese-American Internment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, Greg; Hojo, Samantha; Lai, Selena; Mukai, Gary; Yoda, Steven

    Students may not be as familiar with the Asian American struggle for equal rights as they are with the black struggle for equal rights. But Asian Americans' civil rights have also been challenged and/or denied throughout their history in the United States. This curriculum module contains six lessons and can be used as a supplement to history…

  19. 美国内战时期联邦海军反干涉战略探析%On the Anti-Intervention Strategy of Union Navy During American Civil War

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张小龙

    2011-01-01

    联邦海军在美国内战中担负着打击叛乱势力和防范外来干涉的双重任务。尤其是在内战初期陆上战局不利、存在明显外来干涉危险的形势下,联邦海军有效地发挥了其国防屏障作用和战略威慑功能,在遏制英国干涉图谋的过程中发挥了重要作用。及时把握住技术变革所带来的历史机遇,以技术创新弥补整体实力的差距,是联邦海军反干涉战略得以成功的前提,战略的内核则体现为立足本国国情、实施积极防御和有限威慑的务实路线。%The Union Navy had to take on a two-fold mission of crushing the rebellion and preventing the foreign intervention especially during the early period of American Civil War,when the Army suffered a series of failures and intervention was an impending dange

  20. The Effects of the Cessation of Exchange of Prisoners During the Civil War

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-06-04

    Eugene C. Murdock, One Million Men: The Civil War Draft in the North (Madison, Wisconsin: State Historical Society of Wisconsin, 1971), 305-307; Lonn, 138...1977. Murdock, Eugene C. One Million Men: The Civil War Draft in the North. Madison: State Historical Society of Wisconsin, 1971. _______ Patriotism...James W. "Civil War Conscription in the North: A Historiographical Review," Civil War History 32, no. 3 (September 1986): 208-228. Genovese , Eigene D

  1. A Phoenix in Flames? Portfolio Choice and Violence in Civil War in Rural Burundi

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nillesen, E.E.M.; Verwimp, P.

    2010-01-01

    This paper challenges the idea that farmers revert to subsistence farming when confronted with violence from civil war. Macro-economic evidence on economic legacies of civil war suggests that civil wars, while obviously disastrous in the short run, do not need to have persistent effects on long term

  2. The Old Army in War and Peace: West Pointers and the Civil War Era, 1814-1865

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    genre of Civil War tactical history, see Mark Grimsley, "Review Essay: The Continuing Battle of Gettysburg," Civil War History 49, no. 2 (2003): 185...both nations over military affairs tended to be marked by a romantic conception of war: charges on horse and foot, cold steel flashing right-and

  3. The Crimean War: a Clash of Civilizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatyana V. Vakulova

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The need to use the civilizational approach to the analysis of the causes and outcomes of the Crimean war (campaign 1854-1855 is revealed in this article. The author analyzes the causes of the war related to the religious factor. The Soviet historiography had not considered the religious factor to be relevant for the progressive development of the state, and therefore the provisions of the mentioned approach had not been used in the analysis of historical events. The conflict that arose between France and Russia about the Holy places, is characterized by the fact that the keys of the Bethlehem Church had been taken from the Orthodox community, which they traditionally belonged to, and had been handed over to the Catholic community by the Turkish authorities of Palestine under France’s constraint. The author points to the main cause of the war – violation of the Russian law on the protection of Orthodoxy in Turkey fixed by international treaties. It is argued that it is natural to name this war – The battle for the Manger of the Lord. That is why the main events of inter-civilizational conflict took place in the Crimea and in Sevastopol, which had not only been the military base of Russia on the Black Sea, but also the cradle of Russian Orthodoxy. Analyzing the events, the author comes to the conclusion that the outcome of the war testifies to the victory of the Orthodox state and the Russian diplomacy, because the status quo of the Holy places was maintained in accordance with the state of Affairs which had existed in the Byzantine Empire. The preservation of the integrity and sovereignty of Orthodox state is the confirmation of this victory. It is shown the ability to evaluate the results of the war is based on the positions of a civilizational approach.

  4. A Guerilla War At Sea: The Sri Lankan Civil War

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-09

    additional assistance for the LTTE.102 In 1997 a seaborne shipment of mortar shells bound for the Sri Lankan Army was intercepted. This prize restocked the...hundred nautical miles from Sri Lanka to attack a LTTE Sea Pigeon convoy located off the coast of Indonesia near the Cocoa Islands. Three Sea Pigeons were...artillery shells and mortar rounds. As the war progressed, this caused an additional loss of LTTE combat power even as the number of cadre members

  5. Old and new memories of the Civil War

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pilar DOMINGUEZ PRATS

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This article examines autobiographical narratives of the Spanish Civil War by way of war diaries, letters and memoirs which have been published between 2006 and 2013. Since the beginning of the war the trauma caused to Spanish society has led to a substantial number of personal narratives. These sources, based upon individual experiences, are of great value for constructing a multi-faceted history of the war itself. We examine memoirs and diaries which for various reasons have not been published until recently. We deal first with military memoirs from the Francoist side, which show a striking continuity with present-day neo-Francoist approaches. Second, we examine memoirs by members of the Republican élite and of the popular classes, all of them coming from different political cultures. Finally, we account for the writing of women in exile and of a Chilean diplomat in Madrid.

  6. 76 FR 21223 - Civil War Sesquicentennial

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-15

    .... Those who lived in these times--from the resolute African American soldier volunteering his life for the... do so as adherents to the enduring values of our founding and stakeholders in the promise of a...

  7. The Romanian Civil War: A Theoretical Discussion On The Proximate Causes of Violence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Ghaleb

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper is a theoretical account of the Romanian Revolution viewed from the eyes of an American international security strategist who recounts his childhood in Romania. The author believes that the unresolved nature of the violence during the revolution discouraged many historians and political scientists from applying genuine theoretical foundations to the study of a sustained conflict that resulted in 1,104 official deaths and 3,352 wounded. Ultimately, the author suggests, the proximate causes of the violence in 1989 provide sufficient evidence to define the revolution as a coup related civil war. The fact that a conflict that meets the casualty element of the civil war definition does not attract the attention of the academia is an injustice not only against the families of the victims of the conflict, but also against the study of contemporary history itself.

  8. On the establishment of the Freedmen’s Bureau at the end of American Civil War%论美国内战时期自由民局的创建

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王淑霞

    2014-01-01

    During the American Civil War, a large number of escaped slaves and liberated blacks lived on nothing. At first, it was the Federal Army and Folk Group and Charitable Organization that adopted some measures to keep them alive. At the same time, the military and folk limitation precipitated the federal government to undertake the duty of caring the of blacks, and the Congress disputed the necessity and constitutionality to establish the Freedmen’s Bureau to support the feeble majority, which resulted in the establishing of the Freedmen’s Bureau that helped the freedmen and refugees reconstruct the order of the social life and production. Its foundation was the breakthrough of the welfare system, presaging the change of power layout under the Federal System.%内战期间,大量逃奴及获得自由的数百万黑人无以为生。起初,是联邦军队、民间团体及慈善组织采取种种措施帮助他们生存。军队及民间力量的不足促使联邦政府承担起解决黑人生活问题的责任,国会对建立自由民局的必要性、合宪性等问题进行了辩论,支持建立者获得微弱优势,最终建立起统一的帮助自由民、难民重建社会生活与生产秩序的联邦机构自由民局。它的创建是美国福利制度发展史上的突破,预示了联邦制下权力布局的改变。

  9. Propaganda and the construction of a war culture in Spain during the Civil War

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco SEVILLANO CALERO

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This article analyses the war propaganda during the Civil War and the first years of the Francoist “New State». Recent work has addressed the construction of the image of the enemy on the basis of the prevailing stereotypes, and how General Franco’s persona was transfigured symbolically through the development of a charismatic image within the rhetoric, rites and liturgies of the ‘New State». This propaganda helped spread a culture of war from 1936 to 1939 and beyond.

  10. Photographic Histories of the Civil War and the First World War and Rebirth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Meigs

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The article compares The Photographic History of the Civil War published in 1912, with A Photographic History of the First World War, published in 1933. The author is looking for similarities in the reworking of interpretations of war photography after the war and discovers that the photographs in conjunction with their editing can be made to cover up as much as they reveal. The Photographic History of the Civil War, published at the height of the Jim Crow era, with its hugely elaborate editorial structure, manages to deny the importance of slavery to the war and the importance of freed slaves afterwards. Even photographs of the dead of Gettysburg take on a meaning more appropriate to 1912 than to the event that produced them. The comparatively direct A Photographic History of the First World War, manages loyalty only to the thought of the author at the moment of its publication. Other interpretations were possible at other times as the author editor followed literary fashion and history.

  11. The Great War: Ethnic Conflict for Chicago's German-Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Liesl K.

    1987-01-01

    Outlines the struggles of German-Americans in Chicago, Illinois during World War I. Contends these German-Americans met conflict, hostility, and pressure to compromise and reevaluate their place in Chicago as a result of the war. (BSR)

  12. American growth and Napoleonic Wars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vergil Hasan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Four years after the French Revolution, in 1793 a series of wars among France and other major powers of Europe began and they lasted until 1815. There is disagreement among economic historians about the effects of these wars on the trend of US economic growth. This paper aims to answer the following question. Did America as a neutral nation take advantage of economic possibilities caused by Europe at war through trade? To put it differently, this paper questions whether there was an export-led growth due to the war. To answer this question, we re-examined the export-led growth hypothesis for the period 1790-1860 using the ARDL methodology. Based on this methodology, a cointegrated relationship is found among the variables of real GDP, labor, exports and exchange rates. The results suggest that the economic growth of the US was not export-driven. In addition, parallel to the results of unit root tests with structural breaks, the coefficient of the dummy variable was statistically significant in the long run, implying that the war did have a significant effect on the economic growth trend of the US.

  13. Building State Capacity to Achieve Government Victory during Civil War

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-01

    inception as a Spanish colony into the current era. However, Kline fails to detail Colombia’s crucial civil war--La Violencia --occurring between...1948 and 1965, which is critical for illustrating the link between rule of law development and stable governance. James L. Zackrison’s “La Violencia in...78Ibid., 9-11. 79Ibid., 12-13. 80James L. Zackrison, “La Violencia in Colombia: An Anomaly in Terrorism

  14. About Women and Civil War: New Books and Narratives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana MARTÍNEZ RUS

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with publications of the last ten years which have examined the role of women in the Civil War. These studies reveal the decisive action of women on both parts to the conflict, at the front and also in the rear areas. The methodology and sources of local and oral history have led to better understanding of the images, ideology and concerns of women, as well as of the different roles they played in the war. In general studies of Republican women, both famous and anonymous, have predominated due to the interest in recovering the work of the defeated. The discourses on emancipation and the search for equality of the various political forces that kept the war effort of the Republic have also attracted great attention.

  15. The Revolutionary United Front and Child Soldiers during Sierra Leone’s Civil War

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-12

    amputations, torture, rape , and executions. Sierra Leone’s civil war is an interesting case study of how a rebel group could use a sizeable population...THE REVOLUTIONARY UNITED FRONT AND CHILD SOLDIERS DURING SIERRA LEONE’S CIVIL WAR A thesis presented to the Faculty of the...AND SUBTITLE The Revolutionary United Front and Child Soldiers during Sierra Leone’s Civil War 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c

  16. USAWC (United States Army War College) Military Studies Program Paper. The Development of the American General Staff: 1880 to 1920

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    of a general staff, reasons for such an organization, and the actual develorinent of the staff compared to the design. After the Amnerican Civil War...organization, and the actual development of the staff compared to the design. After the American Civil War a group of reformers assessed the performance of...and prohib- ited it from interfering with the bureaus and their administration. The bureau chiefs regarded the Act as their "Magna Carta " essentially

  17. Historical Simulation and the American Civil War.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-06-07

    serious casualties and ultimately in with- drawal anyway. Game-turn three ended with the Confederate Army moving up to the vicinity of the Bushong ...their first volley at Bushong House during turn four.25 However, when fired at medium range, as they were here, the characteristics of the Belgian rifle

  18. The Civil War in Narrative Fiction: Recent Spanish Contributions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando LARRAZ

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Since 2001, the year of publication of Javier Cerca’s novel Soldados de Salamina, there has been a marked increase in Spanish narrative on the Civil War. This shift is not merely quantitative. Relevant changes can also be noticed as regards treatment of the war itself, particularly in its relationship to the political present in Spain. This article aims at classifying these 21st-centurynovels according to the historical discourse implicit in their plots, characters and narrators’ position. In the second part, this article critically reviews certain questions raised by critics in relation to this body of work, as well as the most significant recent methodological and terminological approaches to the topic.

  19. Cold War Conflict: American Intervention in Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-05-01

    King.4 0 Undoubtedly, the majority was more of a vote against the Left than it was for the King. Nonetheless, the King returned and further insulated ...much stock in any pledge by the King to prevent such a regime would probably be less responsive to American influence and desire then it more pliable ...London: Hart- Davis, MacGibbon. 1976. Woods , Randall B., and Jones, Howard. Dawning of the Cold War: The United States’ Ouest For Order. Athens

  20. The 1918 Finnish Civil War Revisited: The Digital Aftermath

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Heimo

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Today heritage sites not only preserve the memory of grandiose moments of history, but also include the darker ones, which were previously either preferably forgotten or went unrecognised. In Finnish history, it is difficult to find a more painful example of these “sites of pain and shame” than the 1918 Civil War. This article examines the different ways that the 1918 Finnish Civil War is commemorated and represented on the Internet today, on both private and institutional websites as well as in social media, from the perspective of participatory history culture and vernacular authority. People have always shared information concerning the past with each other, but the way that this can be observed on the Internet today is novel. Only after the rise of new technology, the Internet and especially Web 2.0, people have had the possibility to share their experiences and interpretations side by side with history professionals to this degree. In relation to memory and heritage politics, this means that we need to re-examine the boundaries between private and public memory and official and unofficial heritage, and recognise new forms of collaboration between audiences and institutions.

  1. Our Experiences with Chest Trauma Patients in Syrian Civil War

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samil Gunay

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Thoracic surgery is a branch, the efficiency of which is unquestionable for war. And during the civil war in Syria, thoracic surgery specialists have been feeling this efficiency so closely. So we want to share our experiences on patients sent from this region. Material and Method: The cases comprised of 41 patients in total, 33 men and 8 women, between the ages of 16-75, who were brought from Syria between the dates of August 2012 %u2013 November 2013. The files of the patients were received from archive. Results: Except 11 isolated thorax trauma patients, it was determined thorax and abdomen injuries at 9 patients (21.9%, thorax and extremity injuries at 8 patients (19.5%, thorax and vertebra injuries at 3 patients (7.3%, thorax, abdomen and cranium injuries at 5 patients (12.1%, thorax, abdomen and eye injuries at one patient (2.4%, thorax, abdomen and vertebra injuries at 3 patients (7.3%, thorax, abdomen and extremity injuries at one patient (2.4%. Discussion: Thoracic surgery is a lifesaving branch in case of fast and effectual medical intervention to injuries during war.

  2. Mediation With Muscle: Understanding When Mediators Commit Resources to Civil War Negotiations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL MONTEREY, CALIFORNIA THESIS Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited MEDIATION WITH MUSCLE...UNDERSTANDING WHEN MEDIATORS COMMIT RESOURCES TO CIVIL WAR NEGOTIATIONS by Michael D. Caplan December 2015 Thesis Advisor: T. Camber Warren Second Reader...TYPE AND DATES COVERED Master’s thesis 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE MEDIATION WITH MUSCLE: UNDERSTANDING WHEN MEDIATORS COMMIT RESOURCES TO CIVIL WAR

  3. Burden of HIV/AIDS infection before and during the civil war in Somalia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, B H; Giovagnoli, M R; Mahad, H; Tarsitani, G G

    2010-08-01

    Somalia has suffered a massive internal population displacement and exodus that began in 1988 and is still ongoing during the prolonged and intermittent civil war. This review looks at the burden of HIV infection in Somali and the impact of civil war on its epidemiology. Serosurveys have indicated that HIV was not present in Somalia before the civil war and to date Somalia has had an HIV prevalence markedly below that of its neighbours. However, due to the ongoing war HIV sentinel surveillance cannot reach most of the affected areas in Somalia and the current HIV infection problem may be greater than the figures indicate.

  4. Getting to Negotiations in Syria: The Shadow of the Future and the Syrian Civil War

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    they were held simultaneously with, or after, a major donor’s conference to gather pledges for postconflict reconstruction and a meeting of the Secu...guarantee the peace and provide resources for reconstruction , they Getting to Negotiations in Syria The Shadow of the Future and the Syrian Civil War Paul D...promising a peacekeeping and reconstruction force that will start after they have agreed to peace. Background The civil war in Syria war grew out of

  5. THE AMERICAN CULTURE WARS AND AMERICAN LITERATURE TEXTBOOKS IN CHINA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZhouJingqiong

    2004-01-01

    The American Culture Wars have had a great impact on gender and racial relations in the US and have triggered the transformation of its literary canon. American literature textbooks in China. however, are not reaping the fruits of the US cultural debates, a conclusion based on a survey of eight popular textbooks recently published by prestigious publishing houses.Given the significance of the US sociopolitical base in shaping the canon and the lecturers' dependence on the textbooks, they need immediate and drastic improvement. The paper is rounded off with some cues on what to improve.

  6. The Jewish War and the Roman Civil War of 68-69 C.E. : Jewish, Pagan, and Christian Perspectives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Kooten, Geurt-Henk; Popovic, M

    2011-01-01

    George H. van Kooten, “The Jewish War and the Roman Civil War of 68-69 C.E.: Jewish, Pagan, and Christian Perspectives,” in The Jewish Revolt against Rome: Interdisciplinary Perspectives (ed. Mladen Popović; Supplements to the Journal for the Study of Judaism 154; Leiden and Boston: Brill, 2011), 41

  7. The Great War, the Russian Civil War, and the invention of big science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kojevnikov, Alexei

    2002-06-01

    The revolutionary transformation in Russian science toward the Soviet model of research started even before the revolution of 1917. It was triggered by the crisis of World War I, in response to which Russian academics proposed radical changes in the goals and infrastructure of the country's scientific effort. Their drafts envisioned the recognition of science as a profession separate from teaching, the creation of research institutes, and the turn toward practical, applied research linked to the military and industrial needs of the nation. The political revolution and especially the Bolshevik government that shared or appropriated many of the same views on science, helped these reforms materialize during the subsequent Civil War. By 1921, the foundation of a novel system of research and development became established, which in its most essential characteristics was similar to the U. S. later phenomenon known as "big science."

  8. Understanding Civil War Violence through Military Intelligence: Mining Civilian Targeting Records from the Vietnam War

    CERN Document Server

    Douglass, Rex W

    2015-01-01

    Military intelligence is underutilized in the study of civil war violence. Declassified records are hard to acquire and difficult to explore with the standard econometrics toolbox. I investigate a contemporary government database of civilians targeted during the Vietnam War. The data are detailed, with up to 45 attributes recorded for 73,712 individual civilian suspects. I employ an unsupervised machine learning approach of cleaning, variable selection, dimensionality reduction, and clustering. I find support for a simplifying typology of civilian targeting that distinguishes different kinds of suspects and different kinds targeting methods. The typology is robust, successfully clustering both government actors and rebel departments into groups that mirror their known functions. The exercise highlights methods for dealing with high dimensional found conflict data. It also illustrates how aggregating measures of political violence masks a complex underlying empirical data generating process as well as a comple...

  9. Our vascular surgery experiences in Syrian civil war

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İyad Fansa

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Due to the ongoing civil war in Syria, numerous vascular injured patients are admitted to our hospital with gunshot wounds. In this study, patients who admitted our hospital, diagnosed with vascular trauma due to gunshot were evaluated with the respect of injury site, additional injuries, surgical interventions and outcomes. Methods: The study included 58 patients wounded in Syrian war and admitted to our hospital between 01.01.2012 and 01.09.2014. Results= There were 5.1% (n=3 female and 94.9% (n=55 male patients. Age range is 5-75 years and the average of age was identified as 28.61. In 12.1% (n=7 of patients with extensive tissue defects of the muscle-nerve-bone injury has been identified, despite the vascular interventions in these patients, 8.6% (n=5 of patients, the limb has been amputated. Totally 15.5% (n=9 of 58 operated patients died. Two patients died because of major vascular injury with intra-abdominal organ injuries. In one patient; infection induced sepsis and multi organ failure was detected. Six patients were lost due to hypovolemic shock as a result of late arriving. Conclusion: In patients admitted with gunshot vascular injury arrival time, the presence of additional injuries and the location of injury affect mortality rates.

  10. Us vs. Them: Cultural Encounters in Warzones through Reading American War Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasna Poljak Rehlicki

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In 1996, Samuel Huntington argued that the end of the Cold War Era marked the end of global instability based on ideological and economic differences and preferences. However, he did not predict any kind of a peaceful future for humankind but maintained that future conflicts will arise from cultural differences. The clashes are inevitable, he claims, as long as one side (usually the West insists on imposing universalism to other civilizations whose cultural awareness is on the rise. Ever since the Vietnam War, American military tacticians have believed that the knowledge and understanding of the enemy’s culture will lead to victory, and American military academies and schools are dedicating more attention to cultural studies within their general strategy. This paper is based on the reading and analysis of several American fiction and non-fiction novels from the Vietnam and the Iraq Wars. Since all of these works are first-hand accounts of war experience and soldiers’ cultural encounters with their ‘adversaries’, the research is focused on the (impossibility of soldiers’ true understanding and appreciation of different cultures/civilizations during wartime. It also suggests that knowing the enemy is to no avail if wars are fought with the goal of Westernizing other cultures.

  11. Civil wars and mortality rates of military commanders: a historical-demographic study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavlov Yu. A.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper I would like to accomplish the following tasks: to compare mortality rates of generals in US civil war and Russia one; to explore the maximum life spans of military commanders; and to analyze changes in occupational mobility of commanders before and after the civil war. Both published materials and databases were used to determine mortality rates of generals. Civil wars are a vivid example of meritocracy. They evolve new military talents and give new political leaders. Civil wars are always a turning point in professional and social mobility. After some years of bitter fighting not everyone can pick up the threads. For some, the war was a step towards fame and fortune, for others a step towards disaster, obscurity and misery. History of civil wars suggests that men who started the war as young military leaders actually lived less than those who were in adulthood when the war began. Those who went through all the ordeals, even in the face of economic and political reconstruction (in the U.S., emigration or political repression (in the USSR could live to be very old.

  12. Assessment of the perioperative period in civilians injured in the Syrian Civil War

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sedat Hakimoglu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: wars and its challenges have historically afflicted humanity. In Syria, severe injuries occurred due to firearms and explosives used in the war between government forces and civilians for a period of over 2 years. MATERIALS AND METHODS: the study included 364 cases, who were admitted to Mustafa Kemal University Hospital, Medicine School (Hatay, Turkey, and underwent surgery. Survivors and non-survivors were compared regarding injury site, injury type and number of transfusions given. The mortality rate found in this study was also compared to those reported in other civil wars. RESULTS: the mean age was 29 (3-68 years. Major sites of injury included extremities (56.0%, head (20.1%, abdomen (16.2%, vascular structures (4.4% and thorax (3.3%. Injury types included firearm injury (64.4%, blast injury (34.4% and miscellaneous injuries (1.2%. Survival rate was 89.6% while mortality rate was 10.4%. A significant difference was observed between mortality rates in this study and those reported for the Bosnia and Lebanon civil wars; and the difference became extremely prominent when compared to mortality rates reported for Vietnam and Afghanistan civil wars. CONCLUSION: among injuries related to war, the highest rate of mortality was observed in head-neck, abdomen and vascular injuries. We believe that the higher mortality rate in the Syrian Civil War, compared to the Bosnia, Vietnam, Lebanon and Afghanistan wars, is due to seeing civilians as a direct target during war.

  13. Irregular Enemies and the Essence of Strategy: Can the American Way of War Adapt?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-03-01

    consequence was Herman Kahn, On Escalation: Metaphors and Scenarios, New York: Praeger, 1965. 63. Huntington, American Military Strategy, p. 16. 64...sacrifice mandated by a public culture of unpreparedness is well told in Charles E. Heller and William A. Stofft, eds., America’s First Battles, 1776... Herman Hattaway and Archer Jones, How the North Won: A Military History of the Civil War, Urbana, IL: University of Illinois Press, 1983, p. 720, for

  14. Slave to Working-Class Women:Black Women in the Civil War Era

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李欢

    2014-01-01

    It seems the civil war brought some improvement and new opportunity to black women. Their social identity changes from slave to working- class women. However it is difficult for them to lead a real y equal and free life.

  15. The Other Clash of Civilizations: Samuel Huntington and American Civil Military Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-17

    21 Frederick S. Calhoun, The Wilsonian Way of War: American Armed Power from Veracruz to Vladivostok...1985), 90. 23 Frederick S. Calhoun, The Wilsonian Way of War: American Armed Power from Veracruz to Vladivostok (Thesis no. T28722. USA, 1983), 59-61... Veracruz to Vladivostok (Thesis no. T28722. USA, 1983), 59-61. 25 August Heckscher, Woodrow Wilson (New York: Maxwell Macmillan International, 1991

  16. Gendered spaces, gendered pages: Union women in Civil War nurse narratives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telford, Jennifer Casavant; Long, Thomas Lawrence

    2012-12-01

    This interdisciplinary analysis joins literary and culture studies with history using Daphne Spain's theory of gendered spaces. Specifically, we examine the reconfiguration of the spaces of military medical work and of book publishing that produced popular literary representations of those medical spaces. As a social historian of nursing and a scholar of American literature and culture, we argue that the examination of Civil War narratives by or about Northern female nurses surveys a landscape in which women penetrated the masculine spaces of the military hospital and the literary spaces of the wartime narrative. In so doing, these women transformed these spaces into places acknowledging and even relying upon what had been traditionally considered male domains. Like many historiographical papers written about nurses and the impact of their practice over time, this work is relevant to those practicing nursing today, specifically those issues related to professional authority and professional autonomy.

  17. American Women and the Great War.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumenil, Lynn

    2002-01-01

    Provides information on the idealized images of women during World War I. Features the use of posters and propaganda during the war. Focuses on voluntary activities in which women participated, the fight for women's suffrage during the war, and the effect of the war on women working. Includes poster reproductions. (CMK)

  18. 38 CFR 3.712 - Improved pension elections; surviving spouses of Spanish-American War veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... elections; surviving spouses of Spanish-American War veterans. 3.712 Section 3.712 Pensions, Bonuses, and... spouses of Spanish-American War veterans. (a) General. A surviving spouse of a Spanish-American War... and attendance. A surviving spouse of a Spanish-American War veteran who is receiving or entitled...

  19. Wladimir Krzyzanowski, 123 Polish Hero of the Civil War in the USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PIYUK T.G.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The article is dedicated to the young Polish revolutionist Wladimir Krzyzanowski who emigrated from Great Poland to the US after failed uprising in 1846 against Prussia in order to avoid possible arrest. He went to Hamburg, Germany and sailed from there to the United States.W. Krzyzanowski managed to become a successful and prosperous businessman and politician, and he was lucky in his personal life, he married a girl with a name and a significant dowry. He considered slavery not only anachronistic, but also a disgrace to the young state, and at the same time, he admired American democracy and American people. In Washington he recruited the company of Polish immigrants which became one of the first companies of Union Soldiers. Krzyzanowski then moved his company to New York and enlisted more immigrants and soon became a Colonel of the 58th Infantry Division, listed in the official Army Register as the “Polish Legion”. He participated in the Civil War battles of Cross-Keys, Bull Run, Chancellorsville, and Gettysburg. “Polish Legion”, led by Krzyzanowski, made himself famous in the main battle at Gettysburg. Subsequently, the memorial of granite was erected to legion in the immediate vicinity of the city.The author’s attention was attracted by the eccentric personality of the Pole, known in Poland and in America. In her work she explores Krzyzanowski’s life and service to the American people

  20. Advertising as a Communicative Phenomenon during the Spanish Civil War

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dra. Araceli Rodríguez Mateos

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Advertising is a phenomenon that has helped to model societies during the last century. In order to know how it has participated in some change processes it is essential to analyse its communicative dimension. Within the theoretical framework of the History of Social Communication, this research studies the function of the commercial discourse during the Spanish Civil War. Results in three levels have been concluded with an analytic model focused on the messages spread in the press. First, the modern evolution of the advertising technique is confirmed. Second, the different alignment of advertising is compared with the propagandistic discourse of each faction, as well as with its ideological and commercial interests, and with the different relationship with consumers about events. Third, advertisements allow us to observe many details about current life better than the information censored does; specifically, the struggle to survive in the most damaged republican cities is clearly perceived. - Traducción supervisada por la Dra. María del Pino Montesdeoca (ULL.La publicidad es un fenómeno que ha ayudado a modelar las sociedades durante el último siglo y, para saber cómo ha participado en los procesos de cambio, es imprescindible analizar su dimensión comunicativa. Desde el marco teórico de la Historia de la Comunicación Social, este estudio aborda la función del discurso comercial durante la Guerra Civil española. Con un modelo analítico centrado en los mensajes difundidos en prensa se han obtenido resultados en tres niveles. Primero, se confirma la evolución moderna de la técnica publicitaria. Segundo, se compara la diferente alineación de la publicidad con el discurso propagandístico de las zonas enfrentadas, los intereses a los que respondía y la distinta interpelación a los consumidores respecto a los acontecimientos. Tercero, los anuncios permiten observar, mejor que la información censurada, ciertos detalles relativos a la

  1. EXPLORATION ON PERFORMANCE AND CAUSES OF EDUCATIONAL PROGRESS OF AFRICAN-AMERICAN IN WORLD WAR II---LEAVING ASIDE THE DISCUSSION OF THE POSTWAR BLACK CIVIL RIGHTS MOVEMENT%二战后美国黑人教育进步的表现及原因探析--撇开战后黑人民权运动的讨论

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李浩; 周磊

    2014-01-01

    Education is particularly important for enlightening wisdom and heritage of national culture of a nation, but as a "second-class citizens", the African-American’ right to receive education was denied when they came to the American continent. The African Americans not only struggle for freedom, but also for the right to receive education at all times. The blacks’right to receive education after World War II has been continuously improved and achieved great progress. The progress in educational advancement is due to the post-war turbulent black civil rights movement and more importantly, the main reason is due to the enhancement of the political and economic status of African Americans;In addition, Postwar America needs high-quality labor of African Americans; Postwar U.S. domestic and international situation have also played a significant role in promoting the educational progress of African Americans;certainly the progress also benefits from the support of liberal American politicians.%教育对于启迪一个民族的智慧和传承民族文化尤为重要,而作为“二等公民”的美国黑人接受教育的权力在其来到美洲大陆,就被剥夺。美国黑人在争取自由的同时,也在无时不刻的争取接受教育的权利。二战后黑人受教育权利不断得到改善,进步明显。这些进步不仅是战后风起云涌的黑人民权运动所致,更主要的是美国黑人自身政治经济地位的提升;战后对于高素质黑人劳动力的需要;同时战后美国国内和国际形势对于黑人教育进步也起到了很大的促进作用;当然也得益于开明美国政治人物的支持。

  2. Civil Rights Issues Facing Arab Americans in Michigan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michigan State Advisory Committee to the U.S. Commission on Civil Rights.

    This report is a summary statement of the Michigan Advisory Committee's study on civil rights issues facing Arab American communities in Michigan. It is based on information received by the Committee at a community forum held in Dearborn, Michigan, in 1999. Six sections focus on: (1) "Introduction," including Arab American demographics…

  3. A Jewish America and a Protestant Civil Religion: Will Herberg, Robert Bellah, and Mid-Twentieth Century American Religion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronit Y. Stahl

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This essay reads Will Herberg’s Protestant-Catholic-Jew alongside Robert Bellah’s “Civil Religion in America” to illuminate how mid-century thinkers constructed, rather than merely observed, a vision of, and for, American religion. Placing Herberg in direct conversation with Bellah illuminates why Herberg’s religious triptych depiction of America endured while his argument for an “American Way of Life”—the prototype for Bellah’s widely accepted idea of civil religion—flailed. Although Herberg’s “American Way of Life” and Bellah’s “Civil Religion” resemble one another as systems built on but distinct from faith traditions, they emerged from intellectual struggles with two distinct issues. Herberg’s work stemmed from the challenges wrought by ethnic and religious diversity in America, while Bellah wrote out of frustration with Cold War conformity. Both men used civil religion to critique American complacency, but Herberg agonized over trite formulations of faith while Bellah derided uncritical affirmations of patriotism. Bellah’s civil religion co-existed with and, more importantly, contained Herberg’s “Protestant-Catholic-Jew” triad and obscured the American Way of Life. In an increasingly diverse and divisive America, Bellah’s civil religion provided a more optimistic template for national self-critique, even as Herberg’s American Way of Life more accurately described the limits of national self-understanding.

  4. Commemoration, Race, and World War II: History and Civil Rights at the Tuskegee Airmen National Historic Site

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renée Ater

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available History and civil rights are intertwined at the Tuskegee Airmen National Historic Site at Moton Field in Tuskegee, Alabama. Moton Field was a training flight facility for African American pilot candidates in the U.S. Army Air Corps during World War II, operating from 1941–45. Through the extant buildings and interpretive exhibits, the National Park Service commemorates the Tuskegee Airmen’s contributions to World War II, recognizing the first African American military aviators and their struggle for civil rights during the 1940s. This essay examines the way in which race, personal narratives, historical objects, and sensorial experience (sight, sound, touch, and smell are used at the historic site to suggest the significance of the Tuskegee Airmen. Despite the segregation and racism that they experienced in the U.S. military, the African American pilots and the men and women who worked alongside them believed staunchly in the idea of service to the nation as a means of participating in democracy and gaining full citizenship.

  5. The Influence of Biblical Culture on American Spiritual Civilization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李惠子

    2014-01-01

    Biblical culture is deeply rooted into current American society and culture,widely impacting every aspect of American people’s life.Through discussing about the historical accumulation of biblical culture reflected in America’s societal and spiritual civilization,this essay analyses the importance and function of biblical culture from the aspect of society inheritance,value,literature creation and customs etc.,helping us to further understand and study American society and culture.

  6. The Influence of Biblical Culture on American Spiritual Civilization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李惠子

    2014-01-01

    Biblical culture is deeply rooted into current American society and culture, widely impacting every aspect of American people’s life. Through discussing about the historical accumulation of biblical culture reflected in America’s societal and spiritual civilization, this essay analyses the importance and function of biblical culture from the aspect of society inheritance, value, literature creation and customs etc., helping us to further understand and study American society and culture.

  7. Somatic hypotheses of war syndromes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soetekouw, P.M.M.B.; Vries, M. de; Bergen, L.F.J.M. van; Galama, J.M.D.; Keyser, A.J.M.; Bleijenberg, G.; Meer, J.W.M. van der

    2000-01-01

    Since the end of the American Civil War, unexplained symptoms in military personnel arising after a war or peace mission have frequently been described. The pattern of symptoms is highly similar for all of the various war syndromes although the conditions of each war or peace mission are widely diff

  8. Democratization in the Gulf Monarchies and American Civil Society

    OpenAIRE

    Azam, M. Nazrul Islam and Muhammad

    2010-01-01

    The paper deals with the efforts made by American private sector and civil society actors after 2000 to popularize democratic values and norms in the six Gulf states, namely Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, and the United Arab Emirates. The study is focused on areas including politics, education, culture, media, human rights, and women empowerment. The paper also deals with approaches adopted, goals and objectives set and strategies devised and employed by the American NGOs regardi...

  9. Learning History by Doing: The Laboratory in American Civilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Zane L.; Shapiro, Henry D.

    1978-01-01

    Reviews development and first two years' experiences of a laboratory course of inquiry into the nature and processes of American civilization through examination of local history as symptomatic history. Faculty, graduate fellows, and advanced undergraduates collaborated on research and analysis of the relationship of culture, environment, and…

  10. Native Americans in Cold War Public Diplomacy: Indian Politics, American History, and the US Information Agency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denson, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    This essay examines the depiction of Native Americans by the US Information Agency (USIA), the bureau charged with explaining American politics to the international public during the Cold War. In the 1950s and 1960s, the USIA broadcast the message that Americans had begun to acknowledge their nation's history of conquest and were working to…

  11. On the Civil War and its background: a look from Hungary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iván HARSÁNYI

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The Spanish Civil War has been dealt with extensively by Hungarian historiography throughout the past five decades. Its memory has been kept alive through a series of testimonials by surviving Hungarian volunteers of the International Brigades. Later on, efforts have also been made to examine the war by way of monographs. The range of archive material available has widened dramatically, particularly after the social and political regime-change of 1989-90. On the occasion of important anniversaries, most recently in 2011, researchers have sought answers to a number of issues relating to the Civil War, joining the international debate on the subject. Several universities partake in this research — notably those of Szeged and Pécs where in the last two decades dozens of papers have been published on the Civil War, its background, and its consequences. The Historical Actas of the universities (Szeged and Kaposvár, as well as the annals of the international labour movement both play a significant role; the latter also contain many short biographies of participants and historians of the war.

  12. Catalan historians and the Civil War: a step forwards is needed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luis MARTIN RAMOS

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Although much of it communicational and even propagandistic in nature, there is now an abundance of Catalan literature on the Civil War. The study of the war in Catalonia has obviously made progress, in particular through a larger exploitation of primary sources, and has overcome its over-reliance on personal memoirs, recollections and oral testimonies. However, there is still a predominant focus on the period ending in May 1937. The consequence is a significant lack of scientific knowledge on what happened from that date until the end of the war. Moreover, some recurring stereotypes subsist, such as the notion that the Civil War was not truly an internal, civil confrontation but rather an act of aggression against Catalonia. There exists also the “moral excuse” for so-called “revolutionary violence” during the first months of the war, as opposed to the unreserved condemnation of the institutional repression carried out by the Government of the Republic in legitimate self-defence.

  13. (Ending) Civil War in the Classroom: A Peacebuilding Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brynen, Rex

    2010-01-01

    There often exists a problematic gap between more theoretical works on war-to-peace transitions, and the practical challenges that peacebuilding operations face in the field. This article describes the use of classroom simulation to highlight the complexity of contemporary multilateral peace operations. It describes the content and mechanics of…

  14. Japanese Americans During World War II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irons, Peter; Masugi, Ken

    1986-01-01

    The arguments in favor of and against monetary redress for survivors of America's wartime internment camps are presented. Pro-redress arguments emphasize the injustices done the victims. Anti-redress arguments focus on the duties for citizenship and the reasonable actions politicians might have concluded were necessary to win the war. (PS)

  15. The Irrelevance of the Security Dilemma for Civil Wars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duyvesteyn, I.G.B.M.; Visser, E.

    2014-01-01

    This article revisits the security dilemma theory and its application to civil conflict. Based on a careful reading of existing studies, it exposes the deviations from the original theory developed in the 1950s and more recent amendments, which have substantially reduced the explanatory value of the

  16. Multiperspectivism in the Novels of the Spanish Civil War

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Hans Lauge

    2011-01-01

    stereotyp-opfattelsen af borgerkrigen som en konfrontation mellem det Gode og det Onde. De fire romaner er Javier Cercas' Soldados de Salamina (2001), Alberto Méndez' Los girasoles ciegos (2004), Antonio Muñoz Molina's La noche de los tiempos (2009) og Isaac Rosas Otra maldita novela sobre la guerra civil...

  17. 美国内战与奴隶制%The Civil War and Slavery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李剑; 余冬梅

    2003-01-01

    美国内战有其自身的历史背景,一个是外国的入侵,另一个南北方之间就市场,劳动力,关税和奴隶制存在着诸多的争议.奴隶制只不过是其中的一个小小的争议.奴隶制是欧洲奴隶贸易和美国国内生产发展需要的结果.美国和英国都镇压过奴隶贸易,但是非法的奴隶贸易一直在继续.同时,由于美国国内经济发展的需要,国内的奴隶贸易也在继续.一直等到美国内战结束,奴隶制才逐渐地消亡.内战期间,国家的重建才是林肯政府至上的目标,而奴隶的解放只是战争的一项措施,它的局限性体现在对奴隶主进行赔偿和上.又由于对奴隶的解放局限于某些地区,因而事实上并没有立即奏效.渐渐地,越来越多的黑人加入了北方的军队,但是他们在很多方面并没有获得和白人一样的待遇.%The Civil War had its historical background. One was the foreign force's invasion, and the other was many controversies on market, labour, tariff and slavery between the North and the South. Slavery only was a minor issue. Slavery was a result of European slave trade and need for the production in American. The United States and England suppressed the slave trade, but the illicit business still continued. Meanwhile, because of the domestic need for economic development, the internal slave trade went on. Slavery did not perish until the Civil War ended. During the war, the restoration of the Union was Lincoln government's paramount object. The emancipation of slaves was merely an effective war measure and possessed limitations, which were embodied in the compensation to slaveholders and the emancipation proclamation. Since the emancipation was limited in certain scope, the procla-mation had no immediate practical effect. Gradually, more and more black persons joined in the north army while they were not treated as white soldiers in many aspects.

  18. Are civil wars to blame for crime in Central America?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Sofia Cardenal Izquierdo

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The countries of Central America are high up on the list of nations with the highest crime rates in the world. According to the literature, the most common argument is that these high crimerates are a legacy of the armed conflicts of the 1980s. This article subjects this theory to an empirical examination. Even though the analysis is preliminary and limited, the results serve to question theexistence of such a link between war and crime. The data show that the areas most affected by war in El Salvador and Guatemala are not the ones that show the highest rates of crime. Furthermore, no direct relation exists between the presence of armed conflict and crime rates at a national level. The presence of armed conflict is neither a necessary factor nor a sufficient one for criminal violence. Onthe contrary, this work points to a close link between inequality and crime rates at a national level.

  19. Culture Wars: Air Force Culture and Civil-Military Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-01

    their place, the complexities of com- bat require an actual—or virtual—human presence over the battlefield. Autonomously Decisive The technological...war-fighting domains, unique subcultures have developed within insulated commands. Then–Chief of Staff of the Air Force Merrill Mc- Peak lamented... Wood , “Workloads and Pay Woes Driving Veteran Pilots Out of Air Force,” The Star-Ledger (Newark, NJ), 29 May 1997, 12; Paul K. White, Crises after the

  20. Spanish-American War: "You Furnish the Pictures, I'll Furnish the War."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobre, Ken; And Others

    Newspaper and magazine coverage of the Spanish-American War represents the apex and the eventual eclipse of the hand sketch artist as news-gatherer and simultaneously the birth of the modern-day photojournalist. Perhaps of even wider impact was the strong new role of visual reportage. The daily barrage of drawings and photographs by William…

  1. Defining American Heroes: Analyzing the Metamorphosis of the War Hero in Twentieth Century War Films Using Joseph Campbell's, "Hero's Journey."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frith, Luci A.

    In "The Hero's Journey" Joseph Campbell identifies the patterns that inform the myths of the "hero" throughout recorded history. By using Campbell's template, this paper examines how the American war hero is portrayed and has been portrayed in film. The paper states that Americans not only define their war heroes in films but…

  2. Civil war and the spread of AIDS in Central Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smallman-Raynor, M R; Cliff, A D

    1991-08-01

    Using ordinary least squares regression techniques this paper demonstrates, for the first time, that the classic association of war and disease substantially accounts for the presently observed geographical distribution of reported clinical AIDS cases in Uganda. Both the spread of HIV 1 infection in the 1980s, and the subsequent development of AIDS to its 1990 spatial pattern, are shown to be significantly and positively correlated with ethnic patterns of recruitment into the Ugandan National Liberation Army (UNLA) after the overthrow of Idi Amin some 10 years earlier in 1979. This correlation reflects the estimated mean incubation period of 8-10 years for HIV 1 and underlines the need for cognizance of historical factors which may have influenced current patterns of AIDS seen in Central Africa. The findings may have important implications for AIDS forecasting and control in African countries which have recently experienced war. The results are compared with parallel analyses of other HIV hypotheses advanced to account for the reported geographical distribution of AIDS in Uganda.

  3. Demobilization and social reintegration of Brazilian and American troops of World War II: a comparative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Cesar Alves Ferraz

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to discuss the results of a comparative study of demobilization and social reintegration of Brazilian and American veterans of World War II. . In spite of the obvious difference in scale of the two military experiences, I argue that the study of the two experiences can offer new insights into lights on various common issues to both countries: the relationship between the societies and their armed forces, between the governments and their citizens, social and racial inequalities and, finally, the experiences of building welfare state structures during the war and postwar periods. Based on international studies of demobilization and social integration war veterans, the variables that were decisive for the success or failure of adaptation were: a past experiences in the reintegration of war veterans; b the nature and consequences of recruitment of future veterans; c planning by the State and the Armed Forces of procedures for post-bellum demobilization and reintegration; d the implementation of demobilization and the effects within the military institution and in civil society.

  4. Guerrilla Operations in the Civil War: Assessing Compound Warfare During Price’s Raid

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    hand, Three Years with Quantrill by O. S. Barton and Noted Guerrillas, or the Warfare on the Border by John Edwards provide alternate views of...events described in other sources. For example, Barton relates John McCorkle’s account of the story about guerrillas who Price’s army before the Battle of...Jay Monaghan provided excellent accounts of the major operations in the Trans-Mississippi Department during the Civil War. Finally, the framework for

  5. Violent crime in post-civil war Guatemala: causes and policy implications

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited Guatemala is one of the most violent countries in Latin America, and thus the world. The primary purpose of this thesis is to answer the following question: what factors explain the rise of violent crime in post-civil war Guatemala? The secondary focus of this thesis is to identify the transnational implications of Guatemala’s violence for U.S. policy. Guatemala’s critical security environment requires the identification of causal rela...

  6. The past in contemporary Spanish Novel: the topic of the Civil War

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Becerra Mayor

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In Spain, a great number of novels about our most recent past, specifically on the Spanish Civil War, have been published in the last years. This paper aims to offer an explanation for the proliferation of such a large number of titles on the Spanish Civil War. The paper first presents a research hypothesis, analysing this return to the past such that in contemporary Spanish narrative the past appears as if it were a product of advanced capitalism: once authors have accepted and internalized the premise, as suggested by the post-modern mantra of the “end of history”, that we live in the best of possible worlds and that there is no opposition or contradiction in our present, the novelist must seek recourse in the conflictual past in order to be able to evoke narrative complexity. The paper also attempts to define a paradigm that shows the aesthetic and ideological mechanisms used in the reconstruction of the war which these novels propose. The following techniques – the equidistant and symmetrical description of the national war, its “aideological” image of reality, its questioning of the objectivist paradigms and the ontological balance established between History and fiction – are some of the features by which it is possible to characterise this literary trend of the Spanish Civil War today, in line with the dominant postmodern ideology.

  7. Terrorism, civil war, one-sided violence and global burden of disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerridge, Bradley T; Khan, Maria R; Sapkota, Amir

    2012-01-01

    Armed conflict and related violence, including terrorism and one-sided violence, has profound effects on people's health and lives. The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between deaths due to terrorism, civil war and one-sided violence from 1994-2000 and disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) occurring in 2002 attributable to all causes and specific communicable and noncommunicable diseases. Deaths resulting from terrorism, war and one-sided violence were positively associated with all cause as well as a number of communicable and noncommunicable disease-specific DALYs across the majority of sex and age subgroups of the populace, controlling for an array of economic factors empirically shown to affect public health. Overall, a 1.0% increase in deaths due to terrorism, civil war and one-sided violence from 1994-2000 was associated with a 0.16% increase in DALYs lost to all causes in 2002 in the total world population. There was little variation in the magnitude of these associations between males and females and between communicable and noncommunicable diseases. The results of the present study can begin to guide post-conflict recovery by focusing on interventions targeting both noncommunicable as well as communicable diseases, thereby highlighting the full health costs of war and ultimately providing a strong rationale for promoting peace.

  8. Games, civil war and mutiny: metaphors of conflict for the nurse-doctor relationship in medical television programmes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, Roslyn

    2013-12-01

    Metaphors of medicine are common, such as war, which is evident in much of our language about health-care where patients and healthcare professionals fight disease, or the game, which is one way to frame the nurse-doctor professional relationship. This study analyses six pilot episodes of American (Grey's Anatomy, Hawthorne, Mercy, Nurse Jackie) and Australian (All Saints, RAN) medical television programmes premiering between 1998 and 2009 to assess one way that our contemporary culture understands and constructs professional relationships between nurses and doctors. Analysis shows that these popular television programmes frequently depict conflict, with games, civil war and mutiny between nurses and doctors over patient safety rather than professionals working collaboratively in teams to deliver health-care. Although the benefit of this televised conflict is the implication that nurses are knowledgeable, skilled professionals, the negative connotations include a dysfunctional and dangerous healthcare system, and also ongoing power struggles. Given that popular culture can sometimes influence the public's understanding of real-life nursing practice, it is important to explore what these metaphors of conflict are communicating about the nurse-doctor relationship.

  9. War and Education in the United States: Racial Ideology and Inequality in Three Historical Episodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rury, John L.; Darby, Derrick

    2016-01-01

    This paper examines the impact of war on African-American education. This question is considered in three different periods: the eras of the American Revolution, the Civil War and the Second World War. Large-scale conflict, such as these instances of total war, can afford historical moments when oppressed groups are able take steps to improve…

  10. War as a business and the civil war businesses in 1851

    OpenAIRE

    Jurado Jurado, Juan Carlos

    2014-01-01

    Tradicionalmente las guerras civiles hispanoamericanas han significado un importante factor de inestabilidad política e inseguridad económica,a las que se les ha endilgado hasta la exageración el atraso y el subdesarrollo nacional durante el siglo XIX. Sin embargo,estas representaciones han sido construidas con muchos prejuicios y poco estudio,por parte de extranjeros y observadores internacionales. Nuevas investigaciones han logrado precisar el significado político y económico de las guerras...

  11. South Africa's role in the Civil War in Russia 1918-1920

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W.M. Bisset

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available South Africa's role in the Civil War in Russia (1917 -1920 has never been fully researched and it is probable that relatively few people are aware that South Africans were among those who fought against the Red Army in 1918-1920. Although it has not been possible to trace a roll of members of the South African Forces who served in Russia between 1918 and 1920, their autobiographies and letters published in The Nongqai have made it possible to compile an interim report on the subject. However, it is important to note that even if the roll of members of the South African Forces who served in Russia could be traced or compiled from the personnel record cards in the SADF Archives, this would not provide a complete picture because a number of the South Africans who served in Russia had served in the British Forces throughout the Great War.

  12. The American History of PTSD: Civil War -- Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-21

    public, friends, and the families of those affected received them with great warmth intent on dispelling the traumatic event or conditions. Friends...Additional manifestation characteristics included somatic preoccupations, clinical depression, interpersonal attachment, negative ruminations, social...extreme, general apathy. Poor concentration, attention, and memory. ·somatic preoccupations, clinical depression, interpersonal attachment

  13. The Second Tennessee Cavalry in the American Civil War

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-13

    General Edmund 1 Kirby Smith’s command in East Tennessee.1 In the fall of 1862, the regiment followed Smith into Kentucky and covered his army’s... Burke Families of East Tennessee (Springboro, OH: PBR Publishing, 2005). Eddie Lawson is the primary author of this book with contributions from...of Gainesboro, Tennessee.75 Kirby Smith Takes Command On 8 March 1862, Major General Edmund Kirby Smith took command of the Department of East

  14. THE DESTRUCTION OF THE ZULU KINGDOM: THE CIVIL WAR IN ZULULAND 1879-1884

    OpenAIRE

    D.H. Makobe

    2012-01-01

    The Destruction of the Zulu Kingdom: The civil war in Zululand 1879-1884, was originally submitted as a Ph.D dissertation in History at the University of London in 1975.Professor Jeff Guy, a well known historian on Zulu history and the present head of the History Department at the University of Natal, Durban branch has divided his work into three main parts. In the first part, entitled the "Invasion" he details the foundations of the Zulu Kingdom, the political structure of the Kingdom during...

  15. Spying by American Archaeologists in World War I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David L. Browman

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available I am interested in detailing two aspects linked to the issue of several archaeologists working for the U.S. Office of Naval Intelligence (ONI during the First World War. These spying activities were part of the controversy surrounding the censure of Franz Boas by the American Anthropological Association (AAA for his published letter of October 1919, in which Boas claimed that four unnamed researchers were involved in espionage activities using archaeological research as a front. As they were unnamed, who were these four archaeologists?

  16. [Neurological changes related to malnutrition during the spanish civil war (1936-1939)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culebras, Jesús M

    2014-04-01

    In this lecture, given at the International Conferences on Neuroscience, in Quito, May 31st-June 1st of 2013, the topic of famine situations during the Spanish Civil War, 1936-1939, was approached. Madrid, the capital of Spain, was under food, water and milk rationing during that period. This situation led to conditions that showed the relationships between the nervous system and nutrition. The Madrilenian population was submitted to a real experiment of hyponutrition, similar to the one that may be reproduced at the laboratory. At the end of the war, the National Direction on Health and the Institute of Medical Investigations, with the collaboration of the Rockefeller Foundation, carried out a series of clinical and food consumption surveys among the Madrilenian population. There were three medical situations that were of particular relevance during the Civil War and after it: the pellagra epidemics, the onset of lathyrism, and the socalled Vallecas syndrome. The occurrence of pellagra cases was paramount because it allowed reconsidering all the unspecific symptoms observed from an already known vitamin deficiency. Pellagra became the most prevalent deficitrelated disease, and most clearly related to nutrition. Lathyrism is a chronic intoxication produced by the accumulation of neurotoxins. It is due to common intake of chickling peas (Lathyrus sativus). Chickling peas are toxic only if they represent more than 30% of the daily calories consumed for a prolonged period greater than two to three months. Lathyrism would reoccur in the Spanish population after the war, in 1941 and 1942, the so called "famine years", when due to the scarcity of foods chickling pea flour was again consumed in high amounts. Deficiency-related neuropathies observed in Madrid during the Civil War led to new and original clinical descriptions. In children from schools of the Vallecas neighborhood, a deficiency syndrome, likely related to vitamin B complex deficiency, was described, which

  17. A Contrast Study on Chinese and American Feminism Reflected in Martial Security War and Desperate Housewives

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵凌志

    2015-01-01

    Both Marital Security War and Desperate Housewives reflect modern Chinese and American women's double pressure and challenges in marriage, career, life etc. This paper made a contrast study on Chinese and American feminism.

  18. A Contrast Study on Chinese and American Feminism Reflected in Martial Security War and Desperate Housewives

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵凌志

    2015-01-01

    Both Marital Security War and Desperate Housewives reflect modern Chinese and American women’s double pressure and challenges in marriage, career, life etc. This paper made a contrast study on Chinese and American feminism.

  19. General George Washington and the Formulation of American Strategy for the War of Independence

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    retreating 1 Sun Tzu, The Art of War, ed. James Clavell , (New York: Dell Publishing, 1983), 19. 2 until the...Tzu, Sun. The Art of War. Ed. James Clavell . New York: Dell Publishing, 1983. Weigley, Russell F. The American Way of War. Bloomington

  20. 38 CFR 3.950 - Helpless children; Spanish-American and prior wars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Helpless children; Spanish-American and prior wars. 3.950 Section 3.950 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF... § 3.950 Helpless children; Spanish-American and prior wars. Marriage is not a bar to the payment...

  1. The Balkans and Syria’s Civil War: Realities and Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MA. Perparim Gutaj

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The prime objective of this research paper is to look at the realities and challenges confronting the Balkan states and societies in light of Syria’s civil war. By examining the mobilization process of Balkan militants who are joining Syria’s rebel cause, especially the Islamic radical groups linked to al-Qaeda, this paper proposes a model that explains why and how Balkan militants are joining the fight in Syria. Drawing upon reliable media reports, personal observations, academic accounts, and other consistent sources, this paper argues that Balkan militants are joining Syria’s rebel cause because foreign Islamic radical groups (that have been operating in the Balkans since the early 1990s have successfully indoctrinated them. This paper challenges the argument that Islam in the Balkans is a threat to the region, and the claim that Balkan Islam and Muslims in the region are becoming an increasing threat to the West. The central findings of this paper exemplify that the future of Balkan militants is bleak and that they will be confronted with a massive modern and democratic resistance that offers them nothing but reintegration into Balkan Islam, their natural “religious nest.” Notwithstanding the trends related to Syria’s civil war, Balkan Muslims belong to the West, culturally and mentally.

  2. Delays in childhood immunization in a conflict area: a study from Sierra Leone during civil war

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gage George N

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sierra Leone has undergone a decade of civil war from 1991 to 2001. From this period few data on immunization coverage are available, and conflict-related delays in immunization according to the Expanded Programme on Immunization (EPI schedule have not been investigated. We aimed to study delays in childhood immunization in the context of civil war in a Sierra Leonean community. Methods We conducted an immunization survey in Kissy Mess-Mess in the Greater Freetown area in 1998/99 using a two-stage sampling method. Based on immunization cards and verbal history we collected data on immunization for tuberculosis, diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis, polio, and measles by age group (0–8/9–11/12–23/24–35 months. We studied differences between age groups and explored temporal associations with war-related hostilities taking place in the community. Results We included 286 children who received 1690 vaccine doses; card retention was 87%. In 243 children (85%, 95% confidence interval (CI: 80–89% immunization was up-to-date. In 161 of these children (56%, 95%CI: 50–62% full age-appropriate immunization was achieved; in 82 (29%, 95%CI: 24–34% immunization was not appropriate for age. In the remaining 43 children immunization was partial in 37 (13%, 95%CI: 9–17 and absent in 6 (2%, 95%CI: 1–5. Immunization status varied across age groups. In children aged 9–11 months the proportion with age-inappropriate (delayed immunization was higher than in other age groups suggesting an association with war-related hostilities in the community. Conclusion Only about half of children under three years received full age-appropriate immunization. In children born during a period of increased hostilities, immunization was mostly inappropriate for age, but recommended immunizations were not completely abandoned. Missing or delayed immunization represents an additional threat to the health of children living in conflict areas.

  3. The monkeys' sworn oath : cultures of engagement for reconciliation and healing in the aftermath of the civil war in Mozambique

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Igreja, Victor

    2007-01-01

    This study examines the social world of reconciliation and healing in the aftermath of the protracted Mozambican civil war. Using a multidisciplinary approach (sociology, history, legal and medical anthropology, and international law) this research explores how reconciliation and healing unfold cont

  4. Literature of a Crisis: The Great War in Anglo-American Modernism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shadi Neimneh

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper looks at the representation of war in fiction as a catastrophic social event. In studying or teaching the Great War as represented in modernist literature, we have to acknowledge that fiction, and despite its overlap with history or historical value, is not mere history. War literature retains a powerful sociological orientation. The novels discussed in this paper push real war action to the background and highlight, instead, the impact of war on the subjective lives of individuals and their social interaction. Modernism is not primarily concerned with accurately reproducing the war, but rather with impressionistic details, i.e. the impact of war on introverted lives. Therefore, the real value of such novels is not documentary or historical but social and psychological.Keywords: Modernism; Anglo-American Fiction; the Great War; Representation; Social Reality

  5. The heavy and shadowy burden of the Spanish Civil War in children’s narrative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Belmonte

    Full Text Available Literature intended for adults –especially in narrative-, which tackles with the Spanish Civil War in a deep and critical way, is also clearly and specifically reflected in those others books written for a younger Reading public. In this sub-category, two of the earliest and most outstanding works where this controversial topic is treated are Elena Fortún’s Celia en la revolución, written in 1943 but not published till 1987, and José Luis Castillo-Puche’s El perro loco, which appeared in 1965 and commendably got round the rigid censorship of the period. In these and later works (analysed here down to the present day, issues that are polemical even today, such as the violence perpetrated by both sides, children’s suffering, painful exile, the difficult reconciliation between victors and defeated, as well as the Francoist repression in postwar era.

  6. Application of new technologies in archeology of the Civil War: The Yesares, Pinto (Madrid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Ángel Díaz Moreno

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The surveys carried out in the municipality of Pinto (Madrid have enabled us to locate various structural remains linked to the military operations that took place around the capital during the Spanish Civil War (1936-1939. In order to identify and record them, surveys were complemented with the use of GPS and air photographs from different time periods. Afterwards, and in collaboration with researchers from various universities, further methods aimed at generating a complete special representation of the area were applied directly to one of the sites which produced the best results, known as "los Yesares". These methods include topographic mapping that resulted in cartographic material at different scales, the photographic recording with flying Unmanned Aerial Vehicles, and the use of land scanners and GPS-corrected photogrammetrics with which to obtain 3D models.

  7. Reed B. Bontecou, M.D.--his role in Civil War surgery and medical photography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, B O

    2000-01-01

    This third article on the subject of Civil War injuries and their surgical repair is devoted to Reed B. Bontecou, M.D., a New York surgeon who contributed greatly to the use of photography to document the casualties of the battlefield as seen in the Northern as well as the Southern states. Photographs of the wounded soldiers helped to verify the severity of their injuries, and helped to determine the degree and amount of the post-war pension payments. These photographs were one of the largest sources which were used in the creation of the Otis Archives of the present-day National Museum of Health and Medicine in Washington, D.C. Some of the wounded soldiers' photographs in the Otis Archives demonstrate the use of plastic surgery techniques to repair the wounded face, head and neck, torso, and the extremities by only a handful of Northern and Confederate surgeons including Gurdon Buck, J.S. Gouley and Henry B. Sands of New York City; H. Culbertson, U.S.V. of Madison, Wisconsin; J. Cooper McKee of Washington, D.C., W.W. Keen, Jr. of Philadelphia; and C.B. Gibson, P.A.C.S. of Richmond; S.H. Stout of Tennessee; and J.B. Bean, a dentist of Chattanooga.

  8. Policy Debate | Humanitarian Protection in the Midst of Civil War: Lessons from Sri Lanka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norah Niland

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Editor’s note: This paper is a contribution to the ‘Policy Debate’ section of International Development Policy. In this section, academics, policy-makers and practioners engage in a dialogue on global development challenges. Papers are copy-edited but not peer-reviewed. Instead, the initial thematic contribution is followed by critical comments and reactions from scholars and/or policy-makers.Authored by Norah Niland, the initial paper addresses the protection dimension of humanitarian action in the Sri Lankan Civil War. The end phase of this long-standing war and subsequent internment of survivors illustrate the limited capacity of the international relief system to adequately protect civilians. The author argues that the failure of intergovernmental crisis management and the human rights machinery was exacerbated by the relief system’s lack of agency in safeguarding humanitarian space and the protected status of civilians. According to Norah Niland, relief actors largely ignored the instrumentalisation of humanitarianism and the use of sovereignty and Global War on Terror (GWOT narratives to rationalise the slaughter of thousands. The lack of accountability for and reflection on the humanitarian  operation  in Sri Lanka will likely complicate future relief efforts and add to the suffering of  civilians in other crisis settings. The paper  is followed by critical comments by Sir John Holmes, Former UN Under-Secretary General and Emergency Relief Coordinator, Head of the UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs, and Miriam Bradley, Postdoctoral Researcher, Programme for the Study of International Governance, the Graduate Institute, Geneva.This debate can be pursued on the eJournal’s blog http://devpol.hypotheses.org/69Download the full debate in .pdf

  9. Travels and Memory: the sciences in Spain before and after the Civil War

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santesmases, María Jesús

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available This essay revisits the influence of the Junta para Ampliación de Estudios (JAE, the effect in the trajectory of the Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas of JAE grants and scholarships policy for Spanish young graduates to study abroad. It proposes grantee’s travel as a source of knowledge and its practices. It develops the argument that institutional memory, as that of ideas, is not blurred by either a civil war or a dictatorship, repressive as it was. It also suggests genealogy of scientific practices and training during the 20th century in Spain.

    Este artículo repasa la influencia de la Junta para Ampliación de Estudios y el efecto de la política de pensiones en el extranjero en la trayectoria del Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas. Se proponen el viaje de los pensionados de la JAE como fuente de saber científico y de sus prácticas. Se sugiere que la memoria institucional, como la de las ideas, no se borra en guerras civiles y dictaduras, por represoras que sean, que hay genealogía también de las prácticas de las ciencias y en la formación experimental a lo largo del siglo xx en España.

  10. Mustard gas and American race-based human experimentation in World War II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Susan L

    2008-01-01

    This essay examines the risks of racialized science as revealed in the American mustard gas experiments of World War II. In a climate of contested beliefs over the existence and meanings of racial differences, medical researchers examined the bodies of Japanese American, African American, and Puerto Rican soldiers for evidence of how they differed from whites.

  11. Mexican Americans on the Home Front: Community Organizations in Arizona during World War II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marin, Christine

    During World War II Arizona's Mexican-American communities organized their own patriotic activities and worked, in spite of racism, to support the war effort. In Phoenix the Lenadores del Mundo, an active fraternal society, began this effort by sponsoring a festival in January 1942. Such "mutualistas" provided an essential support system…

  12. Waving the Black-and-White Bloody Shirt: Civil War Remembrance and the Fluctuating Functions of Images in the Gilded Age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William GLEESON

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Les avatars des images de guerre après la fin de la guerre de Sécession en disent long sur l’impermanence des images et la lutte incessante pour leur attribuer un sens précis, y compris lorsqu’il s’agit d’un événement aussi grave et important que la guerre de Sécession. Dans les années 1890, la génération des combattants prenant de l’âge, ces images prises pendant la guerre réapparurent, dans des publications, des lanternes magiques etc. Le cas de la « War Photograph and Exhibition Company » dirigée par John Taylor et William Huntington illustre la manière dont politique partisane et image photographique se mêlèrent. L’entreprise dut finalement se plier aux réalités du mouvement de réconciliation Nord-Sud et du changement dans la façon dont les Américains percevaient et comprenaient l’image photographique.The vicissitudes in the post-Civil War period of images made of the conflict tell us a great deal about the lack of permanence and the constant struggle to make images “mean”, even for an event as momentous as the American Civil War. In the 1890s, with the advancing age of the generation of combatants, there was a re-emergence of the images taken during the War, whether it be in lantern slide shows or in publications. The case of the War Photograph & Exhibition Company headed by John Taylor and William Huntington is an example of how partisan associative politics and the photographic image were merged. The Taylor and Huntington enterprise eventually ceded to the realities of sectional reconciliation and a change in how Americans looked at and understood photographic images.

  13. Operational Ethics: Just War and Implications for Contemporary American Warfare

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    unnecessary violence and excess is to be avoided.7 Later, St. Thomas Aquinas further articulated St. Augustine’s theory by proffering three necessary...of modern just war traditions. In this period several writers sought to synthesize and define St. Thomas ’ teachings on just war theory. Among them...the extent that the benefit achieved through war outweighs the harm that war causes. In addition to St. Thomas ’ three conditions Vitoria and Suarez

  14. Hanoi and the American War: Two International Histories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geoffrey C. Stewart

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Pierre Asselin, Hanoi’s Road to the Vietnam War, 1954-1965. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2013. 319 pp. $55 (cloth Lien-Hang T. Nguyen, Hanoi’s War: An International History of the War for Peace in Vietnam. Chapel Hill: The University of North Carolina Press, 2012. 444 pp. $34.95 (cloth.

  15. Exploring the Traces of Modern Civilization in William Faulkner's "A Rose for Emily"%Exploring the Traces of Modern Civilization in William Faulkner's"A Rose for Emily"

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵阳

    2016-01-01

    As one of the modern American novelists, William Faulkner has enjoyed a high prestige."A Rose for Emily", one of Faulkner's most famous short stories shows a clear picture of the change of Southern society after the American Civil War. As the Civil War came to an end, the modern civilization in the north exerted a powerful influence over the South. It grew rapidly and at the same time affected the South recklessly.

  16. American Material Culture: Investigating a World War II Trash Dump

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Julie Braun

    2005-10-01

    The Idaho National Laboratory: An Historical Trash Trove Historians and archaeologists love trash, the older the better. Sometimes these researchers find their passion in unexpected places. In this presentation, the treasures found in a large historic dump that lies relatively untouched in the middle of the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) will be described. The U.S. military used the central portion of the INL as one of only six naval proving grounds during World War II. They dumped trash in dry irrigation canals during and after their wartime activities and shortly before the federal government designated this arid and desolate place as the nation’s nuclear reactor testing station in 1949. When read critically and combined with memories and photographs, the 60-year old trash provides a glimpse into 1940s’ culture and the everyday lives of ordinary people who lived and worked during this time on Idaho’s desert. Thanks to priceless stories, hours of research, and the ability to read the language of historic artifacts, the dump was turned from just another trash heap into a treasure trove of 1940s memorabilia. Such studies of American material culture serve to fire our imaginations, enrich our understanding of past practices, and humanize history. Historical archaeology provides opportunities to integrate inanimate objects with animated narrative and, the more recent the artifacts, the more human the stories they can tell.

  17. Propaganda in the Civil War (on the Example of a Local Conflict in Rwanda, 1994

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ia Shiukashvili

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the role of propaganda in the civil war in the African Republic of Rwanda. The attention is paid to the role of the so-called "Free radio" and "television of a thousand hills". The materials for the preparation of this article are the media archives, official reports of governments and international organizations, as well as scientific articles and studies. There were used such scientific methods as analysis and synthesis, concretization, generalization while solving the research tasks. In addition, the paper used the historical-situational method, involving the study of historical facts in the context of the period under review in conjunction with the "neighboring" events and facts. The author came to the conclusion that the conflict of the Hutu and Tutsi in Rwanda is also an example of how the media was used to promote hate for the purpose of genocide, and how conflicts are dealt with using simplified concepts and their deeper causes and characteristics are ignored, which only exacerbates the problem. Similarly, intentional or not, the propaganda in the media becomes an integral part of what is happening in the world of local conflicts, fracturing the society, aggressive tuning of its representatives against each other and creating obstacles to compromise.

  18. Preserved brains from the Spanish Civil War mass grave (1936) at La Pedraja1, Burgos, Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrulla, Fernando; Herrasti, Lourdes; Navarro, Carmen; Cascallana, Jose Luis; Bermejo, Ana Maria; Marquez-Grant, Nicholas; Etxeberria, Francisco

    2016-12-01

    During the excavation of the Spanish Civil War mass grave at La Pedraja (Burgos, Spain), 104 individuals were found interred within it, 45 of which displayed brains that were preserved but dehydrated and reduced in size. This exceptional finding has resulted in the formation of a multidisciplinary team, with the aim of obtaining as much information as possible and to primarily understand the taphonomic phenomena that has led to the preservation of these brains. The following types of analyses were undertaken on three of these brains: macroscopy, histology, radiology, chemical-toxicology, genetics, chemical analysis of the soil and 3D modelling for stereolithography. The historical context was considered, plus all archaeological and other forensic data provided by the investigation of the mass grave. The results of the analyses on these morphologically identifiable human brains confirmed the presence of nerve structures, fatty acids, and in one case ante-mortem evidence for an intracranial haemorrhage. The fatty acid profile corresponds to the process of saponification. Therefore, the interpretation is that the preservation of these brains at the mass grave of La Pedraja was due to the saponification process, which was influenced by the manner and cause of death, the chemical composition of the brain, the physicochemical properties of the soil and the meteorological conditions at the time.

  19. Image Making and Personal Narratives with Japanese-American Survivors of World War II Internment Camps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yates, Carleen; Kuwada, Kali; Potter, Penelope; Cameron, Danielle; Hoshino, Janice

    2007-01-01

    This qualitative study explored the verbal and art making responses of Japanese-American elders who experienced the trauma of internment during World War II. Six Nisei (second generation Japanese-Americans) were asked to recall memories of their experiences during and immediately following internment; 3 of the participants also created art images…

  20. Children's Education and Mental Health in Spain during and after the Civil War: Psychiatry, Psychology and "Biological Pedagogy" at the Service of Franco's Regime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, Amparo; Canales, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    This article analyses the child psychiatry and psychology developed during the Spanish Civil War and immediate postwar period. The aim is to demonstrate that, despite the existence of a certain degree of disciplinary continuity in relation to the pre-war period, both disciplines were placed at the service of Francoism. This meant that the…

  1. "A Is for Atom, B Is for Bomb": Civil Defense in American Public Education, 1948-1963.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, JoAnne

    1988-01-01

    Discusses the development of civil defense education following World War II. Examines its effects on the public as atomic bomb drills became commonplace in schools which also served as fallout shelters. Concludes that inadequate portrayal of the horrors of nuclear war produced anger, fear, and disillusionment as the postwar generation matured.…

  2. Cold War America, 1946 to 1990. Almanacs of American Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory, Ross

    This book offers an in-depth look at U.S. culture during a 45-year period when the threat of nuclear war loomed over millions worldwide, and post-World War II ideological tensions took form as an ever-deepening chasm separating two superpowers, the United States and the Soviet Union. The book finds that the national and global societies that…

  3. Guerrilla War in Little Dixie: Understanding Conflict Escalation in Missouri during the American Civil War

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-22

    meantime, the State Guard force infiltrated the garrison, using a smoky shield of burning hemp bales, and forced Mulligan’s surrender on 20...16 1 INTRODUCTION In no way does the enemy give us so much trouble, at so little expense to himself, as by the...regime.” British Army Colonel Charles Callwell used the term “small wars” to refer to an irregular tactic or force against a larger, more lethal

  4. The 'Hemisphere Isolationists' and Anglo-American economic diplomacy during the second world war

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Throughout the Second World War a central component of the Franklin D. Roosevelt administration’s post-war planning was an attempt to win the support of Great Britain for a multilateral economic system, based on the internationalist principles of free and equal access to the world’s markets and resources. This paper explores the impact on Anglo-American economic diplomacy of a faction within the Roosevelt administration, defined as ‘hemisphere isolationists’. United by a preoccupation with La...

  5. Maoism, Violence and Mass Murders: The Long Chinese Civil War and its Consequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felix Wemheuer

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In 1970s, many Western leftist intellectuals considered Maoism as a less violent alternative to Stalinist Socialism. After Soviet and Chinese party archives became assessable in the 1990s, this perception seems to be dated. Felix Wemheuer discusses the origins of »red terror« in the Chinese revolution and shows that mass killings of »enemies« were an important element of several mass campaigns and mobilization launched by the Communist Party of China between the late 1920s and early 1950s. According to official records, 710,000 people were executed during the campaign to suppress counter-revolutionaties (1950–1952. This is a higher number of victims than of Stalin’s “Great Purge” (1937–1938. The article will show how terror and mass participation were linked in the early campaigns. Mao believed in the liberating act of violence, when the masses would turn »society upside down«. Furthermore, it will work out the dialectic of promoting terror and taming the uncontrollable escalation of it. Especially, during the violent land reform in the »old liberated areas« (1946–1948, the party developed certain techniques of managing terror. The question of how the CCP leadership dealt with the problem that people are beaten to death during struggle meetings will serve as an example. Last but not least, it will be argued that »red terror« could only be understood in the context of Chinese long enduring civil war.

  6. Ground Penetrating Radar at Alcatraz Island: Imaging Civil-War Era Fortifications Beneath the Recreation Yard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everett, M. E.; de Smet, T. S.; Warden, R.; Komas, T.; Hagin, J.

    2013-12-01

    As part of a cultural resources assessment and historical preservation project supported by the U.S. National Park Service, GPR surveys using 200 MHz antennas, with ~3.0 m depth of penetration and ~0.1 m lateral and vertical resolution, were conducted by our team in June 2012 over the recreation yard and parade ground at historic Alcatraz Island in order to image the underlying buried Civil War-era fortifications. The recreation yard at the Alcatraz high-security federal penitentiary served as a secure outdoor facility where the prisoners could take exercise. The facility, enclosed by a high perimeter wall and sentry walk, included basketball courts, a baseball diamond, and bleacher-style seating. The site previously consisted of coastal batteries built by the U.S. Army in the early to mid 1850's. As the need for harbor defense diminished, the island was converted into a military prison during the 1860's. In 1933, the military prison was transferred to federal control leading to the establishment of the high-security penitentiary. The rec yard was constructed in 1908-1913 directly over existing earthen fortifications, namely a trio of embankments known as 'traverses I, J, and K.' These mounds of earth, connected by tunnels, were in turn built over concrete and brick magazines. The processed GPR sections show good correlations between radar reflection events and the locations of the buried fortification structures derived from historical map analysis. A 3-D data cube was constructed and two of the cut-away perspective views show that traverse K, in particular, has a strong radar signature.

  7. A country in crisis and two economies face to face. The economic dimension in Civil War historiograpy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos BARCIELA LOPEZ

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the economic historiography of the Spanish Civil War which has been produced since 2006. Firstly,it will review the literature dealing with the most popular and controversial aspects. This part is meant to provide an overview of the main issues which have enjoyed greater historiographical attention. In parallel it highlights the resultant richness in interpretation that has led to the reflections raised in this article. The second part is dedicated to what we have called other war scenarios. These are those which deal with research about lesser known topics, new aspects and the examination ofnew questions. Finally, we address some general works and works of synthesis 

  8. The Development of Peasant Household in the Kursk Province during the Revolutionary Events of 1917 and the Civil War

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrey A. Kolupaev

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The article is concerned with the integrated study of certain elements of a peasant household in the Kursk Province during the revolutionary events of 1917 and the Civil War on the basis of the unresearched sources. The article studies labor forces and the activities of peasant population, land ownership and land management, the level of material and technical basis, farm production. The author concludes that failures of reforms, establishment of a state trade monopoly resulted in the reduction of crop yields, decrease in cultivated areas and livestock. After October 1917 the crisis of industry and inflation contributed to further decrease in farm production, as a result peasant household became natural.

  9. Diplomats at War: A Critical Analysis of American and Confederate Diplomacy, 1861-1862

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-13

    defeats on the battlefield, there was political change, there was debate over slavery, and, often overlooked, there was diplomatic maneuvering...winter of 1861 until fall of 1862 proved pivotal in the Civil War. There were key victories and defeats on the battlefield, there was political ...encouragement helped ensure a quality product. Not surprisingly, as a fellow Naval Aviator, Dr. Kuehn provided much humor to the process. Additionally, I would

  10. 论美国重建时期南部黑人民权运动的兴起%On the Rise of the African American Civil Rights Movement in South America During the Reconstruction Era of the United States

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张雅琦; 张玲玲

    2011-01-01

    The problem of the African Americans in American history wasn't solved properly for a long time and the American Civil War provided a chance to solve this problem.After the Civil War,the changes in domestic politics and economy,the fights of the slavery abolitionism advocators and African Americans and the awakening of African Americans' racial consciousness and rights consciousness precipitated the raise of the African American Civil Rights Movement in South America.%在历史上美国黑人问题长期未得到合理解决,南北战争为解决这一问题提供了契机。美国内战后国内政治和经济上的变化,废奴主义者和黑人长期坚持不懈的抗争,黑人自身种族和权利意识的觉醒,共同促成了内战后美国南部黑人民权运动的兴起。

  11. Preach Americanism! The Education of Immigrants during the Great War.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brumberg, Stephan F.

    For the United States, fighting World War I involved not only preparing young citizens to fight the enemy abroad, but rooting out alien enemies at home. The national consensus, believed vital to success, presupposed a common set of values, shared behaviors, and a high degree of identification with the nation. The more homogeneous the population,…

  12. The War of Currency vs.Buy American

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dennis K.Xhao

    2009-01-01

    @@ War of Words- "Currency Manipulation" Just on the second day of the new Administration in USA, this on-and-off disputed currency issue was refreshed again with a rich assortment of spicy tastes from a new Secretary of Treasury, Timothy F. Geithner, who was eagerto recapitalize the point in his written response to questions from senators debating his confirmation for the new post.

  13. Strategy in Fragmented Civil Wars: Iraq, Syria, and the Challenge of External Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-01

    violence within specific areas and prevent spillover , 45 Cronin, Audrey Kurth, How Terrorism Ends...nonviolent means, and that the chaos of war makes this process especially volatile . The invasion of Iraq facilitated criminal and sometimes violent wealth...reigniting Kurdish insurgency in Turkey and in preventing violent spillovers from the Syrian war. However, there is also a prominent strain of

  14. Records About Japanese Americans Relocated During World War II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Archives and Records Administration — This series contains personal descriptive data about Japanese Americans evacuated from the states of Washington, Oregon, and California to ten relocation centers...

  15. Treatment of Japanese-American Internment During World War II in U.S. History Textbooks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogawa, Masato

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to analyze the treatment of Japanese-American internment during World War II in high school United States history textbooks. Four reasons highlight the selection of this topic for study. First, this historical event was selected because a little over a year ago was the 60th anniversary of President Franklin D.…

  16. Mr. Yamamoto and Japanese Americans in New Jersey during World War II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaffer, Robert

    1998-01-01

    Relates the use of a period "Life" magazine article to teach students about the internment of Japanese-American citizens during World War II. Recounts how the article about local prejudice prompted students to critically examine the policy of internment. Provides excerpts from the article and subsequent letters to the editors. (DSK)

  17. Religious Justification for War in American History. A Savage Embrace: The Pequot War 1636-37

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-06-13

    the seventeenth century have often been identified as the tinder for the conflict between the Indians and the English in New England. The...became the tinder for a war of annihilation. What the practical demands of commerce had brought into proximity, the absolute requirements of religion

  18. Racial disparities in diabetes a century ago: evidence from the pension files of US Civil War veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphreys, Margaret; Costanzo, Philip; Haynie, Kerry L; Ostbye, Truls; Boly, Idrissa; Belsky, Daniel; Sloan, Frank

    2007-04-01

    Using a comprehensive database constructed from the pension files of US Civil War veterans, we explore characteristics and occurrence of type 2 diabetes among older black and white males, living circa 1900. We find that rates of diagnosed diabetes were much lower among males in this period than a century later. In contrast to the late 20th Century, the rates of diagnosed diabetes were lower among black than among white males, suggesting that the reverse pattern is of relatively recent origin. Two-thirds of both white and black veterans had body-mass indexes (BMIs) in the currently recommended weight range, a far higher proportion than documented by recent surveys. Longevity among persons with diabetes was not reduced among Civil War veterans, and those with diabetes suffered comparatively few sequelae of the condition. Over 90% of black veterans engaged in low paying, high-physical effort jobs, as compared to about half of white veterans. High rates of work-related physical activity may provide a partial explanation of low rates of diagnosed diabetes among blacks. We found no evidence of discrimination in testing by race, as indicated by rates of examinations in which a urinalysis was performed. This dataset is valuable for providing a national benchmark against which to compare modern diabetes prevalence patterns.

  19. The backlash against civil society in the wake of the Long War on Terror

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Howell, J.; Ishkanian, A.; Obadare, E.; Seckinelgin, H; Glasius, M.

    2008-01-01

    The enthusiasm for civil society that emerged in the late 1980s and 1990s with the collapse of the Berlin Wall and the spread of democratic regimes has been replaced in recent years by a backlash against civil society on many levels and fronts. This has particularly intensified since the attacks of

  20. Resource Wars and Conflict Ivory: The Impact of Civil Conflict on Elephants in the Democratic Republic of Congo - The Case of the Okapi Reserve

    OpenAIRE

    Beyers, Rene L.; Hart, John A.; Sinclair, Anthony R. E.; Falk Grossmann; Brian Klinkenberg; Simeon Dino

    2011-01-01

    Human conflict generally has substantial negative impacts on wildlife and conservation. The recent civil war (1995-2006) in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) resulted in a significant loss of wildlife, including elephants, due to institutional collapse, lawlessness and unbridled exploitation of natural resources such as minerals, wood, ivory and bushmeat. We used data from distance sampling surveys conducted before and after the war in a protected forest, the Okapi Faunal Reserve, to doc...

  1. Stigma, sexual risks, and the war on drugs: Examining drug policy and HIV/AIDS inequities among African Americans using the Drug War HIV/AIDS Inequities Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, Jelani; Jackson, Trinidad

    2016-11-01

    The relationship between drug policy and HIV vulnerability is well documented. However, little research examines the links between racial/ethnic HIV disparities via the Drug War, sexual risk, and stigma. The Drug War HIV/AIDS Inequities Model has been developed to address this dearth. This model contends that inequitable policing and sentencing promotes sexual risks, resource deprivation, and ultimately greater HIV risk for African-Americans. The Drug War also socially marginalizes African Americans and compounds stigma for incarcerated and formerly incarcerated persons living with HIV/AIDS. This marginalization has implications for sexual risk-taking, access to health-promoting resources, and continuum of care participation. The Drug War HIV/AIDS Inequities Model may help illuminate mechanisms that promote increased HIV vulnerability as well as inform structural intervention development and targeting to address racial/ethnic disparities.

  2. American Sammys and French Poilus in the Great War: sport, masculinities and vulnerability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terret, Thierry

    2011-01-01

    The violence and duration of fighting throughout the Great War created an intense feeling of vulnerability among the men engaged in battle, which challenged their perception of manliness. When the Americans joined the war in 1917, the balance between the two opposing armies was modified and the psychological crises of French soldiers brought to an end. The confidence shown by the American soldiers and their first successes on the battlefield changed the way the French Poilus perceived their new allies. From scepticism to admiration, Frenchmen's feelings extended beyond the fighting. Indeed, by living with American soldiers in the trenches and camps behind the front, French soldiers discovered a new culture where games and sport played a major role and contributed to building manliness. The Foyers Franco-Americains du Soldat (Franco-American hostels for soldiers) provided an ideal place for the cultural transfer of a model of masculinity from Sammys to Poilus. The foyers were managed by the American YMCA and eventually reached the number of 1,500 in France during the war. These hostels afforded soldiers numerous opportunities to develop cultural and sports practices, by bringing together Americans and Frenchmen. Mainly based on the archives of the American Expeditionary Forces, the YMCA and the French Army, the paper argues that the Foyers du Soldat brought to light a new model of masculinity based on sport, which challenged the Frenchmen's vision. It aims to show the rapid transformation of masculine identity within a context of extreme vulnerability and confirms the changes in representations of men in French society at this time.

  3. Why American civilization? American literature and academic exchange in occupied Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G. Blaustein

    2012-01-01

    After 1945, many American writers and intellectuals devoted themselves to European reconstruction, tying American literature and culture to an agenda of reeducation and democratization. At the nexus of these efforts was American Studies, then a new and ideologically diffuse movement of writers, publ

  4. Music for the injured soldier: a contribution of American women's military bands during World War II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Jill M

    2007-01-01

    This study is an investigation of the contributions of women's military bands in the United States to the reconditioning of the injured American troops during World War II. Primary and secondary sources revealed that these bands welcomed home hospital ships, performed for convalescing soldiers in hospitals, and provided music for hospital dances. While each of the bands investigated served in similar capacities, only one, the 403rd Women's Army Corps (WAC) Band, was stationed at a hospital. While entertainment by women's bands was an important part of the Army Reconditioning Program for the injured, the study also revealed a working partnership that developed between these musicians and the medical community. Sixty years after the war, band members believe their performances in hospitals were the most important contribution of their service. Some historians have concluded that music used in military hospitals during the war was the impetus for the music therapy profession.

  5. American War and Military Operations Casualties: Lists and Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-05-14

    907) 428-6007, craig.campbell2@us.army.mil American Samoa Attorney General Sialega Malaetasi Togafau, America Samoa Government, P.O. Box 7, Pago ... Pago , AS 96799, (684) 633-4163 Arizona Major General David P. Rataczak, Emergency and Military Affairs Department, 5636 East McDowell Road, Phoenix

  6. Rising from the Ashes: How the Global Education Policy of Community-Based Management Was Born from El Salvador's Civil War

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, D. Brent, Jr.

    2015-01-01

    This paper explores the relationship between the emergence of global education policies and conflict-affected contexts by analysing the trajectory of community-level education decentralization within and beyond El Salvador from the 1980s, during the country's civil war, to the 2000s, by which point this approach to education governance was being…

  7. "Silence and Cowardice" at the University of Michigan: World War I and the Pursuit of Un-American Faculty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cain, Timothy Reese

    2011-01-01

    Numerous faculty members at the University of Michigan and institutions across the nation found themselves victims of hysteria and anti-German extremism during World War I. Through an examination of restrictions on speech before American entry into the war, investigations into the loyalty of more than a dozen educators, and considerations of the…

  8. Putting Their Lives on the Line: Personal Narrative as Political Discourse among Japanese Petitioners in American World War II Internment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okawa, Gail Y.

    2011-01-01

    One of the more complex and premeditated acts of covert violence during World War II concerns the American surveillance, arrest, and incarceration of thousands of resident Japanese immigrants prior to and upon the outbreak of the Pacific War. While briefly outlining the historical and political context of this mass incarceration, specifically…

  9. War photographers: the photographic coverage of the Spanish Civil War in Madrid (1936-1939 Fotógrafos de guerra: la cobertura fotográfica de la Guerra Civil Española en Madrid (1936-1939

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz de las Heras

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The target of this communication consists in analyzing the role developed by press photographers, both national and international, who worked in Madrid during the Spanish Civil War. In this way, we will reflect on their working conditions, the limitations in their activities and the control exerted by the authorities in charge. We will also approach a highly interesting point to those who study the image as a knowledge source of the past: the different ways press photographers had to “look into” depending on the channel in which their work is distributed. El objetivo de esta comunicación es aproximarnos al papel desarrollado por los fotógrafos, nacionales e internacionales, que trabajaron en la ciudad de Madrid durante la Guerra Civil Española. De este modo reflexionaremos acerca de sus condiciones de trabajo, las limitaciones en su actividad y el control ejercido por las autoridades responsables, y abordaremos una cuestión altamente interesante para aquellos que estudiamos la imagen como fuente de conocimiento del pasado: las distintas maneras de “mirar” que tienen los fotógrafos dependiendo del canal por el que se distribuye su trabajo.

  10. Foreign awakenings: rig work in war-torn Sudan convinces Canadians their civilized version of industry is needed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lorenz, A.

    2000-05-01

    Experiences of some Canadian geologists working in Sudan are described. Glad to be back in Canada after several years of exploration work for various international exploration companies, they have fond memories of the people, who for the most part live under very primitive conditions, and constant exposure to the ravages of tribal wars. They characterize the attitude of Canadians working in Sudan towards the native population as one that puts high values on human rights, safety, work ethics, and individual responsibility. They defend Canadian presence in these far-off regions as beneficial to the native population, by bringing Canadian standards and a civilized version of industry to an area that has seen very little of that in the past. In contrast to the situation on Canadian rigs, on Chinese oil rigs favoritism and racism are the rule; the Chinese do not see that humanitarian issues are any of their concerns.

  11. Analyzing and Interpreting Lime Burials from the Spanish Civil War (1936-1939): A Case Study from La Carcavilla Cemetery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schotsmans, Eline M J; García-Rubio, Almudena; Edwards, Howell G M; Munshi, Tasnim; Wilson, Andrew S; Ríos, Luis

    2017-03-01

    Over 500 victims of the Spanish Civil War (1936-1939) were buried in the cemetery of La Carcavilla (Palencia, Spain). White material, observed in several burials, was analyzed with Raman spectroscopy and powder XRD, and confirmed to be lime. Archaeological findings at La Carcavilla's cemetery show that the application of lime was used in an organized way, mostly associated with coffinless interments of victims of Francoist repression. In burials with a lime cast, observations made it possible to draw conclusions regarding the presence of soft tissue at the moment of deposition, the sequence of events, and the presence of clothing and other evidence. This study illustrates the importance of analyzing a burial within the depositional environment and taphonomic context.

  12. Civil War Logistics: Effects of Logistics on the Pea Ridge Campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-12

    War. The Confederacy wanted to add its star to the Rebel flag and the Federal government needed to keep the state in the Union. It was also...When the Prussians defeated the revolutionaries, Franz Sigel fled his homeland to Switzerland , then to Great Britain before finally moving to New York

  13. The Eagle’s Talons. The American Experience at War

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-12-01

    The core of economic nationalism, which was to manifest itself in unprecedented protectionism of national industrial plants, can be found in the...virtual standstill. The result was even more protectionism and an economic maelstrom that continued to get worse. As the times worsened, so did the...the era of splendid isolationism in American foreign policy, a period when the lessons of the inextricable link between the destinies of Europe and

  14. The new situation of cutaneous leishmaniasis after Syrian civil war in Gaziantep city, Southeastern region of Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özkeklikçi, Ahmet; Karakuş, Mehmet; Özbel, Yusuf; Töz, Seray

    2017-02-01

    Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is an important public health problem with around 2.000 autochthonous reported cases each year in Turkey. Due to the civil war in Syria, Turkey received around three million refugees and they are mainly located at either camps or homes in south/southeastern part of Turkey. In the present study, we aimed to collect samples from CL suspected patients admitting to State Hospital in Gaziantep City and perform parasitological and DNA-based techniques for diagnosis as well as species identification of the parasite for better understanding the prevalence of each species among Turkish and Syrian patients in the region. The collection of samples was carried out between January 2009 and July 2015. The lesion aspiration samples were taken and stained with Giemsa stain followed by microscopical examination for parasitological diagnosis. After the DNA extraction from Giemsa stained slides, real time and semi-nested PCRs both targeting ITS1 region were performed for molecular diagnosis and species identification. A total of 567 people were admitted to the hospital with the suspicion of CL and 263 (46.4%) of them were found to be positive by parasitological examination. One hundred seventy-four (66.15%), 88 (33.46%) and 1 (0.38%) of them were Turkish, Syrians and Afghan, respectively. Slide samples obtained from 34 CL suspected patients were analyzed by PCR and 20 of them were found positive. Eighteen (13 Turkish and 13 Syrians) of the positive samples were identified as L. tropica, while two (1 Turkish and 1 Syrian) of them were L. infantum. In conclusion, the effects of Syrian civil war on the epidemiology of CL in Gaziantep city is demonstrated in the present study. The use of molecular tool in the diagnosis of leishmaniasis is effective, sensitive and time saving which will enable the species typing. Species typing of the causative agent in endemic areas will bring valuable data to epidemiological knowledge.

  15. Transnational science during the Cold War: the case of Chinese/American scientists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zuoyue

    2010-06-01

    This essay examines the experiences of about five thousand Chinese students/scientists in the United States after the Communist takeover of mainland China in 1949. These experiences illustrate the often hidden transnational movements of people, instruments, and ideas in science and technology across the Iron Curtain during the Cold War. I argue that those hundreds who returned to China represented a partial "Americanization" of Chinese science and technology, while the rest of the group staying in the United States contributed to a transnationalization of the American scientific community.

  16. The possibilities of verse translation: the reception of American poetry in Slovenia between the two wars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Maver

    1988-12-01

    Full Text Available Contemporary American poetry was more or less terra incognita in Slovenia throughout the first half of the 20th century. The thesis question, then, is why are there so few translations of American poetry into Slovene in the discussed period between the two world wars? Although this subject has not been treated in detail, the best critica1 reference is to be found in the study »American Poetry in Slovene Translations« by Mirko Jurak, Janez Stanonik's research of American-Slovene relations, and Velemir Gjurin's work on Griša Koritnik, one of the foremost verse translators of the period, and his translation of E. A. Poe's poem »The Raven«.

  17. Natural Resources and Violent Conflict: Resource Abundance, Dependence and the Onset of Civil Wars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brunnschweiler, C.N.; Bulte, E.H.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we examine the claim that natural resources invite civil conflict, and challenge the main stylized facts in this literature. We find that the conventional measure of resource dependence is endogenous with respect to conflict, and that instrumenting for dependence implies that it is no

  18. Other Than War: The American Military Experience and Operations in the Post-Cold War Decade

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Russia and Japan, a very early example of a non-combatant evacuation. Sailors landed in Morocco to rescue a kidnapped American in 1904, fought fires and...Navy and Coast Guard vessels and aircraft carried out the offshore patrols. Joint task forces administering the camps included large numbers of Army...King Hassan in Morocco used the threat of refugee flows in attempts to secure increased aid while pros- perous countries gave assistance to curb

  19. PROBLEMS OF "NON-INTERVENTION" IN THE SPANISH CIVIL WAR (1936-1939 IN THE GERMAN-SOVIET RELATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. S. Orekhova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the problem of Non-intervention Policy in the Spanish Civil War (1936-1939 in the context of German-Soviet relations on the eve of the Second World War. Scientific novelty of the study is due to a significant number of sources. There are many published foreign documents of the leading European countries and the materials from the Archive of Russian foreign policy are involved too. The agreement on Non-interference in the affairs ofSpainwas signed by European countries in August 1936 and also the Committee on its compliance was established. They have become an arena of acute diplomatic struggle between theUSSRand the fascist countries. At the same time, the author reveals a certain similarity in the tactics of the German and Soviet diplomacy: the denial of the facts of their participation in the Spanish conflict, the accusation of the opposite side in the facts of violation of the Non-intervention agreement. Activities in the implementation of the German and Soviet diplomacy in Non-intervention Policy was based on a combination of the need for cooperation with the Western powers and the obligations to uphold the interests of the nationalists in the Committee (Germany and Republicans (USSR. At the same time, in some cases, greater tactical flexibility was shown by German diplomacy. Soviet policy delayed the defeat of the Republic in the Spanish Civil War, but the obstructionism of the USSR was significantly constrained the work of the Committee, that's why the first of all the fascist countries won, but they didn't have the need to slow down the development of effective forms of monitoring compliance with the agreement on non-interference. Uncompromising Soviet Union prevented the cooperation of theUSSRwith the Western countries and contributed to deepening and widening the political isolation of theSoviet Union. The practice of exclusion of theUSSRfrom the decision of the Spanish question was transferred to the sphere of

  20. Civil-Military Relations in the French Fourth Republic during the First Indochina War

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-21

    Assembly-dominated government.35 Members of the party, along with center-right groups, called for greater executive powers within a parliamentary ...commented after the war that he interpreted this as advice to develop a plan to “create conditions for an honorable political solution which would be...politician in charge, military leaders must provide their best advice and try to maintain a balance between strategy and military action, with neither

  1. American physicians and dual loyalty obligations in the "war on terror"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh Jerome Amir

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Post-September 11, 2001, the U.S. government has labeled thousands of Afghan war detainees "unlawful combatants". This label effectively deprives these detainees of the protection they would receive as "prisoners of war" under international humanitarian law. Reports have emerged that indicate that thousands of detainees being held in secret military facilities outside the United States are being subjected to questionable "stress and duress" interrogation tactics by U.S. authorities. If true, American military physicians could be inadvertently becoming complicit in detainee abuse. Moreover, the American government's openly negative views towards such detainees could result in military physicians not wanting to provide reasonable care to detainees, despite it being their ethical duty to do so. Discussion This paper assesses the physician's obligations to treat war detainees in the light of relevant instruments of international humanitarian law and medical ethics. It briefly outlines how detainee abuse flourished in apartheid South Africa when state physicians became morally detached from the interests of their detainee patients. I caution U.S physicians not to let the same mindset befall them. I urge the U.S. medical community to advocate for detainee rights in the U.S, regardless of the political culture the detainee emerged from. I offer recommendations to U.S physicians facing dual loyalty conflicts of interest in the "war on terror". Summary If U.S. physicians are faced with a conflict of interest between following national policies or international principles of humanitarian law and medical ethics, they should opt to adhere to the latter when treating war detainees. It is important for the U.S. medical community to speak out against possible detainee abuse by the U.S. government.

  2. The Cyber Dimensions of the Syrian Civil War: Implications for Future Conflict

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-15

    receives most of its electricity from a single source—Iran. Both factors combined make the successful targeting of a select number of industrial control...systems to cut off electricity simpler.”67 65 David Sanger and Eric Schmitt, “Syria War Stirs New U.S. Debate on Cyberattacks,” New York Times...Connecticut, graduated from the United States Naval Academy in 1993 with a bachelor of science in aerospace engineering. He was designated a naval aviator in

  3. Categories of Analysis and Categories of Practice since the Tajik Civil War

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie Roche

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available They said, ‘we won’t say anything to Kyrgyz people, you can come back,’ and my husband believed. Akai Ibrohim, the one who just died, people said that Afghans had made him a slave, that they took his wife and daughter, and we believed. Today they say we came back because of our money. […] We came so that our children should not suffer, let’s go to our homeland we thought, but nobody asked in this war whether you have weapons or not, whether you are guilty or not. During this war, those who had no sins came back, those who were guilty didn’t go, they knew they were guilty and left; those without sin came and were taken instead of the guilty. […] We came to Shahrituz and they made us climb a truck, bigger than our house. They brought us to this school PTU and picked out the men. […] If you were Tajik, that’s it, you died.

  4. Monstrosity and War Memories in Latin American Post-conflict Cinema

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Chiara D'Argenio

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the relationship between inhumanity, monstrosity, war and memory in two Latin American films: Días de Santiago (Peru, 2004 and La sombra del caminante (Colombia, 2004. These aesthetically innovative films tackle the internal armed conflicts that have occurred in Colombia and Peru in recent years. Focusing on former soldiers’ reintegration into civilian life, they display war as a traumatic experience that produces monstrosity, understood as a dehumanisation of the individual. By analysing the tropes of monstrosity and the haunting past, and the films’ aesthetics, I show how the performance of the monster articulates a tension between inhumanity and humanness, which can be read as a metaphor for the tension between the acts of remembering, investigating and forgetting within post-conflict societies.

  5. WAR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Þórarinsson, Elfar; Lindgreen, Stinus

    2008-01-01

    We present an easy-to-use webserver that makes it possible to simultaneously use a number of state of the art methods for performing multiple alignment and secondary structure prediction for noncoding RNA sequences. This makes it possible to use the programs without having to download the code an...... into account is also calculated. This website is free and open to all users and there is no login requirement. The webserver can be found at: http://genome.ku.dk/resources/war....

  6. GENRE ORIGINALITY APPROPRIATE FOR THE POETRY PIECES BY T.BEYBULATOV DURING THE PERIOD OF RUSSIAN REVOLUTION AND THE CIVIL WAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Abdulkadyrovna SHABAEVA

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper examined the poetry pieces by T.Beybulatov related to the period of Russian Revolution and the Civil War, in particular, the poems "Peace", "Letter of the Dagestani (soldier from the Battlefront", "Vay, the Cos-sacks Burned Out …" at al. Upon the study outcomes the author made a conclusion that the poetry’ pieces by T.Beybulatov over the mentioned period covered a long path of shaping and further evolution of a variety of poetic genres.

  7. Latin American World War I Historiography: the Cases of Argentina, Mexico and Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renzo Ramírez Bacca

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.17227/01234870.41folios187.204 The text provides a critical review of the Latin American historiography during the First World War. The author focuses on Argentina, Mexico and Colombia in order to account for the lines of work, categories of analysis and the recent contributions on the issue. In the same way, it takes into account the Western historiographical context, poses questions and dialogues based on recent studies as well as highlights the limitations and explains the reason for the identified historiographical gaps.

  8. Myths and Crises: American Masculinity in 1980s Vietnam War Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-12

    income for modern conveniences that the post-war economy was more than capable of producing. This middle-class status was linked to new types of work...invasion, Reagan pronounced, “Americans are now standing tall in the saddle.”333 Conveniently , the invasion of Grenada happened days after the tragic...to end up like his Dad, managing the local A&P grocery store. After he returns, a high school friend offers Kovic a job at his hamburger restaurant

  9. Anglo-American economic diplomacy during the second world war and the electrification of the Central Brazilian Railway

    OpenAIRE

    Mills, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    Throughout the Second World War British and American companies competed to gain the contract for the electrification of the central Brazilian railway. The British Foreign Office used this case to establish a broader principle with the US government that the conditions brought about by war would not be used by one country to gain commercial advantage at the expense of the other. While the US government supported this principle in theory, this article argues that they failed to adhere to it in ...

  10. Temporal assessment on land use land cover of Somalia after the effect of the civil war using remote sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdulle, Abdinur; Tan, Adhwa Amir; Pradhan, Biswajeet; Abdullahi, Saleh

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study is to analyse land use and cover changes for the studied area during 1992-2015 and particularly evaluate the effect of civil war on these changes. Three Landsat images were used; Landsat 4 (1992), Landsat 7 (2000) and Landsat 8 (2015). Assessment of changes has been applied through three supervised classification algorithms, support vector machine, minimum classifier, and mahalanobis classifier. The result shows that SVM is providing highest overall accuracy of 98.5% for the years 2000 and 2015 with kappa coefficient of 0.9803 in year 2015. The change detection result show that the higher changes is between year 1992-2000 where vegetation land cover has dropped down to 11.1% and undeveloped area has increased to 11.4%. Whereas for year 2000-2015, higher changes belongs to build up area by 3.30% while undeveloped area and vegetation land cover keep decreasing by 2.64% and 1.93% respectively.

  11. The Propaganda Uses of the Francoist Women during the Spanish Civil War: 'Noticiario Español' (1938-1939

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fátima Gil Gascón

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This research analyze how Noticiario Español (Spanish newcast used different mechanics to construct an ideal and stereotyped image about female in francoist association women activist (Sección Femenina and Auxilio Social. To achieve this purpose, this paper set out to study, quantitative and qualitatively, the newcast produced during Spanish Civil War, emphasizing on the formal elements and the meaning of the content used in the creation of the accepted models. The reseach shows the utilization of some visual and sonorous tools with an obvious persuasive purpose. The use of the first plane (infrequents in the news with different thematic in order to generate a feeling of proximity and individuality in the spectators or the abuse of sensitive adjectives –as love or affection– to describe the work of these women shows that, in spite of it infrarepresentation with respect to masculine, the activities realised by those associations have an important propagandistic use that, sometimes, build in models of behavior, even in symbols of the “New Spain”.

  12. ["Teruel feet". Care and treatment of frostbite wounds in the hospitals of Navarra during the civil war].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larraz, P; Ibarrola, C

    2005-01-01

    The care of combatants with lesions caused by frostbite during the battle of Teruel, which was fought in extreme weather conditions and in temperatures as low as twenty degrees below zero, was the period of greatest medical activity and the highest rates of occupation in the military hospitals of Navarre during the civil war of 1936-1939. From November 1937 to March 1938, 375 cases of frostbite were registered in the provincial establishments, amongst which there was a predominance of cases of dry gangrene partially affecting the lower extremity, which was popularly known as "Teruel feet". Some of the medical staff, conscious of the exceptional nature of the casuistry, registered statistics, clinical cases and personal impressions of the evolution of the lesions and the effectiveness of the treatments. In treating this affectation they employed medicines, surgical techniques and novel therapeutic procedures that were not widely used in the medical milieu of the time. However, the limited duration of the problem, the inconclusive results of the treatments and the differing opinions on their effectiveness -questions that are considered in this article- restricted the subsequent medical repercussion of the experiences of frostbite developed during the wartime period in Teruel.

  13. The voice of American botanists: the founding and establishment of the American Journal of Botany, "American botany," and the Great War (1906-1935).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smocovitis, Vassiliki Betty

    2014-03-01

    This paper examines the crucial early history of the American Journal of Botany from the years following the founding of the Botanical Society of America in 1906 to the termination of the agreement for publication with the Brooklyn Botanic Garden in 1935. It examines the efforts of individuals like F. C. Newcombe, who did the most to raise support for the journal and became the first Editor-in-Chief, in the context of the growing numbers of professional botanists and plant scientists who were actively engaged in research requiring appropriate publication venues and in the process of forming an independent identity as "American botanists." It also examines the launching of the journal in the context of the Great War in Europe and the transition from German botany to American botany in the second decade of the 20th century.

  14. Arranged Marriages: Relationships Between Regular and Irregular Forces, During the Early American Revolutionary War in Monmouth County, New Jersey

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-10

    logistics, and civil-military relations facing the British.”32 Published in 1975, Ian Hogg and John Batchelor’s Armies of the American Revolution...competing groups and 32 Bilias, George Washington’s Opponents, ix, xv, and 65. 33 Ian V. Hogg and John H. Batchelor, Armies of the American Revolution...America: The Wider Dimensions of Conflict. Columbia: University of South Carolina, 1988. Hogg , Ian V., and John H. Batchelor. Armies of the American

  15. Is Planetary-Scale High Tech Civilization Climatically Sustainable?: The Geophysics v Economics Paradigm War

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffert, M.

    2012-12-01

    Climate/energy policy is gridlocked between (1) a geophysics perspective revealing long-term instabilities from continued energy consumption growth, of which the fossil fuel greenhouse an early symptom; and (2) short-term, fossil-fuel energized-rapid-economic-growth-driven policies likely adaptive for hunter-gatherers competing for scarce food, but climatically fatal to planetary-scale economies dependent on agriculture and "energy slaves." Incorporating social science into climate/energy policy formulation has focused on integrated assessment models (IAMs) exploring scenarios (parallel universes making different social choices) depicting the evolution of GDP, energy consumed, the energy technology mixture, land use, greenhouse gas and aerosol emissions, and radiative forcing). Representative concentration pathways (RCP) scenarios developed for the IPCC AR5 report imply 5-10 degree C warming from fossil fuel burning unless unprecedentedly fast decarbonization rates ~ 7 %/yr are implemented from 2020 to 2100. A massive transition to carbon neutrality by midcentury is needed to keep warming energy consumption. Even if civilization successfully transitions to carbon-neutrality in time, but energy use continues growing at 2%/year, fossil-fuel-greenhouse level warming would be generated by heat rejecting in only 200-300 years underscoring that sustainability implies a steady state planetary economy (FIG.2). Evolutionary psychology and neuroeconomics are emergent disciplines that may illuminate the physical v social science paradigm conflict threatening human survivability.

  16. Impact of civil war on emotion recognition: the denial of sadness in Sierra Leone.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Alessandra eUmilta'

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Studies of children with atypical emotional experience demonstrate that childhood exposure to high levels of hostility and threat biases emotion perception. This study investigates emotion processing, in former child soldiers and non-combatant civilians. All participants have experienced prolonged violence exposure during childhood. The study, carried out in Sierra Leone, aimed to examine the effects of exposure to and forced participation in acts of extreme violence on the emotion processing of young adults war survivors. A total of 76 young, male adults (38 former child soldier survivors and 38 civilian survivors were tested in order to assess participants’ ability to identify four different facial emotion expressions from photographs and movies. Both groups were able to recognize facial expressions of emotion. However, despite their general ability to correctly identify facial emotions, participants showed a significant response bias in their recognition of sadness. Both former soldiers and civilians made more errors in identifying expressions of sadness than in the other three emotions and when mislabeling sadness participants most often described it as anger. Conversely, when making erroneous identifications of other emotions, participants were most likely to label the expressed emotion as sadness. In addition, while for three of the four emotions participants were better able to make a correct identification the greater the intensity of the expression, this pattern was not observed for sadness. During movies presentation the recognition of sadness was significantly worse for soldiers. While both former child soldiers and civilians were found to be able to identify facial emotions, a significant response bias in their attribution of negative emotions was observed. Such bias was particularly pronounced in former child soldiers. These findings point to a pervasive long-lasting effect of childhood exposure to violence on emotion processing

  17. Impact of civil war on emotion recognition: the denial of sadness in Sierra Leone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umiltà, Maria Allessandra; Wood, Rachel; Loffredo, Francesca; Ravera, Roberto; Gallese, Vittorio

    2013-01-01

    Studies of children with atypical emotional experience demonstrate that childhood exposure to high levels of hostility and threat biases emotion perception. This study investigates emotion processing, in former child soldiers and non-combatant civilians. All participants have experienced prolonged violence exposure during childhood. The study, carried out in Sierra Leone, aimed to examine the effects of exposure to and forced participation in acts of extreme violence on the emotion processing of young adults war survivors. A total of 76 young, male adults (38 former child soldier survivors and 38 civilian survivors) were tested in order to assess participants' ability to identify four different facial emotion expressions from photographs and movies. Both groups were able to recognize facial expressions of emotion. However, despite their general ability to correctly identify facial emotions, participants showed a significant response bias in their recognition of sadness. Both former soldiers and civilians made more errors in identifying expressions of sadness than in the other three emotions and when mislabeling sadness participants most often described it as anger. Conversely, when making erroneous identifications of other emotions, participants were most likely to label the expressed emotion as sadness. In addition, while for three of the four emotions participants were better able to make a correct identification the greater the intensity of the expression, this pattern was not observed for sadness. During movies presentation the recognition of sadness was significantly worse for soldiers. While both former child soldiers and civilians were found to be able to identify facial emotions, a significant response bias in their attribution of negative emotions was observed. Such bias was particularly pronounced in former child soldiers. These findings point to a pervasive long-lasting effect of childhood exposure to violence on emotion processing in later life.

  18. Resource wars and conflict ivory: the impact of civil conflict on elephants in the Democratic Republic of Congo--the case of the Okapi Reserve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyers, Rene L; Hart, John A; Sinclair, Anthony R E; Grossmann, Falk; Klinkenberg, Brian; Dino, Simeon

    2011-01-01

    Human conflict generally has substantial negative impacts on wildlife and conservation. The recent civil war (1995-2006) in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) resulted in a significant loss of wildlife, including elephants, due to institutional collapse, lawlessness and unbridled exploitation of natural resources such as minerals, wood, ivory and bushmeat. We used data from distance sampling surveys conducted before and after the war in a protected forest, the Okapi Faunal Reserve, to document changes in elephant abundance and distribution. We employed Generalized Additive Models to relate changes in elephant distribution to human and environmental factors. Populations declined by nearly fifty percent coinciding with a major increase in elephant poaching as indicated by reports of ivory trade during the war. Our results suggest that humans influenced elephant distribution far more than habitat, both before and after the war, but post-war models explained more of the variation. Elephant abundance declined more, closer to the park boundary and to areas of intense human activity. After the war, elephant densities were relatively higher in the centre of the park where they were better protected, suggesting that this area may have acted as a refuge. In other sites in Eastern DRC, where no protection was provided, elephants were even more decimated. Post-war dynamics, such as weakened institutions, human movements and availability of weapons, continue to affect elephants. Survival of remaining populations and recovery will be determined by these persistent factors and by new threats associated with growing human populations and exploitation of natural resources. Prioritizing wildlife protection, curbing illegal trade in ivory and bushmeat, and strengthening national institutions and organizations in charge of conservation will be crucial to counter these threats.

  19. Resource wars and conflict ivory: the impact of civil conflict on elephants in the Democratic Republic of Congo--the case of the Okapi Reserve.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rene L Beyers

    Full Text Available Human conflict generally has substantial negative impacts on wildlife and conservation. The recent civil war (1995-2006 in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC resulted in a significant loss of wildlife, including elephants, due to institutional collapse, lawlessness and unbridled exploitation of natural resources such as minerals, wood, ivory and bushmeat. We used data from distance sampling surveys conducted before and after the war in a protected forest, the Okapi Faunal Reserve, to document changes in elephant abundance and distribution. We employed Generalized Additive Models to relate changes in elephant distribution to human and environmental factors. Populations declined by nearly fifty percent coinciding with a major increase in elephant poaching as indicated by reports of ivory trade during the war. Our results suggest that humans influenced elephant distribution far more than habitat, both before and after the war, but post-war models explained more of the variation. Elephant abundance declined more, closer to the park boundary and to areas of intense human activity. After the war, elephant densities were relatively higher in the centre of the park where they were better protected, suggesting that this area may have acted as a refuge. In other sites in Eastern DRC, where no protection was provided, elephants were even more decimated. Post-war dynamics, such as weakened institutions, human movements and availability of weapons, continue to affect elephants. Survival of remaining populations and recovery will be determined by these persistent factors and by new threats associated with growing human populations and exploitation of natural resources. Prioritizing wildlife protection, curbing illegal trade in ivory and bushmeat, and strengthening national institutions and organizations in charge of conservation will be crucial to counter these threats.

  20. GOVERNMENTAL REPRESSION AND LIKELIHOOD OF CIVIL WAR ONSET: WORLD ANALYSIS, 1981-1997 Represión gubernamental y probabilidad del comienzo de una guerra civil: análisis mundial, 1981-1997

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artur Zimerman

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to investigate governmental repression combined with the type of regime that might determine a civil war. As a rule, scholars have not considered both variables in one quantitative model, in a systematic fashion. No empirical work employing political philosophy approaches can be found among the current quantitative literature on civil war. Therefore, this paper fills the gap, by grounding our work on a more robust theory, complementing the originally data-driven pieces. Three different hypotheses are tested and the findings indicate that poor countries with hybrid regimes and a high level of governmental repression are more likely to become involved in civil wars than countries with democratic or autocratic regimes. This paper can work as a contribution to the failed states discussionEl propósito de este artículo es investigar la represión gubernamental combinada con el tipo de régimen como posible determinante del comienzo de una guerra civil. En general, los académicos no han considerado ambas variables en unúnico modelo, tal y como nosotros lo hacemos de manera cuantitativa y sistemática. En la literatura cuantitativa sobre las guerras civiles no existen trabajos empíricos que hayan empleado enfoques de filosofía política. En consecuencia, tratamos de llenar esta brecha basando nuestro trabajo en una teoría más robusta y complementando las bases de datos tradicionalmente utilizadas. Tres diferentes hipótesis han sido testeadas y los hallazgos indican que países pobres con regímenes híbridos y altos niveles de represión gubernamental son más propensos a verse envueltos en guerras civiles que países con regímenes democráticos y autocráticos. Este trabajo pretende ser una contribución a la discusión sobre los estados fallidos

  1. Teaching about Japanese-American Internment. ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukai, Gary

    The Japanese-American internment experience during World War II continues to affect the Japanese-American community. This ERIC Digest provides six suggestions for teaching about the Japanese-American internment, touching on civil rights, immigration, the media, "loyalty," redress and reparations, and primary and secondary sources.…

  2. Major Harvey Cushing's difficulties with the British and American armies during World War I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, Michael E

    2014-08-01

    This historical review explores Harvey Cushing's difficulties with both the British and American armies during his World War I service to definitively examine the rumor of his possible court martial. It also provides a further understanding of Cushing the man. While in France during World War I, Cushing was initially assigned to British hospital units. This service began in May 1917 and ended abruptly in May 1918 when the British cashiered him for repeated censorship violations. Returning to American command, he feared court martial. The army file on this matter (retrieved from the United States National Archives) indicates that US Army authorities recommended that Cushing be reprimanded and returned to the US for his violations. The army carried out neither recommendation, and no evidence exists that a court martial was considered. Cushing's army career and possible future academic life were protected by the actions of his surgical peers and Merritte Ireland, Chief Surgeon of the US Army in France. After this censorship episode, Cushing was made a neurosurgical consultant but was also sternly warned that further rule violations would not be tolerated by the US Army. Thereafter, despite the onset of a severe peripheral neuropathy, probably Guillian Barré's syndrome, Cushing was indefatigable in ministering to neurosurgical needs in the US sector in France. Cushing's repeated defying of censorship regulations reveals poor judgment plus an initial inability to be a "team player." The explanations he offered for his censorship violations showed an ability to bend the truth. Cushing's war journal is unclear as to exactly what transpired between him and the British and US armies. It also shows no recognition of the help he received from others who were instrumental in preventing his ignominious removal from service in France. Had that happened, his academic future and ability to train future neurosurgical leaders may have been seriously threatened. Cushing's foibles

  3. THE ROLE OF REMOTE SENSING AND GIS IN IDENTIFYING BURIED WORLD WAR I MUNITIONS AT THE AMERICAN UNIVERSITY, WASHINGTON, DC

    Science.gov (United States)

    During World War 1, The American University in Washington D.C. was used by the U.S. Army as an experiment station for the development and testing of a variety of battlefield munitions including chemical weapons such as Mustard Gas, Phosgene, Ricin and Lewisite, among others. Afte...

  4. THE ROLE OF REMOTE SENSING IN IDENTIFYING BURIED WORLD WAR 1 MUNITIONS AT THE AMERICAN UNIVERSITY, WASHINGTON, D.C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    During World War 1, The American University in Washington D.C. was used by the U.S. Army as an experiment station for the development and testing of a variety of battlefield munitions including chemical weapons such as Mustard Gas, Phosgene, Ricin and Lewisite, among others. Afte...

  5. THE ROLE OF REMOTE SENSING IN IDENTIFYING BURIED WORLD WAR I MUNITIONS AT THE AMERICAN UNIVERSITY, WASHINGTON, D.C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    During World War 1, The American University in Washington D.C. was used by the U.S. Army as an experiment station for the development and testing of a variety of battlefield munitions including chemical weapons such as Mustard Gas, Phosgene, Ricin and Lewisite, among others. Afte...

  6. Military Spending and Economic Well-Being in the American States: The Post-Vietnam War Era

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borch, Casey; Wallace, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Using growth curve modeling techniques, this research investigates whether military spending improved or worsened the economic well-being of citizens within the American states during the post-Vietnam War period. We empirically test the military Keynesianism claim that military spending improves the economic conditions of citizens through its use…

  7. Fighting for business: the limits of professional cooperation among American doctors during the First World War.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schafer, James A

    2015-04-01

    The American medical profession participated extensively in preparedness and mobilization for the First World War, with more than one in five doctors voluntarily enlisting in various branches of the Army and Navy Medical Corps. Medical officers were widely valorized for suspending their civilian careers and for sacrificing their professional income while in service. Because of the meager commissions that medical officers received by comparison with fees many doctors earned in established private medical practices, scores of county medical societies implemented organizational solutions to this business problem, with the hopes of removing a significant disincentive to enlistment. In these "practice protection plans," a civilian doctor promised to take care of the patients of a military doctor, to forward a portion of the fees collected thereby to the family of the military doctor, and to refer these patients to the military doctor upon his return. Despite initial enthusiasm and promotion, these plans ultimately failed to achieve their objectives, leading some medical officers to accuse civilian doctors of being opportunistic, unpatriotic "slackers." This episode reveals the limits of professional cooperation in American medicine at the time and the need to explain organizational failures in the grand narrative of professionalization during the "Golden Age" of American medicine.

  8. Farming the Desert: agriculture in the World War II-era Japanese-American relocation centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lillquist, Karl

    2010-01-01

    In 1942 over 110,000 Japanese Americans were evacuated from the West Coast to ten inland, barbed wire-enclosed relocation centers in the name of national security. Agriculture was a key component of the eight arid to semi-arid centers located in the western United States. Each center's agricultural program included produce for human consumption, feed crops, and livestock. Some centers also grew seed, ornamental, and war crops. Evacuees raised and consumed five types of livestock and sixty-one produce varieties, including many traditional foods. Seasonal surpluses were preserved, shipped to other centers, or sold on the open market. Short growing seasons, poor soils, initially undeveloped lands, pests, equipment shortages, and labor issues hampered operations. However, imprisoned evacuee farmers proved that diverse agricultural programs could succeed in the harsh settings primarily because of labor-intensive farming methods, ingenuity, and the large markets provided by the centers. These agricultural programs played major roles in feeding, providing meaningful employment, and preparing evacuees for life outside the centers, and readied lands for post-war "homesteaders."

  9. Savages in a Civilized War: The Native Americans as French Allies in the Seven Years War, 1754-1763

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-14

    melee with clubs , tomahawks, and knives. To make themselves look more ferocious and intimidate their foes, they would paint themselves different...Beaujeu selected Jen-Daniel Dumas , another partisan leader of the Troupes de la Marine to be his second in command. Leading the Indian contingent of the...was shaken, Dumas rallied his forces. While the Troupes de la Marine formed a blocking position, Langlade, the Indians, and the Canadian militia

  10. American Military Ethics: Stalwart in a Changing Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-19

    ethical misgiving. The Philippine War took place 50 years after the American Civil War. Although slavery had been abolished, there was still a large...all homes in My Lai, the pollution of every well, the killing of every animal, countless cases of rape and sexual assault, and the murder of nearly 350

  11. Improving Vocational Rehabilitation Access and Return to Work and Career Outcomes among African American Wounded Warriors, Gulf War, and Vietnam War Era Veterans with Disabilities: A White Paper Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Corey L., Ed.: Johnson, Jean E., Ed.; Washington, Andre L., Ed.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this monograph is to present documents that discuss issues related to improving access to vocational rehabilitation services and return to work rates of African American Wounded Warriors, Gulf War and Vietnam War Era veterans with disabilities. This monograph also includes a review of relevant literature on barriers to employment…

  12. War, Education and State Formation: Problems of Territorial and Political Integration in the United States, 1848-1912

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beadie, Nancy

    2016-01-01

    After the Civil War (1861-1865), the United States faced a problem of "reconstruction" similar to that confronted by other nations at the time and familiar to the US since at least the Mexican-American War (1846-1848). The problem was one of territorial and political (re)integration: how to take territories that had only recently been…

  13. A brief foreword to « Wars and New Beginnings in American History: An American National Rhetoric from the Early Republic to the Obama Presidency »

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenel Virden

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available War has been a defining moment in the history of nations and no more so than in the United States.  It gives the editors of EJAS great pleasure to present this excellent volume of essays focussed on the issue of American national rhetoric and American wars.  This volume is comprised of essays that were presented at a workshop on “Wars and New Beginnings in American History”, which took place in Dublin in 2010 at the biennial conference of the European Association for American Studies, or are ...

  14. The political evolution and the legal framework during the Civil War. Scarcity of monographs and a proliferation of biographies and witness accounts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier GARCÍA FERNÁNDEZ

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the literature relating to the organisation of the Republican State and the State in the rebel area during the Spanish Civil War. We identify in both cases the works relating to the organs of the State at the international, national and local levels. Literature concerning official repression in the Republican and rebel areas is included as well. We have also added analyses of the more relevant political events, ideological trends, main political parties and singular political groups in both areas.

  15. The Failure of American Civil War Reconstruction: Lessons for Post-Conflict Operations in Iraq

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-05-15

    Southern insurgency. Operating with impunity and dressed in costumes resembling Confederate ghosts to frighten superstitious blacks, Ku Klux Klan...its voters in the 1860 presidential election had taken an oath of future loyalty to the Union. Acceptance of emancipation was required for

  16. The Decisive General : Ulysses S. Grant and the American Civil War in 1864

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-23

    Monaghan , Jay. Diplomat in Carpet Slippers: Abraham Lincoln Deals with Foreign Affairs. New York, NY: The Bobbs-Merrill Company, 1945. Moody, John W...Napoleon. From an operational perspective, John Waugh observes that “Whatever the reason, McClellan was not a bold attacker, which in the end a great...Press, 1955), 77, 14-126, 182. 27 John Shy, “Jomini,” Makers of Modern Strategy from Machiavelli to the Nuclear Age, Ed. Peter Paret (Princeton, NJ

  17. Dragoon or Cavalryman, Major General John Buford in the American Civil War

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-06-03

    deficiencies, Pope demanded aggressive actions from his subordinates. Brigadier General John Hatch, in 2:49-50, 215-216; Wallace J. Schutz and Walter...8217Sir’ Percy Wyndham (1st New Jersey), and Colonel Alfred Nattie Duffle (1st Rhode Island) all were quick to teach the European manner of cavalry...would have to be content with relaying McClellan’s orders to Brigadier General Alfred Pleasonton, the commander of the Cavalry Division.72 Certainly

  18. Wilder’s Brigade in the Tullahoma and Chattanooga Campaigns of the American Civil War

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    unit, Brigadier General Otho F. Strahl’s Brigade, (Cheatham’s Division, Polk’s Corps) was very close, just across the Pea Vine Creek to Wilder’s west...Road (hereafter Lafayette Road). Rosecrans’s headquarters was in a plantation house near Crawfish Springs, a natural spring and source of water for the

  19. Coercion and Reconciliation: Post-Conflict Resolution After the American Civil War

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-26

    that notwithstanding any other provision of law , no person shall be subject to any penalty for failing to comply with a collection of information if it...subjugation. All we can, or should attempt is to give them rope , to develop in an honest way if possible, preserving in reserve enough military power...1866), 507, accessed 1 December 2015, http://www.loc.gov/ law /help/statutes-at-large/38th-congress/c38.pdf. 10 Socio-Political Changes and

  20. United States Army Counter Partisan Operations in Northern Virginia During the American Civil War

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-10

    partisan operations in the rugged West Virginia terrain. Crook kept his Soldiers busy, with drill up to four times a day, in order to eliminate...units. Army drill manuals of the mid-19th century did not provide guidance on the engagement of an enemy conducting irregular warfare. This prevented...increasing speed and decreasing the likelihood of their detection during daylight movement. Most importantly

  1. Orientalizing Vietnam: The American Cold War, its “Problems” with Refugee Handicraft Artisans, and their Relationship to Barthes’s Mythology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Way

    2012-11-01

    At issue are the ways those who implemented the program narrated the Vietnamese handicraft artisans as problems by treating both their plight as political refugees fleeing from communist forces in the north and the vulnerability of their fledgling nation in the south to communism, as a Cold War American Orientalist tale of the U.S. salvaging Vietnam from political uncertainty including the destruction of its potential democracy and capitalism. To this point, the Orientalizing saturates Russel Wright’s article, “Gold Mine in Southeast Asia,” which overlays relationships of Western power and civilization as well as anthropological notions of salvage over references to the ways an ostensibly timeless albeit primitive culture of a non-western society (Vietnam could maintain its essential identity by serving the needs of an overly industrialized one. Of particular interest are thematic correspondences between the Orientalist thrust of the American cultural diplomacy as evidenced in Wright’s article, and Roland Barthes’ early work, especially “Myth Today”.

  2. Specters of War in Pyongyang: The Victorious Fatherland Liberation War Museum in North Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzy Kim

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available While North Korea accused South Korea of starting a “civil war” (naeran during the Korean War, it has now moved away from such depictions to paint the war as an American war of imperialist aggression against Korea that was victoriously thwarted under the leadership of Kim Il Sung. In this regard, it may be more than a coincidence that the Victorious Fatherland Liberation War Museum in Pyongyang was built in the early 1970s, just as the Vietnam War drew to a close with a Vietnamese victory. This article examines the memorialization of the Korean War in North Korea at two pivotal historical points—the end of the Vietnam War in the 1970s and the end of the Cold War in the 1990s—with a particular focus on contemporary exhibitions at the war museum in Pyongyang. Rather than offering a simple comparison of divergent narratives about the war, the article seeks to illustrate that North Korea’s conception of history and its account of the war are staunchly modernist, with tragic consequences.

  3. Heart Mountain Relocation Center: A Lesson Using Primary Source Documents To Critically Analyze the Relocation of Japanese Americans to Wyoming. AHC Primary Sources in the Classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyoming Univ., Laramie. American Heritage Center.

    This lesson, for grades 7-12, correlates with Era 8, Standard 3c of the National History Standards for United States History: "evaluate the internment of Japanese Americans during World War II and assess the implication for civil liberties." The lesson provides background on the internment of Japanese Americans during the war and…

  4. Entrepreneur for Equality: Governor Rufus Brown Bullock and the Politics of Race and Commerce in Post-Civil War Georgia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duncan, Russell

    Rufus Bullock, reconstruction, Georgia, United States history, African American, race relations, Gilded age......Rufus Bullock, reconstruction, Georgia, United States history, African American, race relations, Gilded age...

  5. Oversimplifying Iraq's challenges: Bush's Fort Bragg speech and americans' declining support for the war

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos L. Yordan

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo examina el porqué el presidente George W. Bush no pudo recolectar la ayuda de la ciudadanía americana para su estrategia para la estabilización y la transformación de Iraq. De hecho, esta estrategia ha sido afectada por el desplegar de los acontecimientos que sucedieron en Iraq, pero el problema principal reside en las posiciones que el presidente utilizó para simplificar los desafíos que el ejército americano y la diplomacia tenían que hacer frente en Iraq, buscando la aprobación de las criticas periodisticas, de los expertos gubernamentales y de los juristas. En más de una perspectiva la falta de aprobación del gobierno Bush en Iraq es una consecuencia de la carencia de la confianza que la opinión pública tuvo por su presidente y sus consejeros para lograr sus objetivos en Iraq. Para constatar esta tesis, el artículo analiza el discurso del presidente a la nación, difundida en horario de punta el 28 de julio de 2005, que demuestra que los americanos no estaban demasiado convencidos de la estrategia de Bush._____________ABSTRACT:This article puts in context why President of the United States of America George W. Bush has been unable to rally American support for his strategy to stabilize and transform Iraq. Since the summer of 2003, when Iraqis started to challenge the authority of the Anglo-American occupation, the White House has been on the defensive, while American support for post-war efforts has dwindled. While developments in Iraq have affected the strategy’s execution, the main problem is the president’s inclination to oversimplify the challenges American troops and diplomats are facing in Iraq, inviting criticism from journalists, experts on nation-building and lawmakers. In many ways, declining approval of Bush’s handling of Iraq results in the public’s lack of confidence that the president and his advisors will be able to accomplish its goals in Iraq. To test this argument, the article analyzes

  6. The Citizen-Soldier in the American Imagination: Traces of the Myths of World War II in the "Army Strong" Recruitment Campaign

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    The myth of the citizen-soldier resonates strongly in the American imagination and helps (re)construct America the nation. The construction of this myth in the historical context of World War II is especially prominent in contemporary American culture. The myth of the World War II citizen-soldier functions as an individualized discursive formation with specific rules of formation. I contextualize the construction of this individualized discursive formation within the historical era of World W...

  7. Fear of failure: why american science is not winning the war on cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ness, Roberta B

    2010-02-01

    How to maximize creativity in biological science is a topic rarely discussed and yet critical to success in improving health. I believe that the needed approaches are not simply to flog individuals to try harder but to build systems and infrastructures that enhance creative effort. Lateral thinking can and should be taught. My hope for the future is that every graduate science curriculum will have a course in innovation. Institutions must provide time, space, and individual credit to the long and slow process of creative output. Highly multidisciplinary science should be supported, some of which may require seed or infrastructure support. Funders can separate idea generation from implementation. Scientists can minimize costs of failure by piloting and modeling ideas through incremental research, if supported by funders. But perhaps the very first step is to initiate a vibrant discussion of what we can do to enhance creativity in American biological science-it is time to stop complaining and to start winning the war on cancer.

  8. The Problem of Emergency in the American Supreme Court

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartz, Emily; ugilt, rasmus

    2011-01-01

    Sixty years before Carl Schmitt wrote his Political Theology, and more than a 100 years before President Bush announced a ‘war on terrorism’ the American Supreme Court grappled with the difficult issue of emergency powers in connection with issues arising out of the American Civil War (1861...... on terrorism. This article engages the theoretical framework of Locke, Schmitt and Agamben in order to come to a better understanding of this important set of cases....

  9. Women’s Contributions in African-American Civil Rights Movement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王姗姗

    2015-01-01

    This thesis is devoted to the roles and contributions of black women in the Civil Right Movement against racial discriminations in the U.S.A in 1960 s. The conclusion comes from three aspects of the black women’s involving the Civil Right Movement.

  10. Women’s Contributions in African-American Civil Rights Movement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王姗姗

    2015-01-01

    This thesis is devoted to the roles and contributions of black women in the Civil Right Movement against racial discriminations in the U.S.A in 1960s. The conclusion comes from three aspects of the black women’s involving the Civil Right Movement.

  11. Greed, grievance, leadership and external interventions in the initiation and intensification of the civil war in Angola

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Real P. Sousa

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the initiation of conflict is fundamental for the success of efforts in conflict prevention. The validity of the mechanisms of the “Greed and Grievance” model, alongside leadership and external interventions are tested in four periods of initiation and intensification of the conflict in Angola. All mechanisms are present but their relative relevance varies throughout the conflict. Among the mechanisms identified in each period the most relevant in the Cold War period are the international and regional interventions in 1961 and 1975 and in the post-Cold War period, the “greed” factors in 1992 (oil and diamonds, poverty and war capital and the UNITA leadership of Jonas Savimbi in 1998. The case study provides evidence that “greed” and “grievance” can be interlinked (such as in 1992 and confirms the relevance of leadership and external interventions mechanisms.

  12. Standing on a Strong Foundation of Servitude: The 1960's Civil Rights Movement, Septima Clark and Other South Carolina African American Women Educators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Iris Renell

    2012-01-01

    This research study examines nine African American women educators during the 1960s Civil Rights Movement in South Carolina. Additionally, the study conducts an analogous study of the lifeworks and contributions of Septima Clark, an African American woman educator who made significant community activist contributions during this period. For its…

  13. Latin American Regional Cooperative Security: Civil-Military Relations and Economic Interdependence

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-09-01

    and Argentina and Brazil supported opposing sides in the Chaco War (1932- 1936 ) between Bolivia and Paraguay over the boundary separating their...Miguel, “War in Latin America the Peaceful Continent?” in Latin America an Interdisciplinary Approach, Ed. Julio Lopez-Arias and Gladys Varona-Lacey...Europe, Colorado: Westview Press, 1998. Nogués, Julio and Rosalinda Quintanilla, “Latin America’s Integration and the Multilateral Trading System

  14. "No God and no Norway": collective resource loss among members of Tamil NGO's in Norway during and after the last phase of the civil war in Sri Lanka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guribye Eugene

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies on the mental health of refugees have tended to focus upon the impact of traumatic experiences in the country of origin, and acculturation processes in exile. The effects of crises in the country of origin on refugees living in exile have been little studied. This article examines how the final stages of the civil war in Sri Lanka in 2009 influenced members of pro-LTTE Tamil NGO's in Norway. Method Ethnographic fieldwork methods were employed within Tamil NGO's in the two largest cities in Norway between November 2008 and June 2011. Results The findings suggest that collective resources became severely drained as a result of the crisis, severely disrupting the fabric of social life. Public support from the majority community remained scarce throughout the crisis. Conclusions The study suggests that there is a need for public support to exile groups indirectly affected by man-made crises in their country of origin.

  15. PERIODICAL PUBLICATIONS ON THE FRONT EVERY DAY LIFE IN THE NORTH CAUCASUS DURING THE CIVIL WAR OF 1917-1920

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polivina M. A.

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the specifics of everyday life, which was reflected in the 1917-1920 war journalism. The article highlights the lack of journalistic freedom and creative choice, since publication on the front everyday life in this period were under especially careful censorship

  16. Criminological and criminalistic research opportunities in Spain on the subject of the spanish civil war/Oportunidades de investigación criminológica y criminalística bajo la guerra civil española

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derek Congram (Canadá

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Tens of thousands of Spanish and foreign non-combatants were illegally detained and executed during the Spanish Civil War and postwar repression. Their bodies are believed to lie in unmarked mass graves throughout the country. The need for criminological and criminalistic research is great. This article discusses different aspects of the work and suggests the involvement of Mexican academics and forensic practitioners. Justifications for such foreign involvement are outlined as are points of mutual Spanish-Mexican benefit. Decenas de miles de no-combatientes españoles y extranjeros fueron ilegalmente detenidos y ejecutados durante la guerra civil española y durante la represión de la posguerra. Muchos de los cuerpos yacen en fosas comunes no marcadas en todo el país. La necesidad de investigación criminológica y criminalística es grande en este contexto. Este articulo habla de aspectos diferentes del trabajo y sugiere la participación de académicos y forenses mexicanos. Se resumen las justificaciones para tal colaboración y los aspectos del beneficio mutuo Español-Mexicano.

  17. A Hero’s Maturation in War--On Henry’s Growth in The Red Badge of Courage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张蓉蓉

    2015-01-01

    Stephen Crane is one of the most famous American writers in late 19th century, and his work of art The Red Badge of Courage is an important masterpiece of naturalism in American literary. With the background of American civil war and the depiction of Henry’s personal experiences and psychological changes durin the war, from inocence to maturation, the author reveals the war’s profound inflence on the charactr’s growth. In this novel, the description of war presents readers a bright war scene. It seems as if the novel is writing about war, in fact, it is exploring the relationship between human and environment, for environment can change a person’s action and mind completely. There is no doubt that The Red Badge of Courage is an excellent novel of war.

  18. 论英法在尼日利亚内战中的关系%Anglo-French Relations around the Nigerian Civil War (1967-1970)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓文科

    2014-01-01

    1967-1970年尼日利亚内战期间,法国支持比夫拉,这与英国态度相反。英国为改变法国政策进行了不懈的努力。在戴高乐时期、后戴高乐时期和尼日利亚内战末期三个阶段,英国从石油利益、地缘政治、人道主义、戴高乐反英态度等各方面对英法两国对尼政策的分歧原因进行了分析,并通过各种直接和间接途径试图改变法国的对尼政策,但种种努力都以失败告终。英法两国的这种政策分歧实质上是两国几百年来全球殖民斗争所导致的观念分歧的一种延续。%During the Nigerian civil war, France, contrary to Britain’s standpoint, supported Biafra. Britain made persistent efforts to try to change the standpoint of France. Throughout the three periods of the de Gaulle’s rule, the post-de Gaulle’ rule, and Nigerian Civil War, Britain analyzed the reasons for the two nation’s policy divergences time and again in respect of oil interests, geopolitics, humanitarianism, Charles de Gaulle’s anti-British attitude, and so on, and tried to change the French policy by all possible direct or indirect means, only to fail. It is eventually realized that these policy divergences were the continuation of concept divergences resulting from the two nation’s hundred years of global colonial contention.

  19. The Republic of Mexico and the United States of America: The Mexican-American War -- In Retrospect. Fulbright-Hays Summer Seminar Abroad 1996 (Mexico).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juarez, Pablo Hill

    The unit is intended as part of a world cultures curriculum taught at the 10th grade level. The lessons include: (1) "Mexico in Brief"; (2) "The Mexican American War 1846-1848"; and (3) "History and Educational Status of Americans of Mexican Descent (Chicanos) in the Southwest." Additional resources and a 32-item bibliography accompany the unit.…

  20. Yale University's Institute of Human Relations and the Spanish Civil War: Dollard and Miller's study of fear and courage under battle conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gondra, José María; Sánchez de Miguel, Manuel

    2009-11-01

    In the late 1930s, the Institute of Human Relations of Yale University developed a research program on conflict and anxiety as an outcome of Clark Hull's informal seminar on the integration of Freud's and Pavlov's theories. The program was launched at the 1937 Annual Meeting of the APA in a session chaired by Clark L. Hull, and the experiments continued through 1941, when the United States entered the Second World War. In an effort to apply the findings from animal experiments to the war situation, John Dollard and Neal E. Miller decided to study soldiers' fear reactions in combat. As a first step, they arranged interviews with a few veterans of the Abraham Lincoln Brigade. Taking these interviews as a point of departure, Dollard devised a questionnaire to which 300 former Lincoln brigaders responded. The present paper analyzes the main outcomes of the questionnaire, together with the war experiences reported in the interview transcripts. Our purpose was to evaluate a project which was initially investigated by the FBI because of the communists among the Lincoln ranks, but eventually supported by the American Army, and which exerted great influence on the military psychology of the time.

  1. Vietnam: Historians at War

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyar, Mark

    2008-01-01

    Although the Vietnam War ended more than thirty years ago, historians remain as divided on what happened as the American people were during the war. Mark Moyar maps the ongoing battle between "orthodox" and "revisionist" Vietnam War historians: the first group, those who depict Vietnam as a bad war that the United States should…

  2. Liberation and Franco-American Relations in Post-War Cherbourg

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-06-13

    as a time of uncertainty and loneliness . The war and the subsequent defeat separated relatives and friends. The army call-up took husbands and...European Theater of Operations: Cross-Channel Attack, United States Army in World War II; and Russell F. Weigley, Eisenhower’s Lieutenants. 3 Ibid., 39-68...

  3. The First World War, Sex Education, and the American Social Hygiene Association's Campaign against Venereal Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imber, Michael

    1984-01-01

    Prior to the First World War, the public's attitude toward sex education was apathetic. With venereal disease posing a threat to America's "military efficiency" during the war, however, military programs in sex education were instituted that then gave rise to similar programs in secondary schools in the 1920s. (JBM)

  4. Americans as Warriors: "Doughboys" in Battle during the First World War.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keene, Jennifer D.

    2002-01-01

    Focuses on the experience of U.S. soldiers during World War I. Addresses topics, such as the difficulties and horrors the soldiers dealt with in the trenches, the problems with untrained soldiers, the sickness and injuries that affected soldiers, and heroes of the war. (CMK)

  5. CHARACTERISTICS OF AMERICAN ENGLISH

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韦娟; 黄舜

    2007-01-01

    The large scale colonization of America by British settlers took place in the seventeenth century.During the process,the immigrants brought English to America.They desert great influence to the development of American English.After the civil war,American got political independence,and then there arose a tendency to develop an American brand of English.Famous persons like Thomas Jeffe,Benjamin,Franklin,and Noah Webster began to consider that the country should have a language of its own.

  6. Hitler's bible: an analysis of the relationship between American and German eugenics in pre-war Nazi Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Susan

    2009-06-01

    Throughout the last century the wellbeing of those with disability has been threatened by the idea of eugenics. The most notable and extreme example of this could be considered to have been carried out during World WarTwo, within Nazi eugenic programmes. These resulted in the sterilisation and killing of hundreds of thousands of disabled people. Through research of a wide range of sources it has been established that much of the inspiration and encouragement for this rapidly progressing movement in Germany initially came from America, most notably from California. American eugenicists expressed interest, and at times jealousy, at the speed of the progression in German eugenics. German Sterilisation laws were drafted following careful study of American experiments and research, while financial support from a number of American individuals encouraged further German research. Correspondence between influential leaders, including Hitler, Grant and Whitney, Verschuer and Popenoe, on both sides also added to the developing relationship. In conclusion, although there are a number of vital differences between the progress of the eugenics programme in America and in pre-war Nazi Germany, and eugenics in America never produced the massive genocide that occurred in Germany, it is clear that the research, encouragement and enthusiasm from America had a profound influence on the rapidly growing Nazi eugenics movement.

  7. American Spirit in Uncle Tom’s Cabin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    欧嘉丽

    2015-01-01

    <正>I.The American Spirit Reflected in Uncle Tom’s Cabin In most people’s opinions,Uncle Tom’s Cabin is a novel which exploded the Civil War and truly described the dreadful life of black people,in my opinion,however,the American spirit reflects in Uncle Tom’s Cabin is the truly reason to the whole course of the Civil War,it is also one of the most important prime movers in the later development of the whole nation,it is a systemic theory of Americans’thoughts

  8. America’s Two-Front War: The American Media Assault on our Center of Gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-04-14

    satire ." Colin Powell (1991)3 Introduction Carl Von Clausewitz, noted German soldier, writer, and strategist, described war "as a remarkable trinity" in...military operations. Military operations in the 15 years since the first Persian Gulf War are now measured against that conflict in terms of quick...escaped up north to fight another day.92 The media may not have been satisfied with the way military events in the Persian Gulf were covered, but

  9. G. N. Magliocca on Christian G. Fritz’s American Sovereigns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Christian G. Fritz, American Sovereigns:  The People and America’s Constitutional Tradition Before the Civil War.  New York:  Cambridge University Press, 2008. Christian G. Fritz’s American Sovereigns: The People and America’s Constitutional Tradition Before the Civil War is a useful resource on how the process of constitutional change was tamed during the early Republic.  The American Revolution rested on the principle that the people were sovereign, but Fritz focuses on the subsequent debat...

  10. The Vanishing West: 1964-2010--The Disappearance of Western Civilization from the American Undergraduate Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricketts, Glenn; Wood, Peter R.; Balch, Stephen H.; Thorne, Ashley

    2011-01-01

    "The Vanishing West" traces the decline and near extinction of the Western Civilization history survey course in America's top colleges and universities from 1964 to 2010. This course, covering classical antiquity to the present, was once part of the undergraduate curriculum's intellectual bedrock, not only because it was often a graduation…

  11. From reception of classics to outreach: classical reception and American response to war. A case study. Part II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosanna Lauriola

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available After providing a theoretical framework pertaining to the field of Reception of Classic in the first part of this essay (LAURIOLA, 2014 and after discussing some related issues from a pedagogical viewpoint, I introduced, as case study, works and initiatives by a psychiatrist (SHAY, 1991, 1994, 2002, an American director (DOERRIES, 2008, and two scholars (MEINECK, 2010a, b, 2012; TRITLE, 1998, 2000, 2010 who have been proposing a use of Classical Literature as a therapeutic and awareness-raising tool in response to the problems that modern wars have been causing. Veterans and their family, as well as the whole civic community, are the addressees of their work. What follows is a detailed analysis of those works with the intention both to determine whether they can be classified as work of reception – which, so far, has never been proposed – and to discuss the plausibility of this kind of reception, which also turns into social outreach, and how it can be proposed without risking to completely dismiss changes that have occurred in the vision of war, although we may agree that the sufferings of war did not change too much1. Like in the first part, the discussion will be also carried on within a pedagogical discourse. A personal note based on a personal experience will conclude the analysis.

  12. Wars in the history of rheumatology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Marson

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Some important discoveries in the history of rheumatology happened during war periods. It is well known that arthritis associated with conjunctivitis and urethritis, following dysenteric episodes, has been described during the First World War from the German Hans Reiter and, nearly contemporarily, from the French Nöel Fiessinger and Edgar Leroy. Less known is instead the fact that the first cases of sympathetic algoneurodystrophy have been reported by the American Silas Weir Mitchell in soldiers wounded by fire-arms, during the Civil War of Secession. Other war episodes have been crucial for the development of some drugs now abundantly applied to the care of rheumatic diseases. The discovery of therapeutic effects of immunosuppressive agents, in fact, happened as an indirect consequence of the use of poison gas, already during the First World War (mustard gas, but above all after an episode in the port of Bari in 1943, where an American cargo boat was sunk. It had been loaded with a quantity of cylinders containing a nitrogenous mustard, whose diffusion in the environment provoked more than 80 deaths owing to bone marrow aplasia.Moreover, the history of the cortisone shows a strict link to the Second World War, when Germany imported large quantities of bovine adrenal glands from Argentina, with the purpose of producing some gland extracts for the Luftwasse aviators, in order to increase their performance ability.

  13. Secondary Education and Emancipation: Secondary Schools for Freed Slaves in the American South, 1862-1875

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butchart, Ronald E.; Rolleri, Amy F.

    2004-01-01

    Slavery in the United States denied education to the enslaved. Yet within fifteen years of the beginning of the American Civil War and the freeing of four million American slaves, the freed people and their supporters elaborated a full system of universal education in the South, including over 120 secondary and higher institutions. Historians have…

  14. Media, a President, and His Generals: How the Media Shaped Civil-Military Relations during the Mexican War

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-19

    He concluded his thoughts by calling Whig editors “unpatriotic” and “anti- American.” 161 On May 15, 1847, the city of Puebla fell with little...formed in 1834 in opposition to Jackson, Scott naturally joined their number. Hearkening back to Hamiltonian views, which called for a strong...Corpus Christi on July 25, 1845. 50 By late August, Polk convinced himself that Mexico planned to invade the Republic of Texas. He called a special

  15. Charles Edouard Brown-Séquard's departure from the Medical College of Virginia: incompatible science or incompatible social views in pre-Civil War southern United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Joseph C; Ho, Stephen V

    2011-01-01

    Charles Edouard Brown-Séquard was one of the most colorful characters in modern physiology. His scientific methods of self-experimentation and animal vivisection led to many great observations, including the eponymous syndrome of hemisection of the spinal cord. Despite his renown, he stayed but one year in his first major academic post. Details of his sojourn at the Medical College of Virginia (now part of Virginia Commonwealth University) in Richmond were divined from perusal of archival material, letters, and from the available literature. His notoriety in the field of physiology landed him a post at the Medical College of Virginia in 1854 as the chair of physiology. During a brief time here, he was able to publish his landmark monograph of 1855 on the pathways of the spinal cord "Experimental and Clinical Researches on the Physiology and Pathology of the Spinal Cord." He had a near-death experience while experimenting on himself to determine the function of the skin. It was rumored that his English was poor, his lectures unintelligible, and his scientific methods disturbing to the neighbors and that for those reasons he was asked to vacate his post. Personal communications and other accounts indicate a different view: his mixed-blood heritage and his views on slavery were unpopular in the pre-Civil War southern United States. These disparate viewpoints lend an insight into the life and career of this pioneer in modern medicine and experimental design and to the clash of science and social views.

  16. Experts in the cold war. War experiences and peace conceptions of US-American physicists 1920-1963; Experten im Kalten Krieg. Kriegserfahrungen und Friedenskonzeptionen US-amerikanischer Kernphysiker 1920-1963

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wunderle, Ulrike

    2015-07-01

    The study is dedicated to the American elite of nuclear physicists, which explained after the second world war the possibilities of their science for war and peace. What induced their thinking and handling? The focus lies on the scientific shapings and war experiences of the first really international generation of physicists, which began in the 1920th years their career before many of their representatives had to fly from the NS regime from Europe and cooperated in the Manhattan project in the construction of the atomic bomb. These experiences the author refers to in order to get on the track of the explanations of the exper elite in the immediate afterwar time and in the cold war. How far their internationally and by actual war experiences shaped thinking about their own contribution as scientist to the national security - in the sense of discouragement or the cooperative conflict regulation - found its expression in the cold war, is drawn on different action levels of the participants from the Geneve conference ''Atoms for Peace'' of 1955 until the signing of the so-called Limited Test Ban Treaty of 1963.

  17. The Soldier’s Dilemma: Using Decision Theory to Explain American War Crimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-12-01

    Orders is an excellent primer on the historic and legal precedents involved in war crimes. Additionally, Philip Zimbardo’s explanation of the Abu...25, 2007, from www.prd.uscourts.gov. 50 Willoughby, J. (2001). Remaking the conquering heroes. New York: Palgrave. Zimbardo , P. (2007). The

  18. American War Narratives: An Analytic Study and Linkage to National Will

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-26

    accustomed. But when a long train of abuses and usurpations, pursing invariably the same Object evinces a design to reduce them 39 Michael Stephenson...the political elites was largely a parallel narrative to that of the people’s war narrative with limited crossover linkage between the two. The

  19. Leveraging Strength: The Pillars of American Grand Strategy in World War II

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    intricate balance of detailed preparation and instinctive flexibility. The terrain of modern warfare is treacherous because it is so unpredictable...Hanson W. Baldwin, Great Mistakes of the War (New York: Harper Brothers, 1950); Chester Wilmot, The Struggle for Europe (London: Collins , 1952). Also

  20. International Education during the Cold War: Soviet Social Transformation and American Social Reproduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsvetkova, Natalia

    2008-01-01

    During the Cold War, the United States and Soviet Union employed various cultural and informational and educational tools to establish and maintain friendly political regimes in foreign states. In this context international education programs became a major part of their strategy to win the "minds" and "allegiance" and to…

  1. The Hope for American School Reform: The Cold War Pursuit of Inquiry Learning in Social Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Ronald W.

    2010-01-01

    As the issue of school reform grows ever more intense, it is imperative that we learn what we can from previous efforts. The new social studies was a 1960's attempt to transform the teaching of history and the social sciences in schools. With origins in the Cold War, the movement sought to develop critical thinkers through "inquiry" and…

  2. American and Soviet Adolescent Archetypal Heroes of the Cold War. Professional Paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman, William E.

    This study explores the value-oriented behaviors associated with membership in prominent youth organizations in the Soviet Union and the United States of America during the Cold War. The archetypal heroic ideals and values of the Soviet Octoberists and Pioneers and the U.S. Boy Scout and Girl Scout organizations were examined. Key political,…

  3. International Education during the Cold War: Soviet Social Transformation and American Social Reproduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsvetkova, Natalia

    2008-01-01

    During the Cold War, the United States and Soviet Union employed various cultural and informational and educational tools to establish and maintain friendly political regimes in foreign states. In this context international education programs became a major part of their strategy to win the "minds" and "allegiance" and to reproduce or transform…

  4. Advising Success: Lessons from American Military Assistance Efforts Since World War II

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-01

    scholarly research of Columbia in the 50s and 60s and the long-term impacts that the violent period known as La Violencia has on the problems the...parties occasionally erupts into violence, most notably in the Thousand Days War (1899–1902) and La Violencia , beginning in 1948.130 A generation of

  5. Enduring Lessons of Justice from the World War II Japanese American Internment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallavan, Nancy P.; Roberts, Teresa A.

    2005-01-01

    In 1942, less than four months after Japan's attack on Pearl Harbor and the subsequent United States entry into World War II , nearly 120,000 persons of Japanese ancestry living along the west coast of the United States were ordered to evacuate their homes and sent to internment camps. The evacuees, separated from their extended families, former…

  6. Application of American Civil Action to Public Interest Action in Environmental Protection of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ye Suping; Li Yanshun

    2006-01-01

    Economic development has made a negative impact on the environment. However, our proceedings on public interest action are almost blank, causing many of the cases related to the environmental protection to be rejected by the court for the reason that the prosecutors fail to provide enough evidence. Therefore, we can take the U.S. system of civil action for reference to improve our public interest action while employing proxy litigation. The measures can be included as follows: relax the plaintiff qualifications; establish the necessary lead procedures; invert the responsibility of providing evidence.

  7. Analysis and Lessons from General Galvez’s West Florida Campaign during the American Revolutionary War

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-12

    Robert J. Allison, The American Revolution: A Concise History (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2011). 6 Martha Steincamp, Spain: The Forgotten...American Revolution, 1775-1783 (Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1991); Robert H. Thonhoff, The Texas Connection with the American Revolution... Historia Militar, “Bernardo De Gálvez (III)–La Toma De Fort Charlotte En Mobila (Alabama), accessed January 28, 2015, http://www.gehm.es/uncategorized

  8. THER ROLE OF REMOTE SENSING AND GIS IN IDENTIFYING AND REMOVING BURIED WORLD WAR I MUNITIONS AT THE AMERICAN UNIVERSITY, WASHINGTON, DC

    Science.gov (United States)

    During World War I, The American University in Washington D.C. was used by the U.S. Am1y as an experiment station for the development and testing of a variety of battlefield munitions including chemical weapons such as Mustard Gas, Phosgene, Ricin and Lewisite, among others. Afte...

  9. THE ROLE OF THE REMOTE SENSING IN IDENTIFYING BURIED WORLD WAR I MUNITIONS AT THE AMERICAN UNIVERSITY, WASHINGTON, D.C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    During World War 1, The American University in Washington D.C. was used by the U.S. Army as an experiment station for the development and testing of a variety of battlefield munitions including chemical weapons such as Mustard Gas, Phosgene, Ricin and Lewisite, among othe...

  10. The 1944 Nisei Draft at Heart Mountain, Wyoming: Its Relationship to the Historical Representation of the World War II Japanese American Evacuation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Arthur A.

    1996-01-01

    Presents a lesson plan that not only illuminates a little-known incident in Asian American history but also questions how history is constructed and communicated. Provides an excellent historical account of the draft resistance movement within the Nisei internment camps during World War II. Includes handouts and discussion questions. (MJP)

  11. Nuclear Weapons and Nuclear War. Papers Based on a Symposium of the Forum on Physics and Society of the American Physical Society, (Washington, D.C., April 1982).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Philip; And Others

    Three papers on nuclear weapons and nuclear war, based on talks given by distinguished physicists during an American Physical Society-sponsored symposium, are provided in this booklet. They include "Caught Between Asymptotes" (Philip Morrison), "We are not Inferior to the Soviets" (Hans A. Bethe), and "MAD vs. NUTS" (Wolfgang K. H. Panofsky).…

  12. Homogamy and Intermarriage of Japanese and Japanese Americans with Whites Surrounding World War II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ono, Hiromi; Berg, Justin

    2010-01-01

    Although some sociologists have suggested that Japanese Americans quickly assimilated into mainstream America, scholars of Japanese America have highlighted the heightened exclusion that the group experienced. This study tracked historical shifts in the exclusion level of Japanese and Japanese Americans in the United States surrounding World War…

  13. Effectiveness of the Geneva Convention Relative to American POW’s (Prisoner of War)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1973-05-01

    Encyclopedia Brittanica, op. cit., p. 563. 7. Ibid. 8. Funk and Wagnalls , op. cit., p. 1417. 9. Ibid. 10. Encyclopedia ...Brittanica, op. cit., p. 563. 11. Funk and Wagnalls , op. cit., p. 1417. 12. Ibid. 13. "Confederate States of America," Encyclopedia Brittanica, op. cit...Nineteen Months’ Internment ( New York: Dodd, Mead and Company, 1917), p. vii, ’*~’~"’~ 18. " World War," Encyclopedia Brittanica. op. cit., Vol.

  14. Planning the American Air War, Four Men and Nine Days in 1941. An Inside Narrative

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-01-01

    still be genuinely happy ? Novelist James Gould Cozzens, an inveterate skeptic who served Arnold later in the war as a speech writer and trouble-shooter...continued his attempts to ease Freeman to- ward more realistic expectations, with little success. When the happy flier from Gladwyne. Pennsylvania...in Russia that von Brauchitsch had been advocating on his own. At midnight Hitler called von Brauchitsch to his quarters, berated him furiously for

  15. What Does Playing Cards Have to Do with Science? A Resource-Rich View of African American Young Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schademan, Alfred R.

    2011-01-01

    The study examines the resources related to science that African American young men learn and develop by playing a card game called Spades, a common cultural practice in African American communities that dates back to the Civil War Era. The qualitative study examines what the Spades players at a local high school consider when making decisions…

  16. Causes of Britain’ s Change of Attitudes toward the Communist Party of China during the Chinese Civil War%国共内战时期英国对中共态度转变之原因

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    奚庆庆

    2013-01-01

    国共内战时期,英国对中共的态度大致经历着由反共走向“亲共”的转变历程。英国对中共态度的转变,从宏观上受到二战结束之初美苏冷战背景的影响,同时又受到内战局势以及中英关系中香港问题的影响。从根本上而言,内战时期英国对中共态度的转变,与此间英国对华政策基本保持一致。在这种表象性的态度转变背后,英国外交政策中国家利益至上的原则并没有根本的改变。%During the Chinese civil war, Britain’s attitudes toward the Communist Party of China changed from opposition to reconciliation.At the macro level, this change was influenced by the surroundings of US-Soviet cold war in the beginning days after the World War II was over.Meanwhile, it also was affected by the Chinese civil war’s developmental trend and the HK problem in Sino-British relations.Fundamentally speaking, Britain’s change of attitudes toward the Communist Party of China during the Chinese civil war was consistent with its change of policy toward China.Behind the presentational change, the core of Britain’s foreign policy, that is, the principle of national interests always being the priority, never had the slightest change all the time.

  17. Occupational Pursuits: The Army and World War II Occupation Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    so “power-statesmen [can]…return to their pleasant little game of international penny -ante.”74 Wallace and Ickes played key roles in postwar planning...FDR would put off deciding the issue until it was too late to do anything to change course .99 At a Cabinet meeting in late October, the issue dominated...answer this. He cited two examples, during the Civil War and in the Philippines after the Spanish -American War, where “we paid a heavy price for

  18. THE CRISIS OF THE TRADITIONAL FAMILY AND THE EVOLUTION OF MARRIAGE AND FAMILY RELATIONS DURING THE CIVIL WAR (1917 - 1920 YY.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Semenov A. A.

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The given article explores the political and social processes that were occurred in the Civil War in the sphere of existence of the Russian family. The author examines the nature of family and socio-cultural relations of the Russian population in this period, especially the processes of modification and transformation of family values, the policy of the new leadership came to power in October 1917 in traditional Russian family; he also analyzes the reasons of attempts of reforms permanently taken by the authorities in this sphere of life of the Russian society. The changes taking place after the October revolution of 1917 y. in the Russian society were so profound in nature that lead the thoughts of whether to exist at the family as a social unit in its traditional form or there has come the time of complete denial of family values, the elimination of the family as a special social institution or there comes a time of the formation of new forms of sexual interaction between men and women in accordance with the changed social conditions, such forms that will make their relationship more free and relaxed in social terms. New decrees and laws enacted after October 1917 y. by the Bolshevik government contributed to the transformation of the whole system of family ties; they changed the very basis of the existence of previous family and dictated a new social reality in which there was no place for the values of the past. Everything on what the traditional family was based in Russia, in fact was revoked and there came new norms and rules of family life dictated by the views of the Bolshevik ideologists about relations between the sexes

  19. "War" in the Jurisprudence of the Inter American Court of Human Rights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurence Burgorgue - Larsen

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available How have Inter-American Human Rights bodies dealt with the notion of “war”, which has been transformed over time into the notion of internal and international “armed conflicts”? This question provides the analytical foundation of the first part of this study, which sets out the various types of conflicts that have occurred in the American continent. These situations (armed conflicts, internal strife, State terrorism have produced a wide range of legal categorizations, utilized by both the Commission and Inter-American Court of Human Rights in their case-law. This conceptual delimitation carried out by these two bodies is all the more important as it affects the law that applies to armed conflicts. Indeed, by analysing this question, the never-ending debate on the relationship between International Human Rights Law and International Humanitarian Law reappears. The second part of this study therefore focuses on the issue of discovering whether and in which way jus in bello has found its place into the Inter-American Human Rights bodies’ case-law. As the active political life of Latin American societies has shown, the study of the different applicable legal regimes also requires looking into “state of emergency” Law, an issue which has been shaped by the Inter-American Court and Commission’s work.

  20. The Political and Military Impact of the Spanish-American War

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-12

    November 1897. However when war broke, Governor General Manuel Macías y Casado declared martial law. In defense of the island, Spain had an...near the city of Ponce . He reasoned that it was less well defended and the change would surprise the Spanish as they had expected a landing in Fajardo...coordination and unity of command. In the end, Miles convinced Higgenson that capturing both Guánica and Ponce , would grant the fleet a secure port on

  1. America's First Carl Sagan: Ormsby MacKnight Mitchel, Pre-Civil War Astronomer and Lecturer on the Cosmos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osterbrock, D. E.

    2002-12-01

    In the years before television, videos, radio. movies, or even loudspeakers, Ormsby MacKnight Mitchel (1809-1862) was the best-known popularizer of astronomy and the scientific study of the universe in nineteenth-century America. Each winter he traveled the country by railroad, steamer, and stagecoach, speaking to large paying crowds in principal cities from Boston, New York, and Philadelphia through Cincinnati to New Orleans on the cosmos and our place in it, with special attention to possible inhabitants of planers orbiting other stars. Mitchel had much the same attraction as Sagan did in our time, and awakened many people's interest in astronomy through the human angle, as Carl did. His argument was simple, and according to Frank Triplett goes back thousands of years: other stars are suns, our sun has planets with people on one of them, why should not other stars also have populated planets? But first Mitchel, like Sagan, always explained clearly the discoveries of astronomy that fleshed out this argument with facts. He emphasized the ``clockwork universe", governed by gravity, that Newton, Herschel, and Laplace had investigated and found to be stable. There were many other similarities between these two great popularizers. Mitchel's base was the Cincinnati Observatory, which he had founded, raising the funds for it himself in small contributions from hundreds of ``members", which he publicised as far more democratic than support from European kings and lords. He went abroad to get a telescope, and finally found his ``Great [12-inch] Refractor" in Munich, with help from John Quincy Adams, Astronomer Royal George Biddle Airy, and Paris Observatory Director Fracois Arago, in spite of a rebuff by President John Tyler. These episodes have similarities in Sagan's lobbying NASA for close-up images of Mars. Views of other American professional astronomers on life on other worlds will also be described briefly, from Denison Olmsted, Elias Loomis, Charles A. Young (who

  2. 美国在朝鲜战争中实施细菌战的证据%On Evidence of American Biological Warfare in the Korean War

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张华

    2013-01-01

    The Investigation Report of American Biological War in North Korean and China by famous scien-tists from Sweden, France, England, Italia, Brazil, and Soviet Union is the core evidence of American biological war in the Korean War. Furthermore, there are at least six additional evidences:U.S.A. had the ability and desire to wage bi-ological war before and during the Korean War;it was reported by foreign newspapers that U.S.A. used Japanese bio-logical war troops to wage biological war;U.S.A. had biological war troops and bases in Japan;U.S.A. used the biolog-ical war technology and method of Japanese biological war troops;captive American pilots regretted their behaviors of waging biological war;the Chinese document of anti-biological war shows that the Chinese People’s Volunteers and the Chinese people in East Northern China were attacked by American biological war troops.%  60年前,由瑞典、法国、英国、意大利、巴西、苏联等6国知名科学家组团实地调查朝鲜战争中的细菌战后,向国际社会发表的《调查在朝鲜和中国的细菌战实事报告书及附件》,是美军在朝鲜战争中实施细菌战的核心证据。围绕这一核心证据,至少还有6个方面的旁系证据:美国在朝鲜战争前夕和期间具备实施细菌战的能力,并有着实施细菌战的强烈欲望;许多外媒报道,美国利用日本原细菌战人员,协助美军实施细菌战;朝鲜战争前夕和期间,美国在日本拥有细菌战部队和基地;朝鲜战争中实施的细菌战,明显袭用了“二战”期间日本细菌战技术和方法;被俘的美国飞行员对他们的细菌战行径表示忏悔,并写出供词;现存中国反细菌战档案表明,中国人民志愿军和东北人民确实受到美国细菌战攻击,中国由此展开了大规模的反细菌战运动。

  3. Extraordinary renditions: reflections upon the war on terror in British and American screen science fiction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alec Charles

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Como la Guerra Fría influenció cuarenta años de ciencia ficción televisiva, así la sombra del 11/S formaliza la ciencia ficción popular en los primeros años del siglo XXI. La destrucción de Nueva York ha ocurrido en muchas películas como El día después de mañana, Cloverfield, La Guerra de los Mundos y La Leyenda. Como La Invasión, la última trilogía que reinventa la fábula de la Guerra Fría –La invasión de los ladrones de cuerpos, la Guerra de los Mundos y El hombre Omega- para la era neoconservadora, como 28 días después, 28 semanas después, Jericho y el remade Superviventes con un resurgimiento en un escenario post-apocalíptico que adolece de la serie Day of the Triffids. Como Star Trek: Enterprise vuelve su tradicional liberalismo como un ejercicio de patriotera paranoia, Batalla estelar (otro restaurada reliquia de la Guerra Fría ha presentado una visión más ambigua y problemática de la batalla de la democracia con el fundamentalismo. El re-hecho Doctor Who y Héroes han avanzado similares argumentos de nuevo en el totalizado seudo-utopismo de los cruzados o de los jihadistas a favor del stablishment de un consenso plural.Palabras clave: 11/S, ciencia ficción televisiva, Doctor Who, escenario post-apocalíptico, paranoia patriotera ___________________________ABSTRACT:As the Cold War influenced forty years of screen science fiction, so the shadow of 9/11 informs popular science fiction in the early twenty-first century. The destruction of New York has recurred in such films as The Day After Tomorrow, Cloverfield, War of the Worlds and I Am Legend. Like The Invasion, the latter pair reinvent Cold War fables – Invasion of the Body Snatchers, War of the Worlds and The Omega Man – for the neoconservative age, while 28 Days Later, 28 Weeks Later, Jericho and the remade Survivors witness a resurgence in post-apocalyptic concerns redolent of Day of the Triffids. While Star Trek: Enterprise turned its franchise

  4. The Operational Capability of the American Expeditionary Forces in the World War

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-04

    centered on its patch , was the first division in France and as earlier noted the first division to participate in offensive operations for the AEF...College, American Expeditionary Forces, 1918. Johnston , R. M. First Reflections on the Campaign of 1918. New York: H. Holt, 1920. Marshall, George C

  5. The New Criticism and the Crisis of American Liberalism: The Poetics of the Cold War.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walhout, Mark

    1987-01-01

    Contends that arguments against New Criticism should place the movement in historical context. Suggests that historians of American criticism rethink the institutionalization of New Criticism as the work of both liberal intellectuals and pragmatic neoconservatives for whom both traditional liberalism and right-wing ideology were part of the…

  6. The Rivalry of the French and American Educational Missions during the Vietnam War

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Thuy-Phuong

    2014-01-01

    From 1955 to 1975, the French and the Americans were both active in the educational field in South Vietnam, but their objectives were different. The French were concerned with preserving their influence with the Vietnamese elites and relied on the Mission Culturelle--the heir of the colonial Direction of Education--and its prestigious high…

  7. "Los pies de Teruel": Asistencia y tratamiento de las heridas por congelación en los hospitales navarros durante la guerra civil "Teruel feet": Care and treatment of frostbite wounds in the hospitals of Navarra during the civil war

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Larraz

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available La atención a combatientes con lesiones por congelación sufridas durante la batalla de Teruel, desarrollada en condiciones meteorológicas extremas y temperaturas de hasta veinte grados bajo cero, supuso la etapa de mayor actividad asistencial y tasas de ocupación más altas en los hospitales militares navarros durante toda la contienda civil de 1936-1939. De noviembre de 1937 a marzo de 1938 se registraron en los establecimientos de la provincia más de 375 casos de congelación, entre los que predominaban las gangrenas secas con afectación parcial de la extremidad inferior, lo que popularmente se denominó "pies de Teruel". Algunos facultativos, conscientes de la excepcionalidad de la casuística, registraron estadísticas, casos clínicos e impresiones personales sobre la evolución de las lesiones y la efectividad de sus tratamientos. En ellos, emplearon fármacos, técnicas quirúrgicas y procedimientos terapéuticos novedosos en el tratamiento de esta afección y poco difundidos en el entorno médico del momento. Sin embargo, la limitación temporal del problema, los resultados poco concluyentes de los tratamientos y las opiniones controvertidas sobre su efectividad, cuestiones que se analizan en este artículo, limitaron la repercusión médica posterior de las experiencias sobre congelaciones desarrolladas durante la etapa bélica turolense.The care of combatants with lesions caused by frostbite during the battle of Teruel, which was fought in extreme weather conditions and in temperatures as low as twenty degrees below zero, was the period of greatest medical activity and the highest rates of occupation in the military hospitals of Navarre during the civil war of 1936-1939. From November 1937 to March 1938, 375 cases of frostbite were registered in the provincial establishments, amongst which there was a predominance of cases of dry gangrene partially affecting the lower extremity, which was popularly known as "Teruel feet". Some of

  8. "美国内战"备课札记%Notes of the Case of American Civil War

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姒吉霞

    2007-01-01

    @@ 选题 2006年12月,学校进行学科带头人评比,参评教师必须要上一节常态课,题目自定. 讲什么呢?在电脑上地毯式地搜索以往用过的教学课件,"从历史的细节看美国"这一专题是为学校"文景讲堂"准备的专题讲座,以美国独立战争和美国内战中的历史人物为线索,将他们在历史发展的关键时刻所做出的决定,与国家的命运和民族性格特征的形成结合了起来.

  9. The Entanglement of Constitution around American Civil War%美国南北战争的宪法纠葛

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙坚; 陈晓律

    2013-01-01

    围绕美国南北战争的宪法纠葛,涉及的一个基本问题是,自愿加入联邦的各州,还有没有自愿退出的“自由”.在19世纪60年代,这已经不是一个宪法或者学术问题,而是这个国家能否真正融为一体而不致分裂的现实问题.最终林肯用战争制止了分裂,并用行动宣布了一条新的原则:各州的主权属于联邦,它们没有任意退出的“自由”.正是这一新的原则,保证了美国的统一并使其成为世界超级强国.

  10. Forty-Sixth Indiana Regiment: A Tactical Analysis of Amphibious Operations and Major Combat Engagements during the American Civil War

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-14

    Carrion Crow Bayou. 161Bernard F. Schermerhorn, letter to wife, 9 November 1863, Bernard Schermerhorn Papers, 1862-1864, Indiana Historical Society...Burbridge’s Division and a portion of the XIX Army Corps. The camp was located at Carrion Crow Bayou, three miles to the rear of Burbridge’s headquarters

  11. [The introduction in France, between the two World Wars, of the ideas of American scientific ecology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acot, P; Drouin, J M

    1997-01-01

    From the early XIXth century, studies of plant associations in relation to their different environments arose in geobotany, next to classical studies of species distribution. This trend in research was perpetuated and may explain some characteristics of the reception in France of American scientific ecology. Thus, during the interwar years, the Zürich-Montpellier school of phytosociology made possible important progress in bringing to the fore the discontinuities in vegetation. However, it hindered ecological research from the approach of plant associations dynamics, hence to ideas in systems ecology, while works on these subjects were successfully carried out at the same time in the USA. Nevertheless, several researchers (geobotanists, microbiologists or biocoenologists) worked within a conceptual framework that was in harmony with American studies on biotic communities.

  12. Performing Transnational Arab American Womanhood: Rosemary Hakim, US Orientalism, and Cold War Diplomacy

    OpenAIRE

    Koegeler-Abdi, Martina

    2016-01-01

    The first Miss Lebanon-America, Rosemary Hakim, landed at Beirut Airport in July 1955 to start a public diplomacy tour. As an American beauty queen from Detroit visiting Lebanon, her parents' homeland, she was greeted enthusiastically by the local press and closely monitored by US government representatives. After her return to the States, she documented her experiences abroad in an unpublished memoir, entitled "Arabian Antipodes." However, this 1955 account does not just chronicle her travel...

  13. War-related Trauma: Increasing the American GI’s Resilience through Marriage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Warren N. Ponder

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Studies have shown PTSD has a negative impact on close relationships among Vietnam War veterans. Recently, studies have replicated these findings in the Operation Iraqi Freedom (OIF and Operation Enduring Freedom (OEF cohort. Currently, over half of the military is married and veterans are returning from combat with elevated rates of PTSD. Thus, investigating which symptom clusters influence marital satisfaction of the veteran the most is important for assisting social workers and other mental health professionals in identifying and prioritizing treatment goals. The current study identifies which of the four PTSD symptom clusters impacts marital satisfaction the most in returning combat veterans using regression analysis. The emotional numbing cluster negatively impacted marital satisfaction whereas the hyper-arousal cluster positively impacted it. Using all 17 Post-traumatic Disorder Checklist-Military (PCL-M questions as possible predictors of veterans’ marital satisfaction, regression analysis revealed five of the questions account for 26 percent of the variance in marital satisfaction. Clinical implications and recommendations are explored.

  14. Intelligence in the Civil War

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-03-01

    warship and reported what he had seen. The fleet, waiting to attack Fernandina, moved swiftly before the damage was done and captured the port. In another...city, with its girdle of encampments, presents a superb scene….” It was the first wartime air-to-ground communication ever recorded in America. By...After a delay caused by an outbreak of yellow fever aboard, she headed for Mobile, Alabama. Because of a bungled installation, her guns could not fire

  15. Ethnicity, class, and civil war

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hechter, Michael Norman; Siroky, David

    2016-01-01

    Why are some countries prone to ethno-nationalist conflict, whereas others are plagued by class conflict? This is a question that has seldom been raised and rarely been examined empirically. This paper presents a social-structural theory to account for the variable incidence of these two forms...

  16. Study of the relationship between the English Civil War and the separation of the Gentry%论英国内战爆发与乡绅阶层的分裂

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘颖婷

    2013-01-01

    Compared with other historical events, such as the Great Charter, the Glorious Revolution and three Parliament Reforms, the Civil War is known for its universality and violence. However, it fails to change England resulting from its limited influence. Nevertheless, with the rise and separation of the gentry and the crisis of the Crown, the Civil War has great effects on other revolutions in the English history.%17世纪的英国内战,与反约翰王起义、“光荣革命”、三次议会改革相比,无论其参与面还是激烈程度,都要超过后者,但是其结果却要逊色于后者,可以说内战几乎没有改变英国。但是值得一提的是乡绅阶层的崛起、分裂和王室的危机等,这些导致内战爆发的原因在潜移默化中对英国其他革命产生了巨大影响。

  17. ¡Arrasar la Vendée! Guerra Civil y Columnas Infernales en pleno corazón de la Revolución Francesa. – Raze the Vendée! Civil War and Infernal Columns in the heart of the French Revolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cutillas Victoria, Benjamín

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In the middle of the French Revolution, when the Liberty and the Rights of Man were proclaimed, a part of France decided to turn away from this new political and moral system with the aim of returning to their recent past when the Royal Authority and the Catholic Religion were the creed of the people. This against the revolutionary process took place in the west of the country, causing many internal conflicts that acquired special relevance in the Vendée region, where a true civil war exploded and the French Republic enforced a policy of total war unleashing the so-called Infernal Columns, although they didn’t put an end to the problem. The strife would end three years after with a peace process in the rebel region and terrible consequences for all.

  18. Analyze the French Implementation of "Non-interference" in the Spanish Civil War%探析法国在西班牙内战中的“不干涉”政策

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王利

    2011-01-01

    1936年西班牙爆发了内战。面对内战,西方各国态度不一,德意以反共名义对内战进行武装干涉。西班牙作为法国的后院邻居,无论从意识形态,还是从地缘政治方面,法国都应当积极支持西班牙共和国。但在国内外复杂的条件下,法国选择了"不干涉"政策。此政策是自身实力不足、追随英国、绥靖德意的结果。这种政策在本质上体现了法国外交政策的消极和被动。"不干涉"政策既没有缓和与德意之间的矛盾,也没有阻遏战火的扩大,对法国的外交政策产生了深远的影响。%Spanish Civil War broke out in 1936.In face of civil war,Western countries had different attitudes.Germany and Italy interfered the Spanish Civil War in the name of anti-Communist.Spain,as a Backyard neighbors of French,the French should be actively supported the Spanish Republic in terms of ideological or geopolitical terms.But under the complicated conditions at home and abroad,the French chosed the "non-interference"policy.This policy base on its weak power,following the United Kingdom,Sui Jing De intended results.This policy reflects the nature of French foreign policy on the negative and passive."non-interference" policy is not to ease the conflict between Italy and Germany,nor deter the expansion of the war.It has a very significant impact to the French diplomacy.

  19. Habitat analysis of North American sand flies near veterans returning from leishmania-endemic war zones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keep Lisa

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Nearly 1300 cases of leishmaniasis have been identified in American military personnel deployed to Iraq and Afghanistan. The symptoms of this disease can range from a mild, self-limiting cutaneous infection to a deadly visceral infection and are not prevented by chemoprophylaxis or immunization. Effective treatments, however, are available. The disease-causing parasite is spread through the bite of the female sand fly. Although the disease occurs in both the Old World and the New World, the parasite species differ between the hemispheres. The large number of cases in military veterans has caused some concern that Old World, temperate-adapted parasite species could be introduced into the native sand fly populations of American military facilities where veterans of the current conflicts return following their deployments. This paper reports part of a larger study to analyze the risk of such an accidental importation. Four potential habitats on two large Army facilities in the Southeast United States were surveyed to determine relative sand fly density. The National Land Cover Map was used to provide sand fly density prediction maps by habitat. Results Sand fly density was significantly higher in deciduous forest and even higher at the interface between forest and open grassland. The evergreen forest and agricultural fields supported very low densities. On Fort Campbell, KY, the percentage of land covered by suitable habitat was very high. A sand fly density prediction map identified large tracts of land where infected individuals would be at higher risk of exposure to sand fly bites, resulting in an increased risk of introducing the parasite to a native insect population. On Fort Bragg, NC, however, commercial farming of long leaf pine reduced the percentage of the land covered in vegetation suitable for the support of sand flies. The risk of introducing an exotic Leishmania spp. on Fort Bragg, therefore, is considered to be

  20. The U.S. and Native American Education: A Survey of Federal Legislation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahl, Wayne K.

    1979-01-01

    Native American education received little attention until after the Civil War. Landmarks in Indian education since then include the Carlisle Indian School, the Meriam Report, the Johnson O'Malley Act, the Navajo Community College Act, and the Indian Education Act. This Congressional legislation survey mirrors the changing motives for Indian…

  1. The Capitalist World-System and U.S. Cold War Policies in the Core and the Periphery: A Comparative Analysis of Post-World War II American Nation-building in Germany and Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Hugh Jo

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In response to the emerging cold war, why did the United States stress industrial expansion in Western Europe but focus on primary production alongside policing operations in the non-western world? Examining US postwar occupation in Germany and Korea from a world-systems perspective, this article argues that a given country’s standing in the capitalist economy generally shapes American foreign policy toward that particular country in the early cold war years. A paladin of system-wide prosperity and peace, the United States sought to restore the international division of labor after World War II. Reactions varied across the system, however, because of distinct socio-economic developments. The presence of capital-intensive export-dependent industry afforded western Germany flexible labor-management relations. Politics was overall stable there, and America dispensed with heavy-handed intervention. In southern Korea, labor-exploitive tenancy farming rendered interclass compromise virtually impossible. As intransigent peasants threatened the market economy, the United States used force to keep the ally in the system.

  2. War without end. Michel T. Halbouty's fight for American energy security

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donahue, J.

    1987-01-01

    In these pages are the drama and tension of Halbouty's role as ''Ronald Reagan's Energy Guru'' - his leadership of Candidate Reagan's Energy Policy Advisory group and President-Elect Reagan's Transition Team on Energy. His creation and direction of the Circum-Pacific Council for Energy and Mineral Resources, an organization that has advanced exploration and development of the total energy and mineral wealth of the nations fronting the Pacific, and is credited with creating a rapport between them that the U.S. State Department could not have established. His work on behalf of Indian tribes whose oil lands had been systematically plundered for 20 years. His fight against oil companies' ''Retrenchment'' programs and the so-called ''Corporate Raiders.'' His struggle against an ''Oil Import Tax,'' which he reasoned would be detrimental to America's economy and security. His strong advocacy of his plan to make America energy self-sufficient and free her from OPEC bondage. His enduring affection for and the benefactions of his Alma Mater, Texas A and M University, and students he found worthy of support. His confrontations with and his opinions of the world's ''movers and shakers'' and their varying philosophies. And a potpourri of thoughts, ideas and sentiments of an American original who became a legend in his own time.

  3. War and Power

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carter, Dale

    2017-01-01

    Whether as context or prospect, reference or substance, warfare invariably features in Pynchon’s fiction: the war of American independence in Mason & Dixon; world war one in Against the Day; world war two in Gravity’s Rainbow; the cold war in The Crying of Lot 49; various culture wars – hippies...... political or military but also social and psychological, economic and technological, cultural and imaginative. Using as its exemplar Pynchon’s treatment of world war two in Gravity’s Rainbow, this essay explores one key modulation in the nature of warfare: from the armed conflicts characteristic...... of an imperial order to the struggles for security – not just physical but also ideological and discursive, conceptual and representational – that mark the post-imperial, cold (and post-cold) war order. Through the personal identities and historical trajectories of a number of the novel’s representative figures...

  4. Stretching and Exploiting Thresholds for High-Order War: How Russia, China, and Iran are Eroding American Influence Using Time-Tested Measures Short of War

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Ben Connable, Jason H. Campbell, Dan Madden Stretching and Exploiting Thresholds for High-Order War How Russia, China, and Iran Are Eroding... stretching U.S. strategic thresholds in Europe, Asia, and the Middle East. We conducted the research for this report for the U.S. Army. The purpose of...Exploits and Stretches Thresholds in Eastern Europe . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 Example 2: China Expands Its

  5. Girl's Schooling in War-Torn Somalia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyi, Peter

    2012-01-01

    A civil war has raged in Somalia since 1991. The civil war was the final blow to an already collapsed education system. Somalia has received little research and policy attention yet children, especially girls, are very vulnerable during times of conflict. The different gender roles, activities, and status in society create gender differentiated…

  6. Preparing for Victory. The U.S. Office of War Information Overseas Branch’s illustrated magazines in the Netherlands and the foundations for the American Century, 1944-1945

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marja Roholl

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Winning the war against the Axis countries was not the only goal the US government had in mind; it was also working towards a new US led world order. Analysis of three illustrated magazines produced by the Office of War Information Overseas Branch for the Netherlands shows that in addition to short-term war-related goals, long-term goals sought to pave the way for the American Century. This essay also shows that, more than previously assumed, the content and approach of the activities undertaken by the OWI Overseas Branch during the last phase of the war anticipated the State Department's and United States Information Agency's post-war programs.

  7. Análisis bibliométrico de la literatura científica publicada en "Ciencia. Revista hispano-americana de ciencias puras y aplicadas" Ciencia, Spanish researchers, Exile, Hispano-America, Spanish civil War, Bibliometrics, Bibliometric analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Pulgarin

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports the pilot stage of a Project whose objective is to analyse the scientific output of the journal “Ciencia” from its appearance (1940 until its closure (1974. The journal constituted the formal channel for the dissemination of science among Spanish researchers in exile in Hispano-America due to the Spanish civil War (1936-1939. The original articles published in three of the seven sections into which the journal was divided – Modern science (section I, Original communications (section II, and Applied science (section IV – are studied, together with the bibliographical references contained in those articles. The number of articles analysed was 972, and of bibliographical references 14,184.

  8. Do Territorial Control and the Loss of Territory Determine the use of Indiscriminate Violence by Incumbent Actors? An Examination of the Syrian Civil War in Aleppo over 45 weeks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evan Tyner

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available 'This study tests the ‘control-collaboration’ model detailed by Stathis Kalyvas in 'The Logic of Violence in Civil War '(2006. The control-collaboration model makes various theoretical claims on the relationship between territorial control and the use and motivations of violence (whether selective or indiscriminate. This study tests two of the key claims made in the model: 1. There is an inverse relationship between level of territorial control and the use of indiscriminate violence; and, 2. The loss off territory encourages the use of indiscriminate violence. Using data on civilian and child deaths taken from the ‘Syrian Martyr Database’, this study examines the relationship between territorial control and territorial loss, and the use of indiscriminate violence by incumbent (Syrian state forces. Examining the levels of territorial control/loss and the extent of civilian and child casualties in Aleppo, Syria, results of the study largely support the theoretical assumptions outlined by Kalyvas.'

  9. War No Longer Exists

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-22

    understanding that industrial ability decides a war…”58 Russell Wrigley , in his famous book “The American Way of War,” argues that America...2003, 82, no.4, 41. 60 Colin S Gray, “The American Way of War: Critique and Implications,” Rethinking the Principles of War,” Anthony D. McIvor...12, 2012). 91 Anthony H. Cordesman, “The New US Defense Strategy and the Priorities and Changes in FY2013 Budget,” Center for Strategic and

  10. A History of History: The Origins of War Re-enacting in America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marquis, Colleen

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Americans remember history in many different ways. The Historical Re-enactment is the most controversial and bewildering event of public remembrance. Americans re-enact every war in American history from the French and Indian War down to the Vietnam War. My research set out to answer several questions about this custom of public history: why does it exist, what purpose does it serve, and who started it? My research led me to a shattered post-Civil War America. The true test of the unity of American had passed and people were left to make sense of the war that was experienced on the level of a national tragedy. The re-enactor, a veteran and an amateur historian, would begin to write his tory and present it for the public. This form of public memory would be used to facilitate an idealistic ad blind reunion of North and South. The history would be changed to make remembering safe.

  11. Contributions of Psychology to War and Peace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christie, Daniel J.; Montiel, Cristina J.

    2013-01-01

    The contributions of American psychologists to war have been substantial and responsive to changes in U.S. national security threats and interests for nearly 100 years. These contributions are identified and discussed for four periods of armed conflict: World Wars I and II, the Cold War, and the Global War on Terror. In contrast, about 50 years…

  12. La evolución de la memoria de la Guerra Civil en el espacio urbano de Bilbao: una mirada comparativa La mémoire de la Guerre Civile dans l’espace urbain de Bilbao : un regard comparatif Memory of the Civil War in the urban space of Bilbao: a comparative view

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Alonso Carballés

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo tiene como objetivo prioritario estudiar las políticas institucionales desplegadas en torno a la memoria de la Guerra Civil en la ciudad de Bilbao. Nuestro trabajo es una tentativa de realizar una «arqueología de la memoria» que nos permita estudiar de forma cronológica la impronta de dichas políticas en el espacio urbano bilbaíno en diferentes momentos históricos : desde la erección de la estatua de Mola en el Arenal bilbaíno en junio de 1937 en el momento de la entrada de las tropas franquistas hasta la reciente inauguración del monumento en homenaje a las víctimas del franquismo. Este estudio de caso se completa con referencias puntuales a la evolución de esta memoria en las simbólicas ciudades de Burgos y de Valencia con el objetivo de ofrecer así una mirada comparativa sobre tres capitales claves del conflicto del 36.Cet article a comme objectif prioritaire d’étudier les politiques institutionnelles développées autour de la mémoire de la Guerre Civile dans la ville de Bilbao. Notre travail est une tentative de réaliser une « archéologie de la mémoire » qui nous permette d’étudier de forme chronologique l’empreinte laissées par ces politiques dans l’espace urbain de Bilbao, depuis l’érection de la statue du général Mola en juin de 1937 au moment de l’entrée des troupes franquistes dans la ville jusqu’à l’érection récente du monument en l’honneur des victimes du franquisme. Cette étude de cas comprend aussi des références ponctuelles à l’évolution de cette mémoire dans les villes symboliques de Burgos et de Valence avec le but d’offrir ainsi un regard comparatif sur trois capitales clés du conflit de 1936.This article’s main objective is to study the institutional politics developed around the memory of the Civil War in the city of Bilbao. Our work is an attempt to develop an «archaeology of memory» which will allow us to study in a chronological fashion the

  13. El hambre en la Guerra Civil española y la mortalidad por cardiopatía isquémica: una perspectiva desde la hipótesis de Barker Famine in the Spanish civil war and mortality from coronary heart disease: a perspective from Baker's hypothesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Inés González Zapata

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Analizar si el hambre durante la Guerra Civil española y la inmediata posguerra influyó sobre la mortalidad por cardiopatía isquémica de las personas que nacieron en este período, según lo planteado en la hipótesis de Barker acerca de la posible programación fetal de enfermedades de la edad adulta. Métodos: Con los datos de mortalidad por edad y sexo por cardiopatía isquémica en el período 1990-2002, se calcularon las tasas anuales de mortalidad específicas y las tasas ajustadas por edad, por el método directo. Mediante análisis de regresión de Poisson se analizó el efecto de la edad, el período y la cohorte anual de nacimiento (1918-1957. Resultados: Durante el período de estudio, la mortalidad por cardiopatía isquémica ha disminuido un promedio anual de -2,3% en ambos sexos y para todas las edades. En el descenso de mortalidad están presentes los efectos cohorte y período (p Objective: To determine whether the famine experienced during the Spanish civil war and immediate postwar period influenced mortality from coronary heart disease (CHD in persons born in this period, following the lines of Barker's hypothesis on fetal programming of chronic diseases in adult life. Methods: Using CHD mortality data by age and sex for 1990-2002, annual and age-adjusted rates were calculated by the direct method. Poisson regressions were used to estimate period, age and cohort effects by year of birth (1918-1957. Results: During the study period, CHD mortality fell by a yearly average of -2.3% in both sexes and in all ages yearly. This trend was influenced by both cohort and period effects (p < 0.001; an increased risk was observed for both sexes and in all ages in the deaths corresponding to persons born during the war and postwar years when the famine was most intense (1937, 1940, 1943 and 1945. Conclusions: The results obtained by studying yearly CHD mortality are compatible with those expected by Barker's hypothesis of the

  14. The Guatemalan Military: Transition from War to Peace

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    Guatemalan highlands as a case study, Between Two Armies in the Ixil Towns of Guatemala examines indigenous Mayan involvement in the civil war. Based on...the civil war’s effects on indigenous Mayans . In his book, Mr. Perera, a Guatemalan scholar, studies the effects of the internal conflict on...brought an end to the country’s thirty-six years of civil war. Since then, the Guatemalan military has had four years in which to transition from war to

  15. Publications on Peripheral Nerve Injuries during World War I: A Dramatic Increase in Knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koehler, Peter J

    2016-01-01

    Publications from French (Jules Tinel and Chiriachitza Athanassio-Bénisty), English (James Purves-Stewart, Arthur Henry Evans and Hartley Sidney Carter), German (Otfrid Foerster and Hermann Oppenheim) and American (Charles Harrison Frazier and Byron Stookey) physicians from both sides of the front during World War I (WWI) contributed to a dramatic increase in knowledge about peripheral nerve injuries. Silas Weir Mitchell's original experience with respect to these injuries, and particularly causalgia, during the American Civil War was further expanded in Europe during WWI. Following the translation of one of his books, he was referred to mainly by French physicians. During WWI, several French books were in turn translated into English, which influenced American physicians, as was observed in the case of Byron Stookey. The establishment of neurological centres played an important role in the concentration of experience and knowledge. Several eponyms originated during this period (including the Hoffmann-Tinel sign and the Froment sign). Electrodiagnostic tools were increasingly used.

  16. A Comparison between American Individualism and Chinese Collectivism-From the View of Cherishing Life in War

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李振营

    2011-01-01

    There is a large discrepancy in the value concept of life.We know that the ways of cherishing life are different in war to the soldiers from different cultures.We may perceive that people's concept has been much influenced by the different cultural background and social enviromnent.And similar cultural background and social environment may make people's value trend introject.

  17. A Comparative Study of the Current Situation on Teaching about World War II in Japanese and American Classrooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barth, James L.

    1992-01-01

    Compares questionnaire results sent to elementary and secondary school teachers in Indiana and Japan. Surveys how and what is taught about World War II. Reports teachers in the United States concentrate more on Europe, Pearl Harbor, and fascism, whereas Japanese teachers are more concerned with Pacific theater. Concludes Japanese teach peace…

  18. Propaganda e crítica social nas cronologias dos almanaques astrológicos durante a Guerra Civil inglesa no século XVII Propaganda and social criticism in the chronologies of the astrological almanacs during the English Civil War in 17 th century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Mesquita Hidalgo Ferreira

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo é parte de uma ampla investigação sobre a utilização dos almanaques astrológicos durante a Guerra Civil inglesa no século XVII como veículo de propaganda e crítica social. Durante esse conflito, havia astrólogos partidários das forças parlamentaristas, como John Booker, e outros partidários das forças realistas, como George Wharton. O presente trabalho analisa algumas dessas publicações, mostrando como o envolvimento político dos autores se manifestava de forma explícita (e, algumas vezes, não tão direta nos referidos almanaques.This article is part of an extensive investigation carried out concerning the use of astrological almanacs during the English Civil War in the 17th century as a medium for propaganda and social criticism. During that conflict there were astrologers who were partisans of the Parliament, such as John Booker, and other who supported the King, such as George Wharton. This work analyses some of those publications, showing that the political commitment of the authors was noticeable in an explicit form (and sometimes in an indirect way in those almanacs.

  19. Novos meridianos da produção editorial em castelhano: o papel de espanhóis exilados pela Guerra Civil na Argentina e no México New axes of editorial production in Castilian: the role of Spanish civil war exiles in Argentina and Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Pellegrino Soares

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo tem por objetivo lançar luz sobre o impacto da Guerra Civil Espanhola sobre a indústria editorial argentina e mexicana. Em particular, pretende enfocar as contribuições oferecidas por refugiados ou exilados espanhóis que, uma vez estabelecidos na outra margem do Atlântico, procuraram retomar seus ofícios de origem, inserindo-se nas gráficas e editoras existentes nesses dois países ou fundando novos negócios livreiros. Tanto o México como, em especial, a Argentina, beneficiaram-se da crise impingida pela guerra à indústria editorial da antiga metrópole para explorar o vasto mercado aberto aos impressos em língua espanhola.This article aims at shedding light on the impact of the Spanish Civil War on the publishing industry in Argentina and in Mexico. Particularly, it intends to analyze the contributions of Spanish refugees or in exile who, once established on the other border of the Atlantic Ocean, tried to go back to their previous jobs, working at preexisting publishing houses in those two countries or creating new ones. Both Mexico and specially Argentina took advantage of the Spanish publishing industry's crises so to explore the vast business opportunities for books in Spanish.

  20. The negro question: slavery in the context of the antebellum and civil war America. Confronting Lincoln's perspective through his own words

    OpenAIRE

    Morala Miguélez, David

    2014-01-01

    El propósito de este trabajo es aportar una visión general sobre la historia americana; desde las décadas anteriores a la Guerra Civil hasta la guerra como tal, centrándo la atención en la institución de la esclavitud: sus orígenes, evolución, condiciones de vida de los esclavos, movimientos a favor y en contra de la esclavitud junto con eventos y personajes relevantes. Asímismo, estudiar su conexión con la figura de Abraham Lincoln como modeo y símbolo de la lucha contra la es...

  1. Citizens, Soldiers, and War: Comparing American Societal-Military Relationships with the Use of Forces Abroad, 1975-2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    in the minds of those that do not have to fight it. It exists on television news programs and in photos. Most American citizens do not expect to...ago, on October 23, 1983, suicide bombers drove a truck into the U.S. Marine barracks in Beirut Lebanon, killing 241 sleeping American servicemen. It

  2. Enfermeras del bando nacional en la Guerra Civil española: según el libro "Princesas del Martirio" de Concha Espina Nurses of the nationalist side during the spanish Civil War: An approach to the situation through the book "Princesas del Martirio" (Concha Espina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Andina Díaz

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Concha Espina escribió a principios de los años cuarenta del pasado siglo un libro titulado Princesas del Martirio, para recordar la hazaña y homenajear a unas particulares "mártires de la Guerra Civil española". Sus protagonistas son tres enfermeras voluntarias de la Cruz Roja de Astorga (León que, en octubre de 1936, acudieron al Puerto de Somiedo (Asturias a prestar su asistencia a los heridos y enfermos del bando nacional, y viéndose envueltas en un episodio bolchevique, cayeron prisioneras y fueron fusiladas. En este artículo utilizaremos dicha fuente literaria para tratar de reconstruir la que pudiera considerarse, en nuestra opinión, imagen de la "enfermera ideal", perteneciente al bando nacional, durante dicha contienda. El método empleado se basará en la exposición y análisis del texto original, centrándonos especialmente en los aspectos relacionados con la imagen de nuestra profesión. Interpretaremos los datos teniendo en cuenta la realidad político-militar, social y profesional de aquel momento. Dado su interés, se ha estimado también oportuno tomar en consideración otros documentos hallados igualmente durante el período de búsqueda de información -poemas escritos, monumentos, nombres de calles relativas a las tres enfermeras-. Gracias a ellos se indagó las conexiones entre ideología y reconocimiento profesional.Concha Espina writes the book Princesas del Martirio at the turn of the 40s, in the last century. This is a book in honour of three nurses, who were killed during the Spanish Civil War. The three nurses, who were voluntaries of The Red Cross in Astorga (León, were called to attend the sick and injured people in Puerto de Somiedo (Asturias, in October 1936. Involuntarily, they found themselves involved in a Bolshevik incident, were taken prisoners and finally shot. In this paper, we draw the inspiration from this book, which allow us to reconstruct what we think would be the likely image of the "ideal

  3. Strategic Insights, Volume 5, Issue 2, February 2006. Uribe’s Second Mandate, the War, and the Implications for Civil-Military Relations in Colombia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-02-01

    historians of Colombia, remarked that, unlike other Latin American countries— Mexico or Venezuela for example—violence in Colombia is both...2005). 29. “La historia se repite. Nuevas capturas e indicios indican que armas del Ejército ecuatoriano están yendo a parar a manos de las FARC

  4. Bridging the Legacy of Activism across Generations: Life Stories of African American Educators in Post-Civil Rights Birmingham

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loder-Jackson, Tondra L.

    2011-01-01

    This qualitative study takes account of the salience of activism in informing the worldviews and professional practices of a multigenerational sample of 42 African American educators in Birmingham, Alabama. Framed by life course, Black feminist thought, and hip-hop educational research perspectives, the study highlights how the participants…

  5. "We all go a little mad sometimes": Alfred Hitchcock, American psychoanalysis, and the construction of the Cold War psychopath.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genter, Robert

    2010-01-01

    This article explores the image of the psychopath in Alfred Hitchcock’s 1960 film Psycho. The famed director’s portrayal of a psychologically damaged young man connected with a much larger discussion over political and sexual deviance in the early Cold War, a discussion that cantered on the image of the psychopath as the dominant threat to national security and that played upon normative assumptions about adolescent development and mother-son relations.

  6. Why We Fight: Mass Persuasion, Morale, and American Public Opinion from World War I Until the Present

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Most importantly, I would like to thank my family. I am endlessly indebted to beautiful wife, Stacey, who made lunches before school and drinks...that in politics, all sides practice political propaganda at all times in an effort to persuade the public. Economic propaganda is advertising , which...generally designated as war. Fighting, in turn, is a trial of moral and physical forces through the medium of the latter. Naturally moral strength

  7. AN EVALUATION NARRATIVE OF WARS ON HISTORY TEXTBOOKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özgür AKTAŞ

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the current study was to investigate how the phenomenon of war was studied at the history books of secondary education. The method of the research depends on document analysis. For that reason, the history course books were investigated and the wars told in the books were determined. In the course book of Modern Turkish and World History, you can find wars and treaties. Establishment of Bolshevist regime led to new wars in the political history. In this book, it is likely to see something about World War II as well. Following the World War II, the cold war between Soviets Union and the USA had a great impact on era. The civil wars told in the Modern World History mostly intensified in the African countries. As for the twenty first century, the wars have mostly been realized as the civil wars and terrorism.

  8. CAN POLITICIANS SPEED UP LONG-TERM TECHNOLOGICAL CHANGE? SOME INSIGHTS FROM A COMPARISON OF THE GERMAN AND US-AMERICAN SYNTHETIC RUBBER PROGRAMS BEFORE, DURING AND AFTER WORLD WAR II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jochen Streb

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available I investigated the effect of government demand on firms’ innovation activities comparing the German and American synthetic rubber industries before, during and after World War II. I obtained three main results. 1. Because of the low price of natural rubber, price and sales guarantees were needed to motivate firms to produce the synthetic rubber BUNA S. 2. Facing fixed prices I.G. Farben improved their efficiency more than the American firms working under cost plus contracts. 3. The patent sharing agreement of the American synthetic rubber program caused firms to hold back advanced synthetic rubber inventions.

  9. On Civility and Civilizations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DAVID GOSSET

    2010-01-01

    @@ At a time when misunderstand-ings between cultures run rampant, when walls of fear, prejudice and hatred divide the members of the human family, it is urgent to intensify the dialogue between civilizations. Under the new leadership of its Director General lrina Bokova, the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) declared 2010 as the "Year for the Rapprochement of Cultures." In this context, the concerted reflections and actions of Europe and China can be highly meaningful.

  10. Motivational Factors in Combat: A Comparison of German and American Soldiers in World War II Using Content Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-09-01

    Robert K. Merton and Paul F. Lazarsfeld . GlencoelL: The Free Press, 1950. Shils, Edward A. and Morris Janowitz. "Cohesion and Disintegration in the...Results and Discussion - Ground Troops 84 American Ground Troops 84 Overview 84 Paul Boesch, Road To Huertgen 85 Robert Leckie, Helmet for my...by Robert Scott Target Ploesti by Leroy Newby Roar of the Tiger by James H. Howard American Ground Troops: Road to Huertgen by Paul Boesch

  11. 书写的矛盾:约翰·克罗恩《内战悲歌》的两种史观%Dual History in the Misery of Civil War

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张钰珊

    2016-01-01

    在十七世纪八十年代的剧目中,约翰·克罗恩《内战悲歌》因其首演时观众不满剧中保皇立场而攻击演员,迫使当局暂闭剧场。《内战悲歌》的保皇立场诚然可见,然本文主张,此剧在以统治者视角宣扬皇权的主要表述外,亦蕴含极具批评意味的言外之意与庶民史观。%In 1679, The Misery of Civil War riveted most attention because a riot provoked by the play’s Toryism broke out at the play’s premiere. Though overtly royalist in its treatments of high politics, the play voices alternative and critical comments on history as seen through the eyes of the common people.

  12. Military Advice and Civil-Military Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-21

    Ballinger Publishing Company, 1985. Builder, Carl H. The Masks of war: American Military Styles in Strategy and Analysis. Baltimore, MD: The Johns Hopkins...9 Carl H. Builder, The Masks of war: American Military Styles in Strategy and Analysis (Baltimore, MD: The Johns Hopkins...11 Carl von Clausewitz, On War, ed. Michael Howard and Peter Paret (New York, New York: Everyman’s Library , 1993), 733. 6 importance and thus the

  13. Spartans in Darkness: American SIGINT and the Indochina War, 1945-1975. Series 6, Volume 7 (REDACTED)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    socialist and communist agitation. tion." A heavy tax burden, which imposed a crip - pling per capita taxation, rather than taxing on the basis of income...small hamlet, this time in Kien Gang Province in the extreme southwest of South Vietnam on the Gulf of Thailand, and which had been forewarned of an...Prados, The Blood Road: The Ho Chi Minh Trail and the Vietnam War (New York: John Wiley and Sons Inc., 1999), 31. OGA 50. (D) Spector, 370. 51. CD

  14. The chief seat of mischief: soldier's heart in the First World War.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyde, Sean

    2011-04-01

    Soldier's heart was a medico-psychiatric condition that was first documented during the American Civil War. This condition affected British and American soldiers during the late-nineteenth and early-twentieth centuries; doctors recorded patients experiencing palpitations, breathlessness, headaches, and praecordial pain among other symptoms. While the number of cases of this disorder reached its peak in the First World War, it disappeared shortly afterwards. Based on an analysis of experimental results published in generalist and specialized medical journals as well as the correspondence between physicians and researchers that these journals maintained, this study challenges the view that soldier's heart disappeared because doctors realized that the disorder was, in fact, psychosomatic. Instead, this article shows that this notion was an unintentional by-product of the research conducted into the condition, the results of which opposed the somaticist philosophy that many of the researchers had tried to uphold.

  15. Helping American Soldiers in Time of War: Reply to Comments on the Comprehensive Soldier Fitness Special Issue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seligman, Martin E. P.

    2011-01-01

    Seligman responds to the comments made about the January 2011 "American Psychologist" "Special Issue on Comprehensive Soldier Fitness" (CSF). Seligman proposed an entire issue of on the topic of CSF to encourage psychologists to come to the aid of our government, and he urges psychologists not to be discouraged by this tactic. He and his coauthors…

  16. Edmund Burke, the Atlantic American war and the ‘poor Jews at St. Eustatius’. Empire and the law of nations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guido Abbattista

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This essay is devoted to a relatively minor episode in Edmund Burke’s parliamentary career and political speculation involving the rights of war and international law in the final years of the American War of Independence. The starting point for Burke’s consideration of these questions was the affair of St. Eustatius, that is to say Britain’s conquest in 1781 of the Dutch West-Indian island early in the “fourth Anglo-Dutch War” of 1780-1784. The harsh treatment of the Dutch colony’s cosmopolitan community by the commanding officers of the British Navy and Army provoked a series of reactions in Britain and the colonies. The essay starts by outlining the identity of St. Eustatius with its economic, demographic and social features, its peculiar role in the eighteenth-century West Indies and its emblematic meaning in the historical literature of the Enlightenment as a symbol of the virtues of commerce and of economic liberty. It goes on to analyse the facts of the military conquest in 1781 and the ensuing occupation realized by Admiral George Rodney and Major-General John Vaughan, particularly as this affected the “poor Jews at St. Eustatius” (as Burke himself qualified them in his second speech on 4 December 1781, with the subsequent reactions of the Dutch and especially the British Atlantic world. We then examine Edmund Burke’s reasons for taking up this affair, including the political and ideological motives and the sources of arguments he used in the two parliamentary speeches he made on the topic during 1781, relating this to Burke’s ideas on international relations and imperial government during the 1770s and 1780s. We end by pointing to cultural links between Burke’s positions and a wider political, commercial and civic culture emerging in the British Atlantic world which reflected some of the most typical European Enlightenment values and ideological commitments.

  17. The American challenge in uniform: the arrival of America’s armies in World War II and European women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Ellwood

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available A vast body of material exists – memoirs, diaries, films, plays, novels, official records – on the impact and reception of America’s armed forces armies in Europe after 1942. Britain, Italy, France, Austria and of course Germany all offer relevant evidence. The popular British phrase about the GI’s being ‘over-paid, over-sexed and over here’ brilliantly sums up many of the tensions the encounter threw up: over money and life-styles, courtship rituals and the treatment of local women, over sovereignty and the American impulse to requisition every local resource they could get their hands on. Local men thought ‘their’ women were being requisitioned.  The Americans had not come to do ‘nation-building’, and yet their presence left memories, changed attitudes and altered prospects on the future, especially among women. Afterwards American experts claimed that their armed forces had set off a ‘revolution of rising expectations’. Although a contradictory, complex encounter, there is enough evidence to suggest they might have been right.

  18. Analysis of the factors for the prosperity of southern military academy' s development before the Civil War%内战前美国南部军校发展兴盛的因素分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈军

    2011-01-01

    Before the Civil War,the Southern United States Military Academy was not only in numbers far greater than the North, and its social value was more worthy of attention. Undoubtedly, the prosperous development of the Southern Military Academy has much to do with its special location, frontier environment and the traditional military concept. More importantly,Southern slave - owners need to use military force against North slavery abolitionist movement and maintain the slavery economy,Emerging Middle class in southern have special needs for their children' s vocational edu- cation, and the special advantages of the southern military education, all boosted this period southern military academy prosperous development during this period.%内战前,美国南部军校不仅在数量远远超过北方,而且其社会价值更值得关注。毫无疑问,南部军校发展兴盛与其特殊的地理位置、边疆环境、军事传统理念有着密切的联系。更为重要的是,南部奴隶主需要借助军事力量对抗北方废奴主义运动和维护奴隶制经济,南部新兴的中产阶级对于子女职业教育的特殊需求以及南部军事教育的特殊优势,助推了这一时期美国南部军校发展的兴盛。

  19. ‘Defensive Liberal Wars’: The Global War on Terror and the Return of Illiberalism in American Foreign Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashmi Singh

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper offers an analysis of the illiberal practices and discourse of the Global War on Terror (GWoT and demonstrates how the United States of America used the liberal argument as a qualitative metric of its success and failure in the GWoT. I argue that ‘the othering’ of Salafi Jihadists as well the full military involvement in Afghanistan and Iraq were both philosophically rooted in the liberal thinking of Immanuel Kant and John Stuart Mill, which have traditionally guided US foreign policy. More significantly, these liberal philosophies of history and international relations hold within them the seeds of illiberalism by depicting non-liberal, undemocratic societies/organisations as ‘barbaric’ – and as such prime candidates for intervention and regime change. Predicated upon this logic, the discourse of the GWoT framed Al Qaeda as a key existential threat to not only the United States but also the ‘civilised world’ in general and one which required a ‘liberal defensive war’ in response. It was the successful securitisation of Al Qaeda that essentially enabled the United States to adopt deeply illiberal policies to counter this so-called existential threat by using any means at its disposal.

  20. Pasteur, Koch and American bacteriology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gossel, P P

    2000-01-01

    This study traces American awareness of the work of Louis Pasteur and Robert Koch from the 1860s to the 1890s. In the years before the Civil War, American interest in germ theories had appeared at times of epidemics and persisted to a limited extent among physician-microscopists. Discussions of Pasteur's work occurred primarily in the context of spontaneous generation and antisepsis. Few Americans imitated his work on immunology or studied with Pasteur, but his work on immunity influenced their faith in the potential of bacteriology as a solution to problems of infectious disease. Koch's discoveries of the bacterial agents of tuberculosis and cholera stimulated American medical and public health interest in bacteriology in a more practical way. Americans learned Koch's methods by taking his courses and imported them directly into their own laboratories. A context of enthusiasm for science, educational reform, and problems of infectious disease associated with urbanization and changes in agriculture aided the growth of bacteriology in the American context.

  1. Civil-Military relations and democratization in Guatemala

    OpenAIRE

    Berrios, Carlos G.

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis is to examine civil-military relations in Guatemala and their effect on democratic consolidation. The issue of civil- military relations in Guatemala is one of particular importance as political and military leaders as well as members of civil society attempt to redefine the role of the military after 36 years of civil war. Applying Felipe Aguero's theory of civilian supremacy, this thesis argues that since 1982, the Guatemalan military has evolved into a profession...

  2. 46 CFR 308.551 - War risk insurance clearing agency agreement for cargo, Form MA-321.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false War risk insurance clearing agency agreement for cargo... EMERGENCY OPERATIONS WAR RISK INSURANCE War Risk Cargo Insurance Iv-General § 308.551 War risk insurance... American War Risk Agency or MARAD....

  3. Taming the Tar Heel Department: D.H. Hill and the Challenges of Operational-Level Command during the American Civil War

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-19

    same time, however, he started to annoy other Confederate officers, notably Lee, with his sarcasm and biting although truthful comments about fellow...armies. Because of his strong sense of duty, he tended to let his emotions get the better of him when talking about deserters and those who in his

  4. Making a Brief Analysis of Armymen's Moral Psychology in the American Civil War%美国内战中军人道德心理简析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏晓辉

    2005-01-01

    针对有学者认为,美国内战的爆发是为了扩大自由与民主的观点,本文以内战中军人道德心理为视角,通过透视内战中美国军人的心路历程,进一步明确美国内战是一场捍卫国家统一的正义战争,为正确研究军事史提供一个个案.

  5. The Economic Cost and Impact of the American Civil War%略论美国内战在经济上的代价和影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩铁

    2002-01-01

    查尔斯和玛利·比尔德在他们的名著《美国文明的兴起》中把内战称为“第二次美国革命”。这不仅仅是因为内战解放了400万黑奴和废除了奴隶制,而且是因为比尔德夫妇认为内战推动了美国工业资本主义的迅速发展。路易斯·海克后来对此作了进一步阐发。他认为内战中的政治权力转移替“工业资本主义的代言人”提供了完成其经济蓝图的机会。

  6. On Lincoln Administration's Diplomatic Policy in the American Civil War%试论美国内战期间林肯政府的外交政策

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶文郁

    2001-01-01

    美国内战是美国历史上北方资本主义制度战胜南方奴隶制度的一场正义的、进步的战争.内战本属美国内部问题,但由于战争结局会影响到欧洲列强的既得利益,因而北方的林肯政府在内战中不得不面对当时极其复杂的国际关系.我们认为,北方之最终获胜固然在于其正义性,但林肯政府灵活、有效的外交策略,同样功不可没.本文将重点探讨美国内战的国际关系及林肯政府的外交政策.

  7. 试论美国内战后经济高速发展的原因%The Causes of American High Development in Economic after Civil War

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    洪荣文

    2004-01-01

    文章从美国南部奴隶制的废除、铁路的修筑、移民、引进外国资本的发展科学技术、兴盛的农业和发展教育等方面,分析美国在内战以后短短的几十年经济高速发展,最终成为世界头号的工业强国的原因.

  8. 美国内战前的城市教育分析%An analysis of the American Cities' Education before the Civil War

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱光兆

    2006-01-01

    美国内战前的城市教育随着经济的发展逐渐形成、演进.在这一过程中出现了很多问题,这些问题的根源在于美国城市的多样性、阶层之间的不平等以及城市中的宗教和种族问题等.为此,教育改革者们进行了许多努力,但是城市教育中的问题在内战前并未得到很好的解决.

  9. The Importance of Abolitionist Movement in American Civil War%废奴运动在美国内战中的重要作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐鹏; 杨丹

    2009-01-01

    声势浩大的废奴运动在美国人民争取民主的斗争史上占有重要地位,它揭露了奴隶制的罪恶,推动了内战的爆发,使奴隶得到解放,为美国资本主义发展扫清了障碍.通过对内战时期废奴运动者的活动分析来探讨废奴运动在战争中所起的重要作用.

  10. 网络资源与美国内战史研究%Online Resources and the American Civil War History Studies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于留振

    2014-01-01

    网络的普及与网络学术资源的日渐丰富为历史研究提供了极大便利,许多重要的学术网站和数据库为美国史研究提供了主要史料来源.然而,面对过于丰富的网络资源,有必要对其进行专题性分类和整理.目前已有丰富的美国内战史网络学术资源和数据库,研究者需要在详细了解和尊重版权的基础上,对其进行充分和恰当的利用,以期为中国的美国史研究做出贡献.

  11. American Civil War's Influences on Its Political Modernization%南北战争对美国政治现代化的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔺焕萍

    2006-01-01

    美国现代化是先发型的现代化,内外因素混合,多元文化交融.南北战争恰好处于美国现代化的中间阶段和关键时刻,它维护了国家统一;战争期间及战后通过的有关法律和设立的有关机构和制度促进了美国现代化的飞速发展.

  12. Control of Maritime in the American Civil War%论海权控制在美国南北战争中的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴远祥

    2008-01-01

    从海权控制入手,探讨美国南北战争时北方对南方进行的海上封锁战略对交战双方经济、财政和外交所产生的深刻影响,证明了海权控制对美国的南北战争的进程和结果发挥着重要的作用.

  13. The Role of Officer Selection and Training on the Successful Formation and Employment of U.S. Colored Troops in the American Civil War, 1863-1865

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-10

    regimental command of black troops. In an attempt to appease Jennison‘s ego , Lane made him chief of recruiting. Motivated by revenge, Jennison and...physical examination.126 The injury to Adams‘ ego was actually inflicted by the board‘s recommendation, rather than his administrative rejection...and have realized it many times since. The strain on me was so great through the day, that when the excitement passed over and quiet came, my nervous

  14. 德高里尔与二战后美国中东石油政策%Everette Lee DeGolyer and American Oil Policy in Middle East after World War

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    支晓兰

    2011-01-01

    第二次世界大战引起了人们对石油的高度重视。二战前,墨西哥湾是世界石油供应的中心。二战期间,德高里尔对中东石油的调查报告向世人展示了中东地区巨大的石油储量,同时对二战后美国中东石油政策产生了深远的影响。%People attach great importance to oil after World War Ⅱ.Gulf of Mexico was the center of world's oil supply before World War Ⅱ.During World War Ⅱ,the investigating report of the oil mission to the Middle East made by Everette Lee DeGolyer showed all people in the world that there was vast oil reserve in Middle East.Meanwhile,the report has a profound impact on American oil policy in Middle East after World War Ⅱ.

  15. 1861年的美英关系研究%Studies on American and British Relations in 1861

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王静

    2011-01-01

    1861年美国内战开始时,美英在林肯政府对南部封锁、英国颁布的《中立宣言》和“特伦特”号事件上产生矛盾和冲突,一度诱发战争。为了维护联邦的统一,取得内战的最终胜利,美国采取了灵活机动的外交政策,避免了英国对美国内战的直接干涉。%In the beginning of the American Civil War, 1861, the U.S and Britain governments arose contradictions and conflicts on issues besides Lincoln Government's blockade on the south, Declaration of Neutrality published by Britain, and The Trent Affair, which once triggered war. In order to maintain the unity of the federal and get the final victory of the Civil War, the U.S government adopted a flexible foreign policy, and avoided Britain's direct interference in the American Civil War.

  16. Securing the Peace After Civil War

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-03-01

    ethnic romantics who dream of creating an ethnically ‘pure’ political entity”; however, the discovery of resources has the potential to “shift such...movements from the margin of romanticism to the core agenda of economic self- interest.”70 Additionally, literature presenting the concept of the...rulers claim to be democrats of some genre . Except in a few scattered marginal states, only democracy possesses legitimacy at the ideological level

  17. Civil Identity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Lars Axel

    In this paper I will go through a catalogue of examples of contexts in which the term civil identity is currently used, ranging from the formal and technical process of linking a set of administrative and other events to an individual biological person by means of identity cards, fingerprints, iris...... scanning, etc., to discussions of Shari'a law versus common civil law in India; from the study of religious cult in ancient city states to the processes of constitutional reconstruction in former Communist countries; and from attempts at conflict resolution and prevention between Jewish and Arab citizens...... of Israel to Luce Irigaray's Feminist agenda of elaborating gender specific civil identities. My intention is to investigate whether these different employments of 'civil identity' point towards a common, and fairly well defined object field asking questions of contemporary relevance to the philosophy...

  18. WAR HORSES:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    War Horses: Helhesten and the Danish Avant-Garde During World War II This exhibition is the first to explore the history and significance of the accomplishments of Danish artists working during the Nazi occupation of their country (1940-45), who called themselves Helhesten, such as Ejler Bille...

  19. DO WE STILL WANT AN AMERICAN HEGEMONY?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARIUS DINCA

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available We are not just in an economic crisis. We are witnessing a global identity crisis that challenges the very nature of the international system. And the current system seems to be made after the image and likeness of the United States of America: The Global Hegemony. This paper aims to analyze the current international system in terms of challenging the U.S. hegemony; the conclusion being favorable to the status-quo. In the first part of this paper, I will make an analysis of the last 20 years of American hegemony. My investigation is based on the concepts of the realistic and liberal theories. Then, based on the imperial overexpansion theory and on the critical theory, I will review the key moments of the American hegemony challenge. The analysis will emphasize the military conflicts in which U.S. were involved since the end of the Cold War and their un-civilizing influence on the international relations. In the last part I will try to evoke the risks of overturning the existing world order, making a parallel with the period before the Second World War. Thus, because of the weakening of the U.S. and the challenges they face, the present economic crisis could find justification for the totalitarian regimes and for the nationalist effervescence which marked the period of the Great Depression of 1932 and the Second World War. In conclusion, I will try to argue a favorable response for the title of this paper.

  20. The Collision of Romanticism and Modernism in Post-World War II American Cinema: A Theoretical Defense of Intellectual History in the Undergraduate Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferris, Daniel Hunter

    2013-01-01

    The post-World War II era in the United States, which ran from 1945 to 1970, has long been divided into two distinct periods; the late 1940s and 1950s and the 1960s. Out of this separation has come a view of the late 1940s and 1950s as a time dominated by a conservative conformist culture that did little to rival pre-war norms. On the other hand,…

  1. Two Wars: Overseas Contingency Operations and the War on Drugs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-08

    Sudan . These actions by the Clinton administration however, were reactive rather than proactive and, furthermore, proved ineffective in deterring...America, which remained a cash crop up until the Civil War.16 One scholar, Edward Brecher, notes that at the end of the nineteenth century America had...Sheriff Reymundo Guerra , who later pleaded guilty to a drug trafficking charge for accepting thousands of dollars in exchange for passing information

  2. Civil Engineering: Improving the Quality of Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    One Feather, Sandra

    2002-01-01

    American Indian civil engineers describe the educational paths that led them to their engineering careers, applications of civil engineering in reservation communities, necessary job skills, opportunities afforded by internship programs, continuing education, and the importance of early preparation in math and science. Addresses of 12 resource Web…

  3. 试论第一次世界大战对美国农业的影响%Study on the Influence of the First World War on American Agriculture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王伟; 贾宝库

    2014-01-01

    第一次世界大战是美国历史发展的重要阶段,同时一战也为美国农业发展带来了新的变化,促进了美国农业的快速发展。美国农业经历了战时的繁荣景象以及战后萧条的起落。面对一战的大背景,美国政府采取了相应的农业政策以解决农业发展所面临的问题,从而开始了政府对农业发展宏观调控的模式,进一步巩固了19世纪后半期“农业革命”所取得的成果。%The First World War is an important stage in the history of the development of the America.At the same time,it also brought new changes to American agricultural development, promoted the rapid development of American agriculture. American agriculture experienced wartime and postwar prosperity and depression. Facing the background of the era of the first World War, American government adopted a series of agricultural policy in or-der to solve the problems facing agriculture development. Thus began the government macroeconomic regulation and control of the agricultural development pattern, and strengthened the latter half of the nineteenth Century"the agricultural revolution"results.

  4. Baseball and the Cold War: An Examination of Values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briley, Ron

    1986-01-01

    Maintaining that baseball presents a view of American society in microcosm, this article reviews the Cold War history of American baseball, showing how the statements and concerns of the players and managers reflected popular values of that era. (JDH)

  5. The Great Migration and African-American Genomic Diversity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soheil Baharian

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available We present a comprehensive assessment of genomic diversity in the African-American population by studying three genotyped cohorts comprising 3,726 African-Americans from across the United States that provide a representative description of the population across all US states and socioeconomic status. An estimated 82.1% of ancestors to African-Americans lived in Africa prior to the advent of transatlantic travel, 16.7% in Europe, and 1.2% in the Americas, with increased African ancestry in the southern United States compared to the North and West. Combining demographic models of ancestry and those of relatedness suggests that admixture occurred predominantly in the South prior to the Civil War and that ancestry-biased migration is responsible for regional differences in ancestry. We find that recent migrations also caused a strong increase in genetic relatedness among geographically distant African-Americans. Long-range relatedness among African-Americans and between African-Americans and European-Americans thus track north- and west-bound migration routes followed during the Great Migration of the twentieth century. By contrast, short-range relatedness patterns suggest comparable mobility of ∼15-16km per generation for African-Americans and European-Americans, as estimated using a novel analytical model of isolation-by-distance.

  6. Utopia and torture in the Hollywood war film

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schubart, Rikke

    2010-01-01

    The article discusses the symbolic use of torture as rite of masculinization for the hero character in Three Kings (1999) and Body of Lies (2008). It discusses the idea of minor utopia in the American war film and if this is reflected in the pre-9/11 war films and not in the post 9/11 war films....

  7. Gulf War

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalgaard-Nielsen, Anja

    2003-01-01

    As it became a non‐permanent member of the UN Security Council in January 2003, Germany stepped up its opposition to war with Iraq. The stage was set for a repeat of Germany's uncomfortable position during the 1991 Gulf War. At that time, as most of Germany's allies rallied behind Washington......, Germany made only financial contributions, and hundreds of thousands of Germans took to the streets to protest against the war. Yet, since 1991, Germany had come a long way in its attitudes towards military force. From a policy of complete abstention from military deployments beyond NATO's area (so...

  8. A lot of leaders? Robert Parris Moses, SNCC, and leadership in the production of social change during the American Civil Rights Movement, 1960-1965

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser-Maessen, Laura Gerarda Maria

    2013-01-01

    This is the definitive biography of one of the most influential, yet relatively unstudied, leaders of the civil rights movement: SNCC-worker Robert Parris Moses. Uniquely written with his rare personal cooperation and based on new primary source material, it fills the gap in historical knowledge con

  9. Reflexiones sobre el concepto de guerra civil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    González Calleja, Eduardo

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available This article shows the phenomenon of war as the highest intensity point in an armed conflict. The work looks over his juridical typification, the special dialectical relation established between situations of war and peace, and the ethiology, characteristics and consequences of civil war as a big scale political conflict whose aim is the preservation or conquest of state power.

    El artículo describe el fenómeno de la guerra como un conflicto armado de máxima intensidad. Estudia su caracterización jurídica, la peculiar relación dialéctica que se establece entre el estado de guerra y el de paz, y la etiología, características y efectos de la guerra civil como conflicto político en gran escala dirigido a la conservación o conquista del poder estatal.

  10. An Analysis of the War Policy of the Federal Government during the American Civil War%试析美国内战中联邦政府的战争决策

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高冬明

    2012-01-01

    发生于19世纪中叶的美国内战规模空前,影响深远.在战争爆发前和战争进行中,联邦政府的决策者面临较为棘手的决策困境:既要追求联邦主义,又要兼顾州权主义;既要维护统一大局,又要做出战争决择;既要反对奴隶制,又要利用奴隶制.这些困境导致联邦政府的战争决策经历了一个不断调整的过程,主要体现在4个方面:一是解放黑人奴隶;二是实行征兵制;三是出台《宅地法》;四是选择适合当时情况的战争规模.联邦政府的决策总体上是成功的,最后实现了美国真正的统一.

  11. The American Civil War:The First Modern War in the World History%美国内战:世界史上的第一次现代战争

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙建霞

    2004-01-01

    19世纪60年代的美国内战一改有限战争的模式,开创了现代总体战的先河.南北双方在战争中使用了那时所有的手段,应用了最新的科技成果,引起了军事学术的变革,因此这次战争堪称世界史上的第一次现代战争,并且它也对美国以后的战争产生了深远的影响.

  12. 试论一战时期美国战时工业委员会的筹建%The preparation of American industry committee in time of war during world war

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕文娟

    2015-01-01

    对于在一战当中起到关键作用的工业资源,美国专门成立了战时工业委员会对其进行合理的管制.战时工业委员会初期的发展遇到一系列的问题,之后在局长巴鲁克的带领下,通过供需处、优先调拨处、价格核定处等机构,对战争物资予以合理的调拨和供应,制定了合理的价格,为战争的胜利做好了充分的后勤准备工作,保证了战时经济的稳定.国家对工业领域的这种强制性整合为以后出现的危机建立后勤供应体系提供了重要的借鉴.%Industrial resources play a key role in the first world war, the United States set up the wartime industry committee for its reasonable control. War industry board of the early development of a series of problems, then under the guidance of director Baruch, by supply and demand, priority allocation, the price for approval in institutions such as, to the war supplies reasonable allocation and supply, formulate a reasonable price, adequate for the victory of the war of logistics work, guarantee the stability of the wartime economy. State of the mandatory in the field of industrial integration in order to establish the logistics supply system after the crisis provides an important reference.

  13. Civil Disobedience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martz, Carlton

    2000-01-01

    This theme issue looks at three historical and recent instances of civil disobedience. The first article examines the Free Speech Movement, which arose on the Berkeley campus of the University of California in the 1960s. The second article recounts the struggle of Mahatma Gandhi to free India from the British Empire. The final article explores the…

  14. Rethinking Themes for Teaching the Era of the Cold War.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg, Norman L.; Rosenberg, Emily S.

    1994-01-01

    Maintains that the "tried and true" strategies for teaching about the early Cold War years highlight the U.S. response to Soviet expansionism. Identifies four other focus themes: (1) debates over mass culture and youth culture; (2) gender and sexuality; (3) the civil rights era; and (4) rethinking the cold war itself. (CFR)

  15. Gypsies, Wars and Other Instances of the Wild

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Port, van de Mattijs

    1998-01-01

    What does civilization mean to the inhabitants of a Serbian town after yet another bloody war on the Balkan Peninsula? How was it possible that people who had been friends and neighbors for so long ended up killing each other? And how do they deal with this barbarity in the post-war period?The figur

  16. Afghanistan: A War of Necessity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-12

    candidates running for National Office sometimes find it difficult to articulate. During an interview on September 11, 2008, ABC “World News...July 2009.25 An ABC News-Washington Post poll supported the Gallup poll’s results, finding that the majority of Americans believe the War in...Charlie Gibson’s Gaffe”, Washington Post, September 13, 2008. 13 Charles Krauthammer, “The Bush Doctrine ABM , Kyoto, and the New American

  17. 《希望之乡的莫娜》中的身份建构与文化战%Identity Construction in Mona in the Promised Land and the American Culture Wars

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李红燕

    2013-01-01

    在华裔美国作家任璧莲的小说《希望之乡的莫娜》中,父母及两个女儿选择了不同的美国化策略,他们在美国多元文化语境里的身份归属与重构体现了对多元文化主义的态度和立场。多元的美国化策略可视作任璧莲对20世纪90年代席卷美国社会的一场关于多元文化主义学术论争的回应,表达了作家对美国文化发展方向的思考。%In the novel Mona in the Promised Land by Chinese American writer Gish Jen,the parents and the two daughters choose discrepant identifications and strategies for Americanization,which reflect their attitudes to multiculturalism,and may be interpreted as Gish Jen’s response to the American Culture Wars sweeping through America in the 1990s, and her concern over the direction of American cultural develop-ment.

  18. Unionised Faculty and the Political Left: Communism and the American Federation of Teachers on the Eve of the Second World War

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cain, Timothy Reese

    2012-01-01

    During the contentious late 1930s and early 1940s, American education and American labour struggled with both internal and external concerns over Communist infiltration. These struggles converged on the American Federation of Teachers (AFT), a union of 30,000 K-12 and college teachers. Through its focus on leftist politics and organised college…

  19. Wars, Redistribution and Civilian Federal Expenditures in the US over the 20th Century

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beetsma, R.M.W.J.; Cukierman, A.; Giuliodori, M.

    2005-01-01

    We provide empirical evidence on two, major war-related, regularities of U.S. fiscal policy. First, while during and around World War I there is a positive correlation between defense spending and civil non-defense spending, this correlation becomes negative during World War II. This may be explaine

  20. The Politics of Star Wars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkins, Lee

    George Lucas's Star Wars trilogy is used as the basis for the creation of a political subtext arising from one of America's most enduring literary myths--the American Adam. That subtext, when translated into a modern political context, pinpoints two central issues to face this democracy in the coming years, as well as a national ambivalence about…

  1. U.S. civil rights policy and access to health care by minority Americans: implications for a changing health care system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenbaum, S; Markus, A; Darnell, J

    2000-01-01

    The history of health care discrimination as well as ongoing, extensive evidence of racial disparities argue for continued vigilance in the area of health care and civil rights. Under Title VI of the Civil Rights Act of 1964, individuals have challenged de facto discriminatory policies adopted by health entities receiving federal financial assistance. Title VI health litigation is difficult because of complex issues of proof as well as confounding problems of poverty and lack of health insurance that affect both claims and remedies. An analysis of cases brought under the law suggests that discrimination claims within a particular market fare better than those challenging decisions to relocate or alter the market served. This has important implications for claims involving discrimination by managed care organizations. Because the same potential for discrimination exists in the new health system of managed care, although in altered form, data collection and evaluation are warranted.

  2. Ordinary People, Ordinary Places: The Civil Rights Movement. [Lesson Plan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002

    Martin Luther King, Jr. framed the goals and strategies of the Civil Rights Movement for a national audience, and with his message of nonviolent protest, he inspired ordinary African Americans to demand equal rights as American citizens. This lesson focuses on the individual men and women who embraced King's message and advanced the Civil Rights…

  3. Impact of Battalion and Smaller African-American Combat Units on Integration of the U.S. Army in the European Theater of Operations During World War II

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-12

    force. World War II was no exception as the Saar Basin Offensive, Battle of the Bulge and the subsequent Ruhr Campaign necessitated a call up from all...be led.207 The Saar Basin Offensive, Battle of the Bulge and subsequent Rhine Campaign proved to the Army and the United States the patriotic spirit...

  4. Photographs of the 369th Infantry and African Americans during World War I. The Constitution Community: The Emergence of Modern America (1890-1930).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schur, Joan Brodsky

    In April 1917, President Woodrow Wilson asked Congress to declare war on Germany. Under the powers granted to it by the U.S. Constitution, Congress passed the Selective Service Act of 1917. Among the first regiments to arrive in France, and among the most highly decorated when it returned, was the 369th Infantry, more gallantly known as the…

  5. 甲午战争时期日本舆论对中日两国和战争的认识%Japanese Public Opinion against China and Japan during the Sino-Japanese War and the War of Understanding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐静波

    2015-01-01

    甲午战争,无疑是日本试图获取在朝鲜半岛的势力范围并进而向中国本土扩张的一次具有侵略性质的战争。但在当时的日本,朝野、尤其是以主流意识形态为主体的社会舆论,却普遍认为这是走上文明开化之路的日本与顽固守旧、拒绝现代文明的中国之间的一场有关“文明”的冲突。这一认识的思想资源何在?其内在本质又是什么?本文试图对福泽谕吉、内村鉴三和德富苏峰这三位明治时期极具影响力的舆论领袖在战争时期有关中国和日本、当然还有这场战争的言论的分析,来透视这一时期的日本知识人对于自我和他者(包括中国和欧美诸国)、对于近代文明和战争认识的内在肌理。%The Sino-Japanese War is an aggressive war that Japan undoubtedly tries to get in the sphere of in-fluence of the Korean Peninsula and further expansion of the war to the Chinese mainland.But at the time of the Japanese government and the public, especially in the mainstream ideology as the main body of public opinion, but it is generally considered to embark on the road of civilized Japan and stodgy, reject modern civilization among Chi-na's game of civilization conflict .What ideological resources of this understanding What is its nature of inherent is?This paper attempts to analyze three Meiji era's influential opinion leaders, such as Fukuzawa, Uchimura Kanzo and Tokutomi Soho in times of war, related to China and Japan, as well as the war of words, to look into this period Japanese for self-knowledge and his (including Chinese and European and American countries), for recognizing modern civilization and war of the inherent texture.

  6. Social science in the Cold War.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engerman, David C

    2010-06-01

    This essay examines ways in which American social science in the late twentieth century was--and was not--a creature of the Cold War. It identifies important work by historians that calls into question the assumption that all social science during the Cold War amounts to "Cold War social science." These historians attribute significant agency to social scientists, showing how they were enmeshed in both long-running disciplinary discussions and new institutional environments. Key trends in this scholarship include a broadening historical perspective to see social scientists in the Cold War as responding to the ideas of their scholarly predecessors; identifying the institutional legacies of World War II; and examining in close detail the products of extramural--especially governmental--funding. The result is a view of social science in the Cold War in which national security concerns are relevant, but with varied and often unexpected impacts on intellectual life.

  7. Intermodal War: Assessing Containerized Power Projection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-05-27

    of war. Motorized vehicles, with their 4 requisite consumables, added to the load of the Quarter Masters. Larger quantities of supplies, such as food ...Institute of Technology, June 2000), 59-66, AFIT/ GMO /END/00E-11. 60 Ibid., 24-30. 61 Cudahy, 243. 62 Smith-Peterson, 40. 63 “Civil Reserve Air Fleet

  8. A religião civil americana na construção de Superman e dos super-heróis = The american civil religion in the Superman and super heroes construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flor, Ricardo Bruno

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available O presente artigo visa verificar e explicar a influência da religião civil americana, como entendida por Catroga e Bellah, sobre o processo que originou os super-heróis, mais especificamente o personagem Superman; focando-se em como a crença na frontier (enquanto articulação da crença no manifest destiny ajudou a construir as características excepcionais do personagem marcando os super-heróis a partir dele. São abordados, tanto na literatura americana como em suas histórias em quadrinhos (tirinhas e revistas, os gêneros western, policial-detetivesco e aventura (aventura espacial, selvagem e outras variações, bem como os peculiares personagens pré-super-heroicos e as primeiras histórias do próprio Superman. O objetivo é mostrar como as características dos super-heróis e do próprio Superman foram inseridas e mantidas nesses gêneros ficcionais pela influência da crença na frontier, explicando a origem do personagem (e dos super-heróis como uma construção gradual

  9. Lyndon B. Johnson and the Civil Right Act of 1964

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karatzas Konstantinos D.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The Civil Rights Movement is deeply intertwined with Lyndon B. Johnson. Throughout his career, Johnson supported the quest of African-Americans for political and civil rights. They found in him an ally whose role was fundamental in fullfilling the goals of Martin Luther King, Jr, and the Civil Rights Movement. This paper will examine the role of the Johnson presidency in the passage of the Civil Rights Acts of 1957 and 1964.

  10. Lyndon B. Johnson and the Civil Right Act of 1964

    OpenAIRE

    Karatzas Konstantinos D.

    2016-01-01

    The Civil Rights Movement is deeply intertwined with Lyndon B. Johnson. Throughout his career, Johnson supported the quest of African-Americans for political and civil rights. They found in him an ally whose role was fundamental in fullfilling the goals of Martin Luther King, Jr, and the Civil Rights Movement. This paper will examine the role of the Johnson presidency in the passage of the Civil Rights Acts of 1957 and 1964.

  11. An Elegy for American Southern Planters-The Theme of a Rose for Emily

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋燕; 宋蕾

    2013-01-01

    After the American civil war, many writers did what they could to describe the development of social history and social mentality, so there emerged a lot of famous America southern writers. As a delegate of the American south writers, William Faulkner made great contribution to the literature with his strong feeling and his incisive writing style. In the famous short novel "A Rose for Emily", through the description of the change of main character's family and herself in the changing age, the writer, William Faulkner reflected the theme---all kinds of problems about the confliction in people's deep heart---in his works which refer to the American and the whole human society and sang an elegy for the American south planters.

  12. Interpretation of the Feminist Ideology in African-American Drama Since the Second World War%解读二战后美国黑人戏剧中的女性主义思想

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张环宇

    2014-01-01

    同黑人小说和诗歌一样,作为一种被边缘化的文学形式,美国黑人戏剧经历了一个模仿、吸收、反抗与自我定义的过程,并于二战后进入鼎盛时期。这期间,美国历史上涌现出了一大批优秀的黑人女性剧作家,她们在推进美国黑人戏剧与女性主义批评理论的融合与发展方面做出了巨大的贡献。%As a marginalized literary form,African-American drama has experienced a process of imitation,absorption,resistance and self-definition,and it entered its heyday in the Second World War. During this period,a large number of excellent black women writers emerged in American history. In fact,they have made tremendous contributions to promoting the integration and development of African-American drama and the theory of feminist criticism.

  13. Educational Exchange as a Cold War Weapon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Anders Bo

    2014-01-01

    American President Harry S. Truman called the Cold War a "struggle for the minds of men," and assigned journalists an important role in the conflict. This study finds that the U.S. Depeartment of State, via the American Embassy in Copenhagen, consciously attempted to shape Danish journalits' view...

  14. Responsabilidade civil

    OpenAIRE

    Dalanhol, André

    2002-01-01

    Dissertação (mestrado) - Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Centro Tecnológico. Programa de Pós-Graduação em Engenharia de Produção. 1. INTRODUÇÃO - aborda o tema Responsabilidade Civil - Reparação do Dano Moral Ambiental, de forma sucinta, justificando sua aplicabilidade no direito brasileiro, discorrendo acerca de cada etapa do trabalho; 2. MEIO AMBIENTE - CONCEITO - proposta de um conceito mais amplo de meio ambiente, que melhor se coadune com a realidade atual, uma vez que os con...

  15. Analysis of American Policy Concerning Conduct of the Vietnam War as Reflected in the Chicago Tribune, 1966 - 1969, Using a Theoretical Model Derived from Clausewitz

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-05-08

    and by wiping out smallpox , malaria, and controlling yellow fever over most of the world in this decade. 6 It appears to be a speech laden with sincere...34You guys are crazy ," said a third man. "This means we’ll go homg sooner. That is what I want."󈨖 119 Notes 1 "LBJ Reports On Viet War, U.S. Economy

  16. The Chavez Challenge: Venezuela, The United States and the Geo-Politics of Post-Cold War Inter-American Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-03-01

    A. RELATIONS BETWEEN THE U.S. AND VENEZUELA........................53 B. THE FUTURE OF VENEZUELA (WHAT DOES POST- FUJIMORI PERÚ TEACH US...highly critical perspective of the Bush administration, William Leogrande argues that due to the distraction of the Global War on Terror , President...of democracy after Fujimori in Perú will be used to evaluate possible scenarios in a post- Chávez Venezuela. The chapter will conclude with some

  17. Policy Failures in the Graveyard of Empires: How Policymakers Let the Soldiers Down in the British, the Soviet, and the American Wars in Afghanistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-19

    consistent errors of policy, the paper concludes that the incompetence and myopia of the policymakers is responsible for squandering the military gains...U.S.-NATO effort. Based on some strikingly common and consistent errors of policy, the paper concludes that the incompetence and myopia of the...War Against Al Qaeda,” Stratfor Global Intelligence , January 26, 2009, http://www.stratfor.com/weekly

  18. Sketching War

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engberg-Pedersen, Anders

    2014-01-01

    During the Napoleonic Wars the military croquis, or sketch map, played an important role in the spatial management of the various campaigns. Presumably, many of these sketch maps were destroyed or discarded after their immediate use. Those that survive have received little scholarly notice...

  19. War games

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kural, René

    2005-01-01

    Artiklen omhandler Imperial War Museum North tegnet af den polsk-amerikanske arkitekt Daniel Libeskind. Det er hans første projekt i Storbritannien og Englands femte krigsmuseum. Libeskind vand konkurrencen allerede i 1997, men først 5. juli 2002 kunne dørene slås op. Artiklen diskuterer om der er...

  20. Rutherford's war

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, John

    2016-02-01

    Seagulls, sea lions and the comic-book hero Professor Radium were all recruited to fight the threat of submarines during the First World War. But as John Campbell explains, it was Ernest Rutherford who led the way a century ago in using acoustics to deter these deadly craft.

  1. Relationship between American Reporters in China and Kuomintang Government during Anti-Japanese War%抗战时期美国在华记者与国民政府的合作与疏离

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    裴晓军

    2012-01-01

    抗日战争时期,到中国采访的美国记者曾经一度和国民政府进行了密切的合作。他们向美国国内发回了中国军民奋勇抗战和侵华日军残酷暴行的新闻。但是随着时间的推移,国民政府所暴露出来的腐败无能和消极抗战又促使这些记者对事实的真相做了毫不留情地揭露,再加上他们对延安解放区的正面报道,终于导致美国来华记者与国民政府的合作走向了决裂。%American reporters who came to China once made a close cooperation with Kuomintang Government during Anti-Japanese War at first. But as time went by, these reporters came to know about lots of corruption in the government. Furthermore, the incompetence and negative resistance on the part of government army made these reporters begin to expose what was really happening in China to native Americans.

  2. 惠特曼《桴鼓集》等战争诗中的现实主义倾向%The Realistic Tendency in Whitman's Drum- Taps and other War Poems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐勤良

    2011-01-01

    惠特曼的现实主义倾向突出地体现在记录南北战争史的战争诗中,体现了其对战争态度的嬗变。生命运动的瞬间捕捉、战地医院的图景式展现、梦境的再现是其战争诗现实主义倾向的着力点。通过对现实的观察和顿悟,惠特曼摒弃了对战争单纯鼓动的态度,转而思考战争的残酷性、代价和后果,最后用战争梦魇对人类前景发出启示录式的警告。%Whitman's realistic tendency is particular War. In comparison with the previous research into ly hi displayed in his war poems, which depict the history of American Civil s war poems, which is primarily concerned with themes and charaeteris- tics, this paper aims to examine his change of attitude towards war from a new perspective, i.e., Whitman' s realistic turn His tendency of realism in war poems can be found in his description of momentary life movements, pictorial presentations of battle field hospitals and reproductions of towards war, i.e., pure advocacy of war, dreams. His and start to epiphany gained from studying the reality led him to reject his attitude consider the ruthlessness, price and outcome of wars. Eventually, the nightmares about war in his works serve as apocalyptic warnings about human prospect .

  3. Chemistry Progress and Civilization in Ancient China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG Yu-Qian; RUAN Shu-Xiang; TANG Shan; SHUAI Zhi-Gang

    2011-01-01

    @@ During the 6,000 years of Chinese civilization, chemistry has played an essential role.The bronzed chime bells of the Warring States Period (475-221 BC) unearthed in Hubei Province shows not only the excellence in musical instruments in ancient China, but also the technological advances in metallurgy.Chinese alchemy was not originated from the quest to turn common metals to gold, instead, it was for searching medicines for longevity of human beings, mostly practised by Taoists.

  4. Operational Art Requirements in the Korean War

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-17

    Rhee, enough for defense but not enough to precipitate South Korean offensive actions to unify Korea .27 Adding to the tension in the region, the...percent of the Korean Peninsula. The United States decided to intervene in the defense of the South and proceeded to press the United Nations (U.N...the Korean War, these works primarily fall into three broad areas of scholarship: the American strategy concerning Korea and the Cold War

  5. “A Peculiar National Character”: Transatlantic Realignment and the Birth of American Cultural Nationalism after 1815

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaap Verheul

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This article argues that the emergence of American cultural nationalism after the War of 1812 developed in self-confident opposition to the Old World, yet was thoroughly influenced by European standards of nationhood. American intellectuals who campaigned for cultural independence from Europe at the same time retained European standards of civilization and esthetics, and were thoroughly influenced by ideas about the relationship between culture and nation that developed in England and Germany. This articles discusses these postcolonial complexities are reflected in debates about American cultural identity in newly founded magazines such as the North American Review that long predated Emerson’s famous “Intellectual Declaration of Independence” of 1837.

  6. Tampa's Splendid Little War: Local History and the Cuban War of Independence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mormino, Gary R.

    1998-01-01

    Presents a look at the local culture of Tampa, Florida at the turn of the century and how it responded to a massive influx of troops waiting for action during the Spanish-American War. At that time, Tampa was a multiethnic city that included many Cuban-, Spanish-, and African-Americans. (MJP)

  7. The General Stanley McChrystal Affair: A Case Study in Civil-Military Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    OPMEP did not specifically direct its instruction. Indeed, the OPMEP directs only one PME institution to specifi- cally teach civil-military...relations, the National War College.63 The OPMEP guidance for the other war colleges does not preclude the teaching of civil-military relations, but it does...Administration,” CBSnews.com: Washington Unplugged , 23 Jun 10; http://www.cbsnews.com/video/watch/?id=6610855n&tag=cont entMain;contentBody (accessed June 13

  8. The American “You Probably Know”: On Chomsky, United States, and the Failed States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arup K. CHATTERJEE

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Alleged by his detractors “Cold War Geopolitics” was verily a formative ground of Chomsky’s analyses, nevertheless, his work is a recycling of a set historical methodology, which has yet to be fully understood. It is characteristically convenient to perceive Chomsky’s contribution to the American Empire Project as being in succession to the American legacy of dissension to and distanciation from political and cultural hegemony. It is ironic that such a stance of subversion of hegemonic laws and the natural universal exceptionalism of America comes from the chief positivist of linguistics. In other words, reading Chomsky will be more challenging once his oeuvre is classified under modern ‘integralist’ history, furthermore even as postcolonial theory. Neither has Noam Chomsky nor his activities in the recent American Empire Project enabled policy advisers to ascertain methods to democratically sustain a “political system made up of subcultures.” While both The American Empire Project and Chomsky seek to restore the Edenic veneer to America the latter’s discipline ranges to far beyond the borders of his nation. It is this fibre of individualism and universalism that makes him only more American. Several writings by Chomsky begin by reaffirm the idyllic and unprecedented American influence of the post-War era, and ending in the wake of changing world demography of political alignments the American Gestalt history reflects in the psychic anxiety of the American Empire Project of the expanding frontiers America is faced with as an outcome of its own political misdemeanour. Failed States and the Chomskyan American Empire Project domesticate U.S. politics, infusing its blood-ridden history into the (collective political unconscious of the middle class urbanite’s brunch-settee ethic, with the refurbishment of American innocence in a natural teleology. It is the catalyst to ignite civil leisure with social revolution.

  9. Foreign Wars and Domestic Prejudice: How Media Exposure to the Israeli-Palestinian Conflict Predicts Ethnic Stereotyping by Jewish and Arab American Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huesmann, L. Rowell; Dubow, Eric F.; Boxer, Paul; Souweidane, Violet; Ginges, Jeremy

    2012-01-01

    This study was based on the theory that adolescents view scenes of violent ethnic conflicts in the mass media through the lens of their own ethnicity, and that the resulting social-cognitive reactions influence their negative stereotypes about similar ethnic groups in their own country. We interviewed 89 Jewish and 180 Arab American high school…

  10. Anti-Semitism in American Caricature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appel, John; Appel, Selma

    1986-01-01

    Caricatures produced between the end of the Civil War and World War II--cartoons in humor and satire weeklies, newspaper comics, posters, advertising, book illustrations, etc.--sanctioned ethnic and racial slurs. Jews were presented as negative stereotypes, characterized most often by stealth and derision. (LHW)

  11. Winning Insurgent War: Back to Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Spanish: Juan Carlos Laviana’s La Guerra Civil Española Mes a Mes (The Civil War Month-to-Month); Ricardo Cierva’s Historia de España Para Niños... Historia de España Para Niños (History of Spain for Children). Madrid: Fenix, 2003. Clinton, William J. A National Security Strategy of...Gallego, Carlos. ELN: una historia de los orígenes. Bogotá: Rodríguez Quito, 2001. Menand, Louis. The Metaphysical Club. New York: Farrar Straus

  12. China’s Current Anti-corruption Path:Anti-corruption Thought in Civil War in France%现阶段我国反腐路径探讨--《法兰西内战》反腐思想之启示

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭苑苑

    2014-01-01

    马克思创作的《法兰西内战》对巴黎公社的一系列做法进行了经验总结,其中包含了马克思免除特权、增进公共利益,建立精简、节约的廉价政府和选民可随时监督和合理罢免公职人员民主监督制度等丰富的反腐倡廉思想。这对于深刻认识我国现阶段的腐败问题以及推进相关的反腐败工作提供了理论依据和实践指南。%Civil War in France ,written by Marx based on his summarization of experiences drawn from Paris Commune ,is rich in thought on anti‐corruption and clean government such as privilege exemption ,public interest increase , establishing a simple and thrifty small government , voters’ supervising at any time and reasonably removing public officers .All that provides the theory basis and the practice guide for our deeply and significantly realizing the corruption problem and promoting anti‐corruption in China in the present day .

  13. 2008 Defense Economics Conference: The Economics of War

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-11-17

    PERCY (Congressional Budget Office): You mentioned—there is a history of increasing or providing bonus payments or other compensation to veterans after...previous conflicts, after the Civil War and after— ENGERMAN: Even before, the War of 1812 is where that starts. PERCY : I’m wondering what your...Analysis and Evaluation) Gary C. Hufbauer Reginald Jones Senior Fellow Peterson Institute for International Economics Jack A. Jackson Research Staff Member

  14. PORTUGAL'S WAR IN ANGOLA 1961 – 1974

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.A. Sutton-Pryce

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Angola, once the jewel in the crown of the Portuguese colonial empire, has been in the forefront of world news for many years arising from the tragic and bloody civil war that has torn the country apart. Cities and towns have been ravaged, the dead and mutilated bear witness to the savagery of the conflict and the human flotsam of refugees reflects the misery of the uprooted and dispossessed. There was a brief period following the signing of a peace accord when it was hoped that this dreadful saga was coming to an end and the country could begin the slow, albeit painful, process of reconciliation and rebuilding in this once beautiful and prosperous land. These hopes proved to be short-lived and a vicious civil war erupted again.

  15. Teuton vs Slav: The Great War Sinks Chicago's German "Kultur."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holli, Melvin G.

    1981-01-01

    Describes the fervent political and cultural nationalism of German Americans in Chicago during World War I. Discusses how this nationalism, combined with ethnic conflict between Germans and Slavs, helped to sway public opinion against Chicago's German community. (GC)

  16. How do Perceptions of Outgroups Indicate Barriers to Civil Society in Iraq?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gresham, J.N.

    2005-01-01

    At the Iraq "liberation" in 2003, many of us asked, "Is there really hope for civil society to emerge from the chaos?" We guessed about how Sunni, Shi'a and Kurdish factions could be brought together, and if it was likely that ethnic conflicts would lead to civil war. Seeking a better understandi

  17. Toward an Afrocological Pedagogical Approach to African Civilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okafor, Victor Oguejiofor

    1997-01-01

    The study of controversies about the legitimacy and historical groundedness of assertions about African civilization is used to support an Afrocological teaching approach to African civilization, exploring the content of the American college curriculum. There is a historically factual basis for a holistic pedagogical approach to African…

  18. The World of Wars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harste, Gorm

    2014-01-01

    The world of the future will not be one without wars. The many hopes we have about a future peace governed by a more or less confederal state will not make wars obsolete. Regular wars and irregular wars will continue and probably about different subjects than we are used to. The article proposes ...

  19. Barack Obama, the War on Terrorism and the US Hegemony

    OpenAIRE

    TELATAR, Gökhan

    2014-01-01

    The war on terrorism constituted a vision oriented in reconstructing American hegemony by consisting of elements such that combat against terrorist organizations, democracy promotion and elimination of mass destruction weapons threat after the September 11 terrorist attacks. Barack Obama severely criticized George W. Bush administration's policies concerning the war on terrorism. Thus, he has intended to strengthen the American hegemony by maintaining this vision through more mentalist p...

  20. New Mayan Hieroglyphics Support For A Mathematical Theory of Civilizations

    CERN Document Server

    Blaha, S

    2002-01-01

    Newly found Mayan hieroglyphics (at Dos Pilas, Guatemala) that describe a series of wars between Mayan "superpowers" Tikal and Calakmul appear to support a new mathematical theory of civilizations. Major events in the history of Teotihuacan (near Mexico City) in Mayan times also are consistent with the predictions of this theory.

  1. Rethinking Little Rock: The Cold War Politics of School Integration in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dejong-Lambert, William

    2007-01-01

    Though the impact of the cold war on the civil rights movement continued long after the desegregation crisis in Little Rock, the timing of the events in Arkansas, particularly the events at Central High School, constituted a unique moment in the history of the cold war. Up until the fall of 1957, the Soviet Union had been perceived as less…

  2. Recovering from 30 Years of War: Refugee Women and Children in Angola.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Women's Commission for Refugee Women and Children, New York, NY.

    After 30 years of war, Angola faces the challenge of creating a civil society. This report presents key findings of a visit to Angola, December 1-13, 1996, by the Women's Commission for Refugee Women and Children. The report describes conditions facing women and children affected by war in Angola, addresses the return process of refugees from…

  3. Images of war: using satellite images for human rights monitoring in Turkish Kurdistan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vos, de H.; Jongerden, J.P.; Etten, van J.

    2008-01-01

    In areas of war and armed conflict it is difficult to get trustworthy and coherent information. Civil society and human rights groups often face problems of dealing with fragmented witness reports, disinformation of war propaganda, and difficult direct access to these areas. Turkish Kurdistan was us

  4. Soldados, pobres y reclutas en las guerras civiles colombianas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jurado Jurado, Juan Carlos

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available During the 19th Century the civil wars in Colombia took place between armies and guerrillas, in which both soldiers and civil fighters belonged mainly to rural and urban popular sectors. The many refusals to take part in the wars as well as desertions and flights prove how precarious were the political attachments and identification with the republican institutions, all of which shows the high degree of ilegitimacy and rejectement of civil wars and political life among the fighters.

    Durante el siglo XIX, las guerras civiles en Colombia se libraron entre ejércitos y guerrillas cuyos soldados y combatientes eran en su mayoría sectores populares del campo y las ciudades. Sus permanentes negativas a participar en las guerras, así como sus deserciones y fugas, muestran que las adscripción a las banderas políticas en contienda, así como su identificación con las instituciones políticas republicanas, eran bastante precarias lo cual lleva a pensar en los altos grados de ilegitimidad y rechazo de las guerras civiles y de la vida política entre ellos.

  5. Spaces of imagination : associational life and the state in post-war, urban Liberia

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    This ethnography explores social imaginaries in post-war, urban Liberia – a physical and social context dominated by intricacies of past oligarchic rule, dictatorship, brutal civil war and post-war reconstruction. Against this challenging backdrop, this thesis asks: How do Liberians imagine the social to be and how do such imaginaries translate into social practice? Embedded in a political anthropology of the state and conceptually drawing on agency as defined by the interrelated temporal-str...

  6. The New Trend of Civil War Studies: Reading Drew Gilpin Faust's This Republic of Suffering: Death and the American Civil War%美国内战史研究的新趋向——读德鲁·吉尔平·福斯特的《受难之邦:死亡和美国内战》

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邵声

    2013-01-01

    在美国史学界,美国内战是一个长盛不衰的话题,研究成果至为丰富.但是,对于战争中的“死亡”问题,人们却鲜有关注,德鲁·吉尔平·福斯特教授的近作《受难之邦:死亡与美国内战》因此而具有特殊的意义.该书的目的是从“死亡”的角度来重新认识和评价内战的意义和含义.该书从“死亡”的物理表现、人性心理、文化内涵三个角度出发,分析“个人和国家”间的关系如何在战争中经历变化以及这种变化对美国历史产生了怎样的影响.在此基础上,作者进一步思考“战争与人性”、“宗教和世俗”等问题,提升内战研究的人文情怀.在新文化史风靡学界的时代,史家通过新题材写出新文章并不罕见,但从“死亡”这个冷僻的角度,研究内战这个饱和的领域,且有如此深刻的见解,实不多见,反映了美国内战史学的新水准和趋向.

  7. 美苏冷战与中国内战的关系——中国内战结构性原因探析%Relationship between the Soviet-American Cold War and Chinese Civil War——Cause Analysis of the Chinese Civil War

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张小强

    2008-01-01

    二战末年中美苏关系的战略变位,使解决战后远东国际事务的开罗体系让位于雅尔塔计划.美苏妥协达成的及其落实过程,使美苏在远东实际上处于冷战对峙中,成为美苏由战时合作向合作与遏制再到冷战遏制转变的分水岭.美苏依据在中国划分势力范围,以及美苏在冷战背景下对华政策的具体运用,使战后中国政治陷入一种很难摆脱的结构性怪圈中,致使中国全面内战更加难以避免.

  8. War Termination

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-21

    encampments. If the Army 80 surprised a winter camp, the snow and cold, grass-fed ponies ’ weakened condition, and presence of women and children all made...drove the defenders onto nearby bluffs, seized the pony herd, and began destroying the village. Native Americans counterattacked, sending the troops in...undignified retreat and recapturing most of their ponies . Defeated by approximately 200 warriors, many fighting nearly naked in sub-zero weather

  9. Intellectual Reflection and Civil-Military Relations in Lithuania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šlekys Deividas

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Civil-military relations in Lithuania have serious deficiencies, which have appeared because of the emulation of a recommended Western model of civilian control. After regaining Independence, Lithuania had the difficult task of creating its armed forces and system of national defence following the Western model. At the same time we had to implement two political programs: to create functioning armed forces and a institutional-legal system of democratic civil-military control. However, this control is not only proper laws and functioning institutions. Equally, an important role must be given to intellectual reflection, which enables the posing of questions such as: what is war; how is the character of war changing; how does this affect Lithuanian defence policies and the perception of threats? Raising such questions inside the armed forces and in wider political and civil society is an essential condition for having effective and flexible civilian control over the military.

  10. War and Peace: The Students' Views.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haas, Mary E.

    1986-01-01

    Reviews of studies from 1963 to 1981 on the views of American and international children and teenagers about war and peace were examined for common findings. Kohlberg's Theory of Moral Development is discussed as a way of providing a common, systematic method for additional research. (Author/MT)

  11. When the Drug War Hits the Fan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Thomas B.

    1991-01-01

    A growing number of experts and ordinary citizens are realizing that our current drug policies are immoral, wasteful, inefficient, un-American, and more harmful than beneficial. The Drug War places U.S. liberties, communities, and children at risk. A sidebar outlines drug abuse lies promulgated by the media. Another sidebar provides seven…

  12. Surviving the War--And the Peace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Doug

    2012-01-01

    This article presents the author's response to "Surviving the War: A College Counselor's Journal" by Philip Clinton. He argues that Clinton's engrossing account of the 1990-91 school year at Cairo American College (CAC) gives individuals wonderful insights into the unusual challenges occasionally encountered by an international counselor. The year…

  13. The Falklands War: Causes and Lessons

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-11-01

    Atlantic War,” Journal of Latin American Studies 33 (2001): 739-771. Nicanor Costa Méndez, Malvinas: ésta la historia (Buenos Aires: Sudamericana, 1993...Affairs 59, no. 3 (Summer 1982), 398. 19. Miguel J. Rodriguez Villafañe, Professor of constitutional Law at Universidad Nacional de Buenos Aires, writing

  14. [Contribution of the US Army Nurse Corps to the First World War].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vane, Elizabeth A P; Marble, Sanders

    2014-06-01

    A number of American nurses, on an individual basis, gave their assistance to European countries as soon as war was declared, in 1914. In 1917, when the United States entered the war, nurses from the American army arrived on the European continent before the troops. They made a major contribution to the conflict, as testified by the numerous medals they were awarded.

  15. Managing Dissent in the Catholic Church: A Reinterpretation of the Pastoral Letter on War and Peace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogan, J. Michael

    1989-01-01

    Reexamines the American National Conference of Catholic Bishops' 1983 Pastoral Letter on War and Peace. Finds that the pastoral letter functioned rhetorically not to foster but to manage dissent, diffusing a radical Catholic challenge to American defense policy and reclaiming the bishops' authority to define Church teachings on war and peace. (SR)

  16. Sierra Leone After the War : Reconstruction, Aid and Corruption

    OpenAIRE

    Camara, Pa Musa

    2012-01-01

    Investors have stayed away from the African continent for a very long time and rightfully so. The continent is fraught with civil unrest from Somalia to Sudan, from Libya to Democratic Republic of Congo. Most of the countries that are experiencing civil unrests are resource-rich nations. This gives credence to the concept of ‘resource curse’ for resource-rich nations. Sierra Leone is no exception, having suffered an eleven-year long civil war, from 1991 to 2002, causing major setbacks for the...

  17. Ground Wars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Rasmus Kleis

    infrastructures that utilize large databases with detailed individual-level information for targeting voters, and armies of dedicated volunteers and paid part-timers. Nielsen challenges the notion that political communication in America must be tightly scripted, controlled, and conducted by a select coterie...... reveals how personalized political communication is profoundly influencing electoral outcomes and transforming American democracy. Rasmus Kleis Nielsen is research fellow at the Reuters Institute for the Study of Journalism at the University of Oxford and assistant professor at Roskilde University...

  18. Bipolarity, Proxy Wars, and the Rise of China

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    South Africa Develop Mineral Wealth,” Bloomberg News, 25 August 2010. 53. Peter Lewis, “China in Africa,” Bretton Woods Committee 2, no. 1 (2007): 1. 54...the Third World since 1945 (London: Cassell Villiers House, 1995), 601. 24. Elisabeth Jean Wood , Insurgent Collective Action and Civil War (Cambridge

  19. The Marriage System in the Age of Revolutionary War

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1995-01-01

    IN the late 1920s, the Communist Party of China (CPC) founded the (Chinese) Soviet Area (established during the Second Revolutionary Civil War period, 1927-1937) which operated in the revolutionary base areas. The outline of the Soviet constitution stipulated that women should have equal rights in politics, economy, culture and hold the same social position as men.

  20. 小动画·大威力--美国动画在第二次世界大战中的影响与作用%Little Animation,Big Power- Influence and Function of American Animation in World War

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏锋; 韩蕉聿

    2015-01-01

    The Second World War was a great catastrophe in human history.To secure victory of the war,the American government and people gave the fullest play to the art form of animation.In order to explore the significant influence of the American animation industry in the Second World War,this paper collects and straightens out 320 war-related animation films produced in the war period.As far as the content is concerned,they can be classified into 2 general categories and 14 subcategories.This paper completely expounds two functions of animation in the war — mobilizing people to dedicate themselves to the war and forming an alliance to attack the enemy.From the three dimensions of time,scope and depth,this paper elaborates the importance and contribution of American animation in the war as well as the innovation and growth of the industry in the period.The paper also illustrates the dialectical relationship between American animation and World War II,which are mutually supporting and promoting.At the same time,the war also kindled American people’s great enthusiasm for animation,which gave rise to the globally renowned American animation culture. Reflection yields the conclusion that for both the art form of animation and American animation industry,the Second World War was a historic turning point.With the baptism of wartime fire,the American animation industry completed the process of self-revolution and launched the first golden era in the history of the American as well as the world’s animation industry.%第二次世界大战是人类历史上的一场浩劫,为了争取战争的胜利,美国政府和民间将动画这种艺术表现形式发挥到了极致。为了探究美国动画产业在战争中的重要影响,文章收集整理了二战期间制作的有关战争题材的美国动画片320部,从动画片内容细分入手,整体上分为2大类14小类,全面阐述了美国动画片在战争中发挥的两方面作用:一方面,对内动

  1. French Neurologists during World War I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walusinski, Olivier; Tatu, Laurent; Bogousslavsky, Julien

    2016-01-01

    The Great War accelerated the development of neurological knowledge. Many neurological signs and syndromes, as well as new nosological entities such as war psychoneuroses, were described during the conflict. The period between 1914 and 1918 was the first time in which many neurologists were concentrated in wartime neurology centres and confronted with a number of neurological patients never seen before. This concentration led to the publication of papers concerning all fields of neurological sciences, and these reports pervaded scientific journals during the conflict and the post-war years. The careers of French neurologists during the war were highly varied. Some were mobilised, whilst others enlisted voluntarily. They worked as regiment physicians at the front or in wartime neurology centres at the front or at the rear. Others were academics who were already authoritative names in the field of neurology. Whilst they were too old to be officially mobilised, they nevertheless worked in their militarised neurology departments of civil hospitals. We present here the careers of a few French neurologists during the Great War, including Charles Foix (1882-1927), René Cruchet (1875-1959), Georges Guillain (1876-1961), Jean Lhermitte (1877-1959), Clovis Vincent (1879-1947), Gustave Roussy (1874-1948), and Paul Sollier (1861-1933).

  2. Nationalist Technologies of Cultural Memory and the Korean War: Militarism and Neo-Liberalism in "The Price of Freedom" and the War Memorial of Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Y. Kim

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the technologies of nationalism that shape how the Korean War is depicted in two museum and memorial sites: The Price of Freedom: Americans at War, a permanent exhibit at the National Museum of American History in Washington, DC, and the War Memorial of Korea in Seoul. It shows how the use of traditional historical artifacts in The Price of Freedom and cinematic and digital technologies in the War Memorial generate structures of cultural memory that celebrate both a nationalist militarism and the ethos of neoliberalism.

  3. 二战后美国海外利益维护机制及其启示%The Maintenance Mechanism of American Overseas Interests after World War II and Its Enlightenment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    乔小明

    2016-01-01

    American has safeguarded its overseas interests after world war II by its domestic legislation and mechanism construction, which was mainly represented by relying on laws and mechanism, diversified diplomatic practice,the platform of international mechanism,the support of its military force and multi-mechanism supplemented by non-governmental forces. American practice and experience to maintain its overseas interests have important reference meaning to our country,China should confirm the emphasis and goals of overseas interests to protect,perfect the legislation and construction of government agencies,to enhance the full use of international mechanism,strengthen the overseas safeguard function of military force, cultivate and exert the auxiliary effect of non-governmental forces,attach importance to the construction of national image and improve the relationship between the government and citizens.%美国战后依靠国内立法和机制建设维护其海外利益,主要表现为以法律和机制为依托、以多元外交为实践方式、以国际机制为平台、以军事力量为后盾、以非政府力量为辅的多元机制。美国维护海外利益的实践和经验具有重要的借鉴意义:我国应明确海外利益维护的重点和目标,完善国内立法和政府机构建设,充分运用国际机制,增强海外军事力量的保障作用,培植和发挥民间力量的辅助作用,重视国家形象建设,改善政府与公民的关系。

  4. World War, Then and Now: World War III in the 21st Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    is, how it is being waged, what effect it is having on long-term national defense strategy and force structure planning, and the GWOT requirements for...they rule by violence and intimidation. And, third, they chose to mask their intentions with lies based on anything that their followers will...strong leader, and an emphasis on elimina- tion of diversity and of civil and human rights and the rule of law. Fascism views political violence , war

  5. Private law in Vojvodina between two world wars: Heritage for European future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolić Dušan

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This article represents an overview of different legal cultures. Author compares pluralistic legal systems, concomitant to Eastern societies, with monistic legal systems typical for Western civilizations. This article demonstrates the convergence of different legal traditions as the result of regional and global integration processes. Special attention has been given to Western legal culture. In this respect, the author analyzes fundamental features of European continental law, created by legislature, and of Anglo-American law primarily formed by judiciary. European Union has been in search for a medium solution. The aim is creating a combined legal system which would include both models of law. Such combined legal systems have existed in Scotland (United Kingdom, Quebec (Canada, Louisiana (The United States of America, and South Africa. However, it has not been well known that a similar combined legal system existed in Vojvodina between two world wars. This legal heritage, in the opinion of the author, could serve as a model for creating a new ius comunae europaeum. This model represents the evidence of a successful fusion of legisla­tive (parliamentary law and common law. In 2005 Matica Srpska launched the research project 'Private Law in Vojvodina between Two World Wars' in order to present this legal heritage nationally and inter­nationally. This Collection of Papers displays preliminary results of this research.

  6. ‘Giving the dope’: Australian Army Nurse Anaesthetists during World War I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Kirsty Harris

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available More than 2500 trained Australian army nurses served overseas during World War I. Many were called upon to act outside their normal nursing practice and one new area was that of anaesthetics. Due to a lack of medical officers in the latter part of the war, a number of Australian theatre sisters trained and worked as nurse anaesthetists in Casualty Clearing Stations in France. The British Army provided three months’ training for Australian, British and New Zealand nurses in the use of chloroform and ether. Australian nurses were enthusiastic volunteers as trained nurses at home had already carved out a small but unofficial place for the profession in this role. In addition, Canadian and American army and civil nurses were already trained and used as nurse anaesthetists. While nurses were successfully used without recorded incident, at the end of the first training course, the Director General of Medical Services, Australian Imperial Force, decreed that the nurses would not be further trained or used. This was out of step with the other countries participating, and this paper examines some possible reasons for the change of heart.

  7. 珍珠港:美国二战影像的神话学批判——兼论好莱坞战争片的大兵影像崇拜%Pearl Harbor, the Starting Point of the Worship of American Soldier ----the Mythic Study on Hollywood World War II Films

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴冰沁

    2011-01-01

    二战催生了好莱坞西部片、歌舞片之后的第三大类型片——战争片。其间,珍珠港无比重要,它将经典的“复仇”叙事推送到国家级别,由此确立了好莱坞战争片的核心价值。战后好莱坞二战影像以“历史叙事”和“个体叙事”的不同方式先后展开,“美国大兵”形象分别承担了“王朝喜剧”和“个体悲剧”的审美功能。由于强大的影像冲击力,“美国大兵”逐渐成为“泛影像”娱乐产业重要的“资源库”之一,获得了影像中的神话地位。%The World War II facilitated the appearing of the war film, which follows westerns, musical films and becomes the third main genre films. Classic revenge spots are up lifted to a nation level. And through this process, Hollywood war films built up their core values. When WWII ended, Hollywood war films had growing in two ways, historic narrating and individual narrating. American soldier images take on the aesthetic functions of both nation comedy and individual tragedy. Because of the strong shaking from the image, American soldiers granularly become one of the most important resource among the "pan - movie" entertainment industry and gain a misty identity.

  8. A Failed War

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The Iraq War has done the United States more harm than good the removal of all U.S. combat troops from Iraq in August signaled the approaching end of the Iraq War,which is the most significant regional war at the beginning of this century.

  9. A Failed War

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TIAN WENLIN

    2010-01-01

    @@ The removal of all U.S. combat troops from Iraq in August signaled the approaching end of the Iraq War, which is the most significant regional war at the beginning of this century. Although there remain quite a few uncertainties, an honest review shows the war is a failure for the United States.

  10. Mathematicians at War

    CERN Document Server

    Mazliak, Laurent

    2009-01-01

    Italian mathematician Volterra struggled to carry Italy into the World War I in May 1915 and then developed a frenetic activity to support the war effort. This activity found an adequate echo what did his French colleagues Borel, Hadamard and Picard. This book proposes the transcription of the correspondence they exchanged during the war

  11. WAR TERMINATION IN SOMALIA AND KENYA DEFENSE FORCES’ (KDF ROLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.O.S. ODHIAMBO

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available War causes and conduct have fascinated war planners, war executors and scholars for a long time because little attention has been given to how wars are ended. This oversight is apparent not only in historical accounts of warfare but, more importantly, in contemporary analyses and doctrinal formulations of deterrence and overall defense policies. Just as historians have focused on how wars begin and are fought, military analysts and planners have concentrated on influencing the initiation and conduct of warfare rather than on analyzing the process and requirements for terminating warfare on acceptable terms and at acceptable costs. Conflict termination is the formal end of fighting, not the end of conflict. Despite the volumes of research and literature on the subject, belligerents mismanage war termination. The major objective of wartime strategy is defeating enemy arms as quickly as possible with the least cost in friendly casualties. As long as hostilities endure, diplomacy is subordinated to military requirements. War termination planning, as it is currently accomplished, takes the form of civil affair planning on the details of how the vanquished will be managed following the capitulation of the enemy and cessation of hostilities. We argue that Kenya Defence Forces (KDF prudently terminated its war with the terrorists group Al-Shabaab that merged with Al-Qaeda when they agreed to be integrated into the African Union Mission for Somalia (AMISOM which is backed up by the United Nations.

  12. The effects of war on children in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albertyn, R; Bickler, S W; van As, A B; Millar, A J W; Rode, H

    2003-06-01

    There is no doubt that the effects of war extend to the most vulnerable members of society, including children. Although armed conflicts occur throughout the world, the African continent seems to be a particular background for civil and international wars. The aim of this study was to identify causes of conflict in Africa and to evaluate the effect of war on children and their health in order to make practical recommendations to health care workers dealing with children in the setting of war. All articles written in the past 5 years concerning "war" and "children" were identified by means of a literature search and internet review. Contrary to common belief, the causes of conflict are complicated and multi-factorial. The effects of war on childhood are disastrous and include severe negative effects on general paediatric health status. Short-term recommendations for health care workers working with children in war include supply of emergency medical infrastructures, basic health care, rehabilitation and education. Long-term recommendations include orchestrating the relief and support efforts from both national governments and international non-profit organisations and speeding up of economic recovery. The causes of conflict in Africa are complex and unlikely to be resolved soon. The effects of war on children are horrendous in many ways, but can be limited by providing timely and appropriate health care.

  13. [Physicians as Experts of the Integration of war invalids of WWI and WWII].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolters, Christine

    2015-12-01

    After the First World War the large number of war invalids posed a medical as well as a socio-political problem. This needed to be addressed, at least to some extent, through healthcare providers (Versorgungsbehörden) and reintegration into the labour market. Due to the demilitarization of Germany, this task was taken on by the civil administration, which was dissolved during the time of National Socialism. In 1950, the Federal Republic of Germany enacted the Federal War Victims Relief Act (Bundesversorgungsgesetz), which created a privileged group of civil and military war invalids, whereas other disabled people and victims of national socialist persecution were initially excluded. This article examines the continuities and discontinuities of the institutions following the First World War. A particular focus lies on the groups of doctors which structured this field. How did doctors become experts and what was their expertise?

  14. The Ongoing Korean War at the Sinch’ŏn Museum in North Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunghoon Han

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This essay analyzes the Sinch’ŏn Massacre and its memorialization at the Sinch’ŏn Museum of American War Atrocities in North Korea by placing the massacre within the context of North Korea’s political history. The museum illustrates Pyongyang’s perspective on the Korean War as a “war of liberation” and the museum’s role in the political education of the North Korean people, not simply as victims of American war atrocities but as “martyrs” and model citizens. Within the geopolitics of confrontation between North Korea and the United States since the Korean War, the Sinch’ŏn Museum has served to foster anti-American nationalism in North Korea. While the museum has served this specific purpose within the North Korean context, it should be compared with other examples of war memorialization that serve the function of identity formation for a sense of national unity.

  15. The Culture War and Issue Salience

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wroe, Andrew; Ashbee, Edward; Gosling, Amanda

    2014-01-01

    -time data and nonlinear regression. It finds (1) that there was a steady and significant increase in concern about traditional moral issues between the early 1980s and 2000, but (2) that the over-time increase was driven by an upward and equal shift in the importance attached to traditional moral issues......Despite much talk of a culture war, scholars continue to argue over whether the American public is divided on cultural and social issues. Some of the most prominent work in this area, such as Fiorina's Culture War?, has rejected the idea. However, this work has in turn been criticized for focussing...

  16. 1914 to 1917: the Great War years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boller, F; Duyckaerts, C

    1999-07-01

    In 1914, American and international neurology were already very well developed, but like the other scientific and societal forces of the time, they underwent numerous changes as a result of World War I. This article reviews the state of neurology between 1914 and 1917 as it can be inferred from the journals of the time, the main topics they covered, the meetings, and the neurological societies, as well as some of the actors on the neurology scene during these years. It concludes with a brief survey of the ways in which neurology was changed by the Great War. During these years, neurology was there.

  17. Teaching Russian Civilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vakar, Nicholas

    1949-01-01

    Prior to World War Two, Slavic studies in America treated history, literature, and language as isolated disciplines and often neglected the study of Russian literature written after 1917. The pragmatic necessities of the war questioned the relevance of this traditional approach and specialists appeared, concentrating their efforts on the recent…

  18. [Psychiatry and the Great War].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fras, Ivan

    2002-01-01

    During the World War I, the high rate of psychiatric casualties was differently tackled according to the nations: the Central Powers carried an authoritarian approach with prevailing physical treatment methods whereas the Allies' attitude reflected their democratic background. Particularly French psychiatry demonstrated a real willingness and ability to respond to the clinical realities. The conceptual problem of what DSM IV now classified as acute stress disorder was resolved so successfully that this disorder deserves the eponym "Viovenel's Syndrome". American Military Psychiatry followed the French methods of precise diagnosis and expeditious treatment close to the front and amplified them by creating effective treatment methods : brief psychotherapy methods and group psychotherapy within a therapeutic environment. Franco-American psychiatry thereby created the foundation for modern community psychiatry.

  19. Civil Society and Governance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hulgård, Lars

    An illustration of how important the relationship is between civil society anbd governance. A short historic journey with four snapshots of times and situations that have provided interesting evidence about the connection between civil society and governance. My goal for the short historic journey...... is to make clear and hopefully even verify that providing knowledge about the impact of civil society and citizens’ participation on governance is one of the most urgent research tasks in the current period of time....

  20. The Gulf War: U.A.E. Participation in that War

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-04-02

    conflicts, the war was rather small in that it lasted only weeks instead of months or years, hardly time to spawn an F. Scott Fitzgerald, Ernest ... Hemingway , or even a Leon Uris. Artistically, no Guernicas are in sight, and musically, "Voices that care" and "I’m Proud to Be an American" are hardly

  1. Precision Engagement at the Strategic Level of War: Guiding Promise or Wishful Thinking?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-04-01

    short-term predictability to achieve longer term outcomes. Alvin Saperstein, writing in American Scientist , suggested that such control might be...New Millennium Conference, Alexandria, Va., 8 February 2001. 22 Alvin M. Saperstein, —War and Chaos,“ American Scientist 83, no. 6 (November...Decade of Transformation.“ Armed Forces Journal International, March 2001, 68. Saperstein, Alvin M. —War and Chaos.“ American Scientist 83, no

  2. [Endovascular surgery in the war].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reva, V A; Samokhvalov, I M

    2015-01-01

    Rapid growth of medical technologies has led to implementation of endovascular methods of diagnosis and treatment into rapidly developing battlefield surgery. This work based on analysing all available current publications generalizes the data on using endovascular surgery in combat vascular injury. During the Korean war (1950-1953) American surgeons for the first time performed endovascular balloon occlusion of the aorta - the first intravascular intervention carried out in a zone of combat operations. Half a century thereafter, with the beginning of the war in Afghanistan (2001) and in Iraq (2003) surgeons of central hospitals of the USA Armed Forces began performing delayed endovascular operations to the wounded. The development of technologies, advent of mobile angiographs made it possible to later on implement high-tech endovascular interventions in a zone of combat operations. At first, more often they performed implantation of cava filters, somewhat afterward - angioembolization of damaged accessory vessels, stenting and endovascular repair of major arteries. The first in the theatre of war endovascular prosthetic repair of the thoracic aorta for severe closed injury was performed in 2008. Russian experience of using endovascular surgery in combat injuries is limited to diagnostic angiography and regional intraarterial perfusion. Despite the advent of stationary angiographs in large hospitals of the RF Ministry of Defence in the early 1990s, endovascular operations for combat vascular injury are casuistic. Foreign experience in active implementation of endovascular technologies to treatment of war-time injuries has substantiated feasibility of using intravascular interventions in tertiary care military hospitals. Carrying out basic training courses on endovascular surgery should become an organic part of preparing multimodality general battlefield surgeons rendering care on the theatre of combat operations.

  3. The Civil-Military Gap and Women in Combat: The Elite’s Attitude Transformation, 1991-2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-02-12

    AIR WAR COLLEGE AIR UNIVERSITY THE CIVIL-MILITARY GAP AND WOMEN IN COMBAT: THE ELITE’S ATTITUDE TRANSFORMATION, 1991-2013 by Charles G...2015 to 00-00-2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE The Civil-Military Gap And Women In Combat: The Elite’s Attitude Transformation, 1991-2013 5a. CONTRACT...United States is that the space between the values or attitudes of civilian society and the military may become so wide that it threatens civil

  4. An Analysis of Civil Rights Movement of American Black Soldiers during World War I%一战期间美国黑人士兵民权运动分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张云; 尹蒙蒙

    2015-01-01

    美国黑人民权运动贯穿于美国民主发展的历程中,相关成果的取得总是与美国外部环境的变化密切相关.一战的爆发,为美国黑人争取民主权利提供了有利的外部条件.美国为了取得战争的胜利,进行了军事改革,实行义务兵役制,这使得黑人第一次大量出现在军队之中.一战期间,不论是国外战场上战斗的黑人士兵,还是国内服役部队中的黑人士兵,都肩负着争取民权的压力.一战期间美国黑人士兵的民权运动,为战后美国黑人民权运动提供了一定的经验,在美国黑人民权运动的历史中起到了承上启下的作用.

  5. 19世纪美国内战前的交通革命与区域关系的变化%The Transportation Revolution and changes in regional relations before the American Civil War in the 19th century

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟晓雪

    2005-01-01

    源于不同的地理环境和经济生产方式的美国的三大区域--东北部、南部、西部,在19世纪沿着各自的轨迹发展变化并重新整合,这在极大程度成为美国内战的爆发的主要原因之一并左右了战争的结果,影响了美国历史的发展进程.在这一过程中,以运河、铁路为主要内容的交通革命发挥了重大作用.

  6. The Fiscal Policy of the Southern Confederate Government in the American Civil War%美国内战时期南部邦联政府的财政政策

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王金虎

    2007-01-01

    美国内战期间,南部邦联财政政策的主要目标是筹措资金.为达到此目的,南部邦联政府采取了征税和发行国库券与债券等措施.由于通过征税获得的财政收入微乎其微,南部邦联政府的财政资金便主要依靠发行国库券和债券.此举固然使得南部邦联政府短期获得一部分可支配资金,但由于南部邦联没有坚实雄厚的财政基础,又得不到外来有力的资金援助和支持,因此南部邦联财政政策并未实现既定目标,反而引发了通货膨胀和物价飞涨,加剧了南部邦联的民心涣散,最终加速了南部邦联的失败.

  7. On the Anti-intervening Policy of Lincoln Administration during the American Civil War%论美国内战时期林肯政府的反干涉政策

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    常县宾

    2007-01-01

    美国内战期间,在面临严重外来干涉的情况下,林肯政府力图阻止英法列强承认南部同盟,对南部同盟进行封锁,杜绝物资流入南方,并阻止英法为南部同盟制造军舰,变相干涉美国内战;为了获得世界人民的同情,还颁布了《解放奴隶宣言》.这些反干涉措施有力地维护了国家的统一,为林肯政府赢得了内战的最后胜利.

  8. Analysis of the Neutrality of the Countries Such as Britain and France in the Period of American Civil War%试析美国内战期间英法等国的中立

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑雪飞

    2006-01-01

    战时中立是国际法范畴的概念,从法理上看,不适用于一国内战,然而历史上一国在他国内战采取中立的事例不胜枚举.美国内战中英法等欧洲国家的中立就是较为典型的个案,英法等国的中立具有特殊的历史背景和政治意义;名为中立、实为干涉,从实质上看是一条独特的干涉之路.英法等国中立的核心是利益,正是为了利益,英法的干涉图谋破产.但在战略利益方面英国从其中立政策中渔利颇多.

  9. 论美国内战期间北方的海上封锁政策%On the naval blockade policy of U.S. during the American Civil War

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李海平

    2009-01-01

    在美国内战史的研究中,很多学者往往把北方的海上封锁政策并入北方初期的战略来研究,从而忽略了这一战略的军事意义.如果从总体战的视角入手,把海上封锁战略纳入北方总体消耗战略来研究.则可看出北方加强海上封锁战略的措施具有重要的军事意义.

  10. 试论美国内战时期俄国对北方的亲善%On the Close Relationship Between Russia and The Northern Government of the United States during the American Civil War

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张维桃

    2011-01-01

    美国内战是北部资本主义制度和南部奴隶制度的一场决斗,是美国的第二次资产阶级民主革命.美国内战期间,美俄基于共同的国家利益考虑,互相支持与帮助.尤其是俄国给予了北方政府以友好支持.这种内战时期的友好关系为以后两国关系继续保持良好的发展势头打下了坚实的基础,直到19世纪末20世纪初两国关系出现最大裂痕为止.

  11. 美国内战:宪法制定史与初步运行史的解释%The American Civil War: an Interpretation from the Perspective of Constitution Making and Its Early Operation History

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    欧阳景根

    2010-01-01

    美国内战是由联邦宪法在宪法制定过程中对以下结构性、原则性问题上的妥协、回避与处理不当所致:联邦制度和最高主权归属的问题、共和制度与奴隶制度的关系问题.在存在这种内战祸根的前提下,宪法规定的刚性修正程序最终为它们在宪法初步运行阶段的宪政体制内彻底解决,设置了无法逾越的制度障碍与法律障碍,从而使得内战的爆发不可避免.

  12. On the Lagging Economic Development of the American South After Civil War%内战后美国南部区域经济滞后发展探微

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孔晨旭

    2008-01-01

    内战后,美国南部由于受到战争的影响而被迫中断其固有的经济发展进程,进入区域经济的转型和重塑阶段.然而,在这一区域经济转型和重塑过程中,南部僵化的债权关系、畸形的农业结构和落后的工业化发展等因素,极大地制约了南部农业经济和工业经济发展,致使南部区域经济发展滞后.

  13. 试论美国南北战争对艾米莉·狄金森的影响%Brief analysis on the influence of American Civil War to Emily Dickson

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李丽波

    2009-01-01

    美国十九世纪著名女诗人艾米莉·狄金森虽然远离尘嚣,但是对于影响了美国社会和历史的南北战争并非是漠不关心的,她在书信和诗歌中多次流露出她对战争的关注.南北战争也给了她很多的诗歌灵感,影响了她的诗歌风格.

  14. 美国内战后南部农业中的分成租佃制研究%A Study on Divided System of Leasing in Agriculture in American South after the Civil War

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    严骏

    2004-01-01

    美国内战结束后,随着奴隶制的消亡,在美国南部种植园中出现了一种新的经营制度--分成租佃制.从它形成发展的过程、原因、性质及其所产生的影响来分析,可以使我们对美国历史有更深入的理解.

  15. The Cause and the Evaluation of three Compromises before American Civil War%美国内战前南北三次妥协的成因及评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘建芳

    2007-01-01

    美国南北内战前,南、北之间发生多次冲突,冲突的根源在于奴隶制度.多次冲突使双方矛盾不断升级,但最终又以双方妥协而得以解决.就北方资产阶级来说,1920年的妥协案是由于北方资产阶级尚不成熟,妥协可看作是斗争的策略;而50年代的冲突,北方资产阶级再次妥协、退让,可看作没有利用有利的环境积极斗争,表现出政治上软弱、行动上让步.

  16. Rev. Wu Hong-yu, a Chinese Clergyman who ever Participated the American Civil War%美国南北战争中的中国牧师——吴虹玉

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐以骅

    1999-01-01

    @@ 在亲历被美国史家称为"合众国成立的洗礼"的美国南北战争的联邦军队士兵中,竟有一位鲜为人知、来自大洋彼岸的中国人,他就是中国圣公会的牧师吴虹玉先生.

  17. A New Exploration of the Reason Why the Northern Army Suffered a Defeat in the Early Period of the American Civil War%美国内战初期北方失利新探

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘子奎; 程群

    2003-01-01

    美国内战初期北方失利的原因从军事角度来考察,主要有:北方以有限战争对抗南方的无限战争;北军指挥官的军事素质低下;北军外线出击;与内战的战争特征有关.

  18. 从《乱世佳人》看美国内战对黑人的影响%To View the Influence of the American Civil War on Negro from Gone with the Wind

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪剑; 张琳

    2007-01-01

    《乱世佳人》对黑人从侧面有大量的描写,关于黑人的很多问题在这部作品中都有反映,对黑人在美国内战前后的描写可以映射出内战前后黑人社会地位发生的巨大变化,也可以了解到黑人在美国内战后的真实状况,从而进一步看出内战对黑人产生的影响.

  19. Refractions of Civil Society

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuzmanovic, Daniella

    The thesis investigates various perceptions of civil society among civic activists in Turkey, and how these perceptions are produced and shaped. The thesis is an anthropological contribution to studies of civil society in general, as well as to studies on political culture in Turkey....

  20. Reconceptualizing Civil Regulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galang, Roberto Martin; Castello, Itziar

    2011-01-01

    This article re-conceptualizes the notion of civil regulation, through an analysis of 775 projects by firms located in 21 Asian countries, wherein we map the state of civil regulation initiatives in the region. We challenge two established assumptions in the Corporate Social Responsibility litera...