WorldWideScience

Sample records for america key issues

  1. Recent hydrocarbon developments in Latin America: Key issues in the downstream oil sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report discusses the following: (1) An overview of major issues in the downstream oil sector, including oil demand and product export availability, the changing product consumption pattern, and refineries being due for major investment; (2) Recent upstream developments in the oil and gas sector in Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, Mexico, Peru, Trinidad and Tobago, and Venezuela; (3) Recent downstream developments in the oil and gas sector in Argentina, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, Mexico, Peru, Cuba, and Venezuela; (4) Pipelines in Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, and Mexico; and (5) Regional energy balance. 4 figs., 5 tabs

  2. Recent hydrocarbon developments in Latin America: Key issues in the downstream oil sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, K.; Pezeshki, S.

    1995-03-01

    This report discusses the following: (1) An overview of major issues in the downstream oil sector, including oil demand and product export availability, the changing product consumption pattern, and refineries being due for major investment; (2) Recent upstream developments in the oil and gas sector in Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, Mexico, Peru, Trinidad and Tobago, and Venezuela; (3) Recent downstream developments in the oil and gas sector in Argentina, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, Mexico, Peru, Cuba, and Venezuela; (4) Pipelines in Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, and Mexico; and (5) Regional energy balance. 4 figs., 5 tabs.

  3. Key issues in managed competition.

    OpenAIRE

    Shapiro, D W

    1994-01-01

    All managed competition proposals for health system reform must confront several key issues. The premiums paid to health care purchasing cooperatives will need to be subsidized for those who cannot pay full fare; the amount and sources of the subsidies are controversial political issues. The payments passed on by purchasing cooperatives to health plans must be risk adjusted to account for differences in the health care needs of their enrolled populations. This is essential to create a level p...

  4. Key issues in transplant tourism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akoh, Jacob A

    2012-02-24

    Access to organ transplantation depends on national circumstances, and is partly determined by the cost of health care, availability of transplant services, the level of technical capacity and the availability of organs. Commercial transplantation is estimated to account for 5%-10% (3500-7000) of kidney transplants performed annually throughout the world. This review is to determine the state and outcome of renal transplantation associated with transplant tourism (TT) and the key challenges with such transplantation. The stakeholders of commercial transplantation include: patients on the waiting lists in developed countries or not on any list in developing countries; dialysis funding bodies; middlemen, hosting transplant centres; organ-exporting countries; and organ vendors. TT and commercial kidney transplants are associated with a high incidence of surgical complications, acute rejection and invasive infection which cause major morbidity and mortality. There are ethical and medical concerns regarding the management of recipients of organs from vendors. The growing demand for transplantation, the perceived failure of altruistic donation in providing enough organs has led to calls for a legalised market in organ procurement or regulated trial in incentives for donation. Developing transplant services worldwide has many benefits - improving results of transplantation as they would be performed legally, increasing the donor pool and making TT unnecessary. Meanwhile there is a need to re-examine intrinsic attitudes to TT bearing in mind the cultural and economic realities of globalisation. Perhaps the World Health Organization in conjunction with The Transplantation Society would set up a working party of stakeholders to study this matter in greater detail and make recommendations. PMID:24175191

  5. America after 3PM: Key Findings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afterschool Alliance, 2009

    2009-01-01

    Each day in America, millions of kids go home to an empty house after school. In recent years, the growth of quality, affordable afterschool programs--programs that keep kids safe, inspire learning and help working families--has begun to offer parents of these children positive alternatives. Over the past five years, afterschool programs have…

  6. Key issues for watermarking digital images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Augot, Daniel; Fontaine, Chantal

    1998-09-01

    This paper discusses secure architecture and protocols of managing Intellectual Property Rights in distributed content databases in a close environment. This discussion has been conducted within the European project AQUARELLE. This paper presents a short survey of watermarking technologies and focuses on functionalities offered by such techniques. We propose the terms of watermarking, fingerprinting and monitoring. For our implementation, we have worked with the Universite catholique de Louvain (UCL). This work is joint work with Jean-Francois Delaigle. Next we focus mainly on keys issues, and conclude that a trusted third party is needed to establish a verification service of watermarks. Next the DHWM key exchange is presented, based on the simple idea that watermarking and verification can be separated. This scheme uses the Diffie-Hellman key-exchange protocol. Next some hints on the implementation of the scheme and on its correctness are given.

  7. Ocean energy: key legal issues and challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ocean energy is a novel renewable energy resource being developed as part of the push towards a 'Blue Economy'. The literature on ocean energy has focused on technical, environmental, and, increasingly, social and political aspects. Legal and regulatory factors have received less attention, despite their importance in supporting this new technology and ensuring its sustainable development. In this Issue Brief, we set out some key legal challenges for the development of ocean energy technologies, structured around the following core themes of marine governance: (i) international law; (ii) environmental impacts; (iii) rights and ownership; (iv) consenting processes; and (v) management of marine space and resources. (authors)

  8. The Distributive Issue in Latin America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueroa, Adolfo

    1996-01-01

    Presents the central features of an economic theory of social equilibrium based on the theory of distributive equilibrium. Uses the situation in Latin America in the 1980s and 1990s to test the validity of the theory. Argues that excessive inequality cripples sustained growth and democratic movements. (MJP)

  9. Special Issue on Labor in the Americas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornfield, Daniel B.; And Others

    1997-01-01

    Includes "Labor Transnationalism?" (Cornfield); "Globalization and International Labor Organizing" (Boswell, Stevis); "Trade Unions and European Integration" (Hyman); "Trade Policy and Southern Economy" (Margo, Griffin); "Institutionalization of the Sociology of Work in Latin America" (Abramo et al.); "Impact of the Movement toward Hemispheric…

  10. Education Issues in Rural Schools of America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harmon, Hobart L.

    To have an impact on rural schools and communities, education researchers and reformers must stop approaching rural issues from an urban perspective, adopt a perspective that values rurality, and address issues specific to the rural context. Rural schools have contributed to the depletion of rural communities by focusing on individual mobility and…

  11. Key Issues in Global Technological Innovation Projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Sbragia

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This article aimed to identify those issues that were present in global technological innovation projects carried out by Brazilian multinational companies and which performance criterions these undertakings met. We investigated 36 global technological innovation projects from Brazilian multinational enterprises through a web-survey. Findings show that these companies went beyond the traditional iron triangle to evaluate their technological efforts and considered additional performance dimensions such as customer satisfaction, business results, and preparation for the future. Results also show high degree of presence for issues emerging from the industry, moderate degree of presence for issues emerging from both the project and R&D activities, and low degree of presence for issues emerging from the headquarters, the subsidiaries, and the external environment. Further research is needed to find out if and how these issues influenced the performance of the global technological innovation projects studied.DOI:10.5585/gep.v3i1.72

  12. Key Issues in Business English Curriculum Design

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    计越波

    2009-01-01

    This article aims to explore the key factors involved in business English curriculum design and the ways of analyzing the needs of teachers and students,course design as well as the teaching strategies.

  13. Internationalizing Business Education in Latin America: Issues and Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elahee, Mohammad; Norbis, Mario

    2009-01-01

    This article examines the extent of internationalization of business education in Latin America and identifies the key challenges facing the Latin American business schools. Based on a survey of the business schools that are members of CLADEA (Consejo Latinoamericano de Escuelas de Administracion--Latin American Council of Management Schools), and…

  14. Risk Management of Key Issues of FPSO

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liping Sun; Hai Sun

    2012-01-01

    Risk analysis of key systems have become a growing topic late of because of the development of offshore structures. Equipment failures of offioading system and fire accidents were analyzed based on the floating production,storage and offioading (FPSO) features.Fault tree analysis (FTA),and failure modes and effects analysis (FMEA) methods were examined based on information already researched on modules of relex reliability studio (RRS).Equipment failures were also analyzed qualitatively by establishing a fault tree and Boolean structure function based on the shortage of failure cases,statistical data,and risk control measures examined.Failure modes of fire accident were classified according to the different areas of fire occurrences during the FMEA process,using risk priority number (RPN) methods to evaluate their severity rank.The qualitative analysis of FTA gave the basic insight of forming the failure modes of FPSO offioading,and the fire FMEA gave the priorities and suggested processes.The research has practical importance for the security analysis problems of FPSO.

  15. Key issues for sustainable urban stormwater management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, A E; Fernandes, J N; David, L M

    2012-12-15

    Since ancient times, it is understood that stormwater from constructed areas should be managed somehow. Waste and pollution transported by stormwater poses quantity and quality problems, affecting public health and the quality of the environment. Sanitation infrastructures in urbanized regions have different development levels and the perception of stormwater changed considerably during the centuries and especially in recent years. Still, there is an evident worldwide heterogeneity when analyzing the lack of studies on urban stormwater conducted in some Asian or African countries. Strategies for sustainable stormwater management are needed at different decision levels (political, regional or local scale, for instance) but all of them need information and a clear understanding of the possibilities that are at stake as well as the main consequences of each decision. A sound approach to stormwater management should be flexible, based on local characteristics, and should take into consideration temporal, spatial and administrative factors and law, among other issues. Economic or technical constraints define different decision scenarios. Best Management Practices should be seen as an opportunity for development and improvement of social, educational and environmental conditions in urbanized and surrounding areas. Therefore they require an ample perspective and the participation of different stakeholders. High-quality decision needs time and a fair overview of the problem: the purpose of this document is to contribute to sustainable stormwater management, informing on the most relevant factors that should be assessed and their interaction. A flowchart has been produced and is presented, indicating the most relevant steps, processes and information that should be taken into account in urban development. PMID:22687523

  16. Key Information Systems Issues: An Analysis of MIS Publications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palvia, Prashant C.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Presents results of a content analysis of journal articles discussing management information systems (MIS) that was conducted to identify, classify, and prioritize the key issues; to perform a trend analysis; and to compare results with previous studies. Twenty-six key issues are ranked according to frequency of occurrence. Contains 52 references.…

  17. Information Systems Management: an Australasian view of key issues - 1996

    OpenAIRE

    Graham Pervan

    1997-01-01

    As part of a longitudinal study of key information systems management issues, a survey of Australasia's largest 500 organisations was conducted to identify which issues were perceived by the IS executives as being important, problematic and critical over the next three to five years. The most critical issues were revealed to be a mix of technology management issues (IT infrastructure, communications, disaster recovery), strategic management issues (competitive advantage, IS planning, aligning...

  18. Information Systems Management: an Australian view of the key issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graham Pervan

    1994-05-01

    Full Text Available Studies investigating the key issues in IS management serve to better understand the concerns of IS managers and help to guide IS researchers in choosing IS management problems worthy of investigation. This paper presents results from a study of the key issues facing the IS managers of Australia's largest 300 organisations which is part of a three-yearly longitudinal study. In order to gain consensus on the relative importance of the key issues, a three-round Delphi method was applied. The results reveal that IS strategic planning continues to be the paramount issue in our industry, as are many issues associated with IS strategic planning, including responsiveness of the IT infrastructure, effective use of the data resource, IS for competitive advantage, and a comprehensive information architecture. A greater emphasis on quality is also revealed in highly rated issues such as effective use of the data resource, data integrity and quality assurance, and the quality of software development

  19. Information Systems Management: an Australian view of the key issues

    OpenAIRE

    Graham Pervan

    1994-01-01

    Studies investigating the key issues in IS management serve to better understand the concerns of IS managers and help to guide IS researchers in choosing IS management problems worthy of investigation. This paper presents results from a study of the key issues facing the IS managers of Australia's largest 300 organisations which is part of a three-yearly longitudinal study. In order to gain consensus on the relative importance of the key issues, a three-round Delphi method was applied. The re...

  20. The key issues facing the electricity systems of developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report covers a common project designed to investigate the major issues and possible future direction in the electricity systems of developing countries in AFRICA, ASIA and LATIN AMERICA. Individual centres each had responsibility for preparing a detailed report on the experiences and issues in their own country plus a regional report, in less detail, to cover neighbouring countries. In this disaggregated way, a picture of the whole of the developing world (with the exception of the Middle East, the problems of which are in some ways distinct from those of other developing countries) has been built up. 30 Refs.; 14 Figs.; 33 Tabs

  1. Diaspora Effects in International Migration : Key Questions and Methodological Issues

    OpenAIRE

    Beine, Michel; Docquier, Frederic; Ozden, Caglar

    2010-01-01

    This paper reviews the existing literature on the impact of migrants networks on the patterns of international migration. It covers the theoretical channels at stake in the global effect of the networks. It identifies the key issues, namely the impact on size, selection and concentration of the migration flows. The paper also reviews the empirical hurdles that the researchers face in assessing the importance of networks. The key issues concern the choice of micro vs a macro approach, the defi...

  2. Key Challenges to Collegiate Music Education Programs in North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Patrick M.

    2012-01-01

    Higher education is the linchpin of music education in North America. It is primarily in collegiate institutions that music teachers are educated throughout the life cycles of their careers. This begins with preservice programs, typically at the baccalaureate level, and continues with in-service professional development and graduate degree…

  3. Teacher-Student Sexual Relations: Key Risks and Ethical Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sikes, Pat

    2010-01-01

    Researching actual or purported sexual contact between teachers and students raises many difficult ethical issues, questions and dilemmas, which may help to explain why few have ventured into the field. This experientially based paper addresses key problem areas under the headings of: the ethics of researching a sensitive taboo topic; the ethics…

  4. Key Issues in the External Financing of Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurst, Paul

    1983-01-01

    Seven key issues regarding the external funding of education in developing countries are identified and discussed. These include the advisability of accepting western aid, the productivity of educated manpower, funding problems, the efficiency of educational institutions, the donor-recipient relationship, curriculum relevance, and equity in…

  5. Diaspora Effects in International Migration: Key Questions and Methodological Issues

    OpenAIRE

    Beine, Michel; Docquier, Frederic; Ozden, Caglar

    2010-01-01

    This paper reviews the existing literature on the impact of migrants networks on the patterns of international migration. It covers the theoretical channels at stake in the global effect of the networks. It identifies the key issues, namely the impact on size, selection and concentration of the migration flows. The paper also reviews the empirical hurdles that the researchers face in asses...

  6. Social Work Practice with Latinos: Key Issues for Social Workers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furman, Rich; Negi, Nalini Junko; Iwamoto, Derek Kenji; Rowan, Diana; Shukraft, Allison; Gragg, Jennifer

    2009-01-01

    The Latino population is the fastest growing group in the United States; thus, it is imperative that social workers and other mental health practitioners be knowledgeable about the current literature on how to effectively serve this population. This article elucidates key issues and knowledge, such as immigration and migration concerns; discusses…

  7. Current status and key issues of nuclear liability regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear liability regime has been established from the beginning of the nuclear power industry. The first nuclear accident with major transboundary consequences occurred at Chernobyl, and led to reexamination of the nuclear liability regime. Current status and key issues of the national and international nuclear liability regime are reviewed. (author)

  8. Energy policy issues in Latin America and the Caribbean

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez-Sierra, G. (Latin American Energy Organisation OLADE, Quito (Ecuador))

    1994-10-01

    Whilst recognising that the reduction of poverty levels in developing countries takes precedence to the improvement and protection of the environment, the author comments that any efforts geared to fostering socioeconomic development will indirectly address the environment issue. The aims of a broad strategy and a more specific energy strategy geared at fostering sustainable development in Latin America are discussed. It is suggested that development of hydropower should continue, that the share of natural gas in the regional energy balance be increased and that efforts be put into increasing energy efficiency and improving utilization technologies. Promotion of energy projects that generate employment, promotion of projects for the use of biomass as an energy source, and implementation of a series of joint ventures are ideas advocated. Possibilities of cooperation between the Latin American Energy Organization (OLADE) and the Dutch government are aired.

  9. Information Systems Management: an Australasian view of key issues - 1996

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graham Pervan

    1997-11-01

    Full Text Available As part of a longitudinal study of key information systems management issues, a survey of Australasia's largest 500 organisations was conducted to identify which issues were perceived by the IS executives as being important, problematic and critical over the next three to five years. The most critical issues were revealed to be a mix of technology management issues (IT infrastructure, communications, disaster recovery, strategic management issues (competitive advantage, IS planning, aligning the IS organisation, people management issues (organisational learning, educating senior management in IT, systems development and data management issues (effective use of the data resource, and end-user computing. This reflects the need for a balance of business, technical, and people skills in an IS executive. Non-critical issues were mostly related to systems development and the individual technologies which must be integrated and managed to ensure a responsive IT infrastructure. The study also reveals that some issues are much more important than problematic (disaster recovery, competitive advantage, information architecture, and IS alignment while others are much more problematic than important (end-user computing, IS role and contribution, and BPR. The former reflects a growing level of knowledge in handling these issues, while the latter reflects a continuing problem with them. The differences between this study and similar studies conducted in 1988 and 1992 show that there is a growing confidence in the IS executive's ability to manage the strategic issues, a continuing concern about providing a responsive IT infrastructure (especially communications, and a continuing concern with educating all 'customers' in the organisation in the effective use of IT, including senior management.

  10. Key issues and open questions in GMO controls

    OpenAIRE

    Bertheau, Yves; Davison, John; Holst-Jensen, A.; Taverniers, I.

    2005-01-01

    The introduction of genetically modifi ed organisms (GMO) induced the implementation of a set of regulations in Europe as well as in other countries. These regulations were meant to provide a freedom for the consumers to choose the products they want. Analytical methods and traceability shall ensure the reliability of the labelling, a requirement that is not always easy to meet. Technical, fi nancial and other challenges to labelling reliability are among the key issues in the GMO detect...

  11. Human Health Effects of Trichloroethylene: Key Findings and Scientific Issues

    OpenAIRE

    Chiu, Weihsueh A.; Jinot, Jennifer; Scott, Cheryl Siegel; Makris, Susan L.; Cooper, Glinda S.; Dzubow, Rebecca C.; Bale, Ambuja S.; Evans, Marina V.; Guyton, Kathryn Z.; Keshava, Nagalakshmi; Lipscomb, John C.; Barone, Stanley; Fox, John F.; Gwinn, Maureen R.; Schaum, John

    2012-01-01

    Background: In support of the Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS), the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) completed a toxicological review of trichloroethylene (TCE) in September 2011, which was the result of an effort spanning > 20 years. Objectives: We summarized the key findings and scientific issues regarding the human health effects of TCE in the U.S. EPA’s toxicological review. Methods: In this assessment we synthesized and characterized thousands of epidemiologic, experim...

  12. Arctic Freshwater Synthesis: Summary of key emerging issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prowse, T.; Bring, A.; Mârd, J.; Carmack, E.; Holland, M.; Instanes, A.; Vihma, T.; Wrona, F. J.

    2015-10-01

    In response to a joint request from the World Climate Research Program's Climate and Cryosphere Project, the International Arctic Science Committee, and the Arctic Council's Arctic Monitoring and Assessment Program an updated scientific assessment has been conducted of the Arctic Freshwater System (AFS), entitled the Arctic Freshwater Synthesis (AFSΣ). The major reason behind the joint request was an increasing concern that changes to the AFS have produced, and could produce even greater, changes to biogeophysical and socioeconomic systems of special importance to northern residents and also produce extra-Arctic climatic effects that will have global consequences. The AFSΣ was structured around six key thematic areas: atmosphere, oceans, terrestrial hydrology, terrestrial ecology, resources, and modeling, the review of each coauthored by an international group of scientists and published as separate manuscripts in this special issue of Journal of Geophysical Research-Biogeosciences. This AFSΣ summary manuscript reviews key issues that emerged during the conduct of the synthesis, especially those that are cross-thematic in nature, and identifies future research required to address such issues.

  13. Nanotechnologies for Climate Friendly Construction - Key Issues and Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, M. M.; Geiker, M. R.

    Expectations as to the climate potentials of nanotechnology are high, none the least related to the construction sector. This paper seeks to highlight key aspects in the early development and application of eco-innovative nanotech solutions in the construction sector, “nanoconstruction”. The paper provides a framework for addressing relevant issues of green nanoconstruction and takes stock of current challenges. Eco-innovative nanoconstruction has the potential to simultaneously enhance the competitiveness and climate potential of the construction sector and could become a key strategic factor for the sector ahead. However, the considerable lack of knowledge both on the eco-opportunities and risks of nanoconstruction and the industrial dynamics involved forms a serious barrier for pursuing nanoconstruction as a serious strategic target for business and policy.

  14. The Key Issues of Labor Migration in the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie JELINKOVA

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to highlight some often occurring failures that need to be eliminated when attempting to develop an integral and efficient policy on labor migration. As an example, a brief overview of the development of immigration policies and its critical shortcomings in the Czech Republic is provided. Following this, the paper analyzes two aspects: the protection of migrant workers and the trafficking in human beings. In particular, the paper deals with three crucial issues of labor migration which are: (1 the inconsistent aims of immigration policies, (2 the client system, and (3 the dependence on middlemen. The paper also focuses on the role of state, police, and NGO’s in the trafficking in human beings and forced labor or labor exploitation in the Czech Republic. In addition, the legislation on forced labor and the possibilities of assistance to trafficked person are analyzed.By comparing various aspects of immigration policy, this paper covers some, but certainly not all, of the key issues concerning the process of immigrant integration. Several suggestions are made that could improve the situation of labor migrants in a significant way.

  15. Rainfall variability and predictability issues for North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, B. G.

    2016-04-01

    A multi-millennial simulation with a coupled global climatic model has been used to investigate extreme rainfall events, mainly droughts, over North America. A rainfall index, based on the US Dust Bowl region, was used to generate a time series from which the extreme events could be identified. A very wide range of drought and pluvial multiyear sequences was obtained, all attributable to internal climatic variability. This time series reproduced the basic characteristics of the corresponding observed time series. Composites of years with negative rainfall anomalies over North America from the simulation replicated the observed rainfall composite for the Dust Bowl era, both in spatial character and intensity. Examination of individual years of a simulated composite revealed not only a wide range of rainfall anomaly patterns, dominated by drought conditions, but also ENSO distributions that included El Niño events as well as the expected La Niña events. Composites for pluvial conditions over North America were associated with composited El Niño events, as expected. Correlation of the simulated Dust Bowl rainfall with global surface temperatures identified a principal connection with the ENSO region. No systematic relationship was obtained in the simulation between the Atlantic multidecadal oscillation and Dust Bowl region rainfall, with the simulated oscillation having a much more variable periodicity than that found in the limited observations. However, a marked connection was found for SST anomalies adjacent to the northeast coast of North America, but this appears to be forced by ENSO events. A scatter diagram of NINO3.4 SST anomalies with the Dust Bowl region rainfall anomalies, for observations and the simulation, revealed inconsistencies between the occurrence of an ENSO event and the "expected" rainfall anomaly. This, and other analysis, resulted in the conclusion that annual or longer term rainfall predictions over North America, with any systematic

  16. Adult attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder: key conceptual issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asherson, Philip; Buitelaar, Jan; Faraone, Stephen V; Rohde, Luis A

    2016-06-01

    For many years, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) was thought to be a childhood-onset disorder that has a limited effect on adult psychopathology. However, the symptoms and impairments that define ADHD often affect the adult population, with similar responses to drugs such as methylphenidate, dexamphetamine, and atomoxetine, and psychosocial interventions, to those seen in children and adolescents. As a result, awareness of ADHD in adults has rapidly increased and new clinical practice has emerged across the world. Despite this progress, treatment of adult ADHD in Europe and many other regions of the world is not yet common practice, and diagnostic services are often unavailable or restricted to a few specialist centres. This situation is remarkable given the strong evidence base for safe and effective treatments. Here we address some of the key conceptual issues surrounding the diagnosis of ADHD relevant to practising health-care professionals working with adult populations. We conclude that ADHD should be recognised in the same way as other common adult mental health disorders, and that failure to recognise and treat ADHD is detrimental to the wellbeing of many patients seeking help for common mental health problems. PMID:27183901

  17. Key issues on safety design basis selection and safety assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In current fast reactor design in Japan, four design accident conditions and four design seismic conditions are adopted as the design base classifications. These are classified by the considerations on both likelihood of occurrence and the severeness of the consequences. There are several major problem areas in safety design consideration such as core accident problems which include fuel sodium interaction, fuel failure propagation and residual decay heat removal, and decay heat removal systems problems which is more or less the problem of selection of appropriate system and of assurance of high reliability of the system. In view of licensing, two kinds of accidents are postulated in evaluating the adequacy of a reactor site. The one is the ''major accident'' which is the accident to give most severe radiation hazard to the public from technical point of view. The other is the ''hypothetical accident'', induced public accident of which is severer than that of major accident. While the concept of the former is rather unique to Japanese licensing, the latter is almost equivalent to design base hypothetical accident of the US practice. In this paper, design bases selections, key safety issues and some of the licensing considerations in Japan are described

  18. Key issues of ultraviolet radiation of OH at high altitudes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ultraviolet (UV) emissions radiated by hydroxyl (OH) is one of the fundamental elements in the prediction of radiation signature of high-altitude and high-speed vehicle. In this work, the OH A2Σ+→X2Π ultraviolet emission band behind the bow shock is computed under the experimental condition of the second bow-shock ultraviolet flight (BSUV-2). Four related key issues are discussed, namely, the source of hydrogen element in the high-altitude atmosphere, the formation mechanism of OH species, efficient computational algorithm of trace species in rarefied flows, and accurate calculation of OH emission spectra. Firstly, by analyzing the typical atmospheric model, the vertical distributions of the number densities of different species containing hydrogen element are given. According to the different dominating species containing hydrogen element, the atmosphere is divided into three zones, and the formation mechanism of OH species is analyzed in the different zones. The direct simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) method and the Navier-Stokes equations are employed to compute the number densities of the different OH electronically and vibrationally excited states. Different to the previous work, the trace species separation (TSS) algorithm is applied twice in order to accurately calculate the densities of OH species and its excited states. Using a non-equilibrium radiation model, the OH ultraviolet emission spectra and intensity at different altitudes are computed, and good agreement is obtained with the flight measured data

  19. Trends between 1973 and 1988: Summary and key issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The preceding chapters considered the evolution of activity, structure, energy intensity, and energy use between the early 1970s and 1988 for the manufacturing, transportation, residential, and service sectors. In this chapter, the author summarizes the changes that have taken place, and presents results of a cross-sectoral analysis of the effect of change in sectoral activity, structure, and energy intensity on energy use in the three largest OECD economies: the United States, Japan, and West Germany. He also addresses a number of key issues that have important implications for future energy use in the OECD countries and elsewhere. Between 1973 and 1988, final energy use in the five sectors studied (which account for around 90% of total energy use) grew by 3% in the United, States, 15% in Japan, and 3% in West Germany. Energy use in manufacturing declined by 10-20% in each country. Energy use for passenger travel grew by only 11% in the United States, but rose by 76% in Japan and by 56% in West Germany. There was moderate to strong growth in freight energy use in all three countries. There was very high growth in residential and services energy use in Japan, and moderate growth in these sectors in the United States and West Germany. 12 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs

  20. Black Populations and Identity Issues in Latin America

    OpenAIRE

    Peter Wade

    2008-01-01

    In this article, I explore the basis for black identity in Latin America. I begin with a general consideration of the position of black populations in the framework of Latin American nationalism, taking into account the transnational dimensions of this position and then analyzing in theoretical terms the tension between particularism and universalism in ideologies of nationalism and racism. In the second part of the article, I examine some concrete historical cases of Afrodescendent mobilizat...

  1. Key issues for numerical methods in neptune project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    approximate Riemann solvers (in order to cope with vanishing phases). The latter five obviously aim at improving accuracy, stability and also at reducing CPU time. A few examples will enable to highlight the main advantages and possible drawbacks of these new developments, and the impact of the current and future increasing computational facilities. Main past achievements, and key points of current and future work on all these issues will be discussed. All available references will be given in order to help the reader getting a more accurate insight on these various contributions. The whole has clearly benefited from contributions of several PhD students: Thomas Fortin, Vincent Guillemaud, Olivier Hurisse, Angelo Muronne, Isabelle Ramiere, Jean-Michel Rovarch and Nicolas Seguin. (authors)

  2. Transparency and dialogue: the keys of nuclear transport issue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Today, public opinion, local actors, organizations and associations are expecting a transparent information on nuclear activities. The fact is, a great number already has daily instant access to information and is able to share it very quickly, thanks to new technologies. Public opinion's sensitiveness is growing, and risk remains at the center of public concerns. The discrepancy between objectively assessed risks and perceived risks is a permanent challenge for Acceptance of nuclear energy. The opponents are also using it, to build their misleading strategy. When anti-nuclear groups are claiming for an increasing involvement in the decision making processes, they also get there the most efficient means to tackle our activities, namely operational information on the nuclear transport activities. In this specific context, two key events have implied a nationally concerted and additional effort in order to supplement 'transparency', in 2001 and 2003. As an example, let's focus on the resumption of nuclear transport between Germany and France. In May 2001, locals concerns were expressed, particularly in Alsace (France), a region which is regarded as the 'gate' to/from Germany for nuclear materials transportation (Spent Fuel and High Active waste from/to France and United Kingdom). Firstly, mayors had expressed the need to be more informed on our activities. As a consequence, we have participated in an information Committee in Strasbourg, involving Authorities, Mayors, media and industries. Secondly, French Authorities, as well as industry representatives, were invited to present a more detailed information on nuclear transport activities at the Annual French Mayors Congress, in November 2001. In 2003, anti-nuclear organizations have focussed their actions on sensitive material activities, and launched a new dedicated website (with an attempt of unveiling the truck's registration numbers as well as the nature and details of their content and routes). Early last year

  3. Offshore wind power experiences, potential and key issues for deployment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lemming, J.; Morthorst, P.E.; Clausen, Niels-Erik

    2009-01-15

    Wind power has been growing at spectacular rates. Today it is the largest non-hydro renewable power technology. Worldwide there is 74 GW of installed capacity which is 1.7% of power generation capacity and in 2006 it accounted for 0.82% of electricity production. However, offshore wind still only counts for a very small amount and development has only taken place in North European counties round the North Sea and the Baltic Sea over the last 15 years. Offshore wind is still some 50% more expensive than onshore wind, but more wind resources and lesser visual impacts from larger turbines are expected to compensate for the higher installation costs in the long term. Most offshore wind farms are installed in British, Swedish and Danish waters, and present-day costs of installing wind energy in the UK are between 1,200 to 1,600 GBP/kW (1,781 to 2,375 Euro/kW) offshore, while in Sweden investment costs were 1,800 Euro/kW, and in Denmark 1,200 to 1,700 Euro/kW, though investment costs for a new wind farm are expected be in the range of 2.0 to 2.2 mill. Euro/MW for a near-shore shallow depth facility. Future developments in offshore wind technology concerning aerodynamics, structural dynamics, structural design, machine elements, electrical design and grid integration could drive investment costs from present-day range of 1.9 to 2.2 mill. Euro/MW down to 1.35 - 1.54 mill.Euro/MW in 2050, which accounts for a reduction of costs of approx. 35%. In order to sum up progress and identify future research needs, the International Energy Agency (IEA) Wind agreement Task 11 should arrange a new meeting concerning long term research needs for reviewing 'the long term strategy for 2000 to 2020' from 2001, to come up with suggestions / recommendations on how to define and proceed with, the necessary research activities of the IEA Wind Agreement and governments involved on key wind issues related to offshore technologies. (au)

  4. Black Populations and Identity Issues in Latin America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Wade

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available In this article, I explore the basis for black identity in Latin America. I begin with a general consideration of the position of black populations in the framework of Latin American nationalism, taking into account the transnational dimensions of this position and then analyzing in theoretical terms the tension between particularism and universalism in ideologies of nationalism and racism. In the second part of the article, I examine some concrete historical cases of Afrodescendent mobilization and/or opening towards racial diversity in order to evaluate these as bases for a Latin American black identity in general (the racial war in Cuba in 1912, the Frente Negra Brasileira of the 1930s, the Creoles in the Sandinista regime in Nicaragua, the official multiculturalism of various Latin American countries in the 1990s, and the image of “Africa” as the basis for Afrodescendant identification.

  5. Occupational Safety and Health in Latin America and the Caribbean: Overview, Issues and Policy Recommendations.

    OpenAIRE

    Roberto F. Iunes

    2002-01-01

    This policy brief addresses safety and security in the workplace in Latin America and the Caribbean. Occupational Safety and Health (OSH) issues have received little attention in Latin America and the Caribbean due to the widespread, and culturally rooted, lack of awareness regarding the importance of a safe and healthy work environment, and to the weakness of the institutions responsible for the promotion and enforcement of better working conditions. Work-generated illnesses, injuries and de...

  6. Implementing a Secure Key Issuing Scheme for Communication in P2P Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammed Azharuddin; Annapurna P Patil

    2012-01-01

    Key issuing scheme focuses on the confidentiality maintained in using the secret key for communicationin p2p networks. Identity based cryptography (IBC) was introduced into peer-to-peer (P2P) networks recently for identity verification and authentication purposes. However, current IBC-based solutions were not addressing the problem of secure private key issuing. In this paper we propose a novel secure key issuing scheme for P2P networks using IBC. We present an IBC infrastructure setup phase...

  7. Key Ethical Issues in Pediatric Research: Islamic Perspective Iranian Experience

    OpenAIRE

    Mina Mobasher; Pooneh Salari; Bagher Larijani

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The importance of pediatric research especially in the ethically proven trials resulted in considerable legislative attempts in association with compiling ethical guidelines. Because of children’s vulnerability conducting pediatric research raises different ethical issues; the two most important of which are informed consent and risk-benefit assessment. Differences in ethical standards and socio-cultural issues limit application of ethical standards.Methods: At the aim of finding a...

  8. Monetary Integration Issues in Latin America: A Multivariate Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Allegret Jean-Pierre; Sand-Zantman Alain

    2008-01-01

    This paper assesses the monetary consequences of the Latin-American integration process. Over the period 1991-2007, we analyze a sample of five Latin-Americancountries focusing on the feasibility of a monetary union between L.A. economies. To this end, we study the issue of business cycle synchronization with the occurrence ofcommon shocks. First, we assess the international disturbances influence on the domestic business cycles. Second, we analyze the impact of the adoption of different exch...

  9. Economics issues - nuclear power generation in North America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The structure of the US utility industry is in transition. Political, social, and economic factors are contributing to a rapid shift from a monopoly structure (captive markets, cost-plus prices, negotiated rate of return on capital) to a highly competitive one (choices for customers, prices determined by the market place, earnings based on market price less cost). The rate of change has been accelerating. For example, what just two years ago would have been thought of as highly unlikely -- competition for the individual electric customer -- is now part of the plan in California and other states. In our view, technology is at the root of many of these structural changes with more to come. Yet another round of technological change is afoot, involving even more efficient gas turbines, new methods of utilizing transmission lines, distributed generation, and new opportunities for electricity use and service. It can be argued that the restructuring of the marketplace reflects, in some measure, anticipation for these advances. For the foreseeable future, nuclear energy will continue to play a significant role in the generating grid of North America. However, new nuclear generation will be held to standards of competition that are dictated by market forces, and by advances in competing technologies for base load generation. It is important to understand these forces, and devise a response which ensures that nuclear energy will continue to provide a viable, competitive, and environmentally superior option for generating electricity in the 21st century. The EPRI Nuclear Power program is focused on achieving these goals. (author)

  10. Implementing a Secure Key Issuing Scheme for Communication in P2P Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Azharuddin

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Key issuing scheme focuses on the confidentiality maintained in using the secret key for communicationin p2p networks. Identity based cryptography (IBC was introduced into peer-to-peer (P2P networks recently for identity verification and authentication purposes. However, current IBC-based solutions were not addressing the problem of secure private key issuing. In this paper we propose a novel secure key issuing scheme for P2P networks using IBC. We present an IBC infrastructure setup phase, a peer registration solution using Shamir’s (k, n secret sharing scheme, and a secure key issuing scheme, which adopts key generate centre (KGC and key privacy authorities (KPAs to issue private keys to peers securely. This enables the IBC systems to be more acceptable and applicable in real-world P2P networks.

  11. Nanotechnologies for Climate Friendly Construction – Key Issues and Challenges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Maj Munch; Geiker, Mette Rica

    2009-01-01

    Expectations as to the climate potentials of nanotechnology are high, none the least related to the construction sector. This paper seeks to highlight key aspects in the early development and application of eco-innovative nanotech solutions in the construction sector, “nanoconstruction”. The paper...

  12. Implications of Key Performance Indicator Issues in Ontario Universities Explored

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Vivian

    2015-01-01

    Since 1998, the Ministry of Training, Colleges and Universities in Ontario, Canada, has required that data on specific key performance indicators (KPIs) be made public by its publicly funded universities. The information is intended to be used by universities to demonstrate their achievements, to improve their programmes and services, and to…

  13. Nanotechnologies for Climate Friendly Construction – Key Issues and Challenges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Maj Munch; Geiker, Mette Rica

    Expectations as to the climate potentials of nanotechnology are high, none the least related to the construction sector. This paper seeks to highlight key aspects in the early development and application of eco-innovative nanotech solutions in the construction sector, “nanoconstruction”. The paper...

  14. Authenticated Encryption Schemes: Current Status and Key Issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min-Shiang Hwang

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Nyberg and Ruppel first proposed a signature scheme with message recovery based on DSA in 1993, and the authenticated encryption scheme is a special application of their scheme. Afterward, there are many papers proposed about the authenticated encryption schemes. The signature scheme can reduce the transmitted cost, because the message has been contained in the signature of the message and the signer does not necessary to send the receiver the message and the signature. The scheme is very suitable for the key agreement application, because a key is a small amount of a message. In order to comprehend and interpret the authenticated encryption schemes overall, we discuss the evolution and the existed problems of authenticated encryption schemes.

  15. Photovoltaics for Buildings: Key Issues in Pursuit of Market Readiness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The photovoltaic (PV) industry is rapidly beginning to recognize the market potential of the buildings sector. New PV-for-buildings products have recently become commercially available, and numerous products that are under development will be introduced within the next 5 years. To ensure that these new products will be adopted and used in common building practices, the PV industry should recognize and address important buildings industry issues. These issues include building codes and standards, after-market servicing, education, and warranties and insurance policies. Photovoltaic systems are also still very expensive. The simplest method for increasing their value for a building is to decrease the building's electrical loads through energy efficiency and conservation. Meeting these goals can only be accomplished through partnerships with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), private industry, and public institutions

  16. Special Report: Key Issues from the UAPI Continental Security Conference

    OpenAIRE

    Supinski, Stanley; Treglia, Philip; Cayson, Donna; Burkett, Jeffrey

    2011-01-01

    This article appeared in Homeland Security Affairs (June 2011), v.7 no. 15 The University and Agency Partnership Initiative (UAPI) of the Center for Homeland Defense and Security conducted its first ever Continental Security Conference (CSC) on December 7/8, 2010 in Colorado Springs. The event brought together participants from Canada, Mexico, and the United States, and focused on common security issues of interest to all three nations with an emphasis on academic perspectives and contribu...

  17. Toward an Informatics Research Agenda: Key People and Organizational Issues

    OpenAIRE

    Kaplan, Bonnie; Brennan, Patricia Flatley; Dowling, Alan F.; Friedman, Charles P; Peel, Victor

    2001-01-01

    As we have advanced in medical informatics and created many impressive innovations, we also have learned that technologic developments are not sufficient to bring the value of computer and information technologies to health care systems. This paper proposes a model for improving how we develop and deploy information technology. The authors focus on trends in people, organizational, and social issues (POI/OSI), which are becoming more complex as both health care institutions and information te...

  18. KEY ISSUES RELATED TO THE HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT NOWADAYS

    OpenAIRE

    ARMENIA ANDRONICEANU

    2012-01-01

    This paper addresses the issue of human resources motivation which is considered one of the most important ways for a sustainable organizational development. The author has conducted a special research on the topic and the main findings are presented and analyzed in the content of this paper. The objective of the research was to identify new possibilities for increasing the degree of human resources motivation for supporting a more sustainable organizational development. Based on ideas from c...

  19. 10 key indicators for the environment - Issue 2012

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ten indicators of the environment are briefly presented, discussed and illustrated by graphs indicating their evolution since the 1990's: air (air pollution in urban environment), biodiversity (number of common bird species), resources (consumption of materials), water (river pollution by phosphates and nitrates), land occupation (soil artificialization), wastes (urban wastes), climate (carbon dioxide emissions), economy (jobs in the environmental sector), energy (share of renewable energies), and opinion (level of concern of French people regarding the different issues related to environment degradation)

  20. Wildfire in the United Kingdom: status and key issues

    OpenAIRE

    McMorrow, J.

    2011-01-01

    The paper draws on issues from the Fire and Ecosystem Services (FIRES) seminars series – fire climate change in UK moorland and heaths. A brief geography of UK wildfires is presented using fire statistics from the Department of Communities and Local Government (CLG) and the MODIS active fire database. Wildfires challenge resource resilience of Fire and Rescue Services (FRSs), especially in dry years, yet FRSs are poorly equipped and trained to deal with wildfire. This is being addressed by pa...

  1. IP Provisions of the EU-Central America Association Agreement and Development Issues

    OpenAIRE

    Bonadio, E.

    2011-01-01

    The recent Association Agreement signed between the European Union and Central American countries contains important intellectual property provisions. Some of these provisions have been inserted in the treaty to meet Central America states’ needs, especially with reference to technology transfer issues, the protection of public health and the protection of genetic resources and traditional knowledge.

  2. Competence development: Key issues and trends in European competence policies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Milana, Marcella

    papers, reports, and communications that led to directives and resolutions concerning the development and recognition of skills and competences in a lifelong learning perspective. In 2005 this process led to the definition of a European Framework on Key Competences for Lifelong Learning - covering those...... framework for a comparative study of discourses and ideas that contributed to the current construction of competence development as a powerful political concept at European level. The third part presents preliminary results of ongoing analysis of policy texts, showing mismatches between the political...

  3. Gender equality and sustainable human development are key issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ando, H

    1995-01-01

    In a message to the Indochina Women's Parliamentarians Meeting, Hirofumi Ando, Deputy Executive Director of the United Nations Family Planning Association (UNFPA), encouraged participants to link gender equality and development issues. Ando noted that many of the goals of the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development imply recognition of the need to redress gender inequalities and empower women. The Program of Action adopted in Cairo requires countries to achieve universal access to primary education and reproductive health care services. Parliamentarians in attendance were urged to mobilize the financial resources and political will necessary to implement programs in these areas. PMID:12290525

  4. Ten Key Issues in Lexicography for the Future

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Birger Enevold; Nielsen, Sandro

    2009-01-01

    Whenever lexicographical scholars from five continents are gathered in the same room, there are bound to be divergent opinions about the issues discussed. Nevertheless, the above summary attests to the fact that input from a balanced representation of experts often lead to valuable conclusions and...... produce lexicographical tools that fulfil the needs of specific types of users in specific types of situations in the real world. Furthermore, the theoretical branch of lexicography has to be measured on the basis of the methods used to achieve the objective, and these methods may be purely...

  5. Key issues for low-cost FGD installations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DePriest, W.; Mazurek, J.M. [Sargent & Lundy LLC, Chicago, IL (United States)

    1995-12-01

    This paper will discuss various methods for installing low-cost FGD systems. The paper will include a discussion of various types of FGD systems available, both wet and dry, and will compare the relative cost of each type. Important design issues, such as use of spare equipment, materials of construction, etc. will be presented. An overview of various low-cost construction techniques (i.e., modularization) will be included. This paper will draw heavily from Sargent & Lundy`s database of past and current FGD projects together with information we gathered for several Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) studies on the subject.

  6. Identifying Key Challenges in Performance Issues in Cloud Computing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashraf Zia

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Cloud computing is a harbinger to a newer era in the field of computing where distributed and centralized services are used in a unique way. In cloud computing, the computational resources of different vendors and IT services providers are managed for providing an enormous and a scalable computing services platform that offers efficient data processing coupled with better QoS at a lower cost. The on-demand dynamic and scalable resource allocation is the main motif behind the development and deployment of cloud computing. The potential growth in this area and the presence of some dominant organizations with abundant resources (like Google, Amazon, Salesforce, Rackspace, Azure, GoGrid, make the field of cloud computing more fascinating. All the cloud computing processes need to be in unanimity to dole out better QoS i.e., to provide better software functionality, meet the tenant’s requirements for their desired processing power and to exploit elevated bandwidth.. However, several technical and functional e.g., pervasive access to resources, dynamic discovery, on the fly access and composition of resources pose serious challenges for cloud computing. In this study, the performance issues in cloud computing are discussed. A number of schemes pertaining to QoS issues are critically analyzed to point out their strengths and weaknesses. Some of the performance parameters at the three basic layers of the cloud — Infrastructure as a Service, Platform as a Service and Software as a Service — are also discussed in this paper.

  7. Key issues in space nuclear power challenges for the future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The future appears rich in missions that will extend the frontiers of knowledge, human presence in space, and opportunities for profitable commerce. Key to success of these ventures is the availability of plentiful, cost effective electric power and assured, low cost access to space. While forecasts of space power needs are problematic, an assessment of future needs based on terrestrial experience has been made. These needs fall into three broad categories: survival, self sufficiency and industrialization. The cost of delivering payloads to orbital locations from LEO to Mars has been determined and future launch cost reductions projected. From these factors, then, projections of the performance necessary for future solar and nuclear space power options has been made. These goals are largely dependent upon orbital location and energy storage needs. Finally the cost of present space power systems has been determined and projections made for future systems

  8. Key issues and best practices in nuclear education

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The problems of the nuclear power sector that has faced with significant and exponentially growing demands for qualified personnel are analyzed. This is due to the simultaneous necessity for plant refurbishments and new nuclear power plant builds to meet increased energy needs. Additional expertise will be needed to cope with growing number of decommissioning projects needed to retire the ageing fleet of existing plants. The authors conclude that unless this situation is carefully managed, the nuclear industry is potentially at risk of serious consequences. In this context knowledge management is a key factor in assuring the sustainability of existing nuclear facilities, and the effective application of current knowledge to new design and construction projects, and development of innovative technology for future nuclear sector needs

  9. Knowledge management - A key issue for EnBW

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The motivation for knowledge management can be summarised with the words of EnBW CEO Prof. Claassen, 2002 'knowledge manager of the year' in Germany: 'Against the backdrop of the ever-increasing complexity of strategic planning and activities on the operational front, knowledge management is a key factor in the long-term success of our business.' Professional knowledge management motivates and supports employees, helping to create networks in which they can lay the foundations for the future success of the company. It must be emphasised that knowledge management is the responsibility of management, and EnBW has established a suitable framework consisting of different action levels and goals: 1) Normative level (corporate culture): creating a knowledge-aware and knowledge-friendly corporate culture 2) Strategic level (human resources): systematic gearing of internal intangible potentials towards future requirements. 3) Operational level (information/communication): making the required knowledge available in the necessary scope and quality, in the right place and at the right time. If knowledge management can generally be seen as basic requirement for successful companies, then it is even more important for nuclear operators. Today, nuclear energy is an important generating technology in Europe, for Germany and for EnBW with major future potential, but a technology that must be employed with great caution and attaching top priority to safe operation. For nuclear operators, the rule is always 'safety first'. But knowledge management implemented and used in the right way can also enhance both safety and competitive operation of the plants at the same time. In this connection, successful knowledge management plays a key role due to the complex interplay of many different disciplines within a demanding legal and regulatory framework, the paramount importance of collective past experience and the high demands on the expertise of the employees operating nuclear

  10. Reliability, availability, and maintainability: a key issue for ELTs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansorge, Wolfgang R.

    2006-06-01

    Hundreds of mirror segment, thousands of high precision actuators, highly complex mechanical, hydraulic, electrical and other technology subsystems, and extremely sophisticated control systems: an ELT system consists of millions of individual parts and components each of them may fail and lead to a partial or complete system breakdown. Component and system reliability does not only influence the acquisition costs of a product, it also defines the necessary maintenance work and the required logistic support. Taking the long operational life time of an ELT into account, reliability and maintainability are some of the main contributors to the system life cycle costs. Reliability and maintainability are key characteristics of any product and have to be designed into it from the early beginning; they can neither be tested into a product nor introduced by numerous maintenance activities. This presentation explains the interconnections between Reliability, Availability, Maintainability and Safety (RAMS) and outlines the necessary RAMS and Reliability Centered Maintenance (RCM) processes and activities during the entire life cycle of an ELT and an ELT instrument from the initial planning to the eventual disposal phase.

  11. Some Issues on Computer Networks: Architecture and Key Technologies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guan-Qun Gu; Jun-Zhou Luo

    2006-01-01

    The evolution of computer networks has experienced several major steps, and research focus of each step has been kept changing and evolving, from ARPANET to OSI/RM, then HSN (high speed network) and HPN (high performance network). During the evolution, computer networks represented by Internet have made great progress and gained unprecedented success. However, with the appearance and intensification of tussle, along with the three difficult problems (service customizing, resource control and user management) of modern network, it is found that traditional Internet and its architecture no longer meet the requirements of next generation network. Therefore, it is the next generation network that current Internet must evolve to. With the mindset of achieving valuable guidance for research on next generation network, this paper firstly analyzes some dilemmas facing current Internet and its architecture, and then surveys some recent influential research work and progresses in computer networks and related areas, including new generation network architecture, network resource control technologies, network management and security, distributed computing and middleware,wireless/mobile network, new generation network services and applications, and foundational theories on network modeling.Finally, this paper concludes that within the research on next generation network, more attention should be paid to the high availability network and corresponding architecture, key theories and supporting technologies.

  12. Key issues in the outlook for minerals and energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The outlook for Australia's minerals and energy sector continues to be positive because of the flow-on effects of economic growth in the newly industrialized Asia. The East Asian share of mineral and energy commodities continues to expand reflecting the growing demand for consumer goods and new economic and social infrastructure. Uncertainties in the minerals and energy outlook include the future economic performance of the developed countries and the former Soviet Union, trade and environmental issues and the effects of changing technology on minerals and energy production and consumption. Encouraged by good prospects for exploration success and firmer markets, real exploration expenditure is forecast to continue to rise and the volume of Australian mine production is expected to rise by 14 percent between 1995-6 and 2000-1. Export earnings from mineral and energy commodities are expected to rise by $5.6 billion Australian (16 percent) from 1995-6 levels to reach $41.9 billion in real terms by 2000-1. (author). 2 tabs., 14 figs., 14 refs

  13. Ecotoxicology for risk assessment in arid zones: some key issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everts, J W

    1997-01-01

    In the hot arid zones of the world, ecotoxicological research is in statu nascendi. In these zones, the major sources of contamination by toxicants are: (1) plant protection and vector control in wet zones; (2) large-scale crop protection campaigns in dry and ephemeral wet zones; (3) refuse and obsolete pesticides in dry zones; and (4) mining. Economic development in many of these zones requires an adequate knowledge of certain basic principles, i.e., where extrapolating existing knowledge does not apply. The vulnerability of ecosystems to contaminants is closely related to water flow. In dry areas, species are susceptible to factors that interfere with the ecophysiological properties regulating water loss. Most hot arid areas are found at low latitudes where temperatures show striking extremes both in time and space. Living organisms are physiologically resistant and/or show adaptive behavior to these temperature extremes. Very little is known about the effects of toxicants on these key resistant and adaptive functions, although by extrapolation a few assumptions can be made. The effects of hyperthermia, for instance, can be aggravated by GSH depleting substances, and the temporary disabling effects characteristic of many pesticides may prove fatal under these circumstances. Most wet areas show a spatial concentration of both human activity and wildlife. In mesic zones, the contamination of water represents a health risk to both humans and other living organisms. The vast majority of aquatic communities are those inhabiting temporary pools and streams. Their populations are characterized by short reproductive cycles and/or long dormant stages. Toxicants affecting growth in these areas have been shown to have a deleterious effect. In a synthesis of existing knowledge the most prominent gaps are identified and priorities for further research are made. PMID:9002429

  14. Open-system dynamics of entanglement: a key issues review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aolita, Leandro; de Melo, Fernando; Davidovich, Luiz

    2015-04-01

    One of the greatest challenges in the fields of quantum information processing and quantum technologies is the detailed coherent control over each and every constituent of quantum systems with an ever increasing number of particles. Within this endeavor, harnessing of many-body entanglement against the detrimental effects of the environment is a major pressing issue. Besides being an important concept from a fundamental standpoint, entanglement has been recognized as a crucial resource for quantum speed-ups or performance enhancements over classical methods. Understanding and controlling many-body entanglement in open systems may have strong implications in quantum computing, quantum simulations of many-body systems, secure quantum communication or cryptography, quantum metrology, our understanding of the quantum-to-classical transition, and other important questions of quantum foundations.In this paper we present an overview of recent theoretical and experimental efforts to underpin the dynamics of entanglement under the influence of noise. Entanglement is thus taken as a dynamic quantity on its own, and we survey how it evolves due to the unavoidable interaction of the entangled system with its surroundings. We analyze several scenarios, corresponding to different families of states and environments, which render a very rich diversity of dynamical behaviors.In contrast to single-particle quantities, like populations and coherences, which typically vanish only asymptotically in time, entanglement may disappear at a finite time. In addition, important classes of entanglement display an exponential decay with the number of particles when subject to local noise, which poses yet another threat to the already-challenging scaling of quantum technologies. Other classes, however, turn out to be extremely robust against local noise. Theoretical results and recent experiments regarding the difference between local and global decoherence are summarized. Control and

  15. Investing in Italy: Key legal issues for investors in the Gulf

    OpenAIRE

    Montanaro, Matteo; de Nardis, Eugenio S.

    2015-01-01

    Recent market data and press reports seem to confirm a growing interest, including from the Gulf, for investments in private and listed companies in Italy. In taking advantage of the opportunities presented by the Italian market (including the disposal plans announced and in part already enacted by the Italian government), investors should be aware of some key legal issues and practical factors. This article briefly outlines some of these key legal issues and factors as they may apply to inve...

  16. International symposium on nuclear fuel cycle and reactor strategy: Adjusting to new realities. Key issue papers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The key issue papers review the following issues: global energy outlook; present status and environmental implications of the different fuel cycles; future fuel cycle and reactor strategies; safety, health and environmental implications of the different fuel cycles; non-proliferation and safeguards aspects; international cooperation. Refs, figs, tabs

  17. A CEO View of Key Issues in Australian Information Systems Management - 1997

    OpenAIRE

    Graham Pervan

    1998-01-01

    As part of a research programme on key information systems management issues, a survey of Australasia's largest 500 organisations was conducted to identify which issues were perceived by their chief executive officers (CEOs) as being important, problematic and critical over the next three to five years. The results reported are based on a relatively low response rate (though perhaps reasonable for the target group) so should be regarded as only exploratory. The most critical issues were revea...

  18. Authenticated Blind Issuing of Symmetric Keys for Mobile Access Control System without Trusted Parties

    OpenAIRE

    Shin-Yan Chiou

    2013-01-01

    Mobile authentication can be used to verify a mobile user’s identity. Normally this is accomplished through the use of logon passwords, but this can raise the secret-key agreement problem between entities. This issue can be resolved by using a public-key cryptosystem, but mobile devices have limited computation ability and battery capacity and a PKI is needed. In this paper, we propose an efficient, non-PKI, authenticated, and blind issued symmetric key protocol for mobile access control syst...

  19. Authenticated Blind Issuing of Symmetric Keys for Mobile Access Control System without Trusted Parties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shin-Yan Chiou

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Mobile authentication can be used to verify a mobile user’s identity. Normally this is accomplished through the use of logon passwords, but this can raise the secret-key agreement problem between entities. This issue can be resolved by using a public-key cryptosystem, but mobile devices have limited computation ability and battery capacity and a PKI is needed. In this paper, we propose an efficient, non-PKI, authenticated, and blind issued symmetric key protocol for mobile access control systems. An easy-to-deploy authentication and authenticated key agreement system is designed such that empowered mobile devices can directly authorize other mobile devices to exchange keys with the server upon authentication using a non-PKI system without trusted parties. Empowered mobile users do not know the key value of the other mobile devices, preventing users from impersonating other individuals. Also, for security considerations, this system can revoke specific keys or keys issued by a specific user. The scheme is secure, efficient, and feasible and can be implemented in existing environments.

  20. New England Wind Forum: A Wind Powering America Project, Volume 1, Issue 4 -- May 2008 (Newsletter)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grace, R. C.; Gifford, J.

    2008-05-01

    The New England Wind Forum electronic newsletter summarizes the latest news in wind energy development activity, markets, education, and policy in the New England region. It also features an interview with a key figure influencing New England's wind energy development. Volume 1, Issue 4 features an interview with Brian Fairbank, president and CEO of Jiminy Peak Mountain Resort.

  1. New England Wind Forum: A Wind Powering America Project, Volume 1, Issue 3 -- October 2007 (Newsletter)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grace, R. C.; Gifford, J.

    2007-10-01

    The New England Wind Forum electronic newsletter summarizes the latest news in wind energy development activity, markets, education, and policy in the New England region. It also features an interview with a key figure influencing New England's wind energy development. Volume 1, Issue 3 features an interview with Andrew Dzykewicz, Commissioner of the Rhode Island Office of Energy Resources.

  2. MIIT Issued Industrial Key Generic Technology Development Guidelines (2011)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    In order to make full use of social resources, guide conducts of market subject, lead the developing direction of industrial key generic technology, promote industrial technology advance and realize transformation, upgrading and structural optimization of industry and communications industry, on July 1, the Ministry of Industry and Information Technology (MIIT) issued Industrial Key Generic Technology Development Guidelines (2011) (Gong Xin Bu Ke [2011] No.320),

  3. Understanding, Modeling and Managing Longevity Risk: Key Issues and Main Challenges

    OpenAIRE

    Barrieu, Pauline; Bensusan, Harry; El Karoui, Nicole; Hillairet, Caroline; Loisel, Stéphane; Claudia RAVANELLI; Salhi, Yahia

    2012-01-01

    This article investigates the latest developments in longevity risk modelling, and explores the key risk management challenges for both the financial and insurance industries. The article discusses key definitions that are crucial for the enhancement of the way longevity risk is understood; providing a global view of the practical issues for longevity-linked insurance and pension products that have evolved concurrently with the steady increase in life expectancy since 1960s. In addition, the ...

  4. Key issues of the common French-German safety approach for future PWRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The general common safety approach issued in May 1993 contains safety objectives, general principles and already some technical principles. Based on general safety approach, detailed recommendations have been developed in 1994 on key issues such as: system design and use of PSA; integrity of the primary circuit; external hazards; severe accidents and containment design; radiological consequences of reference accidents and low pressure core melt accidents. A selection of the detailed recommendations is presented in the full paper. (author)

  5. A CEO View of Key Issues in Australian Information Systems Management - 1997

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graham Pervan

    1998-05-01

    Full Text Available As part of a research programme on key information systems management issues, a survey of Australasia's largest 500 organisations was conducted to identify which issues were perceived by their chief executive officers (CEOs as being important, problematic and critical over the next three to five years. The results reported are based on a relatively low response rate (though perhaps reasonable for the target group so should be regarded as only exploratory. The most critical issues were revealed to be a mix of technology management issues (IT infrastructure, disaster recovery, strategic management issues (BPR, competitive advantage, information architecture, people management issues (organisational learning, systems development and data management issues (effective use of the data resource, effectiveness/productivity of IS, effectiveness of software development, and their own support systems (EIS/DSS. This reflects their interest in a wide range of issues, but all with an organisation-wide focus. Non-critical issues were mostly related to the individual technologies and the place and role of IS in the organisation. While the CEOs showed some agreement with their chief information officers (CIOs on issues such as the IT infrastructure, competitive advantage, and organisational learning some distinct differences exist, particularly in relation to the quality and effectiveness of systems and processes and also how CEOs and CIOs perceive each other.

  6. Ethical issues in genetics and public health in Latin America with a focus on Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penchaszadeh, Victor B

    2015-07-01

    This paper reviews the health situation and developments in medical genetics and bioethics in Latin America, with a focus on Argentina. The region is the most inequitable in the world, with an average Gini Index of 52.5 and 25 % of the population living in poverty. Health expenditures are low and health systems are fragmented and privatised, with curtailed governmental responsibility and regulation. Health-care decision making is mostly in the hands of private insurance corporations and the medical-industrial complex, so that what is (or is not) covered by health plans is arbitrary and determined by the market and not by population health needs. This inequity and the lack of meaningful governmental intervention in the provision of health care, including genetic services, are at the heart of the bioethical dilemmas in Latin America. It is not surprising, therefore, that bioethics in the region has developed an approach grounded in social justice, equity and human rights as guiding principles, in contrast to the individualism espoused by Anglo-Saxon bioethics. The main ethical issues identified in genetics in Latin America are (1) inequity in access to genetic services, particularly in prenatal diagnosis, (2) genetic discrimination and (3) the lack of adherence to internationally accepted requisites of clinical validity and utility for diagnostic and predictive genetic testing. In this context, there is a risk that the impressive advances in genetics/genomics occurring in developed countries may fail to improve the public's health and deepen inequity, with the implementation of expensive genetic technologies of unproven validity. PMID:25666434

  7. Key Issues in Sex Education: Reflecting on Teaching, Learning and Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oerton, Sarah; Bowen, Helen

    2014-01-01

    Drawing upon critical reflections of staff and student experiences of teaching, learning and assessment on an undergraduate module entitled Key Issues in Sex Education, we discuss the strategies used to engage students in debates around sex and relationships education (SRE). To date, there is little research which evaluates how formal assessments…

  8. New Doctoral Graduates in the Knowledge Economy: Trends and Key Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Heidi Skovgaard

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines the key issues at stake for national economies in increasing the number of PhDs to meet expected needs for human capital in science, technology and innovation using illustrations mainly from the European Commission's "Careers of Doctorate Holders" surveys on PhD labour market outcomes; it has been shown that PhD…

  9. Some Considerations Regarding the Key Issues of the Stiglitz-Sen-Fitoussi Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BALTARETU Camelia

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper highlights the key issues of the Stiglitz-Sen-Fitoussi Report that was submitted in september 2009 by the Commission on the measurement of economic performance and social progress. As its name suggests, its focus is on the measurement of economic performance and social progress. The Report identified the limits of GDP as an indicator of economic performance and social progress showing in detail what is missing in current measures of economic performance and social progress. The key issues of the Stiglitz-Sen-Fitoussi Report are structured into three chapters based on the work of three working groups created by the Commission: Classical GDP issues, Sustainable development and environment and Quality of life. It also provided recommendations to better measure economic performance, societal well-being and sustainability.

  10. Decommissioning: Regulatory activities and identification of key organizational and human factors safety issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the late 1990's the Swedish government decided to shut down Unit 1 of the Barsebaeck nuclear power plant. This report documents some of the efforts made by the Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate (SKI) to address human factors and organizational issues in nuclear safety during decommissioning of a nuclear facility. This report gives a brief review of the background to the decommissioning of Barsebaeck 1 and points out key safety issues that can arise during decommissioning. The main regulatory activities that were undertaken were requirements that the plant provide special safety reports on decommissioning focusing on first, the operation of both units until closure of Unit 1 and second, the operation of Unit 2 when Unit 1 was closed. In addition, SKI identified areas that might be affected by decommissioning and called these areas out for special attention. With regard to these areas of special attention, SKI required that the plant provide monthly reports on changing and emerging issues as well as self-assessments of the areas to be addressed in the special safety reports. Ten key safety issues were identified and evaluated with regard to different stages of decommissioning and with regard to the actions taken by Barsebaeck. Some key conclusions from SKI's experience in regulating a decommissioning nuclear power plant conclude the report

  11. Infrastructure in Latin America : Recent Developments and Key Challenges, Volume 1

    OpenAIRE

    Morrison, Mary; Fay, Marianne

    2005-01-01

    In the last decade, most countries in Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC) have not spent enough on infrastructure. Total investment has fallen as a percentage of GDP, as public infrastructure expenditure has borne the brunt of fiscal adjustment, and private investment has failed to take up the slack. Most infrastructure services have therefore lagged behind East Asian comparators, middle income countries in general and China, in terms of both coverage and quality, despite the generally posi...

  12. The Eastern Cape labour market in transition: Key issues and debates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geoffrey Wood

    1995-03-01

    Full Text Available This study represents an assessment of key issues relating to the labour market based on survey research conducted in an Eastern Cape secondary urban centre. This study was conducted at a time when South Africa was undergoing rapid social, economic and political transition. The primary focus of this study is on the specific implications of structural unemployment. Key sub-dimensions include the nature of divisions in the labour market, the extent of migrancy, survival strategies by the structurally unemployed, and perceptions of the union movement at a time when the latter’s role has become increasingly institutionalised.

  13. Nanoscale ferroelectrics and multiferroics key processes and characterization issues, and nanoscale effects

    CERN Document Server

    Alguero, Miguel

    2016-01-01

    This book reviews the key issues in processing and characterization of nanoscale ferroelectrics and multiferroics, and provides a comprehensive description of their properties, with an emphasis in differentiating size effects of extrinsic ones like boundary or interface effects. Recently described nanoscale novel phenomena are also addressed. Organized into three parts it addresses key issues in processing (nanostructuring), characterization (of the nanostructured materials) and nanoscale effects. Taking full advantage of the synergies between nanoscale ferroelectrics and multiferroics, it covers materials nanostructured at all levels, from ceramic technologies like ferroelectric nanopowders, bulk nanostructured ceramics and thick films, and magnetoelectric nanocomposites, to thin films, either polycrystalline layer heterostructures or epitaxial systems, and to nanoscale free standing objects with specific geometries, such as nanowires and tubes at different levels of development. The book is developed from t...

  14. SOME KEY ISSUES ON THE APPLICATION OF SATELLITE REMOTE SENSING TO MINING AREAS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    In order to apply Satellite Remote Sensing (RS) to mining areas, some key issues should be solved. Based on an introduction to relative studying background, related key issues are proposed and analyzed oriented to the development of RS information science and demands of mining areas. Band selection and combination optimization of Landsat TM is discussed firstly, and it proved that the combination of Band 3, Band 4 and Band 5 has the largest information amount in all three-band combination schemes by both N-dimensional entropy method and Genetic Algorithm (GA). After that the filtering of Radarsat image is discussed. Different filtering methods are experimented and compared, and adaptive methods are more efficient than others. Finally the classification of satellite RS image is studied, and some new methods including classification by improved BPNN(Back Propagation Neural Network) and classification based on GIS and knowledge are proposed.

  15. Nuclear fuel cycle and reactor strategies: Adjusting to new realities. Key issue papers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The international symposium ''Nuclear Fuel Cycle and Reactor Strategy: Adjusting to new Realities'' was organized to face the new realities in the nuclear fuel cycle and to consider options on how these new realities could be addressed. The Key Issue Papers treat the various subjects from both short and long term perspectives. In so doing, they address the likely development of all aspects concerning the nuclear fuel cycle up to the year 2050

  16. The role and effectiveness of e-learning: key issues in an industrial context

    OpenAIRE

    Chang, Victor

    2003-01-01

    This paper identifies the current role and effectiveness of e-learning and its key issues in an industrial context. The first objective is to identify the role of e-learning, particularly in staff training and executive education, where e-learning (online, computer-based or videoconferencing learning) has made significant impacts and contributions to several organisations such as the Royal Bank of Scotland, Cisco and Cap Gemini Earnst Young. With e-learning, staff train-ing and executive educ...

  17. Regulation of biopharmaceuticals, tissue engineering and biogenerics : key issues for the developer

    OpenAIRE

    Oila, Outi

    2005-01-01

    The objective of the present study is to examine the effect of regulation on development of new biopharmaceuticals, tissue engineering and biogenerics. This includes defining key issues, which may influence the outcome of receiving marketing authorization. Most of the results are based on interviews conducted with experts with different backgrounds: regulators, representatives of biocompanies, investors, researchers and representatives of trade associations. Product information retrievable fr...

  18. The cost of Latin American science Introduction for the second issue of CBP-Latin America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zenteno-Savín, Tania; Beleboni, René Oliveira; Hermes-Lima, Marcelo

    2007-04-01

    Latin American researchers in science and engineering (S&E), including those in biology and biomedical sciences, are frequently exposed to unstable conditions of financial support, material and human resources, and a limited number of positions at public and private institutions. Such uncertainties impose continuous challenges for the scientific community which, in the best of cases, responds with careful planning and creativity, and in the worst scenario endures the migration of scientists to the USA or Europe. Still, the number of scientific publications from Latin American institutions in the last decade increased at a much faster rate than publications from the USA and Canada. A brief analysis per country of the gross domestic product (GDP) spent in research and development (R&D) and the S&E production reported by the Pascal bibliographic database suggests that the number and quality of S&E publications is directly proportional to the financial support for R&D. However, the investment in R&D in Latin America did not increase at the same rate (from 0.49 to 0.55% of GDP, from 1990 to 2003) at which S&E publications did in the same period (2.9-fold increase, from 1988 to 2001). In Latin America, the traditional financial support for scientific research continues to be from federal and state government funds, associated in some cases with institutional funds that are mostly directed towards administrative costs and infrastructure maintenance. The aim of this introduction is to briefly discuss the production cost of articles published in refereed S&E journals, including the cost of the scientific research behind them, and, at the same time, to increase the awareness of the high quality of scientific research in Latin American institutions despite the many challenges, especially financial constraints, faced by their scientists. The second issue of Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology dedicated to Latin America ("The Face of Latin American Comparative Biochemistry

  19. Key issues for the control of refueling outage duration and costs in PWR nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For several years, EDF, within the framework of the CIDEM project and in collaboration with some German Utilities, has undertaken a detailed review of the operating experience both of its own NPP and of foreign units, in order to improve the performances of future units under design, particularly the French-German European Pressurized Reactor (EPR) project. This review made it possible to identify the key issues allowing to decrease the duration of refueling and maintenance outages. These key issues can be classified in 3 categories: Design; Maintenance and Logistic Support; Outage Management. Most key issues in the design field and some in the logistic support field have been studied and could be integrated into the design of any future PWR unit, as for the EPR project. Some of them could also be adapted to current plants, provided they are feasible and profitable. The organization must be tailored to each country, utility or period: it widely depends on the power production environment, particularly in a deregulation context. (author)

  20. New England Wind Forum: A Wind Powering America Project; Volume 1, Issue 2 -- December 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grace, R. C.; Gifford, J.

    2006-12-01

    The New England Wind Forum electronic newsletter summarizes the latest news in wind energy development activity, markets, education, and policy in the New England region. It also features an interview with a key figure influencing New England's wind energy development. Volume 1, Issue 2 features an interview with John MacLeod of Hull Municipal Light Plant. Hull 2, a 1.8-MW Vestas turbine installed in the Town of Hull in Massachusetts in 2006, is the largest wind turbine in New England and the first U.S. installation on a capped landfill.

  1. Key Regulatory Issues for Digital Instrumentation and Control Systems at Nuclear Power Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To help reduce the uncertainty associated with application of digital instrumentation and controls (I and C) technology in nuclear power plants, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has issued six Interim Staff Guidance (ISG) documents that address the current regulatory positions on what are considered the significant digital I and C issues. These six documents address the following topics: Cyber Security, Diversity and Defense-in-Depth, Risk Informed Digital I and C Regulation, Communication issues, Human Factors and the Digital I and C Licensing Process (currently issued as Draft). After allowing for further refinement based on additional technical insight gathered by NRC staff through near-term research and detailed review of relevant experience, it is expected that updated positions ultimately will be incorporated into regulatory guides and staff review procedures. This paper presents an overview of the guidance provided by the NRC-issued ISGs on key technology considerations (i.e., the first five documents above) for safety-related digital I and C systems.

  2. The regional response to the greenhouse issue. Latin America and the Caribbean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The increase in greenhouse gas emissions in Latin America and the Caribbean is not directly linked to energy consumption. It is estimated that about two thirds of the carbon compounds that are emitted annually in the Region and contribute to the greenhouse effect stem from the deforestation of 4 to 6 million hectares of forests destroyed annually by unplanned land settlement, migratory agriculture, and agribusiness. As a contribution to the debate on the global problem of increasing greenhouse effect, the present article tries to analyze the specific regional characteristics of the problem, their relation to the global issues, and the regional options for decreasing carbon compound emissions. The developing countries, will have to deal with the possibility of seeing their land converted into ecological disaster areas, where life cannot be sustained, within the next 20 years. Within this context, technology can do very little, since deforestation basically is not a technological problem since its solution rather involves the application of sustainable development models that require profound economic and social changes. (EG) 11 refs

  3. The regional response to the greenhouse issue: Latin America and the Caribbean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The increase in greenhouse gas emissions in Latin America and the Caribbean is not directly linked to energy consumption. It is estimated that about two-thirds of the carbon compounds that are emitted annually in the region and contribute to the greenhouse effect stem from the deforestation of 4 to 6 million hectares of forests destroyed annually by unplanned land settlement, migratory agriculture, and agribusiness. As a contribution to the debate on the global problem of the increasing greenhouse effect, the present article tries to analyze the specific regional characteristics of the problem, their relation to the global issue, and the regional options for decreasing carbon compound emissions. The developing countries, instead of waiting for the consequences of the 1- to 5-degree-Centrigrade increase in average temperature that is being forecast for the planet in the next 50 to 70 years, will have to deal with the possibility of seeing their land converted into ecological disaster areas where life cannot be sustained within the next 20 years. Within this context, technology can do very little, because deforestation basically is not a technological problem but rather has to do with the application of unsustainable development models that require profound economic and social changes

  4. Key regulatory and safety issues emerging NEA activities. Lessons Learned from Fukushima Dai-ichi NPS Accident - Key Regulatory and Safety Issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A presentation was provided on the key safety and regulatory issues and an update of activities undertaken by the NEA and its members in response to the accident at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power stations (NPS) on 11 March 2011. An overview of the accident sequence and the consequences was provided that identified the safety functions that were lost (electrical power, core cooling, and primary containment) that lead to units 1, 2, and 3 being in severe accident conditions with large off-site releases. Key areas identified for which activities of the NEA and member countries are in progress include accident management; defence-in-depth; crisis communication; initiating events; operating experience; deterministic and probabilistic assessments; regulatory infrastructure; radiological protection and public health; and decontamination and recovery. For each of these areas, a brief description of the on-going and planned NEA activities was provided within the three standing technical committees of the NEA with safety and regulatory mandates (the Committee on Nuclear Regulatory Activities - CNRA, the Committee on the Safety of Nuclear Installations - CSNI, and the Committee on Radiation Protection and Public Health - CRPPH). On-going activities of CNRA include a review of enhancement being made to the regulatory aspects for the oversight of on-site accident management strategies and processes in light of the lessons learned from the accident; providing guidance to regulators on crisis communication; and supporting the peer review of the safety assessments of risk-significant research reactor facilities in light of the accident. Within the scope of the CSNI mandate, activities are being undertaken to better understand accident progression; characteristics of new fuel designs; and a benchmarking study of fast-running software for estimating source term under severe accident conditions to support protective measure recommendations. CSNI also has ongoing work in human

  5. Non-equilibrium physics and evolution—adaptation, extinction, and ecology: a Key Issues review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evolutionary dynamics in nature constitute an immensely complex non-equilibrium process. We review the application of physical models of evolution, by focusing on adaptation, extinction, and ecology. In each case, we examine key concepts by working through examples. Adaptation is discussed in the context of bacterial evolution, with a view toward the relationship between growth rates, mutation rates, selection strength, and environmental changes. Extinction dynamics for an isolated population are reviewed, with emphasis on the relation between timescales of extinction, population size, and temporally correlated noise. Ecological models are discussed by focusing on the effect of spatial interspecies interactions on diversity. Connections between physical processes—such as diffusion, turbulence, and localization—and evolutionary phenomena are highlighted. (key issues reviews)

  6. Interoperability, Trust Based Information Sharing Protocol and Security: Digital Government Key Issues

    CERN Document Server

    Headayetullah, Md

    2010-01-01

    Improved interoperability between public and private organizations is of key significance to make digital government newest triumphant. Digital Government interoperability, information sharing protocol and security are measured the key issue for achieving a refined stage of digital government. Flawless interoperability is essential to share the information between diverse and merely dispersed organisations in several network environments by using computer based tools. Digital government must ensure security for its information systems, including computers and networks for providing better service to the citizens. Governments around the world are increasingly revolving to information sharing and integration for solving problems in programs and policy areas. Evils of global worry such as syndrome discovery and manage, terror campaign, immigration and border control, prohibited drug trafficking, and more demand information sharing, harmonization and cooperation amid government agencies within a country and acros...

  7. Integrating Variable Renewable Energy into the Grid: Key Issues, Greening the Grid (Spanish Version)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-04-01

    This is the Spanish version of 'Greening the Grid - Integrating Variable Renewable Energy into the Grid: Key Issues'. To foster sustainable, low-emission development, many countries are establishing ambitious renewable energy targets for their electricity supply. Because solar and wind tend to be more variable and uncertain than conventional sources, meeting these targets will involve changes to power system planning and operations. Grid integration is the practice of developing efficient ways to deliver variable renewable energy (VRE) to the grid. Good integration methods maximize the cost-effectiveness of incorporating VRE into the power system while maintaining or increasing system stability and reliability. When considering grid integration, policy makers, regulators, and system operators consider a variety of issues, which can be organized into four broad topics: New Renewable Energy Generation, New Transmission, Increased System Flexibility, and Planning for a High RE Future.

  8. Beaufort Sea oil spills state of knowledge review and identification of key issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    From the 1960s to the 1980s, offshore petroleum exploration activities were carried out by several companies in the Canadian Arctic and important resources of oil and gas were discovered. These reserves have not been exploited until now, but exploration activities are expected to increase in the coming years due to changing market conditions and to result in greater risks of accidental spills. The aim of this report is to review existing knowledge of oil spills in Arctic waters, identify the associated issues and provide a reference document for the stakeholders. A literature review of the subject was carried out by the study team using online database search services, in-house libraries and Environment Canada's library. In addition, the study team held a workshop in October 2009 to present their findings and discuss key issues with stakeholders. This document provides the findings of the study team.

  9. Key technical issues associated with a method of pulse compression. Final technical report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Key technical issues for angular multiplexing as a method of pulse compression in a 100 KJ KrF laser have been studied. Environmental issues studied include seismic vibrations man-made vibrations, air propagation, turbulence, and thermal gradient-induced density fluctuations. These studies have been incorporated in the design of mirror mounts and an alignment system, both of which are reported. A design study and performance analysis of the final amplifier have been undertaken. The pulse compression optical train has been designed and assessed as to its performance. Individual components are described and analytical relationships between the optical component size, surface quality, damage threshold and final focus properties are derived. The optical train primary aberrations are obtained and a method for aberration minimization is presented. Cost algorithms for the mirrors, mounts, and electrical hardware are integrated into a cost model to determine system costs as a function of pulse length, aperture size, and spot size

  10. A review of nuclear thermal propulsion carbide fuel corrosion and key issues. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pelaccio, D.G.; El-genk, M.S.

    1994-11-01

    Corrosion (mass loss) of carbide nuclear fuels due to their exposure to hot hydrogen in nuclear thermal propulsion engine systems greatly impacts the performance, thrust-to-weight and life of such systems. This report provides an overview of key issues and processes associated with the corrosion of carbide materials. Additionally, past pertinent development reactor test observations, as well as related experimental work and analysis modeling efforts are reviewed. At the conclusion, recommendations are presented, which provide the foundation for future corrosion modeling and verification efforts.

  11. Emergency management in health: key issues and challenges in the UK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Andrew CK

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Emergency planning in the UK has grown considerably in recent years, galvanised by the threat of terrorism. However, deficiencies in NHS emergency planning were identified and the evidence-base that underpins it is questionable. Inconsistencies in terminologies and concepts also exist. Different models of emergency management exist internationally but the optimal system is unknown. This study examines the evidence-base and evidence requirements for emergency planning in the UK health context. Methods The study involved semi-structured interviews with key stakeholders and opinion leaders. Purposive sampling was used to obtain a breadth of views from various agencies involved in emergency planning and response. Interviews were then analysed using a grounded approach using standard framework analysis techniques. Results We conducted 17 key informant interviews. Interviewees identified greater gaps in operational than technical aspects of emergency planning. Social and behavioural knowledge gaps were highlighted with regards to how individuals and organisations deal with risk and behave in emergencies. Evidence-based approaches to public engagement and for developing community resilience to disasters are lacking. Other gaps included how knowledge was developed and used. Conflicting views with regards to the optimal configuration and operation of the emergency management system were voiced. Conclusions Four thematic categories for future research emerged: (i Knowledge-base for emergency management: Further exploration is needed of how knowledge is acquired, valued, disseminated, adopted and retained. (ii Social and behavioural issues: Greater understanding of how individuals approach risk and behave in emergencies is required. (iii Organisational issues in emergencies: Several conflicting organisational issues were identified; value of planning versus plans, flexible versus standardized procedures, top-down versus bottom

  12. Key Accounts As A Complex Strategic Customer-Base Management Issue: Beyond One-To-One Relationship Handling

    OpenAIRE

    Spencer, R.

    1997-01-01

    This paper focuses on the theme of key customer account management. On the basis of a case study, it examines this theme from several perspectives. One, perhaps the most commonly used, looks at exchange processes taking place between supplier and key customer account, and associated handling issues. These, it rapidly emerges, are far from simple, and stretch way beyond the relationship at hand to encompass issues of strategic importance to the firm as a whole. Key account management, complex ...

  13. INTEROPERABILITY, TRUST BASED INFORMATION SHARING PROTOCOL AND SECURITY: DIGITAL GOVERNMENT KEY ISSUES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md.Headayetullah

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Improved interoperability between public and private organizations is of key significance to make digitalgovernment newest triumphant. Digital Government interoperability, information sharing protocol andsecurity are measured the key issue for achieving a refined stage of digital government. Flawlessinteroperability is essential to share the information between diverse and merely dispersed organisationsin several network environments by using computer based tools. Digital government must ensure securityfor its information systems, including computers and networks for providing better service to the citizens.Governments around the world are increasingly revolving to information sharing and integration forsolving problems in programs and policy areas. Evils of global worry such as syndrome discovery andmanage, terror campaign, immigration and border control, prohibited drug trafficking, and more demandinformation sharing, harmonization and cooperation amid government agencies within a country andacross national borders. A number of daunting challenges survive to the progress of an efficientinformation sharing protocol. A secure and trusted information-sharing protocol is required to enableusers to interact and share information easily and perfectly across many diverse networks and databasesglobally. This article presents (1 literature review of digital government security and interoperabilityand, (2 key research issue trust based information sharing protocol for seamless interoperability amongdiverse government organizations or agencies around the world. While trust-based information access iswell studied in the literature, presented secure information sharing technologies and protocols cannotoffer enough incentives for government agencies to share information amid them without harming theirown national interest. To overcome the drawbacks of the exiting technology, an innovative and proficienttrust-based security protocol is proposed in this

  14. The sustainable use of tropical coastal resources - A key conservation issue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The three papers covered in this review form a series, addressing broadly the same issues in increasing detail. The paper by Carl Gustaf Lundin and Olof Linden, on 'Coastal ecosystems: Attempts to manage a threatened resource', takes a wide view of the coastal zones (the regions between the seaward margins of the continental shelves, in water depths of around 200 m and the landward edge of the coastal plains at a comparable altitude above mean sea level), and the nature of the pressures upon them. The paper by Magnus A.K. Ngoile and Chris J. Horrill, on 'Coastal ecosystems productivity and ecosystem protection: Coastal ecosystem management', focuses very much on these same issues of use and pressure in the Eastern Africa Region. The paper by M.C.Oehman, A. Rajasuriya and O. Linden, on 'Human disturbances on coral reefs in Sri Lanka: A case study' looks in some depth at the situation on three selected reef systems in the one country. All the papers address the key question of how the management of coastal resources should change, in order to avoid continuing degradation and the cost and impoverishment it is likely to bring. The three papers mentioned is published in this issue of Ambio, p. 461-480

  15. Mapping the key issues shaping the landscape of global public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ager, Alastair; Yu, Gary; Hermosilla, Sabrina

    2012-01-01

    A survey of global health experts attending an invited meeting provided a means to map key issues perceived to be shaping emerging global public health agendas. Eighty-five participants proposed three major issues likely to have the most significant impact on the field of global health in the coming years. Six raters grouped the resultant items, with multi-dimensional scaling (MDS) analysis producing a composite two-dimensional map depicting the overall patterning of items. Thematic clusters were incorporated within four major domains: changing health and prevention needs (15% of items), globalisation and global health governance (33% of items), transforming health systems (30% of items) and innovations in science and technology (7% of items). The remaining 15% of items addressed forms of environmental change. The distribution of items across domains was not significantly influenced by the current professional role of participants, their current location in the 'global north' or 'global south' or their region of focus (although the latter approached threshold significance). The constraints on interpretation imposed by the biases influencing participation in the survey are noted. However, the exercise suggests the potential for coherently defining shared agendas for diverse stakeholders to address emerging priorities. The closer integration of environmental concerns with other global public issues is clearly warranted. PMID:22765282

  16. eHealth in Wound Care,- overview and key issues to consider before implementation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moore, Zena; Angel, Donna; Bjerregaard, Julie;

    2015-01-01

    Purpose This document aims to provide wound care clinicians with a rapid and structured overview of the key issues related to use of eHealth applications (telemedicine and telehealth) within wound care. This includes: • An overview of terminology and available literature • Guidance on the...... methodology for evaluation of eHealth solutions • An introduction to and discussion of the potential benefits of eHealth technologies in wound care, and the possible barriers to their implementation • Recommendations for ensuring a good implementation process and supporting involvement of wound care...... professionals in safeguarding that eHealth solutions meet the needs of the patients. Methodology The document sections lean on the structure and focus areas of the Model for ASsessment of Telemedicine (MAST) which defines crucial items to evaluate an eHealth application. The content of the document is developed...

  17. Key issues in life cycle assessment of ethanol production from lignocellulosic biomass: Challenges and perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Anoop; Pant, Deepak; Korres, Nicholas E; Nizami, Abdul-Sattar; Prasad, Shiv; Murphy, Jerry D

    2010-07-01

    Progressive depletion of conventional fossil fuels with increasing energy consumption and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions have led to a move towards renewable and sustainable energy sources. Lignocellulosic biomass is available in massive quantities and provides enormous potential for bioethanol production. However, to ascertain optimal biofuel strategies, it is necessary to take into account environmental impacts from cradle to grave. Life cycle assessment (LCA) techniques allow detailed analysis of material and energy fluxes on regional and global scales. This includes indirect inputs to the production process and associated wastes and emissions, and the downstream fate of products in the future. At the same time if not used properly, LCA can lead to incorrect and inappropriate actions on the part of industry and/or policy makers. This paper aims to list key issues for quantifying the use of resources and releases to the environment associated with the entire life cycle of lignocellulosic bioethanol production. PMID:20015644

  18. MODERNIZING THE PRIVATE LAW. SOME KEY ISSUES IN THE RECENT DRAFT OF THE SPANISH COMMERCIAL CODE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan VELICU

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The last decades were dominated by the idea that an authentic process to modernize the private law means generally the unification of it by renouncing the distinction between civil and commercial law. A few European countries and some American states or provinces followed this path of the unification. However, beyond the will to change and improve the system one may reflect if this kind of modernization is actually really proper. Of course, there are lots of reasons for unification and reasons against it. Is there a possible and real alternative to this wave of unification? The draft of the Spanish commercial code could be a beginning point in order to settle this controversy. For the first time, the lawmakers are trying to replace the actual code with a new modernized one without renouncing the above mentioned distinction. Without claiming that we have entirely analyzed the topic, we propose a brief critical presentation of the major key issue of the draft.

  19. Thermal hydraulics of sodium-cooled fast reactors - key issues and highlights

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper key issues and highlighted topics in thermal hydraulics are discussed in connection to the current Japan's sodium-cooled fast reactor development efforts. In particular, design study and related researches of the Japan Sodium-cooled Fast Reactor (JSFR) are focused. Several innovative technologies, e.g., compact reactor vessel, two-loop system, fully natural circulation decay heat removal, and recriticality free core, have been investigated in order to reduce construction cost and to achieve higher level of reactor safety. Preliminary evaluations of innovative technologies to be applied to JSFR are on-going. Here, progress of design study is introduced. Then, research and development activities on the thermal hydraulics related to the innovative technologies are briefly reviewed. (author)

  20. Family-friendliness in business as a key issue for the future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stutzer, Erich

    2012-01-01

    These days family-friendliness is a key issue for the future of businesses. Investments in a family conscious personnel policy are considered as forward-looking decisions in companies. This happens against the background of a sustainable personnel policy in times of a decrease in the number of employable persons, an increasing shortage of skilled workers and an ageing workforce. Family-friendly working conditions are becoming a key factor in the competition for staff. When choosing an employer, family-friendliness has become a crucial topic. Employment participation and skills of women, especially of mothers, have greatly increased. To facilitate the realisation of their wish to return to paid employment, however, measures to reconcile work and family are required. Family-conscious measures have been proven to lead to higher employee productivity. Job satisfaction and motivation of employees and accumulation of human capital increase, absenteeism declines, the return of investment rises. Fields of activity for family-friendly measures in companies range from working arrangements, parental leave and re-entry programmes and various child care offers to services for families. In connection with the demographic development the demand for a better reconciliation of work and elder care should in future become ever more important, just as the upkeep of the occupational skills and working capacity of an ageing workforce. Family-friendliness has to become an integral part of corporate culture. PMID:22558031

  1. Key issues in the pharmaceutical industry: consequences on R&D.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik, Nafees N

    2009-01-01

    Drug discovery is hard, and is becoming progressively harder, with the passage of time! No other field has to handle such an interplay of scientific, fiscal and political factors. The rewards are, nonetheless, worth it: people now live healthier and longer lives than at any point of time in the past. Times are, however, hard for pharmaceutical companies: research and development (R&D) costs are spiralling out of control. New drug approvals, on the other hand, have hit a record low; and the situation is expected to worsen, now that the FDA seems to be exhibiting stricter drug approval standards. Other issues also exacerbate circumstances: huge numbers of blockbuster medicines, which drugmakers rely on to generate their incomes, are coming off patent, and generic competition is intensifying. Both public and investor confidence in the industry have fallen drastically owing to rising drug prices, product safety concerns and late-stage clinical trial failures. This article discusses the key issues that pharmaceutical companies face and in particular the implications they have for the R&D process. I finish by suggesting how drugmakers should change their R&D strategies to succeed. PMID:23480332

  2. Multiple-Robot Systems for USAR: Key Design Attributes and Deployment Issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Choon Yue Wong

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The interaction between humans and robots is undergoing an evolution. Progress in this evolution means that humans are close to robustly deploying multiple robots. Urban search and rescue (USAR can benefit greatly from such capability. The review shows that with state of the art artificial intelligence, robots can work autonomously but still require human supervision. It also shows that multiple robot deployment (MRD is more economical, shortens mission durations, adds reliability as well as addresses missions impossible with one robot and payload constraints. By combining robot autonomy and human supervision, the benefits of MRD can be applied to USAR while at the same time minimizing human exposure to danger. This is achieved with a single-human multiple-robot system (SHMRS. However, designers of the SHMRS must consider key attributes such as the size, composition and organizational structure of the robot collective. Variations in these attributes also induce fluctuations in issues within SHMRS deployment such as robot communication and computational load as well as human cognitive workload and situation awareness (SA.Research is essential to determine how the attributes can be manipulated to mitigate these issues while meeting the requirements of the USAR mission.

  3. Understanding key drivers controlling daily stable isotope variations in precipitation of Costa Rica, Central America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez-Murillo, Ricardo; Welsh, Kristin; Birkel, Christian; Esquivel-Hernández, Germain; Corrales-Salazar, Jose; Boll, Jan; Brooks, Erin; Roupsard, Olivier; Katchan, Irina; Arce-Mesén, Rafael; Soulsby, Chris; Araguás-Araguás, Luis

    2015-04-01

    Costa Rica is located on the Central American Isthmus, which receives direct moisture inputs from the Caribbean Sea and the Pacific Ocean. The relatively narrow, but high relief Central American land bridge is characterized by unique mountainous and lowland microclimates. However, only limited knowledge exists about the impact of relief and regional atmospheric circulation patterns on precipitation origin, transport, and isotopic composition in this tropical region. Therefore, the main scope of this study is to identify the key drivers controlling variations in meteoric waters of Costa Rica using stable isotopes based on daily sample collection for the year 2013. The monitoring sites comprise three strategic locations across Costa Rica: Heredia (Central Valley), Turrialba (Caribbean slope), and Caño Seco (South Pacific slope). Sporadic dry season rain is mostly related to isolated enriched events ranging from -5.8‰ d18O up to -0.9‰ d18O. By mid-May, the Intertropical Convergence Zone reaches Costa Rica resulting in a notable depletion in isotope ratios (up to -18.5‰ d18O). HYSPLIT back air mass trajectories indicate the strong influence on the origin and transport of precipitation of two main moisture transport mechanisms, the Caribbean Low Level Jet and the Colombian Low Level Jet as well as localized convection events. Multiple linear regression models constructed based on Random Forests of surface meteorological information and atmospheric sounding profiles suggest that Lifted Condensation Level and surface relative humidity are the main factors controlling isotopic variations. These findings diverge from the recognized 'amount effect' in monthly composite samples across the tropics. Understanding of stable isotope dynamics in tropical precipitation can be used to enhance catchment and groundwater modeling efforts in ungauged basins where scarcity of long-term monitoring data drastically limit current and future water resources management.

  4. Assessment of the Key Competitiveness Issues and Policy Requirements Facing the Irish Energy Market : Focus on Irish Electricity Market

    OpenAIRE

    2003-01-01

    The objective of this study is to assess the key competitiveness issues facing the Irish energy market from an enterprise consumer perspective and to outline appropriate institutional and policy responses. Final report, December 2002

  5. Impacts on non-human biota from a generic geological disposal facility for radioactive waste: some key assessment issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper provides an overview of key issues associated with the application of currently available biota dose assessment methods to consideration of potential environmental impacts from geological disposal facilities. It explores philosophical, methodological and practical assessment issues and reviews the implications of test assessment results in the context of recent and on-going challenges and debates.

  6. Towards optimised information about clinical trials; identification and validation of key issues in collaboration with cancer patient advocates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dellson, P; Nilbert, M; Bendahl, P-O;

    2011-01-01

    for improvements, 21 key issues were defined and validated through a questionnaire in an independent group of breast cancer patient advocates. Clear messages, emotionally neutral expressions, careful descriptions of side effects, clear comparisons between different treatment alternatives and information about......Clinical trials are crucial to improve cancer treatment but recruitment is difficult. Optimised patient information has been recognised as a key issue. In line with the increasing focus on patients' perspectives in health care, we aimed to study patients' opinions about the written information used...... the possibility to discontinue treatment were perceived as the most important issues. Patients' views of the information in clinical trials provide new insights and identify key issues to consider in optimising future written information and may improve recruitment to clinical cancer trials....

  7. Key Durability Issues with Mullite-Based Environmental Barrier Coatings for Si-Based Ceramics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kang N.

    2000-01-01

    Plasma-sprayed mullite (3Al2O3.2SiO2) and mullite/yttria-stabilized-zirconia (YSZ) dual layer coatings have been developed to protect silicon -based ceramics from environmental attack. Mullite-based coating systems show excellent durability in air. However, in combustion environments, corrosive species such as molten salt or water vapor penetrate through cracks in the coating and attack the Si-based ceramics along the interface. Thus the modification of the coating system for enhanced crack-resistance is necessary for long-term durability in combustion environments. Other key durability issues include interfacial contamination and coating/substrate bonding. Interfacial contamination leads to enhanced oxidation and interfacial pore formation, while a weak coating/substrate bonding leads to rapid attack of the interface by corrosive species, both of which can cause a premature failure of the coating. Interfacial contamination can be minimized by limiting impurities in coating and substrate materials. The interface may be modified to improve the coating/substrate bond.

  8. Geographical location and key sensitivity issues of post-industrial regions in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuczynski, Tomasz; Siebielec, Grzegorz; Korzeniowska-Puculek, Renata; Koza, Piotr; Pudelko, Rafal; Lopatka, Artur; Kowalik, Monika

    2009-04-01

    Primary objectives of our work were to spatially delineate post industrial areas of the EU-27 and indicate key environmental, social and economic sensitivity issues for these regions. The density of industrial sites within NUTS-x regions for EU-27 countries was assessed by using CORINE 2000 land cover layer. A development of postindustrial society in Europe represents a strong geographic diversity. There are distinct historical and current differences between regions which form major groups, comprising similar internal characteristics and definable trends in environmental and socioeconomic sense. Regions grouped into postindustrial clusters are fundamentally different from the European average, and are facing specific problems related to global market and political changes. Eastern postindustrial regions can be characterized as socially and economically weak, exhibiting high unemployment rate, low GDP, negative population growth and a strong environmental pressure, represented by a high density of dump sites. Most of the western EU postindustrial areas have been successfully recovered and moved into new economy as shown by most of the indicators. In urban postindustrial zones, however, emission sources of pollutants seem to continually be a major problem--not necessarily in terms of exceeding thresholds, but through a remarkable difference in the amount of pollutants produced relative to other regions. PMID:18437515

  9. OBLIVIOUS TRANSFER WITH ACCESS CONTROL AND IDENTITYBASED ENCRYPTION WITH ANONYMOUS KEY ISSUING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu Lingling; Zhang Fangguo; Wen Yamin

    2011-01-01

    In ACM'CCS 2009,Camenisch,et al.proposed the Obhvious Transfer with Access Control (AC-OT) in which each item is associated with an attribute set and can only be available,on request,to the users who have all the attributes in the associated set.Namely,AC-OT achieves access control policy for conjunction of attributes.Essentially,the functionality of AC-OT is equivalent to the simplified version that we call AC-OT-SV:for each item,one attribute is associated with it,and it is requested that only the users who possess the associated attribute can obtain the item by queries.On one hand,AC-OT-SV is a special case of AC-OT when there is just one associated attribute with each item.On the other hand,any AC-OT can be realized by an AC-OT-SV.In this paper,we first present a concrete AC-OT-SV protocol which is proved to be secure in the model defined by Camenisch,et al..Then from the protocol,interestingly,a concrete Identity-Based Encryption (IBE) with Anonymous Key Issuing (AKI) is given which is just a direct application to AC-OT-SV.By comparison,we show that the AKI protocol we present is more efficient in communications than that proposed by Chow.

  10. Key issues to be taken into account during the decommissioning of reprocessing plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Careful planning and management is of utmost importance to ensure that decommissioning will be accomplished in a safe and cost effective way under a national regulatory framework while minimizing staff and public exposure. Nuclear facilities decommissioning is not new and a lot of projects are currently being or have successfully managed, from process equipment replacement, installation revamping to dismantling of installations. Nowadays, a change of scale is emerging with industrial operations concerning large nuclear installations within the nuclear fuel cycle such as reprocessing plants. These operations will last over several decades (around 30 years) and cost billions of Euros. The paper reports on experience during the first eight years of the decommissioning of UP1, the first French reprocessing plant located at Marcoule and how the experience is being used in the early stages of the decommissioning of the second reprocessing plant, UP2 400 at La Hague that has been shut down at the end of 2003. A few of the key issues which require attention, will be developed in the paper, i.e. the specifics of reprocessing plants, the need for new skills, the need for a change of culture, human resources and project organization, and waste management. (author)

  11. Doubly-Special Relativity: Facts, Myths and Some Key Open Issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Amelino-Camelia

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available I report, emphasizing some key open issues and some aspects that are particularly relevant for phenomenology, on the status of the development of “doubly-special” relativistic (“DSR” theories with both an observer-independent high-velocity scale and an observer-independent small-length/large-momentum scale, possibly relevant for the Planck-scale/quantum-gravity realm. I also give a true/false characterization of the structure of these theories. In particular, I discuss a DSR scenario without modification of the energy-momentum dispersion relation and without the қ-Poincaré Hopf algebra, a scenario with deformed Poincaré symmetries which is not a DSR scenario, some scenarios with both an invariant length scale and an invariant velocity scale which are not DSR scenarios, and a DSR scenario in which it is easy to verify that some observable relativistic (but non-special-relativistic features are insensitive to possible nonlinear redefinitions of symmetry generators.

  12. Transboundary Movements of Genetically Modified Organisms and the Cartagena Protocol: Key Issues and Concerns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Odile J Lim Tung

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Biotechnology or the engineering of the genetic material of species can give way to avenues of possibilities for the benefit of people, fauna and flora but also has the potential of posing untold and undiscovered threats to human beings and other living organisms. One of the first attempts to legislate on international rules on biotechnology can be traced back to article 19 of the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD in 1992. The CBD is indeed the first international legal instrument apart from the then European Community’s relevant directives to suggest that biotechnology is a matter of concern for the international community while providing a basis upon which more detailed procedures would be elaborated in the field of biosafety. While the CBD includes international rules on access to genetic resources, access to and the transfer of technology, the handling of biotechnology and the distribution of its benefits, it does not include a detailed regulation on genetically modified organisms (GMOs and their possible adverse effects on the environment, human and animal health. It was only with the coming into existence of the Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety (Cartagena Protocol to the CBD in 2000 that the safe transfer, handling and use of living modified organisms (LMOs such as genetically engineered plants, animals, and microbes were at last being catered for, albeit leaving aside the broader categories of GMOs. Due to the need for the negotiators of this protocol to make compromises, there were still key issues on the international biosafety framework pertaining mainly to the scope of the GMOs to be covered by this protocol and by the Advanced Informed Agreement procedure; identification and traceability issues; and liability and redress issues. Nine years after the entry into force of the Cartagena Protocol the transboundary movements of GMOs have clearly increased with new categories of GMOs and genetically modified products to regulate. The

  13. Identifying Key Issues and Potential Solutions for Integrated Arrival, Departure, Surface Operations by Surveying Stakeholder Preferences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aponso, Bimal; Coppenbarger, Richard A.; Jung, Yoon; Quon, Leighton; Lohr, Gary; O’Connor, Neil; Engelland, Shawn

    2015-01-01

    NASA's Aeronautics Research Mission Directorate (ARMD) collaborates with the FAA and industry to provide concepts and technologies that enhance the transition to the next-generation air-traffic management system (NextGen). To facilitate this collaboration, ARMD has a series of Airspace Technology Demonstration (ATD) sub-projects that develop, demonstrate, and transitions NASA technologies and concepts for implementation in the National Airspace System (NAS). The second of these sub-projects, ATD-2, is focused on the potential benefits to NAS stakeholders of integrated arrival, departure, surface (IADS) operations. To determine the project objectives and assess the benefits of a potential solution, NASA surveyed NAS stakeholders to understand the existing issues in arrival, departure, and surface operations, and the perceived benefits of better integrating these operations. NASA surveyed a broad cross-section of stakeholders representing the airlines, airports, air-navigation service providers, and industry providers of NAS tools. The survey indicated that improving the predictability of flight times (schedules) could improve efficiency in arrival, departure, and surface operations. Stakeholders also mentioned the need for better strategic and tactical information on traffic constraints as well as better information sharing and a coupled collaborative planning process that allows stakeholders to coordinate IADS operations. To assess the impact of a potential solution, NASA sketched an initial departure scheduling concept and assessed its viability by surveying a select group of stakeholders for a second time. The objective of the departure scheduler was to enable flights to move continuously from gate to cruise with minimal interruption in a busy metroplex airspace environment using strategic and tactical scheduling enhanced by collaborative planning between airlines and service providers. The stakeholders agreed that this departure concept could improve schedule

  14. Key Issues on Nuclear Energy Non-proliferation in East Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Energy demand in East Asia casts a significant challenge to sustainable economy development and socio-political stability in the region which has experienced tensions throughout the history. The energy demand in this region has been dramatically increased since the start of reform in PRC. DPRK is another challenge. The current electricity consumption in DPRK is around 10% of that in ROK. If the economy of PRC continuously grows to the level of neighboring states and if the living standard of DPRK reaches that of ROK, the energy and electricity demand in the region will certainly be out of control unless the proper measures are taken into actions from today. The only feasible energy option is the nuclear one. PRC already proclaimed its ambitious plan to deploy more than 30 reactors in the near future. In addition, a couple of the South Eastern Asian states expressed their willingness to introduce nuclear power plants in the future. The increase in the use of nuclear energy is expected to bring up the nuclear renaissance in the region. However, without the proper mechanisms to supply fresh fuels and to manage spent nuclear fuels with full compliance of nuclear energy nonproliferation, the new development will inevitably cause the instability in the region. So far many interesting proposals on nuclear cooperation in East Asia were announced. Unfortunately, none of them works out properly yet, partly because the old proposals were too political. To restart the engine of the nuclear cooperation and nonproliferation in the region, it is necessary to find out what would be the common interests of the region not so much related to politics. In this paper, some key technical issues are addressed for future regional joint studies

  15. North Korean nuclear issues and the LWR project; analysis of the key technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Year 2000 will be remembered as an epoch making period between two Koreas. Korean nuclear industries became activated with the KEDO LWR main contracts entering into force in February, 2000. Respective design, manufacturing and construction activities are mobilized in accordance with the total project schedule of about 100 months. What started out as the nuclear power plant design standardization project in the early '80s, is now being implemented as repeat construction of KSNPs at Yonggwang and Ulchin sites as well as at Kumho site in the DPRK. However, the KEDO construction schedule and the past nuclear inconsistency issues are closely linked due to the nonproliferation concerns. In practice, the IAEA must come to the conclusion that the correctness and completeness must be fulfilled before delivery of the first key component for the KEDO LWR unit 1. While the IAEA verification process tends to focus on the nuclear materials accountancy control, longer term objective between two Koreas is bound to take the form of confidence building. It is necessary to analyse the nuclear research and production facilities in order to make proper evaluation of a nation's nuclear capabilities. Close assessment on development status of graphite moderated reactors and their operation history, spent fuel reprocessing facilities, and HEU production capabilities would be essential. In addition, illicit trafficking possibilities should be addressed. Chapter 1 describes the graphite moderated reactors in general; Chapter 2 describes various reprocessing processes and their detection capabilities; Chapter 3 contains possible uranium enrichment processes with their detection capabilities, and Chapter 4 summarizes the international treaties in illicit trafficking control with the IAEA database

  16. North Korean nuclear issues and the LWR project; analysis of the key technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Byung Koo; Kwack, E. H.; Shin, J. S.; An, J. S.; Lee, J. U.; Kim, H. T.; Kim, J. S.; Yoon, Y. C

    2000-11-01

    Year 2000 will be remembered as an epoch making period between two Koreas. Korean nuclear industries became activated with the KEDO LWR main contracts entering into force in February, 2000. Respective design, manufacturing and construction activities are mobilized in accordance with the total project schedule of about 100 months. What started out as the nuclear power plant design standardization project in the early '80s, is now being implemented as repeat construction of KSNPs at Yonggwang and Ulchin sites as well as at Kumho site in the DPRK. However, the KEDO construction schedule and the past nuclear inconsistency issues are closely linked due to the nonproliferation concerns. In practice, the IAEA must come to the conclusion that the correctness and completeness must be fulfilled before delivery of the first key component for the KEDO LWR unit 1. While the IAEA verification process tends to focus on the nuclear materials accountancy control, longer term objective between two Koreas is bound to take the form of confidence building. It is necessary to analyse the nuclear research and production facilities in order to make proper evaluation of a nation's nuclear capabilities. Close assessment on development status of graphite moderated reactors and their operation history, spent fuel reprocessing facilities, and HEU production capabilities would be essential. In addition, illicit trafficking possibilities should be addressed. Chapter 1 describes the graphite moderated reactors in general; Chapter 2 describes various reprocessing processes and their detection capabilities; Chapter 3 contains possible uranium enrichment processes with their detection capabilities, and Chapter 4 summarizes the international treaties in illicit trafficking control with the IAEA database.

  17. Pollution in America: The Trouble with Trash. Series on Public Issues No. 7.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurice, S. Charles; Smithson, Charles W.

    Examined in this booklet, one of a series intended to apply economic principles to major social and political issues of the day, are such questions as the origins of interest in combating pollution, why people pollute, continuing interest in the issue, the social costs of pollution, and a possible solution to the problem, all considered from an…

  18. Key Issues in the Modes of Action and Effects of Trichloroethylene Metabolites for Liver and Kidney Tumorigenesis

    OpenAIRE

    Caldwell, Jane C.; Keshava, Nagalakshmi

    2006-01-01

    Trichloroethylene (TCE) exposure has been associated with increased risk of liver and kidney cancer in both laboratory animal and epidemiologic studies. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency 2001 draft TCE risk assessment concluded that it is difficult to determine which TCE metabolites may be responsible for these effects, the key events involved in their modes of action (MOAs), and the relevance of these MOAs to humans. In this article, which is part of a mini-monograph on key issues in ...

  19. Identification and Characterization of Key Human Performance Issues and Research in the Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Paul U.; Sheridan, Tom; Poage, james L.; Martin, Lynne Hazel; Jobe, Kimberly K.

    2010-01-01

    This report identifies key human-performance-related issues associated with Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen) research in the NASA NextGen-Airspace Project. Four Research Focus Areas (RFAs) in the NextGen-Airspace Project - namely Separation Assurance (SA), Airspace Super Density Operations (ASDO), Traffic Flow Management (TFM), and Dynamic Airspace Configuration (DAC) - were examined closely. In the course of the research, it was determined that the identified human performance issues needed to be analyzed in the context of NextGen operations rather than through basic human factors research. The main gaps in human factors research in NextGen were found in the need for accurate identification of key human-systems related issues within the context of specific NextGen concepts and better design of the operational requirements for those concepts. By focusing on human-system related issues for individual concepts, key human performance issues for the four RFAs were identified and described in this report. In addition, mixed equipage airspace with components of two RFAs were characterized to illustrate potential human performance issues that arise from the integration of multiple concepts.

  20. SARNET. Severe Accident Research Network - key issues in the area of source term

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    About fifty European organisations integrate in SARNET (Network of Excellence of the EU 6th Framework Programme) their research capacities in resolve better the most important remaining uncertainties and safety issues concerning existing and future Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs) under hypothetical Severe Accident (SA) conditions. Wishing to maintain a long-lasting cooperation, they conduct three types of activities: integrating activities, spreading of excellence and jointly executed research. This paper summarises the main results obtained by the network after the first year, giving more prominence to those from jointly executed research in the Source Term area. Integrating activities have been performed through different means: the ASTEC integral computer code for severe accident transient modelling, through development of PSA2 methodologies, through the setting of a structure for definition of evolving R and D priorities and through the development of a web-network of data bases that hosts experimental data. Such activities have been facilitated by the development of an Advanced Communication Tool. Concerning spreading of excellence, educational courses covering Severe Accident Analysis Methodology and Level 2 PSA have been set up, to be given in early 2006. A detailed text book on Severe Accident Phenomenology has been designed and agreed amongst SARNET members. A mobility programme for students and young researchers is being developed, some detachments are already completed or in progress, and examples are quoted. Jointly executed research activities concern key issues grouped in the Corium, Containment and Source Term areas. In Source Term, behaviour of the highly radio-toxic ruthenium under oxidising conditions (like air ingress) for HBU and MOX fuel has been investigated. First modelling proposals for ASTEC have been made for oxidation of fuel and of ruthenium. Experiments on transport of highly volatile oxide ruthenium species have been performed. Reactor

  1. Key issues in automatic classification of defects in post-inspection review process of photomasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Mark; Maji, Manabendra; Pai, Ravi R.; B. V. R., Samir; Seshadri, R.; Patil, Pradeepkumar

    2012-11-01

    very small real defects, registering grey level defect images with layout data base, automatically finding out maximum critical dimension (CD) variation for defective patterns (where patterns could have Manhattan as well as all angle edges), etc. This paper discusses about many such key issues and suggests strategies to address some of them based upon our experience while developing the NxADC and evaluating it on production mask defects.

  2. The Identification of Key Issues in the Development of Sustainable e-Learning and Virtual Campus Initiatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stansfield, Mark; Connolly, Thomas; Cartelli, Antonio; Jimoyiannis, Athanassios; Magalhaes, Hugo; Maillet, Katherine

    2009-01-01

    This paper explores a number of key issues that have been identified as being important in the identification and evaluation of best practice within the context of e-learning and virtual campuses. The "Promoting Best Practice in Virtual Campuses" (PBP-VC) project is a two year European Commission Education Audiovisual and Culture Executive Agency…

  3. Capital Markets and Non-bank Financial Institutions in Romania : Assessment of Key Issues and Recommendations for Development

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2005-01-01

    This study assesses key issues and recommendations for development, and reviews the specific changes which are necessary in four areas: structural reforms, market institutions, and infrastructure; accounting, transparency, and disclosure; market infrastructure; and credit enhancements. With only three years remaining before joining the European Union, Romania is working hard to improve its...

  4. A Discussion with Sandy O'Sullivan about Key Issues for the Australian Indigenous Studies Learning and Teaching Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barney, Katelyn

    2014-01-01

    This article takes the form of an interview with Sandy O'Sullivan, who is a partner on the Australian Indigenous Studies Learning and Teaching Network, about key issues that have arisen through Network discussions. She is a Wiradjuri woman and a Senior Aboriginal researcher at the Batchelor Institute of Indigenous Tertiary Education.…

  5. Language Revitalization in Native North AmericaIssues of Intellectual Property Rights and Intellectual Sovereignty

    OpenAIRE

    Tatsch, Sheri

    2004-01-01

    Language revitalization, oral tradition and epistemology are expressions of Native peoples intellectual sovereignty, and thus the foundation for indigenous intellectual property rights. As the people of California move towards language and cultural revitalization the question arises: What constitutes or constructs the definitions of intellectual property and how can appropriation of indigenous knowledge be protected? Looking at the issues faced by the California's indigenous po...

  6. Integrated pest management and entomopathogenic fungal biotechnology in the Latin Americas: II key research and development prerequisites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the first part of this review article (Valencia and Khachatourians, 1998) we presented the special opportunity that entomopathogenic fungi (EPF) offer for integrated pest management (IPM) in the Latin Americas. As expected, along with the opportunities, there are challenges for the use of EPF. First that there are only two fungi, Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae, for which some prerequisite knowledge of basic and applied mycology for industrial research and development (R and D) are in place. Because of precedent setting leadership in the development of certain EPF, e.g., B. bassiana in IPM, Latin America stands to contribute to and gain from future

  7. Energy investments and environmental implications: key policy issues in developing countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siddayao, Corazon M. (World Bank Washington, DC (USA). Economic Development Institute)

    1992-03-15

    Energy investments imply changes in the physical, social, and economic environment. Hence, both the short-term and the long-term costs and benefits of these investments must be taken into account. These changes may affect not only the immediate environment of the investment site but may extend geographically far beyond national borders as well as beyond the lifetimes of the people for whom the investments are intended. This paper reviews the issues relevant to developing countries. General conceptual and policies issues are discussed. Issues about the measurement of costs and benefits (including issues of 'sustainability' and the internalization of externalities resulting from environmental changes) as well as the role of opportunity costs in deciding a country's energy investment strategies are raised. The macroeconomic and institutional issues relevant to environmental impacts that might be incorporated in energy planning are suggested. The paper is based on a presentation to the 'Workshop on energy investments and the environment'. 24 refs., 1 fig.

  8. Key issues affecting coal requirements for the next decade in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports on the requirements for steam coal in Japan for the next decade and also about the broader issues affecting the future coal trade. First, the author mentions the new trend in the 1990's, and then, explains the energy situation, forecast of electric power demand/supply and requirements for steam coal in the Japanese electric utilities, global warming issues, and other important issues in the coming decade. The energy situation in Japan after the 1990's can be described in terms of the three E's. The First E is economic growth, in other words, the security of continuous economic growth. The Second E is energy security, the problem of how to secure an energy supply. The Third E means environment. The basic problem in the future will be how to resolve the trilemma (3 contradictory elements) of the three E's

  9. Several key issues on implementing delay line based TDCs using FPGAs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Jinyuan; /Fermilab

    2009-12-01

    Several topics in FPGA delay line based TDCs are discussed in this document. First, FPGA specific issues such as considerations on the delay line choice in different FPGA families, Wave Union Launchers, 'bubble proof' encoding logic, etc. are examined. Next, common problems for both FPGA TDCs and ASIC TDCs such as schemes of coarse time counter implementation, bin-by-bin calibration and noise issues due to single ended signals are discussed. Several resource/power saving design approaches for various processing stages are described in the document.

  10. The Role of Gender in the Socialization of Emotion: Key Concepts and Critical Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Root, Amy Kennedy; Denham, Susanne A.

    2010-01-01

    Given the omnipresent role of gender in children's and adolescents' development, it seems necessary to better understand how gender affects the process of emotion socialization. In this introductory chapter, the authors discuss the overarching themes and key concepts discussed in this volume, as well as outline the distinct contribution of each…

  11. Key issues and options in accounting for carbon sequestration and temporary storage in life cycle assessment and carbon footprinting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandao, Miguel; Levasseur, Annie; Kirschbaum, Miko U. F.;

    2013-01-01

    footprinting (CF) are increasingly popular tools for the environmental assessment of products, that take into account their entire life cycle. There have been significant efforts to develop robust methods to account for the benefits, if any, of sequestration and temporary storage and release of biogenic carbon...... and CF. Several viewpoints and approaches are presented in a structured manner to help decision-makers in their selection of an option from competing approaches for dealing with timing issues, including delayed emissions of fossil carbon. Results: Key issues identified are that the benefits of...

  12. What Do People Know about Key Environmental Issues? A Review of Environmental Knowledge Surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robelia, Beth; Murphy, Tony

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents results from 15 little publicized state and national environmental surveys in the US that used similar questions. Our analysis reveals trends in adult understanding of environmental issues. These trends indicate that many may have difficulty making informed decisions about environmental policy as citizens, voters, and…

  13. The Causes of Poverty: Thinking Critically about a Key Economic Issue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otlin, Josh

    2008-01-01

    Economics is a central part of civic education. Students need to know about the Constitution and the party system, but active citizenship in the twenty-first century requires much more than the standard civics courses offer. Economic issues dominate public policy debates ranging from Social Security to immigration to international security. If…

  14. Social Issues, Behaviours and Routines of Ubi-Commerce Users in North America

    OpenAIRE

    Hillman, Serena Marie

    2014-01-01

    eCommerce has dramatically changed over the last several years, leaving a gap of knowledge around what these changes mean to—and how they affect—the user and their experiences. To address this gap, I collected empirical evidence through three studies. The first looks at mobile web commerce, and focuses heavily on the issue of trust. The second looks at group shopping sites, an example of social commerce. The third study investigates mobile payment services systems and user challenges and succ...

  15. Knowledge Issues Raised in Modelling Trust in a Public Key Infrastructure

    OpenAIRE

    Basden, Andrew; Ball, E; Chadwick, David W

    2001-01-01

    The paper describes a knowledge based system (KBS) for modelling trust in the Certification Authority (CA) of a Public Key Infrastructure (PKI). It was built using a graphical KBS toolkit, Istar, that allows the knowledge builder to easily model the important relationships between concepts of the domain. The knowledge base was initially built using published work and was subsequently extended by knowledge obtained from leading PKI experts. The first prototype system computes the trust in a CA...

  16. Network theory: key issues for the analysis of the "brain drain"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Carolina Henao

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper offers an analysis of the brain drain from the perspective of the network theory. Some definitions and key concepts of the network theory have been discussed in relation to criteria and reasons that are taken into account by people with broad educational capital from developing countries who are involved in the research in different areas of knowledge and who seek to adapt to other scientific collaboration networks in the developed countries.

  17. BIOPROTA: international collaboration on key technical issues in biosphere aspects of long-term radiological assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BIOPROTA is an international collaborative project which was set up to address key uncertainties in biosphere aspects of assessment of the long-term impact of contaminant releases associated with radioactive waste management. The project began in 2002 and has benefited from the knowledge and experience of organisations from Canada, Finland, France, Japan, Russia, Spain, Sweden, UK and the USA. This paper describes the BIOPROTA objectives and scope, the on-going work programme and methods of work. (author)

  18. On some key research issues in Enterprise Risk Management related to economic capital and diversification effect at group level

    OpenAIRE

    Fisher, Wayne; Loisel, Stéphane; Wang, Shaun

    2008-01-01

    National audience The goal of this short communication is to give an overview of the key research issues in Enterprise Risk Management that arose during the talks and the brainstorming session of the first ERMII research workshop, which was held at ISFA, University of Lyon in June 2007. To define and compute economic capital at group level, fundamental problems related for example to value creation, correlation and capital allocation are stated. The ideas gathered in this paper are not dir...

  19. BASF Issues First Report on Economic,Environmental,and Social Performance Seven key indicators standardize and integrate transparency

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    @@ BASF,the world's leading chemical company,will enhance its transparency in Greater China by reporting annually on seven key financial,social and environmental indicators:sales,number of employees,occupational safety,water,waste,emissions to air,and energy consumption.BASF Greater China today issued the first report under the new guidelines,revealing the latest information about the company's performance in the world's most dynamic chemical market.

  20. The use of conversation mapping to frame key perceptual issues facing the general dental practice system in England

    OpenAIRE

    Harris, R.V.; Dancer, J.M.; D. Smith; Campbell, S.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To demonstrate the use of a novel qualitative methodology namely conversation mapping, which can be used to capture differences in stakeholder perspectives and give a root definition of the problem in a complex policy area. The methodology is used in the context of the changes introduced in the English general dental practice system in April 2006, to investigate the key issues facing the system, as perceived by general dental practitioners (GDPs). Basic research design: From a broa...

  1. Key issues of public relations of Europe: Findings from the European Communication Monitor 2007-2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dejan Vercic

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available European Communication Monitor is the largest longitudinal research project in public relations practice in the world. Data collected annually from 2007 to 2014 show that practitioners perceive five issues as the most important for their work: linking business strategy and communication, coping with the digital evolution and social web, building and maintaining trust, dealing with the demand for more transparency and active audiences, and dealing with the speed and volume of information flow. Perception of the importance of various issues for the practice of public relations is largely dependent on the gender, geography (division between Northern and Western vs. Southern and Eastern Europe, and sector in which a practitioner works (corporate, government, NGO or agency. While gender and sectorial differences studied in academic public relations literature, divisions in public relations practice between North-Western and South-Eastern Europe are largely ignored.

  2. Key issues of public relations of Europe: Findings from the European Communication Monitor 2007-2014

    OpenAIRE

    Verčič, Dejan; Verhoeven, Piet; Zerfass, Ansgar

    2014-01-01

    European Communication Monitor is the largest longitudinal research project in public relations practice in the world. Data collected annually from 2007 to 2014 show that practitioners perceive five issues as the most important for their work: linking business strategy and communication, coping with the digital evolution and social web, building and maintaining trust, dealing with the demand for more transparency and active audiences, and dealing with the speed and volume of in...

  3. The Development of Resources of Students in Adolescence as a Key Issue in Contemporary Education

    OpenAIRE

    Gosk Urszula; Kuracki Kamil

    2015-01-01

    In the presented paper, the issue of recognition and building of resources in adolescent pupils was discussed, referring to salutogenic concept of A. Antonovsky and Conservation of Resources Theory of S. E. Hobfoll. Coming out from developmental pedagogy and positive orientation in social sciences, benefits of scientific and educational actions concentrated on identifying pupils’ resources and supporting them in generating them, were shown. On the basis of Polish and foreign literature, empir...

  4. Language revitalization in Native North America--issues of intellectual property rights and intellectual sovereignty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatsch, Sheri

    2004-01-01

    Language revitalization, oral tradition and epistemology are expressions of Native peoples intellectual sovereignty, and thus the foundation for indigenous intellectual property rights. As the people of California move towards language and cultural revitalization the question arises: What constitutes or constructs the definitions of intellectual property and how can appropriation of indigenous knowledge be protected? Looking at the issues faced by the California's indigenous populace and by implication, other indigenous peoples in the United States, this essay examines how protection may be afforded under the United Nations definition of 'heritage'. Given that the holding safe of a 'culture' or 'heritage' is inclusive of language, and thus has been determined to be a human right. PMID:15156749

  5. Key issues concerning changes in the radiological protection system: some thoughts from the French Society for Radiation Protection (SFRP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1999, the International Radiological Protection Association (IRPA) asked for contributions to the debate on future changes to the radiological protection system proposed by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP). In response, the Board of the French Society for Radiation Protection (SFRP) created a working group to deal specifically with this issue. It met on several occasions between April and July and its findings were presented at the IRPA Congress in May 2000. They were also published in the French journal Radioprotection and in the British Journal of Radiological Protection. To further its discussions, the Board of the SFRP decided to create a second working group which became operational in September 2001. It has around 20 members representing the major players in the radiological protection field in France: authorities, experts and professionals from the nuclear, medical and research fields as well as one association representative (the list of members can be found at the end of this document). The working group was set up to produce proposals relating to the key issues likely to be raised, particularly by the ICRP, concerning the development of new radiological protection recommendations. The members of the working group analysed the ICRP memorandum published in the June 2001 edition of the Journal of Radiological Protection and used their own experience to determine what these key issues would be. The following issues were discussed: General thoughts on the new radiological protection system proposed by the ICRP, Individual and collective approaches to the radiological risk, Comparison with chemical risk management, Radiological protection of the environment, Changes in exposure levels and units of measurement. This paper, which has been approved by the Board of the SFRP, gives the main conclusions of the working group on the key issues in these areas. It is intended to reflect the various opinions expressed during the groups

  6. Building America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brad Oberg

    2010-12-31

    IBACOS researched the constructability and viability issues of using high performance windows as one component of a larger approach to building houses that achieve the Building America 70% energy savings target.

  7. Management of graphite material: a key issue for High Temperature Gas Reactor system (HTGR)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graphite material is used in nuclear High Temperature Gas-cooled Reactors (HTGR) as moderator, thermal absorber and also as structural components of the core. This type of reactor was selected by the Generation IV forum as a potential high temperature provider for supplying hydrogen production plants and is under development in France in the frame of the AREVA ANTARES program. In order to select graphite grades to be used in these future reactors, the requirements for mechanical, thermal, physical-chemical properties must match the internal environment of the nuclear core, especially with regard to irradiation effect. Another important aspect that must be addressed early in design is the waste issue. Indeed, it is necessary to reduce the amount of nuclear waste produced by operation of the reactor during its lifetime. Preliminary assessment of the nuclear waste output for an ANTARES type 280 MWe HTGR over 60 year-lifetime gives an estimated 6000 m3 of activated graphite waste. Thus, reducing the graphite waste production is an important issue for any HTGR system. First, this paper presents a preliminary inventory of graphite waste fluxes coming from a HTGR, in mass and volume, with magnitudes of radiological activities based on activation calculations of graphite during its stay in the core of the reactor. Normalized data corresponding to an output of 1 GWe.year electricity allows comparison of the waste production with other nuclear reactor systems. Second, possible routes to manage irradiated graphite waste are addressed in both the context of French nuclear waste management rules and by comparison to other national regulations. Routes for graphite waste disposal studied in different countries (concerning existing irradiated graphite waste) will be discussed with regard to new issues of large graphite waste from HTGR. Alternative or complementary solutions aiming at lowering volume of graphite waste to be managed will be presented. For example, studies about the

  8. Tritium in the environment. The IRSN's opinion on key issues and on research and development perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report states the opinion of the IRSN on issues related to the behaviour of tritium in the environment, and to the associated risks. This report is based on a set of studies and researches performed on this radionuclide. Thus, the authors address the status of knowledge on the evolution of tritium released by nuclear activities (measurement techniques), the risk of bioaccumulation of tritium by living organisms within ecosystems (behaviour of tritium in the atmosphere, in soils, in ground plants, in continental and sea aquatic media), and the knowledge of risks due to tritium absorbed by living organisms (dose assessment, knowledge of tritium harmful effects and relative biological effectiveness)

  9. Key issues of multiple access technique for LEO satellite communication systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    温萍萍; 顾学迈

    2004-01-01

    The large carrier frequency shift caused by the high-speed movement of satellite (Doppler effects) and the propagation delay on the up-down link are very critical issues in an LEO satellite communication system, which affects both the selection and the implementation of a suitable access method. A Doppler based multiple access technique is used here to control the flow and an MPRMA-HS protocol is proposed for the application in LEO satellite communication systems. The extended simulation trials prove that the proposed scheme seems to be a very promising access method.

  10. The Development of Resources of Students in Adolescence as a Key Issue in Contemporary Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gosk Urszula

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In the presented paper, the issue of recognition and building of resources in adolescent pupils was discussed, referring to salutogenic concept of A. Antonovsky and Conservation of Resources Theory of S. E. Hobfoll. Coming out from developmental pedagogy and positive orientation in social sciences, benefits of scientific and educational actions concentrated on identifying pupils’ resources and supporting them in generating them, were shown. On the basis of Polish and foreign literature, empirical research treating about pupils’ resource, was analyzed, with special attention put to the sense of coherence and its components, stress management and behavior fostering health.

  11. Managing the nation's high-level radioactive waste: key issues and recommendations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To date, no unified national plan has been adopted to develop and implement a comprehensive system of management and disposal of high-level radioactive waste in the United States. Growing public concern about this problem has resulted in a number of recent efforts to develop a national high-level waste management policy. The 96th Congress strove to resolve the central issues, but ultimately failed to pass legislation, partly because of disagreements about the appropriate role of states in the siting of repositories for military waste. Outside government, a number of organizations convened representatives of diverse groups concerned with national high-level radioactive waste management to seek agreement on the major elements of national policy. One such organization was RESOLVE, Center for Environmental Conflict Resolution, which in May 1981 was merged into The Conservation Foundation. RESOLVE convened Forum II, a series of discussions among representatives of environmental, industrial, governmental, and citizen interest groups, in 1981 specifically to address the issues blocking Congressional agreement on high-level waste policy. This report contains the recommendations which resulted from these deliberations. Reprocessing, interim storage, respository development, and licensing requirements are addressed. Federal, state, and public participation in decision making are also discussed

  12. Procuring, maintaining and using equipment: the key issues in controlling exposure to patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiological equipment is not purpose-built for each individual application. Thus, not only are acceptance criteria directly related to the design of equipment and the quality assurance exercised during its manufacture, but also the performance, safety and reliability of equipment must feature in the requirements for procuring new equipment. In the UK this issue is dealt with under the Department of Health and Social Security Manufacturer Registration Scheme for Medical Equipment in its application to radiological equipment. Similarly the continuing reliability of equipment in service is directly related to the quality of maintenance services. This is determined largely by the manner in which such services are procured. In the UK this issue has been considered by one of four Working Parties commissioned by the South-East Thames Regional Health Authority who are the ''Centre of Responsibility'' for diagnostic imaging equipment. The report prepared from the first phase of activity of this working group describes features of a procurement specification for maintenance services and prescribes the complementary duties of contractors and customers. The use in X-ray departments of the kind of manufacturing quality system that is used by most reputable equipment manufacturers has the potential for a dramatic reduction in exposure to patients. (author)

  13. Adapting planning and scheduling concepts to an engineering perspective: Key issues and successful techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Traditional approaches to engineering planning are slanted toward the formats and interests of downstream implementation, and do not always consider the form and criticality of the front-end engineering development process. These processes and scopes are less defined and more subjective than most construction and operations tasks, and require flexible scheduling methods. This paper discusses the characteristics and requirement of engineering schedules, presents concepts for approaching planning in this field, and illustrates simple methods for developing and analyzing engineering plans, and evaluating schedule performance. Engineering plans are structured into a schedule hierarchy which delineates appropriate control and responsibilities, and is governed by key evaluation and decision milestones. Schedule risk analysis considers the uncertainty of engineering tasks, and critical resource constraints. Methods to evaluate schedule performance recognize that engineers and managers are responsible for adequate planning and forecasting, and quality decisions, even if they cannot control all factors influencing schedule results

  14. Integrating Variable Renewable Energy into the Grid: Key Issues, Greening the Grid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katz, Jessica; Cochran, Jaquelin

    2015-05-01

    To foster sustainable, low-emission development, many countries are establishing ambitious renewable energy targets for their electricity supply. Because solar and wind tend to be more variable and uncertain than conventional sources, meeting these targets will involve changes to power system planning and operations. Grid integration is the practice of developing efficient ways to deliver variable renewable energy (VRE) to the grid. Good integration methods maximize the cost-effectiveness of incorporating VRE into the power system while maintaining or increasing system stability and reliability. When considering grid integration, policy makers, regulators, and system operators consider a variety of issues, which can be organized into four broad topics: New Renewable Energy Generation, New Transmission, Increased System Flexibility, Planning for a High RE Future.

  15. A new mealybug in the genus Pseudococcus Westwood (Hemiptera: Coccomorpha: Pseudococcidae) from North America, with a key to species of Pseudococcus from the New World.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellenrieder, Natalia Von; Watson, Gillian

    2016-01-01

    A mealybug species that feeds on Agave spp., Pseudococcus variabilis sp. n. (Hemiptera: Coccomorpha: Pseudococcidae), is described from North America. Its entry into the United States was likely via the horticultural trade on its host plants in the genus Agave (Liliales: Agavaceae). Descriptions and illustrations of the adult female and male, diagnosis from congeners in the New World, and a molecular characterization based on COI are provided, as well as a key to adult females of all Pseudococcus species recorded from the New World. PMID:27394765

  16. Information processing in bacteria: memory, computation, and statistical physics: a key issues review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, Ganhui; Tu, Yuhai

    2016-05-01

    Living systems have to constantly sense their external environment and adjust their internal state in order to survive and reproduce. Biological systems, from as complex as the brain to a single E. coli cell, have to process these data in order to make appropriate decisions. How do biological systems sense external signals? How do they process the information? How do they respond to signals? Through years of intense study by biologists, many key molecular players and their interactions have been identified in different biological machineries that carry out these signaling functions. However, an integrated, quantitative understanding of the whole system is still lacking for most cellular signaling pathways, not to say the more complicated neural circuits. To study signaling processes in biology, the key thing to measure is the input-output relationship. The input is the signal itself, such as chemical concentration, external temperature, light (intensity and frequency), and more complex signals such as the face of a cat. The output can be protein conformational changes and covalent modifications (phosphorylation, methylation, etc), gene expression, cell growth and motility, as well as more complex output such as neuron firing patterns and behaviors of higher animals. Due to the inherent noise in biological systems, the measured input-output dependence is often noisy. These noisy data can be analysed by using powerful tools and concepts from information theory such as mutual information, channel capacity, and the maximum entropy hypothesis. This information theory approach has been successfully used to reveal the underlying correlations between key components of biological networks, to set bounds for network performance, and to understand possible network architecture in generating observed correlations. Although the information theory approach provides a general tool in analysing noisy biological data and may be used to suggest possible network architectures in

  17. Information processing in bacteria: memory, computation, and statistical physics: a key issues review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, Ganhui; Tu, Yuhai

    2016-05-01

    Living systems have to constantly sense their external environment and adjust their internal state in order to survive and reproduce. Biological systems, from as complex as the brain to a single E. coli cell, have to process these data in order to make appropriate decisions. How do biological systems sense external signals? How do they process the information? How do they respond to signals? Through years of intense study by biologists, many key molecular players and their interactions have been identified in different biological machineries that carry out these signaling functions. However, an integrated, quantitative understanding of the whole system is still lacking for most cellular signaling pathways, not to say the more complicated neural circuits. To study signaling processes in biology, the key thing to measure is the input-output relationship. The input is the signal itself, such as chemical concentration, external temperature, light (intensity and frequency), and more complex signals such as the face of a cat. The output can be protein conformational changes and covalent modifications (phosphorylation, methylation, etc), gene expression, cell growth and motility, as well as more complex output such as neuron firing patterns and behaviors of higher animals. Due to the inherent noise in biological systems, the measured input-output dependence is often noisy. These noisy data can be analysed by using powerful tools and concepts from information theory such as mutual information, channel capacity, and the maximum entropy hypothesis. This information theory approach has been successfully used to reveal the underlying correlations between key components of biological networks, to set bounds for network performance, and to understand possible network architecture in generating observed correlations. Although the information theory approach provides a general tool in analysing noisy biological data and may be used to suggest possible network architectures in

  18. Information processing in bacteria: memory, computation, and statistical physics: a key issues review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, Ganhui; Tu, Yuhai

    2016-05-01

    Living systems have to constantly sense their external environment and adjust their internal state in order to survive and reproduce. Biological systems, from as complex as the brain to a single E. coli cell, have to process these data in order to make appropriate decisions. How do biological systems sense external signals? How do they process the information? How do they respond to signals? Through years of intense study by biologists, many key molecular players and their interactions have been identified in different biological machineries that carry out these signaling functions. However, an integrated, quantitative understanding of the whole system is still lacking for most cellular signaling pathways, not to say the more complicated neural circuits. To study signaling processes in biology, the key thing to measure is the input-output relationship. The input is the signal itself, such as chemical concentration, external temperature, light (intensity and frequency), and more complex signals such as the face of a cat. The output can be protein conformational changes and covalent modifications (phosphorylation, methylation, etc), gene expression, cell growth and motility, as well as more complex output such as neuron firing patterns and behaviors of higher animals. Due to the inherent noise in biological systems, the measured input-output dependence is often noisy. These noisy data can be analysed by using powerful tools and concepts from information theory such as mutual information, channel capacity, and the maximum entropy hypothesis. This information theory approach has been successfully used to reveal the underlying correlations between key components of biological networks, to set bounds for network performance, and to understand possible network architecture in generating observed correlations. Although the information theory approach provides a general tool in analysing noisy biological data and may be used to suggest possible network architectures in

  19. Resources for our Future. Key issues and best practices in resource efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weterings, R.; Bastein, T.; Tukker, A. [TNO, Delft (Netherlands); Rademaker, M.; De Ridder, M. [The Hague Centre for Strategic studies HCSS, Den Haag (Netherlands)

    2013-08-15

    This book provides an analysis of the issues surrounding international resources and inspiring accounts of industrial best practices. The book consists of two distinct parts. The first part of the book brings together the results of years of research into the geopolitical, economic and ecological dimensions of material scarcity and resource efficiency. Chapter 2 discusses the main challenges and constraints related to the use of energy resources, water and land, industrial and metallic minerals, construction minerals and biotic resources, including water use and ecosystem degradation. The chapter also addresses important linkages between these various resources. Chapter 3 describes the international trends that are shaping the geopolitics of natural resources and looks at the implications for Europe and the Netherlands. Chapter 4 presents a wide range of strategies by which governments, producers and consumers may contribute to the more sustainable use of natural resources. The second part of the book describes 21 inspiring best practices in resource efficiency in a variety of industrial sectors. Based on a series of interviews with industrial pioneers, these chapters relate their first-hand experiences in improving resource efficiency. These business cases demonstrate that innovation and entrepreneurship can result in substantial improvements in resource efficiency. Chapter 5 focuses on best practices in the built environment, where substantial amounts of energy and minerals are used. Chapter 6 presents four ambitious strategies to promote sustainable food production and consumption. Chapter 7 describes recent developments in the chemical process industry, which produces most of the ingredients, compounds and semi-products for the vast range of products used by society. Chapter 8 provides four examples of the state-of-the-art in resource efficiency in the metal and high-tech industries. This chapter presents four business cases highlighting the benefits of the

  20. The Water Risks of Hydraulic Fracturing (Fracking): Key Issues from the New California Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gleick, P. H.

    2015-12-01

    A key component of the Water-Energy Nexus is the effort over the past decade or so to quantify the volumes and form of water required for the energy fuel cycle from extraction to generation to waste disposal. The vast majority of the effort in this area has focused on the water needs of electricity generation, but other fuel-cycle components also entail significant water demands and threats to water quality. Recent work for the State of California (managed by the California Council on Science and Technology - CCST) has produced a new state-of-the-art assessment of a range of potential water risks associated with hydraulic fracturing and related oil and gas extraction, including volumetric water demands, methods of disposal of produced water, and aquifer contamination. For example, this assessment produced new information on the disposal of produced water in surface percolation pits and the potential for contamination of local groundwater (see Figure). Understanding these risks raises questions about current production and future plans to expand production, as well as tools used by state and federal agencies to manage these risks. This talk will summarize the science behind the CCST assessment and related policy recommendations for both water and energy managers.

  1. Key issues in estimating energy and greenhouse gas savings of biofuels: challenges and perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dheeraj Rathore

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The increasing demand for biofuels has encouraged the researchers and policy makers worldwide to find sustainable biofuel production systems in accordance with the regional conditions and needs. The sustainability of a biofuel production system includes energy and greenhouse gas (GHG saving along with environmental and social acceptability. Life cycle assessment (LCA is an internationally recognized tool for determining the sustainability of biofuels. LCA includes goal and scope, life cycle inventory, life cycle impact assessment, and interpretation as major steps. LCA results vary significantly, if there are any variations in performing these steps. For instance, biofuel producing feedstocks have different environmental values that lead to different GHG emission savings and energy balances. Similarly, land-use and land-use changes may overestimate biofuel sustainability. This study aims to examine various biofuel production systems for their GHG savings and energy balances, relative to conventional fossil fuels with an ambition to address the challenges and to offer future directions for LCA based biofuel studies. Environmental and social acceptability of biofuel production is the key factor in developing biofuel support policies. Higher GHG emission saving and energy balance of biofuel can be achieved, if biomass yield is high, and ecologically sustainable biomass or non-food biomass is converted into biofuel and used efficiently.

  2. Marketing electricity: Alberta review raises key issues for a sustainable energy policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since 1982, generation and transmission costs incurred by Alberta's three largest electric utilities have been equalized through a mechanism implemented by the Electric Energy Marketing (EEM) Act. Although this scheme has been successful in providing uniform electricity rates across the province, it has been criticized and the provincial government has consequently announced a review of the EEM program. The terms of the review include examination of the validity of EEM objectives, the implementation of EEM, and alternatives to EEM. It is suggested that these terms are insufficient, and an approach to the EEM review is presented that would begin to ensure that essential issues related to sustainable energy policy are discussed. The approach indicates that a future electric utility industry would be more decentralized and that the EEM program as currently implemented may hinder such a development. It is also argued that full-cost pricing of electricity is more concordant with a sustainable energy policy. However, there may be a role for an EEM agency in a restructured electricity industry that includes a truly competitive generating sector. 13 refs

  3. Tritium retention in candidate next-step protection materials: Engineering key issues and research requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Although a considerable volume of valuable data on the behavior of tritium in beryllium and carbon-based armors exposed to hydrogenic fusion plasmas has been compiled over the past years both from operation of present-day tokamaks and from laboratory simulations, knowledge is far from being complete and tritium inventory predictions for these materials remain highly uncertain. In this paper the authors elucidate the main mechanisms responsible for tritium trapping and release in next step D-T tokamaks, as well as the applicability of some of the presently known database for design purposes. Due to their strong anticipated implications on the design, attention is focused mainly on codeposition and neutron damage effects. Some preliminary quantitative estimates are presented based on most recent experimental findings and latest modeling developments as well. The influence of important working conditions such as target temperature, loading particle fluxes, erosion and redeposition rates, as well as material characteristics such as the type of morphology of the protection material (i.e., amorphous plasma-sprayed beryllium vs. solid forms), and design dependent parameters are discussed in this paper. Remaining issues which require additional effort are identified

  4. Tritium retention in candidate next-step protection materials: engineering key issues and research requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Although a considerable volume of valuable data on the behaviour of tritium in beryllium and carbon-based armours exposed to hydrogenic fusion plasmas has been compiled over the past years both from operation of present-day tokamaks and from laboratory simulations, knowledge is far from complete and tritium inventory predictions for these materials remain highly uncertain. In this paper we elucidate the main mechanisms responsible for tritium trapping and release in next-step D-T tokamaks, as well as the applicability of some of the presently known data bases for design purposes. Owing to their strong anticipated implications on tritium uptake and release, attention is focused mainly on the interaction of tritium with neutron damage induced defects, on tritium codeposition with eroded carbon and on the effects of oxide and surface contaminants. Some preliminary quantitative estimates are presented based on most recent experimental findings and latest modelling developments as well. The influence of important working conditions such as target temperature, loading particle fluxes, erosion and redeposition rates, as well as material characteristics such as the type of morphology of the protection material (i.e. amorphous plasma-sprayed beryllium vs. solid forms), and design dependent parameters are discussed in this paper. Remaining issues which require additional effort are identified. (orig.)

  5. Toward a national policy for managing low-level radioactive waste: key issues and recommendations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Conservation Foundation, a not-for-profit research and public education organization, asked individuals with diverse backgrounds and viewpoints to come together under Foundation leadership as a Dialogue Group on Low-Level Radioactive Waste Management. The group, including persons who represent waste generators, concerned citizens, state regulators, and environmentalists, met over an 18-month period to discuss issues crucial to the development of a national policy on low-level wastes. The Dialogue Group agreed that three principles, if accepted broadly, would form the basis of a sound national policy for managing low-level radioactive wastes: with proper implementation, technology exists to manage low-level waste safely; generators and their customers should pay disposal costs; and greater public involvement at all stages can improve the disposal system. These principles acted as polestars for the group as it worked toward a series of policy recommendations in four main areas: (1) cleaning up closed commercial sites; (2) remodeling a system for defining and classifying low-level radioactive waste; (3) siting new low-level waste disposal facilities; and (4) decommissioning, long-term care, and liability. This report presents an extensive discussion of these recommendations covering qualifications, limitations, and alternatives

  6. Rising food costs & global food security: Key issues & relevance for India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel J Gustafson

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Rising food costs can have major impact on vulnerable households, pushing those least able to cope further into poverty and hunger. On the other hand, provided appropriate policies and infrastructure are in place, higher agricultural prices can also raise farmers′ incomes and rural wages, improve rural economies and stimulate investment for longer-term economic growth. High food prices since 2007 have had both short-term impacts and long-term consequences, both good and bad. This article reviews the evidence of how rising costs have affected global food security since the food price crisis of 2007-2008, and their impact on different categories of households and countries. In light of recent studies, we know more about how households, and countries, cope or not with food price shocks but a number of contentious issues remain. These include the adequacy of current estimates and the interpretation of national and household food and nutrition security indicators. India is a particularly important country in this regard, given the high number of food insecure, the relative weight of India in global estimates of food and nutrition insecurity, and the puzzles that remain concerning the country′s reported declining per capita calorie consumption. Competing explanations for what is behind it are not in agreement, but these all point to the importance of policy and programme innovation and greater investment necessary to reach the achievable goal of food and nutrition security for all.

  7. A Review on Key Issues and Challenges in Devices Level MEMS Testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Shoaib

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The present review provides information relevant to issues and challenges in MEMS testing techniques that are implemented to analyze the microelectromechanical systems (MEMS behavior for specific application and operating conditions. MEMS devices are more complex and extremely diverse due to the immersion of multidomains. Their failure modes are distinctive under different circumstances. Therefore, testing of these systems at device level as well as at mass production level, that is, parallel testing, is becoming very challenging as compared to the IC test, because MEMS respond to electrical, physical, chemical, and optical stimuli. Currently, test systems developed for MEMS devices have to be customized due to their nondeterministic behavior and complexity. The accurate measurement of test systems for MEMS is difficult to quantify in the production phase. The complexity of the device to be tested required maturity in the test technique which increases the cost of test development; this practice is directly imposed on the device cost. This factor causes a delay in time-to-market.

  8. Key issues in nuclear fuel cycle concerning high burn-up strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the present high burn-up strategy in Japan, the economic efficiency and reduction of the spent nuclear fuel have been in progress. On the other hand, in the further progress of the strategy, several issues may appear. The amount and activity of nuclides, heat generation, and radiation for a fuel pin in the typical 17x17 PWR assembly were calculated as functions of burn-up and cooling time, using the SWAT code system. Waste loading in glass waste forms from spent UO2 fuel and MOX fuel were discussed, assuming the number of glass canisters of 150 liter per THM is 1.25 at 45 GWd/THM. The number of glass canisters per GWd is almost constant in the range of burn-up up to 70 GWd/THM. The amount of molybdate from Pu-239 fissions linearly increases as a function of burn-up similarly like increase from U-235 fissions. The current vitrification technology may not face serious situation to be required substantial reduction in waste loading relating to molybdate up to 70 GWd/THM. The initial cooling period prior to vitrification, the waste loading and the interim storage period prior to final disposal are major factors which determine the way of storage and final disposal. The higher burn-up above 45 GWd/THM may require pretreatment of HLLW or substantial reduction in waste loading to retain the integrity of the ceramic melter for e.g. five years. Further promotion of high burn-up strategy should be consistent with nuclear fuel cycle including waste management. A potential approach, a conceptual new reprocessing system for thermal reactors is described. (author)

  9. Senior expert symposium on electricity and the environment, Helsinki, Finland, 13-17 May 1991. Key issues papers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This volume contains the four Key Issues Papers prepared as background papers by international expert groups for the Senior Expert Symposium on Electricity and the Environment held in Helsinki, Finland in May 1991. The papers are on topics selected as the central themes of the symposium: energy and electricity supply and demand - implications for the global environment; energy sources and technologies for electricity generation; comparative environmental and health effects of different energy systems for electricity generation; and the incorporation of environmental and health impacts into policy, planning and decision making for the electricity sector. The four papers have been indexed separately. Refs, figs and tabs

  10. Competency, confidence and conflicting evidence: key issues affecting health visitors' use of research evidence in practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Calnan Michael

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Health visitors play a pivotal position in providing parents with up-to-date evidence-based care on child health. The recent controversy over the safety of the MMR vaccine has drawn attention to the difficulties they face when new research which raises doubts about current guidelines and practices is published. In the aftermath of the MMR controversy, this paper investigates the sources health visitors use to find out about new research evidence on immunisation and examines barriers and facilitators to using evidence in practice. It also assesses health visitors' confidence in using research evidence. Methods Health visitors were recruited from the 2007 UK Community Practitioners' and Health Visitors' Association conference. All delegates were eligible to complete the questionnaire if in their current professional role they advise parents about childhood immunisation or administer vaccines to children. Of 228 who were eligible, 185 completed the survey (81.1%. Results These health visitors used a wide range of resources to find out about new research evidence on childhood immunisation. Popular sources included information leaflets and publications, training days, nursing journals and networking with colleagues. A lack of time was cited as the main barrier to searching for new evidence. The most common reason given for not using research in practice was a perception of conflicting research evidence. Understanding the evidence was a key facilitator. Health visitors expressed less confidence about searching and explaining research on childhood immunisation than evidence on weaning and a baby's sleep position. Conclusion Even motivated health visitors feel they lack the time and, in some cases, the skills to locate and appraise research evidence. This research suggests that of the provision of already-appraised research would help to keep busy health professionals informed, up-to-date and confident in responding to public

  11. Security and skills: the two key issues in health worker migration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Posy Bidwell

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Migration of health workers from Africa continues to undermine the universal provision of quality health care. South Africa is an epicentre for migration – it exports more health workers to high-income countries than any other African country and imports health workers from its lower-income neighbours to fill the gap. Although an inter-governmental agreement in 2003 reduced the very high numbers migrating from South Africa to the United Kingdom, migration continues to other high-income English-speaking countries and few workers seem to return although the financial incentive to work abroad has lessened. A deeper understanding of reasons for migration from South Africa and post-migration experiences is therefore needed to underpin policy which is developed in order to improve retention within source countries and encourage return. Methods: Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 16 South African doctors and nurses who had migrated to the United Kingdom. Interviews explored factors influencing the decision to migrate and post-migration experiences. Results: Salary, career progression, and poor working conditions were not major push factors for migration. Many health workers reported that they had previously overcome these issues within the South African healthcare system by migrating to the private sector. Overwhelmingly, the major push factors were insecurity, high levels of crime, and racial tension. Although the wish to work and train in what was perceived to be a first-class care system was a pull factor to migrate to the United Kingdom, many were disappointed by the experience. Instead of obtaining new skills, many (particularly nurses felt they had become ‘de-skilled’. Many also felt that working conditions and opportunities for them in the UK National Health Service (NHS compared unfavourably with the private sector in South Africa. Conclusions: Migration from South Africa seems unlikely to diminish until the major

  12. Open-system dynamics of entanglement:a key issues review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aolita, Leandro; de Melo, Fernando; Davidovich, Luiz

    2015-04-01

    One of the greatest challenges in the fields of quantum information processing and quantum technologies is the detailed coherent control over each and every constituent of quantum systems with an ever increasing number of particles. Within this endeavor, harnessing of many-body entanglement against the detrimental effects of the environment is a major pressing issue. Besides being an important concept from a fundamental standpoint, entanglement has been recognized as a crucial resource for quantum speed-ups or performance enhancements over classical methods. Understanding and controlling many-body entanglement in open systems may have strong implications in quantum computing, quantum simulations of many-body systems, secure quantum communication or cryptography, quantum metrology, our understanding of the quantum-to-classical transition, and other important questions of quantum foundations. In this paper we present an overview of recent theoretical and experimental efforts to underpin the dynamics of entanglement under the influence of noise. Entanglement is thus taken as a dynamic quantity on its own, and we survey how it evolves due to the unavoidable interaction of the entangled system with its surroundings. We analyze several scenarios, corresponding to different families of states and environments, which render a very rich diversity of dynamical behaviors. In contrast to single-particle quantities, like populations and coherences, which typically vanish only asymptotically in time, entanglement may disappear at a finite time. In addition, important classes of entanglement display an exponential decay with the number of particles when subject to local noise, which poses yet another threat to the already-challenging scaling of quantum technologies. Other classes, however, turn out to be extremely robust against local noise. Theoretical results and recent experiments regarding the difference between local and global decoherence are summarized. Control and

  13. Key Interface Issues in Spent Fuel Dry Storage and Transport in the U.S.A.. Annex XV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spent fuel management options in the U.S.A. have expanded significantly over the last 25 years as the dry storage of spent fuel has increased dramatically. After a period of 12 years or so (from the mid-1980s to the late-1990s) of moving spent fuel from wet storage into dry storage-only systems (licensed only for storage), the U.S.A. nuclear utility industry now places most of its dry-stored spent fuel into technologies that are certified by the U.S.A. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) for both spent fuel storage and transport, typically called multipurpose or dual purpose systems in the U.S.A. This places a significant focus at U.S.A. nuclear plants on planning for transitioning spent fuel from wet storage to dry storage, then, hopefully, from dry storage to dry transport. NAC has provided multipurpose canister system (MCS) technology for dry storage of spent fuel, as well as transportation services for spent fuel using its fleet of spent fuel transport casks, for many years. This experience has identified some very important, or key, spent fuel management interface issues, which all organizations planning to transition to dry spent fuel storage or to perform spent fuel transport might wish to review and consider. This paper and presentation offer brief highlights of these key interface issues

  14. America's Young Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... About the Forum | Publications | Data Sources | Help Search America's Children: Key National Indicators of Well-Being, 2015 ... Care Quality List of Tables List of Figures America's Children at a Glance Forum Agencies Data Source ...

  15. The study of key issues about integration of GNSS and strong-motion records for real-time earthquake monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Rui; Zhang, Pengfei; Zhang, Rui; Liu, Jinhai

    2016-08-01

    This paper has studied the key issues about integration of GNSS and strong-motion records for real-time earthquake monitoring. The validations show that the consistence of the coordinate system must be considered firstly to exclude the system bias between GNSS and strong-motion. The GNSS sampling rate is suggested about 1-5 Hz, and we should give the strong-motion's baseline shift with a larger dynamic noise as its variation is very swift. The initialization time of solving the baseline shift is less than one minute, and ambiguity resolution strategy is not greatly improved the solution. The data quality is very important for the solution, we advised to use multi-frequency and multi-system observations. These ideas give an important guide for real-time earthquake monitoring and early warning by the tight integration of GNSS and strong-motion records.

  16. From upstream to downstream: Megatrends and latest developments in Latin America`s hydrocarbons sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Kang; Pezeshki, S.; McMahon, J.

    1995-08-01

    In recent years, Latin America`s hydrocarbons sector has been characterized by reorganization, revitalization, regional cooperation, environmental awakening, and steady expansion. The pattern of these changes, which appear to be the megatrends of the region`s hydrocarbons sector development, will continue during the rest of the 1990s. To further study the current situation and future prospects of Latin America`s hydrocarbons sector, we critically summarize in this short article the key issues in the region`s oil and gas development. These megatrends in Latin America`s hydrocarbons sector development will impact not only the future energy demand and supply in the region, but also global oil flows in the North American market and across the Pacific Ocean. Each country is individually discussed; pipelines to be constructed are discussed also.

  17. Regional Electricity Markets Interconnections, Phase 1 : Identification of Issues for the Development of Regional Power Markets in South America

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2001-01-01

    The report builds on a study carried out by the Regional Power Integration Commission in South America, which estimated the potential benefits of regional interconnections. Such benefits come from optimized loading of units, exports of hydro energy that would not be dispatched in an isolated system (particularly in years of high hydrological conditions), global optimization of reservoirs' ...

  18. Second report on the multi-technological analysis of the 'broadband for all' concept, focus on the listing of multi-technological key issues and practical roadmaps on how to tackle these issues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Falch, Morten; Schneider, Markus; Sigurdsson, Halldór Matthias;

    2005-01-01

    This report is the second deliverable of the FP6-project "Broadband in Europe for all: a multi-disciplinary approach project (BREAD)". It is a multi-technological analysis of the 'broadband for all' concept, with an update of the listing of multi-technological key issues, a first gap analysis and...... first roadmaps on how to tackle these issues....

  19. Development of safety-related regulatory requirements for nuclear power in developing countries. Key issue paper no. 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In implementing a national nuclear power program, balanced regulatory requirements are necessary to ensure nuclear safety and cost competitive nuclear power, and to help gain public acceptance. However, this is difficult due to the technology-intensive nature of the nuclear regulatory requirements, the need to reflect evolving technology and the need for cooperation among multidisciplinary technical groups. This paper suggests approaches to development of balanced nuclear regulatory requirements in developing countries related to nuclear power plant safety, radiation protection and radioactive waste management along with key technical regulatory issues. It does not deal with economic or market regulation of electric utilities using nuclear power. It suggests that national regulatory requirements be developed using IAEA safety recommendations as guidelines and safety requirements of the supplier country as a main reference after careful planning, manpower buildup and thorough study of international and supplier country's regulations. Regulation making is not recommended before experienced manpower has been accumulated. With an option that the supplier country's regulations may be used in the interim, the lack of complete national regulatory requirements should not deter introduction of nuclear power in developing countries. (author)

  20. Experimental Study and Computational Simulations of Key Pebble Bed Thermo-mechanics Issues for Design and Safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tokuhiro, Akira; Potirniche, Gabriel; Cogliati, Joshua; Ougouag, Abderrafi

    2014-07-08

    An experimental and computational study, consisting of modeling and simulation (M&S), of key thermal-mechanical issues affecting the design and safety of pebble-bed (PB) reactors was conducted. The objective was to broaden understanding and experimentally validate thermal-mechanic phenomena of nuclear grade graphite, specifically, spheres in frictional contact as anticipated in the bed under reactor relevant pressures and temperatures. The contact generates graphite dust particulates that can subsequently be transported into the flowing gaseous coolent. Under postulated depressurization transients and with the potential for leaked fission products to be adsorbed onto graphite 'dust', there is the potential for fission products to escape from the primary volume. This is a design safety concern. Furthermore, earlier safety assessment identified the distinct possibility for the dispersed dust to combust in contact with air if sufficient conditions are met. Both of these phenomena were noted as important to design review and containing uncertainty to warrant study. The team designed and conducted two separate effects tests to study and benchmark the potential dust-generation rate, as well as study the conditions under which a dust explosion may occure in a standardized, instrumented explosion chamber.

  1. Sustainable Sourcing of Global Agricultural Raw Materials: Assessing Gaps in Key Impact and Vulnerability Issues and Indicators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Springer, Nathaniel P; Garbach, Kelly; Guillozet, Kathleen; Haden, Van R; Hedao, Prashant; Hollander, Allan D; Huber, Patrick R; Ingersoll, Christina; Langner, Megan; Lipari, Genevieve; Mohammadi, Yaser; Musker, Ruthie; Piatto, Marina; Riggle, Courtney; Schweisguth, Melissa; Sin, Emily; Snider, Sara; Vidic, Nataša; White, Aubrey; Brodt, Sonja; Quinn, James F; Tomich, Thomas P

    2015-01-01

    Understanding how to source agricultural raw materials sustainably is challenging in today's globalized food system given the variety of issues to be considered and the multitude of suggested indicators for representing these issues. Furthermore, stakeholders in the global food system both impact these issues and are themselves vulnerable to these issues, an important duality that is often implied but not explicitly described. The attention given to these issues and conceptual frameworks varies greatly--depending largely on the stakeholder perspective--as does the set of indicators developed to measure them. To better structure these complex relationships and assess any gaps, we collate a comprehensive list of sustainability issues and a database of sustainability indicators to represent them. To assure a breadth of inclusion, the issues are pulled from the following three perspectives: major global sustainability assessments, sustainability communications from global food companies, and conceptual frameworks of sustainable livelihoods from academic publications. These terms are integrated across perspectives using a common vocabulary, classified by their relevance to impacts and vulnerabilities, and categorized into groups by economic, environmental, physical, human, social, and political characteristics. These issues are then associated with over 2,000 sustainability indicators gathered from existing sources. A gap analysis is then performed to determine if particular issues and issue groups are over or underrepresented. This process results in 44 "integrated" issues--24 impact issues and 36 vulnerability issues--that are composed of 318 "component" issues. The gap analysis shows that although every integrated issue is mentioned at least 40% of the time across perspectives, no issue is mentioned more than 70% of the time. A few issues infrequently mentioned across perspectives also have relatively few indicators available to fully represent them. Issues in the

  2. Sustainable Sourcing of Global Agricultural Raw Materials: Assessing Gaps in Key Impact and Vulnerability Issues and Indicators.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathaniel P Springer

    Full Text Available Understanding how to source agricultural raw materials sustainably is challenging in today's globalized food system given the variety of issues to be considered and the multitude of suggested indicators for representing these issues. Furthermore, stakeholders in the global food system both impact these issues and are themselves vulnerable to these issues, an important duality that is often implied but not explicitly described. The attention given to these issues and conceptual frameworks varies greatly--depending largely on the stakeholder perspective--as does the set of indicators developed to measure them. To better structure these complex relationships and assess any gaps, we collate a comprehensive list of sustainability issues and a database of sustainability indicators to represent them. To assure a breadth of inclusion, the issues are pulled from the following three perspectives: major global sustainability assessments, sustainability communications from global food companies, and conceptual frameworks of sustainable livelihoods from academic publications. These terms are integrated across perspectives using a common vocabulary, classified by their relevance to impacts and vulnerabilities, and categorized into groups by economic, environmental, physical, human, social, and political characteristics. These issues are then associated with over 2,000 sustainability indicators gathered from existing sources. A gap analysis is then performed to determine if particular issues and issue groups are over or underrepresented. This process results in 44 "integrated" issues--24 impact issues and 36 vulnerability issues--that are composed of 318 "component" issues. The gap analysis shows that although every integrated issue is mentioned at least 40% of the time across perspectives, no issue is mentioned more than 70% of the time. A few issues infrequently mentioned across perspectives also have relatively few indicators available to fully represent

  3. Familienfreundlichkeit als Zukunftsfrage in Unternehmen [Family-friendliness in business as a key issue for the future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stutzer, Erich

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available [english] These days family-friendliness is a key issue for the future of businesses. Investments in a family conscious personnel policy are considered as forward-looking decisions in companies. This happens against the background of a sustainable personnel policy in times of a decrease in the number of employable persons, an increasing shortage of skilled workers and an ageing workforce. Family-friendly working conditions are becoming a key factor in the competition for staff. When choosing an employer, family-friendliness has become a crucial topic. Employment participation and skills of women, especially of mothers, have greatly increased. To facilitate the realisation of their wish to return to paid employment, however, measures to reconcile work and family are required.Family-conscious measures have been proven to lead to higher employee productivity. Job satisfaction and motivation of employees and accumulation of human capital increase, absenteeism declines, the return of investment rises. Fields of activity for family-friendly measures in companies range from working arrangements, parental leave and re-entry programmes and various child care offers to services for families. In connection with the demographic development the demand for a better reconciliation of work and elder care should in future become ever more important, just as the upkeep of the occupational skills and working capacity of an ageing workforce. Family-friendliness has to become an integral part of corporate culture. [german] Familienfreundlichkeit wird heute als wesentliche Zukunftsfrage für Unternehmen diskutiert und Investitionen in eine familienbewusste Personalpolitik gelten als zukunftsweisende Entscheidungen in Unternehmen. Dies geschieht vor dem Hintergrund einer zukunftsfähigen Personalpolitik in Zeiten zurückgehender Erwerbspersonenzahlen, eines zunehmenden Fachkräftemangels und der Alterung der Belegschaften. Familienfreundliche Arbeitsbedingungen werden

  4. Some Ethical Issues for Accountants in Antidumping Trade Cases: An Examination of Recent Case Studies with Emphasis on Latin America

    OpenAIRE

    Robert W. McGee

    1998-01-01

    A search of the accounting, trade and ethics literature failed to find a single article that discussed the role that accountants play in assisting in the data gathering process of a trade investigation. Yet there are serious ethical issues that need to be addressed. Certain aspects of trade investigations are unethical, whether one takes a utilitarian or rights view of ethics, and accountants play a role in this unethical conduct. This paper looks at those issues and makes recommendations for...

  5. The Future We Want: Key Issues on Sustainable Development in Higher Education after Rio and the UN Decade of Education for Sustainable Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leal Filho, Walter; Manolas, Evangelos; Pace, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to provide a description of the achievements of the United Nations (UN) Decade of Education for Sustainable Development (2005-2014) with a focus on higher education, and it describes some of the key issues which will guide sustainable development in the coming years. Design/methodology/approach: The paper initially…

  6. Sexual Health Services for Young People in a Rural Area of Northern Ireland: A Study of the Key Issues for Those Who Provide Them

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCann, Lyndsey; Donnelly, Lyn; Quinn, Phelim; McAnerney, Rosemary

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To identify the key issues for service providers in delivering high quality sexual health services, responsive to the needs of young people, in a rural area of Northern Ireland. Design: A triangulation survey approach using questionnaires, in-depth interviews and focus groups was undertaken with a range of organizations and…

  7. Using Eight Key Questions as an Inquiry-Based Framework for Ethical Reasoning Issues in a General Education Earth Systems and Climate Change Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, E. A.; Ball, T. C.

    2014-12-01

    An important objective in general education geoscience courses is to help students evaluate social and ethical issues based upon scientific knowledge. It can be difficult for instructors trained in the physical sciences to design effective ways of including ethical issues in large lecture courses where whole-class discussions are not practical. The Quality Enhancement Plan for James Madison University, "The Madison Collaborative: Ethical Reasoning in Action," (http://www.jmu.edu/mc/index.shtml) has identified eight key questions to be used as a framework for developing ethical reasoning exercises and evaluating student learning. These eight questions are represented by the acronym FOR CLEAR and are represented by the concepts of Fairness, Outcomes, Responsibilities, Character, Liberty, Empathy, Authority, and Rights. In this study, we use the eight key questions as an inquiry-based framework for addressing ethical issues in a 100-student general education Earth systems and climate change course. Ethical reasoning exercises are presented throughout the course and range from questions of personal behavior to issues regarding potential future generations and global natural resources. In the first few exercises, key questions are identified for the students and calibrated responses are provided as examples. By the end of the semester, students are expected to identify key questions themselves and justify their own ethical and scientific reasoning. Evaluation rubrics are customized to this scaffolding approach to the exercises. Student feedback and course data will be presented to encourage discussion of this and other approaches to explicitly incorporating ethical reasoning in general education geoscience courses.

  8. Perceptions of Latin American scientists about science and post-graduate education: Introduction to the 5th issue of CBP-Latin America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermes-Lima, Marcelo; Polcheira, Cássia; Trigueiro, Michelangelo; Beleboni, Rene Oliveira

    2008-11-01

    Although science and engineering (S&E) publications and doctoral degree awards in Latin America had experienced an impressive growth in the past decades, a qualitative evaluation of this increased output must be performed. Previous studies have indicated that growth in visibility of Latin American science - determined by ratio of citations per paper - has not kept pace with the increase in number of publications. In the present editorial, we analyzed - by means of a 12-item questionnaire - the individual perceptions of forty senior researchers involved in CBP-Latin America (29 Brazilians and 11 non-Brazilians) plus a special group composed by six extraordinary Latin American scientists (the "masters"). The questionnaire - using 6-point Likert-like scale for quantification of perception - focused on issues surrounding doctoral educational system as well as the governmental educational policies and publication pressure from funding agencies. In general, the most striking result was the perception (by 82% of respondents) of lack of job opportunities for people holding a PhD diploma in the field of comparative biochemistry and physiology. Other major trends include (i) lack of satisfaction with governmental policies for science and post-graduate education due to policies promoting mass production for papers and PhD diplomas (65-77% of respondents felt that way) (ii) that current PhD students are doing an adequate job, but have not improved in quality as compared to those from 10 years ago (the same was observed for PhD thesis in terms of present versus past), and (iii) that research infrastructure and the curricula of post-graduate courses do not constitute a problem, but (iv) recent-PhDs are not as fit as they should be in paper-writing skills, especially as perceived by Brazilian respondents. The general perceptions were very similar among Brazilians, non-Brazilians and "masters". The use of a larger study-population, with scientists of more diverse fields is the

  9. Introduction to Urban and Community Forestry in the United States of America: History, Accomplishments, Issues and Trends

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qi Yadong; Zhang Zhiqiang

    2003-01-01

    The urban and community forestry movement in the United States has matured over the last 20 years from managing street trees, to understanding the benefits of trees in urban ecosystems, and now to managing urban green infrastructure. This paper introduced the history, development, and major accomplishments of the urban and community forestry movement, highlighted the economic, ecological, environmental, and social values of forests and trees to communities, and discussed issues and trends of the urban and community forestry program in the United States.

  10. America's Children and the Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Protection Agency Search Search America's Children and the Environment Share Facebook Twitter Google+ Pinterest Contact Us America's Children and the Environment is an EPA report that presents key information ...

  11. #ElectionEconomics: The Research Evidence on Key Issues for Voters in the 2015 UK General Election

    OpenAIRE

    Ghazala Azmat; Brian Bell; Jonathan Colmer; Antoine Dechezleprêtre; Swati Dhingra; Christian Hilber; Stephen Machin; Alan Manning; Ralf Martin; Alistair McGuire; Sandra McNally; Gianmarco Ottaviano; Henry Overman; Isabelle Roland; Thomas Sampson

    2015-01-01

    Please see the CEP #ElectionEconomics report(Paper 1)and the Executive Summary (Paper 2) that cover all the election 2015 briefings, discussing the research evidence on 15 of the UK's key policy battlegrounds: immigration, austerity, real wages and living standards, productivity and business, Europe, the NHS, schools, tuition fees, gender gaps, urban and regional policy, top tax rates, inequality, housing and planning, crime, climate change and energy.

  12. Issues in the Language Policy of the European Union. Motivation as a Key Factor in Promoting Language Learning

    OpenAIRE

    Komorowska, Hanna

    2007-01-01

    As motivation has been identified by the EU High Level Group on Multilingualism as the key factor in promoting language education, the author, herself member of HLGM, discusses a variety of approaches to motivation and presents guidelines for the promotional activity at national, regional and school levels, concentrating on its aims and procedures, identifying age groups and motives to be targeted, as well as arguments and strategies to be used in the process of eliciting and sustaining le...

  13. A key issue for next generation diode pumped solid state laser drivers for IFE: amplified spontaneous emission in large size, high gain Yb:YAG slabs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albach, D; Assemat, F; Bahbah, S; Bourdet, G; Chanteloup, J-C; Piatti, P; Pluvinage, M; Vincent, B; Touze, G L [LULI, Ecole Polytechnique, CNRS, CEA, UPMC, Route de Saclay, 91128, Palaiseau (France)], E-mail: daniel.albach@polytechnique.edu

    2008-05-15

    Amplified Spontaneous Emission (ASE) is one of the key issues to be addressed when designing a diode pumped laser with a large transverse size / high gain amplifier. A 3D model using the Monte-Carlo method computing the effect of ASE in the quasi-three-level system of Yb{sup 3+}:YAG is actually under development for the Lucia-project. This work is performed within the Lucia project.

  14. A key issue for next generation diode pumped solid state laser drivers for IFE: amplified spontaneous emission in large size, high gain Yb:YAG slabs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amplified Spontaneous Emission (ASE) is one of the key issues to be addressed when designing a diode pumped laser with a large transverse size / high gain amplifier. A 3D model using the Monte-Carlo method computing the effect of ASE in the quasi-three-level system of Yb3+:YAG is actually under development for the Lucia-project. This work is performed within the Lucia project

  15. Towards re-reforming the EU cohesion policy: Key issues in the debate and some thoughts on peripheral regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Foutakis Dimitris

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Two years after the inception of the fourth programming period, the debate on post-2013 cohesion policy has already been launched. In fact, public consultation was launched in 2007 and considerable steps have followed since then, while others are about to start. At the same time, the new strategic guidelines and rules that guide cohesion policy have only been in place for a short period and as yet their impacts are not clear. Critical events and major political issues that concern the whole EU structure are the main factors behind this evolution. In particular, the economic recession in addition to the prospects for the new EU Treaty could be considered decisive elements in the launch of the debate on future cohesion policy. More specifically, among the issues highlighted in this context are the distinction between efficiency and equity objectives, the need for a place-based strategy, high growth sectors and their contribution to cohesion, and the potential for creativity and innovation. Overall, it seems like old dilemmas of spatial development recur, while contemporary ones also gain ground. The outcome of this debate is of significant importance for all EU regions not only in budgetary terms, but also in terms of strategic policy goals. This paper examines the above future policy issues with an emphasis on regions faced with particular difficulties such as less favored regions as well as those in the EU periphery.

  16. Preparing the veterinary profession for corporate and trade issues in the Americas: proceedings of a conference on synergism and globalization, Santiago, Chile, May 6-8, 2001.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, C; Carbajal, I; Wagner, G

    2001-01-01

    The complex and rapid-paced development of international trade, coupled with increasing societal demands for the production not only of abundant and inexpensive food, but also of food that is safe and has been raised in a humane and environmentally friendly manner, demands immediate attention from the veterinary community. The new culture of global trade agreements, spurred by the development of the WTO, dictates massive changes and increasing integration of public and private sectors. This is a huge growth area for our profession and will require individuals with a skill set we do not yet provide in our educational framework. In North America, veterinary education is parochial and focused on specialization. This strong orientation toward companion animals fails to provide adequate training for those interested in acquiring the necessary skills for the emerging area of globalization and trade. In South America, curricula are less harmonized with one another and there is tremendous variation in degree programs, rendering it difficult to ascertain whether veterinarians are prepared to assume decision-making responsibilities regarding international transport of food. If we do not begin to prepare our graduates adequately for this emerging market demand, the positions will be filled by other professions. These other professions lack broad-based scientific knowledge about animal physiology and disease causation. Decisions made without adequate background could have devastating consequences for society, including incursions of unwelcome diseases, food safety problems, and public health issues. To prepare our new veterinary graduates for the future and this emerging market, it is important to nurture a global mindset within our academic communities and to promote communications, languages, and an interdependent team mentality. Areas of technical expertise that need a place, perhaps a parallel track, in the curriculum include production medicine, public health, food safety

  17. Key practical issues in strengthening safety culture. INSAG-15. A report by the International Safety Advisory Group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes the essential practical issues to be considered by organizations aiming to strengthen safety culture. It is intended for senior executives, managers and first line supervisors in operating organizations. Although safety culture cannot be directly regulated, it is important that members of regulatory bodies understand how their actions affect the development of attempts to strengthen safety culture and are sympathetic to the need to improve the less formal human related aspects of safety. The report is therefore of relevance to regulators, although not intended primarily for them. The International Nuclear Safety Advisory Group (INSAG) introduced the concept of safety culture in its INSAG-4 report in 1991. Since then, many papers have been written on safety culture, as it relates to organizations and individuals, its improvement and its underpinning prerequisites. Variations in national cultures mean that what constitutes a good approach to enhancing safety culture in one country may not be the best approach in another. However, INSAG seeks to provide pragmatic and practical advice of wide applicability in the principles and issues presented in this report. Nuclear and radiological safety are the prime concerns of this report, but the topics discussed are so general that successful application of the principles should lead to improvements in other important areas, such as industrial safety, environmental performance and, in some respects, wider business performance. This is because many of the attitudes and practices necessary to achieve good performance in nuclear safety, including visible commitment by management, openness, care and thoroughness in completing tasks, good communication and clarity in recognizing major issues and dealing with them as a priority, have wide applicability

  18. Examination of Ethnic and Policy Issues in Grooming Preferences and Ethnic Hairstyles of African American Women in Corporate America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Renee Payne

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available For a century, college-trained, professional racial minorities: specifically, African American women with a preference in grooming methods have contributed to the labor market; however, in the new millennium, they are often discriminated against, scoffed at, isolated, and demoralized based on ethnic hairstyles. Research studies have distinguished a depth of research on this and conversely there are limited studies on racial minorities, in particular among grooming preferences in ethnic hairstyles. Studies have shown that in progressive companies, racial minorities and African American women who wear ethnic hairstyles had their employment terminated with prejudice. With regard to these case studies and findings, one could argue that in this nation there is freedom of speech and inequality in expression. For this reason, this research is very necessary to discover variables in ethnic and policy issues in grooming preferences with regard to the ethnic hairstyles of African American women as it relates to employers, whereat cohesive practices in diversity and policies address imposing construct in the labor market. This research will not address every ethnical concern in the labor market; yet, it responds to a call in the literature to define managerial deficiencies against racial minorities: in particular, African American women in grooming preferences.

  19. Heat, Human Performance, and Occupational Health: A Key Issue for the Assessment of Global Climate Change Impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kjellstrom, Tord; Briggs, David; Freyberg, Chris; Lemke, Bruno; Otto, Matthias; Hyatt, Olivia

    2016-01-01

    Ambient heat exposure is a well-known health hazard, which reduces human performance and work capacity at heat levels already common in tropical and subtropical areas. Various health problems have been reported. Increasing heat exposure during the hottest seasons of each year is a key feature of global climate change. Heat exhaustion and reduced human performance are often overlooked in climate change health impact analysis. Later this century, many among the four billion people who live in hot areas worldwide will experience significantly reduced work capacity owing to climate change. In some areas, 30-40% of annual daylight hours will become too hot for work to be carried out. The social and economic impacts will be considerable, with global gross domestic product (GDP) losses greater than 20% by 2100. The analysis to date is piecemeal. More analysis of climate change-related occupational health impact assessments is greatly needed. PMID:26989826

  20. A Policy Analysis and Quantitative Assessment of Key Issues Arising from Climate Change Negotiations Following COP 7

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sager, J. M

    2003-04-01

    This paper aims to assess the consequences of the amendments made to the Kyoto Protocol during COP 7 in Marrakech. Following a comprehensive policy analysis, the major issue of 'hot air' and CDM transaction costs is examined using the CERT model. This was done to show that primary supply regions, typically those with 'hot air' availability, might control the emissions reduction permit supply market and maximise net export revenues of permit supply by withholding 40 to 60% of available 'hot air' credits. The assumption that primary permit suppliers control permit price via a restriction of 'hot air' supply to the market will inadvertently leave a portion of the market share open to Non-Annex B CDM supply, despite potentially extreme variance in CDM transaction costs. A summary table of policy implications on the emissions reduction permit market is also included in the Appendix. (author)

  1. A Policy Analysis and Quantitative Assessment of Key Issues Arising from Climate Change Negotiations Following COP 7

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper aims to assess the consequences of the amendments made to the Kyoto Protocol during COP 7 in Marrakech. Following a comprehensive policy analysis, the major issue of 'hot air' and CDM transaction costs is examined using the CERT model. This was done to show that primary supply regions, typically those with 'hot air' availability, might control the emissions reduction permit supply market and maximise net export revenues of permit supply by withholding 40 to 60% of available 'hot air' credits. The assumption that primary permit suppliers control permit price via a restriction of 'hot air' supply to the market will inadvertently leave a portion of the market share open to Non-Annex B CDM supply, despite potentially extreme variance in CDM transaction costs. A summary table of policy implications on the emissions reduction permit market is also included in the Appendix. (author)

  2. Hydrodynamics of coalbed methane reservoirs in the Black Warrior Basin: Key to understanding reservoir performance and environmental issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pashin, J.C.

    2007-01-01

    The Black Warrior Basin of the southeastern United States hosts one of the world's most prolific and long-lived coalbed methane plays, and the wealth of experience in this basin provides insight into the relationships among basin hydrology, production performance, and environmental issues. Along the southeast margin of the basin, meteoric recharge of reservoir coal beds exposed in an upturned fold limb exerts a strong control on water chemistry, reservoir pressure, and production performance. Fresh-water plumes containing Na-HCO3 waters with low TDS content extend from the structurally upturned basin margin into the interior of the basin. Northwest of the plumes, coal beds contain Na-Cl waters with moderate to high-TDS content. Carbon isotope data from produced gas and mineral cements suggest that the fresh-water plumes have been the site of significant bacterial activity and that the coalbed methane reservoirs contain a mixture of thermogenic and late-stage biogenic gases. Water produced from the fresh-water plumes may be disposed safely at the surface, whereas underground injection has been used locally to dispose of highly saline water. Wells in areas that had normal hydrostatic reservoir pressure prior to development tend to produce large volumes of water and may take up to 4 a to reach peak gas production. In contrast, wells drilled in naturally underpressured areas distal to the fresh-water plumes typically produce little water and achieve peak gas rates during the first year of production. Environmental debate has focused largely on issues associated with hydrologic communication between deep reservoir coal beds and shallow aquifers. In the coalbed methane fields of the Black Warrior Basin, a broad range of geologic evidence suggests that flow is effectively confined within coal and that the thick intervals of marine shale separating coal zones limit cross-formational flow. ?? 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Hydrodynamics of coalbed methane reservoirs in the Black Warrior Basin: Key to understanding reservoir performance and environmental issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Black Warrior Basin of the southeastern United States hosts one of the world's most prolific and long-lived coalbed methane plays, and the wealth of experience in this basin provides insight into the relationships among basin hydrology, production performance, and environmental issues. Along the southeast margin of the basin, meteoric recharge of reservoir coal beds exposed in an upturned fold limb exerts a strong control on water chemistry, reservoir pressure, and production performance. Fresh-water plumes containing Na-HCO3 waters with low TDS content extend from the structurally upturned basin margin into the interior of the basin. Northwest of the plumes, coal beds contain Na-Cl waters with moderate to high-TDS content. Carbon isotope data from produced gas and mineral cements suggest that the fresh-water plumes have been the site of significant bacterial activity and that the coalbed methane reservoirs contain a mixture of thermogenic and late-stage biogenic gases. Water produced from the fresh-water plumes may be disposed safely at the surface, whereas underground injection has been used locally to dispose of highly saline water. Wells in areas that had normal hydrostatic reservoir pressure prior to development tend to produce large volumes of water and may take up to 4 a to reach peak gas production. In contrast, wells drilled in naturally underpressured areas distal to the fresh-water plumes typically produce little water and achieve peak gas rates during the first year of production. Environmental debate has focused largely on issues associated with hydrologic communication between deep reservoir coal beds and shallow aquifers. In the coalbed methane fields of the Black Warrior Basin, a broad range of geologic evidence suggests that flow is effectively confined within coal and that the thick intervals of marine shale separating coal zones limit cross-formational flow

  4. Environmental impacts and issues of In-Situ Leach uranium mining in the United States of America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: In-situ leach (ISL) mining of sandstone-hosted deposits has been steadily producing uranium in the U.S. since the late 1970s. In Texas, 38 mines have extracted uranium along the southwest Texas coastal plain. Wyoming production has come from three mines developed in the Powder River Basin, and Nebraska has one active ISL facility in the Crawford Basin. Twenty new or expanded ISL mines are expected to submit license applications within the next two years. Increasing concern over groundwater degradation resulting from uranium ISL mining has resulted in more extensive state regulation and prompted the U.S. Geological Survey to review restoration data for these mines to quantify environmental impacts and critical issues. ISL mines in the United States inject oxygen or hydrogen peroxide enriched ground water into reduced roll-front deposits to extract uranium via carbonate-uranyl complexes in ground water. Some operators add carbon dioxide, carbonate or bicarbonate to the lixiviant as a carrying agent, although sandstones in the U.S. commonly contain enough native carbonate that this is unnecessary. Other lixiviants utilized in past operations including sodium and ammonium bicarbonate and sulphuric acid are not used in modern U.S. operations because of difficulties in restoring ground water to pre-mining conditions. Baseline studies show Ra, U, As, Pb, Cd, Se, and Hg in groundwater before ISL mining are typically elevated above U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) drinking water Maximum Contaminant Levels (MCL). Cl, Mn, Fe, total dissolved solids, and sulfate are commonly elevated above secondary EPA standards. Newly-raised challenges to ISL mining have questioned the validity of statistical methods used when calculating baseline values in ISL operations. Restoration techniques used in U.S. ISL well fields are dominated by ground water sweep and treatment of ground water by reverse osmosis. Additionally, two well fields have been restored using

  5. Fuel Behaviour in Transport after Dry Storage: a Key Issue for the Management of used Nuclear Fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Interim used fuel dry storage has been developed in many countries providing an intermediate solution while waiting for evaluation and decisions concerning future use (such as recycling) or disposal sites. There is an important industrial experience feedback and excellent safety records. It appears that the duration of interim storage may become longer than initially expected. At the start of storage operations 40 years was considered sufficiently long to make a decision on either recycling or direct disposal of used nuclear fuel. Now it is said that storage time may have to be extended. Whatever the choice for the management of used fuel, it will finally have to be transported from the storage facility to another location, for recycling or final disposal. Bearing in mind the important principle that radioactive waste shall be managed in such a way that undue burdens will not be imposed on future generations, there is no guarantee that the fuel characteristics can be maintained in perpetuity. On the other hand, transport accident conditions from applicable regulation (IAEA SSR-6) are very severe for irradiated materials. Therefore, in compliance with transport regulations, the safety analysis of the fuel in transport after storage is mandatory. This paper will give an overview of the current situation related to the used fuel behaviour in transport after dry storage. On this matter there are some elements of information already available as well as some gaps of knowledge. Several national R and D programs and international teams are presently addressing these gaps. A lot of R and D work has already been done. An objective of these R and D projects is to aid decision makers. It is important to fix a limit and not to multiply intermediate operations because it means higher costs and more uncertainties. The identified gaps concern the following issues especially for high burn-up (HBU) fuels: thermal model for casks, degradation process of fuel material, cladding creep

  6. A new species of Drapetes Megerle (Coleoptera: Elateridae), with taxonomic summaries and a key to the species of northern North America

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson, Paul J.

    2016-01-01

    Seven species of Drapetes Megerle (Coleoptera: Elateridae) are recognized from northern North America. Drapetes chiricahua new species is described from southeastern Arizona and north-central New Mexico. Drapetes parallelus Van Dyke is a senior homonym of Drapetes paralellus Cobos by variant spelling, and a new synonym of Drapetes cylindricus Fall. Drapetes paralellus Cobos is replaced with Drapetes cobosi new name. Drapetes clarki Bonvouloir is not a North American species and is given a red...

  7. Study on key Issues and Critical Success Factors of e - Supply Chain Management in Health Care Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debashri Dey , Asoke Nath

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Due to tremendous growth in informationtechnology (IT and economic globalizationnow the competition is among enterprises andtheir supply chains and not restricted toenterprises only. In the present globaleconomic scenario, the organizations areforced to rethink their operations, alliances,partnerships and strategies to cope with theseand similar changes. Supply chaincompetitiveness has been emerged as one ofthe strongest tool for gaining competitiveadvantages. Although healthcare industrieshave responded serious competitivechallenges through their network alliance,the theoretical element for sustainablecompetitive advantage of healthcare supplychain has not been well examined. A supplychain is competitive if it is able to create anddeliver value for its customers and itscomponents. In the growing economy ofIndia, supply chain competitiveness (SCC isa real solution to the problems faced byorganizations in this global environment,which now ultimately leads to a World of e-SCM (Electronic Supply ChainManagement. The present paper discussessome of the e-supply chain competitivenessissues and presents roles of suppliers,manufacturers and distributors, some futureperspectives of e-SCM with an aim to identifythe critical issues related to supply chaincompetitiveness and presents roles of themajor components of supply chain,altogether. The authors have also discussedthe emerging challengesof healthcare supplychains and their impact in collaborativehealthcare network for global markets.

  8. Public debates - key issue in the environmental licensing process for the completion of the Cernavoda NPP Unit 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SN 'NUCLEARELECTRICA' S.A., the owner of Cernavoda NPP, organized, in 2001, several public consultations related to environmental impact of the completion of the Cernavoda NPP Unit 2, as required by the Romanian environmental law, part of project approval. Public consultations on the environmental assessment for the completion of the Cernavoda NPP - Unit 2 took place in 2001 between August 15 and September 21 in accordance with the provisions of Law No. 137/95 and Order No. 125/96. Romanian environmental legislation, harmonization of national environmental legislation with European Union, Romanian legislative requirements, information distributed to the public, issues raised and follow-up, they all are topics highlighted by this paper and they are addressing the environmental licensing process of the Cernavoda 2 NPP. The public consultation process described fulfils all the Romanian requirements for carrying out meaningful consultation with its relevant shareholders. The process also satisfies EDC (Export Development Corporation - Canada) requirements for public consultation and disclosure with relevant shareholders in the host country. SNN is fully committed to consulting as necessary with relevant shareholders throughout the construction and operation of the Project. Concerns of the public have been taken into account with the operations of Unit 1 and will continue to be addressed during the Unit 2 Project

  9. I metadati nelle biblioteche digitali: concetti chiave e prospettive Metadata issues in Digital Libraries: key concepts and perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iryna Solodovnik

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available

    L'articolo si propone di esaminare il significato, il ruolo e le implicazioni di alcuni approcci utilizzati nella gestione della biblioteca digitale.

    L'innovazione nella gestione delle risorse online e il miglioramento della loro interoperabilità si può ottenere con una normalizzazione degli schemi di metadati attraverso l'uso di standard interoperabili e vocabolari internazionali e condivisi, e con l'arricchimento dato da ontologie e linked data, che sono alla base delle riflessioni sul web semantico e sulla costruzione di livelli semantici sulle descrizioni dei metadati.

    Attraverso l'esame di alcune metodologie innovative di rappresentazione dell'informazione (LODe-BD, SWAP, l'articolo mostra alcune modalità di creazione della conoscenza in ambiente digitale, con particolare riferimento ai dati bibliografici.

    The article sets out to investigate the meaning, role and implications of some information management approaches used in Digital Library practice. A greater focus on innovation in managing online resources and on improving their interoperability can be achieved by normalizing metadata schemas through interoperable standards, world-wide accepted controlled vocabularies as well as by their enrichment through qualitatively constructed ontologies and linked data, which are key to the expansion of the semantic reasoning on the web through building and connection of additional semantic layers on top of metadata descriptions. Reviewing some innovative methods of information representation (LODe-BD, SWAP, the paper tries to lead the reader to discover some new ways of knowledge creation in digital information environment, in particular what concerns digital bibliographic records.

  10. 适用于卫星网络的IBE安全密钥分发%Secure Key Issuing for IBE Suitable for Satellite Networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王立炜; 徐军华; 郝云芳

    2011-01-01

    The communication characteristics of satellite networks is analyzed. A new secure key issuing method based on identity based encryption (IBE) is proposed to solve the IBE key escrow problem in satellite networks. It divides the function of key generate center into parts. The divided sub-functions are completed by different entities in the system. This scheme solves the problem of key escrow and prevents the individual key generating center to acquire the private keys of network nodes. The analysis shows that the scheme can provide good security and high efficiency for space information networks.%分析了卫星网络的通信特点,提出一种基于身份加密体制的安全密钥分发方法,用于解决在卫星网络中基于身份加密体制的密钥托管问题.该方法将密钥生成中心的功能进行划分,并将划分后的子功能分别由不同实体完成,网络结点通过与不同实体交互计算出私钥,防止单个密钥生成中心获取网络结点的私钥.安全性分析和仿真分析表明,该方法具有良好的安全性,在卫星网络中具有较高运行效率.

  11. TUTOR TRAINING KEY ISSUE IN E-LEARNING / FORMACIÓN DE TUTORES. ASPECTO CLAVE EN ENSEÑANZA VIRTUAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Astudillo

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The tutor has special relevance for the success of a virtual learning experience; the skills of a classroom teacher are not enough. Training processes for tutors are required to develop the necessary skills to perform the role that covers technical, pedagogical, social and administrative issues. This article presents an overview of the role of the tutors in virtual learning environments, the need to train these professionals and the experience of a Course on Tutoring, developed for the Center for Training, Experimentation and Educational Research. The Center has trained in a three-year period 1,611 tutors, to work in virtual courses offered to teachers by the Chilean Ministry of Education. The course is described, together with its instructional design, and its main results, like the high degree of retention and value assigned, all of which is understood as the first step in a process that is complemented by experience to become a virtual tutor.RESUMENEn el éxito de una experiencia formativa virtual, la figura del tutor cobra especial relevancia, las competencias de un docente presencial no son suficientes. Se requiere procesos formativos para que los tutores adquieran las competencias necesarias para desempeñar su rol que abarca las áreas técnica, pedagógica, social y administrativa. Este artículo presenta una visión general del rol del tutor en los entornos virtuales de aprendizaje, las necesidades de formar a estos profesionales y la experiencia del curso de tutores desarrollado para el Centro de Perfeccionamiento Experimentaciones e Investigaciones Pedagógicas que ha formado a los largo de tres años a 1.611 tutores, para actuar en los cursos virtuales que el Ministerio de Educación Chileno ofrece a sus docentes, se presenta el curso, su diseño instruccional, los principales resultados, como el alto grado de retención y valoración de esta instancia formativa, la cual se entiende como el primer paso de un proceso que se

  12. Trade and Environmental Issues in Forest Production

    OpenAIRE

    Markku Simula

    1999-01-01

    This paper is an attempt to clarify some of the key issues on trade and environment in the forestry sector. The two main emerging issues in the international trade of forest products within Latin America and the Caribbean to be studied are: 1) implications of the removal of trade barriers for the economic contribution and sustainability of production of the forest sector; and 2) prospects for "green" markets and eco-labelling of forest products based on improved management and harvesting prac...

  13. Key Issues in Morphology Analysis Based on Text Mining%基于文本挖掘的形态分析方法的关键问题

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冷伏海; 王林; 王立学

    2012-01-01

    Morphological analysis based on text mining integration of text mining method, that reduce the reliance on technical experts, and adds objective data to support analysis. Morphological analysis based on text mining has four key issues, which are the definition of the morphological structure, feature word selection, morphology representation, morphology analysis. The improvement to the four issues has key role in enhancing the method.%基于文本挖掘的形态分析方法是在传统方法基础上融入文本挖掘的手段,是国内外学者对形态分析方法的一次有益的探索与改进。改进后的方法减轻对领域专家的依赖,并且增加分析过程中客观数据的支持,提高方法的效率和科学性。基于文本挖掘的形态分析方法包括形态结构定义、特征词选择、形态表示、形态分析等4个关键问题,这4个问题解决方案的优化对整个方法的分析效率和质量的提高有关键作用。

  14. Wastes - Issue 2014. Key figures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This publication proposes numerous tables and graphs of data and indicators (and of their evolution) regarding wastes. It addresses waste prevention and production in France (concerned materials, waste production, waste origins, actions and measures for waste prevention, re-use), waste collection (for domestic, industrial wastes, cross-border exchanges, nuclear reactors), waste processing (of dangerous and non dangerous wastes), valorisation processes (sorting, recycling, composting, methanization), waste-based energy production, economy and costs of the waste management activity, and environmental impacts (atmospheric emissions, impact of recycling)

  15. Human Resource Management: Key Issues

    OpenAIRE

    Popovici Norina; Moraru Camelia; Popovici Veronica

    2013-01-01

    Currently, human problems occupy leading positions in business analysis, although personnel function has been almost absent from the economic literature. Quality workforce is essential to the success of any organization, in peak areas and in areas less technologically advanced. Not only are organizations interested in human resources but also society as a whole. Effectiveness of human resources affect national wealth, the success of a country in international competition, special programs are...

  16. Bioenergy and Biodiversity: Key Lessons from the Pan American Region to be part of Special Issue on Biofuels in the Americas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kline, Keith L [ORNL; Martinelli, Fernanda Silva [Conservation International (CI), Brasil; Mayer, Audrey L. [Michigan Technological University; Medeiros, Rodrigo [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Brazil; Oliveira, Camilia Ortolan F. [State University of Campinas (UNICAMP); Sparovek, Gerd [University of Sao Paulo (USP), Brazil; Walter, Arnaldo Cesar de Silva [State University of Campinas (UNICAMP); Venier, Lisa A. [Great Lakes Forestry Centre (GLFC), Ontario, Canada

    2015-01-01

    Understanding how large-scale bioenergy production can affect biodiversity and ecosystems is important if society is to meet current and future sustainable development goals. A variety of bioenergy production systems have been established within different contexts throughout the Pan American region, with wide-ranging results in terms of documented and projected effects on biodiversity and ecosystems. The Pan American region is home to the majority of commercial bioenergy production and therefore the region offers a broad set of experiences and insights on both conflicts and opportunities for biodiversity and bioenergy. This paper synthesizes lessons learned focusing on experiences in Canada, the United States, and Brazil, regarding the conflicts that can arise between bioenergy production and ecological conservation, and benefits that can be derived when bioenergy policies promote planning and more sustainable land management systems. We propose a research agenda to address priority information gaps that are relevant to biodiversity concerns and related policy challenges in the Pan American region.

  17. Gas to Power in North America. Issues surrounding the use of natural gas in the next generation of North American power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In January 2006 a study was concluded on Gas to Power in North America. This study has been prepared for EDI and IGU and is part of the Gas to Power Project, which has been set up in view of the pivotal role power is likely to play in the development of new gas markets and the realization that it will take enormous efforts to achieve the projected growth. In this report the focus is on North America

  18. 公立医院改革的若干基本问题辨析%On Key issues of Public Hospitals Reform

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    雷海潮; 石光; 吴颖; 牛宏俐; 韦潇; 周小圆; 李中原; 谢春燕

    2010-01-01

    我国公立医院改革进入试点阶段,澄清认识、统一认识是推进改革的基本前提.文章提出了公立医院改革的6个基本问题,涉及到公立医院存在的普遍性及其价值、与国有企业改革的不同、投入与监管、与私立医疗机构的关系以及服务定位等,并分别进行了论述.%Public hospital reform pilots have been initiated recently and it is necessary to clarify some key issues. To this end, this paper touches upon six fundamental issues, discussing the generality and value for the existence of public hospitals, differences between reforms of public hospital and those of state-owned enterprise, the public financing for and regulation on public hospitals, relationship with the private sector, as well as service and function positioning of public hospitals.

  19. Overview of activities of the Nuclear Safety Commission of Japan: Key safety issues for responding to nuclear power plant ageing [Keynote address

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Nuclear Safety Commission (NSC) of Japan agreed on basic political measures to be taken in January 2002, just after the critical accident at the uranium reprocessing plant of JCO. The NSC, based on this decision, has been implementing various measures concerned and taking prompt measures to cope with the related problems, so that it will henceforth improve safety assurance activities in Japan . It can be said that almost all the planned measures have already been carried out, including emergency preparedness for nuclear disasters. In consideration of the recent safety assurance situation in Japan, the NSC decided to settle the basic political measures to be taken for coming years. In the course of discussion of the new basic political measures, a regrettable accident has happened at Mihama Unit 3 of the Kansai Electric Company. After investigation and consideration of the Mihama Unit 3 accident, the NSC has decided on the basic political measures to be taken from 13 September 2004 onwards. As part of the new basic political measures, the NSC emphasizes the following priority issues involving nuclear safety activities in Japan: (1) Establishment of safety goals; (2) Introduction of risk informed nuclear safety regulation; (3) Investigation of the root cause of accidents; (4) Review of the effectiveness of regulation; (5) Fostering a safety culture in the organization of nuclear facilities; (6) Enhancement of regulatory transparency and openness in the NSC's activities. Looking at the present situation of nuclear power plants in Japan, one of the most urgent and common issues deals with the measures in place to respond to ageing problems, in connection with the investigation of the root causes of accidents. Here, key issues for responding to ageing are discussed through the observation of recent cases of accidents

  20. Natural gas in Latin America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Despite having proven reserves equal to that of North America, natural gas has traditionally played a minor role in the energy policies of Latin American countries, being considered secondary to oil. There has, therefore, been a neglect of the sector with a resultant lack of an adequate infrastructure throughout the region, perhaps with the exception of Argentina. However, with a massive increase in energy demand, growing concerns with environmental matters and a need to reduce the massive pollution levels in major cities in the region, natural gas is forecast to play a much greater role in Latin America's energy profile, with final consumption forecast to rise at 5.4% per annum for the next 15 years. This book assesses both the development of the use of natural gas in the power industrial sector and proposals for its growth into the residential, commercial and transport sectors. It analyses the significant investment required and the governments' need to turn to the private sector for investment and innovation. Natural Gas in Latin America analyses the possibilities and pitfalls of investing in the sector and describes the key trends and issues. It analyses all aspects of the gas industry from exploration and production to transportation and distribution to end users. (Author)

  1. America in the Eyes of America Watchers:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feng, Huiyun; He, Kai

    2015-01-01

    almost half of the survey participants thought that America would remain the global hegemon in the next ten years. Meanwhile, a large majority was also optimistic that China is a rising great power, especially in the economic sense, in the world. More than half of the respondents saw Asian military...... issues, such as the South China Sea issue, as the most difficult problem between China and the US....

  2. 物流行业面临的若干重大问题%Some Key Issues Facing the Logistic Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪鸣

    2014-01-01

    为做好物流业产学研结合工作,需要一些超前意识、战略意识。对当前我国物流行业面临的若干重大问题的判断,就需要具有前瞻性,以便为行业发展提供具有参考价值的决策依据。当前,在我国面临必须深化改革的背景下,如何认识和判断我国物流业发展的阶段性特征,怎样推动政府管理与政策模式变革,以及未来物流业发展政策的重点和方向,对我国物流业发展而言,无疑是非常重要的战略性问题。这既是对促进物流业发展规律的认识问题,也是理论与实践相结合的产学研结合课题。%To do a better job in promoting the integration of enterprises, universities and research institutes of the logistic industry, we should have the superior and strategic consciousness. In judging the existing key issues facing the logistic industry, we need the foresight to provide us with reference for decision-making in the industrial development. At present, in the background of deepening reform, how to understand and judge the essential features of the industrial development in the current stage, how to promote reform in government management and policy pattern and how to recognize the policy focuses and direction of the future logistic development are the key strategic issues for the development of China’s logistic development. And these are not only problems concerning the understanding of development rules of logistic industry, but also tasks based on the integration of enterprises, universities and research institutes and the combination of theories and practices.

  3. Surface passivation of III-V semiconductors for future CMOS devices-Past research, present status and key issues for future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Currently, III-V metal-insulator-semiconductor field effect transistors (MISFETs) are considered to be promising device candidates for the so-called 'More Moore Approach' to continue scaling CMOS transistors on the silicon platform. Strong interest also exists in III-V nanowire MISFETs as a possible candidate for a 'Beyond CMOS'-type device. III-V sensors using insulator-semiconductor interfaces are good candidates for 'More Moore'-type of devices on the Si platform. The success of these new approaches for future electronics depends on the availability of a surface passivation technology which can realize pinning-free, high-quality interfaces between insulator and III-V semiconductors. This paper reviews the past history, present status and key issues of the research on the surface passivation technology for III-V semiconductors. First, a brief survey of previous research on surface passivation and MISFETs is made, and Fermi level pinning at insulator-semiconductor interface is discussed. Then, a brief review is made on recent approaches of interface control for high-k III-V MIS structures. Subsequently, as an actual example of interface control, latest results on the authors' surface passivation approach using a silicon interface control layer (Si ICL) are discussed. Finally, a photoluminescence (PL) method to characterize the interface quality is presented as an efficient contactless and non-destructive method which can be applied at each step of interface formation process without fabrication of MIS capacitors and MISFETs.

  4. Eco-innovation, international trade, WTO and climate: Key issues for an ecological industrial policy. Documentation of a workshop on March 12, 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoppe, Jutta; Kahlenborn, Walter [Adelphi Research, Berlin (Germany); Gather, Corinna (eds.) [Umweltbundesamt, Dessau (Germany)

    2009-01-15

    Within the meeting of the German Federal Environment Agency (Dessau, Federal Republic of Germany) and the German Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation and Natural Safety (Berlin, Federal Republic of Germany) at 12th March, 2008, the following reports were held: (a) Trade Policy and Climate Change - An overview from the perspective of an ecological industrial policy (Jutta Hoppe et al.); (b) Kyoto, Post-Kyoto and the WTO (Malena Sell); (c) Climate change, trade and competitiveness (Aaron Cosby, John Drexhage); (d) Unilateral climate policy and implications for trade policy (Susanne Droege); (e) Trade in environmental goods and services relevant to climate-change mitigation: Opportunities and challenges for new industries in the European Union (Mahesh Sugathan); (f) The relevance of WTO activities and rules in the climate change debate (Ludivine Tamiotti); (g) Like-products, energy standards and labelling (Roland Ismer); (h) EC Trade policy and climate challenges: An overview of EC trade policy approaches to climate change (Ditte Juul-Joergensen); (i) Opportunities and constraints for an integrated European climate and trade policy (Ulrich Hoffmann); (j) Climate change, eco-innovation, and EU trade policy: a critical assessment (Daniel Mittler); (k) Resume: Key Issues for an Ecological Industrial policy (Jutta Hoppe, Walter Kahlenborn).

  5. 社区减灾装备研究中的几个问题%KEY ISSUES IN THE STUDY OF COMMUNITY DISASTER REDUCTION EQUIPMENTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张士超; 周洪建; 刘吉夫

    2014-01-01

    Basic situation of community disaster reduction equipments (CDRE),in USA,Japan,Thailand and Indonesia,was used to explore several key issues of CDRE based on regional disaster system.Disaster vulnerability,resilience,adaptation,and their relationships with CDRW were discussed in detail.This could provide references to scientific equipments of CDRE in National Model Community of Comprehensive Disaster-reduction in China,in order to reduce disaster risk and disaster damage and loss on a community scale.%从国外社区减灾装备的基本情况入手,从区域灾害系统角度阐述社区减灾装备研究中的几个问题,尤其是灾害脆弱性、恢复性、适应性、灾害风险等系列研究热点与社区减灾装备的关系。可为中国综合减灾示范社区减灾装备的科学配备,最大限度地减轻社区灾害风险和损失提供参考。

  6. Key; key ring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Key and/or key ring is provided with illuminating means which do not require a source of electrical power. The key shown comprises a shank and a head, the head being moulded from a luminous plastic material which glows in the dark. To improve keying together of shank and head there is a pair of holes in the head of the shank. Alternatively the key may be coated in illuminating material or provided with sheath or cover of illuminating material. The key may be provided with company logo. The key ring has attached thereto a hollow plastics container whose interior is coated with a phosphor and which is filled with tritium gas. (author)

  7. Build America Bonds

    OpenAIRE

    Andrew Ang; Vineer Bhansali; Yuhang Xing

    2010-01-01

    Build America Bonds (BABs) are a new form of municipal financing introduced in 2009. Investors in BAB municipal bonds receive interest payments that are taxable, but issuers receive a subsidy from the U.S. Treasury. The BAB program has succeeded in lowering the cost of funding for state and local governments with BAB issuers obtaining finance 54 basis points lower, on average, compared to issuing regular municipal bonds. For institutional investors, BAB issue yields are 116 basis points highe...

  8. 78 FR 41492 - Buy America Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-10

    ... regulatory policies now found in 23 CFR 635.410. In the preamble to the 1983 final rule (48 FR 53099), the... decision to waive the application of Buy America to manufactured products (48 FR 1946), and found that it... implementing the 1978 Buy America provisions. In issuing the waiver for the 1978 Buy America statute (43...

  9. Key issues of oxygenated feed-water treatment for supercritical boiler%超临界锅炉给水加氧的关键问题

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    艾志虎; 刘定平

    2011-01-01

    The oxygenated feed-water treatment technology of supercritical boiler could effectively decrease the internal corrosion and leposition rate from the water condensation system to the boiler water feeding system.The steam-water quality and the operating efficiency of supercritical units are greatly promoted .Combined with the different feed-water operation modes in the supercritical power currently,the features of the operational ways and the fundamental principles have been described.The key issues in oxygenated treatment(OT)for feed-water of supercritical units were researched.Based on an accurate and reliable adding oxygen system,the precise oxygen feeding amount and the strict transistion conditions between AVT and OT,the effective implementation of the oxygenated treament has been proposed so as to provide a useful reference to popularized the technique of oxygen addition for the supercritical electricity generation units.%超临界锅炉给水加氧处理技术可以有效降低机组凝结水至炉水系统管内的腐蚀及沉积速率,提高汽水品质和机组运行效率.结合当前超临界锅炉不同的给水运行方式,阐述了给水加氧特点和基本原理;针对当前困扰超临界锅炉给水加氧技术应用的关键问题进行研究,提出了有效实施给水加氧技术必须选择正确可靠的加氧系统、把握精确的氧质量分数控制和严格控制全挥发性处理与给水加氧处理方式相互转换条件等关键环节,可为给水加氧技术在大型超临界火力发电机组的推广应用提供指导.

  10. Translating PrEP effectiveness into public health impact: key considerations for decision-makers on cost-effectiveness, price, regulatory issues, distributive justice and advocacy for access

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Hankins

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The extraordinary feat of proving the effectiveness of oral pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP in clinical trials in different populations in a variety of settings may prove to have been easier than ensuring it is used well. Decision-makers must make difficult choices to realize the promise of antiretroviral prophylaxis for their countries. This paper outlines key economic, regulatory and distributive justice issues that must be addressed for effective and acceptable PrEP implementation. Discussion: In considering the role that PrEP can play in combination prevention programmes, decision-makers must determine who can benefit most from PrEP, how PrEP can be provided safely and efficiently, and what kind of health system support will ensure successful implementation. To do this, they need contextualized information on disease burden by population, analyses of how PrEP services might best be delivered, and projections of the human resource and infrastructure requirements for each potential delivery model. There are cost considerations, varying cost-effectiveness results and regulatory challenges. The principles of ethics can inform thorny discussions about who should be prioritized for oral PrEP and how best to introduce it fairly. We describe the cost-effectiveness of PrEP in different populations at higher risk of HIV exposure, its price in low- and middle-income countries, and the current regulatory situation. We explore the principles of ethics that can inform resource allocation decision-making about PrEP anchored in distributive justice, at a time when universal access to antiretroviral treatment remains to be assured. We then highlight the role of advocacy in moving the PrEP agenda forward. Conclusions: The time is ripe now for decisions about whether, how and for whom PrEP should be introduced into a country's HIV response. It has the potential to contribute significantly to high impact HIV prevention if it is tailored to those

  11. The key issues on plant phenology under global change%全球变化下植物物候研究的关键问题

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    莫非; 赵鸿; 王建永; 强生才; 周宏; 王绍明; 熊友才

    2011-01-01

    investigation of phenological cycle. The methodology of plant phenology has been upgraded from the superficial description on the response of plant phenological cycle to climate change to the coupling exploration on plant phenology at the multi-scale and multi-element scales. With the development of interdisciplinary research, plant phenology has been extended to a systematic evaluation on the impacts of phenological changes on ecosystems , climatic change , agricultural production and even human health. With these transitions , a few key issues has been raised accordingly, such as the differentiate contribution of atmospheric temperature and photoperiod to plant phenological cycle in different temperature belts , the nonlinear characteristics of the change in plant phenology versus climate change , the complexity of plant phenology at the community level, as well as the importance of crop phenology in agricultural ecosystems. It can be argued that the initiative of plant phenology would play a critical role in practical fields such as agricultural production, human health and landscape design, but also significantly boosts the progress in interdisciplinary research involved in ecology, climatology and geography. Finally, a few recommendations are proposed in terms to the construction of phenological observation network, the exploitation and application of new technologies and the integration of relevant research programs.%总结了全球变化下植物物候研究的主要进展,针对该领域国内外的几个热点问题进行了讨论.植物物候研究的重心从以前的野外观测和初步统计分析逐步过渡到以揭示物候周期的调控机制和环境效应为主,研究手段从植物物候对环境变化做出反应的表象描述转移到多尺度、多要素耦合关系的综合分析.随着学科交叉研究的不断深入,植物物候研究从植物个体及居群适应性研究转向植物物候变化对生态系统、气候演变、农业生产乃

  12. 主动配电网规划关键问题与研究展望%Key Issues and Research Prospects of Active Distribution Network Planning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张建华; 曾博; 张玉莹; 刘大川; 杨煦; 李晨; 刘文霞

    2014-01-01

    面对资源环境压力与节能减排的双重压力,电力工业亟待低碳转型。主动配电网( ADN)有机整合先进信息通信、电力电子及智能控制等技术,为实现分布式可再生能源大规模并网与高效利用提供了一种有效解决方案,对支撑低碳经济发展具有重要战略意义。本文首先简要介绍了 ADN的技术特点及内涵理念;其次,结合国内外相关示范工程,阐述了 ADN的技术可行性及其低碳潜力;在此基础上,重点对 ADN 规划问题进行探讨:通过与传统配电网及微电网技术进行对比,提出了 ADN 规划一般性框架;基于国内外研究现状,从电力负荷预测、规划资源特性、集成设计模式、优化规划方法及成本效益分析等5个方面提出了该领域的关键问题和未来主要研究方向,并深入分析了其中的研究难点;最后,对研究思路及技术路线提出了相关建议。%Environmental pressures and energy-saving policy calls for low-carbon transformation of the power industry. Integrated with the advanced information & communication, power electronics, and smart control technologies, active distribution network(ADN) provides an effective solution to enable large-scale integration and utilization of renewable energy sources, which has a significant potential to support the realization of low-carbon economy. In this study, the technical features of ADN and its difference with traditional distribution network are described first. Then, based on the information of some demonstration projects, an analysis is taken concerning the technical feasibility and decarbonization capability of ADN. Subsequently, a generalized framework of ADN planning is proposed. Considering the status quo of relevant researches, key issues in the five aspects of ADN planning, including load forecast, resource characteristics, integrated designing mode, optimal planning method and cost-benefit analysis, are

  13. CHORUS Deliverable 2.2: Second report - identification of multi-disciplinary key issues for gap analysis toward EU multimedia search engines roadmap

    OpenAIRE

    Bardeli, Rolf; Boujemaa, Nozha; Compañó, Ramón; Doch, Christoph; Geurts, Joost; Gouraud, Henri; Joly, Alexis; Karlgren, Jussi; King, Paul; Köhler, Joachim; Kompatsiaris, Yiannis; Le Moine, Jean-Yves; Ortgies, Robert; Point, Jean-Charles; Rotenberg, Boris

    2008-01-01

    After addressing the state-of-the-art during the first year of Chorus and establishing the existing landscape in multimedia search engines, we have identified and analyzed gaps within European research effort during our second year. In this period we focused on three directions, notably technological issues, user-centred issues and use-cases and socio- economic and legal aspects. These were assessed by two central studies: firstly, a concerted vision of functional breakdown of...

  14. Workshop on Key Issues in Major Research Plan "Study on the Signal Conduction Process Based on Chemical Small Molecular Probe" Held

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ The workshop on key analysis method and largescale facilities application in the project of Major Research Plan "Study on the Signal Conduction Process Based on Chemical Small Molecular Probe" was held in the National Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory, Anhui on January 5th, 2008.

  15. Chiropractic Health Care: A National Study of Cost of Education, Service Utilization, Number of Practicing Doctors of Chiropractic, and Other Key Policy Issues. Volumes I-II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Kuster, Thomas, Jr.

    Results from the first federally sponsored study of the chiropractic health care profession are presented, and a broad range of facts and issues of concern to policy-makers, the profession, and the public are described. The two-year project included three national surveys of: service providers (doctors of chiropractic in practice more than two…

  16. The Role of the Department of Health and Other Key Institutions in the Promotion of Equal Opportunities, Multi-Cultural and Anti-Racist Issues in Nurse Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foolchand, M. K.

    2000-01-01

    The role of Britain's Department of Health, the United Kingdom Central Council, and the English National Board in implementing equal opportunity, multicultural, and antiracist policies in nursing education was reviewed. Major policies have neglected or marginalized equity and racism issues. Ideologies underlying social and health policies are…

  17. Inflation Targeting in Latin America

    OpenAIRE

    Vittorio Corbo; Klaus Schmidt-Hebbel

    2002-01-01

    This paper analyzes Latin America’s recent experience with the use of inflation targeting (IT) while the region has made substantial progress toward eradicating high inflation. The paper assesses the implementation and results of inflation targeting in Latin America from a broad perspective. It starts by reviewing the issues relevant for the choice of exchange-rate regimes and monetary frameworks, documenting the evolution of exchange rate and monetary regimes in Latin America during the last...

  18. Three Key Issues of the Research on Online Video Show Hosts%网络视频主持人研究三问

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李桃

    2012-01-01

    一问网络视频主持人的界定,两个定义各有千秋。二问网络视频主持人使用网络语言问题,若认同其使用网络语言,则会遭到影响交流沟通、影响现代汉语纯洁性、忽略长远影响的质疑;若不认同其使用网络语言,则会遭到抹杀其网络特性、影响其与网民交流的质疑。三问对研究对象的选择,主要有研究对象不具代表性、复制传统媒体节目现象严重、主持人业务素养不达标的问题。%The first issue concerns the definition of online video hosts.The two existing definitions have their strengths and weaknesses respectively.The second issue is related to the use of Internet language and loan words by online video hosts.The encouragement of Internet language in online video programs will be criticized in that the overuse of network language will affect verbal communication,and meanwhile jeopardize the purity of modern Chinese in the long term.The discouragement of network language will be challenged because of the denial of vibrant network language and its poses a threat to the communication with Internet users.The third issue has to do with the selection of hosts for investigation.Moreover,limited duration of each program,copying traditional media programs and the inadequate qualifications of hosts are three main predicaments for current online video programs.

  19. Leadership the Key Ingredient: an Overview of an Exploration Study of the Issues Surrounding Implementation of Culinary Tourism Strategy on the Dingle Peninsula

    OpenAIRE

    Murphy, Mark

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of the author’s research thesis which was part of a M.Sc. in Culinary Innovation and New Food Product Development in D.I.T. The research paper explored the issues surrounding implementing a culinary tourism strategy on the Dingle Peninsula in County Kerry. The Dingle Peninsula has been selected by Ireland’s national tourism development agency (Fáilte Ireland) as a region with potential to become a leading food destination. The research methods consisted of a wi...

  20. From the feasibility assessment to the licensing: application organisation of the safety case interactive development of engineering/pa/knowledge management, key issues addressed by geoscience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The analysis conducted within the Dossier 2005 exercise (ANDRA 2005b) shows that in all envisioned situations (normal or altered) through complementary indicators, the repository and surrounding host rock fulfill the three major safety functions, without relying excessively on any single component no elements that jeopardize the technical feasibility. In any event, the Callovo- Oxfordian host rock plays a major role in immobilizing radionuclides and in delaying and reducing their migration to the environment. In all scenarios even accidental or altered the repository performance provides significant margins to the dose objective recommended by the RFS III.2.f. In conclusion, Dossier 2005 Argile supports, with both qualitative and quantitative arguments as results from a robust methodology and a multidisciplinary iterative process, the feasibility of a reversible and safe repository in Meuse-Haute-Marne Callovo-Oxfordian clay. Some key design features and orientations have been developed to meet safety requirements. The various reviews of the ANDRA Dossier Argile that was published in 2005 and the existing design experience has helped to identify the key areas needing further development and design evolution in order to apply for a license to build a repository in 2015 according to the new French Act of 2006. (A.L.B.)

  1. Illiterate America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozol, Jonathan

    Intended for those involved in American social service and educational communities, this book addresses the widespread problem of illiteracy in the United States and the social consequences of this problem. Following an introduction, the chapters in the first section of the book discuss the growing crisis of illiterate America, specifically, the…

  2. Key Issues in the Design and Planning of Central Kitchens%中央厨房规划设计要点研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马晓明

    2011-01-01

    The central kitchen is a new type of food processing facility growing popular in recent years and is a combination of food processing and cold chain logistics. With empirical examples, the paper studies the key factors in the design and planning of such facilities and concludes on the core design points.%中央厨房是近些年来涌现出的新型食品加工建筑类型,是食品加工与冷链物流的有机结合.对此领域工程设计研究尚属于摸索阶段,结合工程实例对该类建筑设计中的关键因素进行了初步研究,总结出核心设计要点.

  3. The emergence of scientific management in America

    OpenAIRE

    Sorin-George Toma; Ana-Maria Grigore; Paul Marinescu

    2014-01-01

    A scientific approach to management was initiated for the first time in America in the late 19th century. Scientific management arose mainly from the need to increase efficiency in America, but other key factors were the spread of big businesses and the expanding application of science in industry. The aims of our paper are to present the emergence of scientific management in America and to emphasize the contribution of some of the most representatives American authors to its development. The...

  4. Preparing tomorrow's network today: RTE at the crossroads of the European electricity system. Cross-border electricity interconnections Key issues and figures - 2014 Edition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The interconnected electricity transmission network is a key element for ensuring security of supply, the creation of a single market and the integration of renewable energies. RTE and its European partners provide strengthened coordination by the use of interconnections to ensure solidarity between European countries. Interconnections also allow an electricity supplier to sell its energy to a customer located in another country in Europe. They contribute on a European scale to optimising the use of production means and in particular the integration of variable renewable energies. RTE, within the EnTSo-E (European Network of Transmission System Operators for Electricity), contributes to the publication of a common vision of the future of networks by 2030. The needs for new interconnection capacity are identified in the ten-year European network development plan (TYnDP) on the basis of a cost-benefit analysis. France is interconnected to all its neighbours via many cross-border links. However interconnection capacity with the various countries and its use differ widely. The usage profile of the interconnections is specific to each border and varies according to: - the characteristics of the production mix of each country, and in particular the level of production of renewable energies. - the level of consumption, which depends on the season, the type of day (working or non-working) the time of day, etc. - import and export capacity, which may be different depending on the internal constraints of the networks of each country

  5. Key issues from the French R and D project on the long-term evolution of the spent nuclear fuel in conditions of interim dry storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: In France, the interim dry storage (long-term -100 y's- or classical -50 y.) of spent nuclear fuel is studied in the framework of the 1991 Law for the management of spent fuel in the back-end of the fuel cycle. Indeed, only two third of the total annual budget of spent fuel is currently reprocessed in order to balance the Pu annual budget. The other third is stored before further decision concerning its ultimate fate. Several engineering projects are on going in France on long-term storage and lead to address operational questions to R and D. These questions concern the issue of the retrievability of the spent fuel waste package at the end of the storage stage, the monitoring of the fuel packages during the storage and the applicability of potential re-conditioning process. Moreover, the evolution of the radionuclides source term is a major operational question for the safety assessment of the dry storage. The R and D PRECCI project is performed in CEA with the support of French utilities EDF and FRAMATOME. Some of its objectives are to qualify and quantify the long-term evolution of the spent nuclear fuel (SNF) under conditions of dry storage. This paper will present a synthetic status of the PRECCI project concerning: (1) The chemical and physical states evolution of the SNF in a closed system (without external exchange of matter) (2) Determination of the long-term cladding mechanical properties after irradiation (3) Potential evolution of the SNF in contact with air. The major outcomes and consequences on the potential design of long-term storage facilities will be enlightened. (1) Chemical and physical states of the SNF in a closed system may evolve due to radioactive alpha decays and temperature history, even without any contact with the external medium. No microscopic swelling due to irradiation damage or chemical evolution of the spent fuel is expected during dry storage in a closed system. Therefore, the evolution of the fuel microstructure and

  6. Biomass energy in Central America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this paper is to introduce the concept of biomass to energy issues and opportunities in Central America. In this region, made up of seven countries (Belize, Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua and Panama), the biomass sector has the potential to play a crucial role in alleviating the environmental and development predicaments faced by all economies of the region. This paper assesses the available biomass resources at the regional and country levels and gives an overview of the current utilization of biomass fuels. It also describes the overall context in which the biomass-to-energy initiatives are immersed. At the regional level, biomass energy consumption accounts for more than 50% of total energy consumption. In regard to the utilization of biomass for energy purposes, it is clear that Central America faces a critical juncture at two levels, both mainly in rural areas: in the productive sector and at the household level. The absence of sustainable development policies and practices has jeopardized the availability of biomass fuels, particularly wood. Firewood is an important source of energy for rural industries such as coffee processing, which is one of the largest productive activities in the region. This paper comments on some of the most successful technological innovations already in place in the region, for instance, the rapid development of co-generation projects by the sugar cane industry, especially in El Salvador and Guatemala, the substitution of coffee husks for firewood in coffee processing plants in Costa Rica and El Salvador and the sustainable use of pine forests for co-generation in Honduras. Only one out of every two inhabitants in Central America now has access to electricity from the public grid. Biomass fuels, mainly firewood but also, to a lesser extent, other crop residues such as corn stalks, are the main source of energy for cooking and heating by most of the population. (It is foreseen that by the end

  7. Carbon dioxide emissions from non-energy use of fossil fuels. Summary of key issues and conclusions from the country analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    statistics and estimation methods for CO2 emissions from non-energy use. The articles in this special issue contribute to reaching these goals

  8. BIOPROTA Key Issues in Biosphere Aspects of Assessment of the Long-term Impact of Contaminant Releases Associated with Radioactive Waste Management Theme 2: Task 7:Modelling Processes in the Geosphere Biosphere Interface Zone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinedo, P.; Smith, G.; Aguero, A.; Albrecht, A.; Bath, A.; Benhabderrahmane, H.; Van Dorp, F.; Kautsky, U.; Klos, R.; Laciok, A.; Milodowski, T.; Selroos, J.O.; Simon, I.; Texier, D.; Thorne, M.; Willans, M.

    2005-07-01

    This document reports on BIOPROTA Theme 2, task 7 which investigated modelling processes in the geosphere- biosphere interface zone (GBIZ) during performance assessments. Modelling issues in the treatment of the GBIZ are identified. A large proportion of the identified issues concern modelling radionuclide behaviour in near surface aquifers which are subject to relatively high gradients in chemical and other conditions. Other key issues concern transfer of radionuclides through the unsaturated zone above aquifers, bearing in mind the scope for erosion and variations in the level of the phreatic surface and also the consideration of environmental change. A number of research areas are highlighted that are aimed at addressing each of the identified issues in the treatment of GBIZ. These include (i) Developing of a current statement of continuing problems, and hence clarify and justify the need to do more; (ii) Conducting a review of site investigations as they have been done already, and determine whether they meet performance assessment requirements; (iii) Identifying scenarios and FEPs considered in current treatments; and, (iv) Conducting source-pathway-receptor analysis to demonstrate comprehensiveness of the overall scenario identification process. The objectives of these activities would be to determine the potential to reduce uncertainties and/or conservative assumptions in assessment of radionuclide transfer from the geosphere to biosphere domains, taking account of environmental change; and to develop guidance on site-characterisation needs at different types of site, as regards the near-surface features. (Author) 23 refs.

  9. BIOPROTA Key Issues in Biosphere Aspects of Assessment of the Long-term Impact of Contaminant Releases Associated with Radioactive Waste Management. Theme 2: Task 7: Modelling Processes in the Geosphere Biosphere Interface Zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document reports on BIOPROTA Theme 2, task 7 which investigated modelling processes in the geosphere- biosphere interface zone (GBIZ) during performance assessments. Modelling issues in the treatment of the GBIZ are identified. A large proportion of the identified issues concern modelling radionuclide behaviour in near surface aquifers which are subject to relatively high gradients in chemical and other conditions. Other key issues concern transfer of radionuclides through the unsaturated zone above aquifers, bearing in mind the scope for erosion and variations in the level of the phreatic surface and also the consideration of environmental change. A number of research areas are highlighted that are aimed at addressing each of the identified issues in the treatment of GBIZ. These include (i) Developing of a current statement of continuing problems, and hence clarify and justify the need to do more; (ii) Conducting a review of site investigations as they have been done already, and determine whether they meet performance assessment requirements; (iii) Identifying scenarios and FEPs considered in current treatments; and, (iv) Conducting source-pathway-receptor analysis to demonstrate comprehensiveness of the overall scenario identification process. The objectives of these activities would be to determine the potential to reduce uncertainties and/or conservative assumptions in assessment of radionuclide transfer from the geosphere to biosphere domains, taking account of environmental change; and to develop guidance on site-characterisation needs at different types of site, as regards the near-surface features. (Author) 23 refs

  10. Developments in Impact Assessment in North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beginning with a background of recent global developments in this area, this presentation will focus on how global research has impacted North America and how North America is providing additional developments to address the issues of the global economy. Recent developments inc...

  11. 现阶段我国DNA数据库发展的几个关键问题%Several Key Issues for China National DNA Database Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘冰

    2015-01-01

    develop new stratedgies for China national DNA database? How to further develop China DNA database and maximize its efficiency? This paper discusses the development in the light of 4 issues. First of all, the core loci of database need to be set prior to increasing the number of autosomal STR loci, even though there is a consensus on the quantity change. As for the new genetic markers, such as SNP, the attitude of “good will of expectation” should be in line with “prudent wait-and-see”, since there is few possibility to use SNP commonly in a database with ten-million profiles. It is more likely that the genome-wide analysis will bring the great change to the DNA database in the future. Still, the special familial searching is a supplementation and inevitable choice for DNA database in case of a low coverage of the population. But this searching has to follow strict rule. Finally, Y-STR database development is objective and urgent, but it must be cautious as personnel sample collection might be involving legal, social and other problems; the pedigree in sociological term may not equal to genetic one; positive evaluations of Y-STR database should be also built on deductive method; a balanced development of database should be considered of both costs and benefits. Therefore, without a theoretical framework constructed with rigorous deduction, especially prior to the mathematical model of evaluation, Y-STR database is only a matter of empirical, rather than scientific, letting alone the difficulty to assess the value of such experience for others. In conclusion, as a DNA database with ten-millions profiles, any change related to fundamental issues concerned with development, security or stability must be dealt with comprehensively and scientifically.

  12. Polycentric Metropolitan Form: Application of a ‘Northern’ Concept in Latin America

    OpenAIRE

    Arie Romein; Otto Verkoren; Ana María Fernandez

    2009-01-01

    Since the mid 20th century, large urban areas in advanced economies have experienced a fundamental transformation from relatively compact monocentric cities towards more extended polycentric metropolitan areas. By now, it is being commented repeatedly, but not investigated systematically that the concept of polycentricity is also adequate to characterise recent metropolitan dynamics in Latin-America.This paper aims to present a few key-issues for a future research agenda into polycentricity i...

  13. Natural gas pricing and contracting practices in North America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Over the past 5 years the natural gas industry in North America has undergone substantial change as a result of the deregulated market. A comparison is provided of the key contract parameters in gas purchase contracts utilized by local distribution companies, industrial customers, cogenerators and marketers. Issues discussed include pricing mechanisms, indexed contracts, negotiated contracts, combinations, dispute resolution, supply, government regulation, industry structures, financial considerations, perception, geological influences, demand, transmission, storage, distribution, price trends and forecasts, Order 636 in the U.S., the evolution of North American market hubs, the futures market, and 'daisy chains' of connecting pipelines. 15 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab

  14. Fostering renewable electricity markets in North America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper provided an overview of key market demand and supply drivers for the renewable electricity in Canada, the United States and Mexico. The aim of the paper was to assist North American governments in supporting the development of renewable electricity by addressing barriers that currently contribute to higher costs as well as challenges related to policy implementation. The paper outlined regulatory mandates and discussed issues related to voluntary purchases, and financial incentives. Current policy frameworks for renewable electricity were also examined. Opportunities for developing the renewable electricity market North America were explored. Wind power environmental standards were reviewed. Various green pricing schemes were discussed. The paper also included recommendations for the current electricity market as well as for members of the North American Agreement on Environmental Cooperation. 84 refs., 4 tabs., 7 figs

  15. [Zika virus outbreak in Latin America: what are the challenges for French Guiana in April 2016?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epelboin, L; Douine, M; Carles, G; Villemant, N; Nacher, M; Rousset, D; Djossou, F; Mosnier, E

    2016-05-01

    Started in 2015 in Brazil, an outbreak linked to a little known arbovirus, Zika virus spread throughout Latin America. This virus, considered until recently as responsible of only mild symptoms, made mention of previously unsuspected complications, with severe neurological manifestations in adults and malformations of the central nervous system, including microcephaly, in newborns of mother infected during the pregnancy. While the continent is more accustomed to the succession of arbovirus epidemics, suspected complications and the many unknowns keys of the latter arriving raise many public health issues. French Guiana, a French territory located in the north-east of the continent, combines both European level of resources and climate and issues specific to the Amazon region and Latin America. We discuss here the issues for 2016 Zika virus epidemic in our region, many of them are generalizable to neighboring countries. PMID:27167975

  16. Public Health in the Americas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ross Duncan

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available

    In this special issue the four articles focus on population health in terms of primary care and preventive medicine. This critical area of health often receives less attention than health care issues (more so in the popular press but also in academic analyses.Upon reviewing these very interesting and illuminating articles it was striking that despite significant cultural, economic, geographic and historical differences there are many commonalities which exist throughout the Americas.

  17. How teaching on the care of the victim of sexual violence alters undergraduate medical students' awareness of the key issues involved in patient care and their attitudes to such patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Kieran M; Vellinga, Akke; Bonner, Niamh; Stewart, Brian; McGrath, Deirdre

    2013-08-01

    Sexual violence is known to be highly prevalent, albeit the majority of incidents are not reported to the authorities. It is therefore likely that medical students will encounter very many patients who have experienced sexual violence during their postgraduate careers, although this history may never be disclosed to them. Numerous highly regarded sources have advocated for the inclusion of instruction on the care of the victim of sexual violence in undergraduate medical curricula. Moreover, there has been a call for research to measure the effectiveness of educational strategies addressing the issue of sexual violence at undergraduate level. We present an evaluation of the effectiveness of a reproducible teaching session on care of the victim of sexual violence appropriate for undergraduate medical students, looking specifically at alterations in students' awareness of the key issues involved in patient care and their attitudes to such patients. This research demonstrates that such an educational intervention significantly enhances undergraduate medical students' awareness of the issues involved in patient care and their insight in to myths surrounding sexual violence. PMID:23910837

  18. Public information. Key issue paper no. 5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear power was welcomed from the outset because it promised highly economic and convenient energy, especially electricity. Even today, nuclear projects espoused by developing nations can stimulate enthusiasm and national pride. However, public unease concerning nuclear power safety was magnified by the accidents at Three Mile Island in 1979 and Chernobyl in 1986. The perceived problem of transport and long term storage of nuclear waste has added to public concerns, as has the risk of the possible proliferation of nuclear weapons. Public information strategies must recognize and seek to address these fears by pointing to the many cumulative years of trouble-free nuclear operations and by stressing the strict rules and oversight designed to protect workers and the public from accidents and radioactive releases. It is against this background that the following material has been compiled. It comes from a variety of sources and reflects the experience mainly of industrialized countries that have national nuclear programs. It is important to underline that it is descriptive rather than prescriptive in nature for two reasons: first, the IAEA is essentially a forum for pooling collective knowledge in this as in other fields; and secondly, the IAEA would not presume to offer a universal formula, since national circumstances vary according to specific political, demographic, social and other factors. Hence only certain parts of this paper may be of direct relevance to any given national situation. (author)

  19. Key research issues in Clostridium difficile

    OpenAIRE

    George Zhanel; Greg Hammond

    2005-01-01

    Clostridium difficile is an emerging pathogen that causes C difficile-associated diarrhea, an important nosocomial infection. Control of this infection remains a challenge, and much needs to be determined about the antimicrobial resistance of the organism, antibiotic stewardship, contamination of the patient environment, and various host factors that determine susceptibility or resistance to infection. A national symposium focusing on C difficile infections, the Clostridium difficile Symposiu...

  20. Key issues considered at LNG 13

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the past few years, deregulation of the gas markets throughout the world has changed the way LNG projects can be brought into realisation. Gone are the days when large consortia of buyers could aggregate demand into quantities that made an LNG project economic. Today's market is typified by buyers requesting greater flexibility in volumes, shorter contract terms and reduced exposure to take-or-pay clauses. This means that the onus is on the producer to aggregate volume to make a large project viable, and to find flexible supply options as demand increases. As a result, there is an increasing ability to source LNG from excess capacity around the world, as has been demonstrated with the extended shutdown of the Arun LNG plant in Indonesia. Although some flexibility exists for the supply of LNG, it is unlikely that a world market where LNG is freely traded will develop. LNG projects will still require long-term contracts to ensure project financing. Furthermore, the 'LNG world' will remain separated into two regions the Atlantic and Asia-Pacific basins with only small amounts of 'spot' trading occurring between them. This is primarily due to the increased shipping costs associated with the global movement of LNG, and thus the ability to compete with closer sources of LNG and pipeline gas. Australia's position and its challenges in the LNG market is analysed

  1. COMPETITIVENESS - KEY ISSUES OF THE ROMANIAN ECONOMY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela-Liliana, CIOBAN

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Based on the theory that competitiveness plays an increasingly powerful role in creating prosperity, wealth, a large number of economists, researchers, scientists, highlight a number of approaches aimed, on the one hand, on the analysis of competitiveness at national or regional level, and on the other hand, on the ability of local firms to achieve competitive products and to commercialize them in the extern markets. In this context we aim to analyze and develop strategies and methods to help identify competitive areas at a national level. This is necessary because in our opinion the competitiveness of a company and / or country is more than wealth itself; it means a systematic process of wealth creation, plus a social system in which most citizens have access to material wealth. We consider in this respect that a country cannot automatically be considered competitive only if it is rich in natural resources. In our view, a competitive country creates wealth through labor, talent and organization and thus it manages to have a productive and creative potential making it independent of material resources.

  2. Key figures for the environment - Issue 2015

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Commented graphs and data tables give an overview of several indicators regarding the environment in France in 2014. A first part addresses natural media and biodiversity by commenting several indicators related to climate and greenhouse effect, air pollution and pollutants, water pollution (underground waters, rivers, rivers flowing to the sea, marine environment), soil pollution by organic materials and soil erosion, and biodiversity (birds, protected areas, humid zones). The second part addresses natural resource management and use: space consumption, material consumption, water consumption, energy consumption, consumption of biological resources (forests, fishery resources), and wastes. The third part addresses the economy of the environment and the evolution of behaviours: environmental concerns and expectations of French people, forest fire risks and natural risks, public actions to be performed and environmental concern of the French population, jobs and expenses in the environmental sector, evolution of transport modes, practices in agriculture and in industry. Some brief European comparisons are proposed, as well as a glossary

  3. Key issues in european reactor seismic design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper focuses on the main problems which have arisen in FBR design in Europe due to seismic conditions. Its first part, derived from the final report of a CEC-Belgonucleaire study contract, clarifies how ''real'' is the seismic problem for each site. Then, the second and main part deals with the studies carried out in the european countries on the relevant subjects, typical of FBRs or related to specific needs of single FBRs: these studies, for which contributions were provided by ENEA, CEA, NNC and INTERATOM, concern mainly the numerical and experimental analysis of the core, the reactor vessel, the shut-down system and the reactor building of FBRs under construction or in advanced design phase. Attention is also paid to the studies started for future purposes, the feed-backs on the design due to seismic conditions, and the instructions for future reactors

  4. Key data for energy. Issue 2011

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document proposes data tables and graphs illustrating the share of energy in the French economy, the evolution of oil and gas prices and of French opinion on energy, the evolution of the French energy bill, the energy consumption in France in 2010 (globally and per sector), the energy production and consumption of different energy sources (imports, consumption per sector): coal, oil, gas, electricity, renewable energies. It also addresses the evolution of heat networks (consumption per type of energy), the evolution of the rational use of energy (energy intensity, energy consumption and GDP, car CO2 emissions), the evolution of energy prices for industry and households, and the evolution of CO2 emissions

  5. Key figures for energy - 2014 issue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This publication presents and discusses data and figures, under the form of graphs and tables, on the place of energy in the French economy, on all energies together (opinion on nuclear energy, average prices, energy bill, distribution of primary energy consumption among the different energy sources, global assessment in terms of sources and production, production and consumption of primary energy, final consumption per sector), on the different energy sources (final consumption per sector, primary production, imports and exports, distribution networks and grids, trade for the different sources: coal, oil, gas, electricity, renewable energies) and on other aspects related to energy: heat networks, rational use of energy, CO2 emissions, energy price, international situation (production, primary and final energy consumption, indicators of energy intensity). An appendix proposes data of energy assessment for France for 2013

  6. Key figures for energy - 2015 issue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This publication presents and discusses data and figures, under the form of graphs and tables, on the place of energy in the French economy, on all energies together (energy bill per energy type, average prices, global assessment, primary energy production per energy type, final consumption per energy type, energy consumption per sector), on the different energy sources like coal (production, imports), oil (production, consumption of refined oil products per product type, imports per origin, exports), gas (transportation networks and storage sites, consumption per sector), electric power (raw production, electronuclear sites), and renewable energies (shares in final energy consumption, renewable hydraulic, solar and wind energy production), on heat networks (energy mix, evolution of energy consumption), on CO2 emissions, on energy prices, and on the international situation (primary consumption, indicators of energy intensity). An appendix proposes data of energy assessment for France for 2014

  7. Little People of America

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... information. Our Sponsors Welcome to Little People of America Little People of America (LPA) is a nonprofit organization that provides support ... survey can be seen here. © Little People of America 250 El Camino Real Suite 218, Tustin, CA ...

  8. Transmission issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This session on transmission issues focused on the role that transmission plays in electricity markets and the importance of getting the market structure right in terms of generation divestiture with buy back contracts, demand side responsive programs, transmission upgrades and long term contracts. The difficulties of distinguishing between market power and scarcity were examined along with some of the complications that ensue if transmission experiences congestion, as exemplified by the August 2003 blackout in eastern North America. The presentations described the best ways to handle transmission issues, and debated whether transmission should be deregulated or follow market forces. Issues of interconnections and reliability of connections were also debated along with the attempt to integrate renewables into the grid. Some presentations identified what new transmission must be built and what must be done to ensure that transmission gets built. The challenges and business opportunities for transmission in Alberta were discussed with reference to plans to invest in new infrastructure, where it is going outside of the province and how it works with other jurisdictions. Manitoba's Conawapa Hydro Project and its 2000 MW tie line to Ontario was also discussed. Some examples of non-optimal use of interconnections in Europe were also discussed in an effort to learn from these mistakes and avoid them in Canada. tabs., figs

  9. Latin America`s emerging non-proliferation consensus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Redick, J.R.

    1994-03-01

    Latin America`s incorporation into the international nuclear non-proliferation regime is well advanced. The 1967 Tlatelolco Treaty, which established a regional nuclear-weapon-free zone (NWFZ), is nearing completion. A signal event occurred January 18, when Argentina and Chile deposited instruments of ratification to the treaty, leaving Brazil and Cuba the only major countries in Latin America that are not yet contracting parties. And after more than two decades of concern about the nuclear programs and policies in Argentina and Brazil, there is room for great optimism that Brazil may now be moving quickly on important non-proliferation issues. Even Cuba, the {open_quotes}bad boy of the neighborhood{close_quotes} in the eyes of many, which held aloof from the Tlatelolco process for three decades, has stated its willingness to join the zone in the future.

  10. Key Issues of the Design of Proxy Cache Server for Video Data in the Internet Environment%基于Internet的视频代理缓存服务器设计的若干关键问题

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨书慧; 顾铁成; 陈道蓄

    2003-01-01

    With the boom of the network technology, all kinds of services based on the Internet come into being. A-mong them, the most promising one is the video service. All of this kind of service has been paid much attention,such as videoconference and video-on-demand. Because of the instability of the Internet environment, the traditional Client/Server mode in the LAN, which is used to support the data transmission, is not suitable any longer. And the newly designed Server/Proxy/Client one is more effective. This paper describes this architecture and its service pat-tern, does some deep research on the key issues of the design of the proxy cache server, such as the caching and re-olacernent nlr the viden data, the management and coordination of multi-proxy-servers.

  11. 我国社会医疗保险制度整合的关键问题%The Key Issues in the Integration of Social Health Insurance Systems of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭浩然

    2015-01-01

    Integrating social health insurance systems is the future direction in the development of social health insurance reform. This paper summarizes the experience and practices in the process of integrating social health insurance systems in cities of Dongguan, Zhongshan and Zhuhai. Based on these, this paper indicates three key issues that we must deal with in integrating social health insurance systems.%制度整合是我国社会医疗保险改革的发展方向。本文总结了东莞、中山、珠海三市在社会医疗保险制度整合方面的经验做法,并在此基础上,分析了我国社会医疗保险制度整合所面临的三个关键问题。

  12. America's fiscal cliff

    OpenAIRE

    Ethan Ilzetzki; Jonathan Pinder

    2012-01-01

    The US economy is still suffering from its most severe recession in seven decades. This article covers the key issue of taxes, spending and public debt, a major point of disagreement between the two candidates in the 2012 US election, President Obama and Governor Romney.

  13. Mammals of South America, Volume 1, Marsupials, Xenarthrans, Shrews, and Bats

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    The vast terrain between Panama and Tierra del Fuego contains some of the world?s richest mammalian fauna, but until now it has lacked a comprehensive systematic reference to the identification, distribution, and taxonomy of its mammals. The first such book of its kind and the inaugural volume in a three-part series, Mammals of South America both summarizes existing information and encourages further research of the mammals indigenous to the region. Containing identification keys and brief descriptions of each order, family, and genus, the first volume of Mammals of South America covers marsupials, shrews, armadillos, sloths, anteaters, and bats. Species accounts include taxonomic descriptions, synonymies, keys to identification, distributions with maps and a gazetteer of marginal localities, lists of recognized subspecies, brief summaries of natural history information, and discussions of issues related to taxonomic interpretations. Highly anticipated and much needed, this book will be a landmark contribution to mammalogy, zoology, tropical biology, and conservation biology.

  14. Clinical Trials: Key to Medical Progress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Clinical Trials: Key to Medical Progress Past Issues / Summer 2008 ... this page please turn Javascript on. Photo iStock Clinical trials are research studies that test how well new ...

  15. MICROSCALE CHEMISTRY IN LATIN AMERICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge G. Ibáñez

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available A brief account of the development of Microscale Chemistry in Latin America is here presented. The US National Microscale Chemistry Center (Merrimack College, Massachusetts was instrumental in the initiationof several centers. Its Mexican counterpart, the Mexican Microscale Chemistry Center (CMQM, has been a key player in this process. Other participating countries include Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Cuba,Guatemala, Perú and Uruguay.

  16. TIDAL CYCLING DYNAMIC OF BIOGENIC GASES EMISSION: KEY SCIENTIFIC ISSUES AND UNCERTAINTY%生源气体排放的潮周期动态研究:关键科学问题与不确定性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王进欣; 王今殊; 钦佩; 张维康

    2011-01-01

    Biogenic gases emission is an important aspect of study on global C, N, S. and Cl cycles. It has been a main focus of global change ecology and biogeochemical cycle research. In this paper firstly type of biogenic gases and their environmental effects are introduced, then key scientific issues and uncertainty of study on tidal cycling dynamic of biogenic gases emission are reviewed, especially status and focus of future research in the fields of biogenic gases emission. Discussion of key scientific issues and uncertainty of study on tidal cycling dynamic of biogenic gases emission can help us better understand tides and control factors of the biogenic gases production, conversion, and migration interaction. It is more important to reveal interaction among C, N, S, and Cl in order to provide insight and theoretical founda-tion for alleviation of greenhouse effects.%生态系统生源气体排放是全球C、N、S和Cl循环研究的重要内容,是当前全球变化生态学和生物地球化学循环的研究热点和焦点.在介绍海岸带盐沼生态系统生源气体种类及其环境效应的的基础上,重点对潮汐循环对植物枯落物分解和土壤生源要素生态化学计量学特征的影响、潮汐循环影响下电子受体和盐分输入特征及其对生源气体排放的影响、潮汐循环影响下生源气体生产者生态生理特征和生产者贡献比率变化特征、潮汐循环影响下海岸带盐沼高等植物根际生理生态过程以及海岸带盐沼潮周期内生源气体通量特征及其相互关系等关键科学问题和这些问题研究中的不确定性进行了探讨.为揭示C、N、S和Cl元素之间的相互作用及平衡制约关系和为减缓温室效应提供新思路和理论依据具有重要的现实意义.

  17. The emergence of scientific management in America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sorin-George Toma

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available A scientific approach to management was initiated for the first time in America in the late 19th century. Scientific management arose mainly from the need to increase efficiency in America, but other key factors were the spread of big businesses and the expanding application of science in industry. The aims of our paper are to present the emergence of scientific management in America and to emphasize the contribution of some of the most representatives American authors to its development. The methodological approach is literature review. Our paper shows that scientific management was essentially an American achievement that provided useful lessons for the whole human society.

  18. 当代气候变化的主要特点、关键问题及应对策略%Major Characteristics,Key Issues and Coping Strategiesof Climate Change

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张强; 李裕; 陈丽华

    2011-01-01

    总结归纳了当代气候变化的主要特点和基本规律,并从能量角度分析了全球气候变化的原因和气候变暖的本质驱动力.同时,还提出了目前气候变暖中几个值得重点关注的问题,讨论了为何要更加重视气候变暖的不利影响及其不利影响的深刻性和广泛性,并从长远发展和短期现实角度对目前科学应对气候变暖做了一些初步思考.%Scientific literatures contain numerous descriptions of observed and potential effects of global climate change on natural environment and ecosystems. In response to anticipated effects of climate change,environmental conservation organizations and government agencies are taking actions to help human society and ecological systems to adopt to climate change. In the paper, main characteristics and main socio-economic driving forces of climate change are analyzed and key issues and adverse effects of climate warming are discussed. Lastly, the authors give some advices of adaptation to climate change not only for long-term development but also for short-term benefits.

  19. Study of key issues in the palace two-door chess game system%王宫双门棋博弈系统中的关键问题研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    裴生雷

    2012-01-01

    王宫双门棋作为一种藏区益智类游戏,其计算机博弈系统的研究还相对较少。本文主要对王宫双门棋计算机博弈系统中存在的几个关键问题进行探讨,包括不规则棋盘、走法产生和终局判断问题,形成基本的解决对策,这将有利于各类藏棋的保护性研究和进一步的软件开发。%The study of computer game system of the palace two-door chess as a Tibetan puzzle games is relatively less.In this arti- cle,the several key issues are discussed to the palace two-door game system,including the irregular checkerboard,the walking method generation and the final judgment,forming basic solutions which will be conducive to the protection of all kinds of Tibetan chess re- search and the further development of software.

  20. Research on the Key Issues of Tax Reform of Construction Industry%对建筑业“营改增”若干关键问题的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何广涛

    2015-01-01

    As the transformation pilot work from business tax to value added tax for the construction industry approaches,tax reform attracts more and more attention. Based on theoretical analysis of tax burden of business tax and value added tax,the paper indicates the factors which influence the tax burden of the construction industry,not only the tax rate,but also input tax rate and the proportion of deductible cost of sales excluding tax. Then discuss three key issues which influence tax reform,labor cost,concrete and the floor materials,material supplied by the owner. Finally, provides corresponding policy advice.%随着建筑业营业税改征增值税试点工作的临近,税改问题引起越来越多的关注。在对营业税和增值税税负进行理论分析的基础上,指出影响建筑业税负的因素除税率外,还包括进项税率以及可抵扣成本占不含税销售额的比例,进而提出影响建筑业税改的三个关键问题:人工成本、商混及地材、甲供材料。最后针对上述问题提出政策建议。

  1. Comment on Key Issues of Cataloging MARC for Authorized Photocopy Books in Western Language%授权影印西文图书MARC著录关键性问题点评

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓福泉

    2012-01-01

    Through commenting and analyzing key issues,we find that it is wrong to choose MARC format according to literature language and vice versa.It hasn't a leg to stand on the idea of enumerating reasons for choosing USMARC format.For authorized photocopy books in western language,the only correct way is cataloging according to books in western language and cataloging with CNMARC.%通过对各种关键性问题的点评分析发现,以编目文种选择MARC格式和以MARC格式选择编目文种的观点和做法都是错误的,而且为了选择USMARC著录所罗列的各种理由也都是站不住脚的。对授权影印西文图书来说,唯一正确的选择就是按西文图书编目,用CNMARC著录。

  2. Technical and socio-political issues in radioactive waste disposal 1986. Vol. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of the study was to provide an integrated technical and socio-political analysis of how six countries (Federal Republic of Germany, France, Sweden, Switzerland, United Kingdom and the United States of America) have responded to four key issues in radioactive waste management: a) What constitutes 'safe' or 'absolutely safe' disposal, b) site selection processes, c) timing and type of interim storage. (orig./HP)

  3. Building America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brad Oberg

    2010-12-31

    Builders generally use a 'spec and purchase' business management system (BMS) when implementing energy efficiency. A BMS is the overall operational and organizational systems and strategies that a builder uses to set up and run its company. This type of BMS treats building performance as a simple technology swap (e.g. a tank water heater to a tankless water heater) and typically compartmentalizes energy efficiency within one or two groups in the organization (e.g. purchasing and construction). While certain tools, such as details, checklists, and scopes of work, can assist builders in managing the quality of the construction of higher performance homes, they do nothing to address the underlying operational strategies and issues related to change management that builders face when they make high performance homes a core part of their mission. To achieve the systems integration necessary for attaining 40% + levels of energy efficiency, while capturing the cost tradeoffs, builders must use a 'systems approach' BMS, rather than a 'spec and purchase' BMS. The following attributes are inherent in a systems approach BMS; they are also generally seen in quality management systems (QMS), such as the National Housing Quality Certification program: Cultural and corporate alignment, Clear intent for quality and performance, Increased collaboration across internal and external teams, Better communication practices and systems, Disciplined approach to quality control, Measurement and verification of performance, Continuous feedback and improvement, and Whole house integrated design and specification.

  4. Lupus Foundation of America

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... You. Learn More About the Lupus Foundation of America We are devoted to solving the mystery of ... Support for Lupus Research The Lupus Foundation of America applauds the U.S. Senate Appropriations Committee for voting ...

  5. Sarcoma Foundation of America

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Mission The mission of the Sarcoma Foundation of America (SFA) is to advocate for sarcoma patients by ... behalf of everyone at the Sarcoma Foundation of America (SFA),THANK YOU! The Celebration of Life drew ...

  6. America's Blood Centers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or less. Please donate now! Full Stoplight Report America's Blood Centers is... FEATURED TODAY Support the Foundation ... purchase will be donated to the Foundation for America's Blood Centers! Simply Click Here! "We Are" This ...

  7. Key technologies and fundamental academic issues for traction battery systems%车用动力电池系统的关键技术与学科前沿

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张剑波; 卢兰光; 李哲

    2012-01-01

    车用动力电池系统在性能、成本、寿命、安全性上的局限是制约电动汽车走向普及的瓶颈。该文对42款电动汽车的动力电池系统进行了统计和分析。整理出并综述了四大关键技术:电池组配技术、热管理技术、电能管理技术、安全保障技术。提炼出这些关键技术的两个基础科学问题:1)多约束、多尺度产热积层体复合系统的产热、传热、散热规律;2)非线性、时变、非均一多个体混联电池系统的建模、辨识及控制理论。展望了车用电池系统的智能化、网络化趋势。%The limitation of traction battery systems in performance, cost, life, and safety constitutes the bottleneck for the diffusion of electric vehicles. This paper analyzes dozens of electric vehicles in the phase of R & D and several major commercialized electric vehicles, identifies and reviews four key technologies for the traction battery system, the assembly of cells into the battery, thermal management, electric energy management, and safety. Underlying these key technologies two fundamental academic issues are specified: 1) the generation, transfer, and removal of heat in the stacked composite system comprising cells and heat conduction plates/flow fields; 2) the modeling, identification, and control of the battery system comprising a multitude of non-linear, time-varying cells connected in parallel and series. Further development tendency for traction battery systems are viewed, such as the smart cell and the integration with the grid and internet.

  8. PHEV电动轿车动力系统配置的关键问题与优化设计%Key Issues and Optimization Design of PHEV City Car Power System Configuration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李玉芳; 吴炎花

    2012-01-01

    插电式混合动力汽车(Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles,PHEV)被认为是电动汽车在目前动力电池瓶颈状态下最具发展潜力的混合驱动型式,而成本控制是其发展的关键.以减小PHEV动力系统尺寸、实现有效成本控制为目的,对影响PHEV动力系统配置的关键问题进行了系统分析,提出动力系统有限分级配置方法以及设计目标和边界条件的确定依据;搭建以设计目标和边界务件为输入、以获取满足条件的最小化PHEV动力系统设置为目标的优化选型平台;基于此平台对国内一线城市某PHEV进行动力系统设计和仿真验算,结果验证了系统配置的合理性和优化平台的有效性.%Plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) is considered to be the most promising hybrid driving type of electric vehicles while power battery being in the current bottleneck state, and cost control is the key to its development. For reducing the size of PHEV power system and realizing effective cost control, key issues influencing PHEV power-train configuration are studied systematically. The classification of PHEV power-train configuration and the deterministic bases for the boundary conditions and design goals are proposed. And the optimization platform to obtain the minimum PHEV power-train system is built taking the design objectives and boundary conditions as the input variables. And based on this platform , the power-train of PHEV .used in the first-tier cities in China is designed and simulated, the results validate the rationality of the system configuration and optimization platform effectiveness.

  9. 新型电动汽车电力活塞式电动机工作机理及关键问题综述%Reviews on Working Mechanism and Key Issues in Electromagnetic Piston Motor of Electric Vehicles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    鹿麟祥; 赵景波; 贝绍轶; 倪彰

    2015-01-01

    With the increasing prominence of the transportation energy and environment issue,electric vehicles had replaced the traditional internal combustion engine and become an inevitable choice of the modern auto in-dustry. The paper introduced the application status and development of EV driven motor;a new EV electro-magnetic piston motor that adopts electromagnetic conversion and magnetic interaction to drive magnetic pis-ton based on the conventional engines,and EV driven motor and magnetic suspension. The typical structure and working principle of electromagnetic piston motor is emphatically discussed;at the end,the key problem in the study of electromagnetic piston motor is elaborated in detail,providing some important reference value for the future analysis of electromagnetic piston motor.%交通能源与环境问题的日益突出使得电动汽车代替传统内燃机汽车成为现代汽车产业的关注的焦点.对电动汽车驱动电机发展应用现状进行了介绍;基于传统发动机、电动汽车电机和磁悬浮提出一种采用电磁转换和磁极间相互作用驱动永磁体活塞做功的新型电动汽车电力活塞式电动机,重点介绍了电力活塞式电动机的典型结构和工作原理;最后,阐述了电力活塞式电动机研究中的关键问题.对下一步电力活塞式电动机的研究分析具有重要的参考价值.

  10. Undergrounding issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As part of a general review of British Columbia Hydro's rights-of-way policies, a task group was formed to explore and assess the technical, social, environmental, and economic issues related to the provision of suitable underground rights-of-way for distribution and transmission lines. Issues considered were: evaluations of undergrounding; designation of service areas as underground areas; the BC Hydro fund to assist municipalities in beautifying selected areas by placing existing overhead lines underground; community funding of undergrounding; underground options to transmission and distribution requirements; and long-range underground row planning. Key findings are as follows. Undergrounding is technically feasible and available for all BC Hydro operating voltages, but initial construction costs of undergrounding continue to exceed equivalent overhead by a significant margin. Undergrounding can contribute to the optimization of existing rights-of-way. Public safety is improved with undergrounding and long-term benefits to BC Hydro and society are provided by undergrounding, compared to overhead options. Customers have shown some willingness to contribute to the cost of undergrounding, and it is generally agreed that those communities that want undergrounding should pay for it. Policy recommendations are made under each of the issue areas, and justifications for the recommendations are given along with implementation costs and alternative options

  11. Energy market integration in South America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article is a summary of presentations made during the 1997 Winter Meeting panel session on Power and Natural Gas in Latin America: Towards an Integrated Market. Reregulation and demand for energy resources to support economic growth are driving international natural gas and electricity exchange initiatives. Panelists focused on the gas and electric power industry in Latin America in terms of the: transport of gas or transmission of electricity; energy market integration in the southern cone of South America; and issues on gas use for electricity generation in South America countries. Countries such as Argentina, Bolivia, and Peru will export natural gas to Brazil, Uruguay, Paraguay and Chile, an the energy matrices of these countries will change

  12. Preparing Teachers for Inclusive Education in Latin America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaillant, Denise

    2011-01-01

    This article analyzes the current challenges facing inclusive education in Latin America and explores some possible solutions. The author suggests that teachers play a key role in providing education that is inclusive for all. In Latin America, today, however, inclusive education often does not respond to the needs of children and young people,…

  13. Techniques for Submitting Successful Proposals for SHAPE America National Conventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens-Smith, Deborah

    2016-01-01

    This article covers the basic components of the submission process before submitting a proposal for the SHAPE America national convention. The article discusses various techniques specific to the process, including the unique discipline areas. Other issues addressed include an understanding of the SHAPE America review process and how it works,…

  14. 对全球可持续发展目标制定中有关问题的思考%An Analysis on Key Issues in Developing Sustainable Development Goals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙新章; 张新民; 夏成

    2012-01-01

    “里约+20”启动的全球可持续发展目标(SDGs)关系到未来全球发展规则的制定.在对SDGs的提出背景进行全面回顾基础上,就其制定中的若干问题进行了分析.文章认为:①SDGs应重点关注四大问题,即全球发展的不平衡和不公平性、人口快速增长以及老龄化和城市化加速、人类活动持续超过全球承载能力、全球可持续发展治理机制的不完善;②在SDGs制定中,两大阵营的斗争将持续,但其利益共同点也在增加,最终可能是重点面向2030年设定一系列具有政治意义的目标;③SDGs将为我国加快绿色转型创造机遇,与此同时,实现SDGs过程中我国也将承受更多的国际压力;④我国参与SDGs进程应坚持4点原则,即在总体目标设置方面强调三大支柱的协调性,在目标的约束性方面强调指导性和参考性,在实现目标的时间方面强调预留充足转型期的重要性,在执行手段方面强调在“共同但有区别的责任”原则指导下强化国际合作的迫切性.%To develop Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) which was initiated at Rio + 20 will obviously impact the shaping post-2015 global development rules. Based on a systematic review on the background of initiating the process of developing SDGs, the paper analyzed some issues of the development of SDGs. The authors think that ①SDGs should focus on four key issues, namely unbalanced and unfair of global development, rapid growth of global population and accelerating of aging and urbanization, continually overloading of global ecosystem, and imperfect of global sustainable development governance mechanism; ② the common benefits between developed and developing countries will increase although continuing struggle is inevitable during the process, and the eventually outcome of SDGs is probably to set a set of goals which only have politically significant and mainly aimed at 2030; ③ there will be more opportunities for

  15. A Key Issue in China's Sustainable Development—Land Finance%当前城市建设中的关键问题——土地财政

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈秉钊

    2012-01-01

    The Chinese State Council has issued a series of policy documents to cool the real estate market, but the effect was quite limited. The latest measures include using administration order to restrict home purchase. The primary reason for the failure of controlling the real estate market is the government' s dependence on land for public finance. Real estate industries consume large quantities of land, steel, aluminum, cement, ceramic products and many other resources. When housing has become speculative or luxurious goods rather than necessities,, real estate is nothing but "three high industries" (high energy consumption, high waste discharge and high pollution). The key to achieve sustainable development goals is to reduce the local governments' dependence on land for finance. Switching to property tax is an important step. However, current pilot programs have many pitfalls and are blunt tools to correct existing problems.%中央接二连三发文调控房地产市场,但均无果而终.最后不得动用行政手段:限购令.但这种用行政手段干预市场的办法只能是应急的措施.房地产市场失控,根本在于地方政府对土地财政的依赖,这个关键问题没有解决,不仅房地产市场难步入正轨,中国的绿色发展也难行.房地产业耗用大量土地,消耗钢材、铝材、水泥、陶瓷…….一旦房地产业背离了民生的本质,成为投资标的物与奢侈品,住房标准严重脱离国情,非理性的住房消费,房地产业则蜕变为高耗能、高排放、高污染的“三高”产业.唯使地方政府摆脱土地财政的依赖,才抓住绿色发展的关键.开征房产税是重要手段,然试行的房产税存在严重误区,有使利器失效之危险.

  16. Research Universities and the Future of America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duderstadt, James J.

    2012-01-01

    The crucial importance of the research university as a key asset in achieving economic prosperity and security is widely understood, as evidenced by the efforts that nations around the globe are making to create and sustain institutions of world-class quality. Yet, while America's research universities remain the strongest in the world, they are…

  17. 2013 Building America Research Planning Meeting Summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Metzger, C. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Hunt, S. [Confluence Communications, Missoula, MT (united States)

    2014-02-01

    The Building America Research Planning Meeting was held October 28-30, 2013, in Washington, DC. This meeting provides one opportunity each year for the research teams, national laboratories and Department of Energy (DOE) managers to meet in person to share the most pertinent information and collaboration updates. This report documents the presentations, highlights key program updates, and outlines next steps for the program.

  18. Looking Past the Spin: Teach for America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miner, Barbara

    2010-01-01

    Teach for America (TFA) is perceived as a major player in the education wars over the future of public schools, and a key ally of those who disparage teacher unions and schools of education, and who are enamored of entrepreneurial reforms that bolster the privatization of a once-sacred public responsibility. But what exactly is TFA's role in these…

  19. Micro Insurance Matters in Latin America

    OpenAIRE

    Goldberg , Mike; Ramanathan, C S

    2008-01-01

    This note discusses the rapidly evolving issue of micro insurance in Latin America and how microfinance institutions (MFIs), insurance companies and donors can respond to its challenges. This note is part of a series summarizing the Department of International Development-Latin American Markets and International Trade Program (DFID-LAMIT) eight-part distance learning program with South Ame...

  20. Science Editing in America: An Overview

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Barbara Gastel

    2003-01-01

    @@ In America, science editing appears to be an increasingly recognized field. In what settings do American science editors work, and what kinds of work do they do ? What is their educational background? What style manuals and other resources do they use? What organizations serve them? What topics and issues do they find of professional interest?

  1. NAGRADATA. Code key. Geology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This reference manual provides users of the NAGRADATA system with comprehensive keys to the coding/decoding of geological and technical information to be stored in or retreaved from the databank. Emphasis has been placed on input data coding. When data is retreaved the translation into plain language of stored coded information is done automatically by computer. Three keys each, list the complete set of currently defined codes for the NAGRADATA system, namely codes with appropriate definitions, arranged: 1. according to subject matter (thematically) 2. the codes listed alphabetically and 3. the definitions listed alphabetically. Additional explanation is provided for the proper application of the codes and the logic behind the creation of new codes to be used within the NAGRADATA system. NAGRADATA makes use of codes instead of plain language for data storage; this offers the following advantages: speed of data processing, mainly data retrieval, economies of storage memory requirements, the standardisation of terminology. The nature of this thesaurian type 'key to codes' makes it impossible to either establish a final form or to cover the entire spectrum of requirements. Therefore, this first issue of codes to NAGRADATA must be considered to represent the current state of progress of a living system and future editions will be issued in a loose leave ringbook system which can be updated by an organised (updating) service. (author)

  2. Identification of research needs for quantification of nutrient dynamics in integrated crop/livestock systems in East Asia and Latin America with a focus on conservation and sustainability issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Between 1979/81 and 1999 livestock numbers increased throughout S.E. Asia and Tropical America despite the increasing human population density in these regions Indonesia, Myanmar and Thailand dominate the large ruminant population in S.E. Asia. . The large ruminant population in these countries is dwarfed by that in China. In tropical America Brazil, Colombia and Venezuela have the largest large ruminant populations . In S.E. Asia, between 1979/81 and 1999, cattle numbers increased by 91% but buffalo numbers decreased by 3%. The cattle population in Tropical America has increased by 19%. The largest small ruminant population in S. E. Asia occurs in Indonesia and, in Tropical America, in Brazil and Mexico. There has been a very significant (90%) increase in small ruminants in S.E. Asia. The major needs of the largely cut and carry systems used in much of S E Asia and Africa is to provide a year-round supply of high quality forages to supplement low quality crop residues and forages cut from roadsides and wastelands. Because of the reluctance of farmers to fertilise forages in these systems it is an imperative that the flow of nutrients from the soil to the plant and then to the animal be as efficient as possible. In the past legumes, particularly tree and shrub legumes, have been the preferred supplementary forage supply but as systems become more intensive increased attention needs to be paid to N fertilised grasses and direct supplementation of animals with N, P, and other nutrients. The research to be undertaken needs to trace the flow and balance of nutrients (particularly N,P,K,S,Zn and C) through the plant production cycle, particularly the recycling of nutrients when associated with carbon in crop residues and specialist supplementary fodder crops. Studies are also needed on the efficiency of animal feeding and nutrient utilisation, especially in the re- utilisation of manure, urine and bedding material in subsequent crop production. Additional research is

  3. 48 CFR 47.403 - Guidelines for implementation of the Fly America Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... implementation of the Fly America Act. 47.403 Section 47.403 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL... Guidelines for implementation of the Fly America Act. This section 47.403 is based on the Guidelines for Implementation of the Fly America Act (case number B-138942), issued by the Comptroller General of the...

  4. Building America Top Innovations 2012: Moisture and Ventilation Solutions in Hot, Humid Climates: Florida Manufactured Housing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2013-01-01

    This Building America Top Innovations profile describes work by Building America researchers who visited 24 manufactured home factories between 1996 and 2003 to investigate moisture problems while improving energy efficiency and identified insufficient air sealing and poor HVAC installation as the biggest culprits. One manufacturer reported zero moisture-related issues in 35,000 homes built after implementing Building America recommendations.

  5. Polycentric Metropolitan Form: Application of a ‘Northern’ Concept in Latin America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arie Romein

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Since the mid 20th century, large urban areas in advanced economies have experienced a fundamental transformation from relatively compact monocentric cities towards more extended polycentric metropolitan areas. By now, it is being commented repeatedly, but not investigated systematically that the concept of polycentricity is also adequate to characterise recent metropolitan dynamics in Latin-America.This paper aims to present a few key-issues for a future research agenda into polycentricity in Latin-American metropolitan areas. These elements are identified from a review of existing literature. Since no clear-cut definition and operationalisation of polycentricity exist yet, we distinguish some key-elements of this phenomenon in North America as a frame of reference for this review. It reveals that ‘polycentricity U.S. style’ is at best dawning in Latin-America. In order to achieve a more appropriate picture of polycentricity of Latin American metropolitan areas, our ideas for a research agenda take into account these areas typical economic, social and spatial conditions.

  6. Key issues in highly efficient p erovskite solar cells%高效率钙钛矿太阳电池发展中的关键问题∗

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨旭东; 陈汉; 毕恩兵; 韩礼元

    2015-01-01

    Preparation of Perovskite solar cell, an emerging low-cost photovoltaic technology in rapid development, has provided a ray of hope to solve the energy problem. However, its low reproducibility and stability limit the wide application of this potential technology. In this review, we summarize the recent progress with a focused discussion on some key issues in the development of perovskite solar cells. Starting from the analysis of basic structure and working principles, we first discuss the perovskite-based light harvesting layer and the general strategy to control its spectrum response. We also demonstrate the effect of film morphology on the device performance and the reproducibility which requires very uniform thin films. Then we discuss the major function of electron transporting layer and hole blocking layer, and point out the importance of compact hole blocking layer with less nano-scaled pinholes. For the hole transporting layer, we focus the discussion on the stability problem induced by widely used dopants that can improve the hole conductivity in the hole transporting layer while the dopants’ deliquescent behavior also can induce the decomposition of perovskite-based light harvesting layer with a rapid degradation of the whole device. The potential approaches to solve this stability problem, such as using a dopant-free hole transporting material or making device without any hole transporting materials, are also discussed. Finally, we are in prospect of overcoming the main challenges in the future research for high performance perovskite solar cells.%钙钛矿太阳电池的迅速发展为解决未来能源问题带来一线曙光。但是,钙钛矿太阳电池在高效率电池器件的可重现性、稳定性以及性能评估等方面还面临着很多问题,严重制约其今后的发展。本文综述了钙钛矿太阳电池面世以来发生的重要进展,以及存在的几个关键性问题。从器件基本结构和基本工作原理出

  7. Schooling in Capitalist America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, David K.; And Others

    1977-01-01

    The symposium transcript presents and discusses commentaries on "Schooling in Capitalist America," by Sam Bowles and Herbert Gintis. The transcript serves three functions: (1) it offers a comprehensive account of the role of schools in America; (2) critiques efforts to reform schools; and (3) suggests alternative visions of how school reform…

  8. World review: Latin America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The article gives information on contracts announced (and to whom) throughout Latin America in all aspects of the petroleum, natural gas and petrochemicals industries. Countries specifically mentioned are Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Mexico, Trinidad and Venezuela. The future for the oil industry in Latin America is viewed as 'highly prospective'

  9. The Regulation of Biosimilars in Latin America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Ricardo; Araujo, Denizar Vianna

    2016-03-01

    This article summarizes the regulatory scenario on biological medications in Latin America focusing on comparability studies, extrapolation of indications, interchangeability and pharmacovigilance issues. In the case of comparability studies, what is being discussed is the possibility of decreasing the clinical trials requirement, but that the molecule should be well characterized in the studies of pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics. With the worldwide-level approval of the first monoclonal antibody biosimilar, infliximab, extrapolation of indications are being discussed, since the behavior of the Latin America regulatory agencies has been different with regard to such issue. Another issue discussed by the regulatory agencies is the interchangeability between biological medications and their biosimilars, mainly due to the fact that there is a clear confusion on interchangeability and substitution concepts. Finally, the pharmacovigilance debate, according to what takes place globally, is related to the need for identifying and differentiating the reference biological medication and its biosimilars for traceability purposes. PMID:26951254

  10. Key to the adults of the most common forensic species of Diptera in South America Chave de identificação para as espécies comuns de Diptera da América do Sul de interesse forense

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio José Barros de Carvalho

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Flies (Diptera, blow flies, house flies, flesh flies, horse flies, cattle flies, deer flies, midges and mosquitoes are among the four megadiverse insect orders. Several species quickly colonize human cadavers and are potentially useful in forensic studies. One of the major problems with carrion fly identification is the lack of taxonomists or available keys that can identify even the most common species sometimes resulting in erroneous identification. Here we present a key to the adults of 12 families of Diptera whose species are found on carrion, including human corpses. Also, a summary for the most common families of forensic importance in South America, along with a key to the most common species of Calliphoridae, Muscidae, and Fanniidae and to the genera of Sarcophagidae are provided. Drawings of the most important characters for identification are also included.Diptera (califorídeos, sarcofagídeos, motucas, moscas comuns e mosquitos é a uma das quatro ordens megadiversas de insetos. Diversas espécies desta ordem podem rapidamente colonizar cadáveres humanos e são de utilidade potencial para estudos de entomologia forense. Um dos maiores problemas com moscas que visitam matéria orgânica animal em decomposição é a falta de taxonomistas ou chaves de identificação disponíveis que possam identificar as espécies mais comuns ou mesmo, algumas vezes podendo resultar em identificações errôneas. Neste artigo é apresentada uma chave para adultos de 12 famílias de Diptera com espécies encontradas em matéria orgânica animal em decomposição, incluindo cadáveres humanos. Também é incluído um sumário das mais importantes famílias com espécies de interesse forense na América do Sul e chave de identificação das espécies mais comuns de Calliphoridae, Muscidae e Fanniidae e dos gêneros de Sarcophagidae. Esquemas dos mais importantes caracteres utilizados para identificação dessas espécies são também incluídos.

  11. Energy and environmental issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper provides an overview of the current energy-environmental issues. Firstly, the environmental problems associated with energy production and use are briefly described. Secondly, the paper reviews the availability of technological solutions to environmental problems, focussing particularly on atmospheric emission control. Finally, it moves on to look at recent policy developments in some parts of the world. Since the paper is written from the perspective of an industrialized country, emerging policy issues in Europe, Japan, and North America receive the greatest attention, with a particular focus on Europe where greenhouse gases and the proposed carbon tax have received a particularly high priority. The paper concludes with a discussion of some of the issues arising from the 1992 UNCED (UN Conference on Environment and Development) and implications for the diffusion of cleaner technologies from North to South. (author). 36 refs

  12. Regulatory and legal issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This chapter focuses on the legal issues relating to the derivatives market in the USA, and analyses the Commodity Futures Trading Commission's (CFTCs) information on swaps and hybrid instruments. The law and regulation in the USA is examined and the jurisdictional reach of the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC), CFTC, and the Commodity Exchange Act (CEA) is described. The forward contract exclusion and the case of Transnor (Bermuda) Ltd. versus BP North America Petroleum, state laws, swap policy statement issues by the CFTC, the Futures Trading Practices Act of 1992, swaps exemptions, the exemption of hybrid instruments from the CEA, and energy contract exemption are discussed. Enforceability, derivatives, and issues before regulators are considered

  13. Diferencias culturales en el mundo global: cuestiones irresueltas para los pueblos indígenas de América Latina Cultural differences in the global world: unresolved issues for indigenous people from Latin America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Isabel González Terreros

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available El mundo, y en particular América Latina, vive procesos de tensión y disputa cultural, producto del conflicto que se presenta ante la globalización, la cual plantea perspectivas y políticas universales, y las manifestaciones de comunidades indígenas que reclaman el reconocimiento de la diferencia y el derecho a la identidad. En tal sentido, este artículo pretende analizar diferentes tensiones en las cuales se encuentran los pueblos indígenas en el contexto de la globalización. Tensiones que tienen que ver con las políticas internacionales y nacionales que cobijan a los pueblos indígenas, las manifestaciones y los reclamos de los movimientos indígenas por el reconocimiento de su identidad cultural y la tensión en que se encuentra la identidad colectiva en medio del mundo globalizado.The world, particularly Latin America, is living several cultural processes of tension and dispute, which are the result of the conflict between globalization (that implies universal perspectives and policies, and the claims of indigenous communities which seek to achieve recognition of their differences and the right to their own identities. In this sense, the present paper aims to analyze the different tensions in which indigenous people are immersed, in the context of globalization. These tensions are related, first, to international and national policies that encompass indigenous people; secondly, to manifestations and demands of indigenous movements for the recognition of their cultural identity; and finally, to the tension itself in which collective identity is involved, in the context of a globalized world.

  14. Prevent Child Abuse America

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... call the police . Crisis and support contacts For Child Abuse Reporting Numbers in your State please visit: Child ... suspected child abuse and neglect. Parent Resources Prevent Child Abuse America (800) CHILDREN A resource for tips, referrals, ...

  15. Donate Life America

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Us News You Have the Power to Donate Life. Register as an Organ, Eye and Tissue Donor ... reach 30K milestone, thanks to increased donations Donate Life America Announces 2015 James S. Wolf, M.D., Courage ...

  16. Immigrant America: A Portrait

    OpenAIRE

    Rumbaut, RG; Portes, A.

    2014-01-01

    This revised, updated, and expanded fourth edition of Immigrant America: A Portrait provides readers with a comprehensive and current overview of immigration to the United States in a single volume. Updated with the latest available data, Immigrant America explores the economic, political, spatial, and linguistic aspects of immigration; the role of religion in the acculturation and social integration of foreign minorities; and the adaptation process for the second generation. This revised ed...

  17. Overview, conclusions, and key recommendations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Loeber; D.P. Farrington; J.C. Howell; M. Hoeve

    2012-01-01

    Section I of this chapter summarizes the most important points of Chapters 2 to 5 and relevant portions of Chapter 10 (which concerns European issues) by addressing key findings that are relevant for juveniles’ transition of offending from adolescence (up to age 18) into adulthood. Section I focuses

  18. Key Issues Related to Geo-engineering as Approaches to Climate Change Mitigation%“地球工程”作为减缓气候变化手段的几个关键问题

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘家华

    2012-01-01

    Climate change mitigation can be implemented through the approach of engineering technologies at a large geographic scale. Geo-engineering refers to, in the large Earth yardstick or scale, all kinds of artificial approaches of engineering technologies in temperature reduction by removing CO2 in the atmosphere or directly controlling solar radiation, instead of emission reductions related to production and consumption of energy, and to the management of industrial production process. It is mainly classified into three big categories; approach of green biological technology, carbon capture and storage, and control and management technology of solar radiation. This kind of geo-engineering approach has a series of implications in economy, technology, environment, ethics, security, and uncertainty. The present paper makes an analysis and conducts a discussion on several recent international key issues of the possible technological options for mitigation of climate change, involving definitions of concept, technological features, possible effects and governance framework, etc.. The author argues that geo-engineering approach directly acting on carbon, such as biological sinks and carbon capture and storage technologies, are assessed with relatively low risk and high level of control. Through temperature reduction effects by artificially emitting SO, into the atmosphere and aerosols, solar radiation management technology is used to control the rise of the Earth's temperature, which, though having not a high economic cost of use but practical maneuverability, has huge uncertainty and possible implication of security, needing enough attention. Ethically, there are disputes over whether or not the contemporary people have the right to carry on geo-engineering of solar radiation management technology with such huge scientific uncertainty, and in such scientific uncertainty, to take any action will lose the ethnic basis. Legally, human intervention in solar radiation, even

  19. Focus Issue on surface plasmon photonics introduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Levy, Uriel; Berini, Pierre; Maier, Stefan A.;

    2015-01-01

    Focus Issue collects 23 papers related to research presented at SPP7. While this number is small compared to the total number of papers presented at the conference, the issue is representative and provides a good overview of the field at this point in time. (C) 2015 Optical Society of America...

  20. Hungary; Selected Issues

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    2003-01-01

    This Selected Issues paper examines the external sector issues in Hungary. It looks at some traditional indicators of external competitiveness, and provides basic background on key macroeconomic developments, including the current account and its financing. The paper examines various measures of the real effective exchange rate, the labor market considerations, and actual export performance. The paper concludes that although external competitiveness of the Hungarian economy has not been perma...

  1. Energy sector developments in Central America and the Caribbean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Energy sector developments in Central America and the Caribbean were discussed. Central America is composed of six small countries whose total population is 32 million. The Caribbean population is 20.5 million. Central America is generally poor in hydrocarbon reserves but the geological prospects in several of the countries are encouraging. The oil and petroleum products supply and demand picture, the main characteristics of the hydrocarbon market, structure of the oil industry, hydrocarbon market reforms, pricing issues and recent trend towards reforms in the electric power industry in Central America were discussed. An overview of the Inter-American Development Bank's (IDB) effort to provide technical assistance and loans to strengthen the energy sector development in Central America and the Caribbean was also given. 17 refs., 2 tabs., 23 figs

  2. 2013 Building America Research Planning Meeting Summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Metzger, C. E.; Hunt, S.

    2014-02-01

    The Building America (BA) Research Planning Meeting was held October 28-30, 2013, in Washington, DC. This meeting provides one opportunity each year for the research teams, national laboratories and Department of Energy (DOE) managers to meet in person to share the most pertinent information and collaboration updates. This report documents the presentations, highlights key program updates, and outlines next steps for the program.

  3. Irrigation Water Management in Latin America

    OpenAIRE

    Aureo S. de Oliveira; Ricardo Trezza; Eduardo Holzapfel; Ignacio Lorite; Vital Pedro S Paz

    2009-01-01

    Latin American countries show a great potential for expanding their irrigated areas. Irrigation is important for strengthening local and regional economy and for enhancing food security. The present paper aimed at providing a brief review on key aspects of irrigation management in Latin America. Poor irrigation management can have great impact on crop production and on environment while good management reduces the waste of soil and water and help farmers maximizing their profits. It was found...

  4. Emotional Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home / Care for Duchenne / Emotional Issues Print Email Emotional Issues Duchenne’s emotional toll on a child can manifest in a ... important things you can provide to ensure the emotional health of your child. Parents of a child ...

  5. Super Debt: Managing America's Balance of Payments

    OpenAIRE

    Cohen, Benjamin J

    2005-01-01

    The second Bush Administration will face many demanding challenges in foreign economic policy – the Doha Round of multilateral trade talks, regional and bilateral trade negotiations, poor-country debt problems, rising energy prices, the competitive threat of China, and more. But most demanding of all will be the critical issue of America's balance of payments. Persistent external deficits have led to an unprecedented growth of foreign debt for the United States, now in excess of $3 trillion...

  6. Deforestation and Property Rights in Latin America

    OpenAIRE

    Carlos Felipe Jaramillo; Thomas Kelly

    1997-01-01

    This paper analyzes the property rights/deforestation linkage in Latin America. The analysis recognizes two separate areas where tenure issues have an effect on land clearing pressures. The first deals with the security of individual property rights on established agricultural lands and their effects on agricultural production and employment. The second involves tenurial arrangements on forested areas and their impact on the sustainable management of resources. The analysis concludes that str...

  7. Opportunities and challenges in developing gas markets in South America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duarte, Cristiano Boaventura [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The article has the objective of identifying and analyzing the key market levers and drivers, emerging issues and challenges in developing the gas markets in South America. In section 1, the paper provides an overview of the most relevant indicators in the natural gas markets of the region. Data such as natural gas proven reserves; production; consumption; trade movements (by pipeline and LNG) and main aspects of regulatory framework are shown. In section 2, some of the key challenges and opportunities in developing gas markets in the region are identified, including those relating to market integration, political aspects and the main players' investments. In section 3, possible strategies from governments and enterprises to overcome those challenges, and seize the potential opportunities of the region are examined. In section 4, the conclusions point to the potential of developing the gas markets as a means to diversify the energy sources in the region, fostering a successful process of economic growth and political integration in the area. (author)

  8. A novel key management scheme using biometrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sui, Yan; Yang, Kai; Du, Yingzi; Orr, Scott; Zou, Xukai

    2010-04-01

    Key management is one of the most important issues in cryptographic systems. Several important challenges in such a context are represented by secure and efficient key generation, key distribution, as well as key revocation. Addressing such challenges requires a comprehensive solution which is robust, secure and efficient. Compared to traditional key management schemes, key management using biometrics requires the presence of the user, which can reduce fraud and protect the key better. In this paper, we propose a novel key management scheme using iris based biometrics. Our newly proposed scheme outperforms traditional key management schemes as well as some existing key-binding biometric schemes in terms of security, diversity and/or efficiency.

  9. Electricity generation in Latin America: sector reform and privatization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurtz, D. [Datamonitor Group (United Kingdom)

    1995-12-31

    The report gives an overview of the key trends and issues in the Latin American electricity generation industry and provides an analysis of the generation of electricity from fuel source to power distribution. It assesses the risks and highlights the numerous opportunities in this market. Issues covered include: the relationship between electricity demand and factors such as economic growth and urbanisation; the resources available within the region and its level of self-sufficiency in fuels; the sources of financing and private sector investment; the different rates at which states are privatising their electricity sector; the environmental impact of each generating method and the strategies for minimising further damage; forecasts of electricity sector growth in Latin America over the next 15 years. Profiles for each of 21 countries give: an overview of each country`s electricity supply and demand, privatisation plans and the companies involved in the electricity sector; individual company shares of electricity generation and types of fuels used; past, present and future sources of supply; types of transmission lines and grid systems; industrial, commercial and domestic demand statistics; a description of government attitudes to privatisation, market access to competition and the climate for foreign investment; future investment details, including expansion plans and projected capacities, as well as concessions to bid. 25 figs., 40 tabs.

  10. Credit Rating and Capital Structure: Evidence from Latin America

    OpenAIRE

    Dany Rogers; Wesley Mendes-da-Silva; Henrique Dantas Neder; Pablo Rogers Silva

    2013-01-01

    This paper aims to analyze the impact of reclassifications trends in credit rating decisions in capital structure of listed non-financial companies in Latin America. To verify both the existence of this association were employed data belonging to all non-financial companies listed in Latin America, possessing ratings issued by the three major international ratings agencies international (i.e. Standard & Poor's, Moody's and Fitch) in January, 2010. When considering data for the period 2001-201...

  11. Analysis on Hot Issues of International Leisure Sports---Based on the Key Words%国际休闲体育研究热点问题分析--基于高频关键词

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高明; 韩尚洁; 段卉; 邱军

    2016-01-01

    take science measurement and keyword co-oc-currence analysis for 1664 leisure sports research literatures which selected form Web of Science core data-base collection of the three sub-libraries “SCI-EXPAND-ED、SSCI、A&HCI” included in 2005 2014,Explore the international leisure sports research survey and research focus. Analysis showed that:international leisure sports re-search at this stage mainly in North America and Europe and other developed economies; multi-disciplinary research in public health and sports science to build a leisure sports multi-faceted research system; research focus mainly on health, obesity, risk factors, mortality, as well as the effect of leisure sports on some chronic disea-ses,the main object of attention on the women,adults and children. Multidisciplinary research occupies an important position in leisure sports,influential research results con-tinue to emerged, expanding research focus of leisure sports become the driving force of evolution, it improved the vigorous development of leisure sports, and access to the various concerns.%通过对Web of Science数据库核心合集三大子库“SCI-EXPANDED、SSCI、A&HCI”收录的20052014年关于休闲体育研究的1664篇文献进行科学计量与关键词共现分析,探索国际休闲体育研究概况和研究热点。分析表明:现阶段国际休闲体育研究力量主要集中在北美和欧洲等经济发达国家;以公共卫生与健康、体育科学等多学科研究构建了休闲体育研究中的多方位研究体系;研究热点主要集中于健康、肥胖、风险因素、死亡、以及休闲体育活动对部分慢性病的影响;主要关注对象为妇女、成人及儿童。多学科研究在休闲体育研究中占有重要的地位,有影响力研究成果的不断涌现、研究热点的不断拓展成为休闲体育研究演进的动力,推进休闲体育的蓬勃发展,并获得了多方面的关注。

  12. Critical Review of East Asia – South America Trade

    OpenAIRE

    Hamanaka, Shintaro; Tafgar, Aiken

    2013-01-01

    There is a general consensus that trade between East Asia and South America is becoming increasingly important. However, we know little about the actual dynamic development of this inter-regional trade. This paper examines whether the trend of East Asia–South America trade is a general phenomena or a country- and commodity-specific issue, and whether the increase in trade values has a solid basis in terms of commodity diversification and/or price and quantity effects. While South America has ...

  13. Environmental issues, interdisciplinarity, social theory and intellectual production in Latin America Tópicos ambientais, interdisciplinaridade, teoria social e produção intelectual na América Latina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila da Costa Ferreira

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available While dealing with both interdisciplinarity and environment and society area as fields that harbor scientific contentions regarding ideas, practices, institutions and habitus (Bourdieu, this paper aims at providing an account of the multifaceted processes implied in the institutionalization of environmental concerns in Latin-American academia and research centers. The paper discusses the extent to which one can legitimately talk about "a Latin- American scientific specificity", supposedly resulting from peculiar theoretical approaches or even from particular socio-environmental features (such as widespread poverty and high rates of social inequality, along with unparalleled levels of biodiversity. Last but not least, the paper seeks to draw a sort of thematic map (via bibliographical review as well as a consideration of the levels of scientific institutionalization of environmental issues in six different research centers located in Argentina, Chile, Mexico, Uruguay and Brazil.Ao tratar a interdisciplinaridade e a área de ambiente e sociedade enquanto campos que lidam com questões científicas relacionadas com idéias, práticas, instituições e habitus (Bourdieu, esse artigo pretende contribuir para a compreensão dos processos multifacetados implicados na institucionalização da questão ambiental na academia e centros de pesquisa latino-americanos. O texto discute em que medida pode-se legitimamente falar de uma "especificidade científica latino-americana", supostamente resultante de abordagens teóricas peculiares ou mesmo de situações sócio-ambientais particulares (como pobreza e altas taxas de desigualdade, junto a incomparáveis índices de biodiversidade. Por último, mas também importante, o texto pretende trazer um panorama temático (através da revisão bibliográfica assim como apontar os níveis de institucionalização científica da área ambiental em seis centros de pesquisa localizados na Argentina, Chile, M

  14. Solar America Cities Awards: Solar America Initiative Fact Sheet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2008-03-01

    This fact sheet provides an overview of the Solar America Cities activities within the Solar America Initiative and lists the 25 cities that have received financial awards from the U.S. Department of Energy.

  15. Boys & Girls Clubs of America

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Group Teams Up With Boys & Girls Clubs of America to Support Young Alumni Through New Program Engaging ... million national partnership MORE» Boys & Girls Clubs of America Inducts Top Entertainers, Athletes and Business Leaders into ...

  16. Economic integration in the Americas

    OpenAIRE

    1997-01-01

    This pioneering study shows that economic integration in the Americas is not simply a matter of removing trade barriers. Economic Integration in the Americas addresses the pervasive effects of economic integration on the economy as a whole.

  17. Career Management Issues Facing Expatriates

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel C Feldman; Thomas, David C.

    1992-01-01

    This research explores expatriate assignments from a career development perspective. First, the article examines the impact of five organization-level career development programs and policies on expatriate effectiveness. Then, it explores the impact of five individual-level career management strategies on the success of expatriate transitions. Data from 118 expatriates in Saudi Arabia, Europe, South America, and Japan are presented to examine these career development issues.© 1992 JIBS. Journ...

  18. Two Visions of America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capaldi, Nicholas

    2012-01-01

    Since the seventeenth century, there have been two narratives about modernity in general and America in particular. The author uses the term "narrative" to include (a) facts, (b) arguments, and most important, (c) a larger vision of how one sees the world and chooses to engage the world. The first and originalist narrative is the Lockean Liberty…

  19. Only "In America"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Maria Eugenia

    2011-01-01

    As the daughter of an interracial couple growing up in a middle-class town on Long Island in the 1970s, Soledad O'Brien learned not to let inappropriate or racist comments throw her. Now as the anchorwoman of CNN's "In America" documentary unit, she says she asks those uncomfortable questions about race all the time. She shines spotlight on…

  20. Still Teaching for America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kronholz, June

    2013-01-01

    In this article, June Kronholz talks to co-chief executives of Teach For America (TFA), Elisa Villanueva Beard and Matt Kramer about how TFA has managed to keep its forward momentum for almost 24 years. Four primary reasons are discussed: (1) Common Vision, Regional Innovation; (2) Data-Driven Improvement; (3) Global Reach; and (4) Stoking the…

  1. An Idea Called America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartoonian, Michael; Van Scotter, Richard; White, William E.

    2007-01-01

    America evolved out of the principles of the eighteenth-century Enlightenment, suggesting that individuals could govern themselves and that people were "endowed" with "unalienable rights" such as life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness. To secure these principles, Americans would continue to work on forming a more perfect Union, by…

  2. Strengthening America's Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarado, Rose; Kumpfer, Karol

    2000-01-01

    Improving parenting practices and the family environment is the most effective, enduring strategy for combating juvenile delinquency. Describes the Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention's Strengthening America's Families Initiative. Highlights several family-focused prevention programs identified as exemplary, explaining how they…

  3. Americas at Odds

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Despite lingering disputes,the United States keeps a firm grip on Latin America During his presidential campaign,Evo Morales said his election would be a "nightmare" for the United States.The Bolivian president honored his words. On September 10, Morales declared U.S.

  4. Lateinamerika oder -amerikas? Latin America or Americas?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Belén García Timón

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Anhand interdisziplinärer und empirischer Studien wird Lateinamerika als Bühne für die Entwicklung transkultureller Phänomene präsentiert. Geschlechterverhältnisse in unterschiedlichen Kontexten stehen im Mittelpunkt der Untersuchung. Begriffe wie Macht, Rasse oder Raum werden mit dem Ziel, weg von der bisherigen Vorstellung von homogenen kulturellen Einheiten zu kommen, revidiert.Latin America is presented as a stage for the development of transcultural phenomena through the use of interdisciplinary and empirical studies. Gender relations in different contexts lie at the heart of this study. Terms such as power, race, or space are revised with the goal of moving away from current perceptions of homogenous cultural unities.

  5. Implementing Secure Group Communications using Key Graphs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ch. Aswani Kumar

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available While the technical issues of securing unicast communications for client-server computingare fairly well-understood, the technical issues of securing group communications are not. Theexisting approach to improve the scalability is to decompose a large group of clients into manysubgroups and employ a hierarchy of group security agents. In this paper, the secure groupcommunications using key graphs and the implementation of a different hierarchical approachto improve the scalability and secure group communication using key graphs has been presented.

  6. Key Topics in Sports Medicine

    OpenAIRE

    Amir Ali Narvani; Panagiotis Thomas; Burce Lynn

    2006-01-01

    Key Topics in Sports Medicine is a single quick reference source for sports and exercise medicine. It presents the essential information from across relevant topic areas, and includes both the core and emerging issues in this rapidly developing field. It covers: 1) Sports injuries, rehabilitation and injury prevention, 2) Exercise physiology, fitness testing and training, 3) Drugs in sport, 4) Exercise and health promotion, 5) Sport and exercise for special and clinical populations, 6) The ps...

  7. Key data. Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Energy actors and economical energy context are changing: the world extension and the opening of markets calls for reliable and convenient indicators to understand the energy choices and stakes of France with respect to European and world data. The examination of this 2001 issue of the key energy data will help the reader in his understanding of the French energy policy which is mainly based on: the imperative security of energy supplies, the limitation of CO2 emissions and the respect of the environment, the growth of economic competitiveness, the keeping of public utilities, and the employment. The energy data are presented in tables, graphs, curves and charts. The production, consumption, and foreign market data of France and of the rest of the world are presented successively for: the overall energy sources, petroleum, natural gas, coal and electricity. Renewable energy data are presented for Europe and France (consumption, production, wind energy, solar energy, heat distribution networks, bio-fuels, biogas, biomass). A chapter concerns the rational use of energy in the industry, in transports and in the residential and tertiary sectors. The emissions of pollutants (CH4, CO, CO2, VOCs, N2O, NOx, SO2) are given for France and compared to the worldwide CO2 emissions. (J.S.)

  8. Politics of the Periphery: An Introduction to Subnational Authoritarianism and Democratization in Latin America

    OpenAIRE

    Edward L. Gibson

    2010-01-01

    The article is an introduction to the topic featured in JPLA 2/2010 "Subnational Authoritarianism and Democratization in Latin America." It discusses the papers by Carlos Gervasoni, Agustina Giraudy, Julián Durazo Herrmann, Alfred P. Montero, and Tracy Beck Fenwick that follow in this issue. Why feature the topic "subnational authoritarianism and democratization" in the Journal of Politics in Latin America? Because despite widespread agreement that subnational jurisdictions in Latin America ...

  9. Making America Great Again?

    OpenAIRE

    Leth, Aksel N.; Lykke, Lærke G.; Dyrbye, Zachary R.; Jordahn, Sally E.; Egholm, Marcus

    2016-01-01

    This study aims at uncovering the discourses in Donald Trump’s announcement speech and their relation to his campaign slogan Make America Great Again. Through a thorough analysis of his speech, we have identified thematic categories and used critical discourse studies (CDS), to denaturalise the discourses he produces and reproduces in a socio-cultural and socio-political context. Our method of Critical Discourse Analysis is based on Fairclough, complemented by Wodak, Richardson and van Dijk, ...

  10. Concepts in International Relations: Contemporary Issues in South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starbird, Caroline; Pettit, Jenny; Hurt,J.P.; Antony; DeBoer, Dale

    2005-01-01

    This book's purpose is to give students an in-depth understanding of South American countries and cultures. The book approaches this understanding through examinations of statistics, maps, articles and editorials, case studies, and text of legislation. The book provides students with background for each situation, giving them a good understanding…

  11. Financing urban services in Latin America : spatial distribution issues

    OpenAIRE

    Guarda, Gian Carlo

    1989-01-01

    This paper discusses urban services finance in the Latin American context of rapid urbanization, severe fiscal constraints and democratization of administrative systems. Analyzing the situation in thirteen different countries, it draws several conclusions which may be helpful in the design of new lending operations. Thereport's main theme is that the World Bank's approach to the urban sector needs to be re-directed. The structure of the report is as follows: first it reviews the rising demand...

  12. A Brighter Future: Solutions to Policy Issues Affecting America's Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McQuillan, Lawrence J., Ed.

    This collection of papers explains why deep reforms are necessary if today's children are to reach their full potential as productive, independent, and responsible adults. The papers are: (1) "Orphanages as Villages" (Richard B. McKenzie); (2) "Medicating Children" (Linda Gorman); (3) "Government Drug Pushers and the Ritalin Controversy" (Shelley…

  13. 78 FR 76789 - Additional Connect America Fund Phase II Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-19

    ... Support Disbursements. In the USF/ICC Transformation Order, 76 FR 73830, November 29, 2011, the Commission... Transformation Order and FNPRM, 76 FR 73830, November 29, 2011 and 76 FR 78384, December 16, 2011, included...

  14. Major gas projects in Latin America. Issues and perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Latin American energy demand will reach 677 MTOE by 2010, a 50% increase over 1995. There will be a major shift towards use of natural gas in power generation. US 503 109 Dollars will be required over 1995-2010 to discover and develop hydrocarbon reserves, build the pipeline system as well as generate and distribute electricity. US 19 109 Dollars will be required for gas pipelines and LNG projects in the region. Improvements in the policy, legal and regulatory framework are required in many countries to attract the needed investments. Several major gas projects are being implemented or planned in the region: Colombia Enron-built pipeline, Peru Camisea project, Chile Nova gas pipeline from Argentina, the Bolivia-Brazil pipeline and others. The World Bank group has been assisting countries in developing a competitive business environment and can provide, when needed, comfort to lenders in project financing through a guarantee scheme in several large complex cross border projects. (au)

  15. Beyond design basis issues in the United States of America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The accident at the Fukushima Daiichi NPP highlighted the need for NPPs to be prepared for beyond design basis accidents. The equipment needed to respond to such beyond design basis accidents may include some non-safety-related equipment, which is outside the scope of the traditional PSR, LRA, maintenance rule, or other ageing management evaluation processes. Such non-safety-related equipment should also be subject to ageing management in order to ensure proper LTO functioning during the period of extended operation

  16. Overview of agrochemical ip issues. A perspective from Latin America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernesto Rengifo García

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo constituye un análisis sobre la regulación legal latinoamericana de la protección de los datos de prueba y el carácter especial que tiene esta nueva categoría de propiedad intelectual. Para ello, se estudia el artículo 39.3 del ADPIC (Acuerdo sobre los Derechos de Propiedad Intelectual relacionados con el Comercio, se analiza la situación jurídica de la propiedad intelectual de datos de prueba en países latinoamericanos y la posición de la industria agroquímica frente a estas regulaciones. Aspectos más importantes en esta materia, la cual debe ser tenida en cuenta al momento de regularlo, la necesidad de que esta protección sea balanceada y esté en consonancia con el principio del equilibrio de intereses públicos o privados, partiendo de las limitaciones que esta clase tiene en sí mismos.

  17. Natural versus Surrogate Keys. Performance and Usability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragos-Paul POP

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Choosing the primary key for a table proves to be one of the most important steps in database design. But what happens when we have to pick between a natural or a surrogate key? Is there any performance issue that we must have in mind? Does the literature have a preferred pick? Is usability a concern? We’ll have a look at the advantages and disadvantages of both natural and surrogate keys and the performance and usability issues they address.

  18. Group key management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunigan, T.; Cao, C.

    1997-08-01

    This report describes an architecture and implementation for doing group key management over a data communications network. The architecture describes a protocol for establishing a shared encryption key among an authenticated and authorized collection of network entities. Group access requires one or more authorization certificates. The implementation includes a simple public key and certificate infrastructure. Multicast is used for some of the key management messages. An application programming interface multiplexes key management and user application messages. An implementation using the new IP security protocols is postulated. The architecture is compared with other group key management proposals, and the performance and the limitations of the implementation are described.

  19. Modular Connector Keying Concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishman, Scott; Dukes, Scott; Warnica, Gary; Conrad, Guy; Senigla, Steven

    2013-01-01

    For panel-mount-type connectors, keying is usually "built-in" to the connector body, necessitating different part numbers for each key arrangement. This is costly for jobs that require small quantities. This invention was driven to provide a cost savings and to reduce documentation of individual parts. The keys are removable and configurable in up to 16 combinations. Since the key parts are separate from the connector body, a common design can be used for the plug, receptacle, and key parts. The keying can then be set at the next higher assembly.

  20. Research on Child and Adolescent Development and Public Policy in Latin America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narea, Marigen

    2016-01-01

    This commentary discusses the implication of child and adolescent development research for public policy in Latin America. As illustrated by the articles in this special issue, even though the research of child and adolescent development in Latin America is making significant progress, still more research is needed. Developmental research in the…

  1. The Voice of America: Policies and Problems. Journalism Monographs No. 43.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browne, Donald R.

    1976-01-01

    This issue of "Journalism Monographs" is devoted to a discussion of the Policies and problems of the international broadcasting operation "The Voice of America" (VOA). The monograph begins with an examination of the origins of America's entry into international broadcasting and the creation of the Office of War Information in 1942. The VOA's…

  2. 77 FR 54815 - Safety Zone: America's Cup World Series Regattas, San Francisco Bay; San Francisco, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-06

    ... INFORMATION: Table of Acronyms ACRM America's Cup Race Management DHS Department of Homeland Security FR... public dockets in the January 17, 2008, issue of the Federal Register (73 FR 3316). 4. Public Meeting We... Alcatraz Island. This rule will regulate the on-water activities associated with 2012 America's Cup...

  3. Marketing in the Emerging Markets of Latin America

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marinov, Marin Alexandrov

    . Addressing a broad variety of historical, political, economic, social, cultural and legal issues, the book offers unique insights into the enormous opportunities and challenges the region presents for implementing effective marketing strategies. Macro marketing issues such as regional integration, foreign......Marketing in the Emerging Markets of Latin America provides a much needed analysis of business and marketing in Latin America. The book highlights the diverse characteristics of the Latin American business and marketing environment as well as the dynamic nature of regional and country markets...... trade and direct investment are considered within the context of specific countries, as are the micro aspects of a company's marketing activities. The book is an extremely valuable resource for academics, practitioners and anyone interested in doing business in or with Latin America....

  4. Disability Issues are Women's Issues

    OpenAIRE

    Mijoo Kim

    2009-01-01

    Mijoo Kim from Women with Disabilities Arts and Culture Network, Korea, speaks on behalf of women with disabilities when she underlines that disability issues are women's issues. She asks why women with disabilities have been invisible in the women's movement, based on her work over the past 15 years in the movement of women with disabilities in Korea and internationally. Development (2009) 52, 230–232. doi:10.1057/dev.2009.10

  5. Biometry, the safe key

    OpenAIRE

    María Fraile-Hurtado; Miguel Herrero-Langreo; Pilar Menéndez-Miguel; Valerio Delgado-Villanueva

    2010-01-01

    Biometry is the next step in authentication, why do not we take this stepforward in our communication security systems? Keys are the main disadvantage in the cryptography, what if we were our own key?

  6. Key Management Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: Provides a secure environment to research and develop advanced electronic key management and networked key distribution technologies for the Navy and DoD....

  7. Financial Key Ratios

    OpenAIRE

    Tănase Alin-Eliodor

    2014-01-01

    This article focuses on computing techniques starting from trial balance data regarding financial key ratios. There are presented activity, liquidity, solvency and profitability financial key ratios. It is presented a computing methodology in three steps based on a trial balance.

  8. Public Key Cryptography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tapson, Frank

    1996-01-01

    Describes public key cryptography, also known as RSA, which is a system using two keys, one used to put a message into cipher and another used to decipher the message. Presents examples using small prime numbers. (MKR)

  9. Brazil: Selected Issues Paper

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    2012-01-01

    This Selected Issues Paper discusses the macroeconomic implications of pension reforms in Brazil. It assesses empirically the relationship between fiscal policy and the real effective exchange rate in emerging markets and draws policy implications. It reviews the current status of local capital markets in the country, the key challenges, and policy options for further development. The paper also provides a detailed description of consumer credit developments and analyzes recent indicators of ...

  10. Nigeria; Selected Issues Paper

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    2015-01-01

    This Selected Issues paper discusses promotion of economic transformation in Nigeria. Nigeria’s long-term potential is keyed on promoting economic transformation. This implies taking stock of initial conditions, assessing long-term financing capacity, and evaluating the policies and reforms to be implemented to meet the long term vision. The recent fall in prices has highlighted the challenging but compelling need to address remaining development challenges. This paper discusses some of the...

  11. Indonesia; Selected Issues

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    2007-01-01

    This Selected Issues paper assesses Indonesia’s trade integration relative to underlying country characteristics. The paper analyzes Indonesia’s vulnerabilities, especially compared with the eve of the crisis in 1997. Various indicators suggest that the underlying fundamentals are significantly stronger. The paper examines key features of the financial safety net (FSN) in view of international standards and concludes that the current system is capable of timely addressing bank problems. I...

  12. Indonesia; Selected Issues

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    2011-01-01

    This study estimated Indonesia’s potential growth rate and examined its underlying determinants. Implementing a comprehensive program to address key influencing issues can improve the effectiveness of monetary policy, increase financial stability, and support capital market development. This paper also reviews the level and structure of tax revenues in Indonesia, estimates tax effort and tax efficiency, and discusses potential areas of revenue mobilization. Indonesia’s financial linkages ...

  13. GLOBALIZATION – ECONOMIC ISSUES

    OpenAIRE

    Monika Elzbieta Harach

    2011-01-01

    Globalization has brought new challenges and changes, in terms of both new risk and new opportunities. It is one of the key drivers of economic and environmental change. The impact can be both positive and negative. This paper explains the impact of globalization and the fundamental issues and current controversies related to globalization (trade, investment, the IMF and the World Bank, technology, media, culture, education, development, migration, health, the role of women, human rights). In...

  14. Clinical Trials: A Crucial Key to Human Health Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Clinical Trials: A Crucial Key to Human Health Research Past ... the forefront of human health research today are clinical trials—studies that use human volunteers to help medical ...

  15. Nuclear power for developing countries. Key issue paper no. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Is there a rationale for developing countries to adopt nuclear power? This paper explores this rationale and the suitability of nuclear power for developing countries by surveying the prerequisites for and implications of developing a nuclear power program: infrastructure availability, economics and finance, environment, the needs for technology transfer, the regulatory and institutional frameworks required and the awareness of public concerns. (author)

  16. Offshore Wind Power Experiences, Potential and Key Issues for Deployment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lemming, Jørgen Kjærgaard; Morthorst, Poul Erik; Clausen, Niels-Erik

    International Energy Agency (IEA) Wind agreement Task 11 should arrange a new meeting concerning long term research needs for reviewing “the long term strategy for 2000 to 2020” from 2001, to come up with suggestions / recommendations on how to define and proceed with, the necessary research activities of the......Wind power has been growing at spectacular rates. Today it is the largest non-hydro renewable power technology. Worldwide there is 74 GW of installed capacity which is 1.7% of power generation capacity and in 2006 it accounted for 0.82% of electricity production. However, offshore wind still only...... expected to compensate for the higher installation costs in the long term. Most offshore wind farms are installed in British, Swedish and Danish waters, and present-day costs of installing wind energy in the UK are between 1,200 to 1,600 £/kW (1,781 to 2,375 €/kW) offshore, while in Sweden investment costs...

  17. Algal biofuels: key issues, sustainability and life cycle assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, A.; Irving Olsen, S.

    2011-05-15

    In recent years research activities are intensively focused on renewable fuels in order to fulfill the increasing energy demand and to reduce the fossil fuels consumption and external oil dependency either in order to provide local energetic resources and or as a means for reducing greenhouse gases (GHG) emissions to reduce the climate change effects. Among the various renewable energy sources algal biofuels is a very promising source of biomass as algae sequester huge quantities of carbon from atmosphere and are very efficient in utilizing the nutrients from the industrial effluent and municipal wastewater. Algae capture CO{sub 2} from atmosphere and industrial flue gases and transform it in to organic biomass that can be used for the production of biofuels. Like other biomass, algal biomass is also a carbon neutral source for the production of bioenergy. Therefore cultivation of algal biomass provides dual benefits; while being able to utilize nutrients in waste water thus reducing impacts on inland waters it produce biomass for the production of biofuels. However, reaching commercial scale production of algal biofuels is difficult. The main drawbacks include the harvesting of dry biomass and higher capital investment. The harvested algal biomass and its extracts can be efficiently converted to different biofuels such as bioethanol, biodiesel, biogas and biohydrogen by implementation of various process technologies. Comprehensive life cycle assessments (LCA) of algal biofuels illustrating environmental benefits and impacts can be a tool for policy decisions and for technology development. (Author)

  18. Trade and Climate Change : An Analytical Review of Key Issues

    OpenAIRE

    Onder, Harun

    2012-01-01

    The last decade has witnessed an increasing global awareness of human impact on the planet's climate and its likely consequences. However, strategic and structural complexities hinder further compliance and participation in efforts to establish a global agreement for climate change mitigation. This induces economists and environmentalists to further investigate the two-way relationship bet...

  19. Regional chiefs meet to discuss key issues / Ella Karapetyan

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Karapetyan, Ella

    2009-01-01

    Stockholmis toimunud Põhja- ja Baltimaade peaministrite kohtumisel räägiti energiajulgeolekust, praegusest majandusolukorrast ja detsembris toimuva ÜRO kliimakonverentsi ettevalmistustest. Andrus Ansip rõhutas uue rahvusvahelise kliimalepingu tähtsust

  20. Public Acceptance, a Key Issue of Nuclear Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A brief history of public acceptance of nuclear energy in Slovenia is given. While in former Yugoslavia a problem of public acceptance virtually did not exist because of undemocratic social system, it grew larger and larger with the process of democratization in late eighties. The first democratic government in Slovenia had to abandon its original idea for an early closure of the nuclear power plant Krsko. In 1995 and 1996 there were two attempts to organize the national referendum about the future of the plant. The lessons learned from the public debates in recent years could help other countries entering the nuclear program to prepare and implement efficient public information strategy. (author)

  1. Client Centeredness and Health Reform: Key Issues for Occupational Therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Mroz, Tracy M.; Pitonyak, Jennifer S.; Fogelberg, Donald; Leland, Natalie E.

    2015-01-01

    Occupational therapy has the philosophical underpinnings to provide expanded and more effective client-centered care that emphasizes the active engagement of the client and recognizes the greater contexts of his or her life.

  2. Algal biofuels: key issues, sustainability and life cycle assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singh, Anoop; Olsen, Stig Irving

    2011-01-01

    capital investment. The harvested algal biomass and its extracts can be efficiently converted to different biofuels such as bioethanol, biodiesel, biogas and biohydrogen by implementation of various process technologies. Comprehensive life cycle assessments (LCA) of algal biofuels illustrating...... wastewater. Algae capture CO2 from atmosphere and industrial flue gases and transform it in to organic biomass that can be used for the production of biofuels. Like other biomass, algal biomass is also a carbon neutral source for the production of bioenergy. Therefore cultivation of algal biomass provides...... dual benefits; while being able to utilize nutrients in waste water thus reducing impacts on inland waters it produce biomass for the production of biofuels. However, reaching commercial scale production of algal biofuels is difficult. The main drawbacks include the harvesting of dry biomass and higher...

  3. Key emerging issues in progressive supranuclear palsy and corticobasal degeneration

    OpenAIRE

    Josephs, Keith A.

    2015-01-01

    It has been approximately 50 years since neurologists were introduced to the entities progressive supranuclear palsy and corticobasal degeneration. Since the two seminal publications, there have been significant advancements in our understanding of these two neurodegenerative diseases, particularly the fact that both are associated with tau. Recent advances over the past 3 years that are notable to the field are discussed in this review that covers clinical diagnosis, pathological features, n...

  4. Key emerging issues in progressive supranuclear palsy and corticobasal degeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Josephs, Keith A

    2015-03-01

    It has been approximately 50 years since neurologists were introduced to the entities, "progressive supranuclear palsy" and "corticobasal degeneration". Since the two seminal publications, there have been significant advancements in our understanding of these two neurodegenerative diseases, particularly the fact that both are associated with tau. Recent advances over the past 3 years that are notable to the field are discussed in this review that covers clinical diagnosis, pathological features, neuroimaging and CSF biomarkers, genetic associations and clinical trials related to progressive supranuclear palsy and corticobasal degeneration. PMID:25701010

  5. Key Issues for Monetary Policy: An ECB View

    OpenAIRE

    Jean-Claude Trichet

    2005-01-01

    The European single currency, the euro, has become a visible and successful token of Europeans' drive towards unification. It was born in an era in which high-speed structural change tests the validity of economic models and defies searches for standard policy recipes. Like all central banks, the European Central Bank (ECB) must deal with uncertainty that derives not only from the timely identification of important disturbances but also imperfect knowledge of how such disturbances affect the ...

  6. Key issues for the economic viability of magnetic fusion power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents an overview of fusion electricity generating costs relative to coal, fission, and renewables. The magnetic fusion costs are benchmarked by comparison with those for ITER. The overall conclusion is that the likely economic performance of fusion, combined with its excellent safety and environmental qualities, makes it a serious contender as one of the few major contributors to mid-21st century electricity generation. 19 refs., 5 figs

  7. Key issues of nuclear power R D in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear power technology, spreading over number of specialized areas, is so-to-speak an extreme technology requiring the cooperation of scientists and technologists in respective fields. Its research and development require tremendous amounts of fund and manpower, with long lead time from the basic researches up to the practical use. The nuclear power technology exerts thus large influences both socially and economically. The research and development of nuclear power do not remain only in technology. It is the problems spreading over society, economy, politics and diplomacy and the compatibility is required in an extensive national system containing nuclear power in it. On the research and development of nuclear power in Japan, the following matters are described: targets of nuclear power development and the reality; perfection in LWR technology; FBR development; establishment of the nuclear fuel cycle comprising uranium resources, uranium enrichment, downstream and spent fuel storage; and the fund and program of research and development, cooperation of respective orgaizations, etc. (Mori, K.)

  8. Polyphenols: Key Issues Involved in Chemoprevention of Prostate Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastiano Cimino

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Prostate cancer is is the most common solid neoplasm and it is now recognized as one of the most important medical problems facing the male population. Due to its long latency and its identifiable preneoplastic lesions, prostate cancer is an ideal target tumor for chemoprevention. Different compounds are available and certainly polyphenols represent those with efficacy against prostate cancer. This review take a look at activity and properties of major polyphenolic substances, such as epigallocatechin-3-gallate, curcumin, resveratrol and the flavonoids quercetin and genistein. Although the current studies are limited, mechanisms of action of polyphenols added with the lack of side effects show a a start for future strategies in prostate chemoprevention.

  9. Key Issues Review: Numerical studies of turbulence in stars

    CERN Document Server

    Arnett, W David

    2016-01-01

    The numerical simulation of turbulence in stars has led to a rich set of possibilities regarding stellar pulsations, asteroseismology, thermonuclear yields, and formation of neutron stars and black holes. The breaking of symmetry by turbulent flow grows in amplitude as collapse is approached, which insures that the conditions at the onset of collapse are not spherical. This lack of spherical symmetry has important implications for the mechanism of explosion and ejected nucleosynthesis products. Numerical resolution of several different types of three--dimensional (3D) stellar simulations are compared; it is suggested that core collapse simulations may be under-resolved. New physical effects which appear in 3D are summarized. Connections between simulations of progenitor explosion and observations of supernova remnants (SNR) are discussed. Present treatment of boundaries, for mixing regions during He--burning, requires revision.

  10. Key issues to consider in microalgae based biodiesel production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singh, Anoop; Pant, Deepak; Olsen, Stig Irving;

    2012-01-01

    All nations have been confronted with the energy crisis due to depletion of finite fossil fuels reserves, which results an increasing global demand of biofuels for energy security, economic stability and reduction in climate change effects, and generate the opportunity to explore new biomass sour...

  11. Medicaid and Managed Care: Key Data, Trends, and Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... improvements in quality, holding plans accountable for measurable performance and aligning payment incentives with care delivery goals. At the same time, weaknesses in monitoring and oversight of risk-based MMC have also been documented. 5 2 00 ...

  12. Key issues in controlling air pollutants in Dhaka, Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Begum, Bilkis A.; Biswas, Swapan K.; Hopke, Philip K.

    2011-12-01

    Particulate matter (PM) sampling for both coarse and fine fractions was conducted in a semi-residential site (AECD) in Dhaka from February 2005 to December 2006. The samples were analyzed for mass, black carbon (BC), and elemental compositions. The resulting data set were analyzed for sources by Positive Matrix Factorization (EPA-PMF). From previous studies, it is found that, the air quality became worse in the dry winter period compared to the rainy season because of higher particulate matter concentration in the ambient air. Therefore, seasonal source contributions were determined from seasonally segregated data using EPA-PMF modeling so that further policy interventions can be undertaken to improve air quality. From the source apportionment results, it is observed that vehicular emissions and emission from brick kiln are the major contributors to air pollution in Dhaka especially in the dry seasons, while contribution from emissions from metal smelters increases during rainy seasons. The Government of Bangladesh is considering different interventions to reduce the emissions from those sources by adopting conversion of diesel/petrol vehicles to CNG, increasing traffic speed in the city and by introducing green technologies for brick production. However, in order to reduce the transboundary effect it is necessary to take action regionally.

  13. Key issues for decentralization in municipal wastewater treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Bernal, Diana Paola; Restrepo, Inès

    2012-01-01

    12 p. International audience The pressure on water resources caused by accelerated urbanization, the inadequate management and disposal of wastewater and the implementation of sophisticated treatment systems which sometimes with low efficiency and coverage are some of the problems to be solved with alternative and innovative strategies that be in harmony with the recent trends on water management. One of these strategies is the decentralisation in wastewater treatment. In this article, ...

  14. Climate, air and energy - Issue 2014. Key figures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After having recalled international objectives (Kyoto protocol), European objectives (directives related to energy efficiency and renewable energies, greenhouse gas emissions and adaptation, air quality, wastes) and French national (plans, laws) and sector-based objectives (for buildings, transports, agriculture, renewable energies, industry, office building and local communities, air quality), this publication presents and comments numerous tables and graphs of data and indicators (and of their evolution) regarding energy consumptions and intensities (primary and final energy), greenhouse gas emissions and climate change, emissions of pollutants and air quality in France and in European countries, but also the implementation of various plans and tools (Agenda 21 for example), the creation of specific public bodies, jobs and markets related to renewable energies in France. The other chapters propose detailed data related to energy consumption or production, energy efficiency, greenhouse gas emissions, and so on for different sectors: housing, tertiary sector, transport, industry, agriculture and forest, renewable energies and heat networks, wastes, individuals

  15. Key data for climate. France and the World. Issue 2012

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document proposes figures, tables, graphs and maps which illustrate climate change (greenhouse effect, impact of human activity, greenhouse gas tanks, fluxes and concentrations), emissions of greenhouse gases (at the world, European and French levels), emissions of greenhouse gases due to energy production in the world, the sector-based distribution of greenhouse gas emissions in Europe and in France (energy combustion, energy production and transformation, transports, industry, other sectors). Then, it presents the climate policies: Kyoto protocol, the emission permit market, Kyoto protocol project mechanisms, other initiatives aimed at emission reduction, the European trading scheme (EU ETS), carbon price in the EU ETS, French climate policy

  16. Danish offshore wind. Key environmental issues - a follow-up

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-02-15

    This follow-up to the Danish environmental monitoring programme on large-scale offshore wind power builds on the result of the former programme of 2006 and focuses on updated knowledge on harbour porpoises, water birds and fish communities, and on the cumulative effects of wind farms. The scientific quality of the projects in this follow-up has been assessed by experts from the International Advisory Panel of Experts on Marine Ecology (IAPEME), who have commented on the results in an independent evaluation which is reproduced in this publication. (LN)

  17. MALAYSIA: Pension & Financial Market Reforms and Key Issues on Governance

    OpenAIRE

    Thillainathan, R.

    2004-01-01

    The mandated contribution rate of Malaysia's Employees Provident Fund (EPF) is high. But as EPF operates both as a retirement fund as well as a multi-purpose savings fund with withdrawals allowed for housing, education and health, there is under-saving for retirement. Therefore, the paper considers the case for an increase in the contribution rate, a restriction on withdrawals and an increase in the retirement age as well as the case for the separate management of funds in different accounts ...

  18. Toxicity of building materials : a key issue in sustainable construction

    OpenAIRE

    Torgal, Fernando Pacheco; Jalali, Said

    2010-01-01

    Avoiding the use of toxic building materials is one of the principles of sustainable construction. Current residential buildings frequently contain many toxic materials, some of which are even compliant with legal regulations in Europe and Portugal. Part of the problem is due to the fact that architects and civil engineers receive no education on the toxicity of building materials. Another problem is related to the fact that the regulations about toxicity thresholds are influenced by economic...

  19. Compositional analysis of GM crops: key issues and future needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Effective symposia need two strong legs to stand upon: informative presentations of recent research paired with lively discussion of these topics. While it is easy for the organizers of a symposium to predict the usefulness of the former, as they select the speakers and their topic areas, guaranteei...

  20. Universalizing Complete Access to Finance : Key Conceptual Issues

    OpenAIRE

    Rai, Suyash; Ananth, Bindu; Mor, Nachiket

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we present two stylized models of the financial system. We make the case that in order to realize the potential of a well-functioning complete financial market, financial system designers and financial service providers will need to think about ways to deliver financial propositions that are customized to individual households by responding to their unique circumstances. This will entail the presence of proximate, well-trained providers that intermediate between the customer an...

  1. Key psychological issues in the study of religion

    OpenAIRE

    Petrović Olivera

    2007-01-01

    The current article considers the role of scientific (experimental) psychology in the study of religion and argues that many of the questions central to the history, sociology and anthropology of religion are often psychological and hence require the use of appropriate psychological methods. Psychological study of religion differs from those other disciplines by virtue of its (a) definition of religion (in terms of individual mental states rather than culturally transmitted teachings and soci...

  2. Evaluating the Bonn Agreement and some key issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report evaluates the environmental effectiveness and economic efficiency of the Kyoto Protocol as agreed at the resumed session of COP 6 (sixth Convention of Parties) in July 2001 in Bonn, Germany. We break the COP 6 process down into three major steps: the pre-COP 6 version of the Kyoto Protocol, the US withdrawal and the Bonn Agreement. The evaluation shows that the Bonn Agreement leads to a reduction of 130 MtC, compared to the 755 MtC in the pre-COP 6 version of the Kyoto Protocol. Annex I emissions without the US will come out just below the 1990 level. The US withdrawal has by far the greatest impact in reducing the environmental effectiveness of the Kyoto Protocol. Compared to the US non-participation, the Bonn decisions on sinks may be considered an acceptable price to get a political agreement. We further conclude that hot air becomes increasingly dominant and may threaten the viability of the Kyoto Mechanisms. As prices are pushed downwards and even approach zero, it would be in the seller's interest (FSU) to exercise market power. We examine market power through volume and price controls and find that banking 50 per cent of FSU hot air improves the environmental effectiveness and generates positive financial benefits for both the FSU and the non-Annex I countries. A voluntary EU target of 50 per cent domestic action would wipe out any emissions market potential and should not be considered without curtailing permit supply. Ultimately, the most promising strategy to enhance the Kyoto Protocol is to seek options for US re-entry. Although the Bonn Agreement leaves the door open for US re-entry, this is largely determined by the domestic political environment

  3. Technology transfer and national participation. Key issue paper no. 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear technology was developed in industrialized countries and largely remains in a few industrialized countries. Non-nuclear countries today find it necessary to import this technology. Some aspects of technology transfer: legal and institutional structure; different type of agreements; arrangements; and national participation are presented in this paper. (author)

  4. Debating Values: Key Issues in Formatting an Argumentative Case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, David K.

    This paper analyzes the components of an "ideal" debate using a non-policy proposition. It is argued that debates using non-policy propositions are currently plagued by a variety of problems. Value propositions on the college level are dissimilar to the value propositions used in high school Lincoln-Douglas debate. Many debaters are somewhat…

  5. Key figures of energy in Brittany. Issue 2015

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This publication presents and comments maps, graphs and tables of data related to energy in Brittany. More precisely, it addresses the following topics: regional energy assessment for 2013, final energy consumption, consuming sectors (building, transports, industry, agriculture and fishery), regional energy production, renewable energy production (global assessment, ground-based wind energy, wood, household waste incineration plants, bio-gas, photovoltaic solar energy, thermal solar energy, marine energies, hydroelectricity), energy supply, transport and distribution, heat networks, electricity, natural gas, energy-related CO2 emissions

  6. Participation and behaviour: key issues in local energy policies

    OpenAIRE

    Hasselaar, E.

    2009-01-01

    The ladder of influence by Arnstein (1969) shows steps from manipulation to citizen control. The level of interaction between citizens, authorities and institutions can be placed on this ladder. In the Netherlands new strategies for empowerment in the field of energy performance are emerging, for instance the Climate Festival, the mobile energy office, the ClimateSreet Party. Positive activities such as the IdeaBrewery focus on the quality of the public domain and show many social interaction...

  7. Algal biofuels: key issues, sustainability and life cycle assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Singh, Anoop; Olsen, Stig Irving

    2011-01-01

    In recent years research activities are intensively focused on renewable fuels in order to fulfill the increasing energy demand and to reduce the fossil fuels consumption and external oil dependency either in order to provide local energetic resources and or as a means for reducing greenhouse gases (GHG) emissions to reduce the climate change effects. Among the various renewable energy sources algal biofuels is a very promising source of biomass as algae sequester huge quantities of carbon fr...

  8. Megabits secure key rate quantum key distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quantum cryptography can provide unconditional secure communication between two authorized parties based on the basic principles of quantum mechanics. However, imperfect practical conditions limit its transmission distance and communication speed. Here, we implemented the differential phase shift (DPS) quantum key distribution (QKD) with an up-conversion-assisted hybrid photon detector (HPD) and achieved a 1.3 Mbits per second secure key rate over a 10 km fiber, which is tolerant against photon number splitting (PNS) attack, general collective attacks on individual photons and any other known sequential unambiguous state discrimination (USD) attacks.

  9. Emerging issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Some formal and informal mechanisms were implemented at the Ontario Ministry of the Environment that allow the identification of emerging environmental issues. The early warning is most often provided through the expertise of the personnel and their contacts. The Ministry commissioned a study to review the process, learn from the processes in place in other organizations, and implement the appropriate changes into its emerging issues procedure. The team conducting the review answered four specific questions. The first question was: What are the necessary elements of an emerging issues tool? The second question was: What are some of the best practices in other jurisdictions? It was followed by the question: How do those jurisdictions implement emerging issues models? The final question was: What implementation is appropriate for the Ontario Ministry of the Environment? The approach involved reviewing the appropriate literature and reviewing the best practices in place in other jurisdictions, both in the United States and in Europe. Senior officials in Canada and the United States were interviewed, and the procedure was identified and described. A case study concerning the acid rain problem in the 1960s and 1970s was used to test the developed procedure retroactively. This procedure involves a variation of the top-down, bottom-up input procedure at the United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA), with a formal issues scanning process, and the prioritizing and analysis of the steps. It was noted that if the procedure had been in place in the late 1960s in Ontario, it would have been possible to identify one or more impacts from the acid rain situation ten years earlier. Preventive and remedial action could have been implemented, leading to environmental and economic benefits for the province of Ontario. The broad involvement of stakeholders is required for an open and systematic prioritization of the issues. The authors concluded the study by identifying

  10. BSC Final Report: Lessons Learned from Building America Participation; February 1995 - December 2002

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hendron, Bob [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2004-04-01

    This report chronicles the how and why of the key BSC Building America outcomes. It is organized and put in the context of what the Building Science Consortium has learned from and with its building industry partners.

  11. Paralyzed Veterans of America

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... PVA Sports Videos Sports Photo Albums Other Wheelchair Sports For Veterans Membership Volunteer Opportunities Veterans Benefits Publications Our Members, Our Heroes Legislation/Veterans Issues ...

  12. Saving in Latin America and the Caribbean; Performance and Policies

    OpenAIRE

    Francesco Grigoli; Alexander Herman; Klaus Schmidt-Hebbel

    2015-01-01

    This paper analyzes saving patterns and determinants in Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC), including key policy variables and regimes. The review of previous empirical studies on LAC saving reveals contradictions and omissions. This paper presents empirical results of an extensive search of determinants of private and public saving rates, adding previously neglected variables (including different measures of key external prices and macroeconomic policy regimes), in linear form and in inte...

  13. Learning about America, and about Buying from Starbucks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Bryant

    2011-01-01

    Professor Bryant Simon is the author of "Everything But the Coffee: Learning About America From Starbucks" (University of California Press, 2009). He presented his key findings to the class and summarizes them here. Studying Starbucks reveals essential truths about what its customers, who represented a large cross-section of the American…

  14. Building America System Research Results. Innovations for High Performance Homes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2006-05-01

    This report provides a summary of key lessons learned from the first 10 years of the Building America program and also included a summary of the future challenges that must be met to reach the program’s long term performance goals.

  15. Reducing Bias: Research Notes on Racism in America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mabbutt, Richard

    This paper highlights recent developments in research on racism in the United States, and notes several conceptual issues of significance for the long-range planning work of those interested in reducing racism in America and particularly in Idaho. Growth in the number of minority researchers has resulted in increased attention toward racism as it…

  16. ESD: Power, Politics, and Policy: "Tragic Optimism" from Latin America

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Gaudiano, Edgar J.

    2016-01-01

    In light of the challenging developmental issues confronting the countries of Latin America, this response article analyzes the power and resistance of education for sustainable development from both theoretical and policy perspectives. Of particular concern are the neo-productivist strategies driving the latest stage of capitalist development.…

  17. Filipinos in America: Target Constituency for the "New Society".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, Linda

    The increasing number of Filipino immigrants to America has coincided with the martial law era in the Philippines. Consequently, this exodus has become a significant political issue for the government of Ferdinand Marcos. Since the Filipino government wishes to retain positive influence and goodwill with those who choose to settle elsewhere, it…

  18. Latin America and the Caribbean Refinery Sector Development Project - Clients

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2002-01-01

    This report summarizes two years of intense activity dedicated to the study of the issues confronted by the refining industry in Latin America and the Caribbean. Following the program for phasing out of lead from gasoline and convinced of the importance to progress with the harmonization of oil product's technical specifications, the organizations--OLADE, ARPEL, and the World Bank--decided...

  19. Understanding China's Relations with Latin America

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    This essay deals with the fast growing Sino-Latin American relations,touching upon the issues of the importance of Latin America to China;pros and cons of the bilateral relations;the U.S.factor;the opportunities that might be emerged from the financial crisis for the bilateral relations;China's first policy paper towards the region;the overseas Chinese contribution to the bilateral relations;Taiwan problem;the so-called neo-colonialism and the role of Europe.

  20. The Key Lake project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Key Lake is located in the Athabasca sand stone basin, 640 kilometers north of Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada. The three sources of ore at Key Lake contain 70 100 tonnes of uranium. Features of the Key Lake Project were described under the key headings: work force, mining, mill process, tailings storage, permanent camp, environmental features, worker health and safety, and economic benefits. Appendices covering the historical background, construction projects, comparisons of western world mines, mining statistics, Northern Saskatchewan surface lease, and Key Lake development and regulatory agencies were included

  1. Digital Library Education: Global Trends and Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shem, Magaji

    2015-01-01

    The paper examines trends and issues in digital education programmes globally, drawing examples of developmental growth of Library Information Science (LIS), schools and digital education courses in North America, Britain, and Southern Asia, the slow growth of LIS schools and digital education in Nigeria and some countries in Africa and India. The…

  2. Let's Go to America!

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

      The United States and China have signed an agreement to facilitate Chinese group leisure travel to the United States. This agreement provides the necessary framework to permit group leisure travel from China to the United States. U.S. companies can now enter into business relationships with Chinese travel agencies to organize and market travel packages for group leisure travel to the United States. It also attracts more and more Chinese to go to America, as more and more convenience and comforts are coming up during the travel.……

  3. Let's Go to America!

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ The United States and China have signed an agreement to facilitate Chinese group leisure travel to the United States. This agreement provides the necessary framework to permit group leisure travel from China to the United States. U.S. companies can now enter into business relationships with Chinese travel agencies to organize and market travel packages for group leisure travel to the United States. It also attracts more and more Chinese to go to America, as more and more convenience and comforts are coming up during the travel.

  4. Knight Capital Americas LLC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Austin, Robert D.; Meister, Darren

    2015-01-01

    It took 19 years to build Knight Capital Americas LLC into the largest market maker on the New York Stock Exchange, but on August 1, 2012, it took only 45 minutes for the firm to be wiped out by an information technology (IT) problem: a change in the company's software caused it to lose more than...... officer, other managers and the board of directors have done differently? What lessons does this story hold for how firms should be managed and governed? And what does it say about our ability to manage risk in large modern corporations operating in increasingly fast-moving and complex global markets?...

  5. Mosques in North America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar Khalidi

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The following article derived from an exhibit catalogue put together by Public Affairs Germany in the U.S. Embassy in Berlin and the U.S. Consulates in Frankfurt and Düsseldorf and accompanied Dr. Omar Khalidi’s photo exhibit “Mosques in America.” There are over 2,000 mosques in the United States, mostly housed in buildings originally built for other purposes. American mosques built in the last few decades, however, in the period in which Islam has begun to feel at home in the United States, are almost universally architect-designed.

  6. Chinese Food in America

    OpenAIRE

    Jou, Diana T.

    2011-01-01

    How did Chinese food get to look like this? With more than 41,000 Chinese restaurants in America - 3 times the number of McDonald’s restaurants - Chinese food is one of the most accepted and misunderstood cuisines in the United States. From large cities to small towns, locals can always count on an order of orange chicken in a takeout box, with a few fortune cookies thrown in the bag. But what Americans view as Chinese food is far from a traditional Chinese meal, wh...

  7. Eating in America

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    康海燕

    2007-01-01

    Americans are too busy to cook at home.They often eat outside.Eating culture is one of the important parts in America.There are many kinds of restaurants.Some are open for breakfast. Others are open twenty-four hours a day. A number of restaurants call themselves"family restaurants".They serve no alcohol~* and have fairly restricted~* menus.They serve steaks,hamburgers and sandwiches.Besides these,there are some special restaurants.They serve only or mainly steaks,seafood,etc.

  8. Timekeeping in the Americas

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, J. M.; Lombardi, M. A.

    2015-10-01

    Time and its measurement belong to the most fundamental core of physics, and many scientific and technological advances are directly or indirectly related to time measurements. Timekeeping is essential to everyday life, and thus is the most measured physical quantity in modern societies. Time can also be measured with less uncertainty and more resolution than any other physical quantity. The measurement of time is of the utmost importance for many applications, including: global navigation satellite systems, communications networks, electric power generation, astronomy, electronic commerce, and national defense and security. This paper discusses how time is kept, coordinated, and disseminated in the Americas.

  9. Sanskrit Issue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Barbara Stoler, Ed.

    1971-01-01

    This issue of "Mahfil" is devoted to Sanskrit literature and contains a note on Sanskrit pronunciation and selections of Sanskrit literature. It also contains articles analyzing and discussing various aspects of the literature, including "Sanskrit Rhetoric and Poetic,""The Creative Role of the Goddess Vac in the 'Rgveda,'""Vedic and Epic…

  10. LOCKS AND KEYS SERVICE

    CERN Multimedia

    Locks and Keys Service

    2002-01-01

    The Locks and Keys service (ST/FM) will move from building 55 to building 570 from the 2nd August to the 9th August 2002 included. During this period the service will be closed. Only in case of extreme urgency please call the 164550. Starting from Monday, 12th August, the Locks and Keys Service will continue to follow the activities related to office keys (keys and locks) and will provide the keys for furniture. The service is open from 8h30 to 12h00 and from 13h00 to 17h30. We remind you that your divisional correspondents can help you in the execution of the procedures. We thank you for your comprehension and we remain at your service to help you in solving all the matters related to keys for offices and furniture. Locks and Keys Service - ST Division - FM Group

  11. Micro-finance of Housing: A Key to Housing the Low or Moderate-Income Majority?

    OpenAIRE

    Bruce Ferguson

    1999-01-01

    This paper considers why most households in Latin America and the Caribbean remain unserved by traditional housing finance systems and how micro-finance potentially offers a key to help the low/moderate-income majority meet their shelter needs.

  12. Intelligent card access keys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A newly developed access control technology allows information about users to be stored on key-like EEPROM devices. The keys store encrypted information about the user and his or her authorized access activity. Specially developed key readers scan, decrypt, and process the key data, and make the decision whether entry should be granted or denied. The key readers can function as complete, stand-alone facility management systems, incorporating access control, security monitoring, and remote control. In this configuration, the key readers provide anti-passback protection and other special features without requiring any data lines between readers. The key readers also feature sophisticated algorithmic processing for performing complex operations such as two-man control or cross zoned security annunciation. Key readers can also be interconnected with an MCM-1000 Multiples Monitoring System to form a distributed processing local area network. In such a configuration, changes in key reader status can be uploaded to the MCM-1000, and programming changes and operator commands can be downloaded to the key readers

  13. Policy issues in modern cartography

    CERN Document Server

    Taylor, DRF

    1998-01-01

    Policy Issues in Modern Cartography contains the views of national mapping agencies, legal scholars, the library community, the private sector and academia on these and many other important issues. The book begins with perspectives from national mapping agencies in Britain, Canada and the United States followed by a survey of the situation in Asia. The next three chapters deal primarily with legal issues such as copyright and intellectual property from both North American and European perspectives. Chapter 8 presents an important perspective on the key issues by a representative of the privat

  14. Synopsis of the Review on Space Weather in Latin America: Space Science, Research Networks and Space Weather Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denardini, Clezio Marcos; Dasso, Sergio; Gonzalez-Esparza, Americo

    2016-07-01

    The present work is a synopsis of a three-part review on space weather in Latin America. The first paper (part 1) comprises the evolution of several Latin American institutions investing in space science since the 1960's, focusing on the solar-terrestrial interactions, which today is commonly called space weather. Despite recognizing advances in space research in all of Latin America, this part 1 is restricted to the development observed in three countries in particular (Argentina, Brazil and Mexico), due to the fact that these countries have recently developed operational centers for monitoring space weather. The review starts with a brief summary of the first groups to start working with space science in Latin America. This first part of the review closes with the current status and the research interests of these groups, which are described in relation to the most significant works and challenges of the next decade in order to aid in the solving of space weather open issues. The second paper (part 2) comprises a summary of scientific challenges in space weather research that are considered to be open scientific questions and how they are being addressed in terms of instrumentation by the international community, including the Latin American groups. We also provide an inventory of the networks and collaborations being constructed in Latin America, including details on the data processing, capabilities and a basic description of the resulting variables. These instrumental networks currently used for space science research are gradually being incorporated into the space weather monitoring data pipelines as their data provides key variables for monitoring and forecasting space weather, which allow these centers to monitor space weather and issue warnings and alerts. The third paper (part 3) presents the decision process for the spinning off of space weather prediction centers from space science groups with our interpretation of the reason/opportunities that leads to

  15. Theoretical Issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marc Vanderhaeghen

    2007-04-01

    The theoretical issues in the interpretation of the precision measurements of the nucleon-to-Delta transition by means of electromagnetic probes are highlighted. The results of these measurements are confronted with the state-of-the-art calculations based on chiral effective-field theories (EFT), lattice QCD, large-Nc relations, perturbative QCD, and QCD-inspired models. The link of the nucleon-to-Delta form factors to generalized parton distributions (GPDs) is also discussed.

  16. The Homomorphic Key Agreement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    There are various challenges that are faced in group communication, so it is necessary to ensure session key. Key agreement is the fundamental cryptographic primitive for establishing a secure communication. It is a process of computing a shared secret contributed by two or more entities such that no single node can predetermine the resulting value. An authenticated key agreement is attained by combining the key agreement protocol with digital signatures. After a brief introduction to existing key agreement in group communication, Making use of the additive-multiplicative homomorphism in the integer ring defined by Sander and Tschudin: A new protocols, called the homomorphism key agreement, was designed, which can be self-contributory, robust, scalable and applicable in group communication.

  17. Miscellaneous issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The New Brunswick Market Design Committee has examined several issues regarding the restructuring of the province's electricity sector. This report presents issues that require guidance for implementation, with particular focus on options available for their resolutions. The issues include: (1) rate principles for stranded offer service (SOS) supply, (2) the ability of contestable customers to return to SOS after having left it, (3) whether loads embedded in distribution systems are eligible to participate in the bilateral contract market, (4) whether generators or suppliers can offer capacity and energy to SOS suppliers in competition with the SOS supplier, and (5) details for the balancing market, including pricing, bidding protocols, settlements and how intermittent power sources can participate in the market. A section on pricing for SOS explains pricing principles, the use of export profits, pricing for SOS capacity, and time of use pricing. The Committee has made recommendations for the electricity system in the province to have an energy imbalance service that can move towards a market in order to develop an efficient and effective service. This report also explains pricing in the balancing market, penalties, and settlements. 7 refs

  18. Mega Key Authentication Mechanism

    OpenAIRE

    Kloss, Guy

    2016-01-01

    For secure communication it is not just sufficient to use strong cryptography with good and strong keys, but to actually have the assurance, that the keys in use for it are authentic and from the contact one is expecting to communicate with. Without that, it is possible to be subject to impersonation or man-in-the-middle (MitM) attacks. Mega meets this problem by providing a hierarchical authentication mechanism for contacts and their keys. To avoid any hassle when using multiple types of key...

  19. Anaglyph, South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    This anaglyph (stereoscopic view) of South America was generated with data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). It is best viewed at or near full resolution with anaglyph glasses. For this broad view the resolution of the data was first reduced to 30 arcseconds (about 928 meters north-south but variable east-west), matching the best previously existing global digital topographic data set called GTOPO30. The data were then resampled to a Mercator projection with approximately square pixels (about one kilometer, or 0.6 miles, on each side). Even at this decreased resolution the variety of landforms comprising the South American continent is readily apparent.Topographic relief in South America is dominated by the Andes Mountains, which extend all along the Pacific Coast. These mountains are created primarily by the convergence of the Nazca and South American tectonic plates. The Nazca Plate, which underlies the eastern Pacific Ocean, slides under western South America resulting in crustal thickening, uplift, and volcanism. Another zone of plate convergence occurs along the northwestern coast of South America where the Caribbean Plate also slides under the South American Plate and forms the northeastern extension of the Andes Mountains.East of the Andes, much of northern South America drains into the Amazon River, the world's largest river in terms of both watershed area and flow volume. Topographic relief is very low in much of the Amazon Basin but SRTM data provide an excellent detailed look at the basin's three-dimensional drainage pattern, including the geologic structural trough (syncline) that hosts the eastern river channel.North of the Amazon, the Guiana Highlands commonly stand in sharp contrast to the surrounding lowlands, indeed hosting the world's tallest waterfall, Angel Falls (979 meters or 3212 feet). Folded and fractured bedrock structures are distinctive in the topographic pattern.South of the Amazon, the Brazilian Highlands show a mix of

  20. Fire history on the California Channel Islands spanning human arrival in the Americas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardiman, Mark; Scott, Andrew C; Pinter, Nicholas; Anderson, R Scott; Ejarque, Ana; Carter-Champion, Alice; Staff, Richard A

    2016-06-01

    Recent studies have suggested that the first arrival of humans in the Americas during the end of the last Ice Age is associated with marked anthropogenic influences on landscape; in particular, with the use of fire which, would have given even small populations the ability to have broad impacts on the landscape. Understanding the impact of these early people is complicated by the dramatic changes in climate occurring with the shift from glacial to interglacial conditions. Despite these difficulties, we here attempt to test the extent of anthropogenic influence using the California Channel Islands as a smaller, landscape-scale test bed. These islands are famous for the discovery of the 'Arlington Springs Man', which are some of the earliest human remains in the Americas. A unifying sedimentary charcoal record is presented from Arlington Canyon, Santa Rosa Island, based on over 20 detailed sedimentary sections from eight key localities. Radiocarbon dating was based on thin, fragile, long fragments of charcoal in order to avoid the 'inbuilt' age problem. Radiocarbon dating of 49 such fragments has allowed inferences regarding the fire and landscape history of the Canyon ca 19-11 ka BP. A significant period of charcoal deposition is identified approximately 14-12.5 ka BP and bears remarkable closeness to an estimated age range of the first human arrival on the islands.This article is part of the themed issue 'The interaction of fire and mankind'. PMID:27216524

  1. Education in America. Opposing Viewpoints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cozic, Charles P., Ed.

    This book, part of a series about differing viewpoints on education in America, examines how education can be improved for this and future generations of America's youth. The following papers and their authors are included: "Public Education Needs Extensive Reform" (John Taylor Gatto); "Public Education Does Not Need Extensive Reform" (Gerald…

  2. Locking in on Latin America

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MICHAEL; RICE

    2006-01-01

    China cautious as it sets up generous investment in Latin America The United States is keeping a watchful eye as China bolsters political and economic ties with Latin America. The situation has U.S. political analysts trying to determine just how China s emerging influence

  3. Can Latin America fill the U.S. polyolefin deficit?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strategic issues for the North American polyolefin industry were discussed with reference to oil and gas price forecasts, oil capacity increases, and high density polyethylene production and ethylene integration costs. The overall polyolefin trade balance in North America was also explored. It was cautioned that unless a significant amount of new capacity is built in the United States, it is anticipated that by 2008, the United States will become a net importer of polyolefin resins. Currently exported product will be used increasingly in the domestic market to meet demand growth. This shift from being a net exporter of resins can be attributed to the high cost of feedstocks and the lack of investment in new capacity throughout the region. In contrast, there have been several proposals for new capacity in Latin America in the past several years. Since there is already an important level of commerce and trade between North and South America, countries with access to the Caribbean basin, are logistically well situated to serve the North American market. The availability of low cost feedstocks in countries such as Trinidad, Venezuela and Bolivia add to the attractiveness of the region for the development of new petrochemical capacity. This paper examined the status of the different proposed projects in Latin America and analyzed the potential opportunities that exist for North American producers to collaborate in those projects. The general trade balance of the continent was reviewed in order to verify if the traditional seclusion of America's polyolefin market can be maintained in the future. It was concluded that even if all projects in Latin America are launched, the Americas will still be in a net deficit position. Under the right circumstances, the Middle East will be the global supplier of commodity polyolefins that could extend to the Americas. It was emphasized that companies should be prepared for feedstock advantaged investments, alliances, acquisitions and

  4. Alleviating Urban Energy Poverty in Latin America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-02-15

    This regional study is comprised of three case studies, which concentrate on Greater Buenos Aires, Caracas and Rio de Janeiro - Caju. Each case focuses on the analysis of specific aspects of urban poverty, energy availability and policies to improve living conditions from the energy point of view. Unlike other developing regions in the world, the problem of energy poverty in Latin America has been concentrated increasingly in the large cities and urban areas. This problem has deep systemic, economic, political, structural and cultural roots. Providing basic energy services to the urban poor is an issue that requires far more attention and expertise than it is receiving today, and therefore WEC has taken the initiative to address this issue, and the results of their study are presented in this report.

  5. NOrth AMerica Soil (NOAM-SOIL) Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, D. A.; Waltman, S. W.; Geng, X.; James, D.; Hernandez, L.

    2009-05-01

    NOAM-SOIL is being created by combining the CONUS-SOIL database with pedon data and soil geographic data coverages from Canada and Mexico. Completion of the in-progress NOrth AMerica Soil (NOAM-SOIL) database will provide complete North America coverage comparable to CONUS. Canadian pedons, which number more than 500, have been painstakingly transcribed to a common format, from hardcopy, and key- entered. These data, along with map unit polygons from the 1:1,000,000 Soil Landscapes of Canada, will be used to create the required spatial data coverages. The Mexico data utilizes the INEGI 1:1,000,000 scale soil map that was digitized by U. S. Geological Survey EROS Data Center in the mid 1990's plus about 20,000 pedons. The pedon data were published on the reverse side of the paper 1:250,000 scale Soil Map of Mexico and key entered by USDA and georeferenced by Penn State to develop an attribute database that can be linked to the 1:1,000,000 scale Soil Map of Mexico based on taxonomic information and geographic proximity. The essential properties that will be included in the NOAM-SOIL data base are: layer thickness (depth to bedrock or reported soil depth); available water capacity; sand, silt, clay; rock fragment volume; and bulk density. For quality assurance purposes, Canadian and Mexican soil scientists will provide peer review of the work. The NOAM-SOIL project will provide a standard reference dataset of soil properties for use at 1km resolution by NACP modelers for all of North America. All data resources, including metadata and selected raw data, will be provided through the Penn State web site: Soil Information for Environmental Modeling and Ecosystem Management (www.soilinfo.psu.edu). Progress on database completion is reported.

  6. South America Geologic Map (geo6ag)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — South America is part of Region 6 (Central and South America) for the World Energy Assessment. The geologic map of South America was digitized so that we could use...

  7. Fostering renewable energy markets in North America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Jeremy [North American Comission for Environmental Cooperation (CEC), (United States)

    2007-06-15

    This presentation describes projects, programs and other issues addressed in order to promote renewable energy markets in North America. These are carried out by the North American Commission for Environmental Cooperation (CEC). In the first part of this presentation, there are going to be found some of the rules imposed by the North American Agreement on Environmental Cooperation (NAAEC). Then, it is shown the structure of the CEC as well as its programs, besides, there are presented the environment projects and the objectives along with their respective trades. There are described both benefits environmental and non-environmental. Also, there are shown the issues which the CEC is working in. And finally, it is shown a list mentioning the aspects that would change if: the expansion of the Mexico's Federal Commission of Electricity (CFE), happens, the grid-interconnected and the self supply of Renewable Electricity increase. [Spanish] En esta presentacion se describen los proyectos, los programas y otras cuestiones, cuyo objetivo es impulsar los mercados de energia renovable en America del Norte, realizadas por la North American Commission for Environmental Cooperation. En la primera parte, se encuentran algunas de las reglas impuestas por el Acuerdo de Cooperacion Ambiental de America del Norte (ACAAN). Enseguida, se muestra la estructura y los programas de la Comision para la Cooperacion Ambiental (CCA). Asimismo, se describen los proyectos ambientales, los objetivos junto con sus correspondientes tratados. Mas adelante, se explican tanto los beneficios ambientales como aquellos que no lo son. Igualmente, explican las cuestiones que podrian cambiar de: suceder la expansion de la Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE), incrementarse el auto- suministro de la energia renovable y los sistemas interconectados.

  8. America plans nuclear reprisal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The demand for uranium to be used in the world's nuclear power stations is barely increasing, but the supply is rocketing up. Much of it is coming from the countries of the former Soviet Union and some of it is so cheap that republics such as Russia, the Ukraine and Kazakhstan are being accused of dumping it. The strain is being felt in the uranium-producing countries of southern Africa, Australia and North America. Companies involved in various stages of the nuclear fuel cycle claim that unfairly priced imports form the former Soviet Union are damaging them and they have been busily lobbying authorities in the US and Europe for weeks. US uranium-producing firms, backed by the country's Oil, Chemical and Atomic Worker's Union, have asked the Department of Commerce to impose anti-dumping duties on deliveries of uranium and enriched uranium from the former Soviet republics to the US. (Author)

  9. Fermilab and Latin America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As Director of Fermilab, starting in 1979, I began a series of meetings with scientists in Latin America. The motivation was to stir collaboration in the field of high energy particle physics, the central focus of Fermilab. In the next 13 years, these Pan American Symposia stirred much discussion of the use of modern physics, created several groups to do collaborative research at Fermilab, and often centralized facilities and, today, still provides the possibility for much more productive North-South collaboration in research and education. In 1992, I handed these activities over to the AAAS, as President. This would, I hoped, broaden areas of collaboration. Such collaboration is unfortunately very sensitive to political events. In a rational world, it would be the rewards, cultural and economic, of collaboration that would modulate political relations. We are not there yet

  10. General Issue

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    ORDERING INFORMATION The issue can be ordered by contacting at the Presses Universitaires d'Angers. It will be online in Spring 2015. CONTENTS Linda Collinge-Germain Foreword Mathilde La Cassagnère Heavy nothings in Virginia Woolf’s “Kew Gardens" Daniel Thomières Being and Time in Ernest Hemingway’s “Cat in the Rain” Stella Deen E.H. Young’s “The Stream,” Good Housekeeping, and the Cultivation of Active Readers Alice Clark-Wehinger The p...

  11. Maintaining Security and Trust in Large Scale Public Key Infrastructures

    OpenAIRE

    Braun, Johannes

    2015-01-01

    In Public Key Infrastructures (PKIs), trusted Certification Authorities (CAs) issue public key certificates which bind public keys to the identities of their owners. This enables the authentication of public keys which is a basic prerequisite for the use of digital signatures and public key encryption. These in turn are enablers for e-business, e-government and many other applications, because they allow for secure electronic communication. With the Internet being the primary communicat...

  12. Key Management in Wireless Sensor Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Ismail Mansour; Gérard Chalhoub; Pascal Lafourcade

    2015-01-01

    Wireless sensor networks are a challenging field of research when it comes to security issues. Using low cost sensor nodes with limited resources makes it difficult for cryptographic algorithms to function without impacting energy consumption and latency. In this paper, we focus on key management issues in multi-hop wireless sensor networks. These networks are easy to attack due to the open nature of the wireless medium. Intruders could try to penetrate the network, capture nodes or take cont...

  13. Projected refined product balances in key Latin American countries: A preliminary examination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-06-01

    Over the years, the East-West Center (EWC) has developed considerable expertise in refinery modeling, especially in the area of forecasting product balances for countries, given planned capacity changes, changes in product demand, changes in crude slates, and changes in product specifications. This expertise has been applied on an ongoing basis to the major refiners in the Middle East and the Asia-Pacific region, along with the US West Coast as region in its own right. Refinery modeling in these three areas has been ongoing for nearly 15 years at the Center, and the tools and information sources are now well developed. To date, the EWC has not applied these tools to Latin America. Although research on Latin America has been an ongoing area of concern at the Center in recent years, the information gathered to date is still not of the level of detail nor quality available for other areas. The modeling efforts undertaken in this report are of a ``baseline`` nature, designed to outline the major issues, attempt a first cut at emerging product balances, and, above all, to elicit commentary from those directly involved in the oil industry in the key countries modeled. Our experience in other regions has shown that it takes a few years dialogue with refiners and government planner in individual countries to develop a reliable database, as well as the insights into operational constraints and practices that make accurate modeling possible. This report is no more than a first step down the road.

  14. Introduction: Feature Issue on Optical Imaging and Spectroscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Hielscher, Andreas H.; Mycek, Mary-Ann; Perelman, Lev T.

    2010-01-01

    The editors introduce the Biomedical Optics Express feature issue, “Optical Imaging and Spectroscopy,” which was a technical area at the 2010 Optical Society of America (OSA), Biomedical Optics (BIOMED) Topical Meeting held on 11–14 April in Miami, Florida. The feature issue includes 23 contributions from conference attendees.

  15. State Outlook: Fiscal and Public Policy Issues Affecting Postsecondary Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Association of State Colleges and Universities, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This publication provides a compilation of the issues affecting postsecondary education in America. The contents of this issue include: (1) Overview of Economic and Fiscal Policy Dynamics; (2) July 2010 Economic Snapshot; (3) State Economic Conditions and Budget Outlook; (4) State Budget Pressures; (5) State Budget Realignment Strategies; (6)…

  16. State Outlook: Fiscal and State Policy Issues Affecting Postsecondary Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Association of State Colleges and Universities, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This publication provides a compilation of the issues affecting postsecondary education in America. The contents of this issue include: (1) Overview of Economic and Fiscal Dynamics; (2) Global and Domestic Growth Prospects; (3) Snapshot of Economic Indicators--November 2010; (4) Labor Market Conditions and Post-Recession Economic Impacts; (5)…

  17. Energy security in South America and Southern Africa: synthesis report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In developing countries, the ability to provide adequate and reliable energy supplies is a key to sustainable economic development. The aim of this report is to study the energy supply security in both Southern Africa and South America and how these regions can participate in the international effort to combat climate change. This report showed that South Africa's energy sector mostly relies on carbon intensive coal while Brazil is mainly supplied by hydroelectricity. It was found that in both countries energy needs will increase significantly due to rising demand both internally and at a regional scale. However it was also shown that both Southern Africa and South America have important hydro, solar and wind renewable resources which could enhance their electricity security while minimizing their environmental impacts. This study demonstrated that Southern Africa and South America can enhance their electricity security through the use of renewable energies but that technology and financing is needed to develop the sector.

  18. Remediation issues and activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The United States, like many other countries, faces new challenges as the result of the ending of the cold war and increased emphasis on cleaning up the legacy of the first 50 years of the nuclear age. This paper deals with some key management issues and discusses topics where special management emphasis needs to be placed if wastes are to be safely, economically, and expeditiously dealt with. These topics include the need for comprehensive planning of activities and potential costs; the need for a consistent approach to evaluating risks in prioritizing environmental management activities; the necessity of establishing the future uses of land to be reclaimed; and the implications of residual radionuclide contamination standards. Examples of how the Environmental Management program of the United States Department of Energy is dealing with these issues are discussed. (author). 6 refs, 4 figs, 4 tabs

  19. Teaching nuclear issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper is based on the assumption that the nuclear debate, both globally and within Britain, is one of critical importance in the late twentieth century and that it should therefore, at some juncture, be explored as part of the school curriculum. An essential part of 'good education' in a democratic society is to teach young people how to think about such an issue, but not what to think about it. This paper attempts to set out some of the key issues and dilemmas in relation to what we may call 'nuclear education'. It perhaps asks more questions than it gives answers, but they are all essential questions which teachers must ask themselves if they are to teach sensitively about these matters. Some of these questions are given as examples. (author)

  20. Nuclear options in Latin America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An account is given of the Treaty of Tlatelolco, 1967, providing for the designation of Latin America as a Nuclear Weapon-Free Zone (NWFZ); additional protocols attached to the Treaty are available for signature by States outside the region. The Treaty is administered by the Organisation for the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons in Latin America (OPANAL). Reference is made to its latest meeting, held in May 1983. The present paper also discusses the following: Non-Proliferation Treaty (with references to safeguards agreements concluded between each State and the IAEA); nuclear suppliers' group; peaceful nuclear explosions; nuclear energy programmes in Latin America. (U.K.)

  1. IBC Secured Key Partition for A Peer-To-Peer Network

    OpenAIRE

    Suneeta peddireddy

    2013-01-01

    For identity verification and authentication purposes we introduced an Identity based cryptography (IBC) into peer-to-peer (P2P) . However problems on secure private key issuing could not be addressed by current IBC-based solution. In this paper we present a IBC infrastructure setup phase, a peer registration solution using Shamir’s (k, n) secret sharing scheme, and a secure key issuing scheme, which adopts key generate center (KGC) and key privacy authorities (KPAs) to issue private keys ...

  2. The World energy issue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Power Point document proposes figures and data about the current world energy consumption, the various energy sources, the share of primary energy consumption by different sectors, and the levels of energy reserves. It addresses the issue of global warming (evolution of temperature, regional anomalies, the challenge of limitation of temperature, the greenhouse gas emissions), the strategic role of electricity (energy mix, heat production with electricity), energy savings, electricity production (key data on solar, wind, solar and biomass energy, possibilities of carbon capture, nuclear energy, costs of these different energies)

  3. Indonesia; Selected Issues

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    2004-01-01

    This Selected Issues paper takes stock of the progress made in meeting the objectives under Indonesia’s Extended Arrangements (1998–2003) program. The paper addresses progress in achieving the programs’ core macroeconomic objectives, with an emphasis on how Indonesia’s economic recovery compares with those of the other major Asian “crisis†countries. A major conclusion of the paper is that, while significant progress has been made against many of the key objectives of the arrangeme...

  4. Advanced reactor licensing issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In July 1986 the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission issued a Policy Statement on the Regulation of Advanced Nuclear Power Plants. As part of this policy advanced reactor designers were encouraged to interact with NRC early in the design process to obtain feedback regarding licensing requirements for advanced reactors. Accordingly, the staff has been interacting with the Department of Energy (DOE) and its contractors on the review of three advanced reactor conceptual designs: one modular High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor (MHTGR) and two Liquid Metal Reactors (LMRs). As a result of these interactions certain safety issues associated with these advanced reactor designs have been identified as key to the licensability of the designs as proposed by DOE. The major issues in this regard are: (1) selection and treatment of accident scenarios; (2) selection of siting source term; (3) performance and reliability of reactor shutdown and decay heat removal systems; (4) need for conventional containment; (5) need for conventional emergency evacuation; (6) role of the operator; (7) treatment of balance of plant; and (8) modular approach. This paper provides a status of the NRC review effort, describes the above issues in more detail and provides the current status and approach to the development of licensing guidance on each

  5. An Efficient Key Agreement Framework to MANET

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Shun-man; TAO Ran; WANG Yue

    2006-01-01

    Protocols for key management are compared and evaluated from the point of view on mobile ad hoc networks (MANET). The issues of fault-tolerance and efficiency of key distribution protocols for group communications in MANET are addressed. Most key distribution protocols existing today are primarily designed for wire-line networks. These protocols either fail to work as intended or cannot work at all when they are applied to the demanding environment of MANET. Parameters and performance of different protocols are analyzed, and then a flat is given out, on which new protocols or existing ones are designed and modified, so that they can be robust, scalable and efficient in MANET.

  6. Helioclimatology of the Americas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurtaev, B. S.; Yakubov, M.; Shermatov, E.

    2013-05-01

    During the last 4 billion years, the Earth's climate has changed many times. There have been periods of warming and there have been ice ages. These large-scale climatic changes are shaped by factors like the tilt of the Earth's axis and tectonic plate movement. These major changes were driven by cyclical changes in the Earth's orbit, which altered the distribution of solar energy between the seasons and across the Earth. Milankovitch cycles explain well changes in climate over periods hundreds of thousands of years and are related to ice age cycles, but these cycles cannot explain the current rapid warming. The Sun is the most driving force for causing climate change. Much of the Sun energy evaporates water and causes atmospheric convection. Solar radiation, general circulation of atmosphere, geographical location of continents, oceans and the largest forms of a relief are the primary factors influencing on climate of lands. The purpose of this study is to identify contribution of the Sun on climate variability in the two continents, North and South America during instrumental records of air temperature. There were compared air temperatures of different weather stations in dependence from solar activity during the period 1878-1996. The high correlation between averaged temperature and solar activity was found for many weather stations of Americas. Air temperature in dependence from solar activity over the period 1878-1996 can be described by following equations: In Buenos Aires: T° = 0,04W+ 15,05, r-0,9; Caracas, Venezuela: T° = 0,03W + 18,88, r-0,73; Cordoba, Argentina: T° = 0,03W + 16,16, r-0,93; New York, Central Park: T° = 0,04W + 9,86, r-0,82; Toronto, T = 0,03W+ 6,66, r-0,81; Santiago Pudahuel, T= 0,019W + 13, 01, r - 0, 91; Rio de Janeiro:T°= 0,02W + 21,95, r= 0,88; Mexico over 1923-1986, T°= 0,021W+ 14,05, r-0,78; Miami over 1902-1996, T = 0,012W + 12,87 r-0,75; In our study, we used stations with reasonably long, consistently measured time records

  7. Key concepts in energy

    CERN Document Server

    Madureira, Nuno Luis

    2014-01-01

    Highlights how key energy concepts surfaced, tracing their evolution throughout history to encompasses four economic concepts and four technological-engineering concepts developed through their history to conclude with current economic and environmental sciences Considers the process of energy-substitutions through complementary usages, hybridization and technological mixes Combines a conceptual approach with key theoretical concepts from engineering, geological and economic sciences providing cross disciplinary overview of energy fundamentals in a short and focused reading

  8. Secret Key Crypto Implementations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertoni, Guido Marco; Melzani, Filippo

    This chapter presents the algorithm selected in 2001 as the Advanced Encryption Standard. This algorithm is the base for implementing security and privacy based on symmetric key solutions in almost all new applications. Secret key algorithms are used in combination with modes of operation to provide different security properties. The most used modes of operation are presented in this chapter. Finally an overview of the different techniques of software and hardware implementations is given.

  9. 教育学研究的热点与重点——对2011年人大复印报刊资料《教育学》转载论文的分析与展望%Hot and Key Issues of Pedagogy Research --Analysis and Prospect of Papers Reprinted in Pedagogy of Chinese People "s University Reduplication of Published Materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宣小红; 李德刚; 谭烨; 王静; 招斯喆; 唐梦影

    2012-01-01

    通过对中国人民大学复印报刊资料《教育学》转载论文的统计分析,可以看出,2011年教育学研究的热点集中于教育公平、学前教育、公民教育、教师专业发展、教育评价等问题,质性研究方法、教育隐喻、儿童游戏等也是教育学研究的重点问题。在未来教育学研究的发展中,将关注社会主义核心价值体系教育、义务教育均衡发展、教育投入及经费支配等问题。%With the statistic analysis on papers reprinted in Pedagogy of Chinese People's University Reduplication of Published Materials, it is found out that the hot issues in pedagogy mainly focus on the issues as educational equity, preschool education, citizenship education, professional development of teacher, educational evaluation, etc. The qualitative research method, educational metaphor, children games are also the key issues of the research in pedagogy. In the development of pedagogy research, the issues as socialism key values education, balanced development of compulsory education, educational investment and funds control, etc., will be caused great attention.

  10. Violence in America's Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    William Gladden Foundation, York, PA.

    This booklet is concerned with the issue of school violence. The introductory section provides examples of violence in schools and notes that the Centers for Disease Control state that 1 student in 5 takes a weapon to school and 1 in 20 carries a gun. It is further noted that urban schools in the major metropolitan areas have the greatest risk of…

  11. Immigration: Coming to America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Kristin

    2011-01-01

    To say that immigration is currently a controversial issue would be an understatement. The media is rife with misinformation and does a very poor job of making the critical distinction between legal and illegal immigration. Because of this, it is vitally important that libraries provide students with clear and unbiased material on the topic. In…

  12. Is America in Decline?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prowse, Michael

    1992-01-01

    Rather than decline, the issues are increased equality among industrialized nations, increased U.S. social inequality, and social implications of the new economy. The best way to tackle growing social inequality is by reshaping education to give workers the skills needed for this new economy. (JOW)

  13. Introduction strategies raise key questions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finger, W R; Keller, S

    1995-09-01

    Key issues that must be considered before a new contraceptive is introduced center on the need for a trained provider to begin or terminate the method, its side effects, duration of use, method's ability to meet users' needs and preferences, and extra training or staff requirements. Logistics and economic issues to consider are identifying a dependable way of effectively supplying commodities, planning extra services needed for the method, and cost of providing the method. Each contraceptive method presents a different side effect pattern and burdens the service delivery setting differently. The strategy developed to introduce or expand the 3-month injectable Depo-Provera (DMPA) can be used for any method. It includes a needs assessment and addresses regulatory issues, service delivery policies and procedures, information and training, evaluation, and other concerns. Viet Nam's needs assessment showed that Norplant should not be introduced until the service delivery system becomes stronger. Any needs assessment for expansion of contraceptive services should cover sexually transmitted disease/HIV issues. A World Health Organization strategy helps officials identify the best method mix for local situations. Introductory strategies must aim to improve the quality of family planning programs and expand choices. Many begin by examining existing data and conducting interviews with policymakers, users, providers, and women's health advocates. Introductory programs for Norplant focus on provider training, adequate counseling and informed consent for users, and ready access to removal. They need a well-prepared service delivery infrastructure. The first phase of the DMPA introductory strategy for the Philippines comprised a social marketing campaign and DMPA introduction at public clinics in 10 pilot areas with strong service delivery. Successful AIDS prevention programs show that people tend to use barrier methods when they are available. USAID is currently studying

  14. Geoparks in Latin America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A Geopark is a territory delimited part of a holistic concept of protection, education and sustainable development, based on geological sites of particular importance, rarity or aesthetic geological sites. A Geopark achieves its goals through three main areas: geoconservation, education and geotourism. The first network of Geoparks born in Europe in 2000, and from 2004 UNESCO is promoting the creation of a Global Geoparks Network (Global Geoparks Network, GGN ). Currently, there are 64 Global Geoparks in 19 countries, and the movement is in full development. In Latin America there is hardly Araripe Geopark in Brazil. Presented in this work, projects and studies related to the development of Geoparks in Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Costa Rica, Peru and Venezuela. We understand that Colombia, Cuba, Ecuador, Mexico and Nicaragua have projects in this line, but the details are not yet readily available. The authors invite geoscientists and professionals in related fields to join a movement for the creation of the Latin American Network of Geoparks, intended as a framework for the conservation, sustainable use and disclosure of our national geological heritage

  15. Wind Powering America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At the June 1999 Windpower Conference, the Secretary of Energy launched the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy's Wind Powering America (WPA) initiative. The goals of the initiative are to meet 5% of the nation's energy needs with wind energy by 2020 (i.e., 80,000 megawatts installed), to double the number of states that have more than 20 megawatts (MW) of wind capacity to 16 by 2005 and triple it to 24 by 2010, and to increase wind's contribution to Federal electricity use to 5% by 2010. To achieve the Federal government's goal, DOE would take the leadership position and work with its Federal partners. Subsequently, the Secretary accelerated the DOE 5% commitment to 2005. Achieving the 80,000 MW goal would result in approximately$60 billion investment and$1.5 billion of economic development in our rural areas (where the wind resources are the greatest). The purpose of this paper is to provide an update on DOE's strategy for achieving its goals and the activities it has undertaken since the initiative was announced

  16. Heart Failure Society of America

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Site Terms and Conditions Copyright © 2016 Heart Failure Society of America. All Rights Reserved 2016 Board Review ... Membership Membership Information Membership in the Heart Failure Society is open to all health care professionals with ...

  17. [Italian emigration to the Americas].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerase, F P

    1987-01-01

    The author reviews the literature on structural conditions and other factors involved in Italian migration to the Americas. The actual migratory experience and the effects of migration on the areas of origin are also discussed. PMID:12268612

  18. ScaleUp America Communities

    Data.gov (United States)

    Small Business Administration — SBA’s new ScaleUp America Initiative is designed to help small firms with high potential “scale up” and grow their businesses so that they will provide more jobs...

  19. Crohn's & Colitis Foundation of America

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the full interactive experience. Crohn's & Colitis Foundation of America Find a Doctor Find a support group Log ... Findings about IBD at Crohn’s & Colitis Foundation of America’s Advances in Inflammatory Bowel Diseases Clinical and Research ...

  20. African Ethnobotany in the Americas

    OpenAIRE

    Zent, Egleé L

    2013-01-01

    Review of African Ethnobotany in the Americas. Edited by Robert Voeks and John Rashford. 2013. Springer. Pp. 429, 105 illustrations, 69 color illustrations. $49.95 (paperback). ISBN 978‐1461408352.