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Sample records for american chestnut castanea

  1. Chestnut, European (Castanea sativa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corredoira, Elena; Valladares, Silvia; Vieitez, Ana M; Ballester, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Development of a system for direct transfer of antifungal candidate genes into European chestnut (Castanea sativa) would provide an alternative approach to conventional breeding for production of chestnut trees that are tolerant to ink disease caused by Phytophthora spp. Overexpression of genes encoding PR proteins (such as thaumatin-like proteins), which display antifungal activity, may represent an important advance in control of the disease. We have used a chestnut thaumatin-like protein gene (CsTL1) isolated from European chestnut cotyledons and have achieved overexpression of the gene in chestnut somatic embryogenic lines used as target material. We have also acclimatized the transgenic plants and grown them on in the greenhouse. Here, we describe the various steps of the process, from the induction of somatic embryogenesis to the production of transgenic plants.

  2. Ecology and pathology of European chestnut (Castanea sativa) in the deciduous forests of the Caucasus Mountains in southern Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pridnya, M.V.; Cherpakov, V.V.; Paillet, Frederick L.

    1996-01-01

    Chestnut-dominated forests of the Caucasus Mountain area of Russia are very similar to former chestnut-dominated forests in eastern North America. The distribution, pathology, and reproductive status of European chestnut (Castanea sativa) in the Caucasus are described and compared to that of American chestnut (C. dentata). Chestnut forests are distributed continuously along the southern slope of the Caucasus mountains near the Black Sea, and are found in isolated populations on the north side of the Caucasus, at elevations ranging from 200 to 1300 meters. Chestnut blight was apparently introduced into the region after 1880 and continues to destroy chestnut forests today. Chestnut in the Caucasus is also infected by several other fungal and bacterial parasites and the joint infection of blight and bacteria may be especially dangerous for chestnut trees. Chestnut-dominated forests comprise only a few percent of total forest cover in the Caucasus Biosphere Preserve, and usually occur in mountain valleys or coves with deep brown soil. The age structure and reproductive status of chestnut in the Caucasus was investigated on six study plots in the Caucasus Biosphere Forest Preserve near the upper altitudinal limit of chestnut. Although chestnut is at least 70 percent of the overstory on these sites, there are very few trees less than 50 years old, and very few recent seedlings on any of the plots. Most large chestnut trees appear to have originated as basal spouts from previously established stems. Although chestnut seed production appears adequate, we suspect that competition with shrubs and other tree seedlings, and predation by herbivores and rodents, now prevent the establishment and survival of chestnut seedlings in the Biosphere Preserve.

  3. Modelling chestnut biogeography for American chestnut restoration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fei, Songlin; Liang, Liang; Paillet, Frederick L.;

    2012-01-01

    of American chestnut [C. dentata (Marsh.) Borkh.] by incorporating blight-resistant genes from Asiatic species. Location North America, Europe and East Asia. Methods General chestnut biology was reviewed on the basis of published literature and field observations. Chestnut distributions were established using...... published range maps and literature. Climatic constraints were analysed for the northern and southern distribution limits and the entire range for each species using principal component analysis (PCA) of fourteen bioclimatic variables. Climatic envelope matching was performed for three Chinese species using...... distribution. Climatic spaces of different species overlap with one another to different degrees, but strong similarities are shown especially between Chinese species and American species. Climatic envelope matching suggested that large areas in eastern North America have a favourable climate for Chinese...

  4. Investigation on natural durability and sorption properties of Italian Chestnut (Castanea sativa Mill.) from coppice stands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Militz, H.; Busetto, D.; Hapla, F.

    2003-01-01

    Castanea sativa Mill. from coppice stands in Italy were evaluated. Fungi trials with different white rot, brown rot and soft rot fungi showed, that the heartwood of chestnut can be classified following EN 350 in durability class 2 as ¿durable¿. However, the durability within the tested material (bet

  5. Short communication. Inheritance of cotyledon storage proteins in European sweet chestnut (Castanea sativa Miller)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, M. A.; Alvarez, J. B.; Gutierrez, J. C.; Martin, L. M.

    2012-11-01

    A first approximation to the inheritance of cotyledon storage proteins was studied in European sweet chestnut (Castanea sativa Mill.) by evaluating the offspring of a controlled cross between two local chestnut varieties (Corriente and Pilonga) from southern Spain. The analysis was carried out in 15 polymorphic bands corresponding to the albumin fraction of the storage proteins. The relationship between bands displayed one case of allelism and four of linkage. These results should be considered as the baseline of the genetics of these proteins and suggest that they could be useful for the evaluation of the genetic variability in chestnut. (Author) 13 refs.

  6. Gnomoniopsis smithogilvyi causes chestnut canker symptoms in Castanea sativa shoots in Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasche, Sabrina; Calmin, Gautier; Auderset, Guy; Crovadore, Julien; Pelleteret, Pegah; Mauch-Mani, Brigitte; Barja, François; Paul, Bernard; Jermini, Mauro; Lefort, François

    2016-02-01

    A screening of Castanea sativa scions for grafting for the presence of endophytes showed that the opportunistic fungal pathogen Gnomoniopsis smithogilvyi was the most abundant member of the endophytic flora. This fungus is known as a pathogen affecting chestnut fruits in Italy and Australia. Here, we present evidence that it causes cankers very similar to the ones due to Cryphonectria parasitica infection on twigs and scions of chestnut trees. We found natural infections of G. smithogilvyi in healthy grafted plants as well as in scions from chestnut trees. The identity of the fungus isolated from asymptomatic tissues was verified by applying Koch's postulates and corroborated by DNA sequencing of four different gene regions. In contrast to C. parasitica that appears on the bark as yellow to orange pycnidia, stromata and slimy twisted tendrils, G. smithogilvyi forms orange to red and black pycnidia, gray stromata and cream-colored to beige slimy twisted tendrils on the bark. These Swiss strains are closely related to G. smithogilvyi strains from Australia and from New Zealand, Gnomoniopsis sp. and Gnomoniopsis castanea from New Zealand, Italy, France and Switzerland. While the strains from Ticino are genetically very close to G. smithogilvyi and G. castanea from Italy, the differences between the strains from Ticino and Geneva suggest two different origins. The present study supports the hypothesis that a single species named G. smithogilvyi, which is known to be the agent of chestnut rot, also causes wood cankers on chestnut. PMID:26768710

  7. Gnomoniopsis smithogilvyi causes chestnut canker symptoms in Castanea sativa shoots in Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasche, Sabrina; Calmin, Gautier; Auderset, Guy; Crovadore, Julien; Pelleteret, Pegah; Mauch-Mani, Brigitte; Barja, François; Paul, Bernard; Jermini, Mauro; Lefort, François

    2016-02-01

    A screening of Castanea sativa scions for grafting for the presence of endophytes showed that the opportunistic fungal pathogen Gnomoniopsis smithogilvyi was the most abundant member of the endophytic flora. This fungus is known as a pathogen affecting chestnut fruits in Italy and Australia. Here, we present evidence that it causes cankers very similar to the ones due to Cryphonectria parasitica infection on twigs and scions of chestnut trees. We found natural infections of G. smithogilvyi in healthy grafted plants as well as in scions from chestnut trees. The identity of the fungus isolated from asymptomatic tissues was verified by applying Koch's postulates and corroborated by DNA sequencing of four different gene regions. In contrast to C. parasitica that appears on the bark as yellow to orange pycnidia, stromata and slimy twisted tendrils, G. smithogilvyi forms orange to red and black pycnidia, gray stromata and cream-colored to beige slimy twisted tendrils on the bark. These Swiss strains are closely related to G. smithogilvyi strains from Australia and from New Zealand, Gnomoniopsis sp. and Gnomoniopsis castanea from New Zealand, Italy, France and Switzerland. While the strains from Ticino are genetically very close to G. smithogilvyi and G. castanea from Italy, the differences between the strains from Ticino and Geneva suggest two different origins. The present study supports the hypothesis that a single species named G. smithogilvyi, which is known to be the agent of chestnut rot, also causes wood cankers on chestnut.

  8. Vitamin E profile as a reliable authenticity discrimination factor between chestnut (Castanea sativa Mill.) cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barreira, João C M; Alves, Rita C; Casal, Susana; Ferreira, Isabel C F R; Oliveira, M Beatriz P P; Pereira, José Alberto

    2009-06-24

    In this study, the profile of tocopherols and tocotrienols in chestnut ( Castanea sativa Mill.) kernel oil was evaluated. Four Portuguese chestnut varieties were selected: Aveleira, Boaventura, Judia, and Longal. The vitamin E determination had already been applied to similar matrices, but, to the authors' knowledge, it is the first time that chestnut kernel oil has been evaluated. The prevalent vitamer was gamma-tocopherol, often present in trace amounts in other natural products. Due to the high commercial value of chestnut, a statistical analysis of the obtained results was also conducted to define the tocopherol and tocotrienol profile as a reliable indicator of a specific chestnut variety. To achieve this objective, an analysis of variance was performed to evaluate the accuracy of the method as well as the uniformity of results for each variety. A discriminant analysis was also carried out revealing quite satisfactory results. Four varieties were clustered in four individual groups through the definition of two discriminant analysis dimensions.

  9. The effects of e-beam radiation in the antioxidant potential of chestnuts (Castanea sativa Mill.)

    OpenAIRE

    Carocho, Márcio; Antonio, Amilcar L.; Kałuska, Iwona; Bento, Albino; Botelho, M. Luísa; Ferreira, Isabel C.F.R.

    2012-01-01

    Chestnut fruits (Castanea sativa Mill.) are widely consumed all over the world, and have been studied in terms of nutritional value and also for their antioxidant potential [1]. In Europe, Portugal is a leading producer of this nut, along with Italy, and the conservation of the chestnut’s properties is essential, especially for export [2]. Irradiation might be an alternative conservation method, since Methyl Bromide, a widely used fumigant, was prohibited as a conservation technique by the Eu...

  10. The effects of e-beam radiation in the antioxidant potential of chestnuts (Castanea sativa Mill.)

    OpenAIRE

    Carocho, Márcio; Antonio, Amilcar L.; Kałuska, Iwona; Bento, Albino; Ferreira, Isabel C.F.R.

    2012-01-01

    Chestnut fruits (Castanea sativa Mill.) are widely consumed all over the world, and have been studied in terms of nutritional value and also for their antioxidant potential. In Europe, Portugal is one of the leading producers of this nut, and its conservation is essential. Irradiation might be an alternative conservation method, since methyl bromide, a widely used fumigant, was prohibited as post-harvest technique by the European Union in 2010 due to its toxicity. The alternati...

  11. Characterization of chestnut (Castanea sativa, mill) starch for industrial utilization

    OpenAIRE

    Demiate Ivo Mottin; Oetterer Marília; Wosiacki Gilvan

    2001-01-01

    Studies were conducted to characterize the chestnut and its starch. Chemical composition of the chestnuts showed high level of starch. Moisture level in the raw nuts was around 50g/100g in wet basis and starch content, around 80g/100g in dry basis; other nut flour components were protein (5.58 g/100g), lipid (5.39 g/100g), crude fiber (2.34 g/100g) and ash (2.14 g/100g). Starch fraction was chemically characterized in order to identify the granule quality as compared with those of cassava and...

  12. Nutritional and microbiological evaluations of chocolate-coated Chinese chestnut (Castanea mollissima) fruit for commercial use

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mahamadou E.GOUNGA; Shi-ying XU; Zhang WANG

    2008-01-01

    In recent years, China has become an increasingly important and the largest chestnut producer in the world. This study aimed to evaluate the nutritional value and microbiological quality of the roasted freeze-dried Chinese chestnut (Castanea mollissima) (RFDC) coated with dark chocolate (DCC) and milk chocolate (MCC) for industrial use and commercial consumption.Chocolate coating significantly improved the nutritional value of chestnut. RFDC had high levels of starch (66.23%) and fibers (3.85%) while DCC and MCC contained significantly high amounts of sucrose, protein, fat and minerals. Furthermore, the protein content doubled in MCC rather than in DCC. This could be attributed to the different formulations in the two products. Milk powder and whey protein constituted the source of protein in MCC while cocoa powder added to MCC formulation constituted an additional source of minerals. The amino acid profile showed differences in amino acid composition related to the sample's protein content, indicating their good nutritional quality. The moisture contents in all RFDC, DCC and MCC were suitable for industrial processing. These results provide information about the additional nutrients of chocolate-coated chestnut and confirm that the product is an interesting nutritional food. The combination of freeze-drying and chocolate-coating generally results in greater reductions on microbiological loads, extending shelf life of harvested chestnut for commercial application. This is an alternative strategy to add value to chestnut, minimizing the significant losses in harvested fruits and providing a wider range of choices of new products to the consumer disposal.

  13. Betaines and related ammonium compounds in chestnut (Castanea sativa Mill.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Servillo, Luigi; Giovane, Alfonso; Casale, Rosario; Balestrieri, Maria Luisa; Cautela, Domenico; Paolucci, Marina; Siano, Francesco; Volpe, Maria Grazia; Castaldo, Domenico

    2016-04-01

    Chestnut fruits, being poor of simple sugars and consisting mainly of fibers and starch, are among the constituents of Mediterranean diet. While numerous studies report on content of proteins and amino acids in chestnut, no one has appeared so far on betaines, an important class of nitrogen compounds ubiquitous in plants for their protective action in response to abiotic stress. In this study, we analyzed by HPLC-ESI-tandem mass spectrometry, in fruits and flours of varieties of chestnut cultivated in Italy, the composition of betaines and ammonium compounds intermediates of their biosynthesis. Besides the parent amino acids, the compounds quantified were choline, glycerophosphocholine, phosphocholine, glycine betaine, N-methylproline, proline betaine (stachydrine), β-alanine betaine, 4-guanidinobutyric acid, trigonelline, N,N,N-trimethyllysine. Interestingly, some uncommon derivatives of pipecolic acid, such as N-methylpipecolic acid, 4-hydroxypipecolic acid and 4-hydroxy-N-methylpipecolic acid were identified for the first time in chestnut samples and characterized by MS(n) tandem mass spectrometry.

  14. Characterization of chestnut (Castanea sativa, mill starch for industrial utilization

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    Ivo Mottin Demiate

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available Studies were conducted to characterize the chestnut and its starch. Chemical composition of the chestnuts showed high level of starch. Moisture level in the raw nuts was around 50g/100g in wet basis and starch content, around 80g/100g in dry basis; other nut flour components were protein (5.58 g/100g, lipid (5.39 g/100g, crude fiber (2.34 g/100g and ash (2.14 g/100g. Starch fraction was chemically characterized in order to identify the granule quality as compared with those of cassava and corn. This fraction showed more lipids and proteins than the other starches. Chestnut starch granules showed peculiar shape, smaller than the control starches and low amount of damaged units. Chemical composition concerning amylose : amylopectin ratio was intermediate to that presented by cassava and corn starch granules. Water absorption at different temperatures as well as solubility were also intermediate but closer to that presented by cassava granules. The same behavior was observed in the interaction with dimethyl-sulfoxide. Native starch granules and those submitted to enzymatic treatment with commercial alpha-amylase and also with enzymes from germinated wheat were observed by scanning electronic microscopy. Water suspensions of chestnut starch granules were heated to form pastes that were studied comparatively to those obtained with cassava and corn starches. Viscographic pattern of chestnut starch pastes showed a characteristic profile with high initial viscosity but peak absence, high resistance to mechanical stirring under hot conditions and high final viscosity. There was no way to compare it with the paste viscographic profiles obtained with the control starches. Chestnut starch pastes were stable down to pH 4 but unstable at pH 3. The water losses observed in the chestnut starch pastes after freeze-thaw cycles showed more similarity to the pattern observed in corn starch pastes as well as clarity and strength of the gel. In general the results

  15. A Morphological and Histological Characterization of Male Flower in Chestnut (Castanea Cultivar ‘Yanshanzaofeng’

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    Feng Zou

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Chinese chestnut (Castanea mollissima Blume. is a widely distributed fruit tree and well known for its ecological and economic value. In order to evaluate obstacles to male reproductive in the C. mollissima, a morphological and histological characterization of male flower of chestnut cultivar ‘Yanshanzaofeng’ were examined by paraffin section technique and scanning electron microscopy. The results showed that male catkins with floral primordia were formed in the buds of one-year olds shoots in later April. Later, a protoderm, ground meristem and a procambium had differentiated in young anthers. Each young anther soon developed to four microsporangia. The anther wall layers developed completely by mid-May and consisted of one-cell-layered epidermis, one-cell-layered endothecium, two or three middle layers and one-cell-layered tapetum. The tapetum was of glandular type. Microspore mother cells underwent meiosis through simultaneous cytokinesis in later May and gave rise to tetrads of microspores, which were tetrahedrally arranged. Mature pollens contained two cells with three germ pores. Anthers were dehiscent and pollen grains shed by early June. Based our results, we did not find the abnormal male flower in the C. molissma cv ‘yanshanzaofeng’, indicating that male gametes were fertile and thus was considered as pollenizers.

  16. Phenolic compounds in chestnut (Castanea sativa Mill.) heartwood. Effect of toasting at cooperage.

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    Sanz, Miriam; Cadahía, Estrella; Esteruelas, Enrique; Muñoz, Angel Ma; Fernández de Simón, Brígida; Hernández, Teresa; Estrella, Isabel

    2010-09-01

    The phenolic and tannic composition of heartwood extracts from Castanea sativa Mill., before and after toasting in cooperage, were studied using HPLC-DAD and HPLC-DAD/ESI-MS, and some low molecular weight phenolic compounds and hydrolyzable tannins were found. The low molecular weight phenolic compounds were lignin constituents as the acids gallic, protocatechuic, vanillic, syringic, ferulic, and ellagic, the aldehydes protocatechuic, vanillic, syringic, coniferylic, and sinapic, and the coumarin scopoletin. Their patterns were somewhat different those of oak because oak does not contain compounds such protocatechuic acid and aldehyde and is composed of much lower amounts of gallic acid than chestnut. Vescalagin and castalagin were the main ellagitannins, and acutissimin was tentatively identified for the first time in this wood. Moreover, some gallotannins were tentatively identified, including different isomers of di, tri, tetra, and pentagalloyl glucopyranose, and di and trigalloyl-hexahydroxydiphenoyl glucopyranose, comprising 20 different compounds, as well as some ellagic derivatives such as ellagic acid deoxyhexose, ellagic acid dimer dehydrated, and valoneic acid dilactone. These ellagic derivatives as well as some galloyl and hexahydroxydiphenoyl derivatives were tentatively identified for the first time in this wood. The profile of tannins was therefore different from that of oak wood because oak only contains tannins of the ellagitannins type. Seasoned and toasted chestnut wood showed a very different balance between lignin derivatives and tannins because toasting resulted in the degradation of tannins and the formation of low molecular weight phenolic compounds from lignin degradation. Moreover, the different toasting levels provoked different balances between tannins and lignin constituents because the intensity of lignin and tannin degradation was in relation to the intensity of toasting. PMID:20687564

  17. Phenolic compounds in chestnut (Castanea sativa Mill.) heartwood. Effect of toasting at cooperage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanz, Miriam; Cadahía, Estrella; Esteruelas, Enrique; Muñoz, Angel Ma; Fernández de Simón, Brígida; Hernández, Teresa; Estrella, Isabel

    2010-09-01

    The phenolic and tannic composition of heartwood extracts from Castanea sativa Mill., before and after toasting in cooperage, were studied using HPLC-DAD and HPLC-DAD/ESI-MS, and some low molecular weight phenolic compounds and hydrolyzable tannins were found. The low molecular weight phenolic compounds were lignin constituents as the acids gallic, protocatechuic, vanillic, syringic, ferulic, and ellagic, the aldehydes protocatechuic, vanillic, syringic, coniferylic, and sinapic, and the coumarin scopoletin. Their patterns were somewhat different those of oak because oak does not contain compounds such protocatechuic acid and aldehyde and is composed of much lower amounts of gallic acid than chestnut. Vescalagin and castalagin were the main ellagitannins, and acutissimin was tentatively identified for the first time in this wood. Moreover, some gallotannins were tentatively identified, including different isomers of di, tri, tetra, and pentagalloyl glucopyranose, and di and trigalloyl-hexahydroxydiphenoyl glucopyranose, comprising 20 different compounds, as well as some ellagic derivatives such as ellagic acid deoxyhexose, ellagic acid dimer dehydrated, and valoneic acid dilactone. These ellagic derivatives as well as some galloyl and hexahydroxydiphenoyl derivatives were tentatively identified for the first time in this wood. The profile of tannins was therefore different from that of oak wood because oak only contains tannins of the ellagitannins type. Seasoned and toasted chestnut wood showed a very different balance between lignin derivatives and tannins because toasting resulted in the degradation of tannins and the formation of low molecular weight phenolic compounds from lignin degradation. Moreover, the different toasting levels provoked different balances between tannins and lignin constituents because the intensity of lignin and tannin degradation was in relation to the intensity of toasting.

  18. Effects of Different Pollination Treatments on Nutrition Changes of the Ovary in Chinese Chestnut (Castanea mollissima Blume

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    Feng Zou

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Chinese chestnut (Castanea mollissima Blume has noteworthy ecological, economic and cultural importance in the Northern Hemisphere. The low yield of chestnut often affect the economic efficiency. Ovary development is an important step in nut production. Changes in nutrient contents during ovary development in chestnut cultivar ‘Yanshanzaofeng’ have not been thoroughly investigated. In this study, cultivar ‘Yanshanzaofeng’ and ‘Dabanhong’ were used as material. About 50~100 pollinated female inflorescences were picked every five days (5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 35, 40, 45, 50 days to determine N, P, K, fat, total soluble sugar, crude protein and starch contents. The results indicated that the contents of total soluble sugar, starch and fat increased constantly in ovaries after self-and cross-pollination, but protein, N and K contents first increased in 20 DAP (day after pollination and after that decreased in the stage of young fruit development. The changes of P has two peak values, one was in 40 DAP and the other was in 50 DAP. P and crude protein were not significantly after pollination treatments. However, N, sugar, starch, fat and K were significantly higher in cross-pollination treatment it seems that these nutrient has a decisive role during ovary development in chestnut. The characteristics of these nutrition changes provide a basis information for spraying N, P, K etc during ovary development and may have the potential to improve nut yield.

  19. New gall wasp species attacking chestnut trees: Dryocosmus zhuili n. sp. (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae) on Castanea henryi from southeastern China.

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    Zhu, Dao-Hong; Liu, Zhiwei; Lu, Peng-Fei; Yang, Xiao-Hui; Su, Cheng-Yuan; Liu, Peter

    2015-01-01

    A new gall wasp species, Dryocosmus zhuili Liu et Zhu, is herein described from the southeastern Fujian province of China. The new species induces galls on trees of Henry's chestnut, Castanea henryi, which is also a native host for the notorious Oriental chestnut gall wasp (OCGW, Dryocosmus kuriphilus Yasumatsu). D. zhuili overlaps with OCGW in emergence time and induces galls morphologically similar to that of OCGW on similar plant parts. In a previous study, we reported considerable divergence between mtDNA CO1 (mitochondrial DNA Cytochrome c oxidase subunit I) sequences of these wasps and the true OCGW wasps and suggested the existence of a cryptic species. Herein, we confirm the identity of the new species based on morphological and biological differences and provide a formal description. Although the new species is relatively easily separated from OCGW on basis of morphology, field identification involving the two species can still be problematic because of their small body size, highly similar gall morphology, and other life history traits. We further discussed the potential of the new species to be a pest for the chestnut industry and the consequences of accidental introduction of this species into nonnative areas, especially with regard to the bisexual reproduction mode of the new species in contrast to the parthenogenetic reproduction mode of OCGW.

  20. Effect of cooking methods on nutritional quality and volatile compounds of Chinese chestnut (Castanea mollissima Blume).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qian; Shi, Xianhe; Zhao, Qiaojiao; Cui, Yahui; Ouyang, Jie; Xu, Fang

    2016-06-15

    This study aimed to evaluate the effects of different cooking methods on the content of important nutrients and volatiles in the fruit of Chinese chestnut. The nutritional compounds, including starch, water-soluble protein, free amino acids, reducing sugar, sucrose, organic acids and total flavonoids, of boiled, roasted and fried chestnuts were significantly (P0.05). L-Aspartic acid, L-glutamic acid and L-arginine were found to be the main reduced free amino acids in cooked chestnuts. The main aromatic compositions in fresh chestnuts were aldehydes and esters, while ketones, furfural and furan were formed in cooked chestnuts due to the Maillard reaction and degradation of saccharides, amino acids and lipids. Principle component analysis demonstrated that roasting and frying had a similar effect on the nutritional composition of chestnuts, which differed from that of the boiling process. PMID:26868551

  1. Effect of cooking methods on nutritional quality and volatile compounds of Chinese chestnut (Castanea mollissima Blume).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qian; Shi, Xianhe; Zhao, Qiaojiao; Cui, Yahui; Ouyang, Jie; Xu, Fang

    2016-06-15

    This study aimed to evaluate the effects of different cooking methods on the content of important nutrients and volatiles in the fruit of Chinese chestnut. The nutritional compounds, including starch, water-soluble protein, free amino acids, reducing sugar, sucrose, organic acids and total flavonoids, of boiled, roasted and fried chestnuts were significantly (Pcooking, while the amylose, fat, crude protein and total polyphenol content varied slightly (P>0.05). L-Aspartic acid, L-glutamic acid and L-arginine were found to be the main reduced free amino acids in cooked chestnuts. The main aromatic compositions in fresh chestnuts were aldehydes and esters, while ketones, furfural and furan were formed in cooked chestnuts due to the Maillard reaction and degradation of saccharides, amino acids and lipids. Principle component analysis demonstrated that roasting and frying had a similar effect on the nutritional composition of chestnuts, which differed from that of the boiling process.

  2. Rupture and Modulus of Elasticity of Heat Treated Anatolian Chestnut (Castanea Sativa Wood by Fuzzy Logic Classifier

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    Fatih Yapıcı

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, test samples prepared from Anatolian chestnut (Castanea sativa wood were first exposed to heat treatment at 130, 145, 160, 175, 190 and 205 ºC for 3, 6, 9 and 12 hours. Then the values of the samples of the modulus of rupture (MOR and modulus of elasticity (MOE were determined and evaluated by multiple variance analysis. The aim of this study was to establish the effects of heat treatment on the MOR and MOE values of wood samples by using fuzzy logic classifier. Secondly, input and output values and rule base of the fuzzy logic classifier model were built by using the results obtained from the experiment. The developed fuzzy classifier model could predict the MOR and MOE values of test samples at the accuracy levels of 92.64 % and 90.35 %, respectively. The model could be especially employed in manufacturing stages of timber industry.

  3. A tangled tale of two teal: Population history of the grey Anas gracilis and chestnut teal a. castanea of Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, L.; Adcock, G.J.; Linde, C.; Omland, K.E.; Heinsohn, R.; Terry, Chesser R.; Roshier, D.

    2009-01-01

    Two Australian species of teal (Anseriformes: Anatidae: Anas), the grey teal Anas gracilis and the chestnut teal A. castanea, are remarkable for the zero or near-zero divergence recorded between them in earlier surveys of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) diversity. We confirmed this result through wider geographical and population sampling as well as nucleotide sampling in the more rapidly evolving mtDNA control region. Any data set where two species share polymorphism as is the case here can be explained by a model of gene flow through hybridization on one hand or by incomplete lineage sorting on the other hand. Ideally, analysis of such shared polymorphism would simultaneously estimate the likelihood of both phenomena. To do this, we used the underlying principle of the IMa package to explore ramifications to understanding population histories of A. gracilis and A. castanea. We cannot reject that hybridization occurs between the two species but an equally or more plausible finding for their nearly zero divergence is incomplete sorting following very recent divergence between the two, probably in the mid-late Pleistocene. Our data add to studies that explore intermediate stages in the evolution of reciprocal monophyly and paraphyletic or polyphyletic relationships in mtDNA diversity among widespread Australian birds. ?? 2009 J. Avian Biol.

  4. PHYSICAL, MORPHOLOGICAL PROPERTIES AND RAMAN SPECTROSCOPY OF CHESTNUT BLIGHT DISEASED CASTANEA SATIVA MILL. WOOD

    OpenAIRE

    Gokhan Gunduz,; Mehmet Ali Oral; Mehmet Akyuz; Deniz Aydemir; Barbaros Yaman; Nejla Asik; Ali Savas Bulbul; Surhay Allahverdiyev

    2016-01-01

    In this study, some of the physical and anatomical properties of Chestnut Blight Diseased (CBD) wood were investigated, and the study also included observations using Raman spectroscopy. The objective of these investigations was to determine the extent of the damage that is done to the wood of the diseased chestnut trees, which must be removed from the forest and used in the manufacture of industrial products. It was indicated that most of the adverse effects of the disease were in the vascu...

  5. Does management improve the state of chestnut (Castanea sativa L. on Belasitsa Mountain, southwest Bulgaria?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zlatanov T

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Chestnut forests in the Belasitsa Mountain region of southwest Bulgaria were traditionally intensively managed as orchard-like stands for nut production. More recently, management intensity has been sharply reduced as a result of rural abandonment, which combined with the effects of chestnut blight has led to marked structural changes in these forests. The focus of this paper is on the seed-based regeneration potential and seedling survival of chestnut in mixed stands managed over the past 15 years. Results suggest that management of stands under a high-forest system is appropriate, and regeneration from seed has advantages over coppicing if competing species can be controlled. An investigation into “sanitation cutting” performed since the 1990s shows that this had not a successful response to blight infestations.

  6. Effects of electron-beam radiation on nutritional parameters of Portuguese chestnuts (Castanea sativa Mill.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carocho, Márcio; Barreira, João C M; Antonio, Amilcar L; Bento, Albino; Kaluska, Iwona; Ferreira, Isabel C F R

    2012-08-01

    Chestnuts are a widely consumed fruit around the world, with Portugal being the fourth biggest producer in Europe. Storage of these nuts is an important step during processing, and the most widely used fumigant was banned in the European Union under the Montreal Protocol because of its toxicity. Recently, radiation has been introduced as a cheap and clean conservation method. Previous studies of our research group proved that γ radiation had no negative effect on the nutritional value of chestnuts; in fact, storage time had a much bigger influence on the chestnut quality. In the present study, we report the effect of a less ionizing radiation, electron beam, with doses of 0, 0.5, 1, 3, and 6 kGy in the nutritional value of chestnuts (ash, energy, fatty acids, sugars, and tocopherols), previously stored at 4 °C for 0, 30, and 60 days. The storage time seemed to reduce fat and energetic values but reported a tendency for higher values of dry matter. With regard to fatty acids, there was a higher detected quantity of C20:2 in non-irradiated samples and four fatty acids were only detected in trace quantities (C6:0, C8:0, C10:0, and C12:0). γ-Tocopherol decreased during storage time but did not alter its quantity for all of the radiation doses (as like α-, β-, and δ-tocopherol); in fact, these compounds were present in higher concentrations in the irradiated samples. Sucrose and total sugars were lower in non-irradiated samples, and raffinose was only detected in irradiated samples. Electron-beam irradiation seems to be a suitable methodology, because the effects on chemical and nutritional composition are very low, while storage time seems to be quite important in chestnut deterioration.

  7. Ectomycorrhizal community structure in a healthy and a Phytophthora-infected chestnut (Castanea sativa Mill.) stand in central Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blom, Jan Maarten; Vannini, Andrea; Vettraino, Anna Maria; Hale, Michael D; Godbold, Douglas L

    2009-11-01

    Ink disease caused by Phytophthora cambivora is a major disease of sweet chestnut (Castanea sativa). In two C. sativa stands in central Italy, one (Montesanti) that is infected with P. cambivora and the trees showing symptoms of ink disease and another healthy stand (Puzzella), the ectomycorrhizal (ECM) community structure was investigated. On the roots of the surviving trees of the diseased stand, 29 different ECM species were determined compared to 23 in the healthy stand. Eleven ECM species were common to both stands; however, a number of species were unique to one of the stands. Cenococcum geophilum was dominant at both sites, but the percentage colonisation was much higher at Montesanti (40.8%) compared to Puzzella (27.2%). There was a switch in species from Russula vesca, Russula lepida and Russula azurea at Puzzella to Russula nigricans, R. lepida and Russula delica at Montesanti. Both R. vesca and R. azurea were found only at the Puzzella site. At the diseased site, the ECMs formed had a smaller root tip diameter, and the ECM at the healthy site had more abundant extramatrical hyphae.

  8. Primary and secondary metabolite composition of kernels from three cultivars of Portuguese chestnut (Castanea sativa Mill.) at different stages of industrial transformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Do Carmo Barbosa Mendes De Vasconcelos, Maria; Bennett, Richard N; Rosa, Eduardo A S; Ferreira Cardoso, Jorge Ventura

    2007-05-01

    Chestnut (Castanea sativa) is an important basic food in rural diets and a major starch crop used in a similar way to potatoes. Chestnuts are a fundamental economic resource in the "chestnut regions" not only for the fruit but also for the chestnut wood. Chestnuts have become increasingly important with respect to human health, for example, as an alternative gluten-free flour source. Chestnuts are also a rich source of other beneficial compounds, but there have been few studies on the composition during processing. In this study, we analyzed the chemical composition of three Portuguese cultivars at different stages of industrial processing. The chestnut cultivars were Longal, Judia, and Martaínha. All three cultivars had high moisture contents but were low in ash, crude fat, and crude protein contents, with high starch and low fiber contents. The free amino acid contents, including various essential amino acids, varied depending on the cultivar. All three cultivars also had a significant content of polyphenolics with gallic acid; ellagic acid was predominant among hydrolyzable and condensed tannins. Many of these compounds are known to exert significant positive effects on human health. The one-way analysis of variance for fresh chestnut shows significant differences among the three cultivars for most of the studied parameters. The same statistical analysis applied to each one of the two cultivars (Judia and Longal) sampled for the four processing steps analyzed indicates a significant effect of this factor in practically all of the constituents. On the other hand, the two-way analysis of variance shows that, besides the residual, the processing step and the interaction cultivar x processing step were the factors that more contributed for the total variation observed in the constituents analyzed, while the contribution of cultivar was much less significant.

  9. Sweet Chestnut (Castanea sativa Mill. Bark Extract: Cardiovascular Activity and Myocyte Protection against Oxidative Damage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Chiarini

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This work was aimed at evaluating the cardioprotective effects of Castanea sativa Mill. (CSM bark extract characterized in its phenolic composition by HPLC-DAD-MS analysis. The study was performed using primary cultures of neonatal rat cardiomyocytes to investigate the antioxidant and cytoprotective effects of CSM bark extract and isolated guinea pig left and right atria, left papillary muscle, and aorta to evaluate its direct effect on cholinergic and adrenergic response. In cultured cardiomyocytes the CSM bark extract reduced intracellular reactive oxygen species formation and improved cell viability following oxidative stress in dose-dependent manner. Moreover, the extract decreased the contraction induced by noradrenaline (1 μM in guinea pig aortic strips and induced transient negative chronotropic and positive inotropic effects without involvement of cholinergic or adrenergic receptors in the guinea pig atria. Our results indicate that CSM bark extract exhibits antioxidant activity and might induce cardioprotective effect.

  10. PHYSICAL, MORPHOLOGICAL PROPERTIES AND RAMAN SPECTROSCOPY OF CHESTNUT BLIGHT DISEASED CASTANEA SATIVA MILL. WOOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gokhan Gunduz

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, some of the physical and anatomical properties of Chestnut Blight Diseased (CBD wood were investigated, and the study also included observations using Raman spectroscopy. The objective of these investigations was to determine the extent of the damage that is done to the wood of the diseased chestnut trees, which must be removed from the forest and used in the manufacture of industrial products. It was indicated that most of the adverse effects of the disease were in the vascular cambium. There was a clear indication of deterioration of the wood in the last growth ring next to vascular cambium. In the diseased secondary xylem region next to vascular cambium; vessel diameter, vessel frequency and vessel element length had a decrease, and vessel and other cells were irregular compared to healthy wood. Spores were detected and identified as Cryphonectria parasitica (Murrill. Annual ring properties (annual growth ring width, latewood percentage, etc. were similar in diseased wood compared to healthy wood. The Raman spectroscopy results showed no significant changes in the structure of the cell wall or its components. After removing the diseased parts, unlimited usage of formerly wood is possible. Heat treatment of the wood is suggested before use in the interest of sanitation and dimensional stability.

  11. Genetic transformation of European chestnut somatic embryos with a native thaumatin-like protein (CsTL1) gene isolated from Castanea sativa seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corredoira, Elena; Valladares, Silvia; Allona, Isabel; Aragoncillo, Cipriano; Vieitez, Ana M; Ballester, Antonio

    2012-11-01

    The availability of a system for direct transfer of antifungal candidate genes into European chestnut (Castanea sativa Mill.) would offer an alternative approach to conventional breeding for production of chestnut trees tolerant to ink disease caused by Phytophthora spp. For the first time, a chestnut thaumatin-like protein gene (CsTL1), isolated from chestnut cotyledons, has been overexpressed in three chestnut somatic embryogenic lines. Transformation experiments have been performed using an Agrobacterium tumefaciens Smith and Townsend vector harboring the neomycin phosphotransferase (NPTII) selectable and the green fluorescent protein (EGFP) reporter genes. The transformation efficiency, determined on the basis of the fluorescence of surviving explants, was clearly genotype dependent and ranged from 32.5% in the CI-9 line to 7.1% in the CI-3 line. A total of 126 independent transformed lines were obtained. The presence and integration of chestnut CsTL1 in genomic DNA was confirmed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and Southern blot analyses. Quantitative real-time PCR revealed that CsTL1 expression was up to 13.5-fold higher in a transgenic line compared with its corresponding untransformed line. In only one of the 11 transformed lines tested, expression of the CsTL1 was lower than the control. The remaining 115 transformed lines were successfully subjected to cryopreservation. Embryo proliferation was achieved in all of the transgenic lines regenerated and the transformed lines showed a higher mean number of cotyledonary stage embryos and total number of embryos per embryo clump than their corresponding untransformed lines. Transgenic plants were regenerated after maturation and germination of transformed somatic embryos. Furthermore, due to the low plantlet conversion achieved, axillary shoot proliferation cultures were established from partially germinated embryos (only shoot development), which were multiplied and rooted according to procedures already

  12. Salicylic acid inhibits enzymatic browning of fresh-cut Chinese chestnut (Castanea mollissima) by competitively inhibiting polyphenol oxidase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Dan; Li, Lin; Wu, Yanwen; Fan, Junfeng; Ouyang, Jie

    2015-03-15

    The inhibitory effect and associated mechanisms of salicylic acid (SA) on the browning of fresh-cut Chinese chestnut were investigated. Shelled and sliced chestnuts were immersed in different concentrations of an SA solution, and the browning of the chestnut surface and interior were inhibited. The activities of polyphenol oxidase (PPO) and peroxidase (POD) extracted from chestnuts were measured in the presence and absence of SA. SA at concentrations higher than 0.3g/L delayed chestnut browning by significantly inhibiting the PPO activity (P0.05). The binding and inhibition modes of SA with PPO and POD, determined by AUTODOCK 4.2 and Lineweaver-Burk plots, respectively, established SA as a competitive inhibitor of PPO.

  13. Assessment of the Empirical Management Method of Coppice Chestnut (Castanea sativa Mill. Forests Practiced by the Monks and its Effect on the Availability of Forest Soil Resources in Mount Athos, Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Athanasios PAPAIOANNOU

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In Greece, chestnut forests (Castanea sativa Mill. occupy more than 30,000 ha of forest land. The species is one of the most significant of the Balkans. It is mainly cultivated for its high quality wood. Concerning cultivation and harvesting, the monks in Mount Athos peninsula in northern Greece practice a special empirical management method for local coppice chestnut forests. Data collected from 9 sampling surfaces, comprising of coppice chestnut stands of three different ages (10, 20 and 40 years old, were analyzed to study the effect of this particular empirical management method on specific soil parameters. Results indicated that, there is a general trend for increased organic matter and nutrient concentrations in the soil of 10 and 40 years old chestnut stands in comparison to those of 20 years of age. Cultivation treatments cause intense alterations on soil properties, leading to severe degradation of nutrient resources.

  14. Seasonal Variation in Phenolic Constituents of Hazelnut (Coryllus avellana L.) and Chestnut (Castanea sativa Mill.) Leaves and Shoots

    OpenAIRE

    BİLGENER, Şükriye Kurnaz

    1998-01-01

    In this research, the seasonal variation in total phenolic contents in hazelnut and chestnut leaves and shoots was determined. In addition, the phenolic compounds extracted by aqueous alcohol or obtained by acid hydrolysis of the leaves and shoots were separated by paper chromatography (PC). The total phenolic contents of the chestnut leaves and shoots were higher than the hazelnut. In both species, the young shoots had higher total phenolic contents than one year old shoots. The total phen...

  15. In vivo Skin Irritation Potential of a Castanea sativa (Chestnut) Leaf Extract, a Putative Natural Antioxidant for Topical Application

    OpenAIRE

    Almeida, IF; Valentão, P.; Andrade, PB; Seabra, RM; Pereira, TM; Amaral, MH; Costa, PC; Bahia, MF

    2008-01-01

    Topical application of natural antioxidants has proven to be effective in protecting the skin against ultraviolet-mediated oxidative damage and provides a straightforward way to strengthen the endogenous protection system. However, natural products can provoke skin adverse effects, such as allergic and irritant contact dermatitis. Skin irritation potential of Castanea sativa leaf ethanol:water (7:3) extract was investigated by performing an in vivo patch test in 20 volunteers. Before performi...

  16. Lactic Acid Bacteria as protective and functional cultures for the enhancement of chestnut (Castanea sativa Mill.) processing chain

    OpenAIRE

    Di Capua, Marika

    2015-01-01

    Chestnuts are very perishable fruits, whose quality may be compromised during postharvest handling. Damage can be caused both by insects and fungi. Water curing, a commonly used postharvest method, is based on soaking fruits in water typically for about one week. Factors that affect effectiveness of water curing have only been explained partially. A decrease in pH, likely imputable to a light fermentation caused by lactic acid bacteria, may inhibit the growth of moulds. In this study a Lac...

  17. Morphological and pheno logical description of 38 sweet chestnut cultivars (Castanea sativa Miller) in a contemporary collection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furones-Perez, P.; Fernandez-Lopez, J.

    2009-07-01

    Thirty eight traditional chestnut cultivars, from a contemporary collection, were described using nine characteristics, seven of which are included in the guidelines for carrying out tests of distinctness, homogeneity and stability of chestnut established by the International Union for the Protection of New Varieties of Plants (UPOV). The nine variables were chosen from among 13 characteristics evaluated in the collection with regard to the criteria for distinctness, uniformity and stability. The evaluations were carried out over the years 2003, 2004 and 2005, in two plantations, situated in the northwest of the Iberian Peninsula. Each mean value obtained for each cultivar, plantation and year were assigned a state and numerical number using the UPOV system or proposed new descriptors. No cultivar showed a very late time of leaf bud burst nor a very late time for the start of male and female flowering, nor a strong penetration of the seed coat into embryo. In five variables there was no or few differences among years and between plantations. Consequently they can be evaluated at one site in one year. These characters were: filament length of male flowers, percent of chestnuts with a split pericarp, the degree of penetration of the seed coat into the embryo, fruit shape and the ratio of hilum length to hilum width. Of the remaining four variables, three were phonologic (time of leaf bud burst, time of beginning of male and female flowering) and one related to fruit size (size of fruit hilum). They varied among years and between plantations and consequently need to be evaluated under contrasting site conditions for a minimum number of years. Additional key words: cultivated varieties, descriptor, genetic resources, UPOV. (Author) 27 refs.

  18. Consequences of Shifts in Abundance and Distribution of American Chestnut for Restoration of a Foundation Forest Tree

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harmony J. Dalgleish

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Restoration of foundation species, such as the American chestnut (Castanea dentata that was devastated by an introduced fungus, can restore ecosystem function. Understanding both the current distribution as well as biogeographic patterns is important for restoration planning. We used United States Department of Agriculture Forest Service Forest Inventory and Analysis data to quantify the current density and distribution of C. dentata. We then review the literature concerning biogeographic patterns in C. dentata. Currently, 431 ± 30.2 million stems remain. The vast majority (360 ± 22 million are sprouts <2.5 cm dbh. Although this number is approximately 10% of the estimated pre-blight population, blight has caused a major shift in the size structure. The current-day population has a larger range, particularly west and north, likely due to human translocation. While climate change could facilitate northward expansion, limited seed reproduction makes this unlikely without assisted migration. Previous research demonstrates that the current, smaller population contains slightly higher genetic diversity than expected, although little information exists on biogeographic patterns in the genetics of adaptive traits. Our research provides a baseline characterization of the contemporary population of C. dentata, to enable monitoring stem densities and range limits to support restoration efforts.

  19. Um método eficiente para a detecção de Phytophthora cinnamomi associada com a Doença da Tinta do Castanheiro na rizosfera de Castanheiro (Castanea sativa Mill. An efficient assay for detection of Phytophthora cinnamomi in the rhizosphere of Sweet Chestnut (Castanea sativa Mill.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Gouveia

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available O ciclo biológico de Phytophthora cinnamomi Rands e P. cambivora (Petri Buisman espécies associadas com a Doença da Tinta do Castanheiro, ocorre integralmente no ambiente solo. A presença de qualquer uma destas espécies parasitas inviabiliza as novas plantações de castanheiro e coloca sérios problemas à manutenção dos soutos já instalados. Para garantir a ausência de propágulos dos parasitas no material de multiplicação do castanheiro e avaliar o estado sanitário dos solos é necessário que os métodos de detecção sejam sensíveis e rápidos, o que nem sempre é conseguido com as espécies de Phytophthora cujo ciclo de vida ocorre no ambiente solo. Neste estudo desenvolveuse e optimizou-se um método de biodetecção conjugado com a utilização de meios de cultura selectivos. Como material biológico utilizaram-se discos de folha de castanheiro (Castanea sativa, azevinho (Ilex aquifolium e camélia (Camellia japonica, em condições de temperatura constante (25º e em condições normais de laboratório com a adição ou não de biocidas (pimaricina e penicilina na água de diluição do solo. Os discos de folha de castanheiro foram mais eficientes na detecção de Phytophthora, obtendo-se maior percentagem de isolamentos positivos no meio de cultura selectivo (P10VPH. Os resultados obtidos neste estudo permitiram estabelecer um protocolo experimental de fácil utilização e tornar mais eficiente a detecção de Phytophthora cinnamomi associada com a Doença da Tinta do Castanheiro.The life cycle of Phytophthora cinnamomi Rands and P. cambivora (PetriBuisman, both species associated with Ink Disease of Chestnut, occurs entirely in soil. The presence of any of these parasitic species is a limiting constraint for new plantations of sweet chestnut and represents a serious problem for established groves. Sensitive and fast detection methods are necessary to guarantee the absence of inoculum in the propagation material and to

  20. 湖北省罗田县板栗害虫种类调查%Investigation on the species of insect pests infesting on the chestnut plant (Castanea mollissima Blume)in Luotian County,Hubei Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖云丽; 汪玉平; 孙康; 徐向阳; 晏绍良; 钟玉林

    2015-01-01

    The species of insect pests infesting on chestnut plant Castanea mollissima Blume were systematically in-vestigated from 2013 to 2014 in Luotian County,Hubei Province.One hundred and ninety-two chestnut pest spe-cies in 61 families under 5 orders were recorded from Luotian County,among them,62 branch and trunk pests species in 23 families,1 53 leaf,bud and flower pests species in 49 families,1 5 fruit pests species in 8 families. Eighty-one named species in 37 families under 4 orders were firstly reported feeding on chestnut plants,including 24 branch and trunk pests species in 13 families,60 leaf,bud and flower pests species in 28 families,and 7 fruit pests species in 4 families.Cyllorhynchites cumulatus (Voss),Curculio davidi Fairmaire,Niphades castanes Chao,Conogethes punctiferalis (Guenée),Synanthedon kunmingensis Yang & Wang,Synanthedon menglaensis Yang & Wang,Lachnus tropicalis (van der Goot),Phalera assimilis (Bremer & Grey),and Dryocosmus kuriphi-lus Yasumatsu caused serious damage in the chestnut production.%2013-2014年度系统调查了湖北省罗田县板栗害虫种类,经分类整理与鉴定,罗田县板栗害虫共计5目61科192种,其中枝干害虫23科62种,叶芽花序害虫49科153种、果实害虫8科15种;板栗新纪录害虫4目37科81种(已命名种),其中枝干害虫13科24种,叶芽花序害虫28科60种,果实害虫4科7种。对板栗生产造成严重危害的主要有:果实害虫板栗剪枝象[Cyllorhynchites cumulatus (Voss)]、栗实象(Curculio davidi Fairmaire)、栗雪片象(Niphades castanes Chao)和桃多斑野螟[Conogethes punctiferalis (Guenée)];枝干害虫昆明兴透翅蛾(Synanthedon kunmingensis Yang & Wang)、勐腊兴透翅蛾(Synanthedon menglaensis Yang & Wang)和板栗大蚜[Lachnus tropicalis (van der Goot)];叶芽害虫栎掌舟蛾[Phalera assimilis (Bremer & Grey)]和板栗瘿蜂(Dryo-cosmus kuriphilus Yasumatsu)。

  1. Phenolic and furanic compounds of Portuguese chestnut and French, American and Portuguese oak wood chips

    OpenAIRE

    Garcia, Raquel; Soares, Bruno; Barrocas Dias, Cristina; Ana Maria, Costa Freitas; Cabrita, Maria joao

    2012-01-01

    Botanical species used on aging process must be wisely and judiciously chosen, and for this selection, a basic knowledge of the chemical composition of woods is warranted. Aiming to contribute to extend the knowledge of the chemical composition of several wood species useful for enological purposes, we have focused our studies on Portuguese chestnut and French, American and Portuguese oak chips. The profile of low molecular weight phenolic composition of these chips wa...

  2. Chestnut species and jasmonic acid treatment influence development and community interactions of galls produced by the Asian chestnut gall wasp, Dryocosmus kuriphilus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, William R; Rieske, Lynne K

    2011-01-01

    Jasmonic acid (JA) is a plant-signaling hormone involved in defenses against insects and pathogens as well as the regulation of nutrient partitioning. Gall wasps (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae) induce the formation of galls on their host plants, which house immature wasps and provide them with nutrition and protection. The goal of this study was to investigate the effects of JA application on gall development and defenses. Dryocosmus kuriphilus Yasumatsu (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae) galls on American chestnut, Castanea dentata (Marsh.) Borkhausen (Fagales: Fagaceae), and Chinese chestnut, C. mollissima Blume, were treated with JA or a JA- inhibitor, diethyldithiocarbamic acid (DIECA), to determine the effects of these treatments on gall characteristics and defenses. Chinese chestnut galls treated with JA had greater volume and dry weight, thicker sclerenchyma layers, and fewer external fungal lesions compared with controls. Galls from both chestnut species treated with JA contained a lower proportion of empty chambers, and elevated tannin levels compared with controls. The effects of DIECA on galls were generally opposite from those of JA. American chestnut galls treated with DIECA had lower dry weight and fewer feeding punctures caused by the lesser chestnut weevil compared with controls. Galls from both chestnut species that were treated with DIECA were smaller and had more external fungal lesions compared with controls. Compared to American chestnut galls, Chinese chestnut galls had increased parasitism rates and fewer gall wasps. This study is the first to investigate the effects of JA on an insect gall, and indicates that JA treatments benefit gall wasps by increasing gall size and defenses.

  3. 板栗苞中栲胶提取工艺的研究%Study on tannin extract from chestnut (Castanea mollissima Blume) shell

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王丽卫; 孙健; 王岩; 赵兵

    2015-01-01

    Objective To obtain the optimum extraction parameters of tannin extract from chestnut shell. Methods Based on single-factor test, uniform experimental design with 4-factor and 3-level was adopted to study the effects ofparticle size, concentration of acetone solution, solid-liquid ratio and ultrasonic power on the extraction rate of tannin extract. Using partial least squares regression analysis, the optimal extraction parameters were obtained. Component of tannin extract was also analyzed by hide powder method.Results The optimum conditions of tannin extract from chestnut shell were as follows: particle size was 100 meshes, 50% acetone solution, solid-liquid ratio was 1:18 and ultrasonic power was 400 W. Under this condition, the extraction rate of tannin extract was 31.28%, the content of tannin was 63.68%, the pH value was 3.81 and the total color value was 22.Conclusion The tannin extract from chestnut shell has reached the standard of cold-soluble valonea extraction, which illustrated the feasibility of using chestnut shell as a kind of material for tannin extract.%目的:以板栗苞为原料,研究板栗苞提取栲胶的最佳工艺。方法在粉碎粒度、丙酮溶液浓度、料液比和超声功率单因素实验基础上,以栲胶提取率为响应值,设计4因素3水平的均匀实验,通过均匀设计偏最小二乘回归建模分析,得出最优指标时各个因素组合参数,并采用铬皮粉法对最优条件下提取的栲胶进行分析。结果板栗苞中栲胶提取的最佳工艺为:粉碎粒度100目,50%丙酮溶液,料液比1:18,超声功率400 W,在此条件下,栲胶提取率为31.28%,单宁含量为63.68%, pH值为3.81,总色值为22。结论以板栗苞为原料提椀取的栲胶达到了橡栲胶冷溶合格品的指标,说明板栗苞提取栲胶的工艺可行性。

  4. Study on tannin extract from chestnut (Castanea mollissima Blume) shell%板栗苞中栲胶提取工艺的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王丽卫; 孙健; 王岩; 赵兵

    2015-01-01

    Objective To obtain the optimum extraction parameters of tannin extract from chestnut shell. Methods Based on single-factor test, uniform experimental design with 4-factor and 3-level was adopted to study the effects ofparticle size, concentration of acetone solution, solid-liquid ratio and ultrasonic power on the extraction rate of tannin extract. Using partial least squares regression analysis, the optimal extraction parameters were obtained. Component of tannin extract was also analyzed by hide powder method.Results The optimum conditions of tannin extract from chestnut shell were as follows: particle size was 100 meshes, 50% acetone solution, solid-liquid ratio was 1:18 and ultrasonic power was 400 W. Under this condition, the extraction rate of tannin extract was 31.28%, the content of tannin was 63.68%, the pH value was 3.81 and the total color value was 22.Conclusion The tannin extract from chestnut shell has reached the standard of cold-soluble valonea extraction, which illustrated the feasibility of using chestnut shell as a kind of material for tannin extract.%目的:以板栗苞为原料,研究板栗苞提取栲胶的最佳工艺。方法在粉碎粒度、丙酮溶液浓度、料液比和超声功率单因素实验基础上,以栲胶提取率为响应值,设计4因素3水平的均匀实验,通过均匀设计偏最小二乘回归建模分析,得出最优指标时各个因素组合参数,并采用铬皮粉法对最优条件下提取的栲胶进行分析。结果板栗苞中栲胶提取的最佳工艺为:粉碎粒度100目,50%丙酮溶液,料液比1:18,超声功率400 W,在此条件下,栲胶提取率为31.28%,单宁含量为63.68%, pH值为3.81,总色值为22。结论以板栗苞为原料提椀取的栲胶达到了橡栲胶冷溶合格品的指标,说明板栗苞提取栲胶的工艺可行性。

  5. Somatic Embryogenesis in Chestnut

    OpenAIRE

    CORREDOIRA, E.; Ballester, A.; Viéitez Madriñán, Francisco Javier; Viéitez Martín, Ana María

    2005-01-01

    Somatic embryogenesis is an important biotechnological tool that demonstrates significant benefits when applied to forest tree species; clonal propagation, cryostorage of valuable germoplasm and genetic transformation are among the most promising of its applications. In this chapter, the state of the art of somatic embryogenesis in chestnut (an important economical tree species of the genus Castanea) is assessed and discussed. The factors affecting the induction (type of explant, growth condi...

  6. The transfer of radiocesium from the bark to the stemflow of chestnut trees (Castanea crenata) contaminated by radionuclides from the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Yoshito; Abe, Hironobu; Mitachi, Katsuaki; Watanabe, Takayoshi; Ishii, Yasuo; Niizato, Tadafumi

    2016-09-01

    We report on the behavior of radiocesium in tree bark and its transfer into the stemflows of chestnut trees in a forest in the Fukushima Prefecture, Japan. In stems that were present at the time of the accident, the radiocesium concentration of the bark was found to be approximately 10 times that of the wood. The average (137)Cs concentration of the dissolved fraction (accident (Bq/kg) in the bark/the dissolved fraction in the stemflow (Bq/L)] was approximately 10(3). A strong positive correlation was observed between the radiocesium concentration and the electrical conductivity of the dissolved fraction of the stemflow; this result suggests that radiocesium and electrolytes have the same elution mechanism from the tree. The size fractionation analysis of the 0.45 μm) of the stemflow were strongly adsorbed radiocesium. PMID:26718985

  7. Local spread of an exotic invader: using remote sensing and spatial analysis to document proliferation of the invasive Asian chestnut gall wasp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graziosi I

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Remote sensing and spatial analysis represent useful tools for modeling species’ dispersal, characterizing the spread of invasions and the invasability of a region, and thus allowing more accurate predictions for developing mitigation strategies. American chestnut, Castanea dentata, was historically a dominant forest species in North America, but occurs only sporadically today after its functional elimination by an exotic fungal pathogen in the early 1900’s. In recent decades Castanea resources have increased due to restoration efforts, commercial chestnut plantations, and horticultural uses. This resurgence is threatened by an additional exotic species, the globally invasive Asian chestnut gall wasp, Dryocosmus kuriphilus. The gall wasp was first discovered in Lexington, Kentucky (USA in 2010. We used remotely sensed data and Geographic Information Systems to describe the local distribution of the Castanea hosts, and the occurrence and dispersal of the gall wasp. We tested the hypotheses that geomorphology, Castanea occurrence, and prevailing winds influence local proliferation. We found that gall wasp spread may be attributable to host plant distribution and to the effects of prevailing winds occurring during a brief period of adult insect emergence, and is influenced by topography. Our results suggest that weather data and topographic features can be used to delineate currently infested areas and predict future gall wasp infestations.

  8. Airborne castanea pollen forecasting model for ecological and allergological implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astray, G; Fernández-González, M; Rodríguez-Rajo, F J; López, D; Mejuto, J C

    2016-04-01

    Castanea sativa Miller belongs to the natural vegetation of many European deciduous forests prompting impacts in the forestry, ecology, allergological and chestnut food industry fields. The study of the Castanea flowering represents an important tool for evaluating the ecological conservation of North-Western Spain woodland and the possible changes in the chestnut distribution due to recent climatic change. The Castanea pollen production and dispersal capacity may cause hypersensitivity reactions in the sensitive human population due to the relationship between patients with chestnut pollen allergy and a potential cross reactivity risk with other pollens or plant foods. In addition to Castanea pollen's importance as a pollinosis agent, its study is also essential in North-Western Spain due to the economic impact of the industry around the chestnut tree cultivation and its beekeeping interest. The aim of this research is to develop an Artificial Neural Networks for predict the Castanea pollen concentration in the atmosphere of the North-West Spain area by means a 20years data set. It was detected an increasing trend of the total annual Castanea pollen concentrations in the atmosphere during the study period. The Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs) implemented in this study show a great ability to predict Castanea pollen concentration one, two and three days ahead. The model to predict the Castanea pollen concentration one day ahead shows a high linear correlation coefficient of 0.784 (individual ANN) and 0.738 (multiple ANN). The results obtained improved those obtained by the classical methodology used to predict the airborne pollen concentrations such as time series analysis or other models based on the correlation of pollen levels with meteorological variables. PMID:26802339

  9. Chestnut blight in Portugal : spread and populational structure of Cryphonectria parasitica

    OpenAIRE

    Bragança, Maria Helena Pires, 1964-

    2007-01-01

    Tese de doutoramento em Biologia (Microbiologia), apresentada à Universidade de Lisboa através da Faculdade de Ciências, 2008 Cryphonectria parasitica, the causal agent of chestnut blight, has been considered one of the most important mortality factors of the sweet chestnut Castanea sativa all over the world. To evaluate the current distribution of chestnut blight in Portugal, all chestnut growing regions across the entire country were screened, a total of 191 chestnut stands were surveyed...

  10. Diversity of Chloroplast DNA SSRs in the Wild and Cultivated Chestnuts(Castanea mollissima)%板栗野生居群与栽培品种间叶绿体微卫星遗传差异初探

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄武刚; 程丽莉; 周志军; 刘建立

    2009-01-01

    对24对epSSR通用引物进行筛选,选用4对呈现多态性的引物对板栗的4个野生居群和9个地方品种群进行遗传分析.结果表明:4个位点在128个样本中扩增等位基因数(N_a)平均为3,有效等位基因数(N_e)平均为1.635,期望杂合度(H_e)平均为0.381,各遗传参数值远低于核基因组对群体研究的相应值.4个等位基因共组合出8种单倍型,既有共享率超过57%的单倍型,也存在特异稀有单倍型,其中陕西汉中与安徽广德板栗天然野生居群,具有较高的单倍型多样性,分别为0.671和0.781,明显高于其他地区,显示两地是板栗的分布及遗传多样性中心.基于cpSSR数据,对板栗地方品种与天然野生居群间的遗传结构、关系及地方品种的起源进行初步探讨.%In this study 24 cpSSR primer pairs were screened, and four pairs were found producing DNA fragment length polymorphism from the tested populations of Castanea mollissima. In order to estimate genetic variation and genetic structure of chestnut, we surveyed four wild and nine cultivated populations in China with cpSSR markers. The results showed there were 3 average number of alleles (N), 1.635 effective number of alleles (N_e) and 0.381 expected heterozygosity ( H_e) , from 4 loci in 128 samples. Apparently, the parameters of cpSSR loci were much lower than those revealed by nuclear SSRs. The combinations of all the length variants of alleles from four cpSSR loci finally presented eight haplotypes in the nine populations of C. mollissima. The Qinling mountainous region and Tianmushan mountainous regions possessed the richest haplotype diversity (respectively 0.671 and 0.781) . Based on cpSSR data, we estimated the genetic structures of the wild and cultivated chestnut populations and discussed the origins of the cultivated C. mollissima in China.

  11. EXTRACTION AND ANALYSIS OF CONDENSED TANNINS IN CASTANEA SATIVA MILL.

    OpenAIRE

    Živković, J.; Mujić, I.; Nikolić, G.; S Vidović; A Mujić

    2010-01-01

    Proanthocyanidins, also known as condensed tannins are widespread in woody plants, but are also found in certain forages. Castanea sativa Mill. are exploited for various purposes, but a little is known about potential of this species and possible application in diet and therapy. The parts of chestnut such as: seed, peeled seed, brown seed shell, red internal seed shell, leaves, catkin, spiny bur, as well as the new and old chestnut bark were extracted with 50% ethanol as an extragents. Conten...

  12. Potential of local hypovirulent strains of Cryphonectria parasitica for biological control of chestnut blight

    OpenAIRE

    Gouveia, Eugénia; Coelho, Valentim; Monteiro, Maria do Loreto

    2010-01-01

    Cryphonectria parasitica, introduced in the NE of Portugal since 1989, is now an important and widespread pathogen of chestnut (Castanea sativa Mill.) which causes losses in chestnut fruit production and led to decline and death of many chestnut trees. Hypovirulence, a virus mediated attenuation of fungal pathogenesis, has not been frequent until now in Portugal but recently some cases of healing cankers were reported by chestnut growers. We assessed these sites and one of them, where healing...

  13. XX1 Asian chestnut gall wasp (Dryocosmus kuriphilus) (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Asian chestnut gall wasp, Dryocosmus kuriphilus, is an invasive pest of chestnut in Japan, Europe, and the United States. D. kuriphilus induces formation of galls on all chestnut species. Damage caused by galling reduces commercial chestnut yields and threatens restoration of American chestnut i...

  14. Litterfall and litter decomposition in chestnut high forest stands in northern Portugal

    OpenAIRE

    Patrício, Maria do Sameiro; Pereira, Ermelinda; Claro, Ana Marília; Fernandes, Maria José; Nunes, Luís; Monteiro, Maria do Loreto

    2010-01-01

    Sweet chestnut (Castanea sativa Mill.) is an important species in Northern Portugal as for fruit as well as for timber. Today, the role of the chestnut areas is not limited to production of fruit and timber but also to other aspects such as landscape, environmental and ecological protection, which are very important. Consequently, its sustainable management is essential in maintaining the health and vitality of the chestnut areas, therefore increasing the economical and social benefits of the...

  15. Antioxidant Potential of Polyphenols and Tannins from Burs of Castanea mollissima Blume

    OpenAIRE

    Chao Ma; Ling Ling Shi; Yu Jun Liu; Si Yu Chen; Jie Yuan Liu; Shan Zhao

    2011-01-01

    Spiny burs of Castanea mollissima Blume (Chinese chestnut) are usually discarded as industrial waste during post-harvesting processing. The objective of this study was to establish an extraction and isolation procedure for tannins from chestnut burs, and to assess their potential antioxidant activity. Aqueous ethanol solution was used as extraction solvent, and HPD 100 macroporous resin column was applied for isolation. The influence of solvent concentration in the extraction and elution proc...

  16. Interactions between chestnut gall wasp and blight: a new criticality for chestnut

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Turchetti T

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The fast spread of Chinese gall wasp (Dryocosmus kuriphilus represents a new constraint factor for chestnut stands and orchards in Italy. So far, the favourable effect of hypovirulence in Cryphonectria parasitica-Castanea sativa patho-system allowed the development of chestnut cultivation. This situation could be modified by the progressive weakening of the trees caused by intensive attacks of the new parasite. During recent surveys worrying blight damage recurrences were observed in different Italian chestnut areas (in Piemonte, Trentino and Toscana regions which were highly infested by the Chinese wasp. While biological control treatments against the parasite are carried out, it is necessary to set up integrated protocols for the management of chestnut orchards to allow the survival of trees and their productivity.

  17. Dietary effects of a mix derived from oregano (Origanum vulgare L.) essential oil and sweet chestnut (Castanea sativa Mill.) wood extract on pig performance, oxidative status and pork quality traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranucci, D; Beghelli, D; Trabalza-Marinucci, M; Branciari, R; Forte, C; Olivieri, O; Badillo Pazmay, G V; Cavallucci, C; Acuti, G

    2015-02-01

    The effects of a pre-formulated commercial plant extract mix, composed of equal parts of oregano essential oil and sweet chestnut wood extract, on performance, oxidative status and pork quality traits were evaluated. In two 155-d studies, 60 pigs (mean liveweight: 42.9 kg) were assigned to either a control diet (CTR) or an identical diet supplemented (0.2%) with the plant extract mix (OC). No differences in the growth rate were observed. Glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase activities in the OC muscles (Longissimus lumborum) were higher than in CTR muscles. The lipid oxidation of meat was lower in the OC group. In the cooked meat samples, OC animals had the lowest L* and H° values and the highest a* values. The OC meat received higher scores for colour, taste and overall liking in both the blind and the labelled consumer tests.

  18. 中国板栗生长状况对柱头形态的影响%Effect of Different Growth State on Stigmatic Morphology in the Chinese Chestnut(Castanea mollissima Blume)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石卓功; 夏立

    2008-01-01

    通过扫描电子显微镜观察研究中国板栗柱头形态.板栗为典型的针状形柱头,在其顶端有一个很小的开孔,直径约为50μm.在云南4月底到5月初柱头的先端可见有分泌物溢出,一个星期后分泌物迅速增加,并可把整个开孔全部覆盖."生长健壮树"的柱头开孔要比"生长衰弱树"的大,后者柱头开也又比"空苞树"大.而且,"生长健壮树"的柱头分泌物最多,其次是"生长衰弱树","空苞树"的柱头分泌物最少.%The stigmatic morphology of Chinese chestnut was studied by using scanning electron microscopy.The stigma of Chinese chestnut is typically needle-shaped with,and there is a small aperture of around 50 μm in diameter on its top.At the end of April and early in May secretion was spilt over on top of the stigma in Yunnan Province.One week later secretion increased quickly and covered completely the aperture of the stigma.At the same time aperture of stigma of the tree"robust growth state"was bigger than that of the tree"weak growth state",the latter bigger than"the empty cupulae tree".Likwise,quantity of secretion of the specimen"robust growth state"was much more than that of the specimen"weak growth state"and"the empty eupulae tree".

  19. Assessing phytophtora zoospore a to enhance disease management and promote ecological surveillance of chestnut ink disease

    OpenAIRE

    Gouveia, Eugénia; Nunes, Luís

    2014-01-01

    Phytophthora cinnamomi and P. cambivora are soil borne oomycetes that cause Chestnut Ink Disease, a lethal and widespread disease of the European chestnut (Castanea sativa Mill.). Soil moisture is a key factor for the onset of Phytophthora root rot epidemics. Zoospores are the main infective propagules that reach the roots by swimming in liquid environments, become encysted and after that infect the host. Considering this biological uniqueness, we studied zoospore release an...

  20. Comparison of dynamic changes in endogenous hormones and sugars between abnormal and normal Castanea mollissima

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tao Liu; Yunqian Hu; Xiaoxian Li

    2008-01-01

    To elucidate the possible functions of endogenous hormones in the flowering of chestnut, concentrations of four endogenous hormones [indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), gibberellic acid (GA), abscisic acid (ABA), zeatin riboside (ZR)) and the soluble sugars content were measured in both normal and developmentally abnormal Chinese chestnut (Castanea mollissima) during flowering and fruiting stages. Our results showed that the contents of ZR, ABA, and GA exhibited a significant different pattern in normal trees from that in abnormal trees, while the contents of IAA and soluble sugars showed a similar change pattern between them. These results suggest that quantitative changes in endogenous hormones may correspond to different flowering and fruiting mechanisms.

  1. EXTRACTION AND ANALYSIS OF CONDENSED TANNINS IN CASTANEA SATIVA MILL.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Živković

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Proanthocyanidins, also known as condensed tannins are widespread in woody plants, but are also found in certain forages. Castanea sativa Mill. are exploited for various purposes, but a little is known about potential of this species and possible application in diet and therapy. The parts of chestnut such as: seed, peeled seed, brown seed shell, red internal seed shell, leaves, catkin, spiny bur, as well as the new and old chestnut bark were extracted with 50% ethanol as an extragents. Contents of total phenolics and total flavonoids were measured by application of the standard colorimetric assay. The total condensed tannins content estimated was highest in red internal seed shell 15.29%CE (vanillin assay and 3.12%CT (acid butanol assay. Also high content of total phenolic compounds and condensed tannins had extracts of catkin, brown seed shell of chestnut and new chestnut bark. Extracts of C. sativa Mill. can be a potential resource of natural tannins with possible application in diet and therapy.

  2. Amino Acids Content in Germinating Seeds and Seedlings from Castanea sativa L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desmaison, A M; Tixier, M

    1986-06-01

    During germination the chestnut (Castanea sativa L.) var ecotype 33 accumulates a large amount of asparagine in the cotyledons. This compound also accumulates in the growing axis:shoots and roots. In the cotyledons, gamma-aminobutyrate (GABA) represents a major amino compound during germination and early seedling growth. In young seedlings, 35 days old, arginine predominates over the other soluble amino acids, particularly in roots. Five enzymic activities involved in arginine and GABA have been measured in the storage organ of the seed: arginase and ornithine carbamyltransferase decrease during germination indicating the slowing down of the urea cycle. In contrast, ornithine aminotransferase increases. Glutamate decarboxylase is particularly active about 21 days after imbibition and GABA aminotransferase activity decreases during germination. These two activities are in good agreement with the likely transport of GABA from cotyledons to growing axis. Asparagine, arginine, and GABA are the three amino compounds obviously involved in the mobilization of nitrogen reserves in the germinating chestnut seeds Castanea sativa.

  3. Assessment of weather risk on chestnut production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, M. G.; Gomes-Laranjo, J.; Caramelo, L.

    2009-04-01

    to March) precipitation, the number of days with maximum temperature between 24°C and 28°C and the number of days of May with minimum temperature below 0°C is able to model the chestnut productivity with r2 equal to 0.79. It should be pointed out that the relation between weather/climate and chestnut productivity may change over time. Finally, it is important to express objectively the effects of temperature and precipitation extremes on the chestnut productivity since temperature is one of the global circulation models predicted variables with less uncertainty. With these tools will be possible to assess the weather related risk on chestnut production as well as infer about evolution of the adequate conditions to the chestnut trees in the actual plantations and about the expansion of this specie. Bounous, G. (2002) "Il castagno" [Chestnut.] - Edagricole, Bologna. [In Ital.] Gomes-Laranjo, J., Coutinho, J.P., Ferreira-Cardoso, J., Pimentel-Pereira, M., Ramos, C., Torres-Pereira, J.(2005) "Assessment to a new concept of chestnut orchard management in vegetative wall.". Acta Hort. 693: 707-712. Gomes-Laranjo, J.C.E., Peixoto, F., Wong Fong Sang, H.W., Torres-Pereira, J.M.G.(2006) "Study of the temperature effect in three chestnut (Castanea sativa Mill.) cultivars' behavior". J. Plant Physiol. 163: 945-955.

  4. Survey and geographic distribution of chestnut blight in Portugal Prospecção e distribuição geográfica do cancro do castanheiro em Portugal

    OpenAIRE

    Helena Bragança; Sofia Simões; Miguel Capelo; José Marcelino; Natércia Santos

    2008-01-01

    Cryphonectria parasitica, the fungus that causes chestnut blight disease, was first described in Portugal (1929) on bark samples of Castanea crenata, collected in Beira Interior province. After this report, only in 1989 two disease foci were found on native European chestnut, C. sativa, in Trás-os-Montes e Alto Douro Province. To assess the current distribution of chestnut blight in Portugal (mainland, Azores and Madeira) a nationwide monitoring program was implemented. A major cooperative ef...

  5. Variations in Disease Resistance of Chestnut Cultivars against Chestnut Blight Fungus, Cryphonectria parasitica

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LEE Sanghyun; KIM Kyunghee; PIAO Chungen; MOON Byungju

    2006-01-01

    Chestnut blight caused by Cryphonectria parasitica is one of the major chestnut diseases occurred on stems and branches. Oriental chestnut has more resistance than American one. Twenty-five cultivars of chestnut tree including various cultivars such as Tsukuba, Okkwang, Rihei, Ginyose, Eunsan, etc. Were tested with a rapid, simple and reliable method. The cultivar Banseki is one of the most resistant cultivars tested and has the necrotic area of 0.40 cm2. However, the necrotic areas of the cultivars of American chestnut, Eunsan, Kwangjujoyul and Eaton, ranges from 3.35 to 2.61 cm2 and these cultivars are relatively susceptible to this pathogen. Many pycnidia of this pathogen were observed on the inner and outer bark tissues after incubating for 3 weeks.

  6. Purification of castamollin, a novel antifungal protein from Chinese chestnuts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, H X; Ng, T B

    2003-11-01

    A novel antifungal protein, designated castamollin, was isolated from Chinese chestnut (Castanea mollisima) seeds with a procedure involving ion exchange chromatography on DEAE-cellulose, affinity chromatography on Affi-gel blue gel, ion exchange chromatography on CM-Sepharose and FPLC-gel filtration on Superdex 75. Castamollin possessed a novel N-terminal sequence demonstrating little similarity to N-terminal sequences of Castanea sativa chitinase. Castamollin exhibited a molecular mass of 37kDa in gel filtration and SDS-PAGE. It inhibited the activity of human immunodeficiency virus-1 reverse transcriptase with an IC(50) of 7microM and translation in a cell-free rabbit reticulocyte lysate system with an IC(50) of 2.7microM. Castamollin displayed antifungal activity against Botrytis cinerea, Mycosphaerella arachidicola, Physalospora piricola, and Coprinus comatus but was devoid of lectin activity.

  7. Assessing the effects of gamma irradiation and storage time in energetic value and in major individual nutrients of chestnuts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Angela; Barreira, João C M; Antonio, Amilcar L; Bento, Albino; Luisa Botelho, M; Ferreira, Isabel C F R

    2011-09-01

    Chestnut (Castanea sativa Miller) is an important food resource all over the world. In the present study, it is intended to evaluate if the application of gamma irradiation doses ≤ 3 kGy maintain chestnuts chemical and nutritional profiles unaffected. Furthermore, possible interactions among irradiation dose and storage time were accessed using linear discriminate analysis (LDA). The nutritional composition was evaluated through determination of proteins, fat, ash, carbohydrates and energetic value. The chemical composition was focused in the main nutrients found in chestnuts: sugars - sucrose, fatty acids - palmitic, oleic, linoleic and linolenic acids, tocopherols - γ-tocopherol. The obtained results seem to indicate that the irradiation treatment did not affect the nutritional and chemical quality of chestnut fruits. Otherwise, storage time exerted more evident influence in those parameters. The application of gamma irradiation emerges as a promising technology for chestnuts chemical quality, but food safety issues have to be evaluated in order to recommend its application as a useful conservation alternative.

  8. Interaction between two invasive organisms on the European chestnut: does the chestnut blight fungus benefit from the presence of the gall wasp?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Joana B; Gallien, Laure; Prospero, Simone

    2015-11-01

    The impact of invasive fungal pathogens and pests on trees is often studied individually, thereby omitting possible interactions. In this study the ecological interaction between the chestnut blight fungus Cryphonectria parasitica and the chestnut gall wasp Dryocosmus kuriphilus was investigated. We determined if abandoned galls could be colonized by C. parasitica and thereby act as an entry point and a source of pathogen inoculum. Moreover we assessed the identity and diversity of other gall-colonizing fungal species. A total of 1973 galls were randomly sampled from 200 chestnut trees in eight Swiss stands. In a stand C. parasitica was isolated from 0.4-19.2% of the galls. The incidence of C. parasitica on the galls and the fungal diversity significantly increased with the residence time of D. kuriphilus in a stand. All but one C. parasitica cultures were virulent. The predominant fungus isolated from galls was Gnomoniopsis castanea whose abundance influenced negatively that of C. parasitica. This study shows that D. kuriphilus galls can be colonized by virulent strains of the chestnut blight fungus C. parasitica. This can have effects on the chestnut blight incidence even in chestnut stands where the disease is successfully controlled by hypovirulence. The gall wasp presence influences also the fungal species composition on chestnut trees.

  9. Incidence and diversity of the fungal genera Aspergillus and Penicillium in Portuguese almonds and chestnuts

    OpenAIRE

    Rodrigues, Paula; Venâncio, Armando; Lima, Nelson

    2013-01-01

    Almonds (Prunus dulcis (Miller) D.A. Webb) and European (sweet) chestnuts (Castanea sativa Miller) are of great economic and social impact in Mediterranean countries, and in some areas they constitute the main income of rural populations. Despite all efforts to control fungal contamination, toxigenic fungi are ubiquitous in nature and occur regularly in worldwide food supplies, and these nuts are no exception. This work aimed to provide knowledge on the general mycobiota of Portuguese almonds...

  10. Cotyledon storage proteins as markers of the genetic diversity in Castanea sativa Miller.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, J B; Muñoz-Diez, C; Martín-Cuevas, A; Lopez, S; Martín, L M

    2003-08-01

    This study has been to analyse the useful nut globulin proteins as a marker of the genetic diversity in Castanea sativa. The evaluated populations were highly polymorphic for the globulins, being detected up to 35 polymorphic bands with a wide distribution among all the evaluated populations. Taken together for populations from all the chestnut regions, about 39.3% of total allelic variation was distributed among the populations. The estimates of genetic similarity between populations were clearly associated with the collecting site. This method of analysis of the nut storage proteins (globulins) could be a useful tool for the evaluation of genetic diversity in this and other species of the Fagaceae.

  11. Multiple shoot-bud formation and plantlet regeneration on Castanea sativa Mill. seeds in culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, R

    1982-06-01

    Primordial initiation and development of shoot-buds has been accomplished by using shoots derived from chestnut (Castanea sativa Mill) seedlings cultured with added 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP). Germination of chestnut seeds in the presence of BAP (4 - 40 μM) stimulated varying numbers of shoot-buds in those areas of the main axis that were favorably altered. When excised single shoots from these treated seeds were subcultured on a fresh medium containing BAP (4 - 40 μM) continual shoot production was observed. Bud growth and shoot elongation were stimulated by transferring cultures to a reduced concentration of BAP (2 μM) plus indole-3-butyric acid (IBA 0.4 μM). Plant regeneration occurred in the presence of IBA (0.8 μM) after a preconditioning treatment in which naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA 50 μM) and kinetin (k 2 μM) were applied to the tissue culture shoots for 7 days in light.

  12. Biotic and abiotic stress can induce cystatin expression in chestnut.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pernas, M; Sánchez-Monge, R; Salcedo, G

    2000-02-11

    A cysteine proteinase inhibitor (cystatin) from chestnut (Castanea sativa) seeds, designated CsC, has been previously characterized. Its antifungal, acaricide and inhibitory activities have allowed to involve CsC in defence mechanisms. The CsC transcription levels decreased during seed maturation and increased throughout germination, an opposite behavior to that shown by most phytocystatins. No inhibition of endogenous proteinase activity by purified CsC was found during the seed maturation or germination processes. CsC message accumulation was induced in chestnut leaves after fungal infection, as well as by wounding and jasmonic acid treatment. Induction in roots was also observed by the last two treatments. Furthermore, CsC transcript levels strongly raised, both in roots and leaves, when chestnut plantlets were subjected to cold- and saline-shocks, and also in roots by heat stress. All together, these data suggest that chestnut cystatin is not only involved in defence responses to pests and pathogen invasion, but also in those related to abiotic stress.

  13. Brown rot on nuts of Castanea sativa Mill: an emerging disease and its causal agent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maresi G

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The quality and quantity of nut production are fundamental to the economic viability of chestnut cultivation, yet recent reports indicate that severe damage due to moulds represents a significant problem for growers. We carried out an investigation of the agents of chestnut rot and internal fruit damage in three orchards in Italy. Black and brown rot, as well as insect damage, were found in all the areas examined. Brown rot appeared to be the main cause of damage, affecting 8% to 49% and 2% to 24% of nuts collected from the ground and from burrs, respectively. With respect to morphology and DNA sequencing analyses, fungal isolates obtained from brown rot were homologous with Gnomoniopsis sp. obtained from Dryocosmus kuriphilus (Yasumatsu galls and with Gnomoniopsis castanea and Gnomoniopsis smithogilvyi described on chestnut in Italy and Australia, respectively. The same fungus was also isolated from the bark of one- and two-years-old healthy shoots at each site, supporting the endophytic behaviour of this rot agent. Brown rot symptoms on nuts associated with Gnomoniopsis sp. corresponded with those previously described by several authors and referred to as Phoma or Phomopsis endogena, suggesting a relationship between these fungi and Gnomoniopsis sp. It is to notice that the escalation of brown rot damage in Italy followed several periods of drought and probably the recent invasion of D. kuriphilus, both stress factors for chestnut trees.

  14. Host Preference and Performance of the Yellow Peach Moth (Conogethes punctiferalis) on Chestnut Cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Yanli; Zhang, Jiaxin; Yan, Zengguang; Ma, Yongqiang; Yang, Mengmeng; Zhang, Minzhao; Zhang, Zhiyong; Qin, Ling; Cao, Qingqin

    2016-01-01

    Suitability of plant tissues as food for insects varies from plant to plant. In lepidopteran insects, fitness is largely dependent on the host-finding ability of the females. Existing studies have suggested that polyphagous lepidopterans preferentially select certain host plant species for oviposition. However, the mechanisms for host recognition and selection have not been fully elucidated. For the polyphagous yellow peach moth Conogethes punctiferalis, we explored the effect of chestnut cultivar on the performance and fitness and addressed the mechanisms of plant-volatile-mediated host recognition. By carrying out laboratory experiments and field investigation on four chestnut Castanea mollissima cultivars (Huaihuang, Huaijiu, Yanhong, and Shisheng), we found that C. punctiferalis females preferentially select Huaijiu for oviposition and infestation, and caterpillars fed on Huaijiu achieved slightly greater fitness than those fed on the other three chestnut cultivars, indicating that Huaijiu was a better suitable host for C. punctiferalis. Plant volatiles played important roles in host recognition by C. punctiferalis. All seven chestnut volatile compounds, α-pinene, camphene, β-thujene, β-pinene, eucalyptol, 3-carene, and nonanal, could trigger EAG responses in C. punctiferalis. The ubiquitous plant terpenoids, α-pinene, camphene and β-pinene, and their specific combination at concentrations and proportions similar to the emissions from the four chestnut cultivars, was sufficient to elicit host recognition behavior of female C. punctiferalis. Nonanal and a mixture containing nonanal, that mimicked the emission of C. punctiferalis infested chestnut fruits, caused avoidance response. The outcome demonstrates the effects of chestnut cultivars on the performance of C. punctiferalis and reveals the preference-performance relationship between C. punctiferalis adults and their offspring. The observed olfactory plasticity in the plant-volatile-mediated host

  15. Host Preference and Performance of the Yellow Peach Moth (Conogethes punctiferalis on Chestnut Cultivars.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanli Du

    Full Text Available Suitability of plant tissues as food for insects varies from plant to plant. In lepidopteran insects, fitness is largely dependent on the host-finding ability of the females. Existing studies have suggested that polyphagous lepidopterans preferentially select certain host plant species for oviposition. However, the mechanisms for host recognition and selection have not been fully elucidated. For the polyphagous yellow peach moth Conogethes punctiferalis, we explored the effect of chestnut cultivar on the performance and fitness and addressed the mechanisms of plant-volatile-mediated host recognition. By carrying out laboratory experiments and field investigation on four chestnut Castanea mollissima cultivars (Huaihuang, Huaijiu, Yanhong, and Shisheng, we found that C. punctiferalis females preferentially select Huaijiu for oviposition and infestation, and caterpillars fed on Huaijiu achieved slightly greater fitness than those fed on the other three chestnut cultivars, indicating that Huaijiu was a better suitable host for C. punctiferalis. Plant volatiles played important roles in host recognition by C. punctiferalis. All seven chestnut volatile compounds, α-pinene, camphene, β-thujene, β-pinene, eucalyptol, 3-carene, and nonanal, could trigger EAG responses in C. punctiferalis. The ubiquitous plant terpenoids, α-pinene, camphene and β-pinene, and their specific combination at concentrations and proportions similar to the emissions from the four chestnut cultivars, was sufficient to elicit host recognition behavior of female C. punctiferalis. Nonanal and a mixture containing nonanal, that mimicked the emission of C. punctiferalis infested chestnut fruits, caused avoidance response. The outcome demonstrates the effects of chestnut cultivars on the performance of C. punctiferalis and reveals the preference-performance relationship between C. punctiferalis adults and their offspring. The observed olfactory plasticity in the plant

  16. Chemometric characterization of gamma irradiated chestnuts from Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barreira, João C. M.; Antonio, Amilcar L.; Günaydi, Tugba; Alkan, Hasan; Bento, Albino; Luisa Botelho, M.; Ferreira, Isabel C. F. R.

    2012-09-01

    Chestnut (Castanea sativa Miller) is a valuable natural resource, with high exportation levels. Due to their water content, chestnuts are susceptible to storage problems like dehydration or development of insects and microorganisms. Irradiation has been revealing interesting features to be considered as an alternative conservation technology, increasing food products shelf-life. Any conservation methodology should have a wide application range. Hence, and after evaluating Portuguese cultivars, the assessment of irradiation effects in foreign cultivars might act as an important indicator of the versatility of this technology. In this work, the effects of gamma irradiation (0.0, 0.5 and 3.0 kGy) on proximate composition, sugars, fatty acids (FA) and tocopherols composition of Turkish chestnuts stored at 4 °C for different periods (0, 15 and 30 days) were evaluated. Regarding proximate composition, the storage time (ST) had higher influence than the irradiation dose (ID), especially on fat, ash, carbohydrates and energetic value. Sucrose exhibited similar behavior in response to the assayed ST and ID. The prevalence of ST influence was also verified for FA, tocopherols and sucrose. Lauric, palmitoleic and linolenic acids were the only FA that underwent some differences with ID. Saturated, monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids levels were not affected either by storage or irradiation. α-Tocopherol was the only vitamer with significant differences among the assayed ST and ID. Overall, Turkish cultivars showed a compositional profile closely related with Portuguese cultivars, and seemed to confirm that gamma irradiation in the applied doses did not change chestnut chemical and nutritional composition.

  17. Revisiting the Resilience of Chestnut Forests in Corsica: from Social-Ecological Systems Theory to Political Ecology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Genevieve Michon

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The "chestnut civilization" is often used to qualify agrarian inland Corsica. Based on a critical review of historical sources and research on present dynamics, we show how this "civilization" has built up on a long series of resistance and adaptation to external political forces, from Genovese and French domination up to the present period of independence claims. The construction of the castagnetu, the Corsican chestnut (Castanea sativa mill. forest, as a social-ecological system is based on a constantly evolving compromise between wild and domestic attributes, but also on socio-political resistance, incorporation, and innovation. We argue that the castagnetu's resilience, beyond its social-ecological qualities and its economic profitability, is closely linked to a constant incorporation of identity and cultural values into chestnut trees and gardens, but also to the role assigned to the castagnetu by its supporters in the political positioning of their relations to both central power and outside actors.

  18. Spectroscopy analysis of phenolic and sugar patterns in a food grade chestnut tannin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricci, A; Lagel, M-C; Parpinello, G P; Pizzi, A; Kilmartin, P A; Versari, A

    2016-07-15

    Tannin of chestnut (Castanea sativa Mill.) wood, commonly used in winemaking was characterised with a spectroscopy qualitative approach that revealed its phenolic composition: several vibrational diagnostic bands assigned using the Attenuated Total Reflectance-Infrared Spectroscopy, and fragmentation patterns obtained using the Laser-Desorption-Ionization Time-of-Flight technique evidenced polygalloylglucose, e.g. castalagin/vescalagin-like structures as the most representative molecules, together with sugar moieties. The implication of these findings on winemaking application and the potential influence of the chemical structure on the sensory properties of wine are discussed. PMID:26948634

  19. Phylogenetic analysis of the mtDNA COI gene suggests cryptic Dryocosmus kuriphilus associated with certain populations of Chinese chestnuts (Castanea spp.)%基于mtDNA COI基因的系统分析表明栗属植物上隐藏瘿蜂种的存在

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆鹏飞; 朱道弘; 杨筱慧; LIUZhi-Wei

    2012-01-01

    本研究利用mtDNA CO I基因的部分序列对11种群不同寄主的栗瘿蜂Dryocosmus kuriphilus Yasumatsu 遗传多态性进行了分析.在获得的660 bp的序列中,变异位点(v)80个,包括简约信息位点(Pi) 15个和自裔位点(Si) 65个.T、A、C、G平均含量分别为30.6%、43.3%、13.7%和12.4%,A+T平均值为73.9%,远高于G+C的26.1%,表现出明显的A+T偏向性.为害锥栗的六步溪、大围山种群与茅栗、板栗的不同地理种群,以及为害欧洲栗的意大利Piedmont种群之间,基因序列完全一致或者遗传距离在0.3%以内,无论是NJ系统树还是UPGMA系统树均聚合在同一分支内,亲缘关系较近.而为害锥栗的采自福建省建瓯市水源镇的水源种群、福建省周宁县纯池镇的纯池种群,与其它各栗瘿蜂种群的基因序列差异较大,遗传距离均大于2%,在NJ和UPGMA系统树中水源种群和纯池种群均聚合为一单独的分支,与其它种群形成的分支互为姊妹分支.据此我们认为水源种群和纯池种群很有可能属于不同的物种,有进一步研究的必要.%The phylogenetic relationships between 11 populations of Dryocosmus kuriphilus Yasumatsu attacking different Castanea species from different areas was analyzed based on partial CO I gene sequences. The results revealed a total of 80 variable sites in the resultant 660 bp DNA fragment, including 15 parsimony - informative sites and 65 singletons. The average content of T, A, C and G was 30.6%, 43.3%, 13.7% and 12.4 % , respectively. The average content of A + T (73. 9 % ) was much higher than that of G + C (26. 1 % ) , displaying a distinct A + T bias. Overall, the sequenced CO I gene region showed very limited variation among 8 populations on C. mollissima, C. seguinii or C. henryi hosts from China, and one population on C. sativa hosts from Italy, with between population genetic distances of less than 0. 3 %. Phylogenetic reconstruction using Neighbor - joining and

  20. Thyreophagus corticalis as a vector of hypovirulence in Cryphonectria parasitica in chestnut stands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simoni, Sauro; Nannelli, Roberto; Roversi, Pio Federico; Turchetti, Tullio; Bouneb, Mabrouk

    2014-03-01

    The natural spread of hypovirulence in Cryphonectria parasitica (Murr.) Barr. occurs in chestnut (Castanea sativa Mill) stands and orchards in Italy and other European countries, leading to spontaneous recovery of the diseased trees. Little is known about how hypovirulence spreads in chestnut stands but various corticolous mite species frequently detected on chestnut cankers could be one of the many factors playing a role in the spread. Artificial virulent cankers created in inoculation field tests and treated with Thyreophagus corticalis (Acari, Sarcoptiformes, Acaridae) raised on hypovirulent cultures showed similar growth to those treated with mycelia of the hypovirulent strain over 18 months of inoculation. Cultures re-isolated from virulent cankers treated with mites were found to contain hypovirus like those derived from pairings of virulent and hypovirulent strains. Viral dsRNA could be carried externally and/or ingested by mites from the hypovirulent mycelia and then transmitted to the mycelia of virulent strains, causing their conversion. In a laboratory study, all fecal pellets collected from mites reared on hypovirulent and virulent strains grown on semi-selective media gave rise to colonies of C. parasitica with similar morphological characters and virulence to the original cultures. Field inoculation of stump sprouts with the resulting colonies revealed that mite digestive tract passage did not alter the virulence of the studied strains. These results are of interest for the biological control of chestnut blight. PMID:24114335

  1. Thyreophagus corticalis as a vector of hypovirulence in Cryphonectria parasitica in chestnut stands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simoni, Sauro; Nannelli, Roberto; Roversi, Pio Federico; Turchetti, Tullio; Bouneb, Mabrouk

    2014-03-01

    The natural spread of hypovirulence in Cryphonectria parasitica (Murr.) Barr. occurs in chestnut (Castanea sativa Mill) stands and orchards in Italy and other European countries, leading to spontaneous recovery of the diseased trees. Little is known about how hypovirulence spreads in chestnut stands but various corticolous mite species frequently detected on chestnut cankers could be one of the many factors playing a role in the spread. Artificial virulent cankers created in inoculation field tests and treated with Thyreophagus corticalis (Acari, Sarcoptiformes, Acaridae) raised on hypovirulent cultures showed similar growth to those treated with mycelia of the hypovirulent strain over 18 months of inoculation. Cultures re-isolated from virulent cankers treated with mites were found to contain hypovirus like those derived from pairings of virulent and hypovirulent strains. Viral dsRNA could be carried externally and/or ingested by mites from the hypovirulent mycelia and then transmitted to the mycelia of virulent strains, causing their conversion. In a laboratory study, all fecal pellets collected from mites reared on hypovirulent and virulent strains grown on semi-selective media gave rise to colonies of C. parasitica with similar morphological characters and virulence to the original cultures. Field inoculation of stump sprouts with the resulting colonies revealed that mite digestive tract passage did not alter the virulence of the studied strains. These results are of interest for the biological control of chestnut blight.

  2. Allergens from birch pollen and pollen of the European chestnut share common epitopes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirschwehr, R; Jäger, S; Horak, F; Ferreira, F; Valenta, R; Ebner, C; Kraft, D; Scheiner, O

    1993-09-01

    Type I allergy to pollen of the European chestnut (Castanea sativa) represents a major cause of pollinosis in (sub) Mediterranean areas. Using sera from 14 patients with established allergy to pollen of the European chestnut, 13/14 sera (92%) showed IgE-binding to a 22 kD protein, 2/14 (14%) displayed additional binding to a 14 kD protein and 1/14 (7%) bound only to the 14 kD protein of European chestnut pollen extract. Two monoclonal mouse antibodies, BIP 1 and BIP 4, directed against different epitopes of Bet v I (the major birch pollen allergen), and a rabbit antibody to recombinant birch profilin (rBet v II) were used to characterize the proteins of the European chestnut pollen. The recombinant birch pollen allergens, rBet v I and rBet v II (profilin) were employed to show common allergenic structures on proteins from both birch and European chestnut pollen by IgE-inhibition experiments. Despite the fact that the 22 kD protein displayed a higher molecular weight in comparison to the 17 kD major birch pollen allergen, Bet v I, we could demonstrate reactivity of both monoclonal antibodies, BIP 1 and BIP 4, with this protein. A complete inhibiton of IgE-binding to this 22 kD protein was shown by pre-incubating sera with purified recombinant Bet v I. In addition, the 14 kD protein could be identified by IgE-inhibition studies with recombinant Bet v II and by using a rabbit anti-profilin antibody as the profilin from pollen of the European chestnut.

  3. Survival and growth of chestnut backcross seeds and seedlings on surface mines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skousen, J; Cook, T; Wilson-Kokes, L; Pena-Yewtukhiw, E

    2013-01-01

    Some scientists consider the loss of the American chestnut from forests in the eastern United States as one of the greatest forest ecological disasters in the 20th century. The American Chestnut Foundation has been attempting to restore chestnut by backcrossing blight-resistant Chinese chestnut to American chestnut and selecting those strains with blight resistance. Third-generation backcross seeds and seedlings have been produced and planted by researchers. Surface-mined lands provide a land base where these backcross chestnut seedlings may be introduced back into forests. In 2008, seeds of two parent species of chestnut (100% American and 100% Chinese) and three breeding generations (BF, BF, and BF backcrosses) were planted into loosely graded mine soils with and without tree shelters. First-year establishment from seeds averaged 81%. After the fourth year, survival without shelters declined for all chestnut stock types except for Chinese (80%): American 40%, BF 70%, BF 40%, and BF 55%. Survival with shelters was only slightly better after the fourth year (average, 60% with shelters and 57% without). Height growth was not different among stock types, and average height after the fourth year was 43 cm without shelters and 56 cm with shelters. In 2009, seeds and seedlings of the same chestnut stock types were planted into brown (pH 4.5) or gray (pH 6.6) mine soils. Only six out of 250 seeds germinated, which was very poor considering 81% average seed germination in 2008. Transplanted chestnut seedling survival was much better. After the third year, seedling survival was 85% in brown and 80% in gray soil, but significant differences were found with stock types. Survival was significantly higher with American, Chinese, and BF stock types (75%) than with BF and BF (60%). Height after the third season averaged 90 cm on brown and 62 cm on gray soil. Chestnut backcrosses displayed no hybrid vigor and were not better in survival and growth than the parent stock. All five

  4. A chestnut seed cystatin differentially effective against cysteine proteinases from closely related pests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pernas, M; Sánchez-Monge, R; Gómez, L; Salcedo, G

    1998-12-01

    Cystatin CsC, a cysteine proteinase inhibitor from chestnut (Castanea sativa) seeds, has been purified and characterized. Its full-length cDNA clone was isolated from an immature chestnut cotyledon library. The inhibitor was expressed in Escherichia coli and purified from bacterial extracts. Identity of both seed and recombinant cystatin was confirmed by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry analysis, two-dimensional electrophoresis and N-terminal sequencing. CsC has a molecular mass of 11,275 Da and pI of 6.9. Its amino acid sequence includes all three motifs that are thought to be essential for inhibitory activity, and shows significant identity to other phytocystatins, especially that of cowpea (70%). Recombinant CsC inhibited papain (Ki 29 nM), ficin (Ki 65 nM), chymopapain (Ki 366 nM), and cathepsin B (Ki 473 nM). By contrast with most cystatins, it was also effective towards trypsin (Ki 3489 nM). CsC is active against digestive proteinases from the insect Tribolium castaneum and the mite Dermatophagoides farinae, two important agricultural pests. Its effects on the cysteine proteinase activity of two closely related mite species revealed the high specificity of the chestnut cystatin.

  5. Determination of timber assortments obtainable from coppice chestnut stands (Susa Valley, Northern Italy

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    Nosenzo A

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Chestnut (Castanea sativa L. coppice stands currently cover about 195.000 ha of Piedmont (North-Western Italy surface, corresponding to 22.4 % of the overall forested area in the region. Most of these forest stands are usually older than the typical rotation period. As a consequence from these stands timber assortments with a higher value could be obtained. The purpose of this study is to assess the amount of timber assortments and to propose a sorting methodology based on measurements on standing trees within these chestnut stands.Five study areas were selected in the Susa Valley, where forest measurements were realized within sampling plots. Timber assortments obtainable from each coppice shoot were then determined by means of the Bitterlich’s relascope. More than 1.000 timber logs were measured. The data elaboration allowed to assess the timber assortment production of the investigated stands. The proposed methodology makes it possible to better exploit timber assortments. In fact, while usually the whole production from chestnut coppices is directly destined to secondary products, the subdivision into assortments could result in a 20 % of products with higher commercial value. It is important to notice that within these stands no tending operation is currently realized. The definition of qualitative features to classify timber assortments can provide useful suggestions on the main yield targets that could be reached through silvicultural management.

  6. Subpopulation genetic structure of a plant panmictic population of Castanea sequinii as revealed by microsatellite markers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Ying; KANG Ming; HUANG Hongwen

    2007-01-01

    Castanea squinii Dode,an endemic tree widely distributed in China,plays an important role both in chestnut breeding and forest ecosystem function.The spatial genetic structure within and among populations is an important part of the evolutionary and ecological genetic dynamics of natural populations,and can provide insights into effective conservation of genetic resources.In the present study,the spatial genetic structure of a panmictic natural population of C.sequinii in the Dabie Mountain region was investigated using microsatellite markers.Nine prescreened microsatellite loci generated 29-33 alleles each,and were used for spatial autocorrelation analysis.Based on Moran's I coefficient,a panmictic population of C.sequinii in the Dabie Mountain region was found to be lacking a spatial genetic structure.These results suggest that a high pollen-mediated gene flow among subpopulations counteract genetic drift and/or genetic differentiation and plays an important role in maintaining a random and panmictic population structure in C.sequinii populations.Further,a spatial genetic structure was detected in each subpopulation's scale (0.228 km),with all three subpopulations showing significant fine-scale structure.The genetic variation was found to be nonrandomly distributed within 61 m in each subpopulation (Moran's I positive values).Although Moran's I values varied among the different subpopulations,Moran's I in all the three subpopulations reached the expected values with an increase in distances,suggesting a generally patchy distribution in the subpopulations.The fine-scale structure seems to reflect restricted seed dispersal and microenvironment selection in C.sequinii.These results have important implications for understanding the evolutionary history and ecological process of the natural population of C.sequinii and provide baseline data for formulating a conservation strategy of Castanea species.

  7. Chestnut (Castanea sativa Mill.) Fruit Composition & Quality - Effects of Industrial Processing on Nutrients & Secondary Metabolites

    OpenAIRE

    Vasconcelos, Maria do Carmo Barbosa Mendes de

    2010-01-01

    Tese de Doutoramento em Ciências Agrárias e Florestais O castanheiro é cultivado um pouco por toda a Europa do Sul (principalmente Itália, Portugal, França e Espanha), Turquia, América do Norte, América do Sul (Chile e Bolívia), Ásia(China, Japão e Coreia), Austrália e Nova Zelândia, onde os seus frutos são consumidos em larga escala. Face ao seu conteúdo em amido, açúcares livres, fibra, proteínas, lípidos, vitaminas e sais minerais, bem como em outros compostos biologicamente activ...

  8. 春施氮磷钾肥对栗树及栗瘿蜂的影响%Effects of Applying NPK Fertilizer on Castanea spp.and Dryocosmus kuriphilus in Spring

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方贵儒

    2015-01-01

    为探讨氮、磷、钾肥不同配比、不同施用量对栗树及栗瘿蜂的影响,在宽甸县大西岔镇进行了栗树施肥试验,结果表明:春施氮、磷、钾肥虽能增强树势、提高产量,但使栗瘿蜂数量上升,且施肥效益不高。对密度为4 m×5 m,树龄为15~20 a 的实生栗树而言,有栗瘿蜂的栗园不易氮、磷、钾肥的配合使用。%In order to investigate the effects of different ratio & fertilizer on NPK fertilizer on Castanea spp.and Dryocosmus kuriphilus ,fertilizer experiments of Castanea spp.were conducted in Daxicha Town of Kuandian County.Result shows that applying N,P and K in spring,although energy enhanced vigor,increase production, but make Dryocosmus kuriphilus increase in the number and fertilizer efficiency is not high.So the density of 4 m × 5 m,1 5-20 a age of Castanea spp.in terms of seedling chestnut;N,P,K fertilizer is not suitable to be used in Castanea spp.orchard.

  9. 昭阳区坡地板栗早实丰产技术研究%Castanea mollissima Early Friut and High Yield Technology at Sloping Field of Zhaoyang District

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李章华

    2012-01-01

    以云南省林业科学院引进的云栗15、云栗22、云栗44及昭通大板栗等优良品种为试验材料,采用随机区组设计进行板栗早实丰产试验.探讨了板栗园的整地和建植方式、授粉树种的合理配置、整形修剪、适时摘心等种植技术措施以及优良种与合理密植对早实丰产的影响.进一步阐述适时适当合理施肥、林地水肥管理、管抚、林农间种、环割和倒贴皮以及病虫害防治等板栗田间管理措施.%The fine variety of Castanea mollissima 15, Castanea mollissima 22, Castanea mollissima 44 and Zhaotong large chestnut introduced from yunnan Academy of Forestry were took as test materia, Castanea mollissima early fruit and high yield trials was conducted with randomized block design. The effects of site preparation, planting method, the rational allocation of pollinated species, pruning, and timely pinching on early fruit and high yield also have been studied: furthermore, we elaborated chestnut field management measures of timely appropriate and reasonable fertilization, forest land and fertilizer management, cultivation, interpolating, girdling and back inversion, as well as pest control etc.

  10. Growth and yield models, assortment type and analysis of deadwood in chestnut coppice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marziliano PA

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Chestnut (Castanea sativa MILL. is one of the most important forest tree species in Europe, and it is considered a symbol of the natural vegetation in southern Europe. In Calabria (southern Italy chestnut forest covers an area of approximately 87000 hectares, most of which (about 80% managed as coppice. In this study a growth and yield table has been elaborated. Thurthermore, assortment type and quantity of deadwood have been evaluated according to age of coppice and forest fire prevention, respectively. The study site is located in the “Presila of Catanzaro” and the research was carried out in 15 plots; the age of the examined stands ranged from 2 to 50 years old. More than 30000 shoots per hectare were recorded in the first two years after coppicing. As opposed, about 2300 and 1000 shoots per hectare were observed 15 and 50 years after coppicing, respectively. The culmination of the mean annual increment of the forest standing volume (16 m3 ha-1 year-1 was highlighted 25 years after coppicing, while the current annual increment culmination (21 m3 ha-1 year-1 was observed at 15 years. Fifteen years after coppicing, most of the wood production was constituted by small dimension assortments. Twenty five years after coppicing small and large poles were the prevailing assortments while telegraph poles and timber beams increased after 50 years. The amount of deadwood in forest ranged between 11.9 and 68.7 m3 ha-1. The largest component was represented by standing dead shoots. The results show that coppice management can be adopted even if the main purpose of the chestnut stand is the production of large size assortments. In chestnut coppice, highly vulnerable to fire, the reduction of stand density with silvicultural practices (thinning and displacement is the main way to promote the efficiency of forest and a higher strength and resiliency against forest fire.

  11. In vitro morphogenetic competence of basal sprouts and crown branches of mature chestnut.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, M C; Vieitez, A M

    1991-01-01

    Basal shoots of five clones of mature chestnut tree (Castanea sativa Mill. and C. sativa x C. crenata Siebold & Zucc.) had a greater capacity for in vitro establishment, multiplication and rooting than crown branches of the same trees. Cultures from basal shoots were more responsive than crown-derived cultures in terms of in vitro reactivity (proportion of the explants with shoot development), the mean number of shoots formed per explant, the length of the tallest shoot in each culture, and the multiplication coefficient (defined as the product of the reactivity and the mean number of shoots per explant). Multiplication coefficients were greatest between subcultures 6 and 12, but subculturing failed to increase the rooting potential of shoots of crown origin. Multiplication and rooting rates were also determined for clones derived from seeds of mature trees. Genotype influenced the in vitro performance of clones of both adult and seedling origins.

  12. Characterization and antioxidant capacity of sweet chestnut honey produced in North-West Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodríguez-Flores Shantal

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, authentic foodstuffs have became a major requirement for consumers and producers worldwide. Honey has increased in popularity since it is associated with a natural diet, and because of honey’s authentic origin. The present study investigated the palynological characteristics, physicochemical parameters, total phenol content, flavonoid content, and radical scavenging activity of 41 sweet chestnut (Castanea sativa honeys from the northwestern part of Spain. These honeys were characterised by high values of electrical conductivity, pH, diastase content, and colour. All the samples showed a pollen combination of Castanea sativa-Rubus-Cytisus type-Erica. Fructose and glucose were 37.2% and 25.9%, while other sugars were less than 5%. Regarding the mineral content K, was the main with a mean value of 260.2 mg/100g. Other elements as Mg with a mean value of 17.1 mg/100g, Ca (mean value of 15.8 mg/100g and P (mean value of 12.8 mg/100g were well represented in this honey type. The phenol and flavonoid content were high (mean values of 129.8 mg/100g and 9.0 mg/100g, respectively. Multivariate statistical techniques showed the close relationship of colour, Mg, P, phenols, melezitose, and flavonoids, and the radical scavenging activity.

  13. Case study of a new method for the classification and analysis of Dryocosmus kuriphilus Yasumatsu damage to young chestnut sprouts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tani A

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Dryocosmus kuriphilus is a new chestnut pest that is causing a serious problem worldwide. This gall wasp causes severe infestations of Italian Castanea sativa stands, which lowers their productivity. The most effective method for controlling gall wasp infestations is to introduce the parasitoid, Torymus sinensis, although experience shows that it can be 6-18 years before it is effective in reducing the infestation to acceptable levels. From a silvicultural point of view, it is important to reduce the damage as rapidly as possible to maintain plant vigour and fruit production, thereby avoiding chestnut stand degradation and abandonment before biological control is effective. This study analyzed the damage caused by Dryocosmus kuriphilus during normal plant development and detected differences in plant susceptibility, irrespective of genetic factors. Data were collected from a young Castanea sativa coppice stand in Tuscany (Italy where damage was evaluated during the 2010 growing season. The study consisted of two phases: (1 classification of the damages caused by galls; and (2 studying the galls and damage distribution effects on different vigour chestnut sprouts to determine whether there were preferred oviposition sites or different degrees of susceptibility to gall wasp attack depending on a plant’s physiological state. The D. kuriphilus damage classification scale was based on two factors: damage position (the vegetative organ attacked and damage effect (abnormal organ development caused by galls. This classification included damage types that had not been previously described in literature. The statistical analysis identified differences in damage susceptibility in terms of: axis (stem or branches, plant organs (shoots, leaves, or buds, position of the attacked node (high or low region of the axis, and sprout vigour. Information on the D. kuriphilus damage distribution and its effect on plants with different levels vigour can be used to

  14. Effect of thermal processing on the physicochemical properties of chestnut starch and textural profile of chestnut kernel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kan, Lina; Li, Qian; Xie, Shuangshuang; Hu, Jiaqi; Wu, Yanwen; Ouyang, Jie

    2016-10-20

    The present study focused on the effect of thermal processing on the physicochemical properties of chestnut starch and textural profile of chestnut kernel. After thermal processing, the total starch content in both boiled and roasted chestnuts decreased significantly (Pstarch in cooked chestnut was gradually destroyed during the thermal processing. The starch in cooked chestnut still exhibited C-type X-ray diffraction patterns, but the intensity of diffraction peaks and the crystallinity were obviously declined compared with those of fresh chestnut. Textural profile analysis of chestnut starch gel and chestnut kernel showed that the main textural characterizations of roasted chestnut were higher than those of boiled chestnuts. These results are helpful for better understanding the texture change in fresh, boiled and roasted chestnuts, which indicated that roasting is an alternative industrial thermal processing method for chestnut kernel. PMID:27474607

  15. Chestnut cultivar diversification process in the Iberian Peninsula, Canary Islands, and Azores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira-Lorenzo, Santiago; Costa, Rita Maria Lourenço; Ramos-Cabrer, Ana María; Ciordia-Ara, Marta; Ribeiro, Carla Alexandra Marques; Borges, Olga; Barreneche, Teresa

    2011-04-01

    This is a large-scale molecular study based on simple sequence repeat (SSR) loci of the diversification process in chestnut cultivars from Portugal and Spain, from the northern Iberian Peninsula to the Canary Islands and the Azores. A total of 593 grafted chestnut trees (Castanea sativa Mill.) were analysed with 10 SSRs: 292 from Portugal and 301 from Spain. Some of the trees studied were more than 300 years old. Accessions were analysed using a model-based Bayesian procedure to assess the geographical structure and to assign individuals to reconstructed populations based on the SSR genotypes. We found 356 different genotypes with a mean value of clonality of 33% owing to grafting. Mutations accounted for 6%, with hybridization being the main diversification process that can explain the great diversity found. Ten main cultivar groups were detected: four in northern Spain, five in the centre of the Iberian Peninsula, and one in southern Spain related to the centre of the Iberian Peninsula. This work demonstrated that cultivar origin and the diversification process was a combination of clonal propagation of selected seedlings, hybridization, and mutations, which allowed high levels of diversity to be maintained with respect to selected clones for fruit production. Furthermore, seedlings and graft sticks facilitated the transport to new destinations in the colonization process, transporting sometimes more than 3000 km if we consider the Azores and the Canary Islands. PMID:21491973

  16. A new pyrrole alkaloid from seeds of Castanea sativa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiermann, Alois; Kedwani, Samir; Schramm, Hans Wolfgang; Seger, Christoph

    2002-02-01

    A new pyrrole alkaloid, methyl-(5-formyl-1H-pyrrole-2-yl)-4-hydroxybutyrate (1), was isolated from sweet chestnut seeds and its structure elucidated on the basis of data from NMR spectroscopy and by comparison with synthetic analogues.

  17. Enhancing chestnut coppices: silvicultural management and socio-economic context.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Chiara Manetti

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available  Castanea sativa is one of the most important species for timber production in Italy but, both management system, ownership type and wood chain structure, aren’t able to  enhance enough the market value of wood assortments. Although the high demand of quality timber, the internal production is heavily  reduced, mainly as far as timber quality is concerned and because of the lack of suitable timber sizes. In this context, experimental trials  have been approached to identify and verify which silvicultural methods are best suited to reach high yields depending to the investments  needed and the local socio-economical condition. Two technical approaches were evaluated: stand silviculture and single-tree oriented silviculture. As for the socio-economical aspects, a few demographic indexes have been examined and the first-phase processing enterprises  acting in the concerned area were analyzed. The goals of this paper are to evaluate the biological response to the applied silviculture, to  analyze the problems arisen and to estimate the applicability of the proposed methods in relation to the different socio-economic contexts. The research has been carried out in Tuscany in two important forest areas - Monte Amiata and Colline Metallifere - in young chestnut  coppices characterized by an homogeneous stand density and a good site index. The two examined districts showed some similarities  but they have mainly highlighted important differences about the social structure and concerns and enterprises characteristics. The area of Monte Amiata is typified by a higher residents density then the Colline Metallifere but only 1/3 of the population is employed in the agro-forest sector. In addition, in the Monte Amiata district most concerns are sized less than 2 hectares and chestnut is the main forest  species. On the contrary, in the Colline Metallifere the agro-forest sector (57% of workers is one of the main sources of income for the  local

  18. DNA methylation during sexual embryogenesis and implications on the induction of somatic embryogenesis in Castanea sativa Miller.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viejo, M; Rodríguez, R; Valledor, L; Pérez, M; Cañal, M J; Hasbún, R

    2010-12-01

    From anthesis to mature seed formation, burrs from cross-pollinated adult Castanea sativa Miller trees were characterized and seven developmental stages defined based on macro and micromorphological traits. In order to get an insight into the involvement of epigenetic mechanisms in sexual embryogenesis and to define somatic embryogenesis induction capability, global DNA methylation and the somatic embryogenic competence were quantified. On cross-pollinated trees once fertilization takes place, at least one ovule per ovary becomes dominant, and transient DNA demethylation occurs coinciding with the start of the sexual embryogenic programme. Unfertilized ovules from the same cluster, which maintain their prior size, increase their methylation level and undergo degeneration. These results were validated using non-cross-pollinated trees and the asynchrony of flower receptivity. When testing in vitro somatic embryogenesis response of isolated dominant ovules and axes from zygotic embryos under cross-pollinated conditions, the highest competence was found for reaching seed maturity. Thus, a "developmental window" of somatic embryogenesis in chestnut has been characterized. It includes from fertilization to embryo maturity, and a transient decrease in methylation is necessary after fertilization for the development of the somatic embryogenesis response.

  19. Purification, characterization and N-terminal amino acid sequence of a new major allergen from European chestnut pollen--Cas s 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kos, T; Hoffmann-Sommergruber, K; Ferreira, F; Hirschwehr, R; Ahorn, H; Horak, F; Jager, S; Sperr, W; Kraft, D; Scheiner, O

    1993-11-15

    Pollens from trees of the order Fagales (e.g. birch, alder, hazel, and hornbeam) all contain one major allergen--the main cause for tree pollen allergy. So far the major allergens from birch (Bet v 1), alder (Aln g 1), hazel (Cor a 1), and hornbeam (Car b 1) have been characterized, showing high sequence similarity with each other (1-4). We present the molecular and immunologic characterization of Cas s 1, the major allergen from the European chestnut (Castanea sativa). From aqueous pollen extracts from European chestnut a protein was purified to homogeneity and was subjected to further investigation. The protein revealed a Mr of 22 kDa and was shown to represent the major allergen of the European chestnut (immunoblotting, histamine release) and designated Cas s 1. Despite a marked difference in Mr, Cas s 1 shows significant amino acid sequence similarity at the N-terminus and is antigenically closely related to the major birch pollen allergen Bet v 1 (17 kDa), as shown by binding to the anti-Bet v 1 monoclonal antibody BIP-1 and by IgE-inhibition tests using recombinant Bet v 1.

  20. Touchdown nested multiplex PCR detection of Phytophthora cinnamomi and P. cambivora from French and English chestnut grove soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langrell, Stephen R H; Morel, Olivier; Robin, Cécile

    2011-07-01

    Soil borne Phytophthora cinnamomi and Phytophthora cambivora are considered the most pathogenic species associated with chestnut (Castanea sativa) decline in Europe. Mapping their incidence and distribution from nursery and plantation soils may offer valuable information for limiting spread. As conventional biological baiting and taxonomic confirmation is generally time consuming, labour, logistically and space intensive, we have focused on the development of a specific touchdown nested multiplex Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) approach for the simultaneous detection of both species direct from soil. Pre-existing and novel primers, based on Internal Transcribed Spacer (ITS) sequences, have been evaluated for their specificity and use in a multiplex capacity in various combinations. Coupled to this we have modified a mechanical lysis procedure for DNA extraction from up to 10 g of chestnut under storey soils (ranging from 0.5 to 25 μg DNA g(-1)fresh soil). Using serial dilutions and/or polyvinylpolypyrrolidone chromatography purification, both species have been successfully detected, in artificially and naturally infected soils. Levels of assay detection are comparable to other Phytophthora species where PCR based diagnostic systems have been reported. A qualitative evaluation of this approach against conventional baiting is presented.

  1. Impact of fertilization on chestnut growth, N and P concentrations in runoff water on degraded slope land in South China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZENG Shu-cai; CHEN Bei-guang; JIANG Cheng-ai; WU Qi-tang

    2007-01-01

    Growing fruit trees on the slopes of rolling hills in South China is causing serious environmental problems because of heavy application of chemical fertilizers and soil erosion. Suitable sources of fertilizers and proper rates of applications are of key importance to both crop yields and environmental protection. In this article, the impact of four fertilizers, i.e., inorganic compound fertilizer, organic compound fertilizer, pig manure compost, and peanut cake (peanut oil pressing residue), on chestnut (Castanea mollissima Blume) growth on a slope in South China, and on the total N and total P concentrations in runoff waters have been investigated during two years of study, with an orthogonal experimental design. Results show that the organic compound fertilizer and peanut cake promote the heights of young chestnut trees when compared to the control. In addition, peanut cake increases single-fruit weights and organic compound fertilizer raises single-seed weights. All the fertilizers increase the concentrations of total N and total P in runoff waters, except for organic compound fertilizer, in the first year experiment. The observed mean concentrations of total N varied from 1.6 mg/L to 3.2 mg/L and P from 0.12 mg/L to 0.22 mg/L, which are increased with the amount of fertilizer applications, with no pattern of direct proportion. On the basis of these experiment results, organic compound fertilizer at 2 kg/tree and peanut cake at 1 kg/tree are recommended to maximize chestnut growth and minimize water pollution.

  2. Scientifically advanced solutions for chestnut ink disease

    OpenAIRE

    Choupina, Altino; Leticia M. Estevinho; Martins, Ivone

    2014-01-01

    On the north regions of Portugal and Spain, the Castanea sativa Mill. culture is extremely important. The biggest productivity and yield break occurs due to the ink disease, the causal agent being the oomycete Phytophthora cinnamomi. This oomycete is also responsible for the decline of many other plant species in Europe and worldwide. P. cinnamomi and Phytophthora cambivora are considered, by the generality of the authors, as the C. sativa ink disease causal agents. Most Phytophthora species ...

  3. Cryopreservation of zygotic embryo axes and somatic embryos of European chestnut.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corredoira, Elena; San-José, M Carmen; Ballester, Antonio; Vieitez, Ana M

    2004-01-01

    This work describes experiments demonstrating the feasibility of long-term conservation of Castanea sativa germplasm through cryopreservation of embryonic axes or somatic embryo clumps. Between 93 % and 100 % of excised embryonic axes of recalcitrant chestnut seeds survived storage in liquid nitrogen (LN) following desiccation in a laminar flow cabinet to moisture contents of 20-24 % (on a fresh weight basis), and some 63 % subsequently developed as whole plants. Desiccation to moisture contents less than 19 % produced damage resulting in loss of organized plant development after cryostorage, allowing only root growth. When 6-8 mg clumps of globular or heart-shaped somatic embryos were precultured for 7 days on high-sucrose medium and then desiccated to a moisture content of 25 % before storage in LN, the embryogenesis resumption level after thawing was 33 %. When the embryo clumps were precultured for 3 days on high-sucrose medium followed by 60 min application of PVS2 vitrification solution before cryostorage, the post-storage embryogenesis resumption level was 68 %.

  4. Cryopreservation of zygotic embryonic axes and somatic embryos of European chestnut.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieitez, Ana M; San-José, M Carmen; Corredoira, Elena

    2011-01-01

    For Castanea sativa (European chestnut), a species with recalcitrant seeds that is not easily propagated vegetatively, cryopreservation is one of the most promising techniques for maintaining genetic resource diversity and for conservation of selected germplasms. Long-term conservation of selected seeds and valuable embryogenic lines can be achieved through the cryopreservation of zygotic embryonic axes and somatic embryos, respectively. This chapter describes methods for the desiccation-based cryostorage of zygotic embryonic axes, and the vitrification-based cryopreservation of somatic embryos. For zygotic embryonic axes, the highest post-thaw survival and plantlet recovery rates are obtained by desiccation in a laminar flow hood to 20-25% moisture content, followed by direct immersion in liquid nitrogen. For somatic embryos, embryogenesis resumption rates of over 60% are achieved by preculture of embryo clumps for 3 days on solid medium containing 0.3 M sucrose, incubation in PVS2 vitrification solution for 60 min at 0°C, and direct immersion in liquid nitrogen. Plantlet recovery from cryostored embryogenic lines requires proliferation of the thawed embryos and subsequent maturation before germination and conversion into plantlets.

  5. Silvicultural and phytosanitary researches in thinned chestnut coppices at different elevations in Sila (Calabria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvano Avolio

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The results of mensurational and phytosanitary researches ten years after thinning trials in chestnut coppices (Castanea sativa Miller in Sila, are reported.. Eight experimental areas, four located at an average elevation of 1200 m a.s.l. aged 20 yrs and four located on average at 1050 m a.s.l. aged 13 yrs, were compared. Three sub-plots were installed in each area and mensurational and phytosanitary surveys were carried out in 1997 (before and after thinning trials and ten years later (2007 on 30 stools per sub-plot to assess bio-ecological, structural and compositional status of the standing crops. At each elevation, the experimental protocol included the following theses: thesis T (control: release of the standing crop and removal of dried up stems on the ground, only; thesis A (light thinning: removal of the dominated storey, on average 30% of coppice shoots, poorly shaped, both withered and green; thesis B (moderate thinning: removal from the dominated up to the dominant storey = 43% of the shoots, both dried up and green; thesis C (heavy thinning: removal = 62% of coppice shoots, both withered and green. Results highlighted the significance of thinnings in the cultivation of chestnut coppices. As for silviculture and growth pattern, the surveying ten years later showed the following outcomes: reduction of shoots mortality, according to the thinning intensity from A to C (by comparing the number of dried up coppice shoots surveyed in the control theses; a higher number of coppice shoots in the commercial category “average stems” in the thinned plots; the higher percentage increment in dbh, basal area and volume in the sub-plots undergoing thinning A and C at the elevation of 1050 m and, in general, with thesis C at both elevations; the complete recovery of canopy cover even in the sub-plots heavily thinned. As for the phytosanitary aspects, the research has been oriented on the chestnut blight caused by Cryphonectria parasitica, due to

  6. Cost-benefit Analysis of Chestnut Production in Xingtai County

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuji; JIN

    2014-01-01

    On the basis of market demand survey of chestnut,this article carries out cost-benefit analysis of the chestnut production in Xingtai County,to understand the profitability and payback period of local chestnut production.It points out that chestnut production has a high rate of return on investment,and chestnut can be promoted on a large scale in Xingtai County.However,there are still some problems in the production and marketing of chestnut in Xingtai County,such as low level of technology,extensive management,low level of organization,market imperfections and weak brand consciousness.Based on these problems,corresponding recommendations are put forth.

  7. Detection of a hypersensitive reaction in the chestnut hybrid 'Bouche de Bétizac' infested by Dryocosmus kuriphilus Yasumatsu.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dini, Francesca; Sartor, Chiara; Botta, Roberto

    2012-11-01

    The purpose of the study was the identification of the mechanisms of resistance to Dryocosmus kuriphilus Yasumatsu in the hybrid-resistant cultivar 'Bouche de Bétizac' (Castanea sativa × Castanea crenata). Larvae and eggs of the insect are found in the buds of this cultivar at the end of winter, but there is no gall development after budburst. The hypothesis of the presence of a hypersensitive reaction (HR) in the buds was tested using diaminobenzidine (DAB) to detect H(2)O(2) and by Real Time PCR (RT-PCR) to evaluate the expression of a germin-like protein gene. HR in plants is elicited by the production of reactive oxygen compounds, such as H(2)O(2), and results in the programmed cell death. The DAB test was applied to buds of 'Bouche de Bétizac' and of the susceptible cultivar 'Madonna' (C. sativa) at different stages of budburst. The DAB staining produced brown areas in the swelling buds of 'Bouche de Bétizac', indicating the presence of H(2)O(2). On the contrary, all uninfested buds, as well as the infested buds of 'Madonna', appeared whitish. Papers report that germin and germin-like proteins (GLP) with oxalate oxidase activity are discrete markers of stress-responsive gene products. A strong expression of the chestnut GLP gene was detected by RT-PCR at bud swelling in infested 'Bouche de Bétizac' buds but not in 'Madonna' ones. The results support the hypothesis of the occurrence of an HR in 'Bouche de Bétizac' as response to the cynipid infestation, resulting in cell and larvae death.

  8. Antibacterial and allelopathic activity of extract from Castanea sativa leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basile, A; Sorbo, S; Giordano, S; Ricciardi, L; Ferrara, S; Montesano, D; Castaldo Cobianchi, R; Vuotto, M L; Ferrara, L

    2000-08-01

    Following the extraction of Castanea sativa with an aqueous solution of sulfuric acid (pH 3.0), the ethyl acetate soluble fraction was tested for its antibacterial and allelopathic activity. The extract was shown to have pronounced antibacterial effects against seven of the eight strains of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria used (MIC in the range of 64-256 microg/ml and MBC in the range of 256-512 microg/ml). The active fraction was analyzed by TLC and HPLC showing the presence of rutin, hesperidin, quercetin, apigenin, morin, naringin, galangin and kaempferol. Standards of the identified flavonoids were tested against the same bacterial strains. The highest activity was shown by quercetin, rutin and apigenin. The allelopathic effect was tested against Raphanus sativus seed germination. The extract, quercetin, rutin and apigenin caused a decrease in the percentage of seed germination and root and epicotyl growth.

  9. Basic Endochitinases Are Major Proteins in Castanea sativa Cotyledons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collada, C; Casado, R; Fraile, A; Aragoncillo, C

    1992-10-01

    Basic endochitinases are abundant proteins in Castanea sativa Mill. cotyledons. Three basic chitinases were purified with molecular masses of 25, 26, and 32 kD (Ch1, Ch2, and Ch3) and with isoelectric points between 8 and 9.5. Antibodies raised against Ch1 cross-reacted with Ch2 and Ch3. However, Ch3 showed differences when compared with the other two enzymes, especially in its higher cysteine content. The size, amino acid composition, and N-terminal sequence of Ch1 indicate that it is a class II endochitinase and, therefore, has no cysteine-rich hevein domain. Ch1 inhibits the growth of the fungus Trichoderma viride. The biological role of these endochitinases is discussed.

  10. Structural characterization and cytotoxic properties of a 4-O-methylglucuronoxylan from castanea sativa. 2. Evidence of a structure-activity relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbat, Aline; Gloaguen, Vincent; Moine, Charlotte; Sainte-Catherine, Odile; Kraemer, Michel; Rogniaux, Hélène; Ropartz, David; Krausz, Pierre

    2008-08-01

    Xylans were purified from delignified holocellulose alkaline extracts of Castanea sativa (Spanish chestnut) and Argania spinosa (Argan tree) and their structures analyzed by means of GC of their per-trimethylsilylated methylglycoside derivatives and (1)H NMR spectroscopy. The structures deduced were characteristic of a 4-O-methylglucuronoxylan (MGX) and a homoxylan (HX), respectively, with degrees of polymerization ranging from 182 to 360. In the case of MGX, the regular or random distribution of 4-O-methylglucuronic acid along the xylosyl backbone--determined by MALDI mass spectrometry after autohydrolysis of the polysaccharide--varied and depended both on the botanical source from which they were extracted and on the xylan extraction procedure. The MGX also inhibited in different ways the proliferation as well as the migration and invasion capability of A431 human epidermoid carcinoma cells. These biological properties could be correlated with structural features including values of the degree of polymerization, 4-O-MeGlcA to xylose ratios, and distribution of 4-O-MeGlcA along the xylosyl backbone, giving evidence of a defined structure-activity relationship. PMID:18646856

  11. Identification of a homolog of Arabidopsis DSP4 (SEX4) in chestnut: its induction and accumulation in stem amyloplasts during winter or in response to the cold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berrocal-Lobo, Marta; Ibañez, Cristian; Acebo, Paloma; Ramos, Alberto; Perez-Solis, Estefania; Collada, Carmen; Casado, Rosa; Aragoncillo, Cipriano; Allona, Isabel

    2011-10-01

    Oligosaccharide synthesis is an important cryoprotection strategy used by woody plants during winter dormancy. At the onset of autumn, starch stored in the stem and buds is broken down in response to the shorter days and lower temperatures resulting in the buildup of oligosaccharides. Given that the enzyme DSP4 is necessary for diurnal starch degradation in Arabidopsis leaves, this study was designed to address the role of DSP4 in this seasonal process in Castanea sativa Mill. The expression pattern of the CsDSP4 gene in cells of the chestnut stem was found to parallel starch catabolism. In this organ, DSP4 protein levels started to rise at the start of autumn and elevated levels persisted until the onset of spring. In addition, exposure of chestnut plantlets to 4 °C induced the expression of the CsDSP4 gene. In dormant trees or cold-stressed plantlets, the CsDSP4 protein was immunolocalized both in the amyloplast stroma and nucleus of stem cells, whereas in the conditions of vegetative growth, immunofluorescence was only detected in the nucleus. The studies indicate a potential role for DSP4 in starch degradation and cold acclimation following low temperature exposure during activity-dormancy transition.

  12. 栗与美国板栗化感作用的比较%Allelopathy comparison between Castanea mollissima and C.dentata

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李晓娟; 王强; 倪穗; 阮晓; 王永红; 张焕; 王高峰

    2013-01-01

    以种子发芽率和发芽势为种子萌发参数,以胚根、胚芽长度和鲜重变化为幼苗生长参数,研究了栗(Castanea mollissima)叶水提取物对双子叶植物莴苣(Lactuca sativa)、萝卜(Raphanus sativus)、黄瓜(Cucumis sativus),和单子叶植物洋葱(Alliumcepa)、水稻(Oryza sativa)、小麦(Triticum aestivum)的化感作用;比较了美国板栗(Castanea dentata)与栗叶水提取物及经X-5大孔树脂分离获得的11个洗脱组分间的化感作用强弱;利用液相色谱-质谱联用技术结合标准物质的反证实验,解析了美国板栗与栗化感作用最强分离组分的物质结构.研究结果表明,栗叶化感效应强于美国板栗;美国板栗与栗化感作用最强分离组分中(5:5洗脱组分)存在绿原酸、对羟基苯甲酸、原儿茶酸和没食子酸等物质.在利用栗基因恢复美国板栗种群时,有必要考虑美国板栗与栗植物化学生态特性的差异.%Aims Castanea mollissima and C. dentata are typical chestnut species in Asia and North America, respectively. They play important roles in the ecology and economy in their existing forest ecosystems. Chestnut blight has caused catastrophic losses of C. dentata populations since 1904. It is especially important to understand the differences in chemical ecology characteristics between C. dentata and C. mollissima when scientists try to make use of blight resistance of C. dentata to help the recovery of C. mollissima populations in North America. The objective of this research is to compare the allelopathy effect of C. dentata and C. mollissima by leaf water extract bioassay method. Methods Using germination rate and vigor as seed germination parameters and radicle, plumule elongation and fresh weight change of seedling as seedling growth parameters, we studied the effect of water extract of C. mollissima leaves on dicotyledons lettuce, radish and cucumber and monocotyledons onion, rice and wheat. We compared the allelopathic

  13. Population Structure and Disease Development of Cryphonectria parasitica in European Chestnut Forests in the Presence of Natural Hypovirulence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bissegger, M; Rigling, D; Heiniger, U

    1997-01-01

    ABSTRACT The Cryphonectria parasitica populations in two 6-year-old European chestnut (Castanea sativa) coppices were investigated in southern Switzerland over a period of 4 years. Occurrence of white isolates indicating an infection with Cryphonectria hypovirus, vegetative compatibility groups (VCGs), hypovirulence conversion capacity, and mating types were used to characterize the populations. Sampling of randomly chosen cankers in the first year yielded 59% white isolates in one and 40% in the other population. The distribution of the VCGs and mating types was similar among white and orange isolates, indicating a homogeneous infection of the two populations by the hypovirus. Fourteen VCGs were found in the first population, 16 VCGs in the second. Altogether, 21 VCGs were determined. The same three VCGs dominated in both populations, comprising more than 60% of all isolates. Several VCGs were represented only by white isolates. Five of the six most common VCGs were clustered in two hypovirulence conversion groups, with almost 100% hypovirus transmission within each cluster. Repeated sampling of the same cankers in 1990, 1992, and 1994 did not reveal an increase of white isolates. The portion of blighted stems rose from 37% to about 60% in both plots within 4 years. In this time, chestnut blight killed 15% and competition an additional 21% of the sprouts. Predominantly, sprouts with low diameters at breast height were killed. The growth rate of new cankers was high in their first year and decreased gradually in the following years. A role of hypovirulence in the decline of disease severity was evident since (i) cankers yielding white isolates grew slower and killed considerably fewer sprouts than cankers with orange isolates; and (ii) the majority of the cankers yielded white isolates at least once during the 4-year observation period.

  14. Effects of irradiation on physiology of chestnut under cold storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quality characteristics of irradiated chestnut at dose of 0.5 kGy after 8 months storage at 0 degree C-4 degree C were studied. Results showed that cold storage shelf life could be effectively prolonged by irradiation. After 8 months storage, the water contents, total sugars, starch and respiratory rate of irradiated chestnut were significantly higher than control. (authors)

  15. Roe deer browsing effects on growth development of Turkey oak and chestnut coppices.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Cutini

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 14 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 Over the last three decades wild ungulates populations in Italy increased to values ranging from 300% to 600%. As a consequence, in Italy as well as in other European countries, situations with high ungulate density and, then, negative effects on the stability and dynamics of ecosystems, are increasing frequently. Starting from these evidences we investigated the effects of roe deer population on the vegetative regeneration of two different broadleaved tree species: Turkey oak (Quercus cerris L. and chestnut (Castanea sativa Mill. coppice stands. In Alpe di Catenaia (Apennines – Central Italy, after coppicing in 2002, we chose six experimental areas where fenced (P and non-fenced (NP plots were established. Measurements were performed at the beginning of the study period and in winter 2008 in both P and NP plots. Diameter and    height of all sprouts were measured. Results showed a different impact of roe deer on the two species. After seven years chestnut did not show any significant browsing-related damage, while in Turkey oak heavy differences between protected and non-protected areas are present: in NP plots roe deer browsing has produced a significant reduction in basal area (58% and volume (57% compared to P plots. The results agree with previous studies and confirm: (a a selective browsing pressure on Turkey oak; (b the lasting effect of the early impact after clear cutting, visible even seven years after. Based on the findings, we discussed the need for an integrated management of forest vegetation and forest fauna which should define the density of ungulates not only according to the theoretical carrying capacity    of ecosystems, but also considering (i the preservation of the ecosystem overall functionality, (ii the forest structure development and (iii the forest management type. st1\\:*{behavior:url(#ieooui } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso

  16. Genetic Structure of Water Chestnut Beetle: Providing Evidence for Origin of Water Chestnut.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Xiao-Tian; Zheng, Fu-Shan; Qin, Jing; Lu, Ming-Xing; Du, Yu-Zhou

    2016-01-01

    Water chestnut beetle (Galerucella birmanica Jacoby) is a pest of the water chestnut (Trapa natans L.). To analyze the phylogeny and biogeography of the beetle and provide evidence for the origin of T. natans in China, we conducted this by using three mitochondrial genes (COI, COII and Cytb) and nuclear ITS2 ribosomal DNA of G. birmanica. As for mtDNA genes, the beetle could be subdivided into three groups: northeastern China (NEC), central-northern-southern China (CC-NC-SC) and southwestern China (SWC) based on SAMOVA, phylogenetic analyses and haplotype networks. But for ITS2, no obvious lineages were obtained but individuals which were from NEC region clustered into one clade, which might be due to sequence conservation of ITS2. Significant genetic variation was observed among the three groups with infrequent gene flow between groups, which may have been restricted due to natural barriers and events in the Late Pleistocene. Based on our analyses of genetic variation in the CC-NC-SC geographical region, the star-like haplotype networks, approximate Bayesian computation, niche modelling and phylogeographic variation of the beetle, we concluded that the beetle population has been lasting in the lower, central reaches of the Yangtze River Basin with its host plant, water chestnut, which is consistent with archaeological records. Moreover, we speculate that the CC-NC-SC population of G. birmanica may have undergone a period of expansion coincident with domestication of the water chestnut approximately 113,900-126,500 years ago. PMID:27459279

  17. Genetic Structure of Water Chestnut Beetle: Providing Evidence for Origin of Water Chestnut.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Tian Tang

    Full Text Available Water chestnut beetle (Galerucella birmanica Jacoby is a pest of the water chestnut (Trapa natans L.. To analyze the phylogeny and biogeography of the beetle and provide evidence for the origin of T. natans in China, we conducted this by using three mitochondrial genes (COI, COII and Cytb and nuclear ITS2 ribosomal DNA of G. birmanica. As for mtDNA genes, the beetle could be subdivided into three groups: northeastern China (NEC, central-northern-southern China (CC-NC-SC and southwestern China (SWC based on SAMOVA, phylogenetic analyses and haplotype networks. But for ITS2, no obvious lineages were obtained but individuals which were from NEC region clustered into one clade, which might be due to sequence conservation of ITS2. Significant genetic variation was observed among the three groups with infrequent gene flow between groups, which may have been restricted due to natural barriers and events in the Late Pleistocene. Based on our analyses of genetic variation in the CC-NC-SC geographical region, the star-like haplotype networks, approximate Bayesian computation, niche modelling and phylogeographic variation of the beetle, we concluded that the beetle population has been lasting in the lower, central reaches of the Yangtze River Basin with its host plant, water chestnut, which is consistent with archaeological records. Moreover, we speculate that the CC-NC-SC population of G. birmanica may have undergone a period of expansion coincident with domestication of the water chestnut approximately 113,900-126,500 years ago.

  18. Mechanical characterization of old chestnut beams

    OpenAIRE

    Branco, Jorge M.; Peixoto, Tiago; Lourenço, Paulo B.; Medeiros, Pedro

    2011-01-01

    The main objective of this work is to evaluate, by non-destructive techniques, seven old Chestnut beams. For that, after the geometric assessment and the detailed visual inspection that allowed to strength grade the beams, a series of non-destructive tests was setup. In a first step, non-destructive bending tests, under the elastic limit, were performed to quantify the modulus of elasticity in bending (MoE) of the seven beams. Then, Resistograph® and Pilodyn® tests were done to...

  19. Soil DNA pyrosequencing and fruitbody surveys reveal contrasting diversity for various fungal ecological guilds in chestnut orchards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baptista, Paula; Reis, Francisca; Pereira, Eric; Tavares, Rui M; Santos, Pedro M; Richard, Franck; Selosse, Marc-André; Lino-Neto, Teresa

    2015-12-01

    Fungal diversity in Mediterranean forest soils is poorly documented, particularly when considering saprobic and pathogenic organisms. Next-generation sequencing (NGS) methods applied to soil fungi provide the opportunity to unveil the most inconspicuous functional guilds (e.g. saprobes) and life forms (e.g. Corticiaceae) of this tremendous diversity. We used fruitbody surveys over 2 years and soil 454 metabarcoding in Castanea sativa orchards to evaluate respectively the reproductive (fruitbodies) and vegetative (mycelia) parts of fungal communities in three 100-year-old stands. Analysis of 839 fruitbodies and 210 291 ITS1 reads revealed high fungal diversity, mainly shown by belowground analysis, with high (dominant) abundance of mycorrhizal fruitbodies and reads. Both methods displayed contrasted composition and structure of fungal communities, with Basidio- and Ascomycetes dominating above- and belowground, respectively. For the two dominant fungal guilds (i.e. ectomycorrhizal and saprobic), diversity above- and belowground overlapped weakly. This study is the first assessment of the complementarity of fruitbody surveys and NGS for analysing fungal diversity in Mediterranean ecosystems and shows that belowground methods still need to be completed by fruiting diversity to provide a comprehensive overview of the different fungal guilds. The results shed light on chestnut soil biodiversity and question the spatial distribution and synergies among fungal guilds. PMID:26391727

  20. An oxidative burst of superoxide in embryonic axes of recalcitrant sweet chestnut seeds as induced by excision and desiccation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roach, Thomas; Ivanova, Mariyana; Beckett, Richard P; Minibayeva, Farida V; Green, Ian; Pritchard, Hugh W; Kranner, Ilse

    2008-06-01

    Recalcitrant seeds are intolerant of desiccation and cannot be stored in conventional seed banks. Cryopreservation allows storage of the germplasm of some recalcitrant seeded species, but application to a wide range of plant diversity is still limited. The present work aimed at understanding the stresses that accompany the first steps in cryopreservation protocols, wounding and desiccation, both of which are likely to lead to the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Extracellular ROS production was studied in isolated embryonic axes of sweet chestnut (Castanea sativa). Axis excision was accompanied by a burst of superoxide (O(2)(*-)), demonstrated by a colorimetric assay using epinephrine, electron spin resonance and staining with nitroblue tetrazolium. Superoxide was immediately produced on the cut surface after isolation of the axis from the seed, with an initial 'burst' in the first 5 min. Isolated axes subjected to variable levels of desiccation stress showed a decrease in viability and vigour and increased electrolyte leakage, indicative of impaired membrane integrity. The pattern of O(2)(*-) production showed a typical Gaussian pattern in response to increasing desiccation stress. The results indicate a complex interaction between excision and subsequent drying and are discussed with a view of manipulating ROS production for optimisation of cryopreservation protocols.

  1. Purification and in vitro chaperone activity of a class I small heat-shock protein abundant in recalcitrant chestnut seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collada, C; Gomez, L; Casado, R; Aragoncillo, C

    1997-09-01

    A 20-kD protein has been purified from cotyledons of recalcitrant (desiccation-sensitive) chestnut (Castanea sativa) seeds, where it accumulates at levels comparable to those of major seed storage proteins. This protein, termed Cs smHSP 1, forms homododecameric complexes under nondenaturing conditions and appears to be homologous to cytosolic class I small heat-shock proteins (smHSPs) from plant sources. In vitro evidence has been obtained that the isolated protein can function as a molecular chaperone; it increases, at stoichiometric levels, the renaturation yields of chemically denatured citrate synthase and also prevents the irreversible thermal inactivation of this enzyme. Although a role in desiccation tolerance has been hypothesized for seed smHSPs, this does not seem to be the case for Cs smHSP 1. We have investigated the presence of immunologically related proteins in orthodox and recalcitrant seeds of 13 woody species. Our results indicate that the presence of Cs smHSP 1-like proteins, even at high levels, is not enough to confer desiccation tolerance, and that the amount of these proteins does not furnish a reliable criterion to identify desiccation-sensitive seeds. Additional proteins or mechanisms appear necessary to keep the viability of orthodox seeds upon shedding.

  2. Survey and geographic distribution of chestnut blight in Portugal Prospecção e distribuição geográfica do cancro do castanheiro em Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Bragança

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Cryphonectria parasitica, the fungus that causes chestnut blight disease, was first described in Portugal (1929 on bark samples of Castanea crenata, collected in Beira Interior province. After this report, only in 1989 two disease foci were found on native European chestnut, C. sativa, in Trás-os-Montes e Alto Douro Province. To assess the current distribution of chestnut blight in Portugal (mainland, Azores and Madeira a nationwide monitoring program was implemented. A major cooperative effort, involving all the Portuguese Forest and Agricultural Services, was created for this endeavor and coordinated by the National Forestry Station. A total of 191 chestnut stands was surveyed across the entire country. C. parasitica was isolated from 56.5% of the sampling sites (108 sites. Sampled parcels were digitally geo-referenced and mapped. In addition, a collection of C. parasitica isolates has been established and the study of the molecular variability of C. parasitica in Portugal is underway.Cryphonectria parasitica, o fungo responsável pelo cancro do castanheiro, foi descrito pela primeira vez em Portugal (1929 em amostras da casca de Castanea crenata, provenientes da Beira Interior. Depois da detecção inicial, apenas em 1989, dois focos da doença foram encontrados em castanheiro Europeu, C. sativa, na província de Trás-os-Montes e Alto Douro. Para determinar a distribuição actual do cancro do castanheiro em Portugal (continente e Regiões Autónomas da Madeira e Açores, foi implementado um programa nacional de monitorização da doença. Para o efeito houve intensa cooperação entre os Serviços Florestais e Agrícolas do país, com coordenação da Estação Florestal Nacional. Foram visitadas, em todo o país, 191 parcelas de castanheiro. C. parasitica foi isolado em 56,5% da amostragem (108 parcelas. As parcelas amostradas foram digitalmente georeferenciadas e cartografadas. Uma colecção de isolados de C. parasitica foi estabelecida

  3. TRAPA NATANS (WATER CHESTNUT: AN OVERVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhatiwal Shalabh

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Trapa natans (water chestnut, commonly known as singhara in India, belonging to family Trapaceae, is a free-floating plant which grows in shallow water fields, ponds or swampy land. The water chestnut is native to Europe, Asia and Africa where it is well kept in check by native insect parasites. It favours nutrient-rich water with a pH range of 6.7 to 8.2 and an alkalinity of 12 to 128 mg/l of calcium carbonate. The kernels are delicious to eat and contain carbohydrates, proteins and essential minerals and are reported to be used in many ayurvedic preparations as diuretic, aphrodisiac, nutrient, appetizer, astringent, coolant, antidiarrhoeal & tonic. They are also useful in lumbago, sore throat, bilious affections, bronchitis, fatigues & inflammation. The fruits are a good source of nutrition having 16% starch and 2% protein. Stem is used in eye disorders in the form of juice. The plant Trapa natans has also been evaluated for various activities such as analgesic, anti-inflammatory, anti-diabetic and anti-microbial. The literature reveals the use of kernels as diuretic, aphrodisiac, nutrient, appetizer, astringent, coolant, antidiarrhoeal & tonic, fruits as good source of nutrition having 16% starch and 2% protein, plant as analgesic, anti-inflammatory, anti-diabetic and anti-microbial and stem in form of juice in eye disorders. The present study will give comprehensive information on the chemical constituents and mainly pharmacological activities of this plant.

  4. Genetic Structure of Water Chestnut Beetle: Providing Evidence for Origin of Water Chestnut

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Jing; Lu, Ming-Xing; Du, Yu-Zhou

    2016-01-01

    Water chestnut beetle (Galerucella birmanica Jacoby) is a pest of the water chestnut (Trapa natans L.). To analyze the phylogeny and biogeography of the beetle and provide evidence for the origin of T. natans in China, we conducted this by using three mitochondrial genes (COI, COII and Cytb) and nuclear ITS2 ribosomal DNA of G. birmanica. As for mtDNA genes, the beetle could be subdivided into three groups: northeastern China (NEC), central-northern-southern China (CC-NC-SC) and southwestern China (SWC) based on SAMOVA, phylogenetic analyses and haplotype networks. But for ITS2, no obvious lineages were obtained but individuals which were from NEC region clustered into one clade, which might be due to sequence conservation of ITS2. Significant genetic variation was observed among the three groups with infrequent gene flow between groups, which may have been restricted due to natural barriers and events in the Late Pleistocene. Based on our analyses of genetic variation in the CC-NC-SC geographical region, the star-like haplotype networks, approximate Bayesian computation, niche modelling and phylogeographic variation of the beetle, we concluded that the beetle population has been lasting in the lower, central reaches of the Yangtze River Basin with its host plant, water chestnut, which is consistent with archaeological records. Moreover, we speculate that the CC-NC-SC population of G. birmanica may have undergone a period of expansion coincident with domestication of the water chestnut approximately 113,900–126,500 years ago. PMID:27459279

  5. Biochemical composition of the horse chestnut seed (Aesculus hippocastanum L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Čukanović Jelena; Ninić-Todorović Jelena; Ognjanov V.; Mladenović Emina; Ljubojević Mirjana; Kurjakov A.

    2011-01-01

    This study presents research on the chemical composition of 15 horse chestnut seed genotypes (Aesculus hippocastanum L.) conducted on three different sites. The seeds were picked from selected trees in Bačka Palanka, Novi Sad and Sremski Karlovci at the end of September 2010. The statistical parameters point out the variables of the examined features of the seed. On the basis of the moisture, starch, fat and protein contents in the horse chestnut seeds, the genotypes, the reproductive m...

  6. Physical characteristics and drying kinetics of Portuguese "Longal" chestnut

    OpenAIRE

    Ramalhosa, Elsa; Lamas, Hugo; Pereira, J.A.; Morais, A. M. M. B.

    2010-01-01

    Chestnut is a fruit of great importance in Portugal, being generally sold fresh or frozen. Alternative products may be obtained by hot air drying. The present work is on the dehydration behavior of Portuguese ‘Longal’ chestnut, that is the most used in industry. Different models for representing the variations of water content and drying rate along time were tested successfully. As expected, higher temperatures correspond to faster drying processes. The apparent diffusivity was predicted b...

  7. Scientifically advanced solutions for chestnut ink disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choupina, Altino Branco; Estevinho, Letícia; Martins, Ivone M

    2014-05-01

    On the north regions of Portugal and Spain, the Castanea sativa Mill. culture is extremely important. The biggest productivity and yield break occurs due to the ink disease, the causal agent being the oomycete Phytophthora cinnamomi. This oomycete is also responsible for the decline of many other plant species in Europe and worldwide. P. cinnamomi and Phytophthora cambivora are considered, by the generality of the authors, as the C. sativa ink disease causal agents. Most Phytophthora species secrete large amounts of elicitins, a group of unique highly conserved proteins that are able to induce hypersensitive response (HR) and enhances plant defense responses in a systemic acquired resistance (SAR) manner against infection by different pathogens. Some other proteins involved in mechanisms of infection by P. cinnamomi were identified by our group: endo-1,3-beta-glucanase (complete cds); exo-glucanase (partial cds) responsible by adhesion, penetration, and colonization of host tissues; glucanase inhibitor protein (GIP) (complete cds) responsible by the suppression of host defense responses; necrosis-inducing Phytophthora protein 1 (NPP1) (partial cds); and transglutaminase (partial cds) which inducts defense responses and disease-like symptoms. In this mini-review, we present some scientifically advanced solutions that can contribute to the resolution of ink disease.

  8. Myiasis by Philornis spp. (Diptera: Muscidae in Dendroica castanea (Aves: Parulidae in Panama Miasis ocasionada por Philornis spp. (Diptera: Muscidae in Dendroica castanea (Aves: Parulidae en Panamá

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge M. Herrera

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available We report the parasitism of an unidentified species of Philornis, extracted from a juvenile Dendroica castanea that was collected from Pipeline Road of the Soberania National Park of Panama. This finding is unusual since Philornis spp. parasitizes nested chicks. On the other hand, this is the first time that this parasite is reported in D. castanea.Registramos el parasitismo de una especie no identificada de Philornis extraída de un juvenil de Dendroica castanea, capturada en el Sendero del Oleoducto del Parque Nacional Soberanía. Este hallazgo es inusual ya que Philornis spp. parasita principalmente polluelos en nidos. Del mismo modo, el presente constituye el primer registro del parásito en D. castanea.

  9. Review of World literature on Water Chestnut with implications for management in North America

    OpenAIRE

    Hummel, Meredith; Kiviat, Erik

    2004-01-01

    Water chestnut (Trapa natans L.,sensu lato) is an annual, floating-leaved aquatic plant of temperate and tropical freshwater wetlands, rivers, lakes, ponds, and estuaries. Native to Eurasia and Africa, water chestnut has been widely gathered for its large nutritious seed since the Neolithic and is cultivated for food in Asia. Water chestnut is now a species of conservation concern in Europe and Russia. Introduced to the northeastern United States in the mid-1800s, the spread of water chestnut...

  10. Pengaruh Trichogramma spp. Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae Terhadap Telur Penggerek Batang Tebu (P. castaneae Hubr. Dan C. auricilius Dudgeon.)

    OpenAIRE

    Rizky, Liza Khairani

    2012-01-01

    Liza Khairani Rizky, "Effect of Trichogramma spp. (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae) to the egg of Sugarcane Stem Borer (Phragmatoecia castaneae Hubr. and Chilo auricilius Dudg.) ", under supervised by Yuswani P. Ningsih and Syahrial Oemry. The research was conducted in the research and development (Risbang) of Sugarcane PTP Nusantara II (PERSERO) North Sumatera on April until Juni 2011. This study aimed to the effect of Trichogramma spp.to eggs of P. castaneae Hubr. and C. au...

  11. Protein cryoprotective activity of a cytosolic small heat shock protein that accumulates constitutively in chestnut stems and is up-regulated by low and high temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Matas, Maria-Angeles; Nuñez, Paulina; Soto, Alvaro; Allona, Isabel; Casado, Rosa; Collada, Carmen; Guevara, Maria-Angeles; Aragoncillo, Cipriano; Gomez, Luis

    2004-04-01

    Heat shock, and other stresses that cause protein misfolding and aggregation, trigger the accumulation of heat shock proteins (HSPs) in virtually all organisms. Among the HSPs of higher plants, those belonging to the small HSP (sHSP) family remain the least characterized in functional terms. We analyzed the occurrence of sHSPs in vegetative organs of Castanea sativa (sweet chestnut), a temperate woody species that exhibits remarkable freezing tolerance. A constitutive sHSP subject to seasonal periodic changes of abundance was immunodetected in stems. This protein was identified by matrix-assisted laser-desorption ionization time of flight mass spectrometry and internal peptide sequencing as CsHSP17.5, a cytosolic class I sHSP previously described in cotyledons. Expression of the corresponding gene in stems was confirmed through cDNA cloning and reverse transcription-PCR. Stem protein and mRNA profiles indicated that CsHSP17.5 is significantly up-regulated in spring and fall, reaching maximal levels in late summer and, especially, in winter. In addition, cold exposure was found to quickly activate shsp gene expression in both stems and roots of chestnut seedlings kept in growth chambers. Our main finding is that purified CsHSP17.5 is very effective in protecting the cold-labile enzyme lactate dehydrogenase from freeze-induced inactivation (on a molar basis, CsHSP17.5 is about 400 times more effective as cryoprotectant than hen egg-white lysozyme). Consistent with these observations, repeated freezing/thawing did not affect appreciably the chaperone activity of diluted CsHSP17.5 nor its ability to form dodecameric complexes in vitro. Taken together, these results substantiate the hypothesis that sHSPs can play relevant roles in the acquisition of freezing tolerance.

  12. Quantification of minerals and tocopherols isomers in chestnuts approach chemometrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilson Evelazio de Souza

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The levels of the ?, ?, and (?+?-tocopherol isomers and the amounts of the minerals Se, Zn, Ca, Fe, K, Mn, Mg, and Cu were analyzed in chestnuts. High contents of Zn (>65% relative to the recommended dietary intake (RDI were found in all chestnuts except macadamia nuts (25% of the RDI. All samples had Se contents higher than the RDI: Brazil nuts > macadamia nuts, cashew nuts > pecans > almonds > pistachio nuts > hazelnuts > European nuts. A greater concentration of ?-tocopherol was found in almonds (30% of RDI. All samples, except for hazelnuts, almonds, and macadamia nuts, had (?+?- tocopherols, with the largest amount found in pistachios. Only pecan nuts and European nuts had ?-tocopherol and only in low amounts. Multivariate analysis allowed for better characterization and distinction of the chestnuts

  13. Detection of irradiated chestnuts: preliminary study using three analytical techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangiacotti, Michele; Chiaravalle, Antonio Eugenio; Marchesani, Giuliana; De Sio, Antonio; Boniglia, Concetta; Bortolin, Emanuela; Onori, Sandro

    2009-07-01

    Irradiation of chestnuts has recently been considered as an alternative treatment to fumigation to reduce the considerable amount of the product normally lost during post-harvest period. The treatment is allowed in countries such as Korea and, in view of a possible extension to European countries, to permit the legal controls as required by the directive 1999/2/EC [ European Parliament and Council Directive, 1999/2/EC, on the approximation of the laws of the Member States concerning foods and food ingredients treated with ionising radiation. Official Journal of the European Communities. L 66/16 of 13.3.1999] and meet consumer consensus, reliable methods for detecting irradiated chestnuts have to be proposed. The aim of the present work was to test the efficacy of the European Standard EN 13751, EN 1788, EN 1787 and EN 13708 in detecting irradiated chestnuts. For this purpose, six sets of "Montella" chestnuts, a typical Italian variety recognized as a PGI (protected geographical indication), non-irradiated and irradiated at different doses in the 0.1-1 kGy range, were analysed by thermoluminescence (TL), photo-stimulated luminescence (PSL) (screening and calibrated PSL) and ESR techniques. PSL and TL analysis results revealed the low luminescence sensitivity of the chestnuts. Nevertheless, PSL screening data were in the intermediate band above the negative threshold (at all doses except at the lowest one) and TL analysis led to correct positive classifications even at the lowest dose tested (0.15 Gy). On the contrary, no radio-induced ESR signal could be registered with the irradiated samples of chestnut shell or pulp.

  14. Antifungal Activity of Fruit Extracts of Different Water Chestnut Varieties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad ANOWAR RAZVY

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The antifungal activity of three varieties (red, green and wild of water chestnut fruit extracts was studied against a number of fungal species. A strong antifungal activity of ethanol and petroleum extract was found against the treated fungi resulting remarkable inhibition zone in comparison to both Dithane-M45 fungicide and control. It has also been evident that wild variety of water chestnut was comparatively more efficient in respect to antifungal activity compared to the red and green variety of the same plant.

  15. Biochemical composition of the horse chestnut seed (Aesculus hippocastanum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Čukanović Jelena

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This study presents research on the chemical composition of 15 horse chestnut seed genotypes (Aesculus hippocastanum L. conducted on three different sites. The seeds were picked from selected trees in Bačka Palanka, Novi Sad and Sremski Karlovci at the end of September 2010. The statistical parameters point out the variables of the examined features of the seed. On the basis of the moisture, starch, fat and protein contents in the horse chestnut seeds, the genotypes, the reproductive material which would be used for the intensive production of the high grade seedlings for the greening of the different area categories in urban areas, are distinguished.

  16. DEVELOPMENT OF A TECHNOLOGY FOR LOW IN GLUTEN CHESTNUT PUREE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavlina Paraskova

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays the scientific research related to technologies for processing and implementation of chestnut products are aimed to establish the regimes of preliminary treatment of the nuts, such as devitalization, hydrotherapy, thermo-hydro therapy, refrigeration and freezing with the scope of long term storage of the raw material in disguise of peeled, unpeeled, cooled, chilled and etc. chestnut. Additionally added value products can be designed to designate some specific target group like consumers with food allergies, obese people as well as pupils’ nutrition

  17. Resilience of Sweet Chestnut and Truffle Holm-Oak Rural Forests in Languedoc-Roussillon, France: Roles of Social-Ecological Legacies, Domestication, and Innovations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alban Lauriac

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The Cévennes sweet chestnut (Castanea sativa Mill. forest-orchards and the holm-oak (Quercus ilex L. black truffle (Tuber melanosporum Vittad. associations of the garrigue in Languedoc-Roussillon have suffered a century of decline because of great reductions of rural populations and lack of understanding of the ecological and social dimensions of these rural forests by sectorial public agencies. Levels of tree and forest domestication alternated during historical periods in parallel with statuses of disorganization and reorganization of local social groups. Social-ecological legacies intrinsically linked to trees, forests, and landscape domestication, as well as knowledge, social, and technical practices have been mobilized and provided a basis for knowledge innovations, new domestications, uses, and new institutional networks related to changes in social set-ups. Collective actions emerging from local needs to revive territories in a modern context, cross-scale and reciprocal exchanges of rural and scientific knowledge, as well as institutional changes are interrelated variables that have enabled innovations and have increased resilience of these rural forests. This paper opens new avenues for future research on the interplay between the effects of social-ecological legacies and innovations on the resilience of social-ecological systems.

  18. Acute Effusive Pericarditis due to Horse Chestnut Consumption

    OpenAIRE

    Edem, Efe; Kahyaoğlu, Behlül; Çakar, Mehmet Akif

    2016-01-01

    Patient: Male, 32 Final Diagnosis: Pericardial effusion related to the consumption of herbal product Symptoms: Dyspnea Medication: Horse chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum L) Clinical Procedure: Pericardial and pleural effusions were drained through a pericardiopleural window Specialty: Cardiology Objective: Unusual clinical course Background: There are many well-known causes of pericardial effusion, such as cancer metastasis, bacterial or viral pericarditis, and uremic pericarditis; however, n...

  19. Site characterization of the West Chestnut Ridge site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report summarizes the results of investigations performed to date on the West Chestnut Ridge Site, on the Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge Reservation. The investigations performed include geomorphic observations, areal geologic mapping, surficial soil mapping, subsurface investigations, soil geochemical and mineralogical analyses, geohydrologic testing, groundwater fluctuation monitoring, and surface water discharge and precipitation monitoring. 33 references, 32 figures, 24 tables

  20. Dynamics of Cryphonectria hypovirus infection in chestnut blight cankers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryner, Sarah Franziska; Prospero, Simone; Rigling, Daniel

    2014-09-01

    Virulent strains of the chestnut blight fungus Cryphonectria parasitica cause lethal bark cankers on chestnut trees. Infection of C. parasitica with Cryphonectria hypovirus 1 in Europe biologically controls this disease, leading to nonlethal and inactive cankers. Unexpectedly, virus-free C. parasitica strains have been isolated from inactive cankers. In this study, we compared the virulence of virus-infected and virus-free C. parasitica strains isolated from either inactive or active cankers on chestnut seedlings and sprouts. In the seedling experiment, we assessed canker growth and seedling mortality. In the sprout experiment, we also assessed canker growth and made fungal reisolations to determine virus infection and immigration of foreign vegetative compatibility (vc) types over a period of 13 years in a coppice forest. Overall, the virulence of virus-free C. parasitica strains isolated from inactive versus active cankers did not differ. Significant differences were only attributed to virus infection. Virus infection and fungal strain composition in cankers changed over time. Foreign vc types immigrated into cankers and virus-free cankers became virus-infected within a few years. Most of the cankers were callused over time and became inactive. However, we observed that the virus did not always persist in these cankers. This study demonstrates that virus spread occurs effectively in European chestnut forests and that this biocontrol system is highly dynamic.

  1. Removal of water turbidity by natural coagulants obtained from chestnut and acorn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sćiban, Marina; Klasnja, Mile; Antov, Mirjana; Skrbić, Biljana

    2009-12-01

    The ability of seed extracts of several species of chestnut and acorn to act as natural coagulants was tested using a synthetic turbid water. Active components were extracted from ground seeds of Horse chestnut and acorns of some species of family Fagaceae: Common oak, Turkey oak, Northern red oak and European chestnut. All investigated extracts had coagulation capabilities and their amounts depended on pH values and initial turbidities. The seed extracts from European chestnut and Common oak acorn were the most efficient expressing the highest coagulation activities, about 80% and 70%, respectively, in both low and medium investigated water turbidities at the lowest coagulant dose 0.5 ml/L.

  2. Property Comparison of Chestnut Starch and Modified Chestnut Starch%板栗淀粉与板栗变性淀粉性质的比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁建兰; 刘秀凤; 李志博; 马宏峰; 蔡金星; 常学东

    2011-01-01

    比较了板栗淀粉,板栗氧化淀粉,板栗羟丙基淀粉,板栗磷酸酯淀粉的主要物理性质并测定了板栗淀粉及其3种变性淀粉的冻融稳定性、透光率、溶解性和膨胀度、糊化特性等性质.结果表明:板栗淀粉经过变性后,3种变性淀粉的冻融稳定性和透光率上升,溶解度变大;氧化淀粉和羟丙基淀粉的膨胀度小于板栗淀粉,磷酸酯淀粉的膨胀度大于板栗淀粉;板栗淀粉糊的糊化温度,峰值黏度、95℃的黏度与50℃的黏度以及在二者温度保温1 h的黏度值均低于板栗淀粉;板栗变性淀粉糊的热黏度稳定性和冷黏度稳定性与板栗淀粉相比变化较大;板栗变性淀粉的凝胶性和凝沉性均低于板栗淀粉,抗老化能力强于板栗淀粉.%The properties of chestnut starch, oxidized chestnut starch, and hydroxypropylated chestnut starch were compared and the physical properties such as freeze -melt stability, light transmissivity, solubility, expansibility,and gelatinization were studied.Results: The freeze - melt stability and light transmissivity of chestnut starch rise and solubility is enhanced after the modification.The expansibilities of oxidized chestnut starch and hydroxypropyl chestnut starch are lower than chestnut starch, while those of carboxymethyl chestnut starch are higher.The pasting temperature,peak viscosity,95 ℃ viscosity,50 ℃ viscosity and their final viscosity of the modified chestnut starch are lower than chestnut starch.Differences are found in thermal -viscosity and cool paste viscosity between modified chestnut starch paste and chestnut starch paste.The gelatin and sink stability of the modified starch are lower than chestnut starch and the anti -aging ability of the modified starch is strengthened.

  3. Bacterial expression of an active class Ib chitinase from Castanea sativa cotyledons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allona, I; Collada, C; Casado, R; Paz-Ares, J; Aragoncillo, C

    1996-12-01

    Ch3, an endochitinase of 32 kDa present in Castanea sativa cotyledons, showed in vitro antifungal properties when assayed against Trichoderma viride. The characterization of a cDNA clone corresponding to this protein indicated that Ch3 is a class Ib endochitinase that is synthesized as a preprotein with a signal sequence preceding the mature polypeptide. Bacterial expression of mature Ch3 fused to the leader peptide of the periplasmic protein ompT resulted in active Ch3 enzyme. A plate assay was adapted for semi-quantitative determination of chitinase activity secreted from cultured bacteria, which should facilitate the identification of mutants with altered capacity to hydrolyse chitin.

  4. Population genetic characteristics of horse chestnut in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ocokoljić Mirjana

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The general population genetic characteristics of cultivated horse chestnut trees excelling in growth, phenotype characteristics, type of inflorescence, productivity and resistance to the leafminer Cameraria ohridella Deschka and Dimić were analyzed in Serbia. The analyzed population genetic parameters point to fundamental differences in the genetic structure among the cultivated populations in Serbia. The study shows the variability in all properties among the populations and inter-individual variability within the populations. The variability and differential characteristics were assessed using statistical parameters, taking into account the satisfactory reflection of the hereditary potential. The assessed differences in the vitality and evolution potential of different populations can determine the methods of horse chestnut gene pool collection, reconstruction and improvement. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 31041: Establishment of Wood Plantations Intended for a forestation of Serbia

  5. Nontargeted GC-MS approach for volatile profile of toasting in cherry, chestnut, false acacia, and ash wood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández de Simón, Brígida; Sanz, Miriam; Cadahía, Estrella; Esteruelas, Enrique; Muñoz, Angel María

    2014-05-01

    By using a nontargeted GC-MS approach, 153 individual volatile compounds were found in extracts from untoasted, light toasted and medium-toasted cherry, chestnut, false acacia, as well as European and American ash wood, used in cooperage for aging wines, spirits and other beverages. In all wood types, the toasting provoked a progressive increase in carbohydrate derivatives, lactones and lignin constituents, along with a variety of other components, thus increasing the quantitative differences among species with the toasting intensity. The qualitative differences in the volatile profiles allow for identifying woods from cherry (being p-anisylalcohol, p-anisylaldehyde, p-anisylacetone, methyl benzoate and benzyl salicylate detected only in this wood), chestnut (cis and trans whisky lactone) and false acacia (resorcinol, 3,4-dimethoxyphenol, 2,4-dihydroxy benzaldehyde, 2,4-dihydroxyacetophenone, 2,4-dihydroxypropiophenone and 2,4-dihydroxy-3-methoxyacetophenone), but not those from ash, because of the fact that all compounds present in this wood are detected in at least one other. However, the quantitative differences can be clearly used to identify toasted ash wood, with tyrosol being most prominent, but 2-furanmethanol, 3- and 4-ethylcyclotene, α-methylcrotonolactone, solerone, catechol, 3-methylcatechol and 3-hydroxybenzaldehyde as well. Regarding oak wood, its qualitative volatile profile could be enough to distinguish it from cherry and acacia woods, and the quantitative differences from chestnut (vanillyl ethyl ether, isoacetovanillone, butirovanillone, 1-(5-methyl-2-furyl)-2-propanone and 4-hydroxy-5,6-dihydro-(2H)-pyran-2-one) and ash toasted woods. PMID:24809897

  6. Diversidad vegetal y tratamientos forestales en parcelas de castaño (Castanea sativa Mill. de dos regiones mediterráneas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gondard, H.

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available During the last few decades; marked land use changes have taken place throughout the Mediterranean region. These changes have a great impact on plant diversity and also affect the current ecosystem functioning. This is particularly true for sweet chestnut (Castanea sativa Mill. stands (groves or coppices that have been more or less abandoned from the end of the last century. Thus; our objective was to analyze consequences on plant species diversity of various management types in chestnut stands of two Mediterranean areas; the Cévennes in France; and Mt. Etna in Italy. Our results indicate that there are few species in common between the two Mediterranean areas; only less than 9%. These differences can be explained by different ecological conditions (climate; soil type; etc. between the two areas; but also by the differences of management type (groves and coppice stands in the Cévennes; only coppice stands on Mt. Etna or stand characteristics (shoot density; diameter at breast height; etc.. Moreover; plant species diversity is different according to management types. Indeed; we found that plant species diversity is higher in groves than in coppice stands. VSfe also demonstrated that C. sativa cultivated groves were generally characterized by small heliophilous therophytes. C. sativa abandoned groves; young C. sativa coppice stands were characterized by hemicryptophytes with anemochorous dispersal mode and chamaephytes. Medium and old C. sativa coppice stands (that differ by the shoot age were more particularly characterized by phanerophytes with zoochorous dispersal mode. A consequence of chestnut stands abandonment is homogeneous vegetation with decreasing plant diversity. One solution could be to maintain a landscape mosaic of diverse chestnut stands diversely modified by human activities. This could allow enhancing the high regional plant diversity.

    [fr] Ces dernières décades les changements subis

  7. 75 FR 30313 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 90-Day Finding on a Petition To List Castanea pumila

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    ..., and sheltering; (b) Genetics and taxonomy; (c) Historical and current range, including distribution... scientific or commercial information indicating that the petitioned action may be warranted. We are to base... Federal Action On July 1, 1975 (40 FR 27924), Castanea pumila var. ozarkensis was included as one of...

  8. Effects of long-term supplementation of chestnut and valonea extracts on methane release, digestibility and nitrogen excretion in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wischer, G; Greiling, A M; Boguhn, J; Steingass, H; Schollenberger, M; Hartung, K; Rodehutscord, M

    2014-06-01

    The long-term effects of adding chestnut (CHE; Castanea sativa) and valonea (VAL; Quercus valonea) tannin-rich extracts to sheep feed were investigated. In Experiment 1, sheep (65 kg BW) were fed 842 g/day of a ryegrass-based hay. The control-treated animals (CON) received 464 g/day of concentrate, and tannin-treated animals received the same amount of concentrate additionally containing 20 g of the respective tannin-rich extract. Hay and concentrates were offered together in one meal. After the onset of treatment, methane release was measured in respiration chambers for 23.5-h intervals (nine times) in a 190-days period. Faeces and urine were collected three times (including once before the onset of the tannin treatment) to assess digestibility and urinary excretion of purine derivatives. Based on the results obtained from Experiment 1, a second experiment (Experiment 2) was initiated, in which the daily tannin dosage was almost doubled (from 0.9 (Experiment 1) to 1.7 g/kg BW0.75). With the exception of the dosage and duration of the treatment (85 days), Experiment 2 followed the same design as Experiment 1, with the same measurements. In an attempt to compare in vitro and in vivo effects of tannin supplementation, the same substrates and tannin treatments were examined in the Hohenheim gas test. In vitro methane production was not significantly different between treatments. None of the tannin-rich extract doses induced a reduction in methane in the sheep experiments. On the 1st day of tannin feeding in both experiments, tannin inclusion tended to decrease methane release, but this trend disappeared by day 14 in both experiments. In balance period 3 of Experiment 1, lower dry matter and organic matter digestibility was noted for tannin treatments. The digestibility of CP, but not NDF or ADF, was reduced in both experiments. A significant shift in N excretion from urine to faeces was observed for both tannin-rich extracts in both experiments, particularly in

  9. Changes in leaf tissues of common horse chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum L.) colonised by the horse-chestnut leaf miner (Cameraria ochridella Deschka and Dimić)

    OpenAIRE

    Elżbieta Weryszko-Chmielewska; Weronika Haratym

    2012-01-01

    The present study, conducted during the period 2010- 2011, involved morphological observations and anatomical investigations of horse chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum L.) leaves with symptoms of damage caused by feeding of larvae of the horse-chestnut leaf miner (Cameraria ohridella Deschka & Dimić). Leaves were collected from trees growing in the city of Lublin (Poland). Microscopic slides were prepared from fresh and fixed plant material. Leaf anatomical features were examined by light micr...

  10. Spoilage fungi and their mycotoxins in commercially marketed chestnuts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Overy, David Patrick; Seifert, K.A.; Savard, M.E.;

    2003-01-01

    A nationwide survey was carried out to assess mould spoilage of Castanea sativa nuts sold in Canadian grocery stores in 1998-99. Morphological and cultural characters, along with secondary metabolite profiles derived from thin-layer chromatography, were used to sort and identify fungi cultured fr...... emodin has been found in a naturally contaminated food source....... nut tissue. Three mycotoxigenic fungi dominated (Penicillium crustosum, Penicillium glabrum/spinulosum and Penicillium discolor) and were isolated at frequencies of 67.1%, 18.6% and 17.7%, respectively, from a total sample size of 350 nuts. Another mycotoxin producer, Aspergillus ochraceus was also...... isolated, but at a much lower frequency. HPLC and diode array detection were used to confirm the suspected presence of the mycotoxins penitrem A, chactoglobosin A and C, emodin and ochratoxin A in extracts prepared from naturally infected nut tissue. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time...

  11. Standards in chestnut coppice system: cultural heritage or coltural requirement?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manetti MC

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Standards in chestnut coppice system: cultural heritage or coltural requirement? This paper aims at evaluating the role of standards in chestnut coppices from a biological and functional perspective. In addition to a detailed analysis of Italian regulations on the issue, the technical definition of the term is analysed: (i as for the functional role of standards; (ii to assess whether the required functions are technically necessary and are being actually performed. In this contex, the results of an experimental trial are reported. The goal of the trial were to assess the shoots’ parameters, the stand productivity, the dynamics of canopy cover in coppices with or without standards. In 2001, at harvesting operations in a coppice aged 30 with standards managed by the local community, two experimental plots 2500 m2 each were established. The two theses being compared were: simple coppice and coppixce with standards (100 standards per hectare. The released standards were qualified immediately after final harvesting. Sprouting ability, growth pattern and stool vitality were surveyed in March 2004 (at age 2, in May 2008 (at age 6 and in April 2010 (at age 8. First results highlighted the evidence of statistically significant differences between the two thesis. The high number of standards effected negatively both vitality and growth pattern of the stools. Simple coppice recorded a lower shoot mortality, a higher diametrical growth and canopy cover degree as well; the heigth growth was, on the opposite, significantly lower. These results, although referred to a limited lifespan (1/3 of the rotation time and to one site only, underline productive, ecological and environmental benefits and as a consequence suggest the widening of the experimental network and the development of new, more relevant and consistent rules, making acceptable the simple coppice as a possible silvicultural choice to be applied to chestnut coppices.

  12. Somatic Embryogenesis in Horse Chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capuana, Maurizio

    2016-01-01

    Embryogenic cultures of horse chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum L.) can be obtained from different organs and tissues. We describe here the induction from stamen filaments and the procedures applied for the successive phases of somatic embryo development and maturation. Embryogenic tissues are obtained on Murashige and Skoog medium containing 9.0 μM 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid. Somatic embryos develop after transfer to hormone-free medium enriched with glutamine. Maturation and germination of isolated embryos are achieved by transfer to medium containing polyethylene glycol 4000 and activated charcoal, successive desiccation treatment, and cold storage at 4 °C for 8 weeks. PMID:26619878

  13. CTAB-silica Method for DNA Extraction and Purification from Castanea mollissima and Ginkgo biloba

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shen Yongbao; Shi Jisen

    2003-01-01

    A new method CTAB-silica for DNA extraction and purification from the leaves and buds of Castanea mollissima and Ginkgo biloba was tested. The method is based on the silica-based purification protocol developed by Boom et al. (1990). By modifying the protocol, plant genome DNA could be extracted easily from dormant buds, mature leaves, and other parts of plant. Our results showed that the purified DNA was of high purity and could be analyzed by PCR. Furthermore, this CTAB-silica method took much less time for a successful DNA purification process compared to the traditional methods (CTAB and SDS). By our method, the suitable DNA can be extracted and purified from over 10 plant samples by one person in an hour.

  14. 27 - Micorrização in vitro de plantas micropropagadas de castanheiro: Castanea sativa Mill

    OpenAIRE

    Martins, Anabela

    1997-01-01

    A cultura de Castanea sativa Mill. nas zonas temperadas assume uma grande importância, quer pela produção de castanha, quer pela de madeira. A micropropagação afigura-se como uma boa técnica de propagação vegetativa, uma vez que as técnicas convencionais se revelam muito dificeis com esta espécie. A aclimatação de plantas micropropagadas é normalmente, um problema que pode ser minimizado com a micorrização das raízes dessas plantas. A micorrização in vitro foi induzida em germinantes e em...

  15. Production rate of pollen grains of castanea crenata in a quercus serrata secondary forest

    OpenAIRE

    Kiyonaga, Jota

    1995-01-01

    The production rate of pollen grains of Castanea crenata in a secondary Quercus serrata forest was determined in 1990-1993, based on the number of pollen grains per male catkin and annual fall rate of male catkins. The latter parameter was measured using six litter traps. The annual production rate of pollen grains in 1990-1992 was 9.7×10^<11>-3.7×10^<12>no.ha^<-1>yr^<-1>. The mean value for the four years was 2.0×10^<12>no.ha^<-1>yr^<-1>. Resumo Produktaĵo de poleneroj (no.ha^<-1>yr^<-1>) de...

  16. Ectomycorrhizae of Tuber huidongense and T. liyuanum with Castanea mollissima and Pinus armandii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Shan-Ping; Yu, Fu-Qiang; Tang, Li; Wang, Ran; Wang, Yun; Liu, Pei-Gui; Wang, Xiang-Hua; Zheng, Yi

    2016-04-01

    Tuber huidongense and T. liyuanum are common commercial white truffles in China that belong to the Rufum and Puberulum groups of the genus Tuber, respectively. Their mycorrhizae were successfully synthesized with two native trees--Castanea mollissima and Pinus armandii--under greenhouse conditions. The identities of the mycorrhizae were confirmed through internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequence analyses, and their morphological characteristics were described. All of the obtained mycorrhizae have an interlocking pseudoparenchymatous mantle, which is a typical feature of truffle mycorrhizae. The mycorrhizae of T. huidongense on the two trees have hyaline branched emanating hyphae, similar to the documented mycorrhizae of the Rufum group. The unramified, spiky, and hyaline cystidia on the mycorrhizae of T. liyuanum with both C. mollissima and P. armandii further confirmed that this characteristic is constant for the mycorrhizae of the Puberulum group. The successful mycorrhizal syntheses on the two nut-producing trees will be of economic importance in the cultivation of the two truffles. PMID:26452572

  17. Light energy management in micropropagated plants of Castanea sativa, effects of photoinhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sáez, Patricia L; Bravo, León A; Latsague, Mirtha I; Toneatti, Marcelo J; Sánchez-Olate, Manuel; Ríos, Darcy G

    2013-03-01

    The limited development of photoprotective mechanisms, specifically heat dissipation capacity, found in micropropagated plants may be the result of low xanthophyll cycle pigment content and reduced de-epoxidation capacity making them highly susceptible to photodamage. The effects of gradual or sudden increase of light on Castanea sativa in vitro cultured and during their ex vitro transference was evaluated. The results were compared with those determined in nursery-grown plants. In vitro plants responded poorly to gradual increase in irradiance, exhibiting a low electron transport rate (ETR) agreeing with low non-photochemical quenching (NPQ) and a limited de-epoxidation capacity, not synthesizing detectable amounts of zeaxanthin (Z). Regarding a sudden increase in light (photoinhibition treatment, PhT); post-PhT as in vitro as well nursery plants showed a significant decrease in their maximal efficiency of PSII (F(v)/F(m)), but in vitro the decrease was very drastic (around 0.2) different from that observed in nursery (around 0.69). In vitro, NPQ was mainly determined by the slow relaxing component, NPQ(s) (80.8%), concomitant with a pronounced decrease of D1 protein post-PhT, and a lack of de-epoxidation capacity. During ex vitro transfer, PhT lead to death of some plants, specifically during root induction. The photoprotective mechanisms were activated over time in ex vitro conditions, indicating that micropropagated Castanea sativa display a potential for light acclimation, adjusting their photosynthetic apparatus to the ambient growth irradiance. Understanding the mechanisms that micropropagated plants deployed and how they face high light intensity events, will allow us to search for strategies to improve performance to possible light fluctuations that normally occur in ex vitro conditions during plant acclimation.

  18. Identification of horse chestnut coat color genotype using SNaPshot®

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Estonba Andone

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Cantabrian Coast horse breeds of the Iberian Peninsula have mainly black or bay colored coats, but alleles responsible for a chestnut coat color run in these breeds and occasionally, chestnut horses are born. Chestnut coat color is caused by two recessive alleles, e and ea, of the melanocortin-1 receptor gene, whereas the presence of the dominant, wild-type E allele produces black or bay coat horses. Because black or bay colored coats are considered as the purebred phenotype for most of the breeds from this region, it is important to have a fast and reliable method to detect alleles causing chestnut coat color in horses. Findings In order to assess coat color genotype in reproductive animals with a view to avoiding those bearing chestnut alleles, we have developed a reliable, fast and cost-effective screening device which involves Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP detection based on SNaPshot® (Applied Biosystems methodology. We have applied this method to four native breeds from the Iberian Cantabrian Coast: Pottoka and Jaca Navarra pony breeds, in which only black or bay coats are acceptable, and Euskal Herriko Mendiko Zaldia and Burguete heavy breeds, in which chestnut coats are acceptable. The frequency of the chestnut alleles ranged between f = 0.156-0.322 in pony breeds and between f = 0.604-0.716 in heavy breeds. Conclusions This study demonstrates the usefulness of the DNA methodology reported herein as a device for identifying chestnut alleles; the methodology constitutes a valuable tool for breeders to decrease the incidence of chestnut animals among Cantabrian Coast pony breeds.

  19. Applying Hotspot Detection Methods in Forestry: A Case Study of Chestnut Oak Regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Songlin Fei

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Hotspot detection has been widely adopted in health sciences for disease surveillance, but rarely in natural resource disciplines. In this paper, two spatial scan statistics (SaTScan and ClusterSeer and a nonspatial classification and regression trees method were evaluated as techniques for identifying chestnut oak (Quercus Montana regeneration hotspots among 50 mixed-oak stands in the central Appalachian region of the eastern United States. Hotspots defined by the three methods had a moderate level of conformity and revealed similar chestnut oak regeneration site affinity. Chestnut oak regeneration hotspots were positively associated with the abundance of chestnut oak trees in the overstory and a moderate cover of heather species (Vaccinium and Gaylussacia spp. but were negatively associated with the abundance of hayscented fern (Dennstaedtia punctilobula and mountain laurel (Kalmia latiforia. In general, hotspot detection is a viable tool for assisting natural resource managers with identifying areas possessing significantly high or low tree regeneration.

  20. Complete mitochondrial genome sequence of Chestnut-flanked white-eye (Zosterops erythropleurus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yumei; Yao, Jiyuan; Zhao, Xin; Li, Lingyu; Yan, Shouqing

    2016-09-01

    The Chestnut-flanked white-eye (Zosterops erythropleurus) is a species of family Zosteropidae, which is distributed widely in the world. In the present study, the complete mitochondrial genome sequence of Chestnut-flanked white-eye was determined. It has a total length of 17 811 bp, and contains 13 protein-coding genes, 22 tRNA genes, 2 ribosome RNA genes and 2 control regions. The total base composition was 30.2% for A, 31.0% for C, 14.2% for G and 24.6% for T. The phylogenetic tree of Chestnut-flanked white-eye and 13 other species belonging to the order Passeriformes was built. The molecular data presented here will be useful to study the evolutionary relationships and genetic diversity of Chestnut-flanked white-eye. PMID:26260179

  1. Horse chestnut – efficacy and safety in chronic venous insufficiency: an overview

    OpenAIRE

    Marlena Dudek-Makuch; Elżbieta Studzińska-Sroka

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACTThe extract from horse chestnut seeds (Aesculus hippocastanumL., Sapindaceae), standardised for the content of aescin, is used as the treatment for chronic venous insufficiency. It has anti-inflammatory and anti-oedematous properties and indicates a positive effect on the venous tone, rheological properties, and blood coagulability. The mechanism of horse chestnut seed extract/aescin activity was proposed on the basis of in vitro and in vivo studies, and its effectiveness was document...

  2. Influence of gamma radiation on the antioxidant properties of edible chestnuts

    OpenAIRE

    Antonio, Amilcar L.; Ferreira, Isabel C.F.R.; Bento, Albino; Teubig, P.; Botelho, M. Luísa

    2010-01-01

    As seasonal products chestnut have to be postharvest treated to increase the shelf-life. Several problems are associated with traditional preservation methods. These are a decreasing in quality due to dehydration and contamination with insects and microbes including secondary metabolites, e.g.: mycotoxin. The most common preservation method for chestnuts is the use of chemical fumigation with methyl bromide. Methyl bromide is a toxic agent and has been banned according to the M...

  3. Carbon sequestration for different management alternatives in sweet chestnut coppice in northern Spain

    OpenAIRE

    Prada, Marta; Bravo Oviedo, Felipe; Berdasco, Lorena; Canga, Elena; Martínez Alonso, Celia

    2016-01-01

    This paper provides an innovative approach to assessing carbon sequestration in sweet chestnut coppice taking into account the importance of carbon fluxes in the whole forest-industry value chain in the mitigation of climate change. The goals of this study were: to evaluate the baseline carbon capture of sweet chestnut forest in the north of Spain; to assess the effect of thinning and extending the rotation period on carbon storage; and to evaluate the substitution effect of using...

  4. Chestnut Lodge and the psychoanalytic approach to psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kafka, John S

    2011-02-01

    The study of psychosis has a long history in psychoanalysis, as does the debate over the suitability of psychoanalysis for treating schizophrenia. For decades, Chestnut Lodge was not only a hospital but also a clinical research and educational institution. A unique patient-staff ratio--about twenty analytic therapists for a hundred patients--made possible prolonged and intense clinical work with schizophrenic and other severely disturbed patients. Interstaff discussions were encouraged and facilitated. This quasi-academic approach to in-depth individual case studies led to clinical findings and theoretical formulations that had a significant impact on developments in psychoanalysis, both here and abroad. Many of these findings and theoretical formulations are relevant to current studies and treatments of psychotic and nonpsychotic patients.

  5. Effect of Different Hydrocolloids on Pasting Behavior of Native Water Chestnut (Trapa bispinosa Starch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zubala Lutfi

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The pasting behavior of native Water Chestnut Starch – hydrocolloids mixtures was studied. The effect of Xanthan, Guar, Carboxy Methyl Cellulose and Acacia on Water Chestnut Starch was examined by using micro Viscoamylograph. It was noticed that all hydrocolloids greatly modify the pasting properties of water chestnut starch. Results showed that gelatinization temperature of water chestnut starch was increased by the addition of gum acacia at 0.3 % concentration, whereas guar gum decreased at the same concentration as compared to native water chestnut starch. Xanthan gum and guar gum significantly increased peak viscosity at 0.1 – 0.3 %, but gum acacia at only 0.3 % addition. The breakdown was greatly enhanced by the addition of xanthan gum at 0.1-0.3 % concentrations, but the retrogradation was mostly influenced due to the presence of guar gum at 0.3 %. These results showed that hydrocolloids modify the properties of native water chestnut starch, which can provide a great potential for use in different food products.

  6. Horse chestnut – efficacy and safety in chronic venous insufficiency: an overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlena Dudek-Makuch

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTThe extract from horse chestnut seeds (Aesculus hippocastanumL., Sapindaceae, standardised for the content of aescin, is used as the treatment for chronic venous insufficiency. It has anti-inflammatory and anti-oedematous properties and indicates a positive effect on the venous tone, rheological properties, and blood coagulability. The mechanism of horse chestnut seed extract/aescin activity was proposed on the basis of in vitro and in vivo studies, and its effectiveness was documented with numerous randomised clinical trials. The results of the studies have proven that horse chestnut seed extract not only significantly improves subjective symptoms in patients with chronic venous insufficiency like calf spasm, leg pain, pruritus, fatigue, but it also reduced leg volume, the ankle and calf circumference. The preparations containing horse chestnut seed extract are very popular and they have similar effectiveness as compression therapy and a preparation with O-(β-hydroxyethyl-rutosides. Moreover, horse chestnut seed extract has been proven to be safe and very well tolerated. The study was to present the results of the studies that have been conducted so far and that have confirmed the effectiveness of use of horse chestnut seed extract or aescin as the treatment for chronic venous insufficiency.

  7. Acute Effusive Pericarditis due to Horse Chestnut Consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edem, Efe; Kahyaoğlu, Behlül; Çakar, Mehmet Akif

    2016-01-01

    Patient: Male, 32 Final Diagnosis: Pericardial effusion related to the consumption of herbal product Symptoms: Dyspnea Medication: Horse chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum L) Clinical Procedure: Pericardial and pleural effusions were drained through a pericardiopleural window Specialty: Cardiology Objective: Unusual clinical course Background: There are many well-known causes of pericardial effusion, such as cancer metastasis, bacterial or viral pericarditis, and uremic pericarditis; however, no reports exist in the literature demonstrating a pericardial effusion that led to cardiac tamponade following consumption of an herbal remedy. Case Report: A 32-year-old male patient was referred to our cardiology outpatient clinic with a complaint of dyspnea. The patient’s medical history was unremarkable; however, he had consumed 3 boxes of horse chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum L) paste over the previous 1.5 months. His chest x-ray examination revealed an enlarged cardiac shadow and bilateral pleural effusion. On transthoracic echocardiographic examination, his ejection fraction was found to be 55% with circumferentially extended pericardial effusion that reached 3.9 cm at its maximal thickness. No growth had been detected in the pericardial and pleural biopsies or blood samples; there was no evidence of an infectious process in the physical examination. Based on this information, we diagnosed pericarditis resulting from the use of herbal remedies. This is the first report to demonstrate that herbal remedy consumption may cause this type of clinical condition. Conclusions: Besides other well-known causes, pericardial effusion related to the consumption of herbal remedies should always be considered when treating patients with pericardial effusion caused by unclear etiologies. PMID:27141926

  8. Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Water Chestnut Extract on Cytokine Responses via Nuclear Factor-κB-signaling Pathway

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Bora; Kim, Jin Eun; Choi, Byung-Kook; Kim, Hyun-Soo

    2015-01-01

    Water chestnut (Trapa japonica Flerov.) is an annual aquatic plant. In the present study, we showed that the treatment of water chestnut extracted with boiling water resulted in a significant increase 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical-scavenging activity and decrease the intracellular H2O2-induced accumulation of reactive oxygen species. In addition, water chestnut extract (WCE) inhibited lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced nitric oxide production and suppressed mRNA and protein expre...

  9. Extracellular superoxide production, viability and redox poise in response to desiccation in recalcitrant Castanea sativa seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roach, Thomas; Beckett, Richard P; Minibayeva, Farida V; Colville, Louise; Whitaker, Claire; Chen, Hongying; Bailly, Christophe; Kranner, Ilse

    2010-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are implicated in seed death following dehydration in desiccation-intolerant 'recalcitrant' seeds. However, it is unknown if and how ROS are produced in the apoplast and if they play a role in stress signalling during desiccation. We studied intracellular damage and extracellular superoxide (O(2)(.-)) production upon desiccation in Castanea sativa seeds, mechanisms of O(2)(.-) production and the effect of exogenously supplied ROS. A transient increase in extracellular O(2)(.-) production by the embryonic axes preceded significant desiccation-induced viability loss. Thereafter, progressively more oxidizing intracellular conditions, as indicated by a significant shift in glutathione half-cell reduction potential, accompanied cell and axis death, coinciding with the disruption of nuclear membranes. Most hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2))-dependent O(2)(.-) production was found in a cell wall fraction that contained extracellular peroxidases (ECPOX) with molecular masses of approximately 50 kDa. Cinnamic acid was identified as a potential reductant required for ECPOX-mediated O(2)(.-) production. H(2)O(2), applied exogenously to mimic the transient ROS burst at the onset of desiccation, counteracted viability loss of sub-lethally desiccation-stressed seeds and of excised embryonic axes grown in tissue culture. Hence, extracellular ROS produced by embryonic axes appear to be important signalling components involved in wound response, regeneration and growth.

  10. Nutritional, fatty acid and triacylglycerol profiles of Castanea sativa Mill. cultivars: a compositional and chemometric approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barreira, João C M; Casal, Susana; Ferreira, Isabel C F R; Oliveira, M Beatriz P P; Pereira, José Alberto

    2009-04-01

    Four Portuguese chestnut cultivars from the "Castanha da Terra Fria" protected designation of origin were selected: Aveleira, Boa Ventura, Judia and Longal. The nutritional parameters (moisture, fat, protein, carbohydrates, ash and energy) as well as fibers (neutral detergent fiber, acid detergent fiber, acid detergent lignin and cellulose) were characterized. Moisture was the major component followed by carbohydrates, protein and fat, resulting in an energetic value lower than 195 kcal/100 g of fresh fruit. In order to find significant differences among cultivars, the lipidic fraction was studied in detail. Fatty acids (FA) were determined by gas-liquid chromatography with flame ionization detection, revealing a clear prevalence of C18:1 and C18:2, two FA very well-known due to their beneficial effects on human health, e.g., in the prevention of cardiovascular diseases. A triacylglycerols (TAG) profile was obtained by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography with evaporative light-scattering detection. TAG analysis is very important because it furnishes highly specific information due to genetic control of the stereospecific distribution of FA on the glycerol molecule. OLL, PLL, OOL and POL were the major compounds. As far as we know this is the first complete characterization of TAG in chestnut. The obtained data were screened through an analysis of variance (to evaluate the accuracy of the method as well as the uniformity of results for each cultivar) and a discriminant analysis (DA), which gave good results, once that, in some cases, the four cultivars were clustered in four individual groups, obtained through the definition of two DA dimensions.

  11. Assessing potential changes of chestnut productivity in Europe under future climate conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calheiros, T.; Pereira, M. G.; Pinto, J. G.; Caramelo, L.; Gomes-Laranjo, J.; Dacamara, C. C.

    2012-04-01

    The European chestnut is cultivated for its nuts and wood. Several studies point to the dependency of chestnut productivity on specific soil and climate characteristics. For instance, this species dislikes chalky and poorly drained soils, appreciates sedimentary, siliceous and acidic to neutral soils. Chestnut trees also seems to appreciate annual mean values of sunlight spanning between 2400 and 2600 h, rainfall ranging between 600 and 1500 mm, mean annual temperature between 9 and 13°C, 27°C being the mean of the maximum temperature (Heiniger and Conedera, 1992; Gomes-Laranjo et al.,2008). The amount of heat between May and October must range between 1800°D and 2400°D (Dinis et al., 2011) . In Poland, the growing season is defined as the period of time when the mean 24-h temperature is greater than 5°C (Wilczynski and Podalski, 2007). In Portugal, maximum photosynthetic activity occurs at 24-28°C for adult trees, but exhibits more than 50% of termoinhibition when the air temperature is above 32°C, which is frequent during summer (Gomes- Laranjo et al., 2006, 2008). Recently Pereira et al (2011) identified a set of meteorological variables/parameters with high impact on chestnut productivity. The main purpose of this work is to assess the potential impacts of future climate change on chestnut productivity in Portugal as well as on European chestnut orchards. First, observed data from the European Climate assessment (ECA) and simulations with the Regional Circulation Model (RCM) COSMO-CLM for recent climate conditions are used to assess the ability of the RCM to model the actual meteorological conditions. Then, ensemble projections from the ECHAM5/COSMO-CLM model chain for two climate scenarios (A1B and B1) are used to estimate the values of relevant meteorological variables and parameters und future climate conditions. Simulated values are then compared with those obtained for present climate. Results point to changes in the spatial and temporal

  12. Physico-chemical, morphological and pasting properties of starches extracted from water Chestnuts (Trapa natans) from three Lakes of Kashmir, India

    OpenAIRE

    Adil Gani; Sham Sul Haq; F.A. Masoodi; A. A. Broadway; Asir Gani

    2010-01-01

    Studies on physicochemical, morphology and pasting properties of starches extracted from water chestnuts of three Lakes of Kashmir valley (Wular, Anchar and Dal Lakes) were conducted to determine their application in different food products. The water chestnut starch from Dal Lake had more oval shaped granules than water chestnut starches from the Wular and the Anchar Lakes.The unique feature of the water chestnut starches were shape of starch granules which looked like horn(s) protruding fro...

  13. Remedial Investigation Work Plan for Chestnut Ridge Operable Unit 1 (Chestnut Ridge Security Pits) at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Remedial Investigation (RI) Work Plan specifically addresses Chestnut Ridge Operable Unit 1, (OU1) which consists of the Chestnut Ridge Security Pits (CRSP). The CRSP are located ∼800 ft southeast of the central portion of the Y-12 Plant atop Chestnut Ridge, which is bounded to the northwest by Bear Creek Valley and to the southeast by Bethel Valley. Operated from 1973 to 1988, the CRSP consisted of a series of trenches used for the disposal of classified hazardous and nonhazardous waste materials. Disposal of hazardous waste materials was discontinued in December 1984, while nonhazardous waste disposal ended on November 8, 1988. An RI is being conducted at this site in response to CERCLA regulations. The overall objectives of the RI are to collect data necessary to evaluate the nature and extent of contaminants of concern (COC), support an ecological risk assessment (ERA) and a human health risk assessment (HHRA), support the evaluation of remedial alternatives, and ultimately develop a Record of Decision for the site. The purpose of this Work Plan is to outline RI activities necessary to define the nature and extent of suspected contaminants at Chestnut Ridge OU1. Potential migration pathways also will be investigated. Data collected during the RI will be used to evaluate the overall risk posed to human health and the environment by OU1

  14. Remedial Investigation Work Plan for Chestnut Ridge Operable Unit 1 (Chestnut Ridge Security Pits) at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-09-01

    This Remedial Investigation (RI) Work Plan specifically addresses Chestnut Ridge Operable Unit 1, (OU1) which consists of the Chestnut Ridge Security Pits (CRSP). The CRSP are located {approximately}800 ft southeast of the central portion of the Y-12 Plant atop Chestnut Ridge, which is bounded to the northwest by Bear Creek Valley and to the southeast by Bethel Valley. Operated from 1973 to 1988, the CRSP consisted of a series of trenches used for the disposal of classified hazardous and nonhazardous waste materials. Disposal of hazardous waste materials was discontinued in December 1984, while nonhazardous waste disposal ended on November 8, 1988. An RI is being conducted at this site in response to CERCLA regulations. The overall objectives of the RI are to collect data necessary to evaluate the nature and extent of contaminants of concern (COC), support an ecological risk assessment (ERA) and a human health risk assessment (HHRA), support the evaluation of remedial alternatives, and ultimately develop a Record of Decision for the site. The purpose of this Work Plan is to outline RI activities necessary to define the nature and extent of suspected contaminants at Chestnut Ridge OU1. Potential migration pathways also will be investigated. Data collected during the RI will be used to evaluate the overall risk posed to human health and the environment by OU1.

  15. Flavonoids in horse chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum) seeds and powdered waste water byproducts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapusta, Ireneusz; Janda, Bogdan; Szajwaj, Barbara; Stochmal, Anna; Piacente, Sonia; Pizza, Cosimo; Franceschi, Federico; Franz, Chlodwig; Oleszek, Wieslaw

    2007-10-17

    Horse chestnut extracts are widely used in pharmacy and cosmetic industries. The main active constituents are saponins of oleane type, but seeds of horse chestnut also contain flavonoids, being glycosides of quercetin and kaempferol. Their contribution to the overall activity of the extracts was not clear. In the present work, the main flavonoids from horse chestnut seeds were isolated and their structures established with spectral methods. Seven glycosides were isolated, out of which six ( 2, 3, 4, 7, 11, 13) were previously reported and one ( 9) was identified as a new tamarixetin 3- O- [beta- d-glucopyranosyl(1-->3)]- O-beta- d-xylopyranosyl-(1-->2)- O-beta- d-glucopyranoside. The structures of three additional compounds 1, 10, and 12, not previously reported, were deduced on the basis of their LC-ESI/MS/MS fragmentation characteristics. A new ultraperformance liquid chromatographic (UPLC) method has been developed for profiling and quantitation of horse chestnut flavonoids. The method allowed good separation over 4.5 min. Thirteen compounds could be identified in the profile, out of which di- and triglycoisdes of quercetin and kaempferol were the dominant forms and their acylated forms occurred in just trace amounts. The total concentration of flavonoids in the powdered horse chestnut seed was 0.88% of dry matter. The alcohol extract contained 3.46%, and after purification on C18 solid phase, this concentration increased to 9.40% of dry matter. The flavonoid profile and their content were also measured in the horse chestnut wastewater obtained as byproduct in industrial processing of horse chestnut seeds. The total flavonoid concentration in the powder obtained after evaporation of water was 2.58%, while after purification on solid phase, this increased to 11.23% dry matter. It was concluded that flavonoids are present in a horse chestnut extract in a relatively high amount and have the potential to contribute to the overall activity of these extracts

  16. Fruiting characteristics of Castanea mollissima%板栗结实特性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘国彬; 兰彦平; 姚研武; 兰卫宗

    2011-01-01

    The pollination fruiting characteristics of Castanea mollissmia and effects of parents on seed-setting rate and empty-shell rate were studied in this paper. The results showed that there was great difference in bur-setting rate and bud-dropping rate, and the difference in empty-bur rate, seed-setting rate and the number of nuts per bur was significant among different cross combinations. The highest seed-setting rate was observed in cross combination of Hongli × Hebeiduanfeng, and Xionghuabaiyu × Hebeiduanfeng and Yimengduanzhi × Hebeiduanfeng followed it,Chuizhili × Hebeiduanfeng and Hongli × Chuizhili were the lowest, but the empty-bur rate of which were the highest.The hybrid results were different among different male parents and female parents because of compatibility. The seedsetting rate, empty-bur rate and number of nuts per bur were different among four cross combinations whose male parent was Hebeiduanfeng and two cross combinations whose female parent was Hongli. It was also discovered that there was little relationship between involucre development and nuts in it. According to the results, the better the compatibility between parents, the lower the empty-bur rate and the higher the seed-setting rate. Therefore, the selection of pollination trees with good compatibility showed important significance in practical production of Castanea mollissima.%研究并探讨了部分板栗良种间的授粉结实特性以及不同亲本对板栗结实率、空苞率等的影响.人工授粉杂交结果表明,不同品种间杂交,座苞率、落苞率有较大差异,结实率、空苞率、坚果数/结实苞在小同杂交组合间也存在明显差异,‘红栗×河北短丰'结实率最高,空苞率较低,其次为‘雄花败育×河北短丰'以及‘沂蒙短枝×河北短丰',‘垂枝栗×河北短丰'和‘红栗×垂枝栗'结实率最低,空苞率却最高.同一父(母)本不同母(父)本间由于亲和性不同也使杂交结果差异较大,以‘

  17. [Effects of fertilization on soil CO2 flux in Castanea mollissima stand].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jiao-Jiao; Li, Yong-Fu; Jiang, Pei-Kun; Zhou, Guo-Mo; Shen, Zhen-Ming; Liu, Juan; Wang, Zhan-Lei

    2013-09-01

    In June 2011-June 2012, a fertilization experiment was conducted in a typical Castanea mollissima stand in Lin' an of Zhejiang Province, East China to study the effects of inorganic and organic fertilization on the soil CO2 flux and the relationships between the soil CO2 flux and environmental factors. Four treatments were installed, i. e., no fertilization (CK), inorganic fertilization (IF), organic fertilization (OF), half organic plus half inorganic fertilization (OIF). The soil CO2 emission rate was determined by the method of static closed chamber/GC technique, and the soil temperature, soil moisture content, and soil water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC) concentration were determined by routine methods. The soil CO2 emission exhibited a strong seasonal pattern, with the highest rate in July or August and the lowest rate in February. The annual accumulative soil CO2 emission in CK was 27.7 t CO2 x hm(-2) x a(-1), and that in treatments IF, OF, and OIF was 29.5%, 47.0%, and 50.7% higher than the CK, respectively. The soil WSOC concentration in treatment IF (105.1 mg kg(-1)) was significantly higher than that in CK (76.6 mg x kg(-1)), but was obviously lower than that in treatments OF (133.0 mg x kg(-1)) and OIF (121.2 mg x kg(-1)). The temperature sensitivity of respiration (Q10) in treatments CK, IF, OF, and OIF was 1.47, 1.75, 1.49, and 1.57, respectively. The soil CO2 emission rate had significant positive correlations with the soil temperature at the depth of 5 cm and the soil WSOC concentration, but no significant correlation with soil moisture content. The increase of the soil WSOC concentration caused by fertilization was probably one of the reasons for the increase of soil CO2 emission from the C. mollissima stand.

  18. Acute Effusive Pericarditis due to Horse Chestnut Consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edem, Efe; Kahyaoğlu, Behlül; Çakar, Mehmet Akif

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND There are many well-known causes of pericardial effusion, such as cancer metastasis, bacterial or viral pericarditis, and uremic pericarditis; however, no reports exist in the literature demonstrating a pericardial effusion that led to cardiac tamponade following consumption of an herbal remedy. CASE REPORT A 32-year-old male patient was referred to our cardiology outpatient clinic with a complaint of dyspnea. The patient's medical history was unremarkable; however, he had consumed 3 boxes of horse chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum L) paste over the previous 1.5 months. His chest x-ray examination revealed an enlarged cardiac shadow and bilateral pleural effusion. On transthoracic echocardiographic examination, his ejection fraction was found to be 55% with circumferentially extended pericardial effusion that reached 3.9 cm at its maximal thickness. No growth had been detected in the pericardial and pleural biopsies or blood samples; there was no evidence of an infectious process in the physical examination. Based on this information, we diagnosed pericarditis resulting from the use of herbal remedies. This is the first report to demonstrate that herbal remedy consumption may cause this type of clinical condition. CONCLUSIONS Besides other well-known causes, pericardial effusion related to the consumption of herbal remedies should always be considered when treating patients with pericardial effusion caused by unclear etiologies. PMID:27141926

  19. Comparison of Antioxidant Activities of Melanin Fractions from Chestnut Shell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeng-Yu Yao

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Chestnut shell melanin can be used as a colorant and antioxidant, and fractionated into three fractions (Fr. 1, Fr. 2, and Fr. 3 with different physicochemical properties. Antioxidant activities of the fractions were comparatively evaluated for the first time. The fractions exhibited different antioxidative potential in different evaluation systems. Fr. 1, which is only soluble in alkaline water, had the strongest peroxidation inhibition and superoxide anion scavenging activity; Fr. 2, which is soluble in alkaline water and hydrophilic organic solvents but insoluble in neutral and acidic water, had the greatest power to chelate ferrous ions; and Fr. 3, which is soluble both in hydrophilic organic solvents and in water at any pH conditions, had the greatest hydroxyl (·OH and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH· radicals scavenging abilities, reducing power, and phenolic content. The pigment fractions were superior to butylated hydroxytolune (BHT in ·OH and DPPH· scavenging and to ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA in the Fe2+–chelation. They were inferior to BHT in peroxidation inhibition and O2·− scavenging and reducing power. However, BHT is a synthetic antioxidant and cannot play the colorant role. The melanin fractions might be used as effective biological antioxidant colorants.

  20. Subsurface characterization and geohydrologic site evaluation West Chestnut Ridge site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The West Chestnut Ridge Site at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory is being considered for use as a repository for low-level radioactive waste. The purposes of this study were to provide a geohydrological characterization of the site for use in pathways analysis, and to provide preliminary geotechnical recommendations that would be used for development of a site utilization plan. Subsurface conditions were investigated at twenty locations and observation wells were installed. Field testing at each location included the Standard Penetration Test and permeability tests in soil and rock. A well pumping test was ocmpleted at one site. Laboratory testing included permeability, deformability, strength and compaction tests, as well as index and physical property tests. The field investigations showed that the subsurface conditions include residual soil overlying a weathered zone of dolomite which grades into relatively unweathered dolomite at depth. The thickness of residual soil is typically 80 ft (24 m) on the ridges, but can be as little as 10 ft (3 m) in the valleys. Trench excavations to depths of 30 ft (9 m) should not present serious slope stability problems above the water table. On-site soils can be used for liners or trench backfill but these soils may require moisture conditioning to achieve required densities. 19 figures, 8 tables

  1. Post-cultural stand dynamics in an abandoned chestnut coppice at its ecological border

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Until the be­ginning of the last century, chestnut has played an important role as staple food and primary wood source. In many cases it was cultivated at the border of its ecological limits where it was planted by man in place of the original and more site-adapted tree species. However, with the abandonment of the rural activities, ma­nagement of chestnut forests was progressively left starting from more marginal areas, usually occupied by coppice stands. After the interruption of the traditional coppice management system (usual rotation periods of 10-25 years, natural intra- and interspecific competition dynamics have become the driving force of the stand evolution. This may lead to dramatic changes in both structure and species composition of the stands. The aim of this study is to analyse the post-cultural evolution of an abandoned chestnut coppice in the Pesio Valley (Piedmont, Italy in order to highlight the competition among different "basic silvi­cultural components" of the forest using a dendroecological approach. The "basic silvicultural components" are intended as the elements defined as groups of trees of the stand that have similar features such as silvi­culturally relevant attributes: species (chestnut, beech, fir, origin (seed, sprout and cultural age and function (standard/reserve, maiden, shoot, regeneration, dead tree. The mean growth curves of the compo­nents show the different fitness of each category. From a general point of view, the beech and fir components show a better competitive potential in comparison with chestnut. Among chestnut components, maidens from seeds reveal a better growth trend compared to coppice shoots and standards.

  2. PtSRR1, a putative Pisolithus tinctorius symbiosis related receptor gene is expressed during the first hours of mycorrhizal interaction with Castanea sativa roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acioli-Santos, B; Malosso, E; Calzavara-Silva, C E; Lima, C E P; Figueiredo, A; Sebastiana, M; Pais, M S

    2009-04-01

    PtSRR1 EST was previously identified in the first hours of Pisolithus tinctorius and Castanea sativa interaction. QRT-PCR confirmed PtSRR1 early expression and in silico preliminary translated peptide analysis indicated a strong probability that PtSRR1 be a transmembrane protein. These data stimulate the PtSRR1 gene research during ectomycorrhiza formation.

  3. Gamma irradiation of chestnuts: dosimetric study and its influence in drying

    OpenAIRE

    Antonio, Amilcar L.; Botelho, M. Luísa; Quintana, Begoña; Bento, Albino; Ramalhosa, Elsa

    2012-01-01

    Food irradiation is a process that has been regaining an increasing interest for different food products to increase shelf life, for disinfestation or sterilization. In industry the drying of chestnuts is used to produce other sub-products, such as flour. So far as we know this is the first time that the influence of gamma irradiation in drying behaviour of an european chestnuts variety was performed. First the dose rate distribution was measured in one of the four levels of a Cobalt-60 irrad...

  4. Assessment of biomass and carbon litterfall in three chestnut high forest stands in Northern Portugal

    OpenAIRE

    Patrício, Maria do Sameiro; Fernandes, Maria José; Pereira, Ermelinda; Lopes, Domingos

    2009-01-01

    Litterfall in three high forest chestnut stands, located in different soil types, of 53, 71 and 64 years old, in Marão, Padrela and Bornes, respectively (northern Portugal), was collected last Autumn. Circular litter traps which cover a surface area of 1 m2 each were installed in these chestnut stands. The litterfall was separated into leaves, branches, fruits and burs. All litter fractions were dried to constant weight at 70ºC. The total amount of litter in the three stands was 4.2, 4.6 and ...

  5. Triazole induced drought tolerance in horse chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Percival, Glynn C; Noviss, Kelly

    2008-11-01

    We determined the influence of the triazole derivatives paclobutrazol, penconazole, epixiconazole, propiconazole and myclobutanil on the drought tolerance and post drought recovery of container-grown horse chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum L.) saplings. Myclobutanil neither conferred drought resistance, as assessed by its effects on a number of physiological and biochemical parameters, nor affected growth parameters measured after recovery from drought. Chlorophyll fluorescence (F(v)/F(m)), photosynthetic rates, total foliar chlorophyll and carotenoid concentrations, foliar proline concentration and superoxide dismutase and catalase activities were consistently higher and leaf necrosis and cellular electrolyte leakage was lower at the end of a 3-week drought in trees treated with paclobutrazol, penconazole, epixiconazole or propiconazole than in control trees. Twelve weeks after drought treatment, leaf area and shoot, root and total plant dry masses were greater in triazole-treated trees than in control trees with the exception of those treated with myclobutanil. In a separate study, trees were subjected to a 2-week drought and then sprayed with paclobutrazol, penconazole, epixiconazole, propiconazole or myclobutanil. Chlorophyll fluorescence, photosynthetic rate, foliar chlorophyll concentration and catalase activity over the following 12 weeks were 20 to 50% higher in triazole-treated trees than in control trees. At the end of the 12-week recovery period, leaf area and shoot, root and total plant dry masses were higher in triazole-treated trees than in control trees, with the exception of trees treated with myclobutanil. Application of triazole derivatives, with the exception of myclobutanil, enhanced tolerance to prolonged drought and, when applied after a 2-week drought, hastened recovery from drought. The magnitude of treatment effects was in the order epixiconazole approximately propiconazole > penconazole > paclobutrazol > myclobutanil. PMID:18765373

  6. Resistance of Castanea mollissima Shuhe-WYL strain to Dryocosmus kuriphilus and its molecular mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, G M; Zhu, C C; Zhou, J Y

    2015-09-25

    The resistance of Castanea mollissima Shuhe-WYL strain to Dryocosmus kuriphilus and its molecular mechanism were examined. The larvae of D. kuriphilus were inoculated on the Shuhe-WYL and Qingzha strains, and mortality was observed and compared; the relative mRNA content of the OsCDPK2, receptor-like protein, OsNAC6 protein, KH domain protein, RNA-binding protein, and the bHLH genes was detected using real-time polymerase chain reaction, and then compared between the Shuhe-WYL and Qingzha strains. Phenylalanine ammonia-lyase content was detected by western blotting and compared between the inoculated Shuhe-WYL, non-inoculated Shuhe-WYL, and inoculated Qingzha strains. The mortalities of larvae inoculated on the bud, bracteal leaf, and cardiac lobe were lower in Shuhe-WYL than Qingzha at 48 and 96 h after inoculation; the contents of OsCDPK2, receptor-like protein, OsNAC6 protein, and bHLH in the cardiac lobe were higher in Shuhe-WYL than in Qingzha at 96 h after inoculation, but KH domain protein and RNA-binding protein were not significantly different. The content of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase in the cardiac lobe was higher in inoculated and non-inoculated Shuhe-WYL compared to inoculated Qingzha at 15, 30, 45, and 60 days, and higher in inoculated Shuhe-WYL than in non-inoculated Shuhe-WYL at 15, 30, 45, and 60 days. The content of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase in the cardiac lobe of inoculated Shuhe-WYL had no significant difference between at 60 and at 45 days; and was higher at 60 and 45 days than at 30 and 15 days; and was higher at 30 days than at 15 days (60≈45˃30˃15 days). The C. mollissima Shuhe-WYL strain was resistant to D. kuriphilus; high expression of OsCDPK2, receptor-like protein, OsNAC6 protein, and bHLH and phenylalanine ammonia-lyase may explain the mechanism.

  7. Remedial Investigation Work Plan for Chestnut Ridge Operable Unit 1 (Chestnut Ridge Security Pits) at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document outlines the activities necessary to conduct a Remedial Investigation (RI) of the Chestnut Ridge Security Pits (CRSP) at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant. The CRSP, also designated Chestnut Ridge Operable Unit (OU) 1, is one of four OUs along Chestnut Ridge on the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR). The purpose of the RI is to collect data to (1) evaluate the nature and extent of known and suspected contaminants, (2) support an Ecological Risk Assessment (ERA) and a Human Health Risk Assessment (HHRA), (3) support the feasibility study in the development and analysis of remedial alternatives, and (4) ultimately, develop a Record of Decision (ROD) for the site. This chapter summarizes the regulatory background of environmental investigation on the ORR and the approach currently being followed and provides an overview of the RI to be conducted at the CRSP. Subsequent chapters provide details on site history, sampling activities, procedures and methods, quality assurance (QA), health and safety, and waste management related to the RI

  8. Remedial Investigation Work Plan for Chestnut Ridge Operable Unit 1 (Chestnut Ridge Security Pits) at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-03-01

    This document outlines the activities necessary to conduct a Remedial Investigation (RI) of the Chestnut Ridge Security Pits (CRSP) at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant. The CRSP, also designated Chestnut Ridge Operable Unit (OU) 1, is one of four OUs along Chestnut Ridge on the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR). The purpose of the RI is to collect data to (1) evaluate the nature and extent of known and suspected contaminants, (2) support an Ecological Risk Assessment (ERA) and a Human Health Risk Assessment (HHRA), (3) support the feasibility study in the development and analysis of remedial alternatives, and (4) ultimately, develop a Record of Decision (ROD) for the site. This chapter summarizes the regulatory background of environmental investigation on the ORR and the approach currently being followed and provides an overview of the RI to be conducted at the CRSP. Subsequent chapters provide details on site history, sampling activities, procedures and methods, quality assurance (QA), health and safety, and waste management related to the RI.

  9. [Intoxication by powdered seeds of horse chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum) used nasally as snuff - a case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zając, Maciej; Wiśniewski, Marek; Sein Anand, Jacek

    2014-01-01

    There are only few reports in the medical literature about side effects and toxicity of horse chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum). We report a 15-year-old woman who was admitted to the hospital because of symptoms including: vomiting, dyspnea, burning in the nose and throat, and syncope, after intranasal snuff of powdered horse chestnut seeds. Laboratory tests showed no abnormalities. After 2 days of hospitalization the female was discharged home with subjective and objective improvement. Preparation and use of snuff is related to the tradition of the kashubian region. The powder formed from horse chestnuts, which is white in color, effects after about 5-10 minutes, and causes severe irritation of the nasal mucous membranes, which results in sneezing. Responsible for side effects is mainly aescin. The most frequently observed aescin intoxication symptoms were gastrointestinal irritation and allergic reactions. Intoxication by powdered seeds of horse chestnut used nasally as snuff may lead, as it was in our case, to sudden and self-limiting clinical symptoms. Supportive therapy and a short hospital observation seems to be sufficient in such cases. PMID:25632792

  10. Coumarins in horse chestnut flowers: isolation and quantification by UPLC method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudek-Makuch, Marlena; Matławska, Irena

    2013-01-01

    The coumarins: scopoletin, esculetin and fraxetin were isolated from the flowers of horse chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum L., Hippocastanaceae) and identified by spectrophotometric methods (UV, 1H, 13C NMR, ESI-MS). Their content, determined using the Ultra Performance Liquid Chromatography (UPLC), was 0.41, 0.13 and 0.05%, respectively. PMID:23757942

  11. Horse chestnut extract induces contraction force generation in fibroblasts through activation of Rho/Rho kinase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujimura, Tsutomu; Moriwaki, Shigeru; Hotta, Mitsuyuki; Kitahara, Takashi; Takema, Yoshinori

    2006-06-01

    Contraction forces generated by non-muscle cells such as fibroblasts play important roles in determining cell morphology, vasoconstriction, and/or wound healing. However, few factors that induce cell contraction forces are known, such as lysophosphatidic acid and thrombin. Our study analyzed various plant extracts for ingredients that induce generation of cell contraction forces in fibroblasts populating collagen gels. We found that an extract of Horse chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum) is able to induce such contraction forces in fibroblasts. The involvement of actin polymerization and stress fiber formation in the force generation was suggested by inhibition of this effect by cytochalasin D and by Rhodamine phalloidin. Rho kinase inhibitors (Y27632 and HA1077) and a Rho inhibitor (exoenzyme C3) significantly inhibited the force generation induced by the Horse chestnut extract. H7, which inhibits Rho kinase as well as other protein kinases, also significantly inhibited induction of force generation. However, inhibitors of other protein kinases such as myosin light chain kinase (ML-9), protein kinase C (Calphostin), protein kinase A (KT5720), and tyrosine kinase (Genistein, Herbimycin A) had no effect on force generation induced by Horse chestnut extract. These results suggest that the Horse chestnut extract induces generation of contraction forces in fibroblasts through stress fiber formation followed by activation of Rho protein and Rho kinase but not myosin light chain kinase or other protein kinases. PMID:16754996

  12. Isolation and identification of nystose from seeds of the horse chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum L.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vliegenthart, J.F.G.; Kamerling, J.P.; Kahl, W.; Roszkowski, A.; Zurowska, A.

    1972-01-01

    From the seeds of the-horse chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanm L.), a tetrasaccharide containing 1 mol. of glucose and 3 mol. of fructose has been isolated and shown to be nystose Ip-D-Fruf-(2+ 1)-/?-D-Fruf-(2+ l)-B-D-Fruf-(2-l)a-D-Glcp - J3201.

  13. Chestnut green waste composting for sustainable forest management: Microbiota dynamics and impact on plant disease control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventorino, Valeria; Parillo, Rita; Testa, Antonino; Viscardi, Sharon; Espresso, Francesco; Pepe, Olimpia

    2016-01-15

    Making compost from chestnut lignocellulosic waste is a possible sustainable management strategy for forests that employs a high-quality renewable organic resource. Characterization of the microbiota involved in composting is essential to better understand the entire process as well as the properties of the final product. Therefore, this study investigated the microbial communities involved in the composting of chestnut residues obtained from tree cleaning and pruning. The culture-independent approach taken highlighted the fact that the microbiota varied only slightly during the process, with the exception of those of the starting substrate and mature compost. The statistical analysis indicated that most of the bacterial and fungal species in the chestnut compost persisted during composting. The dominant microbial population detected during the process belonged to genera known to degrade recalcitrant lignocellulosic materials. Specifically, we identified fungal genera, such as Penicillium, Fusarium, Cladosporium, Aspergillus and Mucor, and prokaryotic species affiliated with Bacilli, Actinobacteria, Flavobacteria and γ-Proteobacteria. The suppressive properties of compost supplements for the biocontrol of Sclerotinia minor and Rhizoctonia solani were also investigated. Compared to pure substrate, the addition of compost to the peat-based growth substrates resulted in a significant reduction of disease in tomato plants of up to 70 % or 51 % in the presence of Sclerotinia minor or Rhizoctonia solani, respectively. The obtained results were related to the presence of putative bio-control agents and plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria belonging to the genera Azotobacter, Pseudomonas, Stenotrophomonas, Bacillus, Flavobacterium, Streptomyces and Actinomyces in the chestnut compost. The composting of chestnut waste may represent a sustainable agricultural practice for disposing of lignocellulosic waste by transforming it into green waste compost that can be used to

  14. Practices to manage chestnut orchards infested by the Chinese gall wasp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Turchetti T

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The rapid spread of the Chinese gall wasp (Dryocosmus kuriphilus Yasumatsu in Italian chestnut growing areas is causing new criticisms. In this context, in addition to a clear plant suffering due to the wasp infestation, the dangerous recurrence of chestnut blight and the sudden spread of Gnomoniopsis sp., a coloniser of galls but also the etiological agent of nut brown rot, must be considered. Therefore, it is very important to increase the plants’ vigour and prevent their decline. Preliminary experiments were carried out in different Italian regions between 2010 and 2011. Organic plant fertilizers were applied to plants showing middle or high defoliation levels caused by the wasp attacks. The observations carried out during the growing season indicate a good vegetative restart in the treated plants compared to the untreated controls, in all the situations and independently of the fertilizers applied. Most of the treated plants (between the 75% and the 100% showed an evident improvement in the canopy vegetation, while the untreated controls were always classified in the worse classes of crown condition. These preliminary results highlight the efficacy of this kind of treatments for infested chestnut stands. This strategy, which is based on the preliminary evaluation of the plant vigour (following the proposed scale of attack severity and lack of foliage, consists in a manuring treatment at vegetative restart, which can be repeated in the following years in dependence on the results obtained. Moreover, pruning may be suggested only to manage the development of plants showing a definite recovery. The gall wasp pullulation requires new management strategies aimed at preserving the chestnut orchards, in order to avoid the chestnut cultivation to be marginalized or abandoned.

  15. 板栗种子超低温保存研究%STUDY OF CRYOPRESERVATION ON CASTANEA MOLLISSIMA SEEDS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑郁善; 陈礼光; 李庆荣; 林镇斌; 吴擢溪

    2002-01-01

    The quality character,the dehydrogenase activites and the α-amylase activity for Castanea mollissima conserved materials,including the seeds and the excised embryos,were analyzed for purpose of the feasibility of long-term storage associated with cryopreservation.The results showed that moisture content was the critical factor deciding the cryopreservation effects of seeds,which were desiccated down to 20% necessarily.Under the conditions of the cryoprotectants,the freezing injury reduced largely,and dehydrogenase activities remained well.Moreover the cryoconserved scale of moisture content was enlarged.A proper combination of cryopreserved factors contributed to maintain the seed vigor,the dehydrogenase activity and α-amylase activity of excised embryos during cryopreservation.

  16. The Content of Phenolic Compounds in Leaf Tissues of White (Aesculus hippocastanum L.) and Red Horse Chestnut (Aesculus carea H.) Colonized by the Horse Chestnut Leaf Miner (Cameraria ohridella Deschka & Dimić)

    OpenAIRE

    Jan Oszmiański; Stanisław Kalisz; Wojdyło Aneta

    2014-01-01

    Normally, plant phenolics are secondary metabolites involved in the defense mechanisms of plants against fungal pathogens. Therefore, in this study we attempted to quantify and characterize phenolic compounds in leaves of white and red horse chestnut with leaf miner larvae before and after Cameraria ohridella attack. A total of 17 phenolic compounds belonging to the hydroxycinnamic acid, flavan-3-ols and flavonol groups were identified and quantified in white and red horse chestnut leaf extra...

  17. Effect of sun-exposure of the horse chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum L.) on the occurrence and number of parasitoids of the horse chestnut leafminer (Cameraria ohridella Deschka & Dimic) in central Poland in 2004– 2006

    OpenAIRE

    Tarwacki, Grzegorz; Bystrowski, Cezary; Celmer-Warda, Katarzyna

    2012-01-01

    The research on parasitoids of the horse chestnut leafminer (Cameraria ohridella Deschka & Dymić, 1986) of the order Hymenoptera was conducted in the years 2004– 2006 in six locations in central Poland. The complex of para-sitoids was composed of 14 species. Minotetrastrichus frontalis (Nees) and Pnigalio agraules (Walker), (Hyme-noptera: Eulophidae) were the dominant species in all locations. It was noted that sun-exposure of the horse chest-nut (Aesculus hippocastanum L.) had asignificant e...

  18. Eulophid parasitoids (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) of the horse chestnut leafminer, Cameraria ohridella (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae), from İstanbul, Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    CEBECİ, Hacı Hüseyin; Grabenweger, Giselher; Ayberk, Hamit

    2011-01-01

    The eulophid parasitoids (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) of Cameraria ohridella Deschka and Dimic (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae) on horse chestnuts (Aesculus hippocastanum L.) in İstanbul were determined for the first time. Horse chestnut leaves infested with leafminers were collected in 2008 and adult parasitoids were obtained in emergence cages in the laboratory. A total of 10 eulophid parasitoid species were identified, 5 of which, namely Cirrospilus viticola (Rondani), Pnigalio mediterraneus (Fe...

  19. Replacement of steel cable with synthetic rope in mountain logging operations in Castanea sativa Mill. coppice stands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Canga

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim of the study: The objective of this study was to evaluate skidding from stump area to roadside with a tracked skidder (Caterpillar 3DG XL using two different types of cable (steel or synthetic.Area of study: NW of Spain.Material and methods: A time study was performed to calculate productivity for the two types of cable and two regression models were fitted to predict the productive and cycle time of the tracked skidder.Research highlights: An increase of 12.53% in productivity (m3/SMH and improvements in working conditions using synthetic rope were found.Keywords: Chestnut; synthetic rope; time study; tracked skidder.

  20. Assessing potential changes of weather-related risk on chestnut productivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Mário; Calheiros, Tomas; Pinto, Joaquim; Caramelo, Liliana

    2013-04-01

    Weather conditions play an important role during different phases of the vegetative cycle of the chestnut trees and, consequently, several meteorological parameters seem to be associated chestnut productivity (Heiniger and Conedera, 1992, Cesaraccio et al., 2001, Wilczynski and Podalski, 2007, Gomes-Laranjo et al., 2008, Dinis et al., 2011, Pereira et al., 2011). Observed data from European Climate Assessment and simulated data by COSMO-CLM model for the actual (C20) and future (A1B and B1) climate scenarios were used in this study to: (i) assess the model ability to reproduce weather parameters distribution; and, (ii) to assess future changes in the distribution of meteorological parameters which play an important role in the productivity of chestnut for different future periods. Results points to statistical significant changes in the mean and in variance in the future, more prominent in temperature than in precipitation based parameters. Changes in precipitation will be more significant in Northwestern Iberian Peninsula and France in the end of the 21st century for A1B scenario conditions. As expected, more significant changes will be expected to occur during spring and summer, in the Mediterranean areas and in the later period. The number of days with TmaxAesculus hippocastanum L.) in the Swietokrzki National Park in Central Poland", J.For.Res., 12, 24-23. Gomes-Laranjo et al., 2008: "Differences in photosynthetic apparatus of leaves from different sides of chestnut canopy", Photosynthetica, 46, 63-72. Dinis, L.T,Peixoto, F., Pinto, T., Costa, R.Bennett, R. N., and Gomes-Laranjo,J., 2011: "Study of morphological and phonological diversity in chestnut trees (Judia variety) as a function of temperature sum". Environ. Exp Bot., 70, 110-120. Pereira, M.G., Caramelo, L., Gouveia, C., Gomes-Laranjo, J., Magalhães, M., 2011: "Assessment of weather-related risk on chestnut productivity". Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 11, 1-12, doi:10.5194/nhess-11-12-011. This work

  1. Harm and control technology of Dryocosmus kuriphilus in Castanea henryi%锥栗栗瘿蜂的危害及防治措施

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆陈强

    2015-01-01

    Harm condition of Dryocosmus kuriphilus to Castanea henryi was investigated,the main reasons for its serious harm were analyzed and the main prevention and control techniques for Dryocosmus kuriphilus were summarized in this study.%对政和县锥栗栗瘿蜂发生危害情况进行调查,分析其危害严重的主要原因,并总结主要防治对策。

  2. Um método eficiente para a detecção de Phytophthora cinnamomi associada com a Doença da Tinta do Castanheiro na rizosfera de Castanheiro (Castanea sativa Mill.) An efficient assay for detection of Phytophthora cinnamomi in the rhizosphere of Sweet Chestnut (Castanea sativa Mill.)

    OpenAIRE

    E. Gouveia; Coelho, V; Sousa, N; Coutinho, S.; Nunes, L.; Maria Loreto Monteiro

    2009-01-01

    O ciclo biológico de Phytophthora cinnamomi Rands e P. cambivora (Petri) Buisman espécies associadas com a Doença da Tinta do Castanheiro, ocorre integralmente no ambiente solo. A presença de qualquer uma destas espécies parasitas inviabiliza as novas plantações de castanheiro e coloca sérios problemas à manutenção dos soutos já instalados. Para garantir a ausência de propágulos dos parasitas no material de multiplicação do castanheiro e avaliar o estado sanitário dos solos é necessário que o...

  3. Alcoholic chestnut fermentation in mixed culture. Compatibility criteria between Aspergillus oryzae and Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murado, Miguel Anxo; Pastrana, Lorenzo; Vázquez, José Antonio; Mirón, Jesús; González, María Pilar

    2008-10-01

    The main objective of the present work consisted in the transfer to the case of the chestnut of a rice fermentative process that carried out to the Japanese traditional way to lead to an alcoholic bagasse, the moromi, capable of obtaining distilled. This way, selection assays of amylolitic Aspergillus oryzae strains and studies of compatibility between microfungi and yeast were carried out. These mixed cultivations were performed operating in batch submerged culture. Later on, using solid state system (chestnut, microfungi, yeast), a fermentative fed-batch process (koji, moto, moromi) was defined. By means of this approach a yield of 70% was reached in the conversion of total carbohydrates in ethanol. Also, the time required by the traditional operation was reduced in half. PMID:18289846

  4. EFFECT of hydrocolloids on the quality evaluation of flour based noodles from Horse Chestnut

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafiq Syed Insha

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was focused to investigate the effects of hydrocolloids (guar gum and xanthan gum at additional levels (1%, 2% and 3% on the noodle characteristics prepared from horse chestnut flour. The qualities of noodles prepared from horse chestnut flour were compared with wheat flour based noodles in terms of cooking characteristics, textural and sensory properties. The hydrocolloid addition in noodles resulted in improvement of cooking and textural qualities in consistent to control sample. The incorporation of 3% gum significantly increased cooking properties and the firmness of cooked noodles. The results of the sensory evaluation based on a nine point hedonic scale revealed that apart from the control, noodles with 3% gum were acceptable to the panellists.

  5. Relationships between silvicultural system, forest type and floristic diversity in chestnut coppices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scoppola A

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Chestnut stands are among the main forest formations in Italy. The aim of this work is to assess the floristic diversity of chestnut coppice stands of Sabatini Mts. (central Italy, highlighting the relationships between the silvicultural system and the ecological processes. In the management of these coppices almost exclusive importance has been given to the wood production, rating the stands on the basis of the rotation that maximizes the production of the most valuable assortments. The assessment carried out is based on floristic and dendrometric surveys within permanent circular plots (10 meters radius randomly selected within three chronological strata. Surveys have been realized on a total of 15 plots, 5 for each stratum. Indices of floristic richness and diversity have been elaborated to point out variations of forest types and to suggest possible alternatives to the current management to mitigate its impact on biodiversity.

  6. Insolubilization of Chestnut Shell Pigment for Cu(II Adsorption from Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeng-Yu Yao

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Chestnut shell pigment (CSP is melanin from an agricultural waste. It has potential as an adsorbent for wastewater treatment but cannot be used in its original state because of its solubility in water. We developed a new method to convert CSP to insolubilized chestnut shell pigment (ICSP by heating, and the Cu(II adsorption performance of ICSP was evaluated. The conversion was characterized, and the thermal treatment caused dehydration and loss of carboxyl groups and aliphatic structures in CSP. The kinetic adsorption behavior obeyed the pseudo-second-order rate law, and the equilibrium adsorption data were well described with both the Langmuir and the Freundlich isotherms. ICSP can be used as a renewable, readily-available, easily-producible, environmentally-friendly, inexpensive and effective adsorbent to remove heavy-metal from aquatic environments.

  7. Acute urticaria and angioedema caused by horse-chestnut (aesculus hippocastanum) ingestion: a case report

    OpenAIRE

    Akinci, Emine; OĞUZTÜRK, Oğuzhan; Coşkun, Figen

    2012-01-01

    Acute urticaria and angioedema, which can develop due to various causes, are common life threatening condition seen in emergency departments (EDs). The literature includes reports of angioedema cases developing after contacting various plants and seeds. We present the case of a 47-year-old male patient who developed acute urticaria and angioedema after eating horse-chestnut (aesculus hippocastanum). The patient presented to the ED with redness and irritation spread around the body and swellin...

  8. Horse Chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum L.) Urban Habitat - Pollution Influence on Some Phenotypic and Morphological Characteristics

    OpenAIRE

    Fran Poštenjak; Karmelo Poštenjak

    2012-01-01

    Background and purpose: Horse chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum L.) may be found in most urban areas in Croatia. Over the years it showed to be resistant to various negative urban influences. In this research we tested trees on randomly selected streets with intense traffic in smaller towns. The main goal of this research was to establish the link between pollution and tree growth and to analyze to what extent pollution influences the increase in the measured parameters. Materials and metho...

  9. Micromorphology of trichomes in the flowers of the horse chestnut Aesculus hippocastanum L.

    OpenAIRE

    Mirosława Chwil; Elżbieta Weryszko-Chmielewska; Aneta Sulborska; Magdalena Michońska

    2014-01-01

    Aesculus hippocastanum L. is an ornamental tree appreciated for its beautiful flowers and leaves. The flowers of this species contain secondary metabolites exhibiting pharmacological activity. They also produce essential oils and coloured “nectar guides”, which enable insects to reach nectar and pollen. The aim of the study was to investigate the types and characteristics of chestnut flower trichomes, which may contain biologically active substances. The analyses were performed using light, f...

  10. Thermorheological and textural behaviour of gluten-free gels obtained from chestnut and rice flours

    OpenAIRE

    Torres, Maria D.; Fradinho, Patricia; Raymundo, Anabela; Sousa, Isabel

    2013-01-01

    Nowadays, as celiac disease is becoming more common the consumers’ demand for gluten-free products with high nutritional and taste quality is increasing. This work deals with the study of the impact of four novelty gluten-free sources: chestnut flour (Cf), whole rice flour (Rw), Carolino rice flour (Rc) and Agulha rice flour (Ra). Textural, thermorheological and stability performance of gluten-free gels using different experimental techniques were evaluated. Mixed gels...

  11. Adsorption of cationic dye methylene blue onto activated carbon obtained from horse chestnut kernel

    OpenAIRE

    Momčilović Milan Z.; Purenović Milovan M.; Miljković Milena N.; Bojić Aleksandar Lj.; Ranđelović Marjan S.

    2011-01-01

    Horse chestnut kernel was used as the precursor for the preparation of powdered activated carbon using phosphoric acid as the activating agent. Batch adsorption experiments for the adsorption of cationic dye methylene blue from aqueous solutions were carried out using the obtained carbon as adsorbent. Equilibrium and kinetic experiments were conducted. The equilibrium data were fitted with the Langmuir, Freundlich and Temkin theoretical isotherm models. The best results was obtained in ...

  12. Applying Hotspot Detection Methods in Forestry: A Case Study of Chestnut Oak Regeneration

    OpenAIRE

    Songlin Fei

    2010-01-01

    Hotspot detection has been widely adopted in health sciences for disease surveillance, but rarely in natural resource disciplines. In this paper, two spatial scan statistics (SaTScan and ClusterSeer) and a nonspatial classification and regression trees method were evaluated as techniques for identifying chestnut oak (Quercus Montana) regeneration hotspots among 50 mixed-oak stands in the central Appalachian region of the eastern United States. Hotspots defined by the three methods had a moder...

  13. Gamma and electron beam irradiation as an alternative for postharvest treatment: a case study with chestnuts

    OpenAIRE

    Carocho, Márcio; Antonio, Amilcar L.; Barreira, João C.M.; Barros, Lillian; Rafalski, Andrzej; Bento, Albino; Ferreira, Isabel C.F.R.

    2013-01-01

    Chestnut fruits are an important food commodity in the Northeast region of "Trás-osMontes", representing an income of approximately 17 M€ and being Porn1gal one of the: world's biggest producer. Due to environmental concerns a broad spectrum fumigant, methyl bromide, was banned in 20 I 0 by the European Union. Since then, no adequate postharvest treatment has been implemented, fostering research on suitable alteratives. Our research group has been testing gamma and electron bea...

  14. Genetic control of horizontal virus transmission in the chestnut blight fungus, Cryphonectria parasitica.

    OpenAIRE

    Cortesi, P; McCulloch, C.E.; Song, H; H. Lin; Milgroom, M G

    2001-01-01

    Vegetative incompatibility in fungi has long been known to reduce the transmission of viruses between individuals, but the barrier to transmission is incomplete. In replicated laboratory assays, we showed conclusively that the transmission of viruses between individuals of the chestnut blight fungus Cryphonectria parasitica is controlled primarily by vegetative incompatibility (vic) genes. By replicating vic genotypes in independent fungal isolates, we quantified the effect of heteroallelism ...

  15. Selected trace element concentrations in ambient air and in horse chestnut leaves in Belgrade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deljanin I.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, airborne particulates (PM10 and leaves of horse chestnut were collected at selected urban sites in Belgrade, Serbia, in years 2006, 2009 and 2012. All samples were analysed for trace element concentrations of As, Cd, Cr, Ni and Pb. It has been shown that, during the study period, the differences among PM10 mass trace element concentrations were not considerable, and that the measured mass and trace elements concentrations were below the Serbian and EU legislation limits. Highest values of trace element concentrations in leaves were observed in year 2012, with the exception of Pb. Lead concentration had a decreasing trend during the whole studied period, in both PM10 and tree leaves. Since leaded gasoline was banned in 2011, a possible reason could be an increasing number of vehicles using unleaded kind along the previous years. Although trace elements in horse chestnut leaves were accumulated only during summer season, horse chestnut leaves showed good response to changes in trace element atmospheric concentrations. However, seasonal variability was evident in trace element source apportionment due to the lack of stationary heating system influence. The Principal Component Analysis showed that during the studied period, one of the major sources of the measured elements was fossil fuel combustion. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III 43007 and OI 172007

  16. Thickness of Knox Group overburden on Central Chestnut Ridge, Oak Ridge Reservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The thickness of residual soil overlying the Knox Group along Central Chestnut Ridge was estimated by a conventional seismic refraction survey. The purpose of this survey was to identify sites on the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge Reservation where ample overburden exists above the water table for the shallow land burial of low-level radioactive waste. The results of the survey suggest that the upper slopes of the higher ridges in the area have a minimum of 16 to 26 m (52 to 85 ft) of overburden and that the crests of these ridges may have more than 30 m (100 ft). Therefore, it is unlikely that sound bedrock would be encountered during trench excavation [maximum of 10 m (32 ft)] along Central Chestnut Ridge. Also, the relatively low seismic wave velocities measured in the overburden suggest that the water table is generally deep. On the basis of these preliminary results, Central Chestnut Ridge appears to be suitable for further site characterization for the shallow land burial of low-level radioactive waste. 3 references, 5 figures, 1 table

  17. Calendar year 1996 annual groundwater monitoring report for the Chestnut Ridge Hydrogeologic Regime at the U.S. Department of Energy Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-02-01

    This annual monitoring report contains groundwater and surface water monitoring data obtained in the Chestnut Ridge Hydrogeologic Regime (Chestnut Ridge Regime) during calendar year (CY) 1996. The Chestnut Ridge Regime encompasses a section of Chestnut Ridge west of Scarboro Road and east of an unnamed drainage feature southwest of the US Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant (unless otherwise noted, directions are in reference to the Y-12 Plant administrative grid). The Chestnut Ridge Regime contains several sites used for management of hazardous and nonhazardous wastes associated with plant operations. Groundwater and surface water quality monitoring associated with these waste management sites is performed under the auspices of the Y-12 Plant Groundwater Protection Program (GWPP). Included in this annual monitoring report are the groundwater monitoring data obtained in compliance with the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Post-Closure Permit for the Chestnut Ridge Regime (post-closure permit) issued by the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation (TDEC) in June 1996. Besides the signed certification statement and the RCRA facility information summarized below, condition II.C.6 of the post-closure permit requires annual reporting of groundwater monitoring activities, inclusive of the analytical data and results of applicable data evaluations, performed at three RCRA hazardous waste treatment, storage, or disposal (TSD) units: the Chestnut Ridge Sediment Disposal Basin (Sediment Disposal Basin), the Chestnut Ridge Security Pits (Security Pits), and Kerr Hollow Quarry.

  18. Physico-chemical, morphological and pasting properties of starches extracted from water Chestnuts (Trapa natans from three Lakes of Kashmir, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adil Gani

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Studies on physicochemical, morphology and pasting properties of starches extracted from water chestnuts of three Lakes of Kashmir valley (Wular, Anchar and Dal Lakes were conducted to determine their application in different food products. The water chestnut starch from Dal Lake had more oval shaped granules than water chestnut starches from the Wular and the Anchar Lakes.The unique feature of the water chestnut starches were shape of starch granules which looked like horn(s protruding from the surface which did not appear in other starches already studied. Proximate analysis of water chestnut starches showed that average protein content were 0.4%, amylose 29.5 % and ash 0.007 on dry weight basis. Increase in water binding capacity, swelling power and solubility was found over a temperature range of 50-90ºC. Water chestnut starches showed an increase in syneresis during freeze thaw cycles and decline in paste clarity upon storage. Starch extracted from the water chestnuts of the Dal Lake showed higher water binding capacity, swelling, solubility, past clarity, freeze thaw stability, peak viscosity, final viscosity and lower protein content, amylose content, pasting temperature and gel firmness than starches extracted from water chestnuts of the Wular and the Anchar Lakes.

  19. Calendar year 1996 annual groundwater monitoring report for the Chestnut Ridge Hydrogeologic Regime at the U.S. Department of Energy Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This annual monitoring report contains groundwater and surface water monitoring data obtained in the Chestnut Ridge Hydrogeologic Regime (Chestnut Ridge Regime) during calendar year (CY) 1996. The Chestnut Ridge Regime encompasses a section of Chestnut Ridge west of Scarboro Road and east of an unnamed drainage feature southwest of the US Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant (unless otherwise noted, directions are in reference to the Y-12 Plant administrative grid). The Chestnut Ridge Regime contains several sites used for management of hazardous and nonhazardous wastes associated with plant operations. Groundwater and surface water quality monitoring associated with these waste management sites is performed under the auspices of the Y-12 Plant Groundwater Protection Program (GWPP). Included in this annual monitoring report are the groundwater monitoring data obtained in compliance with the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Post-Closure Permit for the Chestnut Ridge Regime (post-closure permit) issued by the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation (TDEC) in June 1996. Besides the signed certification statement and the RCRA facility information summarized below, condition II.C.6 of the post-closure permit requires annual reporting of groundwater monitoring activities, inclusive of the analytical data and results of applicable data evaluations, performed at three RCRA hazardous waste treatment, storage, or disposal (TSD) units: the Chestnut Ridge Sediment Disposal Basin (Sediment Disposal Basin), the Chestnut Ridge Security Pits (Security Pits), and Kerr Hollow Quarry

  20. Sobre la introducción del Castaño, Castanea sativa, en el Mediterráneo Occidental

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio GUILLEN OTERINO

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Una idea generalizada y bastante aceptada en torno a la introducción del Castaño, Castanea sativa, en el área occidental del Mediterráneo y concretamente en la Península es la que sostiene que esta especie fue extendida por los romanos quienes tomándola en su zona de origen, Asia menor y Caucaso, la naturalizaron en toda la Europa mediterránea hasta llegar a la Península Ibérica. Muchos autores modernos en sus publicaciones, al hablar del Castaño, siguen haciendo mención a lo expuesto anteriormente (JONKER, 1952; STRASBURGER, 1894; LANZARA y PIZZETTI, 1977 y FONT QUER, 1961 entre otros. Sin embargo, parece que los datos que la palinología y el estudio de carbones han aportado en investigaciones realizadas en yacimientos arqueológicos y turberas constatan la presencia del Castaño en épocas muy anteriores a la de la expansión romana.

  1. The content of phenolic compounds in leaf tissues of white (Aesculus hippocastanum L.) and red horse chestnut (Aesculus carea H.) colonized by the horse chestnut leaf miner (Cameraria ohridella Deschka & Dimić).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oszmiański, Jan; Kalisz, Stanisław; Aneta, Wojdyło

    2014-01-01

    Normally, plant phenolics are secondary metabolites involved in the defense mechanisms of plants against fungal pathogens. Therefore, in this study we attempted to quantify and characterize phenolic compounds in leaves of white and red horse chestnut with leaf miner larvae before and after Cameraria ohridella attack. A total of 17 phenolic compounds belonging to the hydroxycinnamic acid, flavan-3-ols and flavonol groups were identified and quantified in white and red horse chestnut leaf extracts. Significantly decreased concentrations of some phenolic compounds, especially of flavan-3-ols, were observed in infected leaves compared to the non-infected ones. Additionally, a higher content of polyphenolic compounds especially (-)-epicatechin and procyanidins in leaves of red-flowering than in white-flowering horse chestnut may explain their greater resistance to C. ohridella insects. PMID:25225723

  2. The Content of Phenolic Compounds in Leaf Tissues of White (Aesculus hippocastanum L. and Red Horse Chestnut (Aesculus carea H. Colonized by the Horse Chestnut Leaf Miner (Cameraria ohridella Deschka & Dimić

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Oszmiański

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Normally, plant phenolics are secondary metabolites involved in the defense mechanisms of plants against fungal pathogens. Therefore, in this study we attempted to quantify and characterize phenolic compounds in leaves of white and red horse chestnut with leaf miner larvae before and after Cameraria ohridella attack. A total of 17 phenolic compounds belonging to the hydroxycinnamic acid, flavan-3-ols and flavonol groups were identified and quantified in white and red horse chestnut leaf extracts. Significantly decreased concentrations of some phenolic compounds, especially of flavan-3-ols, were observed in infected leaves compared to the non-infected ones. Additionally, a higher content of polyphenolic compounds especially (−-epicatechin and procyanidins in leaves of red-flowering than in white-flowering horse chestnut may explain their greater resistance to C. ohridella insects.

  3. Changes in leaf tissues of common horse chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum L. colonised by the horse-chestnut leaf miner (Cameraria ochridella Deschka and Dimić

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elżbieta Weryszko-Chmielewska

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study, conducted during the period 2010- 2011, involved morphological observations and anatomical investigations of horse chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum L. leaves with symptoms of damage caused by feeding of larvae of the horse-chestnut leaf miner (Cameraria ohridella Deschka & Dimić. Leaves were collected from trees growing in the city of Lublin (Poland. Microscopic slides were prepared from fresh and fixed plant material. Leaf anatomical features were examined by light microscopy in order to determine the mechanical barrier for feeding pests. Changes were also observed during the progressive damage of the leaf tissues caused by the larvae. Selected developmental stages of the pest are presented in the paper. It has been shown that very thin blades of the mesomorphic leaves of Aesculus hippocastanum produce a poorly developed mechanical barrier in which the following elements can be included: the presence of collenchyma and idioblasts with druses of calcium oxalate, few non-glandular trichomes found close to the leaf veins as well as relatively thin outer walls of the epidermal cells. The cells containing tannins and the oil cells found in the mesophyll may form a physiological barrier. However, foraging leaf miner larvae feed only on the palisade and spongy parenchyma cells, leaving undamaged the cells with tannins as well as the idioblasts with calcium oxalate crystals and oils. The feeding of the pest in the leaf mesophyll leads to the death of the epidermis on both sides of the lamina and to drying of the parts of the leaves in the area of the mines.

  4. Quantitative Analysis on the Economic Char acters of Castanea henryi Nut%锥栗果实经济性状的数量化分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨志玲; 龚榜初; 陈增华; 吴士元; 吴连海; 余建功

    2001-01-01

    Seven economic characters of 41 selected individ uals of Castanea henry i were analyzed with principal component analysis (PCA). Two overall indexes use d to evaluate the individual characters were determined and the weighted value o f overall index was taken as the criterion of individual ordination and classifi cation. The authors suggested to reselect the clones among individual with large - sized nut and medium-sized nut, and attention should be paid on the examining t he individuals of small-sized nut with fine and special characters. The wild[ WTBX C. h enryi should be collected as much as possible and should be preserved as germ plasm resource.

  5. Interacção in vitro entre macrofungos micorrízicos de Castanea sativa e o patógeno Phytophthora cinnamomi

    OpenAIRE

    Rodrigues, Paula; Martins, Anabela

    2006-01-01

    Nas últimas décadas, o controlo biológico de doenças das plantas tem vindo a ganhar importância no sentido de reduzir os custos económicos e ambientais resultantes da aplicação sucessiva de produtos químicos. Pisolithus tinctorius é um importante macrofungo ectomicorrízico de Castanea sativa, frequentemente referido como tendo um efeito positivo no controlo de Phytophthora cinnamomi. No entanto, os mecanismos subjacentes a este efeito não são conhecidos. O presente estudo teve como objectivo ...

  6. Estudio de procesos ecológicos para el desarrollo sostenible del castaño (Castanea sativa Mill.) de la Sierra de Francia

    OpenAIRE

    Salazar Iglesias, Sergio

    2008-01-01

    En la cuenca mediterránea los bosques de castaño (Castanea sativa Mill.) tienen una gran importancia tanto desde un punto de vista ecológico, económico, paisajístico o cultural. Debido a esta importancia se estudiaron estos ecosistemas desde una perspectiva ecológica La investigación se llevó a cabo en la Sierra de Francia, en la provincia de Salamanca (España). Se seleccionaron tres ecosistemas de estudio, dos castañares (vegetación paraclimácica en la zona de estudio), uno dedicado a la pro...

  7. Cultivation and Management Techniques of Chestnut Mushroom%栗蘑栽培管理技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐晓娜

    2014-01-01

    总结了栗蘑栽培管理技术,包括选地、做畦、码放菌袋、搭遮荫棚、生长期管理、主要病虫害防治、适时采摘等内容,以供参考。%Cultivation and management techniques of chestnut mushroom were summarized,including selection of land,furrowing,block pattern row pattern of cultivated bag,setting up shed shelter,growth management,main prevention and control of plant diseases and insect pests,timely harvest and etc.,so as to provide the reference.

  8. THE PESTS OF HORSE CHESTNUT TREE – AESCULUS HIPPOCASTANUM L. IN ROMANIA

    OpenAIRE

    PERJU, T.; I OLTEAN; OPREAN, I.; Monica ECOBICI

    2005-01-01

    In 1998 the presence of the horse chestnut leaf-miner, Cameraria ohridella Deschka-Dimic was reported in Cluj- Napoca. During 2000 – 2003 research concerning the extent, biology, ecology at this micro-lepidopteron, a new pest in our country, was performed. Signaled for the fi rst time in Western area of our country (1998), then in Central (1998), Southern (1999), and Eastern (2003) part of the country, the spread year by year conquering new territories. In the clime conditions of our country,...

  9. HPLC Analysis of Esculin and Fraxin in Horse-Chestnut Bark (Aesculus hippocastanum L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Stanić, Gordana; Juričić, Blaženka; Brkić, Dragomir

    1999-01-01

    Selective and sensitive HPLC method was used for simultaneous determination of esculin and fraxin in a methanolic extract of horse-chestnut bark (A. hippocastanum L.). The samples were separated on a LiChrospher RP 18 column (150 4 mm i.d.) with the mobile phase consisting of acetic acid, 1%, and methanol (84:16 v/v) at a flow rate of 1.0 mL/min and quantified by measuring the UV absorbance at 340 nm. The assay of esculin and fraxin is linear over the range 0.02–2 mg/mL. It was shown that t...

  10. Hydrologic study and evaluation of Ish Creek watershed (West Chestnut Ridge proposed disposal site)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As part of site characterization work for the proposed West Chestnut Ridge Central Waste Disposal Facility, hydrologic information has been assembled from literature sources and direct field measurements. Earlier studies provide the basis for estimating flow frequency and expected high and low flows for catchments on Knox Group formations. Seven waterflow-gaging installations were established and used to characterize runoff patterns in the study area. Based on findings of this study, a practical design capacity for a flume to measure site runoff would range between 1 and 3000 L/s, although flows up to 4500 L/s (10-year recurrence interval) may be encountered. 7 references, 2 figures, 5 tables

  11. Growth dynamics and productivity of pure and mixed Castanea sativa Mill. and Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb. Franco plantations in northern Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nunes Leónia --

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Since the late 1980’s the productivity of monocultures versus mixed-species forests has been the object of special interest and study by forest managers and ecologists. All over the world mixed plantations have been established in different proportions to analyse if mixtures can provide greater yields and more benefits than monocultures of the component species and also to understand if they can be an interesting economic option. An experimental design trial was set up in the north of Portugal in a replacement series with pure and mixed Castanea sativa Mill. and Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb. Franco. The objective of this study was to assess growth dynamics and compare the aboveground biomass and net primary production of the two species in pure and mixed treatments in proportions 1:1 and 1:3. The growth was measured at 7, 11, 15, 17, 19, 27 and 28 years after planting and aboveground net primary production was estimated at age 28 years. As a component of the mixed treatments, P. menziesii exhibited greater height, diameter and aboveground biomass than C. sativa. Relative yield total indicated a higher productivity in the mixtures compared with the pure treatments. Early in the development the pure treatments had a similar aboveground biomass per hectare as the mixtures, but later the mixtures had more yield than the pure treatments. The mixture productivity increase trough time appears to be a result of both canopy stratification and better use of site resources. The aboveground net primary production was also higher in mixed than in the pure treatments. This study shows the importance of comparing mixed and pure stands.

  12. Environmental fate of emamectin benzoate after tree micro injection of horse chestnut trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkhard, Rene; Binz, Heinz; Roux, Christian A; Brunner, Matthias; Ruesch, Othmar; Wyss, Peter

    2015-02-01

    Emamectin benzoate, an insecticide derived from the avermectin family of natural products, has a unique translocation behavior in trees when applied by tree micro injection (TMI), which can result in protection from insect pests (foliar and borers) for several years. Active ingredient imported into leaves was measured at the end of season in the fallen leaves of treated horse chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum) trees. The dissipation of emamectin benzoate in these leaves seems to be biphasic and depends on the decomposition of the leaf. In compost piles, where decomposition of leaves was fastest, a cumulative emamectin benzoate degradation half-life time of 20 d was measured. In leaves immersed in water, where decomposition was much slower, the degradation half-life time was 94 d, and in leaves left on the ground in contact with soil, where decomposition was slowest, the degradation half-life time was 212 d. The biphasic decline and the correlation with leaf decomposition might be attributed to an extensive sorption of emamectin benzoate residues to leaf macromolecules. This may also explain why earthworms ingesting leaves from injected trees take up very little emamectin benzoate and excrete it with the feces. Furthermore, no emamectin benzoate was found in water containing decomposing leaves from injected trees. It is concluded, that emamectin benzoate present in abscised leaves from horse chestnut trees injected with the insecticide is not available to nontarget organisms present in soil or water bodies. PMID:25363584

  13. Adsorption of cationic dye methylene blue onto activated carbon obtained from horse chestnut kernel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Momčilović Milan Z.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Horse chestnut kernel was used as the precursor for the preparation of powdered activated carbon using phosphoric acid as the activating agent. Batch adsorption experiments for the adsorption of cationic dye methylene blue from aqueous solutions were carried out using the obtained carbon as adsorbent. Equilibrium and kinetic experiments were conducted. The equilibrium data were fitted with the Langmuir, Freundlich and Temkin theoretical isotherm models. The best results was obtained in the case of Langmuir model, which indicates that monolayer adsorption occurs on finite number of the active adsorption sites on the carbon surface. The kinetic data were fitted with pseudo-first, pseudo-second, Elovich and interparticle diffusion model. Pseudo-second order model and Elovich model showed the best results of the kinetic data. The increasing of the solution pH led to a higher uptake of methylene blue due to the fact that competitive adsorption of methylene blue cation and proton exists in acidic solutions. The adsorption capacity for methylene blue in equilibrium study was significant (168.93 mg g-1. Comparison of the adsorption capacities of methylene blue onto activated carbons derived from various alternative precursors proves chestnut kernel to be efficient and low-cost material which could be substantially deployed in the future.

  14. Environmental fate of emamectin benzoate after tree micro injection of horse chestnut trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkhard, Rene; Binz, Heinz; Roux, Christian A; Brunner, Matthias; Ruesch, Othmar; Wyss, Peter

    2015-02-01

    Emamectin benzoate, an insecticide derived from the avermectin family of natural products, has a unique translocation behavior in trees when applied by tree micro injection (TMI), which can result in protection from insect pests (foliar and borers) for several years. Active ingredient imported into leaves was measured at the end of season in the fallen leaves of treated horse chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum) trees. The dissipation of emamectin benzoate in these leaves seems to be biphasic and depends on the decomposition of the leaf. In compost piles, where decomposition of leaves was fastest, a cumulative emamectin benzoate degradation half-life time of 20 d was measured. In leaves immersed in water, where decomposition was much slower, the degradation half-life time was 94 d, and in leaves left on the ground in contact with soil, where decomposition was slowest, the degradation half-life time was 212 d. The biphasic decline and the correlation with leaf decomposition might be attributed to an extensive sorption of emamectin benzoate residues to leaf macromolecules. This may also explain why earthworms ingesting leaves from injected trees take up very little emamectin benzoate and excrete it with the feces. Furthermore, no emamectin benzoate was found in water containing decomposing leaves from injected trees. It is concluded, that emamectin benzoate present in abscised leaves from horse chestnut trees injected with the insecticide is not available to nontarget organisms present in soil or water bodies.

  15. Quick detection of Dryocosmus kuriphilus Yasumatsu (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae) in chestnut dormant buds by nested PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sartor, C; Marinoni, D Torello; Quacchia, A; Botta, R

    2012-06-01

    Dryocosmus kuriphilus Yasumatsu (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae) develops in chestnut buds that remain asymptomatic from oviposition (June-July) until budburst; it is, thus, easily spread by plant material used in propagation. Therefore, it is particularly interesting to identify infested plant batches before their movement. Unfortunately, a non-destructive method for checking buds has not yet been developed, and the only technique available is the screening of a bud sample. The visual investigation is long and requires highly skilled and trained staff. The purpose of this work was to set up an effective and fast method able to identify the presence of first instar larvae of D. kuriphilus in a large number of chestnut buds by PCR. Four primer pairs were designed on nuclear and mitochondrial sequences of a set of seven gall wasp taxa and tested on five different cynipid's DNA. Nested diagnostic PCR was carried out on DNA extracted from samples of 2 g buds simulating four levels of infestation (larvae were added to uninfested buds); 320 bp amplicon of 28S sequence was chosen as a marker to detect one larva out of 2 g buds. The method showed a potential efficiency of 5000 to 15,000 buds per week, depending on bud size.

  16. 荔波县板栗虫害及天敌调查研究%Investigation on Natural Enemy and Insect Pest of Castanea mollissima in Libo County

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    莫显平

    2015-01-01

    对荔波县翁昂板栗生产区的虫害种类、危害及天敌情况进行调查,结果表明:板栗主要害虫有32种,其中危害较严重的是栗实象、栗瘿蜂、红蜡蚧、桃蛀螟、桃黑斑蚜5种害虫;板栗害虫的天敌昆虫有11种,其中中华长尾小蜂、大草蛉蜂、七星瓢虫是栗瘿蜂和桃黑斑蚜的重要天敌。%The overall situation of insect species,damage and natural enemy of Castanea mollissima in Libo County were surveyed.The results showed that there were 32 species of pests,including 5 pests of Curculio davidi,Dryocosmus kuriphilus,Ceroplastes rubens,Conogethes punctiferalis,Cnoromaphis jaglandicola.There were 11 natural enemies for the pests of Castanea mollissima,among which Torymus sinensis,Chrysopa sepfempuncfafa,Coccinella septempunctata were important enemies for Dryocosmus kuriphilus,Cnoromaphis jaglandicola.

  17. Studies on Lactic Acid Bacteria Beverage of Chestnut and Red Date%板栗红枣乳酸菌饮料的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张冰; 李岩; 刘伟

    2011-01-01

    本文将板栗浆与脱脂乳混合进行发酵制成板栗酸牛奶,再以板栗酸牛奶为基料添加红枣汁制成风味独特、清凉爽口的乳酸菌饮料,并确定其最佳配方为:板栗发酵乳添加量为35%,红枣汁添加量为4%,调整pH值为4.0.%A study on the chestnut yogurt fermentation with liquid of chestnut and skim milk. Made lactic acid bacteria beverage with chestnut yogurt of fundamental material adds juice of red dates, it has flavour of special, refreshing and cool tasty. The best result of the former is chestnut yogurt: 35%, juice of red dates: 4%, pH:4.0.

  18. The effect of chestnut coppice forests abandon on slope stability: a case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vergani, Chiara; Bassanelli, Chiara; Rossi, Lorenzo; Chiaradia, Enrico Antonio; Battista Bischetti, Gian

    2013-04-01

    Sweet chestnut has been fundamental for Italian mountainous economies for many centuries. This kind of forest was traditionally managed by coppicing in shortly rotation (15-20 years) to rapidly produce wood biomass until half of XX century. In the last decades these forests were in large part abandoned due to change in economy which made coppiced forest management unprofitable, especially in steeper slopes and where forest viability is scarce. As a consequence most of them are over aged and very dense, leading to an observed increasing in localized slope instability, primary because of the uprooting of stools (Vogt et al., 2006). In this work the effect of the abandon of chestnut coppice on slope stability was analyzed, focusing on shallow landslides triggering. The mechanical contribution to soil shear strength of differently managed chestnut stand was estimated and compared in terms of additional root cohesion. The study area is located in the Valcuvia Valley (Lombardy Prealps - Northern Italy) at an elevation about 600 m a.s.l., where two different stands, one managed and the other abandoned (over 40 year aged), were chosen. The two sampling stands are on cohesionless slopes (quaternary moraine deposits) and are homogeneous with regard to the substrate, exposure and elevation. Slope steepness influences heavily forestry practices and steeper stands are more frequently abandoned than stands on gentler terrain: in fact in the abandoned coppice the slope was higher (35 degrees against 13 in the managed stand) and no stands completely homogeneous can be found. In each site the main characteristics of the stand were surveyed and a trench in each stand was excavated to analyze root diameter and number distribution with depth; root specimens were also collected for the tensile force determination through laboratory tensile tests. Root distribution and force were then used to estimate root cohesion values through a Fiber Boundle Model (Pollen and Simon, 2005). Results

  19. Identificationof Major Phenolic Compounds of Chinese Water Chestnut and their Antioxidant Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanli You

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Chinese water chestnut (CWC is one of the most popular foods among Asian people due to its special taste and medical function. Experiments were conducted to test the antioxidant activity and then determine the major phenolic compound components present in CWC. CWC phenolic extract strongly inhibited linoleic acid oxidation and exhibited a dose-dependent free-radical scavenging activity against α,α-diphenyl-β-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH radicals, superoxide anions and hydroxyl radicals, which was superior to ascorbic acid and butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT, two commercial used antioxidants. Furthermore, the CWC extract was found to have a relatively higher reducing power, compared with BHT. The major phenolic compounds present in CWC tissues were extracted, purified and identified by high-performance liquid chromatograph (HPLC as (–-gallocatechin gallate, (–-epicatechin gallate and (+-catechin gallate. This study suggests that CWC tissues exhibit great potential for antioxidant activity and may be useful for their nutritional and medicinal functions.

  20. Volatile compounds and bacterial community dynamics of chestnut-flour-based sourdoughs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aponte, M; Boscaino, F; Sorrentino, A; Coppola, R; Masi, P; Romano, A

    2013-12-01

    The aims of this study were the monitoring of the microbial dynamics by means of a polyphasic approach based on conventional isolation techniques and PCR-DGGE-based methods in different chestnut-based sourdoughs and the evaluation of the impact of fermentation on volatile organic compounds formation during sourdoughs ripening. Members of the Lactobacillus plantarum group and Pediococcus pentosaceous dominated the sourdough ecosystems. Nevertheless, RAPD-PCR allowed recording a relevant genotypic biodiversity among strains coming from gluten-free flour combinations. Volatile compounds were characterised by GC/MS. A total of 59 volatile compounds were identified, mainly alcohols, esters, acids, aldehydes and ketones. Principal component analysis of samples at the beginning and at the end of ripening offered a good separation of the samples and highlighted the effect of fermentation on the sensorial profile. PMID:23870973

  1. Chemical cues for host location by the chestnut gall wasp, Dryocosmus kuriphilus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Germinara, Giacinto S; De Cristofaro, Antonio; Rotundo, Giuseppe

    2011-01-01

    Dryocosmus kuriphilus is one of the most damaging pests of Castanea spp. Behavioral, chemical, and electrophysiological investigations were employed to examine the role of plant volatiles for host location by this thelytokuos cynipid. Y-tube olfactometer bioassays showed that adult wasps are significantly attracted by C. sativa twigs with at least 1-hr-old mechanical damage. Odors of undamaged host seedlings, intact twigs, and twigs with a fresh mechanical damage were not attractive. Wasps were repelled by plant materials of the non-host Prunus laurocerasus. Fourteen compounds, mainly general green leaf volatiles, were identified in the head-space of attractive host plant twigs by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry. All compounds elicited dose-dependent antennal responses in adult wasps. A synthetic blend comprising all identified compounds in the same ratio as in the attractive host source induced significant positive responses in Y-tube olfactometer bioassays. The study gives a basis for future identification of host plant attractants that could contribute to semiochemical-based monitoring and management practices of this pest.

  2. Horse chestnut extract contracts bovine vessels and affects human platelet aggregation through 5-HT(2A) receptors: an in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felixsson, Emma; Persson, Ingrid A-L; Eriksson, Andreas C; Persson, Karin

    2010-09-01

    Extract from seeds and bark of horse chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum L) is used as an herbal medicine against chronic venous insufficiency. The effect and mechanism of action on veins, arteries, and platelets are not fully understood. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects and mechanisms of action of horse chestnut on the contraction of bovine mesenteric veins and arteries, and human platelet aggregation. Contraction studies showed that horse chestnut extract dose-dependently contracted both veins and arteries, with the veins being the most sensitive. Contraction of both veins and arteries were significantly inhibited by the 5-HT(2A) receptor antagonist ketanserin. No effect on contraction was seen with the cyclooxygenase inhibitor indomethacin, the alpha(1) receptor antagonist prazosin or the angiotensin AT(1) receptor antagonist saralasin neither in veins nor arteries. ADP-induced human platelet aggregation was significantly reduced by horse chestnut. A further reduction was seen with the extract in the presence of ketanserin. In conclusion, horse chestnut contraction of both veins and arteries is, at least partly, mediated through 5-HT(2A) receptors. Human platelet aggregation is reduced by horse chestnut. The clinical importance of these findings concerning clinical use, possible adverse effects, and drug interactions remains to be investigated. PMID:20148408

  3. Horse Chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum L. Urban Habitat - Pollution Influence on Some Phenotypic and Morphological Characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fran Poštenjak

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Purpose: Horse chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum L. may be found in most urban areas in Croatia. Over the years it showed to be resistant to various negative urban influences. In this research we tested trees on randomly selected streets with intense traffic in smaller towns. The main goal of this research was to establish the link between pollution and tree growth and to analyze to what extent pollution influences the increase in the measured parameters. Material and Methods: The research was done in 7 settlements, in towns with the population of up to 75 000 inhabitants. The measured parameters were the morphological characteristics of trees, shoots, leaves and nuts. From the selected branches we measured the annual shoot (thickness and length, leaves, the number of flowers and nuts. The crown transparency was assessed according to the ICP Forest method. Results and Conclusion: The phenotype of the urban Horse chestnut significantly differs from its natural phenotype, and it is transformed by multiple radical pruning, what may be seen in the following ratios: the diameter at breast height - tree height, trunk height - tree height, crown height – tree height, crown width – crown height. The most significant characteristic of the tree is the vitality expressed by crown-damage classes. On the selected trees the worst crown damage class was “3b” and the best was “0”. The measured parameters of yearly shoot characteristics were defined. All measured parameters (trees, shoots, leafs and nuts show significant differences from the given average values.

  4. [Micrococcus sp.--the pathogen of leaf necrosis of horse-chestnuts (Aesculus L.) in Kiev].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iakovleva, L M; Makhinia, L V; Shcherbina, T N; Ogorodnik, L E

    2013-01-01

    A group of phytopathogenic bacteria was isolated from patterns of drying horse-chestnuts (Aesculus L.), which grow in Kyiv. The properties of slowly growing, highly aggressive microorganisms have been described in the paper. They grow up on the 8-10th day after sowing. The investigated microorganisms form very small (0.5-1 mm in diameter) colonies on the potato agar. Bacteria are protuberant, shining, smooth with flat edges, they are pale yellow, yellow, or pink. The bacteria are Gram-positive, spherical, are disposed in smears singly, in pairs, as accumulations, or netting. They are aerobes, do not form spores, are not mobile. They are inert in respect of different sources of carbon. They reduce nitrates, do not dilute gelatin, do not hydrolyze starch, do not release hydrogen sulphide and indole. The bacteria are catalase-positive, oxidase-negative. They do not cause potato and carrot rot. They lose quickly their viability under the laboratory conditions. The saturated acids C 14:0; C 15:0; C16:0; C18:0 have been revealed in the composition of cellular fatty acids. Microorganisms are identified as Micrococcus sp. Under artificial inoculation this highly aggressive pathogen causes drying of the horse-chestnut buds and necrosis, which occupies 1/3-1/2 of the leaf plate. A wide zone of chlorosis, surrounding necrosis, may occupy the whole leaf surface. The infected leaves use to twist up from the top (apex) or along a midrib and to dry. PMID:23866588

  5. Physicochemical, pasting, rheological, thermal and morphological properties of horse chestnut starch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafiq, Syed Insha; Jan, Kulsum; Singh, Sukhcharn; Saxena, D C

    2015-09-01

    Indian Horse chestnuts contain high content of starch which can be explored to be used in various applications in food industry as encapsulating agent, stabilizer, binder, thickener, gelling agents and many more. Horse chest nut is locally available and can be a boon for food industry if the inherent properties are explored. Hence, horse chest nut starch can be a better option for the replacement of conventional starches to meet the industrial demand of starch. Physicochemical, pasting, rheological, thermal and morphological properties of starch isolated from Indian Horse chestnut (HCN) were determined. Amylose content was found to be 26.10 %. Peak viscosity obtained from RVA profile was 4110 cP. Hardness, cohesiveness, adhesiveness and gumminess were determined by Texture Profile Analyser. Particle size analysis showed a typical Uni modal size distribution profile with particle distribution ranging from 7.52 to 27.44 μm. The shape of starch granules varied from round, irregular, oval, and elliptical with smooth surface. X- ray diffraction revealed that HCN starch showed a typical C-type pattern with characteristic peaks at 5.7, 15.0, 17.3 and 22.3°. The transition temperatures (To, Tp, and Tc) and enthalpy of gelatinization (ΔH) values were 53.35, 58.81, 63.57 °C and 8.76 J/g, respectively. The rheological properties were determined in terms of variation of storage modulus (G (/)), loss modulus (G (//)) and loss factor (tan δ) at different temperatures. Peak G (/), peak G (//) and peak tan δ values were observed as 10,400 Pa, 1,710 Pa, and 0.164, respectively. PMID:26344978

  6. Structure of Oxalacetate Acetylhydrolase, a Virulence Factor of the Chestnut Blight Fungus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Chen; Sun, Qihong; Narayanan, Buvaneswari; Nuss, Donald L.; Herzberg, Osnat (UMBI)

    2010-11-15

    Oxalacetate acetylhydrolase (OAH), a member of the phosphoenolpyruvate mutase/isocitrate lyase superfamily, catalyzes the hydrolysis of oxalacetate to oxalic acid and acetate. This study shows that knock-out of the oah gene in Cryphonectria parasitica, the chestnut blight fungus, reduces the ability of the fungus to form cankers on chestnut trees, suggesting that OAH plays a key role in virulence. OAH was produced in Escherichia coli and purified, and its catalytic rates were determined. Oxalacetate is the main OAH substrate, but the enzyme also acts as a lyase of (2R,3S)-dimethyl malate with {approx}1000-fold lower efficacy. The crystal structure of OAH was determined alone, in complex with a mechanism-based inhibitor, 3,3-difluorooxalacetate (DFOA), and in complex with the reaction product, oxalate, to a resolution limit of 1.30, 1.55, and 1.65 {angstrom}, respectively. OAH assembles into a dimer of dimers with each subunit exhibiting an ({alpha}/{beta})8 barrel fold and each pair swapping the 8th {alpha}-helix. An active site 'gating loop' exhibits conformational disorder in the ligand-free structure. To obtain the structures of the OAH {center_dot} ligand complexes, the ligand-free OAH crystals were soaked briefly with DFOA or oxalacetate. DFOA binding leads to ordering of the gating loop in a conformation that sequesters the ligand from the solvent. DFOA binds in a gem-diol form analogous to the oxalacetate intermediate/transition state. Oxalate binds in a planar conformation, but the gating loop is largely disordered. Comparison between the OAH structure and that of the closely related enzyme, 2,3-dimethylmalate lyase, suggests potential determinants of substrate preference.

  7. Horse Chestnut

    Science.gov (United States)

    60036 ... https://nccih.nih.gov/health/horsechestnut ... us ... 60036 ... https://nccih.nih.gov/health/horsechestnut ... Herbal Medicine ... Herbal Medicine/Specifics ... us ... 60036 ... https:// ...

  8. 板栗加工工艺对挥发性香气成分的影响%Effect of Processing Technology on Volatile Components of Chinese Chestnut

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔亚辉; 徐芳; 王丰俊; 王建中; 欧阳杰

    2012-01-01

    Chinese chestnut forms different flavors by different processing technology. An automatic thermal de-sorption-gas chromatography-mass spectrometric (ATD-GC-MS) system was applied to analyze the volatile composition of raw chestnut, boiled chestnut, fried chestnut and roasted chestnut. Herbaceous aroma such as ethyl acetate, hex-anal, butyl acetate, 1-butanol-3-methyl-acetate, alpha-pinene and benzaldehyde were found in raw chestnut; fried chestnut and roasted chestnut were found to have characteristic volatiles such as 2-pentyl-furan, 3-carene, 4-hydroxy-2-butanone and 2-methyl-tetrahydrofuran-3-ketone; and in boiled chestnut, spiro [2,4] hepta-4,6-diene was found first time. The results will provide a reference for the further research and development of Chinese chestnut products.%板栗经过不同的加工工艺熟化后会产生不同的风味.文中分别对生板栗,以及煮制、炒制和烤制加工后的板栗进行ATD热脱附以及GC-MS分析,得出不同加工工艺条件下的板栗挥发性香气成分.其中生板栗主要有板栗本身的草本清香香气成分,如乙酸乙酯、己醛、乙酸丁酯、3-甲基-1-丁醇乙酸酯、α-蒎烯和苯甲醛等;炒板栗和烤板栗的特征性挥发物有2-戊基呋喃、3-蒈烯、4-羟基-2-丁酮和2-甲基-四氢呋喃-3-酮;煮板栗中发现了之前未在板栗香气研究中报道过的香气成分螺[2,4]庚-4.6-二烯.

  9. Application of a new purification method of West-Kazakhstan chestnut soil microbiota DNA for metagenomic analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sergaliev, N. Kh.; Kakishev, M. G.; Zhiengaliev, A. T.; Volodin, M. A.; Andronov, E. E.; Pinaev, A. G.

    2015-04-01

    A method for the extraction of soil microbial DNA has been tested on chestnut soils (Kastanozems) of the West Kazakhstan region. The taxonomic analysis of soil microbiome libraries has shown that the phyla Actinobacteria and Proteobacteria constitute the largest part of microbial communities in the analyzed soils. The Archaea form an appreciable part of the microbiome in the studied samples. In the underdeveloped dark chestnut soil, their portion is higher than 11%. This is of interest, as the proportion of Archaea in the soil communities of virgin lands usually does not exceed 5%. In addition to the phyla mentioned above, there are representatives of the phyla Acidobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes, Gemmatimonadales, Planctomycetes, and Verrucomicrobia, which are all fairly common in soil communities.

  10. Chestnut wood in compression perpendicular to the grain : non-destructive correlations for test results in new and old wood

    OpenAIRE

    Lourenço, Paulo B.; Feio, A. O.; Machado, J.S.

    2007-01-01

    This paper addresses the evaluation of the compressive properties of chestnut wood under compression perpendicular to the grain, using destructive and non-destructive methods. Three non-destructive methods (ultrasonic testing, Resistograph and Pilodyn) are proposed and the possibility of their application is discussed based on the application of simple linear regression models. Timber specimens were tested up to failure, divided in two different groups for assessing a possible load h...

  11. Non-destructive evaluation of the mechanical behaviour of chestnut wood in tension and compression parallel to grain

    OpenAIRE

    Feio, A. O.; Lourenço, Paulo B.; Machado, J.S.

    2007-01-01

    The paper addresses the evaluation of strength and stiffness of chestnut wood, in tension and compression parallel to the grain, using different non-destructive techniques (ultrasounds, Resistograph and Pilodyn). Around two hundred timber specimens (divided into compression and tension tests) were tested up to failure, comprising recently sawn timber (which is now available on the market for structural purposes) and what was called old wood, obtained from structural elements belonging to anci...

  12. Design of Automatic Chestnut Shelling Machine%自动板栗脱壳机的设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张文斌

    2015-01-01

    针对目前板栗脱壳过程中主要依靠手工剥壳,手指极易被板栗刺壳上坚硬的刺刺伤,以及劳动强度大、生产效率低的问题,设计了一种新型的自动板栗脱壳机。该机采用胶皮与螺纹钢揉挤的方式将板栗刺与板栗米分开,同时采用鼓风机搭配输送带的方式进行分离。实际测试结果表明,该机采用的脱壳方式和分离方式新颖,能最大限度地将板栗米与板栗刺剥离,且能实现两者的自动分离,对于减轻栗农劳动强度,缩短栗子从采摘到上市的时间发挥了极大作用,值得进一步推广普及。%At present, chestnut is basically using hand to strip off, people’ s finger is inevitably scratched.Focusing on the current problem of high labor cost and low working efficiency, a new automatic chestnut shelling machine is designed. This machine combines rubber and deformed steel bars to separate the chestnut and its capillus.At the same time, the fan and conveyer belt are combined to realize their separation.The practical testing results show that this machine could separate the chestnut and its capillus to a great degree by using the novel shelling and separating way, it will reduce working hard and shorten time from picking to go to the market, it has great value to popularize.

  13. Calendar year 1993 groundwater quality report for the Chestnut Ridge Hydrogeologic Regime, Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This annual groundwater report contains groundwater quality data obtained during the 1993 calendar year (CY) at several hazardous and non-hazardous waste-management facilities associated with the US Department of Energy (DOE) Y-12 Plant located on the DOE Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) southeast of Oak Ridge, Tennessee. These sites are located south of the Y-12 Plant in the Chestnut Ridge Hydrogeologic Regime (Chestnut Ridge Regime), which is one of three regimes defined for the purposes of groundwater quality monitoring at the Y-12 Plant. The Environmental Management Department of the Y-12 Plant Health, Safety, Environment, and Accountability Organization manages the groundwater monitoring activities in each regime as part of the Y-12 Plant Groundwater Protection Program (GWPP). The annual groundwater report for the Chestnut Ridge Regime is completed in two-parts; Part 1 (this report) containing the groundwater quality data and Part 2 containing a detailed evaluation of the data. The primary purpose of this report is to serve as a reference for the groundwater quality data obtained each year under the lead of the Y-12 Plant GWPP. However, because it contains information needed to comply with Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) interim status assessment monitoring and reporting requirements, this report is submitted to the Tennessee Department of Health and Environment (TDEC) by the RCRA reporting deadline

  14. Antioxidant activity of yogurt made from milk characterized by different casein haplotypes and fortified with chestnut and sulla honeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perna, Annamaria; Intaglietta, Immacolata; Simonetti, Amalia; Gambacorta, Emilio

    2014-11-01

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the antioxidant activity of yogurt made from milk characterized by different casein (CN) haplotypes (αs1-, β-, κ-CN) and fortified with chestnut and sulla honeys. The CN haplotype was determined by isoelectric focusing, whereas antioxidant activity of yogurt was measured using 2,2'-azino-bis-3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid and ferric-reducing antioxidant power. The statistical analysis showed a significant effect of the studied factors. The results showed that chestnut honey presented the highest phenolic acid and flavonoid contents, which are closely associated with its high antioxidant activity. The antioxidant activity of fortified yogurt samples was affected both by different CN haplotypes and by type of honey added. Yogurts fortified with chestnut honey showed higher antioxidant activity than those fortified with sulla honey. The different behavior observed among the fortified yogurts led us to hypothesize that the effects of protein-polyphenol complex on antioxidant activity are interactive. The results suggest that milk proteins polymorphism and polyphenols play different roles in affecting the bioavailability and the antioxidant activity of yogurt.

  15. THE EFFECTS OF TANNIN AND THERMAL TREATMENT ON PHYSICAL AND MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF LAMINATED CHESTNUT WOOD COMPOSITES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gokhan Gunduz

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of tannin and thermal treatment on physical properties such as dimensional stability and moisture content (%, as well as mechanical properties such as bending strength, modulus of elasticity, and compression strength of laminated chestnut wood composites, which are used commonly for shipboard construction in Turkey. The chestnut wood used in boat construction is usually exposed to several treatments in order to achieve better bonding performance and to remove excessive tannins. According to the results obtained, physical properties of laminated chestnut wood without tannin were better compared to samples with tannin. Oven-dry density and air-dry density were found to be higher in samples containing tannins and not exposed to thermal treatment. Moreover, the lowest value of density was observed in samples containing no tannin and exposed to thermal treatment. In terms of mechanical properties, the highest bending strength and modulus of elasticity were obtained from samples containing tannins and not exposed to heat treatment. The lowest values were found in samples without tannin exposed to heat treatment. Regarding compression strength, the maximum and minimum values were found in samples containing tannins and not exposed to heat treatment and samples without tannin and exposed to heat treatment, respectively.

  16. Effect of the Inclusion of Chestnut in the Finishing Diet on Volatile Compounds of Dry-Cured Ham from Celta Pig Breed

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jos M. Lorenzo; Javier Carballo; Daniel Franco

    2013-01-01

    The effect of the inclusion of chestnut in pigs ifnishing diet on volatile compounds of dry-cured Celta ham was studied. Twelve hams of each type (from three different pigs ifnishing diets:concentrate (CO), mixed (MI) and chestnut (CH)) were used. Volatiles were extracted using a purge-and-trap method and analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Thirty-nine volatile compounds were identified in dry-cured Celta ham samples. Most abundant volatiles in ham samples were aldehydes, which represented respectively, 53% (CO), 51% (MI) and 46% (CH) of the total volatile composition. With the exception of 2-butenal, 2-methyl, all aldehydes were affected by feeding system. On the other hand, hydrocarbons n-alkanes were the second major group in the volatile proifle of dry-cured Celta hams and represented 28.9, 35.7 and 32.4%of the total volatile composition for CO, MI and CH groups, respectively. Ham samples from chestnut group showed a higher content of alcohols and this result could be related with the inclusion of chestnut in the ifnishing diet of pigs. Principal component analysis showed a good separation among groups. The discriminant analysis selected eight variables (butanoic acid, hexanal, octanal, nonenal (E), decenal (E), tetradecane, decane trimethyl and pyridine 2-methyl) and calculated two discriminating functions to predict if chestnut has been included in the ifnishing diet. Thus, it was possible to discriminate between groups fed with ifnishing diets containing chestnuts in their composition (mixed and chestnut group).

  17. American Religion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田甜

    2008-01-01

    It is said that American religion,as a great part of American culture,plays an important role in American culture. It is hoped that some ideas can be obtained from this research paper,which focuses on analyzing the great impact is produced to American culture by American religion. Finally, this essay gives two useful standpoints to English learners:Understunding American religion will help understand the American history, culture and American people,and help you to communic.ate with them better. Understanding American religion will help you understand English better.

  18. Isolation and characterization by asymmetric PCR of the ENDO1 gene for glucan endo-1,3-β-D-glucosidase in Phytophthora cinnamomi associated with the ink disease of Castanea sativa Mill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofia Meirinho

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Ink disease is one of the most destructive diseases in Castanea sativa. The most common symptoms are root necrosies and a reduction in root growth, which invariably lead to the death of the trees. Phytophthora cinnamomi is an oomycete associated with this disease whose life cycle develops integrally in the soil. In the present work, was a fragment with 1231bp of the glucan endo-1,3-β-D-glucosidase gene obtained by amplification, using conserved primers and the full-length gene sequence by flanking this known sequence by asymmetric PCR. This fragment was obtained from genomic DNA of Phytophthora cinnamomi isolated in the European Regions of Castilla-Leon (Spain and Trás-os-Montes (Portugal and associated with the ink disease of Castanea sativa Mill.Doença da tinta é um das doenças mais destrutivas em Castanea sativa. Os sintomas mais comuns são necroses e uma redução em crescimento da raiz que invariavelmente leva à morte das plantas. Phytophthora cinnamomi é o oomycete associado a esta doença cujo ciclo de vida acontece integralmente no solo. Foi obtido um fragmento com 1231pb do gene glucan endo-1,3-β-D-glucosidase por amplificação usando oligonucleotidos conservados e a sequência completa do gene foi obtido flanqueando esta sequência conhecida por PCR assimétrico. Este fragmento foi obtido de ADN genómico de Phytophthora cinnamomi isolado por nós nas Regiões Europeias de Castilla-Léon (Espanha e Trás-os-Montes (Portugal e associado à doença da tinta da Castanea sativa Mill.

  19. 板栗低产林嫁接换冠成效的初步研究%Preliminary studies on grafting for the effectiveness of low -yielding Castanea mollissma forest

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李小莲

    2014-01-01

    The application effect of crown -grafting technology in Shouning county Qingyuan township Guiy-ang tea plantation Castanea mollissma orchard showed that :To grafting for the production of low -yield Castanea mollissma ,change the bad to excellent ,can keep the excellent characteristics of Castanea mollissma varieties ,in the third year of crow n -grafting for the low -yield Castanea mollissma ,95% can fruiting and put into production ,the total growth range up 8 .265 times ;fruiting strains improve 3 .8 times ,Thoroughbred fruiting strains improve 4 .75 times ,average price improve 3 .7 Yuan/kg ;The total output value increased 13 . 83 times ,the economic benefits are significant ,so it can be applied .%对嫁接换冠技术在寿宁县清源乡龟洋茶场板栗果园上的应用效果进行了调查,结果表明:对投产的低产劣种板栗进行嫁接换冠,改劣换优,可保持板栗品种的优良特性,使低产劣种板栗树嫁接换冠后的第3年,95%的板栗均可挂果投产,总产量增长幅度达8.265倍;挂果株数提高了3.8倍,良种挂果株数提高了4.75倍,平均单价提高了3.7元/kg ,总产值提高了13.83倍,经济效益十分显著。

  20. 板栗在贮藏中的微观形态变化%Changes of Microcosmic Morpha during the Storage of Chestnut

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭正林

    2009-01-01

    After comparison with the micrographs of chestnut between the fresh chestnut and the stored chestnut, the results showed that the cell membrane of the fresh chestnut was complete and smooth, endoplasm was homogeneous. The cell membrane of the blet chestnut was not complete, the limit of cell was not obviously, mitoehondrion membrane became vague and its erista was blurry after 90 days storage. But the nucleolus was unchanged.%对贮藏前后的板栗进行光学显微镜和电子显微镜观察,结果表明贮藏前的板栗细胞排列紧密,淀粉粒清晰可见,细胞膜较完整、光滑、内质均匀;腐烂板栗的细胞膜不完整,细胞与细胞的界限不明显,淀粉粒不清晰,线粒体膜不清晰,嵴模糊.但是贮藏前后板栗的细胞核没有发生明显的变化.

  1. Sequential sampling plan for Cameraria ohridella (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae) on horse chestnut tree.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferracini, Chiara; Alma, Alberto

    2007-12-01

    A fixed precision sequential sampling plan for estimating the density of the horse chestnut, Aesculus hippocastanum L., leafminer Cameraria ohridella Deschka & Dimic (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae) was developed. Data were collected from 2002 to 2004 in Turin, northwestern Italy, with the aim of developing a sampling strategy for estimating populations of C. ohridella mines. Taylor's power law was used as a regression model. Sampling parameters were estimated from 216 data sets, and an additional 110 independent data sets were used to validate the fixed precision sequential sampling plan with resampling software. Covariance analysis indicated that there were not significant differences in the coefficient of Taylor's power law between heights of the foliage, months, and years. Dispersion patterns of C. ohridella were determined to be aggregated. The parameters of the Taylor's power law were used to calculate minimum sample sizes and sampling stop lines for different precision levels. Considering a mean density value of five mines per leaf, an average sample number of only 49 leaves was necessary to achieve a desired precision level of 0.25. As the precision level was increased to 0.10, the average sample size increased to 303 leaves. The sequential sampling plan should provide an effective management of C. ohridella in the urban areas, minimizing sampling time and cost, and at the same should be an effective tool to reduce insecticide applications and prevent the esthetic damage. PMID:18232410

  2. Micromorphology of trichomes in the flowers of the horse chestnut Aesculus hippocastanum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirosława Chwil

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aesculus hippocastanum L. is an ornamental tree appreciated for its beautiful flowers and leaves. The flowers of this species contain secondary metabolites exhibiting pharmacological activity. They also produce essential oils and coloured “nectar guides”, which enable insects to reach nectar and pollen. The aim of the study was to investigate the types and characteristics of chestnut flower trichomes, which may contain biologically active substances. The analyses were performed using light, fluorescence, and scanning electron microscopy. Three types of trichomes were found on the sepals and the surface of the ovary, whereas the corolla petals exhibited two types of hairs and papillae. The hairs differ in terms of their length and number of cells. The perianth and pistil had no capitate hairs, whereas the ovary exhibited the presence of colleters. Histochemical assays revealed that all the types of trichomes and papillae contained lipids or essential oils; hence, they can be classified as glandular structures. The “nectar guides” were characterised by higher density of secretory hairs than that on the rest of the petal surface, which implies that these petal fragments may emit stronger fragrance.

  3. THE PESTS OF HORSE CHESTNUT TREE – AESCULUS HIPPOCASTANUM L. IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T PERJU

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available In 1998 the presence of the horse chestnut leaf-miner, Cameraria ohridella Deschka-Dimic was reported in Cluj- Napoca. During 2000 – 2003 research concerning the extent, biology, ecology at this micro-lepidopteron, a new pest in our country, was performed. Signaled for the fi rst time in Western area of our country (1998, then in Central (1998, Southern (1999, and Eastern (2003 part of the country, the spread year by year conquering new territories. In the clime conditions of our country, the insect had 4 generations in 2000, and 3 during 2001 – 2003, remaining in hiemal diapauses during pupae stage, inside of the silk cocoons from the galleries of larvae feeding. The fl ight of the butterfl ies from the IIIrd generation (hiemal is recorded in the beginning of May. The Ist generation has a developmental stage during 15 May – 30 June, the IInd during 1 July – 15 August, and the IIIrd during 15 August – 15 May.

  4. Chestnut shell as unexploited source of fermentable sugars: effect of different pretreatment methods on enzymatic saccharification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurelli, Luisa; Ionata, Elena; La Cara, Francesco; Morana, Alessandra

    2013-07-01

    Chestnut shell (CS) is an agronomic residue mainly used for extraction of antioxidants or as adsorbent of metal ions. It also contains some polysaccharide that has not been considered as potential source of fermentable sugars for biofuel production until now. In this study, the effect of different pretreatment methods on CS was evaluated in order to obtain the greatest conversion of cellulose and xylan into fermentable sugars. Hot acid impregnation, steam explosion (acid-catalysed or not), and aqueous ammonia soaking (AAS) were selected as pretreatments. The pretreated biomass was subjected to saccharification with two enzyme cocktails prepared from commercial preparations, and evaluation of the best pretreatment and enzyme cocktail was based on the yield of fermentable sugars produced. As AAS provided the best result after preliminary experiments, enhancement of sugar production was attempted by changing the concentrations of ammonium hydroxide, enzymes, and CS. The optimal pretreatment condition was 10 % ammonium hydroxide, 70 °C, 22 h with CS at 5 % solid loading. After saccharification of the pretreated CS for 72 h at 50 °C and pH 5.0 with a cocktail containing cellulase (Accellerase 1500), beta-glucosidase (Accellerase BG), and xylanase (Accellerase XY), glucose and xylose yields were 67.8 and 92.7 %, respectively.

  5. Effect of chestnuts level in the formulation of the commercial feed on carcass characteristics and meat quality of Celta pig breed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen De Jesús

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The effect of including chestnuts in the formulation of the feed on carcass characteristics and meat quality from 24 castrated males Celta pigs was studied. The inclusion of 15% of chestnut (CH15 improved (p0.05 differences except for the carcass length and ham length, for which the CH15 group proved to be the group with the longest sizes. The diet did not affect the physicochemical properties (colour parameters, water holding capacity and shear force of longissimus dorsi muscle. The composition of some fatty acids of the longissimus dorsi muscle was affected by diet. The total saturated (35-38% and total polyunsaturated fatty acids (8-10% did not present differences. However, the increase of chestnut in the diet increased (p<0.05 the monounsaturated fatty acids in intramuscular fat (57% in CH25 vs. 53% in control and CH15. Within monounsaturated fatty acids, the C18:1n9 was the most influenced by the diet. The expression of the enzyme that synthesizes C18:1n9 depend on the composition of the diet. Therefore, the lower content of protein and the higher amounts of C18:1n9 and C18:2n6 in the chestnut could be explaining the greater content of C18:1n9 in muscle of chestnut-fed animals. The main conclusion is that including chestnuts in the diet would allow reduce production costs with no effect or even improving carcass measurements and meat quality.

  6. PtSRR1, a putative Pisolithus tinctorius symbiosis related receptor gene is expressed during the first hours of mycorrhizal interaction with Castanea sativa roots PtSRR1, um possível receptor simbiose-regulado de Pisolithus tinctorius é expresso nas primeiras horas de interação ectomicorrízica com raízes de Castanea sativa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Acioli-Santos

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available PtSRR1 EST was previously identified in the first hours of Pisolithus tinctorius and Castanea sativa interaction. QRT-PCR confirmed PtSRR1 early expression and in silico preliminary translated peptide analysis indicated a strong probability that PtSRR1 be a transmembrane protein. These data stimulate the PtSRR1 gene research during ectomycorrhiza formation.PtSRR1 foi isolado preliminarmente de P. tinctorius nas primeiras horas da interação com raízes de C. sativa. Análises de QRT-PCR confirmaram sua expressão positiva (12 h e seu peptídeo putativo indicou forte possibilidade para proteína transmembranar. Estes dados estimulam o estudo do PtSRR1 durante a formação de ectomicorrizas.

  7. Effect of the amount of chestnuts in the diet of Celta pigs on the fatty acid profile of dry-cured lacon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Jesús, M. C.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The effect of including chestnuts in the formulation of the feed (0, 15 and 25% chestnut on the fatty acids of dry-cured lacon from Celta pigs was studied. The inclusion of chestnuts decreases the saturated fatty acid content (SFA and the monounsaturated fatty acid content (MUFA. With regards to the polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA, the lacon from animals fed with chestnuts presented higher values of total PUFA, n6 PUFAs and n3 PUFAs. This is related to the fact that chestnut diets had the highest amounts of essential fatty acids (C18:2n6 and C18:3n3, therefore the lacon from chestnut-fed animals also presented higher amounts of these fatty acids. According to nutritional ratios, lacon obtained from chestnut-fed pigs was healthier than the one obtained from pigs fed on commercial feed. The main conclusion is that including chestnuts in the diet allows us to obtain healthier dry-cured meat products.Se estudió el efecto de la inclusión de la castaña en la formulación del pienso (0, 15 y 25% de castaña sobre el perfil de ácidos grasos del lacón curado de cerdo Celta. La inclusión de castañas produjo una disminución del contenido de ácidos grasos saturados (SFA y monoinsaturados (MUFA. Con respecto a los ácidos grasos poliinsaturados (PUFA los lacones de animales alimentados por castaña presentaron valores más altos de PUFA totales, PUFA n6 y PUFA n3. Esto está relacionado con que las castañas tienen una mayor cantidad de ácidos grasos esenciales (C18:2n6 y C18:3n3, por tanto los lacones de cerdos alimentados con castaña también presentan mayores contenidos de estos ácidos grasos. De acuerdo con los índices nutricionales, los lacones obtenidos de cerdos alimentados con mayor proporción de castañas fueron más saludables. La inclusión de castañas en la dieta nos permite obtener productos cárnicos curados más saludables.

  8. Study of Investigation and Irulence Differentiation for Chestnut Blight%板栗疫病的调查和致病力分化研究概况

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴兆荣

    2013-01-01

    The occurrence law of chestnut blight was introduced, the investigation method was elaborated. The pathogenesis of chestnut blight was studied with two dimensional gel electrophore method. From the perspective of proteomics, irulence differentiation was studied%介绍了板栗疫病的发生规律,论述了板栗疫病的调查方法,探讨了双向凝胶电泳法研究板栗疫病菌的致病机理,并从蛋白质组学角度介绍了板栗疫病菌致病力分化的研究.

  9. L-Ascorbic acid metabolism during fruit development in an ascorbate-rich fruit crop chestnut rose (Rosa roxburghii Tratt).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ming; Xu, Qiang; Deng, Xiu-Xin

    2014-09-01

    Chestnut rose (Rosa roxburghii Tratt) is a fruit crop that contains unusually high levels of l-ascorbic acid (AsA; ∼1300 mg 100g(-1) FW). To explore the mechanisms underlying AsA metabolism, we investigated the distribution and abundance of AsA during fruit development. We also analyzed gene expression patterns, enzyme activities, and content of metabolites related to AsA biosynthesis and recycling. AsA first accumulated during late fruit development and continued to accumulate during ripening, with the highest accumulation rate near fruit maturity. The redox state of AsA in fruit was also enhanced during late fruit development, while leaf and other tissues had much lower levels of AsA and the redox state of AsA was lower. In mature fruit, AsA was mainly distributed in the cytoplasm of the mesocarp. Correlation analysis suggested that the gene expression patterns, enzyme activities, and related metabolite concentrations involved in the l-galactose pathway showed relatively high correlations with the accumulation rate of AsA. The gene expression pattern and activity of dehydroascorbate reductase (DHAR, EC 1.8.5.1) correlated strongly with AsA concentration, possibly indicating the crucial role of DHAR in the accumulation of high levels of AsA in chestnut rose fruit. Over expression of DHAR in Arabidopsis significantly increased the reduced AsA content and redox state. This was more effective than over expression of the l-galactose pathway gene GDP-d-mannose-3,5-epimerase (EC 5.1.3.18). These findings will enhance understanding of the molecular mechanisms regulating accumulation of AsA in chestnut rose. PMID:25019249

  10. Phenotypic characteristics of trees and seeds as the base for improvement and conservation of the horse chestnut gene pool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ocokoljić Mirjana

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This study deals with individual and group variability of horse chestnut trees cultivated in urban cenoses in Belgrade, Zemun, and Pančevo, Serbia. The trees were selected according to their morphological-aesthetic properties and yield variability. In view of size of the study populations, it can be considered that the trees were cultivated in more or less uniform ecological conditions and that individual intra-population variability is mostly the result of genetic properties. The study results can serve as the base for selection of genotypes significant for application in urban cenoses, especially for the establishment of tree rows.

  11. New foods: a case study of Portuguese “Serra da Estrela” cheese incorporated with chestnuts flowers

    OpenAIRE

    Carocho, Márcio; Antonio, Amilcar L.; Morales, Patricia; Ferreira, Isabel C.F.R.

    2014-01-01

    The “Serra da Estrela” is the most well-known Portuguese cheese, made from ewe’s milk for centuries, granted a Protected Designation of Origin (PDO) in 1996 by the European Union. To this date, not many studies have been carried out regarding the nutritional profile of this cheese. Chestnut flowers are usually leftovers of the nut harvest, and, being a very interesting flower in terms of antioxidants and antimicrobials, the incorporation of this by-product into the cheese may be o...

  12. Velocity and pattern of ice propagation and deep supercooling in woody stems of Castanea sativa, Morus nigra and Quercus robur measured by IDTA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuner, Gilbert; Xu, Bingcheng; Hacker, Juergen

    2010-08-01

    Infrared differential thermal analysis (IDTA) was used to monitor the velocity and pattern of ice propagation and deep supercooling of xylem parenchyma cells (XPCs) during freezing of stems of Castanea sativa L., Morus nigra L. and Quercus robur L. that exhibit a macro- and ring-porous xylem. Measurements were conducted on the surface of cross- and longitudinal stem sections. During high-temperature freezing exotherms (HTEs; -2.8 to -9.4°C), initial freezing was mainly observed in the youngest year ring of the sapwood (94%), but occasionally elsewhere (older year rings: 4%; bark: 2%). Initially, ice propagated rapidly in the largest xylem conduits. This resulted in a distinct freezing pattern of concentric circles in C. sativa and M. nigra. During HTEs, supercooling of XPCs became visible in Q. robur stems, but not in the other species that have narrower pith rays. Intracellular freezing of supercooled XPCs of Q. robur became visible by IDTA during low-temperature freezing exotherms (propagation and deep supercooling in stems can be monitored at meaningful spatial and temporal resolutions. PMID:20616300

  13. Fungal transcript pattern during the preinfection stage (12 h) of ectomycorrhiza formed between Pisolithus tinctorius and Castanea sativa roots, identified using cDNA microarrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acioli-Santos, Bartolomeu; Sebastiana, Mónica; Pessoa, Fernando; Sousa, Lisete; Figueiredo, Andreia; Fortes, Ana Margarida; Baldé, Aladje; Maia, Leonor C; Pais, Maria S

    2008-12-01

    Transcriptional changes in Pisolithus tinctorius leading to ectomycorrhizal formation in P. tinctorius- Castanea sativa were investigated using a 12-h fungal interaction in vitro system. Using a 3107-cDNA clone microarray, 34 unique expressed sequence tags (ESTs) were found to be differentially expressed. These ESTs represent 14 known genes, 5 upregulated and 9 downregulated, and 20 orphan sequences. Some transcripts of upregulated genes (with unknown function) were previously identified in other mycorrhizal Pisolithus spp. associations. ESTs for S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine hydrolase and several orphan sequences were identified in our system. The identified transcript of downregulated genes involved hydrophobins, 5S, 18S, and 28S ribosomal RNA genes, large subunits of ribosomal RNA (mitochondrial gene), and two types of heat shock proteins. This study demonstrates the high complexity of molecular events involved in the preinfection steps and suggests the utilization of different fungal gene repertories before ectomycorrhizal formation. These data constitute a first contribution for the molecular understanding of early signaling events between P. tinctorius and C. sativa roots during ectomycorrhizal formation.

  14. Micromorphology of the floral nectary of red horse chestnut (Aesculus ×carnea Hayne

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elżbieta Weryszko-Chmielewska

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In Europe Aesculus ×carnea Hayne is planted in cities as an avenue tree. Compared to A. hippocastanum L., it is more drought resistant, but less resistant to low temperatures. A. ×carnea is a lower tree than A. hippocastanum and develops a smaller corolla. It produces dark green, shiny and crinkled leaves. Its flowers have different colours, from bright pink to carmine red. The nectary glands secrete nectar abundantly. Due to the long corolla tube, nectar is difficult to reach for bees. The aim of this study was to investigate the topography and micromorphology of the nectaries of A. ×carnea using scanning electron microscopy. The study shows that the nectary gland of red horse chestnut forms an incomplete ring around the base of the staminal filaments, surrounding only four stamens out of the seven that occur in the flower. Three stamens are outside the nectary. In its widest place, the nectary diameter reaches 2.7 mm. Three expanded portions of the gland can bee seen in the marginal part of the nectary, adjoining the petals. The part of the nectary adjacent to the filaments forms a convex protrusion with a wavy appearance (shape, which results from the vicinity of the filaments. Nectar is secreted through numerous stomata located beneath the convex part of the nectary. The stoma length is 21.7 μm, while the width 23.3 μm. In the material examined, most stomata had open pores. Secretion was observed in many places. The stomata were surrounded by 6-7 guard cells; this allows them to be classified as the cyclocytic type. The cells of the stomatal complex were raised above the surface of the other epidermal cells. The walls of the guard cells and of the adjacent epidermal cells were covered by a cuticle with irregular striation.

  15. Plant growth-promoting and antifungal activity of yeasts from dark chestnut soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ignatova, Lyudmila V; Brazhnikova, Yelena V; Berzhanova, Ramza Z; Mukasheva, Togzhan D

    2015-06-01

    538 yeast strains were isolated from dark chestnut soil collected from under the plants of the legume family (Fabaceae). The greatest number of microorganisms is found at soil depth 10-20 cm. Among the 538 strains of yeast 77 (14.3%) strains demonstrated the ability to synthesize IAA. 15 strains were attributed to high IAA-producing yeasts (above 10 μg/ml). The most active strains were YA05 with 51.7 ± 2.1 μg/ml of IAA and YR07 with 45.3 ± 1.5 μg/ml. In the study of effect of incubation time on IAA production the maximum accumulation of IAA coincided with maximum rates of biomass: at 120 h for YR07 and at 144 h for strain YA05. IAA production increased when medium was supplemented with the L-tryptophan. 400 μg/ml of L-tryptophan showed maximum IAA production. 10 strains demonstrated the ability to inhibit the growth and development of phytopathogenic fungi. YA05 and YR07 strains formed the largest zones of inhibition compared to the other strains--from 21.6 ± 0.3 to 30.6 ± 0.5 mm. Maximum zone of inhibition was observed for YA05 against Phytophtora infestans and YR07 strains against Fusarium graminearum. YA05 and YR07 strains were identified as Aureobasidium pullulans YA05 (GenBank accession No JF160955) and Rhodotorula mucilaginosa YR07 (GenBank accession No JF160956). PMID:25843007

  16. Evaluation of health effects of air pollution in the Chestnut Ridge area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gruhl, J.; Schweppe, F.C.

    1980-01-01

    This project involves several tasks designed to take advantage of a very extensive air pollution monitoring system that is operating in the Chestnut Ridge region of Western Pennsylvania and the very well developed analytic dispersion models that have been previously fine-tuned to this particular area. The major task in this project is to establish, through several distinct epidemiologic approaches, health data to be used to test hypotheses about relations of air pollution exposures to morbidity and mortality rates in this region. This project affords a cost-effective opportunity for state-of-the-art techniques to be used in both costly areas of air pollution and health effects data collection. The closely spaced network of monitors, plus the dispersion modeling capabilities, allow for the investigation of health impacts of various pollutant gradients in neighboring geographic areas, thus minimizing the confounding effects of social, ethnic, and economic factors. The pollutants that are monitored in this network include total gaseous sulfur, sulfates, total suspended particulates, NOx, NO, ozone/oxidants, and coefficient of haze. In addition to enabling the simulation of exposure profiles between monitors, the air quality modeling, along with extensive source and background inventories, will allow for upgrading the quality of the monitored data as well as simulating the exposure levels for about 25 additional air pollutants. Another important goal of this project is to collect and test the many available models for associating health effects with air pollution, to determine their predictive validity and their usefulness in the choice and siting of future energy facilities.

  17. by Pinus virginiana in Mine Restoration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenise M. Bauman

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the influence of planting sites on the establishment and ectomycorrhizal (ECM colonization of American chestnut (Castanea denetata (Marsh. Borkh. on an abandoned coal mine in an Appalachian region of the United States. Root morphotyping and sequencing of the fungal internal transcribed spacer (ITS region were used to identify the ECM species associated with the chestnut seedlings. Germination, survival, ECM root colonization, and growth were assessed in three habitats: forest edge, center (plots without vegetation, and pine plots (a 10-year-old planting of Pinus virginiana. Seedlings in pine plots had higher survival (38% than the other plot types (center 9% and forest edge 5%; P=0.007. Chestnuts found colonized by ECM within the pine plots were larger (P=0.02, contributed by a larger root system (P=0.03. Forest edge and pine plots had more ECM roots than seedlings in center plots (P=0.04. ITS fungal sequences and morphotypes found among chestnut and pine matched Scleroderma, Thelephora, and Pisolithus suggesting these two plant species shared ECM symbionts. Results indicated that the presence of P. virginiana had a greater facilitative effect on growth and survival of chestnut seedlings.

  18. A horse chestnut extract, which induces contraction forces in fibroblasts, is a potent anti-aging ingredient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujimura, Tsutomu; Tsukahara, Kazue; Moriwaki, Shigeru; Hotta, Mitsuyuki; Kitahara, Takashi; Takema, Yoshinori

    2006-01-01

    Contraction forces generated by non-muscle cells, such as fibroblasts, play important roles in determining cell morphology, vasoconstriction, and/or wound healing. We have searched among various plant extracts for ingredients that generate cell contraction forces using fibroblast-populated collagen gels. Using that model, we found that an extract of horse chestnuts (Aesculus hippocastanum) is able to generate such contraction forces in fibroblasts. The involvement of stress fiber formation in that response is suggested by the inhibition of such force generation by cytochalasin D and rhodamine phalloidin stain. Clinical testing of the extract was carried out using 40 healthy female volunteers. A gel formulation that included 3% of the extract was applied topically to the skin around the eye three times daily for nine weeks. The efficacy of the extract to diminish wrinkles was evaluated by visual scoring based on photo scales. After six weeks, significant decreases in the wrinkle scores at the corners of the eye or in the lower eyelid skin were observed compared with controls. After nine weeks, similar results were obtained. Taken together, our results suggest that an extract of horse chestnuts can generate contraction forces in fibroblasts and is a potent anti-aging ingredient. PMID:17111071

  19. Effect of diet chestnut tannin supplementation on meat quality, fatty acid profile and lipid stability in broiler rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivo Zoccarato

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the effect of chestnut tannins on meat quality in broiler rabbits. 72 commercial hybrid rabbits (mean body weight 740 g, 32 days old were fed for 49 days with three diets containing 0%, 0.5% and 1.0% of a commercial chestnut wood extract (ENC®, Sil- vachimica srl, respectively. Eight rabbits per group were slaughtered at 12 weeks of age and at 24h post-mortem pH and colour were measured on the carcass. Moreover, both sides of m. longis- simus thoracis (LT were dissected. Left side was used for cooking losses whereas the other side was used for the determination of fatty acid profile and lipid oxidation. Data were statistically analyzed by one-way ANOVA. No differences were found in pH, colour and cooking losses, as well as the fatty acid profile of LT muscle and its relative health indexes. Concerning the antioxidant effect, the ENC shows a positive and significant effect at the inclusion level of 0.5%. In conclusion, the ENC has not undesirable side effects on the meat quality of rabbits, although further studies will be necessary to find the optimal diet inclusion level of ENC to elicit a stronger antioxidant effect in the rabbit meat.

  20. Functional and sensory properties of cookies prepared from wheat flour supplemented with cassava and water chestnut flours

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anu Bala

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Functional and sensory properties of cookies prepared by supplementing different proportions of cassava flour (CF and water chestnut flour (WCF blends (0–100% to wheat flour (WF were studied. Seven formulations of cookies were prepared from (a Control (100% WF, (b 30% WF, 35% WCF and 35% CF, (c 27% WF, 37.5% WCF and 37.5% CF, (d 20% WF, 40% WCF and 40% CF, (e 15% WF, 42.5% WCF and 42.5% CF, (f 10% WF, 45% WCF and 45% CF, and (g 0% WF, 50% WCF and 50% CF. Cookies were subjected to physical analysis (cookie diameter, cookie thickness, spread ratio, bulk volume, bulk density, breaking strength, and color analysis and evaluated for consumer acceptance by descriptive sensory analysis. Cookies prepared from water chestnut and cassava flour had low moisture content (5.63%, low fat (24.87%, higher spread ratio (8.148, decreased L, a and b values (dark color, and low breaking strength than control ones. Sensory evaluation established that cookies prepared from 50% WCF and 50% CF were more acceptable than cookies prepared from other formulations.

  1. Histological examination of horse chestnut infection by Pseudomonas syringae pv aesculi and non-destructive heat treatment to stop disease progression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keijzer, de J.; Broek, van den L.A.M.; Ketelaar, T.; Lammeren, van A.A.M.

    2012-01-01

    Since its emergence in Northwest Europe as a pathogen that infects trunks and branches of Aesculus spp. (the horse chestnuts) approximately one decade ago, Pseudomonas syringae pv. aesculi has rapidly established itself as major threat to these trees. Infected trees exhibit extensive necrosis of phl

  2. Best management practices plan for the Chestnut Ridge-Filled Coal Ash Pond at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-05-01

    The Chestnut Ridge Filled Coal Ash Pond (FCAP) Project has been established to satisfy Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) requirements for the Chestnut Ridge Operable Unit 2. FCAP is on Chestnut Ridge, approximately 0.5 miles south of the Y-12 Plant. A 62-foot high earthen dam across Upper McCoy Branch was constructed in 1955 to create a pond to serve as a settling basin for fly and bottom ashes generated by burning coal at the Y-12 Steam Plant. Ash from the steam was mixed with water to form a slurry and then pumped to the crest of Chestnut Ridge and released through a large pipe to flow across the Sluice Channel area and into the pond. The ash slurry eventually overtopped the dam and flowed along Upper McCoy Branch to Rogers Quarry. The purpose of this document is to provide a site-specific Best Management Practices (BMP) Plan for construction associated with environmental restoration activities at the FCAP Site.

  3. Calendar Year 1997 Annual Groundwater Monitoring Report For The Chestnut Ridge Hydrogeologic Regime At The U.S. Department of Energy Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, S.B.

    1998-02-01

    This report contains the groundwater monitoring data obtained during calendar year (CY) 1997 in compliance with the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) post-closure permit (PCP) for the Chestnut Ridge Hydrogeologic Regime (Chestnut Ridge Regime). In July 1997, the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation (TDEC) approved modifications to several of the permit conditions that address RCRA pow-closure corrective action groundwater monitoring at the Chestnut Ridge Security Pits (Security Pits), and RCIU4 post-closure detection groundwater monitoring at the Chestnut Ridge Sediment Disposal Basin (Sediment Disposal Basin) and Kerr Hollow Quarry. This report has been prepared in accordance with these modified permit requirements. Also included in this report are the groundwater and surface water monitoring data obtained during CY 1997 for the purposes ofi (1) detection monitoring at nonhazardous solid waste disposal facilities (SWDFS) in accordance with operating permits and applicable regulations, (2) monitoring in accordance with Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Recove~ Act Records of Decision (now pefiormed under the Integrated Water Quality Program for the Oak Ridge Reservation), and (3) monitoring needed to comply with U.S. Department of Energy Order 5400.1.

  4. Phisiological and biochemical characteristics of protein and lipid exchanges of maple and chestnut seeds from different regions of Dnepropetrovsk city technogenic pollution

    OpenAIRE

    I. O. Filonik; L. F. Zamorueva

    2015-01-01

    The indexes of protein and lipid exchanges - the content of proteins, lipase activity, level of lipids and their composition, component composition of free fatty acids in the maple and chestnut seeds from several sites of Dnepropetrovsk technical pollution were investigated. The revealed figures can be used as biomarkers of anthropogenic pollution in industrial region.

  5. Production comparisons of Chinese water chestnut [Eleocharis dulcis (Burm. f.) Trin. ex Hensch] functional corms grown in hydroponics versus flooded sand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinese water chestnut [Eleocharis dulcis (Burm. f.) Trin. ex Hensch.] corms are used as a canned or raw vegetable worldwide and may have potential use as a functional vegetable for human health uses. The accessions in the USDA, ARS, Plant Genetic Resources Conservation Unit do not produce very many...

  6. Study on enzymatic browning and blanching methods of chestnut%板栗的酶促褐变特性及灭酶预处理研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾婷婷; 张立彦; 芮汉明

    2011-01-01

    The activity and thermal stability of polyphenol oxidase (PPO) in frozed chestnut were studied. The blanching methods and their effects on candying processing of chestnut were also investigated. Results showed that the thermal stability of PPO was higher than POD,the optimum temperature and pH of PPQ were 20℃,6.5 respectively, When the relative activity of PPO was decreased to less than 8%,the enzymes causing browning in chestnut were estimated to be inactivated enough, Compared with the way of hot water and steam blanching, enzymatic browning in chestnut was inhibited efficiently by microwave blanching ,and the sugar impregnation into chestnut was enhanced too in the processing of low-sugar candied chestnut, The optimal treatment of microwave blanching was that chestnut was heated at 4W/g power indensity for 6min.%对冻藏板栗中多酚氧化酶(PPO)的活力及热稳定性进行了比较,研究低糖板栗果脯灭酶顸处理及其对后续渗糖过程的影响。结果表明:板栗中影响褐变的酶主要有PPO和POD,其中PPO较POD热稳定性略高。冻藏后的板栗中PPO最适温度及pH分别为20℃和6.5。板栗加工中应以板栗PPO活力降至8%以下作为是否灭酶充分的标准。通过与热水烫漂灭酶、蒸汽灭酶比较发现,微波热烫处理可抑制低糖板粟果脯加工过程中的褐变,并有助于提高渗糖效率。微波炎酶的最佳条件是:功率密度4W/g,处理6min。

  7. Isolation and characterization by asymmetric PCR of the ENDO1 gene for glucan endo-1,3-β-D-glucosidase in Phytophthora cinnamomi associated with the ink disease of Castanea sativa Mill

    OpenAIRE

    Sofia Meirinho; Marisa Carvalho; Ángel Dominguez; Altino Choupina

    2010-01-01

    Ink disease is one of the most destructive diseases in Castanea sativa. The most common symptoms are root necrosies and a reduction in root growth, which invariably lead to the death of the trees. Phytophthora cinnamomi is an oomycete associated with this disease whose life cycle develops integrally in the soil. In the present work, was a fragment with 1231bp of the glucan endo-1,3-β-D-glucosidase gene obtained by amplification, using conserved primers and the full-length gene sequence b...

  8. Isolation and characterization by asymmetric PCR of the ENDO1G gene for Glucan endo-1,3-b-D-glucosidase in Phytophthora cinnamomi associated whit the ink disease of Castanea sativa Mill.

    OpenAIRE

    Meirinho, Sofia G.; Carvalho, Marisa; Dominguez, Ángel; Choupina, Altino

    2010-01-01

    Ink disease is one of the most destructive diseases in Castanea sativa. The most common symptoms are root necrosies and a reduction in root growth, which invariably lead to the death of the trees. Phytophthora cinnamomi is an oomycete associated with this disease whose life cycle develops integrally in the soil. In the present work, was a fragment with 1231bp of the glucan endo-1,3-b-D-glucosidase gene obtained by amplification, using conserved primers and the full-length gene seq...

  9. Efeito da aplicação foliar de fosfonato potássico na protecção das raízes do castanheiro (Castanea sativa Mill.) inoculadas com Phytophthora cinnamomi Rands

    OpenAIRE

    Gouveia, Eugénia; Coelho, Valentim; Fonseca, Felícia; Nunes, Luís; Monteiro, Maria do Loreto

    2008-01-01

    Phytophthora cinnamomi é um parasita cujo ciclo de vida ocorre integralmente no ambiente solo causando podridões das raízes e colo em muitas espécies vegetais. O castanheiro (Castanea sativa Mill) é muito susceptível às espécies do género Phytophthoro e os sintomas da Doença da Tinta rapidamente se manifestam. Recentemente, verificou-se que as formas aniónicas do acido fosfónico evidenciam elevada eficácia no combate as doenças radiculares associadas a Phytophthoro.

  10. Isolamento de genes de resistência a Phytophthora cinnamoni e definição de um protocolo de transformação genética em Castanea sativa

    OpenAIRE

    Santos, Carmen Sofia Pedro dos, 1987-

    2010-01-01

    Tese de mestrado. Biologia (Biologia Celular e Biotecnologia). Universidade de Lisboa, Faculdade de Ciências, 2010 Castanea sativa pertence à família Fagaceae, tem um importante papel na ecologia, alimentação e economia. C. sativa sofre de uma doença severa, denominada por doença da tinta, causada maioritariamente pelo agente patogénico Phytophthora cinnamomi. A transformação genética surge como uma ferramenta poderosa para o melhoramento de plantas lenhosas como as espécies de castanheiro...

  11. 修剪强度对日本栗生长发育的影响%Effect of Pruning Intensity on Growth of Castanea crenata Gimyose

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李明良; 朱杭瑞; 陈顺伟; 江志标; 江龙表; 吴荣虎; 陈柏荣

    2011-01-01

    Experiments were conducted on different pruning treatments on 12-year Castanea crenata Gimyose. The result showed that cutting 1/4 of bearing branch had the best effect of nut yield, because it had advantages of inhibiting male flowers, increasing female flowers, controlling elongation growth and enhancing diameter growth of branch and thus increasing seeding. Treatment of top cutting and cutting 1/3 of bearing branch had similar effect as the first treatment. Cutting of 1/2 bearing branch had disadvantage of decreasing female flowers, promoting elongation growth of branch except decrease of male flowers.%以12年生日本栗银寄品种为材料,选择剪去结果母枝长的1/2、1/3、1/4和抹除顶芽共4种修剪强度,开展修剪对日本栗生长发育影响试验.结果表明,以1/4强度处理增产效果最明显,具有抑制雄花数量、增加雌花数量、控制枝长伸长生长和增加枝粗及增加结蓬数量的综合效果;其次,去顶处理和1/3修剪处理也具备良好的抑制雄花数量、增加雌花数量、控制枝长伸长生长和增加枝粗及增加结蓬数量的综合效果;而1/2高强度修剪处理除有效控制雄花数量外,表现为减少了雌花数量、促进了枝长伸长生长等效应.

  12. 板栗品种线粒体SSR遗传多样性分析%Genetic Diversity of Castanea mollissima Variety Based on Mitochondrial SSR Markers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张先启; 郭献平; 刘玉芬; 张国庆; 王珊珊; 刘妍; 秦岭; 曹庆芹

    2012-01-01

    本试验通过对来自水稻和马铃薯的16对具有多态性的线粒体SSR引物进行筛选,得到2对适用于板栗的具有多态性条带的线粒体SSR引物.利用这2对多态性引物对76个板栗品种进行遗传多样性分析.结果表明2个多态性SSR位点检测到4个等位基因,平均每个位点产生2.0个等位基因.应用NTSYS2.10软件中的UPGMA方法,对数据进行聚类分析,获得板栗资源线粒体SSR聚类图.结果表明:在相似系数0.15处可以将板栗种质资源按亲缘关系分成3组.%The genetic diversity of 76 Castanea mollissima accesions was analyzed by mitochondrial SSR. Two polymorphic mtSSR primers were obtained by testing universal 16 primers from rice and potato. Two polymorphic mtSSR primers generated 4 alleles with an average of 2. 0 alleles per primer among 76 C. mollissima accessions. Unweighted pair-group arithematic averages method (UPGMA) was applied to construct a cluster tree of C. mollissima resources based on mitochondrial SSR data by NTSYS2.10 software was. The results showed that 76 C. mollissima cultivars were classified into three groups at the level of similarity 0.15.

  13. The spatial distribution of chestnut gall wasp and its sampling techniques in the chestnut plantation%粟瘿蜂在板栗林的分布及抽样技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李奕震; 易叶华; 郑柱龙; 谢治芳

    2004-01-01

    对板栗Castanea mollissima林的系统调查结果表明:栗瘿蜂Dryocosmus kuriphilus虫口密度随板栗林龄的递增而逐渐上升.间种了农作物的板栗林的栗瘿蜂虫口密度较低.在任何虫口密度下,栗瘿蜂在林间均为聚集分布,分布的基本成分是个体群,其聚集度随着种群密度的升高而增大.栗瘿蜂虫口密度在单株树树冠的东南西北4个方向之间无显著差异,而在内外层或上下层之间存在极显著差异.双对角线、单对角线、平行线和简单随机抽样方法均可作为栗瘿蜂虫口数量的调查方法.采用Iwao方法求出了最适抽样数和列出了序贯抽样表.

  14. 板栗苞壳周年栽培食用菌试验%Year-round Cultivation of Edible Fungus with the Chestnut Spiny Involucre

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    覃宝山; 吴康董; 黄春凤

    2015-01-01

    以板栗(Castanea mollissima)苞壳为主要原料,进行灵芝(Ganoderma lucidum)、秀珍菇(Pleurotus geesteranus)和平菇(Pleurotus ostreatus)周年栽培试验.结果表明,3种食用菌的菌丝体长势良好,生物学效率、总产值和毛利率均较高;灵芝—秀珍菇—平菇是食用菌周年化栽培比较理想的品种搭配模式.

  15. 栗瘿蜂发生与防治的研究进展%Study progresses of occurrence and control to chestnut gall wasp

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋任贤

    2009-01-01

    栗瘿蜂(Dryocosmus kuriphilus Yasumatsu)属于膜翅目(Hymenoptera)瘿蜂科(Cynipidae)栗瘿蜂属,主要危害板栗(Castanea mollissima),也危害茅栗(C.sequinii)和锥栗(C.henryi),是影响栗树生长和结实的主要害虫之一。该虫先危害栗芽,同时分泌刺激性物质。在虫瘿形成过程中消耗树体大量营养,受害树树势衰弱,

  16. The content of available mineral phosphorus compounds in chestnut soils of Northern Mongolia upon application of different forms of phosphorite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ubugunov, L. L.; Enkhtuyaa, B.; Merkusheva, M. G.

    2015-06-01

    The effect of different forms of phosphorite (activated and crude ground) of the Burenkhansk deposit on the phosphate status of chestnut soils and the productivity of spring wheat was studied in Northern Mongolia. It was found that the transformation of mineral soil phosphates upon the application of activated phosphorite (together with NK) is similar to that upon superphosphate application, and the available phosphorus concentration is even a gradation higher. The application of crude ground phosphorite helped to preserve the content of mineral phosphates in the soil at the initial level. Optimum concentrations of available phosphorus and the sum of loosely bound and calcium phosphates in the plow horizon were estimated 33-35 mg/kg) and 16-18 mg/100 g, respectively. Under these concentrations, high and sustainable yields of spring wheat were obtained upon application of activated phosphorite.

  17. In vitro permeation studies of phenolics from horse chestnut seed gels prepared with different polyacrylic acid polymer derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zelbienė Eglė

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of polyacrylic acid polymers (Ultrez 10, Ultrez 20, Carbopol 980, and Carbopol 940 on the viscosity and the in vitro permeation of phenolic compounds from the gel prepared from natural horse chestnut seed extract. Experiments were performed in the presence and in the absence of peppermint oil (Mentha piperita. Our results showed that peppermint oil decreased the viscosity of the gels and permeation of phenolic compounds from all gel samples. Results show that the highest content of phenolic compounds (1.758 μg cm-2 permeated in vitro from gel based on Carbopol Ultrez 20 without peppermint oil added (p < 0.05 vs. other tested polymers.

  18. Chestnut and lemon balm based ingredients as natural preserving agents of the nutritional profile in matured "Serra da Estrela" cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carocho, Márcio; Barreira, João C M; Bento, Albino; Fernández-Ruiz, Virginia; Morales, Patricia; Ferreira, Isabel C F R

    2016-08-01

    Chestnut flowers, lemon balm plants and their decoctions were incorporated into "Serra da Estrela" cheese, to assess their potential to preserve its nutritional properties and provide new foodstuffs. The analyses were carried out after the normal ripening period of 1month and after 6months of storage. The most abundant nutrients were proteins and fats. The most abundant minerals were Ca and Na, while C16:0 and C18:1 were the main fatty acids. Saturated fatty acids were the most abundant, followed by the monounsaturated. Moisture seemed to be lower in the samples with the plants incorporated. The dried plants, when incorporated, seemed to be more efficient as preservers then the decoctions, although these better preserved the proteins. These plants can be regarded as promising natural preservers in foodstuffs cheese, given the preservation of key parameters and the slight impact on the nutritional value. PMID:26988492

  19. Ecological Meaning and Consideration of Economic Forest Carbon Sinks in China----Take Yan-Shan Chestnut for Example

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Z.; Li, H.; Zhang, W. W.; Liu, S. R.

    Along with our country scientific researchers' study on native forest carbon sinks as well as the summary of the increasing amount of China's forest carbon, With the deepening of our scientists on the study of the national forest carbon sinks, forest carbon sinks has become a favorable support for climate diplomacy. Currently, a lot of work has focused on the carbon cycle, the level of carbon sinks of forest ecosystems, but the characteristics of economic forest carbon sinks are in a blank state. Beijing chestnut is one of the national food strategic security stockpiles, and estimate the potential of economic forest carbon sinks has important scientific significance to the establishment of carbon sink function area, and expansion of sustainable economic and social development of response measures.

  20. Proximate analysis and physico-chemical properties of flour from the seeds of the China chestnut, Sterculia monosperma Ventenat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noitang, S; Sooksai, S A; Foophow, T; Petsom, A

    2009-10-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate nutritional composition of China chestnut seeds, Sterculia monosperma Vent. and analyze the physico-chemical properties of flour from the seeds. The results obtained on proximate analysis of China chestnut seeds, S. monosperma, revealed that they contained mostly carbohydrate (73.7% dm), followed by fat (12.0% dm), protein (7.8% dm), fiber (5.5% dm) and ash (1.0% dm). They have a relatively high content of potassium (12.3 mg g(-1) dm) following by phosphorus (2.30 mg g(-1) dm), magnesium (1.87 mg g(-1) dm), sulfur (0.88 mg g(-1) dm) and calcium (0.14 mg g(-1) dm). The fatty acids profile was found to be composed of mainly palmitic (42%) and oleic acids (34%), with general long-chain fatty acids the other significant component by mass (13%). Glutamic acid (17.4%), aspartic acid (12.5%) and arginine (12.5%) were the three major amino acid constituents. The purified seed starch was investigated for its morphological, starch content and physico-chemical properties, such as amylose content, swelling power, solubility and pasting properties. The starch granules were quite round, about 10-15 micron diameter and composed of more than 35% (w/w) of amylose. The pasting properties of flour from the seeds of S. monosperma revealed that gelatinization began at 72.6-73.2 degrees C and the maximum viscosity in the holding period at 95 degrees C was 633 BU. Interestingly and potentially of use, was that the viscosity at the cooling period was more than two-fold higher than that in the holding period.

  1. Assessment of electron beam-induced DNA damage in larvae of chestnut weevil, Curculio sikkimensis (Heller) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) using comet assay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todoriki, Setsuko; Hasan, Mahbub; Miyanoshita, Akihiro; Imamura, Taro; Hayashi, Toru

    2006-02-01

    Effect of electron beam treatment on DNA damage in mature larvae of chestnut weevil Curculio sikkimensis (Heller) was assessed using single-cell gel electrophoresis (DNA comet assay). Electrons at acceleration voltages of 0 (control), 300, 750, 1000, and 1500 kV at radiation doses of 1 and 4 kGy were used. Electron beam-treated chestnut larvae showed typical DNA fragmentation, compared with cells from non-treated ones which showed a more intact DNA. Investigations using the comet assay showed that the parameters including tail length, tail moment, olive tail moment as well as the quota of DNA damage at both the doses were significantly larger than the control batch larvae. Thus, this technique could contribute to analytical identification of an effective disinfestation and quarantine treatment.

  2. Extraction of high quality of RNA and construction of a suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) library from chestnut rose (Rosa roxburghii Tratt).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Qiang; Wen, Xiaopeng; Tao, Nengguo; Hu, Zhiyong; Yue, Hailin; Deng, Xiuxin

    2006-04-01

    Chestnut rose (Rosa roxburghii Tratt) is a rare fruit crop of promising economical importance in fruit and ornamental exploitation in China. Isolation of high quality RNA from chestnut rose is difficult due to its high levels of polyphenols, polysaccharides and other compounds, but a modified CTAB extraction procedure without phenol gave satisfactory results. High concentrations of PVP (2%, w/v), CTAB (2%, w/v) and beta-mercaptoethanol (4%, v/v) were used in the extraction buffer to improve RNA quality. The average yield was about 200 microg RNA g(-1) fresh leaves. The isolated RNA was of sufficient quality for construction of suppression subtraction hybridization (SSH) library, which allowed the isolation of several pathogen-induced defense genes.

  3. Application of Honey in Antibrowning of Chinese Chestnut%蜂蜜对板栗褐变的抑制作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    耿建暖; 苗利军; 于建军

    2015-01-01

    为抑制板栗的褐变, 研究了蜂蜜的种类和浓度对抑制效果的影响,并通过试验比较了蜂蜜和传统试剂的防褐变效果,结果显示蜂蜜对板栗褐变有明显的抑制作用.%To control the browning of chestnuts, we studied the effect of the kind and concentration of honey in antibrowning. We had a lso compared the honey with several other chemical reagents by experiments. And the results showed us the honey could inhibit the browning of chestnut effective.

  4. Vacuum freeze-drying process of chestnut kernel%真空冷冻干燥板栗仁加工工艺研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘鹏飞; 周家华; 常虹; 马良; 张宇昊

    2011-01-01

    With fresh chestnut as raw materials,we studied the vacuum freeze-drying chestnut kernel processing technology.Results show that the color protection liquid composition for 0.2% ascorbic acid,0.3 % citric acid,0.1% ethylenediamine tetraacetate(EDTA) and 0.1% sodium chloride.Best temperature is 40 ℃.The best vacuum freeze-drying conditions is the material quantity 4.85 kg/m2,45 ℃ with 12 hours.Processed chestnut kernel water content is about 3%,taste sweet and crisp,chestnut original color,fragrance,taste to maintain good.%以新鲜板栗为原料,研究了真空冷冻干燥板栗仁的加工工艺。结果表明:板栗仁护色液组成为0.2%抗坏血酸、0.3%柠檬酸、0.1%乙二胺四乙酸(EDTA)和0.1%氯化钠;护色温度为40℃。最佳真空冷冻干燥条件是单位面积的物料量4.85kg/m2、隔板温度45℃、冻干时间为12h,制得的冷冻干燥板栗仁含水量为3%,口感香甜松脆,板栗原有色、香、味保持良好。

  5. An experimental test of the role of structural blue and melanin-based chestnut coloration in aggressive contests in male eastern bluebirds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Austin eMercadante

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Male eastern bluebirds (Sialia sialis have feathers with either structurally based blue coloration or melanin-based chestnut coloration, and they hold territories during the breeding season that they defend vigorously. We tested whether the melanin pigmentation or structural coloration of feathers serve as signals during intrasexual aggressive encounters by placing color-modified stuffed bluebirds in male territories. We recorded the time to attack and the intensity of attacks on each model, and we then compared the response to color-enhanced versus color-reduced models. Male bluebirds attacked models with brighter and more chromatic blue coloration significantly more often than they attacked models with darker and less chromatic blue coloration. In contrast, the darkness of the chestnut breast coloration did not have a significant effect on the rate at which models were attacked. We conclude that territorial male bluebirds perceive intruding males with brighter blue coloration as a greater threat than males with drabber blue coloration, presumably because blue coloration is a signal of fighting ability. In contrast, the chestnut coloration of breast feathers appears to be a signal of gender and sexual maturity and not a graded signal of social status.

  6. 野生板栗资源开发利用技术探讨%TECHNICAL STUDIES ON DEVELOPMENT AND UTILIZATION OF WILD CHINESE CHESTNUT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马朝阳; 胡继周; 车明轩

    2001-01-01

    In order to explore the wild Chinese chestnut in mountainous areas in Chengxian county, the Chengxian Planning Committee assigned a project of “Technical Demonstration of high-level grafting with well-bred species on Wild Chinese Chestnut” to achieve the goal of development with means of well-bred species, intensive management and industrialization of Chinese chestnut production. With co-operation of relevant organizations and the project grop in three years, three demonstration bases of high-level grafting and low-yield-garden improvement of Chinese chestnut have been build. Tests on some technical aspects necessary to the project were done.%为了开发利用甘肃省成县山区的野生板栗资源,实现板栗生产的良种化、集约化和产业化发展目标,经3年的研究,进行野生板栗高接、换优实验技术与生产示范。

  7. Hierarchical chestnut-like MnCo2O4 nanoneedles grown on nickel foam as binder-free electrode for high energy density asymmetric supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hui, Kwun Nam; Hui, Kwan San; Tang, Zikang; Jadhav, V. V.; Xia, Qi Xun

    2016-10-01

    Hierarchical chestnut-like manganese cobalt oxide (MnCo2O4) nanoneedles (NNs) are successfully grown on nickel foam using a facile and cost-effective hydrothermal method. High resolution TEM image further verifies that the chestnut-like MnCo2O4 structure is assembled by numerous 1D MnCo2O4 nanoneedles, which are formed by numerous interconnected MnCo2O4 nanoparticles with grain diameter of ∼10 nm. The MnCo2O4 electrode exhibits high specific capacitance of 1535 F g-1 at 1 A g-1 and good rate capability (950 F g-1 at 10 A g-1) in a 6 M KOH electrolyte. An asymmetric supercapacitor is fabricated using MnCo2O4 NNs on Ni foam (MnCo2O4 NNs/NF) as the positive electrode and graphene/NF as the negative electrode. The device shows an operation voltage of 1.5 V and delivers a high energy density of ∼60.4 Wh kg-1 at a power density of ∼375 W kg-1. Moreover, the device exhibits an excellent cycling stability of 94.3% capacitance retention after 12000 cycles at 30 A g-1. This work demonstrates that hierarchical chestnut-like MnCo2O4 NNs could be a promising electrode for the high performance energy storage devices.

  8. 水杨酸对冷藏板栗贮藏效果的影响%Storage effects of salicylic acid on post-harvest chestnut

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶利民; 徐芬芬

    2011-01-01

    Effects of physiological and biochemical changes of the post-harvest chestnut fruit were studied with different concentrations of salicylic acid to dipping fruit at different times during storage. Main results were as follows: salicylic acid treatment could inhibit respiration rate of the chestnut during storage,delay the arrival of climacteric. Salicylic acid could inhibit the decreasing of the vitamin C content and the starch content. In addition, salicylic acid treatment decreased chestnut rot rate and weight loss rate.The best treatment condition by salicylic acid was O. 5 g/L for 10 min.%以不同浓度水杨酸、不同浸果时间研究水杨酸对板栗果实冷藏效果的影响.结果表明:水杨酸可抑制贮藏期间栗果呼吸强度,推迟呼吸跃变的到来;还可抑制VC含量和淀粉含量;水杨酸处理后栗果腐烂率和质量损失率均降低.最佳处理方式为0.5 g/L水杨酸浸果10 min.

  9. Gall structure affects ecological associations of Dryocosmus kuriphilus Yasumatsu (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gall wasps (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae) induce structures (galls) on their host plants which house developing wasps and provide them with protection from natural enemies. The Asian chestnut gall wasp, Dryocosmus kuriphilus Yasumatsu, is an invasive pest that is destructive to chestnut (Castanea spp.). ...

  10. Factors Affecting Browning of Cooked Chestnut Kernel%影响熟化板栗褐变的因素研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    綦菁华; 王芳; 庞美霞; 黄漫青; 赵琛琛

    2009-01-01

    板栗在熟化加工过程中易产生非酶褐变,本文针对板栗自身原料有关成分及部分加工条件对板栗熟化后褐变的影响进行了研究,探讨影响熟化板栗褐变的因素.研究结果表明:板栗非酶褐变前后蛋白质平均减少了30.34%、还原糖平均减少了38.44%、维生素C平均减少了85.81%;表明美拉德反应和抗坏血酸氧化是板栗熟化过程发生非酶褐变的主要原因.另外,在pH,NaCl,蔗糖三个加工条件研究中,pH对板栗褐变影响较大,pH为3.0、4.0、5.0的溶液对熟化板栗有较好的抑制褐变的效果,而NaCl,蔗糖的抑制作用不显著.%Non - enzymatic browning often occurs in the processing of cooked chestnut kernel. Chemical components of chestnut kernel before and after the processing and factors related to the processing conditions have been studied in this work in order to control the browning. Results; After the non - enzymatic browning in processing the protein content of the cooked chestnut kernel decreases by 30.34% , reduced sugar content decreases by 38.44% and Vitamin C content decreases by 85.81%. Therefore, Maillard reaction and Vitamin C oxidation are the main reactions resulting in the browning of cooked chestnut kernel. In addition, among three processing condition factors, i. e. , pH value, sucrose, and sodium chlorine, the influence of pH to the browning is significant, while sucrose and sodium chlorine have no effects. Solution with pH of 3, 4, or 5 displays rather good effects of inhibiting the browning of cooked chestnut kernel.

  11. 银杏板栗乳的研制%Preparation of a compound beverage from ginkgo,chestnut and skim milk

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟秀梅; 张绵松; 袁文鹏; 刘新; 王小军; 唐聚德; 刘昌衡

    2011-01-01

    目的:银杏板栗乳的制备。方法:以可溶性固形物的增加量为指标筛选银杏汁和板栗汁的酶解条件,以感官评分确定银杏板栗乳的配方。结果:银杏汁的最适酶解条件为:温度70℃、料液比1:5、酶解时间20min、淀粉酶0.03%,可溶性固形物增加量可达3.5%以上;板栗汁的最适酶解条件为:温度65℃、料液比1:8、酶解时间50min、淀粉酶0.04%,可溶性固形物增加量可达2.5%以上。最终产品各组分含量分别为板栗汁20%、银杏汁10%、脱脂奶液20%、木糖醇8%、稳定剂0.01%,此时产品感官评分最高。结论:银杏板栗乳呈乳黄白色,具有银杏、板栗和乳品的复合香味,口感细腻柔滑、甜度适中。%For developing a novel compound beverage,the conditions of enzymatic hydrolysis of ginkgo and chestnut were optimized using the increase of soluble solid content as a reference.The optimum conditions for ginkgo hydrolysis were as follows:temperature is 70 ℃,solid-liquid ratio is 1:5,time is 20 min and enzyme dosage is 0.03%,and those for chestnut hydrolysis were:65 ℃,1:8,50 min and 0.04%,respectively.At these conditions,the increase of soluble solid content in ginkgo and chestnut juice are more than 3.5% and 2.5%.On the basis of determining sensory indexes,the formula of the compound beverage was selected through orthogonal experimental design.Results showed that the perfect formula was 10% ginkgo juice,20% chestnut juice,20% skim milk,8% xylitol and 0.01% stabilizer.The compound beverage was moderate sweet,supple in mouth and has a unique flavor of ginkgo,chestnut and milk.

  12. Inhibition effect of Castanea mollissima Blume bract extract on intestinal bacteria in Dendrolimu kikuchii Matsumura%板栗苞壳提取物对思茅松毛虫肠道细菌的抑菌作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘绍雄; 王明月; 王金华; 张敬宜; 思斯; 熊智

    2012-01-01

    [目的]研究板栗苞壳提取物对思茅松毛虫肠道细菌的抑菌作用,为害虫防治及新型植物源生物农药开发提供理论依据.[方法]以10株思茅松毛虫3龄和5龄幼虫肠道细菌为供试菌种,采用牛津杯法测定不同有机溶剂板栗苞壳提取物的抑菌效果.[结果]不同有机溶剂板栗苞壳提取物对思茅松毛虫肠道细菌均有一定的抑菌作用,且随着质量浓度的增大抑菌作用逐渐增强,各提取物的抑菌作用大小顺序为乙酸乙酯>乙醇>氯仿>正丁醇>石油醚,其中以乙酸乙酯提取物对思茅松毛虫肠道细菌的抑菌作用最强,最低抑菌质量浓度(MIC)为6.250 mg/mL,石油醚提取物的抑菌作用不明显或无抑菌作用.[结论]板栗苞壳提取物可作为新型植物源生物农药在思茅松毛虫防治中加以开发利用.%[Objective]This research studied the inhibition effect of Castanea mollissima Blume bract extract on intestinal bacteria in Dendrolimu kikuchii Matsumura in order to create new biological pesticides developed from plant sources and to provide theoretical basis for pesticide development. [Method]Using 10 strains of intestinal bacteria extracted from age 3 and age 5 Dendrolimu kikuchii Matsumura instar larvae as test strains, the inhibition effect of different organic Castanea mollissima Blume bract extract solvents was determined using the Oxford cup method. [Result]Different organic solvents of Castanea mollissima Blume bract extract had some inhibition effects on intestinal bacteria in Dendrolimu kikuchii Matsumura. As the quality concentration increased, the inhibition effect became more noticeable; different extractions were arranged in the following rank from the strongest inhibition rate to the weakest inhibition rate: acetic ether> ethanol>chloroform>butyl alcohoblight petroleum. Ethyl acetate extract exhibited strong inhibition activity on the intestinal bacteria of Dendrolimu kikuchii Matsumura. The minimum

  13. Remedial Investigation Report on Chestnut Ridge Operable Unit 2 (Filled Coal Ash Pond/Upper McCoy Branch) at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Volume 1. Main Text

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-08-01

    This document is a report on the remedial investigation (RI) of Chestnut Ridge Operable Unit (OU) 2 at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant. Chestnut Ridge OU 2 consists of Upper McCoy Branch (UMB), the Filled Coal Ash Pond (FCAP), and the area surrounding the Sluice Channel formerly associated with coal ash disposal in the FCAP. Chestnut Ridge OU 2 is located within the U.S. Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) Oak Ridge Reservation in Anderson County, Tennessee, approximately 24 miles west of Knoxville. The pond is an 8.5-acre area on the southern slope of Chestnut Ridge, 0.5 mile south of the main Y-12 Plant and geographically separated from the Y-12 Plant by Chestnut Ridge. The elevation of the FCAP is {approximately} 950 ft above mean sea level (msl), and it is relatively flat and largely vegetated. Two small ponds are usually present at the northeast and northwest comers of the FCAP. The Sluice Channel Area extends {approximately}1000 ft from the northern margin of the FCAP to the crest of Chestnut Ridge, which has an elevation of {approximately}1100 ft above msl. The Sluice Channel Area is largely vegetated also. McCoy Branch runs from the top of Chestnut Ridge across the FCAP into Rogers Quarry and out of the quarry where it runs a short distance into Milton Hill Lake at McCoy Embayment, termed UMB. The portion south of Rogers Quarry, within Chestnut Ridge OU 4, is termed Lower McCoy Branch. The DOE Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant disposed of coal ash from its steam plant operations as a slurry that was discharged into an ash retention impoundment; this impoundment is the FCAP. The FCAP was built in 1955 to serve as a settling basin after coal ash slurried over Chestnut Ridge from the Y-12 Plant. The FCAP was constructed by building an earthen dam across the northern tributary of McCoy Branch. The dam was designed to hold 20 years of Y-12 steam plant ash. By July 1967, ash had filled up the impoundment storage behind the dam to within 4 ft of the top.

  14. Remedial Investigation Report on Chestnut Ridge Operable Unit 2 (Filled Coal Ash Pond/Upper McCoy Branch) at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Volume 1. Main Text

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document is a report on the remedial investigation (RI) of Chestnut Ridge Operable Unit (OU) 2 at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant. Chestnut Ridge OU 2 consists of Upper McCoy Branch (UMB), the Filled Coal Ash Pond (FCAP), and the area surrounding the Sluice Channel formerly associated with coal ash disposal in the FCAP. Chestnut Ridge OU 2 is located within the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Oak Ridge Reservation in Anderson County, Tennessee, approximately 24 miles west of Knoxville. The pond is an 8.5-acre area on the southern slope of Chestnut Ridge, 0.5 mile south of the main Y-12 Plant and geographically separated from the Y-12 Plant by Chestnut Ridge. The elevation of the FCAP is ∼ 950 ft above mean sea level (msl), and it is relatively flat and largely vegetated. Two small ponds are usually present at the northeast and northwest comers of the FCAP. The Sluice Channel Area extends ∼1000 ft from the northern margin of the FCAP to the crest of Chestnut Ridge, which has an elevation of ∼1100 ft above msl. The Sluice Channel Area is largely vegetated also. McCoy Branch runs from the top of Chestnut Ridge across the FCAP into Rogers Quarry and out of the quarry where it runs a short distance into Milton Hill Lake at McCoy Embayment, termed UMB. The portion south of Rogers Quarry, within Chestnut Ridge OU 4, is termed Lower McCoy Branch. The DOE Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant disposed of coal ash from its steam plant operations as a slurry that was discharged into an ash retention impoundment; this impoundment is the FCAP. The FCAP was built in 1955 to serve as a settling basin after coal ash slurried over Chestnut Ridge from the Y-12 Plant. The FCAP was constructed by building an earthen dam across the northern tributary of McCoy Branch. The dam was designed to hold 20 years of Y-12 steam plant ash. By July 1967, ash had filled up the impoundment storage behind the dam to within 4 ft of the top

  15. American Dream in Early American Literatuer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    屈彩娥; 李小玺

    2008-01-01

    American dream has often been closely rehted to American literature.Many say that the American literary history can be seen as the history of American dreams.In most periods in history,writers,whose dreams have been infused in a variety of characters create the American literature.While in Early American literature,American dream had been presented in a dif-ferent way.

  16. 锥栗林节肢动物群落的结构与多样性%Structure and diversity of arthropod community in Castanea henryi forest

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶世森; 赵士熙; 施丹阳; 黄金聪; 胡凤玉

    2012-01-01

    Based on a systematic investigation at 20 representative sampling sites in the Castanea henryi forest in Jian'ou, Fujian for 1 year, the results showed that there were 209 spicies of arthropod belonging to 2 classes, 17 orders, 100 families, thereinto, 176 species were collected from the canopy of forest belonging to 94 families, and 177 species from the underlayer of forest belonging to 89 families. The number of orders, families, species were similar between the canopy groups and the underlayer groups, but the distribution characteristics of individuals number, the dominant concentration of all the orders, the diversity of the groups, the structure characteristics of all the function groups were different obviously. The individuals number of Homoptera and Asterolecaniidae were the largest in the canopy, but the individuals number of Diptera and Tipulidae were the largest in the underlayer. The species diversity of the spider groups was the highest in the canopy, but the species diversity of the phytophagous groups was the highest in the underlayer. The species diversity, evenness, species richness of the underlayer arthropod groups were higher than the canopy, but the dominant concentration was lower.%通过对福建建瓯市20块锥栗林试验标准地节肢动物群落la的系统调查,结果表明,在锥栗林中共采集到节肢动物209种,它们分别隶属于2纲17目100科,其中林冠层有94科176种,下木层有89科177种.林冠层与下木层节肢动物类群的目、科、物种的数量较相近,但个体数量分布特征、各目优势集中性、类群多样性、各功能集团结构特征有明显差异.林冠层类群以同翅目、链蚧科的个体数为最多,下木层类群以双翅目、大蚊科的个体数为最多.从各功能集团的物种多样性指数来看,林冠层以蜘蛛类集团为最高,下木层以植食性集团为最高.下木层类群的物种多样性、均匀度和物种丰富度比林冠层类群高,优势集中性则比林冠层类群低.

  17. Effects of chestnut tannins on the meat quality, welfare, and antioxidant status of heat-stressed lambs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Huawei; Li, Ke; Mingbin, Lv; Zhao, Jinshan; Xiong, Benhai

    2016-06-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate the effects of chestnut tannins (CT) on the meat quality, welfare and antioxidant status of heat-stressed lambs. Lambs in one group were raised at 20°C and fed a basal diet (N), and three other groups (32°C) were fed a basal diet with 0 (CT0), 5 (CT5), and 10 g (CT10) of CT/kg. Addition of CT increased the b* and L* values of meat and superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase activity in the serum and liver of heat-stressed lambs. The malondialdehyde concentration in meat, serum, and liver of heat-stressed lambs was decreased by dietary CT supplementation. Lambs in the CT0 group had higher cortisol, T3, and T4 levels, creatine kinase activity, white blood cell count, neutrophil count, neutrophil:lymphocyte ratio and a lower lymphocyte count than that in the N and CT10 groups. In conclusion, the addition of CT improved meat quality, certain stress parameters, and the antioxidant status of heat-stressed lambs. PMID:26914512

  18. The evolution of bacterial resistance against bacteriophages in the horse chestnut phyllosphere is general across both space and time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koskella, Britt; Parr, Nicole

    2015-08-19

    Insight to the spatial and temporal scales of coevolution is key to predicting the outcome of host-parasite interactions and spread of disease. For bacteria infecting long-lived hosts, selection to overcome host defences is just one factor shaping the course of evolution; populations will also be competing with other microbial species and will themselves be facing infection by bacteriophage viruses. Here, we examine the temporal and spatial patterns of bacterial adaptation against natural phage populations from within leaves of horse chestnut trees. Using a time-shift experiment with both sympatric and allopatric phages from either contemporary or earlier points in the season, we demonstrate that bacterial resistance is higher against phages from the past, regardless of spatial sympatry or how much earlier in the season phages were collected. Similarly, we show that future bacterial hosts are more resistant to both sympatric and allopatric phages than contemporary bacterial hosts. Together, our results suggest the evolution of relatively general bacterial resistance against phages in nature and are contrasting to previously observed patterns of phage adaptation to bacteria from the same tree hosts over the same time frame, indicating a potential asymmetry in coevolutionary dynamics.

  19. Rational therapy of chronic venous insufficiency – chances and limits of the therapeutic use of horse-chestnut seeds extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Greeske Karin

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background and methods We report two clinical studies, one already published, performed in patients with early and advanced chronic venous insufficiency (CVI. In both, compression therapy and oral therapy with horse-chestnut seeds extracts (HCSE were compared to placebo. Results The published study in early CVI (Grade I showed HCSE and compression to be superior to placebo and to be equivalent to each other in reducing lower leg volume, a measure for oedema. In the study, in advanced CVI (Grade II and IIIa, compression appeared to be superior to placebo, whereas HCSE was not. HCSE fared better in Grade II than in Grade IIIa patients. These results are discussed in the light of data from an in vitro model, where HCSE has been able to close the intercellular gaps in the venular endothelium. Not fully specified factors lead to an opening of these gaps, resulting in oedema as well as in local coagulation and thrombosis. The subsequent inflammation keeps these gaps open and initiates and maintains a chronic disease process, which may be the starting point of CVI. Conclusion Due to its ability to close the venular endothelial gaps, HCSE seems to be a suitable and protecting therapy during the early stages of CVI. In later more severe stages compression therapy is indicated. Taking into account the observed negative impact of compression on quality of life, pharmacological CVI therapy should start early to avoid progress and to spare patients compression therapy.

  20. American Culture Reflected in American English

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李华芳

    2013-01-01

    Language is a vehicle for culture. It is also a key component of culture. It not only reflects culture but also influences culture. As a variety of British English, American English, especially American words and expressions can reflect American culture from many aspects. This paper studies some typical traits of American culture reflected in words and expressions of American Eng-lish.

  1. Biological Characters and Occurrence Conditions of a New Pest Tegra novaehollandiae viridinotata on Chestnut%板栗新害虫深褐拟叶螽生物学特性及发生条件的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    练飞; 佘德松; 冯福娟

    2008-01-01

    [Objective] The study aimed to explore the occurrence conditions of Tegra novaehollandiae viridinotata on chestnut. [Method] Life history was observed by the combination of indoor-rearing and field observation, as well as the relationship between occurrence and surroundings in field. [Result] T.novaehollandiae viridinotata has one generation each year in Yunhe County, Zhejiang Province, and overwinters by laying eggs in chestnut trunk with diameter of 5.0 cm. Adults and the nymphs feed on Glochidion puberum leaves, adults damage trunks of young chestnut by oviposition. Nymphs hatch in early April, adults moult in last June and lay eggs in middle July. [Conclusion] T.novaehollandiae viridinotata could be controlled by eliminating shrubs such asGlochidion puberum., cutting the eggs in dormancy by an knife, spraying pesticides in middle April or June and July, coating stem in winter etc.

  2. 我国出口板栗的比较优势及其影响因素探讨%Analysis on Comparative Advantages and Influencing Factorsof Chinese Chestnuts Export

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘庆博; 刘俊昌

    2012-01-01

    本文在分析我国板果贸易格局的基础上,从价格、质量指数、国际市场占有率、贸易竞争指数和显示性对称比较优势指数等五个指标对我国出口板栗的比较优势进行评价,并运用引力模型对影响我国板栗比较优势的主要因素进行了实证分析。结果表明,我国出口板栗具有较强的比较优势,但是在质量水平上不具备竞争力;出口对象国的GDP、我国人口数、汇率和出口价格是板栗出口的主要影响因素。最后,就提高板栗的质量水平提出了相应的建议。%Based on the trade pattern of Chinese chestnuts, this paper analyz- es the comparative advantages of Chinese chestnuts from the price, quality index, international market share, trade competitiveness index and Revealed Symmetric comparative advantage index. Using gravity model, the paper analyzes the influ- encing factors of the comparative advantages of Chinese chestnuts. It finds that Chinese chestnuts export has strong comparative advantages, but the quality does not have international competitiveness; and GDP of export objects, the population of China, exchange rate, export price are the main factors influencing the export of Chinese chestnuts. Finally, the study puts forward corresponding suggestions to improve the quality of Chinese chestnuts.

  3. American Houses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张梦华

    2004-01-01

    American houses usually have private kitchens,a living room and sometimes separate areas for eating and watching television,A house usually has its own mailbox,a yard with plants or perhaps a lawn,and a place to store garbage out of sight.

  4. American Occupation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Angry Americans across the country are protesting against inequality, greed and corruption The "Occupy Wall Street" protests have grown from an insignificant lower Manhattan gathering of around 1,500 people to tens of thousands of people across the United States, from Anchorage,

  5. 板栗种子淀粉体发育的扫描电镜观察%Observation of amyloplast development in chestnut seed by scanning electron microscope

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘帅; 陈良珂; 房克凤; 杨瑞; 邢宇; 曹庆芹; 秦岭

    2015-01-01

    In order to get the growth law of the Chinese chestnut seed amyloid, the chestnut seeds at different development stages were used as the experiment materials. The size, shape and development condition of amyloid features were observed by scanning electron microscopy. Results show that the aleurone layer cells have no amyloid and accumulation of starch. The amyloid mainly concentrates in the cotyledons. The chestnut seeds contain two kinds of amyliod:the large are pebble and the small are round. The large amyloid is the main kind, and its spatial arrangement is close. In addition, the amyliod has other forms in chestnut seeds, such as polyhedral, spherical, kidney, and complex form. The volume of large amyloid changes obviously in the prophase and metaphase stages in chestnut seeds. The small amyloplast proliferation mainly occurres in middle and late stages of seed growth, and distributes in clearance of large amyloid. As the chestnut seed develops, the volume of amyloid gradually increases, and the growth change of long axis and short axis shows “S” type in the growing curves.%为了探明板栗种子淀粉体生长的规律,以不同发育时期的板栗种子为试验材料,对淀粉体的大小、形态和发育情况等特性进行扫描电镜观察。结果表明:板栗糊粉层细胞中无淀粉体,不积累淀粉,淀粉体主要集中在子叶中;板栗种子有大、小两种淀粉体,大淀粉体呈鹅卵石形,小淀粉体呈圆球形;板栗种子以大淀粉体为主,空间排布较为紧密,此外,板栗淀粉体具有多面体形、球形、肾形、复合形等形态;板栗大淀粉体在种子发育前期和中期体积变化比较明显,而小淀粉体分布于大淀粉体的间隙中,增殖主要发生在种子发育中期和后期;淀粉体体积随发育天数的增加逐渐增大,长轴和短轴增长的变化呈“S”型生长曲线。

  6. Effect of brine preservation on volatile profiles of chestnut flowers%盐水保存对板栗花挥发性香气成分的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏宾; 崔亚辉; 徐芳; 欧阳杰

    2014-01-01

    板栗花是板栗的雄性花序,香味柔和,含有多种芳香性成分,但由于板栗的雌雄花比例悬殊,大部分雄花被废弃。为了实现对板栗花的深度开发利用,以河北迁西4个品种(早丰、燕龙、紫珀和燕魁)的板栗雄花为原料,采用同时蒸馏萃取-气质联用法( SDE-GC/MS)提取了鲜花以及用盐水保存6个月的板栗花中的挥发油,并对其香气成分进行定性分析。结果表明,鲜板栗花挥发油中含有35种挥发性成分,盐水保存的板栗花挥发油中含有20种挥发性成分,但是两者中主要挥发性香气物质均为α-甲基苯甲醇丙酸酯、壬醛、苯乙酮、芳樟醇,其相对百分含量相差较小,表明盐水保存对板栗花挥发性香气成分影响较小。%Chestnut flower is the male inflorescence of chestnut, which has sweet smell and contains a variety of fragrant compounds. Most of male flowers were discarded since the proportion of male to female flower was very high. In order to exploit chestnut flowers, the volatile aromatic components of four varieties of Chinese chestnut flower ( Zaofeng, Yanlong, Zipo and Yankui) , which were fresh or brine preserved for six months,were qualitatively identified by modified SDE-GC/MS. The results showed that the essential oil obtained from fresh chestnut flower contained 35 kinds of volatile components and the brine preserved one contained 20 kinds. However, the highest contents of volatiles in four varieties of fresh and brine preserved chestnut flowers were alpha-methyl-benzenemethanol, nonanal, acetophenone and linalool. The method of brine preservation had little effect on volatile profile of chestnut flower. The results provide foundation for further research and development of essential oil in chestnut flowers.

  7. Cancer and African Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Population Profiles > Black/African American > Cancer Cancer and African Americans African Americans have the highest mortality rate ... 65MB] At a glance – Top Cancer Sites for African Americans (2008-2012) Cancer Incidence Rates per 100, ...

  8. American Sign Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Health Info » Voice, Speech, and Language American Sign Language On this page: What is American Sign Language? ... signs "I love you." What is American Sign Language? American Sign Language (ASL) is a complete, complex ...

  9. [Effects of compound fertilizer of (NH2)2CO and KH2PO4 on the chestnut photosynthesis characteristics, growth and fruiting].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Shou-le; Sun, Xiao-li; Shen, Guang-ning; Xu, Lin

    2015-03-01

    Compound fertilizer can improve the fertilizer use efficiency and tree nutrition status to ensure balanced fertilization. Taking 7 year-old chestnut trees as test material, with (NH2)2CO and KH2PO4 being mixed at the different ratios, the effects of different compound fertilizers on the photosynthesis characteristics as well as the growth and fruiting of chestnut were studied quantitatively by trunk injection method. Results showed that compound fertilizer of (NH2)2CO and KH2PO4 induced positive synergistic effects to enhance photosynthetic capacity, yield and quality of chestnut obviously. The content of chlorophyll was decreased by (NH2)2CO and increased by KH2PO4, but increased obviously by the compound fertilizer. The contents of N, P, K of leaf and branch rose under the four compounded fertilization treatments, among which 0.3%(NH2)2CO+0.3%KH2PO4 was the best. All fertilizer treatments could advance the photosynthetic parameters, while the compound fertilizer performed better. 0.3% (NH2)2CO + 0.3% KH2PO4 treatment significantly increased the photosynthetic rate, the maximum net photosynthesis, apparent quantum yield, carboxylation efficiency, instantaneous water use efficiency and nitrogen use efficiency. Compound fertilizer could promote the growth of branch in diameter and length synchronously, and increase the number of mixed buds, while (NH2)2CO only promoted the growth of branch in length, and did little in the number of mixed buds. The compound fertilizer did better in advancing nuts yield and quality than single fertilization of N or P. The nuts yield, mass and total sugar were increased by 68.2%, 25.5% and 14.9% respectively under 0.3% (NH2)2CO+0.3%KH2PO4 treatment compared with the control.

  10. Remedial investigation work plan for Chestnut Ridge Operable Unit 4 (Rogers Quarry/Lower McCoy Branch) at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-09-01

    The Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant includes - 800 acres near the northeast comer of the reservation and adjacent to the city of Oak Ridge (Fig. 1-1). The plant is a manufacturing and developmental engineering facility that produced components for various nuclear weapons systems and provides engineering support to other Energy Systems facilities. More than 200 contaminated sites have been identified at the Y-12 Plant that resulted from past waste management practices. Many of the sites have operable units (OUs) based on priority and on investigative and remediation requirements. This Remedial Investigation RI work plan specifically addresses Chestnut Ridge OU 4. Chestnut Ridge OU 4 consists of Rogers Quarry and Lower McCoy Branch (MCB). Rogers Quarry, which is also known as Old Rogers Quarry or Bethel Valley Quarry was used for quarrying from the late 1940s or early 1950s until about 1960. Since that time, the quarry has been used for disposal of coal ash and materials from Y-12 production operations, including classified materials. Disposal of coal ash ended in July 1993. An RI is being conducted at this site in response to CERCLA regulations. The overall objectives of the RI are to collect data necessary to evaluate the nature and extent of contaminants of concern, support an Ecological Risk Assessment and a Human Health Risk Assessment, support the evaluation of remedial alternatives, and ultimately develop a Record of Decision for the site. The purpose of this work plan is to outline RI activities necessary to define the nature and extent of suspected contaminants at Chestnut Ridge OU 4. Potential migration pathways also will be investigated. Data collected during the RI will be used to evaluate the risk posed to human health and the environment by OU 4.

  11. Risk assessment of the oriental chestnut gall wasp, Dryocosmus kuriphilus for the EU territory and identification and evaluation of risk management options

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baker, R.; Candresse, T.; Dormannsné Simon, E.;

    2010-01-01

    The Panel on Plant Health was requested by the European Commission to deliver a scientific opinion on the risk posed by the oriental chestnut gall wasp, Dryocosmus kuriphilus to the EU territory and to identify and evaluate risk management options. Additional analyses were conducted by the Panel......) the average rate of spread of D. kuriphilus is estimated as 8 km/yr; d) spread within the EU is likely, due to adult dispersal by flight and the movement of plants containing eggs and larvae which remain undetected within dormant buds; e) the potential effects on fruit yield reduction are considered moderate...

  12. 食品加工剩余物板栗壳的利用研究进展%Review on Utilization of Chestnut Shell Residue from Food Processing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    戚建华; 姚增玉; 王力华; 夏金虎

    2012-01-01

    为了更好地对食品加工剩余物板栗壳进行开发利用,促进节能减排,综述了国内外最近20年在板栗壳资源化利用方面的研究进展,发现现有研究涉及将板栗壳作为生物吸附剂用于重金属污水处理、作为基质用于食用菌栽培和作为原料用于活性炭制备,以及从中提取天然色素用于食品着色和纺织品印染等方面,但这些研究并不系统,今后还需对板栗壳色素进行安全性评价,补充其毒理学和代谢方面的数据.板栗壳对重金属的吸附量偏低,有待于进一步通过理化改性提高其吸附性能,提取过色素的板栗壳残渣可进一步作为原料用于制备活性炭,以达到循环利用.%In order to better exploit chestnut shells which are residues from food processing, and to promote energy conservation and pollution reduction, the domestic and foreign research progress on the utilization of chestnut shell resource in the last 20 years was reviewed. The informed researches involved employing the shells as biosorbents for heavy metal removal from waste water, as substrates for mushroom cultivation, and as a material for activated carbon preparation, as well as for natural pigment production to color foods and dye textiles. However, these studies were lack of systematicness and some further researches should be conducted in future studies. The information on the toxicology and metabolism of the chestnut shell pigments should be given to evaluate their safety. The sorption capacities towards heavy metals of chestnut shell were low, and chemical modifications were needed to improve their sorption performance. The residue after pigment extraction could be further used as a raw material for the activated carbon preparation in order to achieve recycling.

  13. Life-threatening rupture of a renal angiomyolipoma in a patient taking over-the-counter horse chestnut seed extract.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Snow, Aisling

    2011-02-09

    BACKGROUND: Alternative medical therapies are increasingly being prescribed due to their good safety profile and perceived limited side effects. They are often unregulated and prescribed over the counter. One such medication is horse chestnut seed extract (HCSE), which is used for the treatment of chronic venous insufficiency and is known to affect blood coagulation. Angiomyolipoma (AML) is a benign fat-containing mesenchymal tumor of the kidney. It is often found incidentally and in most cases can be managed conservatively. Rupture of the kidney with hemorrhage is a well-known complication that may be serious and life-threatening. Known risk factors for hemorrhage include anticoagulation as well as pregnancy, increased size of the lesion, high lesion vascularity, and aneurysm formation within the tumor. OBJECTIVES: The aim is to raise awareness of potential HCSE-induced anticoagulation, including, as in the case presented, acute renal AML hemorrhage. CASE REPORT: The case of a patient taking HCSE for venous insufficiency is presented. The patient suffered a life-threatening rupture of the kidney in the presence of known renal AML. She underwent emergency embolization with a successful outcome. Because HCSE-containing products are thought to be generally safe in the treatment of chronic venous insufficiency, it is important to be mindful of their potential anticoagulant properties and, therefore, their relative contraindication both in patients taking other anticoagulants and those with known renal AML. CONCLUSION: We demonstrate a potentially life-threatening association between HSCE-containing products and renal AML, highlighting the risk associated with HSCE-induced anticoagulation.

  14. Effects of chestnut tannins and coconut oil on growth performance, methane emission, ruminal fermentation, and microbial populations in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, H; Vaddella, V; Zhou, D

    2011-12-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of chestnut tannins (CT) and coconut oil (CO) on growth performance, methane (CH₄) emission, ruminal fermentation, and microbial populations in sheep. A total of 48 Rideau Arcott sheep (average body weight 31.5±1.97 kg, 16 wk old) were randomly assigned into 6 treatment groups in a 3 × 2 factorial design, with CT and CO as the main effects (8 sheep per group). The treatments were control diet (CTR), 10 or 30 g of CT/kg of diet (CT10 and CT30), 25 g of CO/kg of concentrate (CO25), and 10 or 30 g of CT/kg of diet+25 g of CO/kg of concentrate (CT10CO25 and CT30CO25). After the feeding trial (60 d), all sheep were moved to respiratory chambers to measure CH₄ emission. After CH₄ emission measurements, all sheep were slaughtered to obtain rumen fluid samples. Results showed that the addition of CT, CO, and CT+CO had no significant effects on growth performance of sheep but reduced CH₄ emission. Addition of CT reduced the NH₃-N concentration in rumen fluid in CT30. Addition of CO decreased the concentration of total volatile fatty acids in rumen fluid. No significant differences were observed in pH and molar proportion of volatile fatty acids among treatments. Addition of CT, CO, and CT+CO significantly decreased methanogen and protozoa populations. Moreover, CO decreased counts of Fibrobacter succinogenes. No significant differences were observed in populations of fungi, Ruminococcus flavefaciens, or Ruminococcus albus among treatments. In conclusion, supplementation of CT and CO seemed to be a feasible means of decreasing emissions of CH₄ from sheep by reduction of methanogen and protozoa populations with no negative effect on growth performance.

  15. Radionuclide migration pathways analysis for the Oak Ridge Central Waste Disposal Facility on the West Chestnut Ridge site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A dose-to-man pathways analysis is performed for disposal of low-level radioactive waste at the Central Waste Disposal Facility on the West Chestnut Ridge Site. Both shallow land burial (trench) and aboveground (tumulus) disposal methods are considered. The waste volumes, characteristics, and radionuclide concentrations are those of waste streams anticipated from the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, the Y-12 Plant, and the Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant. The site capacity for the waste streams is determined on the basis of the pathways analysis. The exposure pathways examined include (1) migration and transport of leachate from the waste disposal units to the Clinch River (via the groundwater medium for trench disposal and Ish Creek for tumulus disposal) and (2) those potentially associated with inadvertent intrusion following a 100-year period of institutional control: an individual resides on the site, inhales suspended particles of contaminated dust, ingests vegetables grown on the plot, consumes contaminated water from either an on-site well or from a nearby surface stream, and receives direct exposure from the contaminated soil. It is found that either disposal method would provide effective containment and isolation for the anticipated waste inventory. However, the proposed trench disposal method would provide more effective containment than tumuli because of sorption of some radionuclides in the soil. Persons outside the site boundary would receive radiation doses well below regulatory limits if they were to ingest water from the Clinch River. An inadvertent intruder could receive doses that approach regulatory limits; however, the likelihood of such intrusions and subsequent exposures is remote. 33 references, 31 figures, 28 tables

  16. Transferability analysis of EST-SSR markers of Castanea mollissima to Castanopsis fargesii%中国板栗EST-SSR分子标记在栲树中的通用性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李春; 孙晔

    2012-01-01

    Simple sequence repeats(SSR),also known as microsatellite molecular markers,have been cross-amplified successfully in closely related species of the same genus and even across genera within the same family. In the present study, 124 primer pairs of polymorphic EST-SSR originally developed from Castanea mollissima were cross-amplified in Castanopsis fargesii. Results indicated that 42. 7% of Castanea mollssima EST-SSR primers were successfully cross-amplified in Castanopsis far gesii and 56. 6% were polymorphic. The genetic diversity of 4 populations of C. fargesii were investigated with polymorphic EST-SSRs, preliminary results showed that C. fargesii possessed high levels of genetic diversity(Na=6.105,Ho=0. 563,He-0.621). These polymorphic EST-SSR primers would provide a powerful tool for further investigation on population genetics of C. fargesii.%简单重复序列也称为微卫星分子标记,不仅在同属近缘种间具有良好的通用性,甚至在近缘属间也具有一定的通用性.本研究利用壳斗科基因组信息数据库中公布的中国板栗124对多态的EST-SSR引物在栲树中进行跨属(栗属到栲属)通用性研究,结果显示中国板栗EST-SSR引物在栲树中通用性和多态性分别为42.7%和56.6%;使用19对多态的EST-SSR引物对4个栲树自然居群的遗传多样性进行初步分析,结果显示栲树自然居群具有较高的遗传多样性(Na=6.105,Ho=0.563,He=0.621).这些引物为栲树群体遗传学的深入研究提供了有力工具.

  17. 热风干燥温度对马蹄产品品质的影响%Effect of Temperature on the Product Quality of Hot Air Drying for Water Chestnut

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭婷; 黎润凤; 陈振林; 张志; 梁璇; 莫玉菲

    2016-01-01

    In order to investigate the temperature on the quality of water chestnut slice by hot air drying,the col-or,rehydration capacity,hardness,porosity and sensory value of the water chestnut slice were compared. Results showed that hot air drying temperature had a significantly influence on the color parameters and porosity of water chestnut (P<0.05). With the drying temperature rising,the dry basis moisture content decreased faster,the dry-ing time shortened. The water chestnut slice hardness prepared at hot air drying temperature 65℃was small,the porosity and color was good.%为探究热风干燥温度对马蹄品质的影响,比较不同干燥温度对马蹄色泽、复水性、硬度、多孔性、及感官等的影响。结果表明:热风干燥温度对马蹄的色泽和多孔性含量有显著影响(P<0.05);随着干燥温度升高,失水速率增加,干燥时间缩短,干燥温度为65℃时,马蹄片的硬度小,多孔性好,呈现出较好色泽。

  18. The chestnut bread compound improver%复配型面包品质改良剂在板栗面包中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邵颖; 魏宗烽

    2011-01-01

    首次利用面包品质改良剂对板栗面包的焙烤品质及延缓老化的作用效果进行了研究.依据各种改良剂对面包防老化效果的不同,确定出试验用改良剂为黄原胶、α-淀粉酶、单甘酯.分别以三种面包品质改良剂做单因素实验,实验结果表明:当黄原胶以板栗粉与面包粉总重量的0.5%、1%、1.5%、2%的比例添加到板栗面包中时,对板栗面包的感官品质及老化指标均产生了显著影响,当添加量为1%时,不但板栗面包具有良好的焙烤品质而且延缓了面包的老化;当α-淀粉酶按不同的比例添加时,在添加量为0.01%或0.005%时,板栗面包的抗老化效果及焙烤性能均较对照组好,但当添加量为0.03%、0.06%时,致使板栗面包芯发粘,面包醒发性能受阻;在单甘酯的单因素实验中,不同添加量的单甘酯对板栗面包的老化均有延缓作用,但对面包的焙烤品质均产生负面影响.选择几种改良剂的较优添加量做正交实验,实验结果表明:在板栗面包制作过程中按板栗粉及面包粉总重用量添加1.5%黄原胶、0%α-淀粉酶、0.3%单甘酯时,板栗面包具有良好的焙烤品质,且在贮存7d后,面包芯硬度比对照组下降44%,延缓了面包老化,延长了其货架期.%This is the first research on chestnut bread baking and aging. xanthan gum、 a - amylase and monoglyceride were selected. Single - factor test showed that the quality of chestnut bread was improved by 0. 5% 、 1% . 1.5% .2% xanthan gum. When adding 1% xanthan gum, chestnut bread not only had good baking quality, but also delay the aging; When α - amylase was added to chestnut bread at 0. 01% or 0. 005% , anti - aging effect and baking quality were better than the control group, but when it was at 0. 03% , 0. 06% , chestnut bread baking quality become poor.Monoglyceride was able to delay aging at the all different dosage, but bread baking quality all turned negative side

  19. American Houses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    严双红

    2008-01-01

    <正>American houses usually have private kitchens,a living room and sometimes separate areas for eating and watching television.A house usually has its own mailbox,a yard with plants or perhaps a lawn,and a place to store garbage.美国住房通常有私人厨房,一间起居室,有时吃饭和看电视的地方是分开的。一所房子通常有自己的邮箱,一个种有植物或者有草坪的院子,还有存放垃圾的地方。

  20. Research on Production Technology of Instant Compound Powder of Water Chestnut and Soybean%菱角大豆速溶复合粉加工工艺的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏海香; 梁宝东; 李湘利; 冯磊; 范永非

    2013-01-01

    Using soybeans and water chestnuts as raw material,instant dissolved compound powder of water chestnut and soybean was researched to improve deep production of water chestnut and new product development.By monofactorial and L9 (34) orthogonal test,the key processing technology of the instant compound powder of water chestnut and soybean was discussed.The synergistic of 1.0‰ sodium pyrosulfite and 1.0% citric acid had the best effect of protecting the color of water chestnut.Beany flavor of soybean was reduced by 0.2% sodium hydrogen carbonate.The influencing of tested factors on compound powder in descending order was the ratio of water chestnut to soybean > sugar > maltodextrin.The optimal formula was 1 ∶ 1 of water chestnut to soybean ratio,5% maltodextrin and 6% sucrose.The optimized product has a delicate taste and unique flavor,low sugar content and intensified function.%为促进菱角的深加工和新产品开发,以菱角和大豆为主要原料,研究了菱角大豆速溶复合粉的加工工艺.通过单因素和L9(34)正交试验设计,探讨了菱角大豆速溶复合粉生产工艺及其关键技术.结果表明:1.0‰的焦亚硫酸钠和0.5%的柠檬酸协同作用对菱角护色效果最佳;0.2% NaHCO3对大豆的脱腥效果较好;不同因素对菱角大豆速溶复合粉的影响显著性顺序为菱角大豆比例>蔗糖>麦芽糊精.最佳配比组合为菱角大豆比例1∶1,麦芽糊精5%,蔗糖6%.此工艺所得产品为口感细腻、风味独特、含糖量低和功能性强的新型固体饮料.

  1. Obesity and African Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Data > Minority Population Profiles > Black/African American > Obesity Obesity and African Americans African American women have the ... ss6304.pdf [PDF | 3.38MB] HEALTH IMPACT OF OBESITY More than 80 percent of people with type ...

  2. 矮化板栗表型特征及早期鉴定%Phenotypic characteristics and early identification of dwarf chestnut cultivars

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏振国; 刘维国; 宋庆桃

    2001-01-01

    Four factors i. e. the rate of cortex/wood, taper index, length of internode and annual growth of developmental branches of 2 dwarf and 6 standard chestnut cultivars were measured. It was found that there existed significant correlation among tree height, rate of cortex/wood, taprter index, and annual growth. It was further verified that the critical parameters of dwarf chestnut had been established when the rate of corter/wood amounted to 19% and taper index to 55%.Statistic regression Y=458. 4538-11.7191X1-1.0156X2 was established, where Y was height of four-year old tree,X1 being rate of cortex/wood, and X2 taper index. It would be used to early identify dwarf types of chestnut cultivars.%通过对2个矮化型和6个乔化型板栗品种发育枝的枝皮率、尖削指数、节间长度、年生长量4个因子的调查分析,发现发育枝枝皮率,尖削指数、年生长量3个因子与树高存在显著相关性,即枝皮率≥19%,尖削指数≥55%时为矮化型,反之为乔化型。通过验证,确定了枝皮率19%、尖削指数55%为板栗矮化型与乔化型的临界参数。并建立Y=458.4538-11.7191X1-1.0156X2,4年生树高(Y)与嫁接当年发育枝枝皮率(X1)、尖削指数(X2)相关的多元回归方程,可用该方程对矮化型板栗品种进行早期鉴定。

  3. The African American Image in American Cinema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourne, St. Clair

    1990-01-01

    Political conditions have influenced the screen images of U.S. cinema, and the images of African Americans have reflected prevailing social stereotypes. The history of African-American representation in films is traced, and it is noted that the tendency to portray African Americans stereotypically has not changed. (SLD)

  4. Historiography, American Theatre, and the First Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Linda Walsh

    American theatre history should include a study of Native American performances, since these performances are rich with "American" symbolic materials such as imagery, symbols, and heraldic visions of animals and landscapes. Indian cultures understood the importance of performance for both the visionary and the community at large. Even the pow-wow…

  5. CONTRIBUTION TO DETERMINING THE BIOCHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF THE WATER CHESTNUT TRAPA NATANS L. LAKE OUBEIRA EL-KALA AND DEVELOPMENT OF NUTRIENT AGAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MOHAMED SAHLI

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This work is aims to determining the biochemical composition of the flour water chestnut seeds and the development of a nutrient agar for bacteria and fungi in the presence and absence of oxytetracycline. The culture medium consists of the filtrate recovered after dispersion of the flour of the seeds in distilled water and the agar. The results show in the absence of oxytetracycline, bacterial and fungal strains develop. In the presence of the antibiotic to 0.25 mg·mL-1 and 0.5 mg·mL-1 bacteria are completely inhibited whereas fungi evolve. Statistical analysis reveals the existence of a very highly significant difference (P ≤ 0.001 between the effects of different concentrations of the bactericide deploying Pyrenophora tritici and Septoria nodorum. There is no influence of antibacterial concentrations on the growth of Fusarium sp.

  6. Air pollution effects on the percentage of stomata in the leaves of tested species of horse chestnut and birch in Banja Luka conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oljača Rodoljub

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is the determination of air pollution influence on the percentage of stomata in tested woody species, horse chestnut and birch, under examined Banja Luka air pollution conditions. Two locations in Banja Luka town were examined, with different air pollution degrees: the first location is a hostel for students, with the minimal or absent air pollution; the second location is the west transit, with high air pollution due to a high number of motor cars which pass by the west transit. The air pollution difference between these two locations is very marked, and the objective of the examination was to assess how the indicated locations, which have different life conditions for the tested woody species, impact the physiological processes such as transpiration and photosynthesis. The study species react differently when the percentage of stomata and air pollution are compared.

  7. Breeding research on hybrid chestnut variety“Gaojiangan”%中日杂交栗“高见甘”选育研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑瑞杰

    2016-01-01

    On the basis of introduction,selection and breeding,hybrid chestnut variety“Gaojiangan”was bred and selected by variet-ies comparison and regional test.The new variety was examined and approved by the Tree Variety Appraisal Value Committee of Lia-oning Province in 2013.The varieties on the one hand had the characteristics of Japanese chestnut such as high and stable yield and large fruit,on the other hand has Chinese chestnut characteristics i.e.high quality and endocarp of nut easy to strip.After 3~4 years of grafting,the average yield of individual tree was 5.27 kg,single nut mean weight was 20.57 g,each chestnut bud contained 2.1 nuts. The flesh was yellow,sticky,fragrant and sweet.The endocarp of nut was easy to strip,and was even easier to peal after stewing. In Dalian,the fruit matured in middle to late September.“Gaojiangan”was a strain hybridized by Chinese variety and Japanese variety, with low selectivity to stock and stronger grafting affinity.Besides,“Gaojiangan”had properties such as high resistance and tolerance to Dryocosmus kuriphilus,poor soil and cold weather and so on.This variety is suitable to plant in regions south of central Kuandian, Liaoning Province and with the average annual temperature above 8℃.%在前期引种、选种、育种基础上,通过品种比较和区域试验进行良种筛选,选育出栗树中日杂交种高见甘,2013年通过辽宁省林木品种审定委员会认定。该品种一方面具有日本栗丰产稳产、果个大的特点,另一方面具有中国板栗品质优、涩皮易剥离的特点。嫁接3~4年生高见甘平均株产5.27 kg,平均单果重20.57 g,每苞平均含坚果2.1粒,果肉淡黄色,质地细腻,风味香甜,涩皮易剥离,经蒸煮后涩皮极易剥离。在辽宁大连地区9月中下旬果实成熟。高见甘为中日杂交种,对砧木选择性不强,嫁接亲和能力强。另外具有抗栗瘿蜂、耐瘠薄、抗寒性较强等特点,适

  8. Annual report of 1991 groundwater monitoring data for the Kerr Hollow Quarry and Chestnut Ridge Sediment Disposal Basin at the Y-12 Plant: Ground water surface elevations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this document is to provide a summary and interpretation of hydraulic head measurements obtained from wells surrounding the Kerr Hollow Quarry and Chestnut Ridge Sediment Disposal Basin sites at the US Department of Energy Y-12 Plant in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Periodic water level observations are presented using hydrographs and water table contour maps based on data obtained from quarterly sampling during calendar year 1991. Generalized, preliminary interpretation of results are presented. The two sites covered by this report have interim status under the provisions of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). A subset of the wells at each rate are used for groundwater monitoring purposes under the requirements of RCRA. A discussion of the up-gradient and down-gradient directions for each of the sites is included

  9. Discovery of a new gene pool and a high genetic diversity of the chestnut blight fungus Cryphonectria parasitica in Caucasian Georgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prospero, S; Lutz, A; Tavadze, B; Supatashvili, A; Rigling, D

    2013-12-01

    In this study, we investigated the population genetic structure and possible origins of the plant pathogen Cryphonectria parasitica in Caucasian Georgia, a region within the centre of origin of the host species Castanea sativa. A total of 427 C. parasitica isolates from nine populations were genotyped at 10 microsatellite loci. A high genetic diversity was detected, but the overall Georgian population was dominated by three haplotypes which were present in most individual populations. Two of them have not been previously found in Europe. Bayesian clustering analysis and principal component analysis could not identify their source population, neither in Asia nor in North America. On the other hand, one haplotype is frequent in Central Europe and probably naturally invaded Caucasian Georgia from neighbouring Turkey. Seventy-three haplotypes were unique to specific populations, and 66 of them were represented by a single isolate. Allele patterns suggest that most of these haplotypes emerged locally through sexual recombination between haplotypes of the Georgian and the central European gene pool. Due to the high incidence of haplotypes not otherwise present in Europe, Caucasian Georgia represents an additional source of diversity for the European C. parasitica population.

  10. The success of the horse-chestnut leaf-miner, Cameraria ohridella, in the UK revealed with hypothesis-led citizen science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pocock, Michael J O; Evans, Darren M

    2014-01-01

    Citizen science is an increasingly popular way of undertaking research and simultaneously engaging people with science. However, most emphasis of citizen science in environmental science is on long-term monitoring. Here, we demonstrate the opportunities provided by short-term hypothesis-led citizen science. In 2010, we ran the 'Conker Tree Science' project, in which over 3500 people in Great Britain provided data at a national scale of an insect (horse-chestnut leaf-mining moth, Cameraria ohridella) undergoing rapid range-expansion. We addressed two hypotheses, and found that (1) the levels of damage caused to leaves of the horse-chestnut tree, Aesculus hippocastanum, and (2) the level of attack by parasitoids of C. ohridella larvae were both greatest where C. ohridella had been present the longest. Specifically there was a rapid rise in leaf damage during the first three years that C. ohridella was present and only a slight rise thereafter, while estimated rates of parasitism (an index of true rates of parasitism) increased from 1.6 to 5.9% when the time C. ohridella had been present in a location increased from 3 to 6 years. We suggest that this increase is due to recruitment of native generalist parasitoids, rather than the adaptation or host-tracking of more specialized parasitoids, as appears to have occurred elsewhere in Europe. Most data collected by participants were accurate, but the counts of parasitoids from participants showed lower concordance with the counts from experts. We statistically modeled this bias and propagated this through our analyses. Bias-corrected estimates of parasitism were lower than those from the raw data, but the trends were similar in magnitude and significance. With appropriate checks for data quality, and statistically correcting for biases where necessary, hypothesis-led citizen science is a potentially powerful tool for carrying out scientific research across large spatial scales while simultaneously engaging many people with

  11. Study on Methods of Total RNA Extraction from Cotyledon of Chinese Chestnut%板栗子叶总RNA提取方法研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王滨蔚; 车鹏燕; 何承忠; 王猛; 石卓功

    2012-01-01

    为了获得板栗子叶总RNA提取的理想方法,为后续的分子生物学研究打下基础,以板栗幼果子叶为材料,采用改良CTAB法、硼砂-CTAB法、酚-SDS法、皂土法和2种植物总RNA提取试剂盒共6种方法提取板栗子叶总RNA.结果表明,除硼砂-CTAB法外,其他5种方法均能获得板栗子叶总RNA.但是,与酚-SDS法、皂土法和2种植物总RNA提取试剂盒相比较,改良CTAB法提取的板栗子叶总RNA完整性好,纯度高,且无DNA污染,能够满足cDNA-AFLP等分子生物学研究的要求.%In order to obtain an ideal total RNA extraction method of cotyledon in Chinese chestnuts for providing foundation for molecular biology research, total RNA of cotyledon excised from young fruit of Chinese chestnut were extracted with 6 methods, including improved CTAB method, borax-CTAB method, phenol-SDS method, bentonite method and 2 RNA extraction kits. The results showed that total RNA was obtained with 5 methods but borax-CTAB method. However, the improved CTAB method was better than phenol-SDS method, bentonite method and two RNA extraction kits. The total RNA extracted with improved CTAB method had high integrity, high purity and no DNA pollution, and would be suitable for related molecular researches, such as cDNA-AFLP markers.

  12. The success of the horse-chestnut leaf-miner, Cameraria ohridella, in the UK revealed with hypothesis-led citizen science.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J O Pocock

    Full Text Available Citizen science is an increasingly popular way of undertaking research and simultaneously engaging people with science. However, most emphasis of citizen science in environmental science is on long-term monitoring. Here, we demonstrate the opportunities provided by short-term hypothesis-led citizen science. In 2010, we ran the 'Conker Tree Science' project, in which over 3500 people in Great Britain provided data at a national scale of an insect (horse-chestnut leaf-mining moth, Cameraria ohridella undergoing rapid range-expansion. We addressed two hypotheses, and found that (1 the levels of damage caused to leaves of the horse-chestnut tree, Aesculus hippocastanum, and (2 the level of attack by parasitoids of C. ohridella larvae were both greatest where C. ohridella had been present the longest. Specifically there was a rapid rise in leaf damage during the first three years that C. ohridella was present and only a slight rise thereafter, while estimated rates of parasitism (an index of true rates of parasitism increased from 1.6 to 5.9% when the time C. ohridella had been present in a location increased from 3 to 6 years. We suggest that this increase is due to recruitment of native generalist parasitoids, rather than the adaptation or host-tracking of more specialized parasitoids, as appears to have occurred elsewhere in Europe. Most data collected by participants were accurate, but the counts of parasitoids from participants showed lower concordance with the counts from experts. We statistically modeled this bias and propagated this through our analyses. Bias-corrected estimates of parasitism were lower than those from the raw data, but the trends were similar in magnitude and significance. With appropriate checks for data quality, and statistically correcting for biases where necessary, hypothesis-led citizen science is a potentially powerful tool for carrying out scientific research across large spatial scales while simultaneously engaging

  13. Research on Methods for Pollen Viability Determinationof Water Chestnut%菱花粉生活力测定方法研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李双梅; 柯卫东; 彭静; 李峰; 钟兰; 孙亚林

    2014-01-01

    In order to explore suitable methods for pollen viability determination of water chestnut, the pollen viability of cultivar Xiaoganhongling was determined by using the methods of inorganic salt culture, MTT staining and TTC staining. The results showed that the medium supplemented with low concentrations of sucrose and boric acid could promote the germination of pollen, and the optimum medium for pollen germination was 10% sucrose+0.005% boric acid, with the germination rate of 65.9%. The MTT staining and TTC staining methods were not ideal for pollen viability determination of water chestnut, because their dyeing rates were merely 36.9%and 27.1%.%为了探索菱花粉生活力的最佳测定方法,以孝感红菱花粉为试材,利用无机盐培养法、MTT(四甲基噻唑蓝)染色法和TTC(氯化三苯基四氮唑)染色法对花粉生活力进行测定。研究结果表明,培养基中添加低浓度的蔗糖和硼酸对菱花粉的萌发有促进作用,菱花粉萌发的最适培养基为10%蔗糖+0.005%硼酸,萌发率达65.9%;用MTT染色法和TTC染色法测定菱花粉生活力,染色率仅为36.9%和27.1%,效果不理想。

  14. 不同抑菌杀菌剂对新鲜板栗仁抑菌效果的研究%Study on the Antibacterial Effect of Disinfectant in Rresh Chestnut Kernel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王德静; 胡燕

    2014-01-01

    板栗不仅营养价值高,而且有一定的保健功效。但是板栗因易腐烂变质而不易保藏。新鲜板栗仁因表面保护组织的破坏而更不易保藏。以广水板栗为试材,研究了几种不同的抑菌剂对新鲜板栗仁的抑菌效果。结果显示,0.10%次氯酸钠和0.10%脱氢醋酸钠在新鲜板栗仁中的抑菌效果较好。用次氯酸钠和脱氢醋酸钠处理过的板栗仁中细菌和真菌的生长都受到了极大的抑制。特别是次氯酸钠不仅有抑菌作用,还能降低呼吸作用的强度,能显著的延长新鲜板栗仁的保鲜期。%Chestnut is not only a high nutritional food, but also have certain health care function. But it is not easily stored for it is highly perishable and the fresh chestnut kernel is not easily stored too for the damage of the surface protection tissue. With Guangshui chestnut as the material, the antibacterial effect of different disinfectant in fresh chestnut kernel was studied. The result shows that the antibacterial effect of 0.10%sodium hypochlorite and 0.10%sodium dehydro acetate are better in fresh chestnut kernel.The grows of the bacteria and fungus are inhibited after treated with sodium hypochlorite and sodium dehydroacetate. Especially sodium hypochlorite which has an antibacterial effect, but also can reduce the respiration intensity so it can ignificantly extend the shelf-life of fresh chestnut kernel.

  15. Study on Current Status and Promotion Strategy of International Competitiveness of Chinese Chestnut Industry%中国板栗产业国际竞争力现状及其提升策略

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    戴永务; 刘伟平

    2012-01-01

    利用UNcomtrade在线数据库中1995-2010年的板栗贸易数据,对中国板栗产业国际竞争力的现状进行评价与国际比较;并依据波特的钻石模型对中国板栗产业国际竞争力影响因素进行深入分析.结果表明:中国板栗产业具有较强的国际竞争力,国际竞争优势主要来源于低廉的劳动力成本和庞大的内需市场,但受劳动力成本上升和科技创新能力低的影响,所具有的传统低价竞争优势正在逐渐丧失.据此提出强化种植户培训力度、增强技术创新能力、发展板栗加工业和实施品牌战略等提升我国板栗产业国际竟争力的策略.%The paper evaluates quantitatively and contrasts internationally the international competitiveness of Chinese chestnut industry, and then analyzed deeply the factors of the international competitiveness of Chinese chestnut industry on the basis of Porter's diamond model, based on the data about chestnut trade from UNcomtrade online database in the period of 1992-2009. The result shows that Chinese chestnut industry has a strong international competitiveness from low labor costs and huge domestic market, but the traditional low-cost competitive advantage is gradually lost by the impact of rising labor casts and low scientific and technological innovation capability. Based on the conclusion, this article put forward some strategies to promote the international competitiveness of Chinese chestnut industry, including fanners training efforts to strengthen and enhancing the ability of technological innovation, the development of chestnut processing industry and the implementation of brand strategy.

  16. Temporal dynamics of the arthropod community in Castanea henryi forests under different management modes%不同经营管理方式下锥栗林节肢动物群落的时序动态

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶世森; 施丹阳; 郑郁善; 胡凤玉

    2014-01-01

    [目的]研究不同经营管理方式对锥栗林(Castanea henryi)节肢动物群落及主要害虫种群数量时序动态的影响,为锥栗林害虫防治提供科学依据.[方法]通过对不同经营管理方式下的锥栗林节肢动物群落的系统调查,分析和比较了生产上典型的5种经营管理方式下锥栗林节肢动物群落的物种丰富度、个体数量、物种多样性指数、天敌与害虫个体数量比例及主要害虫种群数量的时序动态.[结果]不同经营管理方式下锥栗林林冠层节肢动物群落的物种丰富度、个体数量、物种多样性指数变化趋势大体一致,物种丰富度、个体数量最高值在6月,物种多样性指数最高值在5月,但不同经营管理方式下物种丰富度、个体数量、物种多样性指数高低不同,管理精细未用药型锥栗林物种多样性指数最高,管理撂荒型的物种丰富度、个体数量最高;相对锥栗林管理撂荒型,其它各种经营管理方式都明显地降低了下木层的物种丰富度、个体数量、物种多样性指数,不同经营管理方式下下木层物种丰富度、个体数量、物种多样性指数的动态变化相差较大;管理精细未用药型林冠层天敌与害虫个体数量比例相对最高,波动变化较大,自然控害能力最强;管理精细的锥栗林主要害虫栗瘿蜂Dryocosmus kuriphilus(Yasumatus)、栗实象Curculio davidi Fairmaire、栗链蚧Asterolecanium castaneae(Russell)种群数量显著低于管理撂荒和管理粗放的锥栗林.[结论]不同经营管理方式对锥栗林节肢动物群落及主要害虫种群数量的时序动态有较大影响,对锥栗林科学的精细管理有助于对主要害虫的有效控制.

  17. 锥栗直链淀粉-脂肪酸复合物的体外消化及益生元活性%In Vitro Digestion and Prebiotic Activity of Castanea Henryi Amylose- Fatty Acid Complexes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢涛; 张儒

    2012-01-01

    With inulin (I) and fructooligosaccharide ( FOS) as the controls, external digestion and prebiotic activities of castanea henryi amylose - hexylic acid complex ( CAHC) , - capric acid complex ( CACC ) and - stearic acid complex ( CASC) were studied. The results demonstrated that CA and its fatty acid complexes show to the extent the anti - digestion to artificial gastric or/and intestinal juice. Above all, CA - stearic acid complexations made at 60℃ and 90℃ ( CASC60 and CASC90) are provided with the strongest resistance to digestion. Not only CASC60 but also CASC90 displays good prebiotic activity with Bifidobacterium bifidum and Lactobacillus delbrueckii as the object of study,respectively. Therefore,if used as new prebiotics,both have development potential.%以菊糖与低聚果糖为对照,研究了锥栗直链淀粉与己酸、葵酸、硬脂酸复合物的抗消化作用及益生元效应.试验结果表明:锥栗直链淀粉及其脂肪酸复合物对人工胃液与小肠液都具有不同程度的抗性,其中抗消化作用最强的是分别在60℃和90℃结晶温度下制备的锥栗直链淀粉-脂肪酸复合物(CASC60和CASC90);以两歧双歧杆菌与德氏乳杆菌两株典型的益生菌为研究对象,CASC60和CASC90均表现了良好的益生元活性.因此,CASC60和CASC90具有作为新型益生元开发的潜力.

  18. 板栗总苞化学成分的分离与鉴定(Ⅱ)%Isolation and identification of chemical constituents from the involucres of Castanea mollissima Blume(Ⅱ)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金秀梅; 吴迪; 黄健; 孙博航; 吴立军; 高慧媛

    2010-01-01

    目的 对板栗总苞(Castanea mollissima Blume)的化学成分进行深入研究.方法 采用硅胶柱色谱、凝胶柱色谱和制备性HPLC等多种分离方法对板栗总苞体积分数为95%乙醇溶液回流提取物进行成分分离,结合化合物的理化常数、谱学分析等方法鉴定其结构.结果 分离得到10个化合物,分别鉴定为8-(3,5-dihydroxyphenyl)-1-propyloctyl 2,4-dihydroxy-6-undecylbenzoate(1)、苹果酸二丁酯(dibutylmalate,2)、槲皮素(quercetin,3)、山柰酚(kaempferol,4)、tiliroside(5)、山柰酚3-O-(2",6"-双-反式-对-香豆酰基)-β-D-吡喃葡萄糖苷(kaempferol-3-O-[2",6"-di-O-(E)-p-coumaroyl]β-D-glucopyranoside,6)、3',3"-dimethoxylarreatricin(7)、大黄素(emodin,8)、乌索酸(ursolic acid,9)、原儿茶酸(3,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid,10).结论 化合物1、2为从栗属植物中首次分离得到,化合物8为该种植物中首次分离得到,以上化合物均为板栗总苞中首次分离得到.

  19. Preliminary research on Thiacloprid to control Dryocosmus kuriphilus Yasumatsu of Castanea mollissima%应用噻虫啉防治板栗栗瘿蜂的初步研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐同冰

    2012-01-01

    喷施不同剂量2%噻虫啉微胶囊粉剂在板栗园进行栗瘿蜂防治试验,结果表明:防治效果与噻虫啉的使用剂量成正比;当噻虫啉每公顷用量为1600g、3200g和4800g时,防治效果最高达到94.71%,平均防治效果达到84.76%,平均防治药剂成本320元/hm2。应用噻虫啉进行栗瘿蜂防治,药剂成本较低,防治效果较好,可有效减小环境压力,有益于维护生态安全。%Different doses of Thiacloprid whose concentration was 20% were used to control Dryocosmus kuriphilus Ya- sumatsu of Castanea mollissima. The results showed that the control efficiency tends to be proportional to the dose of Thiaclo- prid, when the dose of Thiacloprid reached 1600g, 3200g and 4800g per hectare, the best pesticide effect was up to 94.71%, the average control effect was 84.76 % and the average chemical cost of each hectare was 320 RMB. There was a lower chemi cal cost with promising results when use Thiacloprid to control Dryoeosmus kuriphilus Yasumatsu, and it is possible to reduce environment stress and maintain ecological security.

  20. Isolation and identification of chemical constituents from acid hydrolyzed extract of kernel of Castanea mollissima Blume%板栗种仁酸水解物化学成分的分离与鉴定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    江冰娅; 吴兆华; 黄健; 高慧媛; 王喆星; 吴立军

    2009-01-01

    目的 更好地开发利用板栗(Castanea mollissima Blum)种仁.方法 对板栗种仁的体积分数为95%的乙醇提取物进行酸水解,水解物采用硅胶柱色谱、氧化铝柱色谱、凝胶柱色谱和重结晶等方法进行分离;根据理化性质和NMR谱数据并参考文献鉴定其结构.结果 分离鉴定了10个化合物,分别为对羟基苯甲酸(p-hydroxybenzoic acid,1)、原儿茶酸(protocatechuic acid,2)、没食子酸(gallic acid,3)、5 -羟甲基糠醛(5-hydroxymethylfurfural,4)、β-谷甾醇(β-sitosterol,5)、α-菠甾醇(α-spinasterol,6)、齐墩果酸(oleanane acid,7)、2α-羟基齐墩果酸(maslinic acid,8)、α-香树脂醇(α-amyrin,9)、单棕榈酸甘油酯(glycerolmonopalmitate,10).结论 化合物6、8为首次从栗属植物中分离得到;化合物9为首次从板栗中分离得到.

  1. Asian American-Pacific American Relations: The Asian American Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Sucheng

    This paper examines the migration and settlement history of Asians into the United States and the interaction of the major Asian immigrants with each other and with American society. An important thesis is that, because the differences between Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders are much greater than the similarities between them, they should no…

  2. Calendar year 1995 groundwater quality report for the Chestnut Ridge Hydrogeological Regime, Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. 1995 Groundwater quality data and calculated rate of contaminant migration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This annual groundwater quality report (GWQR) contains groundwater quality data obtained during the 1995 calendar year (CY) at several hazardous and nonhazardous waste management facilities associated with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Y-12 Plant located on the DOE Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) southeast of Oak Ridge, Tennessee. These sites are located south of the Y-12 Plant in the Chestnut Ridge Hydrogeologic Regime (Chestnut Ridge Regime), which is one of three regimes defined for the purposes of groundwater quality monitoring at the Y-12 Plant. The Environmental Management Department of the Y-12 Plant Health, Safety, Environment, and Accountability (HSEA) Organization manages the groundwater monitoring activities in each regime as part of the Y-12 Plant Groundwater Protection Program (GWPP). The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) identification number for the Y-12 Plant is TN

  3. Effects of Low-pressure Treatment on Physical and Chemical Properties of Chestnut Starch%低压处理对板栗淀粉理化特性的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    白丽; 周裔彬; 陈俊芳; 宋岑; 张健; 杨彬

    2011-01-01

    With Dahongpao chestnut starch from Anhui as raw material, the changes of apparent form and crystal feature of the said chestnut were analyzed by a field scanning electron microscope and a light microscopy at different pressures and material - water ratio. The results showed that chestnut starch granules easily swelled and broke a-long the increase of the pressure under the same time. Some starch granules ruptured when the pressure reached 0. 05 Mpa. Chestnut starch granules were much easier for rupture with the increases of water content, and some starch granules ruptured when the material -water ratio reached 1 =1 and the pressure was only 0.05 Mpa. In the solubility test, after being treated under different pressure and water content, the solubility of chestnut starch increased when the pressure increased; the solubility became higher when the pressure was constant and the water content was higher. And after being treated under different pressures and water contents, the chestnut starch presented the following crystal features: the pressure did not change the crystal type of the chestnut starch; when the pressure increased, the water content in the starch increased and the treatment time was prolonged, the crystal area of the chestnut starch reduced and the crystal content decreased.%摘要以安徽大红袍板栗为原料,采用场扫描电镜和光学显微镜分析板栗淀粉在不同压力和料液比条件下表观形态和晶体特性的变化.结果表明:在相同的时间条件下,随着压力增大,板栗淀粉颗粒越易膨胀破裂,当压力为0.05 MPa时,淀粉颗粒表面出现泡状凸起;随着淀粉体系中水分含量的升高,板栗淀粉颗粒越易膨胀破裂,料液比达到1∶1,压力为0.05 MPa时,大部分淀粉颗粒破碎崩溃.溶解度试验中,不同压力、水分处理后,压力增大,板栗淀粉溶解度随之增大;压力一定,水分含量越高,溶解度越大.不同压力、水分处理后的板

  4. The bonded in the chestnut-tree (Aesculus hippocastanum L.) bark water freezing process studied by means NMR method; Proces zamarzania wody zwiazanej w korze kasztanowca (Aesculus hippocastanum L.) badany metoda magnetycznej relaksacji jadrowej

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haranczyk, H.; Weglarz, W. [Uniwersytet Jagiellonski, Inst. Fizyki, Cracow (Poland)

    1994-12-31

    The bonded in the chestnut-tree (Aesculus hippocastanum L.) bark water freezing process was studied by means NMR method. The measured relaxation time (as a function of temperature) shows two compounds. First from solid state water (T{sub 2}{sup *} 20 {mu}s) and the second one from liquid water (T{sub 2}{sup *} = 1 ms). This results are presented and discussed. 4 refs, 7 figs.

  5. Determination of Four Major Saponins in Skin and Endosperm of Seeds of Horse Chestnut (Aesculus Hippocastanum L.) Using High Performance Liquid Chromatography with Positive Confirmation by Thin Layer Chromatography

    OpenAIRE

    Zead Helmi Mahmoud Abudayeh; Khaldun Mohammad Al Azzam; Ahmad Naddaf; Uliana Vladimirovna Karpiuk; Viktoria Sergeevna Kislichenko

    2015-01-01

    urpose: To separate and quantify four major saponins in the extracts of the skin and the endosperm of seeds of horse chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum L.) using ultrasonic solvent extraction followed by a high performance liquid chromatography-diode array detector (HPLC-DAD) with positive confirmation by thin layer chromatography (TLC). Methods: The saponins: escin Ia, escin Ib, isoescin Ia and isoescin Ib were extracted using ultrasonic extraction method. The optimized ex...

  6. Remedial investigation report on Chestnut Ridge Operable Unit 2 (filled coal ash pond/Upper McCoy Branch) at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Volume 2: Appendixes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-08-01

    This report comprises appendices A--J which support the Y-12 Plant`s remedial action report involving Chestnut Ridge Operable Unit 2 (filled coal ash pond/Upper McCoy Branch). The appendices cover the following: Sampling fish from McCoy Branch; well and piezometer logs; ecological effects of contaminants in McCoy Branch 1989-1990; heavy metal bioaccumulation data; microbes in polluted sediments; and baseline human health risk assessment data.

  7. Calendar year 1993 groundwater quality report for the Chestnut Ridge Hydrogeologic Regime, Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. 1993 groundwater quality data and calculated rate of contaminant migration, Part 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-02-01

    This annual groundwater report contains groundwater quality data obtained during the 1993 calendar year (CY) at several hazardous and non-hazardous waste-management facilities associated with the US Department of Energy (DOE) Y-12 Plant located on the DOE Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) southeast of Oak Ridge, Tennessee. These sites are located south of the Y-12 Plant in the Chestnut Ridge Hydrogeologic Regime (Chestnut Ridge Regime), which is one of three regimes defined for the purposes of groundwater quality monitoring at the Y-12 Plant. The Environmental Management Department of the Y-12 Plant Health, Safety, Environment, and Accountability Organization manages the groundwater monitoring activities in each regime as part of the Y-12 Plant Groundwater Protection Program (GWPP). The annual groundwater report for the Chestnut Ridge Regime is completed in two-parts; Part 1 (this report) containing the groundwater quality data and Part 2 containing a detailed evaluation of the data. The primary purpose of this report is to serve as a reference for the groundwater quality data obtained each year under the lead of the Y-12 Plant GWPP. However, because it contains information needed to comply with Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) interim status assessment monitoring and reporting requirements, this report is submitted to the Tennessee Department of Health and Environment (TDEC) by the RCRA reporting deadline.

  8. American Society of Echocardiography

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Society of Echocardiography Join Ase Member Portal Log In Membership Member Portal Log In Join ASE Renew Benefits Rates FASE – Fellow of the American Society of Echocardiography Member Referral Program FAQs Initiatives Advocacy ...

  9. African Americans and Glaucoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Involved News About Us Donate In This Section African Americans and Glaucoma email Send this article to ... glaucoma is the leading cause of blindness in African Americans. Half of those with glaucoma don't ...

  10. American Vitiligo Research Foundation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... life can acquire vitiligo Welcome to The American Vitiligo Foundation "Embracing Diversity" bracelets are available to help ... animal testing. Please Visit Our Donations Page American Vitiligo Research Foundation "We Walk By Faith, Not By ...

  11. Obesity and Hispanic Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Data > Minority Population Profiles > Hispanic/Latino > Obesity Obesity and Hispanic Americans Among Mexican American women, 77 ... ss6304.pdf [PDF | 3.38MB] HEALTH IMPACT OF OBESITY More than 80 percent of people with type ...

  12. Obesity and Asian Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Data > Minority Population Profiles > Asian American > Obesity Obesity and Asian Americans Non-Hispanic whites are 60% ... youthonline . [Accessed 05/25/2016] HEALTH IMPACT OF OBESITY More than 80 percent of people with type ...

  13. Culture and Personality Among European American and Asian American Men

    OpenAIRE

    Eap, Sopagna; DeGarmo, David S.; Kawakami, Ayaka; Hara, Shelley N.; Hall, Gordon C.N.; Teten, Andra L.

    2008-01-01

    Personality differences between Asian American (N = 320) and European American men (N = 242) and also among Asian American ethnic groups (Korean, Chinese, Japanese, Filipino, and mixed Asian) are examined on the Big Five personality dimension. Personality structures for Asian Americans and European Americans closely replicate established norms. However, congruence is greater for European American and highly acculturated Asian American men than for low acculturated Asian American men. Similar ...

  14. Heart Disease and African Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Minority Population Profiles > Black/African American > Heart Disease Heart Disease and African Americans Although African American adults are ... were 30 percent more likely to die from heart disease than non-Hispanic whites. African American women are ...

  15. African American Suicide

    Science.gov (United States)

    African American Suicide Fact Sheet Based on 2012 Data (2014) Overview • In 2012, 2,357 African Americans completed suicide in the U.S. Of these, ... 46 per 100,000. • The suicide rate for African Americans ages 10-19 was 2.98 per ...

  16. American Indian Recipes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurnoe, Katherine J.; Skjervold, Christian, Ed.

    Presenting some 60 to 70 Native American recipes, this document includes a brief introduction and a suggested reading list (15 citations related to American Indian foods). The introduction identifies five regional Native American cuisines as follows: in the Southwest, peppers and beans were made into chili, soups, guacamole, and barbecue sauces by…

  17. Transient etiolation: protochlorophyll(ide) and chlorophyll forms in differentiating plastids of closed and breaking leaf buds of horse chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solymosi, Katalin; Bóka, Károly; Böddi, Béla

    2006-08-01

    An accompanying paper reports the accumulation of photoactive protochlorophyllide (Pchlide) in the innermost leaf primordia of buds of many tree species. In this paper, we describe plastid differentiation, changes in pigment concentrations and spectral properties of bud scales and leaf primordia of horse chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum L.) from January until the end of bud break in April. The bud scales contained plastids with grana, stroma thylakoids characteristic of chloroplasts and large dense bodies within the stroma. In January, proplastids and young chloroplasts were present in the leaf primordia, and the fluorescence spectra of the primordia were similar to those of green leaves except for a minor band at 630 nm, indicative of a protochlorophyll(ide). During bud break, the pigment concentrations of the green bud scales and the outermost leaf primordia increased, and Pchlide forms with emission maxima at 633, 644 and 655 nm accumulated in the middle and innermost leaf primordia. Depending on the position of the leaf primordia within the bud, their plastids and their pigment concentrations varied. Etio-chloroplasts with prolamellar bodies (PLBs) and prothylakoids with developing grana were observed in the innermost leaves. Besides the above-mentioned Pchlide forms, the middle and innnermost leaf primordia contained only a Chl band with an emission maximum at 686 nm. The outermost leaf primordia contained etio-chloroplasts with well-developed grana and small, narrow-type PLBs. These outermost leaves contained only chlorophyll forms like the mature green leaves. No Pchlide accumulation was observed after bud break, indicating that etiolation of the innermost and middle leaves is transient. The Pchlide forms and the plastid types of the primordia in buds grown in nature were similar to those of leaves of dark-germinated seedlings and to those of the leaf primordia of dark-forced buds. We conclude that transient etiolation occurs under natural conditions. The

  18. Effect of Ozone Water Treatment on Preservation of Chinese Chestnut Fruits during Storage%板栗湿冷臭氧水处理贮藏保鲜研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张倍宁; 朱晓燕; 赖健

    2011-01-01

    In this paper,the effect of ozone water treatment coupled with bag package on the preservation of Chinese chestnut fruits during storage was investigated.Fengkai Chinese chestnut fruits were immersed in ozone water solution of various concentrations(1.0,0.5 mg/mL and 0.25 mg/mL).After ozone water treatment,the Chinese chestnut fruits were packaged with plastic bags and stored in an environment at(0 ± 1) ℃ and 90%-95% relative humidity(RH) for 180 days.The changes of quality and physiological indices of Chinese chestnut fruits during the storage period were examined.The results indicated that ozone water treatment coupled with bag package could effectively inhibit the respiration intensity and amylase activity,postpone the change of starch and sugar,reduce the weight loss and decay rate,and improve the catalase activity of Chinese chestnut fruits.Meanwhile,Chinese chestnut fruits treated with 1 mg/mL ozone water coupled with bag package had a decay rate of 3% and a weight loss of 1.1%.Therefore,ozone water treatment coupled with bag package can greatly improve the quality of Chinese chestnut fruits.%研究臭氧水水浴处理及套袋处理对板栗贮藏保鲜效果的影响。以封开油板栗为实验材料,采用不同质量浓度(1.0、0.5、0.25mg/mL)臭氧水水浴处理结合套袋处理,在温度(0±1)℃、湿度90%~95%条件下贮藏180d,对板栗贮藏过程中品质和生理指标的变化进行研究。结果表明:臭氧水水浴处理结合套袋处理能有效的抑制板栗果实贮藏期间呼吸强度和淀粉酶的活性,延缓淀粉和糖的变化,降低板栗果实的质量损失率和腐烂率,提高了过氧化氢酶的活性。研究表明:1.0mg/mL臭氧水水浴处理结合套袋处理果实在贮藏180d后烂果率为3%,质量损失为1.1%,并且板栗果实具有较高的品质。

  19. Precipitation and streamflow in the vicinity of West Chestnut Ridge, near Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee (water years 1984-1985)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    West Chestnut Ridge near Oak Ridge National Laboratory was originally considered for use as a central waste disposal facility for a wide range of radioactive wastes, although at present, other alternatives for use of the site are being considered. During 1984 and 1985, continuous discharge and precipitation data were collected and have been summarized as daily values. The unit records are available on disk-storage media, compatible with personal computers. For the data reported, 85% of the individual daily discharge records are considered good, which means within 10% of the true value. Only 1.2% have accuracy that is not within 15% and all occurrences resulted from flows in excess of flume capacity or the associated washout of streambanks which allowed flow to bypass measurement. Flow at most sites spans more than three orders of magnitude between high and low instantaneous values. In 1984, computed evapotranspiration was about 52% of precipitation, but in 1985, because of drier conditions, it was 78% of precipitation. It is possible that a net ground-water loss is partially responsible for the high apparent value of evapotranspiration. Based upon the variability in the hydrologic conditions, further data are required to develop a reliable water budget. 3 refs., 1 fig., 21 tabs

  20. Ecological factors affecting the adrenocortical response to stress in chestnut-collared and McCown's longspurs (Calcarius ornatus, Calcarius mccownii).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynn, Sharon E; Hunt, Kathleen E; Wingfield, John C

    2003-01-01

    Secretion of the steroid hormone corticosterone (CORT) in response to perturbations results in behavior patterns that can maximize survival. Three commonly cited hypotheses suggest that during breeding, there are advantages associated with suppressed (CORT) secretion in (1) the sex that is most important for parental care, (2) individuals in good body condition, and (3) species with a short breeding season and limited renesting opportunities. We addressed these hypotheses in two midlatitude breeders, chestnut-collared and McCown's longspurs, by assessing CORT secretion over a 1-h period of handling. These species have congeners that are exclusively arctic breeders, and this provides a unique opportunity to assess adrenocortical responsiveness both within a phylogenetic framework and across environmental variables. In both species, males and females showed similar CORT secretion patterns in response to handling, and body condition was unrelated to CORT secretion. Additionally, although these midlatitude breeders have more opportunities to attempt a renest than their arctic congeners, their hormonal response to stress was similar to that reported for their arctic congeners. We suggest that an attenuated stress response may relate to the severity of the breeding environment and a low likelihood of successful renesting, since these variables are common to both arctic and grassland habitats.

  1. Annual report of 1995 groundwater monitoring data for the Kerr Hollow Quarry and Chestnut Ridge Sediment Disposal Basin, Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-02-01

    The Kerr Hollow Quarry (KHQ) and the Chestnut Ridge Sediment Disposal Basin (CRSDB) are inactive waste management sites located at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant. The KHQ and CRSDB are regulated as treatment, storage, or disposal (TSD) facilities under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). The facilities were granted interim status in calendar year (CY) 1986 under Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation (TDEC) Hazardous Waste Management Rule 1200-1-11-.05. Historical environmental monitoring data and baseline characterization under interim status indicated that releases of contaminants to groundwater had not occurred; thus, the detection monitoring was implemented at the sites until either clean closure was completed or post-closure permits were issued. The CRSDB was closed in Cy 1989 under a TDEC-approved RCRA closure plan. A revised RCRA PCPA for the CRSDB was submitted by DOE personnel to TDEC staff in September 1994. A final post-closure permit was issued by the TDEC on September 18, 1995. Closure activities at KHQ under RCRA were completed in October 1993. The Record of Decision will also incorporate requirements of the RCRA post-closure permit once it is issued by the TDEC.

  2. Valorization of solid wastes from chestnut industry processing: Extraction and optimization of polyphenols, tannins and ellagitannins and its potential for adhesives, cosmetic and pharmaceutical industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aires, Alfredo; Carvalho, Rosa; Saavedra, Maria José

    2016-02-01

    The aim of the current study was to evaluate the potential of chestnut peels to produce pomaces enhanced with tannins to be used in the formulations of wood adhesives, leather tanning or as natural antioxidants in food, cosmetic and pharmaceutical industry. An analytical procedure was planned as 2 factorial design to analyze the influence of solvent (water, Na2SO3 and NaOH at different concentrations of 1, 2, 4, and 8% in water) and extraction time (30, 60, and 120, 240, 480 and 960min) on extraction yield, pH, Stiasny index, and tannins. HPLC-diode array detector equipped with an ionization mass spectrophotometer was used to assess the polyphenol composition. Our results showed that both extraction properties and phytochemicals were significantly affected (P<0.001) by all independent factors. The main tannins identified were the hydrolyzable gallic acid, vescalagin castalagin and ellagic acid, and the condensed epigallocatechin, catechin and epicatechin. The solvent 1% Na2SO3 was more effective to extract the condensed tannins whilst hydrolyzable tannins were extracted efficiently by 1% NaOH. The multivariable analysis and the Pearson's correlation coefficients showed a direct association between Stiasny number and the average levels of condensed tannins.

  3. [KINETICS OF PHOTO-INDUCED FREE RADICALS IN THE HUMAN HAIR CHESTNUT COLOR AFTER SHORT PERIODS OF RED, GREEN, BLUE AND WHITE LIGHT EXPOSURE].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tskhvediani, N; Chikvaidze, E; Tsibadze, A; Kvachadze, I; Gogoladze, T; Katsitadze, A

    2016-04-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the kinetics of photo-induced free radicals in the human hair chestnut color with short-term exposure to visible light in different frequency ranges. Studies carried out on human volunteers aged 17-21 years (n=37). Hairs of volunteers of the study were not treated with dyes and other active cosmetic preparations. Hairs bundled in a bun had a length - 1.5 cm, weight - 40 mg. At the beginning background EPR-spectrum of a sample was measured and then hairs were irradiated with visible light (blue, green, red and white) of different wavelength subsequently; exposure duration - 60 minutes; after the exposure the kinetics of photo-induced free radicals was measured within 60 minutes. The radiation source was selected LED array of the four crystals that provides a nearly monochromatic radiation spectrum having no parasitic infrared and ultraviolet radiations. The studies give a reason to assume that the impact on hairs by visible electromagnetic rays a leading factor is their frequency characteristics: on the one hand - the proximity of the blue light to ultraviolet radiation, and on the other - the red light to the infrared range. PMID:27249443

  4. [Comparison of the bioavailability of beta-aescin after single oral administration of two different drug formulations containing an extract of horse-chestnut seeds].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrader, E; Schwankl, W; Sieder, C; Christoffel, V

    1995-09-01

    The relative oral bioavailability of beta-escine (CAS 11072-93-8) from a sugar-coated tablet formulation was compared to a reference preparation available in capsule form in 18 healthy, male volunteers over a 48 h period. The study design was randomized, single-blind and cross-over. Both the test and the reference preparation contained 50 mg standardized horse chestnut seed extract; beta-escine was taken as the reference substance. By means of a newly developed, validated radioimmunosorbent assay (RIA), beta-escine in plasma was determined (blind samples) after oral intake of a single dose of each drug formulation. The confidence limits calculated for the AUC, Cmax and Tmax of the test preparation exceed the upper limit of the specified equivalence range of 80%--125%, but do never fall below the lower limit. Therefore, bioin-equivalence cannot be rejected statistically. All the bioavailability data for the test preparation--measured with the newly developed RIA--exceed the corresponding values for the reference preparation. As the rate of absorption of aesculetinic triterpene glycosides is low, the higher bioavailability of the test preparation is desirable from a therapeutical point of view. Since the reference preparation is classified as being clinically effective, the test preparation must also be estimated as being clinically effective. Adverse drug effects were not observed with either the test preparation or the reference preparation.

  5. [KINETICS OF PHOTO-INDUCED FREE RADICALS IN THE HUMAN HAIR CHESTNUT COLOR AFTER SHORT PERIODS OF RED, GREEN, BLUE AND WHITE LIGHT EXPOSURE].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tskhvediani, N; Chikvaidze, E; Tsibadze, A; Kvachadze, I; Gogoladze, T; Katsitadze, A

    2016-04-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the kinetics of photo-induced free radicals in the human hair chestnut color with short-term exposure to visible light in different frequency ranges. Studies carried out on human volunteers aged 17-21 years (n=37). Hairs of volunteers of the study were not treated with dyes and other active cosmetic preparations. Hairs bundled in a bun had a length - 1.5 cm, weight - 40 mg. At the beginning background EPR-spectrum of a sample was measured and then hairs were irradiated with visible light (blue, green, red and white) of different wavelength subsequently; exposure duration - 60 minutes; after the exposure the kinetics of photo-induced free radicals was measured within 60 minutes. The radiation source was selected LED array of the four crystals that provides a nearly monochromatic radiation spectrum having no parasitic infrared and ultraviolet radiations. The studies give a reason to assume that the impact on hairs by visible electromagnetic rays a leading factor is their frequency characteristics: on the one hand - the proximity of the blue light to ultraviolet radiation, and on the other - the red light to the infrared range.

  6. Changes in the biological activity of chestnut soils upon the long-term application of fertilizers in a rotation with oil-bearing crops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eleshev, R. E.; Bakenova, Z. B.

    2012-11-01

    Experimental studies showed that irrigated chestnut soils on the piedmont of the Zailiiskiy Alatau Range are characterized by the moderate activity of the hydrolytic and redox enzymes. The use of these soils in the crop rotation system increases the hydrolytic activity of the enzymes (invertase, urease, and ATP synthase) by 30% in comparison with the monoculture; at the same time, it does not have a significant impact on the changes in the biological activity of the redox enzymes (catalase and dehydrogenase). The hydrolytic activity of the soils is activated to a greater extent in the crop rotation and in the monoculture against the background application of organic fertilizers. In this case, the recommended rates of mineral fertilizers do not inhibit the activity of the hydrolytic and redox enzymes. An increase in the hydrolytic activity of the enzymes directly affects the yield of oilseed flax. Therefore, indices of the hydrolytic activity of soils can be used as a test for the diagnostics of the efficiency of fertilizers both in crop rotation and monoculture systems.

  7. Valorization of solid wastes from chestnut industry processing: Extraction and optimization of polyphenols, tannins and ellagitannins and its potential for adhesives, cosmetic and pharmaceutical industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aires, Alfredo; Carvalho, Rosa; Saavedra, Maria José

    2016-02-01

    The aim of the current study was to evaluate the potential of chestnut peels to produce pomaces enhanced with tannins to be used in the formulations of wood adhesives, leather tanning or as natural antioxidants in food, cosmetic and pharmaceutical industry. An analytical procedure was planned as 2 factorial design to analyze the influence of solvent (water, Na2SO3 and NaOH at different concentrations of 1, 2, 4, and 8% in water) and extraction time (30, 60, and 120, 240, 480 and 960min) on extraction yield, pH, Stiasny index, and tannins. HPLC-diode array detector equipped with an ionization mass spectrophotometer was used to assess the polyphenol composition. Our results showed that both extraction properties and phytochemicals were significantly affected (P<0.001) by all independent factors. The main tannins identified were the hydrolyzable gallic acid, vescalagin castalagin and ellagic acid, and the condensed epigallocatechin, catechin and epicatechin. The solvent 1% Na2SO3 was more effective to extract the condensed tannins whilst hydrolyzable tannins were extracted efficiently by 1% NaOH. The multivariable analysis and the Pearson's correlation coefficients showed a direct association between Stiasny number and the average levels of condensed tannins. PMID:26626811

  8. Treatment of occult sclera chestnut thorns combined with sclera erosion guided by ultrasound biomicroscopy%超声生物显微镜引导下治疗隐匿性巩膜栗子刺

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘鹏飞

    2016-01-01

    目的 探讨超声生物显微镜引导下治疗隐匿性巩膜栗子刺疗效及漏诊相关因素分析.方法 总结了2005年10月到2014年12月在唐山眼科医院治疗的伴巩膜糜烂的隐匿性巩膜栗子刺患者77例(77只眼),进行回顾性分析.术前常规眼科检查、彩色多普勒超声、超声生物显微镜、眼眶CT检查.在超声生物显微镜确诊并定位引导下手术摘出栗子刺.术中反复探查糜烂区组织,如未探查到栗子刺,术后再次超声生物显微镜扫描,有栗子刺回声存在予以定位,再次手术摘出栗子刺.结果 77例(77只眼)在超声生物显微镜扫查引导下手术摘出栗子刺,其中巩膜多发栗子刺58例(58只眼),20例20只眼巩膜糜烂变薄,3例3只眼因巩膜过薄穿孔自体巩膜板层移植修补术.10例(10只眼)一期手术后复查UBM仍有部分栗子刺残存,漏诊率12.99% (10/77).结论 在超声生物显微镜引导下治疗隐匿性巩膜栗子刺具有可行性和重要临床价值,提高了检出率,减少了漏诊率,弥补了常规临床检查和影像学检查的不足.为减少漏诊,需多方位、多角度、多切面、连续全面扫查.%Objective To investigate curative effect and the analysis of missed diagnosis related factors for treatment of occult scleral chestnut thorns combined with scleral erosion guided by ultrasound biomicroscopy (UBM).Methods Retrospective study of 77 cases (77 eyes) which were diagnosed as occult scleral chestnut thorns combined with scleral erosion from October 2005 to December 2014.Seventy-seven cases (77 eyes) were diagnosed and occult scleral chestnut thoms positions were located by ultrasound biomicroscopy,then probe into chestnut thorns repeatedly,if not to probe into them,postoperative scan the eyes by UBM once again,probe into chestnut thorns echo,and located them,picked out the chestnut thorns once more by surgical operation.Preoperative routine ophthalmologic examination was performed including

  9. Preliminary study on calculation method of leaf area and leaf biomass of Castanea crenata%日本栗叶面积与叶片生物量计算方法的初步研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑瑞杰; 王德永

    2011-01-01

    以6年生日本栗品种"辽栗10号"与"大峰"为试材,对其叶长、叶宽、单叶面积、单叶干重、冠幅、冠高、单株叶片生物量进行了测定。研究不同品种间叶片长宽比值和比叶面积的差异性,叶片长、叶宽和叶片长宽乘积与单叶面积的相关性以及冠幅、冠高与单株叶片生物量的相关性。结果表明:不同品种间叶片长宽比、比叶面积均无显著差异;对日本栗叶长、叶宽、叶片长宽乘积与单叶面积进行一元回归方程拟合,决定系数与修正决定系数均达极显著水平(P〈0.0001),其中以叶片长宽乘积与单叶面积的一元二次回归方程回归效果最好,决定系数达0.987 9,修正决定系数达0.987 7;单株叶片生物量与冠幅面积和冠高的二元线性回归关系达极显著水平(P〈0.0001),决定系数达0.997 2,修正决定系数达0.996 4。在生产上,可以通过测量冠幅面积、冠高计算出单株叶片生物量和叶面积指数,该方法操作简单,具有较高应用价值。%In this study,two cultivars of Castanea crenata,Liaoli No.10 and Dafeng were token as test materials.Based on the measurement of leaf length,leaf width,single leaf area,single leaf dry weight,crown width,crown height and the leaf biomass of individual plants,the reaches were carried out on the difference in leaf length-width ratio and specific leaf area of different cultivars,the relationship of leaf length,leaf width and the product of leaf length and width with leaf area,and the relationship of crown width and crown height with the leaf biomass of individual plants.The research results shown that there was no obvious difference in the leaf length-width ratio and specific leaf area of different cultivars;unitary regression equation fit on the leaf length,the leaf width and the product of the leaf length and width and the leaf area of Castanea crenata indicated that both determination coefficient and correction

  10. American College Health Association

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Dollars at Work Recognizing Donors Find us on social media! Home Contact Us Marketplace Cart Copyright © 2016 American College Health Association | Privacy and Usage Policies | Spokesperson and ...

  11. Phase 2 Sampling Plan for Chestnut Ridge Operable Unit 2 (Filled Coal Ash Pond/Upper McCoy Branch) at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CDM Federal Programs Corporation (CDM Federal) was contracted by Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. to prepare a Phase H Sampling Plan to describe field investigation work necessary to address regulatory agency review comments on the Remedial Investigation of Filled Coal Ash Pond (FCAP)/Upper McCoy Branch, Chestnut Ridge Operable Unit 2 at the Y-12 Plant, conducted by CH2M Hill in 1990. The scope and approach of the field investigation described in this plan specifically focus on deficiencies noted by the regulators in discussions at the comment resolution meeting of May 8, 1992, in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. This Phase II Sampling Plan includes a field sampling plan, a field and laboratory quality assurance project plan, a health and safety plan, a waste management plan, and appendixes providing an update to applicable or relevant and appropriate requirements for this site and field and laboratory testing methods and procedures. To address deficiencies noted by the regulators, the following activities will be conducted: Background surface soil and surface water/sediment samples will be collected based on statistical considerations for comparison to site data. Existing and new data to be collected will be used to support a human health risk assessment that includes the future homesteader scenario. Biological surveys, samples, and measurements will be collected/conducted to augment existing data and support an ecological risk assessment. Another round of groundwater sampling will be conducted, including on-site wells and the wells on Chestnut Ridge downgradient of the Security Pits. Borings will be completed in the FCAP to collect samples from below the surface depth to describe the chemical characteristics and volume of the ash. The volume of ash associated with sluice channel on Chestnut Ridge will be determined. Soil samples will be corrected below the coal ash in the FCAP and adjacent to sluice channel to evaluate soil contamination and migration of contaminants

  12. Proposed modifications to the RCRA post-closure permit for the Chestnut Ridge Hydrogeologic Regime at the U.S. Department of Energy Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents proposed modifications to several conditions of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Post-Closure Permit (PCP) for the Chestnut Ridge Hydrogeologic Regime (CRHR) (permit number TNHW-088, EPA ID No. TN3 89 009 0001). These permit conditions define the requirements for RCRA post-closure detection groundwater monitoring at the Chestnut Ridge Sediment Disposal Basin (CRSDB) and Kerr Hollow Quarry (KHQ), and RCRA post-closure corrective action groundwater monitoring at the Chestnut Ridge Security Pits (CRSPs). Modification of these PCP conditions is requested to: (1) clarify the planned integration of RCRA post-closure corrective action groundwater monitoring at the CRSPs with the monitoring program to be established in the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) record of decision (ROD), (2) revise several of the current technical requirements for groundwater monitoring based on implementation of the RCRA monitoring programs during 1996, (3) replace several of the technical procedures included in the PCP with updated versions recently issued by the Y-12 Plant Groundwater Protection Program (GWPP), and (4) correct inaccurate regulatory citations and references to permit conditions and permit attachments. With these modifications, the Y- 12 Plant will continue to meet the full intent of all regulatory obligations for post-closure care of these facilities. Section 2 provides the technical justification for each proposed permit modification. Section 3.0 contains proposed changes to Section II of the PCP. Modifications to site-specific permit conditions are presented in Section 4.0 (CRSDB), Section 5.0 (CRSPs), and Section 6.0 (KHQ). Sections 7.0 and 8.0 reference updated and revised procedures for groundwater sampling, and monitoring well plugging and abandonment, respectively. Appendix A includes all proposed revisions to the permit attachments

  13. Proposed modifications to the RCRA post-closure permit for the Chestnut Ridge Hydrogeologic Regime at the U.S. Department of Energy Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-05-01

    This report presents proposed modifications to several conditions of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Post-Closure Permit (PCP) for the Chestnut Ridge Hydrogeologic Regime (CRHR) (permit number TNHW-088, EPA ID No. TN3 89 009 0001). These permit conditions define the requirements for RCRA post-closure detection groundwater monitoring at the Chestnut Ridge Sediment Disposal Basin (CRSDB) and Kerr Hollow Quarry (KHQ), and RCRA post-closure corrective action groundwater monitoring at the Chestnut Ridge Security Pits (CRSPs). Modification of these PCP conditions is requested to: (1) clarify the planned integration of RCRA post-closure corrective action groundwater monitoring at the CRSPs with the monitoring program to be established in the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) record of decision (ROD), (2) revise several of the current technical requirements for groundwater monitoring based on implementation of the RCRA monitoring programs during 1996, (3) replace several of the technical procedures included in the PCP with updated versions recently issued by the Y-12 Plant Groundwater Protection Program (GWPP), and (4) correct inaccurate regulatory citations and references to permit conditions and permit attachments. With these modifications, the Y- 12 Plant will continue to meet the full intent of all regulatory obligations for post-closure care of these facilities. Section 2 provides the technical justification for each proposed permit modification. Section 3.0 contains proposed changes to Section II of the PCP. Modifications to site-specific permit conditions are presented in Section 4.0 (CRSDB), Section 5.0 (CRSPs), and Section 6.0 (KHQ). Sections 7.0 and 8.0 reference updated and revised procedures for groundwater sampling, and monitoring well plugging and abandonment, respectively. Appendix A includes all proposed revisions to the permit attachments.

  14. 万木林保护区柑橘和锥栗园土壤呼吸的比较%Dynamic changes of soil respiration in Citrus reticulata and Castanea henryi orchards in Wanmulin Nature Reserve, Fujian Province of East China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王超; 黄蓉; 杨智杰; 刘强; 陈光水; 万晓华

    2012-01-01

    From January 2009 to December 2009, the soil respiration in the Citrus reticulata and Castanea henryi orchards in Wanmulin Nature Reserve was measured with Li-8100, aimed to characterize the dynamic changes of the soil respiration and its relationships with soil temperature and moisture in the two orchards. The monthly variation of the soil respiration in the orchards was single-peaked, with the peak appeared in July (3. 76 μmol ·m-2 ·s-1 ) and August (2.69 μmol· m-2·s-1). Soil temperature was the main factor affecting the soil respiration, and explained 73% -86% of the monthly variation of soil respiration. The average annual soil respiration rate was significantly higher in Citrus reticulata orchard than in Castanea henryi orchard, with the mean value being 2.68 and 1. 55 μmol ·m-2 ·s-1 , respectively. There was a significant positive correlation between the soil respiration rate and soil moisture content in Castanea henryi orchard, but less correlation in Citrus reticulata orchard. The Q10 value of the soil respiration in Citrus reticulata and Castanea henryi orchards was 1. 58 and 1. 75, and the annual CO2 flux was 10. 01 and 5. 77 t C·hm-2·a-1, respectively.%采用Li-8100开路式土壤碳通量系统,对福建省万木林保护区内柑橘和锥栗两果园土壤呼吸进行1年的定位观测,分析了土壤水热因子及人为管理措施对土壤呼吸的影响.结果表明:柑橘和锥栗园样地土壤的呼吸速率月变化均呈单峰型曲线,峰值分别出现在7月(3.76 μmol·m-2·s-1)和8月(2.69 μmol·m-2·s-1);柑橘和锥栗园样地土壤呼吸速率的年均值分别为2.68和1.55 μmol·m-2·s-1,且柑橘园土壤呼吸速率极显著高于锥栗园;土壤温度是影响土壤呼吸的主要因素,可以解释土壤呼吸速率月动态变化的73%~86%;锥栗园土壤含水量与土壤呼吸速率呈显著正相关,但柑橘园两者关系不显著;指数方程计算的柑橘和锥栗园土壤呼吸的Q10

  15. 7 CFR 301.92-2 - Restricted, regulated, and associated articles; lists of proven hosts and associated plant taxa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... *Camellia spp. Camellia—all species, hybrids and cultivars *Castanea sativa Sweet chestnut Fagus sylvatica... DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Phytophthora Ramorum § 301.92-2 Restricted, regulated, and associated articles... present a risk of spreading Phytophthora ramorum, if an inspector notifies the person in possession of...

  16. A native and an introduced parasitoid utilize an exotic gall-maker host

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dryocosmus kuriphilus (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae) is non-native to North America and induces formation of galls on petioles and leaves of all chestnut (Castanea spp., Fagales: Fagaceae). We investigated the interactions between the gall wasp D. kuriphilus, a native parasitoid, Ormyrus labotus (Hymenopt...

  17. American Culture Through Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman, Clair Michael; Pulliam, William E.

    1976-01-01

    In honor of the Bicentennial, current instructional materials concerned with American lifestyles--past and present--American music, art, education, customs and traditions, and language are reviewed. The reviews are presented in a narrative format and value judgments are made where appropriate. Address and price information are found in a list at…

  18. Teaching American Indian Architecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winchell, Dick

    1991-01-01

    Reviews "Native American Architecture," by Nabokov and Easton, an encyclopedic work that examines technology, climate, social structure, economics, religion, and history in relation to house design and the "meaning" of space among tribes of nine regions. Describes this book's use in a college course on Native American architecture. (SV)

  19. Asian American Cultural Resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Libretti, Tim

    1997-01-01

    Explores the encounter of Marxism and Asian American literary theory and imagines an Asian American Marxism. To do so requires theorizing race, class, and gender not as substantive categories of antagonisms but as complementary and coordinated elements of a totality of social relations structuring racial patriarchal capitalism. (SLD)

  20. Histological examination of horse chestnut infection by Pseudomonas syringae pv. aesculi and non-destructive heat treatment to stop disease progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Keijzer, Jeroen; van den Broek, Lambertus A M; Ketelaar, Tijs; van Lammeren, André A M

    2012-01-01

    Since its emergence in Northwest Europe as a pathogen that infects trunks and branches of Aesculus spp. (the horse chestnuts) approximately one decade ago, Pseudomonas syringae pv. aesculi has rapidly established itself as major threat to these trees. Infected trees exhibit extensive necrosis of phloem and cambium, which can ultimately lead to dieback. The events after host entry leading to extensive necrosis are not well documented. In this work, the histopathology of this interaction is investigated and heat-treatment is explored as method to eradicate bacteria associated with established infections. The early wound-repair responses of A. hippocastanum, both in absence and presence of P. s. pv. aesculi, included cell wall lignification by a distinct layer of phloem and cortex parenchyma cells. The same cells also deposited suberin lamellae later on, suggesting this layer functions in compartmentalizing healthy from disrupted tissues. However, monitoring bacterial ingress, its construction appeared inadequate to constrain pathogen spread. Microscopic evaluation of bacterial dispersal in situ using immunolabelling and GFP-tagging of P. s. pv. aesculi, revealed two discriminative types of bacterial colonization. The forefront of lesions was found to contain densely packed bacteria, while necrotic areas housed bacterial aggregates with scattered individuals embedded in an extracellular matrix of bacterial origin containing alginate. The endophytic localization and ability of P. s. pv aesculi to create a protective matrix render it poorly accessible for control agents. To circumvent this, a method based on selective bacterial lethality at 39 °C was conceived and successfully tested on A. hippocastanum saplings, providing proof of concept for controlling this disease by heat-treatment. This may be applicable for curing other tree cankers, caused by related phytopathogens. PMID:22808044

  1. Histological examination of horse chestnut infection by Pseudomonas syringae pv. aesculi and non-destructive heat treatment to stop disease progression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeroen de Keijzer

    Full Text Available Since its emergence in Northwest Europe as a pathogen that infects trunks and branches of Aesculus spp. (the horse chestnuts approximately one decade ago, Pseudomonas syringae pv. aesculi has rapidly established itself as major threat to these trees. Infected trees exhibit extensive necrosis of phloem and cambium, which can ultimately lead to dieback. The events after host entry leading to extensive necrosis are not well documented. In this work, the histopathology of this interaction is investigated and heat-treatment is explored as method to eradicate bacteria associated with established infections. The early wound-repair responses of A. hippocastanum, both in absence and presence of P. s. pv. aesculi, included cell wall lignification by a distinct layer of phloem and cortex parenchyma cells. The same cells also deposited suberin lamellae later on, suggesting this layer functions in compartmentalizing healthy from disrupted tissues. However, monitoring bacterial ingress, its construction appeared inadequate to constrain pathogen spread. Microscopic evaluation of bacterial dispersal in situ using immunolabelling and GFP-tagging of P. s. pv. aesculi, revealed two discriminative types of bacterial colonization. The forefront of lesions was found to contain densely packed bacteria, while necrotic areas housed bacterial aggregates with scattered individuals embedded in an extracellular matrix of bacterial origin containing alginate. The endophytic localization and ability of P. s. pv aesculi to create a protective matrix render it poorly accessible for control agents. To circumvent this, a method based on selective bacterial lethality at 39 °C was conceived and successfully tested on A. hippocastanum saplings, providing proof of concept for controlling this disease by heat-treatment. This may be applicable for curing other tree cankers, caused by related phytopathogens.

  2. Effect of chestnut and quebracho tannins on fatty acid profile in rumen liquid- and solid-associated bacteria: an in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buccioni, A; Minieri, S; Rapaccini, S; Antongiovanni, M; Mele, M

    2011-08-01

    Tannins are phenolic compounds that interfere with biohydrogenation (BH) of polyunsaturated fatty acids (FAs). The aim of the present in vitro study was to investigate the effects of two different sources of tannins on FA profiles of rumen bacteria, with particular reference to rumenic and vaccenic acid. A control diet (C; composed of 300 g/kg of wheat straw, 132 g/kg of soyabean meal, 96 g/kg of barley meal, 152 g/kg of maize meal, 300 g/kg of maize gluten and 20 g/kg of mineral vitamin premix, all expressed on dry matter (DM)) and four diets, obtained by adding to C two different types of tannins from chestnut (TC) and from quebracho (TQ) at two concentration levels (49 and 82 g/kg DM), were compared. The content of the main unsaturated FAs (C18:1 cis9, C18:1 trans11, C18:2 cis9, cis12 and C18:3 cis9, cis12, cis15) from solid-associated bacteria (SAB) and liquid-associated bacteria (LAB) was affected by the presence of tannins in the diets. In particular, C18:1 trans11 content was significantly increased, especially with TC1, whereas the decreasing of C18:1 cis9 was unaffected, regardless of the presence or the kind of tannins added to feeds. SAB contained higher amounts of intermediates of polyunsaturated FA BH (as C18:1 trans11 and C18:2 cis9, trans11) than LAB that were characterized by a higher amount of C18:0. In the concentration range adopted in this study, the effect of TC and TQ on changes of bacterial FA profile was comparable. Tannins seem to be a good means to modulate the FA profile of rumen bacteria, favouring the accumulation of C18:1 trans11 during in vitro rumen fermentation. PMID:22440342

  3. Orbital decompression surgery and horse chestnut seed extract improved superior orbital vein blood flow in patients with thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yu-Jie; Wei, Xin; Xiao, Man-Yi; Xiong, Wei

    2016-01-01

    AIM To evaluate the efficacy and safety of orbital decomposition (OD) surgery in combination with horse chestnut seed extract (HCSE), as compared to OD alone, in patients with thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy (TAO). METHODS Sixty-two orbits from 62 TAO patients were randomly assigned to OD or OD+HCSE at 1:1 ratio (31 received OD alone, 31 received OD+HCSE). Forty-two orbits from 21 healthy subjects were used as controls. Complete ophthalmic examination and color Doppler flow imaging (CDFI) were performed before surgery and 3mo post-surgery on all 62 orbits from the TAO patients. CDFI were also performed on the 42 control orbits. The effect of OD+HCSE and OD alone on TAO orbits was compared on several endpoints, including superior ophthalmic vein blood flow (SOVBF) parameters, subjective assessment, soft tissue involvement, lid retraction, diplopia, eye movement restriction, degree of exophthalmos, and intraocular pressure. The control orbits were used as reference for the SOVBF parameters. RESULTS OD surgery with or without HCSE improved SOVBF, symptoms and soft tissue involvement, decreased degree of exophthalmos and intraocular pressure in orbits of TAO patients. The OD+HCSE combination led to significantly better improvement of SOVBF than OD alone. The differences between the reductions of SOVBF in the two groups are 1.26 cm/s in max-volecity and 0.52 cm/s in min-volecity (P<0.0001). CONCLUSION SOVBF is significantly reduced in the orbits affected with TAO, indicating that congestion may be an important factor contributing to TAO pathogenesis. OD surgery improves the SOVBF, and combination of HCSE medication and OD surgery further improved venous return than OD surgery alone. PMID:27366690

  4. 板栗贮藏中的病原菌及其控制%Pathogenetic Fungi Stored Chestnuts Putrid in China and Controlling Methods

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    戴桂馥; 李宗伟; 王雁萍; 王付转; 吴健; 刘建华

    2001-01-01

    Five kinds of pathogenetic fungi seperated from Chinese chestnutsin storage are identified. They are Dothiorelle gregria, Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, Papularia sp, Penicillium sp and yeast. After having studied some infecting conditions and the ecological environment in storing, knew that four of them can be effectively inhibited when chestnucts are stored in modified atmosphere at low temperature, except for penicillium sp. Some nonpoison and nonpollution agents, for example patassium sorbate, can decline the loss caused by penicillum sp. Base on the study, a scheme for storing chustnuts is set up, in which the pathogenetic fungi infecting chestnus in their growth period are inhibited stored in modified atmosphere at low temperature, and the pathogenetic fungi infecting chestnuts after harvest are inhibited by appling antifungus agent.%从贮藏板栗中分离并鉴定出5种主要病原菌,它们是Dothiorella gregria,Colletotrichumgloeosporioides,Papulariasp,Penicilliumsp和yeast.通过对这些病原菌的侵染条件和贮藏生态环境的研究发现除青霉外,低温自发气调能有效地抑制其它4种病原菌的蔓延,而无毒无污染的山梨酸钾又可使青霉的危害大为降低,从而确立了低温气调控制生长期感染病原菌的蔓延,以及适当的药剂防止采后感染病原菌扩散的防霉策略.

  5. Characteristics of waste composting in Castanea mollissima Bl.areas and evaluation of maturity%板栗产区废弃物堆肥特性及腐熟度评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨娜; 郭素娟; 张峰

    2009-01-01

    Compost by agricultural and forestry waste is one of the effective ways to reduce pollution, make use of resources and recycle. In this study, 7 different ratios of raw materials, which were leaves and hulls of Castanea mollissima BI., corn stalks and cow dung in Beijing Huairou area were set up, namely A, B, C, D, E, F, G, adopting EM treatment in the late autumn of 2008. Through determining temperature, moisture content, pH value, NH~+_4-N, NO~-_3-N,C/N in composting process, the effects of different ratios on compost maturity were researched. Simultaneously, Chinese cabbage seed germination index (GI) was adopted to evaluate maturity and physiological toxicity. The results showed that:1) in the composting process, temperature, NH~+_4-N and C/N had similar changing trends in different ratios, which rose in the first 14 days, then gradually decreased. The highest temperature of E was higher than the other six ratios, which reached 62℃. GI and NO~-_3-N presented a trend of rising. Moisture content kept declining and the pH maintained at 8-9.2) GI was positively correlated with pH and NO~-_3-N, and negatively correlated with NH~+_4-N and C/N; especially, GI was significantly correlated with NH~+_4-N, reached-0.799 6.3) In Beijing Huairou area, E (C. Mollissima leaves : C. Mollissima hull:corn stalks:cow dung=2.0:2.0:2.0:4.0) was the optimum combination of compost, its maturity efficient was high and the time reaching maturity was about 42 days.%利用农林废弃物进行堆肥,是减少环境污染、实现资源循环利用的有效途径之一.以北京市怀柔区板栗落叶、栗蓬、玉米秸秆、牛粪为原料,设置7种不同配比(A、B、C、D、E、F、G),采用有效微生物群(EM)技术,于2008年秋末进行堆肥试验.通过对堆肥过程中堆体的温度、含水率、pH值、NH~+_4-N、NO~-_3一N、C/N的测定,研究了不同配比对堆肥腐熟度的影响.同时,采用白菜种子发芽指数(GI)评价了堆肥的腐熟度和生理毒

  6. American Academy of Cosmetic Dentistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... APRIL 21 A winning approach to comprehensive cosmetic dentistry education The Venetian Hotel & Resort 33rd Annual Scientific ... 9540 Contact Us © 2015 American Academy of Cosmetic Dentistry American Academy of Cosmetic Dentistry (AACD) © 2015 American ...

  7. African-Americans and Alzheimer's

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Share Plus on Google Plus African-Americans and Alzheimer's alz.org | IHaveAlz Introduction 10 Warning Signs Brain ... African-Americans are at a higher risk for Alzheimer's disease. Many Americans dismiss the warning signs of ...

  8. Fractionation and Stability of Chestnut Shell Pigments%栗子壳色素的分级与稳定性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    戚建华; 姚增玉; 王力华

    2011-01-01

    A procedure was developed for fractionating the pigments from chestnut shells into 3 fractions(Fr.1,Fr.2 and Fr.3) according to their solubility.Fr.1 was soluble in alkaline water only;Fr.2 was soluble in alkaline water and the hydrophilic organic solvents;Fr.3 was soluble in the water at any pH and hydrophilic organic solvents.The pigment fractions were analyzed by chemical characterization and ultraviolet-visible spectrometry(UV-Vis),and their stabilities were studied.All the fractions had the similar properties to phenol but not to falconoid and tannin.The UV-Vis spectra showed all three fractions optical absorption were decreased with wavelength.There was no absorption peak,but had a shoulder around 270 nm.The color of the solutions all turned darker with the increase of the pH values.To the heating and ultraviolet,Fr 1 was relatively stable,while Fr.3 was the most sensitive.All the pigment fractions could be bleached by the oxidant,and Fr.1 was least resistance,Fr.2 was the most stable.All the pigment fractions were stable to reductant,sucrose,Na+ and Mg2+,but not instable to Al3+,Ca2+,Fe2+,Fe3+,Cu2+ and Zn2+.The results provided a new,simple and inexpensive method to fractionate pigments from chestnut shells.In food production,a suitable fraction can be selected as a colorant according to specific requirements.Thus,the application of the chestnut shell pigments will be wider in the future.%根据溶解性不同,将栗子壳色素分级得到3种色素组分Fr.1、Fr.2和Fr.3。Fr.1只溶于碱性水溶液;Fr.2溶于碱性水溶液和亲水性有机溶剂;Fr.3在任何pH值的水溶液中都能溶解,在亲水性有机溶剂中也能溶解。对栗子壳色素各分级组分进行了化学定性分析和紫外-可见光光谱分析,并研究了它们的稳定性。各分级组分均具有酚类物质的性质,但不具有黄酮类化合物的典型性质,也不具有鞣性。3种栗子壳色素组分的紫外-可见光光谱都是随

  9. American Indian Influence on the American Pharmacopeia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, Virgil J.

    The first U.S. Pharmacopeia, issued in 1820, listed 296 substances of animal, mineral, or vegetable origin in its primary and secondary lists. Of these 130, nearly all of vegetable origin, represented drugs used by American Indians. The number grew at each decennial revision during the 19th century, though some drugs were listed only for a decade.…

  10. CHARACTERISTICS OF AMERICAN ENGLISH

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韦娟; 黄舜

    2007-01-01

    The large scale colonization of America by British settlers took place in the seventeenth century.During the process,the immigrants brought English to America.They desert great influence to the development of American English.After the civil war,American got political independence,and then there arose a tendency to develop an American brand of English.Famous persons like Thomas Jeffe,Benjamin,Franklin,and Noah Webster began to consider that the country should have a language of its own.

  11. American Studies in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioana Luca

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available American Studies at the University of BucharestThe idea of teaching American Studies and founding a program in American Studies was first voiced in the long meetings of faculty and students held at the University of Bucharest soon after the collapse of the communist regime. The proposal was one of many that reflected the spirit of reform and hope for radical changes at the outset of Romania’s transition to democracy. The absence of institutional structures other than English departments and t...

  12. The Roots of Disillusioned American Dream in Typical American

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    古冬华

    2016-01-01

    Typical American is one of Gish Jen’s notable novels catching attention of the American literary circle. The motif of disillusioned American dream can be seen clearly through the experiences of three main characters. From perspectives of the consumer culture and cultural conflicts, this paper analyzes the roots of the disillusioned American dream in the novel.

  13. General American: An Ambiguity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Riper, William R.

    1973-01-01

    Disputes use of the term General American'' because of the excessive breadth of its scope and its indefiniteness; article is part of Lexicography and Dialect Geography, Festgabe for Hans Kurath''. (DD)

  14. American Samoa Cannery Offloading

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — From 1995 through 2010, the two canneries in American Samoa provided Cannery Offloading Reports to the Department of Marine and Wildlife Resources (DMWR) office. In...

  15. American Heart Association

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... American Heart area Search by State SELECT YOUR LANGUAGE Español (Spanish) 简体中文 (Traditional Chinese) 繁体中文 (Simplified Chinese) Tiếng Việt (Vietnamese) Healthy Living Conditions Caregiver ...

  16. American Sleep Association

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Public Health Professionals Join ASA Press Room American Sleep Association Improving public health by increasing awareness about ... Members Username or Email Password Remember Me Register Sleep Blog Let’s Teach Our Children About Sleep How ...

  17. American Diabetes Association

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 2383) Give by Mail Close November is American Diabetes Month® Share your personal diabetes story and show ... Next » « Previous Our Mission: To prevent and cure diabetes and to improve the lives of all people ...

  18. American Association of Orthodontists

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... step for patients wishing to resolve issues of crowding, misalignment and the burden of feeling self-conscious ... The American Association of Orthodontists does not provide funding for orthodontic treatment. There are several programs that ...

  19. American Music Therapy Association

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Music Therapy Association Home Contact News Help/FAQ Members Only Login Quick Links Facts About Music Therapy Qualifications ... with AMTA Sponsor AMTA Events Social Networking Support Music Therapy When you shop at AmazonSmile, Amazon will ...

  20. American Tinnitus Association

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Tinnitus Association Donate Become A Member Member Login Find A Provider Search form Search Menu Close Understanding The Facts Managing Your Tinnitus Research Toward A Cure About Us Initiatives News & ...

  1. American Society of Nephrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... join the conversation today. Learn More The American Society of Nephrology (ASN) leads the fight against kidney diseases by educating health professionals, sharing new knowledge, advancing research, and advocating the highest quality care ...

  2. American Pet Culture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    海焰

    2007-01-01

    In America you can find dogs,cats, horses,monkeys, snakes and even pigs in almost every family.They are their pets.Americans love pets and look on them as a part of the family.Sometimes pet owners dress their pets in fashionable clothes.They even buy toys for their pets.Americans love their pets as their children, sometimes even better.

  3. American Studies in Hungary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Éva Federmayer

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The beginning of American Studies as an academic discipline at Hungarian colleges and universities is basically coterminous with the watershed years of 1989-1990 when the country made a radical shift from state socialism toward parliamentary democracy and a free economy. This political and economic about-face, which came hand in hand with the undermining of foundationalist certainties and the generation of new anxieties coincided, more or less, with the radical transformation that American St...

  4. American Studies in Finland

    OpenAIRE

    Jopi Nyman

    2005-01-01

    Since its establishment in 1996, the Finnish American Studies Association has sought to promote the field of American Studies in Finland by organizing conferences, events and by increasing networking amongst its scattered membership (ca. 35) working at various universities and other higher education institutions. The current President of the Association is Dr Jopi Nyman (University of Joensuu) and its Secretary is Dr Ari Helo (University of Helsinki). While currently only the University of He...

  5. The Formation of American Hegemonism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘琦灵

    2012-01-01

    Nowadays, American culture permeates in our life. It seems that all the things in the world are in relation to the United States. This thesis discusses hegemonism in America from three aspects: the definition of hegemony, the origin of American hegemony and the interaction between American values. The purpose of this thesis is to get a comprehensive understanding of American hegemonism,

  6. Contemporary American Chinese Studies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qiu Huafei

    2008-01-01

    The rise of modern American scholarship on China was largely attributed to the establishment of the American Joint Committee on Contemporary China (JCCC) in 1959 which sponsored all kinds of activities to promote Chinese studies, ranging from institutional support and financial resources to training courses. Since then, American study of China has entered into a period of sustainability that features academic and group-oriented research. It has become a mainstream discipline in American social science studies.1 There are some distinctive differences between early sinology and modern Chinese Studies: the latter is much more concentrated on the study of issues, comparative historical studies, and contemporary Chinese society. American Chinese studies stresses empirical research, textual data, and the application of theory to practice.Shanghai. He was a Fulbright visiting professor at State University of New York at Geneseo from 2006-2007. This treatise is one of a series of studies for China's National Research Foundation of Philosophy and Social Science (05BGJ012), "American Chinese Studies."

  7. The effect of α-tocopherol, sweet chestnut wood extract and their combination on oxidative stress in vivo and the oxidative stability of meat in broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voljč, M; Levart, A; Zgur, S; Salobir, J

    2013-01-01

    1. This study examined the effect of α-tocopherol (α-T), sweet chestnut wood extract (SCW) and their combination on oxidative stress in vivo and oxidative stability of meat in broilers given diets rich in PUFA. 2. A total of 60 male broilers were individually caged and divided into 6 groups of 10. The C-PALM group received a diet with 7·5% palm fat and the other 5 groups with 7·5% linseed oil. The linseed oil groups were either un-supplemented (C-LIN) or supplemented with α-T or/and SCW as follows: αT-85 (C-LIN diet + 68 IU vit E as all-rac-α-T/kg), αT-200 (C-LIN diet + 183 IU vit E as all-rac-α-T/kg), SCW (C-LIN diet + 3 g SCW/kg) and αT-SCW (C-LIN diet + 68 IU vit E as all-rac-α-T/kg + 3 g SCW/kg). Different parameters of oxidative stress were measured. 3. Linseed oil induced DNA fragmentation and malondialdehyde (MDA) formation, while α-T reduced both parameters, and SCW reduced the DNA damage. A combination (αT-SCW) also reduced plasma MDA. Larger antioxidant capacity of lipid soluble compounds were recorded in groups αT-85, αT-200 and αT-SCW than in the controls but there were no differences between these groups in antioxidant enzymes and total antioxidant status. A combination (αT-SCW) increased tocopherol concentrations in breast muscle and in comparison to the C-LIN group MDA concentrations were reduced in groups αT-85, αT-200 and αT-SCW. 4. It can be concluded that neither of the α-T concentrations were able to prevent all the negative effects of lipid oxidation in vivo and only high concentrations of α-T improved the stability of meat. With the exception of DNA damage, SCW had no impact on in vivo and in vitro measured markers of oxidative stress but may have a sparing or regenerating effect on α-T.

  8. 荸荠提取物对乙醇脱氢酶活性的影响%Effect of Extraction from Chinese Water Chestnut(Eleocharis tuberose) on the Activity of Alcohol Dehydrogenase(ADH)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙小红; 葛建

    2016-01-01

    To study the impact of the extract from Chinese water chestnuts on the alcohol dehydrogenase(ADH) activity. With the active target of ADH, the improved Valle&Hoch method was used to detect the influence of various extract from water chestnuts on ADH activity in vitro. Male mice were randomly divided into five groups, which was used to study the influence of extract from water chestnuts on alcohol concentration and ADH activity in blood and liver of mice after oral administration of alcohol. And the alcohol concentrations in mice were deter-mined by the method of GC-FID. Compared with normal saline, water extract of Chinese water chestnuts have significantly increased the ADH activity. And the value of ADH activity was 45.2 % at the concentration of 0.5 g/mL. However, the ethanol extracts of water chestnuts could obviously inhibit the ADH activity. After oral administration of aqueous extract from Chinese Water Chestnut, the ADH active in mice blood rose to the peak value in the period of 0.5 h-1.5 h in the model group. At the same time, the ADH activity in mice liver rose to peak value during 0.5 h-2.5 h. Although the changing trend of ADH activity in model group was similar with the trend in extract group, the ADH activity in model group were lower than in extract group. Besides, the alcohol concentration in blood rose to the maximum value during 0.5 h-12 h in the model group, which was similar about the changing trend in the two group. By the usage of pharmacokinetics formula, the elimination half-life was 7.41, 5.63, 3.02 and 2.56 h in the model group and different extract groups, respectively. The results showed that the aqueous extract of Chinese water chestnut could reduce the alcohol concentration by activating ADH in vitro. Fur-thermore, the persistent activation of ADH was exhibited by the aqueous extract.%探讨荸荠提取物对乙醇脱氢酶(ADH)活性的影响及其对小鼠急性酒精中毒的改善作用。以乙醇脱氢酶为作用靶点,

  9. Clinical effect of oral the horse chestnut seed extract for treating macular edema%马栗种子提取物治疗黄斑水肿的临床观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵树慧; 栾树林; 付中卫; 李永秋

    2015-01-01

    目的:观察口服马栗种子提取物治疗黄斑水肿的临床疗效。方法:将50例黄斑水肿患者60眼随机分为2组,对照组采用常规促吸收疗法(口服维生素C,E和芦丁片),治疗组在常规治疗基础上加用马栗种子提取物口服,4周为1疗程,观察3个疗程。分别于治疗后4周和12周进行Amsler表、最佳矫正视力( Best corrected visual acuity, BCVA)、FFA及OCT检查并评分定性判定治疗效果。结果:治疗后不同时间点,治疗组有效率均优于对照组(83.3%vs 20.0%;90.0%vs 30.0%),2组差异有显著意义(P﹤0.01),治疗组患者无1例不良反应发生。结论:马栗种子提取物可以安全有效的缓解黄斑水肿,改善视功能。%Objective:To observe the clinical efficacy of oral the horse chestnut seed extract for treating macular edema.Methods:Fifty cases of macular edema patients ( sixty eyes) were randomly divided into 2 groups.The conventional therapy ( oral vitamin C, E and Rutin tablets) was used in control group.The treatment group was treated with oral horse chestnut seed extract and conventional therapy. Amsler's chart, best corrected visual acuity, FFA and OCT were examined 4 wk and 12 wk post-treatment.Results:After 4 weeks and 12 weeks observation, the effective rates in treatment group were better than those in the control group(83.3%vs 20.0%;90.0%vs 30. 0%), the difference was significant (P <0.01), no adverse reactions was observed in treatment group.Conclusion:The horse chestnut seed extract might be effective in relieving macular edema and improving visual function with no adverse reactions.

  10. TREATMENT OF SWELLINGS AFTER RHINOPLASTY AND DOUBLE EYELID SURGERY WITH HORSE CHESTNUT SEEDS EXTRACT%马栗种子提取物治疗隆鼻术和重睑术后肿胀的疗效观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏晓光; 张锤; 张春莉; 赵雪莲; 张卓男

    2011-01-01

    目的 观察马栗种子提取物对隆鼻术和重睑术后肿胀的治疗效果.方法 隆鼻术32例、重睑术48例,分别随机抽样分成治疗组和对照组,治疗组口服马栗种子提取物片,术后3、7、10d进行观察比较.术区肿胀程度用视觉模拟评分法(visual analogue scales,VAS)评估.结果 隆鼻术和重睑术治疗组的消肿效果明显高于对照组,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).结论 马栗种子提取物可以对隆鼻术和重睑术组织肿胀起到加速消退作用,术后3d即有明显疗效,所有服用药物的求术者未出现不良反应,值得在整形美容手术中推广.%Objective To observe the effects of horse chestnut seeds extract in the treatment of swelling after rhinoplasty and double eyelid surgery. Methods Thirty - two patients after rhinoplasty and forty - eight patients after double eyelid surgery were randomly divided into the treatment group and the control group. Patients in the treatment group were given horse chestnut seeds extract tablets. The swellings of patients in both groups were observed according to procedures of visual analogue scales ( VAS ) on day 3,7 and 10. Results The elimination of swelling was earlier and more conspicuous in the treatment group than those in the control group( P < 0. 05 ) . Conclusion Elimination of swelling after rhinoplasty and double eyelid surgery were accelerated by the treatment of horse chestnut seeds extract. The effect was observed on day 3 after the surgery, and no side effects happened. It is worth popularizing in plastic surgery.

  11. 迁西县农户板栗收入影响因素分析%Analysis of the Influencing Factors of Farmers' Chinese Chestnut Income in Qianxi County

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李雪婷; 庞静娅; 陈珂

    2015-01-01

    Based on farmers' income equation, combined with the 160 farmers' income data in 8 villages and 4 towns, this paper is to analyze the influencing factors of Chinese chestnut farmers income in Qianxi county. The research results showed that the total investment, planting area, number of labors, and whether to join cooperatives had remarkably influence on the farmers' Chinese chestnut income. Family size, the average age and whether to accept the technical training were usually significant. Highest education year and whether (had) to be the village cadres were not significant;In significant factors, the number and the average age of labors were the negative factors, the rest were the positive factors. Based on the research results, this paper put forward some suggestions, for example, strengthening investment, expanding the planting area, encouraging farmers to participate in cooperation and receive technical training, to improve farmers' Chinese chestnut income.%依据农户收入方程,结合4个乡(镇)、8个村的160户栗农收入的实地调查数据来分析影响农户板栗收入的因素.研究结果表明,板栗生产经营的总投入、种植面积、劳动力数量和是否加入合作社对农户板栗收入的影响极为显著,家庭规模、劳动力平均年龄和是否接受过技术培训的影响则一般显著,劳动力最高受教育年限和是否(曾)为村干部的影响不显著;在显著性因素中,劳动力数量和平均年龄为负向影响因素,其他变量为正向影响因素.针对以上研究结果,提出了加强投入、扩大种植面积、鼓励参加合作社和接受技术培训等有利于提高农户板栗收入的措施与建议.

  12. Morfologia de frutos, sementes e plântulas de castanheira (Terminalia catappa L. - COMBRETACEAE Morphology of the fruit, the seed and the seedlings of chestnut tree (Terminalia catappa L. - COMBRETACEAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia de Azevedo Ivani

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho foi realizado com o objetivo de descrever morfologicamente os frutos, sementes e plântulas de castanheira. Foi feita a biometria dos frutos e das sementes e sua caracterização quanto à forma, por meio de mensurações com paquímetro e observações realizadas em estereomicroscópio com câmara clara. Os frutos de castanheira são carnosos, indeiscentes, do tipo nucóide, glabros, de coloração verde a vinácea, projeção das nervuras carpelares externamente evidentes, com epicarpo delgado, mesocarpo carnoso e esponjoso de coloração vinácea, com feixes vasculares conspícuos em corte transversal. Geralmente, cada fruto contém apenas uma semente. As sementes são exalbuminosas, de formas alongadas e cilíndricas, recobertas por endocarpo rígido de coloração marrom; possuem cerca de 2,5cm, 0,7cm e 0,7cm, de comprimento, largura e espessura, respectivamente. A germinação das sementes de castanheira é epígea, e a plantula é fanerocotiledonar.The work was carried out with the objective of describing morphologically the fruits, seeds and seedlings of chestnut tree. It was made the biometry of the fruits and seeds with a digital pachymeter and its characterization in relation to the shape, in stereomicroscope with clear chamber. It can be evidenced that the chestnut tree fruits are fleshly, indehiscent, nucoid, glabrous, from green to purple coloration, with evident projection of the carpel ribbings, with a fleshly and spongy epicarp and mesocarp, of purple color, with conspicuous vascular bundle in transversal cut. Generally, it has a seed per fruit. The seeds are unalbuminous, of prolongated and cylindrical shape and recovered with a rigid endocarp of brown coloration. The seeds possess about 2,5; 0,7 and 0,7 cm, of length, width and thickness, respectively. The germination of the seeds of chestnut tree is epigeal and the seedling is fanerocotyledonary.

  13. MALT BARLEY PRODUCTION ON THE CHESTNUT SOILS AREA OF VOLGOGRAD REGION Производство ячменя, пригодного для пивоварения в зоне каштановых почв Волгоградской области

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinitsyna E. A.

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The article contains a short review of malt barley cultivation and its improvement ways on chestnut soils in Volgograd region. It includes the results of home brewing with the use of the experimental crop

  14. CHROMOSOMES OF AMERICAN MARSUPIALS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    BIGGERS, J D; FRITZ, H I; HARE, W C; MCFEELY, R A

    1965-06-18

    Studies of the chromosomes of four American marsupials demonstrated that Caluromys derbianus and Marmosa mexicana have a diploid number of 14 chromosomes, and that Philander opossum and Didelphis marsupialis have a diploid number of 22. The karyotypes of C. derbianus and M. mexicana are similar, whereas those of P. opossum and D. marsupialis are dissimilar. If the 14-chromosome karyotype represents a reduction from a primitive number of 22, these observations suggest that the change has occurred independently in the American and Australasian forms.

  15. Pan American physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Early in January, a unique meeting of Latin American physicists took place at Cocoyoc in Mexico. Apart from a strong summer school programme, the last time so many Latin American institutions got together was more than ten years ago. The meeting had about 50 attendees with strong representations from the US, Brazil and Mexico. The meeting was designed with two objectives — to review the substance, current status and future expectations of high energy particle physics, and to survey the state of physics research and education in Latin America and explore the possibilities of increased collaboration with the US, consistent with the idea of a host US Laboratory

  16. Phase 2 Sampling Plan for Chestnut Ridge Operable Unit 2 (Filled Coal Ash Pond/Upper McCoy Branch) at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CDM Federal Programs Corporation (CDM Federal) was contracted by Energy Systems to prepare a Phase II Sampling Plan to describe the field investigation work necessary to address regulatory agency review comments on the Remedial Investigation of the Filled Coal Ash Pond (FCAP)/Upper McCoy Branch, Chestnut Ridge Operable Unit 2 at the Y-12 Plant, conducted by CH2M Hill in 1990. The scope and approach of the field investigation described in this plan specifically focus on deficiencies noted by the regulators in discussions at the comment resolution meeting of May 8, 1992, in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. This Phase II Sampling Plan includes a field sampling plan, a field and laboratory quality assurance project plan, a health and safety plan, a waste management plan, and appendixes providing an update to the applicable or relevant and appropriate requirements for this site and field and laboratory testing methods and procedures

  17. American Indian Perspectives of Euro-American Counseling Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lokken, Jayne M.; Twohey, Denise

    2004-01-01

    Thirteen American Indians participated in 17 counseling interviews with Euro-American counselors. The study analyzed interviews of American Indian participants using Interpersonal Process Recall (IPR). Counselor trustworthiness, which was increased by counselor empathy, genuineness, concern, self-disclosure, and slow pace of problem…

  18. 鳕鱼、板栗复合饼生产新工艺及其配方的研究%Study on technology and formula of cod-chestnut composite bread

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖玫; 郭彤; 李毅念

    2012-01-01

    The processing technology and formula of cod-chestnut composite bread were studied. The salted cod-meat formula was 500g cod with onion and ginger 25g,white pepper 10g,a little cooking wine and monosodium glutanate by orthogonal experiment,and cod-meat was cut into grain and salted for 20min. The best formula by fuzzy mathematical comprehensive evaluation for cod bread was 250g flour with Chinese chestnut 30g,eggs 45g and salted cod-meat 40g and toasted in fire burger system for 15min with the induction cooker at the temperature of 160℃. In this way,the cod bread was nutritive,flaky,with unique cod-flavor.%对鳕鱼、板栗复合饼的生产工艺及其配方进行了研究。通过正交实验得到腌制鳕鱼肉馅配方为每500g鳕用葱姜25g、白胡椒lOg、料酒和味精少许、把鳕鱼肉切成颗粒、腌制20min:通过模糊数学综合评判法得到鳕鱼饼的最佳配方为每250g面粉添加板30g、鸡蛋45g、腌制鳕鱼肉40g,在160℃下用电磁炉烤制15min。采用该配方和工艺生产出的鳕鱼饼营养丰富,口感酥松,具有独特的鳕鱼风味。

  19. American Dream / Anu Raat

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Raat, Anu

    2010-01-01

    Uuritakse sõnapaari "American dream" tähendust, kuidas ja millal see unelmalugu tekkis, miks see on ameerikalik nähtus, samuti 1950-ndate moeloomingut, eriti Christian Diori oma Euroopas ja Ameerikas, selle põhjusi ja mõjusid seoses massilise tarbimisega

  20. Cultural Vignette: Mexican Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyer, Mary Ellen; And Others

    Developed as part of a multicultural research project in the San Diego Community College District, this booklet presents the findings of a 10-member research team about various elements of Mexican-American culture. The areas covered are: (1) historical background on the Mexican heritage of the United States from pre-colonial times to the present…

  1. American College of Radiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    American College of Radiology JOIN ACR Login About Us Media Center Contact Us Follow us Shopping Cart (0) ACR Catalog Donate My ACR ... Education Center eLearning Exams & Assessments MOC Marketplace AIRP™ Radiology Leadership Institute ® Quality & Safety Accreditation Appropriateness Criteria® Practice ...

  2. Native Americans: Subject Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonanni, Mimmo; Etter, Patricia A.

    This annotated subject guide lists reference material that deals with Native Americans and is available in the Arizona State University Libraries. Entries were published 1933-98, but mostly in the 1980s-90s. The guide is not comprehensive, but rather a selective list of resources useful for researching a topic in a variety of fields. The guide…

  3. Delusion of American Dream

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘云芳

    2014-01-01

    Martin Eden by Jack London and The Great Gatsby by F.Scott Fitzergald are both stories describing the delusion of American dream. They share much in common for they are discussing the same themes actually. By analyzing the two protagonists’life experience and deaths respectively,we try to explore the profound meaning hidden under the surface.

  4. Hispanic American Heritage, Intermediate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepherd, Mike

    This resource book features the cultural heritage of Hispanics living within the United States and includes ideas, materials, and activities to be used with students in the intermediate grades and middle school. This book explores the definition of the term "Hispanic Americans" and suggests a multilayered population with a variety of cultural…

  5. American Holidays and Festivals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯凌

    2002-01-01

    One of the interesting things to learn about a country is to know different kinds of holidays and festivals its people celebrate(庆祝) and to tell why they celebrate them. Although there are some similarities(相似) between American and Chinese holidays and festivals, there are quite a few differences.

  6. Asian Americans in Transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karnow, Stanley; Yoshihara, Nancy

    This booklet is a detailed primer on the Asian American experience in the United States covering history, family and acculturation, education, culture and the arts, economics, discrimination and violence, and politics. An introduction reviews some basic demographics and looks at racial issues in light of the riots in Los Angeles (California) in…

  7. BYD's American Dream

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DING WENLEI

    2010-01-01

    @@ Chinese automaker BYD Co.Ltd.repeated its goal of selling electric vehicles in the United States during its third appearance at the North American International Auto Show in Detroit this year.But unlike previous years,BYD gained ground in its efforts to promote electric cars.

  8. American Indian Authors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Momaday, Natachee Scott

    Twenty-six selections by 15 contemporary American Indian authors are given in this book. The selections--legends, ceremonial chants and prayers, poems, and stories--are accompanied by topics for discussion. Some of the selections deal with the supernatural, and some tell an actual story about the author. Pictures and short biographies of each…

  9. American Overseas Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Robert J., Ed.; Duke, Charles R., Ed.

    A compilation of articles examines the similarities and differences of educational administration in schools for American students overseas. The "Introductions and Orientations" section includes: "The Association for the Advancement of International Education" (Lewis A. Grell); "The Office of Overseas Schools of the United States Department of…

  10. Gifted Asian American Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitano, Margie K.

    1997-01-01

    Presents an analysis of personal, socialization, and structural factors affecting the lifespan achievement of 15 Asian American women identified as gifted. Their families' intense focus on educational achievement and hard work are described, and the need for better preparation to overcome obstacles in the workplace is discussed. (Author/CR)

  11. Festival of American Folklife

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foote, Theodore P.

    1976-01-01

    The "Festival of American Folklife in 1976 was the largest cultural event of its kind ever held". Describes the Festival programs representing the diverse cultural groups who displayed their traditions and skills at the Mall between the Lincoln and Washington monuments during the summer of 1976. (Author/RK)

  12. Profile: Asian Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Program Grants Other Grants Planning and Evaluation Grantee Best Practices Asian American Asthma Cancer Chronic Liver Disease Diabetes ... Phone: 240-453-2882 Office of Minority Health Resource Center Toll Free: 1-800-444-6472 / Fax: 301-251-2160 Email: info@minorityhealth.hhs.gov Stay Connected ... FOIA | Accessibility | Site Map | Contact Us | Viewers & Players

  13. Immunizations and African Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Program Grants Other Grants Planning and Evaluation Grantee Best Practices Black/African American Asthma Cancer Chronic Liver Disease ... 13 to 17 years who ever received the human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination, 2014 - Males # doses ... 240-453-2882 Office of Minority Health Resource Center Toll Free: 1-800-444-6472 / Fax: ...

  14. American Society of Human Genetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Research Awards August 9, 2016 Media Advisory: American Society of Human Genetics 2016 Annual Meeting July 26, ... McKusick Leadership Award June 30, 2016 The American Society of Human Genetics, Incorporated 9650 Rockville Pike • Bethesda, ...

  15. Job satisfaction of Asian Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, C N; Hinson, S

    2000-04-01

    Since Asian Americans have demographic and labor force characteristics more similar to Euro-Americans than African Americans, one might predict that their job satisfaction would be more like the former than the latter. And, because Asian Americans originating from different countries are heterogeneous in language, culture, and recency of immigration, one might predict that they may report obtaining different amounts of satisfaction from their jobs. However, data from 21 nationally representative opinion surveys from 1972 through 1996 suggest the opposite. Asian Americans (n = 199) reported job satisfaction more like African Americans (n = 1,231) than Euro-Americans (n = 10,709), and Asian Americans from China (n = 53), Japan (n = 44), India (n = 55), and the Philippines (n = 47) reported similar job satisfaction. These differences persisted when age, education, occupation, and personal income were held constant.

  16. Native Americans' Interest in Horticulture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Mary Hockenberry

    1999-01-01

    Focus groups arranged by local Native American Master Gardeners on two Minnesota reservations determined community interest in extension-horticulture programs. Topics of interest included food preservation and historical Native-American uses of plants. (SK)

  17. Asian American Women: A Bibliography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yung, Judy, Comp.; And Others

    1978-01-01

    Listed in this bibliography are materials available on Asian American women at the Asian Community Library (Oakland Public Library) and the Asian American Studies Library (University of California, Berkeley). (Author/EB)

  18. American Psychologists and Psychology Abroad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sexton, Virginia Staudt; Misiak, Henryk

    1984-01-01

    Describes the roots and consequences of the isolationism of American psychology. Argues that, as undergraduates, American psychology students should be enabled to develop a world view through exposure to foreign research and practices. Suggests means of implementing such exposure. (KH)

  19. 75 FR 39513 - Office of Postsecondary Education; Overview Information; Asian American and Native American...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-09

    ... Office of Postsecondary Education; Overview Information; Asian American and Native American Pacific... Native American Pacific Islander. Priorities: Under this competition, we are particularly interested in... average award award amount of awards amount Asian American and Native American Pacific Islander-...

  20. Qualidade de amostras comerciais preparadas com Aesculus hippocastanum L. (castanha-da-Índia Quality of commercial samples of horse-chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabeth Lopez de Prado Martins

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available As sementes de castanha-da-Índia (Aesculus hippocastanum L., Hippocastanaceae são utilizadas na medicina tradicional em várias partes do mundo no tratamento de varizes. Muitos estudos, inclusive clínicos, comprovaram as atividades antiedematosa, anti-inflamatória e venotônica do extrato padronizado da planta. O componente ativo é uma mistura de saponinas, denominada aescina. Foram analisadas amostras de droga vegetal rasurada e em pó, extrato seco, cápsulas contendo pó vegetal e extrato e comprimidos de extrato de castanha-da-Índia adquiridas no mercado nacional. Verificou-se a autenticidade (caracterização organoléptica, macroscópica e microscópica, a pureza (determinação de matéria estranha, água e cinzas totais, a presença e o teor de aescina, além das condições de prescrição e dispensação desses medicamentos. As análises confirmaram a autenticidade e pureza de todas as amostras. A aescina foi detectada mas os teores foram muito variáveis, estando abaixo do especificado na bibliografia em quase todas as amostras. Apesar de ser utilizada eficazmente em outros países, a pesquisa demonstrou que os produtos disponíveis no comércio brasileiro encontram-se fora das especificações necessárias para a atividade farmacológica. Esse quadro revela a necessidade urgente de melhoria da manipulação de fitoterápicos, de forma a promover a utilização adequada desses medicamentos.The seeds of horse-chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum L., Hippocastanaceae have been used in traditional medicine in several parts of the world to treat chronic venous insufficiency. Many experimental and clinical studies have demonstrated that A. hippocastanum extracts increase venous tonus. This activity is attributed to a mixture of saponins (aescin. In this study, samples of A. hippocastanum obtained from herbal shops, pharmacies and drug stores were analyzed and their authenticity (organoleptic properties, macroscopy and microscopy

  1. Effect of quebracho-chestnut tannin extracts at 2 dietary crude protein levels on performance, rumen fermentation, and nitrogen partitioning in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguerre, M J; Capozzolo, M C; Lencioni, P; Cabral, C; Wattiaux, M A

    2016-06-01

    Our objective was to determine the effects of a tannin mixture extract on lactating cow performance, rumen fermentation, and N partitioning, and whether responses were affected by dietary crude protein (CP). The experiment was conducted as a split-plot with 24 Holstein cows (mean ± standard deviation; 669±55kg of body weight; 87±36 d in milk; 8 ruminally cannulated) randomly assigned to a diet of [dry matter (DM) basis] 15.3 or 16.6% CP (whole plot) and 0, 0.45, 0.90, or 1.80% of a tannin mixture in three 4×4 Latin squares within each level of CP (sub-plot). Tannin extract mixture was from quebracho and chestnut trees (2:1 ratio). Dietary CP level did not influence responses to tannin supplementation. A linear decrease in DM intake (25.5 to 23.4kg/d) was found, as well as a linear increase in milk/DM intake (1.62 to 1.75) and a trend for a linear decrease in fat-and-protein-corrected milk (38.4 to 37.1kg/d) with increasing levels of tannin supplementation. In addition, there was a negative linear effect for milk urea N (14.0 to 12.9mg/dL), milk protein yield (1.20 to 1.15kg), and concentration (2.87 to 2.83%). Furthermore, the change in milk protein concentration tended to be quadratic, and predicted maximum was 2.89% for a tannin mixture fed at 0.47% of dietary DM. Tannin supplementation reduced ruminal NH3-N (11.3 to 8.8mg/dL), total branched-chain volatile fatty acid concentration (2.97 to 2.47mol/100mol), DM, organic matter, CP, and neutral detergent fiber digestibility. Dietary tannin had no effect on intake N (587±63g/d), milk N (175±32g/d), or N utilization efficiency (29.7±4.4%). However, feeding tannin extracts linearly increased fecal N excretion (214 to 256g/d), but reduced urinary N (213 to 177g/d) and urinary urea N (141 to 116g/d) excretion. Decreasing dietary CP did not influence milk production, but increased N utilization efficiency (milk N/N intake; 0.27 to 0.33), and decreased milk urea N (15.4 to 11.8mg/dL), ruminal NH3-N (11.0 to 9.3mg

  2. Profile: American Indian/Alaska Native

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Minority Population Profiles > American Indian/Alaska Native Profile: American Indian/Alaska Native Spotlight ACA Infographic for American Indians/ ... Program Circle of Life multimedia youth education program American Indian/Alaska Native Profile Great Plains Area Alaska Area ...

  3. Who Stole Native American Studies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook-Lynn, Elizabeth

    1997-01-01

    Native American Studies has failed to develop into an academic discipline because of the continued influence of postcolonial theories, attempts to discredit Native American scholars, politically determined research agendas, and the ideology of the "New Historicism." Native American Studies must seek autonomy from other opportunistic epistemologies…

  4. American Head and Neck Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Head & Neck Society Head and Neck Cancer Research & Education American Head & Neck Society | AHNS Head and Neck Cancer Research & Education About AHNS ... and Announcements Copyright ©2016 · American Head and Neck Society · Privacy and Return Policy Managed by BSC Management, ...

  5. Boston: Cradle of American Independence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Community College Journal, 2004

    2004-01-01

    The 2005 American Association of Community Colleges Annual Convention will be held April 6-9 in Boston. While thoroughly modern, the iconic city's identity is firmly rooted in the past. As the cradle of American independence, Boston's long history is an integral part of the American fabric. Adams, Revere, Hancock are more than historical figures;…

  6. The Wealth of Mexican Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobb-Clark, Deborah A.; Hildebrand, Vincent A.

    2006-01-01

    This paper analyzes the sources of disparities in the relative wealth position of Mexican Americans. Results reveal that--unlike the racial wealth gap--Mexican Americans' wealth disadvantage is in large part not the result of differences in wealth distributions conditional on the underlying determinants of wealth. Rather, Mexican Americans' wealth…

  7. Discrimination against Muslim American Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aroian, Karen J.

    2012-01-01

    Although there is ample evidence of discrimination toward Muslim Americans in general, there is limited information specific to Muslim American adolescents. The few existing studies specific to this age group suggest that Muslim American adolescents encounter much discrimination from teachers, school administrators, and classmates. This…

  8. Native American Loyalists and Patriots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barsh, Russel Lawrence

    1977-01-01

    Many American Indians experienced the American Revolution differently; Western tribes fearful of American expansionism tended to become loyalists, while east coast tribes already submerged in English society generally saw the rebellion as an opportunity to prove themselves deserving of full political equality via loyalty to their patriot…

  9. Perceptions of African American and European American Teachers on the Education of African American Boys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacon, Ellen; Banks, Joy; Young, Kathryn; Jackson, Francesina R.

    2007-01-01

    The authors interviewed 27 teachers (16 African American and 11 European American) on instructional factors contributing to overidentification of behavior problems in African American boys. Interviews focused on teachers' perspectives of effective teachers, teacher-student relationships, and communication styles. Analysis of the interviews showed…

  10. Remarks on American Taboos

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘娟

    2013-01-01

    Language serves as the tool of communication between people.In any language persons,things and activities that are ta⁃boos should not be talked about or should be mentioned in a roundabout way. it is not only a linguistic phenomenon but also a social phenomenon.The origin of taboo is deeply rooted in the social and cultural background. Today in the increasingly frequent cross-cultural communication, if you do not understand the language taboos, it will hinder the smooth communication. This pa⁃per will talk about American taboos from two aspects.It is designed to help English learners understand American culture and im⁃prove competence of cross-cultural communication.

  11. Modeling American Marriage Patterns

    OpenAIRE

    Bloom, David E.; Neil G. Bennett

    1990-01-01

    This paper investigates the application of the three-parameter, Coale-McNeil marriage model and some related hyper-parameterized specifications to data on the first marriage patterns of American women. Because the model is parametric, it can be used to estimate the parameters of the marriage process, free of censoring bias, for cohorts that have yet to complete their first marriage experience. Empirical evidence from three surveys is reported on the ability of the model to replicate and proje...

  12. American Scholars Visited SCUN

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YuChengfa

    2004-01-01

    On October 18, South-Central University for Nationalities (SCUN)welcomed an American academic delegation headed by Professor David Van Buren, vice chancellor of Platteville Campus of University of Wisconsin(UW-P). At the reception ceremony,Professor Li Buhai, Party Chairman of SCUN, and Professor Chen Dayun,president of the university made a brief introduction to the school, and then both parties reached a preliminary agreement on the cooperative education.

  13. Quilting: An American Craft

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntosh, Phyllis

    2006-01-01

    A quilt can warm a bed, decorate a wall, comfort a child in her crib or a soldier at war. A quilt also can tell a story, commemorate an event, honor the dead, unite a community, and reflect a culture. This article is an introduction to the American craft of quilting. The article describes what quilting is and the different types of quilts. It also…

  14. American Studies in Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Antsyferova

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Interest in the USA, both general and specifically academic, has always existed in Russia, with its own ups and downs. But American studies as an academic discipline started gaining its popularity probably after WWII when there sporadically started to emerge the ever-increasing number of academic books, articles and dissertations in literary and historical research on the USA, the main centers of which were founded at the Academic Research Institute of the USA and Canada, headed by academicia...

  15. Asian American Adolescent Identity

    OpenAIRE

    Ohm, Julie Juhye

    1999-01-01

    The formation of ego identity in Asian American late adolescents attending Virginia Tech was examined within the frameworks of Erikson's psychosocial theory and Berry, Trimble, and Olmedo's model of acculturation. Ego identity was measured using the Achieved sub-scale of the Revised Version of the Extended Objective Measure of Ego Identity Status, an instrument based on the theoretical constructs of Erikson. Ethnic identity was measured using the Multigroup Ethnic Identity Measure and Ameri...

  16. American and British English

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁波

    2004-01-01

    @@ The difficulty for the nonnative learner of English is there is no standard English form. He is confronted(面对) with two English dialects (方言) to learn: British English and American English (leaving aside Australian,Indian, South African English ete.) And despite the many cross-cultural influences, it seems that the vocabularies, spellings and pronunciations of these two dialects are diverging year by year.

  17. Arab, Arab-American, American: Hegemonic and Contrapuntal Representations

    OpenAIRE

    Fritsch-El Alaoui, Lalla Khadija

    2005-01-01

    Arab, Arab-American, American: Hegemonic and Contrapuntal Representations, explores the US mainstream discourse on the Arabs in the 1990s in different cultural texts: academic, popular and media, including Hollywood. The project investigates how these representational practices participate in the reconfiguration of American public opinion vis-à-vis the Arabs. It also focuses on the ways in which the various discourses that produce or even invent the "Other" are undeniably li...

  18. 植物生长调节剂对板栗生长、性别分化和结蓬的影响%Effect of Plant Growth Regulators on Growth,Sex Differentiation and Fructification of Chinese Chestnut

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕守芳; 闫爱玲; 王贵禧

    2003-01-01

    @@ 板栗(Castanea mollissima Blume)原产我国,是重要的经济林树种.板栗普遍雄花多、雌花少,雌雄花比例常为1∶2 000~4 000,这是造成产量低的主要原因[1],因此,促进雌花分化,减少雄花数量对提高板栗产量具有重要意义.板栗花芽分化的特点与苹果(Malus spp.)、梨(Pyrus spp.)不同,板栗在芽内只进行雄花序原基的分化,而雌花簇和所有花器官分化形成都是在芽外完成的.李中涛等[2]认为在母枝大芽内形成雏梢(即是来年新梢),并分化形成全部雄花序原基,而其上的两性花序要在来年春季发芽后形成.板栗混合花芽的分化具有可塑性,易受外源激素和外界条件等的影响[3].板栗花芽分化的这种特异性和可塑性吸引着研究者不断地探索,本文探讨了5种植物生长调节剂对板栗生长、花芽性别分化和结实的影响,目的在于增加雌花、减少雄花和提高板栗的产量.

  19. American Cotton Development Strategy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The 30th International Cotton Conference took place March 24 - 27 in the historic city of Bremen,Germany this year.Worldwide high-ranking experts from cotton production, trade,spinning,weaving and some other fields of textile industries gathered together in the Bremen Town Hall.Allen A.Terhaar,Executive Director of Cotton Council International(CCI), Washington,presented a speech on the future development strategy of American cotton industry,and the development schedule in Chinese market.In the following part,let’s share his opinions and foresighted views.

  20. The american dental dream.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodges, Nathan

    2015-01-01

    The American Dental Dream-the cultural desire for straight, white teeth-is difficult, if not impossible, for poor and working-class people to achieve. Using ethnographic fiction, autoethnography, poetry, and qualitative interviewing, I brush away the taken-for-granted assumptions about teeth. I explore the personal, relational, and structural consequences of this cultural desire, and show how social class writes itself on our bodies. I write these culture-centered teeth tales to show how one might cope with their teeth. PMID:25257392

  1. The american dental dream.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodges, Nathan

    2015-01-01

    The American Dental Dream-the cultural desire for straight, white teeth-is difficult, if not impossible, for poor and working-class people to achieve. Using ethnographic fiction, autoethnography, poetry, and qualitative interviewing, I brush away the taken-for-granted assumptions about teeth. I explore the personal, relational, and structural consequences of this cultural desire, and show how social class writes itself on our bodies. I write these culture-centered teeth tales to show how one might cope with their teeth.

  2. Anglo American plc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    Anglo American plc with its subsidiaries, joint ventures and associates, is a world leader in gold, platinum group metals and diamonds, is one of the world's largest private-sector coal producers, and has interests in base and ferrous metals, industrial minerals and forest products. The first Safety, Health and Environment (SHE) report, covers these aspects of the company's business and reports case studies at operations worldwide. These include achievements by Anglo Coal in its South African operations and Carbones del Cerrejon in Colombia.

  3. South American perspectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moxon, S.

    1999-03-01

    South America still has enormous potential for the further development of hydroelectric power. The reasons why much of the potential remains untapped are discussed and here environmental considerations are prominent: to a lesser extent, war, military coups, corruption, bad management and hyperinflation have all contributed. Some examples of disastrous South American hydro projects are given. Argentina sees a possible solution in using international contractors. However, privatisation has produced some success stories, notably the Canon del Plato hydro plant in Peru and the Duqueco project in Chile. (UK)

  4. 洪泽湖野生红莲子、芡实、菱角中淀粉的理化性质研究%Properties of starch from lotus seed, gordon euryale and water chestnut seed in Hongze lake

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈晓明; 朱鼎程

    2012-01-01

    Some physical-chemical properties of starch from lotus seed, gordon euryale seed and water chestnut in Hongze lake were investigated,including granule microphotograph, granule size, crystalline structure, thermal properties, solubility, swelling volume, pasting behaviour, and molecular structure. The results showed that: the average particle size of starch volume of wild lotus seed, gorgon fruit, and water chestnut was 11.77μm, 2-15μm and 25. 76μm, respectively. And the particle size was uniform. The crystalline configuration of these three kinds of starch was all A-type. The crystal degree of lotus seed " gorgon fruit , and water chestnut starch crystal was 27. 1 % , 23, 7% and 25.7%, respectively! the gelatinization peak temperature was 76. 04 V , 72. 37 ,C and 75. 88℃, respectively; gelatinization enthalpy values were 8. 46J/g, 5. 58J/g and 4. 63J/g, respectively. The freeze-thaw stability of the three starch paste was poor, which was easy to form a local micro beam and retrogradation. As a result, all three were not suitable for frozen foods. The transparency of three starch pastes was between potato starch and corn starch. Thermal paste stability of three starch was fine, which may be due to the association and crosslinking between the starch molecules. Therefore all three were suitable for the production of high temperature food.%以洪泽湖野生的红莲子、芡实、菱角为原料,采用浸泡法制备3种淀粉,并对3种淀粉的颗粒形貌、大小、结晶结构、热学性质、溶解度、膨胀度、糊化特性、分子大小与分布进行研究.结果表明:野生莲子、芡实和菱角淀粉体积平均粒径分别为11.77,2.15,25.76 μm,且颗粒大小均匀.3种淀粉均为A型结晶构型,莲子、芡实和菱角淀粉的晶体度分别为27.1%,23.7%,25.7%.糊化峰值温度分别为76.04,72.37,75.88℃,糊化焓值分别为8.46,5.58,4.63 J/g.3种淀粉糊的冻融稳定性较差,易形成局部的微晶束,易凝沉、易回

  5. Diversity of wild chestnut chloroplast DNA SSRs in Shiyan%湖北省十堰地区野生板栗cpSSR遗传多样性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程丽莉; 封海东; 饶群; 吴伟; 周明; 胡广隆; 黄武刚

    2012-01-01

    为了明确神农架地区野生板栗资源遗传背景,选用4对呈现多态性的叶绿体微卫星引物,对湖北省十堰辖区内野生板栗进行了遗传结构和叶绿体单倍型分析。结果表明4个位点在4个居群的53个样本中扩增出10个等位基因。等位基因数(A)平均为2.5,有效等位基因数(Ne)平均为1.696,PIC值平均为0.312,各遗传参数值远低于核基因组对群体研究的相应值。4个等位基因从53个样本中共给出5种单倍型,既有共享率超过66%的单倍型,在房县居群中也存在稀有单倍型。其中丹江口和房县板栗天然野生居群,具有较高的单倍型多样性,杂合度分别为0.4062和0.3794。明显高于其他地区,显示两地是板栗的分布及遗传多样性中心。基于cpSSR数据,对板栗地方品种与天然野生居群间的遗传结构、关系及地方品种的起源进行了初步探讨。AMOVA分析显示,83%的cpSSR变异存在于居群之间,17%来自居群内。研究表明,十堰地区野生板栗具有较高的多样性,叶绿体单倍型分析更能直观的表现野生板栗的区域分布规律。%In order to study the genetic background of the wild Chinese chestnut resources in Shennongjia, four pairs of chloroplast simple-sequence repeats (cpSSRs) were used to investigate the population genet- ic structure and the distribution of chloroplast haplotypic variation in the wild populations of Chinese chestnuts collected from Shiyan prefecture of Hubei province. Four cpSSR presented 10 variations in the tested plants. Average number of alleles (A) and effective number of alleles (Ne) were 2.5 and 1.696, re- spectively. Average PIC was 0.312. Five haplotypes were found among the 53 tested individuals. 66% of all the individuals shared the same haplotype, while one sample in the Fangxian population showed a specific haplotype. With 0.4026 and 0.3794 of heterozygosity, the

  6. American foundations : roles and contributions

    OpenAIRE

    Helmut K. Anheier; Hammack, David

    2010-01-01

    Foundations play an essential part in the philanthropic activity that defines so much of American life. No other nation provides its foundations with so much autonomy and freedom of action as does the United States. Liberated both from the daily discipline of the market and from direct control by government, American foundations understandably attract great attention. As David Hammack and Helmut Anheier note in this volume, "Americans have criticized foundations for... their alleged conservat...

  7. Tree Diversity Limits the Impact of an Invasive Forest Pest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guyot, Virginie; Castagneyrol, Bastien; Vialatte, Aude; Deconchat, Marc; Selvi, Federico; Bussotti, Filippo; Jactel, Hervé

    2015-01-01

    The impact of invasive herbivore species may be lower in more diverse plant communities due to mechanisms of associational resistance. According to the “resource concentration hypothesis” the amount and accessibility of host plants is reduced in diverse plant communities, thus limiting the exploitation of resources by consumers. In addition, the “natural enemy hypothesis” suggests that richer plant assemblages provide natural enemies with more complementary resources and habitats, thus promoting top down regulation of herbivores. We tested these two hypotheses by comparing crown damage by the invasive Asian chestnut gall wasp (Dryocosmus kuriphilus) on chestnut trees (Castanea sativa) in pure and mixed stands in Italy. We estimated the defoliation on 70 chestnut trees in 15 mature stands sampled in the same region along a gradient of tree species richness ranging from one species (chestnut monocultures) to four species (mixtures of chestnut and three broadleaved species). Chestnut defoliation was significantly lower in stands with higher tree diversity. Damage on individual chestnut trees decreased with increasing height of neighboring, heterospecific trees. These results suggest that conservation biological control method based on tree species mixtures might help to reduce the impact of the Asian chestnut gall. PMID:26360881

  8. Tree Diversity Limits the Impact of an Invasive Forest Pest.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virginie Guyot

    Full Text Available The impact of invasive herbivore species may be lower in more diverse plant communities due to mechanisms of associational resistance. According to the "resource concentration hypothesis" the amount and accessibility of host plants is reduced in diverse plant communities, thus limiting the exploitation of resources by consumers. In addition, the "natural enemy hypothesis" suggests that richer plant assemblages provide natural enemies with more complementary resources and habitats, thus promoting top down regulation of herbivores. We tested these two hypotheses by comparing crown damage by the invasive Asian chestnut gall wasp (Dryocosmus kuriphilus on chestnut trees (Castanea sativa in pure and mixed stands in Italy. We estimated the defoliation on 70 chestnut trees in 15 mature stands sampled in the same region along a gradient of tree species richness ranging from one species (chestnut monocultures to four species (mixtures of chestnut and three broadleaved species. Chestnut defoliation was significantly lower in stands with higher tree diversity. Damage on individual chestnut trees decreased with increasing height of neighboring, heterospecific trees. These results suggest that conservation biological control method based on tree species mixtures might help to reduce the impact of the Asian chestnut gall.

  9. Tree Diversity Limits the Impact of an Invasive Forest Pest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guyot, Virginie; Castagneyrol, Bastien; Vialatte, Aude; Deconchat, Marc; Selvi, Federico; Bussotti, Filippo; Jactel, Hervé

    2015-01-01

    The impact of invasive herbivore species may be lower in more diverse plant communities due to mechanisms of associational resistance. According to the "resource concentration hypothesis" the amount and accessibility of host plants is reduced in diverse plant communities, thus limiting the exploitation of resources by consumers. In addition, the "natural enemy hypothesis" suggests that richer plant assemblages provide natural enemies with more complementary resources and habitats, thus promoting top down regulation of herbivores. We tested these two hypotheses by comparing crown damage by the invasive Asian chestnut gall wasp (Dryocosmus kuriphilus) on chestnut trees (Castanea sativa) in pure and mixed stands in Italy. We estimated the defoliation on 70 chestnut trees in 15 mature stands sampled in the same region along a gradient of tree species richness ranging from one species (chestnut monocultures) to four species (mixtures of chestnut and three broadleaved species). Chestnut defoliation was significantly lower in stands with higher tree diversity. Damage on individual chestnut trees decreased with increasing height of neighboring, heterospecific trees. These results suggest that conservation biological control method based on tree species mixtures might help to reduce the impact of the Asian chestnut gall.

  10. American Society of Nuclear Cardiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... much more! class="box-li"> Journal of Nuclear Cardiology Official publication of the American Society of Nuclear Cardiology Clinical Guidelines Procedures, Appropriate Use Criteria, Information Statements ...

  11. American College of Chest Physicians

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... American College of Chest Physicians and Sunovion announce strategic initiative focused on the importance of drug delivery in the management of COPD Sunovion Pharmaceuticals, Inc. (Sunovion) and the ...

  12. Satial pattern and sampling technique of Assara exiguella (Caradja) Larvae in chestnut orchards%小蛀果斑螟幼虫空间格局及抽样技术研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董易之; 陈炳旭; 梁广文; 陆恒

    2009-01-01

    The spatial distribution patterns ofAssara exiguella (Caradja) larvae in different chestnut orchards were surveyed and analysized. The results showed that the larvae were in aggregation distribution fit for negative binomial pattern. Its Iwan's m*-m model was m*=2.2825+1.0471m and Taylor's power model lg (v)= 0.4467+1.12871g (m). By analysing the aggregation index, the larva was attractive by each other in chestnut orchards and its basic component of distribution was colony which were in aggregation distribution even at low population density and more aggressive with population density increasing. The aggreggation distribution of the larvae was due to its life habit and environmental factors. In addition, the optimum theoretical sampling number of the larvae could be obtained from the formula n=t2/D2·(3.2825/m+0.0471).%对7个板栗园小蛀果斑螟幼虫空间格局调查结果表明:小蛀果斑螟幼虫在板栗园中的分布是遵循负二项分布的聚集分布.其中Iwao的m*-m同归模型为m*=2.2825+1.0471m,Taylor幂模型为Ig(v)=0.4467+1.12871g(m).对各聚集度指标的分析结果显示:在板栗园中的小蛀果斑螟幼虫彼此之间互相吸引.分布的基本成分是个体群,个体群为聚集分布,且在任何密度下都是聚集的.聚集强度随着密度的升高而增大.导致小蛀果斑螟幼虫在板栗园中呈聚集分布的原因是由该虫本身的习性和环境共同造成的.小蛀果斑螟幼虫虫口密度调查的最适理论抽样数公式为n=t2/D·(3.2825/m+0.0471).

  13. The Dyeing Performance Study of Chestnut Shell Pigment on Silk Knitted Fabric%板栗壳色素对真丝针织物的染色性能研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾科; 高梅; 殷珉扬; 吴露; 王祥荣

    2014-01-01

    通过探讨板栗壳色素上染真丝针织物的pH值、染色温度、氯化钠用量、色素用量等因素对真丝针织物染色性能的影响,研究了板栗壳色素在真丝针织物上的直接染色工艺和先媒后染工艺,测试并比较了直接染色和先媒后染工艺染色后织物的颜色特征、染色牢度以及防紫外线性能。结果表明,板栗壳色素直接上染真丝针织物的最优工艺为:pH值3.0~3.6,温度95℃,时间60 min;板栗壳色素对真丝针织物具有较好的提升性能;媒染后染色织物的皂洗牢度和日晒牢度稍有提高;直接染色和先媒后染工艺染色后织物均具有优良的防紫外线性能。%The effects of pH value, dyeing temperature, dosage of sodium chloride and pigment on the dyeing performance of silk knitted fabric dyed by chestrut shell pigment were discussed. The direct dyeing and mordant dyeing first and then dyed by chestnut shell pigment was studied. And the color feature, color fastness and UV-re-sistance performance of fabrics by direct dyeing was compared with those of fabrics which were dyed by mordant a-gent first. The results show that the optimal process of silk knitted fabric is pH 3~3.6 , temperature 95 ℃, 60 minutes; Chestnut shell pigment improves the performance of silk knitted fabrics; the soaping fastness and sunlight-fastness improves slightly after mordant dyeing. Fabrics have good UV-resistance performance after direct dyeing and mordant dyeing.

  14. "American Gothic" Revised: Positive Perceptions from a Young American Farmer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joehl, Regan R.

    2008-01-01

    Grant Wood's "American Gothic," intended to represent the Depression Era, Midwestern farmer, has been regarded by many as the stereotypical representation of a true American farmer for decades. While this painting does represent farmers in the early part of the 20th century, the author feels obliged to say that it is time to drop this stereotype…

  15. I Am an American! The Thrills of American Citizenship

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mehring, F.

    2013-01-01

    The allure of American citizenship and the function of patriotism among naturalized foreigners bring into focus questions of American national identity and the contested belief in the “whole of America.” European immigrant perspectives on the promise of the Declaration of Independence, naturalizatio

  16. Multiculturalism and "American" Religion: The Case of Hindu Indian Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurien, Prema A.

    2006-01-01

    How non-Christian religious groups should be politically recognized within Western multicultural societies has proved to be a pressing contemporary issue. This article examines some ways in which American policies regarding religion and multiculturalism have shaped Hindu Indian American organizations, forms of public expression and activism.…

  17. Arab American Women Negotiating Identities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mango, Oraib

    2012-01-01

    Compared to the literature available on other ethnic groups in the United States, there is very little information about school experiences of Arab Americans (Nieto, 2003). This study examines the ways that Arab American women reported positioning themselves when faced with difficult situations related to stereotypical images of Arabs and Arab…

  18. Shaping the American School Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogletree, Earl J.; Fakhri, Muhammad A. W.

    1977-01-01

    Asserts that historically, the American schools have been shaped by a myriad of social, political and economic forces. The transformation of the schools from the first, but sectarian schools of New England in 1635 to the secular alternative schools of today has reflected the desire of Americans to provide equal educational opportunities."…

  19. Native American Languages: Subject Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Joyce, Comp.

    This document is an eleven-page supplemental subject guide listing reference material that focuses on Native American languages that is not available in the Labriola National American Indian Data Center in the Arizona State University, Tempe (ASU) libraries. The guide is not comprehensive but offers a selective list of resources useful for…

  20. On American Cultural Exportation Strategy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李德俊

    2015-01-01

    American government has been attaching great importance to the role that cultural values plays in international relationships and Culture Exportation has gradually become one of the important parts of American diplomatic strategy.This strategy,which is propelled by a variety of impetuses and conducted by different approaches,is mainly aimed to serve the overall national interests of the United States.