WorldWideScience

Sample records for america key issues

  1. Recent hydrocarbon developments in Latin America: Key issues in the downstream oil sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, K.; Pezeshki, S.

    1995-03-01

    This report discusses the following: (1) An overview of major issues in the downstream oil sector, including oil demand and product export availability, the changing product consumption pattern, and refineries being due for major investment; (2) Recent upstream developments in the oil and gas sector in Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, Mexico, Peru, Trinidad and Tobago, and Venezuela; (3) Recent downstream developments in the oil and gas sector in Argentina, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, Mexico, Peru, Cuba, and Venezuela; (4) Pipelines in Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, and Mexico; and (5) Regional energy balance. 4 figs., 5 tabs.

  2. Nanofluids research: key issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Liqiu; Fan, Jing

    2010-05-22

    Nanofluids are a new class of fluids engineered by dispersing nanometer-size structures (particles, fibers, tubes, droplets) in base fluids. The very essence of nanofluids research and development is to enhance fluid macroscopic and megascale properties such as thermal conductivity through manipulating microscopic physics (structures, properties and activities). Therefore, the success of nanofluid technology depends very much on how well we can address issues like effective means of microscale manipulation, interplays among physics at different scales and optimization of microscale physics for the optimal megascale properties. In this work, we take heat-conduction nanofluids as examples to review methodologies available to effectively tackle these key but difficult problems and identify the future research needs as well. The reviewed techniques include nanofluids synthesis through liquid-phase chemical reactions in continuous-flow microfluidic microreactors, scaling-up by the volume averaging and constructal design with the constructal theory. The identified areas of future research contain microfluidic nanofluids, thermal waves and constructal nanofluids.

  3. Nanofluids Research: Key Issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Liqiu

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Nanofluids are a new class of fluids engineered by dispersing nanometer-size structures (particles, fibers, tubes, droplets in base fluids. The very essence of nanofluids research and development is to enhance fluid macroscopic and megascale properties such as thermal conductivity through manipulating microscopic physics (structures, properties and activities. Therefore, the success of nanofluid technology depends very much on how well we can address issues like effective means of microscale manipulation, interplays among physics at different scales and optimization of microscale physics for the optimal megascale properties. In this work, we take heat-conduction nanofluids as examples to review methodologies available to effectively tackle these key but difficult problems and identify the future research needs as well. The reviewed techniques include nanofluids synthesis through liquid-phase chemical reactions in continuous-flow microfluidic microreactors, scaling-up by the volume averaging and constructal design with the constructal theory. The identified areas of future research contain microfluidic nanofluids, thermal waves and constructal nanofluids.

  4. MicroEnterprise Americas: Premiere Issue, 2001

    OpenAIRE

    Inter-American Development Bank (IDB)

    2001-01-01

    This premiere issue of MicroEnterprise Americas concentrates on the microfinance industry, a thriving segment of the Latin American financial sector that has rapidly expanded in the past five years. This issue explores looks at how market leaders have developed technologies, attracted investments, and developed tools for mitigating risk in the difficult financial climate of the past two years. MicroEnterprise Americas is published by the Inter-American Forum on Microenterprise, an annual even...

  5. Key issues in transplant tourism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akoh, Jacob A

    2012-02-24

    Access to organ transplantation depends on national circumstances, and is partly determined by the cost of health care, availability of transplant services, the level of technical capacity and the availability of organs. Commercial transplantation is estimated to account for 5%-10% (3500-7000) of kidney transplants performed annually throughout the world. This review is to determine the state and outcome of renal transplantation associated with transplant tourism (TT) and the key challenges with such transplantation. The stakeholders of commercial transplantation include: patients on the waiting lists in developed countries or not on any list in developing countries; dialysis funding bodies; middlemen, hosting transplant centres; organ-exporting countries; and organ vendors. TT and commercial kidney transplants are associated with a high incidence of surgical complications, acute rejection and invasive infection which cause major morbidity and mortality. There are ethical and medical concerns regarding the management of recipients of organs from vendors. The growing demand for transplantation, the perceived failure of altruistic donation in providing enough organs has led to calls for a legalised market in organ procurement or regulated trial in incentives for donation. Developing transplant services worldwide has many benefits - improving results of transplantation as they would be performed legally, increasing the donor pool and making TT unnecessary. Meanwhile there is a need to re-examine intrinsic attitudes to TT bearing in mind the cultural and economic realities of globalisation. Perhaps the World Health Organization in conjunction with The Transplantation Society would set up a working party of stakeholders to study this matter in greater detail and make recommendations.

  6. Climate Watchlist: Key issues for Cancun negotiations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chandani, Achala; Siegele, Linda

    2010-11-15

    We must mitigate and adapt to climate change. On this, the international community is agreed. But exactly how to do that is still up for debate. There were high hopes that last year's UN climate talks in Copenhagen would deliver a legally binding agreement for action on climate change. But the outcome — the Copenhagen Accord — was instead a political 'statement of intent' that fell significantly short of expectations. Now, after a year of interim meetings and several negotiating texts, parties to the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) are gathering in Cancun, Mexico, to try again. Their success will largely depend on settling disputes — particularly between the developed and developing world — about six key issues: shared vision; adaptation; climate finance; technology transfer; reducing emissions from deforestation and degradation; and post-2012 emissions reduction targets.

  7. Key Questions on the Obama Administration's 2014 Education Budget Request. Issue Brief

    Science.gov (United States)

    New America Foundation, 2013

    2013-01-01

    President Obama sent his fiscal year 2014 budget request to Congress on April 10, 2013. The New America Foundation's Education Policy Program released this subsequent issue brief, "Key Questions on the Obama Administration's 2014 Budget Request." Obama's budget request totals $71.2 billion in appropriations funding for the U.S. Department of…

  8. Internationalizing Business Education in Latin America: Issues and Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elahee, Mohammad; Norbis, Mario

    2009-01-01

    This article examines the extent of internationalization of business education in Latin America and identifies the key challenges facing the Latin American business schools. Based on a survey of the business schools that are members of CLADEA (Consejo Latinoamericano de Escuelas de Administracion--Latin American Council of Management Schools), and…

  9. Key Issues in Business English Curriculum Design

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    计越波

    2009-01-01

    This article aims to explore the key factors involved in business English curriculum design and the ways of analyzing the needs of teachers and students,course design as well as the teaching strategies.

  10. Developments and key issues in tourism mobilities

    OpenAIRE

    Hannam, Kevin; Butler, Gareth; Paris, Cody Morris

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines key developments in recent tourism mobilities research. It begins by outlining the recent conceptualisation of tourism mobilities, arguing that it is not just that tourism is a form of mobility like other forms of mobility but that different mobilities inform and are informed by tourism. It then examines work which has been developed in terms of materialities, autmobilities and new technologies. It concludes by discussing mobile methodologies and some thoughts on future re...

  11. Key issues in space nuclear power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandhorst, Henry W.

    1991-01-01

    The future appears rich in missions that will extend the frontiers of knowledge, human presence in space, and opportunities for profitable commerce. Key to the success of these ventures is the availability of plentiful, cost effective electric power and assured, low cost access to space. While forecasts of space power needs are problematic, an assessment of future needs based on terrestrial experience has been made. These needs fall into three broad categories: survival, self sufficiency, and industrialization. The cost of delivering payloads to orbital locations from LEO to Mars has been determined and future launch cost reductions projected. From these factors, then, projections of the performance necessary for future solar and nuclear space power options has been made. These goals are largely dependent upon orbital location and energy storage needs. Finally the cost of present space power systems has been determined and projections made for future systems.

  12. Dating Violence among College Students: Key Issues for College Counselors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Christine E.; Kardatzke, Kerrie N.

    2007-01-01

    The authors present a review of literature examining dating violence among college students. They describe 6 key issues related to dating violence among college students that affect college counselors' work. These key issues relate to the incidence and prevalence of physical, sexual, and psychological violence in college students' dating…

  13. Risk Management of Key Issues of FPSO

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liping Sun; Hai Sun

    2012-01-01

    Risk analysis of key systems have become a growing topic late of because of the development of offshore structures. Equipment failures of offioading system and fire accidents were analyzed based on the floating production,storage and offioading (FPSO) features.Fault tree analysis (FTA),and failure modes and effects analysis (FMEA) methods were examined based on information already researched on modules of relex reliability studio (RRS).Equipment failures were also analyzed qualitatively by establishing a fault tree and Boolean structure function based on the shortage of failure cases,statistical data,and risk control measures examined.Failure modes of fire accident were classified according to the different areas of fire occurrences during the FMEA process,using risk priority number (RPN) methods to evaluate their severity rank.The qualitative analysis of FTA gave the basic insight of forming the failure modes of FPSO offioading,and the fire FMEA gave the priorities and suggested processes.The research has practical importance for the security analysis problems of FPSO.

  14. Information Systems Management: an Australian view of the key issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graham Pervan

    1994-05-01

    Full Text Available Studies investigating the key issues in IS management serve to better understand the concerns of IS managers and help to guide IS researchers in choosing IS management problems worthy of investigation. This paper presents results from a study of the key issues facing the IS managers of Australia's largest 300 organisations which is part of a three-yearly longitudinal study. In order to gain consensus on the relative importance of the key issues, a three-round Delphi method was applied. The results reveal that IS strategic planning continues to be the paramount issue in our industry, as are many issues associated with IS strategic planning, including responsiveness of the IT infrastructure, effective use of the data resource, IS for competitive advantage, and a comprehensive information architecture. A greater emphasis on quality is also revealed in highly rated issues such as effective use of the data resource, data integrity and quality assurance, and the quality of software development

  15. Diaspora Effects in International Migration : Key Questions and Methodological Issues

    OpenAIRE

    Beine, Michel; Docquier, Frederic; Ozden, Caglar

    2010-01-01

    This paper reviews the existing literature on the impact of migrants networks on the patterns of international migration. It covers the theoretical channels at stake in the global effect of the networks. It identifies the key issues, namely the impact on size, selection and concentration of the migration flows. The paper also reviews the empirical hurdles that the researchers face in assessing the importance of networks. The key issues concern the choice of micro vs a macro approach, the defi...

  16. [Key points for the management of dermatitis in Latin America. The SLAAI Consensus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, Jorge; Páez, Bruno; Macías-Weinmann, Alejandra; De Falco, Alicia

    2015-01-01

    The incidence of atopic dermatitis in Latin America, as in other regions, has been increasing in recent years. The SLAAI consensus is based on a systematic search for articles related to dermatitis, with focus in the pathophysiology and treatment and its impact on Latin America, and reviewed using the Delphi methodology (Revista Alergia Mexico 2014;61:178-211). In this article we highlight the key points of consensus and particular considerations in Latin America.

  17. Diaspora Effects in International Migration : Key Questions and Methodological Issues

    OpenAIRE

    Beine, Michel; Docquier, Frederic; Ozden, Caglar

    2011-01-01

    This paper reviews the existing literature on the impact of migrants networks on the patterns of international migration. It covers the theoretical channels at stake in the global effect of the networks. It identifies the key issues, namely the impact on size, selection and concentration of the migration flows. The paper also reviews the empirical hurdles that the researchers face in asses...

  18. Teacher-Student Sexual Relations: Key Risks and Ethical Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sikes, Pat

    2010-01-01

    Researching actual or purported sexual contact between teachers and students raises many difficult ethical issues, questions and dilemmas, which may help to explain why few have ventured into the field. This experientially based paper addresses key problem areas under the headings of: the ethics of researching a sensitive taboo topic; the ethics…

  19. Key Issues to Consider in Therapy with Muslim Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weatherhead, Stephen; Daiches, Anna

    2015-12-01

    We present the key issues to consider in therapy with Muslim families. Following a brief introduction, five themes are presented: self, family dynamics, causation, and coping strategies. The section on "self" includes a discussion of three terms which link the four Islamic models of "self" identified through the review. The family dynamics section pays particular attention to interconnectedness, family roles, and gender. Causation is discussed with reference to supernatural and spiritual causes. On the theme of coping strategies, religious responses are discussed as are the roles of religious leaders, and professional mental health services. Clinical implications from the key themes are also discussed in addition to limitations of the published literature in this area. This includes a discussion of the epistemological and paradigmatic issues related to the research. The review concludes by summarising these issues and presenting areas for further research.

  20. Key management issue in SCADA networks: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdalhossein Rezai

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Supervisory Control And Data Acquisition (SCADA networks have a vital role in Critical Infrastructures (CIs such as public transports, power generation systems, gas, water and oil industries, so that there are concerns on security issues in these networks. The utilized Remote Terminal Units (RTUs and Intelligence Electronic Devices (IEDs in these networks have resource limitations, which make security applications a challenging issue. Efficient key management schemes are required besides lightweight ciphers for securing the SCADA communications. Many key management schemes have been developed to address the tradeoff between SCADA constrain and security, but which scheme is the most effective is still debatable. This paper presents a review of the existing key management schemes in SCADA networks, which provides directions for further researches in this field.

  1. Nanotechnologies for Climate Friendly Construction – Key Issues and Challenges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Maj Munch; Geiker, Mette Rica

    2009-01-01

    Expectations as to the climate potentials of nanotechnology are high, none the least related to the construction sector. This paper seeks to highlight key aspects in the early development and application of eco-innovative nanotech solutions in the construction sector, “nanoconstruction”. The paper...... provides a framework for addressing relevant issues of green nanoconstruction and takes stock of current challenges. Eco-innovative nanoconstruction has the potential to simultaneously enhance the competitiveness and climate potential of the construction sector and could become a key strategic factor...

  2. Key issues and technical route of cyber physical distribution system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, P. X.; Chen, B.; Zheng, L. J.; Zhang, G. L.; Fan, Y. L.; Pei, T.

    2017-01-01

    Relying on the National High Technology Research and Development Program, this paper introduced the key issues in Cyber Physical Distribution System (CPDS), mainly includes: composite modelling method and interaction mechanism, system planning method, security defence technology, distributed control theory. Then on this basis, the corresponding technical route is proposed, and a more detailed research framework along with main schemes to be adopted is also presented.

  3. A key to the Mexican and Central America Genera of Anthonomini (Curculionidae, Curculioninae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández, Macotulio Soto; Jones, Robert W; Castillo, Pedro Reyes

    2013-01-01

    Presently the only keys available for identification of genera of Anthonomini are limited to those of the United States of America and Canada. A dichotomous key is presented to identify all genera of Mexican and Central American Anthonomini. Previous keys do not include the genera Achia, Botanebius, Loncophorus, Loncophorellus and Melexerus. A brief synopsis is given for each genus and photographs of representative species are included.

  4. A key to the Mexican and Central America Genera of Anthonomini (Curculionidae, Curculioninae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Macotulio Hernandez

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Presently the only keys available for identification of genera of Anthonomini are limited to those of the United States of America and Canada. A dichotomous key is presented to identify all genera of Mexican and Central American Anthonomini. Previous keys do not include the genera Achia, Botanebius, Loncophorus, Loncophorellus and Melexerus. A brief synopsis is given for each genus and photographs of representative species are included.

  5. Key Issues for Aerospace Applications of Ceramic Matrix Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clinton, R. G., Jr.; Levine, S. R.

    1998-01-01

    Ceramic matrix composites (CMC) offer significant advantages for future aerospace applications including turbine engine and liquid rocket engine components, thermal protection systems, and "hot structures". Key characteristics which establish ceramic matrix composites as attractive and often enabling choices are strength retention at high temperatures and reduced weight relative to currently used metallics. However, due to the immaturity of this class of materials which is further compounded by the lack of experience with CMC's in the aerospace industry, there are significant challenges involved in the development and implementation of ceramic matrix composites into aerospace systems. Some of the more critical challenges are attachment and load transfer methodologies; manufacturing techniques, particularly scale up to large and thick section components; operational environment resistance; damage tolerance; durability; repair techniques; reproducibility; database availability; and the lack of validated design and analysis tools. The presentation will examine the technical issues confronting the application of ceramic matrix composites to aerospace systems and identify the key material systems having potential for substantial payoff relative to the primary requirements of light weight and reduced cost for future systems. Current programs and future research opportunities will be described in the presentation which will focus on materials and processes issues.

  6. Human Health Effects of Trichloroethylene: Key Findings and Scientific Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jinot, Jennifer; Scott, Cheryl Siegel; Makris, Susan L.; Cooper, Glinda S.; Dzubow, Rebecca C.; Bale, Ambuja S.; Evans, Marina V.; Guyton, Kathryn Z.; Keshava, Nagalakshmi; Lipscomb, John C.; Barone, Stanley; Fox, John F.; Gwinn, Maureen R.; Schaum, John; Caldwell, Jane C.

    2012-01-01

    Background: In support of the Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS), the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) completed a toxicological review of trichloroethylene (TCE) in September 2011, which was the result of an effort spanning > 20 years. Objectives: We summarized the key findings and scientific issues regarding the human health effects of TCE in the U.S. EPA’s toxicological review. Methods: In this assessment we synthesized and characterized thousands of epidemiologic, experimental animal, and mechanistic studies, and addressed several key scientific issues through modeling of TCE toxicokinetics, meta-analyses of epidemiologic studies, and analyses of mechanistic data. Discussion: Toxicokinetic modeling aided in characterizing the toxicological role of the complex metabolism and multiple metabolites of TCE. Meta-analyses of the epidemiologic data strongly supported the conclusions that TCE causes kidney cancer in humans and that TCE may also cause liver cancer and non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Mechanistic analyses support a key role for mutagenicity in TCE-induced kidney carcinogenicity. Recent evidence from studies in both humans and experimental animals point to the involvement of TCE exposure in autoimmune disease and hypersensitivity. Recent avian and in vitro mechanistic studies provided biological plausibility that TCE plays a role in developmental cardiac toxicity, the subject of substantial debate due to mixed results from epidemiologic and rodent studies. Conclusions: TCE is carcinogenic to humans by all routes of exposure and poses a potential human health hazard for noncancer toxicity to the central nervous system, kidney, liver, immune system, male reproductive system, and the developing embryo/fetus. PMID:23249866

  7. The Key Issues of Labor Migration in the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie JELINKOVA

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to highlight some often occurring failures that need to be eliminated when attempting to develop an integral and efficient policy on labor migration. As an example, a brief overview of the development of immigration policies and its critical shortcomings in the Czech Republic is provided. Following this, the paper analyzes two aspects: the protection of migrant workers and the trafficking in human beings. In particular, the paper deals with three crucial issues of labor migration which are: (1 the inconsistent aims of immigration policies, (2 the client system, and (3 the dependence on middlemen. The paper also focuses on the role of state, police, and NGO’s in the trafficking in human beings and forced labor or labor exploitation in the Czech Republic. In addition, the legislation on forced labor and the possibilities of assistance to trafficked person are analyzed.By comparing various aspects of immigration policy, this paper covers some, but certainly not all, of the key issues concerning the process of immigrant integration. Several suggestions are made that could improve the situation of labor migrants in a significant way.

  8. Personal health records: key adoption issues and implications for management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raisinghani, Mahesh S; Young, Erika

    2008-01-01

    Electronic Personal Health Records (PHRs) has been perceived as the tool to empower consumers to become active decision-makers of their healthcare instead of leaving the decision to providers. However, there has been the lack of enthusiasm and adoption of PHRs. This paper examines the current healthcare climate and attempts to understand the major challenges associated with PHRs adoption. The paper-based and fragmented healthcare system is no longer appropriate for the digital economy of the 21st century. The integrated health information technology system is the solution to transform clinical practice to consumer centric and information driven. Tools such as PHRs are means to an end that provide better, safer and more affordable healthcare for consumers. However, there has been little research conducted to demonstrate PHR's tangible value, despite the widespread perceived value of these technologies. Although survey data reveals that there is a lack of awareness among the public, consumers are receptive to this concept, especially when a physician recommends it. Key issues in adopting PHRs and strategies for successful implementation of PHRs are discussed.

  9. [To ponder the key issues in achieving wound healing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Shuliang

    2014-04-01

    The understanding of the mechanism of wound healing is deepening. Key issues in the process of wound healing need to be seriously considered, i.e. how to establish the concept of application of phasic and selective means to promote wound healing according to the characteristics of a network and sequential process; to correctly assess the function and status of macrophages in wound healing and to explore the conditions of regulating timely infiltration of macrophages, as well as the phasic and orderly expression of type Iand type II macrophages; to properly understand the role and status of extracellular matrix components or the three-dimensional structure and morphology in wound healing; to elucidate the effects of wound microenvironment on the proliferation and differentiation of stem cells; to find out the intrinsic mechanism of negative pressure in the process of wound healing. The understanding of the above problems are of great value for us to grasp the intrinsic mechanism of wound healing in order to establish a more effective and rational treatment of wound.

  10. Key issues in the design of pay for performance programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eijkenaar, Frank

    2013-02-01

    Pay for performance (P4P) is increasingly being used to stimulate healthcare providers to improve their performance. However, evidence on P4P effectiveness remains inconclusive. Flaws in program design may have contributed to this limited success. Based on a synthesis of relevant theoretical and empirical literature, this paper discusses key issues in P4P-program design. The analysis reveals that designing a fair and effective program is a complex undertaking. The following tentative conclusions are made: (1) performance is ideally defined broadly, provided that the set of measures remains comprehensible, (2) concerns that P4P encourages "selection" and "teaching to the test" should not be dismissed, (3) sophisticated risk adjustment is important, especially in outcome and resource use measures, (4) involving providers in program design is vital, (5) on balance, group incentives are preferred over individual incentives, (6) whether to use rewards or penalties is context-dependent, (7) payouts should be frequent and low-powered, (8) absolute targets are generally preferred over relative targets, (9) multiple targets are preferred over single targets, and (10) P4P should be a permanent component of provider compensation and is ideally "decoupled" form base payments. However, the design of P4P programs should be tailored to the specific setting of implementation, and empirical research is needed to confirm the conclusions.

  11. Black Populations and Identity Issues in Latin America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Wade

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available In this article, I explore the basis for black identity in Latin America. I begin with a general consideration of the position of black populations in the framework of Latin American nationalism, taking into account the transnational dimensions of this position and then analyzing in theoretical terms the tension between particularism and universalism in ideologies of nationalism and racism. In the second part of the article, I examine some concrete historical cases of Afrodescendent mobilization and/or opening towards racial diversity in order to evaluate these as bases for a Latin American black identity in general (the racial war in Cuba in 1912, the Frente Negra Brasileira of the 1930s, the Creoles in the Sandinista regime in Nicaragua, the official multiculturalism of various Latin American countries in the 1990s, and the image of “Africa” as the basis for Afrodescendant identification.

  12. America's Young Adults: Special Issue, 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Traci; Kappeler, Evelyn; Ellis, Renee; Kominski, Robert; Cooper, Alexia; Smith, Erica; Donoghue, Brecht; Whitestone, Yuko; Snyder, Tom; Aud, Susan; Williamson, Lisa; Henderson, Steve; Steffen, Barry; Madans, Jennifer; Lukacs, Susan; Pastor, Patricia; Goldstrom, Ingrid; Han, Beth; Bures, Regina; Chamberlain, Seth; Despain, Jason; Chadwick, Laura; Park, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    The well-being of young adults in the United States today remains an area of key interest to the public and policy-makers alike. This age group faces the well-known challenges of achieving financial and social independence while forming their own households at a time of greater economic uncertainty than in the past. Better understanding of the…

  13. Offshore wind power experiences, potential and key issues for deployment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lemming, J.; Morthorst, P.E.; Clausen, Niels-Erik

    2009-01-15

    Wind power has been growing at spectacular rates. Today it is the largest non-hydro renewable power technology. Worldwide there is 74 GW of installed capacity which is 1.7% of power generation capacity and in 2006 it accounted for 0.82% of electricity production. However, offshore wind still only counts for a very small amount and development has only taken place in North European counties round the North Sea and the Baltic Sea over the last 15 years. Offshore wind is still some 50% more expensive than onshore wind, but more wind resources and lesser visual impacts from larger turbines are expected to compensate for the higher installation costs in the long term. Most offshore wind farms are installed in British, Swedish and Danish waters, and present-day costs of installing wind energy in the UK are between 1,200 to 1,600 GBP/kW (1,781 to 2,375 Euro/kW) offshore, while in Sweden investment costs were 1,800 Euro/kW, and in Denmark 1,200 to 1,700 Euro/kW, though investment costs for a new wind farm are expected be in the range of 2.0 to 2.2 mill. Euro/MW for a near-shore shallow depth facility. Future developments in offshore wind technology concerning aerodynamics, structural dynamics, structural design, machine elements, electrical design and grid integration could drive investment costs from present-day range of 1.9 to 2.2 mill. Euro/MW down to 1.35 - 1.54 mill.Euro/MW in 2050, which accounts for a reduction of costs of approx. 35%. In order to sum up progress and identify future research needs, the International Energy Agency (IEA) Wind agreement Task 11 should arrange a new meeting concerning long term research needs for reviewing 'the long term strategy for 2000 to 2020' from 2001, to come up with suggestions / recommendations on how to define and proceed with, the necessary research activities of the IEA Wind Agreement and governments involved on key wind issues related to offshore technologies. (au)

  14. Toward fisheries sustainability in North America: Issues, challenges, and strategies for action

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, D.D.; Knudsen, E.E.

    2004-01-01

    Many fisheries in North America are severely depleted and trending downwards. In an effort to find ways of reversing this disturbing situation, the American Fisheries Society and the Sustainable Fisheries Foundation invited leading experts in fisheries science and aquatic resource management to share their thoughts and insights in this book. These experts were asked to identify the factors that are currently impairing our ability to effectively manage fisheries resources and propose creative solutions for addressing the most challenging issues affecting fisheries sustainability. Based on the information that was provided by the experts (i.e., as presented in the earlier chapters of this book), it is apparent that a wide range of human activities are adversely affecting our shared fisheries resources and the aquatic habitats upon which they depend. The most challenging problems stem from causes that are largely beyond the scope of traditional fisheries management (e.g., human population growth, resource consumption patterns, global climate change, broad land-use patterns). It is also apparent that resolution of these challenges will require a new approach to fisheries management - one that effectively integrates economic, social, and environmental interests into a decision-making framework that supports fisheries sustainability. The key strategies for supporting such a transition toward a more holistic and comprehensive approach to managing the human activities that influence fisheries and aquatic resources are summarized in this chapter. ?? 2004 by the American Fisheries Society.

  15. U.S. outlook issues: putting America's house in order.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinner, R E

    1989-03-01

    Despite the economic growth in 1987 and 1988, there are three issues of concern: the strength of consumer spending, the risk of accelerating inflation, and the federal budget deficit. The history of recent consumer spending is reviewed, and the recommendation made that if the recent "binge" of 1987-1988 has caused the economy to overshoot its production capacity, monetary and fiscal policies should be adjusted to rein in the spending. Regarding inflation, despite projected productivity gains, the economy seems to be heading for a 4.5%-5.0% core rate of inflation, a rate that can surge to 1970s-like levels with any substantial bad news. The observation is made that no major sustained cut in financing costs will occur until U.S. fiscal policy is changed. Regarding the deficit, voters cannot seek more services without either higher taxes or higher interest rates; growth alone will not cure the federal deficit. The distinction between good and bad types of debt is made and the history and causes of the $ 2 trillion increase in federal debt between fiscal years 1980 and 1988 is reviewed. Corporate debt and the recent corporate acquisitions and leveraged buyouts are analyzed. Public policy considerations arise primarily from the need to limit the system risks imposed by the scale of the buyout mania and to insure fair treatment of current debt holders of target corporations. Greater regulation of pension investments may be necessary, and widespread use of change-of-ownership clauses in bonds would be productive.

  16. A note on parallel executions of restrictive blind issuing protocols for secret-key certificates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brands, S.A.

    1995-01-01

    The receiver in a restrictive blind certificate issuing protocol can blind the issued public key and the certificate but not a certain blinding-invariant predicate of the secret key. Recently a generally applicable technique was described for designing restrictive blind issuing protocols for a certa

  17. Key issues to consider in microalgae based biodiesel production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singh, Anoop; Pant, Deepak; Olsen, Stig Irving

    2012-01-01

    All nations have been confronted with the energy crisis due to depletion of finite fossil fuels reserves, which results an increasing global demand of biofuels for energy security, economic stability and reduction in climate change effects, and generate the opportunity to explore new biomass...... consideration of many issues that can be broadly categorized into four main areas: selecting algae species that produce high oil levels and grow well in specified environments, algae growth methods, water sources and related issues, and nutrient and growth inputs. © Sila Science....

  18. Ten Key Issues in Lexicography for the Future

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2009-01-01

    Whenever lexicographical scholars from five continents are gathered in the same room, there are bound to be divergent opinions about the issues discussed. Nevertheless, the above summary attests to the fact that input from a balanced representation of experts often lead to valuable conclusions an...

  19. Implications of Key Performance Indicator Issues in Ontario Universities Explored

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Vivian

    2015-01-01

    Since 1998, the Ministry of Training, Colleges and Universities in Ontario, Canada, has required that data on specific key performance indicators (KPIs) be made public by its publicly funded universities. The information is intended to be used by universities to demonstrate their achievements, to improve their programmes and services, and to…

  20. Key Issues in Vowel Based Splitting of Telugu Bigrams

    OpenAIRE

    Kameswara Rao; Prasad, Dr. T. V

    2014-01-01

    Splitting of compound Telugu words into its components or root words is one of the important, tedious and yet inaccurate tasks of Natural Language Processing (NLP). Except in few special cases, at least one vowel is necessarily involved in Telugu conjunctions. In the result, vowels are often repeated as they are or are converted into other vowels or consonants. This paper describes issues involved in vowel based splitting of a Telugu bigram into proper root words using Telugu grammar conjunct...

  1. Some key issues in the development of ergonomic intervention tools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edwards, Kasper; Winkel, Jørgen

    2016-01-01

    Literature reviews suggest that tools facilitating the ergonomic intervention processes should be integrated into rationalization tools, particular if such tools are participative. Such a Tool has recently been developed as an add-in module to the Lean tool “Value Stream Mapping” (VSM). However......, in the investigated context this module seems not to have any direct impact on the generation of proposals with ergonomic consideration. Contextual factors of importance seem to be e.g. allocation of sufficient resources and if work environment issues are generally accepted as part of the VSM methodology...

  2. Key Issues in Vowel Based Splitting of Telugu Bigrams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kameswara Rao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Splitting of compound Telugu words into its components or root words is one of the important, tedious and yet inaccurate tasks of Natural Language Processing (NLP. Except in few special cases, at least one vowel is necessarily involved in Telugu conjunctions. In the result, vowels are often repeated as they are or are converted into other vowels or consonants. This paper describes issues involved in vowel based splitting of a Telugu bigram into proper root words using Telugu grammar conjunction (‘sandhi’ rules for MT.

  3. Key issues for low-cost FGD installations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DePriest, W.; Mazurek, J.M. [Sargent & Lundy LLC, Chicago, IL (United States)

    1995-12-01

    This paper will discuss various methods for installing low-cost FGD systems. The paper will include a discussion of various types of FGD systems available, both wet and dry, and will compare the relative cost of each type. Important design issues, such as use of spare equipment, materials of construction, etc. will be presented. An overview of various low-cost construction techniques (i.e., modularization) will be included. This paper will draw heavily from Sargent & Lundy`s database of past and current FGD projects together with information we gathered for several Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) studies on the subject.

  4. Competence development: Key issues and trends in European competence policies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Milana, Marcella

    papers, reports, and communications that led to directives and resolutions concerning the development and recognition of skills and competences in a lifelong learning perspective. In 2005 this process led to the definition of a European Framework on Key Competences for Lifelong Learning - covering those...... competences that are given priority within the Union - as well as a European Qualification Framework, a reference tool for making qualifications - here described in terms of progressive levels of competence - transparent and transferable within the European borders. The aim of the paper is to investigate...

  5. Identifying Key Challenges in Performance Issues in Cloud Computing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashraf Zia

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Cloud computing is a harbinger to a newer era in the field of computing where distributed and centralized services are used in a unique way. In cloud computing, the computational resources of different vendors and IT services providers are managed for providing an enormous and a scalable computing services platform that offers efficient data processing coupled with better QoS at a lower cost. The on-demand dynamic and scalable resource allocation is the main motif behind the development and deployment of cloud computing. The potential growth in this area and the presence of some dominant organizations with abundant resources (like Google, Amazon, Salesforce, Rackspace, Azure, GoGrid, make the field of cloud computing more fascinating. All the cloud computing processes need to be in unanimity to dole out better QoS i.e., to provide better software functionality, meet the tenant’s requirements for their desired processing power and to exploit elevated bandwidth.. However, several technical and functional e.g., pervasive access to resources, dynamic discovery, on the fly access and composition of resources pose serious challenges for cloud computing. In this study, the performance issues in cloud computing are discussed. A number of schemes pertaining to QoS issues are critically analyzed to point out their strengths and weaknesses. Some of the performance parameters at the three basic layers of the cloud — Infrastructure as a Service, Platform as a Service and Software as a Service — are also discussed in this paper.

  6. Body dysmorphic disorder: some key issues for DSM-V.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Katharine A; Wilhelm, Sabine; Koran, Lorrin M; Didie, Elizabeth R; Fallon, Brian A; Feusner, Jamie; Stein, Dan J

    2010-06-01

    Body dysmorphic disorder (BDD), a distressing or impairing preoccupation with an imagined or slight defect in appearance, has been described for more than a century and increasingly studied over the past several decades. This article provides a focused review of issues pertaining to BDD that are relevant to DSM-V. The review presents a number of options and preliminary recommendations to be considered for DSM-V: (1) Criterion A may benefit from some rewording, without changing its focus or meaning; (2) There are both advantages and disadvantages to adding a new criterion to reflect compulsive BDD behaviors; this possible addition requires further consideration; (3) A clinical significance criterion seems necessary for BDD to differentiate it from normal appearance concerns; (4) BDD and eating disorders have some overlapping features and need to be differentiated; some minor changes to DSM-IV's criterion C are suggested; (5) BDD should not be broadened to include body integrity identity disorder (apotemnophilia) or olfactory reference syndrome; (6) There is no compelling evidence for including diagnostic features or subtypes that are specific to gender-related, age-related, or cultural manifestations of BDD; (7) Adding muscle dysmorphia as a specifier may have clinical utility; and (8) The ICD-10 criteria for hypochondriacal disorder are not suitable for BDD, and there is no empirical evidence that BDD and hypochondriasis are the same disorder. The issue of how BDD's delusional variant should be classified in DSM-V is briefly discussed and will be addressed more extensively in a separate article.

  7. Key issues in space nuclear power challenges for the future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandhorst, Henry W., Jr.

    1991-01-01

    The future appears rich in missions that will extend the frontiers of knowledge, human presence in space, and opportunities for profitable commerce. Key to the success of these ventures is the availability of plentiful, cost effective electric power and assured, low cost access to space. While forecasts of space power needs are problematic, an assessment of future needs based on terrestrial experience has been made. These needs fall into three broad categories: survival, self sufficiency, and industrialization. The cost of delivering payloads to orbital locations from LEO to Mars has been determined and future launch cost reductions projected. From these factors, then, projections of the performance necessary for future solar and nuclear space power options has been made. These goals are largely dependent upon orbital location and energy storage needs. Finally the cost of present space power systems has been determined and projections made for future systems.

  8. Distributed Generation in Power Systems: An Overview and Key Issues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singh, Sri Niwas

    2009-01-01

    The necessity for smart electrical systems having minimum technical loss and environmental impact is providing impetus to go for Distributed Generations (DGs) which may offer several other advantages such as reduced transmission and distribution system resources, increased reliability, better power...... quality, etc. However, depending on the system configuration and management, these advantages may not be true. Moreover, due to structural and managerial changes in the electricity supply industry motivated with introduction of completion, the role of small generations distributed in the low....../medium voltage network has gained importance. This paper adopts a systematic approach by focusing on the most important research areas related to the distributed generations. Various DG technologies are described and penetration of DGs in the Indian system has been discussed. This paper also highlights the key...

  9. Energy for sustainable development: Key issues and challenges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaygusuz, K. [Karadeniz Technical University, Trabzon (Turkey). Dept. of Chemistry

    2007-07-01

    Energy generation and use are strongly linked to all elements of sustainable development such as economic, social, and environmental. The history of human development rests on the availability and use of energy, the transformation from the early use of fire and animal power that improved lives, to the present world with use of electricity and clean fuels for a multitude of purposes. Energy is the neglected issue of the development debate. The lack of access to reliable and clean energy supplies is a major barrier to improving human well-being around the globe. There are an estimated 1.6 billion people living in the rural areas of developing countries who lack access to electricity, and so dependence on fossil fuels. Combustion of fossil fuels produces large amounts of CO{sub 2}, an important greenhouse gas. In response to increasing concern about the effect of anthropogenic greenhouse gases on global climate, international action has been agreed to reduce these emissions. On the other hand, renewable energy is the great, barely tapped solution to the two great challenges of the coming century such as poverty and global warming. Not only can renewable energy provide a clean, flexible power source for homes, schools and hospitals, at the micro-to-medium scale it has huge potential to create meaningful and useful jobs.

  10. Restrictive blind issuing of secret-key certificates in parallel mode

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brands, S.A.

    1995-01-01

    Recently a class of secret-key certificate issuing protocols has been proposed that is believed to be restrictive blind when run in sequential mode. In this report an immunization technique is proposed for modifying these secret-key certificate issuing protocols in order to make them restrictive bli

  11. Some Issues on Computer Networks: Architecture and Key Technologies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guan-Qun Gu; Jun-Zhou Luo

    2006-01-01

    The evolution of computer networks has experienced several major steps, and research focus of each step has been kept changing and evolving, from ARPANET to OSI/RM, then HSN (high speed network) and HPN (high performance network). During the evolution, computer networks represented by Internet have made great progress and gained unprecedented success. However, with the appearance and intensification of tussle, along with the three difficult problems (service customizing, resource control and user management) of modern network, it is found that traditional Internet and its architecture no longer meet the requirements of next generation network. Therefore, it is the next generation network that current Internet must evolve to. With the mindset of achieving valuable guidance for research on next generation network, this paper firstly analyzes some dilemmas facing current Internet and its architecture, and then surveys some recent influential research work and progresses in computer networks and related areas, including new generation network architecture, network resource control technologies, network management and security, distributed computing and middleware,wireless/mobile network, new generation network services and applications, and foundational theories on network modeling.Finally, this paper concludes that within the research on next generation network, more attention should be paid to the high availability network and corresponding architecture, key theories and supporting technologies.

  12. Open-system dynamics of entanglement: a key issues review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aolita, Leandro; de Melo, Fernando; Davidovich, Luiz

    2015-04-01

    One of the greatest challenges in the fields of quantum information processing and quantum technologies is the detailed coherent control over each and every constituent of quantum systems with an ever increasing number of particles. Within this endeavor, harnessing of many-body entanglement against the detrimental effects of the environment is a major pressing issue. Besides being an important concept from a fundamental standpoint, entanglement has been recognized as a crucial resource for quantum speed-ups or performance enhancements over classical methods. Understanding and controlling many-body entanglement in open systems may have strong implications in quantum computing, quantum simulations of many-body systems, secure quantum communication or cryptography, quantum metrology, our understanding of the quantum-to-classical transition, and other important questions of quantum foundations.In this paper we present an overview of recent theoretical and experimental efforts to underpin the dynamics of entanglement under the influence of noise. Entanglement is thus taken as a dynamic quantity on its own, and we survey how it evolves due to the unavoidable interaction of the entangled system with its surroundings. We analyze several scenarios, corresponding to different families of states and environments, which render a very rich diversity of dynamical behaviors.In contrast to single-particle quantities, like populations and coherences, which typically vanish only asymptotically in time, entanglement may disappear at a finite time. In addition, important classes of entanglement display an exponential decay with the number of particles when subject to local noise, which poses yet another threat to the already-challenging scaling of quantum technologies. Other classes, however, turn out to be extremely robust against local noise. Theoretical results and recent experiments regarding the difference between local and global decoherence are summarized. Control and

  13. Key Issue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oya Y Rieger

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available A few months ago, while I was participating in a conference about open access infrastructures, a delegate from a governmental agency asked, “Why does each library need to maintain a repository for their own scientists?” He was rightfully wondering if a broad collaboration in building a network of archives will provide a durable and extensible technology and service framework for ever-increasing digital scholarly content. The ensuing discussion did not offer a plausible response but accentuated that we do not have in place a plan for building an expandable infrastructure to facilitate communication and exchange of information among rapidly proliferating distinct instances of institutional and subject repositories.

  14. 2007 Academic Exchange Meeting for Major Research Plan "Several Key Issues Concerning the Space Vehicle"

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ The 2007 Academic Exchange Meeting for the Major Research Plan "Several Key Issues Concerning the Space Vehicle" was held in Beijing from January 14 to 15, 2008, according to NSFC Managerial Requirements for Major Research Plan.

  15. New England Wind Forum: A Wind Powering America Project, Volume 1, Issue 3 -- October 2007 (Newsletter)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grace, R. C.; Gifford, J.

    2007-10-01

    The New England Wind Forum electronic newsletter summarizes the latest news in wind energy development activity, markets, education, and policy in the New England region. It also features an interview with a key figure influencing New England's wind energy development. Volume 1, Issue 3 features an interview with Andrew Dzykewicz, Commissioner of the Rhode Island Office of Energy Resources.

  16. New England Wind Forum: A Wind Powering America Project, Volume 1, Issue 4 -- May 2008 (Newsletter)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grace, R. C.; Gifford, J.

    2008-05-01

    The New England Wind Forum electronic newsletter summarizes the latest news in wind energy development activity, markets, education, and policy in the New England region. It also features an interview with a key figure influencing New England's wind energy development. Volume 1, Issue 4 features an interview with Brian Fairbank, president and CEO of Jiminy Peak Mountain Resort.

  17. A visual identification key utilizing both gestalt and analytic approaches to identification of Carices present in North America (Plantae, Cyperaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Timothy Mark

    2013-01-01

    Images are a critical part of the identification process because they enable direct, immediate and relatively unmediated comparisons between a specimen being identified and one or more reference specimens. The Carices Interactive Visual Identification Key (CIVIK) is a novel tool for identification of North American Carex species, the largest vascular plant genus in North America, and two less numerous closely-related genera, Cymophyllus and Kobresia. CIVIK incorporates 1288 high-resolution tiled image sets that allow users to zoom in to view minute structures that are crucial at times for identification in these genera. Morphological data are derived from the earlier Carex Interactive Identification Key (CIIK) which in turn used data from the Flora of North America treatments. In this new iteration, images can be viewed in a grid or histogram format, allowing multiple representations of data. In both formats the images are fully zoomable.

  18. MIIT Issued Industrial Key Generic Technology Development Guidelines (2011)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    In order to make full use of social resources, guide conducts of market subject, lead the developing direction of industrial key generic technology, promote industrial technology advance and realize transformation, upgrading and structural optimization of industry and communications industry, on July 1, the Ministry of Industry and Information Technology (MIIT) issued Industrial Key Generic Technology Development Guidelines (2011) (Gong Xin Bu Ke [2011] No.320),

  19. Training: Who Needs It? Research Report 1995. Key Issues for Providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hotel and Catering Training Co., London (England).

    Aimed at all those involved in the supply of training and vocational education for the hospitality industry, this report summarizes findings of the research report, "Training Who Needs It?" It draws out and explores in more detail key issues relating to the provision of training, support, and related initiatives for the industry. Section…

  20. Key Themes and Future Directions in Teaching English to Young Learners: Introduction to the Special Issue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copland, Fiona; Garton, Sue

    2014-01-01

    Despite being something of a "Cinderella" area of study, research into and informed discussion of teaching young learners is on the increase, perhaps mirroring the increasing numbers of children learning English globally in primary schools. This introductory article reviews key themes and issues in the teaching of English to young…

  1. New Doctoral Graduates in the Knowledge Economy: Trends and Key Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Heidi Skovgaard

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines the key issues at stake for national economies in increasing the number of PhDs to meet expected needs for human capital in science, technology and innovation using illustrations mainly from the European Commission's "Careers of Doctorate Holders" surveys on PhD labour market outcomes; it has been shown that PhD…

  2. Key issues in setting up and running a nurse-led cardiology clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatchett, Richard

    This article discusses the key issues involved in setting up and running an effective nurse-led cardiology clinic. These include: developing clear aims and objectives for the service, techniques to reduce resistance from colleagues who are affected by the change in service provision, professional development, audit and evaluation.

  3. Building and Strengthening Policy Research Capacity: Key Issues in Canadian Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Glen A.

    2014-01-01

    Given the importance of higher education in social and economic development, governments need to build a strong higher education data and policy research infrastructure to support informed decision-making, provide policy advice, and offer a critical assessment of key trends and issues. The author discusses the decline of higher education policy…

  4. Key Issues in Sex Education: Reflecting on Teaching, Learning and Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oerton, Sarah; Bowen, Helen

    2014-01-01

    Drawing upon critical reflections of staff and student experiences of teaching, learning and assessment on an undergraduate module entitled Key Issues in Sex Education, we discuss the strategies used to engage students in debates around sex and relationships education (SRE). To date, there is little research which evaluates how formal assessments…

  5. Some Considerations Regarding the Key Issues of the Stiglitz-Sen-Fitoussi Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BALTARETU Camelia

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper highlights the key issues of the Stiglitz-Sen-Fitoussi Report that was submitted in september 2009 by the Commission on the measurement of economic performance and social progress. As its name suggests, its focus is on the measurement of economic performance and social progress. The Report identified the limits of GDP as an indicator of economic performance and social progress showing in detail what is missing in current measures of economic performance and social progress. The key issues of the Stiglitz-Sen-Fitoussi Report are structured into three chapters based on the work of three working groups created by the Commission: Classical GDP issues, Sustainable development and environment and Quality of life. It also provided recommendations to better measure economic performance, societal well-being and sustainability.

  6. Stable isotopes of fossil teeth corroborate key general circulation model predictions for the Last Glacial Maximum in North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohn, Matthew J.; McKay, Moriah

    2010-11-01

    Oxygen isotope data provide a key test of general circulation models (GCMs) for the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) in North America, which have otherwise proved difficult to validate. High δ18O pedogenic carbonates in central Wyoming have been interpreted to indicate increased summer precipitation sourced from the Gulf of Mexico. Here we show that tooth enamel δ18O of large mammals, which is strongly correlated with local water and precipitation δ18O, is lower during the LGM in Wyoming, not higher. Similar data from Texas, California, Florida and Arizona indicate higher δ18O values than in the Holocene, which is also predicted by GCMs. Tooth enamel data closely validate some recent models of atmospheric circulation and precipitation δ18O, including an increase in the proportion of winter precipitation for central North America, and summer precipitation in the southern US, but suggest aridity can bias pedogenic carbonate δ18O values significantly.

  7. The Eastern Cape labour market in transition: Key issues and debates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geoffrey Wood

    1995-03-01

    Full Text Available This study represents an assessment of key issues relating to the labour market based on survey research conducted in an Eastern Cape secondary urban centre. This study was conducted at a time when South Africa was undergoing rapid social, economic and political transition. The primary focus of this study is on the specific implications of structural unemployment. Key sub-dimensions include the nature of divisions in the labour market, the extent of migrancy, survival strategies by the structurally unemployed, and perceptions of the union movement at a time when the latter’s role has become increasingly institutionalised.

  8. New England Wind Forum: A Wind Powering America Project; Volume 1, Issue 2 -- December 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grace, R. C.; Gifford, J.

    2006-12-01

    The New England Wind Forum electronic newsletter summarizes the latest news in wind energy development activity, markets, education, and policy in the New England region. It also features an interview with a key figure influencing New England's wind energy development. Volume 1, Issue 2 features an interview with John MacLeod of Hull Municipal Light Plant. Hull 2, a 1.8-MW Vestas turbine installed in the Town of Hull in Massachusetts in 2006, is the largest wind turbine in New England and the first U.S. installation on a capped landfill.

  9. Nanoscale ferroelectrics and multiferroics key processes and characterization issues, and nanoscale effects

    CERN Document Server

    Alguero, Miguel

    2016-01-01

    This book reviews the key issues in processing and characterization of nanoscale ferroelectrics and multiferroics, and provides a comprehensive description of their properties, with an emphasis in differentiating size effects of extrinsic ones like boundary or interface effects. Recently described nanoscale novel phenomena are also addressed. Organized into three parts it addresses key issues in processing (nanostructuring), characterization (of the nanostructured materials) and nanoscale effects. Taking full advantage of the synergies between nanoscale ferroelectrics and multiferroics, it covers materials nanostructured at all levels, from ceramic technologies like ferroelectric nanopowders, bulk nanostructured ceramics and thick films, and magnetoelectric nanocomposites, to thin films, either polycrystalline layer heterostructures or epitaxial systems, and to nanoscale free standing objects with specific geometries, such as nanowires and tubes at different levels of development. The book is developed from t...

  10. SOME KEY ISSUES ON THE APPLICATION OF SATELLITE REMOTE SENSING TO MINING AREAS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    In order to apply Satellite Remote Sensing (RS) to mining areas, some key issues should be solved. Based on an introduction to relative studying background, related key issues are proposed and analyzed oriented to the development of RS information science and demands of mining areas. Band selection and combination optimization of Landsat TM is discussed firstly, and it proved that the combination of Band 3, Band 4 and Band 5 has the largest information amount in all three-band combination schemes by both N-dimensional entropy method and Genetic Algorithm (GA). After that the filtering of Radarsat image is discussed. Different filtering methods are experimented and compared, and adaptive methods are more efficient than others. Finally the classification of satellite RS image is studied, and some new methods including classification by improved BPNN(Back Propagation Neural Network) and classification based on GIS and knowledge are proposed.

  11. Key issues for establishing a robotics laboratory in the pharmaceutical industry

    OpenAIRE

    Conder, Steve

    1994-01-01

    The Analytical Research and Development Department of Bristol-Myers Squibb has a laboratory dedicated to robotic analysis of solid dose forms. It consists of eight individuals responsible for nine robotic systems. The laboratory is dedicated to the support of Phase III stability studies that require dissolution, potency, content. uniformity and Karl Fischer moisture assays. The group performs about 15000 assays a year for approximately six long-term stability programs. The key issues for succ...

  12. The regional response to the greenhouse issue. Latin America and the Caribbean

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gutierrez, F.J. [Olade - Latin-American Energy Organization, Quito (Ecuador)

    1995-06-01

    The increase in greenhouse gas emissions in Latin America and the Caribbean is not directly linked to energy consumption. It is estimated that about two thirds of the carbon compounds that are emitted annually in the Region and contribute to the greenhouse effect stem from the deforestation of 4 to 6 million hectares of forests destroyed annually by unplanned land settlement, migratory agriculture, and agribusiness. As a contribution to the debate on the global problem of increasing greenhouse effect, the present article tries to analyze the specific regional characteristics of the problem, their relation to the global issues, and the regional options for decreasing carbon compound emissions. The developing countries, will have to deal with the possibility of seeing their land converted into ecological disaster areas, where life cannot be sustained, within the next 20 years. Within this context, technology can do very little, since deforestation basically is not a technological problem since its solution rather involves the application of sustainable development models that require profound economic and social changes. (EG) 11 refs.

  13. AIDS policy modeling for the 21st century: an overview of key issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauner, M S; Brandeau, M L

    2001-09-01

    Decisions about HIV prevention and treatment programs are based on factors such as program costs and health benefits, social and ethical issues, and political considerations. AIDS policy models--that is, models that evaluate the monetary and non-monetary consequences of decisions about HIV/AIDS interventions--can play a role in helping policy makers make better decisions. This paper provides an overview of the key issues related to developing useful AIDS policy models. We highlight issues of importance for researchers in the field of AIDS policy modeling as well as for policy makers. These include geographic area, setting, target groups, interventions, affordability and effectiveness of interventions, type and time horizon of policy model, and type of economic analysis. This paper is not intended to be an exhaustive review of the AIDS policy modeling literature, although many papers from the literature are discussed as examples; rather, we aim to convey the composition, achievements, and challenges of AIDS policy modeling.

  14. 75 FR 28610 - Draft EPA's Reanalysis of Key Issues Related to Dioxin Toxicity and Response to NAS Comments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-21

    ... AGENCY Draft EPA's Reanalysis of Key Issues Related to Dioxin Toxicity and Response to NAS Comments... Issues Related to Dioxin Toxicity and Response to NAS Comments'' (EPA/600/R- 10/038A). This draft report responds to the key recommendations and comments included in the National Academy of Sciences (NAS)...

  15. Integrating Variable Renewable Energy into the Grid: Key Issues, Greening the Grid (Spanish Version)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-04-01

    This is the Spanish version of 'Greening the Grid - Integrating Variable Renewable Energy into the Grid: Key Issues'. To foster sustainable, low-emission development, many countries are establishing ambitious renewable energy targets for their electricity supply. Because solar and wind tend to be more variable and uncertain than conventional sources, meeting these targets will involve changes to power system planning and operations. Grid integration is the practice of developing efficient ways to deliver variable renewable energy (VRE) to the grid. Good integration methods maximize the cost-effectiveness of incorporating VRE into the power system while maintaining or increasing system stability and reliability. When considering grid integration, policy makers, regulators, and system operators consider a variety of issues, which can be organized into four broad topics: New Renewable Energy Generation, New Transmission, Increased System Flexibility, and Planning for a High RE Future.

  16. Interoperability, Trust Based Information Sharing Protocol and Security: Digital Government Key Issues

    CERN Document Server

    Headayetullah, Md; 10.5121/ijcsit.2010.2306

    2010-01-01

    Improved interoperability between public and private organizations is of key significance to make digital government newest triumphant. Digital Government interoperability, information sharing protocol and security are measured the key issue for achieving a refined stage of digital government. Flawless interoperability is essential to share the information between diverse and merely dispersed organisations in several network environments by using computer based tools. Digital government must ensure security for its information systems, including computers and networks for providing better service to the citizens. Governments around the world are increasingly revolving to information sharing and integration for solving problems in programs and policy areas. Evils of global worry such as syndrome discovery and manage, terror campaign, immigration and border control, prohibited drug trafficking, and more demand information sharing, harmonization and cooperation amid government agencies within a country and acros...

  17. Key Issues in Modeling of Complex 3D Structures from Video Sequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shengyong Chen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Construction of three-dimensional structures from video sequences has wide applications for intelligent video analysis. This paper summarizes the key issues of the theory and surveys the recent advances in the state of the art. Reconstruction of a scene object from video sequences often takes the basic principle of structure from motion with an uncalibrated camera. This paper lists the typical strategies and summarizes the typical solutions or algorithms for modeling of complex three-dimensional structures. Open difficult problems are also suggested for further study.

  18. eHealth in Wound Care,- overview and key issues to consider before implementation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moore, Zena; Angel, Donna; Bjerregaard, Julie;

    2015-01-01

    Purpose This document aims to provide wound care clinicians with a rapid and structured overview of the key issues related to use of eHealth applications (telemedicine and telehealth) within wound care. This includes: • An overview of terminology and available literature • Guidance on the methodo......Purpose This document aims to provide wound care clinicians with a rapid and structured overview of the key issues related to use of eHealth applications (telemedicine and telehealth) within wound care. This includes: • An overview of terminology and available literature • Guidance...... professionals in safeguarding that eHealth solutions meet the needs of the patients. Methodology The document sections lean on the structure and focus areas of the Model for ASsessment of Telemedicine (MAST) which defines crucial items to evaluate an eHealth application. The content of the document is developed...... domains are not examined in any of the available studies. Thus, more research is required to identify the potential benefits and harms to patients, and the possible challenges related to implementation of eHealth solutions in wound care. Potential barriers and facilitators for the implementation of e...

  19. eHealth in Wound Care,- overview and key issues to consider before implementation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moore, Zena; Angel, Donna; Bjerregaard, Julie;

    2015-01-01

    Purpose This document aims to provide wound care clinicians with a rapid and structured overview of the key issues related to use of eHealth applications (telemedicine and telehealth) within wound care. This includes: • An overview of terminology and available literature • Guidance on the methodo......Purpose This document aims to provide wound care clinicians with a rapid and structured overview of the key issues related to use of eHealth applications (telemedicine and telehealth) within wound care. This includes: • An overview of terminology and available literature • Guidance...... on the methodology for evaluation of eHealth solutions • An introduction to and discussion of the potential benefits of eHealth technologies in wound care, and the possible barriers to their implementation • Recommendations for ensuring a good implementation process and supporting involvement of wound care...... professionals in safeguarding that eHealth solutions meet the needs of the patients. Methodology The document sections lean on the structure and focus areas of the Model for ASsessment of Telemedicine (MAST) which defines crucial items to evaluate an eHealth application. The content of the document is developed...

  20. INTEROPERABILITY, TRUST BASED INFORMATION SHARING PROTOCOL AND SECURITY: DIGITAL GOVERNMENT KEY ISSUES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md.Headayetullah

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Improved interoperability between public and private organizations is of key significance to make digitalgovernment newest triumphant. Digital Government interoperability, information sharing protocol andsecurity are measured the key issue for achieving a refined stage of digital government. Flawlessinteroperability is essential to share the information between diverse and merely dispersed organisationsin several network environments by using computer based tools. Digital government must ensure securityfor its information systems, including computers and networks for providing better service to the citizens.Governments around the world are increasingly revolving to information sharing and integration forsolving problems in programs and policy areas. Evils of global worry such as syndrome discovery andmanage, terror campaign, immigration and border control, prohibited drug trafficking, and more demandinformation sharing, harmonization and cooperation amid government agencies within a country andacross national borders. A number of daunting challenges survive to the progress of an efficientinformation sharing protocol. A secure and trusted information-sharing protocol is required to enableusers to interact and share information easily and perfectly across many diverse networks and databasesglobally. This article presents (1 literature review of digital government security and interoperabilityand, (2 key research issue trust based information sharing protocol for seamless interoperability amongdiverse government organizations or agencies around the world. While trust-based information access iswell studied in the literature, presented secure information sharing technologies and protocols cannotoffer enough incentives for government agencies to share information amid them without harming theirown national interest. To overcome the drawbacks of the exiting technology, an innovative and proficienttrust-based security protocol is proposed in this

  1. Water resources and environmental input-output analysis and its key study issues: a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    YANG, Z.; Xu, X.

    2013-12-01

    Used to study the material and energy flow in socioeconomic system, Input-Output Analysis(IOA) had been an effective analysis tool since its appearance. The research fields of Input-Output Analysis were increasingly expanded and studied in depth with the development of fundamental theory. In this paper, starting with introduction of theory development, the water resources input-output analysis and environmental input-output analysis had been specifically reviewed, and two key study issues mentioned as well. Input-Occupancy-Output Analysis and Grey Input-Output Analysis whose proposal and development were introduced firstly could be regard as the effective complements of traditional IOA theory. Because of the hypotheses of homogeneity, stability and proportionality, Input-Occupancy-Output Analysis and Grey Input-Output Analysis always had been restricted in practical application inevitably. In the applied study aspect, with investigation of abundant literatures, research of water resources input-output analysis and environmental input-output analysis had been comprehensively reviewed and analyzed. The regional water resources flow between different economic sectors had been systematically analyzed and stated, and several types of environmental input-output analysis models combined with other effective analysis tools concluded. In two perspectives in terms of external and inland aspect, the development of water resources and environmental input-output analysis model had been explained, and several typical study cases in recent years listed respectively. By the aid of sufficient literature analysis, the internal development tendency and study hotspot had also been summarized. In recent years, Chinese literatures reporting water resources consumption analysis and virtue water study had occupied a large share. Water resources consumption analysis had always been the emphasis of inland water resources IOA. Virtue water study had been considered as the new hotspot of

  2. Key issues and challenges in estimating the impact and cost-effectiveness of quadrivalent influenza vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, Emma; Jit, Mark; Newall, Anthony T

    2014-06-01

    Evidence has shown that quadrivalent influenza vaccines containing all four subtypes are safe and immunogenic. However, to date there have been few published studies exploring the population-level clinical and economic impact of quadrivalent compared to trivalent influenza vaccines. Economic evaluation studies need to be conducted in order to inform country-level decision making about whether (and how to) introduce and replace the current trivalent influenza vaccines with quadrivalent influenza vaccination programs. Several key issues associated with estimating the clinical and economic impact of the trivalent versus quadrivalent vaccines are discussed in this article, particularly the complexities involved in estimating the incremental preventable disease and economic burden. Other factors, such as the indirect (herd) protection from quadrivalent influenza vaccination and the timing of the replacement of trivalent influenza vaccination programs are also discussed.

  3. The States-of-arts and Key Scientific Issues on Durability Research of Concrete Structures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Concrete has traditionally been regarded as a durable material requiring little or no maintenance. However, over the past several decades, a number of durability related problems have emerged and stimulated research into the factors relating to concrete durability globally. The challenge now facing practicing engineers is how to design and build structures that not only satisfy the specified structural requirements, but also achieve the performance levels required from a durability standpoint. Research works on concrete structural durability have been widely reported in the literature over the last several decades. In this paper, reviews of four stages of research work on durability, i e, environments, materials, components, and structures, were presented. Afterwards, the key scientific issues in this field were also pointed out.

  4. Multiple-Robot Systems for USAR: Key Design Attributes and Deployment Issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Choon Yue Wong

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The interaction between humans and robots is undergoing an evolution. Progress in this evolution means that humans are close to robustly deploying multiple robots. Urban search and rescue (USAR can benefit greatly from such capability. The review shows that with state of the art artificial intelligence, robots can work autonomously but still require human supervision. It also shows that multiple robot deployment (MRD is more economical, shortens mission durations, adds reliability as well as addresses missions impossible with one robot and payload constraints. By combining robot autonomy and human supervision, the benefits of MRD can be applied to USAR while at the same time minimizing human exposure to danger. This is achieved with a single-human multiple-robot system (SHMRS. However, designers of the SHMRS must consider key attributes such as the size, composition and organizational structure of the robot collective. Variations in these attributes also induce fluctuations in issues within SHMRS deployment such as robot communication and computational load as well as human cognitive workload and situation awareness (SA.Research is essential to determine how the attributes can be manipulated to mitigate these issues while meeting the requirements of the USAR mission.

  5. Family-friendliness in business as a key issue for the future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stutzer, Erich

    2012-01-01

    These days family-friendliness is a key issue for the future of businesses. Investments in a family conscious personnel policy are considered as forward-looking decisions in companies. This happens against the background of a sustainable personnel policy in times of a decrease in the number of employable persons, an increasing shortage of skilled workers and an ageing workforce. Family-friendly working conditions are becoming a key factor in the competition for staff. When choosing an employer, family-friendliness has become a crucial topic. Employment participation and skills of women, especially of mothers, have greatly increased. To facilitate the realisation of their wish to return to paid employment, however, measures to reconcile work and family are required. Family-conscious measures have been proven to lead to higher employee productivity. Job satisfaction and motivation of employees and accumulation of human capital increase, absenteeism declines, the return of investment rises. Fields of activity for family-friendly measures in companies range from working arrangements, parental leave and re-entry programmes and various child care offers to services for families. In connection with the demographic development the demand for a better reconciliation of work and elder care should in future become ever more important, just as the upkeep of the occupational skills and working capacity of an ageing workforce. Family-friendliness has to become an integral part of corporate culture.

  6. Impacts on non-human biota from a generic geological disposal facility for radioactive waste: some key assessment issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robinson, C A; Smith, K L [Enviros Consulting Limited, 61 The Shore, Leith, Edinburgh EH6 6RA (United Kingdom); Norris, S, E-mail: carol.robinson@enviros.co [Nuclear Decommissioning Authority, Radioactive Waste Management Directorate, Harwell Science and Innovation Campus, Curie Avenue, Harwell, Didcot OX11 0RH (United Kingdom)

    2010-06-15

    This paper provides an overview of key issues associated with the application of currently available biota dose assessment methods to consideration of potential environmental impacts from geological disposal facilities. It explores philosophical, methodological and practical assessment issues and reviews the implications of test assessment results in the context of recent and on-going challenges and debates.

  7. Amphibians and reptiles of Guyana, South America: illustrated keys, annotated species accounts, and a biogeographic synopsis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Charles J.; Townsend, Carol R.; Reynolds, Robert P.; MacCulloch, Ross D.; Lathrop, Amy

    2013-01-01

    turtles (80%). It is important to protect the few good nesting beaches for the sea turtles of Guyana. We have documented each of the species now known to comprise the herpetofauna of Guyana by citing specimens that exist in scientific collections, many of which were collected and identified by us and colleagues, including students of the University of Guyana (UG). We also re-identified many old museum specimens collected by others in the past (e.g., collections of William Beebe) and we used documented publications and collection records of colleagues, most of whom have been working more recently. We present dichotomous keys for identifying representatives of the species known to occur in Guyana, and we present brief annotated species accounts. The accounts provide the current scientific name, original name (with citation of the original description, which we personally examined in the literature), some outdated names used in the recent past, type specimens, type localities, general geographic distribution, examples of voucher specimens from Guyana, coloration in life (and often a color photograph), and comments pointing out interesting subjects for future research.

  8. Doubly-Special Relativity: Facts, Myths and Some Key Open Issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Amelino-Camelia

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available I report, emphasizing some key open issues and some aspects that are particularly relevant for phenomenology, on the status of the development of “doubly-special” relativistic (“DSR” theories with both an observer-independent high-velocity scale and an observer-independent small-length/large-momentum scale, possibly relevant for the Planck-scale/quantum-gravity realm. I also give a true/false characterization of the structure of these theories. In particular, I discuss a DSR scenario without modification of the energy-momentum dispersion relation and without the қ-Poincaré Hopf algebra, a scenario with deformed Poincaré symmetries which is not a DSR scenario, some scenarios with both an invariant length scale and an invariant velocity scale which are not DSR scenarios, and a DSR scenario in which it is easy to verify that some observable relativistic (but non-special-relativistic features are insensitive to possible nonlinear redefinitions of symmetry generators.

  9. Key Issues for Navigation and Time Dissemination in NASA's Space Exploration Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, R. A.; Brodsky, B.; Oria, A. J.; Connolly, J. W.; Sands, O. S.; Welch, B. W.; Ely T.; Orr, R.; Schuchman, L.

    2006-01-01

    The renewed emphasis on robotic and human missions within NASA's space exploration program warrants a detailed consideration of how the positions of objects in space will be determined and tracked, whether they be spacecraft, human explorers, robots, surface vehicles, or science instrumentation. The Navigation Team within the NASA Space Communications Architecture Working Group (SCAWG) has addressed several key technical issues in this area and the principle findings are reported here. For navigation in the vicinity of the Moon, a variety of satellite constellations have been investigated that provide global or regional surface position determination and timely services analogous to those offered by GPS at Earth. In the vicinity of Mars, there are options for satellite constellations not available at the Moon due to the gravitational perturbations from Earth, such as two satellites in an aerostationary orbit. Alternate methods of radiometric navigation as considered, including one- and two-way signals, as well as autonomous navigation. The use of a software radio capable of receiving all available signal sources, such as GPS, pseudolites, and communication channels, is discussed. Methods of time transfer and dissemination are also considered in this paper.

  10. India's energy security. Key issues impacting the Indian oil and gas sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    This report explores crucial issues pertaining to energy security in India and suggests the objective of charting a roadmap for the future. India's fragile energy security is under severe pressure from its rising dependence on imported oil, regulatory uncertainty and opaque natural gas pricing policies, small pool of skilled manpower and poorly developed upstream infrastructure and dependence on fossil fuels as the dominant source of energy in the near future. To meet the growing energy demand over the next few years, India will have to enhance its energy security by procuring energy supplies at affordable prices. While the country has surplus refining capacity and is an exporter of petroleum products, major investments will have to be made in the domestic upstream industry and to acquire hydrocarbon reserves abroad. In India currently, a move towards a diversified fuel basket, together with a focus on efficient exploration and consumption of energy resources, is needed. Additionally, key areas of action are: Accelerated development of energy infrastructure; Human resource development; and Technological upgrade. A more conducive policy environment coupled with an effective regulatory regime is, without doubt, the basis for accelerated growth of domestic energy resources. Energy security needs integrated action by all stakeholders.

  11. Key Durability Issues with Mullite-Based Environmental Barrier Coatings for Si-Based Ceramics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kang N.

    2000-01-01

    Plasma-sprayed mullite (3Al2O3.2SiO2) and mullite/yttria-stabilized-zirconia (YSZ) dual layer coatings have been developed to protect silicon -based ceramics from environmental attack. Mullite-based coating systems show excellent durability in air. However, in combustion environments, corrosive species such as molten salt or water vapor penetrate through cracks in the coating and attack the Si-based ceramics along the interface. Thus the modification of the coating system for enhanced crack-resistance is necessary for long-term durability in combustion environments. Other key durability issues include interfacial contamination and coating/substrate bonding. Interfacial contamination leads to enhanced oxidation and interfacial pore formation, while a weak coating/substrate bonding leads to rapid attack of the interface by corrosive species, both of which can cause a premature failure of the coating. Interfacial contamination can be minimized by limiting impurities in coating and substrate materials. The interface may be modified to improve the coating/substrate bond.

  12. Geographical location and key sensitivity issues of post-industrial regions in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuczynski, Tomasz; Siebielec, Grzegorz; Korzeniowska-Puculek, Renata; Koza, Piotr; Pudelko, Rafal; Lopatka, Artur; Kowalik, Monika

    2009-04-01

    Primary objectives of our work were to spatially delineate post industrial areas of the EU-27 and indicate key environmental, social and economic sensitivity issues for these regions. The density of industrial sites within NUTS-x regions for EU-27 countries was assessed by using CORINE 2000 land cover layer. A development of postindustrial society in Europe represents a strong geographic diversity. There are distinct historical and current differences between regions which form major groups, comprising similar internal characteristics and definable trends in environmental and socioeconomic sense. Regions grouped into postindustrial clusters are fundamentally different from the European average, and are facing specific problems related to global market and political changes. Eastern postindustrial regions can be characterized as socially and economically weak, exhibiting high unemployment rate, low GDP, negative population growth and a strong environmental pressure, represented by a high density of dump sites. Most of the western EU postindustrial areas have been successfully recovered and moved into new economy as shown by most of the indicators. In urban postindustrial zones, however, emission sources of pollutants seem to continually be a major problem--not necessarily in terms of exceeding thresholds, but through a remarkable difference in the amount of pollutants produced relative to other regions.

  13. Pollution in America: The Trouble with Trash. Series on Public Issues No. 7.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurice, S. Charles; Smithson, Charles W.

    Examined in this booklet, one of a series intended to apply economic principles to major social and political issues of the day, are such questions as the origins of interest in combating pollution, why people pollute, continuing interest in the issue, the social costs of pollution, and a possible solution to the problem, all considered from an…

  14. Transboundary Movements of Genetically Modified Organisms and the Cartagena Protocol: Key Issues and Concerns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Odile J Lim Tung

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Biotechnology or the engineering of the genetic material of species can give way to avenues of possibilities for the benefit of people, fauna and flora but also has the potential of posing untold and undiscovered threats to human beings and other living organisms. One of the first attempts to legislate on international rules on biotechnology can be traced back to article 19 of the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD in 1992. The CBD is indeed the first international legal instrument apart from the then European Community’s relevant directives to suggest that biotechnology is a matter of concern for the international community while providing a basis upon which more detailed procedures would be elaborated in the field of biosafety. While the CBD includes international rules on access to genetic resources, access to and the transfer of technology, the handling of biotechnology and the distribution of its benefits, it does not include a detailed regulation on genetically modified organisms (GMOs and their possible adverse effects on the environment, human and animal health. It was only with the coming into existence of the Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety (Cartagena Protocol to the CBD in 2000 that the safe transfer, handling and use of living modified organisms (LMOs such as genetically engineered plants, animals, and microbes were at last being catered for, albeit leaving aside the broader categories of GMOs. Due to the need for the negotiators of this protocol to make compromises, there were still key issues on the international biosafety framework pertaining mainly to the scope of the GMOs to be covered by this protocol and by the Advanced Informed Agreement procedure; identification and traceability issues; and liability and redress issues. Nine years after the entry into force of the Cartagena Protocol the transboundary movements of GMOs have clearly increased with new categories of GMOs and genetically modified products to regulate. The

  15. Identifying Key Issues and Potential Solutions for Integrated Arrival, Departure, Surface Operations by Surveying Stakeholder Preferences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aponso, Bimal; Coppenbarger, Richard A.; Jung, Yoon; Quon, Leighton; Lohr, Gary; O’Connor, Neil; Engelland, Shawn

    2015-01-01

    NASA's Aeronautics Research Mission Directorate (ARMD) collaborates with the FAA and industry to provide concepts and technologies that enhance the transition to the next-generation air-traffic management system (NextGen). To facilitate this collaboration, ARMD has a series of Airspace Technology Demonstration (ATD) sub-projects that develop, demonstrate, and transitions NASA technologies and concepts for implementation in the National Airspace System (NAS). The second of these sub-projects, ATD-2, is focused on the potential benefits to NAS stakeholders of integrated arrival, departure, surface (IADS) operations. To determine the project objectives and assess the benefits of a potential solution, NASA surveyed NAS stakeholders to understand the existing issues in arrival, departure, and surface operations, and the perceived benefits of better integrating these operations. NASA surveyed a broad cross-section of stakeholders representing the airlines, airports, air-navigation service providers, and industry providers of NAS tools. The survey indicated that improving the predictability of flight times (schedules) could improve efficiency in arrival, departure, and surface operations. Stakeholders also mentioned the need for better strategic and tactical information on traffic constraints as well as better information sharing and a coupled collaborative planning process that allows stakeholders to coordinate IADS operations. To assess the impact of a potential solution, NASA sketched an initial departure scheduling concept and assessed its viability by surveying a select group of stakeholders for a second time. The objective of the departure scheduler was to enable flights to move continuously from gate to cruise with minimal interruption in a busy metroplex airspace environment using strategic and tactical scheduling enhanced by collaborative planning between airlines and service providers. The stakeholders agreed that this departure concept could improve schedule

  16. North Korean nuclear issues and the LWR project; analysis of the key technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Byung Koo; Kwack, E. H.; Shin, J. S.; An, J. S.; Lee, J. U.; Kim, H. T.; Kim, J. S.; Yoon, Y. C

    2000-11-01

    Year 2000 will be remembered as an epoch making period between two Koreas. Korean nuclear industries became activated with the KEDO LWR main contracts entering into force in February, 2000. Respective design, manufacturing and construction activities are mobilized in accordance with the total project schedule of about 100 months. What started out as the nuclear power plant design standardization project in the early '80s, is now being implemented as repeat construction of KSNPs at Yonggwang and Ulchin sites as well as at Kumho site in the DPRK. However, the KEDO construction schedule and the past nuclear inconsistency issues are closely linked due to the nonproliferation concerns. In practice, the IAEA must come to the conclusion that the correctness and completeness must be fulfilled before delivery of the first key component for the KEDO LWR unit 1. While the IAEA verification process tends to focus on the nuclear materials accountancy control, longer term objective between two Koreas is bound to take the form of confidence building. It is necessary to analyse the nuclear research and production facilities in order to make proper evaluation of a nation's nuclear capabilities. Close assessment on development status of graphite moderated reactors and their operation history, spent fuel reprocessing facilities, and HEU production capabilities would be essential. In addition, illicit trafficking possibilities should be addressed. Chapter 1 describes the graphite moderated reactors in general; Chapter 2 describes various reprocessing processes and their detection capabilities; Chapter 3 contains possible uranium enrichment processes with their detection capabilities, and Chapter 4 summarizes the international treaties in illicit trafficking control with the IAEA database.

  17. An Improved Methodology to Overcome Key Issues in Human Fecal Metagenomic DNA Extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jitendra Kumar

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Microbes are ubiquitously distributed in nature, and recent culture-independent studies have highlighted the significance of gut microbiota in human health and disease. Fecal DNA is the primary source for the majority of human gut microbiome studies. However, further improvement is needed to obtain fecal metagenomic DNA with sufficient amount and good quality but low host genomic DNA contamination. In the current study, we demonstrate a quick, robust, unbiased, and cost-effective method for the isolation of high molecular weight (>23 kb metagenomic DNA (260/280 ratio >1.8 with a good yield (55.8 ± 3.8 ng/mg of feces. We also confirm that there is very low human genomic DNA contamination (eubacterial: human genomic DNA marker genes = 227.9:1 in the human feces. The newly-developed method robustly performs for fresh as well as stored fecal samples as demonstrated by 16S rRNA gene sequencing using 454 FLX+. Moreover, 16S rRNA gene analysis indicated that compared to other DNA extraction methods tested, the fecal metagenomic DNA isolated with current methodology retains species richness and does not show microbial diversity biases, which is further confirmed by qPCR with a known quantity of spike-in genomes. Overall, our data highlight a protocol with a balance between quality, amount, user-friendliness, and cost effectiveness for its suitability toward usage for culture-independent analysis of the human gut microbiome, which provides a robust solution to overcome key issues associated with fecal metagenomic DNA isolation in human gut microbiome studies.

  18. Collected Papers on Poverty Issues. Volume 2: Aspects of Low Income in America. Part 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokelson, Doris, Ed.

    Part 1 of the second volume in a four volume collection, this document includes sections on housing, health, crime, and energy and focuses on such topics as: federal policies for low income housing; the future supply of housing; nonaffluent behavior and attitudes related to health and well being; costs, coverage, and issues in medicaid; the…

  19. The relevance and recognition of Latin American science. Introduction to the fourth issue of CBP-Latin America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermes-Lima, Marcelo; Alencastro, Antonieta C R; Santos, Natacha C F; Navas, Carlos A; Beleboni, Rene O

    2007-01-01

    similarly to those in developed countries. The forth special issue of Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology ("The Face of Latin American Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology") celebrates, with 24 new manuscripts from Brazil, Mexico, Argentina and Chile, the diversity of biological science in Latin America.

  20. Key issues in automatic classification of defects in post-inspection review process of photomasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Mark; Maji, Manabendra; Pai, Ravi R.; B. V. R., Samir; Seshadri, R.; Patil, Pradeepkumar

    2012-11-01

    very small real defects, registering grey level defect images with layout data base, automatically finding out maximum critical dimension (CD) variation for defective patterns (where patterns could have Manhattan as well as all angle edges), etc. This paper discusses about many such key issues and suggests strategies to address some of them based upon our experience while developing the NxADC and evaluating it on production mask defects.

  1. State–third Sector Partnerships: A short overview of key issues in the debate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bode, I.; Brandsen, T.

    2014-01-01

    The theme of partnership with the third sector has been on the agenda of public management research for a long time now, not least in this journal. As an introduction to a special issue on this topic, the article discusses two issues crucial to further study of this phenomenon. The first on the type

  2. Examining Key Issues Underlying the Audit Commission Reports on SEN Policy Paper 1 (5th Series)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norwich, Brahm; Beek, Chris; Richardson, Penny; Gray, Peter

    2004-01-01

    This book is the first publication in the fifth series of seminars organised by the SEN Policy Options Steering Group to examine policy issues to do with special educational needs. The aim of the seminar was to examine in depth several underlying issues raised by the recent Audit Commission Reports on special educational needs. The seminar…

  3. Developing Communities of Enquiry: Dealing with Social and Ethical Issues in Science at Key Stage 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunlop, Lynda; Humes, Gill; Clarke, Linda; Martin, Valerie McKelvey

    2011-01-01

    Reproductive technologies, drug discovery and exploration of the universe are areas of contemporary research that raise issues for individuals and society. Forward Thinking, Northern Ireland uses the development of communities of enquiry to promote discussion of these and other social and ethical issues in science with students aged 11-14 years.…

  4. EPA's Reanalysis of Key Issues Related to Dioxin Toxicity and Response to NAS Comments (Volume 1) (Interagency Science Discussion Draft)

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA is releasing the draft report, EPA's Reanalysis of Key Issues Related to Dioxin Toxicity and Response to NAS Comments (Volume 1), that was distributed to Federal agencies and White House Offices for comment during the Science Discussion step of the 75 FR 35800 - Draft EPA's Reanalysis of Key Issues Related to Dioxin Toxicity and Response to NAS Comments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-23

    ... AGENCY Draft EPA's Reanalysis of Key Issues Related to Dioxin Toxicity and Response to NAS Comments... Dioxin Toxicity and Response to NAS Comments'' (EPA/600/R-10/038A) for independent external review, and... Sciences (NAS) 2006 report. In addition, it includes new analyses on potential human effects that...

  5. A visual identification key utilizing both gestalt and analytic approaches to identification of Carices present in North America (Plantae, Cyperaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy Jones

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Images are a critical part of the identification process because they enable direct, immediate and relatively unmediated comparisons between a specimen being identified and one or more reference specimens. The Carices Interactive Visual Identification Key (CIVIK is a novel tool for identification of North American Carex species, the largest vascular plant genus in North America, and two less numerous closely-related genera, Cymophyllus and Kobresia. CIVIK incorporates 1288 high-resolution tiled image sets that allow users to zoom in to view minute structures that are crucial at times for identification in these genera. Morphological data are derived from the earlier Carex Interactive Identification Key (CIIK which in turn used data from the Flora of North America treatments. In this new iteration, images can be viewed in a grid or histogram format, allowing multiple representations of data. In both formats the images are fully zoomable.

  6. Towards optimised information about clinical trials; identification and validation of key issues in collaboration with cancer patient advocates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dellson, P; Nilbert, M; Bendahl, P-O;

    2011-01-01

    the possibility to discontinue treatment were perceived as the most important issues. Patients' views of the information in clinical trials provide new insights and identify key issues to consider in optimising future written information and may improve recruitment to clinical cancer trials.......Clinical trials are crucial to improve cancer treatment but recruitment is difficult. Optimised patient information has been recognised as a key issue. In line with the increasing focus on patients' perspectives in health care, we aimed to study patients' opinions about the written information used...... in three clinical trials for breast cancer. Primary data collection was done in focus group interviews with breast cancer patient advocates. Content analysis identified three major themes: comprehensibility, emotions and associations, and decision making. Based on the advocates' suggestions...

  7. A visual identification key utilizing both gestalt and analytic approaches to identification of Carices present in North America (Plantae, Cyperaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Images are a critical part of the identification process because they enable direct, immediate and relatively unmediated comparisons between a specimen being identified and one or more reference specimens. The Carices Interactive Visual Identification Key (CIVIK) is a novel tool for identification of North American Carex species, the largest vascular plant genus in North America, and two less numerous closely-related genera, Cymophyllus and Kobresia . CIVIK incorporates 1288 high-res...

  8. Conference communication. Managing change in tourism destinations: Key issues and current trends.

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    This conference communication illustrates the major outcomes emerging from the EIASM Conference on Tourism Management and Tourism Related Issues held in Nice (France), September 20-21, 2012. While a number of managerial issues pertaining to the tourism field were dealt with, this communication covers three specific areas of interest for destination management and marketing: (1) the increasing competition among tourism destinations and the rise and consolidation of BRIC countries as outbound t...

  9. Energy investments and environmental implications: key policy issues in developing countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siddayao, Corazon M. (World Bank Washington, DC (USA). Economic Development Institute)

    1992-03-15

    Energy investments imply changes in the physical, social, and economic environment. Hence, both the short-term and the long-term costs and benefits of these investments must be taken into account. These changes may affect not only the immediate environment of the investment site but may extend geographically far beyond national borders as well as beyond the lifetimes of the people for whom the investments are intended. This paper reviews the issues relevant to developing countries. General conceptual and policies issues are discussed. Issues about the measurement of costs and benefits (including issues of 'sustainability' and the internalization of externalities resulting from environmental changes) as well as the role of opportunity costs in deciding a country's energy investment strategies are raised. The macroeconomic and institutional issues relevant to environmental impacts that might be incorporated in energy planning are suggested. The paper is based on a presentation to the 'Workshop on energy investments and the environment'. 24 refs., 1 fig.

  10. Building America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brad Oberg

    2010-12-31

    IBACOS researched the constructability and viability issues of using high performance windows as one component of a larger approach to building houses that achieve the Building America 70% energy savings target.

  11. Several key issues on implementing delay line based TDCs using FPGAs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Jinyuan; /Fermilab

    2009-12-01

    Several topics in FPGA delay line based TDCs are discussed in this document. First, FPGA specific issues such as considerations on the delay line choice in different FPGA families, Wave Union Launchers, 'bubble proof' encoding logic, etc. are examined. Next, common problems for both FPGA TDCs and ASIC TDCs such as schemes of coarse time counter implementation, bin-by-bin calibration and noise issues due to single ended signals are discussed. Several resource/power saving design approaches for various processing stages are described in the document.

  12. Status and key issues of reduced activation ferritic/martensitic steels as the structural material for a DEMO blanket

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanigawa, H.; Shiba, K.; Möslang, A.; Stoller, R. E.; Lindau, R.; Sokolov, M. A.; Odette, G. R.; Kurtz, R. J.; Jitsukawa, S.

    2011-10-01

    The status and key issues of reduced activation ferritic/martensitic (RAFM) steels R&D are reviewed as the primary candidate structural material for fusion energy demonstration reactor blankets. This includes manufacturing technology, the as-fabricated and irradiates material database and joining technologies. The review indicated that the manufacturing technology, joining technology and database accumulation including irradiation data are ready for initial design activity, and also identifies various issues that remain to be solved for engineering design activity and qualification of the material for international fusion material irradiation facility (IFMIF) irradiation experiments that will validate the data base.

  13. Status and key issues of reduced activation ferritic/martensitic steels as the structural material for a DEMO blanket

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanigawa, Hiroyasu [ORNL; Stoller, Roger E [ORNL; Sokolov, Mikhail A [ORNL; Odette, G.R. [University of California, Santa Barbara; Jitsukawa, Shiro [Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA); Shiba, K. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA); Kurtz, Richard [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL); Moeslang, A. [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, Karlsruhe, Germany; Lindau, R. [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, Karlsruhe, Germany

    2011-01-01

    The status and key issues of reduced activation ferritic/martensitic (RAFM) steels R&D are reviewed as the primary candidate structural material for fusion energy demonstration reactor blankets. This includes manufacturing technology, the as-fabricated and irradiates material database and joining technologies. The review indicated that the manufacturing technology, joining technology and database accumulation including irradiation data are ready for initial design activity, and also identifies various issues that remain to be solved for engineering design activity and qualification of the material for international fusion material irradiation facility (IFMIF) irradiation experiments that will validate the data base.

  14. U.S. Army War College Key Strategic Issues List 2013-2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-24

    for Early Indications & Warnings of Biological Threats. In July 2012, President Obama issued a national strategy for biosurveillance that directs...the need for innovative biosurveillance , including the 2001 anthrax letters, 2003 SARS outbreak, 2009 bird flu pandemic and2011 Japan nuclear

  15. Producer responsibility for e-waste management: key issues for consideration - learning from the Swiss experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khetriwal, Deepali Sinha; Kraeuchi, Philipp; Widmer, Rolf

    2009-01-01

    E-waste, a relatively recent addition to the waste stream in the form of discarded electronic and electric equipment, is getting increasing attention from policy makers as the quantity being generated is rising rapidly. One of the most promising policy options to address this issue is to extend the producers responsibility for their products beyond the point of sale, until end-of-product-life. This paper briefly introduces the concept of extended producer responsibility (EPR) and its applicability in the area of the end-of-life management of electronic and electrical equipment (EEE). It then examines the decade-long experience of Switzerland in using EPR to manage its e-waste, elaborating on the experience of the Swiss system in overcoming specific issues, and finally wrapping up with a synopsis of the lessons for policy makers. We consider each issue as an enquiry of questions confronting a policy maker and the choices that may present themselves. The five issues discussed are: (i) the challenges in getting an EPR based system started; (ii) securing financing to ensure a self-sustaining and smooth functioning system; (iii) organising a logistics network for the take back and collection of the e-waste; (iv) ensuring compliance of the various actors involved; and finally (v) reducing the threat of monopolistic practices.

  16. U.S. Army War College Key Strategic Issues List 2014-2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-17

    between just and unjust warriors? -- Examine the ethical and legal issues associated with post-war treatment of ‘ unjust warriors’, (i.e. Guantanamo...ethical considerations for determining what constitutes a legitimate military target for a drone strike? (POC: Prof. Trey Braun, SSI, william.g.braun2.civ

  17. Key issues of public relations of Europe: findings from the European Communication Monitor 2007-2014

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verčič, D.; Verhoeven, P.; Zerfass, A.

    2014-01-01

    European Communication Monitor is the largest longitudinal research project in public relations practice in the world. Data collected annually from 2007 to 2014 show that practitioners perceive five issues as the most important for their work: linking business strategy and communication, coping with

  18. What Do People Know about Key Environmental Issues? A Review of Environmental Knowledge Surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robelia, Beth; Murphy, Tony

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents results from 15 little publicized state and national environmental surveys in the US that used similar questions. Our analysis reveals trends in adult understanding of environmental issues. These trends indicate that many may have difficulty making informed decisions about environmental policy as citizens, voters, and…

  19. The Causes of Poverty: Thinking Critically about a Key Economic Issue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otlin, Josh

    2008-01-01

    Economics is a central part of civic education. Students need to know about the Constitution and the party system, but active citizenship in the twenty-first century requires much more than the standard civics courses offer. Economic issues dominate public policy debates ranging from Social Security to immigration to international security. If…

  1. Key Instructional Design Issues in a Cellular Phone-Based Mobile Learning Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gedik, Nuray; Hanci-Karademirci, Arzu; Kursun, Engin; Cagiltay, Kursat

    2012-01-01

    Adding flexibility to the learning process, mobile learning offers great opportunities for education, especially for teenagers, who show great attentiveness to mobile technologies. Thus, the need to focus on design aspects of such learning is growing. This study aims to reveal critical issues in designing mobile learning based on a program for…

  2. EFFICIENT OFFICIAL STATISTICS AS A KEY TO THE ISSUE OF POST-CRISIS DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. I. Pashintseva

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Measures implemented by the Federal State Statistics Service aimed at regular monitoring of the situation in the territory of the Russian Federation have been considered in the paper. Issues related to unemployment and investment activity by enterprises in the context of the financial and economic crisis have been analyzed.

  3. Can Competency-Based Training Fly?: An Overview of Key Issues for "Ab Initio" Pilot Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franks, Peter; Hay, Stephen; Mavin, Tim

    2014-01-01

    Competency-based training (CBT) for pilots was formally introduced in 1999 by the Civil Aviation Safety Authority (CASA) for training leading to the issue of aeroplane private and commercial pilot licences. This initiative followed the Australian government's introduction of CBT policy for vocational and workplace training in the late 1980's.…

  4. The Role of Gender in the Socialization of Emotion: Key Concepts and Critical Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Root, Amy Kennedy; Denham, Susanne A.

    2010-01-01

    Given the omnipresent role of gender in children's and adolescents' development, it seems necessary to better understand how gender affects the process of emotion socialization. In this introductory chapter, the authors discuss the overarching themes and key concepts discussed in this volume, as well as outline the distinct contribution of each…

  5. BASF Issues First Report on Economic,Environmental,and Social Performance Seven key indicators standardize and integrate transparency

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    @@ BASF,the world's leading chemical company,will enhance its transparency in Greater China by reporting annually on seven key financial,social and environmental indicators:sales,number of employees,occupational safety,water,waste,emissions to air,and energy consumption.BASF Greater China today issued the first report under the new guidelines,revealing the latest information about the company's performance in the world's most dynamic chemical market.

  6. Key issues of public relations of Europe: Findings from the European Communication Monitor 2007-2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dejan Vercic

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available European Communication Monitor is the largest longitudinal research project in public relations practice in the world. Data collected annually from 2007 to 2014 show that practitioners perceive five issues as the most important for their work: linking business strategy and communication, coping with the digital evolution and social web, building and maintaining trust, dealing with the demand for more transparency and active audiences, and dealing with the speed and volume of information flow. Perception of the importance of various issues for the practice of public relations is largely dependent on the gender, geography (division between Northern and Western vs. Southern and Eastern Europe, and sector in which a practitioner works (corporate, government, NGO or agency. While gender and sectorial differences studied in academic public relations literature, divisions in public relations practice between North-Western and South-Eastern Europe are largely ignored.

  7. Evolution of Mitigation Commitments. Some Key Issues. OECD and IEA Information Paper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Philibert, C.; Pershing, J. [International Energy Agency IEA, LTO/EED, Paris (France); Willems, S.; Corfee Morlot, J. [OECD Environment Directorate, Global and Structural Policies Division, Paris (France)

    2003-05-28

    This study considers a broad range of issues relating to the future of the UN Convention on Climate Change. It first draws a 'long-term picture', considering damage and policy costs, risks and uncertainties, and technical, institutional and social changes. It then considers various forms of quantified objectives for future commitments, as well as alternatives to quantified objectives at country level, and discusses allocation.

  8. Foreign Affairs, Defense, and Trade: Key Issues for the 110th Congress

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-12-20

    preferences under the Andean Trade Preferences Act ( ATPA ), and for an additional six months if a country enters into a free trade agreement with the...United States. ATPA extends special duty treatment to certain U.S. imports from Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador, and CRS-68 Peru that meet domestic content and...supporting legitimate economic activities. The 110th Congress will face the issue of whether to consider a longer-term extension of ATPA as the June

  9. Strategic Research for S&T Planning Should Focus on Key Issues

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    @@ Strategic planning for national and CAS mid- and long-term S&T development should avoid giving equal attention to every aspect of an issue, which can only lead to incremental progress.Instead, importance should be attached to priorities that will result in scientific, technical and engineering breakthroughs, said CAS President Lu Yongxiang, who is also vice-chairman of the national legislature, NPC.

  10. Fatca and its key provisions and the issues of its application in Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Sheppard Castillo

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available As an answer to the international tax evasion problem, the U.S. Congress issued the Foreign Account Tax Compliance Act – Fatca. This Act aims to promote tax compliance among citizens and U.S. residents holding foreign bank accounts. To this effect, Fatca requires Foreign Financial Institutions to enter into an agreement with the Internal Revenue Service (IRS to provide the IRS information about the identity and the status of the bank accounts held by US persons. Entities not willing to enter into an agreement with the IRS will be subject to a 30% withholding on U.S. sourced income regardless of whether the income is tax exempt. The application of this Act in our country brings a lot of concern regarding some issues, such us extraterritoriality, bank secrecy, the application of civil and criminal law. Since the effective date of implementation of Fatca is July 1, 2014, we understand that an official opinion concerning these issues and the possibilityto enter into an Intergovernmental Agreement with the U.S. government will be forthcoming in the following months.

  11. Network theory: key issues for the analysis of the "brain drain"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Carolina Henao

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper offers an analysis of the brain drain from the perspective of the network theory. Some definitions and key concepts of the network theory have been discussed in relation to criteria and reasons that are taken into account by people with broad educational capital from developing countries who are involved in the research in different areas of knowledge and who seek to adapt to other scientific collaboration networks in the developed countries.

  12. Key issues of multiple access technique for LEO satellite communication systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    温萍萍; 顾学迈

    2004-01-01

    The large carrier frequency shift caused by the high-speed movement of satellite (Doppler effects) and the propagation delay on the up-down link are very critical issues in an LEO satellite communication system, which affects both the selection and the implementation of a suitable access method. A Doppler based multiple access technique is used here to control the flow and an MPRMA-HS protocol is proposed for the application in LEO satellite communication systems. The extended simulation trials prove that the proposed scheme seems to be a very promising access method.

  13. The Development of Resources of Students in Adolescence as a Key Issue in Contemporary Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gosk Urszula

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In the presented paper, the issue of recognition and building of resources in adolescent pupils was discussed, referring to salutogenic concept of A. Antonovsky and Conservation of Resources Theory of S. E. Hobfoll. Coming out from developmental pedagogy and positive orientation in social sciences, benefits of scientific and educational actions concentrated on identifying pupils’ resources and supporting them in generating them, were shown. On the basis of Polish and foreign literature, empirical research treating about pupils’ resource, was analyzed, with special attention put to the sense of coherence and its components, stress management and behavior fostering health.

  14. Life-cycle impact assessment: A conceptual framework, key issues, and summary of existing methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-07-01

    Life-Cycle Assessment (LCA) is a holistic concept and approach for evaluating the environmental and human health impacts associated with a product, process, or activity. A complete LCA looks upstream and down stream, identifies inputs and outputs, and assesses the potential effects of those inputs and outputs on ecosystems, human health, and natural resoures. This report presents a conceptual framework for conducting a life-cycle impact assessment (LCIA), discusses major issues, and summarizes existing methods. It also identifies some of the advantages and disadvantages of various methods.

  15. Integrating Variable Renewable Energy into the Grid: Key Issues, Greening the Grid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katz, Jessica; Cochran, Jaquelin

    2015-05-01

    To foster sustainable, low-emission development, many countries are establishing ambitious renewable energy targets for their electricity supply. Because solar and wind tend to be more variable and uncertain than conventional sources, meeting these targets will involve changes to power system planning and operations. Grid integration is the practice of developing efficient ways to deliver variable renewable energy (VRE) to the grid. Good integration methods maximize the cost-effectiveness of incorporating VRE into the power system while maintaining or increasing system stability and reliability. When considering grid integration, policy makers, regulators, and system operators consider a variety of issues, which can be organized into four broad topics: New Renewable Energy Generation, New Transmission, Increased System Flexibility, Planning for a High RE Future.

  16. A new mealybug in the genus Pseudococcus Westwood (Hemiptera: Coccomorpha: Pseudococcidae) from North America, with a key to species of Pseudococcus from the New World.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellenrieder, Natalia Von; Watson, Gillian

    2016-04-19

    A mealybug species that feeds on Agave spp., Pseudococcus variabilis sp. n. (Hemiptera: Coccomorpha: Pseudococcidae), is described from North America. Its entry into the United States was likely via the horticultural trade on its host plants in the genus Agave (Liliales: Agavaceae). Descriptions and illustrations of the adult female and male, diagnosis from congeners in the New World, and a molecular characterization based on COI are provided, as well as a key to adult females of all Pseudococcus species recorded from the New World.

  17. Resources for our Future. Key issues and best practices in resource efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weterings, R.; Bastein, T.; Tukker, A. [TNO, Delft (Netherlands); Rademaker, M.; De Ridder, M. [The Hague Centre for Strategic studies HCSS, Den Haag (Netherlands)

    2013-08-15

    This book provides an analysis of the issues surrounding international resources and inspiring accounts of industrial best practices. The book consists of two distinct parts. The first part of the book brings together the results of years of research into the geopolitical, economic and ecological dimensions of material scarcity and resource efficiency. Chapter 2 discusses the main challenges and constraints related to the use of energy resources, water and land, industrial and metallic minerals, construction minerals and biotic resources, including water use and ecosystem degradation. The chapter also addresses important linkages between these various resources. Chapter 3 describes the international trends that are shaping the geopolitics of natural resources and looks at the implications for Europe and the Netherlands. Chapter 4 presents a wide range of strategies by which governments, producers and consumers may contribute to the more sustainable use of natural resources. The second part of the book describes 21 inspiring best practices in resource efficiency in a variety of industrial sectors. Based on a series of interviews with industrial pioneers, these chapters relate their first-hand experiences in improving resource efficiency. These business cases demonstrate that innovation and entrepreneurship can result in substantial improvements in resource efficiency. Chapter 5 focuses on best practices in the built environment, where substantial amounts of energy and minerals are used. Chapter 6 presents four ambitious strategies to promote sustainable food production and consumption. Chapter 7 describes recent developments in the chemical process industry, which produces most of the ingredients, compounds and semi-products for the vast range of products used by society. Chapter 8 provides four examples of the state-of-the-art in resource efficiency in the metal and high-tech industries. This chapter presents four business cases highlighting the benefits of the

  18. Information processing in bacteria: memory, computation, and statistical physics: a key issues review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, Ganhui; Tu, Yuhai

    2016-05-01

    Living systems have to constantly sense their external environment and adjust their internal state in order to survive and reproduce. Biological systems, from as complex as the brain to a single E. coli cell, have to process these data in order to make appropriate decisions. How do biological systems sense external signals? How do they process the information? How do they respond to signals? Through years of intense study by biologists, many key molecular players and their interactions have been identified in different biological machineries that carry out these signaling functions. However, an integrated, quantitative understanding of the whole system is still lacking for most cellular signaling pathways, not to say the more complicated neural circuits. To study signaling processes in biology, the key thing to measure is the input-output relationship. The input is the signal itself, such as chemical concentration, external temperature, light (intensity and frequency), and more complex signals such as the face of a cat. The output can be protein conformational changes and covalent modifications (phosphorylation, methylation, etc), gene expression, cell growth and motility, as well as more complex output such as neuron firing patterns and behaviors of higher animals. Due to the inherent noise in biological systems, the measured input-output dependence is often noisy. These noisy data can be analysed by using powerful tools and concepts from information theory such as mutual information, channel capacity, and the maximum entropy hypothesis. This information theory approach has been successfully used to reveal the underlying correlations between key components of biological networks, to set bounds for network performance, and to understand possible network architecture in generating observed correlations. Although the information theory approach provides a general tool in analysing noisy biological data and may be used to suggest possible network architectures in

  19. Information processing in bacteria: memory, computation, and statistical physics: a key issues review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, Ganhui; Tu, Yuhai

    2016-05-01

    Living systems have to constantly sense their external environment and adjust their internal state in order to survive and reproduce. Biological systems, from as complex as the brain to a single E. coli cell, have to process these data in order to make appropriate decisions. How do biological systems sense external signals? How do they process the information? How do they respond to signals? Through years of intense study by biologists, many key molecular players and their interactions have been identified in different biological machineries that carry out these signaling functions. However, an integrated, quantitative understanding of the whole system is still lacking for most cellular signaling pathways, not to say the more complicated neural circuits. To study signaling processes in biology, the key thing to measure is the input-output relationship. The input is the signal itself, such as chemical concentration, external temperature, light (intensity and frequency), and more complex signals such as the face of a cat. The output can be protein conformational changes and covalent modifications (phosphorylation, methylation, etc), gene expression, cell growth and motility, as well as more complex output such as neuron firing patterns and behaviors of higher animals. Due to the inherent noise in biological systems, the measured input-output dependence is often noisy. These noisy data can be analysed by using powerful tools and concepts from information theory such as mutual information, channel capacity, and the maximum entropy hypothesis. This information theory approach has been successfully used to reveal the underlying correlations between key components of biological networks, to set bounds for network performance, and to understand possible network architecture in generating observed correlations. Although the information theory approach provides a general tool in analysing noisy biological data and may be used to suggest possible network architectures in

  20. Rising food costs & global food security: Key issues & relevance for India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel J Gustafson

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Rising food costs can have major impact on vulnerable households, pushing those least able to cope further into poverty and hunger. On the other hand, provided appropriate policies and infrastructure are in place, higher agricultural prices can also raise farmers′ incomes and rural wages, improve rural economies and stimulate investment for longer-term economic growth. High food prices since 2007 have had both short-term impacts and long-term consequences, both good and bad. This article reviews the evidence of how rising costs have affected global food security since the food price crisis of 2007-2008, and their impact on different categories of households and countries. In light of recent studies, we know more about how households, and countries, cope or not with food price shocks but a number of contentious issues remain. These include the adequacy of current estimates and the interpretation of national and household food and nutrition security indicators. India is a particularly important country in this regard, given the high number of food insecure, the relative weight of India in global estimates of food and nutrition insecurity, and the puzzles that remain concerning the country′s reported declining per capita calorie consumption. Competing explanations for what is behind it are not in agreement, but these all point to the importance of policy and programme innovation and greater investment necessary to reach the achievable goal of food and nutrition security for all.

  1. Rising food costs & global food security: key issues & relevance for India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustafson, Daniel J

    2013-09-01

    Rising food costs can have major impact on vulnerable households, pushing those least able to cope further into poverty and hunger. On the other hand, provided appropriate policies and infrastructure are in place, higher agricultural prices can also raise farmers' incomes and rural wages, improve rural economies and stimulate investment for longer-term economic growth. High food prices since 2007 have had both short-term impacts and long-term consequences, both good and bad. This article reviews the evidence of how rising costs have affected global food security since the food price crisis of 2007-2008, and their impact on different categories of households and countries. In light of recent studies, we know more about how households, and countries, cope or not with food price shocks but a number of contentious issues remain. These include the adequacy of current estimates and the interpretation of national and household food and nutrition security indicators. India is a particularly important country in this regard, given the high number of food insecure, the relative weight of India in global estimates of food and nutrition insecurity, and the puzzles that remain concerning the country's reported declining per capita calorie consumption. Competing explanations for what is behind it are not in agreement, but these all point to the importance of policy and programme innovation and greater investment necessary to reach the achievable goal of food and nutrition security for all.

  2. A Review on Key Issues and Challenges in Devices Level MEMS Testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Shoaib

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The present review provides information relevant to issues and challenges in MEMS testing techniques that are implemented to analyze the microelectromechanical systems (MEMS behavior for specific application and operating conditions. MEMS devices are more complex and extremely diverse due to the immersion of multidomains. Their failure modes are distinctive under different circumstances. Therefore, testing of these systems at device level as well as at mass production level, that is, parallel testing, is becoming very challenging as compared to the IC test, because MEMS respond to electrical, physical, chemical, and optical stimuli. Currently, test systems developed for MEMS devices have to be customized due to their nondeterministic behavior and complexity. The accurate measurement of test systems for MEMS is difficult to quantify in the production phase. The complexity of the device to be tested required maturity in the test technique which increases the cost of test development; this practice is directly imposed on the device cost. This factor causes a delay in time-to-market.

  3. Key issues in estimating energy and greenhouse gas savings of biofuels: challenges and perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dheeraj Rathore

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The increasing demand for biofuels has encouraged the researchers and policy makers worldwide to find sustainable biofuel production systems in accordance with the regional conditions and needs. The sustainability of a biofuel production system includes energy and greenhouse gas (GHG saving along with environmental and social acceptability. Life cycle assessment (LCA is an internationally recognized tool for determining the sustainability of biofuels. LCA includes goal and scope, life cycle inventory, life cycle impact assessment, and interpretation as major steps. LCA results vary significantly, if there are any variations in performing these steps. For instance, biofuel producing feedstocks have different environmental values that lead to different GHG emission savings and energy balances. Similarly, land-use and land-use changes may overestimate biofuel sustainability. This study aims to examine various biofuel production systems for their GHG savings and energy balances, relative to conventional fossil fuels with an ambition to address the challenges and to offer future directions for LCA based biofuel studies. Environmental and social acceptability of biofuel production is the key factor in developing biofuel support policies. Higher GHG emission saving and energy balance of biofuel can be achieved, if biomass yield is high, and ecologically sustainable biomass or non-food biomass is converted into biofuel and used efficiently.

  4. The Water Risks of Hydraulic Fracturing (Fracking): Key Issues from the New California Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gleick, P. H.

    2015-12-01

    A key component of the Water-Energy Nexus is the effort over the past decade or so to quantify the volumes and form of water required for the energy fuel cycle from extraction to generation to waste disposal. The vast majority of the effort in this area has focused on the water needs of electricity generation, but other fuel-cycle components also entail significant water demands and threats to water quality. Recent work for the State of California (managed by the California Council on Science and Technology - CCST) has produced a new state-of-the-art assessment of a range of potential water risks associated with hydraulic fracturing and related oil and gas extraction, including volumetric water demands, methods of disposal of produced water, and aquifer contamination. For example, this assessment produced new information on the disposal of produced water in surface percolation pits and the potential for contamination of local groundwater (see Figure). Understanding these risks raises questions about current production and future plans to expand production, as well as tools used by state and federal agencies to manage these risks. This talk will summarize the science behind the CCST assessment and related policy recommendations for both water and energy managers.

  5. Key issues and options in accounting for carbon sequestration and temporary storage in life cycle assessment and carbon footprinting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandao, Miguel; Levasseur, Annie; Kirschbaum, Miko U. F.

    2013-01-01

    footprinting (CF) are increasingly popular tools for the environmental assessment of products, that take into account their entire life cycle. There have been significant efforts to develop robust methods to account for the benefits, if any, of sequestration and temporary storage and release of biogenic carbon....... However, there is still no overall consensus on the most appropriate ways of considering and quantifying it. Method: This paper reviews and discusses six available methods for accounting for the potential climate impacts of carbon sequestration and temporary storage or release of biogenic carbon in LCA...... and CF. Several viewpoints and approaches are presented in a structured manner to help decision-makers in their selection of an option from competing approaches for dealing with timing issues, including delayed emissions of fossil carbon. Results: Key issues identified are that the benefits of temporary...

  6. Herbal hepatotoxicity in traditional and modern medicine: Actual key issues and new encouraging steps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rolf eTeschke

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Plants are natural producers of chemical substances, providing potential treatment of human ailments since ancient times. Some herbal chemicals in medicinal plants of traditional and modern medicine carry the risk of herb induced liver injury (HILI with a severe or potentially lethal clinical course, and the requirement of a liver transplant. Discontinuation of herbal use is mandatory in time when HILI is first suspected as diagnosis. Although herbal hepatotoxicity is of utmost clinical and regulatory importance, lack of a stringent causality assessment remains a major issue for patients with suspected HILI, while this problem is best overcome by the use of the hepatotoxicity specific CIOMS (Council for International Organizations of Medical Sciences scale and the evaluation of unintentional reexposure test results. Sixty five different commonly used herbs, herbal drugs, and herbal supplements and 111 different herbs or herbal mixtures of the traditional Chinese medicine (TCM are reported causative for liver disease, with levels of causality proof that appear rarely conclusive. Encouraging steps in the field of herbal hepatotoxicity focus on introducing analytical methods that identify cases of intrinsic hepatotoxicity caused by pyrrolizidine alkaloids, and on omics technologies, including genomics, proteomics, metabolomics, and assessing circulating micro-RNA in the serum of some patients with intrinsic hepatotoxicity. It remains to be established whether these new technologies can identify idiosyncratic HILI cases. To enhance its globalization, herbal medicine should universally be marketed as herbal drugs under strict regulatory surveillance in analogy to regulatory approved chemical drugs, proving a positive risk/benefit profile by enforcing evidence based clinical trials and excellent herbal drug quality.

  7. From upstream to downstream: Megatrends and latest developments in Latin America`s hydrocarbons sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Kang; Pezeshki, S.; McMahon, J.

    1995-08-01

    In recent years, Latin America`s hydrocarbons sector has been characterized by reorganization, revitalization, regional cooperation, environmental awakening, and steady expansion. The pattern of these changes, which appear to be the megatrends of the region`s hydrocarbons sector development, will continue during the rest of the 1990s. To further study the current situation and future prospects of Latin America`s hydrocarbons sector, we critically summarize in this short article the key issues in the region`s oil and gas development. These megatrends in Latin America`s hydrocarbons sector development will impact not only the future energy demand and supply in the region, but also global oil flows in the North American market and across the Pacific Ocean. Each country is individually discussed; pipelines to be constructed are discussed also.

  8. Phenolic compounds, antioxidant activity and in vitro inhibitory potential against key enzymes relevant for hyperglycemia and hypertension of commonly used medicinal plants, herbs and spices in Latin America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranilla, Lena Galvez; Kwon, Young-In; Apostolidis, Emmanouil; Shetty, Kalidas

    2010-06-01

    Traditionally used medicinal plants, herbs and spices in Latin America were investigated to determine their phenolic profiles, antioxidant activity and in vitro inhibitory potential against key enzymes relevant for hyperglycemia and hypertension. High phenolic and antioxidant activity-containing medicinal plants and spices such as Chancapiedra (Phyllantus niruri L.), Zarzaparrilla (Smilax officinalis), Yerba Mate (Ilex paraguayensis St-Hil), and Huacatay (Tagetes minuta) had the highest anti-hyperglycemia relevant in vitro alpha-glucosidase inhibitory activities with no effect on alpha-amylase. Molle (Schinus molle), Maca (Lepidium meyenii Walp), Caigua (Cyclanthera pedata) and ginger (Zingiber officinale) inhibited significantly the hypertension relevant angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE). All evaluated pepper (Capsicum) genus exhibited both anti-hyperglycemia and anti-hypertension potential. Major phenolic compounds in Matico (Piper angustifolium R.), Guascas (Galinsoga parviflora) and Huacatay were chlorogenic acid and hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives. Therefore, specific medicinal plants, herbs and spices from Latin America have potential for hyperglycemia and hypertension prevention associated with Type 2 diabetes.

  9. The study of key issues about integration of GNSS and strong-motion records for real-time earthquake monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Rui; Zhang, Pengfei; Zhang, Rui; Liu, Jinhai

    2016-08-01

    This paper has studied the key issues about integration of GNSS and strong-motion records for real-time earthquake monitoring. The validations show that the consistence of the coordinate system must be considered firstly to exclude the system bias between GNSS and strong-motion. The GNSS sampling rate is suggested about 1-5 Hz, and we should give the strong-motion's baseline shift with a larger dynamic noise as its variation is very swift. The initialization time of solving the baseline shift is less than one minute, and ambiguity resolution strategy is not greatly improved the solution. The data quality is very important for the solution, we advised to use multi-frequency and multi-system observations. These ideas give an important guide for real-time earthquake monitoring and early warning by the tight integration of GNSS and strong-motion records.

  10. Experimental Study and Computational Simulations of Key Pebble Bed Thermo-mechanics Issues for Design and Safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tokuhiro, Akira; Potirniche, Gabriel; Cogliati, Joshua; Ougouag, Abderrafi

    2014-07-08

    An experimental and computational study, consisting of modeling and simulation (M&S), of key thermal-mechanical issues affecting the design and safety of pebble-bed (PB) reactors was conducted. The objective was to broaden understanding and experimentally validate thermal-mechanic phenomena of nuclear grade graphite, specifically, spheres in frictional contact as anticipated in the bed under reactor relevant pressures and temperatures. The contact generates graphite dust particulates that can subsequently be transported into the flowing gaseous coolent. Under postulated depressurization transients and with the potential for leaked fission products to be adsorbed onto graphite 'dust', there is the potential for fission products to escape from the primary volume. This is a design safety concern. Furthermore, earlier safety assessment identified the distinct possibility for the dispersed dust to combust in contact with air if sufficient conditions are met. Both of these phenomena were noted as important to design review and containing uncertainty to warrant study. The team designed and conducted two separate effects tests to study and benchmark the potential dust-generation rate, as well as study the conditions under which a dust explosion may occure in a standardized, instrumented explosion chamber.

  11. Sustainable Sourcing of Global Agricultural Raw Materials: Assessing Gaps in Key Impact and Vulnerability Issues and Indicators.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathaniel P Springer

    Full Text Available Understanding how to source agricultural raw materials sustainably is challenging in today's globalized food system given the variety of issues to be considered and the multitude of suggested indicators for representing these issues. Furthermore, stakeholders in the global food system both impact these issues and are themselves vulnerable to these issues, an important duality that is often implied but not explicitly described. The attention given to these issues and conceptual frameworks varies greatly--depending largely on the stakeholder perspective--as does the set of indicators developed to measure them. To better structure these complex relationships and assess any gaps, we collate a comprehensive list of sustainability issues and a database of sustainability indicators to represent them. To assure a breadth of inclusion, the issues are pulled from the following three perspectives: major global sustainability assessments, sustainability communications from global food companies, and conceptual frameworks of sustainable livelihoods from academic publications. These terms are integrated across perspectives using a common vocabulary, classified by their relevance to impacts and vulnerabilities, and categorized into groups by economic, environmental, physical, human, social, and political characteristics. These issues are then associated with over 2,000 sustainability indicators gathered from existing sources. A gap analysis is then performed to determine if particular issues and issue groups are over or underrepresented. This process results in 44 "integrated" issues--24 impact issues and 36 vulnerability issues--that are composed of 318 "component" issues. The gap analysis shows that although every integrated issue is mentioned at least 40% of the time across perspectives, no issue is mentioned more than 70% of the time. A few issues infrequently mentioned across perspectives also have relatively few indicators available to fully represent

  12. Sustainable Sourcing of Global Agricultural Raw Materials: Assessing Gaps in Key Impact and Vulnerability Issues and Indicators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Springer, Nathaniel P; Garbach, Kelly; Guillozet, Kathleen; Haden, Van R; Hedao, Prashant; Hollander, Allan D; Huber, Patrick R; Ingersoll, Christina; Langner, Megan; Lipari, Genevieve; Mohammadi, Yaser; Musker, Ruthie; Piatto, Marina; Riggle, Courtney; Schweisguth, Melissa; Sin, Emily; Snider, Sara; Vidic, Nataša; White, Aubrey; Brodt, Sonja; Quinn, James F; Tomich, Thomas P

    2015-01-01

    Understanding how to source agricultural raw materials sustainably is challenging in today's globalized food system given the variety of issues to be considered and the multitude of suggested indicators for representing these issues. Furthermore, stakeholders in the global food system both impact these issues and are themselves vulnerable to these issues, an important duality that is often implied but not explicitly described. The attention given to these issues and conceptual frameworks varies greatly--depending largely on the stakeholder perspective--as does the set of indicators developed to measure them. To better structure these complex relationships and assess any gaps, we collate a comprehensive list of sustainability issues and a database of sustainability indicators to represent them. To assure a breadth of inclusion, the issues are pulled from the following three perspectives: major global sustainability assessments, sustainability communications from global food companies, and conceptual frameworks of sustainable livelihoods from academic publications. These terms are integrated across perspectives using a common vocabulary, classified by their relevance to impacts and vulnerabilities, and categorized into groups by economic, environmental, physical, human, social, and political characteristics. These issues are then associated with over 2,000 sustainability indicators gathered from existing sources. A gap analysis is then performed to determine if particular issues and issue groups are over or underrepresented. This process results in 44 "integrated" issues--24 impact issues and 36 vulnerability issues--that are composed of 318 "component" issues. The gap analysis shows that although every integrated issue is mentioned at least 40% of the time across perspectives, no issue is mentioned more than 70% of the time. A few issues infrequently mentioned across perspectives also have relatively few indicators available to fully represent them. Issues in the

  13. Agenda: "Hispanic Issues Are America's Issues." Quadrennial National Hispanic Leadership Conference (4th, Washington, D.C., April 4-6, 1988).

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Hispanic Leadership Conference, Washington, DC.

    This document presents the 1988 National Hispanic Leadership Conference's agenda on the following major issues: (1) civil rights; (2) corporate and philanthropic responsibility; (3) criminal justice; (4) culture and language policy; (5) economic development policy; (6) education; (7) employment and economic security; (8) health and mental health;…

  14. A Citizen's Guide to U.S. Foreign Policy: Election '88. Nonpartisan Briefs on 18 Key Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoepli, Nancy, Ed.; And Others

    In order to make informed voting decisions citizens need background information on complex foreign policy issues facing the United States. This guide presents current issues and provides information to help citizens cast a thoughtful vote. The guide is divided into six main headings: Leadership; Security; Economic and Social Issues; Critical…

  15. Familienfreundlichkeit als Zukunftsfrage in Unternehmen [Family-friendliness in business as a key issue for the future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stutzer, Erich

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available [english] These days family-friendliness is a key issue for the future of businesses. Investments in a family conscious personnel policy are considered as forward-looking decisions in companies. This happens against the background of a sustainable personnel policy in times of a decrease in the number of employable persons, an increasing shortage of skilled workers and an ageing workforce. Family-friendly working conditions are becoming a key factor in the competition for staff. When choosing an employer, family-friendliness has become a crucial topic. Employment participation and skills of women, especially of mothers, have greatly increased. To facilitate the realisation of their wish to return to paid employment, however, measures to reconcile work and family are required.Family-conscious measures have been proven to lead to higher employee productivity. Job satisfaction and motivation of employees and accumulation of human capital increase, absenteeism declines, the return of investment rises. Fields of activity for family-friendly measures in companies range from working arrangements, parental leave and re-entry programmes and various child care offers to services for families. In connection with the demographic development the demand for a better reconciliation of work and elder care should in future become ever more important, just as the upkeep of the occupational skills and working capacity of an ageing workforce. Family-friendliness has to become an integral part of corporate culture. [german] Familienfreundlichkeit wird heute als wesentliche Zukunftsfrage für Unternehmen diskutiert und Investitionen in eine familienbewusste Personalpolitik gelten als zukunftsweisende Entscheidungen in Unternehmen. Dies geschieht vor dem Hintergrund einer zukunftsfähigen Personalpolitik in Zeiten zurückgehender Erwerbspersonenzahlen, eines zunehmenden Fachkräftemangels und der Alterung der Belegschaften. Familienfreundliche Arbeitsbedingungen werden

  16. In situ study of key material and process reliability issues in the chemical vapor deposition of copper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, Ishing

    With the limitations of current aluminum based metallization schemes used in microelectronics, the development of a manufacturable chemical vapor deposition (CVD) process for copper metallization schemes is crucial to meet the stringent requirements of sub-quarter micron device technology and beyond. The work presented herein focused on investigating key material and process reliability issues pertaining to Cu CVD processing. In particular, a unique combination of in-situ gas phase Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and quadrupole mass spectrometry (QMS) was employed to study the role of hydrogen in thermal CVD of copper using (tmvs)Cusp{I}(hfac). These studies showed that hydrogen provides significant enhancement in the deposition rate of copper interconnects. Based on the QMS and FTIR data, this enhancement could be attributed to the role of hydrogen in assisting in the removal of tmvs from (tmvs)Cusp{I}(hfac), thus enhancing the conversion of Cusp{I}(hfac) intermediates to Cusp{o} and Cusp{II}(hfac)sb2 and providing a wider process window with higher conversion efficiency. In addition, in-situ real time QMS studies were performed of the gas phase evolution and decomposition pathways of (tmvs)Cusp{I}(hfac) during thermal CVD of copper. The QMS investigations focused on determining the ionization efficiency curves and appearance potentials of (tmvs)Cusp{I}(hfac) under real CVD processing conditions. The resulting curves and associated potentials were then employed to identify the most likely precursor decomposition pathways and examine relevant implications for thermal CVD of copper from (tmvs)Cusp{I}(hfac). Finally, a hydrogen-plasma assisted CVD (PACVD) process was developed for the growth of device quality gold for incorporation as dopant in emerging Cu CVD based metallization interconnects. In particular, it was demonstrated that the PACVD gold process window identified can maintain very low gold deposition rates (gold is a promising in-situ Cu doping technique

  17. On the issue of the peculiarities of using metaphors in migration discourse of Germany, Austria, England, and America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nesterova Y. A.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The authors of the article review such complex objects of the language and thinking activity as metaphors representing the numerous migration processes in Europe from 2013 to 2016. Nowadays this topic is very popular among modern Russian and foreign linguists, because the process of migration of the population is widely spread throughout the world and it is a very complicated social, political, economic, and cultural process. The aim of this article is to analyze and compare the usage of metaphors in the modern migration discourse of Germany, Austria, England, and America. During the study, the four main groups of metaphors have been differentiated on the material of modern German and English language online editions devoted to the topic of immigrants and migration processes in many countries (such as Der Spiegel, Die Zeit-online, Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung, Bild, Suddeutsche Zeitung, NPD-Sachsen, Der Trutzgauer Bote, The Guardian, The USA Today, The New York Times, The Washington Post etc. These groups can be called metaphors that embody natural catastrophes and natural disasters; military metaphors; goods metaphors, and theater metaphors. According to the analyzed examples, all these metaphors characterize migration movement as a mass, lingering, spontaneous and dramatic process. The image of migrants is represented by these metaphors as a threat and danger to a modern society.

  18. Using Eight Key Questions as an Inquiry-Based Framework for Ethical Reasoning Issues in a General Education Earth Systems and Climate Change Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, E. A.; Ball, T. C.

    2014-12-01

    An important objective in general education geoscience courses is to help students evaluate social and ethical issues based upon scientific knowledge. It can be difficult for instructors trained in the physical sciences to design effective ways of including ethical issues in large lecture courses where whole-class discussions are not practical. The Quality Enhancement Plan for James Madison University, "The Madison Collaborative: Ethical Reasoning in Action," (http://www.jmu.edu/mc/index.shtml) has identified eight key questions to be used as a framework for developing ethical reasoning exercises and evaluating student learning. These eight questions are represented by the acronym FOR CLEAR and are represented by the concepts of Fairness, Outcomes, Responsibilities, Character, Liberty, Empathy, Authority, and Rights. In this study, we use the eight key questions as an inquiry-based framework for addressing ethical issues in a 100-student general education Earth systems and climate change course. Ethical reasoning exercises are presented throughout the course and range from questions of personal behavior to issues regarding potential future generations and global natural resources. In the first few exercises, key questions are identified for the students and calibrated responses are provided as examples. By the end of the semester, students are expected to identify key questions themselves and justify their own ethical and scientific reasoning. Evaluation rubrics are customized to this scaffolding approach to the exercises. Student feedback and course data will be presented to encourage discussion of this and other approaches to explicitly incorporating ethical reasoning in general education geoscience courses.

  19. The Future We Want: Key Issues on Sustainable Development in Higher Education after Rio and the UN Decade of Education for Sustainable Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leal Filho, Walter; Manolas, Evangelos; Pace, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to provide a description of the achievements of the United Nations (UN) Decade of Education for Sustainable Development (2005-2014) with a focus on higher education, and it describes some of the key issues which will guide sustainable development in the coming years. Design/methodology/approach: The paper initially…

  20. Perceptions of Latin American scientists about science and post-graduate education: Introduction to the 5th issue of CBP-Latin America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermes-Lima, Marcelo; Polcheira, Cássia; Trigueiro, Michelangelo; Beleboni, Rene Oliveira

    2008-11-01

    Although science and engineering (S&E) publications and doctoral degree awards in Latin America had experienced an impressive growth in the past decades, a qualitative evaluation of this increased output must be performed. Previous studies have indicated that growth in visibility of Latin American science - determined by ratio of citations per paper - has not kept pace with the increase in number of publications. In the present editorial, we analyzed - by means of a 12-item questionnaire - the individual perceptions of forty senior researchers involved in CBP-Latin America (29 Brazilians and 11 non-Brazilians) plus a special group composed by six extraordinary Latin American scientists (the "masters"). The questionnaire - using 6-point Likert-like scale for quantification of perception - focused on issues surrounding doctoral educational system as well as the governmental educational policies and publication pressure from funding agencies. In general, the most striking result was the perception (by 82% of respondents) of lack of job opportunities for people holding a PhD diploma in the field of comparative biochemistry and physiology. Other major trends include (i) lack of satisfaction with governmental policies for science and post-graduate education due to policies promoting mass production for papers and PhD diplomas (65-77% of respondents felt that way) (ii) that current PhD students are doing an adequate job, but have not improved in quality as compared to those from 10 years ago (the same was observed for PhD thesis in terms of present versus past), and (iii) that research infrastructure and the curricula of post-graduate courses do not constitute a problem, but (iv) recent-PhDs are not as fit as they should be in paper-writing skills, especially as perceived by Brazilian respondents. The general perceptions were very similar among Brazilians, non-Brazilians and "masters". The use of a larger study-population, with scientists of more diverse fields is the

  1. Introduction to Urban and Community Forestry in the United States of America: History, Accomplishments, Issues and Trends

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qi Yadong; Zhang Zhiqiang

    2003-01-01

    The urban and community forestry movement in the United States has matured over the last 20 years from managing street trees, to understanding the benefits of trees in urban ecosystems, and now to managing urban green infrastructure. This paper introduced the history, development, and major accomplishments of the urban and community forestry movement, highlighted the economic, ecological, environmental, and social values of forests and trees to communities, and discussed issues and trends of the urban and community forestry program in the United States.

  2. Climate Change, Adaptation and Security in Central America and the Caribbean (CSL Issue Paper, Volume 3-11)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    DoS’ Regional Environmental Hub, and other regional partners, in the organization of roundtables, conferences and train -the-trainer workshops in...technology and knowledge: assist with data gathering • Training and education: impart knowledge and expertise • Protection of coastal areas and...safeguard lives, restore infrastructure 2. In that regard, the Deutsche Gesellchaft für Technische Zusammenarbeil considers education as a key pre-condition

  3. The integration of the risk in the governance of urban projects: a key issue for a resilient city

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moulin, E.; Deroubaix, J.-F.

    2012-04-01

    Despite a severe regulation concerning the building in flooding areas, 80% of these areas are already built in the Greater Paris (Paris, Val-de-Marne, Hauts-de-Seine and Seine-Saint-Denis). The land use in flooding area is presented as one of the main solutions to solve the ongoing real estate pressure. For instance some of the industrial wastelands located along the river are currently in redevelopment and residential buildings are planned. So landuse in the flooding areas is currently a key issue in the development of the Greater Paris area. Tools and measures, structural or non-structural such as warning systems, barriers, etc do exist and could be a smart way to improve the resilience of the new urbanised areas. The technical solutions are available and efficient, but we notice that these tools are not much implemented. There is a lack of flood risk concern among the stakeholders and the inhabitants1. How landuse stakeholders could integrate the flood risk in the decision making process throughout the implementation of the urban project? Which type of governance favours an efficient development of good flood risk policy including prevention, protection and the management of the crisis? What is the "good" governance of the urban project e.g. enabling to take into account or not to forget the flood risk and to empower the (future) inhabitants? This inhabitants' empowerment includes the improvement of awareness (i.e. inhabitants being aware that they live in a flooded area) and the improvement of concern (i.e. inhabitants adopting the "right" behaviour when the risk occurs). In order to investigate how flood risk is or could be integrated in the project governance, we interviewed stakeholders (elected representatives, architects, property developers, etc.) and observed the integration or the vanishing of the risk throughout the project. In order to develop this topic we rely on a case study. The "Ardoines" is a project aiming at redeveloping an industrial site

  4. Preparing the veterinary profession for corporate and trade issues in the Americas: proceedings of a conference on synergism and globalization, Santiago, Chile, May 6-8, 2001.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, C; Carbajal, I; Wagner, G

    2001-01-01

    The complex and rapid-paced development of international trade, coupled with increasing societal demands for the production not only of abundant and inexpensive food, but also of food that is safe and has been raised in a humane and environmentally friendly manner, demands immediate attention from the veterinary community. The new culture of global trade agreements, spurred by the development of the WTO, dictates massive changes and increasing integration of public and private sectors. This is a huge growth area for our profession and will require individuals with a skill set we do not yet provide in our educational framework. In North America, veterinary education is parochial and focused on specialization. This strong orientation toward companion animals fails to provide adequate training for those interested in acquiring the necessary skills for the emerging area of globalization and trade. In South America, curricula are less harmonized with one another and there is tremendous variation in degree programs, rendering it difficult to ascertain whether veterinarians are prepared to assume decision-making responsibilities regarding international transport of food. If we do not begin to prepare our graduates adequately for this emerging market demand, the positions will be filled by other professions. These other professions lack broad-based scientific knowledge about animal physiology and disease causation. Decisions made without adequate background could have devastating consequences for society, including incursions of unwelcome diseases, food safety problems, and public health issues. To prepare our new veterinary graduates for the future and this emerging market, it is important to nurture a global mindset within our academic communities and to promote communications, languages, and an interdependent team mentality. Areas of technical expertise that need a place, perhaps a parallel track, in the curriculum include production medicine, public health, food safety

  5. Argumentation as a Strategy for Increasing Preservice Teachers' Understanding of Climate Change, a Key Global Socioscientific Issue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, Julie L.; Bleicher, Robert E.

    2017-01-01

    Findings of this study suggest that scientific argumentation can play an effective role in addressing complex socioscientific issues (i.e. global climate change). This research examined changes in preservice teachers' knowledge and perceptions about climate change in an innovative undergraduate-level elementary science methods course. The…

  6. Examination of Ethnic and Policy Issues in Grooming Preferences and Ethnic Hairstyles of African American Women in Corporate America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Renee Payne

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available For a century, college-trained, professional racial minorities: specifically, African American women with a preference in grooming methods have contributed to the labor market; however, in the new millennium, they are often discriminated against, scoffed at, isolated, and demoralized based on ethnic hairstyles. Research studies have distinguished a depth of research on this and conversely there are limited studies on racial minorities, in particular among grooming preferences in ethnic hairstyles. Studies have shown that in progressive companies, racial minorities and African American women who wear ethnic hairstyles had their employment terminated with prejudice. With regard to these case studies and findings, one could argue that in this nation there is freedom of speech and inequality in expression. For this reason, this research is very necessary to discover variables in ethnic and policy issues in grooming preferences with regard to the ethnic hairstyles of African American women as it relates to employers, whereat cohesive practices in diversity and policies address imposing construct in the labor market. This research will not address every ethnical concern in the labor market; yet, it responds to a call in the literature to define managerial deficiencies against racial minorities: in particular, African American women in grooming preferences.

  7. Key Issues in Building Design: How to Get Started in Planning a Project. Library Buildings and Equipment Section

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahlgren, Anders C.; Eigenbrodt, Olaf; Latimer, Karen; Romero, Santi

    2009-01-01

    Based on the IFLA (International Federation of Library Associations and Institutions) Library Buildings and Equipment Section's Library Building Guidelines published in 2007, this short publication summarises the key points to take into consideration when designing a new or refurbished library building. The aim of the brochure is not to replace…

  8. Towards re-reforming the EU cohesion policy: Key issues in the debate and some thoughts on peripheral regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Foutakis Dimitris

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Two years after the inception of the fourth programming period, the debate on post-2013 cohesion policy has already been launched. In fact, public consultation was launched in 2007 and considerable steps have followed since then, while others are about to start. At the same time, the new strategic guidelines and rules that guide cohesion policy have only been in place for a short period and as yet their impacts are not clear. Critical events and major political issues that concern the whole EU structure are the main factors behind this evolution. In particular, the economic recession in addition to the prospects for the new EU Treaty could be considered decisive elements in the launch of the debate on future cohesion policy. More specifically, among the issues highlighted in this context are the distinction between efficiency and equity objectives, the need for a place-based strategy, high growth sectors and their contribution to cohesion, and the potential for creativity and innovation. Overall, it seems like old dilemmas of spatial development recur, while contemporary ones also gain ground. The outcome of this debate is of significant importance for all EU regions not only in budgetary terms, but also in terms of strategic policy goals. This paper examines the above future policy issues with an emphasis on regions faced with particular difficulties such as less favored regions as well as those in the EU periphery.

  9. Strengthening and redesigning flood risk governance in Europe: an overview of seven key issues and how they are being dealt with in six European countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hegger Dries

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available European countries, especially urban areas, face increasing flood risks due to urbanization, increase of exposure and damage potential, and the effects of climate change. In literature and in practice, it is argued that a diversification of Flood Risk Management Strategies (FRMSs makes countries more flood resilient. The latter requires innovations in existing Flood Risk Governance Arrangements, development of new arrangements and the coordination of these arrangements, but it also requires these arrangements to be tailored to their physical and institutional context. Within the EU FP7 project STAR-FLOOD (2012-2016, a comparative analysis and evaluation of flood risk governance in Belgium, England, France, The Netherlands, Poland and Sweden has been conducted. The project identified at least seven key issues that are relevant for all researched countries (and probably also beyond. These key issues deal with the topics of (i diversifying Flood Risk Management Strategies (ii establishing connectivity between actors, levels and sectors through what we coin “bridging mechanisms” (iii achieving coproduction between public and private actors; (iv improving fragmented and often non-enforceable rule systems; (v optimising available resources for FRM; (vi operationalising the notion of “diversification of FRM strategies” in a country-specific way; (vii follow general design principles for improving FRM that are sufficiently tailored to local circumstances. Drawing on all project deliverables, this paper will briefly review each key issue, discuss salient similarities and differences between the countries and point at ways forward.

  10. Issues in the Language Policy of the European Union. Motivation as a Key Factor in Promoting Language Learning

    OpenAIRE

    Komorowska, Hanna

    2007-01-01

    As motivation has been identified by the EU High Level Group on Multilingualism as the key factor in promoting language education, the author, herself member of HLGM, discusses a variety of approaches to motivation and presents guidelines for the promotional activity at national, regional and school levels, concentrating on its aims and procedures, identifying age groups and motives to be targeted, as well as arguments and strategies to be used in the process of eliciting and sustaining le...

  11. Customer orientation of cruise destinations in Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada – exploring key issues for ports and the cruise lines

    OpenAIRE

    Hull, John S.; Losekoot, Erwin

    2011-01-01

    This paper evaluates the customer needs of cruise passengers in a context of industry ports in the province of Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada. The study was conducted for the Cruise Association of Newfoundland and Labrador (CANAL) providing primary data as part of their assessment for their Port Readiness Program. The results are generated from a survey of 34 key decision-makers working in 24 ports in the province. Another survey representing the views of 12 cruise lines operating in these...

  12. A Policy Analysis and Quantitative Assessment of Key Issues Arising from Climate Change Negotiations Following COP 7

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sager, J. M

    2003-04-01

    This paper aims to assess the consequences of the amendments made to the Kyoto Protocol during COP 7 in Marrakech. Following a comprehensive policy analysis, the major issue of 'hot air' and CDM transaction costs is examined using the CERT model. This was done to show that primary supply regions, typically those with 'hot air' availability, might control the emissions reduction permit supply market and maximise net export revenues of permit supply by withholding 40 to 60% of available 'hot air' credits. The assumption that primary permit suppliers control permit price via a restriction of 'hot air' supply to the market will inadvertently leave a portion of the market share open to Non-Annex B CDM supply, despite potentially extreme variance in CDM transaction costs. A summary table of policy implications on the emissions reduction permit market is also included in the Appendix. (author)

  13. Hydrodynamics of coalbed methane reservoirs in the Black Warrior Basin: Key to understanding reservoir performance and environmental issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pashin, J.C.

    2007-01-01

    The Black Warrior Basin of the southeastern United States hosts one of the world's most prolific and long-lived coalbed methane plays, and the wealth of experience in this basin provides insight into the relationships among basin hydrology, production performance, and environmental issues. Along the southeast margin of the basin, meteoric recharge of reservoir coal beds exposed in an upturned fold limb exerts a strong control on water chemistry, reservoir pressure, and production performance. Fresh-water plumes containing Na-HCO3 waters with low TDS content extend from the structurally upturned basin margin into the interior of the basin. Northwest of the plumes, coal beds contain Na-Cl waters with moderate to high-TDS content. Carbon isotope data from produced gas and mineral cements suggest that the fresh-water plumes have been the site of significant bacterial activity and that the coalbed methane reservoirs contain a mixture of thermogenic and late-stage biogenic gases. Water produced from the fresh-water plumes may be disposed safely at the surface, whereas underground injection has been used locally to dispose of highly saline water. Wells in areas that had normal hydrostatic reservoir pressure prior to development tend to produce large volumes of water and may take up to 4 a to reach peak gas production. In contrast, wells drilled in naturally underpressured areas distal to the fresh-water plumes typically produce little water and achieve peak gas rates during the first year of production. Environmental debate has focused largely on issues associated with hydrologic communication between deep reservoir coal beds and shallow aquifers. In the coalbed methane fields of the Black Warrior Basin, a broad range of geologic evidence suggests that flow is effectively confined within coal and that the thick intervals of marine shale separating coal zones limit cross-formational flow. ?? 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Quantitative versus qualitative approaches: a comparison of two research methods applied to identification of key health issues for working horses in Lesotho.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upjohn, M M; Attwood, G A; Lerotholi, T; Pfeiffer, D U; Verheyen, K L P

    2013-03-01

    The relative merits and potential complementarity of participatory methods and classical epidemiological techniques in veterinary-related research is a current topic of discussion. Few reported studies have applied both methodologies within the same research framework to enable direct comparison. The aim of this study was to compare issues identified by a classical epidemiological study of horses and their owners with those identified by owner communities using participatory approaches. In 2009, a cross-sectional survey was undertaken as part of an impact assessment study of farrier and saddler training programmes, and a small-scale nutrition trial, implemented in Lesotho by a UK-based equine charity. In total, 245 horses and their 237 owners participated in the survey which comprised a face-to-face structured questionnaire covering knowledge and practices relating to equine husbandry and primary healthcare, clinical examination and sampling of horses, and examination of tack used on those horses. In early 2010, 56 owners in three survey regions, some of whom participated in the survey, attended a participatory workshop. Each workshop group created a local resource map whilst discussing and identifying key issues associated with horse ownership and what might have an adverse impact on horse health and work. Following map completion, each group began by prioritising the identified issues, and then ranked them using a pairwise/ranking matrix to reflect how important issues were in relation to each other. Overall priority issues were: mouth problems, hunger and nutrition, diseases (including infectious diseases, parasites and colic), husbandry (including wound management), and feet and limb problems. Major health issues identified by cross-sectional study included sharp enamel points on teeth, endo- and ectoparasite infestation, suboptimal nutrition, tack-associated wounds, overgrown and poorly balanced feet and poor owner husbandry knowledge and practices. Whilst

  15. Heat, Human Performance, and Occupational Health: A Key Issue for the Assessment of Global Climate Change Impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kjellstrom, Tord; Briggs, David; Freyberg, Chris; Lemke, Bruno; Otto, Matthias; Hyatt, Olivia

    2016-01-01

    Ambient heat exposure is a well-known health hazard, which reduces human performance and work capacity at heat levels already common in tropical and subtropical areas. Various health problems have been reported. Increasing heat exposure during the hottest seasons of each year is a key feature of global climate change. Heat exhaustion and reduced human performance are often overlooked in climate change health impact analysis. Later this century, many among the four billion people who live in hot areas worldwide will experience significantly reduced work capacity owing to climate change. In some areas, 30-40% of annual daylight hours will become too hot for work to be carried out. The social and economic impacts will be considerable, with global gross domestic product (GDP) losses greater than 20% by 2100. The analysis to date is piecemeal. More analysis of climate change-related occupational health impact assessments is greatly needed.

  16. Assessing antiretroviral adherence via electronic drug monitoring and self-report: an examination of key methodological issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, Cynthia R; Simoni, Jane M; Hoff, Peter; Kurth, Ann E; Martin, Diane P

    2007-03-01

    We explored methodological issues related to antiretroviral adherence assessment, using 6 months of data collected in a completed intervention trial involving 136 low-income HIV-positive outpatients in the Bronx, NY. Findings suggest that operationalizing adherence as a continuous (versus dichotomous) variable and averaging adherence estimates over multiple assessment points (versus using only one) explains greater variance in HIV-1 RNA viral load (VL). Self-reported estimates provided during a phone interview accounted for similar variance in VL as EDM estimates (R (2) = .17 phone versus .18 EDM). Self-reported adherence was not associated with a standard social desirability measure, and no difference in the accuracy of self-report adherence was observed for assessment periods of 1-3 days. Self-reported poor adherence was more closely associated with EDM adherence estimates than self-reported moderate and high adherence. On average across assessment points, fewer than 4% of participants who reported taking a dose of an incorrect amount of medication.

  17. Study on key Issues and Critical Success Factors of e - Supply Chain Management in Health Care Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debashri Dey , Asoke Nath

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Due to tremendous growth in informationtechnology (IT and economic globalizationnow the competition is among enterprises andtheir supply chains and not restricted toenterprises only. In the present globaleconomic scenario, the organizations areforced to rethink their operations, alliances,partnerships and strategies to cope with theseand similar changes. Supply chaincompetitiveness has been emerged as one ofthe strongest tool for gaining competitiveadvantages. Although healthcare industrieshave responded serious competitivechallenges through their network alliance,the theoretical element for sustainablecompetitive advantage of healthcare supplychain has not been well examined. A supplychain is competitive if it is able to create anddeliver value for its customers and itscomponents. In the growing economy ofIndia, supply chain competitiveness (SCC isa real solution to the problems faced byorganizations in this global environment,which now ultimately leads to a World of e-SCM (Electronic Supply ChainManagement. The present paper discussessome of the e-supply chain competitivenessissues and presents roles of suppliers,manufacturers and distributors, some futureperspectives of e-SCM with an aim to identifythe critical issues related to supply chaincompetitiveness and presents roles of themajor components of supply chain,altogether. The authors have also discussedthe emerging challengesof healthcare supplychains and their impact in collaborativehealthcare network for global markets.

  18. I metadati nelle biblioteche digitali: concetti chiave e prospettive Metadata issues in Digital Libraries: key concepts and perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iryna Solodovnik

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available

    L'articolo si propone di esaminare il significato, il ruolo e le implicazioni di alcuni approcci utilizzati nella gestione della biblioteca digitale.

    L'innovazione nella gestione delle risorse online e il miglioramento della loro interoperabilità si può ottenere con una normalizzazione degli schemi di metadati attraverso l'uso di standard interoperabili e vocabolari internazionali e condivisi, e con l'arricchimento dato da ontologie e linked data, che sono alla base delle riflessioni sul web semantico e sulla costruzione di livelli semantici sulle descrizioni dei metadati.

    Attraverso l'esame di alcune metodologie innovative di rappresentazione dell'informazione (LODe-BD, SWAP, l'articolo mostra alcune modalità di creazione della conoscenza in ambiente digitale, con particolare riferimento ai dati bibliografici.

    The article sets out to investigate the meaning, role and implications of some information management approaches used in Digital Library practice. A greater focus on innovation in managing online resources and on improving their interoperability can be achieved by normalizing metadata schemas through interoperable standards, world-wide accepted controlled vocabularies as well as by their enrichment through qualitatively constructed ontologies and linked data, which are key to the expansion of the semantic reasoning on the web through building and connection of additional semantic layers on top of metadata descriptions. Reviewing some innovative methods of information representation (LODe-BD, SWAP, the paper tries to lead the reader to discover some new ways of knowledge creation in digital information environment, in particular what concerns digital bibliographic records.

  19. TUTOR TRAINING KEY ISSUE IN E-LEARNING / FORMACIÓN DE TUTORES. ASPECTO CLAVE EN ENSEÑANZA VIRTUAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Astudillo

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The tutor has special relevance for the success of a virtual learning experience; the skills of a classroom teacher are not enough. Training processes for tutors are required to develop the necessary skills to perform the role that covers technical, pedagogical, social and administrative issues. This article presents an overview of the role of the tutors in virtual learning environments, the need to train these professionals and the experience of a Course on Tutoring, developed for the Center for Training, Experimentation and Educational Research. The Center has trained in a three-year period 1,611 tutors, to work in virtual courses offered to teachers by the Chilean Ministry of Education. The course is described, together with its instructional design, and its main results, like the high degree of retention and value assigned, all of which is understood as the first step in a process that is complemented by experience to become a virtual tutor.RESUMENEn el éxito de una experiencia formativa virtual, la figura del tutor cobra especial relevancia, las competencias de un docente presencial no son suficientes. Se requiere procesos formativos para que los tutores adquieran las competencias necesarias para desempeñar su rol que abarca las áreas técnica, pedagógica, social y administrativa. Este artículo presenta una visión general del rol del tutor en los entornos virtuales de aprendizaje, las necesidades de formar a estos profesionales y la experiencia del curso de tutores desarrollado para el Centro de Perfeccionamiento Experimentaciones e Investigaciones Pedagógicas que ha formado a los largo de tres años a 1.611 tutores, para actuar en los cursos virtuales que el Ministerio de Educación Chileno ofrece a sus docentes, se presenta el curso, su diseño instruccional, los principales resultados, como el alto grado de retención y valoración de esta instancia formativa, la cual se entiende como el primer paso de un proceso que se

  20. Key Issues in Morphology Analysis Based on Text Mining%基于文本挖掘的形态分析方法的关键问题

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冷伏海; 王林; 王立学

    2012-01-01

    Morphological analysis based on text mining integration of text mining method, that reduce the reliance on technical experts, and adds objective data to support analysis. Morphological analysis based on text mining has four key issues, which are the definition of the morphological structure, feature word selection, morphology representation, morphology analysis. The improvement to the four issues has key role in enhancing the method.%基于文本挖掘的形态分析方法是在传统方法基础上融入文本挖掘的手段,是国内外学者对形态分析方法的一次有益的探索与改进。改进后的方法减轻对领域专家的依赖,并且增加分析过程中客观数据的支持,提高方法的效率和科学性。基于文本挖掘的形态分析方法包括形态结构定义、特征词选择、形态表示、形态分析等4个关键问题,这4个问题解决方案的优化对整个方法的分析效率和质量的提高有关键作用。

  1. Bioenergy and Biodiversity: Key Lessons from the Pan American Region to be part of Special Issue on Biofuels in the Americas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kline, Keith L [ORNL; Martinelli, Fernanda Silva [Conservation International (CI), Brasil; Mayer, Audrey L. [Michigan Technological University; Medeiros, Rodrigo [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Brazil; Oliveira, Camilia Ortolan F. [State University of Campinas (UNICAMP); Sparovek, Gerd [University of Sao Paulo (USP), Brazil; Walter, Arnaldo Cesar de Silva [State University of Campinas (UNICAMP); Venier, Lisa A. [Great Lakes Forestry Centre (GLFC), Ontario, Canada

    2015-01-01

    Understanding how large-scale bioenergy production can affect biodiversity and ecosystems is important if society is to meet current and future sustainable development goals. A variety of bioenergy production systems have been established within different contexts throughout the Pan American region, with wide-ranging results in terms of documented and projected effects on biodiversity and ecosystems. The Pan American region is home to the majority of commercial bioenergy production and therefore the region offers a broad set of experiences and insights on both conflicts and opportunities for biodiversity and bioenergy. This paper synthesizes lessons learned focusing on experiences in Canada, the United States, and Brazil, regarding the conflicts that can arise between bioenergy production and ecological conservation, and benefits that can be derived when bioenergy policies promote planning and more sustainable land management systems. We propose a research agenda to address priority information gaps that are relevant to biodiversity concerns and related policy challenges in the Pan American region.

  2. Revision of Thisiomorphus Pic (Coleoptera: Mycteridae: Eurypinae) with descriptions of eleven new species from Central and South America and a key to genera of Neotropical Eurypinae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollock, Darren A

    2016-03-22

    The Neotropical eurypine genus Thisiomorphus is revised, based on external structural features of adults. Twelve species are recognized, including the following eleven new species (type areas in parentheses): T. festivus (Panama, Colón Prov.), T. osaensis (Costa Rica, Puntarenas Prov.), T. davidsoni (Brazil, Chapada), T. inaequalis (Ecuador, Napo Prov.), T. caeruleus (Panama, Panamá Prov.), T. brasiliensis (Brazil, Amazonas), T. solisi (Costa Rica, Guanacaste Prov.), T. andrewsi (Panama, Chiriquí Prov.), T. bolivianus (Bolivia, Santa Cruz Dept.), T. curticornis (Ecuador, Sucumbíos Prov.), and T. convergens (Brazil, Pará). A key to the 13 described eurypine genera of Central and South American is provided, along with a key to species of Thisiomorphus. The keys are supplemented with images of habitus and selected structural features, and maps of known distributions are provided.

  3. 美国多元文化教育课程改革之核心问题%Key Issues in the Curriculum Transformation of American Multicultural Education

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱姝

    2016-01-01

    知识建构是美国多元文化教育课程改革的核心。五种知识类型综合发挥作用促进美国多元文化教育的课程改革。提出权力共享模式可作为美国多元文化教育课程知识选择的途径。%This article makes a review of the Canon debate on the curriculum transformation in the United States and points out that knowledge construction is the key issue in the curriculum transformation in American multicultural education. American multicultural curriculum has been transformed to comprehensively integrate five types of knowledge. It also gives a summary of the approach to transforming American multicultural education and makes a discussion on its implication for our curriculum reform.

  4. Non-Darcian flow in low-permeability media: key issues related to geological disposal of high-level nuclear waste in shale formations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hui-Hai

    2014-05-01

    In clay or other low-permeability media, water flow becomes non-Darcian and characterized by the non-linear relationship between water flux and hydraulic gradient. This work is devoted to addressing a number of key issues related to geological disposal of high-level nuclear waste in clay/shale formations. It is demonstrated that water flow velocity in the damaged zone (often considered as a potential preferential advection paths in a repository) surrounding the tunnel is extremely small, as a result of non-Darcian flow behavior, such that solute transport is dominated by diffusion, rather than advection. The finding is also consistent with the often-observed existence of persistent abnormal pressures in shale formations. While relative permeability is the key parameter for modeling the unsaturated flow process, without incorporating non-Darcian flow behavior, significant errors can occur in the determination of relative permeability values from traditional measurement methods. An approach for dealing with temperature impact on non-Darcian flow and a formulation to calculate non-Darcian water flux in an anisotropic medium are presented, taking into consideration that a geological repository is subject to temperature evolution in the near field as a result of heat generated by nuclear waste, and that shale formations are generally anisotropic.

  5. 物流行业面临的若干重大问题%Some Key Issues Facing the Logistic Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪鸣

    2014-01-01

    为做好物流业产学研结合工作,需要一些超前意识、战略意识。对当前我国物流行业面临的若干重大问题的判断,就需要具有前瞻性,以便为行业发展提供具有参考价值的决策依据。当前,在我国面临必须深化改革的背景下,如何认识和判断我国物流业发展的阶段性特征,怎样推动政府管理与政策模式变革,以及未来物流业发展政策的重点和方向,对我国物流业发展而言,无疑是非常重要的战略性问题。这既是对促进物流业发展规律的认识问题,也是理论与实践相结合的产学研结合课题。%To do a better job in promoting the integration of enterprises, universities and research institutes of the logistic industry, we should have the superior and strategic consciousness. In judging the existing key issues facing the logistic industry, we need the foresight to provide us with reference for decision-making in the industrial development. At present, in the background of deepening reform, how to understand and judge the essential features of the industrial development in the current stage, how to promote reform in government management and policy pattern and how to recognize the policy focuses and direction of the future logistic development are the key strategic issues for the development of China’s logistic development. And these are not only problems concerning the understanding of development rules of logistic industry, but also tasks based on the integration of enterprises, universities and research institutes and the combination of theories and practices.

  6. End-of-life care in advanced kidney disease: ethical and legal issues and key challenges for black and minority ethnic groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cronin, Antonia J

    2014-09-01

    Advances in modern medical technology have gone so far that it is now possible for machinery to keep people alive. To some extent this has led to a misperception in society that death can almost always be postponed because life-sustaining extracorporeal machinery of some sort or another, for example a dialysis machine, can prevent it. However, for some, being kept alive connected to a dialysis machine for four hours three times a week does not represent or even come close to an existence or quality of life they consider valuable. It may even cause unnecessary distress. This may be because they have reached a point at the end of their lives where they would like the focus of their treatment or care to become that which enables them to live as well as possible until they die. In these circumstances treatment and care should properly be that which enables the supportive and palliative care needs of both patient and family to be identified and met throughout the last phase of life and into bereavement. Identifying and acknowledging the importance of such a paradigm shift in the delivery of healthcare, and above all facilitating it, includes taking on the responsibility, incumbent upon us all, to address the ethical issues that are brought into focus. In this paper, I examine some of these issues. I consider the ways in which underlying theoretical ethical principles have informed the development of professional guidance and highlight the dynamic relationship this guidance has with the law. Finally, I demonstrate the ways in which it can be usefully applied to inform and assist clinical decision-making. Key challenges for BAME groups are addressed.

  7. Table-top water window transmission x-ray microscopy: Review of the key issues, and conceptual design of an instrument for biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adam, Jean-François; Moy, Jean-Pierre; Susini, Jean

    2005-09-01

    As it has been beautifully demonstrated in synchrotron facilities, water window transmission x-ray microscopy (WW-TXM) has a great potential for high resolution three dimensional (3D) tomographic imaging of frozen cells, without the cumbersome staining and slicing preparation needed by electron microscopy. However, the existing instruments do not exactly meet the expectations of cell biologists in terms of performance and accessibility: 3D images of entire cells grown on a flat substrate with details in the 50-80nm range are necessary for structural cell studies. Functional imaging is also a key issue. Specific molecular probes are widely used to achieve molecular imaging in optical and electron microscopy. The same demand applies to x-ray microscopy. Immediate availability of the observation technique within the biology laboratory is as important as its performance. Therefore, WW-TXM will develop on a wider scale only when table-top instruments become available. We present a detailed analysis of such a microscope. The source is clearly the key element. Laser created plasmas of carbon or nitrogen are a proven but expensive solution. Cerenkov emission in vanadium has been demonstrated as a potential monochromatic source, but we emphasize severe obstacles: huge thermal load and radiation protection. We show that oxygenKα line excitation by an electron beam is a realistic alternative. Being a purely monochromatic source, it would allow the use of a high efficiency mirror condenser, while laser plasmas imply spectral selection with the associated losses. We then describe the main elements of an affordable laboratory microscope, supported by numerical simulations and preliminary experimental work. We also show that functionalized quantum dots, currently used in fluorescence microscopy, are equally detectable with soft x-rays and would allow a dual modality observation. Finally, the expected performance of this prototype is discussed and confronted by the requirements

  8. Some key issues of aircraft T-Tail flutter calculation%飞机T型尾翼颤振计算的若干关键问题

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨飞; 杨智春

    2011-01-01

    由于飞机T型尾翼的结构与气动布局特点,T型尾翼颤振计算不能套用常规尾翼的分析方法,而需要考虑平尾面内运动以及静升力等因素的影响.从T型尾翼的工程颤振分析出发,讨论了T型尾翼颤振计算中的若干关键问题,阐述了T型尾翼颤振特性的特点和影响T型尾翼颤振特性的关键参数,分别介绍了现有的几种T型尾翼颤振计算中的气动力修正方法,提出了T型尾翼颤振工程计算中必须注意的问题.%The flutter calculation method for convensional aircraft tail wing can not be used directly to T-tail flutter analysis due to T-Tail features in structural and aerodynamic configurations, and the effects of in-plane motion and steady aerodynamic force of horizontal plane must be considered in T-tail flutter calculation.From the view point of engineering analysis for T-tail flutter, some key issues of T-tail flutter calculation were discussed here, the characteristics of T-tail flutter problem and the key parameters affecting T-tail flutter properties were described.Especially, four methods to correct aerodynamic force of T-tail in its flutter calculation were intrduced and finally some specific problems to be noticed in T-tail flutter analysis were presented.

  9. Synthesizing Nanomaterials for Energy Applications: Probing Activity as a Function of Composition, Morphology and Purity to Address Key Issues Associated with Fuel Cells and Li-Ion Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scofield, Megan Elaine

    With the growing need to find alternative clean energy sources to fossil fuels, research into developing efficient fuel cells and batteries stands at the forefront of this grand effort. However, before mass commercialization, fundamental key issues need to be addressed. For example, fuel cells are subject to high catalyst costs and poor durability of the underlying carbon support. As a way to alleviate these issues, we have synthesized ultrathin one-dimensional (1D) alloy nanowires to probe the effect of composition, purity, and one-dimensionality upon the observed overall activity, performance, and durability. In terms of chemical composition, crystalline ultrathin PtM alloy nanowires (NWs) ('M' = Fe, Co, Ru, Cu, and Au) were generated and subsequently evaluated for the hydrogen oxidation reaction (HOR). Additionally, ternary-based catalysts were synthesized (PtRuFe) in order to analyze how chemical composition influences CO tolerance as well as methanol oxidation reaction (MOR) and formic acid oxidation reaction (FAOR) activities. In both cases, we utilized a sustainably mild, ambient wet-synthesis method for the fabrication of chemically pure and crystalline systems in order to fabricate ultrathin, homogeneous alloy NWs. Moreover, in these studies, our NW systems exhibit favorable synergistic electronic effects with respect to controls. To address another fundamental issue associated with the durability of fuel cells, we have synthesized various metal oxide and perovskite materials of different sizes and chemical compositions as supports for Pt nanoparticles (NPs). Specifically, we have demonstrated favorable metal support interactions between the Pt NPs and the SrRuO3 NP supports, which lead to increased MOR activity as compared with not only the other metal oxide supports tested but also the commercial Pt NP/C standard. In terms of Li-ion batteries, LiFePO4 materials have become increasingly popular as a cathode material due to the many benefits they possess

  10. Rural America's Stake in the Digital Economy. The Main Street Economist: Commentary on the Rural Economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staihr, Brian

    This first article in a series on telecommunications in rural America provides an overview of several key telecommunication issues facing rural regions. High speed data services known as broadband have the potential to make rural areas less isolated and improve the rural quality of life, but physical barriers, sparse population density, and few…

  11. 对创面修复关键问题的思考%To ponder the key issues in achieving wound healing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆树良

    2014-01-01

    The understanding of the mechanism of wound healing is deepening.Key issues in the process of wound healing need to be seriously considered,i.e.how to establish the concept of application of phasic and selective means to promote wound healing according to the characteristics of a network and sequential process; to correctly assess the function and status of macrophages in wound healing and to explore the conditions of regulating timely infiltration of macrophages,as well as the phasic and orderly expression of type Ⅰ and type Ⅱ macrophages; to properly understand the role and status of extracellular matrix components or the three-dimensional structure and morphology in wound healing; to elucidate the effects of wound microenvironment on the proliferation and differentiation of stem cells; to find out the intrinsic mechanism of negative pressure in the process of wound healing.The understanding of the above problems are of great value for us to grasp the intrinsic mechanism of wound healing in order to establish a more effective and rational treatment of wound.

  12. Eco-innovation, international trade, WTO and climate: Key issues for an ecological industrial policy. Documentation of a workshop on March 12, 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoppe, Jutta; Kahlenborn, Walter [Adelphi Research, Berlin (Germany); Gather, Corinna (eds.) [Umweltbundesamt, Dessau (Germany)

    2009-01-15

    Within the meeting of the German Federal Environment Agency (Dessau, Federal Republic of Germany) and the German Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation and Natural Safety (Berlin, Federal Republic of Germany) at 12th March, 2008, the following reports were held: (a) Trade Policy and Climate Change - An overview from the perspective of an ecological industrial policy (Jutta Hoppe et al.); (b) Kyoto, Post-Kyoto and the WTO (Malena Sell); (c) Climate change, trade and competitiveness (Aaron Cosby, John Drexhage); (d) Unilateral climate policy and implications for trade policy (Susanne Droege); (e) Trade in environmental goods and services relevant to climate-change mitigation: Opportunities and challenges for new industries in the European Union (Mahesh Sugathan); (f) The relevance of WTO activities and rules in the climate change debate (Ludivine Tamiotti); (g) Like-products, energy standards and labelling (Roland Ismer); (h) EC Trade policy and climate challenges: An overview of EC trade policy approaches to climate change (Ditte Juul-Joergensen); (i) Opportunities and constraints for an integrated European climate and trade policy (Ulrich Hoffmann); (j) Climate change, eco-innovation, and EU trade policy: a critical assessment (Daniel Mittler); (k) Resume: Key Issues for an Ecological Industrial policy (Jutta Hoppe, Walter Kahlenborn).

  13. America in the Eyes of America Watchers:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feng, Huiyun; He, Kai

    2015-01-01

    that almost half of the survey participants thought that America would remain the global hegemon in the next ten years. Meanwhile, a large majority was also optimistic that China is a rising great power, especially in the economic sense, in the world. More than half of the respondents saw Asian military......Based on an original survey conducted in the summer of 2012 in Beijing, we examine how China's America watchers—IR scholars who work on US-China relations—have viewed China's power status in the international system, US-China relations and some specific US policies in Asia. Our survey shows...... issues, such as the South China Sea issue, as the most difficult problem between China and the US....

  14. Key issues in negotiating reduction of GHG emissions from international shipping%当前国际航海减排谈判的焦点和难点

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭晓峰

    2011-01-01

    2011年7月,国际海事组织表决通过了《73/78防污公约》附则六修正案,为部分新造船舶制定了新的能效技术标准。该修正案是国际层面制定的第一项同时适用于发达国家和发展中国家的强制性行业减排国际法律文件,没有遵循“共同但有区别的责任”原则,必将对气候变化国际谈判走向及各国造船和航运业产生重要影响。中国作为发展中国家的海运大国,在减限排问题上将面临更大压力,对相关谈判进程中的焦点和难点问题,必须进一步加强研究,妥为应对。%The amendment to MARPOL 73/78 Annex VI has been approved recently and sets a new technical standard for GHG emission from some type of newly--built ships. As the first mandatory legal document for reduction of gas emissions at international level that applies both to developed and developing countries, the above amendment does not adopt the principle of common but differentiated responsibilities and will accordingly have important impact on both international negotiations on the change of climate and the shipbuilding and shipping industry. China is a developing country as well as a big shipping state; it will surely face more pressure on the issue of reduction of greenhouse gas emissions after the approval of the above amendment. It is suggested that the key issues during the relevant negotiation process should be further probed and well handled.

  15. Key issues in relation to local human and technical resources in developing exploration and production in oil and gas, offshore British Columbia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bayne, J.M. [Jacques Whitford Environment Ltd., Burnaby, BC (Canada)

    2002-07-01

    Jacques Whitford has been involved in nearly all of the geotechnical work associated with offshore development on the eastern coast of Canada from its early beginnings in 1972. It has built a national presence from an Atlantic corporate office. The company employs 900 people and operates from coast to coast in Canada, the northeast US and in several other countries around the world. The success of Jacques Whitford and Associates Limited in offshore Atlantic Canada can be attributed to strategic partnerships, international positioning, and multi-sectoral opportunities. The author describes how the same business philosophy can be applied to the offshore exploration and development in British Columbia. The operator's requirements before commencing offshore exploration in British Columbia are also examined with emphasis on the following 3 key issues: (1) a clear integrated federal-provincial framework governing the activity, (2) all related First Nations land claims must be resolved, and (3) all ecologically sensitive areas must be identified in advance and set aside. The following marine protected areas have been identified for British Columbia: 4 marine ecological reserves, 14 Class A parks, 2 Class R parks, 5 wildlife reserves, and the Kitlope Heritage Conservatory. The author concludes that there are already companies located in British Columbia with expertise in offshore oil and gas, but a supportive regulatory framework is required to ensure that the local expertise can benefit from the lifting of the moratorium on offshore oil and gas development. He emphasized that there is a need to set up the BC equivalent of the Atlantic Petroleum Boards (the Canada-Nova Scotia Offshore Petroleum Board and the Canada-Newfoundland Offshore Petroleum Board) to administer the approval process for offshore BC oil and gas exploration and production.

  16. Research on the Key Issues of the Nuclear Power Industry%核电产业几个关键问题研究展望

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈润羊; 花明

    2012-01-01

    核电产业是我国战略性新兴产业中新能源产业的重要构成部分。随着核技术在能源和非动力领域的广泛深入应用.核产业的研究引起了各界的广泛关注和探讨。文章应用比较分析方法,分类概述了国内外关于核电产业的五个关键问题:核电产业的竞争优势、发展战略、影响要素、产业集群和制约因素等的研究现状,综述了目前核电产业理论研究上呈现的特点、存在的不足,并展望了未来的发展趋势,以期为我国当前蓬勃发展的核电产业实践提供指导。%The nuclear power industry is important to energy industry in our countryg strategic emerging industry. With the extensive application of nuclear technology in the dynamic and non-dynamic field, nuclear industry research has caught wide attention and discussion from all walks of life. The method of comparative analysis is used to summarize the current situation of nuclear power industry, and five key issues have been classified, including the competitive advantage of the nuclear power industry, development strategy, influential factors, industry cluster and restricting factors. The characteristics and shortage of theory research on the current nuclear power industry are summarized. In order to provide guidance for our country; nuclear power industry, the development trend in future has been prospected.

  17. Key issues discussion of large-scale production of microalgae%微藻规模化生产的关键问题

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙丽英; 何皓; 田宜水; 齐泮仑; 赵立欣

    2012-01-01

    With the rapid development of China aviation industry,the situation of aviation carbon e-mission reduction was severiously. Bio-SPK becomes the ideal alternative fuels for the aviation kerosene because of good carbon emission reduction. As microalgae have the advantages such as high oil-producing and good adaptability become an primary raw material for bio-SPK production. According to the requirements and raw materials selection of bio-SPK industry development, the key issues existing in the large-scale microalgae production including oil-rich and high-yielding microalgae species breeding, planting system selection, recovery technology improvements, costs of microalgae bio-SPK reduction and suitable regions for large-scale microalgae production was discussed, to seek the path for large-scale production, and proposed some suggestions in order to provide some reference for the Chinese bio-SPK industry development by using microalgae as raw materials.%随着我国航空业的快速发展,航空碳减排形势严峻.航空生物燃料因其良好的减排性成为航空煤油的理想替代燃料,作为主要原料的微藻因具有产油率高、适应性强等优势,成为最有潜力的航空生物燃料原料.文章根据航空生物燃料产业化发展对于原料的选择和要求,探讨了富油高产微藻藻种的选育、规模化生产培养方式的选择、采收技术的改进、微藻航空生物燃料生产成本的降低以及微藻规模化生产适宜区域选择等关键问题,以寻求解决微藻实现规模化生产的路径,并提出相关建议,为中国以微藻为原料生产航空生物燃料产业发展提供参考.

  18. Key Issues and Policy Considerations in Promoting Lifelong Learning in Selected African Countries: Ethiopia, Kenya, Namibia, Rwanda and Tanzania. UIL Publication Series on Lifelong Learning Policies and Strategies. No. 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walters, Shirley; Yang, Jim; Roslander, Peter

    2014-01-01

    This cross-national study focuses on key issues and policy considerations in promoting lifelong learning in Ethiopia, Kenya, Namibia, Rwanda, and Tanzania (the five African countries that took part in a pilot workshop on "Developing Capacity for Establishing Lifelong Learning Systems in UNESCO Member States: at the UNESCO Institute for…

  19. Educacion y Pueblos Indigenas en Centroamerica: Un Balance Critico (Education and Indigenous People in Central America: A Critical Balance).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amadio, Massimo, Comp.; And Others

    Global society is polarized between the modern capitalist sector and the marginal sector, which is composed of indigenous, poor, and ethnic, tribal people. The problems of education for groups in Latin America, key issues in planning to meet their needs, and strategies to resolve them, are the focus of this publication. Nine papers provide a…

  20. 主动配电网规划关键问题与研究展望%Key Issues and Research Prospects of Active Distribution Network Planning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张建华; 曾博; 张玉莹; 刘大川; 杨煦; 李晨; 刘文霞

    2014-01-01

    面对资源环境压力与节能减排的双重压力,电力工业亟待低碳转型。主动配电网( ADN)有机整合先进信息通信、电力电子及智能控制等技术,为实现分布式可再生能源大规模并网与高效利用提供了一种有效解决方案,对支撑低碳经济发展具有重要战略意义。本文首先简要介绍了 ADN的技术特点及内涵理念;其次,结合国内外相关示范工程,阐述了 ADN的技术可行性及其低碳潜力;在此基础上,重点对 ADN 规划问题进行探讨:通过与传统配电网及微电网技术进行对比,提出了 ADN 规划一般性框架;基于国内外研究现状,从电力负荷预测、规划资源特性、集成设计模式、优化规划方法及成本效益分析等5个方面提出了该领域的关键问题和未来主要研究方向,并深入分析了其中的研究难点;最后,对研究思路及技术路线提出了相关建议。%Environmental pressures and energy-saving policy calls for low-carbon transformation of the power industry. Integrated with the advanced information & communication, power electronics, and smart control technologies, active distribution network(ADN) provides an effective solution to enable large-scale integration and utilization of renewable energy sources, which has a significant potential to support the realization of low-carbon economy. In this study, the technical features of ADN and its difference with traditional distribution network are described first. Then, based on the information of some demonstration projects, an analysis is taken concerning the technical feasibility and decarbonization capability of ADN. Subsequently, a generalized framework of ADN planning is proposed. Considering the status quo of relevant researches, key issues in the five aspects of ADN planning, including load forecast, resource characteristics, integrated designing mode, optimal planning method and cost-benefit analysis, are

  1. Several Key Issues of Ecological Compensation Research%生态补偿研究中的几个关键问题

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵雪雁; 李巍; 王学良

    2012-01-01

    ecological compensation that is positive incentives and conditionality, and summarizes the challenges that the Coasean conception of ecological compensation has faced in practice. Finally, the paper points out the key issues that ecological complementation should consider, that includes the production and supplying mechanism of ecosystem service, financing mechanism and payment mechanism, the incentives mode choice, spatial targeting of ecological compensation, equity and efficiency, leakout, additionally and improper incentive, and the high leverage of intermediaries. And we should reconcile the ecological compensation theory and practice viewpoint, and create the comprehensive dialogue mechanism between the theoretical researcher and the practitioner.

  2. 省域绿道网规划建设实施关键问题%Key Issues in Planning, Construction and Implementation of Provincial Greenway Network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋雁

    2012-01-01

    为科学引导即将广泛开展的省域绿道网规划建设实践,探索了省域绿道网规划建设实施中可能遇到的关键问题.首先,针对省域绿道网建设周期长、规模大、资金需求多的特征,提出应优先选择条件良好的地区先行建设,而后再逐步推进.其次,针对绿道网规划中的难点问题,提出以追“绿”择“道”成“网”的整体选线方式,确保省域绿道的网络化与生态化;以借道、并道等绿道连接线形式和与机动车道平交或立交等技术手段保证绿道网贯通和使用安全;以无缝衔接实现绿道网与机动交通系统的平稳过渡,提高绿道网的可达性和使用效率;以省际、城际和跨界互连互通技术推进绿道网向更广泛区域扩张.最后提出,应建立省域绿道网可持续发展机制,并提出管理维护规范化、功能开发多元化、效益评估制度化的建议.%To better guide the development of provincial greenway network, the author discusses several key issues in the construction and implementation process. Firstly, considering the long construction cycle, large project scale and huge development budget, the paper states that it is important to conduct a pilot project at a location with the best implementation conditions. And then expand the greenway network project to other areas. Secondly, aiming to solve the critical problems in greenway network planning, the paper proposes that the route selection should be based on "green", "route" first, and then to develop the "network" to make provisional roadway as ecological greenway; to ensure the connectivity and security by greenway connecting line formation including reversible lanes and merged lanes; to ensure the smooth transition of greenway network and motorized traffic lanes by seamless connection which can improve the accessibility and service efficiency; to expand the greenway network by provincial, intercity and transboundary communicational

  3. Wind Powering America Podcasts, Wind Powering America (WPA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2012-04-01

    Wind Powering America and the National Association of Farm Broadcasters produce a series of radio interviews featuring experts discussing wind energy topics. The interviews are aimed at a rural stakeholder audience and are available as podcasts. On the Wind Powering America website, you can access past interviews on topics such as: Keys to Local Wind Energy Development Success, What to Know about Installing a Wind Energy System on Your Farm, and Wind Energy Development Can Revitalize Rural America. This postcard is a marketing piece that stakeholders can provide to interested parties; it will guide them to this online resource for podcast episodes.

  4. Latin America Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-11-05

    8217Americas Watch’ Charges (THE DAILY GLEANER, 26 Sep 86) 92 - c - Briefs World Bank Loans 94 MEXICO 1985 Key Parastate Enterprise Losses Near...year later in the DIARIO DE CENTROAMERICA , on 27 December 1985. The previous pact, which had been in effect for 25 years, was the Central American... Mexico , including a sizable reduction in spreads (risk rates) collected from that country, will be the point of departure for the new round of

  5. Chiropractic Health Care: A National Study of Cost of Education, Service Utilization, Number of Practicing Doctors of Chiropractic, and Other Key Policy Issues. Volumes I-II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Kuster, Thomas, Jr.

    Results from the first federally sponsored study of the chiropractic health care profession are presented, and a broad range of facts and issues of concern to policy-makers, the profession, and the public are described. The two-year project included three national surveys of: service providers (doctors of chiropractic in practice more than two…

  6. "But when Are They Going to Produce Some 'Artwork'?" Against Pastiche: Issue-Based Art and Authorship within the Key Stage 3 Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirlew, Stefanie

    2011-01-01

    Ideas and issues based contemporary art is often seen as something to be avoided in schools, as the controversial subjects that it broaches are often perceived as problematic and inappropriate. However, by censoring education, it can be seen that educators are missing vital opportunities to confront the relevant personal, social, political and…

  7. Key Findings and Recommendations from the Coös Youth Study: Research from the First Half of the Study. Regional Issue Brief Number 41

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staunton, Michael S.; Jaffee, Eleanor M.

    2014-01-01

    In this brief, authors Michael Staunton and Eleanor Jaffee review the key findings and recommendations from research conducted in the first half of the Coös Youth Study, which began in 2008 and is planned to continue through 2018. The study explores young people's decisions about their educational and job opportunities in rural northern New…

  8. Workshop on Key Issues in Major Research Plan "Study on the Signal Conduction Process Based on Chemical Small Molecular Probe" Held

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ The workshop on key analysis method and largescale facilities application in the project of Major Research Plan "Study on the Signal Conduction Process Based on Chemical Small Molecular Probe" was held in the National Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory, Anhui on January 5th, 2008.

  9. Textbook America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karp, Walter

    1980-01-01

    Focuses on how political attitudes have been influenced by American history textbooks at various times throughout history. Excerpts from traditional and revisionist textbooks are presented, with emphasis on "America Revised" by Frances FitzGerald. Journal available from Harper's Magazine Co., 2 Park Ave., New York, NY 10016. (DB)

  10. From the Age of Revolution to the Empire of identity: Interpreting Modernity in Latin America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisandro Gallucci

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The issue of modernity has held a central place in Latin America's history and, for that reason, it has been the object of numerous reflections from a wide variety of disciplines and theoretical perspectives. However, most of these reflections have maintained a canonical definition of modernity, which conceives it as a linear and accumulative rationalization process. This vision has had important implications for Latin American societies. Thus, a critical revision of the very idea of modernity and the ways in which it has been perceived in Latin America could result in new keys for interpreting the historical trajectories of our societies.

  11. Three Key Issues of the Research on Online Video Show Hosts%网络视频主持人研究三问

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李桃

    2012-01-01

    一问网络视频主持人的界定,两个定义各有千秋。二问网络视频主持人使用网络语言问题,若认同其使用网络语言,则会遭到影响交流沟通、影响现代汉语纯洁性、忽略长远影响的质疑;若不认同其使用网络语言,则会遭到抹杀其网络特性、影响其与网民交流的质疑。三问对研究对象的选择,主要有研究对象不具代表性、复制传统媒体节目现象严重、主持人业务素养不达标的问题。%The first issue concerns the definition of online video hosts.The two existing definitions have their strengths and weaknesses respectively.The second issue is related to the use of Internet language and loan words by online video hosts.The encouragement of Internet language in online video programs will be criticized in that the overuse of network language will affect verbal communication,and meanwhile jeopardize the purity of modern Chinese in the long term.The discouragement of network language will be challenged because of the denial of vibrant network language and its poses a threat to the communication with Internet users.The third issue has to do with the selection of hosts for investigation.Moreover,limited duration of each program,copying traditional media programs and the inadequate qualifications of hosts are three main predicaments for current online video programs.

  12. Developments in Impact Assessment in North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beginning with a background of recent global developments in this area, this presentation will focus on how global research has impacted North America and how North America is providing additional developments to address the issues of the global economy. Recent developments inc...

  13. Research on the Key Issues of Drum Gear Coupling%鼓形齿联接关键问题的探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘学明

    2015-01-01

    Based on specific project about drum gear coupling ,in the process of its design involves the key points of summary: according to the requirements of torque and Angle of deflection design inside and outside gear parameters, and according to the design of the teeth and the shaft torque, the interference and the amount for the influence of the outer sleeve tooth parameters.%基于鼓形齿联轴器具体项目,对其设计过程中涉及到的关键点进行汇总,根据扭矩和偏转角要求设计内外齿部参数,并且根据力矩设计齿套与轴的过盈量,以及此过盈量对于外齿套齿部参数的影响。

  14. Fostering renewable electricity markets in North America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wingate, M.; Hamrin, J.; Kvale, L. [Centre for Resource Solutions, San Francisco, CA (United States); Alatorre, C. [Autonomous National Univ. of Mexico, Mexico City (Mexico)

    2007-04-15

    This paper provided an overview of key market demand and supply drivers for the renewable electricity in Canada, the United States and Mexico. The aim of the paper was to assist North American governments in supporting the development of renewable electricity by addressing barriers that currently contribute to higher costs as well as challenges related to policy implementation. The paper outlined regulatory mandates and discussed issues related to voluntary purchases, and financial incentives. Current policy frameworks for renewable electricity were also examined. Opportunities for developing the renewable electricity market North America were explored. Wind power environmental standards were reviewed. Various green pricing schemes were discussed. The paper also included recommendations for the current electricity market as well as for members of the North American Agreement on Environmental Cooperation. 84 refs., 4 tabs., 7 figs.

  15. [Zika virus outbreak in Latin America: what are the challenges for French Guiana in April 2016?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epelboin, L; Douine, M; Carles, G; Villemant, N; Nacher, M; Rousset, D; Djossou, F; Mosnier, E

    2016-05-01

    Started in 2015 in Brazil, an outbreak linked to a little known arbovirus, Zika virus spread throughout Latin America. This virus, considered until recently as responsible of only mild symptoms, made mention of previously unsuspected complications, with severe neurological manifestations in adults and malformations of the central nervous system, including microcephaly, in newborns of mother infected during the pregnancy. While the continent is more accustomed to the succession of arbovirus epidemics, suspected complications and the many unknowns keys of the latter arriving raise many public health issues. French Guiana, a French territory located in the north-east of the continent, combines both European level of resources and climate and issues specific to the Amazon region and Latin America. We discuss here the issues for 2016 Zika virus epidemic in our region, many of them are generalizable to neighboring countries.

  16. 物流服务云平台的构建及其关键问题%Key Issues in Establishment of Logistics Service Cloud Platform

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    綦方中; 汪俊枫

    2015-01-01

    In this paper,we analyzed the necessity of the establishment of the cloud-computation based logistics service platform,then expounded its feasibility on the practical and theoretical aspects,then through introducing the service grade protocol and the QoS attribute of the SOA,proposed the architecture of the platform which was service-oriented and focused on business process management and process performance management,and at the end,introduced briefly the key technical factors influencing its development.%分析了构建基于云计算物流服务平台的必要性,从现有实践操作和理论研究两方面论证其可行性.通过引入服务等级协议和SOA的QoS属性,提出了以服务为核心、注重业务流程管理和流程绩效管理的云计算物流服务平台构架,并简要分析了影响其发展的关键技术.

  17. 课题成功申报之关键——理性创新%The Key of Success Issues Declaration: Rational Innovation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    柴美群

    2011-01-01

    论文以大学在校本科生申请科研课题为研究对象,以做过学士、硕士学位论文,即将完成博士学位论文,并多次主研、完成省部级科研课题,具有相当研究能力的青年学者的身份,从课题研究内容、研究方法和研究创新等方面阐述如何撰写课题申报书.其新意在于,明确提出课题成功申报的关键是理性创新,并对创新,特别是理性创新的"理性"做出了富有创见的说明.%it is the subjects of this paper that the undergraduate students declare research project.The author who has done bachelor and master thesis, and is doing doctoral thesis which is nearing completion, and has host and completed the provincial research projects many times, and has considerable research capacity expounds how to write a declaration from the research content, research methods, research and innovation and other aspects.The novelty is that this paper proposes the key of success declaration is rational innovation, and makes a thoughtful note to the innovation,especially the "ration" of rational innovation.

  18. BIOPROTA Key Issues in Biosphere Aspects of Assessment of the Long-term Impact of Contaminant Releases Associated with Radioactive Waste Management Theme 2: Task 7:Modelling Processes in the Geosphere Biosphere Interface Zone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinedo, P.; Smith, G.; Aguero, A.; Albrecht, A.; Bath, A.; Benhabderrahmane, H.; Van Dorp, F.; Kautsky, U.; Klos, R.; Laciok, A.; Milodowski, T.; Selroos, J.O.; Simon, I.; Texier, D.; Thorne, M.; Willans, M.

    2005-07-01

    This document reports on BIOPROTA Theme 2, task 7 which investigated modelling processes in the geosphere- biosphere interface zone (GBIZ) during performance assessments. Modelling issues in the treatment of the GBIZ are identified. A large proportion of the identified issues concern modelling radionuclide behaviour in near surface aquifers which are subject to relatively high gradients in chemical and other conditions. Other key issues concern transfer of radionuclides through the unsaturated zone above aquifers, bearing in mind the scope for erosion and variations in the level of the phreatic surface and also the consideration of environmental change. A number of research areas are highlighted that are aimed at addressing each of the identified issues in the treatment of GBIZ. These include (i) Developing of a current statement of continuing problems, and hence clarify and justify the need to do more; (ii) Conducting a review of site investigations as they have been done already, and determine whether they meet performance assessment requirements; (iii) Identifying scenarios and FEPs considered in current treatments; and, (iv) Conducting source-pathway-receptor analysis to demonstrate comprehensiveness of the overall scenario identification process. The objectives of these activities would be to determine the potential to reduce uncertainties and/or conservative assumptions in assessment of radionuclide transfer from the geosphere to biosphere domains, taking account of environmental change; and to develop guidance on site-characterisation needs at different types of site, as regards the near-surface features. (Author) 23 refs.

  19. Iran and Latin America: Strategic Security Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-01

    expatriate "Lebanese" of Isla Margarita and Maicao in Colombia, both important historic smuggling routes for cocaine, contraband cigarettes, fuel and... Maria Isabel Salvador, and her Iranian counterpart, Masoud Mir Kazem, signed a "Memorandum of Understanding for the Study of a Maritime Shipping Line

  20. Aquatic Ecological Function Regionalization at Watershed Scale and its Key Issues%流域水生态功能区划及其关键问题

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄艺; 蔡佳亮; 吕明姬; 王东伟; 苏玉

    2009-01-01

    作为流域生态系统管理和水资源保护的重要手段,如何科学合理地开展流域水生态功能区划,已成为世界各国可持续发展所面临的关键挑战之一.本文立足我国流域综合管理的特点和发展趋势,针对我国现行水功能区划的问题,结合国外流域水生态区划的经验,提出了基于流域生态学、地域分异规律、生态系统健康与生态完整性、流域生态系统管理等理论基础的,以恢复流域持续性、完整性生态系统健康为目标,反映流域水陆耦合体在不同时空尺度景观异质性的流域水生态功能区划及其原则,重点分析了流域水生态系统的空间格局、生态过程以及动态演替等3个区划的关键问题,并提出了区划的方法,以期为我国流域水生态功能区划和流域生态系统管理提供战略层次的科学依据.%As one of the most important environmental and water resource management strategies, optimized aquatic ecological function regionalization at watershed scale (AEFRWS) is increasingly regarded as a gateway to sustainable development around the world. AEFRWS is recognized as a systematic design method for watershed sustainability and integrated management of ecosystem health. We combined the characteristics and developmental trends of watershed management strategies with existing case studies of AEGRWS to provide a systematic theory and methodology for recognizing spatial patterns of aquatic ecosystems as well as key fac-tors and drivers influencing ecological processes and dynamics. This is based on interdisciplinary theories, including watershed ecol-ogy, landscape heterogeneity, ecosystem health and ecological integrity, and watershed ecosystem management. The basic objective of this paper is to provide scientific information for implementing sustainable ecosystem management.

  1. 现阶段我国DNA数据库发展的几个关键问题%Several Key Issues for China National DNA Database Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘冰

    2015-01-01

    develop new stratedgies for China national DNA database? How to further develop China DNA database and maximize its efficiency? This paper discusses the development in the light of 4 issues. First of all, the core loci of database need to be set prior to increasing the number of autosomal STR loci, even though there is a consensus on the quantity change. As for the new genetic markers, such as SNP, the attitude of “good will of expectation” should be in line with “prudent wait-and-see”, since there is few possibility to use SNP commonly in a database with ten-million profiles. It is more likely that the genome-wide analysis will bring the great change to the DNA database in the future. Still, the special familial searching is a supplementation and inevitable choice for DNA database in case of a low coverage of the population. But this searching has to follow strict rule. Finally, Y-STR database development is objective and urgent, but it must be cautious as personnel sample collection might be involving legal, social and other problems; the pedigree in sociological term may not equal to genetic one; positive evaluations of Y-STR database should be also built on deductive method; a balanced development of database should be considered of both costs and benefits. Therefore, without a theoretical framework constructed with rigorous deduction, especially prior to the mathematical model of evaluation, Y-STR database is only a matter of empirical, rather than scientific, letting alone the difficulty to assess the value of such experience for others. In conclusion, as a DNA database with ten-millions profiles, any change related to fundamental issues concerned with development, security or stability must be dealt with comprehensively and scientifically.

  2. “211”高校图书馆信息系统管理的关键问题%Key Issues of Information System Management in"211"Academic Libraries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖鹏; 陈定权

    2014-01-01

    文章基于图书馆领域的关键问题研究模式,以“211”高校图书馆为调研样本,统计分析出高校图书馆信息系统管理的以“纸本资源与电子资源的深度整合”为首的十大关键问题,对“211”高校图书馆信息主管的工作重点进行了探讨,并对未来3到5年的高校信息化发展战略提出了策略性建议。%Based on the key issues research pat ern in library science, an empirical study is conducted on the information system management of Project 211 Academic Library. The study founds the result of top ten key issues headed by"Deep integration of paper resources and electronic resources,"discusses four kinds of job duties of information manager, and gives some suggestions to strategic planning of Project 211 Academic Library in 3 to 5 years.

  3. How teaching on the care of the victim of sexual violence alters undergraduate medical students' awareness of the key issues involved in patient care and their attitudes to such patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Kieran M; Vellinga, Akke; Bonner, Niamh; Stewart, Brian; McGrath, Deirdre

    2013-08-01

    Sexual violence is known to be highly prevalent, albeit the majority of incidents are not reported to the authorities. It is therefore likely that medical students will encounter very many patients who have experienced sexual violence during their postgraduate careers, although this history may never be disclosed to them. Numerous highly regarded sources have advocated for the inclusion of instruction on the care of the victim of sexual violence in undergraduate medical curricula. Moreover, there has been a call for research to measure the effectiveness of educational strategies addressing the issue of sexual violence at undergraduate level. We present an evaluation of the effectiveness of a reproducible teaching session on care of the victim of sexual violence appropriate for undergraduate medical students, looking specifically at alterations in students' awareness of the key issues involved in patient care and their attitudes to such patients. This research demonstrates that such an educational intervention significantly enhances undergraduate medical students' awareness of the issues involved in patient care and their insight in to myths surrounding sexual violence.

  4. [Renewing primary health care in the Americas].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macinko, James; Montenegro, Hernán; Nebot Adell, Carme; Etienne, Carissa

    2007-01-01

    At the 2003 meeting of the Directing Council of the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO), the PAHO Member States issued a mandate to strengthen primary health care (Resolution CD44. R6). The mandate led in 2005 to the document "Renewing Primary Health Care in the Americas. A Position Paper of the Pan American Health Organization/WHO [World Health Organization]," and it culminated in the Declaration of Montevideo, an agreement among the governments of the Region of the Americas to renew their commitment to primary health care (PHC). Scientific data have shown that PHC, regarded as the basis of all the health systems in the Region, is a key component of effective health systems and can be adapted to the range of diverse social, cultural, and economic conditions that exist. The new, global health paradigm has given rise to changes in the population's health care needs. Health services and systems must adapt to address these changes. Building on the legacy of the International Conference on Primary Health Care, held in 1978 in Alma-Ata (Kazakhstan, Union of Soviet Socialist Republics), PAHO proposes a group of strategies critical to adopting PHC-based health care systems based on the principles of equity, solidarity, and the right to the highest possible standard of health. The main objective of the strategies is to develop and/or strengthen PHC-based health systems in the entire Region of the Americas. A substantial effort will be required on the part of health professionals, citizens, governments, associations, and agencies. This document explains the strategies that must be employed at the national, subregional, Regional, and global levels.

  5. Latin America`s emerging non-proliferation consensus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Redick, J.R.

    1994-03-01

    Latin America`s incorporation into the international nuclear non-proliferation regime is well advanced. The 1967 Tlatelolco Treaty, which established a regional nuclear-weapon-free zone (NWFZ), is nearing completion. A signal event occurred January 18, when Argentina and Chile deposited instruments of ratification to the treaty, leaving Brazil and Cuba the only major countries in Latin America that are not yet contracting parties. And after more than two decades of concern about the nuclear programs and policies in Argentina and Brazil, there is room for great optimism that Brazil may now be moving quickly on important non-proliferation issues. Even Cuba, the {open_quotes}bad boy of the neighborhood{close_quotes} in the eyes of many, which held aloof from the Tlatelolco process for three decades, has stated its willingness to join the zone in the future.

  6. Key Issues and Countermeasures to Promote China’s Academic Journal System Reform%国内学术期刊体制改革的关键问题与对策

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贺晓利; 陈红亚; 樊华

    2015-01-01

    从管理机制、运行机制、竞争机制等方面概述了国内学术期刊体制状况,从出版制度、改革动力等方面分析了体制改革进展缓慢的原因,指出要解决的3个关键问题:国内学术期刊多而不强的问题;学术期刊出版严重滞后的问题;国内大量优质论文外流的问题。提出推进国内学术期刊体制改革的对策:建立学术期刊退出机制、优先网络出版、重构期刊学术评价机制、搭建学术期刊国际传播平台。%The paper summarizes status quo of China’s academic journal system from aspects of management mechanism, opera-tional mechanism, competition mechanism, analyzes reasons of slow progress of system reform from publication system and reform’s motive power. It points out three key issues needed to be solved: the issue that China’s academic journals are many but not strong;the issue that academic journal publications seriously lag; and the issue that lots of high quality thesises are published abroad. The paper puts forward countermeasures to promote progress of China’s academic journal system reform: establishing academic journals’ exiting mechanism, giving priority to network publication, reconstructing journals’ academic evaluation mechanism, and setting up academic journals’ international communication platform.

  7. Contrasting speakers focus on key issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-01

    Around 100 IHEEM Company Affiliate Members, their guests, and senior representatives from organisations including the Royal Academy of Engineering, IPEM, and CIBSE, as well as from the NHS and its associated construction and supply chains, attended a high-level IHEEM seminar titled Healthcare Estates 2020 in Westminster on 19 November Topics discussed ranged from how the healthcare estates sector is increasingly being asked to 'do more with less', to Lord Carter's team's initial findings on the 'productivity and efficiency' of NHS Trusts in England. The seminar was followed by a celebratory lunch at the House of Lords, where the keynote speaker was Royal Academy of Engineering CEO, Philip Greenish (see HEJ--January 2016).

  8. Evolution of mitigation commitments. Some key issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Philibert, C.; Pershing, J. [LTO/EED, International Energy Agency IEA, Paris (France); Morlot, J.C.; Willems, S. [Global and Structural Policies Division, Environment Directorate, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development OECD, Paris (France)

    2003-07-01

    This paper considers the challenges facing climate change policy makers from different perspectives. In so doing, it reviews some of the decision criteria that might guide policy decisions, as well as practical options on the form that different mitigation commitments might take. Taking a broad, longer-term view of the climate problem provides insights on what criteria might be used to eventually shape decisions about future commitments. The paper draws from previous IEA and OECD papers, from information presented and discussions in previous Annex I Expert Group meetings and from other sources in the open literature.

  9. COMPETITIVENESS - KEY ISSUES OF THE ROMANIAN ECONOMY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela-Liliana, CIOBAN

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Based on the theory that competitiveness plays an increasingly powerful role in creating prosperity, wealth, a large number of economists, researchers, scientists, highlight a number of approaches aimed, on the one hand, on the analysis of competitiveness at national or regional level, and on the other hand, on the ability of local firms to achieve competitive products and to commercialize them in the extern markets. In this context we aim to analyze and develop strategies and methods to help identify competitive areas at a national level. This is necessary because in our opinion the competitiveness of a company and / or country is more than wealth itself; it means a systematic process of wealth creation, plus a social system in which most citizens have access to material wealth. We consider in this respect that a country cannot automatically be considered competitive only if it is rich in natural resources. In our view, a competitive country creates wealth through labor, talent and organization and thus it manages to have a productive and creative potential making it independent of material resources.

  10. Pakistan: Key Current Issues and Developments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    Peace” (op-ed), News (Karachi), June 2, 2009, Rasul Bakhsh Rais,” Securing Victory” (op-ed), Daily Times (Lahore), June 2, 2009; Sherry Rehman...Control (LOC) into the Indian state of Jammu and Kashmir and Pakistan-held Azad [Free] Kashmir. India blames Pakistan for supporting a violent

  11. Oral presentations in higher education : key issues

    OpenAIRE

    Jarvis, Greg

    2004-01-01

    The use of oral presentations as an assessment instrument has been heavily criticised from as far back as 1936 (Hartog and Rhodes cited in Ahmed 1999). However they are currently enjoying a resurgence due to today’s constraints on marking time and the current fashion for developing employability-enhancing transferable skills (Avery and Bryan, 2001). The fact that oral presentations avoid some of the problems raised by internet plagiarism (Cassidy 2004) has also contributed to their rise. In t...

  12. Mammals of South America, Volume 1, Marsupials, Xenarthrans, Shrews, and Bats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, A.L.

    2007-01-01

    The vast terrain between Panama and Tierra del Fuego contains some of the world?s richest mammalian fauna, but until now it has lacked a comprehensive systematic reference to the identification, distribution, and taxonomy of its mammals. The first such book of its kind and the inaugural volume in a three-part series, Mammals of South America both summarizes existing information and encourages further research of the mammals indigenous to the region. Containing identification keys and brief descriptions of each order, family, and genus, the first volume of Mammals of South America covers marsupials, shrews, armadillos, sloths, anteaters, and bats. Species accounts include taxonomic descriptions, synonymies, keys to identification, distributions with maps and a gazetteer of marginal localities, lists of recognized subspecies, brief summaries of natural history information, and discussions of issues related to taxonomic interpretations. Highly anticipated and much needed, this book will be a landmark contribution to mammalogy, zoology, tropical biology, and conservation biology.

  13. Clinical Trials: Key to Medical Progress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Clinical Trials: Key to Medical Progress Past Issues / Summer 2008 ... this page please turn Javascript on. Photo iStock Clinical trials are research studies that test how well new ...

  14. TIDAL CYCLING DYNAMIC OF BIOGENIC GASES EMISSION: KEY SCIENTIFIC ISSUES AND UNCERTAINTY%生源气体排放的潮周期动态研究:关键科学问题与不确定性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王进欣; 王今殊; 钦佩; 张维康

    2011-01-01

    Biogenic gases emission is an important aspect of study on global C, N, S. and Cl cycles. It has been a main focus of global change ecology and biogeochemical cycle research. In this paper firstly type of biogenic gases and their environmental effects are introduced, then key scientific issues and uncertainty of study on tidal cycling dynamic of biogenic gases emission are reviewed, especially status and focus of future research in the fields of biogenic gases emission. Discussion of key scientific issues and uncertainty of study on tidal cycling dynamic of biogenic gases emission can help us better understand tides and control factors of the biogenic gases production, conversion, and migration interaction. It is more important to reveal interaction among C, N, S, and Cl in order to provide insight and theoretical founda-tion for alleviation of greenhouse effects.%生态系统生源气体排放是全球C、N、S和Cl循环研究的重要内容,是当前全球变化生态学和生物地球化学循环的研究热点和焦点.在介绍海岸带盐沼生态系统生源气体种类及其环境效应的的基础上,重点对潮汐循环对植物枯落物分解和土壤生源要素生态化学计量学特征的影响、潮汐循环影响下电子受体和盐分输入特征及其对生源气体排放的影响、潮汐循环影响下生源气体生产者生态生理特征和生产者贡献比率变化特征、潮汐循环影响下海岸带盐沼高等植物根际生理生态过程以及海岸带盐沼潮周期内生源气体通量特征及其相互关系等关键科学问题和这些问题研究中的不确定性进行了探讨.为揭示C、N、S和Cl元素之间的相互作用及平衡制约关系和为减缓温室效应提供新思路和理论依据具有重要的现实意义.

  15. Key Scientific Issues on the Control of Foodborne Pathogens during Food Processing%食品加工过程中致病菌控制的关键科学问题

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    史贤明; 施春雷; 索标; 吴正云

    2011-01-01

    Foodbome pathogen is the top one cause for foodbome diseases, which is a key obstacle in the development of food safety control system in China. During food processing, foodbome pathogenic bacteria can survive in many stress conditions, such as heat, high pressure, frozen, desiccation, vacuum, oxidation and so on, for that they can become more resistant to these stresses through biofilm formation, recovery of sublethal injured cells and the regulatory of stress-related genes. Moreover, the secretion of some virulent factors such as thermanuclease and enterotoxin also threatens the safety of food processing. These key scientific issues on the control of foodbome pathogens related to food processing were reviewed in this article.%致病性细菌是导致食源性疾病暴发的罪魁祸首,也是我国建立食品质量安全控制体系必须面对的重要危害.在食品加工过程中,食源性致病菌由于能够形成菌膜,进行亚致死损伤修复,调节抗性基因的表达等,从而对加工过程中的高温、高压、冷冻、脱水、光照、真空以及氧化等环境胁迫产生耐受性.此外,致病菌也能够分泌各种胞外毒力因子等,给食品安全带来极大的威胁.本文针对近年来食品加工过程中致病菌安全控制关键科学问题的研究进展进行阐述,并对未来的发展方向作展望.

  16. Building America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brad Oberg

    2010-12-31

    Builders generally use a 'spec and purchase' business management system (BMS) when implementing energy efficiency. A BMS is the overall operational and organizational systems and strategies that a builder uses to set up and run its company. This type of BMS treats building performance as a simple technology swap (e.g. a tank water heater to a tankless water heater) and typically compartmentalizes energy efficiency within one or two groups in the organization (e.g. purchasing and construction). While certain tools, such as details, checklists, and scopes of work, can assist builders in managing the quality of the construction of higher performance homes, they do nothing to address the underlying operational strategies and issues related to change management that builders face when they make high performance homes a core part of their mission. To achieve the systems integration necessary for attaining 40% + levels of energy efficiency, while capturing the cost tradeoffs, builders must use a 'systems approach' BMS, rather than a 'spec and purchase' BMS. The following attributes are inherent in a systems approach BMS; they are also generally seen in quality management systems (QMS), such as the National Housing Quality Certification program: Cultural and corporate alignment, Clear intent for quality and performance, Increased collaboration across internal and external teams, Better communication practices and systems, Disciplined approach to quality control, Measurement and verification of performance, Continuous feedback and improvement, and Whole house integrated design and specification.

  17. Key Issues and Solutions in Development of the 600MW CFB Boiler%600 MW超临界循环流化床锅炉关键问题研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程乐鸣; 苏虎; 许霖杰; 夏云飞; 王勤辉; 骆仲泱; 倪明江; 岑可法; 聂立; 周棋

    2015-01-01

    四川白马600 MW 超临界循环流化床(circulating fluidized bed,CFB)锅炉研发在设计过程中,面临不少亟需解决的关键性问题。这些问题主要包括双布风板大炉膛密相区颗粒混合问题、床料平衡与控制问题,高炉膛中气固浓度分布,二次风穿透问题,悬吊受热面表面颗粒流动问题,六分离器循环回路物料平衡问题,炉膛水冷壁、中隔墙和悬吊受热面的热流分布规律,超临界水动力特性,回料系统受阻对炉膛运行的影响和水冷壁的防磨等。这些问题均是600 MW 超临界 CFB 锅炉设计和运行中至关重要和必须解决的问题。该文主要介绍为解决这些问题而开展的大量实验研究和数值模拟研究工作及其主要结果。实炉的运行结果验证了研究结果的预测。%The article summarized key issues studied in developing of the 600MW supercritical circulating fluidized bed (CFB) boiler at Sichuan Baima power generation plant. The issues include the solids particle mixing in dense bed and suspended heat transfer surface, gas-solids suspension density profiles in a super high riser, bed material balance and its overturn condition between a breeches-leg, gas-solids flow distribution among different cyclones, heat flux distributions on water wall, division wall and suspended heat transfer surface, thermal-hydraulic characteristics, local voidage variation with interrupting circulating loop(s) during operation, and erosion problem and protection on water wall. Solutions to the issues were suggested based on plenty of experimental and numerical study. Successful operation of the 600MW CFB boiler verifies the work.

  18. Little People of America

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... information. World Dwarf Games 2017 Welcome to Little People of America Little People of America (LPA) is a nonprofit organization that provides support and information to people of short stature and their families. LPA is ...

  19. Research on Key Issues of MiIitary Information System Architecture Design and Integration%军事信息系统顶层设计和综合集成问题研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘清

    2014-01-01

    指挥控制系统是最重要最复杂的军事信息系统,从信息系统顶层设计和综合集成的角度,介绍美军指挥控制系统开发使用过程中遇到的问题和采取的解决方案,包括作战概念开发、战斗力生成、数据战略、服务战略、新的体系结构和联合作战能力开发技术等,提出了采用建立网络化开放协同的生态环境来破解军事信息系统顶层设计和综合集成的难题。%Command and control (C2)system is one of the most important and complex military information systems.From the information system architecture design and integration,problems and solutions in developing C2 systems are described including operational concept development,doctrine, organization,training,materiel,leadship and education,personnel and facilities (DOTMLPF)devel-opment,data strategy,service strategy,new architecture and joint capability developing technology. A solution of building an open and collaborative network enabled ecological environment is proposed to solve key issues in military information system design and integration.

  20. The Key Issues Should Be Grasped in the Effective Implementation of Enterprise Performance Appraisal%企业有效实施绩效考核应把握好的几个关键问题

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈开胜

    2011-01-01

    After the implementation of performance appraisal, many enterprises have not achieved significant results. The reasons are manifold, but the main reason is some key issues are not be grasped. This paper attempts to accurately grasp the essence of performance assessment, clarify misunderstanding, carefully select the appropriate performance appraisal methods, and actively foster the performance culture with enterprise characteristics on how to effectively implement performance evaluation.%很多企业在实施绩效考核后,并未取得显著效果。究其原因是多方面的,但一些关键问题没有把握好是主要原因。试图从准确把握绩效考核的实质,澄清认识误区、审慎选择适当的绩效考核方法、积极培育富有企业特色的绩效文化等几个方面对如何有效实施绩效考核进行了初步阐述。

  1. 当代气候变化的主要特点、关键问题及应对策略%Major Characteristics,Key Issues and Coping Strategiesof Climate Change

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张强; 李裕; 陈丽华

    2011-01-01

    总结归纳了当代气候变化的主要特点和基本规律,并从能量角度分析了全球气候变化的原因和气候变暖的本质驱动力.同时,还提出了目前气候变暖中几个值得重点关注的问题,讨论了为何要更加重视气候变暖的不利影响及其不利影响的深刻性和广泛性,并从长远发展和短期现实角度对目前科学应对气候变暖做了一些初步思考.%Scientific literatures contain numerous descriptions of observed and potential effects of global climate change on natural environment and ecosystems. In response to anticipated effects of climate change,environmental conservation organizations and government agencies are taking actions to help human society and ecological systems to adopt to climate change. In the paper, main characteristics and main socio-economic driving forces of climate change are analyzed and key issues and adverse effects of climate warming are discussed. Lastly, the authors give some advices of adaptation to climate change not only for long-term development but also for short-term benefits.

  2. Key technologies and fundamental academic issues for traction battery systems%车用动力电池系统的关键技术与学科前沿

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张剑波; 卢兰光; 李哲

    2012-01-01

    车用动力电池系统在性能、成本、寿命、安全性上的局限是制约电动汽车走向普及的瓶颈。该文对42款电动汽车的动力电池系统进行了统计和分析。整理出并综述了四大关键技术:电池组配技术、热管理技术、电能管理技术、安全保障技术。提炼出这些关键技术的两个基础科学问题:1)多约束、多尺度产热积层体复合系统的产热、传热、散热规律;2)非线性、时变、非均一多个体混联电池系统的建模、辨识及控制理论。展望了车用电池系统的智能化、网络化趋势。%The limitation of traction battery systems in performance, cost, life, and safety constitutes the bottleneck for the diffusion of electric vehicles. This paper analyzes dozens of electric vehicles in the phase of R & D and several major commercialized electric vehicles, identifies and reviews four key technologies for the traction battery system, the assembly of cells into the battery, thermal management, electric energy management, and safety. Underlying these key technologies two fundamental academic issues are specified: 1) the generation, transfer, and removal of heat in the stacked composite system comprising cells and heat conduction plates/flow fields; 2) the modeling, identification, and control of the battery system comprising a multitude of non-linear, time-varying cells connected in parallel and series. Further development tendency for traction battery systems are viewed, such as the smart cell and the integration with the grid and internet.

  3. [Inequities in cardiovascular diseases in Latin America].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleischer, Nancy L; Diez Roux, Ana V

    2013-01-01

    In high-income countries, social inequalities in cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk are well-documented. Although Latin America has a rich history of theory and conceptual discussion regarding social inequalities in health, empirical research has been more limited. In this commentary we summarize recent empirical work on social inequalities in CVD risk in Latin America, and highlight key research needs as well as implications for prevention. Although much remains unknown about the social patterning of CVD in Latin America, the limited studies to date indicate that inequalities in CVD risk vary across populations and markers of socioeconomic position, as well as disease risk marker. The strongest social inequalities are seen among women, and in urban areas, with regards to obesity, diabetes, and diet. Few studies, though, have been conducted in some parts of Latin America, including the countries of Central America and northern South America. Vital registration systems and nationally-representative risk factor surveys can be important sources of data, as long as information on socioeconomic indicators is collected. Longitudinal studies will also be important for investigating factors driving social inequalities. As policies and prevention strategies are put into place to reduce CVD in Latin America, they must also address factors generating social inequalities in CVD risk.

  4. Sustainability performance of soybean and beef chains in Latin America

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pashaei Kamali, F.

    2015-01-01

    Sustainability Performance of Soybean and Beef Chains in Latin America The objective of this thesis, was to analyze the sustainability performance of soybean and beef production chains in Latin America (LA). First identifying a set of sustainability issues of soybean and beef produc

  5. Review on space weather in Latin America. 2. The research networks ready for space weather

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denardini, Clezio Marcos; Dasso, Sergio; Gonzalez-Esparza, J. Americo

    2016-11-01

    The present work is the second of a three-part review of space weather in Latin America, specifically observing its evolution in three countries (Argentina, Brazil and Mexico). This work comprises a summary of scientific challenges in space weather research that are considered to be open scientific questions and how they are being addressed in terms of instrumentation by the international community, including the Latin American groups. We also provide an inventory of the networks and collaborations being constructed in Latin America, including details on the data processing, capabilities and a basic description of the resulting variables. These instrumental networks currently used for space science research are gradually being incorporated into the space weather monitoring data pipelines as their data provides key variables for monitoring and forecasting space weather, which allow these centers to monitor space weather and issue watches, warnings and alerts.

  6. Preparing Teachers for Inclusive Education in Latin America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaillant, Denise

    2011-01-01

    This article analyzes the current challenges facing inclusive education in Latin America and explores some possible solutions. The author suggests that teachers play a key role in providing education that is inclusive for all. In Latin America, today, however, inclusive education often does not respond to the needs of children and young people,…

  7. Science Editing in America: An Overview

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Barbara Gastel

    2003-01-01

    @@ In America, science editing appears to be an increasingly recognized field. In what settings do American science editors work, and what kinds of work do they do ? What is their educational background? What style manuals and other resources do they use? What organizations serve them? What topics and issues do they find of professional interest?

  8. 联通主义学习中教学交互研究的价值与关键问题%Value and Key Issues of Instructional Interaction Research on Connectivist Learning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王志军; 陈丽

    2015-01-01

    Connectivism, as the core learning theory in the open network age, has got worldwide attention after it was proposed. Connectivist learning focuses on instructional interaction and knowledge creation. However, there is little research on it. The unsolved key issue how connectivist learning occurred leads to some problems such as the lack of effective connectivist learning and teaching practice, and the neglect of the value of generated content in online courses and MOOCs. Since theory innovation is the key to promoting the innovation of teaching and learning methods, the research on instructional interaction in connectivist learning can provide opportunities and ideas to solve problems in our online instruction practice, such as the instructional method, the instructional model, learning supports and technology integration. In addition, the research can not only achieve the substantive innovation of instructional interaction theory in distance education, but also enrich and develop the basic theory system of distance education and provide a solid foundation for online education. To achieve this goal, this study proposed four key issues to be solved, including (1) how to build a theoretical model which reflects the principle of instructional interaction in connectivist learning; (2) how to design the interaction analysis method and framework adjusted to the connectvist learning context; (3) how to track and collect the big data in a large distributed network environment; (4) how to conduct the research on the knowledge creation process in connectivist learning supported by instructional interaction.%联通主义作为开放网络学习时代最核心的学习理论,一经提出就受到国际社会的普遍关注。联通主义学习以教学交互和知识创新为核心,目前国际上对联通主义学习中的教学交互研究还未开始,因为并没有解决联通主义学习究竟是如何发生的这一根本性问题,由此导致实践中缺乏有

  9. Gangs in Central America

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-10-17

    Citizen Security held in July 2008 indicated that Guatemala now has the second highest murder rate in Central America (roughly 45 per 100,000 people...training regional security forces.48 In recent years, the U.S. Southern Command has taken a leading role in discussing the problem of citizen security in...the results CRS-19 51 “Memo: The Merida Initiative and Citizen Security in Mexico and Central America,” Washington Office on Latin America, March 2008

  10. 2013 Building America Research Planning Meeting Summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Metzger, C. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Hunt, S. [Confluence Communications, Missoula, MT (united States)

    2014-02-01

    The Building America Research Planning Meeting was held October 28-30, 2013, in Washington, DC. This meeting provides one opportunity each year for the research teams, national laboratories and Department of Energy (DOE) managers to meet in person to share the most pertinent information and collaboration updates. This report documents the presentations, highlights key program updates, and outlines next steps for the program.

  11. A Review of the New ESL Approach in America

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Shubiao

    2002-01-01

    This article is trying to review a new ESL Approach which has achieved a great success in America. Some of its key principles, methods and results are introduced so that the readers may get some ideas from it.

  12. Building America Top Innovations 2012: Moisture and Ventilation Solutions in Hot, Humid Climates: Florida Manufactured Housing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2013-01-01

    This Building America Top Innovations profile describes work by Building America researchers who visited 24 manufactured home factories between 1996 and 2003 to investigate moisture problems while improving energy efficiency and identified insufficient air sealing and poor HVAC installation as the biggest culprits. One manufacturer reported zero moisture-related issues in 35,000 homes built after implementing Building America recommendations.

  13. Typical characteristics of cloud manufacturing and several key issues of cloud service composition%云制造特征及云服务组合关键问题研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陶飞; 张霖; 郭华; 罗永亮; 任磊

    2011-01-01

    In order to realize sharing and collaboration of manufacturing resources and manufacturing ability based on knowledge and to realize added value of manufacturing resource, through analyzing typical characteristics of Cloud Manufacturing(CMfg), relationships among resources, manufacturing cloud service and manufacturing cloud were discussed. Function structure of CMfg service management prototype system was designed. Requirements of Cloud Service Composition(CSC)in whole-lifecycle implementation of CMfg were studied. Several key issues for CSC, including modeling, description and consistency check, correlation relationship, composition flexibility, composition network as well as its dynamic characteristics, modeling & evaluation, and optimal-selection were studied in particular. It provided theoretical foundation for realizing effective and intelligent CMfg service management.%为实现基于知识的制造资源和制造能力的共享与协同,实现云制造系统中资源服务的增值和增效,在分析云制造典型特征后,对云制造中的资源、制造云服务、制造云的关系进行了阐述.在此基础上,设计了制造云服务管理原型系统功能结构,对基于云制造全生命周期运行的云服务组合需求进行r阐述.对云服务组合建模/描述和一致件检查、云服务关联关系、云服务组合柔性、组合网络及其动力学特性、云服务组合建模与评估、组合优选等实现云服务组合的关键问题进行了研究,为未来实现高效智能化的云制造服务管理提供理论支持.

  14. Polycentric Metropolitan Form: Application of a ‘Northern’ Concept in Latin America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arie Romein

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Since the mid 20th century, large urban areas in advanced economies have experienced a fundamental transformation from relatively compact monocentric cities towards more extended polycentric metropolitan areas. By now, it is being commented repeatedly, but not investigated systematically that the concept of polycentricity is also adequate to characterise recent metropolitan dynamics in Latin-America.This paper aims to present a few key-issues for a future research agenda into polycentricity in Latin-American metropolitan areas. These elements are identified from a review of existing literature. Since no clear-cut definition and operationalisation of polycentricity exist yet, we distinguish some key-elements of this phenomenon in North America as a frame of reference for this review. It reveals that ‘polycentricity U.S. style’ is at best dawning in Latin-America. In order to achieve a more appropriate picture of polycentricity of Latin American metropolitan areas, our ideas for a research agenda take into account these areas typical economic, social and spatial conditions.

  15. America's Children and the Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Protection Agency Search Search America's Children and the Environment (ACE) Share Facebook Twitter Google+ Pinterest Contact Us ... of updates to ACE . America's Children and the Environment (ACE) America's Children and the Environment (ACE) is ...

  16. Review of Payments for Ecosystem Services and the Key Issues in a Watershed%流域生态补偿研究现状及关键问题剖析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    乔旭宁; 杨永菊; 杨德刚

    2012-01-01

    In a watershed, competitive water use in upstream and downstream causes a conflict between develop- ment of human beings and eco-environment. It is high time to establish mechanism of payments for ecosystem services (PES). Domestic and foreign researches on PES in watersheds mainly focus on assessment on PES im- plementation, choice of compensation scale, calculation of compensation standard, relationship between PESand poverty reduction, and spatial differentiation of PES. The key issues are how to make eco-compensation standard and how to realize the beneficial owner recuperation. Compensation bodies and compensation objects are defined by analysis of stakeholders and water quantity and quality between upstream and downstream. Mean- while, maximum standard, minimum standard and reference standard of eco-compensation are determined by calculating ecological profit and loss from upstream to downstream, opportunity cost and willingness to pay (WTP). Furthermore, PES mechanism of multi-level, multi-subject and multi-factor is established. Finally, diffi- culties are analyzed during the construction of PES mechanism in watersheds.%在流域,因竞争性用水导致上下游之间、人类发展与生态环境之间的矛盾日益尖锐,急需建立健全流域生态补偿机制。,通过对国内外流域生态补偿研究进展进行梳理,发现流域生态补偿研究主要集中在流域尺度的补偿计划实施评价、补偿尺度的选择、补偿标准的测算、生态补偿与减少贫困关系、流域生态补偿的空间差异性等方面,其关键问题在于生态补偿主体和对象的确定以及补偿标准的制定;研究认为通过流域断面水量水质及相关利益分析方法来确定补偿主体和对象;而补偿标准则以流域上下游生态损益、机会成本、居民支付意愿分别作为补偿上限、参考值和下限来综合确定。以此为基础,构建流域多种生态要素、多元主体间

  17. Several key issues related to black carbon in soil ecosystems%土壤生态系统中黑碳研究的几个关键问题

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡学玉; 易卿; 禹红红

    2012-01-01

    Carbon dioxide (CO2) is the most important anthropogenic greenhouse gas and its global concentration in the atmosphere has increased since 1750s due to human activities. Agriculture is of relevance to climate change due to emissions in food production and emissions through land use change. The reduction in emissions of CO2 and the sequestration of atmospheric CO2 has become a hot issue and should be strongly pursued. "Biochar", biomass-derived black carbon (BC), has emerged as a potential strategy for climate change mitigation. Black carbon is a general term used to describe products derived from incomplete combustion of vegetation and fossil fuels. It is a continuum of carbon (C) forms and has high carbon content. A characteristic of biochar that is common to black carbon in general is that it comprises mainly stable aromatic forms of organic carbon. About 80% of BC produced from different sources ends up in soils and sediments where it resides for hundreds to thousands of years due to its resistance to biological and chemical breakdown. As a result, BC could be an alternative for us to fight against climate change. Active soil managements offers the possibility to increase terrestrial carbon stores in various forms in soils. Based on literature review, this paper described the sources of BC and its potential role to increase C storage in the soils. We emphasized the importance in quantifying BC and the key to determine content of BC in soils. In this paper the stability of BC in the soils was stated, and the interaction between the added BC and native soil organic matter as well as the effect of BC on soil greenhouse gas production was also discussed. The key to estimating BC stocks and its environmental performance in soils and sediments is an understanding of the implication of BC served an effective soil carbon pool, which can be useful for us to draw the conclusion on the role of BC in the global carbon cycle and agricultural carbon-negative process in China

  18. Diferencias culturales en el mundo global: cuestiones irresueltas para los pueblos indígenas de América Latina Cultural differences in the global world: unresolved issues for indigenous people from Latin America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Isabel González Terreros

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available El mundo, y en particular América Latina, vive procesos de tensión y disputa cultural, producto del conflicto que se presenta ante la globalización, la cual plantea perspectivas y políticas universales, y las manifestaciones de comunidades indígenas que reclaman el reconocimiento de la diferencia y el derecho a la identidad. En tal sentido, este artículo pretende analizar diferentes tensiones en las cuales se encuentran los pueblos indígenas en el contexto de la globalización. Tensiones que tienen que ver con las políticas internacionales y nacionales que cobijan a los pueblos indígenas, las manifestaciones y los reclamos de los movimientos indígenas por el reconocimiento de su identidad cultural y la tensión en que se encuentra la identidad colectiva en medio del mundo globalizado.The world, particularly Latin America, is living several cultural processes of tension and dispute, which are the result of the conflict between globalization (that implies universal perspectives and policies, and the claims of indigenous communities which seek to achieve recognition of their differences and the right to their own identities. In this sense, the present paper aims to analyze the different tensions in which indigenous people are immersed, in the context of globalization. These tensions are related, first, to international and national policies that encompass indigenous people; secondly, to manifestations and demands of indigenous movements for the recognition of their cultural identity; and finally, to the tension itself in which collective identity is involved, in the context of a globalized world.

  19. Bienestar, familia y problemas de cuidados en América Latina (Welfare, family and care Issues in Latin America Doi: 10.5212/Emancipacao.v.13iEspecial.0002

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Hugo Del Valle

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN: En este artículo se analizan algunas de las características que poseen los problemas derivados del cuidado y sus relaciones con los regímenes de bienestar en América latina.  Para ello se describen los efectos de la transición demográfica, el envejecimiento poblacional, las transformaciones en la familia y la pobreza.  A partir de datos provenientes de CEPAL y UNESCO para 16 países latinoamericanos se argumenta que la problemática del cuidado se encuentra en un doble proceso de desfamiliarización y mercantilización.  La conclusión a la que se arriba es que las características de los dispositivos estatales y las políticas sociales equiparan familia con mujer por lo que la política implícita del cuidado, en la medida que no se deriva de ningún modelo de justicia social, contribuye a nuevas formas de desigualdad. Palabras clave: política familiar – bienestar – régimen de cuidados – familia.ABSTRACT: This article discusses some features that the problems of care have and the relationships with this problems and the welfare regimes in Latin America. For this, Its describe the demographic transition effects, population aging, changes in the family and poverty. Based on data from ECLAC and UNESCO of 16 Latin American countries argued that the problem of care has a double process of de-familiarization and commodification. The paper conclude that the characteristics of the state devices and the social policies system design, woman is equate to family and the regimen has got an implicit policy of care which is not derived from any model of social justice, and developes new forms inequality.Keywords: family policy – welfare – care regimen – family.

  20. How Long Can Electronic Official Documents Be Used and reserved? --Analysis of The Five Key Issues of Electronic Official Documents' Archives Management in Our Country%电子公文:能走多远———我国电子公文档案管理五大问题剖析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈晓晖

    2012-01-01

    当前我国电子公文档案管理面临五大问题:法律证据问题,归档管理问题,长期保存问题,流程变革问题,体制变革问题。由于这些问题尚未得到有效的解决,可以预见许多具有长久保存价值的电子公文在30年后将再也看不到。电子公文未来究竟能走多远,取决于今天文件与档案管理中上述五大问题的解决。文章归纳总结出这五大问题并阐明每一个问题对于电子公文档案管理的重要影响,探讨每一问题的国际、国内发展现状。%There are five key issues in the archives management of electronic official documents in our country. They are issue of force effect, issue of archiving, issue of long-terrn preservation, issue of process innovation and issue of system innovation. These issues are not yet be solved thoroughly so that many electronic official documents which have the value of long-term preservation will no longer be seen atter 30 years. How long can electronic official documents be used and Preserved depends on the today's solution of the major problems in files and archives management. The paper summarizes the five issues, clarifies the important influence of each issue on archives management of electronic official documents and Investigate the international and domestic development status of each issue.

  1. Key to the adults of the most common forensic species of Diptera in South America Chave de identificação para as espécies comuns de Diptera da América do Sul de interesse forense

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio José Barros de Carvalho

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Flies (Diptera, blow flies, house flies, flesh flies, horse flies, cattle flies, deer flies, midges and mosquitoes are among the four megadiverse insect orders. Several species quickly colonize human cadavers and are potentially useful in forensic studies. One of the major problems with carrion fly identification is the lack of taxonomists or available keys that can identify even the most common species sometimes resulting in erroneous identification. Here we present a key to the adults of 12 families of Diptera whose species are found on carrion, including human corpses. Also, a summary for the most common families of forensic importance in South America, along with a key to the most common species of Calliphoridae, Muscidae, and Fanniidae and to the genera of Sarcophagidae are provided. Drawings of the most important characters for identification are also included.Diptera (califorídeos, sarcofagídeos, motucas, moscas comuns e mosquitos é a uma das quatro ordens megadiversas de insetos. Diversas espécies desta ordem podem rapidamente colonizar cadáveres humanos e são de utilidade potencial para estudos de entomologia forense. Um dos maiores problemas com moscas que visitam matéria orgânica animal em decomposição é a falta de taxonomistas ou chaves de identificação disponíveis que possam identificar as espécies mais comuns ou mesmo, algumas vezes podendo resultar em identificações errôneas. Neste artigo é apresentada uma chave para adultos de 12 famílias de Diptera com espécies encontradas em matéria orgânica animal em decomposição, incluindo cadáveres humanos. Também é incluído um sumário das mais importantes famílias com espécies de interesse forense na América do Sul e chave de identificação das espécies mais comuns de Calliphoridae, Muscidae e Fanniidae e dos gêneros de Sarcophagidae. Esquemas dos mais importantes caracteres utilizados para identificação dessas espécies são também incluídos.

  2. Lupus Foundation of America

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Testing New Treatments Learn More About the Lupus Foundation of America We are devoted to solving ... Spam Control Text: Please leave this field empty Lupus FAQ What is lupus? What are the common ...

  3. Prevent Child Abuse America

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... call the police . Crisis and support contacts For Child Abuse Reporting Numbers in your State please visit: Child ... suspected child abuse and neglect. Parent Resources Prevent Child Abuse America (800) CHILDREN A resource for tips, referrals, ...

  4. Biosimilars in psoriasis: Clinical practice and regulatory perspectives in Latin America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Cruz, Claudia; de Carvalho, André V E; Dorantes, Gladys L; Londoño Garcia, Angela M; Gonzalez, Cesar; Maskin, Matías; Podoswa, Nancy; Redfern, Jan S; Valenzuela, Fernando; van der Walt, Joelle; Romiti, Ricardo

    2017-01-01

    Latin American countries view biosimilar agents as an effective approach to curtail health-care expenditures while maintaining the safety and efficacy profile of their branded innovator comparators. To understand the complexities of the regulatory landscape and key therapeutic issues for use of biosimilars to treat moderate to severe psoriasis in Latin America, the International Psoriasis Council convened dermatology experts from Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia and Mexico in October 2015 to review the definition, approval, marketing and future of biosimilars in each country and develop a consensus statement. The regulatory framework for marketing approval of biosimilars in Latin America is currently a mosaic of disparate, country-specific, regulatory review processes, rules and standards, with considerable heterogeneity in clarity and specificity. Regulations in Argentina, Brazil, Chile and Mexico have undergone multiple refinements whereas Colombia is finalizing draft guidelines. Verification of the similarity in quality, safety and efficacy of biosimilars to the innovator biologic remains a key challenge for policy makers and regulatory authorities. Other key regulatory challenges include: naming of agents and traceability, pharmacovigilance, extrapolation of indications, and interchangeability and substitution. An urgent need exists for more Latin American countries to establish national psoriasis registries and to integrate their common components into a multinational psoriasis network, thereby enhancing their interpretative power and impact. A Latin American psoriasis network similar to PSONET in Europe would assist health-care providers, pharmaceutical companies, regulators and patients to fully comprehend specific products being prescribed and dispensed and to identify potential regional trends or differences in safety or outcomes.

  5. A luta pelo banimento do amianto nas Américas: uma questão de saúde pública The struggle to ban asbestos in the Americas: an issue of public health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hermano Castro

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo tem como objetivo resgatar a luta pelo banimento do amianto ou asbesto nas Américas. Destacando-se a importância do amianto como um problema de Saúde Pública, pelo seu potencial carcinogênico reconhecido para os seres humanos, perpassando pela constituição de redes como contrapoderes em prol do banimento dessa fibra nociva, ressaltando a participação social nessa luta. O problema do amianto nas discussões das políticas públicas de saúde, trabalho e meio ambiente ainda permanece pouco claro no campo da Saúde do Trabalhador. Ao restringir a apenas um único campo de atuação, reduz-se a atuação das vigilâncias, como se estivesse apenas limitado ao ambiente de trabalho. É necessária então a discussão nos campos da Saúde Ambiental e da Saúde Publica. A ausência de políticas públicas contribui para a invisibilidade dos problemas relacionados ao amianto no Brasil. Hoje, as vítimas do amianto não têm suas doenças reconhecidas, e seus direitos são negados em várias instâncias do poder público. Conclui-se que a luta pelo fim da utilização dessa fibra e a redução das doenças provocadas pela mesma configuram-se um movimento político comprometido com a transformação social na busca por uma sociedade mais justa, igualitária e saudável.This article has the aim of rescuing the fight for the banishment of asbestos in Americas. The authors emphasize the importance of the asbestos as a problem of Public Health, due to its carcinogenic potential to human health, passing through the constitution of nets of counterpower on behalf of the banishment of the fiber, pointing out the importance of social participation in this fight. The asbestos public policy of health, work and environment is pointed out as a central problem. There are some misconceptions in the field of Worker's Health on facing the risks and damages caused by asbestos/amiantos and it is very important not to restrict the surveillance only to

  6. Ukraine; Selected Issues

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    This Selected Issues paper investigates the economic importance of institutions in Ukraine, and attempts to quantify the potential benefits of market-friendly structural reforms. The paper reviews some of the key findings of the development-accounting literature, which has tried to explain the significant differences in income that persist across countries. It introduces the stochastic-frontier approach, outlining its key assumptions and strengths, and results obtained with the stochastic-fro...

  7. 2013 Building America Research Planning Meeting Summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Metzger, C. E.; Hunt, S.

    2014-02-01

    The Building America (BA) Research Planning Meeting was held October 28-30, 2013, in Washington, DC. This meeting provides one opportunity each year for the research teams, national laboratories and Department of Energy (DOE) managers to meet in person to share the most pertinent information and collaboration updates. This report documents the presentations, highlights key program updates, and outlines next steps for the program.

  8. Opportunities and challenges in developing gas markets in South America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duarte, Cristiano Boaventura [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The article has the objective of identifying and analyzing the key market levers and drivers, emerging issues and challenges in developing the gas markets in South America. In section 1, the paper provides an overview of the most relevant indicators in the natural gas markets of the region. Data such as natural gas proven reserves; production; consumption; trade movements (by pipeline and LNG) and main aspects of regulatory framework are shown. In section 2, some of the key challenges and opportunities in developing gas markets in the region are identified, including those relating to market integration, political aspects and the main players' investments. In section 3, possible strategies from governments and enterprises to overcome those challenges, and seize the potential opportunities of the region are examined. In section 4, the conclusions point to the potential of developing the gas markets as a means to diversify the energy sources in the region, fostering a successful process of economic growth and political integration in the area. (author)

  9. 78 FR 16182 - Changes To Implement the First Inventor To File Provisions of the Leahy-Smith America Invents Act...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-14

    ... Inventor To File Provisions of the Leahy-Smith America Invents Act; Correction AGENCY: United States Patent... examination issues raised by, the changes in the first inventor to file provisions of the Leahy-Smith America... First Inventor To File Provisions of the Leahy-Smith America Invents Act, 78 FR 11024 (Feb. 14,...

  10. Key Issues Related to Geo-engineering as Approaches to Climate Change Mitigation%“地球工程”作为减缓气候变化手段的几个关键问题

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘家华

    2012-01-01

    Climate change mitigation can be implemented through the approach of engineering technologies at a large geographic scale. Geo-engineering refers to, in the large Earth yardstick or scale, all kinds of artificial approaches of engineering technologies in temperature reduction by removing CO2 in the atmosphere or directly controlling solar radiation, instead of emission reductions related to production and consumption of energy, and to the management of industrial production process. It is mainly classified into three big categories; approach of green biological technology, carbon capture and storage, and control and management technology of solar radiation. This kind of geo-engineering approach has a series of implications in economy, technology, environment, ethics, security, and uncertainty. The present paper makes an analysis and conducts a discussion on several recent international key issues of the possible technological options for mitigation of climate change, involving definitions of concept, technological features, possible effects and governance framework, etc.. The author argues that geo-engineering approach directly acting on carbon, such as biological sinks and carbon capture and storage technologies, are assessed with relatively low risk and high level of control. Through temperature reduction effects by artificially emitting SO, into the atmosphere and aerosols, solar radiation management technology is used to control the rise of the Earth's temperature, which, though having not a high economic cost of use but practical maneuverability, has huge uncertainty and possible implication of security, needing enough attention. Ethically, there are disputes over whether or not the contemporary people have the right to carry on geo-engineering of solar radiation management technology with such huge scientific uncertainty, and in such scientific uncertainty, to take any action will lose the ethnic basis. Legally, human intervention in solar radiation, even

  11. Overview, conclusions, and key recommendations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loeber, R.; Farrington, D.P.; Howell, J.C.; Hoeve, M.; Loeber, R.; Farrington, D.P.

    2012-01-01

    Section I of this chapter summarizes the most important points of Chapters 2 to 5 and relevant portions of Chapter 10 (which concerns European issues) by addressing key findings that are relevant for juveniles’ transition of offending from adolescence (up to age 18) into adulthood. Section I focuses

  12. Environmental issues, interdisciplinarity, social theory and intellectual production in Latin America Tópicos ambientais, interdisciplinaridade, teoria social e produção intelectual na América Latina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila da Costa Ferreira

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available While dealing with both interdisciplinarity and environment and society area as fields that harbor scientific contentions regarding ideas, practices, institutions and habitus (Bourdieu, this paper aims at providing an account of the multifaceted processes implied in the institutionalization of environmental concerns in Latin-American academia and research centers. The paper discusses the extent to which one can legitimately talk about "a Latin- American scientific specificity", supposedly resulting from peculiar theoretical approaches or even from particular socio-environmental features (such as widespread poverty and high rates of social inequality, along with unparalleled levels of biodiversity. Last but not least, the paper seeks to draw a sort of thematic map (via bibliographical review as well as a consideration of the levels of scientific institutionalization of environmental issues in six different research centers located in Argentina, Chile, Mexico, Uruguay and Brazil.Ao tratar a interdisciplinaridade e a área de ambiente e sociedade enquanto campos que lidam com questões científicas relacionadas com idéias, práticas, instituições e habitus (Bourdieu, esse artigo pretende contribuir para a compreensão dos processos multifacetados implicados na institucionalização da questão ambiental na academia e centros de pesquisa latino-americanos. O texto discute em que medida pode-se legitimamente falar de uma "especificidade científica latino-americana", supostamente resultante de abordagens teóricas peculiares ou mesmo de situações sócio-ambientais particulares (como pobreza e altas taxas de desigualdade, junto a incomparáveis índices de biodiversidade. Por último, mas também importante, o texto pretende trazer um panorama temático (através da revisão bibliográfica assim como apontar os níveis de institucionalização científica da área ambiental em seis centros de pesquisa localizados na Argentina, Chile, M

  13. Painting of aluminium panels – state of the art and development issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Zhenhai

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Auto-makers plan a broad shift from steel to aluminium uses over the next decade. In North America, for example, the target is to have 18% of vehicles having all-aluminium bodies by 2025, in spite of that only less than 1% has been achieved in 2014. To achieve this transformation, painting aluminium panels in a mass-production scale with high quality is an important requirement to be met, considering that for long-term protection and surface appearance of the vehicles to be made as well as cost issues. This paper presents a review work carried out on the key elements concerning the painting process, progress in research and applications. Special issues concerning painting aluminium, including the pretreatment of panels surface before e-coat application and the pretreatment of panels before paint baking, are particularly addressed, and remaining issues relating to high quality painting in mass production are discussed.

  14. “粮改饲”政策效应分析与关键问题研究观点%“Grain for forage”policy effect analysis and key issues research review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑瑞强; 刘小春; 杨丽萍

    2016-01-01

    “粮改饲”是我国农业转方式、调结构提出的一项新内容,是国家粮食安全观念的革新。系统梳理了“粮改饲”政策的经济、社会和生态效应,明确了“粮改饲”政策实施过程中的补贴、组织化程度、农机推广与产业调整等关键问题,提出了“粮改饲”政策推进建议:重视试点地区实践总结,强化关键问题剖析;把脉农户意愿,关注粮食安全;准确把握产业定位,注重多元协作;强化科技支撑,注重政策支持。%"Grain for forage" is a new content of China's agricultural transfer and structure adjustment is proposed, the national food security concept innovation. A systematic summary of the grain for for⁃age policy of economic, social and ecological effect, clear the key problems of grain for forage imple⁃mentation of the policy of subsidies, degree of organization, promotion of agricultural and industrial ad⁃justment, put forward grain for forage policy promoting suggestions: pay attention to summing up the practice of the pilot areas, strengthen the key problem analysis; to feel the pulse of the willingness of farmers, pay attention to food safety;accurately grasp the industry positioning, attention to the multi co⁃operation;to strengthen the support of science and technology, focusing on policy support.

  15. Science in Latin America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayala, Francisco J.

    1995-01-01

    A brief history of science and technology in Latin America that begins with the Mayan civilization and progresses through the colonial period to the present. Compares increased scientific productivity in the Latin American and Caribbean regions to productivity in the United States and European Union. (LZ)

  16. Replacing America's Job Bank

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vollman, Jim

    2009-01-01

    The Job Central National Labor Exchange (www.jobcentral.com) has become the effective replacement for America's Job Bank with state workforce agencies and, increasingly, with community colleges throughout the country. The American Association of Community Colleges (AACC) has formed a partnership with Job Central to promote its use throughout the…

  17. Literacy in South America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hornberger, Nancy H.

    1991-01-01

    Literacy in South America must be understood in terms of the linguistic diversity there, where only 2 of 14 nations and territories are monolingual. Oral traditions, standardization of indigenous languages, nonstandard varieties of colonial languages, bilingual education and mother tongue literacy, literacy teaching, and politics are discussed.…

  18. Americas at Odds

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Despite lingering disputes,the United States keeps a firm grip on Latin America During his presidential campaign,Evo Morales said his election would be a "nightmare" for the United States.The Bolivian president honored his words. On September 10, Morales declared U.S.

  19. Ecodesign in Central America

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Crul, M.R.M.

    2003-01-01

    This PhD thesis describes and analyses the change process started by the Ecodesign project in Central America, executed between 1998 and 2002. The project started using the concept and praxis developed in Europe. Nine ecodesign projects were performed in industry, and ecodesign was introduced to cou

  20. Sarcoma Foundation of America

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Google+ Twitter LinkedIn YouTube © 2017 Sarcoma Foundation of America | All Rights Reserved. | Terms of Use | Privacy Policy Website Design & Hosting by 270net Technologies, Inc. X - Enter Your Location - - or - Get your current location Home About Us History People Public Filings News & Media SFA in the ...

  1. An Idea Called America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartoonian, Michael; Van Scotter, Richard; White, William E.

    2007-01-01

    America evolved out of the principles of the eighteenth-century Enlightenment, suggesting that individuals could govern themselves and that people were "endowed" with "unalienable rights" such as life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness. To secure these principles, Americans would continue to work on forming a more perfect Union, by…

  2. Lateinamerika oder -amerikas? Latin America or Americas?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Belén García Timón

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Anhand interdisziplinärer und empirischer Studien wird Lateinamerika als Bühne für die Entwicklung transkultureller Phänomene präsentiert. Geschlechterverhältnisse in unterschiedlichen Kontexten stehen im Mittelpunkt der Untersuchung. Begriffe wie Macht, Rasse oder Raum werden mit dem Ziel, weg von der bisherigen Vorstellung von homogenen kulturellen Einheiten zu kommen, revidiert.Latin America is presented as a stage for the development of transcultural phenomena through the use of interdisciplinary and empirical studies. Gender relations in different contexts lie at the heart of this study. Terms such as power, race, or space are revised with the goal of moving away from current perceptions of homogenous cultural unities.

  3. 随钻核磁共振测井的特殊问题与应用实例%Key Issues and Application Cases of NMR Logging While Drilling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李新; 肖立志; 刘化冰

    2011-01-01

    介绍随钻核磁共振(NMR)测井的发展和现状.基于测量环境和工作方式,讨论运动中随钻核磁共振测井的特殊问题和探测特征.随钻NMR测井技术的关键在于其具有特殊探测特性的探头能够满足磁体尺寸受限、测量过程中仪器的复杂机械运动和电力供应等钻井条件下的特殊要求.随钻核磁共振测井与电缆核磁共振测井应用实例的对比分析说明随钻核磁共振测量技术是可靠的,在高成本、强实效的钻井作业中将发挥越来越重要的作用.我国的随钻NMR测井仪的研发过程应在消化吸收国外仪器方案的基础上探索分析探头设计方案并进行数值模拟和论证;对探头方案进行物理实现,建立钻井条件仿真装置验证探头关键技术;最优方案形成完整系统后进入实际验证.%Described are NMR LWD technology and its applications. NMR LWD has advantages of providing real-time information for un-invaded formations, logging in high angle and horizontal wells, and geosteering. Compared with wireline NMR logging, NMR LWD is performed in more hostile environment. The key features and investigation characters of NMR LWD tool for adapting complex motions during drilling are discussed. Application results proved reliability of these tool's and good agreement with wireline NMR logging reference, and they can provide necessary information for time-elapse logging method. At last, given are some suggestions on future development of NMR LWD in China, for example, study the probe design scheme and make numerical simulation; make physical experiments about the probe designs and make a simulated device under the drilling condition in the lab to test the key technology of the probe; and select the most optimized design scheme to build up a complete NMR LWD system and test it in field operation.

  4. A novel key management scheme using biometrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sui, Yan; Yang, Kai; Du, Yingzi; Orr, Scott; Zou, Xukai

    2010-04-01

    Key management is one of the most important issues in cryptographic systems. Several important challenges in such a context are represented by secure and efficient key generation, key distribution, as well as key revocation. Addressing such challenges requires a comprehensive solution which is robust, secure and efficient. Compared to traditional key management schemes, key management using biometrics requires the presence of the user, which can reduce fraud and protect the key better. In this paper, we propose a novel key management scheme using iris based biometrics. Our newly proposed scheme outperforms traditional key management schemes as well as some existing key-binding biometric schemes in terms of security, diversity and/or efficiency.

  5. 卷烟包装纸箱再循环物流系统关键问题研究%Study on Key Issues in Recycling Logistics System of Cigarette Packaging Cartons

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙宇博

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, according to the composition of the cigarette logistics system, we analyzed the cigarette packaging process, used the fishbone diagram to analyze the key links and influence factors of the logistics process of the packaging cartons, discussed the content of the 5M1E elements of the process, summarized the basic recycling mode of the packaging cartons and the steps and procedures of the terminal recycling activity, and at the end, proposed the measures to ensure the recycling rate of the cartons.%根据卷烟物流系统组成,分析了包装纸箱流程程序,应用鱼骨图方法分析了包装纸箱物理过程关键环节和影响因素,探讨了包装纸箱物流“人机料法环”(5M1E)内容,总结了包装纸箱循环物流回收基本模式和终端回收作业步骤及流程,并提出了包装纸箱回收保障措施。

  6. Key Issues on Development of the South-East Tibet Hydro-Power Base%藏东南水电能源基地开发面临的重大问题

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任东明; 张庆分

    2011-01-01

    The South-East Tibet area of China is rich in hydropower resources. To build a hydro-power base in this area and to develop the abundant renewable and clean energy resources is of great significance in improving the energy configuration, addressing the global climate change, protecting the environment, and realizing sustainable development. Due to particular complexity of the area in building the hydro-power base, major issues must be dealt with such as fair use of the water resources across horders, environmental protection,resettlement and religion, economy and technology. Intensive studies should he conducted and relevant countermeasures should be made.%藏东南是我国水能资源富集区,建设藏东南水电能源基地,开发藏东南丰富清洁的水能资源,对优化我国能源结构,应对全球气候变化和实现我国能源可持续发展将发挥战略作用.由于藏东南是极为特殊的地区,建设藏东南水电能源基地将面临跨境河流问题、生态环境问题、移民和宗教问题、经济技术问题等一系列重大问题.对这些问题进行了研究,提出了相应的对策.

  7. 云计算关键技术之云安全问题认知研究%Research on the cognition of cloud security issues-one of the key technology of cloud computing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    龚强

    2014-01-01

    云计算面临的最大挑战是安全问题。云计算应用的无边界性、流动性等特点,较之传统的IT模式有很大差异。在云计算环境下,服务方式发生变化,安全的责任主体也发生了根本改变。作为云计算服务提供商,需要建立安全的云计算平台,为云安全服务提供保障;同时,服务一定是开放的、安全的,要保护云用户敏感信息的安全。整合桌面安全管理技术是行之有效的。云安全应用研究主要是从云计算平台系统安全和网络安全设备、安全基础设施的“云化”突破。%The security issue is the biggest challenge for cloud computing .There is a great difference between the characteristics of cloud computing applications including unboundedness and liquidity etc . and the traditional IT model .In the cloud computing environment , service method has changed ,the main responsibility for safety has also undergone a fundamental change .As cloud computing service providers , they need to establish safe cloud computing platform and provide guarantee for cloud security service ;meanwhile , the service must be open and safe to protect the security of cloud users ’ sensitive information.Integrating desktop security management technology is effective .This paper can make breakthrough from the system security of cloud computing platform and the “cloud” of network security equipment and security infrastructure .

  8. 辅助驾驶系统中驾驶员头部姿态估计关键问题研究%Research on key issues of driver’s head pose estimation in driving assistant system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李荣; 齐晓杰; 鲍宇; 史士财

    2015-01-01

    It is important to study the driver’s behavior consciousness in the intelligent traffic system .In this paper ,driver’s head pose estimation is researched ,and a vision‐based scheme of estimating the driver’ s head pose is realized .Firstly ,the driver’s front face is detected from the video image ,and the result is used as criterion .Then corresponding feature points between two adjacent views are matched .According to the points ,the driver’s head pose is estimated .It also brings forward a method to capture the key frames online through fusing the smoothness assumption of head’s motion and other prior motion information ,in order to eliminate the accumulating errors during continuous pose accumulation .The experiment shows the better performance on experimental data can be obtained .%智能交通系统中对驾驶员的行为监测具有重要的研究价值,针对驾驶员的头部姿态监测问题进行研究,实现基于计算机视觉的动态头部姿态估计算法。算法首先检测视频中的正面人脸,并作为基准,在此基础上对视频序列中人脸特征进行匹配与跟踪,计算不同视角下的头部姿态角度。考虑累计误差的影响,提出一种矫正累积误差的方法。实验表明算法可以较准确地估计视频中的驾驶员头部姿态角度。

  9. 全球价值链的新趋势、新平衡与关键命题%The Recent Evolution of Global Value Chain: New Trend, New Balance and Key Issues

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王中美

    2012-01-01

    全球价值链对国际贸易和增长的影响,在近20年又有新的变化。来自发达国家和发展中国家的两种动力——为了更低成本的供应链转移和为了更高附加值的产业升级,其交相作用使得全球价值链达到一种新的平衡,任何一方面的力量都不应当被夸大。区域集聚效应使得亚洲成为全球产业链的关键区域.即平衡的中心点。对那些希望从效率驱动阶段进到了创新驱动阶段的发展中国家来说,当前的另一动向是,离岸服务是前景巨大的新市场。%This paper attempts to analyze the implications of the rise of global value chain, especially the changes in recent 20 years. Two trends, such as the transfer of supply chain and the upgrading of industry, are observed as the most important impetus to drive a new balanced chain, however, neither of which should be exaggerated. Regional centralization has made Asia become a key area for the evolution of global value chain. Off-shore service is a promising market for developing countries to shift from efficiency-driven stage to innovation-driven stage.

  10. 最佳估算方法中不确定度评估关键问题分析%Analysis on Key Issue of Uncertainty Evaluation in Best Estimate Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈炼; 胡啸; 邓程程; 黄挺

    2016-01-01

    应用最佳估算+不确定度(BEPU)分析方法对核电厂进行事故分析或安全评审已成为国际发展趋势.本文对最佳估算分析中基于输入传递的统计类不确定度评估的流程进行了总结,并对其关键步骤进行了分析和研究.分析认为,评估流程可分为确定目标参数、确定重要输入参数及其分布、抽样、模型分析和目标参数分析5步,其中现象识别和重要度排序表(PIRT)是一种适用的重要输入参数确定方法,输入参数的分布需根据试验数据或专家判断确定;抽样方法上,可采用参数抽样或非参数抽样,后者可大幅减小抽样数量;不确定度评估所用模型须经过充分试验或分析证明其适用性;通过对目标参数进行统计,可获得不确定度范围及输入参数的敏感性.%The application of best estimate plus the uncertainty (BEPU ) analysis method becomes trend in the nuclear power plant accident analysis and safety review .The pro-cedure of the statistical BEPU method based on input parameters' propagation was sum-marized and the key steps were analyzed .The evaluation process can be divided into five major steps :Defining the target parameter (s) ,identifying important input parameters and their probability distribution ,sampling ,model analysis and target parameter analy-sis .It's believed that phenomenon identification and ranking table (PIRT ) is a suitable method to identify the important input parameters .The distribution of input parameters is usually obtained from the experimental data or expert judgment .The parametric or nonparametric sampling method can be used to determine the required sampling number , and the later greatly decreases sampling number .Its calculation model should be verified sufficiently to demonstrate its applicability .The statistical results of objective parameter provide uncertainty range and the sensitivity of the input parameters .

  11. Middle Class and Democracy in Latin America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Fierro

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The consolidation of the middle class has been interpreted by modernization and postmodernization theories as a key factor for the functioning and stability of the democratic system. However, in Latin America the middle class has tended to be associated with two contradictory positions. On the one hand, it is emphasized that it plays a stabilizing and democratic role while, on the other hand, it is linked to supporting military coups. With the purpose of elucidate such a dilemma, the relationship that can be established between the socioeconomic status and the degree of support for democracy will be examined. In order to do this, an empirical analysis from Latinbarometer surveys databases will be conducted, covering seventeen countries in the region for the period from 1996 to 2011. It will be concluded that the middle class in Latin America does not have particularly more favorable attitudes toward democracy than other social segments.

  12. Overview of agrochemical ip issues. A perspective from Latin America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernesto Rengifo García

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo constituye un análisis sobre la regulación legal latinoamericana de la protección de los datos de prueba y el carácter especial que tiene esta nueva categoría de propiedad intelectual. Para ello, se estudia el artículo 39.3 del ADPIC (Acuerdo sobre los Derechos de Propiedad Intelectual relacionados con el Comercio, se analiza la situación jurídica de la propiedad intelectual de datos de prueba en países latinoamericanos y la posición de la industria agroquímica frente a estas regulaciones. Aspectos más importantes en esta materia, la cual debe ser tenida en cuenta al momento de regularlo, la necesidad de que esta protección sea balanceada y esté en consonancia con el principio del equilibrio de intereses públicos o privados, partiendo de las limitaciones que esta clase tiene en sí mismos.

  13. Overview of agrochemical ip issues. A perspective from Latin America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernesto Rengifo García

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo constituye un análisis sobre la regulación legal latinoamericana de la protección de los datos de prueba y el carácter especial que tiene esta nueva categoría de propiedad intelectual. Para ello, se estudia el artículo 39.3 del ADPIC (Acuerdo sobre los Derechos de Propiedad Intelectual relacionados con el Comercio, se analiza la situación jurídica de la propiedad intelectual de datos de prueba en países latinoamericanos y la posición de la industria agroquímica frente a estas regulaciones. Aspectos más importantes en esta materia, la cual debe ser tenida en cuenta al momento de regularlo, la necesidad de que esta protección sea balanceada y esté en consonancia con el principio del equilibrio de intereses públicos o privados, partiendo de las limitaciones que esta clase tiene en sí mismos.

  14. CRS Issue Statement on Latin America and the Caribbean

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-12

    President Bush suspended Bolivia’s participation in the preferential trade program for Andean nations known as the Andean Trade Preference Act ( ATPA ...a one-year extension of the Andean Trade Preference Act ( ATPA ) until December 31, 2010, which provides import tariff preferences for Colombia...or another extension of the ATPA program. Some Members have introduced legislation to add Paraguay and Uruguay to the preference program. Trade

  15. 78 FR 76789 - Additional Connect America Fund Phase II Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-19

    .../ecfs2/ . Paper Filers: Parties who choose to file by paper must file an original and one copy of each..., 2013. The complete text of this document is available for inspection and copying during normal business... percent of its locations. Fourth, the remaining half year of annual support could be provided as a...

  16. Electricity in Latin America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Breeze, P.

    1998-12-01

    The report provides an overview of the Latin American power market; analyses the power generation, transmission and distribution capabilities of 20 countries in central and south America; includes detailed comparative data on current capacity, shortfall and growth; investigates the existing network infrastructures and projected demand; examines the opportunities for independent power producers resulting from deregulation; assesses indigenous and imported fuel resources; and discusses the broad financial opportunities and restraints.

  17. Musculoskeletal evaluation in severe haemophilia A patients from Latin America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozelo, M C; Villaça, P R; Pérez-Bianco, R; Candela, M; Garcia-Chavez, J; Moreno-Rodriguez, B; Rodrigues, M B; Rodriguez-Grecco, I; Solano, M H; Chumpitaz, G; Morales-Gana, M M; Ruiz-Sáez, A

    2014-01-01

    There is a paucity of literature on haemophilia treatment in Latin American countries, a region characterized by rapidly improving systems of care, but with substantial disparities in treatment between countries. The aim of this study was to evaluate the musculoskeletal status of haemophilia patients from Latin America and to examine the relationship between musculoskeletal status and treatment practices across countries. The Committee of Latin America on the Therapeutics of Inhibitor Groups conducted a survey of its member country representatives on key aspects of haemophilia treatment in 10 countries. Musculoskeletal status of patients was obtained during routine comprehensive evaluations between March 2009 and March 2011. Eligible patients had severe haemophilia A (factor VIII Latin America, the musculoskeletal status of patients with severe haemophilia without inhibitors has improved significantly in association with the provision of long-term prophylaxis. As more countries in Latin America institute this practice, further improvements are anticipated.

  18. Research on Child and Adolescent Development and Public Policy in Latin America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narea, Marigen

    2016-01-01

    This commentary discusses the implication of child and adolescent development research for public policy in Latin America. As illustrated by the articles in this special issue, even though the research of child and adolescent development in Latin America is making significant progress, still more research is needed. Developmental research in the…

  19. Marketing in the Emerging Markets of Latin America

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marinov, Marin Alexandrov

    . Addressing a broad variety of historical, political, economic, social, cultural and legal issues, the book offers unique insights into the enormous opportunities and challenges the region presents for implementing effective marketing strategies. Macro marketing issues such as regional integration, foreign......Marketing in the Emerging Markets of Latin America provides a much needed analysis of business and marketing in Latin America. The book highlights the diverse characteristics of the Latin American business and marketing environment as well as the dynamic nature of regional and country markets...... trade and direct investment are considered within the context of specific countries, as are the micro aspects of a company's marketing activities. The book is an extremely valuable resource for academics, practitioners and anyone interested in doing business in or with Latin America....

  20. Review on space weather in Latin America. 3. Development of space weather forecasting centers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denardini, Clezio Marcos; Dasso, Sergio; Gonzalez-Esparza, J. Americo

    2016-11-01

    The present work is the third of a three-part review of space weather in Latin America, specifically observing its evolution in three countries (Argentina, Brazil and Mexico). This work presents the decision process for the spinning off of space weather prediction centers from space science groups with our interpretation of the reasons/opportunities that lead to this. Lastly, the constraints for the progress in space weather monitoring, research, and forecast are listed with recommendations to overcome them, which we believe will lead to the access of key variables for the monitoring and forecasting space weather, which will allow these centers to better monitor space weather and issue warnings, ​watches and alerts.

  1. Private Higher Education in a Cold War World: Central America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrington, James J.

    2009-01-01

    In Central America the Cold War support of the elites by the United States was designed to ward off the communist threat. At the same time social and economic demands by the working and middle classes created revolutionary movements in the face of rigid and violent responses by Central American governments. Issues of social justice pervaded the…

  2. ESD: Power, Politics, and Policy: "Tragic Optimism" from Latin America

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Gaudiano, Edgar J.

    2016-01-01

    In light of the challenging developmental issues confronting the countries of Latin America, this response article analyzes the power and resistance of education for sustainable development from both theoretical and policy perspectives. Of particular concern are the neo-productivist strategies driving the latest stage of capitalist development.…

  3. Understanding China's Relations with Latin America

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    This essay deals with the fast growing Sino-Latin American relations,touching upon the issues of the importance of Latin America to China;pros and cons of the bilateral relations;the U.S.factor;the opportunities that might be emerged from the financial crisis for the bilateral relations;China's first policy paper towards the region;the overseas Chinese contribution to the bilateral relations;Taiwan problem;the so-called neo-colonialism and the role of Europe.

  4. Latin America - the next bonanza

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stein, Hank

    1996-03-01

    The potential for electric power investment in Latin America is analysed. A restructured and privatised power sector, together with political and fiscal stability, make Chile attractive to foreign investors. In 1992, Argentina began to follow Chile`s lead and sold off most of its national electric utilities and has subsequently extended this privatisation. Argentina has a large supply of natural gas which adds to its attraction for investment. Large reserves of natural gas are also a feature of Bolivia where government measures in recent years offer incentives to foreign investors. Brazil`s energy policies have been described as ``problematic`` and privatisation plans were upset by political issues. Continuing domestic and political problems in Colombia make foreign investors wary, though liberalised investment policies have resulted in two deals with US companies. There are few investment opportunities in Paraguay which has excess generating capacity. Privatisation has begun in Peru and there has been some investment from outside despite high costs and the difficulties created by terrorism. Plans for privatisation in Uruguay were voted out but the national utility may purchase power from private generators. Self-generators are an important part of Venezuela`s electric capacity but hydroplants for state utilities are being strongly supported. Economic and labour problems stand in the way of attracting foreign investment at present in Ecuador. (UK)

  5. Digital Library Education: Global Trends and Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shem, Magaji

    2015-01-01

    The paper examines trends and issues in digital education programmes globally, drawing examples of developmental growth of Library Information Science (LIS), schools and digital education courses in North America, Britain, and Southern Asia, the slow growth of LIS schools and digital education in Nigeria and some countries in Africa and India. The…

  6. Bond Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollack, Rachel H.

    2000-01-01

    Notes trends toward increased borrowing by colleges and universities and offers guidelines for institutions that are considering issuing bonds to raise money for capital projects. Discussion covers advantages of using bond financing, how use of bonds impacts on traditional fund raising, other cautions and concerns, and some troubling aspects of…

  7. Policing Metropolitan America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostrom, Elinor; And Others

    This study concerns police services delivery in small-to-medium sized metropolitan areas. It addresses three broad issues: the producers of police services, agency cooperation and service delivery, and agency size and service delivery. Each issue is treated in a separate chapter and includes a discussion of several related questions. The 80…

  8. O neoliberalismo na America Latina

    OpenAIRE

    David Ibarra

    2011-01-01

    Neoliberalism in Latin America. Neoliberalism and globalization had decisive influence in shaping public policies both internal and foreign in Latin America. Less state, trade and market freedoms, social goals subordinated to economic criteria, are part and parcel of the neoliberal utopia. Price stability was erected as the main social objective; import substitution resulted replaced by exports as the main source of growth. The neoliberal net results as applied to Latin America are: less grow...

  9. An America unknown

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    If we consider that the Spanish chroniclers had gradually invented what eventually became America, as O'Gorman proposed, the Portuguese chroniclers of the first half of the 16th century were even more cautious in building an identity for the overseas territories visited by Columbus and Cabral. These sixteenth century chroniclers, focusing on Asia, only later ceased to think of this "almost other world" as a place of passage, to think of it as a place to stop. Disregarding the surprised tone o...

  10. Pensamento da America

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Dissertação (mestrado) - Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Centro de Filosofia e Ciências Humanas, Programa de Pós-Graduação em História, Florianópolis, 2013. Esta dissertação objetivou investigar a atividade editorial de Rui Ribeiro Couto e Renato Costa Almeida enquanto estes intelectuais estiveram à frente do Pensamento da America, uma publicação mensal vinculada ao A Manhã, jornal porta voz do Estado Novo. Este suplemento panamericano veio a público entre 1941 e 1949, no entanto a...

  11. Mosques in North America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar Khalidi

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The following article derived from an exhibit catalogue put together by Public Affairs Germany in the U.S. Embassy in Berlin and the U.S. Consulates in Frankfurt and Düsseldorf and accompanied Dr. Omar Khalidi’s photo exhibit “Mosques in America.” There are over 2,000 mosques in the United States, mostly housed in buildings originally built for other purposes. American mosques built in the last few decades, however, in the period in which Islam has begun to feel at home in the United States, are almost universally architect-designed.

  12. Eating in America

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    康海燕

    2007-01-01

    Americans are too busy to cook at home.They often eat outside.Eating culture is one of the important parts in America.There are many kinds of restaurants.Some are open for breakfast. Others are open twenty-four hours a day. A number of restaurants call themselves"family restaurants".They serve no alcohol~* and have fairly restricted~* menus.They serve steaks,hamburgers and sandwiches.Besides these,there are some special restaurants.They serve only or mainly steaks,seafood,etc.

  13. Let's Go to America!

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

      The United States and China have signed an agreement to facilitate Chinese group leisure travel to the United States. This agreement provides the necessary framework to permit group leisure travel from China to the United States. U.S. companies can now enter into business relationships with Chinese travel agencies to organize and market travel packages for group leisure travel to the United States. It also attracts more and more Chinese to go to America, as more and more convenience and comforts are coming up during the travel.……

  14. Let's Go to America!

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ The United States and China have signed an agreement to facilitate Chinese group leisure travel to the United States. This agreement provides the necessary framework to permit group leisure travel from China to the United States. U.S. companies can now enter into business relationships with Chinese travel agencies to organize and market travel packages for group leisure travel to the United States. It also attracts more and more Chinese to go to America, as more and more convenience and comforts are coming up during the travel.

  15. Learning about America, and about Buying from Starbucks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Bryant

    2011-01-01

    Professor Bryant Simon is the author of "Everything But the Coffee: Learning About America From Starbucks" (University of California Press, 2009). He presented his key findings to the class and summarizes them here. Studying Starbucks reveals essential truths about what its customers, who represented a large cross-section of the American…

  16. Chinese Soft Power in Latin America: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    such as José Cuervo, Café Britt, Bimbo, Modelo , Pollo Campero, and Jamaican Blue Mountain coffee, sell to the new Chinese middle class, which is open...narrow involvement in emerging China–Latin America trade, even in key hubs for trade such as Colón, Iquique, or Ciudad del Este. Beyond business

  17. Building America System Research Results. Innovations for High Performance Homes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2006-05-01

    This report provides a summary of key lessons learned from the first 10 years of the Building America program and also included a summary of the future challenges that must be met to reach the program’s long term performance goals.

  18. BSC Final Report: Lessons Learned from Building America Participation; February 1995 - December 2002

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hendron, Bob [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2004-04-01

    This report chronicles the how and why of the key BSC Building America outcomes. It is organized and put in the context of what the Building Science Consortium has learned from and with its building industry partners.

  19. Clinical Trials: A Crucial Key to Human Health Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Clinical Trials: A Crucial Key to Human Health Research Past ... the forefront of human health research today are clinical trials—studies that use human volunteers to help medical ...

  20. Policy issues in modern cartography

    CERN Document Server

    Taylor, DRF

    1998-01-01

    Policy Issues in Modern Cartography contains the views of national mapping agencies, legal scholars, the library community, the private sector and academia on these and many other important issues. The book begins with perspectives from national mapping agencies in Britain, Canada and the United States followed by a survey of the situation in Asia. The next three chapters deal primarily with legal issues such as copyright and intellectual property from both North American and European perspectives. Chapter 8 presents an important perspective on the key issues by a representative of the privat

  1. Regards croisés sur les enjeux  du tourisme en Amérique latine Viewpoints on the Issues of Tourism in Latin America Puntos de vista sobre las cuestiones del turismo en América Latina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivier Dehoorne

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Dans le cadre de cet article qui introduit le dossier thématique consacré au tourisme en Amérique latine, les auteurs expliquent la démarche de cette recherche transdisciplinaire et internationale. L’intérêt pour le tourisme est double : 1/ il permet d’étudier des lieux, des types d’aménagements et de consommations ; 2/ il permet de lire le monde, de mettre en évidence les réalités socio-économiques de l’Amérique latine. Il faut étudier le phénomène touristique dans toute sa complexité et introduire la dimension politique. Les études touristiques sur l’Amérique latine ne peuvent pas ignorer les stratégies politiques associées au modèle économique dominant ni la recomposition des relations de pouvoir qu’il sous-tend. Le développement du tourisme n’est pas apolitiqueThis article introduces the theme issue devoted to tourism in Latin America and the authors explain the approach of the international and interdisciplinary research. Interest in tourism is twofold: 1 / tourism allows the study of specific places, types of development and consumption, 2 / analysis of the tourism phenomenon helps to understand the world, highlighting the socio -Latin American economic. The phenomenon of tourism must be understood in all its complexity and must introduce the political dimension. The Tourism Studies on Latin America cannot ignore the political strategies associated with the dominant economic model or the restructuring of power relations behind it. Tourism development is not apolitical. The development of tourism is not apoliticalEn este artículo se presenta el número temático dedicado al turismo en América Latina y los autores explican el enfoque de la investigación internacional e interdisciplinaria. El interés por el turismo es doble: 1 / es el estudio de sitios específicos, tipos de planificación y el consumo; 2 /el fenómeno del turismo también se explica el mundo y se puede destacar la realidad

  2. Theoretical Issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marc Vanderhaeghen

    2007-04-01

    The theoretical issues in the interpretation of the precision measurements of the nucleon-to-Delta transition by means of electromagnetic probes are highlighted. The results of these measurements are confronted with the state-of-the-art calculations based on chiral effective-field theories (EFT), lattice QCD, large-Nc relations, perturbative QCD, and QCD-inspired models. The link of the nucleon-to-Delta form factors to generalized parton distributions (GPDs) is also discussed.

  3. Narrative Research in Communication: Key Principles and Issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel G. McDonald

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A great deal of recent research on communication has been developed in the general area of narrative or narrative effects. The majority of this work has brought in older communication concepts without reconciling those concepts with what has been learned about narrative in other social sciences. This review covers some of the major points from research on narrative to help expand the knowledge base and suggest directions for additional work in the field of communication.

  4. Medicaid and Managed Care: Key Data, Trends, and Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... are now in publicly traded plans (Figure 2). Distribution of Medicaid MCO Enrollment by Selected MCO Characteristics ... to managed care for this purpose. Managed care companies are also planning for 2014, positioning themselves to ...

  5. Regional chiefs meet to discuss key issues / Ella Karapetyan

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Karapetyan, Ella

    2009-01-01

    Stockholmis toimunud Põhja- ja Baltimaade peaministrite kohtumisel räägiti energiajulgeolekust, praegusest majandusolukorrast ja detsembris toimuva ÜRO kliimakonverentsi ettevalmistustest. Andrus Ansip rõhutas uue rahvusvahelise kliimalepingu tähtsust

  6. Offshore Wind Power Experiences, Potential and Key Issues for Deployment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lemming, Jørgen Kjærgaard; Morthorst, Poul Erik; Clausen, Niels-Erik

    Wind power has been growing at spectacular rates. Today it is the largest non-hydro renewable power technology. Worldwide there is 74 GW of installed capacity which is 1.7% of power generation capacity and in 2006 it accounted for 0.82% of electricity production. However, offshore wind still only...... are expected to compensate for the higher installation costs in the long term. Most offshore wind farms are installed in British, Swedish and Danish waters, and present-day costs of installing wind energy in the UK are between 1,200 to 1,600 £/kW (1,781 to 2,375 €/kW) offshore, while in Sweden investment costs...

  7. Security Issues of the Digital Certificates within Public Key Infrastructures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the basic byte level interpretation of an X.509 v3 digital certificate according to ASN.1 DER/BER encoding. The reasons for byte level analysis are various and important. For instance, a research paper has mentioned how a PKI security may be violated by MD5 collision over information from the certificates. In order to develop further studies on the topic a serious knowledge about certificate structure is necessary.

  8. Polyphenols: Key Issues Involved in Chemoprevention of Prostate Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastiano Cimino

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Prostate cancer is is the most common solid neoplasm and it is now recognized as one of the most important medical problems facing the male population. Due to its long latency and its identifiable preneoplastic lesions, prostate cancer is an ideal target tumor for chemoprevention. Different compounds are available and certainly polyphenols represent those with efficacy against prostate cancer. This review take a look at activity and properties of major polyphenolic substances, such as epigallocatechin-3-gallate, curcumin, resveratrol and the flavonoids quercetin and genistein. Although the current studies are limited, mechanisms of action of polyphenols added with the lack of side effects show a a start for future strategies in prostate chemoprevention.

  9. International Food Assistance: Key Issues for Congressional Oversight

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-09-01

    million in 2008, according to the United Nations (UN) Food and Agriculture Organization ( FAO ). FAO attributes this upsurge in hunger to the global...assistance, according to FAO .2 To address these emergencies, countries provide food aid as part of a humanitarian response to address acute hunger through...definitions for “chronic undernourishment,” “ food insecurity ,” and “hunger,” we use these terms interchangeably in this report. 2The 27 countries in

  10. Etiology of obesity: two "key issues" and other emerging factors

    OpenAIRE

    Lluis Serra-Majem; Inmaculada Bautista-Castaño

    2013-01-01

    The current obesity epidemic is known to have coincided with profound societal changes involving both physical activity levels and food consumption patterns as well as demographic and cultural changes affecting the conduct of human beings in various ways. On the other hand, obesity is a complex and multifactorial chronic disease that usually becomes manifest in childhood and adolescence. Its origin is a genetic and environmental interchange, of which environmental or behavioral factors play t...

  11. Etiology of obesity: two "key issues" and other emerging factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lluis Serra-Majem

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The current obesity epidemic is known to have coincided with profound societal changes involving both physical activity levels and food consumption patterns as well as demographic and cultural changes affecting the conduct of human beings in various ways. On the other hand, obesity is a complex and multifactorial chronic disease that usually becomes manifest in childhood and adolescence. Its origin is a genetic and environmental interchange, of which environmental or behavioral factors play the most important role, stemming from an imbalance between energy intake and expenditure. Still and all, it is rather simplistic to assume that obesity is only due to excessive consumption and/or deficient physical activity levels. Currently, various lines of investigation have been initiated that evaluate the determinants of obesity, of which nutrigenomics and gut microbiota deserve special attention.

  12. Danish offshore wind. Key environmental issues - a follow-up

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-02-15

    This follow-up to the Danish environmental monitoring programme on large-scale offshore wind power builds on the result of the former programme of 2006 and focuses on updated knowledge on harbour porpoises, water birds and fish communities, and on the cumulative effects of wind farms. The scientific quality of the projects in this follow-up has been assessed by experts from the International Advisory Panel of Experts on Marine Ecology (IAPEME), who have commented on the results in an independent evaluation which is reproduced in this publication. (LN)

  13. U.S. Army War College Key Strategic Issues List

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-07-01

    Canada 21. Impact and desirability of forming sub-regional security organizations like the Conferencia de Fuerzas Armadas Centroamericanas (CFAC...Computers and sophisticated hydraulics sense and amplify muscular movements in his arms and legs. In the interim keep body armor relatively light

  14. Compositional analysis of GM crops: key issues and future needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Effective symposia need two strong legs to stand upon: informative presentations of recent research paired with lively discussion of these topics. While it is easy for the organizers of a symposium to predict the usefulness of the former, as they select the speakers and their topic areas, guaranteei...

  15. Algal biofuels: key issues, sustainability and life cycle assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singh, Anoop; Olsen, Stig Irving

    2011-01-01

    (GHG) emissions to reduce the climate change effects. Among the various renewable energy sources algal biofuels is a very promising source of biomass as algae sequester huge quantities of carbon from atmosphere and are very efficient in utilizing the nutrients from the industrial effluent and municipal...... capital investment. The harvested algal biomass and its extracts can be efficiently converted to different biofuels such as bioethanol, biodiesel, biogas and biohydrogen by implementation of various process technologies. Comprehensive life cycle assessments (LCA) of algal biofuels illustrating...... wastewater. Algae capture CO2 from atmosphere and industrial flue gases and transform it in to organic biomass that can be used for the production of biofuels. Like other biomass, algal biomass is also a carbon neutral source for the production of bioenergy. Therefore cultivation of algal biomass provides...

  16. Key issues review: numerical studies of turbulence in stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnett, W. David; Meakin, Casey

    2016-10-01

    Three major problems of single-star astrophysics are convection, magnetic fields and rotation. Numerical simulations of convection in stars now have sufficient resolution to be truly turbulent, with effective Reynolds numbers of \\text{Re}>{{10}4} , and some turbulent boundary layers have been resolved. Implications of these developments are discussed for stellar structure, evolution and explosion as supernovae. Methods for three-dimensional (3D) simulations of stars are compared and discussed for 3D atmospheres, solar rotation, core-collapse and stellar boundary layers. Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) analysis of the numerical simulations has been shown to provide a novel and quantitative estimate of resolution errors. Present treatments of stellar boundaries require revision, even for early burning stages (e.g. for mixing regions during He-burning). As stellar core-collapse is approached, asymmetry and fluctuations grow, rendering spherically symmetric models of progenitors more unrealistic. Numerical resolution of several different types of three-dimensional (3D) stellar simulations are compared; it is suggested that core-collapse simulations may be under-resolved. The Rayleigh-Taylor instability in explosions has a deep connection to convection, for which the abundance structure in supernova remnants may provide evidence.

  17. Data payload optimality: a key issue for video watermarking applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitrea, M.; Duta, S.; Prêteux, F.; Vlad, A.

    2006-08-01

    Watermarking aims at enforcing property right for digital video: a mark is imperceptibly - transparently - embedded into original data. The true owner is identified by detecting this mark. The robust watermarking techniques allow the mark detection even when the protected video is attacked. Transparency and robustness constraints restrict the mark size: the better transparency and robustness, the smaller the data payload. The paper presents a method to evaluate the maximum quantity of information which can be theoretically inserted into the 2D-DCT coefficient hierarchy, for prescribed transparency and robustness. This approach relies on the noisy channel model for watermarking. Within this mathematical framework, the maximal data payload is expressed by the channel capacity. As any capacity evaluation procedure requires an intimate knowledge of the noise sources, the paper first describes the developed statistical approach enabling: (1) to properly handle the inner dependency existing among successive frames in a video sequence, and (2) to accurately check out the Gaussian behaviour for each noise source. The experiments were carried out in partnership with the SFR mobile service provider in France (Vodafone group).

  18. Algal biofuels: key issues, sustainability and life cycle assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, A.; Irving Olsen, S.

    2011-05-15

    In recent years research activities are intensively focused on renewable fuels in order to fulfill the increasing energy demand and to reduce the fossil fuels consumption and external oil dependency either in order to provide local energetic resources and or as a means for reducing greenhouse gases (GHG) emissions to reduce the climate change effects. Among the various renewable energy sources algal biofuels is a very promising source of biomass as algae sequester huge quantities of carbon from atmosphere and are very efficient in utilizing the nutrients from the industrial effluent and municipal wastewater. Algae capture CO{sub 2} from atmosphere and industrial flue gases and transform it in to organic biomass that can be used for the production of biofuels. Like other biomass, algal biomass is also a carbon neutral source for the production of bioenergy. Therefore cultivation of algal biomass provides dual benefits; while being able to utilize nutrients in waste water thus reducing impacts on inland waters it produce biomass for the production of biofuels. However, reaching commercial scale production of algal biofuels is difficult. The main drawbacks include the harvesting of dry biomass and higher capital investment. The harvested algal biomass and its extracts can be efficiently converted to different biofuels such as bioethanol, biodiesel, biogas and biohydrogen by implementation of various process technologies. Comprehensive life cycle assessments (LCA) of algal biofuels illustrating environmental benefits and impacts can be a tool for policy decisions and for technology development. (Author)

  19. Key Issues Review: Numerical studies of turbulence in stars

    CERN Document Server

    Arnett, W David

    2016-01-01

    The numerical simulation of turbulence in stars has led to a rich set of possibilities regarding stellar pulsations, asteroseismology, thermonuclear yields, and formation of neutron stars and black holes. The breaking of symmetry by turbulent flow grows in amplitude as collapse is approached, which insures that the conditions at the onset of collapse are not spherical. This lack of spherical symmetry has important implications for the mechanism of explosion and ejected nucleosynthesis products. Numerical resolution of several different types of three--dimensional (3D) stellar simulations are compared; it is suggested that core collapse simulations may be under-resolved. New physical effects which appear in 3D are summarized. Connections between simulations of progenitor explosion and observations of supernova remnants (SNR) are discussed. Present treatment of boundaries, for mixing regions during He--burning, requires revision.

  20. Synopsis of the Review on Space Weather in Latin America: Space Science, Research Networks and Space Weather Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denardini, Clezio Marcos; Dasso, Sergio; Gonzalez-Esparza, Americo

    2016-07-01

    The present work is a synopsis of a three-part review on space weather in Latin America. The first paper (part 1) comprises the evolution of several Latin American institutions investing in space science since the 1960's, focusing on the solar-terrestrial interactions, which today is commonly called space weather. Despite recognizing advances in space research in all of Latin America, this part 1 is restricted to the development observed in three countries in particular (Argentina, Brazil and Mexico), due to the fact that these countries have recently developed operational centers for monitoring space weather. The review starts with a brief summary of the first groups to start working with space science in Latin America. This first part of the review closes with the current status and the research interests of these groups, which are described in relation to the most significant works and challenges of the next decade in order to aid in the solving of space weather open issues. The second paper (part 2) comprises a summary of scientific challenges in space weather research that are considered to be open scientific questions and how they are being addressed in terms of instrumentation by the international community, including the Latin American groups. We also provide an inventory of the networks and collaborations being constructed in Latin America, including details on the data processing, capabilities and a basic description of the resulting variables. These instrumental networks currently used for space science research are gradually being incorporated into the space weather monitoring data pipelines as their data provides key variables for monitoring and forecasting space weather, which allow these centers to monitor space weather and issue warnings and alerts. The third paper (part 3) presents the decision process for the spinning off of space weather prediction centers from space science groups with our interpretation of the reason/opportunities that leads to

  1. Alleviating Urban Energy Poverty in Latin America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-02-15

    This regional study is comprised of three case studies, which concentrate on Greater Buenos Aires, Caracas and Rio de Janeiro - Caju. Each case focuses on the analysis of specific aspects of urban poverty, energy availability and policies to improve living conditions from the energy point of view. Unlike other developing regions in the world, the problem of energy poverty in Latin America has been concentrated increasingly in the large cities and urban areas. This problem has deep systemic, economic, political, structural and cultural roots. Providing basic energy services to the urban poor is an issue that requires far more attention and expertise than it is receiving today, and therefore WEC has taken the initiative to address this issue, and the results of their study are presented in this report.

  2. Quantum key management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Richard John; Thrasher, James Thomas; Nordholt, Jane Elizabeth

    2016-11-29

    Innovations for quantum key management harness quantum communications to form a cryptography system within a public key infrastructure framework. In example implementations, the quantum key management innovations combine quantum key distribution and a quantum identification protocol with a Merkle signature scheme (using Winternitz one-time digital signatures or other one-time digital signatures, and Merkle hash trees) to constitute a cryptography system. More generally, the quantum key management innovations combine quantum key distribution and a quantum identification protocol with a hash-based signature scheme. This provides a secure way to identify, authenticate, verify, and exchange secret cryptographic keys. Features of the quantum key management innovations further include secure enrollment of users with a registration authority, as well as credential checking and revocation with a certificate authority, where the registration authority and/or certificate authority can be part of the same system as a trusted authority for quantum key distribution.

  3. Health of America's newcomers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, L S

    2001-01-01

    Newcomer health and health care are policy issues with major outcomes of cost shifting and enormous consequences for newcomers and the community health nurses who promise them care. Newcomers are persons entering U.S. borders who could be asylees, refugees, immigrants, legal or illegal aliens, migrants, international adoptees, and others. Described in this article are the role federalism has played on the interplay among policymakers regarding newcomer health. Also addressed is newcomer health policy, including immigration policies, and newcomer health issues such as infectious diseases and questionable health care. Additional newcomer health issues such as newcomers at high risk for health problems, issues of access to care for newcomers, and welfare reform policies are discussed. Newcomer health and special interest group activities such as those from medicine and nursing are also addressed. Finally, meaningful options and possible solutions for newcomer health care concerns are identified and shared.

  4. Anaglyph, South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    This anaglyph (stereoscopic view) of South America was generated with data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). It is best viewed at or near full resolution with anaglyph glasses. For this broad view the resolution of the data was first reduced to 30 arcseconds (about 928 meters north-south but variable east-west), matching the best previously existing global digital topographic data set called GTOPO30. The data were then resampled to a Mercator projection with approximately square pixels (about one kilometer, or 0.6 miles, on each side). Even at this decreased resolution the variety of landforms comprising the South American continent is readily apparent.Topographic relief in South America is dominated by the Andes Mountains, which extend all along the Pacific Coast. These mountains are created primarily by the convergence of the Nazca and South American tectonic plates. The Nazca Plate, which underlies the eastern Pacific Ocean, slides under western South America resulting in crustal thickening, uplift, and volcanism. Another zone of plate convergence occurs along the northwestern coast of South America where the Caribbean Plate also slides under the South American Plate and forms the northeastern extension of the Andes Mountains.East of the Andes, much of northern South America drains into the Amazon River, the world's largest river in terms of both watershed area and flow volume. Topographic relief is very low in much of the Amazon Basin but SRTM data provide an excellent detailed look at the basin's three-dimensional drainage pattern, including the geologic structural trough (syncline) that hosts the eastern river channel.North of the Amazon, the Guiana Highlands commonly stand in sharp contrast to the surrounding lowlands, indeed hosting the world's tallest waterfall, Angel Falls (979 meters or 3212 feet). Folded and fractured bedrock structures are distinctive in the topographic pattern.South of the Amazon, the Brazilian Highlands show a mix of

  5. Fostering renewable energy markets in North America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Jeremy [North American Comission for Environmental Cooperation (CEC), (United States)

    2007-06-15

    This presentation describes projects, programs and other issues addressed in order to promote renewable energy markets in North America. These are carried out by the North American Commission for Environmental Cooperation (CEC). In the first part of this presentation, there are going to be found some of the rules imposed by the North American Agreement on Environmental Cooperation (NAAEC). Then, it is shown the structure of the CEC as well as its programs, besides, there are presented the environment projects and the objectives along with their respective trades. There are described both benefits environmental and non-environmental. Also, there are shown the issues which the CEC is working in. And finally, it is shown a list mentioning the aspects that would change if: the expansion of the Mexico's Federal Commission of Electricity (CFE), happens, the grid-interconnected and the self supply of Renewable Electricity increase. [Spanish] En esta presentacion se describen los proyectos, los programas y otras cuestiones, cuyo objetivo es impulsar los mercados de energia renovable en America del Norte, realizadas por la North American Commission for Environmental Cooperation. En la primera parte, se encuentran algunas de las reglas impuestas por el Acuerdo de Cooperacion Ambiental de America del Norte (ACAAN). Enseguida, se muestra la estructura y los programas de la Comision para la Cooperacion Ambiental (CCA). Asimismo, se describen los proyectos ambientales, los objetivos junto con sus correspondientes tratados. Mas adelante, se explican tanto los beneficios ambientales como aquellos que no lo son. Igualmente, explican las cuestiones que podrian cambiar de: suceder la expansion de la Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE), incrementarse el auto- suministro de la energia renovable y los sistemas interconectados.

  6. Locking in on Latin America

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MICHAEL; RICE

    2006-01-01

    China cautious as it sets up generous investment in Latin America The United States is keeping a watchful eye as China bolsters political and economic ties with Latin America. The situation has U.S. political analysts trying to determine just how China s emerging influence

  7. [The organisation and future development of Veterinary Services in Latin America].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gimeno, E

    2003-08-01

    Latin America undoubtedly has comparative advantages in the fields of animal production, animal health and the production of food of animal origin. However, countries in Latin America must build on these strengths if the continent is to become more competitive and be able to deal with the complexities of world markets. To do this, Veterinary Services must define their objectives and establish quality standards on which to base their work. For this to occur, the State must create well-defined regulations, establish systems of audit and find ways of working which allow for a high degree of coordination and collaboration between the public and private sectors. This should be done within a framework of a quality assurance system, which allows for responsible accreditation and independent audit and evaluation. The author discusses the approaches of the different countries in the region to animal health, zoonosis, food safety, veterinary drugs control, animal welfare and export-import control. All programmes relating to these issues must be based on technical information gained through epidemiological surveillance, the network of diagnostic laboratories, quarantine systems, risk analysis, identification and traceability of animals and animal products, registration and control of veterinary drugs, and food safety research. In some countries these systems are already being developed. Maintaining good international relations and cooperating with neighbouring countries is always a challenge for official Veterinary Services and international organisations such as the OIE (World organisation for animal health) have a key role to play in facilitating these relationships.

  8. Fire history on the California Channel Islands spanning human arrival in the Americas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardiman, Mark; Scott, Andrew C; Pinter, Nicholas; Anderson, R Scott; Ejarque, Ana; Carter-Champion, Alice; Staff, Richard A

    2016-06-05

    Recent studies have suggested that the first arrival of humans in the Americas during the end of the last Ice Age is associated with marked anthropogenic influences on landscape; in particular, with the use of fire which, would have given even small populations the ability to have broad impacts on the landscape. Understanding the impact of these early people is complicated by the dramatic changes in climate occurring with the shift from glacial to interglacial conditions. Despite these difficulties, we here attempt to test the extent of anthropogenic influence using the California Channel Islands as a smaller, landscape-scale test bed. These islands are famous for the discovery of the 'Arlington Springs Man', which are some of the earliest human remains in the Americas. A unifying sedimentary charcoal record is presented from Arlington Canyon, Santa Rosa Island, based on over 20 detailed sedimentary sections from eight key localities. Radiocarbon dating was based on thin, fragile, long fragments of charcoal in order to avoid the 'inbuilt' age problem. Radiocarbon dating of 49 such fragments has allowed inferences regarding the fire and landscape history of the Canyon ca 19-11 ka BP. A significant period of charcoal deposition is identified approximately 14-12.5 ka BP and bears remarkable closeness to an estimated age range of the first human arrival on the islands.This article is part of the themed issue 'The interaction of fire and mankind'.

  9. GeoCorps America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, M.

    2011-12-01

    GeoCorps America, a program of the Geological Society of America's (GSA) Education and Outreach Department, provides short-term geoscience jobs in America's most amazing public lands. These jobs are hosted on federal lands managed by GeoCorps' three partner agencies: the National Park Service (NPS), the U.S. Forest Service (USFS), and the Bureau of Land Management (BLM). Agency staff submit to GSA position descriptions that help meet their geoscience needs. GSA advertises the positions online, recruits applicants from its 24,000+ members, and coordinates the placement of the candidates selected by agency staff. The typical GeoCorps position lasts for three months, pays a stipend of $2,750, and provides either free housing or a housing allowance. Some GeoCorps positions are classified as "Guest Scientist" positions, which generally last longer, involve larger payments, and require a higher level of expertise. Most GeoCorps positions occur during the spring/summer, but an increasing number of positions are being offered during the fall/winter. GeoCorps positions are open to geoscientists of all levels, from undergraduates through retired professionals. GeoCorps projects involve field and laboratory-based geoscience research, but some projects focus on developing educational programs and materials for staff, volunteers, and the public. The subject areas covered by GeoCorps projects include geology, hydrology, paleontology, mapping/GIS, soils, geo-hazards, cave/karst science, and more. GeoCorps positions have taken place at over 125 different locations nationwide, including Grand Canyon National Park, Sierra National Forest, and Craters of the Moon National Monument. In 2011, GeoCorps began offering GeoCorps Diversity Internships and GeoCorps American Indian Internships. The introduction of these programs doubled the level of diversity among GeoCorps participants. This increase in diversity is helping GSA and its partner agencies in meeting its mutual goal of

  10. South America Geologic Map (geo6ag)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — South America is part of Region 6 (Central and South America) for the World Energy Assessment. The geologic map of South America was digitized so that we could use...

  11. NOrth AMerica Soil (NOAM-SOIL) Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, D. A.; Waltman, S. W.; Geng, X.; James, D.; Hernandez, L.

    2009-05-01

    NOAM-SOIL is being created by combining the CONUS-SOIL database with pedon data and soil geographic data coverages from Canada and Mexico. Completion of the in-progress NOrth AMerica Soil (NOAM-SOIL) database will provide complete North America coverage comparable to CONUS. Canadian pedons, which number more than 500, have been painstakingly transcribed to a common format, from hardcopy, and key- entered. These data, along with map unit polygons from the 1:1,000,000 Soil Landscapes of Canada, will be used to create the required spatial data coverages. The Mexico data utilizes the INEGI 1:1,000,000 scale soil map that was digitized by U. S. Geological Survey EROS Data Center in the mid 1990's plus about 20,000 pedons. The pedon data were published on the reverse side of the paper 1:250,000 scale Soil Map of Mexico and key entered by USDA and georeferenced by Penn State to develop an attribute database that can be linked to the 1:1,000,000 scale Soil Map of Mexico based on taxonomic information and geographic proximity. The essential properties that will be included in the NOAM-SOIL data base are: layer thickness (depth to bedrock or reported soil depth); available water capacity; sand, silt, clay; rock fragment volume; and bulk density. For quality assurance purposes, Canadian and Mexican soil scientists will provide peer review of the work. The NOAM-SOIL project will provide a standard reference dataset of soil properties for use at 1km resolution by NACP modelers for all of North America. All data resources, including metadata and selected raw data, will be provided through the Penn State web site: Soil Information for Environmental Modeling and Ecosystem Management (www.soilinfo.psu.edu). Progress on database completion is reported.

  12. Fermilab and Latin America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lederman, Leon M.

    2006-09-01

    As Director of Fermilab, starting in 1979, I began a series of meetings with scientists in Latin America. The motivation was to stir collaboration in the field of high energy particle physics, the central focus of Fermilab. In the next 13 years, these Pan American Symposia stirred much discussion of the use of modern physics, created several groups to do collaborative research at Fermilab, and often centralized facilities and, today, still provides the possibility for much more productive North-South collaboration in research and education. In 1992, I handed these activities over to the AAAS, as President. This would, I hoped, broaden areas of collaboration. Such collaboration is unfortunately very sensitive to political events. In a rational world, it would be the rewards, cultural and economic, of collaboration that would modulate political relations. We are not there yet.

  13. Public Key Cryptography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tapson, Frank

    1996-01-01

    Describes public key cryptography, also known as RSA, which is a system using two keys, one used to put a message into cipher and another used to decipher the message. Presents examples using small prime numbers. (MKR)

  14. Key Management Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: Provides a secure environment to research and develop advanced electronic key management and networked key distribution technologies for the Navy and DoD....

  15. Overview on the Eighth Five Key Issues “Safety Assessment and Explosion Prevetion Technology of the In-service Boiler Pressure Vessel”%八五攻关课题“在役锅炉压力容器安全评估与爆炸预防技术研究”概况

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陶雪荣

    2016-01-01

    The Eighth Five national science and technology research project has played a key role of building brand and establishing heritage in the development process of special equipment safety technology. Based on the Eighth Five Key Issues “Safety Assessment and Explosion Prevetion Technology of the In-service Boiler Pressure Vessel”, this article makes a general induction on the subject of the overall situation and the main achievement in order to record history and provide reference.%在特种设备安全科技发展历程中,“八五”国家科技攻关课题发挥了树品牌、奠基业的关键作用[1],具有里程碑意义。本文以“八五”国家重点科技攻关课题“在役锅炉压力容器安全评估与爆炸预防技术研究”研究总结与评价报告[2]为基础,对课题的整体情况和取得的主要成果等做了概括性归纳,旨在记录历史,提供借鉴。

  16. Quantum dense key distribution

    CERN Document Server

    Degiovanni, I P; Castelletto, S; Rastello, M L; Bovino, F A; Colla, A M; Castagnoli, G C

    2004-01-01

    This paper proposes a new protocol for quantum dense key distribution. This protocol embeds the benefits of a quantum dense coding and a quantum key distribution and is able to generate shared secret keys four times more efficiently than BB84 one. We hereinafter prove the security of this scheme against individual eavesdropping attacks, and we present preliminary experimental results, showing its feasibility.

  17. State Outlook: Fiscal and State Policy Issues Affecting Postsecondary Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Association of State Colleges and Universities, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This publication provides a compilation of the issues affecting postsecondary education in America. The contents of this issue include: (1) Overview of Economic and Fiscal Dynamics; (2) Global and Domestic Growth Prospects; (3) Snapshot of Economic Indicators--November 2010; (4) Labor Market Conditions and Post-Recession Economic Impacts; (5)…

  18. Healthy Municipios in Latin America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Restrepo, H E; Llanos, G; Contreras, A; Rocabado, F; Gross, S; Suárez, J; González, J

    1995-09-01

    This article describes the Healthy Municipios movement in Latin America and gives examples of some PAHO projects that could become demonstration projects. The Healthy Municipios movement was established in the early 1990s. The movement aims to promote healthy municipalities according to objectives set forth in the 1987 Ottawa Charter on Health Promotion, the 1992 Declaration of Bogota, and the 1993 Caribbean Health Promotion Charter. The movement is a joint effort of government, the health sector, and the community in promoting health locally. Key features of the movement are its creativity, variety, political strength, and adaptation to local conditions. Technical cooperation serves the purpose of facilitating information exchange and promotes the use of modern techniques of analysis and scientific and technical information. All projects shared the following common features: initiation by the local community with strong political commitment, intersectoral organizational structure, widespread community mobilization and participation, problem solving activities, and a recognizable leader. Pioneering projects include the Comprehensive Project for Cienfuegos, Cuba; the Health Manizales, Colombia; the Network in Mexico; Baruta and El Hatillo, Venezuela; Valdivia, Chile; and San Carlos Canton, Costa Rica. It is concluded that these projects and most others aim to assure equity. These efforts are important for placing health on the political agenda and implementing healthy policies. The Valdivia project, for example, serves a population of about 120,000 in the urban city of Valdivia, the semi-urban area, and rural areas. The project was officially sanctioned by the President of Chile on World Health Day in 1993. Progress was reported in mass communication and school-based programs. Attention was directed also to prevention of risk factors for noncommunicable diseases and to the problem of traffic accidents.

  19. LOCKS AND KEYS SERVICE

    CERN Multimedia

    Locks and Keys Service

    2002-01-01

    The Locks and Keys service (ST/FM) will move from building 55 to building 570 from the 2nd August to the 9th August 2002 included. During this period the service will be closed. Only in case of extreme urgency please call the 164550. Starting from Monday, 12th August, the Locks and Keys Service will continue to follow the activities related to office keys (keys and locks) and will provide the keys for furniture. The service is open from 8h30 to 12h00 and from 13h00 to 17h30. We remind you that your divisional correspondents can help you in the execution of the procedures. We thank you for your comprehension and we remain at your service to help you in solving all the matters related to keys for offices and furniture. Locks and Keys Service - ST Division - FM Group

  20. Immigration: Coming to America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Kristin

    2011-01-01

    To say that immigration is currently a controversial issue would be an understatement. The media is rife with misinformation and does a very poor job of making the critical distinction between legal and illegal immigration. Because of this, it is vitally important that libraries provide students with clear and unbiased material on the topic. In…

  1. Death Penalty in America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clifford, Amie L.

    1997-01-01

    Examines the legal and moral issues, controversies, and unique trial procedures involved with the death penalty. Discusses the 1972 landmark Supreme Court decision that resulted in many states abolishing this punishment, only to reintroduce it later with different provisions. Reviews the controversial case of Sam Sheppard. (MJP)

  2. Latin America Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-11-19

    plutocracy glut themselves....we issue a warning that all of Chile will become a Stalingrad." In the periodical PRINCIPIOS , 1982: "The need to have a...the opposition, as well as the statements from time to time in the PC periodicals PRINCIPIO and EL SIGLO, and the pamphlets of the FPMR. For this

  3. O neoliberalismo na America Latina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Ibarra

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Neoliberalism in Latin America. Neoliberalism and globalization had decisive influence in shaping public policies both internal and foreign in Latin America. Less state, trade and market freedoms, social goals subordinated to economic criteria, are part and parcel of the neoliberal utopia. Price stability was erected as the main social objective; import substitution resulted replaced by exports as the main source of growth. The neoliberal net results as applied to Latin America are: less growth, deindustrialization, income concentration and precarious employments. Therefore, countries public policies should try to gain autonomy to use jointly markets and public intervention in a constructive and innovative fashion.

  4. Helioclimatology of the Americas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurtaev, B. S.; Yakubov, M.; Shermatov, E.

    2013-05-01

    During the last 4 billion years, the Earth's climate has changed many times. There have been periods of warming and there have been ice ages. These large-scale climatic changes are shaped by factors like the tilt of the Earth's axis and tectonic plate movement. These major changes were driven by cyclical changes in the Earth's orbit, which altered the distribution of solar energy between the seasons and across the Earth. Milankovitch cycles explain well changes in climate over periods hundreds of thousands of years and are related to ice age cycles, but these cycles cannot explain the current rapid warming. The Sun is the most driving force for causing climate change. Much of the Sun energy evaporates water and causes atmospheric convection. Solar radiation, general circulation of atmosphere, geographical location of continents, oceans and the largest forms of a relief are the primary factors influencing on climate of lands. The purpose of this study is to identify contribution of the Sun on climate variability in the two continents, North and South America during instrumental records of air temperature. There were compared air temperatures of different weather stations in dependence from solar activity during the period 1878-1996. The high correlation between averaged temperature and solar activity was found for many weather stations of Americas. Air temperature in dependence from solar activity over the period 1878-1996 can be described by following equations: In Buenos Aires: T° = 0,04W+ 15,05, r-0,9; Caracas, Venezuela: T° = 0,03W + 18,88, r-0,73; Cordoba, Argentina: T° = 0,03W + 16,16, r-0,93; New York, Central Park: T° = 0,04W + 9,86, r-0,82; Toronto, T = 0,03W+ 6,66, r-0,81; Santiago Pudahuel, T= 0,019W + 13, 01, r - 0, 91; Rio de Janeiro:T°= 0,02W + 21,95, r= 0,88; Mexico over 1923-1986, T°= 0,021W+ 14,05, r-0,78; Miami over 1902-1996, T = 0,012W + 12,87 r-0,75; In our study, we used stations with reasonably long, consistently measured time records

  5. North America and South America (NA-SA) neuropathy project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasnoor, Mamatha; Nascimento, Osvaldo J M; Trivedi, Jaya; Wolfe, Gil I; Nations, Sharon; Herbelin, Laura; de Freitas, M G; Quintanilha, Giseli; Khan, Saud; Dimachkie, Mazen; Barohn, Richard

    2013-08-01

    Peripheral neuropathy is a common neurological disorder. There may be important differences and similarities in the diagnosis of peripheral neuropathy between North America (NA) and South America (SA). Neuromuscular databases were searched for neuropathy diagnosis at two North American sites, University of Kansas Medical Center and University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, and one South American site, Federal Fluminense University in Brazil. All patients were included into one of the six major categories: immune-mediated, diabetic, hereditary, infectious/inflammatory, systemic/metabolic/toxic (not diabetic) and cryptogenic. A comparison of the number of patients in each category was made between North America and South America databases. Total number of cases in North America was 1090 and in South America was 1034 [immune-mediated: NA 215 (19.7%), SA 191 (18%); diabetic: NA 148 (13.5%), SA 236 (23%); hereditary: NA 292 (26.7%), SA 103 (10%); infectious/inflammatory: NA 53 (4.8%), SA 141 (14%); systemic/metabolic/toxic: NA 71 (6.5%), SA 124 (12%); cryptogenic: NA 311 (28.5%), SA 239 (23%)]. Some specific neuropathy comparisons were hereditary neuropathies [Charcot-Marie-Tooth (CMT) cases] in NA 246/292 (84.2%) and SA 60/103 (58%); familial amyloid neuropathy in SA 31/103 (30%) and none in NA. Among infectious neuropathies, cases of human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) neuropathy in SA were 36/141(25%), Chagas disease in SA were 13/141(9%) and none for either in NA; cases of neuropathy due to leprosy in NA were 26/53 (49%) and in SA were 39/141(28%). South American tertiary care centers are more likely to see patients with infectious, diabetic and hereditary disorders such as familial amyloid neuropathies. North American tertiary centers are more likely to see patients with CMT. Immune neuropathies and cryptogenic neuropathies were seen equally in North America and South America.

  6. Space, geophysical research related to Latin America - Part 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza, Blanca; Shea, M. A.

    2016-11-01

    For the last 25 years, every two to three years the Conferencia Latinoamericana de Geofísica Espacial (COLAGE) is held in one of the Latin American countries for the purpose of promoting scientific exchange among scientists of the region and to encourage continued research that is unique to this area of the world. At the more recent conference, the community realized that many individuals both within and outside Latin America have contributed greatly to the understanding of the space sciences in this area of the world. It was therefore decided to assemble a Special Issue Space and Geophysical Physics related to Latin America, presenting recent results and where submissions would be accepted from the world wide community of scientists involved in research appropriate to Latin America. Because of the large number of submissions, these papers have been printed in two separate issues. The first issue was published in Advances in Space Research, Vol. 57, number 6 and contained 15 papers. This is the second issue and contains 25 additional papers. These papers show the wide variety of research, both theoretical and applied, that is currently being developed or related to space and geophysical sciences in the Sub-Continent.

  7. Latin America Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    it is the institutions which are responsible for the success of the plan. (1) iEs posible detener el alza del costo de vida? (2)62% (3) 52% (4) 37...mitad de los encuestados cree que es posible detener el alza del costo de vida. Key to Chart 1: 1. Is it possible to check the rise in the cost of

  8. Projected refined product balances in key Latin American countries: A preliminary examination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-06-01

    Over the years, the East-West Center (EWC) has developed considerable expertise in refinery modeling, especially in the area of forecasting product balances for countries, given planned capacity changes, changes in product demand, changes in crude slates, and changes in product specifications. This expertise has been applied on an ongoing basis to the major refiners in the Middle East and the Asia-Pacific region, along with the US West Coast as region in its own right. Refinery modeling in these three areas has been ongoing for nearly 15 years at the Center, and the tools and information sources are now well developed. To date, the EWC has not applied these tools to Latin America. Although research on Latin America has been an ongoing area of concern at the Center in recent years, the information gathered to date is still not of the level of detail nor quality available for other areas. The modeling efforts undertaken in this report are of a ``baseline`` nature, designed to outline the major issues, attempt a first cut at emerging product balances, and, above all, to elicit commentary from those directly involved in the oil industry in the key countries modeled. Our experience in other regions has shown that it takes a few years dialogue with refiners and government planner in individual countries to develop a reliable database, as well as the insights into operational constraints and practices that make accurate modeling possible. This report is no more than a first step down the road.

  9. America's Electricity Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aubrecht, Gordon

    2006-03-01

    Where will America's future electricity supply come from? According to Vice President Cheney's energy task force, the U.S. needs to build about one 1 GW generating facilty a week in perpetuity.^(1) What sort of facilities will they be? Can the economy sustain such growth? Are there other possibilities? One possibility that strikes a chord with physicists is conservation as a source of energy. In this regard, Vice President Cheney famously said that conservation is``a sign of personal virtue, but it is not a sufficient basis---all by itself---for a sound, comprehensive energy policy,''^(2) echoing the Ayn Rand Instituite's view that ``Conservation is not a long- or short-term solution to the energy crisis. Conservation is the un-American idea of resigning oneself to doing with less.''^(3) This poster will explore the possible energy futures, their advantages and disadvantages, with and without conservation. 1. National Energy Policy Development Group (R. Cheney, C. L. Powell, P. O'Neill, G. Norton, A. M. Veneman, D. L. Evans, N. Y. Mineta, S. Abraham, J. M. Allbaugh, C. T. Whitman, J. B. Bolten, M. E. Daniels, L. B. Lindsey, and R. Barrales), National Energy Policy: Report of the National Energy Policy Development Group, (Washington, DC: Government Printing Office, 2001). 2. M. Allen, ``Bush energy plan will emphasize production,'' The Washington Post, 1 May 2001 3. R. Pool, ``Saving power deemed immoral,'' The Los Angeles Times, 12 May 2001.

  10. An America unknown

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susani Silveira Lemos França

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available If we consider that the Spanish chroniclers had gradually invented what eventually became America, as O'Gorman proposed, the Portuguese chroniclers of the first half of the 16th century were even more cautious in building an identity for the overseas territories visited by Columbus and Cabral. These sixteenth century chroniclers, focusing on Asia, only later ceased to think of this "almost other world" as a place of passage, to think of it as a place to stop. Disregarding the surprised tone of the letters and reports used as sources, and showing concern in giving Cabral's travels a specific place in the construction of Portuguese history, the explorers' adventures highlight the peculiarities of the lands and peoples that would later come to deserve special attention from their congeners. It is the place that the Portuguese sixteenth century chronicler has given to these territories, and the place that was fixed in the memory of the 16th century Portuguese, which are the aspects covered in this text.

  11. Petaflops Computing: The Key Algorithmic Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, David H.; Chancellor, Marisa K. (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    The prospect of petaflops-class computers brings to the fore some important algorithmic issues that have been considered in the high performance computing community for several years. Key among them are (1) concurrency (whether the fundamental concurrency of an algorithm is sufficient to keep thousands of processors productively busy); (2) data locality; (3) latency tolerance; and (4) memory and operation count scaling. This introductory presentation will give an overview of these issues.

  12. Key Account Management

    OpenAIRE

    Dvořák, Dalibor

    2007-01-01

    This note tries to explain concept of key account management (KAM), factors leading to importance of this emerging concept, criteria to determine key accounts from customer base, benefits to both buyers and sellers agreeing to practice it, stages of KAM relationship, conditions under which power lies with buyer or seller, outlines risks faced by both the parties, key success factors, challenges faced in implementing this concept and relevance to infrastructure sector.

  13. ScaleUp America Communities

    Data.gov (United States)

    Small Business Administration — SBA’s new ScaleUp America Initiative is designed to help small firms with high potential “scale up” and grow their businesses so that they will provide more jobs and...

  14. Crohn's & Colitis Foundation of America

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... enabled to enjoy the full interactive experience. Crohn's & Colitis Foundation of America Find a Doctor Find a ... Local Chapters News Events Search: What are Crohn's & Colitis? What is Crohn's Disease What is Ulcerative Colitis ...

  15. African Ethnobotany in the Americas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Egleé L. Zent

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Review of African Ethnobotany in the Americas. Edited by Robert Voeks and John Rashford. 2013. Springer. Pp. 429, 105 illustrations, 69 color illustrations. $49.95 (paperback. ISBN 978‐1461408352.

  16. Domestic Terrorism: Is America Prepared?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-04-01

    Luther King , Jr. were attempts to push America from a path it has chosen. Painfully, the United States has stood firm in the face of terrorism and not...terrorism in America. Cowardly acts of terrorism such as the assassination of President John F. Kennedy, President Abraham Lincoln, and Dr. (Rev) Martin ...there are over 500 racist and neo-Nazi groups and over 400 active militia groups espousing extreme antigovernment views as of 1999. These hate groups

  17. 76 FR 13662 - Pass & Seymour/Legrand a Subsidiary of Legrand North America; Including On-Site Leased Workers...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-14

    ... Employment and Training Administration Pass & Seymour/Legrand a Subsidiary of Legrand North America..., 2010, applicable to workers of Pass & Seymour/Legrand, a subsidiary of Legrand North America, including...-W-73,934 is hereby issued as follows: All workers of Pass & Seymour/Legrand, a subsidiary of...

  18. Latin America Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-08-26

    economic package— announced on Thursday—which will reduce the public deficit by only 39.0 tril- lion cruzeiros while acknowledging that the method of...The method of financing the rest of the public deficit is causing fears in the Ministry of Finance. Not exactly because of the issue of paper...effects of the public deficit and of domestic debt on the availability of funds for the private sector as well as their role in in- creasing

  19. 教育学研究的热点与重点——对2011年人大复印报刊资料《教育学》转载论文的分析与展望%Hot and Key Issues of Pedagogy Research --Analysis and Prospect of Papers Reprinted in Pedagogy of Chinese People "s University Reduplication of Published Materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宣小红; 李德刚; 谭烨; 王静; 招斯喆; 唐梦影

    2012-01-01

    通过对中国人民大学复印报刊资料《教育学》转载论文的统计分析,可以看出,2011年教育学研究的热点集中于教育公平、学前教育、公民教育、教师专业发展、教育评价等问题,质性研究方法、教育隐喻、儿童游戏等也是教育学研究的重点问题。在未来教育学研究的发展中,将关注社会主义核心价值体系教育、义务教育均衡发展、教育投入及经费支配等问题。%With the statistic analysis on papers reprinted in Pedagogy of Chinese People's University Reduplication of Published Materials, it is found out that the hot issues in pedagogy mainly focus on the issues as educational equity, preschool education, citizenship education, professional development of teacher, educational evaluation, etc. The qualitative research method, educational metaphor, children games are also the key issues of the research in pedagogy. In the development of pedagogy research, the issues as socialism key values education, balanced development of compulsory education, educational investment and funds control, etc., will be caused great attention.

  20. The compact key

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    NN,

    1966-01-01

    Here is given a sample of a new sort of identification key, recently developed by Dr. P. W. Leenhouts of the Rijksherbarium. Having to sort many specimens of Sapindaceae into genera, he became dissatisfied with the common dichotomous key, which too often does not work when the material is not comple

  1. Financial Key Ratios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tănase Alin-Eliodor

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on computing techniques starting from trial balance data regarding financial key ratios. There are presented activity, liquidity, solvency and profitability financial key ratios. It is presented a computing methodology in three steps based on a trial balance.

  2. Poultry welfare scenario in South America: norms and regulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RBTR Silva

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Animal welfare related issues have been intensely discussed in recent years as a consequence of changes in public attitudes and regulatory reforms that are taking place in many countries. A combination of public opinion pressure and trade policy has driven requirements for regulation and the World Trade Organization (WTO assigned the World Organization for Animal Health (OIE to develop guidelines that could be used as international standards. However, trade disputes related to animal welfare are not likely to be resolved under the auspices of OIE, and access to international markets may be questioned in a way that does not necessarily reflect attitudes to animal production in emerging economies, such as those in South America. This paper presents an overall view of basic welfare issues and points out specific items related to the present scenario of norms and regulations that are being implemented in South America, where the growing poultry industry is an important economic activity.

  3. An Efficient Key Agreement Framework to MANET

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Shun-man; TAO Ran; WANG Yue

    2006-01-01

    Protocols for key management are compared and evaluated from the point of view on mobile ad hoc networks (MANET). The issues of fault-tolerance and efficiency of key distribution protocols for group communications in MANET are addressed. Most key distribution protocols existing today are primarily designed for wire-line networks. These protocols either fail to work as intended or cannot work at all when they are applied to the demanding environment of MANET. Parameters and performance of different protocols are analyzed, and then a flat is given out, on which new protocols or existing ones are designed and modified, so that they can be robust, scalable and efficient in MANET.

  4. Rural territorial dynamics in Latin America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Chiriboga

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This article draws from the preliminary findings of an ongoing appliedresearch program on rural territorial dynamics carried out by the Latin American Center for Rural Development (RIMISP. The article provides some initial findings on 4 territories, of the 11 territories that are part of the overall study. The case studies include the island of Chiloé in southern Chile, the province of Tungurahua in Ecuador, a dairy farm region of Santo Tomás Nicaragua and Cuatro Lagunas near Cuzco Perú. Rural areas in Latin America are characterized by their dual nature with agro-exporting enclaves linked to global value chains alongside impoverished peasant economies, leading to differentiated policy recommendations. The research attempts to find relationships between reduced poverty and inequality in winning regions, measured by three variables, with issues of access to resources, human capital, political empowerment, markets and institutions, with particular attention to innovative social coalitions.

  5. REBUILD AMERICA PROGRAM SCOPE OF WORK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeffrey Brown; Bruce Exstrum

    2004-12-01

    This report summarizes the activities carried out by Aspen Systems Corporation in support of the Department of Energy's Rebuild America program during the period from October 9, 1999 to October 31, 2004. These activities were in accordance with the Scope of Work contained in a GSA MOBIS schedule task order issued by the National Energy Technology Laboratory. This report includes descriptions of activities and results in the following areas: deployment/delivery model; program and project results; program representative support activities; technical assistance; web site development and operation; business/strategic partners; and training/workshop activities. The report includes conclusions and recommendations. Five source documents are also provided as appendices.

  6. 太湖东部地区利用太湖规划建设备用水库的关键问题探讨%Discussion on Some Key Issues of Using Taihu Lake to Plan and Construct Spare Reservoir in Eastern Region of Taihu Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡伟

    2011-01-01

    围绕太湖备用水库的选址、建设、运行及维护全过程中需要关注并亟待解决的问题出发,从技术、经济及生态保护等多角度阐述了备用水库规模确定、水库水体流动、水质的维护及联合调度等关键问题的工程设计思路,以尽量降低或减免建设对太湖水质的影响.%Several key issues on spare reservoir location, construction, operation and maintenance were expounded in this paper, which should be paid great attention and must be solved. Meanwhile, from the technical, economic, and ecological protection angles, some design ideas on the critical problems of project design were put forward such as spare reservoir scale determination, water flowing, water quality maintenance and combined scheduling, so as to decrease or avoid the influence of construction to Taihu Lake.

  7. U.S.-China Relations: Policy Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-12

    Energy Competition and Energy Security in Northeast Asia: Issues for U.S. Policy, by Emma Chanlett-Avery. CRS Report RL34659, China’s Greenhouse Gas...melamine since 2008, once again called into question the effectiveness of PRC product safety controls. The Obama Administration has regarded China...of deforestation in some countries in Southeast Asia, Africa, and South America,42 while the proliferation of hydropower projects in China has

  8. Freshwater sponges (Porifera, Demospongiae indicators of some coastal habitats in South America: redescriptions and key to identification Esponjas de água doce (Porifera, Demonspongiae indicadoras de alguns ambientes costeiros na América do Sul: redescrição e chave para identificação

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilia Volkmer-Ribeiro

    Full Text Available Surveys for freshwater sponges were performed at several water bodies at sandy environments along a north-south direction of particularly the Brazilian coastal line. The results allowed for the distinction of four different species-specific environments along this coastal border. The main fact considered was the dominant or the sole recurrent occurrence of a single sponge species at one particular habitat. The first one is that of the lagoonal mesohaline habitats at the tropical and subtropical realms, indicated by Spongilla alba Carter, 1849. The second one refers to shallow ponds among dunes at the tropical area indicated by Corvoheteromeyenia heterosclera (Ezcurra de Drago, 1974. The third one is that of also shallow ponds close to the dune belt at the temperate region indicated by Racekiela sheilae (Volkmer-Ribeiro, De Rosa-Barbosa & Tavares, 1988. The fourth one is that of organically enriched environments, at the marginal areas of lagoons and mouth of small rivers, evolving towards freshwater muddy ponds and coastal swamps, not far from the ocean border: Ephydatia facunda Weltner, 1895 is the species to occupy this habitat with almost exclusiveness. The above species are thus proposed as indicators of such habitats and have their descriptions improved and that of their environments summarized. A taxonomic key based on the spicules of the four species is proposed. The results presented aim to contribute to the identification of spicules of these sponges in sediment columns recovered at the Brazilian and South American coastal area. Determination of paleo ocean borders are a present issue of upmost importance in what respects projections of timing and fluctuations of ascending/regressing sea levels.Levantamentos para detecção de esponjas dulcícolas foram conduzidos em diversos corpos d'água da faixa arenosa costeira, de norte a sul, particularmente no Brasil. Os resultados permitiram a distinção de quatro ambientes específicos em rela

  9. Pointers from the Americas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aragon-choudhury, P

    1992-01-01

    During a sharing session which took place at a conference sponsored by the Philippine Institute for Social Studies and Action in 1991, Peruvian Victoria Villanueva and US citizen Margaret Ann Schuller discussed their work. Schuller reported on her upcoming book entitled "Freedom from Violence: Women's Strategies Around the World." In addition to proposing a definition of violence against women, the book will include 12 case studies from Malaysia, Bolivia, Mexico, India, Pakistan, Thailand, Sri Lanka, Brazil, Zimbabwe, Chile, Africa, and Alaska describing how national organizations of women are dealing with the problem. An important advance is the development of a framework to look at the connection which exists between violence and health issues. Villanueva described the work of the Movimiento Manuela Ramos, which was organized informally to deal with reproductive rights and abortion and has since expanded to parent groups of women who defend legal and medical cases as paid paralegals. Manuela Ramos uses popular media, traditional drama, and even state television to publicize its issues. Manuela Ramos has accomplished important work on rape, unsafe abortion, and maternal mortality, but most importantly, the women involved with the organization have had the opportunity to develop their self-esteem.

  10. Boundary issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townsend, Alan R.; Porder, Stephen

    2011-03-01

    What is our point of no return? Caesar proclaimed 'the die is cast' while crossing the Rubicon, but rarely does modern society find so visible a threshold in our continued degradation of ecosystems and the services they provide. Humans have always used their surroundings to make a living— sometimes successfully, sometimes not (Diamond 2005)—and we intuitively know that there are boundaries to our exploitation. But defining these boundaries has been a challenge since Malthus first prophesied that nature would limit the human population (Malthus 1798). In 2009, Rockström and colleagues tried to quantify what the 6.8 billion (and counting) of us could continue to get away with, and what we couldn't (Rockström et al 2009). In selecting ten 'planetary boundaries', the authors contend that a sustainable human enterprise requires treating a number of environmental thresholds as points of no return. They suggest we breach these Rubicons at our own peril, and that we've already crossed three: biodiversity loss, atmospheric CO2, and disruption of the global nitrogen (N) cycle. As they clearly hoped, the very act of setting targets has provoked scientific inquiry about their accuracy, and about the value of hard targets in the first place (Schlesinger 2009). Such debate is a good thing. Despite recent emphasis on the science of human-ecosystem interactions, understanding of our planetary boundaries is still in its infancy, and controversy can speed scientific progress (Engelhardt and Caplan 1987). A few weeks ago in this journal, Carpenter and Bennett (2011) took aim at one of the more controversial boundaries in the Rockström analysis: that for human alteration of the global phosphorus (P) cycle. Rockström's group chose riverine P export as the key indicator, suggesting that humans should not exceed a value that could trigger widespread marine anoxic events—and asserting that we have not yet crossed this threshold. There are defensible reasons for a marine

  11. America’s Role in Nation-Building: From Germany to Iraq

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-02-01

    Japanese to succeed. Yet Rand treats the two losers of World War II as democratic tabula rasa scraped clean of memories of political parties, electoral...America’s Role in Nation-Building: From Germany to Iraq, by James Dobbins Strategic Insights, Volume III, Issue 2 (February 2004) Reviewed by...or the U.S. Government. Click here for a PDF version of this article. America’s Role in Nation-Building: From Germany to Iraq, by James Dobbins, et

  12. Youth Physical Fitness: Ten Key Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbin, Charles B.; Welk, Gregory J.; Richardson, Cheryl; Vowell, Catherine; Lambdin, Dolly; Wikgren, Scott

    2014-01-01

    The promotion of physical fitness has been a key objective of physical education for more than a century. During this period, physical education has evolved to accommodate changing views on fitness and health. The purpose of this article is to discuss issues with fitness assessment and fitness education central to the new Presidential Youth…

  13. Cooperation or Security - The Emergence of Space Programs in Latin America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godefroy, A. B.

    Traditionally, Latin America has been labeled a “Third World” region, yet when one examines its various space programs the handle hardly applies. Both Argentina and Brazil received superpower assistance during the early Cold War period to develop indigenous rocketry and space capabilities that continue to evolve today. More recently, other Latin American countries have also taken advantage of the many capabilities that space power provides. However, cooperation and development in Latin America continue to be influenced by politics and security issues, an inescapable aspect of the region's history. These factors combined have had a considerable impact on the emergence of space programs in Latin America.

  14. An Alternative to Keys

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Hagan, James

    1977-01-01

    For the secondary school, the author discourages the use of dichotomous keys in favor of a punch-card system. The system is readily constructed by students for use in plant and animal classification. (CP)

  15. Key concepts in energy

    CERN Document Server

    Madureira, Nuno Luis

    2014-01-01

    Highlights how key energy concepts surfaced, tracing their evolution throughout history to encompasses four economic concepts and four technological-engineering concepts developed through their history to conclude with current economic and environmental sciences Considers the process of energy-substitutions through complementary usages, hybridization and technological mixes Combines a conceptual approach with key theoretical concepts from engineering, geological and economic sciences providing cross disciplinary overview of energy fundamentals in a short and focused reading

  16. China-Latin America Relations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Steen Fryba; Silva Ramos Becard, Danielly

    2016-01-01

    The article discusses the research field of China-Latin American relations and suggests a broad and encompassing approach to the topic. It discusses the main themes and problem areas that analysts mostly emphasize in analyses of China-Latin America relations.......The article discusses the research field of China-Latin American relations and suggests a broad and encompassing approach to the topic. It discusses the main themes and problem areas that analysts mostly emphasize in analyses of China-Latin America relations....

  17. Fuglene. Audubon: Birds of America

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schlichtkrull, Torsten

    2010-01-01

    The Royal Library owns one of the most exceptional works in book history, an original edition of John James Audubon Birds of America. This edition, in a format called “double elephant folio” was published from 1827 to 1838. On basis of existing literature, this article briefly describes the work...... the Royal Library and the University Library, joined the library cooperation of the 1800’s on an equal standing with the other two libraries. The Classen’s Library and the library’s founder, industrialist JF Classen are described briefly in this article. Due to two library mergers the Birds of America...

  18. Algunos Animales de Latino America = Some Animals of Latin America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Kathryn F. B.

    Developed by the Latin American Culture Studies Project for educators of elementary level children, these materials are designed to teach students the Spanish and English names of animals found in Latin America. The lesson includes coloring sheets, duplicating masters, fact sheets, the card game Maymayguashi, and directions for preparation. (DB)

  19. Software Tool Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennell, Michael

    This chapter relies on experience with tool development gained over the last thirty years. It shows that there are a large number of techniques that contribute to any successful project, and that formality is always the key: a modern software test tool is based on a firm mathematical foundation. After a brief introduction, Section 2 recalls and extends the terminology of Chapter 1. Section 3 discusses the the design of different sorts of static and dynamic analysis tools. Nine important issues to be taken into consideration when evaluating such tools are presented in Section 4. Section 5 investigates the interplay between testing and proof. In Section 6, we call for developers to take their own medicine and verify their tools. Finally, we conclude in Section 7 with a summary of our main messages, emphasising the important role of testing.

  20. Domestic violence in America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bash, K L; Jones, F

    1994-09-01

    Domestic violence is an underrecognized problem of immense cost. It is a crime; its victims must be identified and protected. The medical and judicial communities share responsibility in addressing this issue and providing support for victims. The role of health care workers in recognizing and preventing domestic violence cannot be overestimated. Direct questioning of patients, especially about the source of any injuries and about safety at home, is the first step in uncovering abuse. Educational programs for health care providers and the general public can change society's view and tolerance of this problem. Physicians must take an active role in changing community attitudes about domestic violence and in instituting programs to reduce its incidence. Medical treatment of the injuries resulting from domestic violence is not sufficient. Abused women need the care of a team of professionals who can address psychological, emotional, and physical injuries. They must also be provided with safe housing and financial and legal assistance in order to escape the abusive relationship. Physicians and legislators must work together to effect change. Domestic violence is a public health menace. We need to break the cycle of abuse that has become an integral part of our society.

  1. Spatial gradients in Clovis-age radiocarbon dates across North America suggest rapid colonization from the north.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Marcus J; Buchanan, Briggs

    2007-10-02

    A key issue in the debate over the initial colonization of North America is whether there are spatial gradients in the distribution of the Clovis-age occupations across the continent. Such gradients would help indicate the timing, speed, and direction of the colonization process. In their recent reanalysis of Clovis-age radiocarbon dates, Waters and Stafford [Waters MR, Stafford TW, Jr (2007) Science 315:1122-1126] report that they find no spatial patterning. Furthermore, they suggest that the brevity of the Clovis time period indicates that the Clovis culture represents the diffusion of a technology across a preexisting pre-Clovis population rather than a population expansion. In this article, we focus on two questions. First, we ask whether there is spatial patterning to the timing of Clovis-age occupations and, second, whether the observed speed of colonization is consistent with demic processes. With time-delayed wave-of-advance models, we use the radiocarbon record to test several alternative colonization hypotheses. We find clear spatial gradients in the distribution of these dates across North America, which indicate a rapid wave of advance originating from the north. We show that the high velocity of this wave can be accounted for by a combination of demographic processes, habitat preferences, and mobility biases across complex landscapes. Our results suggest that the Clovis-age archaeological record represents a rapid demic colonization event originating from the north.

  2. Keys through ARQ

    CERN Document Server

    Latif, Mohamed Abdel; Gamal, Hesham El

    2009-01-01

    This paper develops a novel framework for sharing secret keys using the well-known Automatic Repeat reQuest (ARQ) protocol. The proposed key sharing protocol does not assume any prior knowledge about the channel state information (CSI), but, harnesses the available opportunistic secrecy gains using only the one bit feedback, in the form of ACK/NACK. The distribution of key bits among multiple ARQ epochs, in our approach, allows for mitigating the secrecy outage phenomenon observed in earlier works. We characterize the information theoretic limits of the proposed scheme, under different assumptions on the channel spatial and temporal correlation function, and develop low complexity explicit implementations. Our analysis reveals a novel role of "dumb antennas" in overcoming the negative impact of spatial correlation, between the legitimate and eavesdropper channels, on the achievable secrecy rates. We further develop an adaptive rate allocation policy which achieves higher secrecy rates by exploiting the channe...

  3. Key Issues of the Establishment of Drug List Selection System: Based on the Experience of Selection System Model in Typical Countries%药物目录遴选制度构建关键问题研究——基于典型国家遴选制度模式的经验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李颖; 王虎峰

    2011-01-01

    目的:为完善我国药物目录遴选制度提供参考.方法:借鉴美国、英国、德国等国外经验,对药物目录遴选制度概念进行界定,归纳构建药物目录遴选制度的几个要素,即遴选专业机构、参与主体、遴选程序等,运用比较研究方法,分别对关键问题进行阐述,并结合我国药物目录遴选制度建设基本情况,提出合理化建议.结果与结论:建议我国设置专门的药物目录遴选机构,遴选利益相关方参与及遴选程序规范化是我国药物目录遴选制度构建的必然趋势.%OBJECTIVE: To provide reference for the improvement of drug selection system in China.METHODS: Learning from the experiences of USA, UK and Germany, the definition of drug list selection system was confirmed; main factors for the establishment of drug selection system were summarized, i.e.professional selection decision making institution, main part, selection procedure.Based on general situation of drug list selection system in China, key issues of drug list selection system were interpreted respectively to put forward reasonable suggestion.RESULTS & CONCLUSION: It is the inevitable trend of the establishment of drug list selection system in China to set up professional selection decision making institution, allow stakeholders participation and standardize selection procedures.

  4. Key World Energy Statistics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    The IEA produced its first handy, pocket-sized summary of key energy data in 1997. This new edition responds to the enormously positive reaction to the book since then. Key World Energy Statistics produced by the IEA contains timely, clearly-presented data on supply, transformation and consumption of all major energy sources. The interested businessman, journalist or student will have at his or her fingertips the annual Canadian production of coal, the electricity consumption in Thailand, the price of diesel oil in Spain and thousands of other useful energy facts. It exists in different formats to suit our readers' requirements.

  5. E-Government: Initiatives, Developments, and Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldrich, Duncan; Bertot, John Carlo; McClure, Charles R.

    2002-01-01

    Provides a background of government efforts to incorporate telecommunication and computer technologies to improve government performance and enhance citizen access to government information and services. Describes this symposium issue which discusses key issues that affect the success and implementation of electronic government initiatives. (LRW)

  6. CTE's Role in Urban Education. Issue Brief

    Science.gov (United States)

    Association for Career and Technical Education (ACTE), 2012

    2012-01-01

    This Issue Brief explores the promising role that career and technical education programs play in addressing key student achievement issues facing urban schools. CTE programs engage urban students by providing rigorous and relevant coursework, fostering positive relationships, establishing clear pathways and connecting education and…

  7. Inclusive education in Latin America and the Caribbean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa BLANCO GUIJARRO

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The region of Latin America and the Caribbean is known for being the most socially unequal in the world and for this has highly segmented societies, which affects the education, integration and social cohesion of the population. Expanding opportunities for everyone to have access to quality education and developing more inclusive schools, which would educate within and for diversity, stand out as two powerful strategies in a move towards more just and democratic societies in Latin America. This paper presents a detailed analysis of the educational situation in the region from the perspective of rights and inclusion, with particular attention paid to those individuals and groups that suffer most from the impact of inequality, exclusion and marginalization. This analysis begins with an assessment the progress and challenges still to be made regarding access, attendance, quality and equity of education in Latin America. In the second part it addresses the major issues on the agenda of Inclusion in Latin America and the Caribbean.

  8. Resource Shortages The Key

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Since a critical report on China’s medical system reform was issued in mid-2005, it has become a major bone of contention. In April 2007, the State Council, China’s cabinet, decided that from this year,economically developed provinces should single out o

  9. Language Documentation in the Americas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franchetto, Bruna; Rice, Keren

    2014-01-01

    In the last decades, the documentation of endangered languages has advanced greatly in the Americas. In this paper we survey the role that international funding programs have played in advancing documentation in this part of the world, with a particular focus on the growth of documentation in Brazil, and we examine some of the major opportunities…

  10. Individualist America and Today's Immigrants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skerry, Peter

    1991-01-01

    Reviews James Fallows's "More Like Us: Making America Great Again," a book conceived while he resided in Japan. Fallows stresses the virtues of individualism and competition. He advocates workfare, education vouchers, and generous immigration levels. He pays little attention, however, to the institutions that nurture and temper individualism. (DM)

  11. America's Consumerocracy: No Safe Haven

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daily, Nancy Lee; Swain, Letitia Price; Huysman, Mary; Tarrant, Cynthia

    2010-01-01

    Recently the authors completed a course designed to expand and deepen their knowledge about America's consumerocracy and the methods that give it the immense power it has. As a result of their reading and shared thinking in this course, Teaching Adolescents in a Consumer Society, they feel strongly motivated and better prepared to craft…

  12. Student Discipline in Colonial America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petry, John R.

    The basis for the severe discipline imposed on school children in colonial America, especially in the Puritan colonies, was the belief in original sin. The child was regarded as being born in sin and thus depraved and prone to sin. The purpose of education was to enable children to read the Bible and thus change the behavior which otherwise would…

  13. Brain Injury Association of America

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Only) 1-800-444-6443 Welcome to the Brain Injury Association of America (BIAA) Brain injury is not an event or an outcome. ... misunderstood, under-funded neurological disease. People who sustain brain injuries must have timely access to expert trauma ...

  14. Language Politics in Latin America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajagopalan, Kanavillil

    2005-01-01

    This paper is an attempt to take stock of the politics of language as it has been playing out in Latin America, ever since the countries in this region were colonized by European powers, mainly Spain and Portugal. Linguistic imperialism is by no means a new phenomenon in this part of the world. In more recent times, the relentless advance of…

  15. America's looming creativity crisis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florida, Richard

    2004-10-01

    The strength of the American economy does not rest on its manufacturing prowess, its natural resources, or the size of its market. It turns on one factor--the country's openness to new ideas, which has allowed it to attract the brightest minds from around the world and harness their creative energies. But the United States is on the verge of losing that competitive edge. As the nation tightens its borders to students and scientists and subjects federal research funding to ideological and religious litmus tests, many other countries are stepping in to lure that creative capital away. Ireland, Canada, Australia, New Zealand, Denmark, and others are spending more on research and development and shoring up their universities in an effort to attract the world's best--including Americans. If even a few of these nations draw away just a small percentage of the creative workers from the U.S., the effect on its economy will be enormous. In this article, the author introduces a quantitative measure of the migration of creative capital called the Global Creative-Class Index. It shows that, far from leading the world, the United States doesn't even rank in the top ten in the percentage of its workforce engaged in creative occupations. What's more, the baby boomers will soon retire. And data showing large drops in foreign student applications to U.S. universities and in the number of visas issued to knowledge workers, along with concomitant increases in immigration in other countries, suggest that the erosion of talent from the United States will only intensify. To defend the U.S. economy, the business community must take the lead in ensuring that global talent can move efficiently across borders, that education and research are funded at radically higher levels, and that we tap into the creative potential of more and more workers. Because wherever creativity goes, economic growth is sure to follow.

  16. Stroke Prevention in Atrial Fibrillation: Focus on Latin America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massaro, Ayrton R.; Lippp, Gregory Y. H.

    2016-01-01

    Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common sustained cardiac arrhythmia, with an estimated prevalence of 1-2% in North America and Europe. The increased prevalence of AF in Latin America is associated with an ageing general population, along with poor control of key risk factors, including hypertension. As a result, stroke prevalence and associated mortality have increased dramatically in the region. Therefore, the need for effective anticoagulation strategies in Latin America is clear. The aim of this review is to provide a contemporary overview of anticoagulants for stroke prevention. The use of vitamin K antagonists (VKAs, eg, warfarin) and aspirin in the prevention of stroke in patients with AF in Latin America remains common, although around one fifth of all AF patients receive no anticoagulation. Warfarin use is complicated by a lack of access to effective monitoring services coupled with an unpredictable pharmacokinetic profile. The overuse of aspirin is associated with significant bleeding risks and reduced efficacy for stroke prevention in this patient group. The non-VKA oral anticoagulants (NOACbs) represent a potential means of overcoming many limitations associated with VKA and aspirin use, including a reduction in the need for monitoring and a reduced risk of hemorrhagic events. The ultimate decision of which anticoagulant drug to utilize in AF patients depends on a multitude of factors. More research is needed to appreciate the impact of these factors in the Latin American population and thereby reduce the burden of AF-associated stroke in this region. PMID:27533256

  17. Demographic tensions in Central America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-08-01

    This discussion of Central America focuses on the rapid growth of its population, its stagnating economy, and those countries that are socioeconomically advanced. Between 1950-85 the population of Central America tripled, from 9.1 million to 26. 4 million, due to marked mortality declines and the absence of off-setting fertility declines. The distribution of Central Americas's growing populations sets its population growth apart from that of other developing regions. Currently, almost half of all Central Americans live in cities. Although the average growth rate for Central American countries has fallen and is expected to drop further, the decline does not counterbalance the effect of the absolute rise in population numbers. The average annual growth rate of more than 3% annually in the 1960s fell to about 2.6% in recent years, but this decline is due primarily to socioeconomically advanced Costa Rica and Panama. Central America's age structure further complicates the population crisis. About 43% of Central Americans are under the age of 15. When the increasingly larger young population group enters it reproductive years, the potential for future growth (albeit the falling rate of population increase) is unparalleled. UN population projections show the region's population at 40 million by the year 2000. The 1973 oil crisis began a downward spiral for the buoyant post World War II Central American economy. Between 1950-79, real per capita income growth in Central America doubled, with Central American economies growing an average of 5.3% annually. By the early 1980s, overseas markets of the trade-dependent countries of Central America had dried up due to protectionism abroad and slumping basic commodity prices. These and other factors plunged Central America into its current economic malaise of falling real per capita income, rising unemployment, curtailed export led economic growth, and a rising cost of living. In general, economic growth in Central America

  18. Cryptographic Key Management System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    No, author

    2014-02-21

    This report summarizes the outcome of U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) contract DE-OE0000543, requesting the design of a Cryptographic Key Management System (CKMS) for the secure management of cryptographic keys for the energy sector infrastructure. Prime contractor Sypris Electronics, in collaboration with Oak Ridge National Laboratories (ORNL), Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), Valicore Technologies, and Purdue University's Center for Education and Research in Information Assurance and Security (CERIAS) and Smart Meter Integration Laboratory (SMIL), has designed, developed and evaluated the CKMS solution. We provide an overview of the project in Section 3, review the core contributions of all contractors in Section 4, and discuss bene ts to the DOE in Section 5. In Section 6 we describe the technical construction of the CKMS solution, and review its key contributions in Section 6.9. Section 7 describes the evaluation and demonstration of the CKMS solution in different environments. We summarize the key project objectives in Section 8, list publications resulting from the project in Section 9, and conclude with a discussion on commercialization in Section 10 and future work in Section 11.

  19. Locks and Keys Service

    CERN Multimedia

    Claude Ducastel

    The GS-LS-SEM section is pleased to inform you that as from Monday 30 November 2009, the opening hours of the Locks and Keys service will be the following: 08h30 - 12h30 / 13h30 - 16:30, Mondays to Fridays. GS-SEM-LS 73333

  20. Keyed shear joints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Klaus

    This report gives a summary of the present information on the behaviour of vertical keyed shear joints in large panel structures. An attemp is made to outline the implications which this information might have on the analysis and design of a complete wall. The publications also gives a short...

  1. Key performance indicators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwetsloot, G.I.J.M.

    2014-01-01

    This paper addresses how organisations can use OSH performance indicators. This is an important way to mainstream OSH into business management. Key performance indicators (KPIs) should provide objective data on the OSH situation. It is often said that ‘what gets measured gets managed’. Without infor

  2. Public key infrastructure building trusted applications and web services

    CERN Document Server

    Vacca, John R

    2004-01-01

    OVERVIEW OF PKI TECHNOLOGYPublic Key Infrastructures (PKIs): What Are They?Type of Certificate Authorities (CAS) ServicesPKI StandardsTypes of Vendor and Third-Party CA SystemsProtecting Private KeysCA System AttacksStolen Private Keys: What Can Be Done?Certificate Practice StatementsPKI ReadinessANALYZING AND DESIGNING PUBLIC KEY INFRASTRUCTURESPKI Design IssuesCost Justification and ConsiderationPKI Standards Design IssuesPKI Architectural Design ConsiderationsIMPLEMENTING PKIRequirementsImplementation ScheduleImplementation CostsPKI PerformanceMANAGING PKIRequesting a CertificateObtaining a

  3. Interrogating Social Sustainability in the Biofuels Sector in Latin America: Tensions Between Global Standards and Local Experiences in Mexico, Brazil, and Colombia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selfa, Theresa; Bain, Carmen; Moreno, Renata; Eastmond, Amarella; Sweitz, Sam; Bailey, Conner; Pereira, Gustavo Simas; Souza, Tatiana; Medeiros, Rodrigo

    2015-12-01

    Across the Americas, biofuels production systems are diverse due to geographic conditions, historical patterns of land tenure, different land use patterns, government policy frameworks, and relations between the national state and civil society, all of which shape the role that biofuels play in individual nations. Although many national governments throughout the Americas continue to incentivize growth of the biofuels industry, one key challenge for biofuels sustainability has been concern about its social impacts. In this article, we discuss some of the key social issues and tensions related to the recent expansion of biofuels production in Mexico, Colombia, and Brazil. We argue that a process of "simplification" of ecological and cultural diversity has aided the expansion of the biofuels frontier in these countries, but is also undermining their viability. We consider the ability of governments and non-state actors in multi-stakeholder initiatives (MSI) to address social and environmental concerns that affect rural livelihoods as a result of biofuels expansion. We analyze the tensions between global sustainability standards, national level policies for biofuels development, and local level impacts and visions of sustainability. We find that both government and MSI efforts to address sustainability concerns have limited impact, and recommend greater incorporation of local needs and expertise to improve governance.

  4. Interrogating Social Sustainability in the Biofuels Sector in Latin America: Tensions Between Global Standards and Local Experiences in Mexico, Brazil, and Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selfa, Theresa; Bain, Carmen; Moreno, Renata; Eastmond, Amarella; Sweitz, Sam; Bailey, Conner; Pereira, Gustavo Simas; Souza, Tatiana; Medeiros, Rodrigo

    2015-12-01

    Across the Americas, biofuels production systems are diverse due to geographic conditions, historical patterns of land tenure, different land use patterns, government policy frameworks, and relations between the national state and civil society, all of which shape the role that biofuels play in individual nations. Although many national governments throughout the Americas continue to incentivize growth of the biofuels industry, one key challenge for biofuels sustainability has been concern about its social impacts. In this article, we discuss some of the key social issues and tensions related to the recent expansion of biofuels production in Mexico, Colombia, and Brazil. We argue that a process of "simplification" of ecological and cultural diversity has aided the expansion of the biofuels frontier in these countries, but is also undermining their viability. We consider the ability of governments and non-state actors in multi-stakeholder initiatives (MSI) to address social and environmental concerns that affect rural livelihoods as a result of biofuels expansion. We analyze the tensions between global sustainability standards, national level policies for biofuels development, and local level impacts and visions of sustainability. We find that both government and MSI efforts to address sustainability concerns have limited impact, and recommend greater incorporation of local needs and expertise to improve governance.

  5. Meeting health and family planning needs in Latin America and the Caribbean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-06-01

    The operations research and technical assistance (OR/TA) project in The Population Council has concentrated on fertility and infant mortality issues in Latin American and the Caribbean for more than a decade through INOPAL. INOPAL is an acronym for Investigacion Operacional en Planificacion Familiar y Atencion Materno-Infantil para America Latina y el Caribe (Operations Research in Family Planning and Maternal-Child Health in Latin America and the Caribbean). In March 1995, the project entered its third phase, INOPAL III, with the renewal of its contract from the United States Agency for International Development (USAID). To facilitate communication between INOPAL, collaborating agencies, and USAID, INOPAL Director James Foreit moved from Peru to a Council office in Washington, D.C. INOPAL has six objectives: 1) to test the integration of family planning and reproductive health services; 2) to increase access to family planning; 3) to develop strategies to reach special populations; 4) to improve the sustainability of family planning programs; 5) to improve service quality; and 6) to institutionalize operations research capability in the region. INOPAL II conducted 61 subprojects in 12 countries in collaboration with 24 USAID cooperating agencies and other international organizations. The project established new services for postpartum women, adolescents, and rural women; improved program quality and financial sustainability; increased vasectomy promotion and the range of available contraceptives; and developed new modes of service delivery. A key finding of INOPAL II operations research was the importance of increasing cost-effectiveness to ensure program sustainability. INOPAL III will work toward all six objectives, with an emphasis on integrating reproductive health and family planning services. Operations research and technical assistance (OR/TA) subprojects will focus on the prevention and treatment of sexually transmitted diseases, perinatal and postpartum

  6. Abstracts and Key Words

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    In modern discussions among health professionals there is a strange lack of discussions of power. This is most notably true for the discussions about proper physician-patient relations and the discussions about trust. This article explores some of the consequences of this absence. It is argued that the absence of the issue of power hampers a serious and open moral discussion of important institutional forms in the health care system. It is also argued that some of the proposals for how to organize physician-patient interaction are rather unrealistic, mainly because the issue of power is neglected. Finally, the article develops some ideas about how power ought to be approached in modem health care.

  7. Literate America on Illiterate America: An Essay Review of "Illiterate America."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gee, James Paul

    1986-01-01

    Reviews Jonathan Kozol's book, "Illiterate America." Asserts that Kozol's argument is insensitive to cultural variation and stems from an unquestioning commitment to humanism. Argues that conventional definitions of "literacy" have tended to be more closely related to particular social structures and values than to cognitive development and…

  8. Spread of Zika virus: The key role of mosquito vector control

    OpenAIRE

    Giovanni Benelli

    2016-01-01

    Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) represent a key threat for millions of humans and animals worldwide, since they act as vectors for important parasites and pathogens, including malaria, filariasis and a wide number of arboviruses. The recent outbreaks of Zika virus infections occurring in South America, Central America, and the Caribbean, represent the most recent four arrivals of important arboviruses in the western hemisphere, over the last 20 years, namely dengue, West Nile virus, and chiku...

  9. Ancel Keys: a tribute

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VanItallie Theodore B

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Ancel Keys, Ph.D., who died in November, 2004, at the age of 100, was among the first scientists to recognize that human atherosclerosis is not an inevitable consequence of aging, and that a high-fat diet can be a major risk factor for coronary heart disease. During World War II, he and a group of talented co-workers at the University of Minnesota conducted a large-scale study of experimentally-induced human starvation. The data generated by this study – which was immediately recognized to be a classic – continue to be of inestimable value to nutrition scientists. In his later years, Keys spent more time at his home in Naples, Italy, where he had the opportunity to continue his personal study of the beneficial effects on health and longevity of a Mediterranean diet.

  10. Ancel Keys: a tribute.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanitallie, Theodore B

    2005-02-14

    Ancel Keys, Ph.D., who died in November, 2004, at the age of 100, was among the first scientists to recognize that human atherosclerosis is not an inevitable consequence of aging, and that a high-fat diet can be a major risk factor for coronary heart disease. During World War II, he and a group of talented co-workers at the University of Minnesota conducted a large-scale study of experimentally-induced human starvation. The data generated by this study - which was immediately recognized to be a classic - continue to be of inestimable value to nutrition scientists. In his later years, Keys spent more time at his home in Naples, Italy, where he had the opportunity to continue his personal study of the beneficial effects on health and longevity of a Mediterranean diet.

  11. Efficient Quantum Key Distribution

    CERN Document Server

    Ardehali, M; Chau, H F; Lo, H K

    1998-01-01

    We devise a simple modification that essentially doubles the efficiency of a well-known quantum key distribution scheme proposed by Bennett and Brassard (BB84). Our scheme assigns significantly different probabilities for the different polarization bases during both transmission and reception to reduce the fraction of discarded data. The actual probabilities used in the scheme are announced in public. As the number of transmitted signals increases, the efficiency of our scheme can be made to approach 100%. The security of our scheme (against single-photon eavesdropping strategies) is guaranteed by a refined analysis of accepted data which is employed to detect eavesdropping: Instead of lumping all the accepted data together to estimate a single error rate, we separate the accepted data into various subsets according to the basis employed and estimate an error rate for each subset individually. Our scheme is the first quantum key distribution with an efficiency greater than 50%. We remark that our idea is rath...

  12. Credit Rating and Capital Structure: Evidence from Latin America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dany Rogers

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to analyze the impact of reclassifications trends in credit rating decisions in capital structure of listed non-financial companies in Latin America. To verify both the existence of this association were employed data belonging to all non-financial companies listed in Latin America, possessing ratings issued by the three major international ratings agencies international (i.e. Standard & Poor's, Moody's and Fitch in January, 2010. When considering data for the period 2001-2010, through analysis of panel data, the main results suggest that the reclassifications of ratings seem have no informational content to the capital structure decisions of firms. However, some results indicate that companies classified in the worst levels of risk, and which are on the verge of the rating reclassifications, tend to use more debt than other companies, suggesting the existence of market timing.

  13. Fusang: The Enlightenment Story of the Chinese Discovery of America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Statman, Alexander

    2016-03-01

    In 1761 the French scholar and Sinologue Joseph de Guignes announced that "Chinese vessels made the voyage to America many centuries before Christopher Columbus." From the Chinese books in the Bibliotheque du Roi and new missionary reports from Beijing, he concluded that the mythical land of Fusang described by a medieval Buddhist monk could be nowhere other than the west coast of North America, only recently charted by European navigators. Philippe Buache, premier géographe du roi, agreed. At the height of the French Enlightenment, the indigenous geographical tradition of China could be used to further the progress of universal science, providing evidence about issues from the mapping of the Pacific Rim to the organization of the continents. Furthermore, the story of Fusang explained the origins of American peoples, showing that the inhabitants of the New World had arrived there from the Old and contributing to a diffusionist account of the development of civilization in space and time.

  14. Proceedings of the heavy oil Latin America congress 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    This conference brought experts together to explore the challenges faced and opportunities available in the dynamic emerging market for heavy oil which Latin America offers. The conference was attended by over 700 delegates from around the world representing official and private agencies, Latin American governments, national oil companies and service companies in heavy oil producing countries. These participants were given the opportunity to learn about the entire value chain of Latin America's heavy oil industry, with emphasis on balancing challenging environmental and social issues with operational best practices, and they also the opportunity to share their knowledge and expertise with their peers. 17 of the 29 papers presented during this conference have been catalogued separately for inclusion in this database.

  15. Postneoliberalism and Penality in South America: By Way of Introduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maximo Sozzo

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In the last two decades, there has been an extraordinary growth in incarceration rates in South America, with some variations across national contexts but generally in line with the same trend. Twenty years ago, incarceration rates were relatively low in most countries in the region; despite that knowledge, it has proved difficult to reconstruct the official data for that period. In 1992, with the exclusion of the small countries with less than one million inhabitants in the Northern region of South America such as Guyana, French Guyana and Surinam, only three countries had 100 prisoners or more per 100,000 inhabitants: Uruguay (100, Venezuela (133 and Chile (154 (see Figure 1. Several other national contexts reflected ‘'Scandinavian’' rates, such as Argentina (62, Peru (69, Ecuador (75 and Brazil (74. Download the PDF file to continue with this introduction to the articles in the dossier within this issue of the journal.

  16. Introduction to special issue on carbon and landscape dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madej, Mary Ann; Wohl, Ellen E.

    2016-01-01

    In October, 2013, at the Geological Society of America annual meeting, a theme session focused on carbon and landscape dynamics.  That event led to interest in producing a special issue in ESPL compiling papers on this subject.  The 13 papers collected for this special issue reflect the diversity of recent geomorphic research, across a range of climatic and geomorphic settings, addressing some aspect of carbon dynamics.

  17. Aging in Mexico: Population Trends and Emerging Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angel, Jacqueline L; Vega, William; López-Ortega, Mariana

    2016-12-07

    Although all nations in the America's face a common demographic reality of longevity, declining fertility rates and changes in family roles a growing body of research points to a dramatic demographic transformation in Mexico. Although Mexico's population is relatively young, with a median age of 27.9 in 2015, it will age rapidly in coming years, increasing to 42 years by 2050. The rapid median age in the nation also reflects the growing proportion of people 65 or older, and is expected to triple to 20.2% by 2050. This article examines how the age and gender structure of Mexico offers important insights about current and future political and social stability, as well as economic development. Mexico is the world's eleventh largest country in terms of population size and the "demographic dividend" of a large youthful population is giving way to a growing older population that will inevitably place demands on health care and social security. The shift in age structure will result in increased dependency of retirees on the working-age population in the next 20 years. Mexico does not provide universal coverage of social security benefits and less than half of the labor force is covered by any pension or retirement plan. As a result, elderly Mexicans often continue working into old age. The high total poverty rate in the country, especially among the older population magnifies the problem of the potential dependency burden. The article ends with a discussion of key public policy issues related to aging in Mexico.

  18. Hydrogen energy demonstration plant in Patagonia: Description and safety issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aprea, Jose Luis [CNEA (Argentine Atomic Energy Commission), AAH, IRAM, Comahue University, CC 805, 8300 Neuquen (Argentina)

    2009-05-15

    Hydrogen safety issues and especially hydrogen hazard's address are key points to remove any safety-related barrier in the implementation process of hydrogen energy systems. Demonstrative systems based on hydrogen technologies represent a clear contribution to the task of showing the feasibility of the new technologies and their beneficial capabilities among the public. In this paper, the safety features of the first hydrogen energy demonstrative plant conceived in Latin America are analyzed. The facilities, located in the village of Pico Truncado, Patagonia, Argentina, serve to gain day-to-day experience in the production, storage, distribution, conversion and use of hydrogen in several applications. The plant uses electrolysis to generate pure hydrogen from renewable primary sources, taking advantage of the installed wind power capacity that is continually growing in the region. The installations were designed to accomplish with two primary objectives: total safety assurance and minimization of human errors. Some details of the plant, including a general layout, are presented here, in addition with design criteria, hydrogen hazards, structural precautions, gas monitoring system, existing regulations and safety requirements. (author)

  19. Special Issue: "Molecules against Alzheimer".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decker, Michael; Muñoz-Torrero, Diego

    2016-12-16

    This Special Issue, entitled "Molecules against Alzheimer", gathers a number of original articles, short communications, and review articles on recent research efforts toward the development of novel drug candidates, diagnostic agents and therapeutic approaches for Alzheimer's disease (AD), the most prevalent neurodegenerative disorder and a leading cause of death worldwide. This Special Issue contains many interesting examples describing the design, synthesis, and pharmacological profiling of novel compounds that hit one or several key biological targets, such as cholinesterases, β-amyloid formation or aggregation, monoamine oxidase B, oxidative stress, biometal dyshomeostasis, mitochondrial dysfunction, serotonin and/or melatonin systems, the Wnt/β-catenin pathway, sigma receptors, nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase, or nuclear erythroid 2-related factor. The development of novel AD diagnostic agents based on tau protein imaging and the use of lithium or intranasal insulin for the prevention or the symptomatic treatment of AD is also covered in some articles of the Special Issue.

  20. Las Migraciones en el Proceso de Integracion de las Americas: Seminario Internacional (Migration in the Integration Process in the Americas: International Seminar). Conference report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berglund, S

    1993-01-01

    This conference report of the Centro de Estudios Migratorios Latinoamericanos and the Center for Migration Studies pertains to meetings held in August 1992. Summary information on migration movements in Latin America is presented by region and subject. The topic of integration in the Americas was presented by Mr. Lelio Marmora. Other topics and presenters include the new Colombian Migration Policy (Mr. Carlos Adolfo Arenas), the integration policies in Central America (Mr. Pilar Norza of Costa Rica, Raimundo Alvarado of El Salvador, and Luis Armando Gusman of Nicaragua), the Andean Pact agreements (representatives of each country), US immigration policy (Charles B. Keely), the Mexican integration with Latin America and immigration to the US (Jorge Bustamante), migration to Bolivia and Argentina and Chile, and transnationalism in the Caribbean (Professor Andre Corten). Migration policy needs to be tailored specifically to the situation in Latin America, and greater attention needs to be devoted to labor migrants' rights and working conditions. There are still fundamental differences among countries in policies regarding the free circulation of persons across borders. There is a division among those who support migration and those who are realists. National sovereignty issues are solvable because of a common national past and a relatively homogenous population. Another opinion is that Latin America is more diverse than commonly recognized. Capital is protected more in international agreements than is migrant labor. Regional integration for the US does mean immigration from Mexico. The US sees Mexican migration as a policy problem, and Mexico sees migration as a labor opportunity.

  1. Latin America wind market assessment. Forecast 2013-2022

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-10-15

    Wind Power Activities by Country: Developers/Owners, Wind Plant Sizes, Wind Turbines Deployed, Commissioning Dates, Market Share, and Capacity Forecasts Latin American markets are a subject of intense interest from the global wind industry. Wind plant construction across Latin America is modest compared to the more established markets like the United States, Europe, and China, but it is an emerging market that is taking off at a rapid pace. The region has become the hottest alternative growth market for the wind energy industry at a time when growth rates in other markets are flat due to a variety of policy and macroeconomic challenges. Globalization is driving sustainable economic growth in most Latin American countries, resulting in greater energy demand. Wind is increasingly viewed as a valuable and essential answer to increasing electricity generation across most markets in Latin America. Strong wind resources, coupled with today's sophisticated wind turbines, are providing cost-effective generation that is competitive with fossil fuel generation. Most Latin American countries also rely heavily on hydroelectricity, which balances well with variable wind generation. Navigant Research forecasts that if most wind plants under construction with planned commissioning go online as scheduled, annual wind power installations in Latin America will grow from nearly 2.2 GW in 2013 to 4.3 GW by 2022. This Navigant Research report provides a comprehensive view of the wind energy market dynamics at play in Latin America. It offers a country-by-country analysis, outlining the key energy policies and development opportunities and barriers and identifying which companies own operational wind plants and which wind turbine vendors supplied those projects. Market forecasts for wind power installations, capacity, and market share in Latin America, segmented by country and company, extend through 2022. The report also offers an especially close analysis of Brazil and Mexico

  2. Latin America Report, No. 2720

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    AMERICA REPORT , No, 2720 CONTENTS ENERGY ECONOMICS COSTA RICA ’Excellent Quality’ Oil Reportedly Found in Country (LA REPUBLICA , 18, 21 Jun...Report San Jose LA REPUBLICA in Spanish 18 Jun 83 p 3 [Text] Mexico—Jointly with other concerns, the state enterprise Mexican Petroleum (PEMEX) is...Jose LA REPUBLICA in Spanish 21 Jun 83 p 2 [Text] "We have found five possible horizons that exhibit the characteristics of petroleum deposits in

  3. Prostate cancer in Latin America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pow-Sang, Mariela; Destefano, Víctor; Astigueta, Juan Carlos; Castillo, Octavio; Gaona, José Luis; Santaella, Félix; Sotelo, Rene

    2009-11-01

    There is a very low rate of early prostate cancer detection in Latin America, since patients usually are diagnosed when the disease is in advanced stages. Sporadic prostate cancer screening campaigns do exist which allow us to diagnose this disease in earlier stages. Incidence and mortality rates differ widely from country to country, and they are probable underreported in our region since registers may be city-based instead of country-based.

  4. Building America House Simulation Protocols

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hendron, Robert [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Engebrecht, Cheryn [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2010-09-01

    The House Simulation Protocol document was developed to track and manage progress toward Building America's multi-year, average whole-building energy reduction research goals for new construction and existing homes, using a consistent analytical reference point. This report summarizes the guidelines for developing and reporting these analytical results in a consistent and meaningful manner for all home energy uses using standard operating conditions.

  5. Bertolt Brecht in Latin America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebru Gökdağ

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In 1943, when Bertolt Brecht and Kurt Weill’s The Three Penny Opera opened in Mexico, Latin America encountered Brecht for the first time. Political concerns among Latin Americans, and their attempts to present them theatrically, pre-dated the widespread dissemination of Brecht’s theories. After 1943, Brecht’s work as a theoretician in Latin America had to wait another decade before it was to have influence there.   Thus, when Latin America encountered Brecht, it was a case of parallel evolution rather than of direct influence. Brechtian theorizing and its influence on Augusto Boal's approach has been widely acknowledged.  Some critics state that Boal extended ideas similar to Brecht’s but improved upon them by transforming the audience from a reflective passive stance to an active participant. Yet Boal does more than merely extend or elaborate on the theories of Brecht. Brecht formulated his theory through critical and intellectual analysis, while Boal co-created his approach with individuals whom he was both teaching and learning from at the same time. Since Boal’s work is based on four decades of practice, there is a commitment in his ideas that is far less intellectual and more practical, a passion in his devotion to transforming audience expectation and response that is wholly absent in Brechtian theorizing.

  6. Breaking away to South America

    CERN Multimedia

    Anaïs Schaeffer

    2011-01-01

    In December 2010, Peter Dreesen of CERN’s Technology Department (TE) returned from a long trip to South America. In four months he traversed the entire Andean range, from the equator to a latitude of 55 degrees south—on a bicycle!   Peter Dreesen on the Salar de Uyuni Lake, Bolivia. 11 000 kilometres is one long bike ride! And yet, that’s what Peter Dreesen did, travelling from Quito, Ecuador to Ushuaia, Argentina. Peter, an engineer in the TE Department, is no novice: the year before, he cycled from Paris to Peking, a distance of 13 500 kilometres, in just over four months. His latest voyage began last August, when he loaded his bicycle and boarded a plane for South America. In the saddle. After a week of acclimatisation at three thousand metres altitude, Peter left Quito on 6 August 2010. He arrived in Ushuaia (el fin del mundo, the end of the world, as it’s known in South America) on 12 December 2010. He recounts: “It was a bizarre sensation...

  7. Special Issue: The Potential Role for Community Monitoring in MRV and in Benefit Sharing in REDD+

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arturo Balderas Torres

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Since the early design of activities to reduce emissions from deforestation and forest degradation in developing countries (REDD+ under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC, the need to engage local communities and indigenous groups in monitoring and reporting has been recognized. REDD+ has advanced under the UNFCCC negotiations, but most countries still need to define formally what the role of communities in their national monitoring systems will be. Previous research and experiences have shown that local communities can effectively contribute in the monitoring of natural resources. This editorial introduces a Special Issue of Forests which discusses the implications of and potential for including community based monitoring (CBM in monitoring and benefit-sharing systems in REDD+. It outlines the main points of the nine contributions to the Special Issue which cover a wide geographical area and report on projects and research which engages more than 150 communities from eight different countries from Africa, Asia and Latin America. The editorial summarizes how the articles and reports build further understanding of the potential of CBM to contribute to the implementation, monitoring and distribution of benefits in REDD+. It also discusses the results of an on-going opinion survey on issues related to CBM and its relation to benefit sharing, which indicates that there is still disagreement on a number of key elements.

  8. Identification key to Quivira milkweeds

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document is a key to milkweed identification at Quivira National Wildlife Refuge. It contains a dichotomous key as well as a picture key. Milkweeds found on the...

  9. Ancel Keys: a tribute

    OpenAIRE

    VanItallie Theodore B

    2005-01-01

    Abstract Ancel Keys, Ph.D., who died in November, 2004, at the age of 100, was among the first scientists to recognize that human atherosclerosis is not an inevitable consequence of aging, and that a high-fat diet can be a major risk factor for coronary heart disease. During World War II, he and a group of talented co-workers at the University of Minnesota conducted a large-scale study of experimentally-induced human starvation. The data generated by this study – which was immediately recogni...

  10. ABSTRACTS AND KEY WORDS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Establishment of a Method for Content Determination of Polysaccharide in Membranous milkveteh root Applied in Fisheries Yu Xiao-qing et al. (1) Abstract Some chemical component in the traditional Chinese medicine Membranous milkvetch root can improve the ability of disease-prevention of animal and it can be applied in fisheries. In the paper, the method about content determination of polysaccharide in the root was established based on orthogonal experimental design Key words medicine; polysaccharide in Membranous milkvetch root; method of determination

  11. Medical issues associated with anabolic steroid use: are they exaggerated?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Jay R; Ratamess, Nicholas A

    2006-01-01

    For the past 50 years anabolic steroids have been at the forefront of the controversy surrounding performance enhancing drugs. For almost half of this time no attempt was made by sports governing bodies to control its use, and only recently have all of the major sports governing bodies in North America agreed to ban from competition and punish athletes who test positive for anabolic steroids. These punitive measures were developed with the primary concern for promotion of fair play and eliminating potential health risks associated with androgenic-anabolic steroids. Yet, controversy exists whether these testing programs deter anabolic steroid use. Although the scope of this paper does not focus on the effectiveness of testing, or the issue of fair play, it is of interest to understand why many athletes underestimate the health risks associated from these drugs. What creates further curiosity is the seemingly well-publicized health hazards that the medical community has depicted concerning anabolic steroidabuse. Is there something that the athletes know, or are they simply naïve regarding the dangers? The focus of this review is to provide a brief history of anabolic steroid use in North America, the prevalence of its use in both athletic and recreational populations and its efficacy. Primary discussion will focus on health issues associated with anabolic steroid use with an examination of the contrasting views held between the medical community and the athletes that are using these ergogenic drugs. Existing data suggest that in certain circumstances the medical risk associated with anabolic steroid use may have been somewhat exaggerated, possibly to dissuade use in athletes. Key PointsFor many years the scientific and medical communities depicted a lack of efficacy and serious adverse effects from anabolic steroid use.Clinical case studies continue to link anabolic steroid administration with myocardial infarct, suicide, and cancer, evidence to support a cause and

  12. Quantum Key Distribution Protocol with Private-Public Key

    OpenAIRE

    Serna, Eduin H.

    2009-01-01

    A quantum cryptographic protocol based in public key cryptography combinations and private key cryptography is presented. Unlike the BB84 protocol [1] and its many variants [2,3] two quantum channels are used. The present research does not make reconciliation mechanisms of information to derive the key. A three related system of key distribution are described.

  13. ID-based Key-insulated Authenticated Key Agreement Protocol

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Yuan; CHENG Xiao-ming; CHAI Zhen-chuan

    2007-01-01

    The basic idea behind an ID-based cryptosystem is that end user's public key can be determined by his identity information. Comparing with the traditional certificate-based cryptography, identity-based cryptography can eliminate much of the overhead associated with the deployment and management of certificate. However, exposure of private keys can be the most devastating attack on a public key based cryptosystem since such that all security guarantees are lost. In this paper, an ID-based authenticated key agreement protocol was presented. For solving the problem of key exposure of the basic scheme, the technique of key insulation was applied and a key insulated version is developed.

  14. Key Management in Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismail Mansour

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Wireless sensor networks are a challenging field of research when it comes to security issues. Using low cost sensor nodes with limited resources makes it difficult for cryptographic algorithms to function without impacting energy consumption and latency. In this paper, we focus on key management issues in multi-hop wireless sensor networks. These networks are easy to attack due to the open nature of the wireless medium. Intruders could try to penetrate the network, capture nodes or take control over particular nodes. In this context, it is important to revoke and renew keys that might be learned by malicious nodes. We propose several secure protocols for key revocation and key renewal based on symmetric encryption and elliptic curve cryptography. All protocols are secure, but have different security levels. Each proposed protocol is formally proven and analyzed using Scyther, an automatic verification tool for cryptographic protocols. For efficiency comparison sake, we implemented all protocols on real testbeds using TelosB motes and discussed their performances.

  15. A humanistic gift from the Brazilian Emperor D. Pedro II (1825 - 1891 to the Brazilian nation: the first lunatic asylum in Latin America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio E. Nardi

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Until the beginning of the 19th century, psychiatric patients did not receive specialized treatment. The problem that was posed by the presence of psychiatric patients in the Santas Casas de Misericórdia and the social pressure from this issue culminated in a Decree of the Brazilian Emperor, D. Pedro II, on July 18, 1841. The “Lunatic Palace” was the first institution in Latin America exclusively designed for mental patients. It was built between 1842 and 1852 and is an example of neoclassical architecture in Brazil, located at Saudade Beach in the city of Rio de Janeiro. In the 1930s and 1940s, the D. Pedro II Hospital was overcrowded, and patients were gradually transferred to other hospitals. By September of 1944, all the patients had been transferred and the hospital was deactivated. Key words: psychiatry, history, madness.

  16. "Having choices is the key".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogunleye, B

    1996-08-01

    When Chief Bisi Ogunleye was appointed Nigeria's Minister of Agriculture, the US-educated daughter of a tribal chief still believed that most Nigerian farmers were men. As she traveled throughout the country fulfilling her role, she met a group of women who wanted to start a palm oil and casaba processing plant but lacked the means to get a start-up loan. Chief Ogunleye's efforts to get officials to issue a loan were ridiculed, so she asked her husband to allow her to donate part of her salary to the women. With the $45 from the chief, the women began business and within 3 months had 6 times the original amount. This money was used to help other 6 other women's groups start businesses. By 1985, these efforts were so successful that the chief resigned her government job and founded the Country Women's Association of Nigeria, which has been successful in helping women because it realizes that the most important key to empowerment is having choices.

  17. Opportunities for Small Geothermal Projects: Rural Power for Latin America, the Caribbean, and the Philippines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vimmerstedt, L.

    1998-11-30

    The objective of this report is to provide information on small geothermal project (less than 5 MW) opportunities in Latin America, the Caribbean, and the Philippines. This overview of issues facing small geothermal projects is intended especially for those who are not already familiar with small geothermal opportunities. This is a summary of issues and opportunities and serves as a starting point in determining next steps to develop this market.

  18. ABSTRACTS AND KEY WORDS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    Determination of the Estrogen Alkylphenols and Bisphenol A in Marine Sediments by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry Deng Xu-xiu et al. (1) Abstract Octylphenol, nonylphenol and bisphenol A are recognized environmental endocrine disruptors. A quantitative method was established for the simultaneous determination of octylphenol, nonylphenol and bisphenol A in marine sediments by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The test sample was extracted by methanol with ultrasonic technique, purified with copper powder and carbon solid phase extraction column, and derived with heptafluorobutyric anhydride. Then the analytes were separated on HP-5ms column and determined by gas chromatography-mass. The recovery of the method was between 84.3% and 94.5%, and the LOQ of 4-N- octylphenol, nonylphenol and bisphenol A was 0.25 g/kg, 0.15 g/kg and 0.15 g/kg. Key words octylphenol; nonylphenol; bisphenol A; gas chromatography-mass spectrometry

  19. Key aspects congenital infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. V. Lobzin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The key questions to solve the problem of congenital infection in the Russian Federation are: using in national practice over world accepted terminology adapted to the recommendations of the World Health Organization; representation of the modern concepts of an infectious process in the classification of congenital infections; scientific development and introducing in clinical practice the «standard case definitions», applied to different congenital infections; optimization of protocols and clinical guidelines for diagnosis, treatment and prevention of congenital infections; improvement a knowledge in the infectious disease for all  pecialists involved in the risk assessment of congenital infections, manage pregnancy and children. Based on our experience and analysis of publications, the authors suggest possible solutions.

  20. Paediatric pharmacokinetics: key considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batchelor, Hannah Katharine; Marriott, John Francis

    2015-01-01

    A number of anatomical and physiological factors determine the pharmacokinetic profile of a drug. Differences in physiology in paediatric populations compared with adults can influence the concentration of drug within the plasma or tissue. Healthcare professionals need to be aware of anatomical and physiological changes that affect pharmacokinetic profiles of drugs to understand consequences of dose adjustments in infants and children. Pharmacokinetic clinical trials in children are complicated owing to the limitations on blood sample volumes and perception of pain in children resulting from blood sampling. There are alternative sampling techniques that can minimize the invasive nature of such trials. Population based models can also limit the sampling required from each individual by increasing the overall sample size to generate robust pharmacokinetic data. This review details key considerations in the design and development of paediatric pharmacokinetic clinical trials. PMID:25855821

  1. Building America Case Study: Combustion Safety Simplified Test Protocol, Chicago Illinois, and Minneapolis, Minnesota

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2015-12-01

    "9Combustion safety is an important step in the process of upgrading homes for energy efficiency. There are several approaches used by field practitioners, but researchers have indicated that the test procedures in use are complex to implement and provide too many false positives. Field failures often mean that the house is not upgraded until after remediation or not at all, if not include in the program. In this report the PARR and NorthernSTAR DOE Building America Teams provide a simplified test procedure that is easier to implement and should produce fewer false positives. A survey of state weatherization agencies on combustion safety issues, details of a field data collection instrumentation package, summary of data collected over seven months, data analysis and results are included. The project provides several key results. State weatherization agencies do not generally track combustion safety failures, the data from those that do suggest that there is little actual evidence that combustion safety failures due to spillage from non-dryer exhaust are common and that only a very small number of homes are subject to the failures. The project team collected field data on 11 houses in 2015. Of these homes, two houses that demonstrated prolonged and excessive spillage were also the only two with venting systems out of compliance with the National Fuel Gas Code. The remaining homes experienced spillage that only occasionally extended beyond the first minute of operation. Combustion zone depressurization, outdoor temperature, and operation of individual fans all provide statistically significant predictors of spillage.

  2. Extreme rainfall, vulnerability and risk: a continental-scale assessment for South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vorosmarty, Charles J.; de Guenni, Lelys Bravo; Wollheim, Wilfred M.; Pellerin, Brian A.; Bjerklie, David M.; Cardoso, Manoel; D'Almeida, Cassiano; Colon, Lilybeth

    2013-01-01

    Extreme weather continues to preoccupy society as a formidable public safety concern bearing huge economic costs. While attention has focused on global climate change and how it could intensify key elements of the water cycle such as precipitation and river discharge, it is the conjunction of geophysical and socioeconomic forces that shapes human sensitivity and risks to weather extremes. We demonstrate here the use of high-resolution geophysical and population datasets together with documentary reports of rainfall-induced damage across South America over a multi-decadal, retrospective time domain (1960–2000). We define and map extreme precipitation hazard, exposure, affectedpopulations, vulnerability and risk, and use these variables to analyse the impact of floods as a water security issue. Geospatial experiments uncover major sources of risk from natural climate variability and population growth, with change in climate extremes bearing a minor role. While rural populations display greatest relative sensitivity to extreme rainfall, urban settings show the highest rates of increasing risk. In the coming decades, rapid urbanization will make South American cities the focal point of future climate threats but also an opportunity for reducing vulnerability, protecting lives and sustaining economic development through both traditional and ecosystem-based disaster risk management systems.

  3. Final Scientific/Technical Report Solar America Initiative: Solar Outreach and Communications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weissman, Jane M

    2011-09-10

    The purpose of the Solar America Initiative: Solar Outreach and Communications grant was to promote better communications among stakeholders; address infrastructure barriers to solar energy; and coordinate with industry, the U.S. Department of Energy, national laboratories, states, cities and counties. The Interstate Renewable Energy Council (IREC), a non-profit organization formed in 1982, approached this grant project by establishing a wide range of communication and outreach activities including newsletters, workshops, webinars, model practices and publications; by advancing easy and fair hook-up rules to the utility grid; and by upgrading training based on industry competency standards. The Connecting to the Grid project and the Solar Codes and Standards Public Hearings project offered communication coupled with technical assistance to overcome interconnection, net metering and other regulatory and program barriers. The Workforce Development Project tackled building a strong workforce through quality training and competency assessment programs. IREC's web site, the semi-monthly state and stakeholder newsletter and the metrics report resulted in better communications among stakeholders. Workshops and phone seminars offered technical assistance and kept stakeholders up-to-date on key issues. All of these activities resulted in implementing sustainable solutions to institutional and market barriers to solar energy and getting the right information to the right people.

  4. The Recognition of Effective Teaching in Latin America: Awards to Excellence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaillant, Denise; Rossel, Cecilia

    2012-01-01

    The main goal of this article is to review recent experience of effective teaching recognition policies in Latin America. The article examines the main issues related to the recognition of teaching by summarizing experiences of awards to teachers in the region, describing their results and limitations. The article outlines the most important…

  5. Self-Discovery through Character Connections: Opening up to Gayness in "Angels in America"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blazar, David

    2009-01-01

    In this article, the author describes how he uses performance pedagogy to open students' minds to sexuality and gender issues. The author uses Tony Kushner's "Angels in America: A Gay Fantasia on National Themes"--an epic play about the AIDS epidemic and its impact on the gay community in the 1980s. Through the possibilities of drama available in…

  6. A Racio-Economic Analysis of Teach for America: Counterstories of TFA Teachers of Color

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapayese, Yvette V.; Aldana, Ursula S.; Lara, Eduardo

    2014-01-01

    This article discusses Teach for America (TFA), one of the alternative education programs of the U.S. Department of Education designed to address the achievement gap of students of color in the country. Topics explored in this research include issues of racism and race in the recruitment and support of its teacher corp; how TFA educators of color…

  7. International trends in health science librarianship. Part 5 Latin America and the Caribbean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, Beverley; Rodrííguez-Jiménez, Teresa M

    2013-03-01

    This is the 5th in a series of articles exploring international trends in health science librarianship in Latin America and the Caribbean in the first decade of the 21st century. The invited authors are from Argentina, Bermuda and Mexico. Future issues will track trends in Central Europe and the Middle East. JM.

  8. New England Wind Forum: A Wind Powering America Project - Newsletter #6 - September 2010, (NEWF)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grace, R.; Gifford, J.; Leeds, T.; Bauer, S.

    2010-09-01

    Wind Powering America program launched the New England Wind Forum (NEWF) in 2005 to provide a single comprehensive source of up-to-date, Web-based information on a broad array of wind energy issues pertaining to New England. The NEWF newsletter provides New England stakeholders with updates on wind energy development in the region.

  9. Bilingual Public Schooling in the United States: A History of America's "Polyglot Boardinghouse"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsey, Paul J.

    2010-01-01

    This history of one of the most contentious educational issues in America examines bilingual instruction in the United States from the common school era to the recent federal involvement in the 1960s and 1970s. Drawing from school reports, student narratives, legal resources, policy documents, and other primary sources, the work teases out the…

  10. Maintaining and Revitalising Indigenous Languages in Latin America: State Planning vs. Grassroots Initiatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hornberger, Nancy H.

    1999-01-01

    Introduces a collection of papers that address issues related to the maintenance and revitalization of indigenous languages in Latin and Central America. Two papers focus on the case of Quechua, another considers bilingual intercultural education to help sustain the Harakmbut languages in Peru, and the last considers one of three native language…

  11. Environmental impacts during geothermal development: Some examples from Central America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goff, S.; Goff, F.

    1997-04-01

    The impacts of geothermal development projects are usually positive. However, without appropriate monitoring plans and mitigation actions firmly incorporated into the project planning process, there exists the potential for significant negative environmental impacts. The authors present five examples from Central America of environmental impacts associated with geothermal development activities. These brief case studies describe landslide hazards, waste brine disposal, hydrothermal explosions, and air quality issues. Improved Environmental Impact Assessments are needed to assist the developing nations of the region to judiciously address the environmental consequences associated with geothermal development.

  12. Political Sociology of Agrobusiness: GMO and agrofuels in Latin America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gian Carlo Delgado

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available The type and “nature” of technological innovation sponsored by the agroindustry as a basis of its business, is a highly debated issue because of both, its uncertainty on ‘technical’ aspects and its socio-ecological impacts and implications. This paper reviews the case of the genetically modified organisms (GMO and its relation with the promotion of the agrofuel production business. The analysis offers a sociopolitical perspective, meaning the appraisal of the process of agreement and clash of agroindustry’s interests towards the socioecological limits of its projects. The main study case is Latin America.

  13. Political Sociology of Agrobusiness: GMO and agrofuels in Latin America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gian Carlo Delgado

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available  The type and “nature” of technological innovation sponsored by the agroindustry as a basis of its business, is a highly debated issue because of both, its uncertainty on ‘technical’ aspects and its socio-ecological impacts and implications. This paper reviews the case of the genetically modified organisms (GMO and its relation with the promotion of the agrofuel production business. The analysis offers a sociopolitical perspective, meaning the appraisal of the process of agreement and clash of agroindustry’s interests towards the socioecological limits of its projects. The main study case is Latin America.

  14. Globalization and new colonialities legitimization. Eight essential issues for debate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Eduardo Rulli

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The weakness of liberalism, the mirage of development, the new imperial units for Latin America and the role of the left are part of a necessary reflection. The article proposes a signaling point of the core issues of social structure that left extractivism in our region. The weakness of liberalism, the mirage of development, the new imperial units for Latin America and the role of the left are part of a necessary reflection.

  15. Terrestrial and freshwater Tardigrada of the Americas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Harry A

    2013-12-16

    This paper provides a comprehensive list of the freshwater and terrestrial tardigrade fauna reported from the Americas (North America, South America, Central America and the West Indies), their distribution in the Americas, and the substrates from which they have been reported. Data were obtained from 316 published references. Authors' identifications were accepted at face value unless subsequently amended. Taxa were assigned to sub-national units (states, provinces, etc.). Many areas, in particular large portions of Central America and the West Indies, have no reported tardigrade fauna.        The presence of 54 genera and 380 species has been reported for the Americas; 245 species have been collected in the Nearctic ecozone and 251 in the Neotropical ecozone. Among the tardigrade species found in the Americas, 52 are currently considered cosmopolitan, while 153 species have known distributions restricted to the Americas. Based on recent taxonomic revision of the genus Milnesium, the vast majority of records of M. tardigradum in the Americas should now be reassigned to Milnesium tardigradum sensu lato, either because the provided description differs from M. tardigradum sensu stricto or because insufficient description is provided to make a determination; the remainder should be considered Milnesium cf. tardigradum.        Most terrestrial tardigrade sampling in the Americas has focused on cryptogams (mosses, lichens and liverworts); 90% of the species have been collected in such substrates. The proportion of species collected in other habitats is lower: 14% in leaf litter, 20% in soil, and 24% in aquatic samples (in other terrestrial substrates the proportion never exceeds 5%). Most freshwater tardigrades have been collected from aquatic vegetation and sediment. For nine species in the Americas no substrates have been reported. 

  16. Environment, Politics and Governance in Latin America

    OpenAIRE

    Karen M. Siegel

    2016-01-01

    Environmental Governance in Latin America, edited by Fábio de Castro, Barbara Hogenboom, and Michiel Baud. Palgrave Macmillan, 2016.Environmental Politics in Latin America: Elite Dynamics, the Left Tide and Sustainable Development, edited by Benedicte Bull and Mariel Aguilar-Støen. Routledge, 2015.A Fragmented Continent: Latin America and the Global Politics of Climate Change, by Guy Edwards and J. Timmons Roberts. MIT Press, 2015.Ecuador’s Environmental Revolutions: Ecoimperialists, Ecodepen...

  17. Irrigation Water Management in Latin America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aureo S de Oliveira

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Latin American countries show a great potential for expanding their irrigated areas. Irrigation is important for strengthening local and regional economy and for enhancing food security. The present paper aimed at providing a brief review on key aspects of irrigation management in Latin America. Poor irrigation management can have great impact on crop production and on environment while good management reduces the waste of soil and water and help farmers maximizing their profits. It was found that additional research is needed to allow a better understanding of crop water requirements under Latin American conditions as well as to provide farmers with local derived information for irrigation scheduling. The advantages of deficit irrigation practices and the present and future opportunities with the application of remote sensing tools for water management were also considered. It is clear that due to the importance of irrigated agriculture, collaborative work among Latin American researchers and institutions is of paramount importance to face the challenges imposed by a growing population, environment degradation, and competition in the global market.

  18. Latin America: a development pole for phenomics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anyela Valentina Camargo Rodriguez

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC has long been associated with the production and export of a diverse range of agricultural commodities. Due to its strategic geographic location, which encompasses a wide range of climates, it is possible to produce almost any crop. The climate diversity in LAC is a major factor in its agricultural potential but this also means climate change represents a real threat to the region. Therefore, LAC farming must prepare and quickly adapt to a climate that is likely to feature long periods of drought, excessive rainfall and extreme temperatures. With the aim of moving towards a more resilient agriculture, LAC scientists have created the Latin American Plant Phenomics Network (LatPPN which focuses on LAC’s economically important crops. LatPPN’s key strategies to achieve its main goal are: 1 training of LAC members on plant phenomics and phenotyping, 2 establish international and multidisciplinary collaborations, 3 develop standards for data exchange and research protocols, 4 share equipment and infrastructure, 5 disseminate data and research results, 6 identify funding opportunities and 7 develop strategies to guarantee LatPPN’s relevance and sustainability across time. Despite the challenges ahead, LatPPN represents a big step forward towards the consolidation of a common mind-set in the field of plant phenotyping and phenomics in LAC.

  19. Latin America: A Development Pole for Phenomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camargo, Anyela V.; Lobos, Gustavo A.

    2016-01-01

    Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC) has long been associated with the production and export of a diverse range of agricultural commodities. Due to its strategic geographic location, which encompasses a wide range of climates, it is possible to produce almost any crop. The climate diversity in LAC is a major factor in its agricultural potential but this also means climate change represents a real threat to the region. Therefore, LAC farming must prepare and quickly adapt to an environment that is likely to feature long periods of drought, excessive rainfall and extreme temperatures. With the aim of moving toward a more resilient agriculture, LAC scientists have created the Latin American Plant Phenomics Network (LatPPN) which focuses on LAC's economically important crops. LatPPN's key strategies to achieve its main goal are: (1) training of LAC members on plant phenomics and phenotyping, (2) establish international and multidisciplinary collaborations, (3) develop standards for data exchange and research protocols, (4) share equipment and infrastructure, (5) disseminate data and research results, (6) identify funding opportunities and (7) develop strategies to guarantee LatPPN's relevance and sustainability across time. Despite the challenges ahead, LatPPN represents a big step forward toward the consolidation of a common mind-set in the field of plant phenotyping and phenomics in LAC. PMID:27999577

  20. Una visita en Sud America

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-09-01

    Oisfrute de una estadfa en el Hotel La Silla, el mejor hotel de Sud America con su tan unica atmosfera extraterrestre! Los espera su calificado personal de experimentados hoteleros, jefes de cocina, etc., ansiosos todos de satisfacer sus deseos hasta el mas mfnimo detalle. Naturalmente nuestro espacioso restaurant de tres estrellas ofrece un completo surtido de exquisitas comidas y deliciosos tragos (conocedores usualmente eligen "Oelicia Orion" 0 "Centauro Especial"). EI servicio cempleto durante 24 horas incluye nuestra ya mundialmente famosa "Cena de medianoche para los miradores de estrellas", por eso - no olvide: No pierda la oportunidad de una estadfa en EL HOTEL LA SILLA - una experiencia maravillosa!

  1. Convergence Patterns in Latin America

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Quiroga, Paola Andrea Barrientos

    Literature on convergence among Latin American countries is still scarce compared to other regions. Moreover, almost none of the research connects convergence to the economic history of Latin America and the usual finding is one speed of convergence. In this paper I analyze 32 countries and 108...... years, more observations than any other study. This long span of data allows me to use economic history to explain, analyze, validate, and understand the results of convergence patterns in the region. I find more than one speed of convergence (clubs) related to the known historical background, country...

  2. Animal leptospirosis in Latin America and the Caribbean countries: reported outbreaks and literature review (2002-2014).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrakovsky, Jessica; Bianchi, Alejandra; Fisun, Helen; Nájera-Aguilar, Patricia; Pereira, Martha Maria

    2014-10-16

    Leptospirosis is a worldwide zoonotic disease whose transmission is linked through multiple factors in the animal-human-ecosystem interface. The data on leptospirosis reported to the World Organization for Animal Health (OIE) for Latin America and Caribbean (LAC) countries/sovereign territories from 2005-2011 were mapped, showing a wide distribution of outbreaks in the region. Tropical terrestrial biomes are the predominate ecosystems showing reports of outbreaks. Climatic and ecological factors were relevant to the occurrence of epidemic outbreaks. The available scientific information from 2002-2014 was summarized to obtain a general overview and identify key issues related to the One Health approach. The primary serological test used for diagnosis and for conducting surveys was the microscopic agglutination test (MAT). Reports regarding the isolation and typing of leptospires were scattered and limited to data from a few countries, but their results revealed considerable biodiversity at the species and serovar levels. A total of six out of 11 currently named pathogenic species were found in the region. There was also high diversity of animal species showing evidence of infection by leptospires, including rodents, pets, livestock and wild animals. Prevention and control measures for leptospirosis should consider issues of animal and human health in the context of ecosystems, the territorial land borders of countries and trade.

  3. Animal Leptospirosis in Latin America and the Caribbean Countries: Reported Outbreaks and Literature Review (2002–2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Petrakovsky

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Leptospirosis is a worldwide zoonotic disease whose transmission is linked through multiple factors in the animal-human-ecosystem interface. The data on leptospirosis reported to the World Organization for Animal Health (OIE for Latin America and Caribbean (LAC countries/sovereign territories from 2005–2011 were mapped, showing a wide distribution of outbreaks in the region. Tropical terrestrial biomes are the predominate ecosystems showing reports of outbreaks. Climatic and ecological factors were relevant to the occurrence of epidemic outbreaks. The available scientific information from 2002–2014 was summarized to obtain a general overview and identify key issues related to the One Health approach. The primary serological test used for diagnosis and for conducting surveys was the microscopic agglutination test (MAT. Reports regarding the isolation and typing of leptospires were scattered and limited to data from a few countries, but their results revealed considerable biodiversity at the species and serovar levels. A total of six out of 11 currently named pathogenic species were found in the region. There was also high diversity of animal species showing evidence of infection by leptospires, including rodents, pets, livestock and wild animals. Prevention and control measures for leptospirosis should consider issues of animal and human health in the context of ecosystems, the territorial land borders of countries and trade.

  4. Building America Top Innovations 2012: House Simulation Protocols (the Building America Benchmark)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2013-01-01

    This Building America Top Innovations profile describes the DOE-sponsored House Simulation Protocols, which have helped ensure consistent and accurate energy-efficiency assessments for tens of thousands of new and retrofit homes supported by the Building America program.

  5. Data-driven diagnostics of terrestrial carbon dynamics over North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    The exchange of carbon dioxide is a key measure of ecosystem metabolism and a critical intersection between the terrestrial biosphere and the Earth's climate. Despite the general agreement that the terrestrial ecosystems in North America provide a sizeable carbon sink, the size and distribution of t...

  6. Summary of Prioritized Research Opportunities. Building America Planning Meeting, November 2-4, 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2011-02-01

    This report outlines the results of brainstorming sessions conducted at the Building America Fall 2010 planning meeting, in which research teams and national laboratories identified key research priorities to incorporate into multi-year planning, team research agendas, expert meetings, and technical standing committees.

  7. Inviting Schools in the United States of America and Hong Kong: An Appreciative Inquiry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steyn, Trudie

    2009-01-01

    This article is a follow-up on a previous quantitative study (Steyn, 2007) which explored key aspects that influenced the effective implementation of Invitational Education (IE) in schools in the United States of America (US) and Hong Kong (HK). This is a qualitative study in which an appreciative inquiry (AI) is used to explain staff's positive…

  8. What drives the high price of road freight transport in Central America ?

    OpenAIRE

    Osborne, Theresa; Pachon, Maria Claudia; Araya, Gonzalo Enrique

    2014-01-01

    In Central America, like many other developing regions, high transport costs are cited as an important impediment to trade and economic growth. Prices for road freight transport, a key mode of transport comprising a significant share of total transport costs for both intra, and extra, regional trade, are particularly high. Averaging 17 US cents per ton-kilometer on main trading routes, the...

  9. JPRS Report, Proliferation Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-24

    Power Plants [BANGKOK POST 18 Sep] .................................. 10 LATIN AMERICA ARGENTINA Sale of Nuclear Reactor to Egypt Confirmed [NOTICIAS...14 EGYPT U.S., Canada Oppose Purchase of Chinese Reactors [AL-SHA’B 18 Sep...interests Red Cross organisations of the two sides be opened and than reunification as a whole. the exchange of old parents’ visiting groups and art troupes

  10. JPRS Report, Proliferation Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-24

    YUGOSLAVIA FRG, CSFR, Austria Implicated in Arms Exports [Belgrade TV] .......................... 9 LATIN AMERICA ARGENTINA Former Official Denies...Alleged Purchase of Nuclear Weapons [NOTICIAS ARGENTINAS ] ...... 11 BRAZIL IAEA To Oversee Nuclear Agreement With Argentina [0 GLOBO 7 Jul...August 1991 2 Progress of Safeguards Accord With Argentina [0 GLOBO 7 Jul] .................................................. 12 Phases of Tim etable

  11. 76 FR 68047 - Making It Easier for America's Small Businesses and America's Exporters to Access Government...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-02

    ...-oriented web or mobile applications. (5) Agencies shall integrate BusinessUSA, including ready access to... Businesses and America's Exporters to Access Government Services to Help Them Grow and Hire #0; #0; #0... Easier for America's Small Businesses and America's Exporters to Access Government Services to Help...

  12. China to be Latin America's2nd largest trade partner in 2015

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Xnhua reported that China will become Latin America's second largest trade partner as early as in 2015,the UN Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean (ECLAC) said on September 8.Osvaldo Kacef,director of ECLAC's Economic Development Division,said the current China-Latin America trade volume has already reached that of Europe.

  13. 76 FR 14101 - Bruss North America; Russell Springs, KY; Bruss North America; Orion, MI; Amended Revised...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-15

    ... Employment and Training Administration Bruss North America; Russell Springs, KY; Bruss North America; Orion... Springs, Kentucky. The workers are engaged in the production of automobile parts and component parts. The... production of automobile parts at the Russell Springs, Kentucky location of Bruss North America. The...

  14. Gastroenterology training in Latin America

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Henry Cohen; Roque Saenz; Luiz E de Almeida Troncon; Maribel Lizarzabal; Carolina Olano

    2011-01-01

    Latin America is characterized by ethnic, geographical, cultural, and economic diversity; therefore, training in gastroenterology in the region must be considered in this context. The continent's medical education is characterized by a lack of standards and the volume of research continues to be relatively small. There is a multiplicity of events in general gastroenterology and in sub-disciplines, both at regional and local levels, which ensure that many colleagues have access to information. Medical education programs must be based on a clinical vision and be considered in close contact with the patients. The programs should be properly supervised, appropriately defined,and evaluated on a regular basis. The disparity between the patients' needs, the scarce resources available, and the pressures exerted by the health systems on doctors are frequent cited by those complaining of poor professionalism. Teaching development can play a critical role in ensuring the quality of teaching and learning in universities.Continuing professional development programs activities must be planned on the basis of the doctors' needs, with clearly defined objectives and using proper learning methodologies designed for adults. They must be evaluated and accredited by a competent body, so that they may become the basis of a professional regulatory system. The specialty has made progress in the last decades, offering doctors various possibilities for professional development. The world gastroenterology organization has contributed to the speciality through three distinctive, but closely inter-related, programs: Training Centers, Train-the-Trainers, and Global Guidelines, in which Latin America is deeply involved.

  15. Key Updating Methods for Combinatorial Design Based Key Management Schemes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chonghuan Xu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Wireless sensor network (WSN has become one of the most promising network technologies for many useful applications. However, for the lack of resources, it is different but important to ensure the security of the WSNs. Key management is a corner stone on which to build secure WSNs for it has a fundamental role in confidentiality, authentication, and so on. Combinatorial design theory has been used to generate good-designed key rings for each sensor node in WSNs. A large number of combinatorial design based key management schemes have been proposed but none of them have taken key updating into consideration. In this paper, we point out the essence of key updating for the unital design based key management scheme and propose two key updating methods; then, we conduct performance analysis on the two methods from three aspects; at last, we generalize the two methods to other combinatorial design based key management schemes and enhance the second method.

  16. Remote sensing of land degradation: experiences from Latin America and the Caribbean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metternicht, G; Zinck, J A; Blanco, P D; del Valle, H F

    2010-01-01

    Land degradation caused by deforestation, overgrazing, and inappropriate irrigation practices affects about 16% of Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC). This paper addresses issues related to the application of remote sensing technologies for the identification and mapping of land degradation features, with special attention to the LAC region. The contribution of remote sensing to mapping land degradation is analyzed from the compilation of a large set of research papers published between the 1980s and 2009, dealing with water and wind erosion, salinization, and changes of vegetation cover. The analysis undertaken found that Landsat series (MSS, TM, ETM+) are the most commonly used data source (49% of the papers report their use), followed by aerial photographs (39%), and microwave sensing (ERS, JERS-1, Radarsat) (27%). About 43% of the works analyzed use multi-scale, multi-sensor, multi-spectral approaches for mapping degraded areas, with a combination of visual interpretation and advanced image processing techniques. The use of more expensive hyperspectral and/or very high spatial resolution sensors like AVIRIS, Hyperion, SPOT-5, and IKONOS tends to be limited to small surface areas. The key issue of indicators that can directly or indirectly help recognize land degradation features in the visible, infrared, and microwave regions of the electromagnetic spectrum are discussed. Factors considered when selecting indicators for establishing land degradation baselines include, among others, the mapping scale, the spectral characteristics of the sensors, and the time of image acquisition. The validation methods used to assess the accuracy of maps produced with satellite data are discussed as well.

  17. A threshold key escrow scheme based on public key cryptosystem

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    In key escrow field it is important to solve the problem thatuser's secret key completely depends on the trusted escrow agency. In 1995, some methods of solving the problem were presented. But these methods are no better than that of directly using threshold cryptography. In this paper, we present a common pattern of threshold key escrow scheme based on public key cryptosystem, and a detailed design based on the improved RSA algorithm is given. The above problem is solved by this scheme.

  18. Aquatic risk assessment of pesticides in Latin America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carriquiriborde, Pedro; Mirabella, Paula; Waichman, Andrea; Solomon, Keith; Van den Brink, Paul J; Maund, Steve

    2014-10-01

    Latin America is anticipated to be a major growth market for agriculture and production is increasing with use of technologies such as pesticides. Reports of contamination of aquatic ecosystems by pesticides in Latin America have raised concerns about potential for adverse ecological effects. In the registration process of pesticides, all countries require significant data packages on aquatic toxicology and environmental fate. However, there are usually no specific requirements to conduct an aquatic risk assessment. To address this issue, the Society of Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry organized a workshop that brought together scientists from academia, government, and industry to review and elaborate on aquatic risk assessment frameworks that can be implemented into regulation of pesticides in Latin America. The workshop concluded that the international framework for risk assessments (protection goals, effects, and exposure assessments, risk characterization, and risk mitigation) is broadly applicable in Latin America but needs further refinement for the use in the region. Some of the challenges associated with these refinements are discussed in the article. It was recognized that there is potential for data sharing both within and outside of the region where conditions are similar. However, there is a need for research to compare local species and environmental conditions to those in other jurisdictions to be able to evaluate the applicability of data used in other countries. Development should also focus on human resources as there is a need to build local capacity and capability, and scientific collaboration and exchange between stakeholders in industry, government, and academia is also important. The meeting also emphasized that, although establishing a regionally relevant risk assessment framework is important, this also needs to be accompanied by enforcement of developed regulations and good management practices to help protect aquatic habitats

  19. Manufacturing plant control challenges and issues

    OpenAIRE

    Morel, Gérard; Valckenaers, Paul; Faure, Jean-Marc; Pereira, Carlos Eduardo; Diedrich, Christian

    2007-01-01

    International audience; Enterprise control system integration between business systems, manufacturing execution systems and shop-floor process-control systems remains a key issue for facilitating the deployment of plant-wide information control systems for practical e-business-to-manufacturing industry-led issues. Achievement of the integration-in-manufacturing paradigm based on centralized/distributed hardware/software automation architectures is evolving using the intelligence-in-manufactur...

  20. Ethical issues in animal cloning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiester, Autumn

    2005-01-01

    The issue of human reproductive cloning has recently received a great deal attention in public discourse. Bioethicists, policy makers, and the media have been quick to identify the key ethical issues involved in human reproductive cloning and to argue, almost unanimously, for an international ban on such attempts. Meanwhile, scientists have proceeded with extensive research agendas in the cloning of animals. Despite this research, there has been little public discussion of the ethical issues raised by animal cloning projects. Polling data show that the public is decidedly against the cloning of animals. To understand the public's reaction and fill the void of reasoned debate about the issue, we need to review the possible objections to animal cloning and assess the merits of the anti-animal cloning stance. Some objections to animal cloning (e.g., the impact of cloning on the population of unwanted animals) can be easily addressed, while others (e.g., the health of cloned animals) require more serious attention by the public and policy makers.