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Sample records for american brachytherapy society

  1. The American Brachytherapy Society recommendations for low-dose-rate brachytherapy for carcinoma of the cervix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: This report presents guidelines for using low-dose-rate (LDR) brachytherapy in the management of patients with cervical cancer. Methods: Members of the American Brachytherapy Society (ABS) with expertise in LDR brachytherapy for cervical cancer performed a literature review, supplemented by their clinical experience, to formulate guidelines for LDR brachytherapy of cervical cancer. Results: The ABS strongly recommends that radiation treatment for cervical carcinoma (with or without chemotherapy) should include brachytherapy as a component. Precise applicator placement is essential for improved local control and reduced morbidity. The outcome of brachytherapy depends, in part, on the skill of the brachytherapist. Doses given by external beam radiotherapy and brachytherapy depend upon the initial volume of disease, the ability to displace the bladder and rectum, the degree of tumor regression during pelvic irradiation, and institutional practice. The ABS recognizes that intracavitary brachytherapy is the standard technique for brachytherapy for cervical carcinoma. Interstitial brachytherapy should be considered for patients with disease that cannot be optimally encompassed by intracavitary brachytherapy. The ABS recommends completion of treatment within 8 weeks, when possible. Prolonging total treatment duration can adversely affect local control and survival. Recommendations are made for definitive and postoperative therapy after hysterectomy. Although recognizing that many efficacious LDR dose schedules exist, the ABS presents suggested dose and fractionation schemes for combining external beam radiotherapy with LDR brachytherapy for each stage of disease. The dose prescription point (point A) is defined for intracavitary insertions. Dose rates of 0.50 to 0.65 Gy/h are suggested for intracavitary brachytherapy. Dose rates of 0.50 to 0.70 Gy/h to the periphery of the implant are suggested for interstitial implant. Use of differential source activity or

  2. American Brachytherapy Society (ABS) recommendations for transperineal permanent brachytherapy of prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose/Objective: To develop and disseminate the American Brachytherapy Society (ABS) recommendations for the clinical quality assurance and guidelines of permanent transperineal prostate brachytherapy with 125I or 103Pd. Methods and Materials: The ABS formed a committee of experts in prostate brachytherapy to develop consensus guidelines through a critical analysis of published data supplemented by their clinical experience. The recommendations of the panels were reviewed and approved by the Board of Directors of the ABS. Results: Patients with high probability of organ-confined disease are appropriately treated with brachytherapy alone. Brachytherapy candidates with a significant risk of extraprostatic extension should be treated with supplemental external beam radiation therapy (EBRT). Patient selection guidelines were developed. Dosimetric planning of the implant should be carried out for all patients before seed insertion. A modified peripheral loading is preferred. The AAPM TG-43 recommendations requiring a change in prescription dose for 125I sources should be universally implemented. The recommended prescription doses for monotherapy are 145 Gy for 125I and 115-120 Gy for 103Pd. The corresponding boost doses (after 40-50 Gy EBRT) are 100-110 Gy and 80-90 Gy, respectively. Clinical evidence to guide selection of radionuclide (103Pd or 125I) is lacking. Post implant dosimetry and evaluation must be performed on all patients. It is suggested that the dose that covers 90% (D90) and 100% (D100) of the prostate volume and the percentage of the prostate volume receiving the prescribed dose (V100) be obtained from a dose-volume histogram (DVH) and reported. Conclusion: Guidelines for appropriate patient selection, dose reporting, and improved quality of permanent prostate brachytherapy are presented. These broad recommendations are intended to be technical and advisory in nature, but the ultimate responsibility for the medical decisions rests with the treating

  3. American Society for Radiation Oncology (ASTRO) and American College of Radiology (ACR) Practice Guideline for the Performance of High-Dose-Rate Brachytherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    High-Dose-Rate (HDR) brachytherapy is a safe and efficacious treatment option for patients with a variety of different malignancies. Careful adherence to established standards has been shown to improve the likelihood of procedural success and reduce the incidence of treatment-related morbidity. A collaborative effort of the American College of Radiology (ACR) and American Society for Therapeutic Radiation Oncology (ASTRO) has produced a practice guideline for HDR brachytherapy. The guideline defines the qualifications and responsibilities of all the involved personnel, including the radiation oncologist, physicist and dosimetrists. Review of the leading indications for HDR brachytherapy in the management of gynecologic, thoracic, gastrointestinal, breast, urologic, head and neck, and soft tissue tumors is presented. Logistics with respect to the brachytherapy implant procedures and attention to radiation safety procedures and documentation are presented. Adherence to these practice guidelines can be part of ensuring quality and safety in a successful HDR brachytherapy program.

  4. American Brachytherapy Society survey regarding practice patterns of postoperative irradiation for endometrial cancer: Current status of vaginal brachytherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To survey the current postoperative recommendations for radiotherapy (RT) in patients with endometrial cancer, with an emphasis on vaginal brachytherapy (VBT). Methods and Materials: In August 2003, a 32-item questionnaire was mailed to a random sample of 2396 members of the American Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology and the American Brachytherapy Society. The sample excluded members-in-training, physicists, and non-U.S. members. A follow-up mailing was conducted in November 2003. Those who had not treated any patient in the previous year for endometrial carcinoma were instructed to indicate so at the beginning of the questionnaire and return it without responding to any other item. Responses were tabulated to determine the relative frequency distribution. Results: of the 2396 surveys sent out, 757 were returned, for a response rate of 31.6%. Of those who responded, 551 (72.8%) had performed postoperative irradiation for endometrial cancer and were included in this study. Of the 551 respondents, 99.8% had delivered external beam RT to some endometrial cancer patients. An increasing trend was found toward referrals for VBT; 91.5% of those who treated endometrial cancer performed VBT. The vaginal target most often irradiated was the upper vagina in 40.7%, upper 4-5 cm in 54.5%, and the entire vagina in 4.9%; 21.3% placed clips at the vaginal apex for applicator verification. The maximal dose to the bladder and rectum was recorded in 78.3% and 80.2% of patients, respectively. Of the respondents, 40% did not use low-dose-rate (LDR) VBT. The two most common LDR applicators were Delclos cylinders (29.7%) and Fletcher colpostats (29.3%). The mean boost dose delivered with LDR VBT when prescribed to the surface was 29.9 Gy and when prescribed to 0.5 cm was 23.8 Gy. When LDR therapy was used without external beam RT, the mean dose when prescribed to the surface was 56.8 Gy and when prescribed to 0.5 cm was 47.9 Gy. In 2002, 69.1% of respondents treated

  5. American Society for Radiation Oncology (ASTRO) and American College of Radiology (ACR) Practice Guideline for the Transperineal Permanent Brachytherapy of Prostate Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Transperineal permanent prostate brachytherapy is a safe and efficacious treatment option for patients with organ-confined prostate cancer. Careful adherence to established brachytherapy standards has been shown to improve the likelihood of procedural success and reduce the incidence of treatment-related morbidity. A collaborative effort of the American College of Radiology (ACR) and American Society for Therapeutic Radiation Oncology (ASTRO) has produced a practice guideline for permanent prostate brachytherapy. The guideline defines the qualifications and responsibilities of all the involved personnel, including the radiation oncologist, physicist and dosimetrist. Factors with respect to patient selection and appropriate use of supplemental treatment modalities such as external beam radiation and androgen suppression therapy are discussed. Logistics with respect to the brachtherapy implant procedure, the importance of dosimetric parameters, and attention to radiation safety procedures and documentation are presented. Adherence to these practice guidelines can be part of ensuring quality and safety in a successful prostate brachytherapy program.

  6. Timing of Chemotherapy After MammoSite Radiation Therapy System Breast Brachytherapy: Analysis of the American Society of Breast Surgeons MammoSite Breast Brachytherapy Registry Trial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To evaluate cosmetic outcome and radiation recall in the American Society of Breast Surgeons registry trial, as a function of the interval between accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI) and initiation of chemotherapy (CTX). Methods and Materials: A total of 1440 patients at 97 institutions participated in this trial. After lumpectomy for early-stage breast cancer, patients received APBI (34 Gy in 10 fractions) with MammoSite RTS brachytherapy. A total of 148 patients received CTX within 90 days of APBI. Cosmetic outcome was evaluated at each follow-up visit and dichotomized as excellent/good or fair/poor. Results: Chemotherapy was initiated at a mean of 3.9 weeks after the final MammoSite procedure and was administered ≤3 weeks after APBI in 54 patients (36%) and >3 weeks after APBI in 94 patients (64%). The early and delayed groups were well balanced with respect to multiple factors that may impact on cosmetic outcome. There was a superior cosmetic outcome in those receiving chemotherapy >3 weeks after APBI (excellent/good in 72.2% at ≤3 weeks vs. excellent/good in 93.8% at >3 weeks; p = 0.01). Radiation recall in those receiving CTX at ≤3 weeks was 9 of 50 (18%), compared with 6 of 81(7.4%) in those receiving chemotherapy at >3 weeks (p = 0.09). Conclusion: The majority of patients receiving CTX after APBI have excellent/good cosmetic outcomes, with a low rate of radiation recall. Chemotherapy initiated >3 weeks after the final MammoSite procedure seems to be associated with a better cosmetic outcome and lower rate of radiation recall. An excellent/good cosmetic outcome in patients receiving CTX after 3 weeks was similar to the cosmetic outcome of the overall patient population who did not receive CTX

  7. American Headache Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Us American Migraine Foundation Login THE AMERICAN Headache Society is a professional society of health care providers dedicated to the study ... MIGRAINE MOMENT” FILM CONTEST WINNERS The American Headache Society and American Migraine Foundation, the AHS’s charitable division, ...

  8. American Society of Echocardiography

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Society of Echocardiography Join Ase Member Portal Log In Membership Member Portal Log In Join ASE Renew Benefits Rates FASE – Fellow of the American Society of Echocardiography Member Referral Program FAQs Initiatives Advocacy ...

  9. American Urogynecologic Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Patient Site » PFD Registry » Contact Us American Urogynecologic Society 1100 Wayne Avenue, Suite 670 Silver Spring, MD ... Us | Privacy Policy | HONcode Accredited © 2016 American Urogynecologic Society. All rights reserved.

  10. North American Spine Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Coverage Recommendations SpineLine Renew Membership NORTH AMERICAN SPINE SOCIETY BURR RIDGE, IL 7075 Veterans Blvd. Burr Ridge, ... NASS Contact Us © Copyright 2016 North American Spine Society | Terms Of Use | Privacy Statement

  11. American Epilepsy Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a Doctor | Donate main search Search American Epilepsy Society CLINICAL RESOURCES FAQs GUIDELINES IOM EPILEPSY MEDICAL MARIJUANA ... RENEW VOLUNTEER FAES: FELLOW OF THE AMERICAN EPILEPSY SOCIETY MAILING LIST PURCHASE FOR PATIENTS EPILEPSY BENEFIT INTERNATIONAL ...

  12. American Society of Transplantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Trials in Transplantation September 13, 2016 The American Society of Transplantation and its Transplantation & Immunology Research Network ... Learn More Donate Donate Donate to the American Society of Transplantation Advertisement member spotlight View all Joanna ...

  13. American Cancer Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Involved Find Local ACS How the American Cancer Society Fights Childhood Cancer Advances in treatment have improved ... long lasting consequences. Learn how the American Cancer Society is working to save more lives from cancer ...

  14. American Society of Neuroradiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to announce Mary Beth Hepp, MBA, as the society’s next executive director, replacing James B. Gantenberg, FACHE ... Contact Search form Search 2005-2015 Copyright American Society of Neuroradiology OM Base Theme 2016 | V7.x- ...

  15. American Society of Hematology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Main Navigation Account Navigation Main Content American Society of Hematology ASH Store ASH Job Center ASH Apps Share Your Idea Donate My Account Search Show Main Menu + About Awards Membership ASH ...

  16. American Society of Nephrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... co/8cdJ2oSFjH – @ASNKidney on Twitter ASN News Feed Society Events Interact With ASN rss Facebook Twitter YouTube ... Podcast ASN Communities Share ASN User Login © American Society of Nephrology top Text Size + - Translate Sitemap Terms ...

  17. American Society for Dermatologic Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ASDS: Log In Forgot your password? ASDS — American Society for Dermatologic Surgery Expertise for the life of ... with new skin cancer screening recommendation The American Society for Dermatologic Surgery (ASDS) is expressing its disappointment ...

  18. American Society of Human Genetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Research Awards August 9, 2016 Media Advisory: American Society of Human Genetics 2016 Annual Meeting July 26, ... McKusick Leadership Award June 30, 2016 The American Society of Human Genetics, Incorporated 9650 Rockville Pike • Bethesda, ...

  19. American Society of Hand Therapists

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ago Follow Us Who we are The American Society of Hand Therapists (ASHT) is a professional organization ... a chartered accredited association management company. © 2016 American Society of Hand Therapists. All Rights Reserved. Advertisement

  20. American Society of Plastic Surgeons

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... doctor who is a member of the American Society of Plastic Surgeons (ASPS®), you can rest assured ... ASPS The Plastic Surgery Foundation Copyright © 2016 American Society of Plastic Surgeons | Privacy Policy | Sitemap | Terms and ...

  1. American Head and Neck Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Head & Neck Society Head and Neck Cancer Research & Education American Head & Neck Society | AHNS Head and Neck Cancer Research & Education About AHNS ... and Announcements Copyright ©2016 · American Head and Neck Society · Privacy and Return Policy Managed by BSC Management, ...

  2. American Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to Give Testimonials Planned Giving Circle of Light Society Corporate Partners Program Crystal Awards Board of Trustees ... Us Association for Bariatric Endoscopy Copyright © 2016 American Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy 3300 Woodcreek Dr. • Downers Grove, ...

  3. American Society for Radiation Oncology

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... PAC Become an Advocate Log In SNIPEND American Society for Radiation Oncology Plan your time at the ... oncology practices. RO-ILS The only medical specialty society-sponsored incident learning system for radiation oncology. RO ...

  4. American Society of Clinical Oncology

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Media Policy Sponsor Policy Terms of Use American Society of Clinical Oncology Genitourinary Cancers Symposium Call for ... or cosponsored by ASCO View Event 13th Asian Society for Neuro-Oncology (ASNO) Meeting/9th COGNO Annual ...

  5. American Society of Nuclear Cardiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Nuclear Cardiology Official publication of the American Society of Nuclear Cardiology Clinical Guidelines Procedures, Appropriate Use Criteria, Information Statements and Joint Society Statements Member Login Enter Forgot your password? Meetings & ...

  6. American Society of Anesthesiologists

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ASA Newsroom Our Mission Governance and Committees Component Societies Related Organizations Office of General Counsel Employment at ... About ASA Our Mission Governance and Committees Component Societies Related Organizations Employment at ASA Contact Us Support ...

  7. Five-Year Analysis of Treatment Efficacy and Cosmesis by the American Society of Breast Surgeons MammoSite Breast Brachytherapy Registry Trial in Patients Treated With Accelerated Partial Breast Irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To present 5-year data on treatment efficacy, cosmetic results, and toxicities for patients enrolled on the American Society of Breast Surgeons MammoSite breast brachytherapy registry trial. Methods and Materials: A total of 1440 patients (1449 cases) with early-stage breast cancer receiving breast-conserving therapy were treated with the MammoSite device to deliver accelerated partial-breast irradiation (APBI) (34 Gy in 3.4-Gy fractions). Of 1449 cases, 1255 (87%) had invasive breast cancer (IBC) (median size, 10 mm) and 194 (13%) had ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) (median size, 8 mm). Median follow-up was 54 months. Results: Thirty-seven cases (2.6%) developed an ipsilateral breast tumor recurrence (IBTR), for a 5-year actuarial rate of 3.80% (3.86% for IBC and 3.39% for DCIS). Negative estrogen receptor status (p = 0.0011) was the only clinical, pathologic, or treatment-related variable associated with IBTR for patients with IBC and young age (<50 years; p = 0.0096) and positive margin status (p = 0.0126) in those with DCIS. The percentage of breasts with good/excellent cosmetic results at 60 months (n = 371) was 90.6%. Symptomatic breast seromas were reported in 13.0% of cases, and 2.3% developed fat necrosis. A subset analysis of the first 400 consecutive cases enrolled was performed (352 with IBC, 48 DCIS). With a median follow-up of 60.5 months, the 5-year actuarial rate of IBTR was 3.04%. Conclusion: Treatment efficacy, cosmesis, and toxicity 5 years after treatment with APBI using the MammoSite device are good and similar to those reported with other forms of APBI with similar follow-up.

  8. American Society for Clinical Pathology

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... With the National Cancer Institute for Inaugural Global Pathology Conference March 2016 OneLab Memo ASCP Action Alert - ... 2016 Copyright © 2016 by American Society for Clinical Pathology. All Rights Reserved. Terms of Use About ASCP ...

  9. North American Menopause Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Advertisements NAMS in the News Press Room Assistance Society Overview Top 10 reasons why NAMS is your ... fully updated and referenced 5th edition of the Society’s leading professional resource, featuring the latest comprehensive clinical ...

  10. American Society for Surgery of the Hand

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Welcome to ASSH.org Home of the American Society for Surgery of the Hand. The American Society for Surgery of the Hand is the oldest and most prestigious medical society dedicated to the hand and upper extremity. Our ...

  11. Brachytherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Brachytherapy What is Brachytherapy and how is it used? ... will I feel during this procedure? What is brachytherapy and how is it used? Brachytherapy is a ...

  12. American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... education site of the American Orthopaedic Foot & Ankle Society. Patients Visit the official patient education site of the American Orthopaedic Foot & Ankle Society. Patients Visit the official patient education site of ...

  13. American Society of Pediatric Hematology/Oncology

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 2016 Engage with ASPHO and benefit from the Society’s professional development, education, and networking resources! Read More » ... Career Center Mentoring Funding Compensation Survey © The American Society of Pediatric Hematology/Oncology 8735 W. Higgins Road, ...

  14. Judy Riffle named American Chemical Society Fellow

    OpenAIRE

    Doss, Catherine

    2010-01-01

    Judy S. Riffle, professor of chemistry and director of Virginia Tech's interdisciplinary Macromolecular Science and Engineering Ph.D. education program, has been named a Fellow of the American Chemical Society.

  15. [Brachytherapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itami, Jun

    2014-12-01

    Brachytherapy do require a minimal expansion of CTV to obtain PTV and it is called as ultimate high precision radiation therapy. In high-dose rate brachytherapy, applicators will be placed around or into the tumor and CT or MRI will be performed with the applicators in situ. With such image-guided brachytherapy (IGBT) 3-dimensional treatment planning becomes possible and DVH of the tumor and organs at risk can be obtained. It is now even possible to make forward planning satisfying dose constraints. Traditional subjective evaluation of brachytherapy can be improved to the objective one by IGBT. Brachytherapy of the prostate cancer, cervical cancer, and breast cancer with IGBT technique was described. PMID:25596048

  16. Society of American Gastrointestinal Endoscopic Surgeons

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... U SAGES.TV iMAGES Wiki MyCME HealthySooner SAGES Society of American Gastrointestinal and Endoscopic Surgeons Home SAGES ... and Co-Chairs Officers and Representatives of the Society SAGES Past Presidents Awards George Berci Award Pioneer ...

  17. Patrick Phipps named American Phytopathological Society Fellow

    OpenAIRE

    Greiner, Lori A.

    2009-01-01

    Patrick Phipps of Suffolk, Va., professor of plant pathology, physiology, and weed science in Virginia Tech's College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, was elected into the American Phytopathological Society College of Fellows. He is based at the Tidewater Agricultural Research and Extension Center in Suffolk, Va.

  18. American Society of Health-System Pharmacists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Advertisement Careers Drug Information Foundation Connect ASHP Consulting Service AJHP Login/Register | Cart About Us What We ... Wisconsin Avenue Bethesda, Maryland 20814 YouTube LinkedIn Twitter Facebook ASHP Connect ©2016 American Society of Health-System ...

  19. The Second Journey: Impressions of American Society

    OpenAIRE

    Manlio Rossi-Doria

    2010-01-01

    Travelling from the Usa to Italy, Rossi-Doria describes the impressions of his second visit to America. Rossi-Doria writes that he had this time a deeper and surer understanding of this big Country. On this occasion, in fact, he came into contact with American society, with the everyday life, the greatness and the contradictions of the United States. His judgment is of a Country that is continually and very rapidly modified, in which there is also «an ugly side», such as the poverty and the s...

  20. American Nuclear Society exchanges of information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Many are familiar with the technical journals and other publications that American Nuclear Society (ANS) members receive. However, there is a whole series of documents that is helpful to any nuclear society group for a modest fee or no fee. The author is referring to documents such as the ANS Bylaws and Rules, which have been made available to almost every existing nuclear society in the world. He remembers working with groups from Russia, Europe, China, Japan, Brazil, France, Germany, and others when they sought the experience of ANS in establishing a society. Financial planning guides are available for meetings, international conferences, technical expositions, and teacher workshops. Periodically, the ANS publishes position papers on the uses and handling of fuel materials and other publications helpful to public relations and teacher training courses. A few have had distributions in the hundreds of thousands, and one went as high as 750,000. Some of these have been translated in part into Spanish, French, Portuguese, and Japanese. Nuclear Standards are developed by a series of ANS committees consisting of about 1000 experts--the largest technical operation of ANS. Buyers guides and directories are very helpful in promoting the commerce in the nuclear industry. The Utility Directory covers utilities all over the globe. Radwaste Solutions, the new name for the former Radwaste Magazine, covers the efforts made by all sectors--private, government, and utility--to deal with radioactive waste. In the author's opinion, the one area in which all societies are weak is in interfacing with the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). Since his retirement 9 yr ago, he has become much more aware of the IAEA as a news and technical information source. The ANS is trying to be more aware of what the IAEA is doing for everyone

  1. An Official American Thoracic Society Research Statement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Slatore, Christopher G; Horeweg, Nanda; Jett, James R;

    2015-01-01

    development of registries that link demographic and nodule characteristics with patient-level outcomes. Methods to share data from registries are also necessary. CONCLUSIONS: This statement may help researchers to develop impactful and innovative research projects and enable funders to better judge research......BACKGROUND: Pulmonary nodules are frequently detected during diagnostic chest imaging and as a result of lung cancer screening. Current guidelines for their evaluation are largely based on low-quality evidence, and patients and clinicians could benefit from more research in this area. METHODS: In...... this research statement from the American Thoracic Society, a multidisciplinary group of clinicians, researchers, and patient advocates reviewed available evidence for pulmonary nodule evaluation, characterized six focus areas to direct future research efforts, and identified fundamental gaps in...

  2. American Cancer Society/American Society of Clinical Oncology Breast Cancer Survivorship Care Guideline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Runowicz, Carolyn D; Leach, Corinne R; Henry, N Lynn; Henry, Karen S; Mackey, Heather T; Cowens-Alvarado, Rebecca L; Cannady, Rachel S; Pratt-Chapman, Mandi L; Edge, Stephen B; Jacobs, Linda A; Hurria, Arti; Marks, Lawrence B; LaMonte, Samuel J; Warner, Ellen; Lyman, Gary H; Ganz, Patricia A

    2016-02-20

    The purpose of the American Cancer Society/American Society of Clinical Oncology Breast Cancer Survivorship Care Guideline is to provide recommendations to assist primary care and other clinicians in the care of female adult survivors of breast cancer. A systematic review of the literature was conducted using PubMed through April 2015. A multidisciplinary expert workgroup with expertise in primary care, gynecology, surgical oncology, medical oncology, radiation oncology, and nursing was formed and tasked with drafting the Breast Cancer Survivorship Care Guideline. A total of 1,073 articles met inclusion criteria; and, after full text review, 237 were included as the evidence base. Patients should undergo regular surveillance for breast cancer recurrence, including evaluation with a cancer-related history and physical examination, and should be screened for new primary breast cancer. Data do not support performing routine laboratory tests or imaging tests in asymptomatic patients to evaluate for breast cancer recurrence. Primary care clinicians should counsel patients about the importance of maintaining a healthy lifestyle, monitor for post-treatment symptoms that can adversely affect quality of life, and monitor for adherence to endocrine therapy. Recommendations provided in this guideline are based on current evidence in the literature and expert consensus opinion. Most of the evidence is not sufficient to warrant a strong evidence-based recommendation. Recommendations on surveillance for breast cancer recurrence, screening for second primary cancers, assessment and management of physical and psychosocial long-term and late effects of breast cancer and its treatment, health promotion, and care coordination/practice implications are made.This guideline was developed through a collaboration between the American Cancer Society and the American Society of Clinical Oncology and has been published jointly by invitation and consent in both CA: A Cancer Journal for

  3. American Nuclear Society 1994 student conference eastern region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-12-31

    This report contains abstracts from the 1994 American Nuclear Society Student Conference. The areas covered by these abstracts are: fusion and plasma physics; nuclear chemistry; radiation detection; reactor physics; thermal hydraulics; and corrosion science and waste issues.

  4. American Nuclear Society 1994 student conference eastern region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report contains abstracts from the 1994 American Nuclear Society Student Conference. The areas covered by these abstracts are: fusion and plasma physics; nuclear chemistry; radiation detection; reactor physics; thermal hydraulics; and corrosion science and waste issues

  5. Centennial Calendar- 100 Years of the American Phytopathological Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    I edited a 40-page publication (calendar) that covered 18 chapters written by members of our society. This covered pioneering researchers, departments, and epidemics of the last 100 years of plant pathology in the U. S. This was given to all members of the American Phytopathological Society who att...

  6. Quality assurance programme in high dose rate brachytherapy with Iridium-192 source. Recommendations of the French Medical Physicists Society

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A report on Quality Assurance in High Dose Rate brachytherapy with Iridium-192 source has been prepared by the task group of the Brachytherapy committee of the French Medical Physicists Society. This report provides recommendations on what should be tested, the methods to be used, the test frequencies and the tolerances. The Quality Assurance Programme concerns mainly the Q.A. on the treatment unit, the treatment planning system and the patient procedure. Tolerances and action levels are linked to international recommendations. Safety standards are linked to national legislation and to international recommendations. It is the responsibility of the Institution to verify that the source calibration provided by the manufacturer is correct. The calibration of the Iridium-192 source should be an in-air measurement of air-kerma using an ionization chamber. The recommended tolerance between manufacturer and Institution calibration is 3 %. Quality Control on remote afterloading systems should include consideration of the accuracy and reproducibility of positioning of sources in the applicators. Safety features must also be evaluated regularly and emergency procedures should be tested regularly and posted in a prominent place. After the detailed acceptance tests of dose calculation algorithm, routine checks should be done after software update. An independent dose calculation is recommended before treatment. The recommended agreement with the computer calculation should be within 10%. A written dosimetry report for each brachytherapy procedure is recommended to be inserted in patient charts. The results of all tests should be recorded in a logbook. Fault conditions should be carefully documented

  7. American Astronomical Society Honors NRAO Scientist

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    The American Astronomical Society (AAS) has awarded its prestigious George Van Biesbroeck Prize to Dr. Eric Greisen of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) in Socorro, New Mexico. The society cited Greisen's quarter-century as "principal architect and tireless custodian" of the Astronomical Image Processing System (AIPS), a massive software package used by astronomers around the world, as "an invaluable service to astronomy." Dr. Eric Greisen Dr. Eric Greisen CREDIT: NRAO/AUI/NSF (Click on image for larger version) The Van Biesbroeck Prize "honors a living individual for long-term extraordinary or unselfish service to astronomy, often beyond the requirements of his or her paid position." The AAS, with about 7,000 members, is the major organization of professional astronomers in North America. " The Very Large Array (VLA) is the most productive ground-based telescope in the history of astronomy, and most of the more than 10,000 observing projects on the VLA have depended upon the AIPS software to produce their scientific results," said Dr. James Ulvestad, NRAO's Director of New Mexico Operations. "This same software package also has been the principal tool for scientists using the Very Long Baseline Array and numerous other radio telescopes around the world," Ulvestad added. Greisen, who received a Ph.D in astronomy from the California Institute of Technology, joined the NRAO in 1972. He moved from the observatory's headquarters in Charlottesville, Virginia, to its Array Operations Center in Socorro in 2000. Greisen, who learned of the award in a telephone call from the AAS President, Dr. Robert Kirschner of Harvard University, said, "I'm pleased for the recognition of AIPS and also for the recognition of the contributions of radio astronomy to astronomy as a whole." He added that "it wasn't just me who did AIPS. There were many others." The AIPS software package grew out of the need for an efficient tool for producing images with the VLA, which was being

  8. Democratization in the Gulf Monarchies and American Civil Society

    OpenAIRE

    Azam, M. Nazrul Islam and Muhammad

    2010-01-01

    The paper deals with the efforts made by American private sector and civil society actors after 2000 to popularize democratic values and norms in the six Gulf states, namely Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, and the United Arab Emirates. The study is focused on areas including politics, education, culture, media, human rights, and women empowerment. The paper also deals with approaches adopted, goals and objectives set and strategies devised and employed by the American NGOs regardi...

  9. Development of radiation shielding standards in the American Nuclear Society

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The American Nuclear Society (ANS) is a standards-writing organization-member of the American National Standards Institute (ANSI). The ANS Standards Committee has a subcommittee denoted ANS-6, Shielding, whose charge is to establish standards in connection with radiation protection and shielding, to provide shielding information to other standards writing groups, and to prepare recommended sets of shielding data and test problems. This paper is a progress report of this subcommittee

  10. Latin American and Caribbean Federation of Radiation Protection Societies (FRALC)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The idea of a Federation of Radiation Protection Societies in Latin America came up at the First Regional Congress on Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety that was held in Buenos Aires (Argentina), in October 1991. At the Second Regional Congress, in Zacatecas (Mexico), in 1993, the Latin American and Caribbean Federation of Radiation Protection Societies (FRALC) was officially launched. The founder members were the Argentine Radiation Protection Society (SAR), the Brazilian Radiation Protection Society (SBPR), the Mexican Radiation Safety Society (SMSR) and the Peruvian Radiation Protection Society (SPR). Now, the FRALC has accepted as members the Radiation Protection Section of the Cuban Physics Society (SPRC) and the Uruguayan Radiation Protection Association (AUR). The basic objectives of the FRALC are: to promote the safe use of radiation and radioactive sources in Latin America and the Caribbean; to promote the foundation of new Radiation Protection Societies within the region, as mean of associating radiation protection professionals, and then, to promote of affiliation of this new societies to IRPA; to encourage the cooperation and mutual aid in the study, research and use of resources, in order to promote the radiation protection development in Latin America and the Caribbean

  11. Society for melanoma research and american heart association scientific sessions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Walter

    2015-01-01

    Among the featured topics: oncolytic immunotherapy, BRAF/MEK inhibition, and a programmed death-1 inhibitor at the Society for Melanoma Research; and anticoagulation therapy, an alternative to statins, and endocarditis in the absence of dental antibiotic prophylaxis at the American Heart Association Scientific Sessions. PMID:25628510

  12. Brief overview of American Nuclear Society's research reactor standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The American Nuclear Society (ANS) established the research reactor standards group in 1968. The standards group, known as ANS-15, was established for the purpose of developing, preparing, and maintaining standards for the design, construction, operation, maintenance, and decommissioning of nuclear reactors intended for research and training

  13. Crime and Violence in American Society: An Overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn, Edith Elisabeth; And Others

    1980-01-01

    Six articles focus on various aspects on violence in American society. Titles are "Evolving a Science of Violence,""Violence by Youth; Violence Against Youth,""Victims and Aggressors in Marital Violence,""Television Violence, Victimization, and Power," and "Violence in Business Settings." (DB)

  14. A Glimpse of American Society through the American TV Drama Series"the Desperate Housewives"

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Jia-wei

    2014-01-01

    The paper presents an analytical study on the American society through a popular American drama series"the Desper-ate House Wives". Typical American values can be found everywhere on the show as they have been ingrained in the soul of the American people. As a nation with not very long history but great achievements, its people are the one that should be highlight-ed. Unlike China, the nation of which have formed since thousands of years ago, so has its culture, America ’s history is an immi-gration history. People started migrating from other parts of the world since the 17th century and gathered at the land of America to build up their new homes and realize their dreams. They influence each other and fuse with each other. America is one of the countries in the world that plural cultures successfully mix together.The paper focuses on the American people ’s daily life to explain to the readers the American traits and values prevailing in their society. Except the Foreword which is the general intro-duction to the paper, this paper is presented in five parts. The first part to the forth part are the emphasis of the paper which re-spectively analyze the American traits and values. A series of vivid examples are provided with a wide range of study objects, man and woman, kids to elders, in hope of making the paper understandable and persuasive. It is expected that the study can offer a general idea to the people who are interested in the American society and its people.

  15. American Cancer Society Head and Neck Cancer Survivorship Care Guideline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Ezra E W; LaMonte, Samuel J; Erb, Nicole L; Beckman, Kerry L; Sadeghi, Nader; Hutcheson, Katherine A; Stubblefield, Michael D; Abbott, Dennis M; Fisher, Penelope S; Stein, Kevin D; Lyman, Gary H; Pratt-Chapman, Mandi L

    2016-05-01

    Answer questions and earn CME/CNE The American Cancer Society Head and Neck Cancer Survivorship Care Guideline was developed to assist primary care clinicians and other health practitioners with the care of head and neck cancer survivors, including monitoring for recurrence, screening for second primary cancers, assessment and management of long-term and late effects, health promotion, and care coordination. A systematic review of the literature was conducted using PubMed through April 2015, and a multidisciplinary expert workgroup with expertise in primary care, dentistry, surgical oncology, medical oncology, radiation oncology, clinical psychology, speech-language pathology, physical medicine and rehabilitation, the patient perspective, and nursing was assembled. While the guideline is based on a systematic review of the current literature, most evidence is not sufficient to warrant a strong recommendation. Therefore, recommendations should be viewed as consensus-based management strategies for assisting patients with physical and psychosocial effects of head and neck cancer and its treatment. CA Cancer J Clin 2016;66:203-239. © 2016 American Cancer Society. PMID:27002678

  16. American Society of Nephrology Quiz and Questionnaire 2015: Glomerular Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bomback, Andrew S; Perazella, Mark A; Choi, Michael J

    2016-05-01

    The Nephrology Quiz and Questionnaire remains an extremely popular session for attendees of the annual Kidney Week meeting of the American Society of Nephrology. Once again, the conference hall was overflowing with audience members and eager quiz participants. Topics covered by the expert discussants included electrolyte and acid-base disorders, glomerular disease, ESRD/dialysis, and kidney transplantation. Complex cases representing each of these categories, along with single-best-answer questions, were prepared and submitted by the panel of experts. Before the meeting, training program directors of United States nephrology fellowship programs and nephrology fellows answered the questions through an Internet-based questionnaire. During the live session, members of the audience tested their knowledge and judgment on a series of case-oriented questions prepared and discussed by the experts. They compared their answers in real time using their cell phones with a special app with the answers of the nephrology fellows and training program directors. The correct and incorrect answers were then discussed after the results of the questionnaire were displayed. As always, the audience, lecturers, and moderators enjoyed this educational session. This article recapitulates the session and reproduces its educational value for Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology readers. Enjoy the clinical cases and expert discussions. PMID:26847362

  17. American Society of Nephrology Quiz and Questionnaire 2015: Transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Josephson, Michelle A; Perazella, Mark A; Choi, Michael J

    2016-06-01

    The Nephrology Quiz and Questionnaire remains an extremely popular session for attendees of the Annual Kidney Week Meeting of the American Society of Nephrology. Once again, the conference hall was overflowing with audience members and eager quiz participants. Topics covered by the expert discussants included electrolyte and acid-base disorders, glomerular disease, ESRD/dialysis, and kidney transplantation. Complex cases representing each of these categories along with single best answer questions were prepared and submitted by the panel of experts. Before the meeting, training program directors of US nephrology fellowship programs and nephrology fellows answered the questions through an internet-based questionnaire. During the live session, members of the audience tested their knowledge and judgment on a series of case-oriented questions prepared and discussed by the experts. They compared their answers in real time using their cell phones with a special application with the answers of the nephrology fellows and training program directors. The correct and incorrect answers were then discussed after the results of the questionnaire were displayed. As always, the audience, lecturers, and moderators enjoyed this highly educational session. This article recapitulates the session and reproduces its educational value for the Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology readers. Enjoy the clinical cases and expert discussions. PMID:26915914

  18. American Geriatrics Society care of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender older adults position statement: American Geriatrics Society Ethics Committee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-01

    There is ample evidence that lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) individuals face discrimination in the healthcare setting. Providing high-quality health care for older LGBT adults will require active steps by organizations, institutions, advocacy groups, and health professionals that create an environment that is free from discrimination. This position statement that the American Geriatrics Society (AGS) Ethics Committee developed addresses the vision of the AGS for the care of LGBT older adults and specific steps that can be taken to ensure that they receive the care that they need. PMID:25803784

  19. From American Dreams to American Tragedies — Theodore Dreiser’s Ponderation on American Society and Ruination of Morality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chengcheng Zhang

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Theodore Herman Albert Dreiser is one of America's greatest naturalist writers. He believed that human beings are helpless in the grip of instincts and social forces beyond their control, and he judged human society as an unequal contest between the strong and the weak. Both of his masterpieces Sister Carrie (1900 and An American Tragedy (1925, which were mostly based on his personal experience, expanded and clarified those themes. By comparing Theodore Dreiser’s Sister Carrie and An American Tragedy, this thesis analyzes the author’s exploration of the possibilities of 20th century American life with its material profusion and spiritual doubt of the life value.

  20. Overview of space nuclear technologies and the American Nuclear Society

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The American Nuclear Society (ANS) has seen an aspect of the universe where nuclear technology is the best energy source available for power, transportation, etc. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has been exploiting this aspect of the universe by sending machines and humans into it and exploring, colonizing, industrializing, developing, inhabiting, etc. Space is the final frontier, and nuclear technology is the best suited for today's or the next century's space exploration and development. Many aspects of nuclear technology and its uses in space will be needed. ANS encompasses these and many more aspects of nuclear technology, and all have some role to play in the exploration and development of space. It should be ANS's intent to be an advisory body to NASA on the nuclear aspects of space exploration

  1. An official American Thoracic Society/European Respiratory Society statement: research questions in COPD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bartolome R. Celli

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD is a leading cause of morbidity, mortality and resource use worldwide. The goal of this official American Thoracic Society (ATS/European Respiratory Society (ERS Research Statement is to describe evidence related to diagnosis, assessment, and management; identify gaps in knowledge; and make recommendations for future research. It is not intended to provide clinical practice recommendations on COPD diagnosis and management. Clinicians, researchers and patient advocates with expertise in COPD were invited to participate. A literature search of Medline was performed, and studies deemed relevant were selected. The search was not a systematic review of the evidence. Existing evidence was appraised and summarised, and then salient knowledge gaps were identified. Recommendations for research that addresses important gaps in the evidence in all areas of COPD were formulated via discussion and consensus. Great strides have been made in the diagnosis, assessment and management of COPD, as well as understanding its pathogenesis. Despite this, many important questions remain unanswered. This ATS/ERS research statement highlights the types of research that leading clinicians, researchers and patient advocates believe will have the greatest impact on patient-centred outcomes.

  2. American Nuclear Society standards for TRIGA reactors and their use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The American Nuclear Society established a committee (ANS-15) with the expressed charter to develop standards for research reactors. These standards were to cover all aspects of research reactor operations, maintenance and administration. Standards have been written in every area of research reactor operations that the research reactor community has deemed important. One of the uppermost goals of the Standards Committee work is to produce standards that provide guidance and help to the research reactor community in a timely manner. To make the standards meaningful requires a great deal of cooperation between all segments of the reactor community. The research reactors - whether they are private, university or government owned - have a mission to perform. At the same time, the regulatory agencies also have a mission to perform, and with a spirit of mutual respect and cooperation, both can accomplish their goals. In the last five years this spirit has been present, and a number of very good standards have resulted. These standards should be a part of every research reactor library. In particular ANS-15.16 and ANS-15.1 have been endorsed by the regulatory agencies and are being used to evaluate submittals

  3. Nomad Cities : Investigating spatial practices within the fluid network societies of the American RV community

    OpenAIRE

    Landin, Karl

    2015-01-01

    A new nomad society is colonizing the desert landscape of the American Southwest. It is a leaderless seasonal swarm, dispersed but densely connected socially, able to form and disband agile urban communities the size of large American cities. It consists of highway bound leisure hunters driving extremely wasteful vehicles that while parked are able form a dense and resilient pioneer society. They are predominantly retired and constructing a new American dream, an informal utopia created from ...

  4. American Meteor Society Fireball reporting system and mobile application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hankey, M.

    2014-07-01

    The American Meteor Society (AMS) founded in 1911 pioneered the visual study of meteors and has collected data relating to meteor observations and bright fireballs for over 100 years. In December 2010, the online fireball reporting system was upgraded to an interactive application that utilizes Google Maps and other programmatic methods to pinpoint the observer's location, azimuth and elevation values with a high degree of precision. The AMS has collected 10s of 1000s of witness reports relating to 100s of events each year since the new application was released. Three dimensional triangulation methods that average the data collected from witnesses have been developed that can determine the start and end points of the meteor with an accuracy of mobile application, the AMS is able to collect more precise elevation angles than through the web application. Users can file a new report directly on the phone or update the values submitted through a web report. After web users complete their fireball report online, they are prompted to download the app and update their observation with the more precise data provided by the sensors in the mobile device. The mobile app also provides an accurate means for the witness to report the elapsed time of the fireball. To log this value, the user drags the device across the sky where they saw the fireball. This process is designed to require no button click or user interaction to start and stop the time recording. A count down initiates the process and once the user's phone crosses the plane of azimuth for the end point of the fireball the velocity timer automatically stops. Users are asked to log the recording three times in an effort to minimize error. The three values are then averaged into a final score. Once enough witnesses have filed reports, elapsed time data collected from the mobile phone can be used to determine the velocity of the fireball. With the velocity, trajectory solution and RA/DEC the AMS can plot orbital

  5. The Pan-American Federation of Neurological Societies (PAFNS): A New Regional Organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina, Marco T; Román, Gustavo C

    2016-07-15

    The Pan-American Federation of Neurological Societies (PAFNS) was created on 15 November 2011 during the 20th World Congress of Neurology in Marrakech by virtue of the "Declaration of Morocco" signed by the WFN Latin American delegates and ratified on 5 March 2012 by delegates attending the 13th Pan-American Congress of Neurology in La Paz, Bolivia. On 20 March 2013 delegates attending the 65th Annual Meeting of the American Academy of Neurology in San Diego, California, USA, gave formal approval to the PAFNS Constitution. The neurological societies from the following countries have approved and signed the constitution as founding members and active ordinary members: Argentina, Brazil, Bolivia, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, Puerto Rico, Uruguay, and Venezuela. The Ibero-American Stroke Society (SIECV), the Commission on Latin American Affairs of the International League Against Epilepsy (ILAE) and the World Sleep Society have requested the status of Associate Members. The WFN and the American Academy of Neurology provided seed grants for the creation of the Pan-American Federation of Neurological Societies. PAFNS represents a major step for the improvement of regional neurological care, education and research. PMID:27288805

  6. American Foundations: Their Roles and Contributions in Society

    OpenAIRE

    Helmut K. Anheier

    2011-01-01

    Foundations play an essential part in the philanthropic activity that defines so much of American life. No other nation provides its foundations with so much autonomy and freedom of action as does the United States. Liberated both from the daily discipline of the market and from direct control by government, American foundations understandably attract great attention. As David Hammack and Helmut Anheier note in this volume, “Americans have criticized foundations for . . . their alleged conser...

  7. The American Physical Society's Defense of Human Rights

    CERN Document Server

    Gerjuoy, Edward

    2015-01-01

    The history of APS involvement in the defense of human rights, a history of which the Society can be proud, will be summarized. The summary will include illustrative specific Society human rights defense actions in illustrative specific cases. As will be emphasized, the aforesaid involvement has been primarily through the activities of the APS Committee on International Freedom of Scientists. It is noteworthy, and one of the reasons the Society can be proud, that this Committee is charged with monitoring concerns regarding human rights for scientists, not solely for physicists.

  8. American Indian Science & Engineering Society (AISES) Programs: Outreach to Native Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacourse, S.

    2003-12-01

    AISES is a national non-profit organization which nurtures building of community by bridging science and technology with traditional Native values. Through its educational programs, AISES provides opportunities for American Indians and Native Alaskans to pursue studies in science, engineering, and technology arenas. The trained professionals then become technologically informed leaders within the Indian community. AISES' ultimate goal is to be a catalyst for the advancement of American Indians and Native Alaskans as they seek to become self-reliant and self-determined members of society. AISES' Higher Education Program consists of scholarships, college relations, leadership development, and internships. This session will focus on the value and impact of AISES internships for AISES students, including hands-on experience in the student's field of study, co-op opportunities, and entrance into graduate school. AISES currently offers internship placements with NASA-Goddard Space Flight Center, the U.S. State Department, the Departments of Commerce and Veterans Affairs, and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. In 2004, AISES will also be offering placements at the Central Intelligence Agency.

  9. Symposium introduction: the first joint American Chemical Society Agricultural and Food Chemistry Division and the American Chemical Society International Chemical Sciences Chapter in Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    The American Chemical Society (ACS) Agricultural and Food Chemistry Division (AGFD) and the ACS International Chemical Sciences Chapter in Thailand (ICSCT) worked together to stage the “1st Joint ACS AGFD - ACS ICSCT Symposium on Agricultural and Food Chemistry,” which was held in Bangkok, Thailand ...

  10. Maintaining Life-saving Testing for Patients With Infectious Diseases: Infectious Diseases Society of America, American Society for Microbiology, and Pan American Society for Clinical Virology Recommendations on the Regulation of Laboratory-developed Tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caliendo, Angela M; Couturier, Marc R; Ginocchio, Christine C; Hanson, Kimberly E; Miller, Melissa B; Walker, Kimberly E; Frank, Gregory M

    2016-07-15

    In 2014, the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) proposed to regulate laboratory-developed tests (LDTs)-diagnostics designed, manufactured, and used within a single laboratory. The Infectious Diseases Society of America, the American Society for Microbiology, and the Pan American Society for Clinical Virology recognize that the FDA is committed to protecting patients. However, our societies are concerned that the proposed regulations will limit access to testing and negatively impact infectious diseases (ID) LDTs. In this joint commentary, our societies discuss why LDTs are critical for ID patient care, hospital infection control, and public health responses. We also highlight how the FDA's proposed regulation of LDTs could impair patient access to life-saving tests and stifle innovation in ID diagnostics. Finally, our societies make specific recommendations for the FDA's consideration to reduce the burden of the proposed new rules on clinical laboratories and protect patients' access to state-of-the art, quality LDTs. PMID:27118790

  11. Interstitial brachytherapy dosimetry update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In March 2004, the American Association of Physicists in Medicine (AAPM) published an update to the AAPM Task Group No. 43 Report (TG-43) which was initially published in 1995. This update was pursued primarily due to the marked increase in permanent implantation of low-energy photon-emitting brachytherapy sources in the United States over the past decade, and clinical rationale for the need of accurate dosimetry in the implementation of interstitial brachytherapy. Additionally, there were substantial improvements in the brachytherapy dosimetry formalism, accuracy of related parameters and methods for determining these parameters. With salient background, these improvements are discussed in the context of radiation dosimetry. As an example, the impact of this update on the administered dose is assessed for the model 200 103Pd brachytherapy source. (authors)

  12. Comparison of British Thoracic Society and American Thoracic Society reintroduction guidelines for anti-tuberculous therapy induced liver injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To compare the efficacy of British Thoracic Society and American Thoracic Society guidelines for re-introduction of anti-tuberculous therapy after drug-induced liver injury, and to assess the ease of administration of each guideline on a scale of 1-10. Methods: The randomised prospective interventional study was conducted at the Department of Medicine and Pulmonology, Dow University of Health Sciences, Karachi, from December 2011 to November 2013. Patients with anti-tuberculous therapy drug-induced liver injury were selected. Hepatotoxic anti-tuberculous therapy was stopped and modified anti-tuberculous therapy was started. Patients were followed weekly till clinical and biochemical parameters got stabilised. After stabilisation, the patients were randomised to one of the two groups to receive re-introduction of anti-tuberculous therapy under the guidelines of British Thoracic Society (Group I) or those of American Thoracic Society (Group II). Means of the groups were analysed by Student's t test and proportions were compared by chi-square test. Multivariate analysis was done for age, body mass index and serum albumin for recurrence of drug-induced liver injury after the re-introduction. P value <0.05 was taken as significant. Results: Of the total 325 patients, 163(50.15%) were in Group I, while 162(49.84%) were in Group II. The frequency of recurrence of drug-induced liver injury in Group I was 16 (9.8%) and in Group II it was 18 (11.1%). There was no statistically significant difference between the two groups (p<0.7). Age was positively related with drug-induced liver injury, while body mass index and serum albumin were negatively associated. Conclusion: There was no significant difference between the two major guidelines though the American Thoracic Society guideline was easier to follow. (author)

  13. The American Teacher and the Restoration of Society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, Christopher D.

    This master's thesis assumes that the argument presented in "The American Paradox: Spiritual Hunger in an Age of Plenty" (D. G. Myers) is correct. The United States presently suffers from a social recession arising from the impoverishment of the human spirit. The thesis diagnoses four underlying causes of U.S. social ills: (1) science; (2) regime;…

  14. The Impact of The Autobiography by Benjamin Franklin on American Soci-ety and Literature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG Ai-ping

    2015-01-01

    Franklin is an earliest writer in American history and he is the most important writers during American colonial period. The most important works of him are Poor Richard's Almanac and his Autobiography. His works have a tremendous impact on American literature later. What more important is that in his Autobiography he wrote out American dream, the spirit of business and good qualities, and some others. Franklin explained that everyone can get rich by hard work and thrift, and he called on people to come to America to make money. The American dream then became an important theme in American literature. It occurred in many works of many writers in his later time. Since Franklin was such a successful person in many areas, world-renowned inventor, writer, diplomat and one of the leaders of the American war of independence, he brought a tremendous im⁃pact on American society. And because of his success, many Americans later took him as an example and his works were popular and read widely. Both Franklin and his works affected American society deeply.

  15. Synopsis of History of American Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology 1958-2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To provide a synopsis of the history of the association of radiation oncologists in the United States, currently known as the American Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology (ASTRO), with the occasion of the 50th anniversary of the organization. Methods and Materials: The history of ASTRO, from its beginning as the American Club of Therapeutic Radiologists, is the subject of a book that is to be released with the occasion of the 50th Annual Meeting of the Society in 2008. This book was prepared by members of ASTRO's History Committee and History Working Subcommittee. The source material for the book was the archives of the Society and recorded interviews, conducted by members of the subcommittee, of members of the Society and of the past and present Society staff. The book was also based on previously published material. This article used the source material used for the Society anniversary book. Results: This synopsis of the history of the Society will provide a source of reference for anyone interested in the history of the Society from its foundation in 1958 to the present, 2008

  16. Recommendations for Content from the American Chemical Society for the Subject of Chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palladino, George; Tinnesand, Michael

    This document concerns recommendations for the chemistry content needed for preservice science teachers as determined by the American Chemical Society (ACS). Topics include: (1) process description; (2) relationship to National Science Education Standards; (3) recommendations for content; and (4) contributors to the project. (KHR)

  17. Political advocacy by the American Society for Cell Biology and its partners

    OpenAIRE

    Pollard, Thomas D.

    2012-01-01

    I trace how the American Society for Cell Biology became a strong political advocate for the scientific community. I celebrate how good leadership and an effective staff enabled its energetic volunteer organization to have an impact, but I also ask how the effort can be made more successful.

  18. Proceedings of the frst joint american chemical society agricultural and food chemistry division – american chemical society international chemical sciences chapter in Thailand symposium on agricultural and food chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    This Proceedings is a compilation of papers from contributed oral and poster presentations presented at the first joint symposium organized by the American Chemical Society Agricultural and Food Chemistry Division and the American Chemical Society International Chemical Sciences Chapter in Thailand ...

  19. 77 FR 56650 - Food and Drug Administration/American Glaucoma Society Workshop on the Validity, Reliability, and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-13

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Food and Drug Administration/American Glaucoma Society... announcing a ] public workshop entitled ``FDA/American Glaucoma Society (AGS) Workshop on the Validity... nerve head, ganglion cell layer) using Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT, time domain and...

  20. American Thoracic Society-European Respiratory Society Classification of the Idiopathic Interstitial Pneumonias: Advances in Knowledge since 2002.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sverzellati, Nicola; Lynch, David A; Hansell, David M; Johkoh, Takeshi; King, Talmadge E; Travis, William D

    2015-01-01

    In the updated American Thoracic Society-European Respiratory Society classification of the idiopathic interstitial pneumonias (IIPs), the major entities have been preserved and grouped into (a) "chronic fibrosing IIPs" (idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis and idiopathic nonspecific interstitial pneumonia), (b) "smoking-related IIPs" (respiratory bronchiolitis-associated interstitial lung disease and desquamative interstitial pneumonia), (c) "acute or subacute IIPs" (cryptogenic organizing pneumonia and acute interstitial pneumonia), and (d) "rare IIPs" (lymphoid interstitial pneumonia and idiopathic pleuroparenchymal fibroelastosis). Furthermore, it has been acknowledged that a final diagnosis is not always achievable, and the category "unclassifiable IIP" has been proposed. The diagnostic interpretation of the IIPs is often challenging because other diseases with a known etiology (most notably, connective tissue disease and hypersensitivity pneumonitis) may show similar morphologic patterns. Indeed, more emphasis has been given to the integration of clinical, computed tomographic (CT), and pathologic findings for multidisciplinary diagnosis. Typical CT-based morphologic patterns are associated with the IIPs, and radiologists play an important role in diagnosis and characterization. Optimal CT quality and a systematic approach are both pivotal for evaluation of IIP. Interobserver variation for the various patterns encountered in the IIPs is an issue. It is important for radiologists to understand the longitudinal behavior of IIPs at serial CT examinations, especially for providing a framework for cases that are unclassifiable or in which a histologic diagnosis cannot be obtained. PMID:26452110

  1. The Society of Thoracic Surgeons, The Society of Cardiovascular Anesthesiologists, and The American Society of ExtraCorporeal Technology: Clinical Practice Guidelines for Cardiopulmonary Bypass—Temperature Management during Cardiopulmonary Bypass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelman, Richard; Baker, Robert A.; Likosky, Donald S.; Grigore, Alina; Dickinson, Timothy A.; Shore-Lesserson, Linda; Hammon, John W.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract: To improve our understanding of the evidence-based literature supporting temperature management during adult cardiopulmonary bypass, The Society of Thoracic Surgeons, the Society of Cardiovascular Anesthesiology and the American Society of ExtraCorporeal Technology tasked the authors to conduct a review of the peer-reviewed literature, including 1) optimal site for temperature monitoring, 2) avoidance of hyperthermia, 3) peak cooling temperature gradient and cooling rate, and 4) peak warming temperature gradient and rewarming rate. Authors adopted the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association method for development clinical practice guidelines, and arrived at the following recommendation. PMID:26543248

  2. Kokes Award for the 24th North American Catalysis Society Meeting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rioux, Robert M. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States)

    2016-05-02

    The objective of the Richard. J. Kokes Travel Award program is to encourage the participation of students in the biennial North American Catalysis Society (NACS) Meetings. The Kokes Award covers a significant portion of the transportation, lodging, and conference registration costs. Eligible students must be enrolled at a North American university and need to present a paper at the meeting. The Kokes awardee will be required to contribute some time to the organizing committee to assist in meeting operations and to be present at the meeting during the entire time. Similar to the 23rd Kokes Award program, undergraduate students are also eligible for the 24th Kokes Award program.

  3. Fourth American Physical Society Topical Conference on Shock Waves in Condensed Matter

    CERN Document Server

    Shock Waves in Condensed Matter

    1986-01-01

    The Fourth American Physical Society Topical Conference on Shock Waves in Condensed Matter was held in Spokane, Washington, July 22-25, 1985. Two hundred and fifty scientists and engineers representing thirteen countries registered at the conference. The countries represented included the United States of America, Australia, Canada, The People's Repub­ lic of China, France, India, Israel, Japan, Republic of China (Taiwan), United Kingdom, U. S. S. R, Switzerland and West Germany. One hundred and sixty-two technical papers, cov­ ering recent developments in shock wave and high pressure physics, were presented. All of the abstracts have been published in the September 1985 issue of the Bulletin of the American Physical Society. The topical conferences, held every two years since 1979, have become the principal forum for shock wave studies in condensed materials. Both formal and informal technical discussions regarding recent developments conveyed a sense of excitement. Consistent with the past conferences, th...

  4. The impact of the railroad on American society: a communication perspective of technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matusitz, Jonathan

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available This manuscript examines the railroad system as a combination of humans and machines that form a symbiosis, and explains how the railroad exerted a huge effect on American life when it made irrelevant the organic – following nature – time system that existed in cities and countries where clocks were set according to weather conditions. The author makes the point that the railroad is an organ of society, that it will evolve to serve the functions we demand, that it has molded and altered – but never replaced – contact between humans, and that it will continue to enhance and facilitate it. This manuscript analyzes the social, cross-cultural, psychological, and financial impact of the railroad on American society in the past two hundred years. The measure of progress in the United States is tantamount to the mass of things that had to be sacrificed to it.

  5. Management of Hyperthyroidism in Pregnancy: Comparison of Recommendations of American Thyroid Association and Endocrine Society

    OpenAIRE

    Shahram Alamdari; Fereidoun Azizi; Hossein Delshad; Farzaneh Sarvghadi; Atieh Amouzegar; Ladan Mehran

    2013-01-01

    Appropriate diagnosis and treatment of hyperthyroidism during pregnancy are of outmost importance, because hyperthyroidism has major adverse impact on both mother and fetus. Since data on the management of thyroid dysfunction during pregnancy is rapidly evolving, two guidelines have been developed by the American Thyroid Association and the Endocrine society in the last 2 years. We compare here the recommendations of these two guidelines regarding management of hyperthyroidism during pregnanc...

  6. Evolution and revolution: the formation of today's American Thoracic Society, part 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, John F; Du Melle, Fran; Hopewell, Philip C

    2012-11-15

    The American Thoracic Society (ATS), the preeminent professional organization in the field of respiratory, critical care, and sleep medicine, is now 107 years old. For the most part, the Society's administrative and medical-scientific interests evolved in an orderly fashion, but two "revolutions" took place that should be remembered. What ultimately metamorphosed into the ATS in 1960 began in 1905 as the 34-member American Sanatorium Association, which in 1915 became the medical section of the National Association for the Study and Prevention of Tuberculosis (NASPT). In 1918, the NASPT became the National Tuberculosis Association and in 1939, the ASA became the American Trudeau Society, cosmetic revisions having no effect on either the medical section-parent relationship or the one-disease orientation of both organizations. After World War II, the narrow focus of the ATS on tuberculosis was progressively enlarged through coalescence of several factors that transformed the practice of pulmonary medicine: the growth of intensive care units and pulmonary function laboratories and the advent of fiberoptic bronchoscopy; the rise of asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and lung cancer coincident with the withering of tuberculosis; and the arrival of pulmonary physician-scientists who sought enrichment through a professional society. The newcomers found a home in the ATS, but it was slow to fulfill their needs for scientific communication and administrative responsibility. The first revolution, the formation of Scientific Assemblies, got the job done quickly and well, as described in Part 1 of this perspective. The second revolution, separation from the American Lung Association, is described in Part 2. PMID:22822021

  7. The First International Residency Program Accredited by the American Society of Health-System Pharmacists

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Qadheeb, Nada S.; Alissa, Dema A.; Al-Jedai, Ahmed; Ajlan, Aziza; Al-Jazairi, Abdulrazaq S.

    2012-01-01

    The processes by which the pharmacy residency program at King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Centre-Riyadh, Saudi Arabia became the first American Society of Health-System Pharmacists (ASHP) accredited program outside the United States is described. This article provides key points for a successful program for other pharmacy residency programs around the world. Additionally, it points out the need for establishing international standards for pharmacy residency programs.

  8. Kokes Awards for the 23rd North American Catalysis Society Meeting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacobs, Gary [University of Kentucky Research Foundation, Lexington, KY (United States)

    2014-01-31

    The Tri-State Catalysis Society awarded 107 Kokes Travel Awards. The program was very successful and to date this was the most Kokes Travel Awards ever awarded at a North American Catalysis Society Meeting. It provided students who merited an award the opportunity to attend the meeting, present a paper in the form of either an oral presentation or a poster presentation, and to serve the North American Catalysis Society by participating in the organization of the meeting. Students worked very hard during the week of the meeting to make it a success. Financial support for the Kokes awards was provided by DOE, NSF, NACS, as well as the Tri-State Catalysis Society, the latter through fund raising activities, and other donations. AT the meeting, each student received over $1050 in kind to offset the costs of registration fees ($260), hotel accommodations ($295.7), transportation ($400 travel allowance), as well as T-shirts ($20), and banquet tickets ($95 provided by donations from society members). In addition, for the first time, students received certificates that were signed by the President of NACS, Professor Enrique Iglesia, and by the Kokes Awards Chair, Gary Jacobs (see last page). A list of meeting co-chairs (i.e., Uschi M. Graham, Umit S. Ozkan, and Madan Bhassin) and the honorary chair (Burtron H. Davis) was also included on the certificate, along with the name of the recipient. The awardees were chosen on a merit-based guideline which also included the requirements of having a presentation accepted at the meeting and being a student at a North American University. The Richard J. Kokes Student Travel Award Committee (Gary Jacobs, Rodney Andrews, and Peter Smirniotis) with help from the Organizing Committee were able to secure money from four sources as detailed in Table 1. As detailed by our Treasurer, Dr. Helge Toufar of Clariant, the total amount spent was $105,000.

  9. Prostate brachytherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Implant therapy - prostate cancer; Radioactive seed placement; Internal radiation therapy - prostate; High dose radiation (HDR) ... Brachytherapy takes 30 minutes or more, depending on the type of therapy you have. Before the procedure, ...

  10. Ethno-Religiosity in Orthodox Christianity: A Source of Solidarity & Multiculturalism in American Society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris Durante

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This study will analyze the processes of community organization implemented by Eastern Orthodox Christian ethno-religious groups, and Greek Orthodox Christian communities in particular, to establish themselves in American civil society. It will be argued that the symbiotic relationship formed between ethnicity and religion in this tradition, as well as the democratized grassroots mode of community organization that American civil society fosters, contributes to a strong sense of belonging amongst members of the ethno-religious Orthodox Christian congregations. In turn, this sense of belonging has produced a multi-layered mechanism for solidarity-building in these communities. It will then be suggested that in addition to contributing to America’s religious diversity, the preservation of ethno-linguistic heritage by the various Orthodox Christian churches simultaneously contributes to America’s poly-ethnicity and linguistic diversity as well. Last, it will be argued that the continued survival of ethno-religiosity in American Orthodoxy can either lead to further isolation amongst the separate ethnic congregations, or it can alternatively open avenues for the cultivation of a form of Orthodox Christian multiculturalism that supports neither homogeneity nor isolationism.

  11. Recognition of American Physiological Society Members Whose Research Publications Had a Significant Impact on the Discipline of Physiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tipton, Charles M.

    2013-01-01

    Society members whose research publication during the past 125 yr had an important impact on the discipline of physiology were featured at the American Physiological Society (APS)'s 125th Anniversary symposium. The daunting and challenging task of identifying and selecting significant publications was assumed by the Steering Committee of the…

  12. Insurrections, Bank and Private Contracts: How Society shaped the Constitutional Order during the American Revolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matteo Battistini

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Looking at the revolutionary context of Pennsylvania, the essay analyzes the continuous movement of rebellions during the American Revolution in order to highlight the process of institutionalization of the constitutional order, namely the changeable power relationship that shaped society. The essay reconstructs: 1 the battle for free trade and freedom of property and the resulting rising of the mercantile class as a national elite; 2 the mercantile political project of ordering society by creating a national system of public credit based upon the institution of the public debt and the foundation of the first national bank; 3 the vicissitudes of the bank by analyzing Dissertations of Government, the Affairs of the Bank and Paper Money (1786, one of the most underrated pamphlets of Thomas Paine. By this way, the essay shows how the principle of popular sovereignty and the language of rebellion were intended to be institutionalized as part of the constitutional order that was formalized in 1787-88.

  13. American Society for Microbiology resources in support of an evidence-based approach to teaching microbiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merkel, Susan M

    2016-08-01

    Numerous national reports have addressed the need for changing how science courses in higher education are taught, so that students develop a deeper understanding of critical concepts and the analytical and cognitive skills needed to address future challenges. This review presents some evidence-based approaches to curriculum development and teaching. Results from discipline-based education research indicate that it is critically important for educators to formulate learning goals, provide frequent and authentic assessments and actively engage students in their learning. Professional societies can play a role in helping to put these changes into practice. To this end, the American Society for Microbiology has developed a number of educational programs and resources, which are described here to encourage the implementation of student-centered learning in microbiology education. PMID:27412169

  14. American Society of Clinical Oncology Statement: Human Papillomavirus Vaccination for Cancer Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Howard H; Chuang, Linus T; duPont, Nefertiti C; Eng, Cathy; Foxhall, Lewis E; Merrill, Janette K; Wollins, Dana S; Blanke, Charles D

    2016-05-20

    American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO), the leading medical professional oncology society, is committed to lessening the burden of cancer and as such will promote underused interventions that have the potential to save millions of lives through cancer prevention. As the main providers of cancer care worldwide, our patients, their families, and our communities look to us for guidance regarding all things cancer related, including cancer prevention. Through this statement and accompanying recommendations, ASCO hopes to increase awareness of the tremendous global impact of human papillomavirus (HPV) -caused cancers, refocus the discussion of HPV vaccination on its likely ability to prevent millions of cancer deaths, and increase HPV vaccination uptake via greater involvement of oncology professionals in ensuring accurate public discourse about HPV vaccination and calling for the implementation of concrete strategies to address barriers to vaccine access and acceptance. PMID:27069078

  15. Are plastic surgery advertisements conforming to the ethical codes of the american society of plastic surgeons?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spilson, Sandra V; Chung, Kevin C; Greenfield, Mary Lou V H; Walters, Madonna

    2002-03-01

    Cosmetic surgeons have increasingly come under fire for using advertisements that may be deceptive or intended for the solicitation of vulnerable consumers. However, aesthetic surgery is a growing business that relies heavily on advertising to survive. To prevent the use of deceptive advertisements, the American Society of Plastic Surgeons has developed a code of ethics for its physician members. We conducted a study to determine the prevalence of cosmetic surgery advertisements considered objectionable by the lay public. These advertisements were published in the Yellow Pages of the 10 largest U.S. cities. Because all of the advertisements in this study contained the American Society of Plastic Surgeons logo, we also determined whether its members are upholding the ethical code of advertising. We asked a convenience sample of 50 participants to rate 104 advertisements using four yes/no questions derived from the code of ethics and one overall yes/no question regarding whether the advertisement was objectionable. We obtained the mean percentage of "yes" responses for each advertisement, from the total sample, for each question. We found that the study participants felt that 25 percent of the advertisements used images of persons or facsimiles that falsely and deceptively created unjustified expectations of favorable results. The participants responded that 22 percent of the advertisements appealed primarily to the layperson's fears, anxieties, or emotional vulnerabilities. In addition, 18 percent of the advertisements were considered to be objectionable. Discretion is currently left up to physicians as to the ethical nature of their advertisements. Although the majority of American Society of Plastic Surgeons members uphold the ethical code of advertising, there are still a substantial number of published advertisements that the average consumer considers to be in violation of this code. PMID:11884856

  16. Early Women Sociologist and the American Sociological Society: the Patterns of Exclusion and Participation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Jo Deegan

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available American sociology owes a significant debt to early women professionals. Although discriminatedagainst as full colleagues, they nonetheless contributed to sociological thoughtand participated in professional activities. Evidence of both the barriers and opportunitiesaffecting these early female leaders is found in the records of the American SociologicalSociety during its founding years; i.e., from 1906-1931. Analysis of this information, aswell as personal documents of sociologists working during this period, reveals that womendid participate within a restricted range of “expertise”, often associated with traditionalsex roles. Jane Addams was a significant figure in these early years and was a leader withinthe separate, more institutionally limited female sociologist’s network.

  17. Overview of the ANS [American Nuclear Society] mathematics and computation software standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Mathematics and Computations Division of the American Nuclear Society sponsors the ANS-10 Standards Subcommittee. This subcommittee, which is part of the ANS Standards Committee, currently maintains four ANSI/ANS software standards. These standards are: Recommended Programming Practices to Facilitate the Portability of Scientific Computer Programs, ANS-10.2; Guidelines for the Documentation of Computer Software, ANS-10.3; Guidelines for the Verification and Validation of Scientific and Engineering Computer Programs for the Nuclear Industry, ANS-10.4; and Guidelines for Accommodating User Needs in Computer Program Development, ANS-10.5. 5 refs

  18. Symposium for Alfred Wolf's 75th birthday at American Chemical Society meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report contains abstracts from the symposium presented by the Division of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology of the American Chemical Society. Sessions covered the following topics: Therapeutic radionuclides--Making the right choice; Aspects of nuclear science; Nuclear structure with large gamma-ray detector arrays and their auxiliary devices; Thirty years of research in nuclear dynamics--From fission to the quark-gluon plasma; Chelated metal ions for diagnosis and therapy; Radiochemistry--Basic and applied; and Applications of small accelerators in science and industry

  19. Symposium for Alfred Wolf's 75th birthday at American Chemical Society meeting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-04-02

    This report contains abstracts from the symposium presented by the Division of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology of the American Chemical Society. Sessions covered the following topics: Therapeutic radionuclides--Making the right choice; Aspects of nuclear science; Nuclear structure with large gamma-ray detector arrays and their auxiliary devices; Thirty years of research in nuclear dynamics--From fission to the quark-gluon plasma; Chelated metal ions for diagnosis and therapy; Radiochemistry--Basic and applied; and Applications of small accelerators in science and industry.

  20. American Society of Nephrology Quiz and Questionnaire 2015: Electrolytes and Acid-Base Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosner, Mitchell H; Perazella, Mark A; Choi, Michael J

    2016-04-01

    The Nephrology Quiz and Questionnaire remains an extremely popular session for attendees of the annual Kidney Week meeting of the American Society of Nephrology. During the 2015 meeting the conference hall was once again overflowing with eager quiz participants. Topics covered by the experts included electrolyte and acid-base disorders, glomerular disease, end-stage renal disease and dialysis, and kidney transplantation. Complex cases representing each of these categories together with single-best-answer questions were prepared and submitted by the panel of experts. Before the meeting, training program directors of nephrology fellowship programs and nephrology fellows in the United States answered the questions through an internet-based questionnaire. During the live session members of the audience tested their knowledge and judgment on the same series of case-oriented questions in a quiz. The audience compared their answers in real time using a cell-phone app containing the answers of the nephrology fellows and training program directors. The results of the online questionnaire were displayed, and then the quiz answers were discussed. As always, the audience, lecturers, and moderators enjoyed this highly educational session. This article recapitulates the session and reproduces selected content of educational value for theClinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrologyreaders. Enjoy the clinical cases and expert discussions. PMID:26825098

  1. Early history of electroencephalography and establishment of the American Clinical Neurophysiology Society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, James L; Hughes, John R

    2013-02-01

    The field of electroencephalography (EEG) had its origin with the discovery of recordable electrical potentials from activated nerves and muscles of animals and in the last quarter of the 19th century from the cerebral cortex of animals. By the 1920s, Hans Berger, a neuropsychiatrist from Germany, recorded potentials from the scalp of patients with skull defects and, a few years later, with more sensitive equipment from intact subjects. Concurrently, the introduction of electronic vacuum tube amplification and the cathode ray oscilloscope was made by American physiologists or "axonologists," interested in peripheral nerve recordings. Berger's findings were independently confirmed in early 1934 by Lord Adrian in England and by Hallowell Davis at Harvard, in the United States. In the United States, the earliest contributions to human EEG were made by Hallowell Davis, Herbert H. Jasper, Frederic A. Gibbs, William Lennox, and Alfred L. Loomis. Remarkable progress in the development of EEG as a useful clinical tool followed the 1935 report by the Harvard group on the electrographic and clinical correlations in patients with absence (petit mal) seizures and altered states of consciousness. Technical aspects of the EEG and additional clinical EEG correlations were elucidated by the above investigators and a number of others. Further study led to gatherings of the EEG pioneers at Loomis' laboratory in New York (1935-1939), Regional EEG society formation, and the American Clinical Neurophysiology Society in 1946. PMID:23377440

  2. American Society of Nephrology Quiz and Questionnaire 2015: ESRD/RRT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lok, Charmaine E; Perazella, Mark A; Choi, Michael J

    2016-07-01

    The Nephrology Quiz and Questionnaire remains an extremely popular session for attendees of the Annual Kidney Week Meeting of the American Society of Nephrology. During the 2015 meeting, the conference hall was once again overflowing with eager quiz participants. Topics covered by the experts included electrolyte and acid-base disorders, glomerular disease, ESRD and dialysis, and kidney transplantation. Complex cases representing each of these categories together with single best answer questions were prepared and submitted by the panel of experts. Before the meeting, training program directors of nephrology fellowship programs and nephrology fellows in the United States answered the questions through an internet-based questionnaire. During the live session, members of the audience tested their knowledge and judgment on the same series of case-oriented questions in a quiz. The audience compared their answers in real time using a cellphone application containing the answers of the nephrology fellows and training program directors. The results of the online questionnaire were displayed, and then, the quiz answers were discussed. As always, the audience, lecturers, and moderators enjoyed this highly educational session. This article recapitulates the session and reproduces selected content of educational value for the readers of the Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology Enjoy the clinical cases and expert discussions. PMID:27094608

  3. The American Society for Radiation Oncology’s 2010 Core Physics Curriculum for Radiation Oncology Residents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: In 2004, the American Society for Radiation Oncology (ASTRO) published its first physics education curriculum for residents, which was updated in 2007. A committee composed of physicists and physicians from various residency program teaching institutions was reconvened again to update the curriculum in 2009. Methods and Materials: Members of this committee have associations with ASTRO, the American Association of Physicists in Medicine, the Association of Residents in Radiation Oncology, the American Board of Radiology (ABR), and the American College of Radiology. Members reviewed and updated assigned subjects from the last curriculum. The updated curriculum was carefully reviewed by a representative from the ABR and other physics and clinical experts. Results: The new curriculum resulted in a recommended 56-h course, excluding initial orientation. Learning objectives are provided for each subject area, and a detailed outline of material to be covered is given for each lecture hour. Some recent changes in the curriculum include the addition of Radiation Incidents and Bioterrorism Response Training as a subject and updates that reflect new treatment techniques and modalities in a number of core subjects. The new curriculum was approved by the ASTRO board in April 2010. We anticipate that physicists will use this curriculum for structuring their teaching programs, and subsequently the ABR will adopt this educational program for its written examination. Currently, the American College of Radiology uses the ASTRO curriculum for their training examination topics. In addition to the curriculum, the committee updated suggested references and the glossary. Conclusions: The ASTRO physics education curriculum for radiation oncology residents has been updated. To ensure continued commitment to a current and relevant curriculum, the subject matter will be updated again in 2 years.

  4. Adjuvant and Salvage Radiation Therapy After Prostatectomy: American Society for Radiation Oncology/American Urological Association Guidelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valicenti, Richard K., E-mail: Richard.valicenti@ucdmc.ucdavis.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California, Davis School of Medicine, Davis, California (United States); Thompson, Ian [Department of Urology, University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, San Antonio, Texas (United States); Albertsen, Peter [Division of Urology, University of Connecticut Health Center, Farmington, Connecticut (United States); Davis, Brian J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Mayo Medical School, Rochester, Minnesota (United States); Goldenberg, S. Larry [Department of Urologic Sciences, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada); Wolf, J. Stuart [Department of Urology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Sartor, Oliver [Department of Medicine and Urology, Tulane Medical School, New Orleans, Louisiana (United States); Klein, Eric [Glickman Urological Kidney Institute, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio (United States); Hahn, Carol [Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina (United States); Michalski, Jeff [Department of Radiation Oncology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri (United States); Roach, Mack [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, California (United States); Faraday, Martha M. [Four Oaks, Inc (United States)

    2013-08-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this guideline was to provide a clinical framework for the use of radiation therapy after radical prostatectomy as adjuvant or salvage therapy. Methods and Materials: A systematic literature review using PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane database was conducted to identify peer-reviewed publications relevant to the use of radiation therapy after prostatectomy. The review yielded 294 articles; these publications were used to create the evidence-based guideline statements. Additional guidance is provided as Clinical Principles when insufficient evidence existed. Results: Guideline statements are provided for patient counseling, use of radiation therapy in the adjuvant and salvage contexts, defining biochemical recurrence, and conducting a restaging evaluation. Conclusions: Physicians should offer adjuvant radiation therapy to patients with adverse pathologic findings at prostatectomy (ie, seminal vesicle invastion, positive surgical margins, extraprostatic extension) and salvage radiation therapy to patients with prostate-specific antigen (PSA) or local recurrence after prostatectomy in whom there is no evidence of distant metastatic disease. The offer of radiation therapy should be made in the context of a thoughtful discussion of possible short- and long-term side effects of radiation therapy as well as the potential benefits of preventing recurrence. The decision to administer radiation therapy should be made by the patient and the multidisciplinary treatment team with full consideration of the patient's history, values, preferences, quality of life, and functional status. The American Society for Radiation Oncology and American Urological Association websites show this guideline in its entirety, including the full literature review.

  5. Adjuvant and Salvage Radiation Therapy After Prostatectomy: American Society for Radiation Oncology/American Urological Association Guidelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: The purpose of this guideline was to provide a clinical framework for the use of radiation therapy after radical prostatectomy as adjuvant or salvage therapy. Methods and Materials: A systematic literature review using PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane database was conducted to identify peer-reviewed publications relevant to the use of radiation therapy after prostatectomy. The review yielded 294 articles; these publications were used to create the evidence-based guideline statements. Additional guidance is provided as Clinical Principles when insufficient evidence existed. Results: Guideline statements are provided for patient counseling, use of radiation therapy in the adjuvant and salvage contexts, defining biochemical recurrence, and conducting a restaging evaluation. Conclusions: Physicians should offer adjuvant radiation therapy to patients with adverse pathologic findings at prostatectomy (ie, seminal vesicle invastion, positive surgical margins, extraprostatic extension) and salvage radiation therapy to patients with prostate-specific antigen (PSA) or local recurrence after prostatectomy in whom there is no evidence of distant metastatic disease. The offer of radiation therapy should be made in the context of a thoughtful discussion of possible short- and long-term side effects of radiation therapy as well as the potential benefits of preventing recurrence. The decision to administer radiation therapy should be made by the patient and the multidisciplinary treatment team with full consideration of the patient's history, values, preferences, quality of life, and functional status. The American Society for Radiation Oncology and American Urological Association websites show this guideline in its entirety, including the full literature review

  6. Report of the International Society of Nephrology: North American Renal Disaster Response Task Force.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blake, Peter G; Parker, Thomas F

    2003-04-01

    This article comprises a report from the North American Renal Disaster Response Task Force (RDRTF) set up in 2001 by the International Society of Nephrology Acute Renal Failure Commission. The conclusions of the report are (1) given the rarity of renal disasters in the Americas the North American and Latin American RDRTF's should be merged; (2) for the same reason, a single RDRFT Coordination Center for the whole world should be established and it is suggested that this be in Ghent, Belgium; (3) the collaborative group set up in Europe and involving the European RDRTF and Medecins Sans Frontiers be asked to extend their rapid response service to cover acute renal disasters in the Americas south of the United States-Mexico border; (4) the combined RDRTF for the Americas should establish a list of nephrologists, nurses, and technicians who are available to assist in the acute response to renal disasters; (5) the combined RDRTF of the Americas establish an inventory of equipment, machines, and methods for their transport that would be available in the event of a disaster; and (6) the RDRTF of the Americas should undertake a large-scale educational initiative on management of renal disasters. PMID:12879370

  7. Normal mediastinal lymph nodes: number and size according to American Thoracic Society Mapping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CT was used to investigate the number and size of normal mediastinal lymph nodes at 11 intrathoracic nodal stations defined by the American Thoracic Society lymph-node mapping scheme. Nodal size was measured both as short- and long-axis diameters in the transverse plane. Findings for 56 patients show the largest normal mediastinal nodes to be in the subcarinal and right tracheobronchial regions. Upper paratracheal nodes were smaller than lower paratracheal or tracheobronchial nodes, and right-sided tracheobronchial nodes were larger than left-sided ones. From the distributions of node sizes, thresholds were set above which nodes in any region might be considered enlarged. These thresholds, in agreement with a prior investigation of patients with lung cancer, suggest 1.0 cm as the upper limit of normal for the short axis of a mediastinal node in the transverse plane

  8. An examination of gender differences in the American Fisheries Society peer-review process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handley, Grace; Frantz, Cynthia M; Kocovsky, Patrick; DeVries, Dennis R.; Cooke, Steven J.; Claussen, Julie

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the possibility of gender differences in outcomes throughout the peer review process of American Fisheries Society (AFS) journals. For each manuscript submitted to four AFS journals between January 2003 and December 2010, we collated information regarding the gender and nationality of authors, gender of associate editor, gender of reviewers, reviewer recommendations, associate editor's decision, and publication status of the manuscript. We used hierarchical linear modeling to test for differences in manuscript decision outcomes associated with author, reviewer, and associate editor gender. Gender differences were present at some but not every stage of the review process and were not equal among the four journals. Although there was a small gender difference in decision outcomes, we found no evidence of bias in editors’ and reviewers’ recommendations. Our results support the conclusion that the current single-blind review system does not result in bias against female authors within AFS journals.

  9. Minutes of the 45. meeting of the American society of therapeutic radiology and oncology (Astro)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The forty fifth meeting of the American Society of Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology (ASTRO) held at the center of congress in Salt Lake city in october 2003. 542 scientific works have been presented, whom 221 orally. Escalation of radiation doses in prostate cancers have been studied. Fractionation and hormones therapy in prostate cancers are reported. The bladder cancers made the object of information, the bronchi cancer ( non at small cells and at small cells) have been analysed. Cancers of the ORL sphere, mammary gland and brain metastases were presented. The radiotherapy as a palliative treatment of bone metastases made the object of a report. The receptors of the epidermoid growth factor has been shown as an important factor to predict the tumor response to irradiation. (N.C.)

  10. Does diversity of papers affect their citations? Evidence from American Physical Society Journals

    CERN Document Server

    Enduri, Murali Krishna; Jolad, Shivakumar

    2015-01-01

    In this work, we study the correlation between interdisciplinarity of papers within physical sciences and their citations by using meta data of articles published in American Physical Society's Physical Review journals between 1985 to 2012. We use the Weitzman diversity index to measure the diversity of papers and authors, exploiting the hierarchical structure of PACS (Physics and Astronomy Classification Scheme) codes. We find that the fraction of authors with high diversity is increasing with time, where as the fraction of least diversity are decreasing, and moderate diversity authors have higher tendency to switch over to other diversity groups. The diversity index of papers is correlated with the citations they received in a given time period from their publication year. Papers with lower and higher end of diversity index receive lesser citations than the moderate diversity papers.

  11. ACCF/AHA/ASE/ASNC/HFSA/HRS/SCAI/SCCT/SCMR/STS 2013 multimodality appropriate use criteria for the detection and risk assessment of stable ischemic heart disease: a report of the American College of Cardiology Foundation Appropriate Use Criteria Task Force, American Heart Association, American Society of Echocardiography, American Society of Nuclear Cardiology, Heart Failure Society of America, Heart Rhythm Society, Society for Cardiovascular Angiography and Interventions, Society of Cardiovascular Computed Tomography, Society for Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance, and Society of Thoracic Surgeons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronan, Grace; Wolk, Michael J; Bailey, Steven R; Doherty, John U; Douglas, Pamela S; Hendel, Robert C; Kramer, Christopher M; Min, James K; Patel, Manesh R; Rosenbaum, Lisa; Shaw, Leslee J; Stainback, Raymond F; Allen, Joseph M; Brindis, Ralph G; Kramer, Christopher M; Shaw, Leslee J; Cerqueira, Manuel D; Chen, Jersey; Dean, Larry S; Fazel, Reza; Hundley, W Gregory; Itchhaporia, Dipti; Kligfield, Paul; Lockwood, Richard; Marine, Joseph Edward; McCully, Robert Benjamin; Messer, Joseph V; O'Gara, Patrick T; Shemin, Richard J; Wann, L Samuel; Wong, John B; Patel, Manesh R; Kramer, Christopher M; Bailey, Steven R; Brown, Alan S; Doherty, John U; Douglas, Pamela S; Hendel, Robert C; Lindsay, Bruce D; Min, James K; Shaw, Leslee J; Stainback, Raymond F; Wann, L Samuel; Wolk, Michael J; Allen, Joseph M

    2014-02-01

    The American College of Cardiology Foundation along with key specialty and subspecialty societies, conducted an appropriate use review of common clinical presentations for stable ischemic heart disease (SIHD) to consider use of stress testing and anatomic diagnostic procedures. This document reflects an updating of the prior Appropriate Use Criteria (AUC) published for radionuclide imaging (RNI), stress echocardiography (Echo), calcium scoring, coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA), stress cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR), and invasive coronary angiography for SIHD. This is in keeping with the commitment to revise and refine the AUC on a frequent basis. A major innovation in this document is the rating of tests side by side for the same indication. The side-by-side rating removes any concerns about differences in indication or interpretation stemming from prior use of separate documents for each test. However, the ratings were explicitly not competitive rankings due to the limited availability of comparative evidence, patient variability, and range of capabilities available in any given local setting. The indications for this review are limited to the detection and risk assessment of SIHD and were drawn from common applications or anticipated uses, as well as from current clinical practice guidelines. Eighty clinical scenarios were developed by a writing committee and scored by a separate rating panel on a scale of 1-9, to designate Appropriate, May Be Appropriate, or Rarely Appropriate use following a modified Delphi process following the recently updated AUC development methodology. The use of some modalities of testing in the initial evaluation of patients with symptoms representing ischemic equivalents, newly diagnosed heart failure, arrhythmias, and syncope was generally found to be Appropriate or May Be Appropriate, except in cases where low pre-test probability or low risk limited the benefit of most testing except exercise electrocardiogram (ECG

  12. Atopic dermatitis guideline. Position paper from the Latin American Society of Allergy, Asthma and Immunology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, Jorge; Páez, Bruno; Macías, A; Olmos, C; de Falco, A

    2014-01-01

    As in other regions, the incidence of atopic dermatitis in Latin America has been increasing in recent years. Although there are several clinical guidelines, many of their recommendations cannot be universal since they depend on the characteristics of each region. Thus, we decided to create a consensus guideline on atopic dermatitis applicable in Latin America and other tropical regions, taking into account socio-economic, geographical, cultural and health care system characteristics. The Latin American Society of Allergy Asthma and Immunology (SLAAI) conducted a systematic search for articles related to the pathophysiology, diagnosis and treatment of dermatitis using various electronic resources such as Google, Pubmed, EMBASE (Ovid) and Cochrane data base. We have also looked for all published articles in Latin America on the subject using LILACS (Latin American and Caribbean Literature on Health Sciences) database. Each section was reviewed by at least two members of the committee, and the final version was subsequently approved by all of them, using the Delphi methodology for consensus building. Afterward, the final document was shared for external evaluation with physicians, specialists (allergists, dermatologists and pediatricians), patients and academic institutions such as universities and scientific societies related to the topic. All recommendations made by these groups were taken into account for the final drafting of the document. There are few original studies conducted in Latin America about dermatitis; however, we were able to create a practical guideline for Latin America taking into account the particularities of the region. Moreover, the integral management was highlighted including many of the recommendations from different participants in the health care of this disease (patients, families, primary care physicians and specialists). This practical guide presents a concise approach to the diagnosis and management of atopic dermatitis that can be

  13. Role of American Society of Clinical Oncology in low- and middle-income countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Jyoti D; Galsky, Matthew D; Chagpar, Anees B; Pyle, Doug; Loehrer, Patrick J

    2011-08-01

    The American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO) is a global community of health care professionals whose stated purpose is to "make a world of difference" by improving cancer care around the world. Unfortunately, cancer survival rates vary significantly among countries with differing financial and infrastructural resources. Because ASCO is a professional oncology society committed to conquering cancer through research, education, prevention, and delivery of high-quality patient care, it is ideally suited to address this issue. ASCO could bring together oncology professionals and other necessary stakeholders from around the world to improve cancer care and lessen suffering for patients worldwide. As part of the ongoing commitment of ASCO to the future of cancer care, the Leadership Development Program was created to foster the leadership skills of early and midcareer oncologists and provide these participants with a working knowledge of the depth and breadth of the organization. As participants in the inaugural class of the ASCO Leadership Development Program, we were charged with investigating how ASCO might favorably affect cancer prevention and treatment in resource-poor countries in a cost-effective, scalable, and sustainable fashion. ASCO can significantly influence cancer care in low- and middle-income countries through a comprehensive approach that promotes cancer awareness and education, improves clinical practice by identifying and removing barriers to delivery of quality cancer care, and fosters innovation to initiate novel solutions to complex problems. PMID:21709190

  14. Overview on the dosimetric uncertainty analysis for photon-emitting brachytherapy sources, in the light of the AAPM Task Group No 138 and GEC-ESTRO report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 2011, the American Association of Physicists in Medicine (AAPM) and the Groupe Europeen de Curietherapie-European Society for Radiotherapy and Oncology (GEC-ESTRO) published a report pertaining to uncertainties in brachytherapy single-source dosimetry preceding clinical use. The International Organization for Standardization's Guide to the Expression of Uncertainty in Measurement and Technical Note 1297 by the National Institute of Standards and Technology are taken as reference standards for uncertainty formalism. Uncertainties involved in measurements or Monte Carlo methods to estimate brachytherapy dose distributions are provided with discussion of the components intrinsic to the overall dosimetric assessment. The uncertainty propagation from the primary calibration standard through transfer to the clinic for air-kerma strength is given with uncertainties in each of the brachytherapy dosimetry parameters of the AAPM TG-43 dose-calculation formalism. For low-energy and high-energy brachytherapy sources of low dose-rate and high dose-rate, a combined dosimetric uncertainty ≤5% (k = 1) is estimated, which is consistent with prior literature estimates. Recommendations are provided for clinical medical physicists, dosimetry investigators, and manufacturers of brachytherapy sources and treatment planning systems. These recommendations reflect the guidance of the AAPM and GEC-ESTRO for their members, and may also be used as guidance to manufacturers and regulatory agencies in developing good manufacturing practices for conventional brachytherapy sources used in routine clinical treatments. (authors)

  15. The Society for the Advancement of Chicanos and Native Americans in Science (SACNAS) Geoscience Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velasco, A. A.; Lopez, R. E.; Zavala, M.

    2002-12-01

    The Society for the Advancement of Chicanos and Native Americans in Science (SACNAS) focuses on encouraging undergraduate and graduate minority students to pursue higher degrees. For over 29 years, SACNAS has provided strong national leadership in improving science and math education, as well as expanding opportunities for minorities in the scientific workforce and academia. SACNAS' Annual National Conference and Teacher Workshops, summer research opportunities, E-mentoring program, and online internship/job placement resources are tools that help a diverse community of students, professors, administrators, and K-12 educators achieve expertise within their disciplines. The SACNAS Annual National Conference is the centerpiece of our programs. The conferences feature career advancement workshops, scientific symposia, exhibits, student presentations and guest speakers designed to provide the resources Chicano/Latino, Native American, and other postdoctoral, graduate and undergraduate science and engineering students need to pursue a advanced degrees in the sciences. Guest speakers are chosen for their excellence in scientific research and their ability to convey the wonder and importance of science through the presentation of their research results. SACNAS has recently included a geological science emphasis to its existing programs to address the need to diversify the field. This talk will outline our approach, and outline how SACNAS has been able to grow over the past 30 years.

  16. Evaluation of American Indian Science and Engineering Society Intertribal Middle School Science and Math Bowl Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    AISES, None

    2013-09-25

    The American Indian Science and Engineering Society (AISES) has been funded under a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) grant (Grant Award No. DE-SC0004058) to host an Intertribal Middle-School Science and Math Bowl (IMSSMB) comprised of teams made up of a majority of American Indian students from Bureau of Indian Education-funded schools and public schools. The intent of the AISES middle school science and math bowl is to increase participation of American Indian students at the DOE-sponsored National Science Bowl. Although national in its recruitment scope, the AISES Intertribal Science and Math Bowl is considered a “regional” science bowl, equivalent to the other 50 regional science bowls which are geographically limited to states. Most regional bowls do not have American Indian student teams competing, hence the AISES bowl is meant to encourage American Indian student teams to increase their science knowledge in order to participate at the national level. The AISES competition brings together teams from various American Indian communities across the nation. Each team is provided with funds for travel to and from the event, as well as for lodging and meals. In 2011 and 2012, there were 10 teams participating; in 2013, the number of teams participating doubled to 20. Each Science and Math Bowl team is comprised of four middle school — grades 6 through 8 — students, one alternate, and a teacher who serves as advisor and coach — although in at least two cases, the coach was not a teacher, but was the Indian Education Coordinator. Each team member must have at least a 3.0 GPA. Furthermore, the majority of students in each team must be comprised of American Indian, Alaska Native or Native Hawaiian students. Under the current DOE grant, AISES sponsored three annual middle school science bowl competitions over the years 2011, 2012 and 2013. The science and math bowls have been held in late March concurrently with the National American Indian Science and

  17. Radiation Protection in Brachytherapy. Report of the SEFM Task Group on Brachytherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document presents the report of the Brachytherapy Task Group of the Spanish Society of Medical Physics. It is dedicated to the radiation protection aspects involved in brachytherapy. The aim of this work is to include the more relevant aspects related to radiation protection issues that appear in clinical practice, and for the current equipment in Spain. Basically this report focuses on the typical contents associated with high dose rate brachytherapy with 192Ir and 60Co sources, and permanent seed implants with 125I, 103Pd and 131Cs, which are the most current and widespread modalities. Ophthalmic brachytherapy (COMS with 125I, 106Ru, 90Sr) is also included due to its availability in a significant number of spanish hospitals. The purpose of this report is to assist to the medical physicist community in establishing a radiation protection program for brachytherapy procedures, trying to solve some ambiguities in the application of legal requirements and recommendations in clinical practice. (Author)

  18. Atypical subtrochanteric and diaphyseal femoral fractures: report of a task force of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shane, Elizabeth; Burr, David; Ebeling, Peter R;

    2010-01-01

    Reports linking long-term use of bisphosphonates (BPs) with atypical fractures of the femur led the leadership of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research (ASBMR) to appoint a task force to address key questions related to this problem. A multidisciplinary expert group reviewed pertinent...

  19. Position of the American Dietetic Association, School Nutrition Association, and Society for Nutrition Education: Comprehensive School Nutrition Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briggs, Marilyn; Mueller, Constance G.; Fleischhacker, Sheila

    2010-01-01

    It is the position of the American Dietetic Association (ADA), School Nutrition Association (SNA), and Society for Nutrition Education (SNE) that comprehensive, integrated nutrition services in schools, kindergarten through grade 12, are an essential component of coordinated school health programs and will improve the nutritional status, health,…

  20. Abstracts and program proceedings of the 1994 meeting of the International Society for Ecological Modelling North American Chapter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kercher, J.R.

    1994-06-01

    This document contains information about the 1994 meeting of the International Society for Ecological Modelling North American Chapter. The topics discussed include: extinction risk assessment modelling, ecological risk analysis of uranium mining, impacts of pesticides, demography, habitats, atmospheric deposition, and climate change.

  1. 77 FR 3073 - American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) Codes and New and Revised ASME Code Cases...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-23

    ... Register on June 21, 2011 (76 FR 36232). The final rule amended the NRC's regulations to incorporate by... INFORMATION: The NRC published a final rule in the Federal Register on June 21, 2011 (76 FR 36232), amending... COMMISSION 10 CFR Part 50 RIN 3150-AI35 American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) Codes and New...

  2. The Big Chill: Changes in American Politics and Society from the Late 1960s to the Present.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, David S.

    This essay looks at three kinds of changes in American society over the period from the late 1960s to the mid-1990s. First, data from the Cooperative Institutional Research Program (CIRP) are used to measure trends in college freshmen's political identification, materialism, concern for law and order, and concern for helping others. In all these…

  3. Erectile function after prostate brachytherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To evaluate erectile function after permanent prostate brachytherapy using a validated patient-administered questionnaire and to determine the effect of multiple clinical, treatment, and dosimetric parameters on penile erectile function. Methods and materials: A total of 226 patients with preimplant erectile function determined by the International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF) questionnaire underwent permanent prostate brachytherapy in two prospective randomized trials between February 2001 and January 2003 for clinical Stage T1c-T2c (2002 American Joint Committee on Cancer) prostate cancer. Of the 226 patients, 132 were potent before treatment and, of those, 128 (97%) completed and returned the IIEF questionnaire after brachytherapy. The median follow-up was 29.1 months. Potency was defined as an IIEF score of ≥13. The clinical, treatment, and dosimetric parameters evaluated included patient age; preimplant IIEF score; clinical T stage; pretreatment prostate-specific antigen level; Gleason score; elapsed time after implantation; preimplant nocturnal erections; body mass index; presence of hypertension or diabetes mellitus; tobacco consumption; the volume of the prostate gland receiving 100%, 150%, and 200% of the prescribed dose (V100/150/200); the dose delivered to 90% of the prostate gland (D90); androgen deprivation therapy; supplemental external beam radiotherapy (EBRT); isotope; prostate volume; planning volume; and radiation dose to the proximal penis. Results: The 3-year actuarial rate of potency preservation was 50.5%. For patients who maintained adequate posttreatment erectile function, the preimplant IIEF score was 29, and in patients with brachytherapy-related ED, the preimplant IIEF score was 25. The median time to the onset of ED was 5.4 months. After brachytherapy, the median IIEF score was 20 in potent patients and 3 in impotent patients. On univariate analysis, the preimplant IIEF score, patient age, presence of nocturnal erections

  4. Current Brachytherapy Quality Assurance Guidance: Does It Meet the Challenges of Emerging Image-Guided Technologies?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the past decade, brachytherapy has shifted from the traditional surgical paradigm to more modern three-dimensional image-based planning and delivery approaches. The role of intraoperative and multimodality image-based planning is growing. Published American Association of Physicists in Medicine, American College of Radiology, European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology, and International Atomic Energy Agency quality assurance (QA) guidelines largely emphasize the QA of planning and delivery devices rather than processes. These protocols have been designed to verify compliance with major performance specifications and are not risk based. With some exceptions, complete and clinically practical guidance exists for sources, QA instrumentation, non-image-based planning systems, applicators, remote afterloading systems, dosimetry, and calibration. Updated guidance is needed for intraoperative imaging systems and image-based planning systems. For non-image-based brachytherapy, the American Association of Physicists in Medicine Task Group reports 56 and 59 provide reasonable guidance on procedure-specific process flow and QA. However, improved guidance is needed even for established procedures such as ultrasound-guided prostate implants. Adaptive replanning in brachytherapy faces unsolved problems similar to that of image-guided adaptive external beam radiotherapy

  5. American Society for Radiation Oncology (ASTRO) 2012 Workforce Study: The Radiation Oncologists' and Residents' Perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: The American Society for Radiation Oncology (ASTRO) conducted the 2012 Radiation Oncology Workforce Survey to obtain an up-to-date picture of the workforce, assess its needs and concerns, and identify quality and safety improvement opportunities. The results pertaining to radiation oncologists (ROs) and residents (RORs) are presented here. Methods: The ASTRO Workforce Subcommittee, in collaboration with allied radiation oncology professional societies, conducted a survey study in early 2012. An online survey questionnaire was sent to all segments of the radiation oncology workforce. Respondents who were actively working were included in the analysis. This manuscript describes the data for ROs and RORs. Results: A total of 3618 ROs and 568 RORs were surveyed. The response rate for both groups was 29%, with 1047 RO and 165 ROR responses. Among ROs, the 2 most common racial groups were white (80%) and Asian (15%), and the male-to-female ratio was 2.85 (74% male). The median age of ROs was 51. ROs averaged 253.4 new patient consults in a year and 22.9 on-treatment patients. More than 86% of ROs reported being satisfied or very satisfied overall with their career. Close to half of ROs reported having burnout feelings. There was a trend toward more frequent burnout feelings with increasing numbers of new patient consults. ROs' top concerns were related to documentation, reimbursement, and patients' health insurance coverage. Ninety-five percent of ROs felt confident when implementing new technology. Fifty-one percent of ROs thought that the supply of ROs was balanced with demand, and 33% perceived an oversupply. Conclusions: This study provides a current snapshot of the 2012 radiation oncology physician workforce. There was a predominance of whites and men. Job satisfaction level was high. However a substantial fraction of ROs reported burnout feelings. Perceptions about supply and demand balance were mixed. ROs top concerns reflect areas of attention for the

  6. Kokes Awards for the 22nd North American Catalysis Society Meeting, June 5-10, 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fabio H. Ribeiro

    2011-06-05

    The biennial North American Catalysis Society (NACS) Meetings are the premiere conferences in the area of catalysis, surface science, and reaction engineering. The 22nd meeting will be held the week of June 5-10, 2011 in Detroit, Michigan. The objective of the Meetings is to bring together leading researchers for intensive scientific exchange and interactions. Financial support that offsets some of the associated costs (specifically, registration fee, airline tickets, and hotel accommodations) would encourage graduate students, and for the first time undergraduate students, to attend and participate meaningfully in this conference. The funds sought in this proposal will help support the Richard J. Kokes Travel Award program. Graduate students eligible for these merit-based Awards are those who study at a North American university and who will present at the Meeting. We have currently 209 applications and we expect to be able to fund about half of them. The NACS has traditionally sought to encourage graduate student, and this year for the first time undergraduate studies, participation at the National Meetings and providing financial support is the most effective means to do so. Their attendance would contribute significantly to their scientific training and communication and presentation skills. They would be exposed to the leading researchers from the US and abroad; they would meet their peers from other universities; they would learn about cutting-edge results that could benefit their research projects; and they may become interested in becoming active participants in the catalysis community. These young investigators represent the next generation of scientists and engineers, and their proper training will lead to future scientific breakthroughs and technological innovations that benefit the US economy. Advances in catalysis can come in the form of more energy-efficient and environmentally-friendly chemical processes, improved fuel cell performance, efficient

  7. A Survey of the American Society of Anesthesiologists Regarding Environmental Attitudes, Knowledge, and Organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ard, John L; Tobin, Katherine; Huncke, Tessa; Kline, Richard; Ryan, Susan M; Bell, Charlotte

    2016-04-01

    Our planet is in the midst of an environmental crisis. Government and international agencies such as the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change urge radical and transformative change at every level of how we conduct our personal and professional lives. The health care industry contributes to climate change. According to a study from the University of Chicago, the health care sector accounts for 8% of the United States' total greenhouse gas emissions. In an effort to understand the current state of environmental practice, attitudes, and knowledge among anesthesiologists in the United States, we conducted a survey of American anesthesiologists regarding environmental sustainability. The environmental survey was sent out by e-mail to a random sampling of 5200 members of the American Society of Anesthesiologists. This process was repeated a second time. A total of 2189 anesthesiologists of 5200 responded to the survey, a 42% response rate. Of the survey respondents, 80.1% (confidence interval, 78.2%-81.9%) were interested in recycling. Respondents reported recycling in 27.7% of operating rooms where they work. The majority of respondents (67%; confidence interval, 64%-69%) reported there was insufficient information on how to recycle intraoperatively. Respondents supported sustainability practices such as reprocessing equipment, using prefilled syringes, and donating unused equipment and supplies. The affirmative response rate was 48.4% for reprocessing equipment, 56.6% for using prefilled syringes, and 65.1% for donating equipment and supplies to medical missions. Questions about hospital-wide organization of sustainability programs elicited many "I don't know" responses. Eighteen percent of responders indicated the presence of a sustainability or "green" task force. A total of 12.6% of responders indicated the presence of a mandate from hospital leadership to promote sustainability programs. Two important conclusions drawn from the survey data are a lack of

  8. Benefit of Adjuvant Brachytherapy Versus External Beam Radiation for Early Breast Cancer: Impact of Patient Stratification on Breast Preservation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Grace L. [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Jiang, Jing [Department of Biostatistics, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Buchholz, Thomas A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Xu, Ying [Department of Biostatistics, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Hoffman, Karen E. [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Giordano, Sharon H. [Department of Breast Medical Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Hunt, Kelly K. [Department of Surgical Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Smith, Benjamin D., E-mail: bsmith3@mdanderson.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States)

    2014-02-01

    Purpose: Brachytherapy after lumpectomy is an increasingly popular breast cancer treatment, but data concerning its effectiveness are conflicting. Recently proposed “suitability” criteria guiding patient selection for brachytherapy have never been empirically validated. Methods: Using the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results–Medicare linked database, we compared women aged 66 years or older with invasive breast cancer (n=28,718) or ductal carcinoma in situ (n=7229) diagnosed from 2002 to 2007, treated with lumpectomy alone, brachytherapy, or external beam radiation therapy (EBRT). The likelihood of breast preservation, measured by subsequent mastectomy risk, was compared by use of multivariate proportional hazards, further stratified by American Society for Radiation Oncology (ASTRO) brachytherapy suitability groups. We compared 1-year postoperative complications using the χ{sup 2} test and 5-year local toxicities using the log-rank test. Results: For patients with invasive cancer, the 5-year subsequent mastectomy risk was 4.7% after lumpectomy alone (95% confidence interval [CI], 4.1%-5.4%), 2.8% after brachytherapy (95% CI, 1.8%-4.3%), and 1.3% after EBRT (95% CI, 1.1%-1.5%) (P<.001). Compared with lumpectomy alone, brachytherapy achieved a more modest reduction in adjusted risk (hazard ratio [HR], 0.61; 95% CI, 0.40-0.94) than achieved with EBRT (HR, 0.22; 95% CI, 0.18-0.28). Relative risks did not differ when stratified by ASTRO suitability group (P=.84 for interaction), although ASTRO “suitable” patients did show a low absolute subsequent mastectomy risk, with a minimal absolute difference in risk after brachytherapy (1.6%; 95% CI, 0.7%-3.5%) versus EBRT (0.8%; 95% CI, 0.6%-1.1%). For patients with ductal carcinoma in situ, EBRT maintained a reduced risk of subsequent mastectomy (HR, 0.40; 95% CI, 0.28-0.55; P<.001), whereas the small number of patients treated with brachytherapy (n=179) precluded definitive comparison with lumpectomy alone

  9. Benefit of Adjuvant Brachytherapy Versus External Beam Radiation for Early Breast Cancer: Impact of Patient Stratification on Breast Preservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Brachytherapy after lumpectomy is an increasingly popular breast cancer treatment, but data concerning its effectiveness are conflicting. Recently proposed “suitability” criteria guiding patient selection for brachytherapy have never been empirically validated. Methods: Using the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results–Medicare linked database, we compared women aged 66 years or older with invasive breast cancer (n=28,718) or ductal carcinoma in situ (n=7229) diagnosed from 2002 to 2007, treated with lumpectomy alone, brachytherapy, or external beam radiation therapy (EBRT). The likelihood of breast preservation, measured by subsequent mastectomy risk, was compared by use of multivariate proportional hazards, further stratified by American Society for Radiation Oncology (ASTRO) brachytherapy suitability groups. We compared 1-year postoperative complications using the χ2 test and 5-year local toxicities using the log-rank test. Results: For patients with invasive cancer, the 5-year subsequent mastectomy risk was 4.7% after lumpectomy alone (95% confidence interval [CI], 4.1%-5.4%), 2.8% after brachytherapy (95% CI, 1.8%-4.3%), and 1.3% after EBRT (95% CI, 1.1%-1.5%) (P<.001). Compared with lumpectomy alone, brachytherapy achieved a more modest reduction in adjusted risk (hazard ratio [HR], 0.61; 95% CI, 0.40-0.94) than achieved with EBRT (HR, 0.22; 95% CI, 0.18-0.28). Relative risks did not differ when stratified by ASTRO suitability group (P=.84 for interaction), although ASTRO “suitable” patients did show a low absolute subsequent mastectomy risk, with a minimal absolute difference in risk after brachytherapy (1.6%; 95% CI, 0.7%-3.5%) versus EBRT (0.8%; 95% CI, 0.6%-1.1%). For patients with ductal carcinoma in situ, EBRT maintained a reduced risk of subsequent mastectomy (HR, 0.40; 95% CI, 0.28-0.55; P<.001), whereas the small number of patients treated with brachytherapy (n=179) precluded definitive comparison with lumpectomy alone. In all

  10. Christianity and Eugenics: The Place of Religion in the British Eugenics Education Society and the American Eugenics Society, c.1907-1940.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Graham J

    2014-05-01

    Historians have regularly acknowledged the significance of religious faith to the eugenics movement in Britain and the USA. However, much of this scholarship suggests a polarised relationship of either conflict or consensus. Where Christian believers participated in the eugenics movement this has been represented as an abandonment of 'orthodox' theology, and the impression has been created that eugenics was a secularising force. In contrast, this article explores the impact of religious values on two eugenics organisations: the British Eugenics Education Society, and the American Eugenics Society. It is demonstrated that concerns over religion resulted in both these organisations modifying and tempering the public work that they undertook. This act of concealing and minimising the visibly controversial aspects of eugenics is offered as an addition to the debate over 'mainline' versus 'reform' eugenics. PMID:24778464

  11. Christianity and Eugenics: The Place of Religion in the British Eugenics Education Society and the American Eugenics Society, c.1907–1940

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Graham J.

    2014-01-01

    Historians have regularly acknowledged the significance of religious faith to the eugenics movement in Britain and the USA. However, much of this scholarship suggests a polarised relationship of either conflict or consensus. Where Christian believers participated in the eugenics movement this has been represented as an abandonment of ‘orthodox’ theology, and the impression has been created that eugenics was a secularising force. In contrast, this article explores the impact of religious values on two eugenics organisations: the British Eugenics Education Society, and the American Eugenics Society. It is demonstrated that concerns over religion resulted in both these organisations modifying and tempering the public work that they undertook. This act of concealing and minimising the visibly controversial aspects of eugenics is offered as an addition to the debate over ‘mainline’ versus ‘reform’ eugenics. PMID:24778464

  12. Idiopathic interstitial pneumonias: a radiology-pathology correlation based on the revised 2013 American Thoracic Society-European Respiratory Society classification system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadoch, Michael A; Cham, Matthew D; Beasley, Mary B; Ward, Thomas J; Jacobi, Adam H; Eber, Corey D; Padilla, Maria L

    2015-01-01

    The idiopathic interstitial pneumonias (IIPs) are a group of diffuse lung diseases that share many similar radiologic and pathologic features. According to the revised 2013 American Thoracic Society-European Respiratory Society classification system, these entities are now divided into major IIPs (idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, idiopathic nonspecific interstitial pneumonia, respiratory bronchiolitis-associated interstitial lung disease, desquamative interstitial pneumonia, cryptogenic organizing pneumonia, and acute interstitial pneumonia), rare IIPs (idiopathic lymphoid interstitial pneumonia, idiopathic pleuroparenchymal fibroelastosis), and unclassifiable idiopathic interstitial pneumonias. Some of the encountered radiologic and histologic patterns can also be seen in the setting of other disorders, which makes them a diagnostic challenge. As such, the accurate classification of IIPs remains complex and is best approached through a collaboration among clinicians, radiologists, and pathologists, as the treatment and prognosis of these conditions vary greatly. PMID:25512168

  13. The acute treatment of migraine in adults: the american headache society evidence assessment of migraine pharmacotherapies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marmura, Michael J; Silberstein, Stephen D; Schwedt, Todd J

    2015-01-01

    The study aims to provide an updated assessment of the evidence for individual pharmacological therapies for acute migraine treatment. Pharmacological therapy is frequently required for acutely treating migraine attacks. The American Academy of Neurology Guidelines published in 2000 summarized the available evidence relating to the efficacy of acute migraine medications. This review, conducted by the members of the Guidelines Section of the American Headache Society, is an updated assessment of evidence for the migraine acute medications. A standardized literature search was performed to identify articles related to acute migraine treatment that were published between 1998 and 2013. The American Academy of Neurology Guidelines Development procedures were followed. Two authors reviewed each abstract resulting from the search and determined whether the full manuscript qualified for review. Two reviewers studied each qualifying full manuscript for its level of evidence. Level A evidence requires at least 2 Class I studies, and Level B evidence requires 1 Class I or 2 Class II studies. The specific medications - triptans (almotriptan, eletriptan, frovatriptan, naratriptan, rizatriptan, sumatriptan [oral, nasal spray, injectable, transcutaneous patch], zolmitriptan [oral and nasal spray]) and dihydroergotamine (nasal spray, inhaler) are effective (Level A). Ergotamine and other forms of dihydroergotamine are probably effective (Level B). Effective nonspecific medications include acetaminophen, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (aspirin, diclofenac, ibuprofen, and naproxen), opioids (butorphanol nasal spray), sumatriptan/naproxen, and the combination of acetaminophen/aspirin/caffeine (Level A). Ketoprofen, intravenous and intramuscular ketorolac, flurbiprofen, intravenous magnesium (in migraine with aura), and the combination of isometheptene compounds, codeine/acetaminophen and tramadol/acetaminophen are probably effective (Level B). The antiemetics prochlorperazine

  14. Executive Summary: Official American Thoracic Society/Centers for Disease Control and Prevention/Infectious Diseases Society of America Clinical Practice Guidelines: Treatment of Drug-Susceptible Tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nahid, Payam; Dorman, Susan E; Alipanah, Narges; Barry, Pennan M; Brozek, Jan L; Cattamanchi, Adithya; Chaisson, Lelia H; Chaisson, Richard E; Daley, Charles L; Grzemska, Malgosia; Higashi, Julie M; Ho, Christine S; Hopewell, Philip C; Keshavjee, Salmaan A; Lienhardt, Christian; Menzies, Richard; Merrifield, Cynthia; Narita, Masahiro; O'Brien, Rick; Peloquin, Charles A; Raftery, Ann; Saukkonen, Jussi; Schaaf, H Simon; Sotgiu, Giovanni; Starke, Jeffrey R; Migliori, Giovanni Battista; Vernon, Andrew

    2016-10-01

    The American Thoracic Society, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and Infectious Diseases Society of America jointly sponsored the development of this guideline for the treatment of drug-susceptible tuberculosis, which is also endorsed by the European Respiratory Society and the US National Tuberculosis Controllers Association. Representatives from the American Academy of Pediatrics, the Canadian Thoracic Society, the International Union Against Tuberculosis and Lung Disease, and the World Health Organization also participated in the development of the guideline. This guideline provides recommendations on the clinical and public health management of tuberculosis in children and adults in settings in which mycobacterial cultures, molecular and phenotypic drug susceptibility tests, and radiographic studies, among other diagnostic tools, are available on a routine basis. For all recommendations, literature reviews were performed, followed by discussion by an expert committee according to the Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development and Evaluation methodology. Given the public health implications of prompt diagnosis and effective management of tuberculosis, empiric multidrug treatment is initiated in almost all situations in which active tuberculosis is suspected. Additional characteristics such as presence of comorbidities, severity of disease, and response to treatment influence management decisions. Specific recommendations on the use of case management strategies (including directly observed therapy), regimen and dosing selection in adults and children (daily vs intermittent), treatment of tuberculosis in the presence of HIV infection (duration of tuberculosis treatment and timing of initiation of antiretroviral therapy), as well as treatment of extrapulmonary disease (central nervous system, pericardial among other sites) are provided. The development of more potent and better-tolerated drug regimens, optimization of drug exposure for the

  15. A 10-Year Analysis of American Society for Radiation Oncology Junior Faculty Career Development Awards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Between 2000 and 2010, the American Society for Radiation Oncology (ASTRO) awarded 22 Junior Faculty Career Development Awards (JFA) totaling $4.4 million. This study aimed to evaluate the impact of these awards on the grantees' career development, including current position, publications, and subsequent independent grant funding. Methods: Each awardee was requested via email and telephone to provide an updated curriculum vitae, a National Institutes of Health (NIH) biosketch, and information regarding current position of employment. Twenty-one of the 22 JFA recipients complied. Reported grant funding was extracted from each candidate's CV, and the amounts of NIH grants obtained were confirmed via NIH REPORTER. Reported publications were confirmed via PubMed. Results: All survey respondents (21 of 21) have remained in academic positions. Subsequent aggregate grant funding totaled more than $25 million (range, $0-$4.1 million), 5.9 times the initial investment. NIH grant funding totaled almost $15 million, 3 times the initial investment. Awardees have published an average of 34.6 publications (range, 0-123) for an overall rate of 4.5 papers/year (range, 1-11). Conclusions: ASTRO JFAs over the past decade have been strongly associated with grantees remaining in academic positions, success in attracting private and NIH grants, and publication productivity. In an era of dwindling federal research funding, the support provided by the ASTRO JFA may be especially helpful to support the research careers of promising junior faculty members

  16. Reporting of Uncertainty at the 2013 Annual Meeting of the American Society for Radiation Oncology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, W. Robert, E-mail: w.robert.lee@duke.edu

    2014-05-01

    Purpose: The annual meeting of the American Society for Radiation Oncology (ASTRO) is designed to disseminate new scientific findings and technical advances to professionals. Best practices of scientific dissemination require that some level of uncertainty (or imprecision) is provided. Methods and Materials: A total of 279 scientific abstracts were selected for oral presentation in a clinical session at the 2013 ASTRO Annual Meeting. A random sample of these abstracts was reviewed to determine whether a 95% confidence interval (95% CI) or analogous measure of precision was provided for time-to-event analyses. Results: A sample of 140 abstracts was reviewed. Of the 65 abstracts with Kaplan-Meier or cumulative incidence analyses, 6 included some measure of precision (6 of 65 = 9%; 95% CI, 2-16). Of the 43 abstracts reporting ratios for time-to-event analyses (eg, hazard ratio, risk ratio), 22 included some measure of precision (22 of 43 = 51%; 95% CI, 36-66). Conclusions: Measures of precision are not provided in a significant percentage of abstracts selected for oral presentation at the Annual Meeting of ASTRO.

  17. American Society of Clinical Oncology Policy Statement Update: Genetic and Genomic Testing for Cancer Susceptibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robson, Mark E; Bradbury, Angela R; Arun, Banu; Domchek, Susan M; Ford, James M; Hampel, Heather L; Lipkin, Stephen M; Syngal, Sapna; Wollins, Dana S; Lindor, Noralane M

    2015-11-01

    The American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO) has long affirmed that the recognition and management of individuals with an inherited susceptibility to cancer are core elements of oncology care. ASCO released its first statement on genetic testing in 1996 and updated that statement in 2003 and 2010 in response to developments in the field. In 2014, the Cancer Prevention and Ethics Committees of ASCO commissioned another update to reflect the impact of advances in this area on oncology practice. In particular, there was an interest in addressing the opportunities and challenges arising from the application of massively parallel sequencing-also known as next-generation sequencing-to cancer susceptibility testing. This technology introduces a new level of complexity into the practice of cancer risk assessment and management, requiring renewed effort on the part of ASCO to ensure that those providing care to patients with cancer receive the necessary education to use this new technology in the most effective, beneficial manner. The purpose of this statement is to explore the challenges of new and emerging technologies in cancer genetics and provide recommendations to ensure their optimal deployment in oncology practice. Specifically, the statement makes recommendations in the following areas: germline implications of somatic mutation profiling, multigene panel testing for cancer susceptibility, quality assurance in genetic testing, education of oncology professionals, and access to cancer genetic services. PMID:26324357

  18. Highlights of the American Nuclear Society topical meeting on the treatment and handling of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The American Nuclear Society Topical Meeting on the Treatment and Handling of Radioactive Wastes was held in Richland, Washington, from 19-22 April 1982. The object of the meeting was to provide a thorough assessment of the status of technology. The response to the meeting was excellent: 123 papers were presented. There were 505 registrations; 83 were from outside the USA, representing 13 countries. The large and diverse attendance provided a broad technological view and perspective. The following major points emerged from the conference: (1) In an extensive world-wide effort, techniques are being developed to cover all phases of radioactive waste management. (2) A broad and deep technological base has been developed. (3) Many adequate processes are ready for actual application while others are ready for demonstration of applicability. These demonstrations are important to further public acceptance of nuclear energy. (4) At the present level of maturity, systematic analyses should be performed to determine actual requirements for the treatment and handling of radioactive wastes. These analyses can be used to focus our research and development, and demonstration activities to achieve treatment and conditioning systems which are both appropriate and cost-effective. (author)

  19. Reporting of Uncertainty at the 2013 Annual Meeting of the American Society for Radiation Oncology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: The annual meeting of the American Society for Radiation Oncology (ASTRO) is designed to disseminate new scientific findings and technical advances to professionals. Best practices of scientific dissemination require that some level of uncertainty (or imprecision) is provided. Methods and Materials: A total of 279 scientific abstracts were selected for oral presentation in a clinical session at the 2013 ASTRO Annual Meeting. A random sample of these abstracts was reviewed to determine whether a 95% confidence interval (95% CI) or analogous measure of precision was provided for time-to-event analyses. Results: A sample of 140 abstracts was reviewed. Of the 65 abstracts with Kaplan-Meier or cumulative incidence analyses, 6 included some measure of precision (6 of 65 = 9%; 95% CI, 2-16). Of the 43 abstracts reporting ratios for time-to-event analyses (eg, hazard ratio, risk ratio), 22 included some measure of precision (22 of 43 = 51%; 95% CI, 36-66). Conclusions: Measures of precision are not provided in a significant percentage of abstracts selected for oral presentation at the Annual Meeting of ASTRO

  20. Studying Gender in Conference Talks -- data from the 223rd meeting of the American Astronomical Society

    CERN Document Server

    Davenport, James R A; Grand, Erin; Hagen, Alex; Poppenhaeger, Katja; Watkins, Laura L

    2014-01-01

    We present a study on the gender balance, in speakers and attendees, at the recent major astronomical conference, the American Astronomical Society meeting 223, in Washington, DC. We conducted an informal survey, yielding over 300 responses by volunteers at the meeting. Each response included gender data about a single talk given at the meeting, recording the gender of the speaker and all question-askers. In total, 225 individual AAS talks were sampled. We analyze basic statistical properties of this sample. We find that the gender ratio of the speakers closely matched the gender ratio of the conference attendees. The audience asked an average of 2.8 questions per talk. Talks given by women had a slightly higher number of questions asked (3.2$\\pm$0.2) than talks given by men (2.6$\\pm$0.1). The most significant result from this study is that while the gender ratio of speakers very closely mirrors that of conference attendees, women are under-represented in the question-asker category. We interpret this to be a...

  1. A 10-Year Analysis of American Society for Radiation Oncology Junior Faculty Career Development Awards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kimple, Randall J., E-mail: rkimple@humonc.wisc.edu [Department of Human Oncology, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin (United States); Kao, Gary D. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States)

    2013-03-15

    Purpose: Between 2000 and 2010, the American Society for Radiation Oncology (ASTRO) awarded 22 Junior Faculty Career Development Awards (JFA) totaling $4.4 million. This study aimed to evaluate the impact of these awards on the grantees' career development, including current position, publications, and subsequent independent grant funding. Methods: Each awardee was requested via email and telephone to provide an updated curriculum vitae, a National Institutes of Health (NIH) biosketch, and information regarding current position of employment. Twenty-one of the 22 JFA recipients complied. Reported grant funding was extracted from each candidate's CV, and the amounts of NIH grants obtained were confirmed via NIH REPORTER. Reported publications were confirmed via PubMed. Results: All survey respondents (21 of 21) have remained in academic positions. Subsequent aggregate grant funding totaled more than $25 million (range, $0-$4.1 million), 5.9 times the initial investment. NIH grant funding totaled almost $15 million, 3 times the initial investment. Awardees have published an average of 34.6 publications (range, 0-123) for an overall rate of 4.5 papers/year (range, 1-11). Conclusions: ASTRO JFAs over the past decade have been strongly associated with grantees remaining in academic positions, success in attracting private and NIH grants, and publication productivity. In an era of dwindling federal research funding, the support provided by the ASTRO JFA may be especially helpful to support the research careers of promising junior faculty members.

  2. Brachytherapy applications and techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Devlin, Phillip M

    2015-01-01

    Written by the foremost experts in the field, this volume is a comprehensive text and practical reference on contemporary brachytherapy. The book provides detailed, site-specific information on applications and techniques of brachytherapy in the head and neck, central nervous system, breast, thorax, gastrointestinal tract, and genitourinary tract, as well as on gynecologic brachytherapy, low dose rate and high dose rate sarcoma brachytherapy, vascular brachytherapy, and pediatric applications. The book thoroughly describes and compares the four major techniques used in brachytherapy-intraca

  3. An official American Thoracic Society workshop report: assessment and palliative management of dyspnea crisis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mularski, Richard A; Reinke, Lynn F; Carrieri-Kohlman, Virginia; Fischer, Mark D; Campbell, Margaret L; Rocker, Graeme; Schneidman, Ann; Jacobs, Susan S; Arnold, Robert; Benditt, Joshua O; Booth, Sara; Byock, Ira; Chan, Garrett K; Curtis, J Randall; Donesky, Doranne; Hansen-Flaschen, John; Heffner, John; Klein, Russell; Limberg, Trina M; Manning, Harold L; Morrison, R Sean; Ries, Andrew L; Schmidt, Gregory A; Selecky, Paul A; Truog, Robert D; Wang, Angela C C; White, Douglas B

    2013-10-01

    In 2009, the American Thoracic Society (ATS) funded an assembly project, Palliative Management of Dyspnea Crisis, to focus on identification, management, and optimal resource utilization for effective palliation of acute episodes of dyspnea. We conducted a comprehensive search of the medical literature and evaluated available evidence from systematic evidence-based reviews (SEBRs) using a modified AMSTAR approach and then summarized the palliative management knowledge base for participants to use in discourse at a 2009 ATS workshop. We used an informal consensus process to develop a working definition of this novel entity and established an Ad Hoc Committee on Palliative Management of Dyspnea Crisis to further develop an official ATS document on the topic. The Ad Hoc Committee members defined dyspnea crisis as "sustained and severe resting breathing discomfort that occurs in patients with advanced, often life-limiting illness and overwhelms the patient and caregivers' ability to achieve symptom relief." Dyspnea crisis can occur suddenly and is characteristically without a reversible etiology. The workshop participants focused on dyspnea crisis management for patients in whom the goals of care are focused on palliation and for whom endotracheal intubation and mechanical ventilation are not consistent with articulated preferences. However, approaches to dyspnea crisis may also be appropriate for patients electing life-sustaining treatment. The Ad Hoc Committee developed a Workshop Report concerning assessment of dyspnea crisis; ethical and professional considerations; efficient utilization, communication, and care coordination; clinical management of dyspnea crisis; development of patient education and provider aid products; and enhancing implementation with audit and quality improvement. PMID:24161068

  4. Report by a special panel of the American Nuclear Society: Protection and management of plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The American Nuclear Society (ANS) established an independent and prestigious panel several months ago to take the matter up where the US National Academy of Science (NAS) left off. The challenge was to look at the broader issue of what to do with civil plutonium, as well as excess weapons material. In terms of approach, the report focused on several short- and long-term issues. The short-term focus was on the disposition of excess weapons plutonium, while the longer-range issue concerned the disposition of the plutonium being produced in the civil nuclear fuel cycle. For the short term, the ANS panel strongly endorsed the concept that all plutonium scheduled for release from the US and Russian weapons stocks should be converted to a form that is intensively radioactive in order to protect the plutonium from theft of seizure (the spent fuel standard). However, since the conversion will at best take several years to complete, the panel has concluded that immediate emphasis should be placed on the assurance that all unconverted materials are protected as securely as when they were part of the active weapon stockpiles. More importantly, the panel also recommended prompt implementation of the so-called reactor option for disposing of surplus US and Russian weapons plutonium. The longer-term issues covered by the panel were those posed by the growing stocks of both separated plutonium and spent fuel generated in the world's civil nuclear power programs. These issues included what fuel cycle policies should be prudently pursued in light of proliferation risks and likely future energy needs, what steps should be taken in regard to the increase in the demand for nuclear power in the future, and how civil plutonium in its various forms should be protected and managed to minimize proliferation. Overall, the panel concluded that plutonium is an energy resource that should be used and not a waste material to be disposed of

  5. American Cancer Society guideline for the early detection of prostate cancer: update 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Andrew M D; Wender, Richard C; Etzioni, Ruth B; Thompson, Ian M; D'Amico, Anthony V; Volk, Robert J; Brooks, Durado D; Dash, Chiranjeev; Guessous, Idris; Andrews, Kimberly; DeSantis, Carol; Smith, Robert A

    2010-01-01

    In 2009, the American Cancer Society (ACS) Prostate Cancer Advisory Committee began the process of a complete update of recommendations for early prostate cancer detection. A series of systematic evidence reviews was conducted focusing on evidence related to the early detection of prostate cancer, test performance, harms of therapy for localized prostate cancer, and shared and informed decision making in prostate cancer screening. The results of the systematic reviews were evaluated by the ACS Prostate Cancer Advisory Committee, and deliberations about the evidence occurred at committee meetings and during conference calls. On the basis of the evidence and a consensus process, the Prostate Cancer Advisory Committee developed the guideline, and a writing committee drafted a guideline document that was circulated to the entire committee for review and revision. The document was then circulated to peer reviewers for feedback, and finally to the ACS Mission Outcomes Committee and the ACS Board of Directors for approval. The ACS recommends that asymptomatic men who have at least a 10-year life expectancy have an opportunity to make an informed decision with their health care provider about screening for prostate cancer after they receive information about the uncertainties, risks, and potential benefits associated with prostate cancer screening. Prostate cancer screening should not occur without an informed decision-making process. Men at average risk should receive this information beginning at age 50 years. Men in higher risk groups should receive this information before age 50 years. Men should either receive this information directly from their health care providers or be referred to reliable and culturally appropriate sources. Patient decision aids are helpful in preparing men to make a decision whether to be tested. PMID:20200110

  6. Fractionation for Whole Breast Irradiation: An American Society for Radiation Oncology (ASTRO) Evidence-Based Guideline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: In patients with early-stage breast cancer treated with breast-conserving surgery, randomized trials have found little difference in local control and survival outcomes between patients treated with conventionally fractionated (CF-) whole breast irradiation (WBI) and those receiving hypofractionated (HF)-WBI. However, it remains controversial whether these results apply to all subgroups of patients. We therefore developed an evidence-based guideline to provide direction for clinical practice. Methods and Materials: A task force authorized by the American Society for Radiation Oncology weighed evidence from a systematic literature review and produced the recommendations contained herein. Results: The majority of patients in randomized trials were aged 50 years or older, had disease Stage pT1-2 pN0, did not receive chemotherapy, and were treated with a radiation dose homogeneity within ±7% in the central axis plane. Such patients experienced equivalent outcomes with either HF-WBI or CF-WBI. Patients not meeting these criteria were relatively underrepresented, and few of the trials reported subgroup analyses. For patients not receiving a radiation boost, the task force favored a dose schedule of 42.5 Gy in 16 fractions when HF-WBI is planned. The task force also recommended that the heart should be excluded from the primary treatment fields (when HF-WBI is used) due to lingering uncertainty regarding late effects of HF-WBI on cardiac function. The task force could not agree on the appropriateness of a tumor bed boost in patients treated with HF-WBI. Conclusion: Data were sufficient to support the use of HF-WBI for patients with early-stage breast cancer who met all the aforementioned criteria. For other patients, the task force could not reach agreement either for or against the use of HF-WBI, which nevertheless should not be interpreted as a contraindication to its use.

  7. Challenges in DCIS Risk Communication and Decision-Making: Report from an American Cancer Society and National Cancer Institute Workshop

    OpenAIRE

    Partridge, Ann H.; Elmore, Joann G.; Saslow, Debbie; McCaskill-Stevens, Worta; Schnitt, Stuart J.

    2012-01-01

    In September 2010, the American Cancer Society and National Cancer Institute convened a conference to review current issues in DCIS risk communication and decision-making and to identify directions for future research. Specific topics included patient and healthcare provider knowledge and attitudes about DCIS and its treatment, how to explain DCIS to patients given the heterogeneity of the disease, consideration of nomenclature changes, and the utility of decision tools/aids. This report desc...

  8. Comparison of current practices of cardiopulmonary perfusion technology in Iran with American Society of Extracorporeal Technology’s standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faravan, Amir; Mohammadi, Nooredin; Alizadeh Ghavidel, Alireza; Toutounchi, Mohammad Zia; Ghanbari, Ameneh; Mazloomi, Mehran

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Standards have a significant role in showing the minimum level of optimal optimum and the expected performance. Since the perfusion technology staffs play an the leading role in providing the quality services to the patients undergoing open heart surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass machine, this study aimed to assess the standards on how Iranian perfusion technology staffs evaluate and manage the patients during the cardiopulmonary bypass process and compare their practice with the recommended standards by American Society of Extracorporeal Technology. Methods: In this descriptive study, data was collected from 48 Iranian public hospitals and educational health centers through a researcher-created questionnaire. The data collection questionnaire assessed the standards which are recommended by American Society of Extracorporeal Technology. Results: Findings showed that appropriate measurements were carried out by the perfusion technology staffs to prevent the hemodilution and avoid the blood transfusion and unnecessary blood products, determine the initial dose of heparin based on one of the proposed methods, monitor the anticoagulants based on ACT measurement, and determine the additional doses of heparin during the cardiopulmonary bypass based on ACT or protamine titration. It was done only in 4.2% of hospitals and health centers. Conclusion: Current practices of cardiopulmonary perfusion technology in Iran are inappropriate based on the standards of American Society of Cardiovascular Perfusion. This represents the necessity of authorities’ attention to the validation programs and development of the caring standards on one hand and continuous assessment of using these standards on the other hand. PMID:27489600

  9. An Official American Thoracic Society Workshop Report 2015. Stem Cells and Cell Therapies in Lung Biology and Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Darcy E; Cardoso, Wellington V; Gilpin, Sarah E; Majka, Susan; Ott, Harald; Randell, Scott H; Thébaud, Bernard; Waddell, Thomas; Weiss, Daniel J

    2016-08-01

    The University of Vermont College of Medicine, in collaboration with the NHLBI, Alpha-1 Foundation, American Thoracic Society, Cystic Fibrosis Foundation, European Respiratory Society, International Society for Cellular Therapy, and the Pulmonary Fibrosis Foundation, convened a workshop, "Stem Cells and Cell Therapies in Lung Biology and Lung Diseases," held July 27 to 30, 2015, at the University of Vermont. The conference objectives were to review the current understanding of the role of stem and progenitor cells in lung repair after injury and to review the current status of cell therapy and ex vivo bioengineering approaches for lung diseases. These are all rapidly expanding areas of study that both provide further insight into and challenge traditional views of mechanisms of lung repair after injury and pathogenesis of several lung diseases. The goals of the conference were to summarize the current state of the field, discuss and debate current controversies, and identify future research directions and opportunities for both basic and translational research in cell-based therapies for lung diseases. This 10th anniversary conference was a follow up to five previous biennial conferences held at the University of Vermont in 2005, 2007, 2009, 2011, and 2013. Each of those conferences, also sponsored by the National Institutes of Health, American Thoracic Society, and respiratory disease foundations, has been important in helping guide research and funding priorities. The major conference recommendations are summarized at the end of the report and highlight both the significant progress and major challenges in these rapidly progressing fields. PMID:27509163

  10. American Society of Blood and Marrow Transplantation, European Society of Blood and Marrow Transplantation, Blood and Marrow Transplant Clinical Trials Network, and International Myeloma Working Group Consensus Conference on Salvage Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation in Patients with Relapsed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giralt, Sergio; Garderet, Laurent; Durie, Brian;

    2015-01-01

    not been extensively studied in MM patients relapsing after primary therapy. The International Myeloma Working Group together with the Blood and Marrow Transplant Clinical Trials Network, the American Society of Blood and Marrow Transplantation, and the European Society of Blood and Marrow Transplantation...

  11. Local Control, Toxicity, and Cosmesis in Women >70 Years Enrolled in the American Society of Breast Surgeons Accelerated Partial Breast Irradiation Registry Trial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: The American Society of Breast Surgeons enrolled women in a registry trial to prospectively study patients treated with the MammoSite Radiation Therapy System breast brachytherapy device. The present report examined the outcomes in women aged >70 years enrolled in the trial. Methods and Materials: A total of 1,449 primary early stage breast cancers were treated in 1,440 women. Of these, 537 occurred in women >70 years old. Fisher’s exact test was performed to correlate age (≤70 vs. >70 years) with toxicity and with cosmesis. The association of age with local recurrence (LR) failure times was investigated by fitting a parametric model. Results: Older women were less likely to develop telangiectasias than younger women (7.9% vs. 12.4%, p = 0.0083). The incidence of other toxicities was similar. Cosmesis was good or excellent in 92% of the women >70 years old. No significant difference was found in LR as a function of age. The 5-year actuarial LR rate with invasive disease for the older vs. younger population was 2.79% and 2.92%, respectively (p = 0.5780). In women >70 years with hormone-sensitive tumors ≤2 cm who received hormonal therapy (n = 195), the 5-year actuarial rate of LR, overall survival, disease-free survival, and cause-specific survival was 2.06%, 89.3%, 87%, and 97.5%, respectively. These outcomes were similar in women who did not receive hormonal therapy. Women with small, estrogen receptor-negative disease had worse LR, overall survival, and disease-free survival compared with receptor-positive patients. Conclusions: Accelerated partial breast irradiation with the MammoSite radiation therapy system resulted in low toxicity and produced similar cosmesis and local control at 5 years in women >70 years compared with younger women. This treatment should be considered as an alternative to omitting adjuvant radiotherapy for older women with small-volume, early-stage breast cancer.

  12. Local Control, Toxicity, and Cosmesis in Women >70 Years Enrolled in the American Society of Breast Surgeons Accelerated Partial Breast Irradiation Registry Trial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khan, Atif J., E-mail: atif_khan@rwjuh.edu [Robert Wood Johnson University Hospital, Cancer Institute of New Jersey, New Brunswick, NJ (United States); Vicini, Frank A.; Beitsch, Peter [American Society of Breast Surgeons, Columbia, MD (United States); Goyal, Sharad [Robert Wood Johnson University Hospital, Cancer Institute of New Jersey, New Brunswick, NJ (United States); Kuerer, Henry M.; Keisch, Martin; Quiet, Coral; Zannis, Victor; Keleher, Angela; Snyder, Howard; Gittleman, Mark; Whitworth, Pat; Fine, Richard [American Society of Breast Surgeons, Columbia, MD (United States); Lyden, Maureen [BioStat International, Inc., Tampa, FL (United States); Haffty, Bruce G. [Robert Wood Johnson University Hospital, Cancer Institute of New Jersey, New Brunswick, NJ (United States); American Society of Breast Surgeons, Columbia, MD (United States)

    2012-10-01

    Purpose: The American Society of Breast Surgeons enrolled women in a registry trial to prospectively study patients treated with the MammoSite Radiation Therapy System breast brachytherapy device. The present report examined the outcomes in women aged >70 years enrolled in the trial. Methods and Materials: A total of 1,449 primary early stage breast cancers were treated in 1,440 women. Of these, 537 occurred in women >70 years old. Fisher's exact test was performed to correlate age ({<=}70 vs. >70 years) with toxicity and with cosmesis. The association of age with local recurrence (LR) failure times was investigated by fitting a parametric model. Results: Older women were less likely to develop telangiectasias than younger women (7.9% vs. 12.4%, p = 0.0083). The incidence of other toxicities was similar. Cosmesis was good or excellent in 92% of the women >70 years old. No significant difference was found in LR as a function of age. The 5-year actuarial LR rate with invasive disease for the older vs. younger population was 2.79% and 2.92%, respectively (p = 0.5780). In women >70 years with hormone-sensitive tumors {<=}2 cm who received hormonal therapy (n = 195), the 5-year actuarial rate of LR, overall survival, disease-free survival, and cause-specific survival was 2.06%, 89.3%, 87%, and 97.5%, respectively. These outcomes were similar in women who did not receive hormonal therapy. Women with small, estrogen receptor-negative disease had worse LR, overall survival, and disease-free survival compared with receptor-positive patients. Conclusions: Accelerated partial breast irradiation with the MammoSite radiation therapy system resulted in low toxicity and produced similar cosmesis and local control at 5 years in women >70 years compared with younger women. This treatment should be considered as an alternative to omitting adjuvant radiotherapy for older women with small-volume, early-stage breast cancer.

  13. The Role of the Scientist in Society ―A Look at the American Eugenics Movement―

    OpenAIRE

    Karen J. Schaffner; K. J. シャフナー

    2009-01-01

    It goes without saying that scientists live and work in society. The theories they propose and the applications of those theories influence and are influenced by their society. From the theories of Copernicus and Galileo to the atomic bombs of Oppenheimer and the Manhattan Project, science has brought and continues to bring changes to society. After World War Ⅱ physicists themselves initiated discussions about their social responsibilities. Nazi eugenic policies also added to the debate about...

  14. "The Great Contest": The American Philosophical Society Education Prize of 1795 and the Problem of American Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Justice, Benjamin

    2008-01-01

    In 1795 America's preeminent scholarly organization sponsored a contest for the best essay on education. The two winners have been canonized in the scholarship on early American educational thought. This essay refocuses attention on the great contest itself, not only seeking understanding of the works that it produced but also analyzing its…

  15. Opting out or denying discrimination? How the framework of free choice in American society influences perceptions of gender inequality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, Nicole M; Levine, Cynthia S

    2011-10-01

    American women still confront workplace barriers (e.g., bias against mothers, inflexible policies) that hinder their advancement at the upper levels of organizations. However, most Americans fail to recognize that such gender barriers still exist. Focusing on mothers who have left the workforce, we propose that the prevalent American assumption that actions are a product of choice conceals workplace barriers by communicating that opportunities are equal and that behavior is free from contextual influence. Study 1 reveals that stay-at-home mothers who view their own workplace departure as an individual choice experience greater well-being but less often recognize workplace barriers and discrimination as a source of inequality than do mothers who do not view their workplace departure as an individual choice. Study 2 shows that merely exposing participants to a message that frames actions in terms of individual choice increases participants' belief that society provides equal opportunities and that gender discrimination no longer exists. By concealing the barriers that women still face in the workplace, this choice framework may hinder women's long-term advancement in society. PMID:21934136

  16. One hundred years of American botany: a short history of the Botanical Society of America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smocovitis, Vassiliki Betty

    2006-07-01

    This paper offers highlights from the 100 (plus) years of the Botanical Society of America (BSA) and draws extensively on the archives of the BSA. In addition to examining the founding of the society and the attempt to "professionalize" botany in late 19th century America, the paper also explores the complex relations between the BSA and a number of related societies in the United States, the Society's struggle to create a coherent identity for itself, the place of botany as a whole in the context of the burgeoning biological sciences in the 20th century, and the changing role of the BSA in an international context. The paper assesses both the achievements and the challenges facing the BSA. It closes by offering some historical reflections on the status of "botany" as a science and the historical significance of terms like "plant biology" and "plant science." PMID:21642158

  17. Risk analysis of brachytherapy events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For prevention radiological events it is necessary to identify hazardous situation and to analyse the nature of committed errors. Though the recommendation on the classification and prevention of radiological events: Radiological accidents has been prepared in the framework of Czech Society of Radiation Oncology, Biology and Physics and it was approved by Czech regulatory body (SONS) in 1999, only a few reports have been submitted up to now from brachytherapy practice. At the radiotherapy departments attention has been paid more likely to the problems of dominant teletherapy treatments. But in the two last decades the usage of brachytherapy methods has gradually increased because .nature of this treatment well as the possibilities of operating facility have been completely changed: new radionuclides of high activity are introduced and sophisticate afterloading systems controlled by computers are used. Consequently also the nature of errors, which can occurred in the clinical practice, has been changing. To determine the potentially hazardous parts of procedure the so-called 'process tree', which follows the flow of entire treatment process, has been created for most frequent type of applications. Marking the location of errors on the process tree indicates where failures occurred and accumulation of marks along branches show weak points in the process. Analysed data provide useful information to prevent medical events in brachytherapy .The results strength the requirements given in Recommendations of SONS and revealed the need for its amendment. They call especially for systematic registration of the events. (authors)

  18. Open Access and its impact on the Knowledge Society: Latin American Case Studies Insights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Soledad RAMÍREZ MONTOYA

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In a changing society, open access may represent an alternative growth and resources to the educational community, from the opportunities given to students, to teachers, researchers and administrators of educational institutions. The aim of this paper is to analyze the opportunities and challenges that gives open access to the educational community, through the presentation of a conceptual vision and practical cases in Latin America, on the issue of open educational resources, repositories, journals and open access policies –from universities and government agencies or financing– and its link to a knowledge society. The findings are presented on three key elements: opportunities, challenges and opportunities open to access the knowledge society.

  19. Living in Two Worlds: The Development and Transition of Mormon Education in American Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esplin, Scott C.; Randall, E. Vance

    2014-01-01

    Religious organisations have long relied on education to transmit cherished values, working within society to preserve their worldview. Therefore, when a religious education system is restructured, it can act as a barometer of change, revealing societal values and reflecting negotiated roles. Like other faiths, the Church of Jesus Christ of…

  20. Tales from the hundred year history of the American Physical Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lustig, H.

    1999-05-01

    The tale to be told on this occasion - a tale only slightly out of school - is that of the punctuated evolution of the APS in pursuing its hundred years old mission, "the advancement and diffusion of the knowledge of physics". For long periods this goal was pursued, singlemindedly and impressively, through scientfic meetings and the Society's journals. However, within a year of its founding, the APS,in concert with other scientific societies, had already "lobbied" successfully for the establishment of the Bureau of Standards. But then all was quiet on the public front until after World War II. Since that time there have been three waves of forays into the public arena. The first, which spanned the "McCarthy period", was in defense of the freedom of scientists to practice their profession across national boundaries; of the right to announce the results of their research even if they trod on powerful toes (the Astin case); and of individual physicists, such as E.U. Condon and J.Robert Oppenheimer,who had been unfairly accused and badly treated. The second wave occurred in the late sixties and early seventies when, initially much pushed by activist members, the Society's leadership came to grips with broad social issues, such as segregation in the South, the Equal Rights Amendment, and, eventually, arms control and nuclear weapons. The third immersion in public affairs, which is still very much in progress, can be characterized as worrying and speaking out on what physics can do for the country (provide authoritative studies on nuclear energy, renewables, directed energy weapons, etc.) and what the country can do for physics (provide more money). Although lobbying for better funding is still a relatively minor occupation of the Society, it raises the question how physics -an elitist pursuit -can be truthfully and effectively "sold" in a democratic and egalitarian society.

  1. American Society of Clinical Oncology policy statement update: genetic testing for cancer susceptibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-06-15

    As the leading organization representing cancer specialists involved in patient care and clinical research, the American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO) reaffirms its commitment to integrating cancer risk assessment and management, including molecular analysis of cancer predisposition genes, into the practice of oncology and preventive medicine. The primary goal of this effort is to foster expanded access to, and continued advances in, medical care provided to patients and families affected by hereditary cancer syndromes. The 1996 ASCO Statement on Genetic Testing for Cancer Susceptibility set forth specific recommendations relating to clinical practice, research needs, educational opportunities, requirement for informed consent, indications for genetic testing, regulation of laboratories, and protection from discrimination, as well as access to and reimbursement for cancer genetics services. In updating this Statement, ASCO endorses the following principles: Indications for Genetic Testing: ASCO recommends that genetic testing be offered when 1) the individual has personal or family history features suggestive of a genetic cancer susceptibility condition, 2) the test can be adequately interpreted, and 3) the results will aid in diagnosis or influence the medical or surgical management of the patient or family members at hereditary risk of cancer. ASCO recommends that genetic testing only be done in the setting of pre- and post-test counseling, which should include discussion of possible risks and benefits of cancer early detection and prevention modalities. Special Issues in Testing Children for Cancer Susceptibility: ASCO recommends that the decision to offer testing to potentially affected children should take into account the availability of evidence-based risk-reduction strategies and the probability of developing a malignancy during childhood. Where risk-reduction strategies are available or cancer predominantly develops in childhood, ASCO believes that

  2. Prostate cancer brachytherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The transperineal brachytherapy with 125I/Pd103 seed implantation guided by transurethral ultrasound must be presented as therapeutical option of low urinary morbidity in patients with localized prostate cancer. The combined clinical staging - including Gleason and initial PSA - must be encouraged, for definition of a group of low risk and indication of exclusive brachytherapy. Random prospective studies are necessary in order to define the best role of brachytherapy, surgery and external beam radiation therapy

  3. Insights from the early experience of the Society of Thoracic Surgeons/American College of Cardiology Transcatheter Valve Therapy Registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rumsfeld, John S; Holmes, David R; Stough, Wendy Gattis; Edwards, Fred H; Jacques, Louis B; Mack, Michael J

    2015-03-01

    The current system for postmarket surveillance of medical devices in the United States is limited. To help change this paradigm for transcatheter valve therapies (TVTs), starting with transcatheter aortic valve replacement, the Society of Thoracic Surgeons and the American College of Cardiology partnered to form the TVT Registry program in close collaboration with the U.S. Food and Drug Administration and the Center for Medicare and Medicaid Services. The goal of the TVT Registry is to measure and improve quality of care and patient outcomes in clinical practice and to have a pivotal role in the scientific evidence and surveillance for medical devices. Challenges were faced in the early experience of the registry included developing multistakeholder partnerships, data collection requirements, and the use of the registry for pre- and post-market device evaluations. In addressing these challenges, the TVT Registry demonstrates that it is feasible for professional societies to assume a pivotal role in pre- and/or post-market studies, leveraging a clinical registry infrastructure. Sharing the TVT Registry experience may help other professional societies and stakeholders better anticipate and plan for these challenges. PMID:25703888

  4. American Geriatrics Society/Association of Directors of Geriatric Academic Programs curricular milestones for graduating geriatric fellows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parks, Susan M; Harper, G Michael; Fernandez, Helen; Sauvigne, Karen; Leipzig, Rosanne M

    2014-05-01

    This article describes the curricular milestones for geriatric fellows and the process used to develop them. The curricular milestones were developed to determine what every graduating geriatric fellow should be able to demonstrate to ensure that they will be able to practice effectively and safely in all care settings and with different older adult populations. Three major domains were identified: Caring for the Elderly Patient, Systems-Based Care for Elder Patients, and Geriatric Syndromes. Six hundred thirty-five geriatricians each reviewed and commented on one domain. These geriatricians represented important stakeholder groups: geriatric fellowship program directors; Association of Directors of Geriatric Academic Programs (ADGAP) members, who are primarily geriatric program and fellowship directors; the American Geriatrics Society (AGS) and ADGAP Education Committee; the AGS Teacher's Section; Geriatric Academic Career Award awardees; and through the American Board of Internal Medicine and the American Board of Family Medicine, board-certified geriatricians who spend more than 50% of their time in clinical practice. The AGS and ADGAP boards approved the final set of 76 Geriatric Curricular Milestones, which were posted on the Portal of Geriatric Online Education in December 2012. These curricular milestones are intended to assist geriatric fellowship directors as they develop curricula and assessments to inform program director reporting to the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education in the Next Accreditation System, which begins in July 2014. PMID:24749808

  5. Society of Reproductive Surgeons

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Society of Reproductive Surgeons Home About Us About SRS Mission Statement Officers The Role of Reproductive Surgeons For ... Fact Sheets and Booklets SRS is an affiliated society to the American Society for Reproductive Medicine . Below ...

  6. SU-E-T-447: Electronic Brachytherapy (EBT) Treatment of Cervical Cancer - First Clinical Experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, D; Johnson, M; Thompson, J; Ahmad, S [University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma (United States); Chan, L; Hausen, H [Xoft Inc., San Jose, CA (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To study the first trial patient in which an electronic brachytherapy (EBT) x-ray source is utilized for treatment of cervical cancer. Methods: During patient treatment, a miniaturized x-ray source was used in combination with a customized titanium tandem and ovoid applicator set. The semi-specialized source was modeled with formalisms outlined by AAMP Task Group 43. Multiple models were used to compensate for variable attenuation conditions as a function of source positions. Varian Brachyvision treatment planning software was utilized on CT data sets for dose calculations prior to treatment delivery. The dose was prescribed to “point A” as defined by American Brachytherapy society. Additional treatments plans were created from those clinically utilized in patient care and were recalculated for an existing Ir-192 source model. Dose volume histograms (DVH) and point dose calculations were compared between the modalities for the clinical condition present in patients treated with EBT. Results: Clinical treatment times, though longer than those typically experienced by Ir-192 users, were manageable. Instantaneous dose rates at personal positions within the treatment vault were lower than those measured during intra operative radiation therapy and breast EBT treatments. Due to lower average photon energy in EBT, dose gradients within the treatment plans were as expected steeper than those observed in Ir-192 based brachytherapy. DVH comparisons between Ir-192 and EBT treatments showed an expected decrease in the integral dose to normal tissues of interest for EBT. In comparing plans created for EBT delivery with those calculated for Ir-192, average dose values for EBT were more than 4%, 11%, and 9% lower at predefined bladder, rectum and “point B” positions, respectively. Conclusion: For the first time, we have demonstrated that the utilizing electronic brachytherapy system for tandem and ovoid based treatment of cancer of the cervix is feasible, and

  7. SU-E-T-447: Electronic Brachytherapy (EBT) Treatment of Cervical Cancer - First Clinical Experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To study the first trial patient in which an electronic brachytherapy (EBT) x-ray source is utilized for treatment of cervical cancer. Methods: During patient treatment, a miniaturized x-ray source was used in combination with a customized titanium tandem and ovoid applicator set. The semi-specialized source was modeled with formalisms outlined by AAMP Task Group 43. Multiple models were used to compensate for variable attenuation conditions as a function of source positions. Varian Brachyvision treatment planning software was utilized on CT data sets for dose calculations prior to treatment delivery. The dose was prescribed to “point A” as defined by American Brachytherapy society. Additional treatments plans were created from those clinically utilized in patient care and were recalculated for an existing Ir-192 source model. Dose volume histograms (DVH) and point dose calculations were compared between the modalities for the clinical condition present in patients treated with EBT. Results: Clinical treatment times, though longer than those typically experienced by Ir-192 users, were manageable. Instantaneous dose rates at personal positions within the treatment vault were lower than those measured during intra operative radiation therapy and breast EBT treatments. Due to lower average photon energy in EBT, dose gradients within the treatment plans were as expected steeper than those observed in Ir-192 based brachytherapy. DVH comparisons between Ir-192 and EBT treatments showed an expected decrease in the integral dose to normal tissues of interest for EBT. In comparing plans created for EBT delivery with those calculated for Ir-192, average dose values for EBT were more than 4%, 11%, and 9% lower at predefined bladder, rectum and “point B” positions, respectively. Conclusion: For the first time, we have demonstrated that the utilizing electronic brachytherapy system for tandem and ovoid based treatment of cancer of the cervix is feasible, and

  8. An Official American Thoracic Society/European Respiratory Society Workshop Report: Evaluation of Respiratory Mechanics and Function in the Pediatric and Neonatal Intensive Care Units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson-Carmichael, Stacey; Seddon, Paul C; Cheifetz, Ira M; Frerichs, Inéz; Hall, Graham L; Hammer, Jürg; Hantos, Zoltán; van Kaam, Anton H; McEvoy, Cindy T; Newth, Christopher J L; Pillow, J Jane; Rafferty, Gerrard F; Rosenfeld, Margaret; Stocks, Janet; Ranganathan, Sarath C

    2016-02-01

    Ready access to physiologic measures, including respiratory mechanics, lung volumes, and ventilation/perfusion inhomogeneity, could optimize the clinical management of the critically ill pediatric or neonatal patient and minimize lung injury. There are many techniques for measuring respiratory function in infants and children but very limited information on the technical ease and applicability of these tests in the pediatric and neonatal intensive care unit (PICU, NICU) environments. This report summarizes the proceedings of a 2011 American Thoracic Society Workshop critically reviewing techniques available for ventilated and spontaneously breathing infants and children in the ICU. It outlines for each test how readily it is performed at the bedside and how it may impact patient management as well as indicating future areas of potential research collaboration. From expert panel discussions and literature reviews, we conclude that many of the techniques can aid in optimizing respiratory support in the PICU and NICU, quantifying the effect of therapeutic interventions, and guiding ventilator weaning and extubation. Most techniques now have commercially available equipment for the PICU and NICU, and many can generate continuous data points to help with ventilator weaning and other interventions. Technical and validation studies in the PICU and NICU are published for the majority of techniques; some have been used as outcome measures in clinical trials, but few have been assessed specifically for their ability to improve clinical outcomes. Although they show considerable promise, these techniques still require further study in the PICU and NICU together with increased availability of commercial equipment before wider incorporation into daily clinical practice. PMID:26848609

  9. The Educational and Moral Significance of the American Chemical Society's The Chemist's Code of Conduct

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruton, Samuel V.

    2003-05-01

    While the usefulness of the case study method in teaching research ethics is frequently emphasized, less often noted is the educational value of professional codes of ethics. Much can be gained by having students examine codes and reflect on their significance. This paper argues that codes such as the American Chemical Society‘s The Chemist‘s Code of Conduct are an important supplement to the use of cases and describes one way in which they can be integrated profitably into a class discussion of research ethics.

  10. American Society for Pain Management Nursing Position Statement: Prescribing and Administering Opioid Doses Based Solely on Pain Intensity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasero, Chris; Quinlan-Colwell, Ann; Rae, Diana; Broglio, Kathleen; Drew, Debra

    2016-06-01

    The foundation of safe and effective pain management is an individualized, comprehensive pain assessment, which includes, but is not limited to, determining the intensity of pain if the patient is able to report it. An unforeseen consequence of the widespread use of pain intensity rating scales is the practice of prescribing specific doses of opioid analgesics based solely on specific pain intensity. Many factors in addition to pain intensity influence opioid requirements, and there is no research showing that a specific opioid dose will relieve pain of a specific intensity in all patients. The American Society for Pain Management Nursing (ASPMN) holds the position that the practice of prescribing doses of opioid analgesics based solely on a patient's pain intensity should be prohibited because it disregards the relevance of other essential elements of assessment and may contribute to untoward patient outcomes. PMID:27108082

  11. National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)/American Society for Engineering Education (ASEE) summer faculty fellowship program, 1986, volume 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Johnson Space Center (JSC) NASA/ASEE Summer Faculty Fellowship Program was conducted by the University of Houston and JSC. The ten week program was operated under the auspices of the American Society for Engineering Education (ASEE). The basic objectives of the program are (1) to further the professional knowledge of qualified engineering and science faculty members; (2) to stimulate an exchange of ideas between participants and NASA; (3) to enrich and refresh the research and teaching activities of participants' institutions; and (4) to contribute to the research objectives of the NASA Centers. Each faculty fellow spent ten weeks at JSC engaged in a research project commensurate with his interests and background and worked in collaboration with a NASA/JSC colleague. The final reports on the research projects are presented. This volume, 2, contains sections 15 through 30

  12. Teaching skeletal muscle adaptations to aerobic exercise using an American Physiological Society classic paper by Dr. Philip Gollnick and colleagues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Gregory A

    2006-09-01

    The use of primary research in the classroom enhances the critical thinking abilities of students. The present article describes a strategy for using the American Physiological Society classic paper "Enzyme activity and fiber composition in skeletal muscle of untrained and trained men" by Dr. Philip D. Gollnick and colleagues to enhance the students' ability to understand research, increase their knowledge of the adaptations to exercise, and learn computer skills in data analysis and presentation. By having students read, study, prepare graphs, and discuss the data from a classic paper, they gain an improved understanding of the factors that influence aerobic exercise ability. This study is especially useful for illuminating the exercise-specific differences in bioenergetic enzymes, muscle fiber type, and fitness characteristics that exist between untrained and trained individuals. PMID:16912145

  13. Emerging non-nuclear energy technologies for electric power generation: a policy statement of the American Nuclear Society

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Increasing electricity demand is accompanied by concerns about the availability and price of fossil fuels and about the environmental impacts of electric power generation. Emerging non-nuclear energy technologies and systems can offer several potential advantages to complement conventional sources of energy to meet future needs. The advantages of the alternative technologies, however, must be balanced against the inherent limitations associated with some of the technologies. The technologies closest to, or having reached, small-scale production status include small wind systems, dry-steam geothermal, and biomass processes. Fuel cells, grid-connected photovoltaics, solar thermal, water-dominated geothermal, advanced coal systems, and energy storage systems require more development before they can contribute effectively. The American Nuclear Society recognizes that many renewable and emerging energy technology systems can contribute to the overall reliability of the electric grid. That contribution is limited, however, by the location-specific nature of many sources and requires major technological development. (author)

  14. Evaluation of Current Consensus Statement Recommendations for Accelerated Partial Breast Irradiation: A Pooled Analysis of William Beaumont Hospital and American Society of Breast Surgeon MammoSite Registry Trial Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilkinson, J. Ben [Department of Radiation Oncology, Oakland University William Beaumont School of Medicine, Royal Oak, Michigan (United States); Beitsch, Peter D. [Dallas Surgical Group, Dallas, Texas (United States); Shah, Chirag [Department of Radiation Oncology, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, Missouri (United States); Arthur, Doug [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massey Cancer Center, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, Virginia (United States); Haffty, Bruce G. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Cancer Institute of New Jersey, Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, Camden, New Jersey (United States); Wazer, David E. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Tufts Medical Center, Boston, Massachusetts and Rhode Island Hospital/Brown University, Providence, Rhode Island (United States); Keisch, Martin [Department of Radiation Oncology, Cancer Healthcare Associates, Miami, Florida (United States); Shaitelman, Simona F. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Lyden, Maureen [Biostat International, Inc, Tampa, Florida (United States); Chen, Peter Y. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Oakland University William Beaumont School of Medicine, Royal Oak, Michigan (United States); Vicini, Frank A., E-mail: fvicini@pol.net [Department of Radiation Oncology, Michigan Healthcare Professionals/21st Century Oncology, Farmington Hills, Michigan (United States)

    2013-04-01

    Purpose: To determine whether the American Society for Radiation Oncology (ASTRO) Consensus Statement (CS) recommendations for accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI) are associated with significantly different outcomes in a pooled analysis from William Beaumont Hospital (WBH) and the American Society of Breast Surgeons (ASBrS) MammoSite® Registry Trial. Methods and Materials: APBI was used to treat 2127 cases of early-stage breast cancer (WBH, n=678; ASBrS, n=1449). Three forms of APBI were used at WBH (interstitial, n=221; balloon-based, n=255; or 3-dimensional conformal radiation therapy, n=206), whereas all Registry Trial patients received balloon-based brachytherapy. Patients were divided according to the ASTRO CS into suitable (n=661, 36.5%), cautionary (n=850, 46.9%), and unsuitable (n=302, 16.7%) categories. Tumor characteristics and clinical outcomes were analyzed according to CS group. Results: The median age was 65 years (range, 32-94 years), and the median tumor size was 10.0 mm (range, 0-45 mm). The median follow-up time was 60.6 months. The WBH cohort had more node-positive disease (6.9% vs 2.6%, P<.01) and cautionary patients (49.5% vs 41.8%, P=.06). The 5-year actuarial ipsilateral breast tumor recurrence (IBTR), regional nodal failure (RNF), and distant metastasis (DM) for the whole cohort were 2.8%, 0.6%, 1.6%. The rate of IBTR was not statistically higher between suitable (2.5%), cautionary (3.3%), or unsuitable (4.6%) patients (P=.20). The nonsignificant increase in IBTR for the cautionary and unsuitable categories was due to increased elsewhere failures and new primaries (P=.04), not tumor bed recurrence (P=.93). Conclusions: Excellent outcomes after breast-conserving surgery and APBI were seen in our pooled analysis. The current ASTRO CS guidelines did not adequately differentiate patients at an increased risk of IBTR or tumor bed failure in this large patient cohort.

  15. Evaluation of Current Consensus Statement Recommendations for Accelerated Partial Breast Irradiation: A Pooled Analysis of William Beaumont Hospital and American Society of Breast Surgeon MammoSite Registry Trial Data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To determine whether the American Society for Radiation Oncology (ASTRO) Consensus Statement (CS) recommendations for accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI) are associated with significantly different outcomes in a pooled analysis from William Beaumont Hospital (WBH) and the American Society of Breast Surgeons (ASBrS) MammoSite® Registry Trial. Methods and Materials: APBI was used to treat 2127 cases of early-stage breast cancer (WBH, n=678; ASBrS, n=1449). Three forms of APBI were used at WBH (interstitial, n=221; balloon-based, n=255; or 3-dimensional conformal radiation therapy, n=206), whereas all Registry Trial patients received balloon-based brachytherapy. Patients were divided according to the ASTRO CS into suitable (n=661, 36.5%), cautionary (n=850, 46.9%), and unsuitable (n=302, 16.7%) categories. Tumor characteristics and clinical outcomes were analyzed according to CS group. Results: The median age was 65 years (range, 32-94 years), and the median tumor size was 10.0 mm (range, 0-45 mm). The median follow-up time was 60.6 months. The WBH cohort had more node-positive disease (6.9% vs 2.6%, P<.01) and cautionary patients (49.5% vs 41.8%, P=.06). The 5-year actuarial ipsilateral breast tumor recurrence (IBTR), regional nodal failure (RNF), and distant metastasis (DM) for the whole cohort were 2.8%, 0.6%, 1.6%. The rate of IBTR was not statistically higher between suitable (2.5%), cautionary (3.3%), or unsuitable (4.6%) patients (P=.20). The nonsignificant increase in IBTR for the cautionary and unsuitable categories was due to increased elsewhere failures and new primaries (P=.04), not tumor bed recurrence (P=.93). Conclusions: Excellent outcomes after breast-conserving surgery and APBI were seen in our pooled analysis. The current ASTRO CS guidelines did not adequately differentiate patients at an increased risk of IBTR or tumor bed failure in this large patient cohort

  16. The American Society of Shoulder and Elbow Therapists' consensus statement on rehabilitation following arthroscopic rotator cuff repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thigpen, Charles A; Shaffer, Michael A; Gaunt, Bryce W; Leggin, Brian G; Williams, Gerald R; Wilcox, Reg B

    2016-04-01

    This is a consensus statement on rehabilitation developed by the American Society of Shoulder and Elbow Therapists. The purpose of this statement is to aid clinical decision making during the rehabilitation of patients after arthroscopic rotator cuff repair. The overarching philosophy of rehabilitation is centered on the principle of the gradual application of controlled stresses to the healing rotator cuff repair with consideration of rotator cuff tear size, tissue quality, and patient variables. This statement describes a rehabilitation framework that includes a 2-week period of strict immobilization and a staged introduction of protected, passive range of motion during weeks 2-6 postoperatively, followed by restoration of active range of motion, and then progressive strengthening beginning at postoperative week 12. When appropriate, rehabilitation continues with a functional progression for return to athletic or demanding work activities. This document represents the first consensus rehabilitation statement developed by a multidisciplinary society of international rehabilitation professionals specifically for the postoperative care of patients after arthroscopic rotator cuff repair. PMID:26995456

  17. The Society for the Advancement of Chicanos and Native American/span>s in Science (SACNAS) Geoscience Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velasco, A. A.

    2005-12-01

    The declining number of geoscience students, especially US citizens, threatens the country's future preparedness in natural hazards mitigation, resource development, national security, and education. Furthermore, the geosciences suffer from poor representation among underrepresented groups, even by comparison to other sciences and engineering. Several organizations have been successful in mentoring and recruiting minorities into science. The Society for the Advancement of Chicanos and Native Americans in Science (SACNAS) focuses on encouraging undergraduate and graduate Hispanic and American Indian students to pursue higher degrees. For over 30 years, SACNAS has provided strong national leadership in improving science and math education, as well as expanding opportunities for minorities in the scientific workforce and academia. SACNAS has added a geological science emphasis to its existing programs to address the need to diversify the field, with funding from the National Science Foundation Opportunities for Enhancing Diversity in the Geosciences (OEDG) program. The goals of this initiative are to: (1) recruit 50 Native American and Chicano/Latino undergraduate and graduate students that are performing research in geoscience disciplines each year for the next five years to attend the annual SACNAS Conference; (2) provide students with early mentoring opportunities designed to assist them with their plans for higher education and employment as researchers and educators in the geosciences; (3) sponsor scientific symposia sessions focusing on advances in the geosciences and opportunities available in related fields; (4) Serve as an information resource through the SACNAS web site and monthly e-nouncements for geoscience research opportunities, and disseminate results of initiative; (5) Offer a workshop for K-12 teachers focusing on geosciences and provide mentoring support throughout the year. We are evaluating the effectiveness of the mentoring initiative by tracking

  18. AAPM and GEC-ESTRO guidelines for image-guided robotic brachytherapy: Report of Task Group 192

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Podder, Tarun K., E-mail: tarun.podder@uhhospitals.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Hospitals, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, Ohio 44122 (United States); Beaulieu, Luc [Department of Radiation Oncology, Centre Hospitalier Univ de Quebec, Quebec G1R 2J6 (Canada); Caldwell, Barrett [Schools of Industrial Engineering and Aeronautics and Astronautics, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907 (United States); Cormack, Robert A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115 (United States); Crass, Jostin B. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee 37232 (United States); Dicker, Adam P.; Yu, Yan [Department of Radiation Oncology, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19107 (United States); Fenster, Aaron [Department of Imaging Research, Robarts Research Institute, London, Ontario N6A 5K8 (Canada); Fichtinger, Gabor [School of Computer Science, Queen’s University, Kingston, Ontario K7L 3N6 (Canada); Meltsner, Michael A. [Philips Radiation Oncology Systems, Fitchburg, Wisconsin 53711 (United States); Moerland, Marinus A. [Department of Radiotherapy, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht, 3508 GA (Netherlands); Nath, Ravinder [Department of Therapeutic Radiology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut 06520 (United States); Rivard, Mark J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Tufts University School of Medicine, Boston, Massachusetts 02111 (United States); Salcudean, Tim [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia V6T 1Z4 (Canada); Song, Danny Y. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland 21231 (United States); Thomadsen, Bruce R. [Department of Medical Physics, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin 53705 (United States)

    2014-10-15

    In the last decade, there have been significant developments into integration of robots and automation tools with brachytherapy delivery systems. These systems aim to improve the current paradigm by executing higher precision and accuracy in seed placement, improving calculation of optimal seed locations, minimizing surgical trauma, and reducing radiation exposure to medical staff. Most of the applications of this technology have been in the implantation of seeds in patients with early-stage prostate cancer. Nevertheless, the techniques apply to any clinical site where interstitial brachytherapy is appropriate. In consideration of the rapid developments in this area, the American Association of Physicists in Medicine (AAPM) commissioned Task Group 192 to review the state-of-the-art in the field of robotic interstitial brachytherapy. This is a joint Task Group with the Groupe Européen de Curiethérapie-European Society for Radiotherapy and Oncology (GEC-ESTRO). All developed and reported robotic brachytherapy systems were reviewed. Commissioning and quality assurance procedures for the safe and consistent use of these systems are also provided. Manual seed placement techniques with a rigid template have an estimated in vivo accuracy of 3–6 mm. In addition to the placement accuracy, factors such as tissue deformation, needle deviation, and edema may result in a delivered dose distribution that differs from the preimplant or intraoperative plan. However, real-time needle tracking and seed identification for dynamic updating of dosimetry may improve the quality of seed implantation. The AAPM and GEC-ESTRO recommend that robotic systems should demonstrate a spatial accuracy of seed placement ≤1.0 mm in a phantom. This recommendation is based on the current performance of existing robotic brachytherapy systems and propagation of uncertainties. During clinical commissioning, tests should be conducted to ensure that this level of accuracy is achieved. These tests

  19. AAPM and GEC-ESTRO guidelines for image-guided robotic brachytherapy: Report of Task Group 192

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the last decade, there have been significant developments into integration of robots and automation tools with brachytherapy delivery systems. These systems aim to improve the current paradigm by executing higher precision and accuracy in seed placement, improving calculation of optimal seed locations, minimizing surgical trauma, and reducing radiation exposure to medical staff. Most of the applications of this technology have been in the implantation of seeds in patients with early-stage prostate cancer. Nevertheless, the techniques apply to any clinical site where interstitial brachytherapy is appropriate. In consideration of the rapid developments in this area, the American Association of Physicists in Medicine (AAPM) commissioned Task Group 192 to review the state-of-the-art in the field of robotic interstitial brachytherapy. This is a joint Task Group with the Groupe Européen de Curiethérapie-European Society for Radiotherapy and Oncology (GEC-ESTRO). All developed and reported robotic brachytherapy systems were reviewed. Commissioning and quality assurance procedures for the safe and consistent use of these systems are also provided. Manual seed placement techniques with a rigid template have an estimated in vivo accuracy of 3–6 mm. In addition to the placement accuracy, factors such as tissue deformation, needle deviation, and edema may result in a delivered dose distribution that differs from the preimplant or intraoperative plan. However, real-time needle tracking and seed identification for dynamic updating of dosimetry may improve the quality of seed implantation. The AAPM and GEC-ESTRO recommend that robotic systems should demonstrate a spatial accuracy of seed placement ≤1.0 mm in a phantom. This recommendation is based on the current performance of existing robotic brachytherapy systems and propagation of uncertainties. During clinical commissioning, tests should be conducted to ensure that this level of accuracy is achieved. These tests

  20. Meskhetian Turks in Fourth Land: Identity and Socio-economic Integration into American Society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Musa YAVUZ ALPTEKIN

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the socio-cultural life in the new land and integration processes into the host community of the 75 Meskhetian Turkish households resettled in Denver, Colorado. The traditional homeland of the Meskhetian Turks, as one of the dozens, if not hundreds, immigrant communities living the U.S.A., is Akhaltsikhe, a district in the region Samtskhe-Javakheti within the borders of the modern-day Georgia. In 1944, the Meskhetian Turks were forcibly removed from their homeland and exiled en masse to various countries in Central Asia by the Soviet Union. A significant part of those resettled in Uzbekistan were transferred to the city of Krasnodar in Russia, after the Ferghana Events of 1989. In 2004, due to the conditions of resettlement, 12,500 Meskhetian Turks immigrated to the U.S, under a refugee program, and dispersed throughout 26 states. Using the methods such as surveys, in-depth interviews and participant observation with an integrated approach, this study examined the family and community social structure of the Meskhetian Turks currently living intensively in Denver, Colorado. The study illustrated their cultural aspects, and tried to identify the present day of the process of integration into the U.S. society, as well as to envisage the probable future of this integration.

  1. Coming Home? The Integration of Hmong Refugees from Wat Tham Krabok, Thailand into American Society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grit Grigoleit

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In December 2003, the U.S. State Department officially announced the acceptance of roughly 15,000 Hmong refugees from Wat Tham Krabok, Thailand, into the United States of America. The Hmong refugees were scheduled to be resettled for family reunification in established Hmong communities. As social science research on migration indicates, the existence of ethnic communities is crucial for a successful adaptation to a host society for newcomers. Ethnic communities thereby serve as a buffer zone and provide initial assistance,which is especially important when governmental integration measures are not sufficient. In the case of the Hmong refugee resettlement, the U.S. economic and social incorporation efforts were inefficient, due to cutbacks in U.S. Federal funding and welfare reforms, causinga greater reliance on the receiving Hmong communities. This raises a number of questions about how much an ethnic community can absorb and is able to bear in order to fulfill the newcomers’ needs. What are the limits and how does this affect the initial integration of thenewcomers?

  2. Analysis on Jewish Distinctiveness Through Integration into American Society%犹太移民在美国社会中的特性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高帆; 曹文皓

    2008-01-01

    The history of American Jews is the history of immigration and integration. This thesis mainly depicts the distinctiveness of American Jewish after the immigrant history from 1880 to 1924 through the integration and assimilation of Jews to American society.%犹太人的历史就是移民的历史.此论文主要阐述1880年到1924年期间犹太人移民美国后融入美国社会并确立美国犹太人在教育、经济和宗教方面的独特性.

  3. ANS [American Nuclear Society] topical meeting on radiological accidents: Perspectives and emergency planning: Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The increasing use of radioactive materials and the increasing public concern about possible accidents involving these materials has led to greater emphasis on preparing for such emergencies. The ANS Topical Meeting on Radiological Accidents - Perspectives and Emergency Planning provided a review of experiences with radiological accidents. The meeting covered some of the most important aspects of radiological accidents. Papers were presented which dealt with radiological accident experience. Technical response to accidents is of primary interest to many in the nuclear community; most of the papers submitted fell into this area. So many of these papers dealt with the use of computers in response that a session on that topic was arranged. A very significant impact of most radiological accidents is the cost, especially the cost of cleanup. There were papers on what is known about costs and associated current topics, such as modification and extension of the Price-Anderson Act. At least as important as the technical response to accidents is how society attempts to deal with them. A session on institutional issues was included to discuss how governments and other organizations respond to and deal with accidents. Medical effects of accidents are of great concern to the public. Invited papers to review the effects of high doses of radiation as well as very low doses were included in that session. Although the nuclear industry has an excellent safety record, this fact often does not agree with the public perception of the industry. The final session explored the public response to and perception of radiological emergencies and accidents. This subject will ultimately determine the future use of radioactive materials in this country

  4. Cultural Strengths as Moderators of the Relationship between Acculturation to the Mainstream U.S. Society and Eating- and Body-Related Concerns among Mexican American Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bettendorf, Sonya K.; Fischer, Ann R.

    2009-01-01

    This study explored whether 3 culturally relevant variables (i.e., ethnic identity, familism, and enculturation) operated as sources of strength for 209 Mexican American women by buffering the relationship between their acculturation to the mainstream U.S. society and eating- and body-related concerns. In an effort to capture the underlying…

  5. Youth, Gener & TIC: Imaginaries in the Construction of Information Society in Latin American

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bonder, Gloria

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available This article reflects upon the social imaginary that sustains the dissemination of new information and communication technologies (ICTs as a condition for them to be accepted and granted social and subjective meaning. Based on applied research on digital literacy programs for Latin American youth, the paper delves into the construction of youth both as a category and as a social group. It analyzes the main characteristics and problems of youth in current environments, especially in Latin America, providing data on their access to ICTs. Based on a typology of the programs reviewed and a comparative analysis of adults and youth representations and assessment of ICTs, the article examines the dominant educational discourses and practices that encourage access to technology of excluded or at-risk youth population. It also discusses the ways in which these programs characterize and implement a gender equity approach.A partir de una investigación aplicada sobre programas de alfabetización digital de jóvenes latinoamericanas/os, el artículo ofrece una reflexión sobre los imaginarios sociales que sostienen la difusión de las nuevas tecnologías de información y comunicación (TIC como condición para su aceptación y asignación de sentido social y subjetivo. Incursiona en el proceso de construcción de la juventud como concepto y como grupo social, presentando las principales características y problemáticas que experimentan las y los jóvenes en los contextos actuales, especialmente en América Latina, y brinda datos sobre su acceso a las TIC. A través de una tipología de los programas estudiados y de un análisis comparado de las representaciones y valoraciones de las TIC por parte de adultos y jóvenes, interroga sobre los discursos y las prácticas educativas dominantes que incentivan el acceso de la juventud excluida o en riesgo al mundo tecnológico y sobre las formas en que caracterizan y aplican al enfoque de equidad de género.

  6. Knowledge Gaps in Cardiovascular Care of the Older Adult Population: A Scientific Statement From the American Heart Association, American College of Cardiology, and American Geriatrics Society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rich, Michael W; Chyun, Deborah A; Skolnick, Adam H; Alexander, Karen P; Forman, Daniel E; Kitzman, Dalane W; Maurer, Mathew S; McClurken, James B; Resnick, Barbara M; Shen, Win K; Tirschwell, David L

    2016-05-24

    The incidence and prevalence of most cardiovascular disorders increase with age, and cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death and major disability in adults ≥75 years of age; however, despite the large impact of cardiovascular disease on quality of life, morbidity, and mortality in older adults, patients aged ≥75 years have been markedly underrepresented in most major cardiovascular trials, and virtually all trials have excluded older patients with complex comorbidities, significant physical or cognitive disabilities, frailty, or residence in a nursing home or assisted living facility. As a result, current guidelines are unable to provide evidence-based recommendations for diagnosis and treatment of older patients typical of those encountered in routine clinical practice. The objectives of this scientific statement are to summarize current guideline recommendations as they apply to older adults, identify critical gaps in knowledge that preclude informed evidence-based decision making, and recommend future research to close existing knowledge gaps. To achieve these objectives, we conducted a detailed review of current American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association and American Stroke Association guidelines to identify content and recommendations that explicitly targeted older patients. We found that there is a pervasive lack of evidence to guide clinical decision making in older patients with cardiovascular disease, as well as a paucity of data on the impact of diagnostic and therapeutic interventions on key outcomes that are particularly important to older patients, such as quality of life, physical function, and maintenance of independence. Accordingly, there is a critical need for a multitude of large population-based studies and clinical trials that include a broad spectrum of older patients representative of those seen in clinical practice and that incorporate relevant outcomes important to older patients in the study design. The

  7. American Society for Radiation Oncology (ASTRO) 2012 Workforce Study: The Radiation Oncologists' and Residents' Perspectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pohar, Surjeet, E-mail: spohar@iuhealth.org [Indiana University Health East, Indianapolis, Indiana (United States); Fung, Claire Y. [Commonwealth Newburyport Cancer Center, Newburyport, Massachusetts (United States); Hopkins, Shane [William R. Bliss Cancer Center, Ames, Iowa (United States); Miller, Robert [Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota (United States); Azawi, Samar [VA Veteran Hospital/University of California Irvine, Newport Beach, California (United States); Arnone, Anna; Patton, Caroline [ASTRO, Fairfax, Virginia (United States); Olsen, Christine [Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States)

    2013-12-01

    Purpose: The American Society for Radiation Oncology (ASTRO) conducted the 2012 Radiation Oncology Workforce Survey to obtain an up-to-date picture of the workforce, assess its needs and concerns, and identify quality and safety improvement opportunities. The results pertaining to radiation oncologists (ROs) and residents (RORs) are presented here. Methods: The ASTRO Workforce Subcommittee, in collaboration with allied radiation oncology professional societies, conducted a survey study in early 2012. An online survey questionnaire was sent to all segments of the radiation oncology workforce. Respondents who were actively working were included in the analysis. This manuscript describes the data for ROs and RORs. Results: A total of 3618 ROs and 568 RORs were surveyed. The response rate for both groups was 29%, with 1047 RO and 165 ROR responses. Among ROs, the 2 most common racial groups were white (80%) and Asian (15%), and the male-to-female ratio was 2.85 (74% male). The median age of ROs was 51. ROs averaged 253.4 new patient consults in a year and 22.9 on-treatment patients. More than 86% of ROs reported being satisfied or very satisfied overall with their career. Close to half of ROs reported having burnout feelings. There was a trend toward more frequent burnout feelings with increasing numbers of new patient consults. ROs' top concerns were related to documentation, reimbursement, and patients' health insurance coverage. Ninety-five percent of ROs felt confident when implementing new technology. Fifty-one percent of ROs thought that the supply of ROs was balanced with demand, and 33% perceived an oversupply. Conclusions: This study provides a current snapshot of the 2012 radiation oncology physician workforce. There was a predominance of whites and men. Job satisfaction level was high. However a substantial fraction of ROs reported burnout feelings. Perceptions about supply and demand balance were mixed. ROs top concerns reflect areas of attention

  8. Recent advances in nephrology: highlights from the 35th annual meeting of the American society of nephrology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cases, Aleix

    2002-12-01

    The 35th Annual Meeting of the American Society of Nephrology, held in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States (October 30 to November 4, 2002) presented the newest advances in basic and clinical nephrology science. Several presentations and symposia discussed the effects of various interventions and risk factors in clinical outcomes in dialysis patients. The recent evidences of pure red cell aplasia secondary to neutralizing antibodies against erythropoietin were also extensively discussed in a special symposium. Recent advances in the management of calcium phosphorus metabolism and secondary hyperparathyroidism, such as the clinical efficacy and safety of AMG-073, a new calcimimetic agent in the control of hyperparathyroidism in chronic kidney disease patients, or the use of sevelamer or lanthanum carbonate as phosphate binders, were presented. The results in animal models on improved sparing of renal function with rapamycin versus cyclosporin A represent a promising advance in renal transplantation. Finally, the recent discoveries with the newly identified disease gene PKHD1, which causes autosomal recessive polycystic kidney disease, were also presented at the meeting. PMID:12582469

  9. Recent advances in gastrointestinal oncology - updates and insights from the 2009 annual meeting of the American Society of Clinical Oncology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsueh Chung-Tsen

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We have reviewed the pivotal presentations related to gastrointestinal malignancies from 2009 annual meeting of the American Society of Clinical Oncology with the theme of "personalizing cancer care". We have discussed the scientific findings and the impact on practice guidelines and ongoing clinical trials. Adding trastuzumab to chemotherapy improved the survival of patients with advanced gastric cancer overexpressing human epidermal growth factor receptor 2. Gemcitabine plus cisplatin has become a new standard for first-line treatment of advanced biliary cancer. Octreotide LAR significantly lengthened median time to tumor progression compared with placebo in patients with metastatic neuroendocrine tumors of the midgut. Addition of oxaliplatin to fluoropyrimidines for preoperative chemoradiotherapy in patients with stage II or III rectal cancer did not improve local tumor response but increased toxicities. Bevacizumab did not provide additional benefit to chemotherapy in adjuvant chemotherapy for stage II or III colon cancer. In patients with resected stage II colon cancer, recurrence score estimated by multigene RT-PCR assay has been shown to provide additional risk stratification. In stage IV colorectal cancer, data have supported the routine use of prophylactic skin treatment in patients receiving antibody against epidermal growth factor receptor, and the use of upfront chemotherapy as initial management in patients with synchronous metastasis without obstruction or bleeding from the primary site.

  10. Highlights in the treatment of chronic lymphocytic leukemia from the 2014 meeting of the American Society of Hematology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molica, Stefano

    2015-06-01

    The latest Annual Meeting of the American Society of Hematology, held in San Francisco, included data on novel-targeted agents active in the treatment of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). MABTENANCE and PROLONG study suggest that either rituximab or ofatumumab improves progression-free survival in CLL. According to final analysis of CLL-10 trial, rituximab and bendamustine may have a role in the upfront treatment of fit elderly patients. Further insight into the use of ibrutinib, a first-in-class covalent Bruton’s tyrosine kinase-inhibitor that is currently approved for patients with relapsed/refractory CLL and with del(17p), was also presented. Idelalisib, a selective inhibitor of PI3K delta, demonstrated its activity with manageable toxicity in previously untreated patients ≥65 years with CLL or small lymphocytic lymphoma. Finally, a series Phase I/II studies of BCL-2 inhibitor (i.e., venetoclax, GDC-0199) used alone or in combination provide promising results in patients with relapsed/refractory CLL. PMID:25804936

  11. Position of the American Dietetic Association, School Nutrition Association, and Society for Nutrition Education: comprehensive school nutrition services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briggs, Marilyn; Mueller, Constance G; Fleischhacker, Sheila

    2010-11-01

    It is the position of the American Dietetic Association (ADA), School Nutrition Association (SNA), and Society for Nutrition Education (SNE) that comprehensive, integrated nutrition services in schools, kindergarten through grade 12, are an essential component of coordinated school health programs and will improve the nutritional status, health, and academic performance of our nation's children. Local school wellness policies may strengthen comprehensive nutrition services by encouraging multidisciplinary wellness teams, composed of school and community members, to work together in identifying local school needs, developing feasible strategies to address priority areas, and integrating comprehensive nutrition services with a coordinated school health program. This joint position paper affirms schools as an important partner in health promotion. To maximize the impact of school wellness policies on strengthening comprehensive, integrated nutrition services in schools nationwide, ADA, SNA, and SNE recommend specific strategies in the following key areas: nutrition education and promotion, food and nutrition programs available on the school campus, school-home-community partnerships, and nutrition-related health services. PMID:21061737

  12. High dose rate brachytherapy for medically inoperable stage I endometrial cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose/Objective: To determine the efficacy of high dose rate (HDR) brachytherapy in patients with medically inoperable endometrial cancer clinically confined to the corpus. Materials and Methods: Forty-two patients with endometrial cancer and an intact uterus have been treated since 1989 with HDR brachytherapy. Twenty-six patients with medically inoperable Stage I disease were treated with radiation alone and form the basis of this study. Obesity was assessed using the body mass index (BMI kg/m2) scale. Patients with a BMI above 28 were considered obese and those above 35 morbidly obese, per standard anesthesia guidelines. Brachytherapy was delivered in 5 HDR insertions, 1 week apart, without any external beam radiation. The following doses were delivered per insertion: 5.7 Gy to point S, 7.0 Gy to point W, 8.2 Gy to the vaginal surface and 9.2 Gy to point M. Point M represents the conventional point A dose, while points S and W are myometrial points. A single tandem with either ovoids or cylinders was placed, unless the uterine cavity would accommodate 2 tandems. All treatments were outpatient using intravenous fentanyl and midazolam for sedation. Pelvic ultrasound was commonly used at the time of brachytherapy to verify tandem placement. Three year clinical endpoints were calculated using the Kaplan Meier method. Results: The median follow-up for the study cohort was 21 months with follow-up greater than 36 months in 11 patients. Seventeen of the 26 patients were inoperable due to morbid obesity (median weight and BMI; 316 lbs and 55 kg/m2, respectively); the other patients had poor cardiopulmonary reserve ± obesity. The median age, KPS (Karnofsky Performance Status), weight, ASA (American Society of Anesthesiologists' Physical Class System) and BMI were 63 yrs, 80%, 285 lbs, 3 and 49 kg/m2, respectively. Two patients with an ASA of 3 and 4 died from acute cardio-pulmonary events within 30 days of the last insertion, emphasizing the need for accurate pre

  13. The evolution of brachytherapy treatment planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brachytherapy is a mature treatment modality that has benefited from technological advances. Treatment planning has advanced from simple lookup tables to complex, computer-based dose-calculation algorithms. The current approach is based on the AAPM TG-43 formalism with recent advances in acquiring single-source dose distributions. However, this formalism has clinically relevant limitations for calculating patient dose. Dose-calculation algorithms are being developed based on Monte Carlo methods, collapsed cone, and solving the linear Boltzmann transport equation. In addition to improved dose-calculation tools, planning systems and brachytherapy treatment planning will account for material heterogeneities, scatter conditions, radiobiology, and image guidance. The AAPM, ESTRO, and other professional societies are working to coordinate clinical integration of these advancements. This Vision 20/20 article provides insight into these endeavors.

  14. The evolution of brachytherapy treatment planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rivard, Mark J.; Venselaar, Jack L. M.; Beaulieu, Luc [Department of Radiation Oncology, Tufts University School of Medicine, Boston, Massachusetts 02111 (United States); Department of Medical Physics, Instituut Verbeeten, P.O. Box 90120, 5000 LA Tilburg (Netherlands); Departement de Radio-Oncologie et Centre de Recherche en Cancerologie de l' Universite Laval, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Quebec, 11 Cote du Palais, Quebec, Quebec G1R 2J6 (Canada) and Departement de Physique, de Genie Physique et d' Optique, Universite Laval, Quebec, Quebec G1K 7P4 (Canada)

    2009-06-15

    Brachytherapy is a mature treatment modality that has benefited from technological advances. Treatment planning has advanced from simple lookup tables to complex, computer-based dose-calculation algorithms. The current approach is based on the AAPM TG-43 formalism with recent advances in acquiring single-source dose distributions. However, this formalism has clinically relevant limitations for calculating patient dose. Dose-calculation algorithms are being developed based on Monte Carlo methods, collapsed cone, and solving the linear Boltzmann transport equation. In addition to improved dose-calculation tools, planning systems and brachytherapy treatment planning will account for material heterogeneities, scatter conditions, radiobiology, and image guidance. The AAPM, ESTRO, and other professional societies are working to coordinate clinical integration of these advancements. This Vision 20/20 article provides insight into these endeavors.

  15. American Society of Clinical Oncology policy statement update: tobacco control--reducing cancer incidence and saving lives. 2003.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-07-15

    As an international medical society dedicated to cancer prevention, the American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO) advocates a fundamental reform of United States and international policy toward addictive tobacco products. ASCO's goal is the immediate reduction of tobacco use and ultimate achievement of a tobacco-free world. The centerpiece of ASCO's policy is the recommendation for an independent commission to study the tobacco problem in all of its dimensions: social, medical, legal, and economic (both domestically and globally). The commission membership should include broad-based representation and expertise on tobacco issues. In ASCO's view, tobacco control efforts to date have been less than successful because they are too fragmented and incremental, leaving many important issues unaddressed. A more comprehensive solution could flow from this study, including input from a variety of government agencies involved with public health, agriculture, First Amendment and other legal considerations, and international trade. The study, within defined time limits, should culminate in a report that outlines a strategy for achieving immediate reduction of tobacco use and ultimate achievement of a tobacco-free world, including explicit plans and a timetable for implementation. Although this comprehensive approach to tobacco control will take many years to implement even under the best of circumstances, there are certain measures that could be undertaken immediately with meaningful impact on tobacco usage. These include: Increasing efforts to discourage tobacco use, particularly among the young Raising federal excise taxes by at least $2 per pack and encouraging states to consider tobacco taxes as a first resort in revenue enhancement Ensuring that tobacco settlement funds be devoted only to health-related projects, including medical treatment, biomedical research, and tobacco prevention efforts Requiring disclosure of all ingredients in tobacco products Comprehensively

  16. American Pain Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Adjuvant Analgesic for Cancer Pain Drug Treatments for Heroin Addiction Heighten Pain Sensitivity Genetic Alteration Predicts Pain Recovery After Sexual Assault Health Care Reforms Will Change How Pain Is Assessed ...

  17. American Thoracic Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Health Services Research Clinical Problems Critical Care Environmental, Occupational & Population Health Microbiology, Tuberculosis & Pulmonary Infections Nursing Pediatrics Pulmonary Circulation Pulmonary Rehabilitation Respiratory Cell & Molecular ...

  18. The American Meteorological Society and Second Nature: Working Together to Increase Climate Literacy at Minority Serving Institutions Nationwide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brey, J. A.; Geer, I. W.; Mills, E. W.; Kauffman, C.; Nugnes, K. A.; Naik, A.

    2013-12-01

    To raise climate literacy, the American Meteorological Society (AMS) developed AMS Climate Studies, an innovative, undergraduate-level climate science course. With a focus on real-world climate data, the course is a primer for responsible, scientifically-literate participation in the discussion of climate change. Designed to be adaptable to traditional, hybrid, or online instructional settings, AMS Climate Studies has already been adopted by more than 80 institutions since fall 2010. Course materials include a hardcover textbook, an investigations manual, and an online lab component, Current Climate Studies, which is created weekly throughout the semester utilizing resources from the IPCC, the US Global Change Research Program, NASA, and NOAA. AMS Climate Studies is mutually beneficial because AMS enhances coursework with real-world data while NASA, NOAA, and other government agencies reach a much larger audience with the results of their work. With support from NSF and NASA and in partnership with Second Nature, AMS offers the AMS Climate Studies Diversity Project with the goal of training 100 minority-serving institution (MSI) faculty members to implement the climate course on their campus. The Diversity Project consists of an expenses-paid weeklong workshop for MSI faculty members and a follow-up workshop at the next year's AMS Annual Meeting. The initial workshop covers fundamental understandings within AMS Climate Studies and implementation procedures. Highlights of this workshop are presentations from NOAA, NASA, and other government and university climate scientists as well as field trips to science laboratories. In the year following workshop attendance, faculty work within their MSI to implement AMS Climate Studies. Participants are then invited to a second workshop at the AMS Annual Meeting to report back the results of their work. Currently in its second year, the Project has trained 50 MSI faculty members with subsequent workshops to be held throughout

  19. Italian translation, cultural adaptation and validation of the "American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society's (AOFAS) ankle-hindfoot scale".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leigheb, Massimiliano; Janicka, Paulina; Andorno, Silvano; Marcuzzi, Augusto; Magnani, Corrado; Grassi, Federico

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aim of the workAnkle and hindfoot injuries are common and may lead to functional impairment, disability, exclusion from occupational and daily activities. It's necessary a standardized method for assessing treatment outcomes in people with same condition and disease.American-Orthopaedics-Foot-and-Ankle-Society's-Ankle-Hindfoot-Evaluation-Scale (AOFAS-AHES) is specific to estimate clinical problems of the ankle-hindfoot.Outcome evaluation scales should be translated and culturally adapted into the language of the investigated patient.Our purpose was to translate and culturally adapt into Italian AOFAS-AHES, and to check its reproducibility and validity.MethodsAn Italian translation of the AOFAS-scale was retranslated into English by a native English and compared to the original to define a second correct Italian-version, that was submitted to 50 randomized patients operated at their ankle or hindfoot with a minimum follow-up of 6 months for cultural adaptation, and to 10 healthcare professionals to check comprehension of the medical part.To check intra and inter-observer reproducibility each patient underwent 2 interviews by interviewer-A and 1 by B. ShortForm(SF)-36-questionnaire for quality of life and Visual-Analogue-Scale (VAS) for pain were also compared for validation. The Pearson's-Correlation-Coefficient and the Intra-Class-Correlation coefficient were calculated to check inter and intra-observer reproducibility for validation.ResultsCultural adaptation revealed to be good. We obtained a good correlation of the inter and intra-observer reproducibility. Further validation of the Italian-AOFAS-AHES was obtained comparing AOFAS results to SF-36.ConclusionsItalian translation, cultural adaptation and validation of the AOFAS-AHES has been performed successfully and could be useful to improve assistance quality in care practice. PMID:27163894

  20. Nuclear criticality safety experiments, calculations, and analyses - 1958 to 1982. Volume 2. Summaries. Complilation of papers from the Transactions of the American Nuclear Society

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koponen, B.L.; Hampel, V.E.

    1982-10-21

    This compilation contains 688 complete summaries of papers on nuclear criticality safety as presented at meetings of the American Nuclear Society (ANS). The selected papers contain criticality parameters for fissile materials derived from experiments and calculations, as well as criticality safety analyses for fissile material processing, transport, and storage. The compilation was developed as a component of the Nuclear Criticality Information System (NCIS) now under development at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The compilation is presented in two volumes: Volume 1 contains a directory to the ANS Transaction volume and page number where each summary was originally published, the author concordance, and the subject concordance derived from the keyphrases in titles. Volume 2 contains-in chronological order-the full-text summaries, reproduced here by permission of the American Nuclear Society from their Transactions, volumes 1-41.

  1. Nuclear criticality safety experiments, calculations, and analyses - 1958 to 1982. Volume 2. Summaries. Complilation of papers from the Transactions of the American Nuclear Society

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This compilation contains 688 complete summaries of papers on nuclear criticality safety as presented at meetings of the American Nuclear Society (ANS). The selected papers contain criticality parameters for fissile materials derived from experiments and calculations, as well as criticality safety analyses for fissile material processing, transport, and storage. The compilation was developed as a component of the Nuclear Criticality Information System (NCIS) now under development at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The compilation is presented in two volumes: Volume 1 contains a directory to the ANS Transaction volume and page number where each summary was originally published, the author concordance, and the subject concordance derived from the keyphrases in titles. Volume 2 contains-in chronological order-the full-text summaries, reproduced here by permission of the American Nuclear Society from their Transactions, volumes 1-41

  2. Active Surveillance for the Management of Localized Prostate Cancer (Cancer Care Ontario Guideline): American Society of Clinical Oncology Clinical Practice Guideline Endorsement

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, RC; Rumble, RB; Loblaw, DA; Finelli, A.; Ehdaie, B; Cooperberg, MR; Morgan, SC; Tyldesley, S; Haluschak, JJ; Tan, W.; Justman, S; Jain, S

    2016-01-01

    To endorse Cancer Care Ontario's guideline on Active Surveillance for the Management of Localized Prostate Cancer. The American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO) has a policy and set of procedures for endorsing clinical practice guidelines developed by other professional organizations.The Active Surveillance for the Management of Localized Prostate Cancer guideline was reviewed for developmental rigor by methodologists. The ASCO Endorsement Panel then reviewed the content and the recommenda...

  3. First International Conference on Lysophospholipids and Related Bioactive Lipids in Biology and Disease Sponsored by the Federation of American Societies of Experimental Biology

    OpenAIRE

    Goetzl, Edward J.; Tigyi, Gabor J.; Timothy Hla

    2001-01-01

    The First International Conference on “Lysophospholipids and Related Bioactive Lipids in Biology and Diseases” was held in Tucson, AZ on June 10�14, 2001, under the sponsorship of the Federation of American Societies of Experimental Biology (FASEB). More than 100 scientists from 11 countries discussed the recent results of basic and clinical research in the broad biology of this emerging field. Immense progress was reported in defining the biochemistry of generation and biology of cellular ef...

  4. ASCO 2007: “Translating Research into Practice”. Report from the 34th Annual Meeting of the American Society of Clinical Oncology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camillo Porta

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This year, for the 34th time in its history, the mastodontic machinery of the American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO once again welcomed thousand of members and participants from all over the world to the Society’s annual meeting, which, this year, took place in the ample and well-appointed, McCormick’s Convention Center in Chicago, Illinois...

  5. Analisis Tingkat Relevansi E-Journal Pada Database American Society Of Civil Engineer ( Asce ) Dalam Memenuhi Kebutuhan Informasi Mahasiswa Magister Teknik Sipil Di Universitas Sumatera Utara

    OpenAIRE

    Laoli, Feriaman

    2010-01-01

    Database ASCE merupakan koleksi e-journal yang dilanggan oleh Perpustakaan Universitas Sumatera Utara ( USU ) untuk bidang ilmu teknik sipil. Koleksi ini diharapkan dapat menunjang proses belajar-mengajar dan bahan acuan dalam penelitian, pembuatan skripsi, tesis dan sebagainya bagi dosen, mahasiswa, karyawan di lingkungan universitas khususnya Universitas Sumatera Utara ( USU ). Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui tingkat relevansi e-journal pada Database American Society of Civil E...

  6. The USCG[United States Coast Guard]/Environment Canada/ASTM[American Society for Testing and Materials] standards development program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The US Coast Guard and the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) Committee F-20, in cooperation with Environment Canada, have embarked on an ambitious program of standards development in the area of marine oil spills. Standards development will proceed in the areas of barriers, skimmers, pumps, beach cleanup, sorbents, bioremediation, in-situ burning, temporary storage devices, communications, and remote sensing. The methodology of standards development and the progress to date are reported

  7. Comparison of Dose When Prescribed to Point A and Point H for Brachytherapy in Cervical Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gang, Ji Hyeong; Gim, Il Hwan; Hwang, Seon Boong; Kim, Woong; Im, Hyeong Seo; Gang, Jin Mook; Gim, Gi Hwan; Lee, Ah Ram [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seou (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-09-15

    The purpose of this study is to compare plans prescribed to point A with these prescribed to point H recommended by ABS (American Brachytherapy Society) in high dose rate intracavitary brachytherapy for cervical carcinoma. This study selected 103 patients who received HDR (High Dose Rate) brachytherapy using tandem and ovoids from March 2010 to January 2012. Point A, bladder point, and rectal point conform with Manchester System. Point H conforms with ABS recommendation. Also Sigmoid colon point, and vagina point were established arbitrarily. We examined distance between point A and point H. The percent dose at point A was calculated when 100% dose was prescribed to point H. Additionally, the percent dose at each reference points when dose is prescribed to point H and point A were calculated. The relative dose at point A was lower when point H was located inferior to point A. The relative doses at bladder, rectal, sigmoid colon, and vagina points were higher when point H was located superior to point A, and lower when point H was located inferior to point A. This study found out that as point H got located much superior to point A, the absorbed dose of surrounding normal organs became higher, and as point H got located much inferior to point A, the absorbed dose of surrounding normal organs became lower. This differences dose not seem to affect the treatment. However, we suggest this new point is worth being considered for the treatment of HDR if dose distribution and absorbed dose at normal organs have large differences between prescribed to point A and H.

  8. Toward endobronchial Ir-192 high-dose-rate brachytherapy therapeutic optimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A number of patients with lung cancer receive either palliative or curative high-dose-rate (HDR) endobronchial brachytherapy. Up to a third of patients treated with endobronchial HDR die from hemoptysis. Rather than accept hemoptysis as an expected potential consequence of HDR, we have calculated the radial dose distribution for an Ir-192 HDR source, rigorously examined the dose and prescription points recommended by the American Brachytherapy Society (ABS), and performed a radiobiological-based analysis. The radial dose rate of a commercially available Ir-192 source was calculated with a Monte Carlo simulation. Based on the linear quadratic model, the estimated palliative, curative and blood vessel rupture radii from the center of an Ir-192 source were obtained for the ABS recommendations and a series of customized HDR prescriptions. The estimated radius at risk for blood vessel perforation for the ABS recommendations ranges from 7 to 9 mm. An optimized prescription may in some situations reduce this radius to 4 mm. The estimated blood perforation radius is generally smaller than the palliative radius. Optimized and individualized endobronchial HDR prescriptions are currently feasible based on our current understanding of tumor and normal tissue radiobiology. Individualized prescriptions could minimize complications such as fatal hemoptysis without sacrificing efficacy. Fiducial stents, HDR catheter centering or spacers and the use of CT imaging to better assess the relationship between the catheter and blood vessels promise to be useful strategies for increasing the therapeutic index of this treatment modality. Prospective trials employing treatment optimization algorithms are needed

  9. Toward endobronchial Ir-192 high-dose-rate brachytherapy therapeutic optimization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gay, H A [Department of Radiation Oncology, Brody School of Medicine at East Carolina University, Greenville, NC (United States); Allison, R R [Department of Radiation Oncology, Brody School of Medicine at East Carolina University, Greenville, NC (United States); Downie, G H [Section of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, Brody School of Medicine at East Carolina University, Greenville, NC (United States); Mota, H C [Department of Radiation Oncology, Brody School of Medicine at East Carolina University, Greenville, NC (United States); Austerlitz, C [Department of Radiation Oncology, Brody School of Medicine at East Carolina University, Greenville, NC (United States); Jenkins, T [Department of Radiation Oncology, Brody School of Medicine at East Carolina University, Greenville, NC (United States); Sibata, C H [Department of Radiation Oncology, Brody School of Medicine at East Carolina University, Greenville, NC (United States)

    2007-06-07

    A number of patients with lung cancer receive either palliative or curative high-dose-rate (HDR) endobronchial brachytherapy. Up to a third of patients treated with endobronchial HDR die from hemoptysis. Rather than accept hemoptysis as an expected potential consequence of HDR, we have calculated the radial dose distribution for an Ir-192 HDR source, rigorously examined the dose and prescription points recommended by the American Brachytherapy Society (ABS), and performed a radiobiological-based analysis. The radial dose rate of a commercially available Ir-192 source was calculated with a Monte Carlo simulation. Based on the linear quadratic model, the estimated palliative, curative and blood vessel rupture radii from the center of an Ir-192 source were obtained for the ABS recommendations and a series of customized HDR prescriptions. The estimated radius at risk for blood vessel perforation for the ABS recommendations ranges from 7 to 9 mm. An optimized prescription may in some situations reduce this radius to 4 mm. The estimated blood perforation radius is generally smaller than the palliative radius. Optimized and individualized endobronchial HDR prescriptions are currently feasible based on our current understanding of tumor and normal tissue radiobiology. Individualized prescriptions could minimize complications such as fatal hemoptysis without sacrificing efficacy. Fiducial stents, HDR catheter centering or spacers and the use of CT imaging to better assess the relationship between the catheter and blood vessels promise to be useful strategies for increasing the therapeutic index of this treatment modality. Prospective trials employing treatment optimization algorithms are needed.

  10. Brachytherapy optimal planning with application to intravascular radiation therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sadegh, Payman; Mourtada, Firas A.; Taylor, Russell H.; Anderson, James H.

    1999-01-01

    We have been studying brachytherapy planning with the objective of manimizing the maximum deviation of the delivered dose from prescribed dose bounds for treatment volumes. A general framework for optimal treatment planning is presented and the minmax optimization is formulated as a linear program....... Dose rate calculations are based on the sosimetry formulation of the American Association of Physicists in Medicine, Task Group 43. We apply the technique to optimal planning for intravascular brachytherapy of intimal hyperplasia using ultrasound data and 192Ir seeds. The planning includes...

  11. American Society for Pain Management Nursing guidelines on monitoring for opioid-induced sedation and respiratory depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarzyna, Donna; Jungquist, Carla R; Pasero, Chris; Willens, Joyce S; Nisbet, Allison; Oakes, Linda; Dempsey, Susan J; Santangelo, Diane; Polomano, Rosemary C

    2011-09-01

    result, there are considerable variations in screening for risk and monitoring practices. All of these factors prompted the American Society for Pain Management Nursing to approve the formation of an expert consensus panel to examine the scientific basis and state of practice for assessment and monitoring practices for adult hospitalized patients receiving opioid analgesics for pain control and to propose recommendations for patient care, education, and systems-level changes that promote quality care and patient safety. PMID:21893302

  12. Restenosis: Intracoronary Brachytherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drachman, Douglas E.; Simon, Daniel I.

    2002-04-01

    Though interventional strategies have revolutionized the management of patients with symptomatic coronary artery disease, in-stent restenosis has emerged as the single most important limitation of long-term success following percutaneous coronary intervention. Once present, in-stent restenosis is extraordinarily difficult to treat, with conventional revascularization techniques failing in 50% to 80% of patients. Intracoronary radiation, or brachytherapy, targets cellular proliferation within the culprit neointima. Clinical trials have demonstrated that brachytherapy is a highly effective treatment for in-stent restenosis, reducing angiographic restenosis by 50% to 60% and the need for target vessel revascularization by 40% to 50%. The benefits of intracoronary brachytherapy may be particularly pronounced in certain patient subgroups (eg, those with diabetes, long lesions, or lesions in saphenous vein bypass grafts), but comes at the cost of an increased rate of late stent thrombosis and the need for extended antiplatelet therapy. The role of brachytherapy in the arsenal of the interventional cardiologist will continue to evolve, particularly in light of the unprecedented recent advances with the use of drug-eluting stents for restenosis prevention. PMID:11858773

  13. American society of clinical oncology update on the role of bisphosphonates and bone health issues in women with breast cancer Part II. Bisphosphonates in the adjuvant therapy of breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. V. Vysotskaya

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available American society of clinical oncology update on the roleof bisphosphonates and bone health issues in women with breast cancer Part II. Bisphosphonates in the adjuvant therapy of breast cancer

  14. Glass microspheres for brachytherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We developed the capacity to produce glass microspheres containing in their structure one or more radioactive isotopes useful for brachytherapy. We studied the various facts related with their production: (Rare earth) alumino silicate glass making, glass characterization, microspheres production, nuclear activation through (n,γ) nuclear reactions, mechanical characterization before and after irradiation. Corrosion tests in simulated human plasma and mechanical properties characterization were done before and after irradiation. (author)

  15. The seven-year preliminary results of brachytherapy with Iodine-125 seeds for localized prostate cancer treated at a Brazilian single-center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos A. S. Franca

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To report the seven-year preliminary results of a single-center on brachytherapy with Iodine-125 seeds, used in combination with external beam radiotherapy in selected patients with localized prostate cancer (T1-T2. MATERIALS AND METHODS: All 105 patients treated by brachytherapy with Iodine-125 seeds, from January/1998 to December/2004, were retrospectively analyzed. The prescribed dose was 144 Gy at the periphery of the prostate for isolated brachytherapy, and 110 Gy for the combination with external beam radiotherapy. The external beam radiotherapy dose was 45 Gy, at the prostatic bed. Neoadjuvant hormone therapy was indicated for selected patients, who received luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LH-RH and/or antiandrogens. For definition of biochemical relapse, it was adopted the American Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology consensus. RESULTS: Of the 105 patients treated, 90 were followed for a mean period of 70 months. Biochemical disease control was achieved in 62 (69% and biochemical recurrence was manifested in 28 (31%. The analysis of each risk group showed biochemical disease control rates of 79%, 71% and 52% in the low, intermediate and high risk groups, respectively. The mean time for biochemical recurrence was 22 months. Genitourinary acute toxicity was classified as grade 0-2 (RTOG in 88.5% and in 94.2% for the late toxicity (RTOG/EORTC. Gastrointestinal acute toxicity was graded as 0-2 (RTOG in 100% and in 97.7% for the late morbidity. No grade 5 was detected. CONCLUSIONS: Brachytherapy with Iodine-125 seeds is an effective alternative treatment for early stage prostatic cancer, with good biochemical disease control rates and low to moderate toxicity. The best results were obtained in low and intermediate risk patients.

  16. A dosimetric uncertainty analysis for photon-emitting brachytherapy sources: Report of AAPM Task Group No. 138 and GEC-ESTRO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report addresses uncertainties pertaining to brachytherapy single-source dosimetry preceding clinical use. The International Organization for Standardization (ISO) Guide to the Expression of Uncertainty in Measurement (GUM) and the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) Technical Note 1297 are taken as reference standards for uncertainty formalism. Uncertainties in using detectors to measure or utilizing Monte Carlo methods to estimate brachytherapy dose distributions are provided with discussion of the components intrinsic to the overall dosimetric assessment. Uncertainties provided are based on published observations and cited when available. The uncertainty propagation from the primary calibration standard through transfer to the clinic for air-kerma strength is covered first. Uncertainties in each of the brachytherapy dosimetry parameters of the TG-43 formalism are then explored, ending with transfer to the clinic and recommended approaches. Dosimetric uncertainties during treatment delivery are considered briefly but are not included in the detailed analysis. For low- and high-energy brachytherapy sources of low dose rate and high dose rate, a combined dosimetric uncertainty <5% (k=1) is estimated, which is consistent with prior literature estimates. Recommendations are provided for clinical medical physicists, dosimetry investigators, and source and treatment planning system manufacturers. These recommendations include the use of the GUM and NIST reports, a requirement of constancy of manufacturer source design, dosimetry investigator guidelines, provision of the lowest uncertainty for patient treatment dosimetry, and the establishment of an action level based on dosimetric uncertainty. These recommendations reflect the guidance of the American Association of Physicists in Medicine (AAPM) and the Groupe Europeen de Curietherapie-European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology (GEC-ESTRO) for their members and may also be used as

  17. A dosimetric uncertainty analysis for photon-emitting brachytherapy sources: Report of AAPM Task Group No. 138 and GEC-ESTRO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeWerd, Larry A.; Ibbott, Geoffrey S.; Meigooni, Ali S.; Mitch, Michael G.; Rivard, Mark J.; Stump, Kurt E.; Thomadsen, Bruce R.; Venselaar, Jack L. M. [Department of Medical Physics and Accredited Dosimetry Calibration Laboratory, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 (United States); Department of Radiation Physics, M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas 77030 (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, Comprehensive Cancer Center of Nevada, Las Vegas, Nevada 89169 (United States); Ionizing Radiation Division, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, Maryland 20899 (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, Tufts University School of Medicine, Boston, Massachusetts 02111 (United States); Santa Maria Radiation Oncology Center, Santa Maria, California 93454 (United States); Departments of Medical Physics and Human Oncology, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 (United States); Department of Medical Physics and Engineering, Instituut Verbeeten, 5042 SB Tilburg (Netherlands)

    2011-02-15

    This report addresses uncertainties pertaining to brachytherapy single-source dosimetry preceding clinical use. The International Organization for Standardization (ISO) Guide to the Expression of Uncertainty in Measurement (GUM) and the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) Technical Note 1297 are taken as reference standards for uncertainty formalism. Uncertainties in using detectors to measure or utilizing Monte Carlo methods to estimate brachytherapy dose distributions are provided with discussion of the components intrinsic to the overall dosimetric assessment. Uncertainties provided are based on published observations and cited when available. The uncertainty propagation from the primary calibration standard through transfer to the clinic for air-kerma strength is covered first. Uncertainties in each of the brachytherapy dosimetry parameters of the TG-43 formalism are then explored, ending with transfer to the clinic and recommended approaches. Dosimetric uncertainties during treatment delivery are considered briefly but are not included in the detailed analysis. For low- and high-energy brachytherapy sources of low dose rate and high dose rate, a combined dosimetric uncertainty <5% (k=1) is estimated, which is consistent with prior literature estimates. Recommendations are provided for clinical medical physicists, dosimetry investigators, and source and treatment planning system manufacturers. These recommendations include the use of the GUM and NIST reports, a requirement of constancy of manufacturer source design, dosimetry investigator guidelines, provision of the lowest uncertainty for patient treatment dosimetry, and the establishment of an action level based on dosimetric uncertainty. These recommendations reflect the guidance of the American Association of Physicists in Medicine (AAPM) and the Groupe Europeen de Curietherapie-European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology (GEC-ESTRO) for their members and may also be used as

  18. Meeting the information needs of lower income cancer survivors: results of a randomized control trial evaluating the american cancer society's "I can cope".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Michelle Y; Evans, Mary B; Kratt, Polly; Pollack, Lori A; Smith, Judith Lee; Oster, Robert; Dignan, Mark; Prayor-Patterson, Heather; Watson, Christopher; Houston, Peter; Andrews, Shiquina; Liwo, Amandiy; Tseng, Tung Sung; Hullett, Sandral; Oliver, Joann; Pisu, Maria

    2014-04-01

    The American Cancer Society is a leader in the development of cancer survivorship resources. One resource of the American Cancer Society is the I Can Cope program, an educational program for cancer survivors and their families. Evaluations of this program indicate that cancer patients highly rate its objectives. Yet, there are gaps in the understanding of the full impact of the program on diverse cancer survivors. In this study, the authors used a randomized trial to evaluate the program. Participants included 140 low-income survivors (79% Black; 38% breast cancer) from community hospitals who were randomized to 4 sessions of I Can Cope (learning about cancer; understanding cancer treatments; relieving cancer pain; and keeping well in mind and body) or 4 sessions of a wellness intervention (humor, meditation, relaxation, and music therapy). The authors' primary outcome was "met information needs." After controlling for covariates, their analysis indicated that I Can Cope was no more effective than the wellness intervention in addressing survivor information needs relative to the learning objectives. Participants provided high overall ratings for both interventions. Self-efficacy for obtaining advice about cancer, age, education, and income were associated with information needs. Educational programs tailored to levels of self-efficacy and patient demographics may be needed. PMID:24433231

  19. Dosimetric prerequisites for routine clinical use of photon emitting brachytherapy sources with average energy higher than 50 kev

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents the recommendations of the American Association of Physicists in Medicine (AAPM) and the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology (ESTRO) on the dosimetric parameters to be characterized, and dosimetric studies to be performed to obtain them, for brachytherapy sources with average energy higher than 50 keV that are intended for routine clinical use. In addition, this document makes recommendations on procedures to be used to maintain vendor source strength calibration accuracy. These recommendations reflect the guidance of the AAPM and the ESTRO for its members, and may also be used as guidance to vendors and regulatory agencies in developing good manufacturing practices for sources used in routine clinical treatments

  20. ARM AND LEG IDIOMS IN THE BNC AND COCA CORPORA: VIEWS ON THE CULTURAL DIFFERENCES BETWEEN BRITISH AND AMERICAN SOCIETY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nevena Tanasić

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Phraseological units, primarily idioms are those types of linguistic units which reveal to a great extent how certain linguistic community copes with its surroundings. The aim of the paper is to demonstrate how idioms in English language are actually differently used across different genres in British and American linguistic communities, and try to explain those results in light of the Sapir-Whorf Hypothesis. The study was conducted on the basis of the idioms that have the same body part, namely arm and/or leg, and those idioms were then compared in two corpora – the BNC (British National Corpus and COCA (Corpus of Contemporary American English.

  1. 76 FR 27351 - Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993-American Society...

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    2011-05-11

    ... October 13, 2004 (69 FR 60895). The last notification was filed with the Department on January 10, 2011. A... FR 6497). Patricia A. Brink, Director of Civil Enforcement, Antitrust Division. BILLING CODE 4410-11... Society of Mechanical Engineers Notice is hereby given that, on April 12, 2011, pursuant to Section...

  2. 75 FR 45156 - Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993; American Society...

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    2010-08-02

    ... Register pursuant to Section 6(b) of the Act on October 13, 2004 (69 FR 60895). The last notification was... to Section 6(b) of the Act on March 24, 2010 (75 FR 14191). Patricia A. Brink, Deputy Director of... Society of Mechanical Engineers Notice is hereby given that, on June 28, 2010, pursuant to Section 6(a)...

  3. 77 FR 31041 - Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993-American Society...

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    2012-05-24

    ... notice in the Federal Register pursuant to Section 6(b) of the Act on October 13, 2004 (69 FR 60895). The... Federal Register pursuant to Section 6(b) of the Act on December 23, 2011 (76 FR 80406). Patricia A. Brink... Society of Mechanical Engineers Notice is hereby given that, on April 27, 2012, pursuant to Section...

  4. 78 FR 58558 - Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993-American Society...

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    2013-09-24

    ... Section 6(b) of the Act on October 13, 2004 (69 FR 60895). The last notification was filed with the... Act on April 3, 2013 (78 FR 20141). Patricia A. Brink, Director of Civil Enforcement, Antitrust... Society of Mechanical Engineers Notice is hereby given that, on August 20, 2013, pursuant to Section...

  5. 76 FR 52014 - Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993-American Society...

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    2011-08-19

    ... October 13, 2004 (69 FR 60895). The last notification was filed with the Department on April 12, 2011. A notice was published in the Federal Register pursuant to Section 6(b) of the Act on May 11, 2011 (76 FR... Society of Mechanical Engineers Notice is hereby given that, on July 25, 2011, pursuant to section 6(a)...

  6. 77 FR 58412 - Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993; American Society...

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    ... notice in the Federal Register pursuant to Section 6(b) of the Act on October 13, 2004 (69 FR 60895). The... Federal Register pursuant to Section 6(b) of the Act on May 24, 2012 (77 FR 31041). Patricia A. Brink... Society of Mechanical Engineers Notice is hereby given that, on August 27, 2012, pursuant to Section...

  7. 76 FR 80406 - Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993-American Society...

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    2011-12-23

    ... Register pursuant to Section 6(b) of the Act on October 13, 2004 (69 FR 60895). The last notification was... Section 6(b) of the Act on August 19, 2011 (76 FR 52014). Patricia A. Brink, Director of Civil Enforcement... Society of Mechanical Engineers Notice is hereby given that, on December 6, 2011, pursuant to Section...

  8. 76 FR 6497 - Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993-American Society...

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    ... Section 6(b) of the Act on October 13, 2004 (69 FR 60895). The last notification was filed with the... the Act on November 16, 2010 (75 FR 70031). Patricia A. Brink, Director of Civil Enforcement... Society of Mechanical Engineers Notice is hereby given that, on January 10, 2011, pursuant to Section...

  9. 75 FR 14191 - Notice Pursuant to The National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993-American Society...

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    2010-03-24

    ...) of the Act on October 13, 2004 (69 FR 60895). The last notification was filed with the Department on... December 9, 2009 (74 FR 65156). Patricia A. Brink, Deputy Director of Operations, Antitrust Division... Society of Mechanical Engineers Notice is hereby given that, on February 25, 2010, pursuant to Section...

  10. 75 FR 70031 - Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993-American Society...

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    2010-11-16

    ... Section 6(b) of the Act on October 13, 2004 (69 FR 60895). The last notification was filed with the... Act on August 2, 2010 (75 FR 45156). Patricia A. Brink, Deputy Director of Operations, Antitrust... Society of Mechanical Engineers Notice is hereby given that, on October 14, 2010, pursuant to Section...

  11. Salvage Brachytherapy for Biochemically Recurrent Prostate Cancer following Primary Brachytherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacy, John M.; Wilson, William A.; Bole, Raevti; Chen, Li; Meigooni, Ali S.; Rowland, Randall G.; Clair, William H. St.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. In this study, we evaluated our experience with salvage brachytherapy after discovery of biochemical recurrence after a prior brachytherapy procedure. Methods and Materials. From 2001 through 2012 twenty-one patients treated by brachytherapy within University of Kentucky or from outside centers developed biochemical failure and had no evidence of metastases. Computed tomography (CT) scans were evaluated; patients who had an underseeded portion of their prostate were considered for reimplantation. Results. The majority of the patients in this study (61.9%) were low risk and median presalvage PSA was 3.49 (range 17.41–1.68). Mean follow-up was 61 months. At last follow-up after reseeding, 11/21 (52.4%) were free of biochemical recurrence. There was a trend towards decreased freedom from biochemical recurrence in low risk patients (p = 0.12). International Prostate Symptom Scores (IPSS) increased at 3-month follow-up visits but decreased and were equivalent to baseline scores at 18 months. Conclusions. Salvage brachytherapy after primary brachytherapy is possible; however, in our experience the side-effect profile after the second brachytherapy procedure was higher than after the first brachytherapy procedure. In this cohort of patients we demonstrate that approximately 50% oncologic control, low risk patients appear to have better outcomes than others. PMID:27092279

  12. Development of automated measurement system for radioactive intensities of sealed small radiation sources (iodine-125 seed source) for brachytherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have developed full automated measurement system for radioactive intensities of sealed small radiation sources (iodine-125 seed source) for brachytherapy in this work. Today, quality assurance (QA) of I-125 seed radioactive sources for brachytherapy following AAPM (American Association of Physicists in Medicine) Society's guideline is one of important subjects for hospitals that operate on patients for prostate cancer and medical companies that manufacture and sell these radioactive sources. In order to survey defective seed products into all the number of I-125 seed sources (there are usually fifteen seeds, one seed of dimensions is 0.8 mm φ × 4.5 mm length) within a cartridge, we have applied the method of single slit collimator with moving a radiation detector to measure each radioactive intensity of these I-125 seeds. As a result, it was found that our developed system in the present work has good performance of surveying the defective products manufactured with radioactive intensities out of about ±15% error (p < 0.05). (author)

  13. Outcomes Following Iodine-125 Monotherapy for Localized Prostate Cancer: The Results of Leeds 10-Year Single-Center Brachytherapy Experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: This study reports the 10-year experience of permanent brachytherapy monotherapy at a single UK center. Methods and Materials: Between March 1995 and September 2004, 1,298 patients underwent trans-rectal ultrasound (TRUS) planned transperineal brachytherapy delivering 145 Gy using I-125. No patient received supplemental external beam; 44.2% received neoadjuvant hormones. In 688, CT postimplant dosimetry was available. Outcome data were analyzed in terms of overall survival (OS), disease specific survival (DSS), and PSA relapse-free survival (PSA-RFS). Results: The mean age was 62.9 (range, 34-83) years. Median follow-up was 4.9 years (range, 2.03-11.7 years). OS and DSS were 85% and 95%, respectively, at 10 years. Twenty-one patients died from prostate cancer (1.6%) and 34 (2.5%) from unrelated causes. Seventy-four (5.7%) developed evidence of clinical failure. Overall PSA-RFS was 79.9% and 72.1% at 10 years (American Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology [ASTRO] and Nadir+2 definitions, respectively). Higher presenting PSA or Gleason score and use of neoadjuvant hormones were associated with an increased risk of biochemical failure (p 90 ≥140 Gy and in 78% of patients with D90 90 with biochemical control.

  14. 106Ruthenium Brachytherapy for Retinoblastoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To evaluate the efficacy of 106Ru plaque brachytherapy for the treatment of retinoblastoma. Methods and Materials: We reviewed a retrospective, noncomparative case series of 39 children with retinoblastoma treated with 106Ru plaques at the Jules-Gonin Eye Hospital between October 1992 and July 2006, with 12 months of follow-up. Results: A total of 63 tumors were treated with 106Ru brachytherapy in 41 eyes. The median patient age was 27 months. 106Ru brachytherapy was the first-line treatment for 3 tumors (4.8%), second-line treatment for 13 (20.6%), and salvage treatment for 47 tumors (74.6%) resistant to other treatment modalities. Overall tumor control was achieved in 73% at 1 year. Tumor recurrence at 12 months was observed in 2 (12.5%) of 16 tumors for which 106Ru brachytherapy was used as the first- or second-line treatment and in 15 (31.9%) of 47 tumors for which 106Ru brachytherapy was used as salvage treatment. Eye retention was achieved in 76% of cases (31 of 41 eyes). Univariate and multivariate analyses revealed no statistically significant risk factors for tumor recurrence. Radiation complications included retinal detachment in 7 (17.1%), proliferative retinopathy in 1 (2.4%), and subcapsular cataract in 4 (9.7%) of 41 eyes. Conclusion: 106Ru brachytherapy is an effective treatment for retinoblastoma, with few secondary complications. Local vitreous seeding can be successfully treated with 106Ru brachytherapy

  15. HDR endobronchial brachytherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Introduction: This is a restrospective study to review the palliation rate, survival rate and complications of high dose rate (HDR) endobronchial brachytherapy in the treatment of airway obstruction of recurrent lung cancer or metastasis. Material and method: Between september 1992 and may 1995 it has been treated forty (40) patients with endobronchial lesions. 38 patients with unique endobronchial lesion and 2 patients with double lesions. 32 had primary lung carcinoma: 27 with epidermoid carcinoma (1 bilateral), 2 with adenocarcinoma, 1 with small cell carcinoma, 1 with undifferentiated carcinoma and 1 with primary double (adenocarcinoma and large cell carcinoma). 8 patients had endobronchial metastasis: 2 hypernefroma, 3 breast carcinoma, 1 colon cancer, 1 seminoma and 1 Ewing sarcoma. 33 patients were male (82.5%) and 7 female (17.5%). The treatment was carried out in three weekly fractions with a dose of 750 cGy per fraction at 1 cm from the source. An afterloaded equipment was used (microselectron HDR). The most frequent sites were: right main stem bronchus 9 patients (22.5%), left main stem bronchus 7 patients (17.5%), and right middle bronchus 5 patients (12.5%). Results and discussion: The endoscopic global response assessed after three weeks was of 70%. The symptomatic response was 95% hemoptysis control, 87% dysnea control, 80% obstructive pneumonia control and 70% cough control. The minimum follow up was one year. There were three cases of massive hemoptysis and three patients developed local recurrence (one received a second brachytherapy treatment). Conclusion: HDR brachytherapy offers an excellent long term palliation for any of the obstructing symptoms, being effective in more than 70% in patients with recurrence lung primary cancer or endobronchial metastasis with a low complication rate

  16. Society of Critical Care Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... You are encouraged to participate in the American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition’s (ASPEN) fifth annual ... the 46th Critical Care Congress Register for the Society of Critical Care Medicine's (SCCM) 46th Critical Care ...

  17. Infectious Diseases Society of America

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to Public Comment Period Panel Response 2016 Nominations Society Awards Nominate A Colleague Previous Winners IDSA Elections ... LDTs (PDF) IDSA, ASM and the Pan-American Society for Clinical Virology urge FDA to consider the ...

  18. Intra coronary brachytherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Despite the initial promise of vasculopathy intervention restenosis- a consequence of the (normal) would healing process-has emerged as a major problem. Angiographic restenosis has been reported in 40-60% of patients after successful P TCA. The basic mechanism of restenosis, (acute recoil, negative remodeling and neo intimal hyperplasia), are only partially counteracted by endovascular prosthetic devices (s tents). The rate of in-s tent restenosis, which is primarily caused by neo intimal hyperplasia due to the (micro) trauma of the arterial wall by the s tent struts, has been reduced to 18-32%. Ionizing (beta or gamma) radiations has been established as a potent treatment for malignant disorders. In recent years, there has also been increasing interest among clinicians in the management of benign lesions with radiation. Over the past several years, there has been a growing body of evidence that endovascular brachytherapy has a major impact on the biology of the restenosis. It must be underlined that understanding the biology and pathophysiology of restenosis and assessing various treatment options should preferably be a team effort, with the three gracesbeing interventional cardiologist, nuclear oncologist, and industrial partners. The vast amount of data in over 20000 patients from a wide range of randomized controlled trials, has shown that brachytherapy is the only effective treatment for in-s tent restenosis. We are learning more and more about how to improve brachytherapy. While the new coated s tents that we heard about today is fascinating and extremely promising, brachytherapy still has a very important place in difficult patients, such as those with total occlusions, osti al lesions, left main lesions, multivessel disease and diabetes. Regarding to above mentioned tips, we (a research team work, in the Nuclear Research Center Of the Atomic Energy Organization Of Iran), focused on synthesis and preparation of radioactive materials for use in I c-B T. We

  19. Reflecting the Changing Face of American Society: How 1970’s Sitcoms and Spin-Offs Helped Redefine American Identity

    OpenAIRE

    Dennis TREDY

    2016-01-01

    When looking back at the popular American situation comedies of the 1970’s, one notices a vast network of programs aimed at framing social discourse and at helping America come to term with its own, changing image. This was done through a restaging of the political and social ills of the generation as comedic teleplays, thereby using laughter as a vehicle towards social awareness and unwitting change or personal growth, and by recycling popular (and unpopular) clichés and stereotypes (the big...

  20. American Society of Clinical Oncology policy statement: opportunities in the patient protection and affordable care act to reduce cancer care disparities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moy, Beverly; Polite, Blase N; Halpern, Michael T; Stranne, Steven K; Winer, Eric P; Wollins, Dana S; Newman, Lisa A

    2011-10-01

    Patients in specific vulnerable population groups suffer disproportionately from cancer. The elimination of cancer disparities is critically important for lessening the burden of cancer. The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act provides both opportunities and challenges for addressing cancer care disparities and access to care. The American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO) advocates for policies that ensure access to cancer care for the underserved. Such policies include insurance reform and the reduction of economic barriers to quality health care. Building on ASCO's prior statement on disparities in cancer care (2009), this article summarizes elements of the health care law that are relevant to cancer disparities and provides recommendations for addressing major provisions in the law. It outlines specific strategies to address insurance reform, access to care, quality of care, prevention and wellness, research on health care disparities, and diversity in the health care workforce. ASCO is committed to leading efforts toward the improvement of cancer care among the most vulnerable patients. PMID:21810680

  1. An Official American Thoracic Society Workshop Report. A Framework for Addressing Multimorbidity in Clinical Practice Guidelines for Pulmonary Disease, Critical Illness, and Sleep Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Kevin C; Gould, Michael K; Krishnan, Jerry A; Boyd, Cynthia M; Brozek, Jan L; Cooke, Colin R; Douglas, Ivor S; Goodman, Richard A; Joo, Min J; Lareau, Suzanne; Mularski, Richard A; Patel, Minal R; Rosenfeld, Richard M; Shanawani, Hasan; Slatore, Christopher; Sockrider, Marianna; Sufian, Beth; Thomson, Carey C; Wiener, Renda Soylemez

    2016-03-01

    Coexistence of multiple chronic conditions (i.e., multimorbidity) is the most common chronic health problem in adults. However, clinical practice guidelines have primarily focused on patients with a single disease, resulting in uncertainty about the care of patients with multimorbidity. The American Thoracic Society convened a workshop with the goal of establishing a strategy to address multimorbidity within clinical practice guidelines. In this Workshop Report, we describe a framework that addresses multimorbidity in each of the key steps of guideline development: topic selection, panel composition, identifying clinical questions, searching for and synthesizing evidence, rating the quality of that evidence, summarizing benefits and harms, formulating recommendations, and rating the strength of the recommendations. For the consideration of multimorbidity in guidelines to be successful and sustainable, the process must be both feasible and pragmatic. It is likely that this will be achieved best by the step-wise addition and refinement of the various components of the framework. PMID:26963362

  2. Brachytherapy- past, present and future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Discovery of radioactivity by Henry Becquerel and radium by Madame and Pierre Curie was probably the greatest event of 19th century in the field of medical science. Radium was used for brachytherapy as early as 1901. Today almost every organ is amenable to brachytherapy procedure. High dose rate remote afterloading systems have increased the patients comfort and complete radiation protection to the staff during treatment. Computers have not only improved the precision of treatment but also made 3 D conformal brachytherapy possible. As the goal of cancer management is changing from just life preservation to organ and function preservation without compromising cure rate, the role of brachytherapy is becoming more and more prominent. Intensive efforts will be needed to meet with the future challenges. (author). 13 refs

  3. New Brachytherapy Standards Paradigm Shift

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The absorbed dose to water rate at short distances in water is the quantity of interest for dosimetry in radiotherapy, but no absorbed dose to water primary standards have been available to date for dosimetry of brachytherapy sources. Currently, the procedures to determine the absorbed dose imparted to the patient in brachytherapy treatments are based on measurements traceable to air kerma standards. These procedures are affected by an uncertainty that is larger than the limit recommended by the IAEA dosimetry protocol (IAEA TRS 398 (2000)). Based on this protocol, the goal for the uncertainty of the dose delivered to the target volume should be within 5% (at the level of one standard deviation) to assure the effectiveness of a radiotherapy treatment. The international protocols for the calibration of brachytherapy gamma ray sources are based on the reference air kerma rate or the air kerma strength. The absorbed dose to water, in water at the reference position around a brachytherapy source is then calculated by applying the formalism of the protocols based on a conversion constant, the dose rate constant Λ, specific for the characteristics and geometry of the brachytherapy source. The determination of this constant relies on Monte Carlo simulations and relative measurements performed with passive dosimeters, and therefore it is typically affected by large uncertainties, larger than 5% (at the level of one standard deviation). The conversion procedure needed for brachytherapy dosimetry is a source of additional uncertainty on the final value of the absorbed dose imparted to the patient. It is due to a lack of metrology standards that makes dosimetry of brachytherapy sources less accurate than dosimetry of external radiation beams produced by 60Co sources and accelerators currently used in external beam radiotherapy. This paper reviews the current developments of absorbed dose to water primary standards for brachytherapy and the rationale for the choice of the

  4. Intravitreal Fluorinated Gas Preference and Occurrence of Rare Ischemic Postoperative Complications after Pars Plana Vitrectomy: A Survey of the American Society of Retina Specialists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric J. Sigler

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To perform a survey of the American Society of Retina Specialists (ASRS regarding the use of vitreous cavity fluorinated gas as an adjunct to pars plana vitrectomy for retinal detachment or macular hole repair. Methods. A multiple-choice online questionnaire was administered to members of ASRS. Physician experience, gas preference for vitrectomy, and categorical estimate of observation of blinding postoperative ischemic events were recorded. Results. 282 questionnaires were completed. Mean years in vitreoretinal practice were 15±10. A decrease in yearly vitrectomy volume was associated with increased number of years in practice (P=0.011. Greater than 95% of respondents preferred fluorinated gas to air alone for both retinal detachment and macular hole repair. 38% of respondents reported at least one observation of a blinding ischemic postoperative event. Overall estimated incidence of blinding postoperative ischemic event was 0.06 events/year in practice. Conclusions. Currently, C3F8 and SF6 are the postoperative gas preference for ASRS respondents, in contrast to previous North American surveys. The occurrence of blinding ischemic events appears unrelated to number of years in practice, was reported by less than half of those surveyed, and has occurred at an infrequent rate of approximately once for every ten years of practice for those observing the phenomena.

  5. Brachytherapy in childhood rhabdomyosarcoma treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A retrospective study of 21 children with rhabdomyosarcoma treated by brachytherapy to the primary site of the tumor at the Radiotherapy Department of the A.C.Camargo Hospital between january/1980 to june/1993 was undertaken. The main objectives were to comprove the utility of brachytherapy in childhood rhabdomyosarcoma, to evaluate the local control and survival, in association with chemotherapy, to analyze the late effects of the treatment and to determinate the preferential technique to each clinical situation. All patients received brachytherapy to the tumor site. The radioactive isotopes employed were Gold198, Cesium137 and Iridium192. The brachytherapy techniques depended on the tumor site, period of treatment, availability of the radioactive material and stage of the disease. Patients treated exclusively by brachytherapy received 40 Gy to 60 Gy. When brachytherapy was associated with external radiotherapy the dose ranged from 20 Gy to 40 Gy. Local control was achieved in 18 of 20 patients (90%). The global survival and local control survival rates were 61.9% (13/21 patients) and 72,2% (13/18 patients) respectively. (author)

  6. Society for Reproductive Endocrinology and Infertility

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Society for Reproductive Endocrinology and Infertility SREI Members-only Forum Home About Us About SREI Vision and Mission ... Fact Sheets and Booklets SREI is an affiliated society to the American Society for Reproductive Medicine . Below ...

  7. XIX Congress of the Latin-American Association of Societies of Nuclear Medicine and Biology (ALASBIMN), Cancun, Mexico, May, 2003

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    From May 25 to 30, 2003 the beautiful city of Cancun, located in the heart of the ancient Maya Empire in Mexico, hosted the XIX ALASBIMN CONGRESS. More than 300 attendees and 80 lecturers from the American continent and Europe had the opportunity to share their knowledge and enjoy an outstanding scientific, cultural and social program. The Scientific program included reviews and original scientific papers on basic and clinical sciences as well as on new developments in diagnostic and therapeutic nuclear medicine. Cardio-vascular, neuropsychiatric, oncology, skeletal and paediatric procedures were comprehensively analysed by several experts. Introduction of new cyclotrons and modern PET and PET/CT systems in Latin America has opened new horizons for the nuclear medicine community in this sub-continent. New radiopharmaceuticals based on different peptides, receptors and gene expression dominated the scene. Reporter gene imaging of gene expression has become the first and best example of what is achievable by modern molecular imaging. Of particular interest was the presentation of novel and potential agents for radio-metabolic therapy. Additionally, in connection with the congress the IAEA organised a very successful Regional Training Course on Paediatric Nuclear Medicine with 23 participants from 11 countries. The Agency also hosted the first national project coordinators meeting of the IAEA Regional Project aimed at establishing a regional tele-nuclear medicine network in the Latin American Region in conjunction with the ALASBIMN meeting. Once again the major companies representing the nuclear medicine industry participated in the Congress and contributed to the success of the ALASBIMN meeting. In summary, attending the XIX ALASBIMN meeting was a very rewarding experience in every aspect. We are most grateful to the organisers for hosting such a nice congress. Congratulations! Now we are looking forward to participate in the next ALASBIMN Congress to be held in the

  8. Establishing High-Quality Prostate Brachytherapy Using a Phantom Simulator Training Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thaker, Nikhil G. [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Kudchadker, Rajat J. [Department of Radiation Physics, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Swanson, David A. [Department of Urology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Albert, Jeffrey M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Banner Health, Loveland/Greeley, Colorado (United States); Mahmood, Usama; Pugh, Thomas J.; Boehling, Nicholas S. [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Bruno, Teresa L. [Department of Radiation Physics, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Prestidge, Bradley R. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Bon Secours Health System, Norfolk, Virginia (United States); Crook, Juanita M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Cancer Center for the Southern Interior, Kelowna, British Columbia (Canada); Cox, Brett W.; Potters, Louis [Department of Radiation Medicine, North Shore-LIJ Health System, New Hyde Park, New York (United States); Moran, Brian J. [Chicago Prostate Center, Westmont, Illinois (United States); Keyes, Mira [Department of Radiation Oncology, British Columbia Cancer Agency, Vancouver Center, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada); Kuban, Deborah A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Frank, Steven J., E-mail: sjfrank@mdanderson.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States)

    2014-11-01

    Purpose: To design and implement a unique training program that uses a phantom-based simulator to teach the process of prostate brachytherapy (PB) quality assurance and improve the quality of education. Methods and Materials: Trainees in our simulator program were practicing radiation oncologists, radiation oncology residents, and fellows of the American Brachytherapy Society. The program emphasized 6 core areas of quality assurance: patient selection, simulation, treatment planning, implant technique, treatment evaluation, and outcome assessment. Using the Iodine 125 ({sup 125}I) preoperative treatment planning technique, trainees implanted their ultrasound phantoms with dummy seeds (ie, seeds with no activity). Pre- and postimplant dosimetric parameters were compared and correlated using regression analysis. Results: Thirty-one trainees successfully completed the simulator program during the period under study. The mean phantom prostate size, number of seeds used, and total activity were generally consistent between trainees. All trainees met the V100 >95% objective both before and after implantation. Regardless of the initial volume of the prostate phantom, trainees' ability to cover the target volume with at least 100% of the dose (V100) was not compromised (R=0.99 pre- and postimplant). However, the V150 had lower concordance (R=0.37) and may better reflect heterogeneity control of the implant process. Conclusions: Analysis of implants from this phantom-based simulator shows a high degree of consistency between trainees and uniformly high-quality implants with respect to parameters used in clinical practice. This training program provides a valuable educational opportunity that improves the quality of PB training and likely accelerates the learning curve inherent in PB. Prostate phantom implantation can be a valuable first step in the acquisition of the required skills to safely perform PB.

  9. Establishing High-Quality Prostate Brachytherapy Using a Phantom Simulator Training Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To design and implement a unique training program that uses a phantom-based simulator to teach the process of prostate brachytherapy (PB) quality assurance and improve the quality of education. Methods and Materials: Trainees in our simulator program were practicing radiation oncologists, radiation oncology residents, and fellows of the American Brachytherapy Society. The program emphasized 6 core areas of quality assurance: patient selection, simulation, treatment planning, implant technique, treatment evaluation, and outcome assessment. Using the Iodine 125 (125I) preoperative treatment planning technique, trainees implanted their ultrasound phantoms with dummy seeds (ie, seeds with no activity). Pre- and postimplant dosimetric parameters were compared and correlated using regression analysis. Results: Thirty-one trainees successfully completed the simulator program during the period under study. The mean phantom prostate size, number of seeds used, and total activity were generally consistent between trainees. All trainees met the V100 >95% objective both before and after implantation. Regardless of the initial volume of the prostate phantom, trainees' ability to cover the target volume with at least 100% of the dose (V100) was not compromised (R=0.99 pre- and postimplant). However, the V150 had lower concordance (R=0.37) and may better reflect heterogeneity control of the implant process. Conclusions: Analysis of implants from this phantom-based simulator shows a high degree of consistency between trainees and uniformly high-quality implants with respect to parameters used in clinical practice. This training program provides a valuable educational opportunity that improves the quality of PB training and likely accelerates the learning curve inherent in PB. Prostate phantom implantation can be a valuable first step in the acquisition of the required skills to safely perform PB

  10. An image-guidance system for dynamic dose calculation in prostate brachytherapy using ultrasound and fluoroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Brachytherapy is a standard option of care for prostate cancer patients but may be improved by dynamic dose calculation based on localized seed positions. The American Brachytherapy Society states that the major current limitation of intraoperative treatment planning is the inability to localize the seeds in relation to the prostate. An image-guidance system was therefore developed to localize seeds for dynamic dose calculation. Methods: The proposed system is based on transrectal ultrasound (TRUS) and mobile C-arm fluoroscopy, while using a simple fiducial with seed-like markers to compute pose from the nonencoded C-arm. Three or more fluoroscopic images and an ultrasound volume are acquired and processed by a pipeline of algorithms: (1) seed segmentation, (2) fiducial detection with pose estimation, (3) seed matching with reconstruction, and (4) fluoroscopy-to-TRUS registration. Results: The system was evaluated on ten phantom cases, resulting in an overall mean error of 1.3 mm. The system was also tested on 37 patients and each algorithm was evaluated. Seed segmentation resulted in a 1% false negative rate and 2% false positive rate. Fiducial detection with pose estimation resulted in a 98% detection rate. Seed matching with reconstruction had a mean error of 0.4 mm. Fluoroscopy-to-TRUS registration had a mean error of 1.3 mm. Moreover, a comparison of dose calculations between the authors’ intraoperative method and an independent postoperative method shows a small difference of 7% and 2% forD90 and V100, respectively. Finally, the system demonstrated the ability to detect cold spots and required a total processing time of approximately 1 min. Conclusions: The proposed image-guidance system is the first practical approach to dynamic dose calculation, outperforming earlier solutions in terms of robustness, ease of use, and functional completeness

  11. Invited review, recent developments in brachytherapy source dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Application of radioactive isotopes is the treatment of choice around the globe for many cancer sites. In this technique, the accuracy of the radiation delivery is highly dependent on the accuracy of radiation dosimetry around individual brachytherapy sources. Moreover, in order to have compatible clinical results, an identical method of source dosimetry must be employed across the world. This problem has been recently addressed by task group 43 from the American Association of Medical Physics with a protocol for dosimetric characterization of brachytherapy sources. This new protocol has been further updated using published data from international sources, by a new Task Group from the American Association of Medical Physics. This has resulted in an updated protocol known as TG43U1 that has been published in March 2004 issue of Medical Physics. The goal of this presentation is to review the original Task Group 43 protocol and associated algorithms for brachytherapy source dosimetry. In addition, the shortcomings of the original protocol that has been resolved in the updated recommendation will be highlighted. I am sure that this is not the end of the line and more work is needed to complete this task. I invite the scientists to join this task and complete the project, with the hope of much better clinical results for cancer patients

  12. The American Society's Constructed Image of Deaf People as Drawn from Discursive Constructions of Deaf People in Major U.S. Newspaper Articles on Cochlear Implantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleischer, Flavia Samella

    2011-01-01

    This study will explore the constructed image of deaf people in the American society as drawn through analyses of discursive structures in articles on cochlear implantation in major U.S. newspapers published between 2006-2009. To analyze discursive structures of newspaper articles, the approach of Critical Discourse Analysis (CDA) will be…

  13. SU-E-T-263: Point Dose Variation Using a Single Ir-192 HDR Brachytherapy Plan for Two Treatments with a Single Tandem-Ovoid Insertion for Cervical Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To evaluate the point dose variations between Ir-192 HDR treatments on two consecutive days using a single tandem-ovoid insertion without replanning in cervical cancer patients. Methods: This study includes eleven cervical cancer patients undergoing HDR brachytherapy with a prescribed dose of 28 Gy in 4 fractions. Each patient had two tandemovoid insertions one week apart. Each insertion was treated on consecutive days with rescanning and replanning prior to each treatment. To study the effect of no replanning for day 2 treatments, the day 1 plan dwell position and dwell time with decay were applied to the day 2 CT dataset. The point dose variations on the prescription point H (defined according to American Brachytherapy Society), and normal tissue doses at point B, bladder, rectum and vaginal mucosa (based on ICRU Report 38) were obtained. Results: Without replanning, the mean point H dose variation was 4.6 ± 10.7% on the left; 2.3 ± 2.9% on the right. The mean B point variation was 3.8 ± 4.9% on the left; 3.6 ± 4.7% on the right. The variation in the left vaginal mucosal point was 12.2 ± 10.7%; 9.5 ± 12.5% on the right; the bladder point 5.5 ± 7.4%; and the rectal point 7.9 ± 9.1%. Conclusion: Without replanning, there are variations both in the prescription point and the normal tissue point doses. The latter can vary as much as 10% or more. This is likely due to the steep dose gradient from brachytherapy compounded by shifts in the positions of the applicator in relationship to the patients anatomy. Imaging prior to each treatment and replanning ensure effective and safe brachytherapy are recommended

  14. Impact of delineation uncertainties on dose to organs at risk in CT-guided intracavitary brachytherapy.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Duane, Frances K

    2014-08-07

    This study quantifies the inter- and intraobserver variations in contouring the organs at risk (OARs) in CT-guided brachytherapy (BT) for the treatment of cervical carcinoma. The dosimetric consequences are reported in accordance with the current Gynecological Groupe Européen de Curiethérapie\\/European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology guidelines.

  15. Fourth joint meeting of the American Urological Association and the Japanese Urological Association Specialty Society program at the 104th annual meeting of the American Urological Association at Chicago 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooperberg, Matthew R; Hinotsu, Shiro; Chancellor, Michael B; Homma, Yukio; Nelson, Peter S; Matsuyama, Hideyasu; Menon, Mani; Kucuk, Omer; Hara, Isao; Egawa, Shin; Uzzo, Robert G; Kanayama, Hiro-Omi; Okuyama, Akihiko; Akaza, Hideyuki

    2009-08-01

    We are heartily grateful for the warm support of all of the people concerned, including the moderators and panelists of both societies for giving us the opportunity to hold the 4th American Urological Association/Japanese Urological Association (AUA/JUA) Joint Meeting, held once again at the 104th Annual Meeting of the American Urological Association (25-30 April 2009, Chicago, Illinois, USA). 2009 is a memorable year, being the start of new collaborations between AUA and JUA. The JUA in collaboration with AUA is promoting an academic exchange program whereby outstanding and promising Japanese and American junior faculty members will be given the opportunity to work in the USA and Japan for one month. The program not only allows the sharing of knowledge and experience, but is designed to foster a closer alliance between the AUA and JUA, and assists in identifying future leaders within both organizations. The JUA will have an exhibit booth at the AUA annual meeting, promoting our new joint activities. The Journal of Urology and International Journal of Urology will share reviewers. The JUA will participate in developing AUA guidelines. With all of these activities, the JUA hopes it will provide greater opportunities to young Japanese urologists to participate in educational projects in the US. We would like to thank Professor Robert C. Flanigan, the Secretary General of AUA, Professor Glenn M. Preminger, the Chairman of the AUA Office of Education and the staff of AUA and JUA for supporting our program. We hope to keep holding the joint meeting and have plenty of ideas on themes and forums. We believe that this international program helps to establish a closer relationship between JUA and AUA in the scientific field. PMID:19682110

  16. An Assessment of the Current US Radiation Oncology Workforce: Methodology and Global Results of the American Society for Radiation Oncology 2012 Workforce Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vichare, Anushree; Washington, Raynard; Patton, Caroline; Arnone, Anna [ASTRO, Fairfax, Virginia (United States); Olsen, Christine [Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts, (United States); Fung, Claire Y. [Commonwealth Newburyport Cancer Center, Newburyport, Massachusetts (United States); Hopkins, Shane [William R. Bliss Cancer Center, Ames, Iowa (United States); Pohar, Surjeet, E-mail: spohar@netzero.net [Indiana University Health Cancer Center East, Indiana University, Indianapolis, Indiana (United States)

    2013-12-01

    Purpose: To determine the characteristics, needs, and concerns of the current radiation oncology workforce, evaluate best practices and opportunities for improving quality and safety, and assess what we can predict about the future workforce. Methods and Materials: An online survey was distributed to 35,204 respondents from all segments of the radiation oncology workforce, including radiation oncologists, residents, medical dosimetrists, radiation therapists, medical physicists, nurse practitioners, nurses, physician assistants, and practice managers/administrators. The survey was disseminated by the American Society for Radiation Oncology (ASTRO) together with specialty societies representing other workforce segments. An overview of the methods and global results is presented in this paper. Results: A total of 6765 completed surveys were received, a response rate of 19%, and the final analysis included 5257 respondents. Three-quarters of the radiation oncologists, residents, and physicists who responded were male, in contrast to the other segments in which two-thirds or more were female. The majority of respondents (58%) indicated they were hospital-based, whereas 40% practiced in a free-standing/satellite clinic and 2% in another setting. Among the practices represented in the survey, 21.5% were academic, 25.2% were hospital, and 53.3% were private. A perceived oversupply of professionals relative to demand was reported by the physicist, dosimetrist, and radiation therapist segments. An undersupply was perceived by physician's assistants, nurse practitioners, and nurses. The supply of radiation oncologists and residents was considered balanced. Conclusions: This survey was unique as it attempted to comprehensively assess the radiation oncology workforce by directly surveying each segment. The results suggest there is potential to improve the diversity of the workforce and optimize the supply of the workforce segments. The survey also provides a benchmark for

  17. An Assessment of the Current US Radiation Oncology Workforce: Methodology and Global Results of the American Society for Radiation Oncology 2012 Workforce Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To determine the characteristics, needs, and concerns of the current radiation oncology workforce, evaluate best practices and opportunities for improving quality and safety, and assess what we can predict about the future workforce. Methods and Materials: An online survey was distributed to 35,204 respondents from all segments of the radiation oncology workforce, including radiation oncologists, residents, medical dosimetrists, radiation therapists, medical physicists, nurse practitioners, nurses, physician assistants, and practice managers/administrators. The survey was disseminated by the American Society for Radiation Oncology (ASTRO) together with specialty societies representing other workforce segments. An overview of the methods and global results is presented in this paper. Results: A total of 6765 completed surveys were received, a response rate of 19%, and the final analysis included 5257 respondents. Three-quarters of the radiation oncologists, residents, and physicists who responded were male, in contrast to the other segments in which two-thirds or more were female. The majority of respondents (58%) indicated they were hospital-based, whereas 40% practiced in a free-standing/satellite clinic and 2% in another setting. Among the practices represented in the survey, 21.5% were academic, 25.2% were hospital, and 53.3% were private. A perceived oversupply of professionals relative to demand was reported by the physicist, dosimetrist, and radiation therapist segments. An undersupply was perceived by physician's assistants, nurse practitioners, and nurses. The supply of radiation oncologists and residents was considered balanced. Conclusions: This survey was unique as it attempted to comprehensively assess the radiation oncology workforce by directly surveying each segment. The results suggest there is potential to improve the diversity of the workforce and optimize the supply of the workforce segments. The survey also provides a benchmark for

  18. A Comparison of the American Society of Cataract and Refractive Surgery post-myopic LASIK/PRK Intraocular Lens (IOL calculator and the Ocular MD IOL calculator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsu M

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available David L DeMill1, Majid Moshirfar1, Marcus C Neuffer1, Maylon Hsu1, Shameema Sikder21John A Moran Eye Center, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT, USA; 2Wilmer Eye Institute, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD, USABackground: To compare the average values of the American Society of Cataract and Refractive Surgery (ASCRS and Ocular MD intraocular lens (IOL calculators to assess their accuracy in predicting IOL power in patients with prior laser-in-situ keratomileusis (LASIK or photorefractive keratectomy.Methods: In this retrospective study, data from 21 eyes with previous LASIK or photorefractive keratectomy for myopia and subsequent cataract surgery was used in an IOL calculator comparison. The predicted IOL powers of the Ocular MD SRK/T, Ocular MD Haigis, and ASCRS averages were compared. The Ocular MD average (composed of an average of Ocular MD SRK/T and Ocular MD Haigis and the all calculator average (composed of an average of Ocular MD SRK/T, Ocular MD Haigis, and ASCRS were also compared. Primary outcome measures were mean arithmetic and absolute IOL prediction error, variance in mean arithmetic IOL prediction error, and the percentage of eyes within ±0.50 and ±1.00 D.Results: The Ocular MD SRK/T and Ocular MD Haigis averages produced mean arithmetic IOL prediction errors of 0.57 and –0.61 diopters (D, respectively, which were significantly larger than errors from the ASCRS, Ocular MD, and all calculator averages (0.11, –0.02, and 0.02 D, respectively, all P < 0.05. There was no statistically significant difference between the methods in absolute IOL prediction error, variance, or the percentage of eyes with outcomes within ±0.50 and ±1.00 D.Conclusion: The ASCRS average was more accurate in predicting IOL power than the Ocular MD SRK/T and Ocular MD Haigis averages alone. Our methods using combinations of these averages which, when compared with the individual averages, showed a trend of decreased mean arithmetic IOL

  19. Recruiting the Future Workforce in the Geosciences And the Role of the Society for the Advancement of Chicanos and Native American/span>s in Science (SACNAS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velasco, A. A.

    2004-12-01

    The declining interest in the physical sciences among U.S. students has been recognized as a vital issue for the continued health of science. In particular, the declining number of geoscience students, especially US citizens, threatens the country's future preparedness in natural hazards mitigation, resource development, national security, and education. Furthermore, the geosciences suffer from poor representation among underrepresented groups, even by comparison to other sciences and engineering. Thus, exciting young scientists from all backgrounds into the geosciences must remain a high priority for all geoscientists, educational institutes, national laboratories, and industry. Exciting young scientists into the geosciences must remain a high priority for all geoscientists, educational institutes, national laboratories, and industry. I identify some key factors that may be contributing to the decline in the science workforce as well as the geoscience workforce, including generational and cultural attitudes, and the changing demographics in the U.S. I propose that the workforce and diversity issues are intertwined and both must be addressed for the survival of geoscience. To address diversity specifically, several organizations have been successful in mentoring and recruiting minorities into science. The Society for the Advancement of Chicanos and Native Americans in Science (SACNAS) focuses on encouraging undergraduate and graduate Hispanic and American Indian students to pursue higher degrees. For over 30 years, SACNAS has provided strong national leadership in improving science and math education, as well as expanding opportunities for minorities in the scientific workforce and academia. Currently, SACNAS has added a geological science emphasis to its existing programs to address the need to diversify the field. This presentation will also outline this approach, and outline how SACNAS has been able to grow over the past 30 years.

  20. Radiation Protection in Brachytherapy. Report of the SEFM Task Group on Brachytherapy; Proteccion radiologica en Braquiterapia. Informe del grupo de trabajo de Braquiterapia de la SEFM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez-Calatayud, J.; Corredoira Silva, E.; Crispin Contreras, V.; Eudaldo Puell, T.; Frutos Baraja, J. de; Pino Sorroche, F.; Pujades Claumarchirant, M. C.; Richart Sancho, J.

    2015-07-01

    This document presents the report of the Brachytherapy Task Group of the Spanish Society of Medical Physics. It is dedicated to the radiation protection aspects involved in brachytherapy. The aim of this work is to include the more relevant aspects related to radiation protection issues that appear in clinical practice, and for the current equipment in Spain. Basically this report focuses on the typical contents associated with high dose rate brachytherapy with {sup 1}92Ir and {sup 6}0Co sources, and permanent seed implants with {sup 1}25I, {sup 1}03Pd and {sup 1}31Cs, which are the most current and widespread modalities. Ophthalmic brachytherapy (COMS with {sup 1}25I, {sup 1}06Ru, {sup 9}0Sr) is also included due to its availability in a significant number of spanish hospitals. The purpose of this report is to assist to the medical physicist community in establishing a radiation protection program for brachytherapy procedures, trying to solve some ambiguities in the application of legal requirements and recommendations in clinical practice. (Author)

  1. Systematic Review of Focal Prostate Brachytherapy and the Future Implementation of Image-Guided Prostate HDR Brachytherapy Using MR-Ultrasound Fusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peach, M Sean; Trifiletti, Daniel M; Libby, Bruce

    2016-01-01

    Prostate cancer is the most common malignancy found in North American and European men and the second most common cause of cancer related death. Since the practice of PSA screening has become common the disease is most often found early and can have a long indolent course. Current definitive therapy treats the whole gland but has considerable long-term side effects. Focal therapies may be able to target the cancer while decreasing dose to organs at risk. Our objective was to determine if focal prostate brachytherapy could meet target objectives while permitting a decrease in dose to organs at risk in a way that would allow future salvage treatments. Further, we wanted to determine if focal treatment results in less toxicity. Utilizing the Medline repository, dosimetric papers comparing whole gland to partial gland brachytherapy and clinical papers that reported toxicity of focal brachytherapy were selected. A total of 9 dosimetric and 6 clinical papers met these inclusion criteria. Together, these manuscripts suggest that focal brachytherapy may be employed to decrease dose to organs at risk with decreased toxicity. Of current technology, image-guided HDR brachytherapy using MRI registered to transrectal ultrasound offers the flexibility and efficiency to achieve such focal treatments. PMID:27293899

  2. Three-dimensional (3D) real-time conformal brachytherapy - a novel solution for prostate cancer treatment. Part II. A feasibility clinical pilot study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The pilot feasibility clinical study was designed to test the tolerance and early efficacy of the 3D-real time conformal brachytherapy combined with external irradiation of patients with prostate cancer. Seventy six consecutive patients with prostate cancer in stage T1-2N0M0 entered the study. Median pretreatment PSA level was 13.6 ng/ml and Gleason score was 8 or lower. All patients received conformal external irradiation of 54 Gy in 27 fractions followed by a 10 Gy boost given using 3D-real time CBRT. All patients tolerated the CBRT implant procedure and prior external irradiation very well, with no discomfort, and no protocol violation was noted. Acute urinary bladder toxicity grade III was noted in 1% of patients. There were no grade III gastrointestinal acute toxicity. Mild, grade I or II toxicity, was observed in 62% of patients and it did not significantly influence patient comfort. Early actuarial 1-year BNED was 97.3%. Dosimetric analysis has shown that the mean value of D100 PTV was 91.7%, D90 was 97.6% and D10 for the urethra was 126.3%. All dosimetric parameters were within the limits recommended by the American Brachytherapy Society (ABS). 3D-real time conformal brachytherapy using a single boost dose of 10 Gy combined with 54 Gy in 27 fractions of conformal irradiation is a safe and well tolerated treatment in case of patients with T1-2N0M0 prostate cancer. From the radiobiological point of view there is still room to intensify treatment towards fractionated 3D-real time CBRT interdigited with external irradiation. ((author)

  3. Report from the Biennial Scientific Meeting of the Australasian Section of the American Oil Chemists Society (AAOCS Held in Adelaide, November 2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew R. Miller

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The Australasian section of the American Oil Chemists Society (AAOCS held their biennial meeting in Adelaide, Australia on 8–11 November 2011. Over 70 scientists, researchers and industry representatives gathered for three days of talks and discussions on lipid related topics. A highlight was the hot topic symposium on the new olive oil standard being introduced in Australia. Paul Miller, Australian Olives Association, gave a compelling address on why the standard was needed. He demonstrated that the increase in price and demand for high quality olive oils has led to products falsely or misleadingly labelled. Furthermore, the genetic and seasonal variation in minor components of olive oil has led to misclassifications. An extensive scientific and political process in Australia and overseas led to development of this new standard. Dr. Leandro Ravetti, Mordern Olives, demonstrated the development of two new methods, for analysis of pyropheophytins and diacylglycerols, are good indicators of modification by deodorisation of oils and show excellent correlation with organoleptic assessment with aging/degradation of extra virgin olive oils. Professor Rod Mailer finished this session with studies of actual adulteration cases in Australia and overseas, further highlighting the need for this new standard. [...

  4. Prevalence of symptom control and palliative care abstracts presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Forty percent of all patients referred for radiotherapy are treated with palliative intent. The American Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology (ASTRO) has recently emphasized the importance of radiation oncologists being skilled in the field of symptom control and palliative care (SCPC). The purpose of this study was to determine the number of abstracts relating to SCPC presented at the annual ASTRO meetings. Methods and Materials: The number of SCPC abstracts presented at ASTRO meetings between 1993 and 2000 was counted. Abstracts were included if they described populations with advanced or metastatic cancer for whom the goal of treatment was symptom palliation. The treatment sites and symptoms palliated were recorded. Results: Of 3511 abstracts presented at ASTRO between 1993 and 2000, an average of 47 (1.3%, range 0.9-2.2%/y) were related to SCPC. The most common treatment sites were bone, brain, and lung. Pain, bleeding, and neurologic and pulmonary symptoms were the ones most commonly palliated. Thirty-two percent of the SCPC abstracts involved randomized controlled trials, 47% had palliation of symptoms as a secondary treatment outcome, and in 21%, the symptomatic treatment outcome was not specifically stated. Conclusion: SCPC research has been poorly represented at the annual ASTRO meetings. Education and research in this field needs to be actively encouraged, because SCPC is an important component of a radiation oncologist's role in comprehensive patient care

  5. Success of an International Learning Health Care System in Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation: The American Society of Blood and Marrow Transplantation Clinical Case Forum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barba, Pere; Burns, Linda J; Litzow, Mark R; Juckett, Mark B; Komanduri, Krishna V; Lee, Stephanie J; Devlin, Sean M; Costa, Luciano J; Khan, Shakila; King, Andrea; Klein, Andreas; Krishnan, Amrita; Malone, Adriana; Mir, Muhammad A; Moravec, Carina; Selby, George; Roy, Vivek; Cochran, Melissa; Stricherz, Melisa K; Westmoreland, Michael D; Perales, Miguel-Angel; Wood, William A

    2016-03-01

    The American Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation (ASBMT) Clinical Case Forum (CCF) was launched in 2014 as an online secure tool to enhance interaction and communication among hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) professionals worldwide through the discussion of challenging clinical care issues. After 14 months, we reviewed clinical and demographical data of cases posted in the CCF from January 29, 2014 to March 18, 2015. A total of 137 cases were posted during the study period. Ninety-two cases (67%) were allogeneic HCT, 29 (21%) were autologous HCT, and in 16 (12%), the type of transplantation (autologous versus allogeneic) was still under consideration. The diseases most frequently discussed included non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL; n = 30, 22%), acute myeloid leukemia (n = 23, 17%), and multiple myeloma (MM; n = 20, 15%). When compared with the US transplantation activity reported by the US Department of Health and Human Services, NHL and acute lymphoblastic leukemia cases were over-represented in the CCF, whereas MM was under-represented (P community worldwide and may allow identification of areas of controversy or unmet need from clinical, educational and research perspectives. PMID:26718665

  6. American Society for Radiation Oncology (ASTRO) Survey of Radiation Biology Educators in U.S. and Canadian Radiation Oncology Residency Programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To obtain, in a survey-based study, detailed information on the faculty currently responsible for teaching radiation biology courses to radiation oncology residents in the United States and Canada. Methods and Materials: In March-December 2007 a survey questionnaire was sent to faculty having primary responsibility for teaching radiation biology to residents in 93 radiation oncology residency programs in the United States and Canada. Results: The responses to this survey document the aging of the faculty who have primary responsibility for teaching radiation biology to radiation oncology residents. The survey found a dramatic decline with time in the percentage of educators whose graduate training was in radiation biology. A significant number of the educators responsible for teaching radiation biology were not fully acquainted with the radiation sciences, either through training or practical application. In addition, many were unfamiliar with some of the organizations setting policies and requirements for resident education. Freely available tools, such as the American Society for Radiation Oncology (ASTRO) Radiation and Cancer Biology Practice Examination and Study Guides, were widely used by residents and educators. Consolidation of resident courses or use of a national radiation biology review course was viewed as unlikely by most programs. Conclusions: A high priority should be given to the development of comprehensive teaching tools to assist those individuals who have responsibility for teaching radiation biology courses but who do not have an extensive background in critical areas of radiobiology related to radiation oncology. These findings also suggest a need for new graduate programs in radiobiology.

  7. American Society of Blood and Marrow Transplantation, European Society of Blood and Marrow Transplantation, Blood and Marrow Transplant Clinical Trials Network, and International Myeloma Working Group Consensus Conference on Salvage Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation in Patients with Relapsed Multiple Myeloma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giralt, Sergio; Garderet, Laurent; Durie, Brian; Cook, Gordon; Gahrton, Gosta; Bruno, Benedetto; Hari, Paremesweran; Lokhorst, Henk; McCarthy, Phillip; Krishnan, Amrita; Sonneveld, Pieter; Goldschmidt, Harmut; Jagannath, Sundar; Barlogie, Bart; Mateos, Maria; Gimsing, Peter; Sezer, Orhan; Mikhael, Joseph; Lu, Jin; Dimopoulos, Meletios; Mazumder, Amitabha; Palumbo, Antonio; Abonour, Rafat; Anderson, Kenneth; Attal, Michel; Blade, Joan; Bird, Jenny; Cavo, Michele; Comenzo, Raymond; de la Rubia, Javier; Einsele, Hermann; Garcia-Sanz, Ramon; Hillengass, Jens; Holstein, Sarah; Johnsen, Hans Erik; Joshua, Douglas; Koehne, Guenther; Kumar, Shaji; Kyle, Robert; Leleu, Xavier; Lonial, Sagar; Ludwig, Heinz; Nahi, Hareth; Nooka, Anil; Orlowski, Robert; Rajkumar, Vincent; Reiman, Anthony; Richardson, Paul; Riva, Eloisa; Miguel, Jesus San; Turreson, Ingemar; Usmani, Saad; Vesole, David; Bensinger, William; Qazilbash, Muzaffer; Efebera, Yvonne; Mohty, Mohamed; Gasparreto, Christina; Gajewski, James; LeMaistre, Charles F.; Bredeson, Chris; Moreau, Phillipe; Pasquini, Marcelo; Kroeger, Nicolaus; Stadtmauer, Edward

    2016-01-01

    In contrast to the upfront setting in which the role of high-dose therapy with autologous hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) as consolidation of a first remission in patients with multiple myeloma (MM) is well established, the role of high-dose therapy with autologous or allogeneic HCT has not been extensively studied in MM patients relapsing after primary therapy. The International Myeloma Working Group together with the Blood and Marrow Transplant Clinical Trials Network, the American Society of Blood and Marrow Transplantation, and the European Society of Blood and Marrow Transplantation convened a meeting of MM experts to: (1) summarize current knowledge regarding the role of autologous or allogeneic HCT in MM patients progressing after primary therapy, (2) propose guidelines for the use of salvage HCT in MM, (3) identify knowledge gaps, (4) propose a research agenda, and (5) develop a collaborative initiative to move the research agenda forward. After reviewing the available data, the expert committee came to the following consensus statement for salvage autologous HCT: (1) In transplantation-eligible patients relapsing after primary therapy that did NOT include an autologous HCT, high-dose therapy with HCT as part of salvage therapy should be considered standard; (2) High-dose therapy and autologous HCT should be considered appropriate therapy for any patients relapsing after primary therapy that includes an autologous HCT with initial remission duration of more than 18 months; (3) High-dose therapy and autologous HCT can be used as a bridging strategy to allogeneic HCT; (4) The role of postsalvage HCT maintenance needs to be explored in the context of well-designed prospective trials that should include new agents, such as monoclonal antibodies, immune-modulating agents, and oral proteasome inhibitors; (5) Autologous HCT consolidation should be explored as a strategy to develop novel conditioning regimens or post-HCT strategies in patients with short

  8. The reference isodose length (RIL) in endovascular brachytherapy: physical aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: In a forthcoming recommendation of the endovascular GEC ESTRO (European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology) working group terms and concepts are defined for prescribing, reporting and recording lengths (volumes) for endovascular brachytherapy. Following these recommendation the reference isodose length (RIL) is one of the most important parameter for treatment planning. It is defined as the vessel length at the reference depth (1 or 2 mm) enclosed by the 90 % isodose. The RIL is thus a physical parameter to characterize a source configuration and depends on active source length (ASL), nuclide, source design, and reference depth. RILs are determined by (i) Monte Carlo calculations (EGSnrc code) and (ii) film dosimetry (radiochromic films + special phantom) for three endovascular brachytherapy devices currently in clinical use (192Ir: 23 mm ASL, 32P: 40 mm ASL, 90Sr: 40 mm ASL). The calculated RIL at 2 mm distance from the source axis are 15.4 mm, 36.8 mm and 35.8 mm for the 192Ir, 32P, 90Sr sources, respectively. The results obtained with EGSnrc are in very good agreement with the measured longitudinal dose profiles. The reference isodose length (RIL) is a useful and essential parameter in endovascular brachytherapy treatment planning, which critically depends on source design. Monte Carlo methods are a valuable tool to calculate/verify the RIL of different devices at the respective reference depth. (author)

  9. Brachytherapy dosimeter with silicon photomultipliers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moutinho, L.M., E-mail: moutinho@ua.pt [i3N, Physics Department, University of Aveiro (Portugal); Castro, I.F.C. [i3N, Physics Department, University of Aveiro (Portugal); Peralta, L. [Faculdade de Ciências da Universidade de Lisboa (Portugal); Laboratório de Instrumentação e Física Experimental de Partículas (LIP), Lisboa (Portugal); Abreu, M.C. [Laboratório de Instrumentação e Física Experimental de Partículas (LIP), Lisboa (Portugal); Veloso, J.F.C.A. [i3N, Physics Department, University of Aveiro (Portugal)

    2015-07-01

    In-vivo and in-situ measurement of the radiation dose administered during brachytherapy faces several technical challenges, requiring a very compact, tissue-equivalent, linear and highly sensitive dosimeter, particularly in low-dose rate brachytherapy procedures, which use radioactive seeds with low energy and low dose deposition rate. In this work we present a scintillating optical fiber dosimeter composed of a flexible sensitive probe and a dedicated electronic readout system based on silicon photomultiplier photodetection, capable of operating both in pulse and current modes. The performance of the scintillating fiber optic dosimeter was evaluated in low energy regimes, using an X-ray tube operating at voltages of 40–50 kV and currents below 1 mA, to assess minimum dose response of the scintillating fiber. The dosimeter shows a linear response with dose and is capable of detecting mGy dose variations like an ionization chamber. Besides fulfilling all the requirements for a dosimeter in brachytherapy, the high sensitivity of this device makes it a suitable candidate for application in low-dose rate brachytherapy. According to Peralta and Rego [1], the BCF-10 and BCF-60 scintillating optical fibers used in dosimetry exhibit high variations in their sensitivity for photon beams in the 25–100 kVp energy range. Energy linearity for energies below 50 keV needs to be further investigated, using monochromatic X-ray photons.

  10. Brachytherapy dosimeter with silicon photomultipliers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moutinho, L. M.; Castro, I. F. C.; Peralta, L.; Abreu, M. C.; Veloso, J. F. C. A.

    2015-07-01

    In-vivo and in-situ measurement of the radiation dose administered during brachytherapy faces several technical challenges, requiring a very compact, tissue-equivalent, linear and highly sensitive dosimeter, particularly in low-dose rate brachytherapy procedures, which use radioactive seeds with low energy and low dose deposition rate. In this work we present a scintillating optical fiber dosimeter composed of a flexible sensitive probe and a dedicated electronic readout system based on silicon photomultiplier photodetection, capable of operating both in pulse and current modes. The performance of the scintillating fiber optic dosimeter was evaluated in low energy regimes, using an X-ray tube operating at voltages of 40-50 kV and currents below 1 mA, to assess minimum dose response of the scintillating fiber. The dosimeter shows a linear response with dose and is capable of detecting mGy dose variations like an ionization chamber. Besides fulfilling all the requirements for a dosimeter in brachytherapy, the high sensitivity of this device makes it a suitable candidate for application in low-dose rate brachytherapy. According to Peralta and Rego [1], the BCF-10 and BCF-60 scintillating optical fibers used in dosimetry exhibit high variations in their sensitivity for photon beams in the 25-100 kVp energy range. Energy linearity for energies below 50 keV needs to be further investigated, using monochromatic X-ray photons.

  11. In vivo dosimetry in brachytherapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tanderup, Kari; Beddar, Sam; Andersen, Claus Erik; Kertzscher Schwencke, Gustavo Adolfo Vladimir; Cygler, Joanna E.

    2013-01-01

    In vivo dosimetry (IVD) has been used in brachytherapy (BT) for decades with a number of different detectors and measurement technologies. However, IVD in BT has been subject to certain difficulties and complexities, in particular due to challenges of the high-gradient BT dose distribution and the...

  12. Brachytherapy in coronary artery disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Ho Chun [Chonnam National University Medicine School, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-04-15

    Coronary artery disease is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality across the world. Percutaneous coronary intervention has become the major technique of revascularization. However, restenosis remains a major limitation of this procedure. Recently the need for repeat intervention due to restenosis, the most vexing long-term failure of percutaneous coronary intervention, has been significantly reduced owing to the introduction to two major advances, intracoronary brachytherapy and the drug-eluting stents, intracoronary brachytherapy has been employed in recent years to prevent restenosis lesions with effective results, principally in in-stent restenosis. Restenosis is generally considered as an excessive form of normal wound healing divided up in processes: elastic recoil, neointimal hyperplasia, and negative vascular remodeling. Restenosis has previously been regarded as a proliferative process in which neointimal thickening, mediated by a cascade of inflammatory mediators and other factors, is the key factor. Ionizing radiation has been shown to decrease the proliferative response to injury in animal models of restenosis. Subsequently, several randomized, double-blind trials have demonstrated that intracoronary brachytherapy can reduce the rates to both angiographic restenosis and clinical event rates in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention for in-stent restenosis. Some problems, such as late thrombosis and edge restenosis, have been identified as limiting factors of this technique. Brachytherapy is a promising method of preventing and treating coronary artery restenosis.

  13. Dosimetry in intravascular brachytherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Among the cardiovascular diseases responsible for deaths in the adult population in almost all countries of the world, the most common is acute myocardial infarction, which generally occurs because of the occlusion of one or more coronary arteries. Several diagnostic techniques and therapies are being tested for the treatment of coronary artery disease. Balloon angioplasty has been a popular treatment which is less invasive than traditional surgeries involving revascularization of the myocardium, thus promising a better quality of life for patients. Unfortunately, the rate of restenosis (re-closing of the vessel) after balloon angioplasty is high (approximately 30-50% within the first year after treatment).Recently, the idea of delivering high radiation doses to coronary arteries to avoid or delay restenosis has been suggested. Known as intravascular brachytherapy, the technique has been used with several radiation sources, and researchers have obtained success in decreasing the rate of restenosis in some patient populations. In order to study the radiation dosimetry in the patient and radiological protection for the attending staff for this therapy, radiation dose distributions for monoenergetic electrons and photons (at nine discrete energies) were calculated for blood vessels of diameter 0.15, o,30 and 0.45 cm with balloon and wire sources using the radiation transport code MCNP4B. Specific calculations were carried out for several candidate radionuclides as well. Two s tent sources (metallic prosthesis that put inside of patient's artery through angioplasty) employing 32 P are also simulated. Advantages and disadvantages of the various radionuclides and source geometries are discussed. The dosimetry developed here will aid in the realization of the benefits obtained in patients for this promising new technology. (author)

  14. Clinical cancer advances 2007: major research advances in cancer treatment, prevention, and screening--a report from the American Society of Clinical Oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gralow, Julie; Ozols, Robert F; Bajorin, Dean F; Cheson, Bruce D; Sandler, Howard M; Winer, Eric P; Bonner, James; Demetri, George D; Curran, Walter; Ganz, Patricia A; Kramer, Barnett S; Kris, Mark G; Markman, Maurie; Mayer, Robert J; Raghavan, Derek; Ramsey, Scott; Reaman, Gregory H; Sawaya, Raymond; Schuchter, Lynn M; Sweetenham, John W; Vahdat, Linda T; Davidson, Nancy E; Schilsky, Richard L; Lichter, Allen S

    2008-01-10

    A MESSAGE FROM ASCO'S PRESIDENT: For the third year, the American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO) is publishing Clinical Cancer Advances: Major Research Advances in Cancer Treatment, Prevention, and Screening, an annual review of the most significant cancer research presented or published over the past year. ASCO publishes this report to demonstrate the important progress being made on the front lines of clinical cancer research today. The report is intended to give all those with an interest in cancer care-the general public, cancer patients and organizations, policymakers, oncologists, and other medical professionals-an accessible summary of the year's most important cancer research advances. These pages report on the use of magnetic resonance imaging for breast cancer screening, the association between hormone replacement therapy and breast cancer incidence, the link between human papillomavirus and head and neck cancers, and the use of radiation therapy to prevent lung cancer from spreading. They also report on effective new targeted therapies for cancers that have been historically difficult to treat, such as liver cancer and kidney cancer, among many others. A total of 24 advances are featured in this year's report. These advances and many more over the past several years show that the nation's long-term investment in cancer research is paying off. But there are disturbing signs that progress could slow. We are now in the midst of the longest sustained period of flat government funding for cancer research in history. The budgets for the National Institutes of Health and the National Cancer Institute (NCI) have been unchanged for four years. When adjusted for inflation, cancer research funding has actually declined 12% since 2004. These budget constraints limit the NCI's ability to fund promising cancer research. In the past several years the number of grants that the NCI has been able to fund has significantly decreased; this year, in response to just the

  15. First International Conference on Lysophospholipids and Related Bioactive Lipids in Biology and Disease Sponsored by the Federation of American Societies of Experimental Biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward J. Goetzl

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The First International Conference on “Lysophospholipids and Related Bioactive Lipids in Biology and Diseases” was held in Tucson, AZ on June 10�14, 2001, under the sponsorship of the Federation of American Societies of Experimental Biology (FASEB. More than 100 scientists from 11 countries discussed the recent results of basic and clinical research in the broad biology of this emerging field. Immense progress was reported in defining the biochemistry of generation and biology of cellular effects of the bioactive lysophospholipids (LPLs. These aspects of LPLs described at the conference parallel in many ways those of the eicosanoid mediators, such as prostaglandins and leukotrienes. As for eicosanoids, the LPLs termed lysophosphatidic acid (LPA and sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P are produced enzymatically from phospholipid precursors in cell membranes and act on cells at nanomolar concentrations through subfamilies of receptors of the G protein–coupled superfamily. The rate-limiting steps in production of LPLs were reported to be controlled by specific phospholipases for LPA and sphingosine kinases for S1P. The receptor subfamilies formerly were designated endothelial differentiation gene-encoded receptors or Edg Rs for their original discovery in endothelial cells. A currently active nomenclature committee at this conference suggested the ligand-based names: S1P1 = Edg-1, S1P2 = Edg-5, S1P3 = Edg-3, S1P4 = Edg-6, and S1P5 = Edg-8; LPA1 = Edg-2, LPA2 = Edg-4, and LPA3 = Edg-7 receptors. Several families of lysophospholipid phosphatases (LPPs have been characterized, which biodegrade LPA, whereas S1P is inactivated with similar rapidity by both a lyase and S1P phosphatases.

  16. Systemic Therapy in Men With Metastatic Castration-Resistant Prostate Cancer: American Society of Clinical Oncology and Cancer Care Ontario Clinical Practice Guideline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basch, Ethan; Loblaw, D. Andrew; Oliver, Thomas K.; Carducci, Michael; Chen, Ronald C.; Frame, James N.; Garrels, Kristina; Hotte, Sebastien; Kattan, Michael W.; Raghavan, Derek; Saad, Fred; Taplin, Mary-Ellen; Walker-Dilks, Cindy; Williams, James; Winquist, Eric; Bennett, Charles L.; Wootton, Ted; Rumble, R. Bryan; Dusetzina, Stacie B.; Virgo, Katherine S.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To provide treatment recommendations for men with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). Methods The American Society of Clinical Oncology and Cancer Care Ontario convened an expert panel to develop evidence-based recommendations informed by a systematic review of the literature. Results When added to androgen deprivation, therapies demonstrating improved survival, improved quality of life (QOL), and favorable benefit-harm balance include abiraterone acetate/prednisone, enzalutamide, and radium-223 (223Ra; for men with predominantly bone metastases). Improved survival and QOL with moderate toxicity risk are associated with docetaxel/prednisone. For asymptomatic/minimally symptomatic men, improved survival with unclear QOL impact and low toxicity are associated with sipuleucel-T. For men who previously received docetaxel, improved survival, unclear QOL impact, and moderate to high toxicity risk are associated with cabazitaxel/prednisone. Modest QOL benefit (without survival benefit) and high toxicity risk are associated with mitoxantrone/prednisone after docetaxel. No benefit and excess toxicity are observed with bevacizumab, estramustine, and sunitinib. Recommendations Continue androgen deprivation (pharmaceutical or surgical) indefinitely. Abiraterone acetate/prednisone, enzalutamide, or 223Ra should be offered; docetaxel/prednisone should also be offered, accompanied by discussion of toxicity risk. Sipuleucel-T may be offered to asymptomatic/minimally symptomatic men. For men who have experienced progression with docetaxel, cabazitaxel may be offered, accompanied by discussion of toxicity risk. Mitoxantrone may be offered, accompanied by discussion of limited clinical benefit and toxicity risk. Ketoconazole or antiandrogens (eg, bicalutamide, flutamide, nilutamide) may be offered, accompanied by discussion of limited known clinical benefit. Bevacizumab, estramustine, and sunitinib should not be offered. There is insufficient evidence to

  17. AAPM Task Group 128: Quality assurance tests for prostate brachytherapy ultrasound systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    While ultrasound guided prostate brachytherapy has gained wide acceptance as a primary treatment tool for prostate cancer, quality assurance of the ultrasound guidance system has received very little attention. Task Group 128 of the American Association of Physicists in Medicine was created to address quality assurance requirements specific to transrectal ultrasound used for guidance of prostate brachytherapy. Accurate imaging guidance and dosimetry calculation depend upon the quality and accuracy of the ultrasound image. Therefore, a robust quality assurance program for the ultrasound system is essential. A brief review of prostate brachytherapy and ultrasound physics is provided, followed by a recommendation for elements to be included in a comprehensive test phantom. Specific test recommendations are presented, covering grayscale visibility, depth of penetration, axial and lateral resolution, distance measurement, area measurement, volume measurement, needle template/electronic grid alignment, and geometric consistency with the treatment planning computer.

  18. Brachytherapy: Physical and clinical aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brachytherapy is a term used to describe the short distance treatment of cancer with radiation from small, encapsulated radionuclide sources. This type of treatment is given by placing sources directly into or near the volume to be treated. The dose is then delivered continuously, either over a short period of time (temporary implants) or over the lifetime of the source to a complete decay (permanent implants). Most common brachytherapy sources emit photons; however, in a few specialized situations b or neutron emitting sources are used. There are two main types of brachytherapy treatment: 1) Intracavitary, in which the sources are placed in body cavities close to the tumour volume; 2) Interstitial, in which the sources are implanted within the tumour volume. Intracavitary treatments are always temporary, of short duration, while interstitial treatments may be temporary or permanent. Temporary implants are inserted using either manual or remote afterloading procedures. Other, less common forms of brachytherapy treatments include surface plaque, intraluminal, intraoperative and intravascular source applications; for these treatments either g or b emitting sources are used. The physical advantage of brachytherapy treatments compared with external beam radiotherapy is the improved localized delivery of dose to the target volume of interest. The disadvantage is that brachytherapy can only be used in cases in which the tumour is well localized and relatively small. In a typical radiotherapy department about 10-20% of all radiotherapy patients are treated with brachytherapy. Several aspects must be considered when giving brachytherapy treatments. Of importance is the way in which the sources are positioned relative to the volume to be treated, and several different models have been developed over the past decades for this purpose. The advantage of using a well established model is that one benefits from the long experience associated with such models and that one can

  19. An analysis of acute complications and perioperative morbidity from high dose rate brachytherapy in the treatment of gynecological malignancies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To evaluate the acute morbidity and mortality for high dose-rate (HDR) brachytherapy performed in an outpatient setting in the treatment of gynecological malignancies, and to identify possible risk factors for adverse outcomes. Materials and Methods: One hundred seventy-one patients with cervical (n=129) or uterine (n=42) carcinoma with an intact uterus were evaluated and treated from August 1989 through December 1994, with at least part of their therapy delivered with intracavitary HDR 192Ir radiation. A total of 830 ICR insertions were performed with greater than 95% done on an outpatient basis under heavy intravenous sedation using fentanyl and midazolam. Perioperative morbidity and mortality were recorded for any event occurring within 30 days of the completion of therapy. Anesthesia risk was evaluated retrospectively in all patients based on the American Society of Anesthesiologists' (ASA) Physical Class System. Results: The uterine patients, many treated with radiation alone because of morbid obesity or medical inoperability, had a significantly higher perioperative morbidity and mortality rate as compared to the cervix patient cohort. Thirteen of the 42 (31%) uterine patients and 8 of the 129 (6%) cervix patients required hospitalization within 30 days of treatment completion (p2) experienced greater morbidity and mortality, while the best predictor of complications in the cervix patients was age greater than 70 years. For the entire cohort of patients, no correlation was found between the 30 day morbidity and mortality and the doses of fentanyl and midazolam used or the length of the procedure. Conclusions: The acute complication rate from HDR brachytherapy performed on an outpatient basis with heavy intravenous sedation is acceptable for the great majority of patients who present for treatment. However, the high morbidity and mortality experienced by certain patient cohorts suggests that careful assessment of the risk/benefit ratio for treatment

  20. An Eight-Year Experience of HDR Brachytherapy Boost for Localized Prostate Cancer: Biopsy and PSA Outcome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To evaluate the biochemical recurrence-free survival (bRFS), the 2-year biopsy outcome and the prostate-specific antigen (PSA) bounce in patients with localized prostate cancer treated with an inversely planned high-dose-rate (HDR) brachytherapy boost. Materials and methods: Data were collected from 153 patients treated between 1999 and 2006 with external beam pelvic radiation followed by an HDR Ir-192 prostate boost. These patients were given a boost of 18 to 20 Gy using inverse-planning with simulated annealing (IPSA).We reviewed and analyzed all prostate-specific antigen levels and control biopsies. Results: The median follow-up was 44 months (18-95 months). When categorized by risk of progression, 74.5% of patients presented an intermediate risk and 14.4% a high one. Prostate biopsies at 2 years posttreatment were negative in 86 of 94 patients (91.5%), whereas two biopsies were inconclusive. Biochemical control at 60 months was at 96% according to the American Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology and the Phoenix consensus definitions. A PSA bounce (PSA values of 2 ng/mL or more above nadir) was observed in 15 patients of 123 (9.8%). The median time to bounce was 15.2 months (interquartile range, 11.0-17.7) and the median bounce duration 18.7 months (interquartile range, 12.1-29). The estimate of overall survival at 60 months was 97.1% (95% CI, 91.6-103%). Conclusions: Considering that inverse planned HDR brachytherapy prostate boosts led to an excellent biochemical response, with a 2-year negative biopsy rate, we recommend a conservative approach in face of a PSA bounce even though it was observed in 10% of patients

  1. Rectal function following prostate brachytherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Quality of life following therapeutic intervention for carcinoma of the prostate gland has not been well documented. In particular, a paucity of data has been published regarding bowel function following prostate brachytherapy. This study evaluated late bowel function in 209 consecutive prostate brachytherapy patients via a one-time questionnaire administered 16-55 months postimplant. Materials and Methods: Two hundred nineteen consecutive patients underwent permanent prostate brachytherapy from April 1995 through February 1998 using either 125I or 103Pd for clinical T1c-T3a carcinoma of the prostate gland. Of the 219 patients, 7 had expired. Of the remaining 212 patients (median follow-up, 28 months), each patient was mailed a self-administered questionnaire (10 questions) with a prestamped return envelope; 209 (98.6%) surveys were returned. Clinical parameters evaluated for bowel dysfunction included patient age, diabetes, hypertension, history of tobacco consumption, clinical T-stage, elapsed time since implant, and prostate ultrasound volume. Treatment parameters included utilization of neoadjuvant hormonal manipulation, utilization of moderate dose external beam radiation therapy prior to implantation, choice of isotope (125I vs. 103Pd), rectal dose (average, median and maximum doses), total implanted seed strength, values of the minimum dose received by 90% of the prostate gland (D90), and the percent prostate volume receiving 100%, 150%, and 200% of the prescribed minimum peripheral dose (V100, V150 and V200, respectively). Because detailed baseline bowel function was not available for these patients, a cross-sectional survey was performed in which 30 newly diagnosed prostate cancer patients of comparable demographics served as controls. Results: The total rectal function scores for the brachytherapy and control patients were 4.3 and 1.6, respectively, out of a total 27 points (p 103Pd resulted in lower radiation doses to the rectum, the choice of

  2. 变动和多元的美国社会与文化——解读《移民国家与大众社会》%The Mobility and Diversity of American Society and Culture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡浩

    2011-01-01

    文章从文化学和社会学的视角,通过追溯美国移民历史,解读了《当代美国——一个超级大国的成长》一书的第五编《移民国家与大众社会》的主要观点,揭示了移民给美国社会造成的变动和多元的大众文化特色。文章认为,多元文化和价值观的碰撞并没有造成美国文化的分裂,相反,它促进了美国文化的内部整合,丰富了美国社会文化的内涵。%From cultural and sociological perspective and by looking back on the history of American Immigration, the paper analyzed the main ideas of Immigrants Country and Moss Society and disclosed the mobile and diverse cultural characteristics of American society as a result of immigration. The paper considers that the collisions of diverse Cultural values did not cause a split of American culture, on the contrary, promoted the inner integration, and enriched cultural connotations of American social culture.

  3. Comparison of Real-Time Intraoperative Ultrasound-Based Dosimetry With Postoperative Computed Tomography-Based Dosimetry for Prostate Brachytherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    -based dosimetry can better predict patient outcomes, the American Brachytherapy Society recommendation of CT-based postimplant dosimetry should remain the standard of care

  4. Physical aspects of radioisotope brachytherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present report represents an attempt to provide, within a necessarily limited compass, an authoritative guide to all important physical aspects of the use of sealed gamma sources in radiotherapy. Within the report, reference is made wherever necessary to the more extensive but scattered literature on this subject. While this report attempts to cover all the physical aspects of radioisotope 'brachytherapy' it does not, of course, deal exhaustively with any one part of the subject. 384 refs, 3 figs, 6 tabs

  5. The care of patients with varicose veins and associated chronic venous diseases: clinical practice guidelines of the Society for Vascular Surgery and the American Venous Forum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gloviczki, Peter; Comerota, Anthony J; Dalsing, Michael C; Eklof, Bo G; Gillespie, David L; Gloviczki, Monika L; Lohr, Joann M; McLafferty, Robert B; Meissner, Mark H; Murad, M Hassan; Padberg, Frank T; Pappas, Peter J; Passman, Marc A; Raffetto, Joseph D; Vasquez, Michael A; Wakefield, Thomas W

    2011-05-01

    The Society for Vascular Surgery (SVS) and the American Venous Forum (AVF) have developed clinical practice guidelines for the care of patients with varicose veins of the lower limbs and pelvis. The document also includes recommendations on the management of superficial and perforating vein incompetence in patients with associated, more advanced chronic venous diseases (CVDs), including edema, skin changes, or venous ulcers. Recommendations of the Venous Guideline Committee are based on the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) system as strong (GRADE 1) if the benefits clearly outweigh the risks, burden, and costs. The suggestions are weak (GRADE 2) if the benefits are closely balanced with risks and burden. The level of available evidence to support the evaluation or treatment can be of high (A), medium (B), or low or very low (C) quality. The key recommendations of these guidelines are: We recommend that in patients with varicose veins or more severe CVD, a complete history and detailed physical examination are complemented by duplex ultrasound scanning of the deep and superficial veins (GRADE 1A). We recommend that the CEAP classification is used for patients with CVD (GRADE 1A) and that the revised Venous Clinical Severity Score is used to assess treatment outcome (GRADE 1B). We suggest compression therapy for patients with symptomatic varicose veins (GRADE 2C) but recommend against compression therapy as the primary treatment if the patient is a candidate for saphenous vein ablation (GRADE 1B). We recommend compression therapy as the primary treatment to aid healing of venous ulceration (GRADE 1B). To decrease the recurrence of venous ulcers, we recommend ablation of the incompetent superficial veins in addition to compression therapy (GRADE 1A). For treatment of the incompetent great saphenous vein (GSV), we recommend endovenous thermal ablation (radiofrequency or laser) rather than high ligation and inversion stripping

  6. The 2014 FIFA World Cup: communicable disease risks and advice for visitors to Brazil--a review from the Latin American Society for Travel Medicine (SLAMVI).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallego, Viviana; Berberian, Griselda; Lloveras, Susana; Verbanaz, Sergio; Chaves, Tania S S; Orduna, Tomas; Rodriguez-Morales, Alfonso J

    2014-01-01

    The next FIFA World Cup will be held in Brazil in June-July 2014. Around 600,000 international visitors and participants (as well over 3 million domestic travelers) are expected. This event will take place in twelve cities. This event poses specific challenges, given its size and the diversity of attendees, including the potential for the transmission of imported or endemic communicable diseases, especially those that have an increased transmission rate as a result of close human proximity, eg, seasonal influenza, measles but also tropical endemic diseases. In anticipation of increased travel, a panel of experts from the Latin American Society for Travel Medicine (SLAMVI) developed the current recommendations regarding the epidemiology and risks of the main communicable diseases in the major potential destinations, recommended immunizations and other preventives measures to be used as a basis for advice for travelers and travel medicine practitioners. Mosquito-borne infections also pose a challenge. Dengue poses a significant risk in all states, including the host cities. Vaccination against yellow fever is recommended except for travelers who will only visit coastal areas. Travelers visiting high-risk areas for malaria (Amazon) should be assessed regarding the need for chemoprophylaxis. Chikunguya fever may be a threat for Brazil, given the presence of Aedes aegypti, vector of dengue, and the possibility of travelers bringing the virus with them when attending the event. Advice on the correct timing and use of repellents and other personal protection measures is key to preventing these vector-borne infections. Other important recommendations for travelers should focus on preventing water and food-borne diseases such as hepatitis A, typhoid fever, giardiasis and traveler's diarrhea. Sexually transmitted diseases (STD) should be also mentioned and the use of condoms advocated. This review addresses pre-travel, preventive strategies to reduce the risk of acquiring

  7. Afterloading: The Technique That Rescued Brachytherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aronowitz, Jesse N., E-mail: jesse.aronowitz@umassmemorial.org

    2015-07-01

    Although brachytherapy had been established as a highly effective modality for the treatment of cancer, its application was threatened by mid-20th century due to appreciation of the radiation hazard to health care workers. This review examines how the introduction of afterloading eliminated exposure and ushered in a brachytherapy renaissance.

  8. Interstitial prostate brachytherapy. LDR-PDR-HDR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The first comprehensive overview of interstitial brachytherapy for the management of local or locally advanced prostate cancer. Written by an interdisciplinary team who have been responsible for the successful GEC-ESTRO/EAU Teaching Course. Discusses in detail patient selection, the results of different methods, the role of imaging, and medical physics issues. Prostate brachytherapy has been the subject of heated debate among surgeons and the proponents of the various brachytherapy methods. This very first interdisciplinary book on the subject provides a comprehensive overview of innovations in low dose rate (LDR), high dose rate (HDR), and pulsed dose rate (PDR) interstitial brachytherapy for the management of local or locally advanced prostate cancer. In addition to detailed chapters on patient selection and the use of imaging in diagnostics, treatment guidance, and implantation control, background chapters are included on related medical physics issues such as treatment planning and quality assurance. The results obtained with the different treatment options and the difficult task of salvage treatment are fully discussed. All chapters have been written by internationally recognized experts in their fields who for more than a decade have formed the teaching staff responsible for the successful GEC-ESTRO/EAU Prostate Brachytherapy Teaching Course. This book will be invaluable in informing residents and others of the scientific background and potential of modern prostate brachytherapy. It will also prove a useful source of up-to-date information for those who specialize in prostate brachytherapy or intend to start an interstitial brachytherapy service.

  9. Dynamic rotating-shield brachytherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To present dynamic rotating shield brachytherapy (D-RSBT), a novel form of high-dose-rate brachytherapy (HDR-BT) with electronic brachytherapy source, where the radiation shield is capable of changing emission angles during the radiation delivery process.Methods: A D-RSBT system uses two layers of independently rotating tungsten alloy shields, each with a 180° azimuthal emission angle. The D-RSBT planning is separated into two stages: anchor plan optimization and optimal sequencing. In the anchor plan optimization, anchor plans are generated by maximizing the D90 for the high-risk clinical-tumor-volume (HR-CTV) assuming a fixed azimuthal emission angle of 11.25°. In the optimal sequencing, treatment plans that most closely approximate the anchor plans under the delivery-time constraint will be efficiently computed. Treatment plans for five cervical cancer patients were generated for D-RSBT, single-shield RSBT (S-RSBT), and 192Ir-based intracavitary brachytherapy with supplementary interstitial brachytherapy (IS + ICBT) assuming five treatment fractions. External beam radiotherapy doses of 45 Gy in 25 fractions of 1.8 Gy each were accounted for. The high-risk clinical target volume (HR-CTV) doses were escalated such that the D2cc of the rectum, sigmoid colon, or bladder reached its tolerance equivalent dose in 2 Gy fractions (EQD2 with α/β= 3 Gy) of 75 Gy, 75 Gy, or 90 Gy, respectively.Results: For the patients considered, IS + ICBT had an average total dwell time of 5.7 minutes/fraction (min/fx) assuming a 10 Ci192Ir source, and the average HR-CTV D90 was 78.9 Gy. In order to match the HR-CTV D90 of IS + ICBT, D-RSBT required an average of 10.1 min/fx more delivery time, and S-RSBT required 6.7 min/fx more. If an additional 20 min/fx of delivery time is allowed beyond that of the IS + ICBT case, D-RSBT and S-RSBT increased the HR-CTV D90 above IS + ICBT by an average of 16.3 Gy and 9.1 Gy, respectively.Conclusions: For cervical cancer patients, D

  10. Dynamic rotating-shield brachytherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Yunlong [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Iowa, 4016 Seamans Center, Iowa City, Iowa 52242 (United States); Flynn, Ryan T.; Kim, Yusung [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Iowa, 200 Hawkins Drive, Iowa City, Iowa 52242 (United States); Yang, Wenjun [Department of Medical Physics, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 1111 Highland Avenue, Madison, Wisconsin 53705 (United States); Wu, Xiaodong [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Iowa, 4016 Seamans Center, Iowa City, Iowa 52242 and Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Iowa, 200 Hawkins Drive, Iowa City, Iowa 52242 (United States)

    2013-12-15

    Purpose: To present dynamic rotating shield brachytherapy (D-RSBT), a novel form of high-dose-rate brachytherapy (HDR-BT) with electronic brachytherapy source, where the radiation shield is capable of changing emission angles during the radiation delivery process.Methods: A D-RSBT system uses two layers of independently rotating tungsten alloy shields, each with a 180° azimuthal emission angle. The D-RSBT planning is separated into two stages: anchor plan optimization and optimal sequencing. In the anchor plan optimization, anchor plans are generated by maximizing the D{sub 90} for the high-risk clinical-tumor-volume (HR-CTV) assuming a fixed azimuthal emission angle of 11.25°. In the optimal sequencing, treatment plans that most closely approximate the anchor plans under the delivery-time constraint will be efficiently computed. Treatment plans for five cervical cancer patients were generated for D-RSBT, single-shield RSBT (S-RSBT), and {sup 192}Ir-based intracavitary brachytherapy with supplementary interstitial brachytherapy (IS + ICBT) assuming five treatment fractions. External beam radiotherapy doses of 45 Gy in 25 fractions of 1.8 Gy each were accounted for. The high-risk clinical target volume (HR-CTV) doses were escalated such that the D{sub 2cc} of the rectum, sigmoid colon, or bladder reached its tolerance equivalent dose in 2 Gy fractions (EQD2 with α/β= 3 Gy) of 75 Gy, 75 Gy, or 90 Gy, respectively.Results: For the patients considered, IS + ICBT had an average total dwell time of 5.7 minutes/fraction (min/fx) assuming a 10 Ci{sup 192}Ir source, and the average HR-CTV D{sub 90} was 78.9 Gy. In order to match the HR-CTV D{sub 90} of IS + ICBT, D-RSBT required an average of 10.1 min/fx more delivery time, and S-RSBT required 6.7 min/fx more. If an additional 20 min/fx of delivery time is allowed beyond that of the IS + ICBT case, D-RSBT and S-RSBT increased the HR-CTV D{sub 90} above IS + ICBT by an average of 16.3 Gy and 9.1 Gy, respectively

  11. [Living in a Temporary Society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennis, Warren G.

    Society is in the process of accelerated change and the institutionalization of this change through research and technology. Other factors affecting American society are an increase in affluence, an elevation of the educational level of the population, and a growing interdependence of institutions. The fact that this country is currently going…

  12. High dose rate brachytherapy for oral cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brachytherapy results in better dose distribution compared with other treatments because of steep dose reduction in the surrounding normal tissues. Excellent local control rates and acceptable side effects have been demonstrated with brachytherapy as a sole treatment modality, a postoperative method, and a method of reirradiation. Low-dose-rate (LDR) brachytherapy has been employed worldwide for its superior outcome. With the advent of technology, high-dose-rate (HDR) brachytherapy has enabled health care providers to avoid radiation exposure. This therapy has been used for treating many types of cancer such as gynecological cancer, breast cancer, and prostate cancer. However, LDR and pulsed-dose-rate interstitial brachytherapies have been mainstays for head and neck cancer. HDR brachytherapy has not become widely used in the radiotherapy community for treating head and neck cancer because of lack of experience and biological concerns. On the other hand, because HDR brachytherapy is less time-consuming, treatment can occasionally be administered on an outpatient basis. For the convenience and safety of patients and medical staff, HDR brachytherapy should be explored. To enhance the role of this therapy in treatment of head and neck lesions, we have reviewed its outcomes with oral cancer, including Phase I/II to Phase III studies, evaluating this technique in terms of safety and efficacy. In particular, our studies have shown that superficial tumors can be treated using a non-invasive mold technique on an outpatient basis without adverse reactions. The next generation of image-guided brachytherapy using HDR has been discussed. In conclusion, although concrete evidence is yet to be produced with a sophisticated study in a reproducible manner, HDR brachytherapy remains an important option for treatment of oral cancer. (author)

  13. The changing landscape of brachytherapy for cervical cancer: a Canadian practice survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phan, T.; Mula-Hussain, L.; Pavamani, S.; Pearce, A.; D’Souza, D.; Patil, N.G.; Traptow, L.; Doll, C.M.

    2015-01-01

    Background We documented changes in practice from 2009 to 2012 for cervical cancer brachytherapy in Canada. Methods Centres with gynecologic brachytherapy services were sent an e-mail questionnaire querying their 2012 practice. Responses are reported and compared with practice patterns identified in a similar survey for 2009. Results The response rate was 77% (24 of 31 centres). Almost all use high-dose-rate brachytherapy (92%); low-dose-rate brachytherapy has been completely phased out. Most continue to move patients from the site of applicator insertion to the radiation treatment simulation suite (75%) or to a diagnostic imaging department (29%), or both. In 2012, the imaging modalities used for dose specification were computed tomography [ct (75%)], magnetic resonance imaging [mri (38%)], plain radiography (21%), and cone-beam ct (8%). The number of institutions using mri guidance has markedly increased during the period of interest (9 vs. 1). Most respondents (58% vs. 14%) prescribed using guidelines from the Groupe Européen de Curiethérapie and the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology, but they also used point A as a reference. Commonly used high-dose radiation regimens included 30 Gy in 5 fractions and 24 Gy in 3 fractions. Conclusions In Canada, image-guided brachytherapy for cervical cancer continues to evolve. Although ct-based imaging remains the most commonly used modality, many centres have adopted mri for at least 1 brachytherapy treatment. More centres are using fewer fractions and a slightly lower biologically effective dose, but are still achieving EQD2 (2-Gy equivalent) doses of 80–90 Gy in combination with external-beam radiation therapy. PMID:26628868

  14. Abroad with Translators: Annotated Bibliographies with Introductory Essays on Latin American Literature and Society for the English Language Reader and Student; Bibliographical Essay on Puerto Rico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidel, Robert N.; MacCameron, Robert

    This publication provides an introduction to selected works of Latin American literature that are available in English. Following an introduction that presents an overview of Latin American literature, a brief section lists and annotates relevant works of description, analysis, and criticism. The major section of the publication provides annotated…

  15. Long-Term Results of an RTOG Phase II Trial (00-19) of External-Beam Radiation Therapy Combined With Permanent Source Brachytherapy for Intermediate-Risk Clinically Localized Adenocarcinoma of the Prostate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: External-beam radiation therapy combined with low—doserate permanent brachytherapy are commonly used to treat men with localized prostate cancer. This Phase II trial was performed to document late gastrointestinal or genitourinary toxicity as well as biochemical control for this treatment in a multi-institutional cooperative group setting. This report defines the long-term results of this trial. Methods and Materials: All eligible patients received external-beam radiation (45 Gy in 25 fractions) followed 2–6 weeks later by a permanent iodine 125 implant of 108 Gy. Late toxicity was defined by the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group/European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer late radiation morbidity scoring scheme. Biochemical control was defined by the American Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology (ASTRO) Consensus definition and the ASTRO Phoenix definition. Results: One hundred thirty-eight patients were enrolled from 20 institutions, and 131 were eligible. Median follow-up (living patients) was 8.2 years (range, 2.7–9.3 years). The 8-year estimate of late grade >3 genitourinary and/or gastrointestinal toxicity was 15%. The most common grade >3 toxicities were urinary frequency, dysuria, and proctitis. There were two grade 4 toxicities, both bladder necrosis, and no grade 5 toxicities. In addition, 42% of patients complained of grade 3 impotence (no erections) at 8 years. The 8-year estimate of biochemical failure was 18% and 21% by the Phoenix and ASTRO consensus definitions, respectively. Conclusion: Biochemical control for this treatment seems durable with 8 years of follow-up and is similar to high—dose external beam radiation alone or brachytherapy alone. Late toxicity in this multi-institutional trial is higher than reports from similar cohorts of patients treated with high—dose external-beam radiation alone or permanent low—doserate brachytherapy alone, perhaps suggesting further attention to strategies that

  16. Science and Society Colloquium

    CERN Multimedia

    Randi, J

    1991-01-01

    Mr. Randi will give an update of his lecture to the American Physical Society on the occasion of his award of the 1989 Forum Prize. The citation said: "for his unique defense of Science and the scientific method in many disciplines, including physics, against pseudoscience, frauds and charlatans. His use of scientific techniques has contributed to refuting suspicious and fraudulent claims of paranormal results. He has contributed significantly to public understanding of important issues where science and society interact". He is a professional magician and author of many books. He worked with John Maddox, the Editor of Nature to investigate the claims of "water with memory".

  17. Planetary Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    Carl Sagan, Bruce Murray and Louis Friedman founded the non-profit Planetary Society in 1979 to advance the exploration of the solar system and to continue the search for extraterrestrial life. The Society has its headquarters in Pasadena, California, but is international in scope, with 100 000 members worldwide, making it the largest space interest group in the world. The Society funds a var...

  18. The use of TLDs for brachytherapy dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs) are routinely used to measure the dose around brachytherapy sources due to their small size and high precision. This work presents a concise overview of the use of LiF:Mg,Ti TLDs for brachytherapy dosimetry including the experimental procedures required to achieve high-precision measurements as well as new results regarding the intrinsic energy dependence with some of the commonly used brachytherapy sources. Equations to correct TLD light output to air kerma are outlined and a description of the method to determine the intrinsic energy dependence is presented. For the intrinsic energy dependence investigation, a review of previously published results is presented as well as new experimental results using 125I, 103Pd, 192Ir, and miniature x-ray brachytherapy sources at the University of Wisconsin Medical Radiation Research Center (UWMRRC). The results of these experiments are consistent with previous work and give valuable insight to investigators using TLDs for brachytherapy measurements. - Highlights: • Brachytherapy measurements with LiF:Mg,Ti TLDs performed. • Intrinsic energy dependence for several brachytherapy sources determined. • New LiF:Mg,Ti energy dependence results compared with previous data for x-ray beams. • Uncertainty of LiF:Mg,Ti TLD measurements reviewed

  19. The Transition from 2-D Brachytherapy to 3-D High Dose Rate Brachytherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brachytherapy is a major treatment modality in the treatment of common cancers including cervical cancer. This publication addresses the recent technological change in brachytherapy treatment planning with better access to 3-D volumetric patient imaging modalities including computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance (MR) as opposed to traditional 2-D planar images. In the context of 2-D and 3-D brachytherapy, the publication provides definitions, clinical indications, transitioning milestones, commissioning steps, quality assurance measures, and a related questionnaire. Staff training and resourcing are also addressed. The publication will serve as a guide to radiotherapy departments in Member States who wish to make the transition from 2-D to 3-D brachytherapy

  20. Use of Monte Carlo Methods in brachytherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Monte Carlo method has become a fundamental tool for brachytherapy dosimetry mainly because no difficulties associated with experimental dosimetry. In brachytherapy the main handicap of experimental dosimetry is the high dose gradient near the present sources making small uncertainties in the positioning of the detectors lead to large uncertainties in the dose. This presentation will review mainly the procedure for calculating dose distributions around a fountain using the Monte Carlo method showing the difficulties inherent in these calculations. In addition we will briefly review other applications of the method of Monte Carlo in brachytherapy dosimetry, as its use in advanced calculation algorithms, calculating barriers or obtaining dose applicators around. (Author)

  1. Definition study of the project Dosimetry Brachytherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of the research project Dosimetry Brachytherapy is the standardization of calibration methods and quality control procedures used for Brachytherapy sources. Proposals to develop measurement standards and methods for calibrating these sources are presented. Brachytherapy sources will be calibrated in terms of reference airkerma rate or in terms of absorbed dose in water. Therefore, in this project, special attention will be given to the in-phantom measurement method described by Meertens and the use of re-entrant ionisation chambers as transfer standards. In this report, a workplan and time schedule is included. (author). 19 refs.; 1 fig

  2. CT based HDR brachytherapy for intracavitary applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brachytherapy is most commonly used in combination with external radiotherapy for gynecological cancers of cervix, vagina and endometrium. The characteristic rapid fall off of the dose in brachytherapy makes it useful to deliver a localized high dose to tumor. In gynecological applications the dose limiting critical structures are bladder and rectum. The dose received by rectum and bladder has been an interesting issue all these decades. This work presents the dosimetric and planning aspects of CT based High Dose Rate brachytherapy for intracavitary applications

  3. Clinical Practice and Quality Assurance Challenges in Modern Brachytherapy Sources and Dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Modern brachytherapy has led to effective treatments through the establishment of broadly applicable dosimetric thresholds for maximizing survival with minimal morbidity. Proper implementation of recent dosimetric consensus statements and quality assurance procedures is necessary to maintain the established level of safety and efficacy. This review classifies issues as either 'systematic' or 'stochastic' in terms of their impact on large groups or individual patients, respectively. Systematic changes affecting large numbers of patients occur infrequently and include changes in source dosimetric parameters, prescribing practice, dose calculation formalism, and improvements in calculation algorithms. The physicist must be aware of how incipient changes accord with previous experience. Stochastic issues involve procedures that are applied to each patient individually. Although ample guidance for quality assurance of brachytherapy sources exists, some ambiguities remain. The latest American Association of Physicists in Medicine guidance clarifies what is meant by independent assay, changes source sampling recommendations, particularly for sources in sterile strands and sterile preassembled needles, and modifies action level thresholds. The changing environment of brachytherapy has not changed the fact that the prime responsibility for quality assurance in brachytherapy lies with the institutional medical physicist

  4. Potential brachytherapy nuclides of future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the past there were relatively few radionuclides available for brachytherapy. But the situation is rapidly changing with the development of many new sources with properties that may be advantageous in certain clinical situations. In the choice of an acceptable, rather than an ideal radionuclide, it is important to consider the physical dose distribution, radiobiological effectiveness, ease of radiation protection, logistics and cost. Taking into account these factors, a number of radionuclides have been tried and more are being considered for specific type of applications. Presently, 137Cs is the most commonly used radionuclide for intracavitary therapy and 192Ir for interstitial therapy. 125I has more or less replaced 198Au for permanent implants. Clinical studies are being carried out to assess the feasibility of replacing 137Cs with 241Am for intracavitary applications and 125I with 103Pd and/or 169Yb for interstitial permanent implants. Other radionuclides being considered are 75Fe and 145Sm. Neutron induced brachytherapy is a new technique being tried to ensure complete radiation safety. (author). 1 tab

  5. New brachytherapy standards paradigm shift

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The absorbed dose rate to water at short distances (1 cm typically) in water, is the quantity of interest for dosimetry in radiotherapy treatments. Moreover, the dose imparted to cancer patients must be known within a narrow band of uncertainty to avoid either damage to the healthy tissue resulting from exceeding international accepted tolerance levels or lack of tumor control due to a low dose delivered to the target volume. The goal for the uncertainty of the dose delivered to the target volume would be around 5% (at the level of one standard deviation), to assure the effectiveness of the radiotherapy treatment. This also takes into account the uncertainties in dose calculation algorithms. In current brachytherapy (BT) treatments, the procedures to determine the absorbed dose imparted to the patient are not based on absorbed dose standards, but are based on measurements traceable to air kerma standards. In fact, the recommended quantity for the calibration of BT gamma ray sources is the reference air kerma rate, KR, defined as the kerma rate to air, in air, at the reference distance of 1 m from the radioactive source, corrected for air attenuation and scattering. The absorbed dose around a BT source is currently calculated by applying the formalism of the international AAPM Task Group 43 protocol and its update. This protocol is based on the air kerma strength, SK, a quantity that is numerically equivalent to KR, at a distance of 1 m from the source. The dose rate constant Λ converts the air-kerma strength SK to the absorbed dose rate to water, D.(r0,θ0), in water at the reference position: D.(r0,θ0) = SK·A (1). Recently, a lower limit of 2,50 % was obtained for the estimated overall uncertainty (at the level of one standard deviation) on measurements of D.(r0,θ0) due to a HDR 192I BT source based on equation (1). However, in most cases the determination of 5K is typically affected by an uncertainty within 0,8 % (at the level of one standard

  6. Comprehensive brachytherapy physical and clinical aspects

    CERN Document Server

    Baltas, Dimos; Meigooni, Ali S; Hoskin, Peter J

    2013-01-01

    Modern brachytherapy is one of the most important oncological treatment modalities requiring an integrated approach that utilizes new technologies, advanced clinical imaging facilities, and a thorough understanding of the radiobiological effects on different tissues, the principles of physics, dosimetry techniques and protocols, and clinical expertise. A complete overview of the field, Comprehensive Brachytherapy: Physical and Clinical Aspects is a landmark publication, presenting a detailed account of the underlying physics, design, and implementation of the techniques, along with practical guidance for practitioners. Bridging the gap between research and application, this single source brings together the technological basis, radiation dosimetry, quality assurance, and fundamentals of brachytherapy. In addition, it presents discussion of the most recent clinical practice in brachytherapy including prostate, gynecology, breast, and other clinical treatment sites. Along with exploring new clinical protocols, ...

  7. The American Society of Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine and the European Society of Regional Anaesthesia and Pain Therapy joint committee recommendations for education and training in ultrasound-guided regional anesthesia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sites, Brian D; Chan, Vincent W; Neal, Joseph M;

    2010-01-01

    Ultrasound-guided regional anesthesia (UGRA) is a growing area of both clinical and research interest. The following document contains the work produced by a joint committee from ASRA and the European Society of Regional Anesthesia and Pain Therapy. This joint committee was established to recommend...... to members and institutions the scope of practice, the teaching curriculum, and the options for implementing the medical practice of UGRA.This document specifically defines the following:1. 10 common tasks used when performing an ultrasound-guided nerve block,2. The core competencies and skill sets...... associated with UGRA,3. A training practice pathway for postgraduate anesthesiologists, and4. A residency-based training pathway.In both the residency and postgraduate pathways, training, competency, and proficiency requirements include both didactic and experiential components. The Joint Committee...

  8. AB012. Brachytherapy for localized prostate cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yong; Yang, Yong

    2016-01-01

    Background To evaluate the security and effect of brachytherapy for localized prostate cancer. Methods Forty five patients with Tl–T2 prostate cancer were treated with real-time transperineal ultrasound-guide 125I seeds prostate implantation. Results The median operation time was 90 min, the median number of I seeds used was 56. The follow up time was 12–48 months, the cases of PSA Brachytherapy for localized prostate cancer is safe and effective.

  9. AMERICAN ASSOCIATION OF CLINICAL ENDOCRINOLOGISTS, AMERICAN COLLEGE OF ENDOCRINOLOGY, AND ANDROGEN EXCESS AND PCOS SOCIETY DISEASE STATE CLINICAL REVIEW: GUIDE TO THE BEST PRACTICES IN THE EVALUATION AND TREATMENT OF POLYCYSTIC OVARY SYNDROME--PART 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Neil F; Cobin, Rhoda H; Futterweit, Walter; Glueck, Jennifer S; Legro, Richard S; Carmina, Enrico

    2015-11-01

    Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS) is recognized as the most common endocrine disorder of reproductive-aged women around the world. This document, produced by the collaboration of the American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists (AACE) and the Androgen Excess and PCOS Society (AES) aims to highlight the most important clinical issues confronting physicians and their patients with PCOS. It is a summary of current best practices in 2015. PCOS has been defined using various criteria, including menstrual irregularity, hyperandrogenism, and polycystic ovary morphology (PCOM). General agreement exists among specialty society guidelines that the diagnosis of PCOS must be based on the presence of at least two of the following three criteria: chronic anovulation, hyperandrogenism (clinical or biological) and polycystic ovaries. There is need for careful clinical assessment of women's history, physical examination, and laboratory evaluation, emphasizing the accuracy and validity of the methodology used for both biochemical measurements and ovarian imaging. Free testosterone (T) levels are more sensitive than the measurement of total T for establishing the existence of androgen excess and should be ideally determined through equilibrium dialysis techniques. Value of measuring levels of androgens other than T in patients with PCOS is relatively low. New ultrasound machines allow diagnosis of PCOM in patients having at least 25 small follicles (2 to 9 mm) in the whole ovary. Ovarian size at 10 mL remains the threshold between normal and increased ovary size. Serum 17-hydroxyprogesterone and anti-Müllerian hormone are useful for determining a diagnosis of PCOS. Correct diagnosis of PCOS impacts on the likelihood of associated metabolic and cardiovascular risks and leads to appropriate intervention, depending upon the woman's age, reproductive status, and her own concerns. The management of women with PCOS should include reproductive function, as well as the care of hirsutism

  10. Latin American Literatures and Cultures: Self and Society. Papers from the National Endowment for the Humanities Summer Institute (La Jolla, California, August 1996).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seabrook, John H., Ed.

    1996-01-01

    This special issue contains the following articles: (1) "Critiquing the Center: Rigoberta Menchu and Enrique Dussel" (Joseph R. Hoff); (2) "Caroline Maria De Jesus: A Testimonial Voice in the Wilderness" (Eva Bueno); (3) "Latin American Women's Voices: La Malinche to Rigoberta Menchu" (Ana Maria Romo de Mease); (4) "China in Borges''The Garden of…

  11. Linking East with West: Websites as a Public Relations Tool for American and Chinese Banks Operating in a Culturally-Evolving Chinese Society

    OpenAIRE

    Jiang, Jing

    2002-01-01

    In this thesis, three websites are explored in-depth and serve as a case study for an intercultural comparison of websites as public relations tools. The websites of Industrial and Commercial Bank of China (ICBC), Shanghai Pudong Development Bank (SPDB), and Citibank were evaluated for this specific study because they represent three models of current banks operating in a culturally-evolving Chinese society. The two-way symmetrical model of public relations and the personal influence model ha...

  12. Intraluminal brachytherapy in treatment of malignant obstructive jaundice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To study the practicability and preliminary effect of intraluminal brachytherapy in treatment of malignant obstructive jaundice. Methods: Intraluminal brachytherapy was performed in 4 patients who had been treated with biliary stent implantation. Results: No complications related to intraluminal brachytherapy had happened. One patient was followed up by means of CT, showing reduction in tumor size. Conclusion: Intraluminal brachytherapy is a safe and effective method in treating malignant tumor causing obstructive jaundice

  13. Using the Computed Tomography in Comparison to the Orthogonal Radiography Based Treatment Planning in High dose Rate (HDR) Brachytherapy in Cervical Uteri Cancer Patients; A Single Institution Feasibility Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brachytherapy is an integral part in the treatment of cervical uteri cancer patients. Orthogonal treatment planning is the standard mode of calculation based on reference points. Introduction of the innovative 3-D computer based treatment planning allows accurate calculation based on volumetric information as regards the target volume and organs at risk (OAR). Also provide dose volume histogram (DVH) for proper estimation of the dose in relation to the volume. Aim: To correlate and compare the information obtained from the two approaches for high dose rate brachytherapy of cervical uteri cancer; the orthogonal conventional method and the computerized tomography (CT) three dimensions (3D) based calculation method in relation to the target and organ at risk (OAR). Methods: From 6 patients of cervical uteri cancer, 21 applications with orthogonal planning using the Brachy Vision treatment planning system version 7.3.10 were performed. In 10 applications; comparison between orthogonal and CT based planning was done. In orthogonal planning; the dose to point A, rectum and bladder were defined according to the American Brachytherapy Society (ABS) recommendation. From the CT based planning the target volume and dose volume histogram (DVH) were calculated for the clinical target volume (CTV), rectum and bladder. From these two sets, information was obtained and compared and mean values were derived. Results: For dose prescription at point A, an average of 63.5% of CTV received the prescribed dose. The mean ICRU dose to the bladder point is 2.9 Gy±l .2 SD (Standard Deviation) and 17% of the bladder volume derived from CT was encompassed by 2.9 Gy isodose line. The mean ICRU dose at the rectum point is 3.4 Gy±1.2 SD and 21% of the rectum volume from CT was encompassed by 3.4 Gy isodose line. The maximum dose to the rectum and the bladder derived from the CT and compared to the maximal dose at ICRU is 1.7 and 2.8 times higher than the orthogonal reference points; with the

  14. Brachytherapy next generation: robotic systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popescu, Tiberiu; Kacsó, Alex Cristian; Pisla, Doina; Kacsó, Gabriel

    2015-12-01

    In a field dominated by external beam radiation therapy (EBRT), both the therapeutic and technical possibilities of brachytherapy (BT) are underrated, shadowed by protons and intensity modulated radiotherapy. Decreasing expertise and indications, as well as increasing lack of specific BT training for radiation therapy (RT) residents led to the real need of shortening its learning curve and making it more popular. Developing robotic BT devices can be a way to mitigate the above issues. There are many teams working at custom-made robotic BT platforms to perfect and overcome the limitations of the existing systems. This paper provides a picture of the current state-of-the-art in robotic assisted BT, as it also conveys the author's solution to the problem, a parallel robot that uses CT-guidance. PMID:26816510

  15. 10 CFR 35.432 - Calibration measurements of brachytherapy sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Calibration measurements of brachytherapy sources. 35.432 Section 35.432 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION MEDICAL USE OF BYPRODUCT MATERIAL Manual Brachytherapy § 35.432 Calibration measurements of brachytherapy sources. (a) Before the first medical use of...

  16. 10 CFR 35.406 - Brachytherapy sources accountability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Brachytherapy sources accountability. 35.406 Section 35.406 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION MEDICAL USE OF BYPRODUCT MATERIAL Manual Brachytherapy § 35.406 Brachytherapy sources accountability. (a) A licensee shall maintain accountability at all...

  17. Navigation system for interstitial brachytherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of the stud was to develop a computed tomography (CT) based electromagnetic navigation system for interstitial brachytherapy. This is especially designed for situations when needles have to be positioned adjacent to or within critical anatomical structures. In such instances interactive 3D visualisation of the needle positions is essential. The material consisted of a Polhemus electromagnetic 3D digitizer, a Pentium 200 MHz laptop and a voice recognition for continuous speech. In addition, we developed an external reference system constructed of Perspex which could be positioned above the tumour region and attached to the patient using a non-invasive fixation method. A specially designed needle holder and patient bed were also developed. Measurements were made on a series of phantoms in order to study the efficacy and accuracy of the navigation system. The mean navigation accuracy of positioning the 20.0 cm length metallic needles within the phantoms was in the range 2.0-4.1 mm with a maximum of 5.4 mm. This is an improvement on the accuracy of a CT-guided technique which was in the range 6.1-11.3 mm with a maximum of 19.4 mm. The mean reconstruction accuracy of the implant geometry was 3.2 mm within a non-ferromagnetic environment. We found that although the needles were metallic this did not have a significant influence. We also found for our experimental setups that the CT table and operation table non-ferromagnetic parts had no significant influence on the navigation accuracy. This navigation system will be a very useful clinical tool for interstitial brachytherapy applications, particularly when critical structures have to be avoided. It also should provide a significant improvement on our existing technique

  18. IAEA Syllabus for the Education and Training of Radiation Oncologists. Endorsed by the American Society for Radiation Oncology (ASTRO) and the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology (ESTRO) (Spanish Edition)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    making radiotherapy accessible to cancer patients. To ensure a uniformity and consistency in the training that could be undertaken by the various medical institutions running their postgraduate programmes in radiation oncology the IAEA's intent in formulating a syllabus for the education and training of radiation oncologists is to provide guidance for all professionals and administrators involved in the training of this discipline. The syllabus seeks to address the training requirements in developing countries in order to establish a common and consistent framework. It provides both a structure for the organization of the training and a core curriculum. The guidelines outlined in the core curriculum could be adopted by the various Member States as a baseline for national curricula. These guidelines have been framed via consultations with representatives of the Member States - both from developed and developing countries at a Consultants' Meeting held at IAEA headquarters in Vienna on 14-17 August 2006 and were commented on by major national and regional societies of radiation oncology. The IAEA recognizes the variability in the prevalence and spectrum of diseases as well as the variation in the availability of different technologies in the countries and regions. National and regional societies should prioritize the subjects presented in the core curriculum and adapt them to the disease profiles observed in their own countries/regions. Countries with a limited number of radiation oncologists should recognize the fact that cancer care is becoming ever more specialized and other aspects of cancer care such as medical oncology and palliative care should act in collaboration with the radiation oncologists to cover these other partially overlapping disciplines. The IAEA promotes a policy of multidisciplinary decision-making regarding the management of the individual patient, where the radiation oncologist interacts with other disciplines as a competent and independent

  19. IAEA Syllabus for the Education and Training of Radiation Oncologists. Endorsed by the American Society for Radiation Oncology (ASTRO) and the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology (ESTRO)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    making radiotherapy accessible to cancer patients. To ensure a uniformity and consistency in the training that could be undertaken by the various medical institutions running their postgraduate programmes in radiation oncology the IAEA's intent in formulating a syllabus for the education and training of radiation oncologists is to provide guidance for all professionals and administrators involved in the training of this discipline. The syllabus seeks to address the training requirements in developing countries in order to establish a common and consistent framework. It provides both a structure for the organization of the training and a core curriculum. The guidelines outlined in the core curriculum could be adopted by the various Member States as a baseline for national curricula. These guidelines have been framed via consultations with representatives of the Member States - both from developed and developing countries at a Consultants' Meeting held at IAEA headquarters in Vienna on 14-17 August 2006 and were commented on by major national and regional societies of radiation oncology. The IAEA recognizes the variability in the prevalence and spectrum of diseases as well as the variation in the availability of different technologies in the countries and regions. National and regional societies should prioritize the subjects presented in the core curriculum and adapt them to the disease profiles observed in their own countries/regions. Countries with a limited number of radiation oncologists should recognize the fact that cancer care is becoming ever more specialized and other aspects of cancer care such as medical oncology and palliative care should act in collaboration with the radiation oncologists to cover these other partially overlapping disciplines. The IAEA promotes a policy of multidisciplinary decision-making regarding the management of the individual patient, where the radiation oncologist interacts with other disciplines as a competent and independent

  20. IAEA Syllabus for the Education and Training of Radiation Oncologists. Endorsed by the American Society for Radiation Oncology (ASTRO) and the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology (ESTRO) (Chinese Edition)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    obstacle to making radiotherapy accessible to cancer patients. To ensure a uniformity and consistency in the training that could be undertaken by the various medical institutions running their postgraduate programmes in radiation oncology the IAEA's intent in formulating a syllabus for the education and training of radiation oncologists is to provide guidance for all professionals and administrators involved in the training of this discipline. The syllabus seeks to address the training requirements in developing countries in order to establish a common and consistent framework. It provides both a structure for the organization of the training and a core curriculum. The guidelines outlined in the core curriculum could be adopted by the various Member States as a baseline for national curricula. These guidelines have been framed via consultations with representatives of the Member States - both from developed and developing countries at a Consultants' Meeting held at IAEA headquarters in Vienna on 14-17 August 2006 and were commented on by major national and regional societies of radiation oncology. The IAEA recognizes the variability in the prevalence and spectrum of diseases as well as the variation in the availability of different technologies in the countries and regions. National and regional societies should prioritize the subjects presented in the core curriculum and adapt them to the disease profiles observed in their own countries/regions. Countries with a limited number of radiation oncologists should recognize the fact that cancer care is becoming ever more specialized and other aspects of cancer care such as medical oncology and palliative care should act in collaboration with the radiation oncologists to cover these other partially overlapping disciplines. The IAEA promotes a policy of multidisciplinary decision-making regarding the management of the individual patient, where the radiation oncologist interacts with other disciplines as a competent and

  1. IAEA Syllabus for the Education and Training of Radiation Oncologists. Endorsed by the American Society for Radiation Oncology (ASTRO) and the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology (ESTRO) (French Edition)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    making radiotherapy accessible to cancer patients. To ensure a uniformity and consistency in the training that could be undertaken by the various medical institutions running their postgraduate programmes in radiation oncology the IAEA's intent in formulating a syllabus for the education and training of radiation oncologists is to provide guidance for all professionals and administrators involved in the training of this discipline. The syllabus seeks to address the training requirements in developing countries in order to establish a common and consistent framework. It provides both a structure for the organization of the training and a core curriculum. The guidelines outlined in the core curriculum could be adopted by the various Member States as a baseline for national curricula. These guidelines have been framed via consultations with representatives of the Member States - both from developed and developing countries at a Consultants' Meeting held at IAEA headquarters in Vienna on 14-17 August 2006 and were commented on by major national and regional societies of radiation oncology. The IAEA recognizes the variability in the prevalence and spectrum of diseases as well as the variation in the availability of different technologies in the countries and regions. National and regional societies should prioritize the subjects presented in the core curriculum and adapt them to the disease profiles observed in their own countries/regions. Countries with a limited number of radiation oncologists should recognize the fact that cancer care is becoming ever more specialized and other aspects of cancer care such as medical oncology and palliative care should act in collaboration with the radiation oncologists to cover these other partially overlapping disciplines. The IAEA promotes a policy of multidisciplinary decision-making regarding the management of the individual patient, where the radiation oncologist interacts with other disciplines as a competent and independent

  2. IAEA Syllabus for the Education and Training of Radiation Oncologists. Endorsed by the American Society for Radiation Oncology (ASTRO) and the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology (ESTRO) (Arabic Edition)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    making radiotherapy accessible to cancer patients. To ensure a uniformity and consistency in the training that could be undertaken by the various medical institutions running their postgraduate programmes in radiation oncology the IAEA's intent in formulating a syllabus for the education and training of radiation oncologists is to provide guidance for all professionals and administrators involved in the training of this discipline. The syllabus seeks to address the training requirements in developing countries in order to establish a common and consistent framework. It provides both a structure for the organization of the training and a core curriculum. The guidelines outlined in the core curriculum could be adopted by the various Member States as a baseline for national curricula. These guidelines have been framed via consultations with representatives of the Member States - both from developed and developing countries at a Consultants' Meeting held at IAEA headquarters in Vienna on 14-17 August 2006 and were commented on by major national and regional societies of radiation oncology. The IAEA recognizes the variability in the prevalence and spectrum of diseases as well as the variation in the availability of different technologies in the countries and regions. National and regional societies should prioritize the subjects presented in the core curriculum and adapt them to the disease profiles observed in their own countries/regions. Countries with a limited number of radiation oncologists should recognize the fact that cancer care is becoming ever more specialized and other aspects of cancer care such as medical oncology and palliative care should act in collaboration with the radiation oncologists to cover these other partially overlapping disciplines. The IAEA promotes a policy of multidisciplinary decision-making regarding the management of the individual patient, where the radiation oncologist interacts with other disciplines as a competent and independent

  3. IAEA Syllabus for the Education and Training of Radiation Oncologists. Endorsed by the American Society for Radiation Oncology (ASTRO) and the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology (ESTRO) (Russian Edition)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    making radiotherapy accessible to cancer patients. To ensure a uniformity and consistency in the training that could be undertaken by the various medical institutions running their postgraduate programmes in radiation oncology the IAEA's intent in formulating a syllabus for the education and training of radiation oncologists is to provide guidance for all professionals and administrators involved in the training of this discipline. The syllabus seeks to address the training requirements in developing countries in order to establish a common and consistent framework. It provides both a structure for the organization of the training and a core curriculum. The guidelines outlined in the core curriculum could be adopted by the various Member States as a baseline for national curricula. These guidelines have been framed via consultations with representatives of the Member States - both from developed and developing countries at a Consultants' Meeting held at IAEA headquarters in Vienna on 14-17 August 2006 and were commented on by major national and regional societies of radiation oncology. The IAEA recognizes the variability in the prevalence and spectrum of diseases as well as the variation in the availability of different technologies in the countries and regions. National and regional societies should prioritize the subjects presented in the core curriculum and adapt them to the disease profiles observed in their own countries/regions. Countries with a limited number of radiation oncologists should recognize the fact that cancer care is becoming ever more specialized and other aspects of cancer care such as medical oncology and palliative care should act in collaboration with the radiation oncologists to cover these other partially overlapping disciplines. The IAEA promotes a policy of multidisciplinary decision-making regarding the management of the individual patient, where the radiation oncologist interacts with other disciplines as a competent and independent

  4. Extended (5-year) Outcomes of Accelerated Partial Breast Irradiation Using MammoSite Balloon Brachytherapy: Patterns of Failure, Patient Selection, and Dosimetric Correlates for Late Toxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI) with balloon and catheter-based brachytherapy has gained increasing popularity in recent years and is the subject of ongoing phase III trials. Initial data suggest promising local control and cosmetic results in appropriately selected patients. Long-term data continue to evolve but are limited outside of the context of the American Society of Breast Surgeons Registry Trial. Methods and Materials: A retrospective review of 157 patients completing APBI after breast-conserving surgery and axillary staging via high-dose-rate 192Ir brachytherapy from June 2002 to December 2007 was made. APBI was delivered with a single-lumen MammoSite balloon-based applicator to a median dose of 34 Gy in 10 fractions over a 5-day period. Tumor coverage and critical organ dosimetry were retrospectively collected on the basis of computed tomography completed for conformance and symmetry. Results: At a median follow-up time of 5.5 years (range, 0-10.0 years), the 5-year and 7-year actuarial incidences of ipsilateral breast control were 98%/98%, of nodal control 99%/98%, and of distant control 99%/99%, respectively. The crude rate of ipsilateral breast recurrence was 2.5% (n=4); of nodal failure, 1.9% (n=3); and of distant failure, 0.6% (n=1). The 5-year and 7-year actuarial overall survival rates were 89%/86%, with breast cancer–specific survival of 100%/99%, respectively. Good to excellent cosmetic outcomes were achieved in 93.4% of patients. Telangiectasia developed in 27% of patients, with 1-year, 3-year, and 5-year actuarial incidence of 7%/24%/33%; skin dose >100% significantly predicted for the development of telangiectasia (50% vs 14%, P<.0001). Conclusions: Long-term single-institution outcomes suggest excellent tumor control, breast cosmesis, and minimal late toxicity. Skin toxicity is a function of skin dose, which may be ameliorated with dosimetric optimization afforded by newer multicatheter brachytherapy applicators and

  5. Guidelines by the AAPM and GEC-ESTRO on the use of innovative brachytherapy devices and applications: Report of Task Group 167.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nath, Ravinder; Rivard, Mark J; DeWerd, Larry A; Dezarn, William A; Thompson Heaton, H; Ibbott, Geoffrey S; Meigooni, Ali S; Ouhib, Zoubir; Rusch, Thomas W; Siebert, Frank-André; Venselaar, Jack L M

    2016-06-01

    Although a multicenter, Phase III, prospective, randomized trial is the gold standard for evidence-based medicine, it is rarely used in the evaluation of innovative devices because of many practical and ethical reasons. It is usually sufficient to compare the dose distributions and dose rates for determining the equivalence of the innovative treatment modality to an existing one. Thus, quantitative evaluation of the dosimetric characteristics of innovative radiotherapy devices or applications is a critical part in which physicists should be actively involved. The physicist's role, along with physician colleagues, in this process is highlighted for innovative brachytherapy devices and applications and includes evaluation of (1) dosimetric considerations for clinical implementation (including calibrations, dose calculations, and radiobiological aspects) to comply with existing societal dosimetric prerequisites for sources in routine clinical use, (2) risks and benefits from a regulatory and safety perspective, and (3) resource assessment and preparedness. Further, it is suggested that any developed calibration methods be traceable to a primary standards dosimetry laboratory (PSDL) such as the National Institute of Standards and Technology in the U.S. or to other PSDLs located elsewhere such as in Europe. Clinical users should follow standards as approved by their country's regulatory agencies that approved such a brachytherapy device. Integration of this system into the medical source calibration infrastructure of secondary standard dosimetry laboratories such as the Accredited Dosimetry Calibration Laboratories in the U.S. is encouraged before a source is introduced into widespread routine clinical use. The American Association of Physicists in Medicine and the Groupe Européen de Curiethérapie-European Society for Radiotherapy and Oncology (GEC-ESTRO) have developed guidelines for the safe and consistent application of brachytherapy using innovative devices and

  6. Extended (5-year) Outcomes of Accelerated Partial Breast Irradiation Using MammoSite Balloon Brachytherapy: Patterns of Failure, Patient Selection, and Dosimetric Correlates for Late Toxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vargo, John A.; Verma, Vivek; Kim, Hayeon; Kalash, Ronny; Heron, Dwight E.; Johnson, Ronald; Beriwal, Sushil, E-mail: beriwals@upmc.edu

    2014-02-01

    Purpose: Accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI) with balloon and catheter-based brachytherapy has gained increasing popularity in recent years and is the subject of ongoing phase III trials. Initial data suggest promising local control and cosmetic results in appropriately selected patients. Long-term data continue to evolve but are limited outside of the context of the American Society of Breast Surgeons Registry Trial. Methods and Materials: A retrospective review of 157 patients completing APBI after breast-conserving surgery and axillary staging via high-dose-rate {sup 192}Ir brachytherapy from June 2002 to December 2007 was made. APBI was delivered with a single-lumen MammoSite balloon-based applicator to a median dose of 34 Gy in 10 fractions over a 5-day period. Tumor coverage and critical organ dosimetry were retrospectively collected on the basis of computed tomography completed for conformance and symmetry. Results: At a median follow-up time of 5.5 years (range, 0-10.0 years), the 5-year and 7-year actuarial incidences of ipsilateral breast control were 98%/98%, of nodal control 99%/98%, and of distant control 99%/99%, respectively. The crude rate of ipsilateral breast recurrence was 2.5% (n=4); of nodal failure, 1.9% (n=3); and of distant failure, 0.6% (n=1). The 5-year and 7-year actuarial overall survival rates were 89%/86%, with breast cancer–specific survival of 100%/99%, respectively. Good to excellent cosmetic outcomes were achieved in 93.4% of patients. Telangiectasia developed in 27% of patients, with 1-year, 3-year, and 5-year actuarial incidence of 7%/24%/33%; skin dose >100% significantly predicted for the development of telangiectasia (50% vs 14%, P<.0001). Conclusions: Long-term single-institution outcomes suggest excellent tumor control, breast cosmesis, and minimal late toxicity. Skin toxicity is a function of skin dose, which may be ameliorated with dosimetric optimization afforded by newer multicatheter brachytherapy

  7. 6. Regional Congress on Radiation Protection and Safety; 3. Iberian and Latin American Congress on Radiological Protection Societies; Regional IRPA Congress. Book of abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 6th Regional Congress on Radiation Protection and Safety was organized by the Peruvian Radiation Protection Society and the Peruvian Institute of Nuclear Energy, held in Lima, Peru, between 9 and 13 of november of 2003. In this event, were presented 227 papers that were articulated in the following sessions: radiation natural exposure, biological effects of ionizing radiation, instruments and dosimetry, radiological emergency and accidents, occupational radiation protection, radiological protection in medical exposure, radiological environmental protection, legal aspects, standards and regulations, training, education and communication, radioactive waste management, radioactive material transport, nuclear safety and biological effects of non-ionizing radiation. (APC)

  8. AMERICAN ASSOCIATION OF CLINICAL ENDOCRINOLOGISTS, AMERICAN COLLEGE OF ENDOCRINOLOGY, AND ANDROGEN EXCESS AND PCOS SOCIETY DISEASE STATE CLINICAL REVIEW: GUIDE TO THE BEST PRACTICES IN THE EVALUATION AND TREATMENT OF POLYCYSTIC OVARY SYNDROME - PART 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Neil F; Cobin, Rhoda H; Futterweit, Walter; Glueck, Jennifer S; Legro, Richard S; Carmina, Enrico

    2015-12-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is recognized as the most common endocrine disorder of reproductive-aged women around the world. This document, produced by the collaboration of the American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists and the Androgen Excess Society aims to highlight the most important clinical issues confronting physicians and their patients with PCOS. It is a summary of current best practices in 2014. Insulin resistance is believed to play an intrinsic role in the pathogenesis of PCOS. The mechanism by which insulin resistance or insulin give rise to oligomenorrhea and hyperandrogenemia, however, is unclear. Hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp studies have shown that both obese and lean women with PCOS have some degree of insulin resistance. Insulin resistance is implicated in the ovulatory dysfunction of PCOS by disrupting the hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian axis. Given the association with insulin resistance, all women with PCOS require evaluation for the risk of metabolic syndrome (MetS) and its components, including type 2 diabetes, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, and the possible risk of clinical events, including acute myocardial infarction and stroke. Obese women with PCOS are at increased risk for MetS with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT; 31 to 35%) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM; 7.5 to 10%). Rates of progression from normal glucose tolerance to IGT, and in turn to T2DM, may be as high as 5 to 15% within 3 years. Data suggest the need for baseline oral glucose tolerance test every 1 to 2 years based on family history of T2DM as well as body mass index (BMI) and yearly in women with IGT. Compared with BMI- and age-matched controls, young, lean PCOS women have lower high-density lipoprotein (HDL) size, higher very-low-density lipoprotein particle number, higher low-density lipoprotein (LDL) particle number, and borderline lower LDL size. Statins have been shown to lower testosterone levels either alone or in combination with oral

  9. Image guided Brachytherapy: The paradigm of Gynecologic and Partial Breast HDR Brachytherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diamantopoulos, S.; Kantemiris, I.; Konidari, A.; Zaverdinos, P.

    2015-09-01

    High dose rate (HDR) brachytherapy uses high strength radioactive sources and temporary interstitial implants to conform the dose to target and minimize the treatment time. The advances of imaging technology enable accurate reconstruction of the implant and exact delineation of high-risk CTV and the surrounding critical structures. Furthermore, with sophisticated treatment planning systems, applicator devices and stepping source afterloaders, brachytherapy evolved to a more precise, safe and individualized treatment. At the Radiation Oncology Department of Metropolitan Hospital Athens, MRI guided HDR gynecologic (GYN) brachytherapy and accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI) with brachytherapy are performed routinely. Contouring and treatment planning are based on the recommendations of the GEC - ESTRO Working group. The task of this presentation is to reveal the advantages of 3D image guided brachytherapy over 2D brachytherapy. Thus, two patients treated at our department (one GYN and one APBI) will be presented. The advantage of having adequate dose coverage of the high risk CTV and simultaneous low doses to the OARs when using 3D image- based brachytherapy will be presented. The treatment techniques, equipment issues, as well as implantation, imaging and treatment planning procedures will be described. Quality assurance checks will be treated separately.

  10. Where Stands the Republic? Illiteracy: A Warning and a Challenge to the Nation's Press. A Report, with Recommendations to the American Newspaper Publishers Association and the American Society of Newspaper Editors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozol, Jonathan

    Approximately 25 million adults are currently reading below the fifth-grade level, and another 35 to 40 million adults read between the fifth- and eighth-grade levels. This is particularly significant for the American press inasmuch as the average daily newspaper is written at a minimum of a ninth-grade reading level. A number of unexamined…

  11. [Differences between the 2013 and 2014 hypertension guidelines.: Position of the Central American and Caribbean Society for Hypertension and Cardiovascular Prevention].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales-Salinas, Alberto; Wyss, Fernando; Coca, Antonio; Ramírez, Agustín J; Valdez, Osiris; Valerio, Luis F

    2015-03-01

    Between the end of 2013 and the beginning of 2014 the most internationally influential hypertension guidelines were published. Although there are no major differences between them, there are discrepancies that can have an impact on treatment and prognosis for individuals with hypertension. This article analyzes the main controversial elements in the guides and presents the recommendations of the Sociedad Centroamericana y del Caribe de Hipertensión y Prevención Cardiovascular (Caribbean Society for Hypertension and Cardiovascular Prevention). The main differences are found a) in the categorization of prehypertension, b) in the use of global cardiovascular risk in the decision to begin antihypertensive treatment, c) in the validity of beta-blockers as first-line drugs in treating uncomplicated hypertension, and d) the increase in the therapeutic goal of maintaining values between pros and cons for all controversial elements in the hypertension guides. However, the weight of the evidence and clinical judgment favor subdividing prehypertension into stages I and II, seeking a therapeutic goal of maintaining systolic blood pressure below 140 mmHg in all the hypertensive patients under 80 years of age, retaining beta-blockers as first-line drugs in uncomplicated hypertension, and not delaying the start of drug treatment for hypertension stage I with low global cardiovascular risk. Finally, seven recommendations by the Society based on the analysis are included. PMID:25988254

  12. 美国联邦政府与种族居住隔离问题的探讨%An Investigation into the Issues of Racial Housing Segregation in Contemporary American Society

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩玲

    2013-01-01

    通过分析美国联邦政府在实施公平住房政策中的做法和表现,指出联邦政府对当代美国社会依然盛行的种族居住隔离现状负有一定责任,并且在其消除种族居住隔离的实践中,也存在其它制约性因素。%The operation at the early period and activities during the enforcement of Fair Housing Policy indicate that the Federal Government is partly responsible for the present situation of racial housing segregation in contemporary American society.However, there are certain restrictive factors in its efforts to eliminate racial housing segregation .

  13. ACPSEM brachytherapy working group recommendations for quality assurance in brachytherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Australasian College of Physical Scientists and Engineers in Medicine (ACPSEM) Radiation Oncology Specialty Group (ROSG) formed a series of working groups in 2011 to develop recommendation papers for guidance of radiation oncology medical physics practice within the Australasian setting. These recommendations are intended to provide guidance for safe work practices and a suitable level of quality control without detailed work instructions. It is the responsibility of the medical physicist to ensure that locally available equipment and procedures are sufficiently sensitive to establish compliance to these recommendations. The recommendations are endorsed by the ROSG, have been subject to independent expert reviews and have also been approved by the ACPSEM Council. For the Australian audience, these recommendations should be read in conjunction with the Tripartite Radiation Oncology Practice Standards. This publication presents the recommendations of the ACPSEM Brachytherapy Working Group (BTWG) and has been developed in alignment with other international associations. However, these recommendations should be read in conjunction with relevant national, state or territory legislation and local requirements, which take precedence over the ACPSEM recommendation papers. It is hoped that the users of this and other ACPSEM recommendation papers will contribute to the development of future versions through the Radiation Oncology Specialty Group of the ACPSEM.

  14. l'Internet Society

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN

    1997-01-01

    Conference of Vinton "Vint" Gray Cerf in the Intercontinental Hostel. Vinton Gray Cerf (born June 23, 1943) is an American computer scientist who is commonly referred to as one of the "founding fathers of the Internet" for his key technical and managerial role, together with Bob Kahn, in the creation of the Internet and the TCP/IP protocols which it uses. He was also a co-founder (in 1992) of the Internet Society (ISOC) which is intended to both promote the views of ordinary users of the Internet, and also serve as an umbrella body for the technical groups developing the Internet (such as the Internet Engineering Task Force). He served as the first president of the Internet Society from 1992-1995.

  15. Local anesthesia for prostate brachytherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To demonstrate the technique and feasibility of prostate brachytherapy performed with local anesthesia only. Methods and Materials: A 5 by 5 cm patch of perineal skin and subcutaneous tissue is anesthetized by local infiltration of 10 cc of 1% lidocaine with epinephrine, using a 25-gauge 5/8-inch needle. Immediately following injection into the subcutaneous tissues, the deeper tissues, including the pelvic floor and prostate apex, are anesthetized by injecting 15 cc lidocaine solution with approximately 8 passes of a 20-gauge 1.0-inch needle. Following subcutaneous and peri-apical lidocaine injections, the patient is brought to the simulator suite and placed in leg stirrups. The transrectal ultrasound (TRUS) probe is positioned to reproduce the planning images and a 3.5- or 6.0-inch, 22-gauge spinal needle is inserted into the peripheral planned needle tracks, monitored by TRUS. When the tips of the needles reach the prostatic base, about 1 cc of lidocaine solution is injected in the intraprostatic track, as the needle is slowly withdrawn, for a total volume of 15 cc. The implants are done with a Mick Applicator, inserting and loading groups of two to four needles, so that a maximum of only about four needles are in the patient at any one time. During the implant procedure, an additional 1 cc of lidocaine solution is injected into one or more needle tracks if the patient experiences substantial discomfort. The total dose of lidocaine is generally limited to 500 mg (50 ml of 1% solution). Results: To date, we have implanted approximately 50 patients in our simulator suite, using local anesthesia. Patients' heart rate and diastolic blood pressure usually showed moderate changes, consistent with some discomfort. The time from first subcutaneous injection and completion of the source insertion ranged from 35 to 90 minutes. Serum lidocaine levels were below or at the low range of therapeutic. There has been only one instance of acute urinary retention in the

  16. German Immigrants’ Contribution to the Development of American Society in the Mid 19 th Century%19世纪中叶德国移民对美国社会发展的推进

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵艳文; 任家慧

    2014-01-01

    In each period of American history, there were a large number of immigrants from all over the world. Instead of integrating into American mainstream society immediately, German immigrant groups inhabited relatively together within certain regions and main-tained their own original ethnic ways of thinking and life customs, which in turn played an important role in political, economical and social life of the United States. This paper makes some related research by selecting the mid of 19th century as a representative.%美国历史发展的每一个阶段都有大量来自各国的移民进入。德国的移民群体并没有迅速融入美国主流社会,而是较长期地相对聚居,保持着本民族的思维方式和习俗,从而使得本民族意识形态的一些基本要素在美国的政治、经济和社会生活中发挥着重要的作用。本文选择19世纪中叶德国移民具有代表性的时间段,对相关领域进行研究。

  17. 19世纪中叶德国移民对美国社会发展的推进%German Immigrants’ Contribution to the Development of American Society in the Mid 19 th Century

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵艳文; 任家慧

    2014-01-01

    美国历史发展的每一个阶段都有大量来自各国的移民进入。德国的移民群体并没有迅速融入美国主流社会,而是较长期地相对聚居,保持着本民族的思维方式和习俗,从而使得本民族意识形态的一些基本要素在美国的政治、经济和社会生活中发挥着重要的作用。本文选择19世纪中叶德国移民具有代表性的时间段,对相关领域进行研究。%In each period of American history, there were a large number of immigrants from all over the world. Instead of integrating into American mainstream society immediately, German immigrant groups inhabited relatively together within certain regions and main-tained their own original ethnic ways of thinking and life customs, which in turn played an important role in political, economical and social life of the United States. This paper makes some related research by selecting the mid of 19th century as a representative.

  18. Prostate-specific antigen (Pasa) bounce and other fluctuations: Which biochemical relapse definition is least prone to PSA false calls? An analysis of 2030 men treated for prostate cancer with external beam or brachytherapy with or without adjuvant androgen deprivation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To determine the false call (FC) rate for prostate-specific antigen (PSA) relapse according to nine different PSA relapse definitions after a PSA fluctuation (bounce) has occurred after external beam radiation therapy (EBRT) or brachytherapy, with or without adjuvant androgen deprivation therapy. Methods and Materials: An analysis of a prospective database of 2030 patients was conducted. Prostate-specific antigen relapse was scored according to the American Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology (ASTRO), Vancouver, threshold + n, and nadir + n definitions for the complete data set and then compared against a truncated data set, with data subsequent to the height of the bounce deleted. The FC rate was calculated for each definition. Results: The bounce rate, with this very liberal definition of bounce, was 58% with EBRT and 84% with brachytherapy. The FC rate was lowest with nadir + 2 and + 3 definitions (2.2% and 1.6%, respectively) and greatest with low-threshold and ASTRO definitions (32% and 18%, respectively). The ASTRO definition was particularly susceptible to FC when androgen deprivation therapy was used with radiation (24%). Discussion: New definitions of biochemical non-evidence of disease that are more robust than the ASTRO definition have been identified. Those with the least FC rates are the nadir + 2 and nadir + 3 definitions, both of which are being considered to replace the ASTRO definition by the 2005 meeting of the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group-ASTRO consensus panel

  19. Asian American-Pacific American Relations: The Asian American Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Sucheng

    This paper examines the migration and settlement history of Asians into the United States and the interaction of the major Asian immigrants with each other and with American society. An important thesis is that, because the differences between Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders are much greater than the similarities between them, they should no…

  20. Brachytherapy on treatment of childhood rhabdomyosarcoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A retrospective study of 21 children with rhabdomyosarcoma treated by brachytherapy to the primary site of the tumor between january/1980 to june/1993 was undertaken. The main objectives were: to comprove the utility of brachytherapy in childhood rhabdomyosarcoma, to evaluate the local control and survival in association with chemotherapy, to analyze the late effects of the treatment and to determinate the preferencial technique to each clinical situation. Seventeen patients were female and four male with a median age of five years (range of 3 months to 15 years). Seven children showed head and neck tumors, seven in extremities, five genital, one perineal and one in trunk. Four patients were group II, fifteen group III and two group IV according the Intergroup Rhabdomyosarcoma Study (IRS) classification. The histologic type presented eighteen embryonary rhabdomyosarcoma, one alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma and in two patients was not possible to be determined. The therapeutic approach included induction chemotherapy followed by radiotherapy to the primary site in association or not with surgical ressection and maintenance chemotherapy. All patients received brachytherapy to the tumor site. The radioactive isotopes employed were: Gold198, Cesium137 and Iridium192. The brachytherapy techniques depended on the tumor site, period of treatment, availability of the radioactive material and stage of the disease. Patients treated exclusively by brachytherapy received 40Gy to 60Gy. When brachytherapy was associated with external radiotherapy the dose ranged from 20Gy to 40Gy. Local control was achieved in 18 of 20 patients (90%). The global survival and local control survival rates were 61.9% ((13(21)) patients) and 72.2% ((13(18)) patients) respectively. Staging and age showed statistic significance for survival. Distant metastasis occurred in seven patients (33.3%), mainly to the lungs. Patients treated with total radiation dose higher than 45Gy showed more incidence of

  1. Dosimetric calculus in intravascular brachytherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Among the cardiovascular diseases, the most common is acute myocardial infarction, which occurs because of the occlusion of one or more coronary arteries. Balloon angioplasty has been a popular treatment which is less invasive than surgeries involving revascularization of the myocardium, thus promising a better quality of life for patients. Unfortunately, the rate of restenosis (re-closing of the vessel) after balloon angioplasty is high (approximately 30-50% within the first year after treatment). Known as Intravascular Brachytherapy, the technique has been used with several radiation sources, and researchers have obtained success in decreasing the rate of restenosis. In order to study the radiation dosimetry in the patient and radiological protection for this therapy, radiation dose distributions for monoenergetic electrons and photons (at nine discrete energies) were calculated for blood vessels of diameter 0.15, 0.30 and 0.45 cm with balloon and wire sources using the radiation transport code MCNP4B. Specific calculations were carried out for several radionuclides. Two stent sources employing 32P are also simulated. Advantages and disadvantages of the radionuclides and source geometries are discussed and the dosimetry developed here will aid in the realization of the benefits obtained in patients. (author)

  2. 46 CFR 42.05-60 - Recognized classification society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Recognized classification society. 42.05-60 Section 42... society. The term recognized classification society means the American Bureau of Shipping or other classification society recognized by the Commandant, as provided in 46 U.S.C. 5107, and who also may be...

  3. 46 CFR 90.10-35 - Recognized classification society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Recognized classification society. 90.10-35 Section 90... classification society. The term recognized classification society means the American Bureau of Shipping or other classification society recognized by the Commandant....

  4. Proceedings of the 5. Regional congress on radiation protection and safety; 2. Iberian and Latin American Congress on Radiological Protection Societies; Regional IRPA Congress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Fifth Regional Congress on Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety has been held in Recife (Brazil), from 29th April to 4th May 2001. The congress was hosted by the Brazilian Radiation Protection Society, under the joint sponsorship of FRALC and UFPE-DEN Department of Nuclear Energy. Its designation as a Regional IRPA Congress has been requested. The main purpose of the meeting was to bring together professionals from the industry, universities and research laboratories to present and discuss the latest research results, and to review the state of the art on applied and fundamental aspects of the radiation protection. These specialists have talked about nuclear safety and radiological protection, radiation natural exposure, biological effect of radiation, radiotherapy and medical radiological safety, radiological safety in industry and research. In their discussions, also were included subjects related to radiological safety of nuclear and radioactive facilities, radioactive waste management, radioactive material transport, environmental radiological monitoring program, radiological emergency and accidents, instruments and dosimetry, basic safety standards of protection against radiation

  5. An electronic brachytherapy technique for treating squamous cell carcinoma in situ of the digit: a case report

    OpenAIRE

    Arterbery, V Elayne; Watson, Alice C.

    2013-01-01

    Background Squamous cell carcinoma in situ of the digit presents a complex management problem, which is usually treated with surgery or radiation or topical agents. The outcome of the surgical treatment can be an undesirable cosmetic result and loss of function. We report a unique Electronic Brachytherapy technique to treat the digit, which uses a 50 Kv miniaturized X-ray source with specialized applicators. Case presentation A 62-year-old African-American male was presented with a 12-month h...

  6. Report on the supply and demand of 18O enriched water. Ad hoc committee of the North American Society for the Study of Obesity, 21 January 1999

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oxygen-18 is a stable isotope that is used as a tracer for several biomedical applications. The two primary applications are the study of organismal energy expenditure and organ specific utilization of glucose. The former uses 18O along with deuterium to measure carbon dioxide production of free-living animals and humans. Total energy expenditure is calculated from carbon dioxide production using the standard equations of indirect calorimetry. The later uses 18O as a precursor for the production of 18F, a radionuclide that is incorporated into glucose homologues and injected into the circulating blood. When the glucose homologues are taken up by an organ (usually brain), the organ can be imaged using positron emission tomography (PET). Both of these techniques have become major research and, in the case of PET, diagnostic tools during the last decade. This growth in the use of these tools has increased the world-wide demand for 18O in the form of water. In 1998, this demand could not be met by suppliers and significant delivery delays have been encountered by many investigators and clinicians. Some suppliers are quoting delivery delays of a year. These delays have disrupted on-going research and delayed the start of new projects. The shortage has resulted in a price increase of nearly 50% in 18O water. The disruption of 18O supply in 1998 is the second such disruption in the past decade. Commercial suppliers could not provide sufficient product in late 1990 following the forced closure of the US government production facility at Los Alamos Laboratory. Delivery delays lasted throughout 1991. In August of 1998, the council of the North American Association for the Study of Obesity formed an ad hoc committee to gather information regarding the supply and demand for 18O and to investigate potential solutions to the problem

  7. 46. Annual meeting of the German Society for Medical Physics. Abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The abstracts volume of the 46th annual meeting of the German Society for Medical Physics includes abstracts on the following issues: audiology; particle therapy: dosimetric and biological aspects; functional and molecular imaging; computerized tomography; dosimetry: 2D dosimetry and clinical dosimetry; MR imaging: cardio and lungs imaging; quality assurance in radiation therapy; brachytherapy/IORT; irradiation planning; functional and molecular imaging: methodic principles; dosimetry: dosimetric base data and Monte Carlo; adaptive and guided radiation therapy; irradiation planning; laser accelerated protons; brachytherapy/IORT: dosimetry; particle therapy: irradiation planning and imaging; stereotaxis and radiosurgery; radiation protection; dosimetry: detectors and small photon fields; MRT and MRS - neuroimaging; particle therapy: in vivo verification.

  8. Dose optimisation in single plane interstitial brachytherapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tanderup, Kari; Hellebust, Taran Paulsen; Honoré, Henriette H;

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Brachytherapy dose distributions can be optimised       by modulation of source dwell times. In this study dose optimisation in       single planar interstitial implants was evaluated in order to quantify the       potential benefit in patients. MATERIAL AND METHODS: In 14...

  9. Severe rectal complications after prostate brachytherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Some investigators have reported severe rectal complications after brachytherapy. Due to the low number of such events, their relationship to dosimetric parameters has not been well characterized. Methods and materials: A total of 3126 patients were treated with low dose rate brachytherapy from 1998 through 2010. 2464 had implant alone, and 313 had implant preceded by 44–46 Gy supplemental external beam radiation (EBRT). Post-implant dosimetry was based on a CT scan obtained on the day of implant, generally within 30 min of the procedure. Every patient’s record was reviewed for occurrence of rectal complications. Results: Eight of 2464 patients (0.32%) treated with brachytherapy alone developed a radiation-related rectal fistula. Average prostatic and rectal dose parameters were moderately higher for fistula patients than for patients without a severe rectal complication. For instance, the average R100 was 1.2 ± 0.75 cc for fistula patients, versus 0.37 ± 0.88 cc for non-fistula patients. However, the fistula patients’ values were well within the range of values for patients without a rectal complication. Four patients had some attempt at repair or reconstruction, but long-term functional outcomes were not favorable. Conclusions: Rectal fistulas are a very uncommon potential complication of prostate brachytherapy, which can occur even in the setting of acceptable day 0 rectal doses. Their occurrence is not easily explained by standard dosimetric or clinical factors

  10. Early voiding dysfunction associated with prostate brachytherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner; Nag; Young; Bahnson

    2000-12-15

    Introduction: Transperineal prostate brachytherapy is gaining popularity as a treatment for clinically localized carcinoma of the prostate. Very little prospective data exists addressing the issue of complications associated with this procedure. We present an analysis of the early voiding dysfunction associated with prostate brachytherapy. Materials and Methods: Forty-six consecutive patients who underwent Palladium-103 (Pd-103) seed placement for clinically localized prostate carcinoma were evaluated prospectively for any morbidity associated with the procedure. Twenty-three patients completed an International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS) questionnaire preoperatively, at their first postoperative visit, and at their second postoperative visit. The total IPSS, each of the seven individual components, and the "bother" score were evaluated separately for each visit, and statistical significance was determined. Results: Urinary retention occurred in 7/46 patients (15%). Of these, 5 were able to void spontaneously after catheter removal. One patient is maintained with a suprapubic tube, and one patient is currently on continuous intermittent catheterization. Baseline IPSS was 7.1 and this went to 20.0 at the first postoperative visit (p<0.001). By the second postoperative visit, the IPSS was 8.0. Conclusions: In our experience, prostate brachytherapy for localized carcinoma of the prostate is associated with a 15% catheterization rate and a significant increase in the IPSS (7.1 to 20.0). This increase in the IPSS seems to be self-limited. Patients need to be educated on these issues prior to prostate brachytherapy. PMID:11113369

  11. Dose calculation in brachytherapy with microcomputers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The computer algorithms, that allow the calculation of brachytherapy doses and its graphic representation for implants, using programs developed for Pc microcomputers are presented. These algorithms allow to localized the sources in space, from their projection in radiographics images and trace isodose counter. (C.G.C.)

  12. CT-based interstitial HDR brachytherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolotas, C.; Baltas, D.; Zamboglou, N. [Staedtische Kliniken Offenbach (Germany). Strahlenklinik

    1999-09-01

    Purpose: Development, application and evaluation of a CT-guided implantation technique and a fully CT-based treatment planning procedure for brachytherapy. Methods and Materials: A brachytherapy procedure based on CT-guided implantation technique and CT-based treatment planning has been developed and clinical evaluated. For this purpose a software system (PROMETHEUS) for the 3D reconstruction of brachytherapy catheters and patient anatomy using only CT scans has been developed. An interface for the Nucletron PLATO BPS treatment planning system for optimization and calculation of dose distribution has been devised. The planning target volume(s) are defined as sets of points using contouring tools and are used for optimization of the 3D dose distribution. Dose-volume histogram based analysis of the dose distribution (COIN analysis) enables a clinically realistic evaluation of the brachytherapy application to be made. The CT-guided implantation of catheters and the CT-based treatment planning procedure has been performed for interstitial brachytherapy and for different tumor sites in 197 patients between 1996 and 1997. Results: The accuracy of the CT reconstruction was tested using first a quality assurance phantom and second, a simulated interstitial implant of 12 needles. These were compared with the results of reconstruction using radiographs. Both methods gave comparable results with regard to accuracy, but the CT based reconstruction was faster. Clinical feasibility was proved in pre-irradiated recurrences of brain tumors, in pretreated recurrences or metastatic disease, and in breast carcinomas. The tumor volumes treated were in the range 5.1 to 2,741 cm{sup 3}. Analysis of implant quality showed a slightly significant lower COIN value for the bone implants, but no differences with respect to the planning target volume. Conclusions: The Offenbach system, incorporating the PROMETHEUS software for interstitial HDR brachytherapy has proved to be extremely valuable

  13. Langzeitergebnisse bei Aderhautmelanom nach 106Ruthenium-Brachytherapie

    OpenAIRE

    Krause, Nona

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: 106Ruthenium-brachytherapy (106Ru-brachytherapy) is an established therapy for small and medium-sized uveal melanomas. The aim of this study was to examine the long-time results in regard to recurrence rate, complication rate, ocular preservation, metastasis rate and survival with malignant uveal and ciliary body melanoma, as well as relevant prognosis factors, subsequent to 106Ru-brachytherapy. Methodology: In this retrospective study of all cases with uveal or with ciliary ...

  14. Prostate cancer brachytherapy; Braquiterapia de cancer de prostata

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abreu, Carlos Eduardo Vita; Silva, Joao L. F. [Hospital Sirio Libanes, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Centro de Oncologia. Dep. de Radioterapia; Srougi, Miguel; Nesrallah, Adriano [Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo (UNIFESP), SP (Brazil). Escola Paulista de Medicina (EPM). Disciplina de Urologia]. E-mail: cevitabr@mandic.com.br

    1999-07-01

    The transperineal brachytherapy with {sup 125}I/Pd{sup 103} seed implantation guided by transurethral ultrasound must be presented as therapeutical option of low urinary morbidity in patients with localized prostate cancer. The combined clinical staging - including Gleason and initial PSA - must be encouraged, for definition of a group of low risk and indication of exclusive brachytherapy. Random prospective studies are necessary in order to define the best role of brachytherapy, surgery and external beam radiation therapy.

  15. Low dose rate Ir-192 interstitial brachytherapy for prostate cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oki, Yosuke; Dokiya, Takushi; Yorozu, Atsunori; Suzuki, Takayuki; Saito, Shiro; Monma, Tetsuo; Ohki, Takahiro [National Tokyo Medical Center (Japan); Murai, Masaru; Kubo, Atsushi

    2000-04-01

    From December 1997 through January 1999, fifteen prostatic cancer patients were treated with low dose rate Ir-192 interstitial brachytherapy using TRUS and perineal template guidance without external radiotherapy. Up to now, as no apparent side effects were found, the safety of this treatment is suggested. In the future, in order to treat prostatic cancer patients with interstitial brachytherapy using I-125 or Pd-103, more investigation for this low dose rate Ir-192 interstitial brachytherapy is needed. (author)

  16. Brachytherapy in the treatment of genitourinary rhabdomyosarcoma in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brachytherapy has been widely used at the Institut Gustave Roussy since 1972 in pediatric oncology. In genitourinary rhabdomyosarcoma, because of its ballistic and physical characteristics, it represents the optimal treatment whenever irradiation is required and brachytherapy feasible. Between 1976 and 1998, 23 children with bladder or prostate rhabdomyosarcoma were treated with a protocol including brachytherapy, with five of them treated with a salvage brachytherapy. All but one brachytherapy was performed during the surgery. Among the 18 brachy-therapies performed as a first-line treatment, eight presented a tumoral evolution: five presented a local evolution, one a local and nodal evolution and two a nodal evolution. Brachytherapy allowed a conservative treatment among ten out of 11 children alive with no evidence of disease. Among the five patients with salvage brachytherapy, two presented a second recurrence. Sequelae were minimal, consisting of one grade I rectitis and one asymptomatic vesical and ureteral reflux. These results are consistent with the published data using more radical treatment. Brachytherapy can represent an alternative to radical surgery, when indications are clearly defined in bladder or prostate rhabdomyosarcoma. This type of treatment can be performed only integrated with other treatments, more particularly with surgery. This approach requires a close cooperation between the different specialists: pediatricians, surgeons and brachy-therapists. (authors)

  17. Implementation of High Dose Rate Brachytherapy in Limited Resource Settings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brachytherapy is an essential component of the curative treatment of cervical cancer, a disease with high incidence in many developing countries The IAEA supports the use of high dose rate brachytherapy for centres with a large number of patients with this disease. HDR brachytherapy is also used in other common cancers such as breast cancer, lung, oesophagus and prostate. This publication provides guidance to radiation oncologists, medical physicists and planners on establishing and operating a high dose rate brachytherapy unit with modern standards and presents the main issues to be addressed for its effective and safe operation

  18. Cost effective method of manual afterloading 192Ir brachytherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: In radiotherapy, brachytherapy mode of treatment has equal importance like the external beam radiotherapy. In our hospital we have manual afterloading 137Cs kit supplied by BRIT for intracavitary treatment of carcinoma cervix and vaginal cases. In July 1999, we also started afterloading 192Ir brachytherapy. For a hospital like ours, where funds are minimal, it is impossible to procure remote afterloading brachytherapy unit, which is very costly. So we have developed the cost-effective 192Ir manual brachytherapy and so far we have done 60 cases which include intraluminal and interstitial cases

  19. Using LiF:Mg,Cu,P TLDs to estimate the absorbed dose to water in liquid water around an 192Ir brachytherapy source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    at 1 cm from the source. Radial dose values in water were compared against published results of the American Association of Physicists in Medicine and the European Society for Radiotherapy and Oncology and no significant differences (maximum value of 3.1%) were found within uncertainties except for one position at 9 cm (5.8%). At this location the background contribution relative to the TLD signal is relatively small and an unexpected experimental fluctuation in the background estimate may have caused such a large discrepancy. Conclusions: This paper shows that reliable measurements with TLDs in complex energy spectra require a study of the detector dose response with the radiation quality and specific calibration methodologies which model accurately the experimental conditions where the detectors will be used. The authors have developed and studied a method with highly sensitive TLDs and contributed to its validation by comparison with results from the literature. This methodology can be used to provide direct estimates of the absorbed dose rate in water for irradiations with HDR192Ir brachytherapy sources

  20. A comparison of complications between ultrasound-guided prostate brachytherapy and open prostate brachytherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Prostate brachytherapy has reemerged during the 1990s as a treatment for clinically localized prostate cancer. The renewed popularity of prostate brachytherapy is largely due to the use of transrectal ultrasound of the prostate, which allows for more accurate isotope placement within the prostate when compared to the open approach. The present study investigates whether this improved cancer control is at the expense of increased morbidity by comparing the morbidity after transrectal ultrasound-guided prostate brachytherapy to the morbidity after prostate brachytherapy performed via an open approach. Methods and Materials: All men in the Medicare population who underwent prostate brachytherapy in the year 1991 were identified. These men were further stratified into those men who underwent prostate brachytherapy via an open approach and the men who underwent prostate brachytherapy with ultrasound guidance. All subsequent inpatient, outpatient, and physician (Part B) Medicare claims for these men from the years 1991-1993 were then analyzed to determine outcomes. Results: In the year 1991, 2124 men in the Medicare population underwent prostate brachytherapy. An open approach was used in 715 men (33.7%), and ultrasound guidance was used in 1409 men (66.3%). Mean age for both cohorts was 73.7 years with a range of 50.7-92.8 years for the ultrasound group and 60.6-92.1 years for the open group. A surgical procedure for the relief of bladder outlet obstruction was performed in 122 men (8.6%) in the ultrasound group and in 54 men (7.6%) in the open group. An artificial urinary sphincter was placed in 2 men (0.14%) in the ultrasound group and in 2 men (0.28%) in the open group. A penile prosthesis was implanted in 10 men (0.71%) in the ultrasound group and in 4 men (0.56%) in the open group. A diagnosis code for urinary incontinence was carried by 95 men (6.7%) in the ultrasound group and by 45 men (6.3%) in the open group. A diagnosis code for erectile dysfunction

  1. Current Status and Recommendations for the Future of Research, Teaching, and Testing in the Biological Sciences of Radiation Oncology: Report of the American Society for Radiation Oncology Cancer Biology/Radiation Biology Task Force, Executive Summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In early 2011, a dialogue was initiated within the Board of Directors (BOD) of the American Society for Radiation Oncology (ASTRO) regarding the future of the basic sciences of the specialty, primarily focused on the current state and potential future direction of basic research within radiation oncology. After consideration of the complexity of the issues involved and the precise nature of the undertaking, in August 2011, the BOD empanelled a Cancer Biology/Radiation Biology Task Force (TF). The TF was charged with developing an accurate snapshot of the current state of basic (preclinical) research in radiation oncology from the perspective of relevance to the modern clinical practice of radiation oncology as well as the education of our trainees and attending physicians in the biological sciences. The TF was further charged with making suggestions as to critical areas of biological basic research investigation that might be most likely to maintain and build further the scientific foundation and vitality of radiation oncology as an independent and vibrant medical specialty. It was not within the scope of service of the TF to consider the quality of ongoing research efforts within the broader radiation oncology space, to presume to consider their future potential, or to discourage in any way the investigators committed to areas of interest other than those targeted. The TF charge specifically precluded consideration of research issues related to technology, physics, or clinical investigations. This document represents an Executive Summary of the Task Force report

  2. Current Status and Recommendations for the Future of Research, Teaching, and Testing in the Biological Sciences of Radiation Oncology: Report of the American Society for Radiation Oncology Cancer Biology/Radiation Biology Task Force, Executive Summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wallner, Paul E., E-mail: pwallner@theabr.org [21st Century Oncology, LLC, and the American Board of Radiology, Bethesda, Maryland (United States); Anscher, Mitchell S. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, Virginia (United States); Barker, Christopher A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); Bassetti, Michael [Department of Human Oncology, University of Wisconsin Carbone Cancer Center, Madison, Wisconsin (United States); Bristow, Robert G. [Departments of Radiation Oncology and Medical Biophysics, Princess Margaret Cancer Center/University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Cha, Yong I. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Norton Cancer Center, Louisville, Kentucky (United States); Dicker, Adam P. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Formenti, Silvia C. [Department of Radiation Oncology, New York University, New York, New York (United States); Graves, Edward E. [Departments of Radiation Oncology and Radiology, Stanford University, Stanford, California (United States); Hahn, Stephen M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Pennsylvania (United States); Hei, Tom K. [Center for Radiation Research, Columbia University, New York, New York (United States); Kimmelman, Alec C. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Kirsch, David G. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina (United States); Kozak, Kevin R. [Department of Human Oncology, University of Wisconsin (United States); Lawrence, Theodore S. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan (United States); Marples, Brian [Department of Radiation Oncology, Oakland University, Oakland, California (United States); and others

    2014-01-01

    In early 2011, a dialogue was initiated within the Board of Directors (BOD) of the American Society for Radiation Oncology (ASTRO) regarding the future of the basic sciences of the specialty, primarily focused on the current state and potential future direction of basic research within radiation oncology. After consideration of the complexity of the issues involved and the precise nature of the undertaking, in August 2011, the BOD empanelled a Cancer Biology/Radiation Biology Task Force (TF). The TF was charged with developing an accurate snapshot of the current state of basic (preclinical) research in radiation oncology from the perspective of relevance to the modern clinical practice of radiation oncology as well as the education of our trainees and attending physicians in the biological sciences. The TF was further charged with making suggestions as to critical areas of biological basic research investigation that might be most likely to maintain and build further the scientific foundation and vitality of radiation oncology as an independent and vibrant medical specialty. It was not within the scope of service of the TF to consider the quality of ongoing research efforts within the broader radiation oncology space, to presume to consider their future potential, or to discourage in any way the investigators committed to areas of interest other than those targeted. The TF charge specifically precluded consideration of research issues related to technology, physics, or clinical investigations. This document represents an Executive Summary of the Task Force report.

  3. Ethical issues in the response to Ebola virus disease in United States emergency departments: a position paper of the American College of Emergency Physicians, the Emergency Nurses Association, and the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkat, Arvind; Asher, Shellie L; Wolf, Lisa; Geiderman, Joel M; Marco, Catherine A; McGreevy, Jolion; Derse, Arthur R; Otten, Edward J; Jesus, John E; Kreitzer, Natalie P; Escalante, Monica; Levine, Adam C

    2015-05-01

    The 2014 outbreak of Ebola virus disease (EVD) in West Africa has presented a significant public health crisis to the international health community and challenged U.S. emergency departments (EDs) to prepare for patients with a disease of exceeding rarity in developed nations. With the presentation of patients with Ebola to U.S. acute care facilities, ethical questions have been raised in both the press and medical literature as to how U.S. EDs, emergency physicians (EPs), emergency nurses, and other stakeholders in the health care system should approach the current epidemic and its potential for spread in the domestic environment. To address these concerns, the American College of Emergency Physicians, the Emergency Nurses Association, and the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine developed this joint position paper to provide guidance to U.S. EPs, emergency nurses, and other stakeholders in the health care system on how to approach the ethical dilemmas posed by the outbreak of EVD. This paper will address areas of immediate and potential ethical concern to U.S. EDs in how they approach preparation for and management of potential patients with EVD. PMID:25903144

  4. Development of a Brachytherapy Software Nomogram Equivalent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main objective of this project is developing a software nomogram equivalent. A nomogram is a graph typically comprised of three parallel lines. Each of the lines is graduated for a different variable, often in a non-linear scale. The lines are oriented in such a manner that if a straight line is drawn connecting two of the three variables, the value of the third variable is uniquely determined by the intersection of the connecting line and the graduated line of the third variable. The value of the third variable is determined by reading the graduated scale at the point of intersection. A nomogram as applied in brachytherapy is used for determining the required amount of radioactive material to be implanted in a diseased site. A typical brachytherapy nomogram relates the average dimension of a site, the air kerma strength per source and the number of sources required for yielding a therapeutic radiation dose to the site. More sophisticated nomograms also provide scales for recommending source and needle spacings. For decades the nomogram has been clinically employed as a brachytherapy treatment planning tool. Imaging modalities such as CT and ultrasound ushered in modern image-based brachytherapy treatment planning. These modern imaging techniques dramatically advanced the state of the art of brachytherapy, often obviating the use of nomograms. Although the routine use of nomograms has decreased, there are clinical situations where nomograms still prove useful for brachytherapy treatment planning. Often times the dimensions of a tumor or tumor bed are not known prior to surgery and delineated images of the site are not available. In such situations the tumor dimensions can be measured in the OR and a nomogram applied for rapid treatment planning. By definition a nomogram is a graphical tool, which is fixed and cannot be modified. Differences of opinion and treatment philosophies exist among physicians and institutions. These varying approaches can lead to

  5. Injectable thermoresponsive polymer for brachytherapy

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kučka, Jan; Hrubý, Martin; Poučková, P.; Lebeda, Ondřej; Zadinová, M.

    Prague : Charles University, 2010. P6.15. [Conference of the European Colloid and Interface Society /24./. 05.09.2010-10.09.2010, Prague] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA202/09/2078; GA AV ČR KAN200200651; GA ČR GPP207/10/P054 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505; CEZ:AV0Z10480505 Keywords : thermoresponsive * radionuclide Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry

  6. 10 CFR 35.400 - Use of sources for manual brachytherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Use of sources for manual brachytherapy. 35.400 Section 35.400 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION MEDICAL USE OF BYPRODUCT MATERIAL Manual Brachytherapy § 35.400 Use of sources for manual brachytherapy. A licensee shall use only brachytherapy sources...

  7. Radiochromic dye film studies for brachytherapy applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Dávalos, A; Rodríguez-Villafuerte, M; Díaz-Perches, R; Arzamendi-Pérez, S

    2002-01-01

    Commercial radiochromic dye films have been used in recent years to quantify absorbed dose in several medical applications. In this study we present the characterisation of the GafChromic MD-55-2 dye film, a double sensitive layer film suitable for photon irradiation in brachytherapy applications. Dose measurements were carried out with a low dose rate 137Cs brachytherapy source, which produces very steep dose gradients in its vicinity, and therefore requires the capability of producing high spatial resolution isodose curves. Quantification of the dose rate in water per unit air kerma strength was obtained using a high-resolution transmission commercial scanner (Agfa DuoScan T1200 with the capability of digitising up to 600 x 1200 pixels per inch using 36 bits per pixel, together with optical density measurements. The Monte Carlo calculations and experimental measurements compared well in the 0-50 Gy dose interval used in this study. PMID:12382798

  8. Radiochromic dye film studies for brachytherapy applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez-Davalos, A.; Rodriguez-Villafuerte, M.; Diaz-Perches, R.; Arzamendi-Perez, S

    2002-07-01

    Commercial radiochromic dye films have been used in recent years to quantify absorbed dose in several medical applications. In this study we present the characterisation of the GafChromic MD-55-2 dye film, a double sensitive layer film suitable for photon irradiation in brachytherapy applications. Dose measurements were carried out with a low dose rate {sup 137}Cs brachytherapy source, which produces very steep dose gradients in its vicinity, and therefore requires the capability of producing high spatial resolution isodose curves. Quantification of the dose rate in water per unit air kerma strength was obtained using a high-resolution transmission commercial scanner (Agfa DuoScan T1200) with the capability of digitising up to 600 x 1200 pixels per inch using 36 bits per pixel, together with optical density measurements. The Monte Carlo calculations and experimental measurements compared well in the 0-50 Gy dose interval used in this study. (author)

  9. Radiochromic dye film studies for brachytherapy applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Commercial radiochromic dye films have been used in recent years to quantify absorbed dose in several medical applications. In this study we present the characterisation of the GafChromic MD-55-2 dye film, a double sensitive layer film suitable for photon irradiation in brachytherapy applications. Dose measurements were carried out with a low dose rate 137Cs brachytherapy source, which produces very steep dose gradients in its vicinity, and therefore requires the capability of producing high spatial resolution isodose curves. Quantification of the dose rate in water per unit air kerma strength was obtained using a high-resolution transmission commercial scanner (Agfa DuoScan T1200) with the capability of digitising up to 600 x 1200 pixels per inch using 36 bits per pixel, together with optical density measurements. The Monte Carlo calculations and experimental measurements compared well in the 0-50 Gy dose interval used in this study. (author)

  10. Sexual function after permanent prostate brachytherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To determine the incidence of potency preservation following permanent prostate brachytherapy and to evaluate the effect of multiple clinical and treatment parameters on penile erectile function. Materials and Methods: 425 patients underwent permanent prostate brachytherapy from April 1995 to October 1999. 209 patients who were potent prior to brachytherapy and currently not receiving hormonal manipulation were mailed an International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF) questionnaire with a pre-addressed stamped envelope. 180 patients completed and returned the questionnaire. Median patient follow-up was 39 months (range 18-74 months). Pre-implant erectile function was assigned using a three-tiered scoring system (2 = erections always or nearly always sufficient for vaginal penetration; 1 = erections sufficient for vaginal penetration but considered suboptimal; 0 = the inability to obtain erections and/or erections inadequate for vaginal penetration). Post-implant potency was defined as an IIEF score >11. Clinical parameters evaluated for sexual function included patient age, clinical T stage, elapsed time since implantation, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and tobacco consumption. Evaluated treatment parameters included the utilization of neoadjuvant hormonal manipulation and the choice of isotope. The efficacy of sildenafil citrate in brachytherapy induced erectile dysfunction (ED) was also evaluated. Results: A pre-treatment erectile function score of 2 and 1 were assigned to 126 and 54 patients respectively. With 6 year follow up, 39% of patients maintained potency following prostate brachytherapy with a plateau on the curve. Post-implant preservation of potency (IIEF>11) correlated with pre-implant erectile function (50% versus 14% for pre-implant scores of 2 and 1 respectively, p≤0.0001), patient age (56%, 38%, and 23% for patients <60 years of age, 60-69 years of age, and ≥70 years of age respectively, p=0.012) and a history of diabetes mellitus

  11. Evolution of dose distribution calculations in brachytherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this report the evolution of dose distribution calculations is revised in detail, considering the simplest case (a point source in free space) and the more complex situation of a real encapsulated line source embedded in a scattering medium. The most recent formalism to perform the dosimetry of interstitial brachytherapy sources is presented, where measured or measurable dose rates from actual sources in a tissue equivalent phantom are required as input data

  12. Brachytherapy in treatment of vaginal cancer

    OpenAIRE

    A. D. Kaprin; V. N. Galkin; S. A. Ivanov; V. A. Solodkiy; V. A. Titova

    2016-01-01

    Characteristics of diagnosis and treatment of different types of primary vaginal cancer are highlighted, the role and place of brachytherapy as independent method or combined treatment modality for this pathology is shown in the review. Epidemiological data on incidence of vaginal cancer in Russia are represented, presumptive mechanisms for development of the disease, risk factors, histological types, features of the course, clinical presentation, diagnostic algorithm are described. Treatment...

  13. Photoacoustic imaging of prostate brachytherapy seeds

    OpenAIRE

    Su, Jimmy L.; Bouchard, Richard R.; Karpiouk, Andrei B.; Hazle, John D.; Emelianov, Stanislav Y.

    2011-01-01

    Brachytherapy seed therapy is an increasingly common way to treat prostate cancer through localized radiation. The current standard of care relies on transrectal ultrasound (TRUS) for imaging guidance during the seed placement procedure. As visualization of individual metallic seeds tends to be difficult or inaccurate under TRUS guidance, guide needles are generally tracked to infer seed placement. In an effort to improve seed visualization and placement accuracy, the use of photoacoustic (PA...

  14. Procedures for calibration of brachytherapy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brachytherapy source strength verification is a responsibility of the user of these source, in fact of the Medical Physicists in charge of this issue in a Radiotherapy Service. The calibration procedures in the users conditions are shown. Specifics methods for source strength determination are recommended, both for High Dose Rate (HDR) sources with Remote Afterloading equipment and for Low Dose Rate sources. The The results of the calibration of HDR Remote After loaders are indicated

  15. Erectile Function Durability Following Permanent Prostate Brachytherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To evaluate long-term changes in erectile function following prostate brachytherapy. Methods and Materials: This study included 226 patients with prostate cancer and preimplant erectile function assessed by the International Index of Erectile Function-6 (IIEF-6) who underwent brachytherapy in two prospective randomized trials between February 2001 and January 2003. Median follow-up was 6.4 years. Pre- and postbrachytherapy potency was defined as IIEF-6 ≥ 13 without pharmacologic or mechanical support. The relationship among clinical, treatment, and dosimetric parameters and erectile function was examined. Results: The 7-year actuarial rate of potency preservation was 55.6% with median postimplant IIEF of 22 in potent patients. Potent patients were statistically younger (p = 0.014), had a higher preimplant IIEF (p < 0.001), were less likely to be diabetic (p = 0.002), and were more likely to report nocturnal erections (p = 0.008). Potency preservation in men with baseline IIEF scores of 29-30, 24-28, 18-23, and 13-17 were 75.5% vs. 73.6%, 51.7% vs. 44.8%, 48.0% vs. 40.0%, and 23.5% vs. 23.5% in 2004 vs. 2008. In multivariate Cox regression analysis, preimplant IIEF, hypertension, diabetes, prostate size, and brachytherapy dose to proximal penis strongly predicted for potency preservation. Impact of proximal penile dose was most pronounced for men with IIEF of 18-23 and aged 60-69. A significant minority of men who developed postimplant impotence ultimately regained erectile function. Conclusion: Potency preservation and median IIEF scores following brachytherapy are durable. Thoughtful dose sparing of proximal penile structures and early penile rehabilitation may further improve these results.

  16. Magnetite nanoparticles for nonradionuclide brachytherapy1

    OpenAIRE

    Safronov, Victor; Sozontov, Evgeny; Polikarpov, Mikhail

    2015-01-01

    Magnetite nanoparticles possess several properties that can make them useful for targeted delivery of radiation to tumors for the purpose of brachytherapy. Such particles are biodegradable and magnetic and can emit secondary radiation when irradiated by an external source. In this work, the dose distribution around a magnetite particle of 10 nm diameter being irradiated by monochromatic X-rays with energies in the range 4–60 keV is calculated.

  17. Intensity Modulated Proton Beam Radiation for Brachytherapy in Patients With Cervical Carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To evaluate intensity modulated proton therapy (IMPT) in patients with cervical cancer in terms of coverage, conformity, and dose–volume histogram (DVH) parameters correlated with recommendations from magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-guided brachytherapy. Methods and Materials: Eleven patients with histologically proven cervical cancer underwent primary chemoradiation for the pelvic lymph nodes, the uterus, the cervix, and the parametric region, with a symmetric margin of 1 cm. The prescription was for 50.4 Gy, with 1.8 Gy per fraction. The prescribed dose to the parametria was 2.12 Gy up to 59.36 Gy in 28 fractions as a simultaneous boost. For several reasons, the patients were unable to undergo brachytherapy. As an alternative, IMPT was planned with 5 fractions of 6 Gy to the cervix, including the macroscopic tumor with an MRI-guided target definition, with an isotropic margin of 5 mm for planning target volume (PTV) definition. Groupe-Europeen de Curietherapie and European society for Radiotherapy and Oncology (GEC-ESTRO) criteria were used for DVH evaluation. Reference comparison plans were optimized for volumetric modulated rapid arc (VMAT) therapy with the RapidArc (RA). Results: The dose to the high-risk volume was calculated with α/β = 10 with 89.6 Gy. For IMPT, the clinical target volume showed a mean dose of 38.2 ± 5.0 Gy (35.0 ±1.8 Gy for RA). The D98% was 31.9 ± 2.6 Gy (RA: 30.8 ± 1.0 Gy). With regard to the organs at risk, the 2Gy Equivalent Dose (EQD2) (α/β = 3) to 2 cm3 of the rectal wall, sigmoid wall, and bladder wall was 62.2 ± 6.4 Gy, 57.8 ± 6.1 Gy, and 80.6 ± 8.7 Gy (for RA: 75.3 ± 6.1 Gy, 66.9 ± 6.9 Gy, and 89.0 ± 7.2 Gy, respectively). For the IMPT boost plans in combination with external beam radiation therapy, all DVH parameters correlated with <5% risk for grades 2 to 4 late gastrointestinal and genitourinary toxicity. Conclusion: In patients who are not eligible for brachytherapy, IMPT as a boost technique

  18. Intensity Modulated Proton Beam Radiation for Brachytherapy in Patients With Cervical Carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clivio, Alessandro [Oncology Institute of Southern Switzerland, Bellinzona (Switzerland); Kluge, Anne [Department of Radiation Oncology, Charité University Hospital, Berlin (Germany); Cozzi, Luca, E-mail: lucozzi@iosi.ch [Oncology Institute of Southern Switzerland, Bellinzona (Switzerland); Köhler, Christhardt [Department of Gynecology, Charité University Hospital, Berlin (Germany); Neumann, Oliver [Department of Radiation Oncology, Charité University Hospital, Berlin (Germany); Vanetti, Eugenio [Oncology Institute of Southern Switzerland, Bellinzona (Switzerland); Wlodarczyk, Waldemar; Marnitz, Simone [Department of Radiation Oncology, Charité University Hospital, Berlin (Germany)

    2013-12-01

    Purpose: To evaluate intensity modulated proton therapy (IMPT) in patients with cervical cancer in terms of coverage, conformity, and dose–volume histogram (DVH) parameters correlated with recommendations from magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-guided brachytherapy. Methods and Materials: Eleven patients with histologically proven cervical cancer underwent primary chemoradiation for the pelvic lymph nodes, the uterus, the cervix, and the parametric region, with a symmetric margin of 1 cm. The prescription was for 50.4 Gy, with 1.8 Gy per fraction. The prescribed dose to the parametria was 2.12 Gy up to 59.36 Gy in 28 fractions as a simultaneous boost. For several reasons, the patients were unable to undergo brachytherapy. As an alternative, IMPT was planned with 5 fractions of 6 Gy to the cervix, including the macroscopic tumor with an MRI-guided target definition, with an isotropic margin of 5 mm for planning target volume (PTV) definition. Groupe-Europeen de Curietherapie and European society for Radiotherapy and Oncology (GEC-ESTRO) criteria were used for DVH evaluation. Reference comparison plans were optimized for volumetric modulated rapid arc (VMAT) therapy with the RapidArc (RA). Results: The dose to the high-risk volume was calculated with α/β = 10 with 89.6 Gy. For IMPT, the clinical target volume showed a mean dose of 38.2 ± 5.0 Gy (35.0 ±1.8 Gy for RA). The D{sub 98%} was 31.9 ± 2.6 Gy (RA: 30.8 ± 1.0 Gy). With regard to the organs at risk, the 2Gy Equivalent Dose (EQD2) (α/β = 3) to 2 cm{sup 3} of the rectal wall, sigmoid wall, and bladder wall was 62.2 ± 6.4 Gy, 57.8 ± 6.1 Gy, and 80.6 ± 8.7 Gy (for RA: 75.3 ± 6.1 Gy, 66.9 ± 6.9 Gy, and 89.0 ± 7.2 Gy, respectively). For the IMPT boost plans in combination with external beam radiation therapy, all DVH parameters correlated with <5% risk for grades 2 to 4 late gastrointestinal and genitourinary toxicity. Conclusion: In patients who are not eligible for brachytherapy, IMPT as a boost

  19. Dosimetry in high dose rate endoluminal brachytherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In endoluminal brachytherapy for the tracheobronchial tree, esophagus, and bile duct, a reference point for dose calculation has been often settled at 1 cm outside from the middle of source travel path. In the current study, a change in the ratio of the reference point dose on the convex to concave side (Dq/Dp) was calculated, provided the source travel path bends as is the case in most endoluminal brachytherapies. Point source was presumed to move stepwise at 1 cm interval from 4 to 13 locations. Retention time at each location was calculated by personal computer so as to deliver equal dose at 1 cm from the linear travel path. With the retention time remaining constant, the change of Dq/Dp was assessed by bending the source travel path. Results indicated that the length of the source travel path and radius of its curve influenced the pattern of change in Dq/Dp. Therefore, it was concluded that the difference in reference dose on the convex and concave side of the curved path is not negligible under certain conditions in endoluminal brachytherapy. In order to maintain the ratio more than 0.9, relatively greater radius was required when the source travel path was decreased. (author)

  20. Paraspinal tumors: Techniques and results of brachytherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Because of their proximity to nerve roots and the spinal cord, it is frequently difficult to achieve complete resection of paraspinal tumors. We have used brachytherapy in an attempt to prevent local recurrence and its associated neurological sequelae. This report analyzes our experience with 35 patients to determine the feasibility, optimal techniques, and efficacy of this approach. The tumor types were non small-cell lung cancer (18), sarcomas (9), and other tumor types (8). Temporary, single plane implants using Ir-192 (median minimum peripheral dose 3000 cGy) were used in 21 patients, and permanent I-125 implants were used in 14 cases (median matched peripheral dose 12,500 cGy). Local control was achieved in 51% (18/35). However, local control was poor when lung cancers were implanted and in cases where the dura was exposed. Radiation myelitis did not occur despite the combined effects of previous external beam radiotherapy (N = 21) and brachytherapy. Our experience demonstrates that combined surgery and paraspinal brachytherapy can be performed with acceptable toxicity and is reasonably effective in preventing local relapse and its neurologic sequelae, particularly for tumors other than lung cancers

  1. Brachytherapy treatment with high dose rate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Retrospectively analyze results and prognostic factors of cervical cancer patients treated with radio concomitant cisplatin-based chemotherapy, radiation therapy combined modality. Methods: From January 2003 to December 2007, 198 patients with invasive cervical cancer were treated at the Oncology Department of Hospital Robau Celestino Hernandez (brachytherapy performed at INOR). The most common age group was 31 to 40 years. The histology in squamous cell carcinoma accounted for 84.3% of cases. The treatment consisted of external pelvic irradiation and vaginal brachytherapy, high dose rate. Concomitant chemotherapy consisted of cisplatin 40 mg/m2 weekly with a maximum of 70 mg for 5 weeks. Results: 66.2% of patients completed 5 cycles of chemotherapy. The median overall survival was 39 months, overall survival, disease-free survival and survival free of locoregional recurrence at 5 years of 78%, 76% and 78.6% respectively .. We found that clinical stage, histological type (adenocarcinoma worst outcome) were statistically related to level of response. Conclusions: Treatment with external pelvic radiation, brachytherapy and concurrent weekly cisplatin in patients with stage IIIB cervical cancer is feasible in the Chilean public health system, well tolerated and results comparable to international literature. (Author)

  2. Radioactive seed immobilization techniques for interstitial brachytherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yan, K.; Podder, T.; Buzurovic, I.; Hu, Y.; Dicker, A.; Valicenti, R.; Yu, Y. [Thomas Jefferson University, Department of Radiation Oncology, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Messing, E. [University of Rochester, Departments of Urology and Surgery, Rochester, NY (United States); Rubens, D. [University of Rochester, Departments of Imaging Science and Surgery, Rochester, NY (United States); Sarkar, N. [Vanderbilt University, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Nashville, TN (United States); Ng, W. [Nangyang Technical University, School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Singapore (Singapore)

    2008-06-15

    In prostate brachytherapy, seeds can detach from their deposited sites and move locally in the pelvis or migrate to distant sites including the pulmonary and cardiac regions. Undesirable consequences of seed migration include inadequate dose coverage of the prostate and tissue irradiation effects at the site of migration. Thus, it is clinically important to develop seed immobilization techniques. We first analyze the possible causes for seed movement, and propose three potential techniques for seed immobilization: (1) surgical glue, (2) laser coagulation and (3) diathermy coagulation. The feasibility of each method is explored. Experiments were carried out using fresh bovine livers to investigate the efficacy of seed immobilization using surgical glue. Results have shown that the surgical glue can effectively immobilize the seeds. Evaluation of the radiation dose distribution revealed that the non-immobilized seed movement would change the planned isodose distribution considerably; while by using surgical glue method to immobilize the seeds, the changes were negligible. Prostate brachytherapy seed immobilization is necessary and three alternative mechanisms are promising for addressing this issue. Experiments for exploring the efficacy of the other two proposed methods are ongoing. Devices compatible with the brachytherapy procedure will be designed in future. (orig.)

  3. Review of clinical brachytherapy uncertainties: Analysis guidelines of GEC-ESTRO and the AAPM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    treatment course, taking into account the fractionation schedule and level of image guidance for adaptation. Conclusions: This report on brachytherapy clinical uncertainties represents a working project developed by the Brachytherapy Physics Quality Assurances System (BRAPHYQS) subcommittee to the Physics Committee within GEC-ESTRO. Further, this report has been reviewed and approved by the American Association of Physicists in Medicine

  4. American Society of Colon and Rectal Surgeons

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Memory of Theodore Schrock, MD CREST® Core Subject – Intestinal Stomas As a Core Subject, this module is eligible ... 1 Credits™ . Read more about CREST® Core Subject – Intestinal Stomas CREST® Core Subject – Surgical Management of Crohn's Disease ...

  5. American Society for Parenteral & Enteral Nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Resources Continuing Education Certification Claim CE Credits Clinical Nutrition Week eLearning Center Professional Development Webinars Calendar of ... Guidelines Clinical Practice Library Standards Malnutrition Awareness Parenteral ... Resources Practice and Research Toolkits Online Store Research ...

  6. American Society for Laser Medicine and Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Back Specialty Laser and Energy-Based Device Use Dentistry Dermatology General Surgery Neurosurgery Obstetrics/Gynecology Oncology Ophthalmology ... journal dedicated to basic and applied aspects of laser therapy and diagnosis. View Sample Editor's Choice Articles  Light ...

  7. Violence in Sport: Mirror of American Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Runfola, Ross T.

    1975-01-01

    In this issue of a newsletter put out by the Center for Information on America, Washington, D.C., the author cites historical, psychological, and sociological reasons for violence in sports activities and concludes by requesting further research. (JA)

  8. An official American Thoracic Society workshop report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenfeld, Margaret; Allen, Julian; Arets, Bert H G M;

    2013-01-01

    current state of the art for each of these tests is reviewed as it applies to the clinical management of infants and children under 6 years of age with cystic fibrosis, bronchopulmonary dysplasia, and recurrent wheeze, using a standardized format that allows easy comparison between the measures. Although...... insufficient evidence exists to recommend incorporation of these tests into the routine diagnostic evaluation and clinical monitoring of infants and young children with cystic fibrosis, bronchopulmonary dysplasia, or recurrent wheeze, they may be valuable tools with which to address specific concerns, such as...... ongoing symptoms or monitoring response to treatment, and as outcome measures in clinical research studies....

  9. American Society for Testing and Materials

    CERN Document Server

    ASTM is a not-for-profit organization that provides a forum for the development and publication of voluntary consensus standards for materials, products, systems and services. ASTM develops standard test methods, specifications, practices, guides, classifications, and terminology in 130 areas covering subjects such as metals, paints, plastics, textiles, petroleum, construction, energy, the environment, computerized systems, consumer products, electronics, and many others.

  10. American Headache Society, Committee on Headache Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 20 Miles 50 Miles 100 Miles Specialty: Anesthesiology Dentistry/TMJ/Oral Surgery Headache Medicine Neurology Nurse Practitioner/ ... by entering your e-mail address below. Featured News View All News Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder & Migraine # ...

  11. American Society for Metabolic and Bariatric Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Education CBN CME Policies Meetings of Interest Online Education Directory Search Patient Learning Center Bariatric Surgery FAQs Bariatric Surgery Procedures BMI Calculator Childhood and Adolescent Obesity 100 SW 75th Street, Suite 201, Gainesville, FL, ...

  12. American Medical Society for Sports Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Subcommittee on Health Collaborative Solutions for Safety in Sports AMSSM Sports Ultrasound Online Didactics UPCOMING EVENTS JUNE 2016 6/ ... Exhibiting Sponsorship Advertising Mailing List Rentals FIND A SPORTS DOC Please enter a search term relevant to ...

  13. [American Nuclear Society regional student conferences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The conference transactions include abstracts of presentation in the following sessions: mathematics and computer applications, radioisotopes and applications, criticality and safety, reactor physics, fusion energy, thermal hydraulics, health and medical physics, fuel cycle and waste management, reactor operations, and space remote and material technology

  14. American Society of Gene & Cell Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Resources Clinical Trials Information Gene Therapy and Cell Therapy Terminology Gene Therapy & Cell Therapy Breakthroughs FAQs Gene Therapy and Cell Therapy Defined Gene Therapy and Cell Therapy for Diseases Sites of ...

  15. American Chemical Society, Division of Environmental Chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Separate abstracts were prepared for 161 papers of this divisional meeting for the US Department of Energy's Database. Main topics discussed included: acid rain mitigation - liming technologies and environmental considerations; biotechnology for wastewater treatment; environmental chemistry of lakes and reservoirs and pollution prevention and process analytical chemistry

  16. Science, Society and Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, K. S.; Teich, A. H.

    2010-12-01

    Apart from the journals they produce, scientific societies play an important role in communicating scientific findings and norms to the broader society. The American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) includes among its goals to promote and defend the integrity of science and its use; provide a voice for science on societal issues; promote the responsible use of science in public policy; and increase public engagement with science and technology. AAAS websites and programs, including Communicating Science (www.aaas.org/communicatingscience), Working with Congress (http://www.aaas.org/spp/cstc/wwc/book.htm) and ScienceCareers.org (http://sciencecareers.sciencemag.org), provide tools for scientists to become more directly engaged in effectively communicating their findings and involved in the policy process. Education programs work to build the next generation of scientists and a science-literate public. To bridge the current communication gap between scientists, the public and policymakers, AAAS, like other scientific societies, maintains policy and outreach programs with limited budgets and staff. AAAS works to engage policymakers and provide scientific underpinning to key issues through congressional briefings, meetings, policy briefs, and media outreach. AAAS responds to challenges to accepted scientific findings and processes through op-eds, letters to government officials, resolutions, and Board statements. Some of these initiatives occur on a local level in partnership with local civic leaders, whose endorsement makes them more powerful. On a national scale, they assure that the voice of science is included in the debate. The changing media landscape presents opportunities and challenges for future AAAS endeavors.

  17. Risk and society

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book brings together the communications presented at the colloquium 'risk and society' held in Paris (France) on November 1998. During this colloquium, the various aspects of risk and of its management were discussed by medical specialists, historians, industrialists, engineers, philosophers, lawyers, politicians and administration representatives. The first theme concerns the controversies generated by the development of some activities (genetics, bio-technologies, nuclear and radiations use). The second theme concerns the management of risks and the way to conciliate the point of view of authorities and citizens (confidence of the public with respect to experts, scientists, industrialists, government and administrative representatives, role played by the media). The debates that took place during the colloquium have shown that the public opinion concerning the nuclear activities or the new technologies greatly depends on the ideological attitudes and on the public's likes and dislikes with respect to some categories of actors (distrust with respect to public decisions, fears with respect to changes and future, nostalgia of the past). The following aspects are reviewed: Notions of risk and hazard (risk and health, risk in today's society, medicine and society, the point of view of the industrialists and of the scientific and technical specialists); from the psychological aspects of the risk to its social aspects (survey of the risk assessment battlefield, social attenuation and amplification of risk, the feeling of risks in Europe, insecurity and delinquency, controversies around radioactivity and health); the negotiation and communication about risks (risk and public health, negotiation around risks, risks and information dissemination about the public debate, communication and crisis, evolution of risk communication, comparison between American and European approaches, the Seveso directive); the public debate and the evolution of risks management (the

  18. Radiation Exposure Reduction to Brachytherapy Staff By Using Remote Afterloading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radiation exposures to the personnel staff from patients with brachytherapy implants in a brachytherapy service were reviewed. Exposures to the brachytherapy personnel, as determined by Thermoluminescence Dosimeter (TLD) monitors, indicates a four-fold reduction in exposures after the implantation of the use of remote afterloading devices. Quarterly TLD monitor data for seven quarters prior to the use of remote afterloading devices demonstrate an average projected annual dose equivalent to the brachytherapy staff of 2543 Μ Sv. After the implantation of the remote afterloading devices, the quarterly TLD monitor data indicate an average dose equivalent per person of 153 Μ Sv. This is 76% reduction in exposure to brachytherapy personnel with the use of these devices

  19. Penile brachytherapy: Results for 49 patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To report results for 49 men with squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the penis treated with primary penile interstitial brachytherapy at one of two institutions: the Ottawa Regional Cancer Center, Ottawa, and the Princess Margaret Hospital, Toronto, Ontario, Canada. Methods and Materials: From September 1989 to September 2003, 49 men (mean age, 58 years; range, 22-93 years) had brachytherapy for penile SCC. Fifty-one percent of tumors were T1, 33% T2, and 8% T3; 4% were in situ and 4% Tx. Grade was well differentiated in 31%, moderate in 45%, and poor in 2%; grade was unspecified for 20%. One tumor was verrucous. All tumors in Toronto had pulsed dose rate (PDR) brachytherapy (n = 23), whereas those in Ottawa had either Iridium wire (n 22) or seeds (n = 4). Four patients had a single plane implant with a plastic tube technique, and all others had a volume implant with predrilled acrylic templates and two or three parallel planes of needles (median, six needles). Mean needle spacing was 13.5 mm (range, 10-18 mm), mean dose rate was 65 cGy/h (range, 33-160 cGy/h), and mean duration was 98.8 h (range, 36-188 h). Dose rates for PDR brachytherapy were 50-61.2 cGy/h, with no correction in total dose, which was 60 Gy in all cases. Results: Median follow-up was 33.4 months (range, 4-140 months). At 5 years, actuarial overall survival was 78.3% and cause-specific survival 90.0%. Four men died of penile cancer, and 6 died of other causes with no evidence of recurrence. The cumulative incidence rate for never having experienced any type of failure at 5 years was 64.4% and for local failure was 85.3%. All 5 patients with local failure were successfully salvaged by surgery; 2 other men required penectomy for necrosis. The soft tissue necrosis rate was 16% and the urethral stenosis rate 12%. Of 8 men with regional failure, 5 were salvaged by lymph node dissection with or without external radiation. All 4 men with distant failure died of disease. Of 49 men, 42 had an intact

  20. Can a small-changes approach help address the obesity epidemic? A report of the Joint Task Force of the American Society for Nutrition, Institute of Food Technologists, and International Food Information Council.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, James O

    2009-02-01

    The continued rise in obesity rates in most countries suggests that current programs and initiatives designed to combat obesity have not been successful in reversing the obesity epidemic. Obesity rates are increasing because of a gradual weight gain in most populations. There has been little long-term success in treating established obesity through lifestyle change, perhaps because of the large permanent changes in diet and physical activity required to keep weight off. An alternative strategy to address the obesity epidemic involves not focusing on weight loss but promoting small changes in diet and physical activity to initially prevent further weight gain. With the use of this strategy, obesity rates could first be stabilized in most populations and then, over time, decrease gradually. Supporting data show that small reductions in conscious energy intake and increases in physical activity can reduce excessive weight gain. The opportunity exists to use the small-changes approach to bring different stakeholders together to create a national initiative to address the global epidemic of obesity. The Joint Task Force of the American Society for Nutrition, Institute of Food Technologists, and International Food Information Council believe that a small-changes framework, aimed at helping people make conscious small changes in lifestyle behaviors, in combination with efforts by the private sector to gradually "ratchet down" some of the environmental factors that have contributed to excessive energy intake and the declining rates of physical activity, can be successful in reducing obesity rates. Such an initiative would benefit from the support of educational and social marketing campaigns developed with governmental input and support. PMID:19088151

  1. American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition and Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics: revised 2014 standards of practice and standards of professional performance for registered dietitian nutritionists (competent, proficient, and expert) in nutrition support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brantley, Susan L; Russell, Mary K; Mogensen, Kris M; Wooley, Jennifer A; Bobo, Elizabeth; Chen, Yimin; Malone, Ainsley; Roberts, Susan; Romano, Michelle M; Taylor, Beth

    2014-12-01

    This 2014 revision of the Standards of Practice (SOP) and Standards of Professional Performance (SOPP) for Registered Dietitian Nutritionists (RDNs) in Nutrition Support represents an update of the 2007 Standards composed by content experts of the American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition and the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. The revision is based on the Revised 2012 SOP in Nutrition Care and SOPP for RDs, which incorporates the Nutrition Care Process and the following six domains of professionalism: Quality in Practice, Competence and Accountability, Provision of Services, Application of Research, Communication and Application of Knowledge, and Utilization and Management of Resources. These SOP and SOPP are designed to promote the provision of safe, effective, and efficient nutrition support services; facilitate evidence-based practice; and serve as a professional evaluation resource for RDNs who specialize in or wish to specialize in nutrition support therapy. These standards should be applied in all patient/client care settings in which RDNs in nutrition support provide care. These settings include, but are not limited to, acute care, ambulatory/outpatient care, and home and alternate site care. The standards highlight the value of the nutrition support RDN's roles in quality management, regulatory compliance, research, teaching, consulting, and writing for peer-reviewed professional publications. The standards assist the RDN in nutrition support to distinguish his or her level of practice (competent, proficient, or expert) and would guide the RDN in creating a personal development plan to achieve increasing levels of knowledge, skill, and ability in nutrition support practice. PMID:25443567

  2. Erectile function after permanent prostate brachytherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To determine the incidence of potency preservation after permanent prostate brachytherapy using a validated patient-administered questionnaire and to evaluate the effect of multiple clinical and treatment parameters on penile erectile function. Methods and Materials: Four hundred twenty-five patients underwent permanent prostate brachytherapy from April 1995 to October 1999. Two hundred nine patients who were potent before brachytherapy and who at the time of the survey were not receiving hormonal therapy were mailed the specific erectile questions of the International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF) questionnaire with a self-addressed stamped envelope. The questionnaire consisted of 5 questions, with a maximal score of 25. Of the 209 patients, 181 (87%) completed and returned the questionnaire. The mean and median follow-up was 40.4±14.9 and 40.6 months, respectively (range 19-75). Preimplant erectile function was assigned using a three-tiered scoring system (2 = erections always or nearly always sufficient for vaginal penetration; 1 = erections sufficient for vaginal penetration but considered suboptimal; 0 = the inability to obtain erections and/or erections inadequate for vaginal penetration). Postimplant potency was defined as an IIEF score ≥11. The clinical parameters evaluated for erectile function included patient age, preimplant potency, clinical T-stage, pretreatment prostate-specific antigen level, Gleason score, elapsed time after implantation, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and tobacco consumption. Treatment parameters included radiation dose to the prostate gland, use of hormonal manipulation, use of supplemental external beam radiotherapy (EBRT), choice of isotope, prostate volume, and planning volume. The efficacy of sildenafil citrate in brachytherapy-induced erectile dysfunction (ED) was also evaluated. Results: Pretreatment erectile function scores of 2 and 1 were assigned to 125 and 56 patients, respectively. With a 6-year follow

  3. Comparative dosimetry in intracavitary balloon catheter brachytherapy with I-125 and in Cf-252 brachytherapy combined with BNCT for brain tumors

    OpenAIRE

    Samia de Freitas Brandao; Tarcisio Passos Ribeiro de Campos

    2013-01-01

    Objective Comparative analysis of dosimetry in intracavitary balloon catheter brachytherapy with I-125 and in Cf-252 brachytherapy combined with BNCT for treatment of brain tumors. Materials and Methods Simulations of intracavitary balloon catheter brachytherapy with I-125 and in Cf-252 brachytherapy combined with BNCT were performed with the MCNP5 code, modeling the treatment of a brain tumor on a voxel computational phantom representing a human head. Absorbed dose rates were converted int...

  4. Caudal epidural anesthesia during intracavitary brachytherapy for cervical cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It has been suggested that pain control during intracavitary brachytherapy for cervical cancer is insufficient in most hospitals in Japan. Our hospital began using caudal epidural anesthesia during high-dose-rate (HDR) intracavitary brachytherapy in 2011. The purpose of the present study was to retrospectively investigate the effects of caudal epidural anesthesia during HDR intracavitary brachytherapy for cervical cancer patients. Caudal epidural anesthesia for 34 cervical cancer patients was performed during HDR intracavitary brachytherapy between October 2011 and August 2013. We used the patients' self-reported Numeric Rating Scale (NRS) score at the first session of HDR intracavitary brachytherapy as a subjective evaluation of pain. We compared NRS scores of the patients with anesthesia with those of 30 patients who underwent HDR intracavitary brachytherapy without sacral epidural anesthesia at our hospital between May 2010 and August 2011. Caudal epidural anesthesia succeeded in 33 patients (97%), and the NRS score was recorded in 30 patients. The mean NRS score of the anesthesia group was 5.17 ± 2.97, significantly lower than that of the control group's 6.80 ± 2.59 (P = 0.035). The caudal epidural block resulted in no side-effects. Caudal epidural anesthesia is an effective and safe anesthesia option during HDR intracavitary brachytherapy for cervical cancer. (author)

  5. Radiation Protection in Brachytherapy in the Next Decade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brachytherapy procedures are increasing in number, and account for an important share of radiation exposure in medicine at a time when there is a dramatic rise in cancer across the developing world. Important areas in relation to radiation safety in brachytherapy include that all efforts be made to ensure that protection in the treatment is optimized and all measures are taken to prevent accidental exposures from occurring. Historical and ongoing accidents that have resulted in patient and public doses or inappropriate medical outcomes represent opportunities for continuous improvement in radiation protection. Additionally, staff in brachytherapy treatment facilities may receive high radiation doses if radiological protection tools are not used properly. Brachytherapy uniquely presents the possibility for doses that require active management. In modern brachytherapy centres, radiation doses are incurred by staff (e.g. loading of seeds, plaques, caesium implants, associated fluoroscopy). There is also a large variation in the practice of brachytherapy on a global scale and several facilities still practise older techniques with significantly higher staff dose potential. In addition, technological developments and newer techniques present new radiation protection concerns and an increasing blurring of historical responsibilities that need to be addressed with specific recommendations for the practising medical community. Along with an increase in equipment and to safeguard resources, additional qualified and trained brachytherapy staff are required worldwide. (author)

  6. The dosimetry of brachytherapy-induced erectile dysfunction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There is emerging evidence that brachytherapy-induced erectile dysfunction (ED) is technique-related and may be minimized by careful attention to source placement. Herein, we review the relationship between radiation doses to the prostate gland/surrounding structures and the development of brachytherapy-induced ED. The permanent prostate brachytherapy literature was reviewed using MEDLINE searches to ensure completeness. Although the site-specific structure associated with brachytherapy-induced ED remains unknown, there is an increasing body of data implicating the proximal penis. With day 0 CT-based dosimetry, the dose to 50% (D50) and 25% (D25) of the bulb of the penis should be maintained below 40% and 60% mPD, respectively, while the crura D50 should be maintained below 28% mPD to maximize post-brachytherapy potency. To date, there is no data to suggest that either radiation doses to the neurovascular bundles or choice of isotope is associated with brachytherapy-induced ED, while conflicting data has been reported regarding radiation dose to the prostate and the use of supplemental external beam radiation therapy. Although the etiology of brachytherapy-induced ED is likely multifactorial, the available data supports the proximal penis as an important site-specific structure. Refinements in implant technique, including preplanning and intraoperative seed placement, will result in lower radiation doses to the proximal penis with potential improvement in potency preservation

  7. Multihelix rotating shield brachytherapy for cervical cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To present a novel brachytherapy technique, called multihelix rotating shield brachytherapy (H-RSBT), for the precise angular and linear positioning of a partial shield in a curved applicator. H-RSBT mechanically enables the dose delivery using only linear translational motion of the radiation source/shield combination. The previously proposed approach of serial rotating shield brachytherapy (S-RSBT), in which the partial shield is rotated to several angular positions at each source dwell position [W. Yang et al., “Rotating-shield brachytherapy for cervical cancer,” Phys. Med. Biol. 58, 3931–3941 (2013)], is mechanically challenging to implement in a curved applicator, and H-RSBT is proposed as a feasible solution. Methods: A Henschke-type applicator, designed for an electronic brachytherapy source (Xoft Axxent™) and a 0.5 mm thick tungsten partial shield with 180° or 45° azimuthal emission angles and 116° asymmetric zenith angle, is proposed. The interior wall of the applicator contains six evenly spaced helical keyways that rigidly define the emission direction of the partial radiation shield as a function of depth in the applicator. The shield contains three uniformly distributed protruding keys on its exterior wall and is attached to the source such that it rotates freely, thus longitudinal translational motion of the source is transferred to rotational motion of the shield. S-RSBT and H-RSBT treatment plans with 180° and 45° azimuthal emission angles were generated for five cervical cancer patients with a diverse range of high-risk target volume (HR-CTV) shapes and applicator positions. For each patient, the total number of emission angles was held nearly constant for S-RSBT and H-RSBT by using dwell positions separated by 5 and 1.7 mm, respectively, and emission directions separated by 22.5° and 60°, respectively. Treatment delivery time and tumor coverage (D90 of HR-CTV) were the two metrics used as the basis for evaluation and

  8. Multihelix rotating shield brachytherapy for cervical cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dadkhah, Hossein [Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Iowa, 1402 Seamans Center for the Engineering Arts and Sciences, Iowa City, Iowa 52242 (United States); Kim, Yusung; Flynn, Ryan T., E-mail: ryan-flynn@uiowa.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Iowa, 200 Hawkins Drive, Iowa City, Iowa 52242 (United States); Wu, Xiaodong [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Iowa, 200 Hawkins Drive, Iowa City, Iowa 52242 and Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Iowa, 4016 Seamans Center for the Engineering Arts and Sciences, Iowa City, Iowa 52242 (United States)

    2015-11-15

    Purpose: To present a novel brachytherapy technique, called multihelix rotating shield brachytherapy (H-RSBT), for the precise angular and linear positioning of a partial shield in a curved applicator. H-RSBT mechanically enables the dose delivery using only linear translational motion of the radiation source/shield combination. The previously proposed approach of serial rotating shield brachytherapy (S-RSBT), in which the partial shield is rotated to several angular positions at each source dwell position [W. Yang et al., “Rotating-shield brachytherapy for cervical cancer,” Phys. Med. Biol. 58, 3931–3941 (2013)], is mechanically challenging to implement in a curved applicator, and H-RSBT is proposed as a feasible solution. Methods: A Henschke-type applicator, designed for an electronic brachytherapy source (Xoft Axxent™) and a 0.5 mm thick tungsten partial shield with 180° or 45° azimuthal emission angles and 116° asymmetric zenith angle, is proposed. The interior wall of the applicator contains six evenly spaced helical keyways that rigidly define the emission direction of the partial radiation shield as a function of depth in the applicator. The shield contains three uniformly distributed protruding keys on its exterior wall and is attached to the source such that it rotates freely, thus longitudinal translational motion of the source is transferred to rotational motion of the shield. S-RSBT and H-RSBT treatment plans with 180° and 45° azimuthal emission angles were generated for five cervical cancer patients with a diverse range of high-risk target volume (HR-CTV) shapes and applicator positions. For each patient, the total number of emission angles was held nearly constant for S-RSBT and H-RSBT by using dwell positions separated by 5 and 1.7 mm, respectively, and emission directions separated by 22.5° and 60°, respectively. Treatment delivery time and tumor coverage (D{sub 90} of HR-CTV) were the two metrics used as the basis for evaluation and

  9. Iridium-192 sources production for brachytherapy use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The incidence of cancer increases every year in Brazil and turns out to be one of the most important causes of mortality. Some of the patients are treated with brachytherapy, a form of lesion treatment which is based on the insertion of sources into tumors, in this particular case, activated iridium wires. During this process, the ionizing radiation efficiently destroys the malignant cells. These iridium wires have a nucleus made out of an iridium-platinum alloy 20-30/70-80 of 0,1 mm in diameter either coated by platinum or encased in a platinum tube. The technique consists in irradiating the wire in the reactor neutron flux in order to produce iridium-192. The linear activity goes from 1 mCi/cm to 4 mCi/cm and the basic characteristic, which is required, is the homogeneity of the activation along the wire. It should not present a dispersion exceeding 5% on a wire measuring 50 cm in length, 0.5 mm or 0.3 mm in diameter. Several experiments were carried out in order to define the activation parameters. Wires from different origins were analyzed. It was concluded that United States of America and France wires were found to be perfectly adequate for brachytherapy purposes and have therefore been sent to specialized hospitals and successfully applied to cancer patients. Considering that the major purpose of this work is to make this product more accessible in Brazil, at a cost reflecting the Brazilian reality, the IPEN is promoting the preparation of iridium-192 sources to be used in brachytherapy, on a national level. (author)

  10. Perioperative interstitial brachytherapy for recurrent keloid scars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Evaluation of the results of perioperative interstitial brachytherapy with low dose-rate (L.D.R.) Ir-192 in the treatment of keloid scars. Patients and methods: We performed a retrospective analysis of 73 histologically confirmed keloids (from 58 patients) resistant to medico surgical treated by surgical excision plus early perioperative brachytherapy. All lesions were initially symptomatic. Local control was evaluated by clinical evaluation. Functional and cosmetic results were assessed in terms of patient responses to a self-administered questionnaire. Results: Median age was 28 years (range 13-71 years). Scars were located as follows: 37% on the face, 32% on the trunk or abdomen, 16% on the neck, and 15% on the arms or legs. The mean delay before loading was four hours (range, 1-6 h). The median dose was 20 Gy (range, 15-40 Gy). Sixty-four scars (from 53 patients) were evaluated. Local control was 86% (follow-up, 44.5 months; range, 14-150 months). All relapses occurred early within 2 years posttreatment. At 20 months, survival without recurrence was significantly lower when treated lengths were more than 6 cm long. The rate was 100% for treated scars below 4.5 cm in length, 95% (95% CI: 55-96) for those 4.5-6 cm long, and 75% (95% CI: 56-88) beyond 6 cm (p = 0.038). Of the 35 scars (28 patients) whose results were reassessed, six remained symptomatic and the esthetic results were considered to be good in 51% (18/35) and average in 37% (13/35) (median follow-up, 70 months; range, 16-181 months). Conclusion: Early perioperative L.D.R. brachytherapy delivering 20 Gy at 5 mm reduced the rate of recurrent keloids resistant to other treatments and gave good functional results. (authors)

  11. Marks in Latin-American radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An historical retrospective of Latin-American radiology is shortly presented. Several radiologic societies as well as personalities, scientists and doctors are reported emphasizing their contribuition to radiologic Latin-American culture. (M.A.C.)

  12. The EQUAL-ESTRO audit on geometric reconstruction techniques in brachytherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background and purpose: A geometric check procedure of the reconstruction techniques used in brachytherapy treatment planning systems was developed by the EQUAL (European Quality Laboratory) Laboratory in the framework of the ESTRO's (European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology) project 'ESQUIRE' (Education Science and QUality assurance In Radiotherapy in Europe [Baumann M, Brada M. Towards equity in turbulent Europe ESTRO, European cooperation and the European Commission. Radiother Oncol 2005;75:251-2. Heeren G. The bright but ephemeral life of a rainbow. A chronical of seventeen years of intensive ESTRO-EU cooperation. Radiother Oncol 2005;75:253-7]) by the task group Braphyqs (Brachytherapy physics quality system). Patients and methods: The check is performed by using the so-called 'Baltas' phantom, mailed to the participating centres in order to check the local technique of geometric reconstruction used in dose calculation. Results: To validate the procedures, the check was first tested among the members of the Braphyqs Network. Since November 2002, the system is open to other centres. Until now 152 reconstructions have been checked. Eighty-six percent of the results were within an acceptance level after the first check. For the remaining 14%, a second check has been proposed. The results of the re-checks are in most cases within an acceptance level, except for 2% of the reconstructions. Conclusions: The geometric check is available from the EQUAL Laboratory for all the brachytherapy centres. The decrease of the deviations observed between the two checks demonstrates the importance of this kind of external audit as some errors were revealed, which were not discovered before with techniques used in clinical quality control routines

  13. Experiences with alanine dosimetry in afterloading brachytherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At the present, the most commonly used dosimetry for radiotherapy applications are ionisation chambers and thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLD). However, there are some undesirable characteristics of these dosimetry systems, such as large detection volume (ionisation chamber) as well as fading of the radiation induced signal with time and destructive readout (TLG). The present study is an investigation into the use of the alanine/ESR dosimetry in fractionated afterloading brachytherapy during the whole radiotherapy course. There are some qualities which make alanine dosimetry attractive. These are the linear energy response, low fading under standard conditions, and the nondestructive readout. Thus the alanine dosimetry makes possible cumulative dose measurements during the radiotherapy course and an archival storage. By ionizing radiation (gamma, e, n, p, charged particles) free radicals (unpaired electrons) are produced in the amino acid alanine. The continuous wave electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy is used to determine the number of free radicals, which is proportional to the absorbed dose and the alanine content of the dosimeter. The ESR measurements were made at room temperature using a Bruker EPR analyzer EMS-104. The dosimeters used in the test are alanine pellets (23.72 mg weight, 4.9 mm diameter, 1 mm height) as well as flexible alanine film dosimeters (thickness about 500 μm). The dosimeters consist of a blend of L-alpha-alanine and a binder. The alanine content of the pellets and the film dosimeters is about 88 % and 50 % by weight, respectively. The dosimeters for the calculation of the dose-effect-relationship were irradiated at the Physical-Technical Bundesanstalt in Braunschweig by a standard 60Co source. The maximum deviation from the calculated linear function is about 0.12 Gy in the dose range up to 80 Gy. The goal of medical applications was the superficial dose measurement in afterloading brachytherapy during the radiotherapy course in

  14. The application of Geant4 simulation code for brachytherapy treatment

    CERN Document Server

    Agostinelli, S; Garelli, S; Paoli, G; Nieminen, P; Pia, M G

    2000-01-01

    Brachytherapy is a radiotherapeutic modality that makes use of radionuclides to deliver a high radiation dose to a well-defined volume while sparing surrounding healthy structures. At the National Institute for Cancer Research of Genova a High Dose Rate remote afterloading system provides Ir(192) endocavitary brachytherapy treatments. We studied the possibility to use the Geant4 Monte Carlo simulation toolkit in brachytherapy for calculation of complex physical parameters, not directly available by experiment al measurements, used in treatment planning dose deposition models.

  15. Recent progress of multiple myeloma: reports from the 57th American Society of Hematology annual meeting%多发性骨髓瘤新进展:第57届美国血液学会年会报道

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹志坚; 马军

    2016-01-01

    The diagnosis and treatment of multiple myeloma (MM) have make remarkable progress, which were reviewed in the 57th American Society of Hematology (ASH) annual meeting. In this annual meeting, the effects of advanced proteasome inhibitor (PI), antibody, checkpoint blockade, immunomodulatory agent (IMiD), histone deacetylase (HDACI) and chimeric antigen receptor T-cell (CAR-T), and new diagnostic technologies were reported. The real point is to apply the best available diagnosis and therapy at this meeting. At present, regardless of advances, all of randomized clinical trials push to combined agents, and combined with hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, efficacy will be improved in further. So some professors also refered to 2015 year as 'the advance year of MM'.%第57届美国血液学会(ASH)年会在多发性骨髓瘤的诊治方面取得了令人瞩目的进展.年会上报道了最新的蛋白酶体抑制剂(PI)、免疫抗体(antibody)、检测点阻滞剂(checkpoint blockade)、免疫调节剂(IMiD)、组蛋白去乙酰化酶抑制剂(HDACI)等药物和嵌合抗原受体T细胞(CAR-T)治疗方法的疗效及新的诊断技术.这些促成了该届ASH年会的一个重要议题就是优化诊断治疗.目前不论使用何种新药,各个临床试验都强调了联合用药的重要性,再加上造血干细胞移植治疗,可以将疗效进一步提高.因此有研究者也将2015年称为"多发性骨髓瘤治疗进展年".

  16. Dosimetric characterization and output verification for conical brachytherapy surface applicators. Part I. Electronic brachytherapy source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Historically, treatment of malignant surface lesions has been achieved with linear accelerator based electron beams or superficial x-ray beams. Recent developments in the field of brachytherapy now allow for the treatment of surface lesions with specialized conical applicators placed directly on the lesion. Applicators are available for use with high dose rate (HDR)192Ir sources, as well as electronic brachytherapy sources. Part I of this paper will discuss the applicators used with electronic brachytherapy sources; Part II will discuss those used with HDR 192Ir sources. Although the use of these applicators has gained in popularity, the dosimetric characteristics including depth dose and surface dose distributions have not been independently verified. Additionally, there is no recognized method of output verification for quality assurance procedures with applicators like these. Existing dosimetry protocols available from the AAPM bookend the cross-over characteristics of a traditional brachytherapy source (as described by Task Group 43) being implemented as a low-energy superficial x-ray beam (as described by Task Group 61) as observed with the surface applicators of interest. Methods: This work aims to create a cohesive method of output verification that can be used to determine the dose at the treatment surface as part of a quality assurance/commissioning process for surface applicators used with HDR electronic brachytherapy sources (Part I) and192Ir sources (Part II). Air-kerma rate measurements for the electronic brachytherapy sources were completed with an Attix Free-Air Chamber, as well as several models of small-volume ionization chambers to obtain an air-kerma rate at the treatment surface for each applicator. Correction factors were calculated using MCNP5 and EGSnrc Monte Carlo codes in order to determine an applicator-specific absorbed dose to water at the treatment surface from the measured air-kerma rate. Additionally, relative dose

  17. Communicating Science to Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illingworth, Samuel; Muller, Jennifer; Leather, Kimberley; Morgan, William; O'Meara, Simon; Topping, David; Booth, Alastair; Llyod, Gary; Young, Dominique; Bannan, Thomas; Simpson, Emma; Percival, Carl; Allen, Grant; Clark, Elaine; Muller, Catherine; Graves, Rosemarie

    2014-05-01

    "Nothing in science has any value to society if it is not communicated." So goes the 1952 quote from Anne Roe, the noted twentieth century American psychologist and writer. She went on to say that "scientists are beginning to learn their social obligations", and now over 60 years later there is certainly evidence to support her assertions. As scientists, by communicating our research to the general public we not only better inform the tax payer where their money is being spent, but are also able to help put into context the topical environmental challenges and issues that society faces, as well as inspiring a whole new generation of future scientists. This process of communication is very much a two-way street; by presenting our work to people outside of our usual spheres of contemporaries, we expose ourselves to alternative thoughts and insights that can inspire us, as scientists, to take another look at our research from angles that we had never before considered. This work presents the results and experiences from a number of public engagement and outreach activities across the UK, in which geoscientists engaged and interacted with members of the general public. These include the design and implementation of Raspberry Pi based outreach activities for several hundred high school students; the process of running a successful podcast (http://thebarometer.podbean.com); hosting and participating in science events for thousands of members of the general public (e.g. http://www.manchestersciencefestival.com and http://sse.royalsociety.org/2013); and creating a citizen science activity that involved primary school children from across the UK. In communicating their research it is imperative that scientists interact with their audience in an effective and engaging manner, whether in an international conference, a classroom, or indeed down the pub. This work also presents a discussion of how these skills can be developed at an early stage in the careers of a research

  18. The Activity Check of Brachytherapy Isotope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An isotope Ir-192, which is used in brachytherapy depends on import in whole quantities. There are a few ways for its activity. measurement using Welltype chamber or the way to rely on authentic decay table of manufacturer. In-air dosimetry using Farmer Chamber, etc. In this paper, let me introduce the way using Farmer chamber which is easier and simple. With the Farmer chamber and source calibration jig, take a measurement the activity of an isotope Ir-192 and compare the value with the value from decay table of manufacturer and check the activity of source. The result of measurement, compared the value from decay table, by ±2.1. (which belongs to recommendable value for AAPM ±5% as difference of error range). It is possible to use on clinical medicine. With the increase in use of brachytherapy, the increase of import is essential. And an accurate activity check of source is compulsory. For the activity check of source, it was possible to use Farmer chamber and source calibration jig without additional purchase of Well type chamber.

  19. A study of brachytherapy for intraocular tumor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Our purpose of this study is to perform brachytherapy for intraocular tumor. The result were as followed. 1. Eye model was determined as a 25 mm diameter sphere. Ir-192 was considered the most appropriate as radioisotope for brachytherapy, because of the size, half, energy and availability. 2. Considering the biological response with human tissue and protection of exposed dose, we made the plaques with gold, of which size were 15 mm, 17 mm and 20 mm in diameter, and 1.5 mm in thickness. 3. Transmission factor of plaques are all 0.71 with TLD and film dosimetry at the surface of plaques and 0.45, 0.49 at 1.5 mm distance of surface, respectively. 4. As compared the measured data for the plaque with Ir-192 seeds to results of computer dose calculation model by Gary Luxton et al. and CAP-PLAN (Radiation Treatment Planning System), absorbed doses are within ±10% and distance deviations are within 0.4 mm. Maximum error is -11.3% and 0.8 mm, respectively. 7 figs, 2 tabs, 28 refs. (Author)

  20. Evaluation of resins for use in brachytherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carvalho, Luiz Claudio F.M. Garcia; Ferraz, Wilmar Barbosa; Chrcanovic, Bruno Ramos; Santos, Ana Maria M., E-mail: ferrazw@cdtn.b, E-mail: amms@cdtn.b [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Brachytherapy is an advanced cancer treatment where radioactive seeds or sources are placed near or directly into the tumor thus reducing the radiation exposure in the surrounding healthy tissues. Prostate cancer can be treated with interstitial brachytherapy in initial stage of the disease in which tiny radioactive seeds with cylindrical geometry are used. Several kinds of seeds have been developed in order to obtain a better dose distribution around them and with a lower cost manufacturing. These seeds consist of an encapsulation, a radionuclide carrier, and X-ray marker. Among the materials that have potential for innovation in the construction of seeds, biocompatible resins appear as an important option. In this paper, we present some characterization results with Fourier transform infrared spectroscopic (FTIR) and ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy (UV-vis) performed on two types of resins in which curing temperatures for each one were varied as also the results of coatings with these resins under titanium substrates. Interactions of these resins in contact with the simulated body fluid were evaluated by atomic force microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. (author)

  1. Samarium-145: a new brachytherapy source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new radiation source has been produced for brachytherapy, with radiation energies slightly above those of 125I, and a Tsub(1/2) of 340 d. This source, 145Sm, is produced by neutron irradiation of 144Sm (96.5% enriched). Decay is by electron capture with 140 K x-rays per 100 disintergrations in the energy region between 38-45 keV, plus 13 γ-rays at 61 keV. These sources are encapsulated in Ti tubes, approx. 0.8 mm x 4.5 mm, and have been developed for temporary implantation in brain and ocular tumours. The 38-61 keV photons should make such sources easy to shield, while providing a dose distribution from source arrays somewhat more homogeneous than that from 125I. In addition, the 340 d half life of 145Sm permits its use for times significantly longer than that of 60 d 125I. While the 145Sm sources have been designed primarily for implantation in a brain tumour, they should be useful for almost any conventional brachytherapy application. (author)

  2. Race and Survival Following Brachytherapy-Based Treatment for Men With Localized or Locally Advanced Adenocarcinoma of the Prostate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: We investigated whether race was associated with risk of death following brachytherapy-based treatment for localized prostate cancer, adjusting for age, cardiovascular comorbidity, treatment, and established prostate cancer prognostic factors. Methods: The study cohort was composed of 5,360 men with clinical stage T1-3N0M0 prostate cancer who underwent brachytherapy-based treatment at 20 centers within the 21st Century Oncology consortium. Cox regression multivariable analysis was used to evaluate the risk of death in African-American and Hispanic men compared to that in Caucasian men, adjusting for age, pretreatment prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level, Gleason score, clinical T stage, year and type of treatment, median income, and cardiovascular comorbidities. Results: After a median follow-up of 3 years, there were 673 deaths. African-American and Hispanic races were significantly associated with an increased risk of all-cause mortality (ACM) (adjusted hazard ratio, 1.77 and 1.79; 95% confidence intervals, 1.3–2.5 and 1.2–2.7; p < 0.001 and p = 0.005, respectively). Other factors significantly associated with an increased risk of death included age (p < 0.001), Gleason score of 8 to 10 (p = 0.04), year of brachytherapy (p < 0.001), and history of myocardial infarction treated with stent or coronary artery bypass graft (p < 0.001). Conclusions: After adjustment for prostate cancer prognostic factors, age, income level, and revascularized cardiovascular comorbidities, African-American and Hispanic races were associated with higher ACM in men with prostate cancer. Additional causative factors need to be identified.

  3. Manual on brachytherapy. Incorporating: Applications guide, procedures guide, basics guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In addition to a basic guide to the principles of the production of ionizing radiation and to methods of radiation protection and dosimetry, this booklet includes information about radiation protection procedures for brachytherapy

  4. Image-Based Brachytherapy for the Treatment of Cervical Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cervical cancer is a disease that requires considerable multidisciplinary coordination of care and labor in order to maximize tumor control and survival while minimizing treatment-related toxicity. As with external beam radiation therapy, the use of advanced imaging and 3-dimensional treatment planning has generated a paradigm shift in the delivery of brachytherapy for the treatment of cervical cancer. The use of image-based brachytherapy, most commonly with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), requires additional attention and effort by the treating physician to prescribe dose to the proper volume and account for adjacent organs at risk. This represents a dramatic change from the classic Manchester approach of orthogonal radiographic images and prescribing dose to point A. We reviewed the history and currently evolving data and recommendations for the clinical use of image-based brachytherapy with an emphasis on MRI-based brachytherapy

  5. Nursing intervention in gynecologic brachytherapy under general anesthesia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We reconsidered our nursing intervention in gynecologic intracavitary brachytherapy as general anesthesia was introduced. We recognized that safety, comfort, privacy protection and relief of anxiety of the patients were important points for nursing with corporation of other medical staffs. (author)

  6. Image-Based Brachytherapy for the Treatment of Cervical Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harkenrider, Matthew M., E-mail: mharkenrider@lumc.edu; Alite, Fiori; Silva, Scott R.; Small, William

    2015-07-15

    Cervical cancer is a disease that requires considerable multidisciplinary coordination of care and labor in order to maximize tumor control and survival while minimizing treatment-related toxicity. As with external beam radiation therapy, the use of advanced imaging and 3-dimensional treatment planning has generated a paradigm shift in the delivery of brachytherapy for the treatment of cervical cancer. The use of image-based brachytherapy, most commonly with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), requires additional attention and effort by the treating physician to prescribe dose to the proper volume and account for adjacent organs at risk. This represents a dramatic change from the classic Manchester approach of orthogonal radiographic images and prescribing dose to point A. We reviewed the history and currently evolving data and recommendations for the clinical use of image-based brachytherapy with an emphasis on MRI-based brachytherapy.

  7. Brachytherapy in thetreatment of the oral and oropharyngeal cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Zhumankulov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. One of the methods of radiotherapy of malignant tumors of oral cavity and oropharyngeal region today is interstitial radiation therapy – brachytherapy, allowing you to create the optimum dose of irradiation to the tumor, necessary for its destruction, without severe radiation reactions in the surrounding tissues unchanged. Brachytherapy has the following advantages: high precision – the ability of the local summarization of high single doses in a limited volume of tissue; good tolerability; a short time of treatment. At this time, brachytherapy is the method of choice used as palliative therapy and as a component of radical treatment.Objective: The purpose of this article is a literature review about the latest achievements of interstitial brachytherapy in malignant tumors of the oral cavity and oropharynx.

  8. Radiotherapy and Brachytherapy : Proceedings of the NATO Advanced Study Institute on Physics of Modern Radiotherapy & Brachytherapy

    CERN Document Server

    Lemoigne, Yves

    2009-01-01

    This volume collects a series of lectures presented at the tenth ESI School held at Archamps (FR) in November 2007 and dedicated to radiotherapy and brachytherapy. The lectures focus on the multiple facets of radiotherapy in general, including external radiotherapy (often called teletherapy) as well as internal radiotherapy (called brachytherapy). Radiotherapy strategy and dose management as well as the decisive role of digital imaging in the associated clinical practice are developed in several articles. Grouped under the discipline of Conformal Radiotherapy (CRT), numerous modern techniques, from Multi-Leaf Collimators (MLC) to Intensity Modulated RadioTherapy (IMRT), are explained in detail. The importance of treatment planning based upon patient data from digital imaging (Computed Tomography) is also underlined. Finally, despite the quasi- totality of patients being presently treated with gamma and X-rays, novel powerful tools are emerging using proton and light ions (like carbon ions) beams, bound to bec...

  9. Brachytherapy. Pulsed dose rate brachytherapy - Radiation protection: medical sheet ED 4250

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After having indicated the required authorization to implement brachytherapy techniques, this document presents the various aspects and measures related to radiation protection when performing pulsed-dose-rate brachytherapy treatments. It presents the concerned personnel, describes the operational process, indicates the associated hazards and the risk related to ionizing radiation, and describes how the risk is to be assessed and how exposure levels are to be determined (elements of risk assessment, delimitation of controlled and monitored areas, personnel classification, and choice of the dose monitoring method). It describes the various components of a risk management strategy (risk reduction, technical measures regarding the installation and the personnel, training and information, prevention and medical monitoring). It briefly presents how risk management is to be assessed, and mentions other related risks (biological risk, handling and posture, handling of heavy loads, mental workload, chemical risk)

  10. Calculated neutron air kerma strength conversion factors for a generically encapsulated Cf-252 brachytherapy source

    CERN Document Server

    Rivard, M J; D'Errico, F; Tsai, J S; Ulin, K; Engler, M J

    2002-01-01

    The sup 2 sup 5 sup 2 Cf neutron air kerma strength conversion factor (S sub K sub N /m sub C sub f) is a parameter needed to convert the radionuclide mass (mu g) provided by Oak Ridge National Laboratory into neutron air kerma strength required by modern clinical brachytherapy dosimetry formalisms indicated by Task Group No. 43 of the American Association of Physicists in Medicine (AAPM). The impact of currently used or proposed encapsulating materials for sup 2 sup 5 sup 2 Cf brachytherapy sources (Pt/Ir-10%, 316L stainless steel, nitinol, and Zircaloy-2) on S sub K sub N /m sub C sub f was calculated and results were fit to linear equations. Only for substantial encapsulation thicknesses, did S sub K sub N /m sub C sub f decrease, while the impact of source encapsulation composition is increasingly negligible as Z increases. These findings are explained on the basis of the non-relativistic kinematics governing the majority of sup 2 sup 5 sup 2 Cf neutron interactions. Neutron kerma and energy spectra resul...

  11. A simplified analytical dose calculation algorithm accounting for tissue heterogeneity for low-energy brachytherapy sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mashouf, Shahram; Lechtman, Eli; Beaulieu, Luc; Verhaegen, Frank; Keller, Brian M; Ravi, Ananth; Pignol, Jean-Philippe

    2013-09-21

    The American Association of Physicists in Medicine Task Group No. 43 (AAPM TG-43) formalism is the standard for seeds brachytherapy dose calculation. But for breast seed implants, Monte Carlo simulations reveal large errors due to tissue heterogeneity. Since TG-43 includes several factors to account for source geometry, anisotropy and strength, we propose an additional correction factor, called the inhomogeneity correction factor (ICF), accounting for tissue heterogeneity for Pd-103 brachytherapy. This correction factor is calculated as a function of the media linear attenuation coefficient and mass energy absorption coefficient, and it is independent of the source internal structure. Ultimately the dose in heterogeneous media can be calculated as a product of dose in water as calculated by TG-43 protocol times the ICF. To validate the ICF methodology, dose absorbed in spherical phantoms with large tissue heterogeneities was compared using the TG-43 formalism corrected for heterogeneity versus Monte Carlo simulations. The agreement between Monte Carlo simulations and the ICF method remained within 5% in soft tissues up to several centimeters from a Pd-103 source. Compared to Monte Carlo, the ICF methods can easily be integrated into a clinical treatment planning system and it does not require the detailed internal structure of the source or the photon phase-space. PMID:23965939

  12. Risk factors for acute urinary retention requiring temporary intermittent catheterization after prostate brachytherapy: a prospective study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: We prospectively investigated prognostic factors for men undergoing transperineal radioactive seed implantation for prostate cancer at the University of Washington. Methods and Materials: Between February and April, 1998, 62 consecutive unselected patients were prospectively followed after brachytherapy for early-stage prostate adenocarcinoma. Pretreatment variables included age, American Urological Association (AUA) score, uroflowimetry, and prostate volume by ultrasound. Nonrandomized variables included hormonal therapy, seed type, and use of pelvic radiotherapy. Patients were contacted by phone at one week postoperatively and at one-month intervals thereafter. Follow-up continued until all patients provided the date of last catheterization. Results: Urinary retention rate at one week was 34% (21 of 63 patients). At one month, 29%; at three months, 18%; and at six months, 10%. Preoperative flow rate and post-void residual did not predict for retention (p=.48 and p=.58). Use of alpha blockers, hormonal therapy, type of seed (103Pd or 1251), or external beam radiotherapy had no impact on risk of retention at any followup point. Preimplant volume and AUA score predicted for retention on univariate analysis, but on multivariate analysis only postimplant volume remained significant (p=.02) for predicting retention risk and duration. Conclusion: Patients with large prostate size (>36 g) and higher AUA score (>10) appear to be at greater risk of risk of retention as well as duration of retention as defined in our study. Further investigation will be needed to clarify the risk of urinary retention for men undergoing brachytherapy

  13. Parameterization of brachytherapy source phase space file for Monte Carlo-based clinical brachytherapy dose calculation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A common approach to implementing the Monte Carlo method for the calculation of brachytherapy radiation dose deposition is to use a phase space file containing information on particles emitted from a brachytherapy source. However, the loading of the phase space file during the dose calculation consumes a large amount of computer random access memory, imposing a higher requirement for computer hardware. In this study, we propose a method to parameterize the information (e.g., particle location, direction and energy) stored in the phase space file by using several probability distributions. This method was implemented for dose calculations of a commercial Ir-192 high dose rate source. Dose calculation accuracy of the parameterized source was compared to the results observed using the full phase space file in a simple water phantom and in a clinical breast cancer case. The results showed the parameterized source at a size of 200 kB was as accurate as the phase space file represented source of 1.1 GB. By using the parameterized source representation, a compact Monte Carlo job can be designed, which allows an easy setup for parallel computing in brachytherapy planning. (paper)

  14. Parameterization of brachytherapy source phase space file for Monte Carlo-based clinical brachytherapy dose calculation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, M.; Zou, W.; Chen, T.; Kim, L.; Khan, A.; Haffty, B.; Yue, N. J.

    2014-01-01

    A common approach to implementing the Monte Carlo method for the calculation of brachytherapy radiation dose deposition is to use a phase space file containing information on particles emitted from a brachytherapy source. However, the loading of the phase space file during the dose calculation consumes a large amount of computer random access memory, imposing a higher requirement for computer hardware. In this study, we propose a method to parameterize the information (e.g., particle location, direction and energy) stored in the phase space file by using several probability distributions. This method was implemented for dose calculations of a commercial Ir-192 high dose rate source. Dose calculation accuracy of the parameterized source was compared to the results observed using the full phase space file in a simple water phantom and in a clinical breast cancer case. The results showed the parameterized source at a size of 200 kB was as accurate as the phase space file represented source of 1.1 GB. By using the parameterized source representation, a compact Monte Carlo job can be designed, which allows an easy setup for parallel computing in brachytherapy planning.

  15. Intraluminal brachytherapy in the treatment of bile duct carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patients with carcinoma of the biliary tract have a poor prognosis because the disease is often unresectable at diagnosis. Intraluminal brachytherapy has been reported as an effective treatment for localized cholangiocarcinoma of the biliary tract. The purpose of our study was to analyse the survival of patients treated with brachytherapy and make some recommendations regarding its use. Fifteen patients underwent brachytherapy via a trans-hepatic approach at the Royal Prince Alfred Hospital from 1983 to 1993. Eleven patients had low-dose rate brachytherapy and four patients had high-dose rate treatment. There were nine males and six females. The median age was 64 years. Other treatment included bypass procedures in two patients, endoscopic stents in 14 patients and external beam irradiation in one patient. The median survival was 12.5 months and 47% of the patients survived 1 year. The only complication reported was cholangitis which was seen in one patient. There did not seem to be any difference in survival or complications between low- and high-dose rate brachytherapy. It is concluded that the addition of intraluminal brachytherapy after biliary drainage prolongs survival and is a safe and effective treatment, but patients still have a high rate of local failure, and further studies will be needed to address this problem. (authors)

  16. Outcomes in Women Treated With MammoSite Brachytherapy or Whole Breast Irradiation Stratified by ASTRO Accelerated Partial Breast Irradiation Consensus Statement Groups

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zauls, A. Jason, E-mail: zauls@musc.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC (United States); Watkins, John M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC (United States); Wahlquist, Amy E. [Department of Biostatistics, Bioinformatics, and Epidemiology, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC (United States); Brackett, N. Craig [Coastal Carolina Breast Center, Georgetown, SC (United States); Aguero, Eric G. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC (United States); Baker, Megan K. [Department of Surgery, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC (United States); Jenrette, Joseph M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC (United States); Garrett-Mayer, Elizabeth [Department of Biostatistics, Bioinformatics, and Epidemiology, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC (United States); Harper, Jennifer L. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The American Society for Radiation Oncology published a Consensus Statement for accelerated partial breast irradiation identifying three groups: Suitable, Cautionary, and Unsuitable. The objective of this study was to compare oncologic outcomes in women treated with MammoSite brachytherapy (MB) vs. whole breast irradiation (WBI) after stratification into Statement groups. Methods: Eligible women had invasive carcinoma or ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) {<=}3 cm, and {<=}3 lymph nodes positive. Women were stratified by radiation modality and Statement groups. Survival analysis methods including Kaplan-Meier estimation, Cox regression, and competing risks analysis were used to assess overall survival (OS), disease-free survival (DFS), time to local failure (TTLF), and tumor bed failure (TBF). Results: A total of 459 (183 MB and 276 WBI) patients were treated from 2002 to 2009. After a median follow-up of 45 months, we found no statistical differences by stratification group or radiation modality with regard to OS and DFS. At 4 years TTLF or TBF were not statistically different between the cohorts. Univariate analysis in the MB cohort revealed that nodal positivity (pN1 vs. pN0) was related to TTLF (hazard ratio 6.39, p = 0.02). There was a suggestion that DCIS histology had an increased risk of failure when compared with invasive ductal carcinoma (hazard ratio 3.57, p = 0.06). Conclusions: MB and WBI patients stratified by Statement groups seem to combine women who will have similar outcomes regardless of radiation modality. Although outcomes were similar, we remain guarded in overinterpretation of these preliminary results until further analysis and long-term follow-up data become available. Caution should be used in treating women with DCIS or pN1 disease with MB.

  17. Outcomes in Women Treated With MammoSite Brachytherapy or Whole Breast Irradiation Stratified by ASTRO Accelerated Partial Breast Irradiation Consensus Statement Groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: The American Society for Radiation Oncology published a Consensus Statement for accelerated partial breast irradiation identifying three groups: Suitable, Cautionary, and Unsuitable. The objective of this study was to compare oncologic outcomes in women treated with MammoSite brachytherapy (MB) vs. whole breast irradiation (WBI) after stratification into Statement groups. Methods: Eligible women had invasive carcinoma or ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) ≤3 cm, and ≤3 lymph nodes positive. Women were stratified by radiation modality and Statement groups. Survival analysis methods including Kaplan-Meier estimation, Cox regression, and competing risks analysis were used to assess overall survival (OS), disease-free survival (DFS), time to local failure (TTLF), and tumor bed failure (TBF). Results: A total of 459 (183 MB and 276 WBI) patients were treated from 2002 to 2009. After a median follow-up of 45 months, we found no statistical differences by stratification group or radiation modality with regard to OS and DFS. At 4 years TTLF or TBF were not statistically different between the cohorts. Univariate analysis in the MB cohort revealed that nodal positivity (pN1 vs. pN0) was related to TTLF (hazard ratio 6.39, p = 0.02). There was a suggestion that DCIS histology had an increased risk of failure when compared with invasive ductal carcinoma (hazard ratio 3.57, p = 0.06). Conclusions: MB and WBI patients stratified by Statement groups seem to combine women who will have similar outcomes regardless of radiation modality. Although outcomes were similar, we remain guarded in overinterpretation of these preliminary results until further analysis and long-term follow-up data become available. Caution should be used in treating women with DCIS or pN1 disease with MB.

  18. High-Dose-Rate Brachytherapy and External-Beam Radiotherapy for Hormone-Naieve Low- and Intermediate-Risk Prostate Cancer: A 7-Year Experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aluwini, Shafak, E-mail: s.aluwini@erasmusmc.nl [Department of Radiation Oncology, Erasmus MC, Daniel den Hoed Cancer Center, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Rooij, Peter H. van [Department of Radiation Oncology, Erasmus MC, Daniel den Hoed Cancer Center, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Kirkels, Wim J. [Department of Urology, Erasmus MC, Daniel den Hoed Cancer Center, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Jansen, Peter P.; Praag, John O. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Erasmus MC, Daniel den Hoed Cancer Center, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Bangma, Chris H. [Department of Urology, Erasmus MC, Daniel den Hoed Cancer Center, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Kolkman-Deurloo, Inger-Karine K. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Erasmus MC, Daniel den Hoed Cancer Center, Rotterdam (Netherlands)

    2012-08-01

    Purpose: To report clinical outcomes and early and late complications in 264 hormone-naieve patients with low- and intermediate-risk prostate cancer treated with high-dose-rate brachytherapy (HDR-BT) in combination with external-beam radiotherapy (EBRT). Methods and Materials: Between February 2000 and July 2007, 264 patients underwent HDR-BT in combination with EBRT as a treatment for their low- to intermediate-risk prostate cancer. The HDR-BT was performed using ultrasound-based implantation. The total HDR-BT dose was 18 Gy in 3 fractions within 24 h, with a 6-h minimum interval. The EBRT started 2 weeks after HDR-BT and was delivered in 25 fractions of 1.8 Gy to 45 Gy within 5 weeks. Results: After a mean follow-up of 74.5 months, 4 patients (1.5%) showed prostate-specific antigen progression according to the American Society for Radiation Oncology definition and 8 patients (3%) according to the Phoenix definition. A biopsy-proven local recurrence was registered in 1 patient (0.4%), and clinical progression (bone metastases) was documented in 2 patients (0.7%). Seven-year actuarial freedom from biochemical failure was 97%, and 7-year disease-specific survival and overall survival were 100% and 91%, respectively. Toxicities were comparable to other series. Conclusions: Treatment with interstitial HDR-BT plus EBRT shows a low incidence of late complications and a favorable oncologic outcome after 7 years follow-up.

  19. Assessment of Capacity in an Aging Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moye, Jennifer; Marson, Daniel C.; Edelstein, Barry

    2013-01-01

    Over the past 40 years, the assessment and scientific study of capacity in older adults has emerged as a distinct field of clinical and research activity for psychologists. This new field reflects the convergence of several trends: the aging of American society, the growing incidence and prevalence of dementia, and the patient rights,…

  20. [The Dutch Cancer Society Cancer Risk Test].

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elias, S.; Grooters, H.G.; Bausch-Goldbohm, R.A.; Brandt, P.A. van den; Kampman, E.; Leeuwen, F.E. van; Peeters, P.H.M.; Vries, E. de; Wigger, S.; Kiemeney, L.A.L.M.

    2012-01-01

    The Dutch Cancer Society developed the 'KWF Kanker Risico Test' (Cancer Risk Test) to improve the information available to the Dutch population regarding cancer risk factors. This Internet test, based under licence on the American 'Your Disease Risk' test, informs users about risk factors for 12 com

  1. Predictors of Metastatic Disease After Prostate Brachytherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To identify predictors of metastatic disease after brachytherapy treatment for prostate cancer. Methods and Materials: All patients who received either brachytherapy alone (implant) or brachytherapy in combination with external beam radiation therapy for treatment of localized prostate cancer at The Mount Sinai Hospital between June 1990 and March 2007 with a minimum follow-up of 2 years were included. Univariate and multivariable analyses were performed on the following variables: risk group, Gleason score (GS), clinical T stage, pretreatment prostate-specific antigen level, post-treatment prostate-specific antigen doubling time (PSA-DT), treatment type (implant vs. implant plus external beam radiation therapy), treatment era, total biological effective dose, use of androgen deprivation therapy, age at diagnosis, and race. PSA-DT was analyzed in the following ordinate groups: 0 to 90 days, 91 to 180 days, 180 to 360 days, and greater than 360 days. Results: We included 1,887 patients in this study. Metastases developed in 47 of these patients. The 10-year freedom from distant metastasis (FFDM) rate for the entire population was 95.1%. Median follow-up was 6 years (range, 2–15 years). The only two significant predictors of metastatic disease by multivariable analyses were GS and PSA-DT (p < 0.001 for both variables). Estimated 10-year FFDM rates for GS of 6 or less, GS of 7, and GS of 8 or greater were 97.9%, 94.3%, and 76.1%, respectively (p < 0.001). Estimated FFDM rates for PSA-DT of 0 to 90 days, 91 to 180 days, 181 to 360 days, and greater than 360 days were 17.5%, 67.9%, 74%, and 94.8%, respectively (p < 0.001). Estimated 10-year FFDM rates for the low-, intermediate-, and high-risk groups were 98.6%, 96.2%, and 86.7%, respectively. A demographic shift to patients presenting with higher-grade disease in more recent years was observed. Conclusions: GS and post-treatment PSA-DT are both statistically significant independent predictors of metastatic

  2. Epoxy resins used to seal brachytherapy seed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prostate cancer treatment with brachytherapy is recommended for patients with cancer at an early stage. In this treatment, small radioactive seeds are implanted directly in the prostate gland. These seeds are composed at least of one radionuclide carrier and an X-ray marker enclosed within a metallic tube usually sealed by laser process. This process is expensive and, furthermore, it can provoke a partial volatilization of the radionuclide and change the isotropy in dose distribution around the seed. In this paper, we present a new sealing process using epoxy resin. Three kinds of resins were utilized and characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X ray (EDS) and by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) after immersion in simulated body fluid (SBF) and in sodium iodine solution (NaI). The sealing process showed excellent potential to replace the sealing laser usually employed. (author)

  3. Interstitial brachytherapy in carcinoma of the penis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaudhary, A.J.; Ghosh, S.; Bhalavat, R.L. [Tata Memorial Hospital, Mumbai (India). Dept. of Radiation Oncology; Kulkarni, J.N. [Tata Memorial Hospital, Mumbai (India). Dept. of Surgery; Sequeira, B.V.E. [Tata Memorial Hospital, Mumbai (India). Dept. of Medical Physics

    1999-01-01

    Aim: Keeping in line with the increasing emphasis on organ preservation, we at the Tata Memorial Hospital have evaluated the role of Ir-192 interstitial implant as regards local control, functional and cosmetic outcome in early as well as locally recurrent carcinoma of the distal penis. Patients and Methods: From October 1988 to December 1996, 23 patients with histopathologically proven cancer of the penis were treated with radical radiation therapy using Ir-192 temporary interstitial implant. Our patients were in the age group of 20 to 60 years. The primary lesions were T1 and 7, T2 in 7 and recurrent in 9 patients. Only 7 patients had palpable groin nodes at presentation, all of which were pathologically negative. The median dose of implant was 50 Gy (range 40 to 60 Gy), using the LDR afterloading system and the Paris system of implant rules for dosimetry. Follow-up ranged from 4 to 117 months (median 24 months). Results: At last follow-up 18 of the 23 patients remained locally controlled with implant alone. Three patients failed only locally, 2 locoregionally and 1 only at the groin. Of the 5 patients who failed locally, 4 were successfully salvaged with partial penectomy and remained controlled when last seen. Local control with implant alone at 8 years was 70% by life table analysis. The patients had excellent functional and cosmetic outcome. We did not record any case of skin or softtissue necrosis. Only 2 patients developed meatal stenosis, both of which were treated endoscopically. Conclusion: Our results lead us to interpret that interstitial brachytherapy with Ir-192 offers excellent local control rates with preservation of organ and function. Penectomy can be reserved as a means for effective salvage. (orig.) [Deutsch] Ziel: Das Prinzip des Organerhalts gewinnt in der Onkologie zunehmend an Bedeutung. Ziel dieser Untersuchung war es, die Rolle der interstitiellen Brachytherapie mit Ir-192 zur Behandlung des fruehen und rezidivierten Peniskarzinoms zu

  4. Harmony search optimization for HDR prostate brachytherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panchal, Aditya

    In high dose-rate (HDR) prostate brachytherapy, multiple catheters are inserted interstitially into the target volume. The process of treating the prostate involves calculating and determining the best dose distribution to the target and organs-at-risk by means of optimizing the time that the radioactive source dwells at specified positions within the catheters. It is the goal of this work to investigate the use of a new optimization algorithm, known as Harmony Search, in order to optimize dwell times for HDR prostate brachytherapy. The new algorithm was tested on 9 different patients and also compared with the genetic algorithm. Simulations were performed to determine the optimal value of the Harmony Search parameters. Finally, multithreading of the simulation was examined to determine potential benefits. First, a simulation environment was created using the Python programming language and the wxPython graphical interface toolkit, which was necessary to run repeated optimizations. DICOM RT data from Varian BrachyVision was parsed and used to obtain patient anatomy and HDR catheter information. Once the structures were indexed, the volume of each structure was determined and compared to the original volume calculated in BrachyVision for validation. Dose was calculated using the AAPM TG-43 point source model of the GammaMed 192Ir HDR source and was validated against Varian BrachyVision. A DVH-based objective function was created and used for the optimization simulation. Harmony Search and the genetic algorithm were implemented as optimization algorithms for the simulation and were compared against each other. The optimal values for Harmony Search parameters (Harmony Memory Size [HMS], Harmony Memory Considering Rate [HMCR], and Pitch Adjusting Rate [PAR]) were also determined. Lastly, the simulation was modified to use multiple threads of execution in order to achieve faster computational times. Experimental results show that the volume calculation that was

  5. MRI/TRUS data fusion for brachytherapy

    CERN Document Server

    Daanen, V; Giraud, J Y; Fourneret, P; Descotes, J L; Bolla, M; Collomb, D; Troccaz, Jocelyne

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Prostate brachytherapy consists in placing radioactive seeds for tumour destruction under transrectal ultrasound imaging (TRUS) control. It requires prostate delineation from the images for dose planning. Because ultrasound imaging is patient- and operator-dependent, we have proposed to fuse MRI data to TRUS data to make image processing more reliable. The technical accuracy of this approach has already been evaluated. METHODS: We present work in progress concerning the evaluation of the approach from the dosimetry viewpoint. The objective is to determine what impact this system may have on the treatment of the patient. Dose planning is performed from initial TRUS prostate contours and evaluated on contours modified by data fusion. RESULTS: For the eight patients included, we demonstrate that TRUS prostate volume is most often underestimated and that dose is overestimated in a correlated way. However, dose constraints are still verified for those eight patients. CONCLUSIONS: This confirms our init...

  6. Paddle-based rotating-shield brachytherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Yunlong; Xu, Weiyu [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Iowa, 4016 Seamans Center, Iowa City, Iowa 52242 (United States); Flynn, Ryan T.; Kim, Yusung; Bhatia, Sudershan K.; Buatti, John M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Iowa, 200 Hawkins Drive, Iowa City, Iowa 52242 (United States); Dadkhah, Hossein [Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Iowa, 1402 Seamans Center, Iowa City, Iowa 52242 (United States); Wu, Xiaodong, E-mail: xiaodong-wu@uiowa.edu [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Iowa, 4016 Seamans Center, Iowa City, Iowa 52242 and Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Iowa, 200 Hawkins Drive, Iowa City, Iowa 52242 (United States)

    2015-10-15

    Purpose: The authors present a novel paddle-based rotating-shield brachytherapy (P-RSBT) method, whose radiation-attenuating shields are formed with a multileaf collimator (MLC), consisting of retractable paddles, to achieve intensity modulation in high-dose-rate brachytherapy. Methods: Five cervical cancer patients using an intrauterine tandem applicator were considered to assess the potential benefit of the P-RSBT method. The P-RSBT source used was a 50 kV electronic brachytherapy source (Xoft Axxent™). The paddles can be retracted independently to form multiple emission windows around the source for radiation delivery. The MLC was assumed to be rotatable. P-RSBT treatment plans were generated using the asymmetric dose–volume optimization with smoothness control method [Liu et al., Med. Phys. 41(11), 111709 (11pp.) (2014)] with a delivery time constraint, different paddle sizes, and different rotation strides. The number of treatment fractions (fx) was assumed to be five. As brachytherapy is delivered as a boost for cervical cancer, the dose distribution for each case includes the dose from external beam radiotherapy as well, which is 45 Gy in 25 fx. The high-risk clinical target volume (HR-CTV) doses were escalated until the minimum dose to the hottest 2 cm{sup 3} (D{sub 2cm{sup 3}}) of either the rectum, sigmoid colon, or bladder reached their tolerance doses of 75, 75, and 90 Gy{sub 3}, respectively, expressed as equivalent doses in 2 Gy fractions (EQD2 with α/β = 3 Gy). Results: P-RSBT outperformed the two other RSBT delivery techniques, single-shield RSBT (S-RSBT) and dynamic-shield RSBT (D-RSBT), with a properly selected paddle size. If the paddle size was angled at 60°, the average D{sub 90} increases for the delivery plans by P-RSBT on the five cases, compared to S-RSBT, were 2.2, 8.3, 12.6, 11.9, and 9.1 Gy{sub 10}, respectively, with delivery times of 10, 15, 20, 25, and 30 min/fx. The increases in HR-CTV D{sub 90}, compared to D-RSBT, were 16

  7. Balloon brachytherapy: how I do it

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To describe the technical aspects of insertion of MammoSite Radiation System, cosmetic issues, patients selection for the procedure and their satisfaction. Seventy patients underwent brachytherapy after insertion of the MammoSite catheter and received a boost HDR totaling 1500 cGy in six fractions over a three day period. Each patient then received 5 weeks of external beam radiotherapy to the whole breast. Only T1-2 patients were treated. All patients had excellent cosmetic results. The complications (minimal skin erythema, hematoma, balloon leak, seroma, were minimal. The safety and effectiveness of the MammoSite Radiation Therapy System as a replacement for whole breast irradiation in the treatment of breast cancer has not yet been established. (author)

  8. Human error in remote Afterloading Brachytherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Remote Afterloading Brachytherapy (RAB) is a medical process used in the treatment of cancer. RAB uses a computer-controlled device to remotely insert and remove radioactive sources close to a target (or tumor) in the body. Some RAB problems affecting the radiation dose to the patient have been reported and attributed to human error. To determine the root cause of human error in the RAB system, a human factors team visited 23 RAB treatment sites in the US. The team observed RAB treatment planning and delivery, interviewed RAB personnel, and performed walk-throughs, during which staff demonstrated the procedures and practices used in performing RAB tasks. Factors leading to human error in the RAB system were identified. The impact of those factors on the performance of RAB was then evaluated and prioritized in terms of safety significance. Finally, the project identified and evaluated alternative approaches for resolving the safety significant problems related to human error

  9. Verification of ophthalmic brachytherapy treatment planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ophthalmic brachytherapy dose calculations were performed as an independent verification of commercial dosimetry software (BEBIG Plaque Simulator). Excel spreadsheets were constructed to follow the formalism of the AAPM Task Group No. 43. As a software commissioning tool, TG43 seed-based coordinates were reformatted to be compatible with plaque-based BEBIG dose tables for centrally positioned seeds. Plaque central axis doses were also calculated for rings of seeds. Close agreement with BEBIG doses was obtained in both cases. Tailored spreadsheet versions were subsequently created to verify patient treatment plans. Treatment time and dose to a specified central-axis point are calculated for ROPES plaques fully loaded with I-125 model 6702 seeds. Copyright (2001) Australasian College of Physical Scientists and Engineers in Medicine

  10. 10 CFR 35.490 - Training for use of manual brachytherapy sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Training for use of manual brachytherapy sources. 35.490 Section 35.490 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION MEDICAL USE OF BYPRODUCT MATERIAL Manual Brachytherapy § 35.490 Training for use of manual brachytherapy sources. Except as provided in § 35.57, the...

  11. 10 CFR 35.2432 - Records of calibration measurements of brachytherapy sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Records of calibration measurements of brachytherapy... Records § 35.2432 Records of calibration measurements of brachytherapy sources. (a) A licensee shall maintain a record of the calibrations of brachytherapy sources required by § 35.432 for 3 years after...

  12. Society of Thoracic Surgeons

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... With Its Intense Demands New Website from The Society of Thoracic Surgeons Puts the Power of Information ... Hotel Discount for STS Members Copyright © 2016 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. All rights reserved. Expanded Proprietary ...

  13. Oncology Nursing Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Hill Days Monday, August 22, 2016 Oncology Nursing Society Announces Support for DAISY Foundation Monday, August 8, 2016 Oncology Nursing Society and Haymarket Media Inc. Announce Navigation Summit Collaboration ...

  14. National Down Syndrome Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... with Down Syndrome Since 1979 National Down Syndrome Society 8 E 41st Street, 8th Floor New York ... Program! The mission of the National Down Syndrome Society is to be the national advocate for the ...

  15. Leukemia & Lymphoma Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... with the Baltimore chapter of The Leukemia & Lymphoma Society. She does office work regularly, participates in events ... I hereby authorize and permit The Leukemia & Lymphoma Society or its authorized agent, without compensation therefore, permission ...

  16. National Rosacea Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip to main content National Rosacea Society Improving 16 million lives through awareness, education and research National Rosacea Society Main menu For Patients For Physicians Rosacea Review Research Grants ...

  17. Society of Interventional Radiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... how interventional radiology research improves patients’ lives at Society of Interventional Radiology’s 2017 Annual Scientific Meeting; read ... comments to CMS on two MACRA coding issues; society is engaged with CMS as they develop codes ...

  18. International Transplant Nurses Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 25th Annual ITNS Symposium The International Transplant Nurses Society (ITNS) cordially invites transplant nurses and other transplant ... pocket guide, developed by the International Transplant Nurses Society (ITNS), provides an overview of the interventions used ...

  19. Society of Gynecologic Surgeons

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Events Please join us in Chicago for the Society of Gynecologic Surgeons (SGS) 25th Annual Postgraduate Course ... cases Kris Strohbehn, MD Director of Postgraduate Education, Society of Gynecologic Surgeons SGS Mission The mission of ...

  20. Ehlers-Danlos Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Scientific Board Staff Volunteer Leaders The Ehlers-Danlos Society Center for EDS Research & Clinical Care Our History ... Message Boards Patient Resource Library The Ehlers-Danlos Society Center for EDS Research & Clinical Care Loose Connections ...

  1. Society for Ambulatory Anesthesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... We Represent Ambulatory and Office-Based Anesthesia The Society for Ambulatory Anesthesia provides educational opportunities, encourages research ... 6620 | E-mail: info@sambahq.org Copyright | 2016 Society for Ambulatory Anesthesia Home | Search | Terms | Privacy Policy | ...

  2. Pediatric Endocrinology Nurses Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... International Welcome to PENS The Pediatric Endocrinology Nursing Society (PENS) is committed to the development and advancement ... PENS@kellencompany.com • Copyright © 2016 Pediatric Endocrinology Nursing Society • ALL RIGHTS RESERVED • Privacy Policy • Admin

  3. Survival benefit of hyperthermia in a prospective randomized trial of brachytherapy boost ± hyperthermia for glioblastoma multiforme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    B patients vs. 76 weeks for 33 arm A patients (p = 0.014). Factors associated with improved survival in the multivariate analysis of all 80 randomized patients included lower age (p = 0.001), higher KPS (p = 0.022), and randomization to arm B as opposed to arm A (p = 0.014). Thermal parameters were not associated with survival. There were 2 Grade 4 toxicities (meningitis) and 3 Grade 3 toxicities (1 infection, 1 case of increased hemiparesis, and 1 case of liver toxicity from hydroxyurea) on arm B, representing a 12.5% ((5(40))) incidence of serious toxicity. There were no grade 3, 4, or grade 5 toxicities on arm A. Conclusion: Adjuvant interstitial brain hyperthermia given for 30 minutes before and after brain brachytherapy boost after conventional external beam radiotherapy significantly improves survival of patients with focal glioblastoma multiforme, with acceptable toxicity. This represents the first positive randomized North American hyperthermia trial. We feel that our study benefited from the precise image-based treatment planning and catheter placement inherent in stereotactic technique and the lack of pain sensation within brain parenchyma, allowing good quality hyperthermia

  4. Reclaiming Society Publishing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip E. Steinberg

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Learned societies have become aligned with commercial publishers, who have increasingly taken over the latter’s function as independent providers of scholarly information. Using the example of geographical societies, the advantages and disadvantages of this trend are examined. It is argued that in an era of digital publication, learned societies can offer leadership with a new model of open access that can guarantee high quality scholarly material whose publication costs are supported by society membership dues.

  5. Mutual Organizations, Mutual Societies

    OpenAIRE

    Archambault, Edith

    2009-01-01

    This article is an entry to be published in an International Encyclopedia of Civil Society in 2009. Mutual organizations exist everywhere in developed and developing countreies as well. After a definition founded on social economy principles, the paper gives the historical background of mutual insurance companies, mutual benefit societies and building societies. Then we draw a panorama of the European mutual societies with international perspectives on the USA and some developing countries. S...

  6. Knowledge society features

    OpenAIRE

    Ion Popa; Cosmin Dobrin

    2007-01-01

    T21th century will be a century of informational society and knowledge, were information and knowledges will play a decisive role in economic growth on modelling, build and assertion of individual personality for world countries. Knowledge society represent climax of development for human society, where knowledge is last and highest fundamental source fo social power, succeeding other source who emphasize growth for human society- violence (force) and wealth (money). She confirm famous dictum...

  7. Methods for prostate stabilization during transperineal LDR brachytherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In traditional prostate brachytherapy procedures for a low-dose-rate (LDR) radiation seed implant, stabilizing needles are first inserted to provide some rigidity and support to the prostate. Ideally this will provide better seed placement and an overall improved treatment. However, there is much speculation regarding the effectiveness of using regular brachytherapy needles as stabilizers. In this study, we explored the efficacy of two types of needle geometries (regular brachytherapy needle and hooked needle) and several clinically feasible configurations of the stabilization needles. To understand and assess the prostate movement during seed implantation, we collected in vivo data from patients during actual brachytherapy procedures. In vitro experimentation with tissue-equivalent phantoms allowed us to further understand the mechanics behind prostate stabilization. We observed superior stabilization with the hooked needles compared to the regular brachytherapy needles (more than 40% in bilateral parallel needle configuration). Prostate movement was also reduced significantly when regular brachytherapy needles were in an angulated configuration as compared to the parallel configuration (more than 60%). When the hooked needles were angulated for stabilization, further reduction in prostate displacement was observed. In general, for convenience of dosimetric planning and to avoid needle collision, all needles are desired to be in a parallel configuration. In this configuration, hooked needles provide improved stabilization of the prostate. On the other hand, both regular and hooked needles appear to be equally effective in reducing prostate movement when they are in angulated configurations, which will be useful in seed implantation using a robotic system. We have developed nonlinear spring-damper model for the prostate movement which can be used for adapting dosimetric planning during brachytherapy as well as for developing more realistic haptic devices and

  8. Multiculturalism and "American" Religion: The Case of Hindu Indian Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurien, Prema A.

    2006-01-01

    How non-Christian religious groups should be politically recognized within Western multicultural societies has proved to be a pressing contemporary issue. This article examines some ways in which American policies regarding religion and multiculturalism have shaped Hindu Indian American organizations, forms of public expression and activism.…

  9. Guidelines for the Prevention and Treatment of Opportunistic Infections among HIV-exposed and HIV-infected children: recommendations from CDC, the National Institutes of Health, the HIV Medicine Association of the Infectious Diseases Society of America, the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society, and the American Academy of Pediatrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mofenson, Lynne M; Brady, Michael T; Danner, Susie P; Dominguez, Kenneth L; Hazra, Rohan; Handelsman, Edward; Havens, Peter; Nesheim, Steve; Read, Jennifer S; Serchuck, Leslie; Van Dyke, Russell

    2009-09-01

    endorsement by NIH, CDC, the HIV Medicine Association (HIVMA) of the Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA), the Pediatric Infectious Disease Society (PIDS), and the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP). The recommendations are rated by a letter that indicates the strength of the recommendation and a Roman numeral that indicates the quality of the evidence supporting the recommendation so readers can ascertain how best to apply the recommendations in their practice environments. An important mode of acquisition of OIs, as well as HIV infection among children, is from their infected mother; HIV-infected women coinfected with opportunistic pathogens might be more likely than women without HIV infection to transmit these infections to their infants. In addition, HIV-infected women or HIV-infected family members coinfected with certain opportunistic pathogens might be more likely to transmit these infections horizontally to their children, resulting in increased likelihood of primary acquisition of such infections in the young child. Therefore, infections with opportunistic pathogens might affect not just HIV-infected infants but also HIV-exposed but uninfected infants who become infected by the pathogen because of transmission from HIV-infected mothers or family members with coinfections. These guidelines for treating OIs in children therefore consider treatment of infections among all children, both HIV-infected and uninfected, born to HIV-infected women. Additionally, HIV infection is increasingly seen among adolescents with perinatal infection now surviving into their teens and among youth with behaviorally acquired HIV infection. Although guidelines for postpubertal adolescents can be found in the adult OI guidelines, drug pharmacokinetics and response to treatment may differ for younger prepubertal or pubertal adolescents. Therefore, these guidelines also apply to treatment of HIV-infected youth who have not yet completed pubertal development. Major changes in the

  10. MRI-Guided High–Dose-Rate Intracavitary Brachytherapy for Treatment of Cervical Cancer: The University of Pittsburgh Experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Image-based brachytherapy is increasingly used for gynecologic malignancies. We report early outcomes of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-guided brachytherapy. Methods and Materials: Consecutive patient cases with FIGO stage IB1 to IVA cervical cancer treated at a single institution were retrospectively reviewed. All patients received concurrent cisplatin with external beam radiation therapy along with interdigitated high–dose-rate intracavitary brachytherapy. Computed tomography or MRI was completed after each application, the latter acquired for at least 1 fraction. High-risk clinical target volume (HRCTV) and organs at risk were identified by Groupe Européen de Curiethérapie and European SocieTy for Radiotherapy and Oncology guidelines. Doses were converted to equivalent 2-Gy doses (EQD2) with planned HRCTV doses of 75 to 85 Gy. Results: From 2007 to 2013, 128 patients, median 52 years of age, were treated. Predominant characteristics included stage IIB disease (58.6%) with a median tumor size of 5 cm, squamous histology (82.8%), and no radiographic nodal involvement (53.1%). Most patients (67.2%) received intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) at a median dose of 45 Gy, followed by a median brachytherapy dose of 27.5 Gy (range, 25-30 Gy) in 5 fractions. At a median follow up of 24.4 months (range, 2.1-77.2 months), estimated 2-year local control, disease-free survival, and cancer-specific survival rates were 91.6%, 81.8%, and 87.6%, respectively. Predictors of local failure included adenocarcinoma histology (P<.01) and clinical response at 3 months (P<.01). Among the adenocarcinoma subset, receiving HRCTV D90 EQD2 ≥84 Gy was associated with improved local control (2-year local control rate 100% vs 54.5%, P=.03). Grade 3 or greater gastrointestinal or genitourinary late toxicity occurred at a 2-year actuarial rate of 0.9%. Conclusions: This study constitutes one of the largest reported series of MRI-guided brachytherapy in North

  11. MRI-Guided High–Dose-Rate Intracavitary Brachytherapy for Treatment of Cervical Cancer: The University of Pittsburgh Experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gill, Beant S.; Kim, Hayeon; Houser, Christopher J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Magee-Womens Hospital of University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania (United States); Kelley, Joseph L.; Sukumvanich, Paniti; Edwards, Robert P.; Comerci, John T.; Olawaiye, Alexander B.; Huang, Marilyn; Courtney-Brooks, Madeleine [Department of Gynecologic Oncology, Magee-Womens Hospital of University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania (United States); Beriwal, Sushil, E-mail: beriwals@upmc.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Magee-Womens Hospital of University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania (United States)

    2015-03-01

    Purpose: Image-based brachytherapy is increasingly used for gynecologic malignancies. We report early outcomes of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-guided brachytherapy. Methods and Materials: Consecutive patient cases with FIGO stage IB1 to IVA cervical cancer treated at a single institution were retrospectively reviewed. All patients received concurrent cisplatin with external beam radiation therapy along with interdigitated high–dose-rate intracavitary brachytherapy. Computed tomography or MRI was completed after each application, the latter acquired for at least 1 fraction. High-risk clinical target volume (HRCTV) and organs at risk were identified by Groupe Européen de Curiethérapie and European SocieTy for Radiotherapy and Oncology guidelines. Doses were converted to equivalent 2-Gy doses (EQD{sub 2}) with planned HRCTV doses of 75 to 85 Gy. Results: From 2007 to 2013, 128 patients, median 52 years of age, were treated. Predominant characteristics included stage IIB disease (58.6%) with a median tumor size of 5 cm, squamous histology (82.8%), and no radiographic nodal involvement (53.1%). Most patients (67.2%) received intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) at a median dose of 45 Gy, followed by a median brachytherapy dose of 27.5 Gy (range, 25-30 Gy) in 5 fractions. At a median follow up of 24.4 months (range, 2.1-77.2 months), estimated 2-year local control, disease-free survival, and cancer-specific survival rates were 91.6%, 81.8%, and 87.6%, respectively. Predictors of local failure included adenocarcinoma histology (P<.01) and clinical response at 3 months (P<.01). Among the adenocarcinoma subset, receiving HRCTV D{sub 90} EQD{sub 2} ≥84 Gy was associated with improved local control (2-year local control rate 100% vs 54.5%, P=.03). Grade 3 or greater gastrointestinal or genitourinary late toxicity occurred at a 2-year actuarial rate of 0.9%. Conclusions: This study constitutes one of the largest reported series of MRI

  12. LOLITA - THE AMERICAN NIGHTMARE

    OpenAIRE

    GRISELDA (ABAZAJ) DANGLLI

    2012-01-01

    This article deals with the analysis of Lolita seen through the lenses of the American society and norms of today. We will see that many observations of the American way of behaving and social norms still hold true even nowadays years after this novel was written. Nabokov, on the other hand, never accepted the fact that this novel probed into the very depths of American life and that his intentions were purely aesthetic. Nevertheless, the phenomenon of pedophilia, obvious in the book, is a po...

  13. White Racist Ideology and the Myth of a Postracial Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colin, Scipio A. J., III

    2010-01-01

    When America's so-called postracial society is not viewed and assessed through the prism of white racism, the authentic lived realities of people of color become quite clear. There will be some who will reject the use of the term "white racism," but the facts are that "(1) racism permeates the roots of American society and is reflected in all its…

  14. 46 CFR 188.10-59 - Recognized classification society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Recognized classification society. 188.10-59 Section 188.10-59 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OCEANOGRAPHIC RESEARCH... classification society. This term means the American Bureau of Shipping or other classification...

  15. The American University of Beirut

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertelsen, Rasmus Gjedssø

    2016-01-01

    This chapter will present the American University of Beirut as a central case for the study and discussion of the university as a transnational actor with possible transnational power in international politics. It will place the AUB among the cases of classical American missionary universities in...... the Middle East and China and the new cases of transnational, private higher education flourishing in the Middle East and the wider Global South. AUB and these universities are central cases in International Relations for studying transnational actors and their transnational power. Universities have...... with American society through its board of trustees. American civil society has been a major financial partner since the missionary days to modern day foundation philanthropy. American business has supported the university and recruited its graduates. American government has supported the university...

  16. Utilization and Outcomes of Breast Brachytherapy in Younger Women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To directly compare (1) radiation treatment utilization patterns; (2) risks of subsequent mastectomy; and (3) costs of radiation treatment in patients treated with brachytherapy versus whole-breast irradiation (WBI), in a national, contemporary cohort of women with incident breast cancer, aged 64 years and younger. Methods and Materials: Using MarketScan health care claims data, we identified 45,884 invasive breast cancer patients (aged 18-64 years), treated from 2003 to 2010 with lumpectomy, followed by brachytherapy (n=3134) or whole-breast irradiation (n=42,750). We stratified patients into risk groups according to age (Age<50 vs Age≥50) and endocrine therapy status (Endocrine− vs Endocrine+). “Endocrine+” patients filled an endocrine therapy prescription within 1 year after lumpectomy. Pathologic hormone receptor status was not available in this dataset. In brachytherapy versus WBI patients, utilization trends and 5-year subsequent mastectomy risks were compared. Stratified, adjusted subsequent mastectomy risks were calculated using proportional hazards regression. Results: Brachytherapy utilization increased from 2003 to 2010: in patients Age<50, from 0.6% to 4.9%; patients Age≥50 from 2.2% to 11.3%; Endocrine− patients, 1.3% to 9.4%; Endocrine+ patients, 1.9% to 9.7%. Age influenced treatment selection more than endocrine status: 17% of brachytherapy patients were Age<50 versus 32% of WBI patients (P<.001); whereas 41% of brachytherapy patients were Endocrine–versus 44% of WBI patients (P=.003). Highest absolute 5-year subsequent mastectomy risks occurred in Endocrine−/Age<50 patients (24.4% after brachytherapy vs 9.0% after WBI (hazard ratio [HR] 2.18, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.37-3.47); intermediate risks in Endocrine−/Age≥50 patients (8.6% vs 4.9%; HR 1.76, 95% CI 1.26-2.46); and lowest risks in Endocrine+ patients of any age: Endocrine+/Age<50 (5.5% vs 4.5%; HR 1.18, 95% CI 0.61-2.31); Endocrine+/Age≥50 (4.2% vs 2

  17. Utilization and Outcomes of Breast Brachytherapy in Younger Women

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Grace L. [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Department of Health Services Research, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Huo, Jinhai [Department of Health Services Research, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Giordano, Sharon H. [Department of Health Services Research, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Department of Breast Medical Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Hunt, Kelly K. [Department of Surgical Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Buchholz, Thomas A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Smith, Benjamin D., E-mail: bsmith3@mdanderson.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Department of Health Services Research, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States)

    2015-09-01

    Purpose: To directly compare (1) radiation treatment utilization patterns; (2) risks of subsequent mastectomy; and (3) costs of radiation treatment in patients treated with brachytherapy versus whole-breast irradiation (WBI), in a national, contemporary cohort of women with incident breast cancer, aged 64 years and younger. Methods and Materials: Using MarketScan health care claims data, we identified 45,884 invasive breast cancer patients (aged 18-64 years), treated from 2003 to 2010 with lumpectomy, followed by brachytherapy (n=3134) or whole-breast irradiation (n=42,750). We stratified patients into risk groups according to age (Age<50 vs Age≥50) and endocrine therapy status (Endocrine− vs Endocrine+). “Endocrine+” patients filled an endocrine therapy prescription within 1 year after lumpectomy. Pathologic hormone receptor status was not available in this dataset. In brachytherapy versus WBI patients, utilization trends and 5-year subsequent mastectomy risks were compared. Stratified, adjusted subsequent mastectomy risks were calculated using proportional hazards regression. Results: Brachytherapy utilization increased from 2003 to 2010: in patients Age<50, from 0.6% to 4.9%; patients Age≥50 from 2.2% to 11.3%; Endocrine− patients, 1.3% to 9.4%; Endocrine+ patients, 1.9% to 9.7%. Age influenced treatment selection more than endocrine status: 17% of brachytherapy patients were Age<50 versus 32% of WBI patients (P<.001); whereas 41% of brachytherapy patients were Endocrine–versus 44% of WBI patients (P=.003). Highest absolute 5-year subsequent mastectomy risks occurred in Endocrine−/Age<50 patients (24.4% after brachytherapy vs 9.0% after WBI (hazard ratio [HR] 2.18, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.37-3.47); intermediate risks in Endocrine−/Age≥50 patients (8.6% vs 4.9%; HR 1.76, 95% CI 1.26-2.46); and lowest risks in Endocrine+ patients of any age: Endocrine+/Age<50 (5.5% vs 4.5%; HR 1.18, 95% CI 0.61-2.31); Endocrine+/Age≥50 (4.2% vs 2

  18. The role of brachytherapy in radiation and isotopes centre of Khartoum (RICK)

    CERN Document Server

    Ali, A M

    2000-01-01

    As there are many efforts devoted in order to manage the cancer, here the researcher handle one of these efforts that play a major part in treating the cancer internationally, it is a brachytherapy system. Brachytherapy was carried out mostly with radium sources, but recently some artificial sources are incorporated in this mode of treatment such as Cs-137, Ir-192, Au-198, P-32, Sr-90 and I-125. The research cover history of brachytherapy and radioactive sources used in, techniques of implementation, radiation protection and methods of brachytherapy dose calculation, as well as brachytherapy in radiation and isotopes centre in Khartoum.

  19. A first experience of high dose rate (HDR) brachytherapy for tongue cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We performed HDR brachytherapy for 12 patients with tongue cancer from April, 1996 to May, 1998. The patients included 7 men and 5 women. Ten of patients received HDR brachytherapy alone and two were treated with HDR brachytherapy and external irradiation and chemotherapy. In brachytherapy alone cases irradiated dose were between 42 Gy/14 fr and 60 Gy/10 fr, and the other two were irradiated 18 Gy/6 fr and 30 Gy/10 fr. We obtained CR for 12 patients and recurrence occurred in three cases. Late injury was observed in one case. In conclusion, HDR brachytherapy will be a promising therapeutic protocol for treatment of stage 1, 2 tongue cancer. (author)

  20. Construction balance analysis of dose rate medium brachytherapy TDS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One of the most important part of brachytherapy instrument design activities is analyze by determining the centroid point of construction in order to maintain the balance of brachytherapy instrument, either during operation as well as when transported. Operation of brachytherapy is not only done in one place so it is necessary to balance the analysis of the forces at the time did not move, moved on the horizontal floor and sloping floor. Calculation approach who is done to calculate the weight of mechanical components on each module, and then calculate the centroid of each module, for the balance of forces analysis performed with the assumption at the time of brachytherapy in the position of not moving on a horizontal floor, moved from a place to another on the horizontal floor and on the floor with sloping angle 30°. Base on the results of this analysis are expected to balance the four wheels can move without slipping at the time of decline or incline. Also, results of analysis can be used in designing a mobile construction brachytherapy taking into consideration the aesthetic ideal, easy to operate, ensure the safety of equipment, operator and patient. (author)

  1. Percutaneous interstitial brachytherapy for adrenal metastasis. Technical report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We developed and evaluated the feasibility of a brachytherapy technique as a safe and effective treatment for adrenal metastasis. Adapting a paravertebral insertion technique in radiofrequency ablation of adrenal tumors, we developed an interstitial brachytherapy for adrenal metastasis achievable on an outpatient basis. Under local anesthesia and under X-ray CT guidance, brachytherapy applicator needles were percutaneously inserted into the target. A treatment plan was created to eradicate the tumor while preserving normal organs including the spinal cord and kidney. We applied this interstitial brachytherapy technique to two patients: one who developed adrenal metastasis as the third recurrence of uterine cervical cancer after reirradiation, and one who developed metachronous multiple metastases from malignant melanoma. The whole procedure was completed in 2.5 hours. There were no procedure-related or radiation-related early/late complications. 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG PET)-CT images at two and three months after treatment showed absence of FDG uptake, and no recurrence of the adrenal tumor was observed for over seven months until expiration, and for six months until the present, respectively. This interventional interstitial brachytherapy procedure may be useful as a safe and eradicative treatment for adrenal metastasis. (author)

  2. The American Library Association in Latin America: American Librarianship as a "Modern" Model during the Good Neighbor Policy Era.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maymi-Sugranes, Hector J.

    2002-01-01

    Through American Library Association (ALA) projects in Latin America, American librarianship progressed from conceptualization to implementation as the model in modernizing Latin American library practices and societies. Development of library practices was fundamental to pursuit of a "modern" society. In fighting fascist propaganda, the United…

  3. Radiological protection of patients in brachytherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The prefix 'brachy' means short-range, so brachytherapy is the administration of radiation therapy using small radioactive sources in the form of needles, tubes, wires or seeds, which are placed within the tumor -interstitial form- or very near of it, superficially or in an endo-cavity form. This technique, which was limited by the size of the primary tumor, has the advantage, that the radiation, can be adjusted to the size and shape of the tumor volume and the radioisotope used, - short range -, is selected with the criteria of getting the dose in the organs at risk, as low as possible, making what it is known as conformal radiotherapy. Radioactive sources may be permanent or temporary implants. The application of radioactive material, can be manually or automatically. In the first case, a major breakthrough from the radioprotection point of view, was the use of afterloading devices, methodology highly recommended to reduce the radiation exposure to staff. With the development of technology, remotely controlled afterloading devices were introduced, which in addition to complying with the above requirement, allow the source to move in different positions along catheters housed in one or more channels, making therapeutic brachytherapy treatments in tumor volumes possible, that due to its length, decades ago would have been an unthinkable deal. In all cases, sources, which may vary from the 3 mm in length, 125 Iodine or 198 Gold seeds, to extensive wires of 192 Iridium, are encapsulated for two main purposes: preventing leakage of radioactive material and absorption of unwanted radiation, alpha and beta, produced by the radioactive decay. Consequently, it should be highly unlikely that the radioactive material, could be lost or located in the patient, in a different place of the one that was planned. However, history shows us the opposite. Its is known the kind of deterministic effect that radiation is going to produce in the tumor, where the severity of

  4. HDR neutron brachytherapy for prostatic cancer in lithuania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this report is to analyse the physical and radiobiological background of the HDR Cf-252 Neutron brachytherapy boost in the combined radiation therapy for locally advanced prostatic cancer. The treatment schedule:two fractions of the Cf-252 brachytherapy(5Gy-eq at the dose point 2 cm from source movement trajectory) with interval 24 hours; 5-8 fractions of the photon beam external radiation therapy(5 fractions per week, 2 Gy per fraction) to the prostate, two fractions of the Cf-252 brachytherapy and after that external beam radiation therapy is continued till total dose 40-45 Gy. Six patients completed the proposed combined radiation therapy. The results of this trial will be discussed

  5. Prostate brachytherapy in patients with prior evidence of prostatitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To refute a misconception that a prior history of prostatitis is a contraindication to prostate brachytherapy. Methods and Materials: Five patients with clinical or pathologic evidence of prior prostatitis were treated with transperineal brachytherapy. Four of the patients received a single i.v. dose of ciprofloxacin (500 mg) intraoperatively. Postimplant antibiotics were not given. The pretreatment biopsy slides were reviewed. Results: Two of the five patients developed postimplant urinary retention requiring short-term catheterization, and both resolved spontaneously. One patient developed what appeared to be an exacerbation of his chronic prostatitis. Conclusion: We continue to recommend prostate brachytherapy for the treatment of clinically organ-confined cancer, with no concern about prior clinical or pathologic evidence of prostatitis

  6. Transperineal prostate brachytherapy, using I-125 seed with or without adjuvant androgen deprivation, in patients with intermediate-risk prostate cancer: study protocol for a phase III, multicenter, randomized, controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miyakoda Keiko

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The optimal protocol for 125I-transperineal prostatic brachytherapy (TPPB in intermediate-risk prostate cancer (PCa patients remains controversial. Data on the efficacy of combining androgen-deprivation therapy (ADT with 125I-TPPB in this group remain limited and consequently the guidelines of the American Brachytherapy Society (ABS provide no firm recommendations. Methods/Design Seed and Hormone for Intermediate-risk Prostate Cancer (SHIP 0804 is a phase III, multicenter, randomized, controlled study that will investigate the impact of adjuvant ADT following neoadjuvant ADT and 125I-TPPB. Prior to the end of March, 2011, a total of 420 patients with intermediate-risk, localized PCa will be enrolled and randomized to one of two treatment arms. These patients will be recruited from 20 institutions, all of which have broad experience of 125I-TPPB. Pathological slides will be centrally reviewed to confirm patient eligibility. The patients will initially undergo 3-month ADT prior to 125I-TPPB. Those randomly assigned to adjuvant therapy will subsequently undergo 9 months of adjuvant ADT. All participants will be assessed at baseline and at the following intervals: every 3 months for the first 24 months following 125I-TPPB, every 6 months during the 24- to 60-month post-125I-TPPB interval, annually between 60 and 84 months post-125I-TPPB, and on the 10th anniversary of treatment. The primary endpoint is biochemical progression-free survival (BPFS. Secondary endpoints are overall survival (OS, clinical progression-free survival, disease-specific survival, salvage therapy non-adaptive interval, acceptability (assessed using the international prostate symptom score [IPSS], quality of life (QOL evaluation, and adverse events. In the correlative study (SHIP36B, we also evaluate biopsy results at 36 months following treatment to examine the relationship between the results and the eventual recurrence after completion of radiotherapy

  7. Transperineal prostate brachytherapy, using I-125 seed with or without adjuvant androgen deprivation, in patients with intermediate-risk prostate cancer: study protocol for a phase III, multicenter, randomized, controlled trial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The optimal protocol for 125I-transperineal prostatic brachytherapy (TPPB) in intermediate-risk prostate cancer (PCa) patients remains controversial. Data on the efficacy of combining androgen-deprivation therapy (ADT) with 125I-TPPB in this group remain limited and consequently the guidelines of the American Brachytherapy Society (ABS) provide no firm recommendations. Seed and Hormone for Intermediate-risk Prostate Cancer (SHIP) 0804 is a phase III, multicenter, randomized, controlled study that will investigate the impact of adjuvant ADT following neoadjuvant ADT and 125I-TPPB. Prior to the end of March, 2011, a total of 420 patients with intermediate-risk, localized PCa will be enrolled and randomized to one of two treatment arms. These patients will be recruited from 20 institutions, all of which have broad experience of 125I-TPPB. Pathological slides will be centrally reviewed to confirm patient eligibility. The patients will initially undergo 3-month ADT prior to 125I-TPPB. Those randomly assigned to adjuvant therapy will subsequently undergo 9 months of adjuvant ADT. All participants will be assessed at baseline and at the following intervals: every 3 months for the first 24 months following 125I-TPPB, every 6 months during the 24- to 60-month post-125I-TPPB interval, annually between 60 and 84 months post-125I-TPPB, and on the 10th anniversary of treatment. The primary endpoint is biochemical progression-free survival (BPFS). Secondary endpoints are overall survival (OS), clinical progression-free survival, disease-specific survival, salvage therapy non-adaptive interval, acceptability (assessed using the international prostate symptom score [IPSS]), quality of life (QOL) evaluation, and adverse events. In the correlative study (SHIP36B), we also evaluate biopsy results at 36 months following treatment to examine the relationship between the results and the eventual recurrence after completion of radiotherapy. These two multicenter trials (SHIP0804 & SHIP36

  8. Teaching to Be American: The Quest for Integrating the Italian-American Child

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moretti, Erica

    2015-01-01

    In the early years of the twentieth century, the great structural, social and cultural changes in American society included a growing number of immigrants arriving from the poorest regions of Europe. For the first time, the issues of immigration, assimilation and social integration became the most important problems facing American society. In the…

  9. Brachytherapy for elderly patients with stage II tongue cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In treatment choices of stage II (T2N0M0) tongue cancer, brachytherapy is less invasive and superior in function preservation, therefore its role is more important in elderly patients. The aim of this study was to evaluate treatment results and morbidity of brachytherapy for elderly patients with stage II tongue cancer. Between 1980 and 2001, 198 patients with stage II tongue cancer were treated with brachytherapy at Hiroshima University Hospital. Patient ages ranged from 21 to 89 years old (median: 62 years old). Patients were divided into three groups as follows: 119 patients younger than 65 years old (Non-Elderly group), 53 patients between 65 and 75 years old (Junior Elderly group), and 26 patients 75 years or older (Senior Elderly group). Radiotherapy was performed in 101 patients with brachytherapy alone, and in 97 patients with brachytherapy and external radiotherapy. Chemotherapy was also performed in 77 patients. Follow-up period ranged from 4 to 243 months (median: 55 months). The 5-year local control rate was 85% in the Non-Elderly group, 85% in the Junior Elderly group and 81% in the Senior Elderly group. There was no significant difference among these groups. The 5-year cause-specific survival rate was 85%, 81% and 70% respectively. The Senior Elderly group showed poorer cause-specific survival rate than the other two groups (p=0.03). There was also a tendency of higher incidence of neck metastasis and low salvage rate by neck dissection in the Senior Elderly group. Although the Senior Elderly group showed poorer cause-specific survival rate, the local control rate was similar to those of the other two groups. Brachytherapy is an effective treatment option for elderly patients with stage II tongue cancer. (author)

  10. Civil Society and Governance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hulgård, Lars

    An illustration of how important the relationship is between civil society anbd governance. A short historic journey with four snapshots of times and situations that have provided interesting evidence about the connection between civil society and governance. My goal for the short historic journey...... is to make clear and hopefully even verify that providing knowledge about the impact of civil society and citizens’ participation on governance is one of the most urgent research tasks in the current period of time....

  11. Reclaiming society publishing.

    OpenAIRE

    Steinberg, Philip E.

    2015-01-01

    Learned societies have become aligned with commercial publishers, who have increasingly taken over the latter’s function as independent providers of scholarly information. Using the example of geographical societies, the advantages and disadvantages of this trend are examined. It is argued that in an era of digital publication, learned societies can offer leadership with a new model of open access that can guarantee high quality scholarly material whose publication costs are supported by soci...

  12. Civil Society and Accountability

    OpenAIRE

    Kaldor, Mary

    2002-01-01

    The paper provides a brief historical overview of the concept of civil society and the relevance of different meanings to the notion of 'voice' as it relates to poor people. It outlines civil society actors that might be helpful in clarifying different forms of accountability. And in the last section, it draws some conclusions and policy recommendations about the accountability of different types of civil society groups.

  13. Imaging method for monitoring delivery of high dose rate brachytherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisenberger, Andrew G; Majewski, Stanislaw

    2012-10-23

    A method for in-situ monitoring both the balloon/cavity and the radioactive source in brachytherapy treatment utilizing using at least one pair of miniature gamma cameras to acquire separate images of: 1) the radioactive source as it is moved in the tumor volume during brachytherapy; and 2) a relatively low intensity radiation source produced by either an injected radiopharmaceutical rendering cancerous tissue visible or from a radioactive solution filling a balloon surgically implanted into the cavity formed by the surgical resection of a tumor.

  14. Brachytherapy in vulvar cancer: analysis of 18 patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    INTRODUCTION: Vulvar cancer is a rather common neoplasm in elderly patients. Surgery, followed eventually by postoperative radiotherapy, is the treatment of choice. The results of exclusive radiotherapy (external beam irradiation and/or brachytherapy) are not well defined and in the recent literature only small series are reported. Radiotherapy however is the only therapeutic option in patients who are not fit for radical surgery. It is thus necessary to review its indications and its modalities. PATIENTS METHODS AND RESULTS: From 1990 to 1994 18 pts with a diagnosis of squamous cell carcinoma of the vulva have been submitted to brachytherapy. Age ranged from 60 to 92 years (mean age 76, 1 ys). 14 pts were treated at diagnosis (11 pts) or for recurrent disease after surgery (3 pts). In 8 of them brachytherapy (total dose 35-45 Gy, dose rate: 0,4-0,78 Gy/h) was preceded by external beam irradiation (Co60 or electron beam, 40-50 Gy to primary and inguinal nodes); 6 pts were treated with brachytherapy alone (58-60 Gy; dose rate 0,44-0,63 Gy/h). 4 pts underwent to brachytherapy alone for local recurrence after surgery and postoperative radiotherapy (total dose 45-60 Gy; dose rate 0,37-0,49 Gy/h). Brachytherapy was always performed with 192 Ir. Plastic tubes (2 to 5 lines) were used for single plane implantation of small exophytic lesions limited to the labia (8 cases); a perineal template (10 cases) was employed in lesions extended to the vaginal mucosa or involving the clitoris or the area of the perineum. (10(14)) pts treated at diagnosis are alive and free from local recurrence after 11-48 mos. 3 of them, treated with brachytherapy alone, have presented a nodal recurrence in the groin after 14, 15 and 27 mos. respectively. All of them are alive and free from disease after surgery and external radiotherapy. None of the pts treated for recurrent disease after surgery + external beam radiotherapy has achieved a local control. CONCLUSION: Brachytherapy alone or

  15. Planning for brachytherapy using a 3D-simulation model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A 3D-simulation model made with a milling system was applied to HDR-brachytherapy. The 3D-simulation model is used to simulate the 3D-structure of the lesion and the surrounding organs before the actual catheterization for brachytherapy. The first case was recurrent prostatic cancer in a 61-year-old man. The other case was lymph node recurrence of a 71-year-old woman's upper gum cancer. In both cases, the 3D-simulation model was very useful to simulate the 3D-conformation, to plan the treatment process and to avoid the risk accompanying treatment. (author)

  16. Validation of GPUMCD for low-energy brachytherapy seed dosimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hissoiny, Sami; Ozell, Benoit; Despres, Philippe; Carrier, Jean-Francois [Ecole polytechnique de Montreal, Departement de genie informatique et genie logiciel, 2500 chemin de Polytechnique, Montreal, QC, H3T 1J4 (Canada); Departement de radio-oncologie, Centre hospitalier universitaire de Quebec (CHUQ), 11 Cote du Palais, Quebec, QC, G1R 2J6 (Canada); Departement de physique, Universite de Montreal, Montreal, QC (Canada) and Departement de radio-oncologie and Centre de recherche du CHUM, Centre hospitalier de l' Universite de Montreal (CHUM), Montreal, QC, H2L 4M1 (Canada)

    2011-07-15

    Purpose: To validate GPUMCD, a new package for fast Monte Carlo dose calculations based on the GPU (graphics processing unit), as a tool for low-energy single seed brachytherapy dosimetry for specific seed models. As the currently accepted method of dose calculation in low-energy brachytherapy computations relies on severe approximations, a Monte Carlo based approach would result in more accurate dose calculations, taking in to consideration the patient anatomy as well as interseed attenuation. The first step is to evaluate the capability of GPUMCD to reproduce low-energy, single source, brachytherapy calculations which could ultimately result in fast and accurate, Monte Carlo based, brachytherapy dose calculations for routine planning. Methods: A mixed geometry engine was integrated to GPUMCD capable of handling parametric as well as voxelized geometries. In order to evaluate GPUMCD for brachytherapy calculations, several dosimetry parameters were computed and compared to values found in the literature. These parameters, defined by the AAPM Task-Group No. 43, are the radial dose function, the 2D anisotropy function, and the dose rate constant. These three parameters were computed for two different brachytherapy sources: the Amersham OncoSeed 6711 and the Imagyn IsoStar IS-12501. Results: GPUMCD was shown to yield dosimetric parameters similar to those found in the literature. It reproduces radial dose functions to within 1.25% for both sources in the 0.5< r <10 cm range. The 2D anisotropy function was found to be within 3% at r = 5 cm and within 4% at r = 1 cm. The dose rate constants obtained were within the range of other values reported in the literature.Conclusion: GPUMCD was shown to be able to reproduce various TG-43 parameters for two different low-energy brachytherapy sources found in the literature. The next step is to test GPUMCD as a fast clinical Monte Carlo brachytherapy dose calculations with multiple seeds and patient geometry, potentially providing

  17. Radiation Protection Training in Intracoronary Brachytherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To report the educational objectives and contents on Radiation Protection (RP) for the practice of Intracoronary Brachytherapy (ICB) procedures. The wide international experience on training programs for ICB as well as our own experience organizing several courses aimed at Cardiologists, Radio therapists and Medical Physicists has been used to elaborate specific RP objectives and contents. The objectives, differentiated for Cardiologists, Radio therapists, Medical Physicists, Nurses and Technicians, pretend to guarantee the safety and RP of both patient and staff in the procedures of ICB. The objectives are necessarily different because their RP formation and their role in the procedure are different. The general topics included in RP training programmes for ICB could be: general topics on RP (Interaction of radiation and matter, RP principles, radiobiology, etc), principles of operation of ICB and interventional X-ray equipment, quantification of radiation dose and risks, optimisation of protection of staff and patients, accidents and emergencies, regulations, responsibilities, quality assurance program, handling of ICB sources, installation and commissioning. Training programs based on the objectives presented in this paper would encourage positive safety culture in ICB and can also be used as a starting point by the Regulatory Authority for the authorization of new Installations and credentialing of professionals involved in this technique as well as for the continuous education of the staff involved. (Author) 10 refs

  18. Endovascular brachytherapy to prevent restenosis after angioplasty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Endovascular radiotherapy is the first effective prophylaxis of restenosis after percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA) and stenting. The FDA recently approved two devices for the delivery of intracoronary radiation following coronary artery stenting. Published multicenter, double-blind, randomized trials of intracoronary radiation therapy report good results for preventing in-stent restenosis, while the data for the peripheral circulation are still inconclusive. Beta-emitters are easier applicable and probably also safer, whereas gamma-emitters have been more extensively evaluated clinically so far. Primary indication for endovascular brachytherapy are patients at high risk for restenosis, such as previous restenoses, in-stent hyperplasia, long stented segment, long PTA lesion, narrow residual vascular lumen and diabetes. Data from coronary circulation suggest a safety margin of at least 4 to 10 mm at both ends of the angioplastic segment to avoid edge restenosis. To prevent late thrombosis of the treated coronary segment, antiplatelet therapy with clopidogrel and aspirin are recommended for at least 6 months after PTA and for 12 months after a newly implanted stent. An established medication regimen after radiotherapy of peripheral arteries is still lacking. (orig.)

  19. Halo's production in vitro on brachytherapy experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since earlier of 1960, one of the most significant contributions of radiation biology has been the theory of cell killing as a function of increasing doses of a cytotoxic agent, as well as the demonstration of repair of sublethal or potentially lethal damage after irradiation. The impact of cellular and molecular radiobiology, by exploitation of cellular mechanisms related to apoptosis, may be the cell killing with irradiation by including changes other than unrepaired DNA damage. Based on the understanding of the tumor microenvironment and how growth factors and proteins produced by irradiated cells may alter cellular processes, improved combined-modality strategies may emerge. This effect was show since 1960's, but here we propose to demonstrate this phenomenon in Brachytherapy. The present goal is to verify the macroscopic response through the production and analysis of clonogenic control based on halos generation by radioactive seeds of Ho-165 and Sm-153, aiming to study the effect of this type of irradiation. Confluent cell culture flasks with HeLa cell line were subjected to radiation in a period up to five half-lives of radionuclide, respectively. Devices were introduced which set the polymer-ceramic Ho-165 and Sm-153 seeds in the vials. After a period of exposure, the flasks were stained with violet Gensiana. The results showed the formation of halos control of confluent cancer cells. This paper will describe these experiments in the current stage of the research and report the implications of this new way of therapy for cancer treatment. (author)

  20. A quality management program in intravascular brachytherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakri, Abderrahim; Thomadsen, Bruce

    2002-12-01

    While simple, intravascular brachytherapy (IVB) presents a considerable potential for harm to the patient. The medical physicist maintains the responsibility to minimize the likelihood of operational problems or dosimetric errors. The principals for safe operation remain the same as with any radiotherapy treatment: to deliver the correct dose, to the correct location, safety. To develop an effective and comprehensive quality management (QM) program for IVB, a physicist should utilize proven risk assessment techniques rather than simply thinking of things to check, and follow guidances such as ISO9001:2000. The proposed QM program includes the following: Procedures designed to assure the safety of the patient. Identification of the patient; tests of the integrity and patency for the delivery catheter, operation of the source train, and patency of the catheter in the treatment position; a check for recovery preparations; and verification of source recovery. Procedures to assure positional accuracy of the treatment: Verification of the positioning the catheter in the artery and of the sources in the catheter. Procedures to assure dosimetry accuracy: Acceptance testing of the device, including verification of the source strength and uniformity, and of the treatment duration tables; verification of the treatment prescription and duration for each patient; and control measures that minimize the likelihood of errors removing the source at the correct time. PMID:12512720