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Sample records for ameliorates visceral obesity

  1. Peripheral oxytocin treatment ameliorates obesity by reducing food intake and visceral fat mass.

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    Maejima, Yuko; Iwasaki, Yusaku; Yamahara, Yui; Kodaira, Misato; Sedbazar, Udval; Yada, Toshihiko

    2011-12-01

    Recent studies suggest that oxytocin (Oxt) is implicated in energy metabolism. We aimed to explore acute and sub-chronic effects of peripheral Oxt treatment via different routes on food intake and energy balance. Intraperitoneal (ip) injection of Oxt concentration-dependently decreased food intake in mice. Ip Oxt injection induced c-Fos expression in the hypothalamus and brain stem including arcuate nucleus (ARC), paraventricular nucleus (PVN) and nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS). Subcutaneous (sc) injection of Oxt suppressed food intake in normal and high fat diet-induced obese (DIO) mice. Daily sc injection of Oxt for 17 days in DIO mice reduced food intake for 6 days and body weight for the entire treatment period and additional 9 days after terminating Oxt. Oxt infusion by sc implanted osmotic minipumps for 13 days in DIO mice reduced food intake, body weight, and visceral fat mass and adipocyte size. Oxt infusion also decreased respiratory quotient specifically in light phase, ameliorated fatty liver and glucose intolerance, without affecting normal blood pressure in DIO mice. These results demonstrate that peripheral Oxt treatment reduces food intake and visceral fat mass, and ameliorates obesity, fatty liver and glucose intolerance. Peripheral Oxt treatment provides a new therapeutic avenue for treating obesity and hyperphagia.

  2. Garcinia cambogia extract ameliorates visceral adiposity in C57BL/6J mice fed on a high-fat diet.

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    Kim, Keun-Young; Lee, Hye Nam; Kim, Yun Jung; Park, Taesun

    2008-07-01

    The aim of present study is to evaluate the effects of Garcinia cambogia on the mRNA levels of the various genes involved in adipogenesis, as well as on body weight gain, visceral fat accumulation, and other biochemical markers of obesity in obesity-prone C57BL/6J mice. Consumption of the Garcinia cambogia extract effectively lowered the body weight gain, visceral fat accumulation, blood and hepatic lipid concentrations, and plasma insulin and leptin levels in a high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity mouse model. The Garcinia cambogia extract reversed the HFD-induced changes in the expression pattern of such epididymal adipose tissue genes as adipocyte protein aP2 (aP2), sterol regulatory element-binding factor 1c (SREBP1c), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma2 (PPARgamma2), and CCAT/enhancer-binding protein alpha (C/EBPalpha). These findings suggest that the Garcinia cambogia extract ameliorated HFD-induced obesity, probably by modulating multiple genes associated with adipogenesis, such as aP2, SREBP1c, PPARgamma2, and C/EBPalpha in the visceral fat tissue of mice.

  3. Morphological and inflammatory changes in visceral adipose tissue during obesity.

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    Revelo, Xavier S; Luck, Helen; Winer, Shawn; Winer, Daniel A

    2014-03-01

    Obesity is a major health burden worldwide and is a major factor in the development of insulin resistance and metabolic complications such as type II diabetes. Chronic nutrient excess leads to visceral adipose tissue (VAT) expansion and dysfunction in an active process that involves the adipocytes, their supporting matrix, and immune cell infiltrates. These changes contribute to adipose tissue hypoxia, adipocyte cell stress, and ultimately cell death. Accumulation of lymphocytes, macrophages, and other immune cells around dying adipocytes forms the so-called "crown-like structure", a histological hallmark of VAT in obesity. Cross talk between immune cells in adipose tissue dictates the overall inflammatory response, ultimately leading to the production of pro-inflammatory mediators which directly induce insulin resistance in VAT. In this review, we summarize recent studies demonstrating the dramatic changes that occur in visceral adipose tissue during obesity leading to low-grade chronic inflammation and metabolic disease.

  4. Stress, visceral obesity, and metabolic complications.

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    Kyrou, Ioannis; Chrousos, George P; Tsigos, Constantine

    2006-11-01

    Stress is a state of threatened homeostasis or disharmony caused by intrinsic or extrinsic adverse forces and is counteracted by an intricate repertoire of physiologic and behavioral responses that aim to reestablish the challenged body equilibrium. The adaptive stress response depends upon an elaborate neuroendocrine, cellular, and molecular infrastructure, the stress system. Crucial functions of the stress system response are mediated by the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and the central and peripheral components of the autonomic nervous system (ANS). The integrity of the HPA axis and the ANS and their precise interactions with other CNS components are essential for a successful response to the various stressors. Chronic stress represents a prolonged threat to homeostasis by persistent or frequently repeated stressors and may lead to manifestations that characterize a wide range of diseases and syndromes. Such states progressively lead to a deleterious overload with complications caused by both the persistent stressor and the detrimental prolongation of the adaptive response. The metabolic syndrome can be described as a state of deranged metabolic homeostasis characterized by the combination of central obesity, insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, and hypertension. The incidence of both obesity and the metabolic syndrome in modern Western societies has taken epidemic proportions over the past decades and often correlates with indices of stress in the affected populations. Stress, primarily through hyperactivation of the HPA axis, appears to contribute to the accumulation of fat tissue, and vice versa, obesity itself seems to constitute a chronic stressful state and may cause HPA axis dysfunction. In addition, the description of obesity as a systemic low grade inflammatory condition that contributes to the derangement of the metabolic equilibrium implies that the proinflammatory cytokines which are secreted by the adipocytes hold a potentially important

  5. Visceral obesity and psychosocial stress: a generalised control theory model

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    Wallace, Rodrick

    2016-07-01

    The linking of control theory and information theory via the Data Rate Theorem and its generalisations allows for construction of necessary conditions statistical models of body mass regulation in the context of interaction with a complex dynamic environment. By focusing on the stress-related induction of central obesity via failure of HPA axis regulation, we explore implications for strategies of prevention and treatment. It rapidly becomes evident that individual-centred biomedical reductionism is an inadequate paradigm. Without mitigation of HPA axis or related dysfunctions arising from social pathologies of power imbalance, economic insecurity, and so on, it is unlikely that permanent changes in visceral obesity for individuals can be maintained without constant therapeutic effort, an expensive - and likely unsustainable - public policy.

  6. Obesity Takes Its Toll on Visceral Pain: High-Fat Diet Induces Toll-Like Receptor 4-Dependent Visceral Hypersensitivity.

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    Mónica Tramullas

    Full Text Available Exposure to high-fat diet induces both, peripheral and central alterations in TLR4 expression. Moreover, functional TLR4 is required for the development of high-fat diet-induced obesity. Recently, central alterations in TLR4 expression have been associated with the modulation of visceral pain. However, it remains unknown whether there is a functional interaction between the role of TLR4 in diet-induced obesity and in visceral pain. In the present study we investigated the impact of long-term exposure to high-fat diet on visceral pain perception and on the levels of TLR4 and Cd11b (a microglial cell marker protein expression in the prefrontal cortex (PFC and hippocampus. Peripheral alterations in TLR4 were assessed following the stimulation of spleenocytes with the TLR4-agonist LPS. Finally, we evaluated the effect of blocking TLR4 on visceral nociception, by administering TAK-242, a selective TLR4-antagonist. Our results demonstrated that exposure to high-fat diet induced visceral hypersensitivity. In parallel, enhanced TLR4 expression and microglia activation were found in brain areas related to visceral pain, the PFC and the hippocampus. Likewise, peripheral TLR4 activity was increased following long-term exposure to high-fat diet, resulting in an increased level of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Finally, TLR4 blockage counteracted the hyperalgesic phenotype present in mice fed on high-fat diet. Our data reveal a role for TLR4 in visceral pain modulation in a model of diet-induced obesity, and point to TLR4 as a potential therapeutic target for the development of drugs to treat visceral hypersensitivity present in pathologies associated to fat diet consumption.

  7. Cut-Off Values of Visceral Adiposity to Predict NAFLD in Brazilian Obese Adolescents

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    Ana Paula Grotti Clemente

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. The present study aimed at determining cut-off points of visceral fat to predict NAFLD and analyzed metabolic disorders of obese adolescents. Methods. Cross-sectional study involved 165 obese adolescents ranged in age from 15 to 19 years. Glycemia, hepatic transaminases, lipid profile, and insulin resistance were analyzed. Visceral and subcutaneous fat were measured by ultrasound and body composition by plesthysmography. Results. The NAFLD adolescents had significantly higher values for body mass, BMI-for-age, BMI, total fat, waist circumference, and visceral fat when compared with non-NAFLD obese adolescents in both genders. Moreover, there were significant positive correlations between visceral fat with the variables BMI-for-age (r=0.325,, TG (r=0.277, AST (r=0.509, ALT (r=0.519, WC (r=0.390, and visceral/subcutaneous ratio (r=0.790 for NAFLD group. Total fat, triglycerides, and visceral fat were the independent predictors to NAFLD. Analysis of the ROC curves revealed cut-off points of visceral fat of 4.47 cm for girls and 4.21 cm for boys. Conclusions. The results may suggest that abdominal ultrasonography procedure may be a safe alternative method of assessing visceral adiposity aiming to be considered to the development of preventive and treatment strategies in obese individuals. This clinial trial is registered with ClinicalTrial.gov (NCT01358773.

  8. Pregnancy Complicated by Obesity Induces Global Transcript Expression Alterations in Visceral and Subcutaneous Fat

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    Bashiri, Asher; Heo, Hye J.; Ben-Avraham, Danny; Mazor, Moshe; Budagov, Temuri; Einstein, Francine H.; Atzmon, Gil

    2014-01-01

    Maternal obesity is a significant risk factor for development of both maternal and fetal metabolic complications. Increase in visceral fat and insulin resistance is a metabolic hallmark of pregnancy, yet little is known how obesity alters adipose cellular function and how this may contribute to pregnancy morbidities. We sought to identify alterations in genome-wide transcription expression in both visceral (omental) and abdominal subcutaneous fat deposits in pregnancy complicated by obesity. Visceral and abdominal subcutaneous fat deposits were collected from normal weight and obese pregnant women (n=4/group) at time of scheduled uncomplicated cesarean section. A genome-wide expression array (Affymetrix Human Exon 1.0 st platform), validated by quantitative real-time PCR, was utilized to establish the gene transcript expression profile in both visceral and abdominal subcutaneous fat in normal weight and obese pregnant women. Global alteration in gene expression was identified in pregnancy complicated by obesity. These regions of variations lead to identification of indolethylamine N-methyltransferase (INMT), tissue factor pathway inhibitor-2 (TFPI-2), and ephrin type-B receptor 6 (EPHB6), not previously associated with fat metabolism during pregnancy. In addition, subcutaneous fat of obese pregnant women demonstrated increased coding protein transcripts associated with apoptosis compared to lean counterparts. Global alteration of gene expression in adipose tissue may contribute to adverse pregnancy outcomes associated with obesity. PMID:24696292

  9. Pregnancy complicated by obesity induces global transcript expression alterations in visceral and subcutaneous fat.

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    Bashiri, Asher; Heo, Hye J; Ben-Avraham, Danny; Mazor, Moshe; Budagov, Temuri; Einstein, Francine H; Atzmon, Gil

    2014-08-01

    Maternal obesity is a significant risk factor for development of both maternal and fetal metabolic complications. Increase in visceral fat and insulin resistance is a metabolic hallmark of pregnancy, yet not much is known how obesity alters adipose cellular function and how this may contribute to pregnancy morbidities. We sought to identify alterations in genome-wide transcription expression in both visceral (omental) and abdominal subcutaneous fat deposits in pregnancy complicated by obesity. Visceral and abdominal subcutaneous fat deposits were collected from normal weight and obese pregnant women (n = 4/group) at the time of scheduled uncomplicated cesarean section. A genome-wide expression array (Affymetrix Human Exon 1.0 st platform), validated by quantitative real-time PCR, was utilized to establish the gene transcript expression profile in both visceral and abdominal subcutaneous fat in normal weight and obese pregnant women. Global alteration in gene expression was identified in pregnancy complicated by obesity. These regions of variations led to identification of indolethylamine N-methyltransferase, tissue factor pathway inhibitor-2, and ephrin type-B receptor 6, not previously associated with fat metabolism during pregnancy. In addition, subcutaneous fat of obese pregnant women demonstrated increased coding protein transcripts associated with apoptosis as compared to lean counterparts. Global alteration of gene expression in adipose tissue may contribute to adverse pregnancy outcomes associated with obesity.

  10. Growth hormone ameliorates adipose dysfunction during oxidative stress and inflammation and improves glucose tolerance in obese mice.

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    Fukushima, M; Okamoto, Y; Katsumata, H; Ishikawa, M; Ishii, S; Okamoto, M; Minami, S

    2014-08-01

    Patients with adult growth hormone deficiency exhibit visceral fat accumulation, which gives rise to a cluster of metabolic disorders such as impaired glucose tolerance and dyslipidemia. Plasma growth hormone levels are lower in obese patients with metabolic syndrome than in healthy subjects. Here we examined the hypothesis that exogenous growth hormone administration regulates function of adipose tissue to improve glucose tolerance in diet-induced obese mice. Twelve-week-old obese male C57BL/6 J mice received bovine growth hormone daily for 6 weeks. In epididymal fat, growth hormone treatment antagonized diet-induced changes in the gene expression of adiponectin, leptin, and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, and significantly increased the gene expression of interleukin-10 and CD206. Growth hormone also suppressed the accumulation of oxidative stress marker, thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances, in the epididymal fat and enhanced the gene expression of anti-oxidant enzymes. Moreover, growth hormone significantly restored glucose tolerance in obese mice. In cultured 3T3-L1 adipocytes, growth hormone prevented the decline in adiponectin gene expression in the presence of hydrogen peroxide. These results suggest that growth hormone administration ameliorates glucose intolerance in obese mice presumably by decreasing adipose mass, oxidative stress, and chronic inflammation in the visceral fat.

  11. Visceral obesity is associated with microalbuminuria in nondiabetic Asians.

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    Kim, Hyunsuk; Kim, Hyo Jin; Shin, Nara; Han, Miyeon; Park, HyoEun; Kim, Minkyung; Kwon, Hyuktae; Choi, Su-Yeon; Heo, Nam Ju

    2014-07-01

    Microalbuminuria is an indicator of renal disease and is known to be related to obesity. The aim of this study is to investigate the association between the cross-sectional area of visceral adipose tissue (VAT) and the prevalence of microalbuminuria. We conducted a cross-sectional study of 1154 subjects who underwent routine checkups, including computed tomography (CT) scans of abdominal adipose tissue. We used the lowest tertile as a reference of abdominal fat. The highest tertile of VAT was related to the highest prevalence of microalbuminuria (odds ratio (OR): 1.96; 95% CI: 1.12-3.43). Subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) was not associated with microalbuminuria. In men, the highest tertile for VAT was associated with the highest prevalence of microalbuminuria (OR: 2.74; 95% CI: 1.44-5.22). In women, VAT or SAT was not associated with microalbuminuria. In nondiabetic subjects, the highest tertile for VAT was associated with the highest prevalence of microalbuminuria (OR: 2.23; 95% CI: 1.15-4.32). Among subjects without metabolic syndrome or with body mass index microalbuminuria in age- and sex-adjusted model, respectively (OR: 1.62; 95% CI: 1.01-2.31; OR: 2.21; 95% CI: 1.05-4.65). The analysis of the association of VAT and insulin resistance (IR) indicated that a higher VAT was associated with a higher IR (highest tertile for VAT-OR: 2.91; 95% CI: 1.70-4.96). In conclusion, the highest VAT of the current study was significantly correlated with the highest prevalence of microalbuminuria, even in traditionally low-risk subjects without diabetes, and this association is potentially related with a higher IR.

  12. Vitamin A decreases pre-receptor amplification of glucocorticoids in obesity: study on the effect of vitamin A on 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 activity in liver and visceral fat of WNIN/Ob obese rats

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    Ayyalasomayajula Vajreswari

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11β-HSD1 catalyzes the conversion of inactive glucocorticoids to active glucocorticoids and its inhibition ameliorates obesity and metabolic syndrome. So far, no studies have reported the effect of dietary vitamin A on 11β-HSD1 activity in visceral fat and liver under normal and obese conditions. Here, we studied the effect of chronic feeding of vitamin A-enriched diet (129 mg/kg diet on 11β-HSD1 activity in liver and visceral fat of WNIN/Ob lean and obese rats. Methods Male, 5-month-old, lean and obese rats of WNIN/Ob strain (n = 16 for each phenotype were divided into two subgroups consisting of 8 rats of each phenotype. Control groups received stock diet containing 2.6 mg vitamin A/kg diet, where as experimental groups received diet containing 129 mg vitamin A/Kg diet for 20 weeks. Food and water were provided ad libitum. At the end of the experiment, tissues were collected and 11β-HSD1 activity was assayed in liver and visceral fat. Results Vitamin A supplementation significantly decreased body weight, visceral fat mass and 11β-HSD1 activity in visceral fat of WNIN/Ob obese rats. Hepatic 11β-HSD1 activity and gene expression were significantly reduced by vitamin A supplementation in both the phenotypes. CCAAT/enhancer binding protein α (C/EBPα, the main transcription factor essential for the expression of 11β-HSD1, decreased in liver of vitamin A fed-obese rats, but not in lean rats. Liver × receptor α (LXRα, a nuclear transcription factor which is known to downregulate 11β-HSD1 gene expression was significantly increased by vitamin A supplementation in both the phenotypes. Conclusions This study suggests that chronic consumption of vitamin A-enriched diet decreases 11β-HSD1 activity in liver and visceral fat of WNIN/Ob obese rats. Decreased 11β-HSD1 activity by vitamin A may result in decreased levels of active glucocorticoids in adipose tissue and possibly

  13. Plasma adiponectin: a contributing factor for cardiac changes in visceral obesity-associated hypertension.

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    Di Chiara, Tiziana; Licata, Anna; Argano, Christiano; Duro, Giovanni; Corrao, Salvatore; Scaglione, Rosario

    2014-06-01

    This study has been designed to evaluate the impact of adiponectin levels on left ventricular geometry and function in visceral obesity-associated hypertension. 94 consecutive subjects, 53 of them were hypertensives and 41 normotensives with age ≤ 65 years, subgrouped according to the presence or absence of visceral obesity, were studied. Total adiponectin levels were measured by a validated competitive radioimmunoassay. Left ventricular telediastolic internal diameter, interventricular septum, posterior wall thickness, total left ventricular mass (LVM) and normalized for height to the 2.7 power (LVM/h(2.7)), relative wall thickness, left ventricular ejection fraction by echocardiography and isovolumic relaxation time, E/A ratio and deceleration time of E velocity, by pulsed-wave Doppler, were calculated. Plasma adiponectin levels were significantly lower in visceral obesity-associated hypertensives than lean hypertensives (p hypertensive groups, and in visceral obesity-associated normotensives in comparison with lean normotensives. Adiponectin levels correlated inversely with LVM/h(2.7) but only in normotensives (adjusted R squared 0.77, p hypertensives (0.67, p obesity. Multiple regression analysis indicated that adiponectin levels remain significantly associated (p obesity-associated normotensive and hypertensive subjects. In this last group, adiponectin, more than blood pressure, may be able to explain the development of cardiac damage.

  14. Visceral adipose inflammation in obesity is associated with critical alterations in tregulatory cell numbers.

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    Jeffrey Deiuliis

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The development of insulin resistance (IR in mouse models of obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM is characterized by progressive accumulation of inflammatory macrophages and subpopulations of T cells in the visceral adipose. Regulatory T cells (Tregs may play a critical role in modulating tissue inflammation via their interactions with both adaptive and innate immune mechanisms. We hypothesized that an imbalance in Tregs is a critical determinant of adipose inflammation and investigated the role of Tregs in IR/obesity through coordinated studies in mice and humans. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Foxp3-green fluorescent protein (GFP "knock-in" mice were randomized to a high-fat diet intervention for a duration of 12 weeks to induce DIO/IR. Morbidly obese humans without overt type 2 DM (n = 13 and lean controls (n = 7 were recruited prospectively for assessment of visceral adipose inflammation. DIO resulted in increased CD3(+CD4(+, and CD3(+CD8(+ cells in visceral adipose with a striking decrease in visceral adipose Tregs. Treg numbers in visceral adipose inversely correlated with CD11b(+CD11c(+ adipose tissue macrophages (ATMs. Splenic Treg numbers were increased with up-regulation of homing receptors CXCR3 and CCR7 and marker of activation CD44. In-vitro differentiation assays showed an inhibition of Treg differentiation in response to conditioned media from inflammatory macrophages. Human visceral adipose in morbid obesity was characterized by an increase in CD11c(+ ATMs and a decrease in foxp3 expression. CONCLUSIONS: Our experiments indicate that obesity in mice and humans results in adipose Treg depletion. These changes appear to occur via reduced local differentiation rather than impaired homing. Our findings implicate a role for Tregs as determinants of adipose inflammation.

  15. Combined impact of cardiorespiratory fitness and visceral adiposity on metabolic syndrome in overweight and obese adults in Korea.

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    Sue Kim

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Obesity, especially visceral obesity, is known to be an important correlate for cardiovascular disease and increased mortality. On the other hand, high cardiorespiratory fitness is suggested to be an effective contributor for reducing this risk. This study was conducted to determine the combined impact of cardiorespiratory fitness and visceral adiposity, otherwise known as fitness and fatness, on metabolic syndrome in overweight and obese adults. METHODS: A total of 232 overweight and obese individuals were grouped into four subtypes according to their fitness level. This was measured by recovery heart rate from a step test in addition to visceral adiposity defined as the visceral adipose tissue area to subcutaneous adipose tissue area ratio (VAT/SAT ratio. Associations of fitness and visceral fatness were analyzed in comparison with the prevalence of metabolic syndrome. RESULTS: The high visceral fat and low fitness group had the highest prevalence of metabolic syndrome [Odds Ratio (OR 5.02; 95% Confidence Interval (CI 1.85-13.61] compared with the reference group, which was the low visceral adiposity and high fitness group, after adjustments for confounding factors. Viscerally lean but unfit subjects were associated with a higher prevalence of metabolic syndrome than more viscerally obese but fit subjects (OR 3.42; 95% CI 1.27-9.19, and OR 2.70; 95% CI 1.01-7.25, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Our study shows that visceral obesity and fitness levels are cumulatively associated with a higher prevalence of metabolic syndrome in healthy overweight and obese adults. This suggests that cardiorespiratory fitness is a significant modifier in the relation of visceral adiposity to adverse metabolic outcomes in overweight and obese individuals.

  16. Association of low muscle mass and combined low muscle mass and visceral obesity with low cardiorespiratory fitness.

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    Tae Nyun Kim

    Full Text Available Previous studies have shown that low cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF, visceral obesity and low muscle mass may share pathophysiological mechanisms, such as insulin resistance and chronic inflammation. In this study, we investigated whether low CRF is associated with low muscle mass, visceral obesity, and visceral obesity combined with low muscle mass.The associations between CRF and low muscle mass and combined low muscle mass and visceral obesity were examined in 298 apparently healthy adults aged 20-70 years. Low muscle mass was defined using a skeletal muscle mass index (SMI that was calculated using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. Visceral obesity was defined as a visceral fat area (VFA exceeding 100 cm2 in women and 130 cm2 in men. We classified the participants into 4 low muscle mass/visceral obesity groups according to SMI and VFA. CRF was measured using a cycle ergometer test.CRF level correlated positively with SMI and negatively with VFA. Individuals with low muscle mass had lower CRF values than those without low muscle mass. After adjustment for age, sex, lifestyle factors, and markers for insulin resistance and inflammation, participants in the lowest quartile of CRF had an odds ratio (OR for low muscle mass of 4.98 compared with those in the highest quartile (95% confidence interval (CI = 1.19-12.99; P for trend = 0.001 and an OR for combined low muscle mass and visceral obesity of 31.46 (95% CI = 4.31-229.68; P for trend = 0.001.Individuals with lower CRF exhibited increased risk of low muscle mass and combined low muscle mass and visceral obesity. These results suggest that low CRF may be a potential indicator for low muscle mass and combined low muscle mass and visceral obesity in Korean adults.

  17. Immune-mediated activation of the endocannabinoid system in visceral adipose tissue in obesity.

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    Kempf, K; Hector, J; Strate, T; Schwarzloh, B; Rose, B; Herder, C; Martin, S; Algenstaedt, P

    2007-08-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate if the endocannabinoid system (ECS) is activated in visceral adipose tissue and if adipose tissue inflammation affects the ECS activation state. Therefore, expression of fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH), cannabinoid receptor 1 (Cb1), adiponectin, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha was compared in visceral adipose tissue from 10 normal-weight (BMI 24.4+/-1.1 kg/m2) and 11 obese subjects (BMI 37.6+/-13.6 kg/m2) using quantitative RT-PCR, and gene expression changes were analyzed after in vitro stimulation of visceral adipose tissue with TNF-alpha. The data demonstrate that the ECS is activated in obese visceral adipose tissue as shown by decreased FAAH, Cb1, and adiponectin expression. Obesity-related ECS activation is accompanied by elevated expression of the pro-inflammatory cytokine TNF-alpha, which in turn stimulates ECS activation in vitro. Our data show a strong association between adipose tissue inflammation and ECS activation in obesity, and indicate that a pro-inflammatory state may directly activate the ECS.

  18. The Effect of Sodium Restricted Diet on Plasma Visfatin Levels in Hypertensive Patients with Visceral Obesity

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    Sylwia Rotkegel

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim/Background: Experimental and clinical studies revealed contradictory data concerning the influence of renin-angiotensin-aldosterone (RAA system activation on visfatin release. The aim of the present study was the assessment of the effect of dietary sodium restriction with RAA system activation on visfatin level in hypertensive and normotensive patients with visceral obesity. Methods: The study included 24 hypertensive patients with visceral obesity (12 women and 22 normotensive subjects with visceral obesity (11 women constituting the control group. Plasma renin activity, plasma insulin, aldosterone and visfatin levels were determined twice, on normal-salt diet after 6-8 h in recumbent position and the second time after 3 days of dietary sodium restriction and upright position for 2 h. Dietary compliance was controlled by 24 h natriuresis measurement. Results: Hypertensive patients had significantly higher plasma visfatin level than the control group [11.0 (8.5-13.5 vs. 6.8 (6.0-7.6 ng/ml, p=0.003]. Dietary sodium restriction and upright position caused significant increase in PRA and plasma aldosterone level in both groups. While, plasma visfatin level remained unaffected. In the combined group plasma visfatin levels correlated with BMI (r=0.398, waist circumference (r=0.391, glucose (r=0.328, insulin (r=0.663, HOMA-IR (r=0.698, triglycerides (r=0.500 and CRP (r=0.546 but not with percentage of fat mass, percentage of trunk fat, and blood pressure values. Conclusions: 1 Increased plasma visfatin concentration may play a significant role in the pathogenesis of hypertension in patients with visceral obesity. 2 RAA system activation by dietary sodium restriction and upright position has no effect on plasma visfatin levels in subjects with visceral obesity.

  19. Mitochondrial respiration in subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissue from patients with morbid obesity.

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    Kraunsøe, Regitze; Boushel, Robert; Hansen, Christina Neigaard; Schjerling, Peter; Qvortrup, Klaus; Støckel, Mikael; Mikines, Kári J; Dela, Flemming

    2010-06-15

    Adipose tissue exerts important endocrine and metabolic functions in health and disease. Yet the bioenergetics of this tissue is not characterized in humans and possible regional differences are not elucidated. Using high resolution respirometry, mitochondrial respiration was quantified in human abdominal subcutaneous and intra-abdominal visceral (omentum majus) adipose tissue from biopsies obtained in 20 obese patients undergoing bariatric surgery. Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) and genomic DNA (gDNA) were determined by the PCR technique for estimation of mitochondrial density. Adipose tissue samples were permeabilized and respirometric measurements were performed in duplicate at 37 degrees C. Substrates (glutamate (G) + malate (M) + octanoyl carnitine (O) + succinate (S)) were added sequentially to provide electrons to complex I + II. ADP ((D)) for state 3 respiration was added after GM. Uncoupled respiration was measured after addition of FCCP. Visceral fat contained more mitochondria per milligram of tissue than subcutaneous fat, but the cells were smaller. Robust, stable oxygen fluxes were found in both tissues, and coupled state 3 (GMOS(D)) and uncoupled respiration were significantly (P subcutaneous (0.76 +/- 0.04 and 0.98 +/- 0.05 pmol O(2) s(1) mg(1), respectively) adipose tissue. Expressed per mtDNA, visceral adipose tissue had significantly (P subcutaneous adipose tissue. We conclude that visceral fat is bioenergetically more active and more sensitive to mitochondrial substrate supply than subcutaneous fat. Oxidative phosphorylation has a higher relative activity in visceral compared with subcutaneous adipose tissue.

  20. The Usefulness of Visceral Fat Thickness Measured by Ultrasonography as an Abdominal Obesity Index

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    Kim, Yong Kyun [Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology, Korealife Daejeon Healthcare Center, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Han, Man Seok [Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology, Chungnam National University Hospital, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-09-15

    Abdominal obesity with visceral fat accumulation have been known to be intimately associated with the development of metabolic syndrome. Therefore, it is important to estimate the precise amount of visceral fat. Ultrasonography has been reported that it is a simple and noninvasive method for visceral fat evaluation. Purpose of this study is to evaluate the association of ultrasonographic visceral fat thickness, anthropometric indexes, and risk factor of metabolic syndrome, and to investigate the cut-off value of abdominal visceral fat thickness leading to increased risk of metabolic syndrome. The subject included 200 men and 200 women who visited D healthcare center in Daejeon from January to April 2008. The subcutaneous fat thickness and visceral fat thickness were measured by ultrasonograph. As anthropometric index, we measured body mass index, waist circumference and waist/height ratio. As for the risk factor of metabolic syndrome, we measured blood pressure, high density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglyceride and fasting serum glucose. VFT was significantly correlated with waist circumference, (r=0.683/M, r=0.604/F), waist to height ratio (r=0.633/M, r=0.593/F) and BMI (r=0.621/M, r=0.534/F) in both men and women. In addition it was significantly correlated with Systolic blood pressure (r=0.229/M, r=0.232/F), Diastolic blood pressure ((r=0.285/M, r=0.254/F), high density cholesterol (r=-0.254/M, r=-0.254/F), Triglyceride (r=0.475/M, r=0.411/F), and Fasting blood sugar (r=0.158/M, r=0.234/F) in both men and women. The cut-off value of visceral fat thickness leading to the increased risk of metabolic syndrome was 4.58 cm (sensitivity 89.2%, specificity 71.2%) in men and 3.50 cm (sensitivity 61.2% specificity 80.8%) in women respectively. The odds ratio of the risk of metabolic syndrome was dramatically increased with the abdominal visceral fat thickness level over 6 cm in men and 5 cm in women. The visceral fat thickness using ultrasonography was significantly

  1. Analysis of lifestyle and metabolic predictors of visceral obesity with Bayesian Networks

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    de Morais Sérgio

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this study was to provide a framework for the analysis of visceral obesity and its determinants in women, where complex inter-relationships are observed among lifestyle, nutritional and metabolic predictors. Thirty-four predictors related to lifestyle, adiposity, body fat distribution, blood lipids and adipocyte sizes have been considered as potential correlates of visceral obesity in women. To properly address the difficulties in managing such interactions given our limited sample of 150 women, bootstrapped Bayesian networks were constructed based on novel constraint-based learning methods that appeared recently in the statistical learning community. Statistical significance of edge strengths was evaluated and the less reliable edges were pruned to increase the network robustness. To allow accessible interpretation and integrate biological knowledge into the final network, several undirected edges were afterwards directed with physiological expertise according to relevant literature. Results Extensive experiments on synthetic data sampled from a known Bayesian network show that the algorithm, called Recursive Hybrid Parents and Children (RHPC, outperforms state-of-the-art algorithms that appeared in the recent literature. Regarding biological plausibility, we found that the inference results obtained with the proposed method were in excellent agreement with biological knowledge. For example, these analyses indicated that visceral adipose tissue accumulation is strongly related to blood lipid alterations independent of overall obesity level. Conclusions Bayesian Networks are a useful tool for investigating and summarizing evidence when complex relationships exist among predictors, in particular, as in the case of multifactorial conditions like visceral obesity, when there is a concurrent incidence for several variables, interacting in a complex manner. The source code and the data sets used for the empirical tests

  2. Identification of a Lactobacillus plantarum strain that ameliorates chronic inflammation and metabolic disorders in obese and type 2 diabetic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toshimitsu, T; Mochizuki, J; Ikegami, S; Itou, H

    2016-02-01

    In this study, we identified a strain of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) that induces high levels of IL-10 production by immune cells, and evaluated the ability of the strain to suppress chronic inflammation and ameliorate metabolic disorders in in vitro and in vivo models. Among a collection of LAB strains, Lactobacillus plantarum strain OLL2712 (OLL2712) induced the highest levels of IL-10 production in mouse-derived dendritic cells and peritoneal macrophages. The anti-inflammatory effects of this strain were evaluated using a co-culture system comprising RAW 264.7 and 3T3-L1 cells. We also administered heat-killed OLL2712 to obese and type 2 diabetic KKAy mice for 3 wk to evaluate the in vivo effects of the strain. The OLL2712 significantly decreased the production of proinflammatory cytokines in vitro. Likewise, the administration of OLL2712 significantly suppressed proinflammatory cytokine levels in both the visceral adipose tissue and the serum of KKAy mice, and reduced serum triglyceride concentrations. The strain also alleviated oxidative stress and adrenaline levels in the serum of KKAy mice. On the other hand, Lactobacillus gasseri strain MEP222804 (a moderate IL-10 inducer) did not ameliorate the systemic inflammation and hyperlipidemia in KKAy mice. Our results suggest that treatment with strong IL-10-inducing LAB has the potential to ameliorate metabolic disorders by suppressing chronic inflammation in the host animal.

  3. Visceral obesity, fat mass/muscle mass ratio and atherogenic dyslipidemia: cross-sectional study. Riobamba, Ecuador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomas Marcelo Nicolalde Cifuentes

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The distribution and composition of fat mass is associated with different metabolic risks. The predominance of brown visceral fat is associated with risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD, such as: high triglycerides and apolipoprotein B, increased LDL cholesterol, ratio triglycerides/low HDL cholesterol elevated (atherogenic dyslipidemia indicator, insulin resistance, hyperinsulinemia and cardiovascular risk (CVR. Sarcopenia and obesity may act synergistically in functional and metabolic disorders. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between visceral obesity, fat mass/muscular mass ratio and atherogenic dyslipidemia in adult individuals in order to determine the association pattern between these variables and set strategies for focused attention.Material and Methods: In a sample of 307 subjects of both sexes (21-71 years there was measured atherogenic dyslipidemia as the ratio of triglyceride/HDL cholesterol, visceral obesity measured by bio impedance as the relative score of visceral fat, and the ratio fat mass/lean mass.Results: A cluster analysis was performed to establish the structure of association between these variables with different risk groups. Three groups were identified: the first had visceral obesity with an average relative level of visceral fat of 13.6, the second group with an average of 8.9 and in the third group were placed individuals with the lowest visceral obesity score averaging 6.5. As for the fat mass/lean mas ratio the first two groups had a similar average of this index with a value of 1.56 and 1.69 respectively and the third group with the lowest average value of 1.3. Group 1 presented visceral obesity and impaired fat mass/lean mass ratio and had a high value of triglyceride/HDL ratio 4.1. Group 2 without visceral obesity and a deterioration in the relative fat mass/lean mass ratio had a triglyceride/HDL cholesterol of 3.6 and Group 3; not recorded visceral obesity or

  4. Genome-Wide Expression in Visceral Adipose Tissue from Obese Prepubertal Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Concepción M. Aguilera

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Characterization of the genes expressed in adipose tissue (AT is key to understanding the pathogenesis of obesity and to developing treatments for this condition. Our objective was to compare the gene expression in visceral AT (VAT between obese and normal-weight prepubertal children. A total of fifteen obese and sixteen normal-weight children undergoing abdominal elective surgery were selected. RNA was extracted from VAT biopsies. Microarray experiments were independently performed for each sample (six obese and five normal-weight samples. Validation by quantitative PCR (qPCR was performed on an additional 10 obese and 10 normal-weight VAT samples. Of 1276 differentially expressed genes (p < 0.05, 245 were more than two-fold higher in obese children than in normal-weight children. As validated by qPCR, expression was upregulated in genes involved in lipid and amino acid metabolism (CES1, NPRR3 and BHMT2, oxidative stress and extracellular matrix regulation (TNMD and NQO1, adipogenesis (CRYAB and AFF1 and inflammation (ANXA1; by contrast, only CALCRL gene expression was confirmed to be downregulated. In conclusion, this study in prepubertal children demonstrates the up- and down-regulation of genes that encode molecules that were previously proposed to influence the pathogenesis of adulthood obesity, as well as previously unreported dysregulated genes that may be candidate genes in the aetiology of obesity.

  5. MMP9 expression in oesophageal adenocarcinoma is upregulated with visceral obesity and is associated with poor tumour differentiation.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Allott, Emma H

    2011-11-28

    Overweight and obesity is linked to increased incidence and mortality of many cancer types. Of all cancers, oesophageal adenocarcinoma (OAC) displays one of the strongest epidemiological links with obesity, accounting for up to 40% of cases, but molecular pathways driving this association remain largely unknown. This study aimed to elucidate mechanisms underpinning the association of obesity and cancer, and to determine if visceral obesity is associated with aggressive tumour biology in OAC. Following co-culture with visceral adipose tissue explants, expression of genes involved in tumour cell invasion and metastasis (matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)2 and MMP9) were upregulated between 10-fold (MMP2) and 5000-fold (MMP9), and expression of tumour suppressor p53 was downregulated 2-fold in OAC cell lines. Western blotting confirmed these results at the protein level, while zymographic analysis detected increased activity of MMPs in OAC cell lines following co-culture with adipose tissue explants. When OAC cell lines were cultured with adipose tissue conditioned media (ACM) from visceral adipose tissue, increased proliferative, migratory and invasive capacity of tumour cells was observed. In OAC patient tumour biopsies, elevated gene expression of MMP9 was associated with visceral obesity, measured by visceral fat area, while increased gene expression of MMP9 and decreased gene expression of tumour suppressor p53 was associated with poor tumour differentiation. These novel data highlight an important role for visceral obesity in upregulation of pro-tumour pathways contributing to aggressive tumour biology, and may ultimately lead to development of stratified treatment for viscerally obese OAC patients. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Visceral Blood Flow Modulation: Potential Therapy for Morbid Obesity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harris, Tyler J., E-mail: tjharris@gmail.com [University of California, Los Angeles, Department of Vascular and Interventional Radiology (United States); Murphy, Timothy P.; Jay, Bryan S. [Rhode Island Hospital, Brown University, Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Vascular Disease Research Center (United States); Hampson, Christopher O.; Zafar, Abdul M. [University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, Department of Radiology (United States)

    2013-06-15

    We present this preliminary investigation into the safety and feasibility of endovascular therapy for morbid obesity in a swine model. A flow-limiting, balloon-expandable covered stent was placed in the superior mesenteric artery of three Yorkshire swine after femoral arterial cutdown. The pigs were monitored for between 15 and 51 days after the procedure and then killed, with weights obtained at 2-week increments. In the two pigs in which the stent was flow limiting, a reduced rate of weight gain (0.42 and 0.53 kg/day) was observed relative to the third pig (0.69 kg/day), associated with temporary food aversion and signs of mesenteric ischemia in one pig.

  7. Glycemic index role on visceral obesity, subclinical inflammation and associated chronic diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Feliciano Pereira

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: It is believed that the glycemic index (GI may be used as a strategy to prevent and control noncommunicable diseases (NCD. Obesity is a multifactorial condition, a risk factor for development of other NCDs. Among the different types, abdominal obesity is highlighted, which is essential for the diagnosis of metabolic syndrome, and it is related to insulin resistance, dyslipi-demia, hypertension and changes in levels of inflammatory markers. Such indicators are closely related to the development of Type 2 Diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Objectives: Discuss the role of GI as a strategy for the prevention and/or treatment of visceral obesity, subclinical inflammation and chronic diseases. Results and discussion: The intake of low GI diets is associated with glycemic decreases, and lower and more consistent postprandial insulin release, avoiding the occurrence of hypoglycemia. Moreover, consumption of a low GI diet has been indicated as beneficial for reducing body weight, total body fat and visceral fat, levels of proinflammatory markers and the occurrence of dyslipidemia and hypertension. The intake of low GI foods should be encouraged in order to prevent and control non-communicable diseases.

  8. Increased plasma levels of retinol‐binding protein 4 with visceral obesity is associated with cardiovascular risk factors

    OpenAIRE

    Won, Jong Chul; Park, Cheol‐Young; Oh, Sang Woo; Park, Sung Woo

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Aims/Introduction:  Visceral obesity has been suggested to be an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD); the role of adipokines in the risk for CVD is less clear. Aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between parameters of visceral obesity and index of CVD risk factors. Materials and Methods:  A cross‐sectional analysis of healthy males (n = 116) and females (n = 175) for evaluation of clinical, laboratory and anthropometric parameters were undertake...

  9. Tiliroside, a glycosidic flavonoid, ameliorates obesity-induced metabolic disorders via activation of adiponectin signaling followed by enhancement of fatty acid oxidation in liver and skeletal muscle in obese-diabetic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goto, Tsuyoshi; Teraminami, Aki; Lee, Joo-Young; Ohyama, Kana; Funakoshi, Kozue; Kim, Young-Il; Hirai, Shizuka; Uemura, Taku; Yu, Rina; Takahashi, Nobuyuki; Kawada, Teruo

    2012-07-01

    Tiliroside contained in several dietary plants, such as rose hips, strawberry and raspberry, is a glycosidic flavonoid and possesses anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, anticarcinogenic and hepatoprotective activities. Recently, it has been reported that the administration of tiliroside significantly inhibited body weight gain and visceral fat accumulation in normal mice. In this study, we evaluated the effects of tiliroside on obesity-induced metabolic disorders in obese-diabetic KK-A(y) mice. In KK-A(y) mice, the administration of tiliroside (100 mg/kg body weight/day) for 21 days failed to suppress body weight gain and visceral fat accumulation. Although tiliroside did not affect oxygen consumption, respiratory exchange ratio was significantly decreased in mice treated with tiliroside. In the analysis of metabolic characteristics, it was shown that plasma insulin, free fatty acid and triglyceride levels were decreased, and plasma adiponectin levels were increased in mice administered tiliroside. The messenger RNA expression levels of hepatic adiponectin receptor (AdipoR)-1 and AdipoR2 and skeletal muscular AdipoR1 were up-regulated by tiliroside treatment. Furthermore, it was indicated that tiliroside treatment activated AMP-activated protein kinase in both the liver and skeletal muscle and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α in the liver. Finally, tiliroside inhibited obesity-induced hepatic and muscular triglyceride accumulation. These findings suggest that tiliroside enhances fatty acid oxidation via the enhancement adiponectin signaling associated with the activation of both AMP-activated protein kinase and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α and ameliorates obesity-induced metabolic disorders, such as hyperinsulinemia and hyperlipidemia, although it does not suppress body weight gain and visceral fat accumulation in obese-diabetic model mice.

  10. Resting Energy Expenditure and Its Relationship With Patterns of Obesity and Visceral Fat Area in Chinese Adults

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WEI-PING JIA; MING YANG; XIN-YU SHAO; YU-QIAN BAO; JUN-XI LU; KUN-SAN XIANG

    2005-01-01

    Objective To investigate the relationship between resting energy expenditure (REE) and patterns of obesity/regional fat parameters in Chinese adults. Methods Body mass index (BMI), fat mass (FM), fat-free mass (FFM) were assessed in 109 Chinese adults (52 men and 57 women), and their abdominal visceral adipose tissue area (VA) and subcutaneous fat area (SA) were measured using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) measurements. REE was measured with indirect calorimetry and compared with normal and obese subjects. Multivariate analysis was used to study the factors related to REE. Results The resting energy expenditure per kilogram of body weight (REE/kg) was closely related with the area of abdominal visceral fat measured with MRI. REE/kg was significantly lower in overweight/obesity subjects than in normal-weighted subjects, and significantly lower in subjects with abdominal obesity (VA≥100 cm2) than in subjects with non-abdominal obesity (VA< 100 cm2, BMI≥25 kg/m2). In the stepwise regression analysis of REE/kg on regional fat parameters, VA in men and women and SA in women were independent factors reversely related to REE/kg. Conclusion REE/kg is associated with the visceral fat area and more prominent in men. REE/kg can be used as an index in the pathophysiology of intra-abdominal obesity.

  11. Zinc-transporter genes in human visceral and subcutaneous adipocytes: lean versus obese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smidt, Kamille; Pedersen, Steen B; Brock, Birgitte; Schmitz, Ole; Fisker, Sanne; Bendix, Jørgen; Wogensen, Lise; Rungby, Jørgen

    2007-01-29

    Zinc ions influence adipose tissue metabolism by regulating leptin secretion and by promoting free fatty acid release and glucose uptake. The mechanisms controlling zinc metabolism in adipose tissue are unknown. We therefore examined the gene-expression levels of a number of zinc-transporting proteins in adipose tissue, comparing subcutaneous fat with visceral fat from lean and obese humans. Both ZnT-proteins responsible for zinc transport from cytosol to extracellular compartments and intracellular vesicles and Zip-proteins responsible for zinc transport to the cytoplasm were expressed in all samples. This suggests that zinc metabolism in adipocytes is actively controlled by zinc-transporters. The expression levels were different in lean and obese subjects suggesting a role for these proteins in obesity. Furthermore, the expression levels were different from subcutaneous fat to intra-abdominal fat suggesting that the metabolic activity in adipocytes is to some extent dependent upon zinc and the activity of zinc-transporting proteins or vice versa.

  12. Inhibiting Glycosphingolipid Synthesis Ameliorates Hepatic Steatosis in Obese Mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H. Zhao; M. Przybylska; I.H. Wu; J. Zhang; P. Maniatis; J. Pacheco; P. Piepenhagen; D. Copeland; C. Arbeeny; J.A. Shayman; J.M. Aerts; C. Jiang; S.H. Cheng; N.S. Yew

    2009-01-01

    Steatosis in the liver is a common feature of obesity and type 2 diabetes and the precursor to the development of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), cirrhosis, and liver failure. It has been shown previously that inhibiting glycosphingolipid (GSL) synthesis increases insulin sensitivity and lowers

  13. Visceral obesity is associated with increased soluble CD163 concentration in men with type 2 diabetes mellitus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Lars Peter; Parkner, Tina; Søndergaard, Esben

    2015-01-01

    /obese men with T2DM, only visceral adipose tissue (VAT) and the ratio of VAT to abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT), a measure of relative body fat distribution between VAT and SAT depots, were positively associated with sCD163. In a multivariate analysis, including VAT, upper-body SAT, and lower......Monocyte/macrophage-specific soluble CD163 (sCD163) concentration is associated with insulin resistance and increases with deteriorating glycemic control independently of BMI. This led to the proposal of the hypothesis that obesity-associated white adipose tissue inflammation varies between...... individuals. The objective was to examine the effect of male overweight/obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) on associations between adiposity parameters and sCD163. A total of 23 overweight/obese non-diabetic men, 16 overweight/obese men with T2DM, and a control group of 20 normal-weight healthy men...

  14. Short-term melatonin consumption protects the heart of obese rats independent of body weight change and visceral adiposity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nduhirabandi, Frederic; Huisamen, Barbara; Strijdom, Hans; Blackhurst, Dee; Lochner, Amanda

    2014-10-01

    Chronic melatonin treatment has been shown to prevent the harmful effects of diet-induced obesity and reduce myocardial susceptibility to ischaemia-reperfusion injury (IRI). However, the exact mechanism whereby it exerts its beneficial actions on the heart in obesity/insulin resistance remains unknown. Herein, we investigated the effects of relatively short-term melatonin treatment on the heart in a rat model of diet-induced obesity. Control and diet-induced obese Wistar rats (fed a high calorie diet for 20 wk) were each subdivided into three groups receiving drinking water with or without melatonin (4 mg/kg/day) for the last 6 or 3 wk of experimentation. A number of isolated hearts were perfused in the working mode, subjected to regional or global ischaemia-reperfusion; others were nonperfused. Metabolic parameters, myocardial infarct sizes (IFS), baseline and postischaemic activation of PKB/Akt, ERK42/44, GSK-3β and STAT-3 were determined. Diet-induced obesity caused increases in body weight gain, visceral adiposity, fasting blood glucose, serum insulin and triglyceride (TG) levels with a concomitant cardiac hypertrophy, large postischaemic myocardial IFSs and a reduced cardiac output. Melatonin treatment (3 and 6 wk) decreased serum insulin levels and the HOMA index (P melatonin administration to obese/insulin resistant rats reduced insulin resistance and protected the heart against ex vivo myocardial IRI independently of body weight change and visceral adiposity.

  15. Sirtuins 1-7 expression in human adipose-derived stem cells from subcutaneous and visceral fat depots: influence of obesity and hypoxia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariani, Stefania; Di Rocco, Giuliana; Toietta, Gabriele; Russo, Matteo A; Petrangeli, Elisa; Salvatori, Luisa

    2016-11-14

    The sirtuin family comprises seven NAD(+)-dependent deacetylases which control the overall health of organisms through the regulation of pleiotropic metabolic pathways. Sirtuins are important modulators of adipose tissue metabolism and their expression is higher in lean than obese subjects. At present, the role of sirtuins in adipose-derived stem cells has not been investigated yet. Therefore, in this study, we evaluated the expression of the complete panel of sirtuins in adipose-derived stem cells isolated from both subcutaneous and visceral fat of non-obese and obese subjects. We aimed at investigating the influence of obesity on sirtuins' levels, their role in obesity-associated inflammation, and the relationship with the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor delta, which also plays functions in adipose tissue metabolism. The mRNA levels in the four types of adipose-derived stem cells were evaluated by quantitative polymerase chain reaction, in untreated cells and also after 8 h of hypoxia exposure. Correlations among sirtuins' expression and clinical and molecular parameters were also analyzed. We found that sirtuin1-6 exhibited significant higher mRNA expression in visceral adipose-derived stem cells compared to subcutaneous adipose-derived stem cells of non-obese subjects. Sirtuin1-6 levels were markedly reduced in visceral adipose-derived stem cells of obese patients. Sirtuins' expression in visceral adipose-derived stem cells correlated negatively with body mass index and C-reactive protein and positively with peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor delta. Finally, only in the visceral adipose-derived stem cells of obese patients hypoxia-induced mRNA expression of all of the sirtuins. Our results highlight that sirtuins' levels in adipose-derived stem cells are consistent with protective effects against visceral obesity and inflammation, and suggest a transcriptional mechanism through which acute hypoxia up-regulates sirtuins in the visceral

  16. Prediction of Abdominal Visceral Obesity From Body Mass Index,Waist Circumference and Waist-hip Ratio in Chinese Adults:Receiver Operating Characteristic Curves Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WEI-PING JIA; JUN-XI LU; KUN-SAN XIANG; YU-QIAN BAO; HUI-JUAN LU; LEI CHEN

    2003-01-01

    To evaluate the sensitivity and specificity of body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC) and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) measurements in diagnosing abdominal visceral obesity. Methods BMI, WC, and WHR were assessed in 690 Chinese adults (305 men and 385women) and compared with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) measurements of abdominal visceral adipose tissue (VA). Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were generated and used to determine the threshold point for each anthropometric parameter. Results 1) MRI showed that 61.7% of overweight/obese individuals (BMI≥25 kg/m2) and 14.2% of normal weight (BMI<25kg/m2) individuals had abdominal visceral obesity (VA≥ 100 cm2). 2) VA was positively correlated with each anthropometric variable, of which WC showed the highest correlation (r=0.73-0.77,P<0.001 ). 3) The best cut-off points for assessing abdominal visceral obesity were as followed: BMI of 26 kg/m2, WC of 90 cm, and WHR of 0.93, with WC being the most sensitive and specific factor. 4)Among subjects with BMI≥28 kg/m2 or WC≥95 cm, 95% of men and 90% of women appeared to have abdominal visceral obesity. Conclusion Measurements of BMI, WC, and WHR can be used in the prediction of abdominal visceral obesity, of which WC was the one with better accuracy.

  17. Effect of orlistat alone or in combination with Garcinia cambogia on visceral adiposity index in obese patients

    OpenAIRE

    Hayder M. Al-kuraishy; Al-Gareeb, Ali I.

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The objective of this study was to estimate the effect of orlistat alone and in combination with Garcinia cambogia on visceral adiposity index (VAI) in obese patients. Patients and Methods: A total of 99 obese male patients were recruited with aged range between 37 and 46 years. They were randomized into three equal groups, first group treated with orlistat 120 mg/day, second group treated with G. cambogia 166 mg/day, and third group treated with orlistat 120 mg/day plus G. cambogia 166 ...

  18. The impact of general/visceral obesity on completion of mesorectum and perioperative outcomes of laparoscopic TME for rectal cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Bingchen; Zhang, Yuanchuan; Zhao, Shuang; Yang, Tinghan; Wu, Qingbin; Jin, Chengwu; He, Yazhou; Wang, Ziqiang

    2016-01-01

    Abstract To evaluate the impact of visceral obesity on laparoscopic total mesorectal excision (TME) and decide the best index to reflect completion of mesorectum and perioperative outcomes. Patients with rectal cancer who underwent laparoscopic TME were enrolled. The data including body mass index (BMI), visceral fat area (VFA), visceral fat area/body surface area (VFA/BSA), mesorectum fat ratio (MFR), pelvic fat area (PFA), pelvic fat ratio (PFR), completion of mesorectum, and other perioperative outcomes were collected. Data were analyzed. A total of 322 patients were enrolled between 2011 and 2014. There was no significantly difference between the BMI groups on completion of mesorectum and other outcomes (P ≥ 0.05). However, in VFA groups, completion of mesorectum (P = 0.002), operative time (P = 0.02), and incision length (P = 0.02) were significantly different. In VFA/BSA groups, completion of mesorectum (P = 0.002) and incision length (P = 0.009) were significantly different. When MFR was equal to 0.48, completion of mesorectum (P = 0.002), operative time (P = 0.001), incision length (P = 0.03), and blood loss (P = 0.04) were significantly different between the 2 groups. In PFA and PFR groups, there was no significantly difference (P ≥ 0.05). After the analysis of logistic regression, only VFA was the risk factor of incomplete mesorectum excision. BMI does not reflect the impact of obesity on laparoscopic rectal surgery. VFA is a better index in predicting the influence of visceral obesity on surgical quality and difficulty of laparoscopic rectal surgery than VFA/BSA and MFR. PMID:27603340

  19. Magnetic resonance imaging determined visceral fat reduction associates with enhanced IL-10 plasma levels in calorie restricted obese subjects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gloria Formoso

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Obesity is characterized by a low grade chronic inflammation state. Indeed circulating pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as TNF-α and IL-6, are elevated in obese subjects, while anti-inflammatory cytokines, such as IL-10, appear to be reduced. Cytokines profile improves after weight loss, but how visceral or subcutaneous fat loss respectively affect pro- or anti-inflammatory cytokines plasma levels has not been precisely assessed. Therefore in the present study we correlated changes in circulating cytokine profile with quantitative changes in visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue depots measured by an ad hoc Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI protocol before and after weight loss. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In 14 obese subjects, MRI determination of visceral and subcutaneous fat and plasma glucose, insulin, TNF-α IL-6, and IL-10 measurements were performed before and after a caloric restriction induced weight loss of at least 5% of the original body weight. RESULTS: Weight loss improved insulin sensitivity (QUICKI Index: 0.35±0.03 vs 0.37±0.04; P<0.05, increased IL-10 (3.4±1.9 vs 4.6±1.0 pg/mL; P<0.03, and reduced TNF-α and IL-6 plasma levels (2.5±1.3 vs 1.6±1.5 pg/mL, P<0.0015, 2.3±0.4 vs 1.6±0.6 pg/mL, P<0.02 respectively. A significant correlation was observed between the amount of visceral fat loss and the percentage reduction in both TNF-α (r = 0.56, p<0.05 and IL-6 (r = 0.19 p<0.05 plasma levels. In a multiple regression analysis, the amount of visceral fat loss independently correlated with the increase in IL-10 plasma levels. CONCLUSION: The reduction in visceral adipose tissue is the main driver of the improved inflammatory profile induced by weight loss.

  20. CILAIR-Based Secretome Analysis of Obese Visceral and Subcutaneous Adipose Tissues Reveals Distinctive ECM Remodeling and Inflammation Mediators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roca-Rivada, Arturo; Belen Bravo, Susana; Pérez-Sotelo, Diego; Alonso, Jana; Isabel Castro, Ana; Baamonde, Iván; Baltar, Javier; Casanueva, Felipe F.; Pardo, María

    2015-01-01

    In the context of obesity, strong evidences support a distinctive pathological contribution of adipose tissue depending on its anatomical site of accumulation. Therefore, subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) has been lately considered metabolically benign compared to visceral fat (VAT), whose location is associated to the risk of developing cardiovascular disease, insulin resistance, and other associated comorbidities. Under the above situation, the chronic local inflammation that characterizes obese adipose tissue, has acquired a major role on the pathogenesis of obesity. In this work, we have analyzed for the first time human obese VAT and SAT secretomes using an improved quantitative proteomic approach for the study of tissue secretomes, Comparison of Isotope-Labeled Amino acid Incorporation Rates (CILAIR). The use of double isotope-labeling-CILAIR approach to analyze VAT and SAT secretomes allowed the identification of location-specific secreted proteins and its differential secretion. Additionally to the very high percentage of identified proteins previously implicated in obesity or in its comorbidities, this approach was revealed as a useful tool for the study of the obese adipose tissue microenvironment including extracellular matrix (ECM) remodeling and inflammatory status. The results herein presented reinforce the fact that VAT and SAT depots have distinct features and contribute differentially to metabolic disease. PMID:26198096

  1. Repeated sense of hunger leads to the development of visceral obesity and metabolic syndrome in a mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jong-Min; Kim, Hyeong-Geug; Lee, Jin-Seok; Choi, Min-Kyung; Kim, Young-Ae; Son, Chang-Gue

    2014-01-01

    Obesity-related disorders, especially metabolic syndrome, contribute to 2.8 million deaths each year worldwide, with significantly increasing morbidity. Eating at regular times and proper food quantity are crucial for maintaining a healthy status. However, many people in developed countries do not follow a regular eating schedule due to a busy lifestyle. Herein, we show that a repeated sense of hunger leads to a high risk of developing visceral obesity and metabolic syndrome in a mouse model (both 3-week and 6-week-old age, 10 mice in each group). The ad libitum (AL) group (normal eating pattern) and the food restriction (FR) group (alternate-day partially food restriction by given only 1/3 of average amount) were compared after 8-week experimental period. The total food consumption in the FR group was lower than in the AL group, however, the FR group showed a metabolic syndrome-like condition with significant fat accumulation in adipose tissues. Consequently, the repeated sense of hunger induced the typical characteristics of metabolic syndrome in an animal model; a distinct visceral obesity, hyperlipidemia, hyperglycemia and hepatic steatosis. Furthermore, we found that specifically leptin, a major metabolic hormone, played a major role in the development of these pathological disorders. Our study indicated the importance of regular eating habits besides controlling calorie intake.

  2. Repeated sense of hunger leads to the development of visceral obesity and metabolic syndrome in a mouse model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jong-Min Han

    Full Text Available Obesity-related disorders, especially metabolic syndrome, contribute to 2.8 million deaths each year worldwide, with significantly increasing morbidity. Eating at regular times and proper food quantity are crucial for maintaining a healthy status. However, many people in developed countries do not follow a regular eating schedule due to a busy lifestyle. Herein, we show that a repeated sense of hunger leads to a high risk of developing visceral obesity and metabolic syndrome in a mouse model (both 3-week and 6-week-old age, 10 mice in each group. The ad libitum (AL group (normal eating pattern and the food restriction (FR group (alternate-day partially food restriction by given only 1/3 of average amount were compared after 8-week experimental period. The total food consumption in the FR group was lower than in the AL group, however, the FR group showed a metabolic syndrome-like condition with significant fat accumulation in adipose tissues. Consequently, the repeated sense of hunger induced the typical characteristics of metabolic syndrome in an animal model; a distinct visceral obesity, hyperlipidemia, hyperglycemia and hepatic steatosis. Furthermore, we found that specifically leptin, a major metabolic hormone, played a major role in the development of these pathological disorders. Our study indicated the importance of regular eating habits besides controlling calorie intake.

  3. The gene expression of the main lipogenic enzymes is downregulated in visceral adipose tissue of obese subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega, Francisco J; Mayas, Dolores; Moreno-Navarrete, José M; Catalán, Victoria; Gómez-Ambrosi, Javier; Esteve, Eduardo; Rodriguez-Hermosa, Jose I; Ruiz, Bartomeu; Ricart, Wifredo; Peral, Belen; Fruhbeck, Gema; Tinahones, Francisco J; Fernández-Real, José M

    2010-01-01

    Contradictory findings regarding the gene expression of the main lipogenic enzymes in human adipose tissue depots have been reported. In this cross-sectional study, we aimed to evaluate the mRNA expression of fatty acid synthase (FAS) and acetyl-CoA carboxilase (ACC) in omental and subcutaneous (SC) fat depots from subjects who varied widely in terms of body fat mass. FAS and ACC gene expression were evaluated by real time-PCR in 188 samples of visceral adipose tissue which were obtained during elective surgical procedures in 119 women and 69 men. Decreased sex-adjusted FAS (-59%) and ACC (-49%) mRNA were found in visceral adipose tissue from obese subjects, with and without diabetes mellitus type 2 (DM-2), compared with lean subjects (both P < 0.0001). FAS mRNA was also decreased (-40%) in fat depots from overweight subjects (P < 0.05). Indeed, FAS mRNA was significantly and positively associated with ACC gene expression (r = 0.316, P < 0.0001) and negatively with BMI (r = -0.274), waist circumference (r = -0.437), systolic blood pressure (r = -0.310), serum glucose (r = -0.277), and fasting triglycerides (r = -0.226), among others (all P < 0.0001). Similar associations were observed for ACC gene expression levels. In a representative subgroup of nonobese (n = 4) and obese women (n = 6), relative FAS gene expression levels significantly correlated (r = 0.657, P = 0.034; n = 10) with FAS protein values. FAS protein levels were also inversely correlated with blood glucose (r = -0.640, P = 0.046) and fasting triglycerides (r = -0.832, P = 0.010). In conclusion, the gene expression of the main lipogenic enzymes is downregulated in visceral adipose tissue from obese subjects.

  4. Visceral obesity and the risk of Barrett's esophagus in Japanese patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease

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    Kirikoshi Hiroyuki

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The association between obesity and the risk of Barrett's esophagus (BE is unclear. Furthermore, the association between visceral obesity and the risk of BE is entirely unknown. Methods We conducted a retrospective study in 163 patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD who underwent both endoscopy and abdominal CT at an interval of less than a year at our institution. BE was endoscopically diagnosed based on the Prague C & M Criteria. The surface areas of visceral adipose tissue (VAT and subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT were calculated from CT images at the level of the umbilicus. The correlations between the BMI, VAT, and SAT and the risk of BE were examined by univariate and multivariate analyses. Results Sixty-nine of the 163 study participants (42.3% were diagnosed to have endoscopic BE, which was classified as short-segment BE (SSBE in almost all of the cases. There were no significant differences in the age or gender distribution between the groups with and without BE. According to the results of the univariate analysis, VAT was significantly associated with the risk of BE; the BMI tended to be higher in the group with BE than in the group without BE, but this relation did not reach statistical significance. VAT was independently associated with the risk of BE even after adjustment for the BMI. Conclusion In Japanese patients with NAFLD, obesity tended to be associated with the risk of BE, and this risk appeared to be mediated for the most part by abdominal visceral adiposity.

  5. Inhibition of Notch signaling promotes browning of white adipose tissue and ameliorates obesity.

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    Bi, Pengpeng; Shan, Tizhong; Liu, Weiyi; Yue, Feng; Yang, Xin; Liang, Xin-Rong; Wang, Jinghua; Li, Jie; Carlesso, Nadia; Liu, Xiaoqi; Kuang, Shihuan

    2014-08-01

    Beige adipocytes in white adipose tissue (WAT) are similar to classical brown adipocytes in that they can burn lipids to produce heat. Thus, an increase in beige adipocyte content in WAT browning would raise energy expenditure and reduce adiposity. Here we report that adipose-specific inactivation of Notch1 or its signaling mediator Rbpj in mice results in browning of WAT and elevated expression of uncoupling protein 1 (Ucp1), a key regulator of thermogenesis. Consequently, as compared to wild-type mice, Notch mutants exhibit elevated energy expenditure, better glucose tolerance and improved insulin sensitivity and are more resistant to high fat diet-induced obesity. By contrast, adipose-specific activation of Notch1 leads to the opposite phenotypes. At the molecular level, constitutive activation of Notch signaling inhibits, whereas Notch inhibition induces, Ppargc1a and Prdm16 transcription in white adipocytes. Notably, pharmacological inhibition of Notch signaling in obese mice ameliorates obesity, reduces blood glucose and increases Ucp1 expression in white fat. Therefore, Notch signaling may be therapeutically targeted to treat obesity and type 2 diabetes.

  6. Gelidium amansii extract ameliorates obesity by down-regulating adipogenic transcription factors in diet-induced obese mice

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    Kang, Ji-Hye; Lee, Hyun-Ah; Kim, Hak-Ju

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES In this study, we investigated whether Gelidium amansii extract (GAE) ameliorates obesity in diet-induced obese (DIO) mice. MATERIALS/METHODS The mice were maintained on a high-fat diet (HD) for 5 weeks to generate the DIO mouse model. And then mice fed HD plus 0.5% (GAE1), 1% (GAE2) or 2% (GAE3) for 8 weeks. RESULTS After the experimental period, GAE-supplemented groups were significantly lower than the HD group in body weight gain and liver weight. GAE supplemented groups were significantly lower than the HD group in both epididymal and mesenteric adipose tissue mass. The plasma leptin level was significantly higher in the HD group than in GAE-supplemented groups. The leptin level of HD+GAE3 group was significantly lower than that of the HD+conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) group. In contrast, plasma adiponectin level of the HD group was significantly lower than those of HD+GAE2 and HD+GAE3 groups. The expression levels of adipogenic proteins such as fatty acid synthase, sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1c, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ, and CCAAT/enhancer binding protein α in the GAE supplemented groups were significantly decreased than those in HD group, respectively. In addition, the expression levels of HD+GAE2 and HD+GAE3 groups are significantly decreased compared to those of HD+CLA group. On the contrary, the expression levels of hormone-sensitive lipase and phospho-AMP-activated protein kinase, proteins associated with lipolysis, were significantly increased in the GAE supplemented groups compared to those in the HD group. HD+GAE3 group showed the highest level among the GAE supplemented groups. CONCLUSIONS These results suggested that GAE supplementation stimulated the expressions of lipid metabolic factors and reduced weight gain in HD-fed C57BL/6J obese mice. PMID:28194261

  7. Different transcriptional control of metabolism and extracellular matrix in visceral and subcutaneous fat of obese and rimonabant treated mice.

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    Carine Poussin

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The visceral (VAT and subcutaneous (SCAT adipose tissues play different roles in physiology and obesity. The molecular mechanisms underlying their expansion in obesity and following body weight reduction are poorly defined. METHODOLOGY: C57Bl/6 mice fed a high fat diet (HFD for 6 months developed low, medium, or high body weight as compared to normal chow fed mice. Mice from each groups were then treated with the cannabinoid receptor 1 antagonist rimonabant or vehicle for 24 days to normalize their body weight. Transcriptomic data for visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissues from each group of mice were obtained and analyzed to identify: i genes regulated by HFD irrespective of body weight, ii genes whose expression correlated with body weight, iii the biological processes activated in each tissue using gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA, iv the transcriptional programs affected by rimonabant. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In VAT, "metabolic" genes encoding enzymes for lipid and steroid biosynthesis and glucose catabolism were down-regulated irrespective of body weight whereas "structure" genes controlling cell architecture and tissue remodeling had expression levels correlated with body weight. In SCAT, the identified "metabolic" and "structure" genes were mostly different from those identified in VAT and were regulated irrespective of body weight. GSEA indicated active adipogenesis in both tissues but a more prominent involvement of tissue stroma in VAT than in SCAT. Rimonabant treatment normalized most gene expression but further reduced oxidative phosphorylation gene expression in SCAT but not in VAT. CONCLUSION: VAT and SCAT show strikingly different gene expression programs in response to high fat diet and rimonabant treatment. Our results may lead to identification of therapeutic targets acting on specific fat depots to control obesity.

  8. Long-Term Consumption of Platycodi Radix Ameliorates Obesity and Insulin Resistance via the Activation of AMPK Pathways

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    Chae Eun Lee

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to evaluate the effects and mechanism of Platycodi radix, having white balloon flower (Platycodon grandiflorum for. albiflorum (Honda H. Hara on obesity and insulin resistance. The extracts of Platycodi radix with white balloon flower were tested in cultured cells and administered into mice on a high-fat diet. The Platycodi radix activated the AMPK/ACC phosphorylation in C2C12 myotubes and also suppressed adipocyte differentiation in 3T3-L1 cells. In experimental animal, it suppressed the weight gain of obese mice and ameliorated obesity-induced insulin resistance. It also reduced the elevated circulating mediators, including triglyceride (TG, T-CHO, leptin, resistin, and monocyte chemotactic protein (MCP-1 in obesity. As shown in C2C12 myotubes, the administration of Platycodi radix extracts also recovered the AMPK/ACC phosphorylation in the muscle of obese mice. These results suggest that Platycodi radix with white balloon flower ameliorates obesity and insulin resistance in obese mice via the activation of AMPK/ACC pathways and reductions of adipocyte differentiation.

  9. Persistent organic pollutant levels in human visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue in obese individuals—Depot differences and dysmetabolism implications

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    Pestana, Diogo, E-mail: diogopestana@gmail.com [Department of Biochemistry (U38-FCT), Faculty of Medicine, University of Porto, Centro de Investigação Médica, P-4200-450 Porto (Portugal); CINTESIS—Center for Research in Health Technologies and Information Systems, P-4200-450 Porto (Portugal); Faria, Gil [General Surgery Department, S. João Hospital, Faculty of Medicine, University of Porto, P-4200-450 Porto (Portugal); Sá, Carla [Department of Biochemistry (U38-FCT), Faculty of Medicine, University of Porto, Centro de Investigação Médica, P-4200-450 Porto (Portugal); Fernandes, Virgínia C. [Chemistry Investigation Centre (CIQ), Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Sciences, University of Porto, P-4169-007 Porto (Portugal); Requimte—Instituto Superior de Engenharia, Instituto Politécnico do Porto, P-4200-072 Porto (Portugal); Teixeira, Diana; Norberto, Sónia [Department of Biochemistry (U38-FCT), Faculty of Medicine, University of Porto, Centro de Investigação Médica, P-4200-450 Porto (Portugal); Faria, Ana [Department of Biochemistry (U38-FCT), Faculty of Medicine, University of Porto, Centro de Investigação Médica, P-4200-450 Porto (Portugal); Chemistry Investigation Centre (CIQ), Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Sciences, University of Porto, P-4169-007 Porto (Portugal); Faculty of Nutrition and Food Sciences, University of Porto, P-4200-465 Porto (Portugal); and others

    2014-08-15

    Background: The role of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) with endocrine disrupting activity in the aetiology of obesity and other metabolic dysfunctions has been recently highlighted. Adipose tissue (AT) is a common site of POPs accumulation where they can induce adverse effects on human health. Objectives: To evaluate the presence of POPs in human visceral (vAT) and subcutaneous (scAT) adipose tissue in a sample of Portuguese obese patients that underwent bariatric surgery, and assess their putative association with metabolic disruption preoperatively, as well as with subsequent body mass index (BMI) reduction. Methods: AT samples (n=189) from obese patients (BMI ≥35) were collected and the levels of 13 POPs were determined by gas chromatography with electron-capture detection (GC-ECD). Anthropometric and biochemical data were collected at the time of surgery. BMI variation was evaluated after 12 months and adipocyte size was measured in AT samples. Results: Our data confirm that POPs are pervasive in this obese population (96.3% of detection on both tissues), their abundance increasing with age (R{sub S}=0.310, p<0.01) and duration of obesity (R{sub S}=0.170, p<0.05). We observed a difference in AT depot POPs storage capability, with higher levels of ΣPOPs in vAT (213.9±204.2 compared to 155.1±147.4 ng/g of fat, p<0.001), extremely relevant when evaluating their metabolic impact. Furthermore, there was a positive correlation between POP levels and the presence of metabolic syndrome components, namely dysglycaemia and hypertension, and more importantly with cardiovascular risk (R{sub S}=0.277, p<0.01), with relevance for vAT (R{sub S}=0.315, p<0.01). Finally, we observed an interesting relation of higher POP levels with lower weight loss in older patients. Conclusion: Our sample of obese subjects allowed us to highlight the importance of POPs stored in AT on the development of metabolic dysfunction in a context of obesity, shifting the focus to their

  10. Prevalência de obesidade visceral estimada por equação preditiva em mulheres jovens pernambucanas Prevalence of visceral obesity estimated by predictive equation in young women from Pernambuco

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    Marina de Moraes Vasconcelos Petribú

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available FUNDAMENTO: O acúmulo de gordura visceral é considerado o principal fator de risco para doenças cardiovasculares e metabólicas. OBJETIVO: Determinar a prevalência de obesidade visceral e avaliar sua associação com fatores de risco cardiovasculares em mulheres jovens do Estado de Pernambuco. MÉTODOS: Estudo transversal, realizado com dados da "III Pesquisa Estadual de Saúde e Nutrição", envolvendo mulheres entre 25 e 36 anos. Avaliaram-se as variáveis: Índice de Massa Corporal (IMC, Circunferência da Cintura (CC, Razão Cintura-Estatura (RCE, Volume de Gordura Visceral (VGV estimado por equação preditiva, Pressão Arterial Sistólica e Diastólica (PAS, PAD, Colesterol Total (CT, Triglicerídeo (TG, Glicemia de Jejum (GJ. RESULTADOS: Foram avaliadas 517 mulheres, com mediana de idade de 29 anos (27-32 e prevalência de obesidade visceral de 30,6%. Valores de IMC, PAS, PAD e TG foram superiores no grupo com obesidade visceral: IMC = 28,0 kg/m² (25,0 - 21,4 vs 23,9 kg/m² (21,5 - 26,4; PAS = 120,0 mmHg (110,0 - 130,0 vs 112,0 mmHg (100,0 - 122,0; PAD = 74 mmHg (70 - 80 vs 70 mmHg (63 - 80; TG = 156,0 mg/dL (115,0 - 203,2 vs 131,0 mg/dL (104,0 - 161,0, respectivamente, p BACKGROUND: The accumulation of visceral fat is considered a major risk factor for cardiovascular and metabolic diseases. OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of visceral obesity and to assess its association with cardiovascular risk factors in young women from the state of Pernambuco. METHODS: Cross-sectional study carried out with data from the "III Health and Nutrition State Survey", involving women aged 25 to 36 years. The following variables were evaluated: body mass index (BMI, Waist Circumference (WC, waist-to-height ratio (WHtR, volume of visceral fat (VVF estimated by a predictive equation, Systolic and Diastolic Blood Pressure (SBP, DBP, total cholesterol (TC, Triglycerides (TG, fasting glucose (FG. RESULTS: A total of 517 women were evaluated, with a

  11. Vagotomy ameliorates islet morphofunction and body metabolic homeostasis in MSG-obese rats

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    Lubaczeuski, C.; Balbo, S.L. [Laboratório de Fisiologia Endócrina e Metabolismo, Centro de Ciências Biológicas e da Saúde, Universidade Estadual do Oeste do Paraná, Cascavel, PR (Brazil); Ribeiro, R.A. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Macaé, RJ (Brazil); Vettorazzi, J.F.; Santos-Silva, J.C.; Carneiro, E.M. [Laboratório de Pâncreas Endócrino e Metabolismo, Departamento de Biologia Estrutural e Funcional, Instituto de Biologia, Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Campinas, SP (Brazil); Bonfleur, M.L. [Laboratório de Fisiologia Endócrina e Metabolismo, Centro de Ciências Biológicas e da Saúde, Universidade Estadual do Oeste do Paraná, Cascavel, PR (Brazil)

    2015-02-24

    The parasympathetic nervous system is important for β-cell secretion and mass regulation. Here, we characterized involvement of the vagus nerve in pancreatic β-cell morphofunctional regulation and body nutrient homeostasis in 90-day-old monosodium glutamate (MSG)-obese rats. Male newborn Wistar rats received MSG (4 g/kg body weight) or saline [control (CTL) group] during the first 5 days of life. At 30 days of age, both groups of rats were submitted to sham-surgery (CTL and MSG groups) or subdiaphragmatic vagotomy (Cvag and Mvag groups). The 90-day-old MSG rats presented obesity, hyperinsulinemia, insulin resistance, and hypertriglyceridemia. Their pancreatic islets hypersecreted insulin in response to glucose but did not increase insulin release upon carbachol (Cch) stimulus, despite a higher intracellular Ca{sup 2+} mobilization. Furthermore, while the pancreas weight was 34% lower in MSG rats, no alteration in islet and β-cell mass was observed. However, in the MSG pancreas, increases of 51% and 55% were observed in the total islet and β-cell area/pancreas section, respectively. Also, the β-cell number per β-cell area was 19% higher in MSG rat pancreas than in CTL pancreas. Vagotomy prevented obesity, reducing 25% of body fat stores and ameliorated glucose homeostasis in Mvag rats. Mvag islets demonstrated partially reduced insulin secretion in response to 11.1 mM glucose and presented normalization of Cch-induced Ca{sup 2+} mobilization and insulin release. All morphometric parameters were similar among Mvag and CTL rat pancreases. Therefore, the higher insulin release in MSG rats was associated with greater β-cell/islet numbers and not due to hypertrophy. Vagotomy improved whole body nutrient homeostasis and endocrine pancreatic morphofunction in Mvag rats.

  12. Depressive Symptom Clusters Are Differentially Associated with General and Visceral Obesity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marijnissen, Radboud M.; Bus, Boudewijn A. A.; Holewijn, Suzanne; Franke, Barbara; Purandare, Nitin; de Graaf, Jacqueline; den Heijer, Martin; Buitelaar, Jan K.; Voshaar, Richard C. Oude

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVES To examine the relationship between obesity and depressive symptoms taking into account different measures for obesity (body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR)) and different depressive symptom clusters. DESIGN Cross-sectional population-based survey.

  13. Pancreatic Fat Is Associated With Metabolic Syndrome and Visceral Fat but Not Beta-Cell Function or Body Mass Index in Pediatric Obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staaf, Johan; Labmayr, Viktor; Paulmichl, Katharina; Manell, Hannes; Cen, Jing; Ciba, Iris; Dahlbom, Marie; Roomp, Kirsten; Anderwald, Christian-Heinz; Meissnitzer, Matthias; Schneider, Reinhard; Forslund, Anders; Widhalm, Kurt; Bergquist, Jonas; Ahlström, Håkan; Bergsten, Peter; Weghuber, Daniel; Kullberg, Joel

    2017-01-01

    Objective Adolescents with obesity have increased risk of type 2 diabetes and metabolic syndrome (MetS). Pancreatic fat has been related to these conditions; however, little is known about associations in pediatric obesity. The present study was designed to explore these associations further. Methods We examined 116 subjects, 90 with obesity. Anthropometry, MetS, blood samples, and oral glucose tolerance tests were assessed using standard techniques. Pancreatic fat fraction (PFF) and other fat depots were quantified using magnetic resonance imaging. Results The PFF was elevated in subjects with obesity. No association between PFF and body mass index-standard deviation score (BMI-SDS) was found in the obesity subcohort. Pancreatic fat fraction correlated to Insulin Secretion Sensitivity Index-2 and Homeostatic Model Assessment of Insulin Resistance in simple regression; however, when using adjusted regression and correcting for BMI-SDS and other fat compartments, PFF correlated only to visceral adipose tissue and fasting glucose. Highest levels of PFF were found in subjects with obesity and MetS. Conclusions In adolescents with obesity, PFF is elevated and associated to MetS, fasting glucose, and visceral adipose tissue but not to beta-cell function, glucose tolerance, or BMI-SDS. This study demonstrates that conclusions regarding PFF and its associations depend on the body mass features of the cohort. PMID:27941426

  14. Improvement of fasting plasma glucose level after ingesting moderate amount of dietary fiber in Japanese men with mild hyperglycemia and visceral fat obesity.

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    Kobayakawa, Akira; Suzuki, Tomoo; Ikami, Takao; Saito, Morio; Yabe, Daisuke; Seino, Yutaka

    2013-06-01

    A double-blind, randomized, controlled study was conducted to evaluate the effects of a moderate amount of dietary fiber intake on fasting plasma glucose level and physical characteristics in Japanese men with mild hyperglycemia and visceral fat obesity. Thirty men with mild hyperglycemia (>5.6 mmol/L) and visceral fat accumulation (>100 cm²) ingested 7.5 g/day of dietary fiber for 12 weeks. An abdominal computed tomography scan was performed at baseline and at week 12. Blood was drawn every 4 weeks. In the test food group, fasting plasma glucose level was reduced with time, and the difference between the test food group and placebo group was statistically significant at week 12. Body weight and body mass index were also reduced with time, but visceral and subcutaneous fat areas did not change significantly during the study period. The results suggest that even a moderate amount of dietary fiber intake may be beneficial for managing the fasting plasma glucose level concomitant with insulin resistance, body weight, and body mass index in Japanese men with mild hyperglycemia and visceral fat obesity.

  15. Differential methylation in visceral adipose tissue of obese men discordant for metabolic disturbances.

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    Guénard, Frédéric; Tchernof, André; Deshaies, Yves; Pérusse, Louis; Biron, Simon; Lescelleur, Odette; Biertho, Laurent; Marceau, Simon; Vohl, Marie-Claude

    2014-03-15

    Obesity is associated with an increased risk of Type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular diseases (CVD). The severely obese population is heterogeneous regarding CVD risk profile. Our objective was to identify metabolic pathways potentially associated with development of metabolic syndrome (MetS) through an analysis of overrepresented pathways from differentially methylated genes between severely obese men with (MetS+) and without (MetS-) the MetS. Genome-wide quantitative DNA methylation analysis in VAT of severely obese men was carried out using the Infinium HumanMethylation450 BeadChip. Differences in methylation levels between MetS+ (n = 7) and MetS- (n = 7) groups were tested. Overrepresented pathways from the list of differentially methylated genes were identified and visualized with the Ingenuity Pathway Analysis system. Differential methylation analysis between MetS+ and MetS- groups identified 8,578 methylation probes (3,258 annotated genes) with significant differences in methylation levels (false discovery rate-corrected DiffScore ≥ |13| ∼ P ≤ 0.05). Pathway analysis from differentially methylated genes identified 41 overrepresented (P ≤ 0.05) pathways. The most overrepresented pathways were related to structural components of the cell membrane, inflammation and immunity and cell cycle regulation. This study provides potential targets associated with adipose tissue dysfunction and development of the MetS.

  16. Combined treatment of mulberry leaf and fruit extract ameliorates obesity-related inflammation and oxidative stress in high fat diet-induced obese mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Hyun Hwa; Yang, Soo Jin; Kim, Yuri; Lee, Myoungsook; Lim, Yunsook

    2013-08-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether a combined treatment of mulberry leaf extract (MLE) and mulberry fruit extract (MFE) was effective for improving obesity and obesity-related inflammation and oxidative stress in high fat (HF) diet-induced obese mice. After obesity was induced by HF diet for 9 weeks, the mice were divided into eight groups: (1) lean control, (2) HF diet-induced obese control, (3) 1:1 ratio of MLE and MFE at doses of 200 (L1:1), (4) 500 (M1:1), and (5) 1000 (H1:1) mg/kg per day, and (6) 2:1 ratio of MLE and MFE at doses of 200 (L2:1), (7) 500 (M2:1), and (8) 1000 (H2:1) mg/kg per day. All six combined treatments significantly lowered body weight gain, plasma triglycerides, and lipid peroxidation levels after the 12-week treatment period. Additionally, all combined treatments suppressed hepatic fat accumulation and reduced epididymal adipocyte size. These improvements were accompanied by decreases in protein levels of proinflammatory markers (tumor necrosis factor-alpha, C-reactive protein, interleukin-1, inducible nitric oxide synthase, and phospho-nuclear factor-kappa B inhibitor alpha) and oxidative stress markers (heme oxygenase-1 and manganese superoxide dismutase). M2:1 was the most effective ratio and dose for the improvements in obesity, inflammation, and oxidative stress. These results demonstrate that a combined MLE and MFE treatment ameliorated obesity and obesity-related metabolic stressors and suggest that it can be used as a means to prevent and/or treat obesity.

  17. The heme oxygenase system suppresses perirenal visceral adiposity, abates renal inflammation and ameliorates diabetic nephropathy in Zucker diabetic fatty rats.

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    Joseph Fomusi Ndisang

    Full Text Available The growing incidence of chronic kidney disease remains a global health problem. Obesity is a major risk factor for type-2 diabetes and renal impairment. Perirenal adiposity, by virtue of its anatomical proximity to the kidneys may cause kidney disease through paracrine mechanisms that include increased production of inflammatory cytokines. Although heme-oxygenase (HO is cytoprotective, its effects on perirenal adiposity and diabetic nephropathy in Zucker-diabetic fatty rats (ZDFs remains largely unclear. Upregulating the HO-system with hemin normalised glycemia, reduced perirenal adiposity and suppressed several pro-inflammatory/oxidative mediators in perirenal fat including macrophage-inflammatory-protein-1α (MIP-1α, endothelin (ET-1, 8-isoprostane, TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-1β. Furthermore, hemin reduced ED1, a marker of pro-inflammatory macrophage-M1-phenotype, but interestingly, enhanced markers associated with anti-inflammatory M2-phenotype such as ED2, CD206 and IL-10, suggesting that hemin selectively modulates macrophage polarization towards the anti-inflammatory M2-phenotype. These effects were accompanied by increased adiponectin, HO-1, HO-activity, atrial-natriuretic peptide (ANP, and its surrogate marker, urinary-cGMP. Furthermore, hemin reduced renal histological lesions and abated pro-fibrotic/extracellular-matrix proteins like collagen and fibronectin that deplete nephrin, an important transmembrane protein which forms the scaffolding of the podocyte slit-diaphragm allowing ions to filter but not massive excretion of proteins, hence proteinuria. Correspondingly, hemin increased nephrin expression in ZDFs, reduced markers of renal damage including, albuminuria/proteinuria, but increased creatinine-clearance, suggesting improved renal function. Conversely, the HO-blocker, stannous-mesoporphyrin nullified the hemin effects, aggravating glucose metabolism, and exacerbating renal injury and function. The hemin effects were less

  18. Bacteroides uniformis CECT 7771 ameliorates metabolic and immunological dysfunction in mice with high-fat-diet induced obesity.

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    Paola Gauffin Cano

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Associations have been made between obesity and reduced intestinal numbers of members of the phylum Bacteroidetes, but there is no direct evidence of the role these bacteria play in obesity. Herein, the effects of Bacteroides uniformis CECT 7771 on obesity-related metabolic and immune alterations have been evaluated. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Adult (6-8 week male wild-type C57BL-6 mice were fed a standard diet or a high-fat-diet HFD to induce obesity, supplemented or not with B. uniformis CECT 7771 for seven weeks. Animal weight was monitored and histologic, biochemical, immunocompetent cell functions, and features of the faecal microbiota were analysed after intervention. The oral administration of B. uniformis CECT 7771 reduced body weight gain, liver steatosis and liver cholesterol and triglyceride concentrations and increased small adipocyte numbers in HFD-fed mice. The strain also reduced serum cholesterol, triglyceride, glucose, insulin and leptin levels, and improved oral tolerance to glucose in HFD fed mice. The bacterial strain also reduced dietary fat absorption, as indicated by the reduced number of fat micelles detected in enterocytes. Moreover, B. uniformis CECT 7771 improved immune defence mechanisms, impaired in obesity. HFD-induced obesity led to a decrease in TNF-α production by peritoneal macrophages stimulated with LPS, conversely, the administration of B. uniformis CECT 7771 increased TNF-α production and phagocytosis. Administering this strain also increased TNF-α production by dendritic cells (DCs in response to LPS stimulation, which was significantly reduced by HFD. B. uniformis CECT 7771 also restored the capacity of DCs to induce a T-cell proliferation response, which was impaired in obese mice. HFD induced marked changes in gut microbiota composition, which were partially restored by the intervention. CONCLUSIONS: Altogether, the findings indicate that administration of B. uniformis CECT 7771 ameliorates HFD

  19. Purified Betacyanins from Hylocereus undatus Peel Ameliorate Obesity and Insulin Resistance in High-Fat-Diet-Fed Mice.

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    Song, Haizhao; Chu, Qiang; Xu, Dongdong; Xu, Yang; Zheng, Xiaodong

    2016-01-13

    Natural bioactive compounds in food have been shown to be beneficial in preventing the development of obesity, diabetes, and other metabolic diseases. Increasing evidence indicates that betacyanins possess free-radical-scavenging and antioxidant activities, suggesting their beneficial effects on metabolic disorders. The main objective of this study was to isolate and identify the betaycanins from Hylocereus undatus (white-fleshed pitaya) peel and evaluate their ability to ameliorate obesity, insulin resistance, and hepatic steatosis in high-fat-diet (HFD)-induced obese mice. The purified pitaya peel betacyanins (PPBNs) were identified by liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS), and the male C57BL/6 mice were fed a low-fat diet, HFD, or HFD supplemented with PPBNs for 14 weeks. Our results showed that the white-fleshed pitaya peel contains 14 kinds of betacyanins and dietary PPBNs reduced HFD-induced body weight gain and ameliorated adipose tissue hypertrophy, hepatosteatosis, glucose intolerance, and insulin resistance. Moreover, the hepatic gene expression analysis indicated that PPBN supplementation increased the expression levels of lipid-metabolism-related genes (AdipoR2, Cpt1a, Cpt1b, Acox1, PPARγ, Insig1, and Insig2) and FGF21-related genes (β-Klotho and FGFR1/2) but decreased the expression level of Fads2, Fas, and FGF21, suggesting that the protective effect of PPBNs might be associated with the induced fatty acid oxidation, decreased fatty acid biosynthesis, and alleviated FGF21 resistance.

  20. The endocannabinoid system as a target for the treatment of visceral obesity and metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyrou, Ioannis; Valsamakis, George; Tsigos, Constantine

    2006-11-01

    The endogenous cannabinoid system is a novel, remarkably elaborate physiological signaling system, comprising the recently identified endogenous cannabinoid ligands, their corresponding selective receptors, and the machinery of proteins and enzymes that is involved in their biosynthesis, release, transport, and degradation. This system extends widely in both the central nervous system (CNS) and the periphery and exhibits a variety of actions implicated in vital functions (e.g., behavioral, antinociceptive, neuroprotective, immunosuppressive, cardiovascular, and metabolic). Particular interest has been focused on the apparent participation of endocannabinoids in metabolic homeostasis by modulating the activity of CNS circuits that control food intake and energy expenditure, the neuroendocrine response of the stress system, and the metabolic functions of crucial peripheral tissues, such as the adipose tissue, the gastrointestinal tract, the liver, and the skeletal muscles. These effects are predominantly CB(1) receptor mediated and, thus, selective antagonists of this receptor subtype are being vigorously investigated as potential therapeutic agents for the treatment of various metabolic derangements (e.g., obesity, insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, and metabolic syndrome). The first selective CB(1) receptor antagonist, rimonabant, has already successfully completed phase III clinical trials as adjunctive obesity treatment, with significant improvements in several associated metabolic and cardiovascular risk factors that led to the recent approval of its clinical use by the Food and Drug Administration.

  1. miR-378 Activates the Pyruvate-PEP Futile Cycle and Enhances Lipolysis to Ameliorate Obesity in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yong; Li, Changyin; Li, Hu; Song, Yipeng; Zhao, Yixia; Zhai, Lili; Wang, Haixia; Zhong, Ran; Tang, Huiru; Zhu, Dahai

    2016-03-01

    Obesity has been linked to many health problems, such as diabetes. However, there is no drug that effectively treats obesity. Here, we reveal that miR-378 transgenic mice display reduced fat mass, enhanced lipolysis, and increased energy expenditure. Notably, administering AgomiR-378 prevents and ameliorates obesity in mice. We also found that the energy deficiency seen in miR-378 transgenic mice was due to impaired glucose metabolism. This impairment was caused by an activated pyruvate-PEP futile cycle via the miR-378-Akt1-FoxO1-PEPCK pathway in skeletal muscle and enhanced lipolysis in adipose tissues mediated by miR-378-SCD1. Our findings demonstrate that activating the pyruvate-PEP futile cycle in skeletal muscle is the primary cause of elevated lipolysis in adipose tissues of miR-378 transgenic mice, and it helps orchestrate the crosstalk between muscle and fat to control energy homeostasis in mice. Thus, miR-378 may serve as a promising agent for preventing and treating obesity in humans.

  2. Endurance exercise training ameliorates insulin resistance and reticulum stress in adipose and hepatic tissue in obese rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Luz, Gabrielle; Frederico, Marisa J S; da Silva, Sabrina; Vitto, Marcelo F; Cesconetto, Patricia A; de Pinho, Ricardo A; Pauli, José R; Silva, Adelino S R; Cintra, Dennys E; Ropelle, Eduardo R; De Souza, Cláudio T

    2011-09-01

    Obesity-induced endoplasmatic reticulum (ER) stress has been demonstrated to underlie the induction of obesity-induced JNK and NF-κB activation inflammatory responses, and generation of peripheral insulin resistance. On the other hand, exercise has been used as a crucial tool in obese and diabetic patients, and may reduce inflammatory pathway stimulation. However, the ability of exercise training to reverse endoplasmatic reticulum stress in adipose and hepatic tissue in obesity has not been investigated in the literature. Here, we demonstrate that exercise training ameliorates ER stress and insulin resistance in DIO-induced rats. Rats were fed with standard rodent chow (3,948 kcal kg(-1)) or high-fat diet (5,358 kcal kg(-1)) for 2 months. After that rats were submitted to swimming training (1 h per day, 5 days for week with 5% overload of the body weight for 8 weeks). Samples from epididymal fat and liver were obtained and western blot analysis was performed. Our results showed that swimming protocol reduces pro-inflammatory molecules (JNK, IκB and NF-κB) in adipose and hepatic tissues. In addition, exercise leads to reduction in ER stress, by reducing PERK and eIF2α phosphorylation in these tissues. In parallel, an increase in insulin pathway signaling was observed, as confirmed by increases in IR, IRSs and Akt phosphorylation following exercise training in DIO rats. Thus, results suggest that exercise can reduce ER stress, improving insulin resistance in adipose and hepatic tissue.

  3. miR-378 Activates the Pyruvate-PEP Futile Cycle and Enhances Lipolysis to Ameliorate Obesity in Mice

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    Yong Zhang

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Obesity has been linked to many health problems, such as diabetes. However, there is no drug that effectively treats obesity. Here, we reveal that miR-378 transgenic mice display reduced fat mass, enhanced lipolysis, and increased energy expenditure. Notably, administering AgomiR-378 prevents and ameliorates obesity in mice. We also found that the energy deficiency seen in miR-378 transgenic mice was due to impaired glucose metabolism. This impairment was caused by an activated pyruvate-PEP futile cycle via the miR-378-Akt1-FoxO1-PEPCK pathway in skeletal muscle and enhanced lipolysis in adipose tissues mediated by miR-378-SCD1. Our findings demonstrate that activating the pyruvate-PEP futile cycle in skeletal muscle is the primary cause of elevated lipolysis in adipose tissues of miR-378 transgenic mice, and it helps orchestrate the crosstalk between muscle and fat to control energy homeostasis in mice. Thus, miR-378 may serve as a promising agent for preventing and treating obesity in humans.

  4. Interleukins 6 and 15 Levels Are Higher in Subcutaneous Adipose Tissue, but Obesity Is Associated with Their Increased Content in Visceral Fat Depots

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    Marta Izabela Jonas

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Excess adiposity is associated with chronic inflammation, which takes part in the development of obesity-related complications. The aim of this study was to establish whether subcutaneous (SAT or visceral (VAT adipose tissue plays a major role in synthesis of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Concentrations of interleukins (IL: 1β, 6, 8 and 15 were measured at the protein level by an ELISA-based method and on the mRNA level by real-time PCR in VAT and SAT samples obtained from 49 obese (BMI > 40 kg/m2 and 16 normal-weight (BMI 20–24.9 kg/m2 controls. IL-6 and IL-15 protein concentrations were higher in SAT than in VAT for both obese (p = 0.003 and p < 0.0001, respectively and control individuals (p = 0.004 and p = 0.001, respectively, while for IL-1β this was observed only in obese subjects (p = 0.047. What characterized obese individuals was the higher expression of IL-6 and IL-15 at the protein level in VAT compared to normal-weight controls (p = 0.047 and p = 0.016, respectively. Additionally, obese individuals with metabolic syndrome had higher IL-1β levels in VAT than did obese individuals without this syndrome (p = 0.003. In conclusion, concentrations of some pro-inflammatory cytokines were higher in SAT than in VAT, but it was the increased pro-inflammatory activity of VAT that was associated with obesity and metabolic syndrome.

  5. Pioglitazone can ameliorate insulin resistance in low-dose streptozotocin and high sucrose-fat diet induced obese rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shi-ying DING; Zhu-fang SHEN; Yue-teng CHEN; Su-juan SUN; Quan Liu; Ming-zhi XIE

    2005-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the effect of the peroxisome proliferator-activator receptor (PPAR)-γ agonist, pioglitazone, on insulin resistance in low-dose streptozotocin and high sucrose-fat diet induced obese rats. Methods: Normal female Wistar rats were injected intraperitoneally with low-dose streptozotocin (STZ, 30 mg/kg) and fed with a high sucrose-fat diet for 8 weeks. Pioglitazone (20 mg/kg) was administered orally to the obese and insulin-resistant rats for 28 d. Intraperitoneal glucose tolerance tests, insulin tolerance tests and gluconeogenesis tests were carried out over the last 14 d. At the end of d 28 of the treatment, serums were collected for biochemical analysis. Glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) and insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS-1) protein expression in the liver and skeletal muscle were detected using Western blotting. Results: Significant insulin resistance and obesity were observed in low-dose STZ and high sucrose-fat diet induced obese rats. Pioglitazone (20 mg/kg) treatment significantly decreased serum insulin,triglyceride and free fatty acid levels, and elevated high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) levels. Pioglitazone also lowered the lipid contents in the liver and muscles of rats undergoing treatment. Gluconeogenesis was inhibited and insulin sensitivity was improved markedly. The IRS-1 protein contents in the liver and skeletal muscles and the GLUT4 contents in skeletal muscle were elevated significantly. Conclusion: The data suggest that treatment with pioglitazone improves insulin sensitivity in low-dose STZ and high sucrose-fat diet induced obese rats. The insulin sensitizing effect may be associated with ameliorating lipid metabolism, reducing hyperinsulinemia, inhibiting gluconeogenesis, and increasing IRS-1 and GLUT4 protein expression in insulin-sensitive tissues.

  6. Flurbiprofen ameliorated obesity by attenuating leptin resistance induced by endoplasmic reticulum stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosoi, Toru; Yamaguchi, Rie; Noji, Kikuko; Matsuo, Suguru; Baba, Sachiko; Toyoda, Keisuke; Suezawa, Takahiro; Kayano, Takaaki; Tanaka, Shinpei; Ozawa, Koichiro

    2014-03-01

    Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, caused by the accumulation of unfolded proteins, is involved in the development of obesity. We demonstrated that flurbiprofen, a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID), exhibited chaperone activity, which reduced protein aggregation and alleviated ER stress-induced leptin resistance, characterized by insensitivity to the actions of the anti-obesity hormone leptin. This result was further supported by flurbiprofen attenuating high-fat diet-induced obesity in mice. The other NSAIDs tested did not exhibit such effects, which suggested that this anti-obesity action is mediated independent of NSAIDs. Using ferriteglycidyl methacrylate beads, we identified aldehyde dehydrogenase as the target of flurbiprofen, but not of the other NSAIDs. These results suggest that flurbiprofen may have unique pharmacological properties that reduce the accumulation of unfolded proteins and may represent a new class of drug for the fundamental treatment of obesity.

  7. Onion peel tea ameliorates obesity and affects blood parameters in a mouse model of high-fat-diet-induced obesity

    OpenAIRE

    MATSUNAGA, SHOGO; Azuma, Kazuo; Watanabe, Mayumi; Tsuka, Takeshi; IMAGAWA, TOMOHIRO; OSAKI, TOMOHIRO; Okamoto, Yoshiharu

    2013-01-01

    The present study examined the effects of onion peel tea (OPT) in a mouse model of high-fat-diet-induced obesity. BALB/c mice were fed a high-fat diet for three weeks, followed by a normal diet with or without OPT for 28 days. OPT suppressed the increases in body weight and level of epididymal fat tissue; it also significantly reduced the serum concentrations of total cholesterol on day 14 and those of glucose and leptin on day 28. The results indicate that OPT has anti-obesity effects in an ...

  8. Short-term effects of liraglutide on visceral fat adiposity, appetite, and food preference: a pilot study of obese Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes

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    Inoue Kana

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To examine the effects of liraglutide, a glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1 analogue, on visceral fat adiposity, appetite, food preference, and biomarkers of cardiovascular system in Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes. Methods The study subjects were 20 inpatients with type 2 diabetes treated with liraglutide [age; 61.2 ± 14.0 years, duration of diabetes; 16.9 ± 6.6 years, glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c; 9.1 ± 1.2%, body mass index (BMI; 28.3 ± 5.2 kg/m2, mean ± SD]. After improvement in glycemic control by insulin or oral glucose-lowering agents, patients were switched to liraglutide. We assessed the estimated visceral fat area (eVFA by abdominal bioelectrical impedance analysis, glycemic control by the 75-g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT and eating behavior by the Japan Society for the Study of Obesity questionnaire. Results Treatment with liraglutide (dose range: 0.3 to 0.9 mg/day for 20.0 ± 6.4 days significantly reduced waist circumference, waist/hip ratio, eVFA. It also significantly improved the scores of eating behavior, food preference and the urge for fat intake and tended to reduce scores for sense of hunger. Liraglutide increased serum C-peptide immunoreactivity and disposition index. Conclusions Short-term treatment with liraglutide improved visceral fat adiposity, appetite, food preference and the urge for fat intake in obese Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes.

  9. Comparable Effects of High-Intensity Interval Training and Prolonged Continuous Exercise Training on Abdominal Visceral Fat Reduction in Obese Young Women

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    Haifeng Zhang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study compared the effect of prolonged moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT on reducing abdominal visceral fat in obese young women with that of work-equivalent (300 kJ/training session high-intensity interval training (HIIT. Forty-three participants received either HIIT (n=15, MICT (n=15, or no training (CON, n=13 for 12 weeks. The abdominal visceral fat area (AVFA and abdominal subcutaneous fat area (ASFA of the participants were measured through computed tomography scans preintervention and postintervention. Total fat mass and the fat mass of the android, gynoid, and trunk regions were assessed through dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Following HIIT and MICT, comparable reductions in AVFA (−9.1, −9.2 cm2, ASFA (−35, −28.3 cm2, and combined AVFA and ASFA (−44.7, −37.5 cm2, p>0.05 were observed. Similarly, reductions in fat percentage (−2.5%, −2.4%, total fat mass (−2.8, −2.8 kg, and fat mass of the android (−0.3, −0.3 kg, gynoid (−0.5, −0.7 kg, and trunk (−1.6, −1.2 kg, p>0.05 regions did not differ between HIIT and MICT. No variable changed in CON. In conclusion, MICT consisting of prolonged sessions has no quantitative advantage, compared with that resulting from HIIT, in abdominal visceral fat reduction. HIIT appears to be the predominant strategy for controlling obesity because of its time efficiency.

  10. Comparable Effects of High-Intensity Interval Training and Prolonged Continuous Exercise Training on Abdominal Visceral Fat Reduction in Obese Young Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Haifeng; Tong, Tom K.; Qiu, Weifeng; Zhang, Xu; Zhou, Shi

    2017-01-01

    This study compared the effect of prolonged moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT) on reducing abdominal visceral fat in obese young women with that of work-equivalent (300 kJ/training session) high-intensity interval training (HIIT). Forty-three participants received either HIIT (n = 15), MICT (n = 15), or no training (CON, n = 13) for 12 weeks. The abdominal visceral fat area (AVFA) and abdominal subcutaneous fat area (ASFA) of the participants were measured through computed tomography scans preintervention and postintervention. Total fat mass and the fat mass of the android, gynoid, and trunk regions were assessed through dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Following HIIT and MICT, comparable reductions in AVFA (−9.1, −9.2 cm2), ASFA (−35, −28.3 cm2), and combined AVFA and ASFA (−44.7, −37.5 cm2, p > 0.05) were observed. Similarly, reductions in fat percentage (−2.5%, −2.4%), total fat mass (−2.8, −2.8 kg), and fat mass of the android (−0.3, −0.3 kg), gynoid (−0.5, −0.7 kg), and trunk (−1.6, −1.2 kg, p > 0.05) regions did not differ between HIIT and MICT. No variable changed in CON. In conclusion, MICT consisting of prolonged sessions has no quantitative advantage, compared with that resulting from HIIT, in abdominal visceral fat reduction. HIIT appears to be the predominant strategy for controlling obesity because of its time efficiency. PMID:28116314

  11. Comparison of Visceral Fat Accumulation and Metabolome Markers among Cats of Varying BCS and Novel Classification of Feline Obesity and Metabolic Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okada, Yuki; Kobayashi, Motoo; Sawamura, Masaki; Arai, Toshiro

    2017-01-01

    As in humans, obesity and its associated diseases represent the most significant threat to the health of veterinary populations. Previous human studies have provided insights into the risk factors of obesity, complex pathogenesis of obesity-associated diseases, and their life-threatening consequences. In humans, the “metabolic syndrome” represents a cluster of metabolic risk factors associated with the development of cardiovascular disease. Risk factors for metabolic syndrome, such as diabetes, obesity, high blood pressure, and its complications increase health-care utilization and medical expenses. Early diagnosis and intervention through preemptive approach is in need, and the new International Diabetes Federation definition of MS serves as the universally accepted diagnostic tool that is accessible in clinical settings. In veterinary populations, especially in cats, similar pathophysiological path and disease progression to the development of MS, such as adipokine dysregulations, chronic inflammation, lipotoxicity, are expected. The aim of this manuscript is twofold. First of all, it presents our preliminary feline obesity study that serves as the basis for discussion of obesity and its metabolic impact on feline population. In this study, we observed the effects of weight gain on energy metabolism using metabolome markers, such as adiponectin (ADN) and proinflammatory cytokines, in correlation with other common biochemical parameters in 14 clinically healthy cats of varying weight status. Further, we evaluated the visceral fat accumulation in three subjects of varying Body Condition Scores via computed tomography imaging and laparoscopic examination, and assessed the adipocyte type and size histologically. Mutually antagonizing changes in ADN and visceral adipose tissue (VAT) reflected the pathophysiological derangements leading to MS earlier than the common biochemical predictors such as glucose, liver values, and lipid markers. Second, it proposes the

  12. Flos Lonicera ameliorates obesity and associated endotoxemia in rats through modulation of gut permeability and intestinal microbiota.

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    Jing-Hua Wang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND AIM: Increasing evidence has indicated a close association of host-gut flora metabolic interaction with obesity. Flos Lonicera, a traditional herbal medicine, is used widely in eastern Asia for the treatment of various disorders. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether unfermented or fermented formulations of Flos Lonicera could exert a beneficial impact to combat obesity and related metabolic endotoxemia. METHODS: Obesity and metabolic endotoxemia were induced separately or together in rats through feeding a eight-week high fat diet either alone (HFD control group or in combination with a single LPS stimulation (intraperitoneal injection, 0.75 mg/kg (LPS control group. While, the mechanism of action of the Lonicera formulations was explored in vitro using RAW 264.7 and HCT 116 cell lines as models. RESULTS: In cell-based studies, treatment with both unfermented Flos Lonicera (UFL and fermented Flos Lonicera (FFL formulations resulted in suppression of LPS-induced NO production and gene expression of vital proinflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, COX-2, and IL-6 in RAW 264.7 cells, reduced the gene expression of zonula occludens (ZO-1 and claudin-1, and normalized trans epithelial electric resistance (TEER and horseradish peroxidase (HRP flux in LPS-treated HCT-116 cells. In an animal study, treatment of HFD as well as HFD+LPS groups with UFL or FFL resulted in a notable decrease in body and adipose tissue weights, ameliorated total cholesterol, HDL, triglyceride, aspartate transaminase and endotoxin levels in serum, reduced the urinary lactulose/mannitol ratio, and markedly alleviated lipid accumulation in liver. In addition, exposure of HFD as well as HFD+LPS groups with UFL or FFL resulted in significant alteration of the distribution of intestinal flora, especially affecting the population of Akkermansia spp. and ratio of Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes. CONCLUSION: This evidence collectively demonstrates that Flos Lonicera

  13. Carbenoxolone treatment ameliorated metabolic syndrome in WNIN/Ob obese rats, but induced severe fat loss and glucose intolerance in lean rats.

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    Siva Sankara Vara Prasad Sakamuri

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11β-HSD1 regulates local glucocorticoid action in tissues by catalysing conversion of inactive glucocorticoids to active glucocorticoids. 11β-HSD1 inhibition ameliorates obesity and associated co-morbidities. Here, we tested the effect of 11β-HSD inhibitor, carbenoxolone (CBX on obesity and associated comorbidities in obese rats of WNIN/Ob strain, a new animal model for genetic obesity. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Subcutaneous injection of CBX (50 mg/kg body weight or volume-matched vehicle was given once daily for four weeks to three month-old WNIN/Ob lean and obese rats (n = 6 for each phenotype and for each treatment. Body composition, plasma lipids and hormones were assayed. Hepatic steatosis, adipose tissue morphology, inflammation and fibrosis were also studied. Insulin resistance and glucose intolerance were determined along with tissue glycogen content. Gene expressions were determined in liver and adipose tissue. CBX significantly inhibited 11β-HSD1 activity in liver and adipose tissue of WNIN/Ob lean and obese rats. CBX significantly decreased body fat percentage, hypertriglyceridemia, hypercholesterolemia, insulin resistance in obese rats. CBX ameliorated hepatic steatosis, adipocyte hypertrophy, adipose tissue inflammation and fibrosis in obese rats. Tissue glycogen content was significantly decreased by CBX in liver and adipose tissue of obese rats. Severe fat loss and glucose- intolerance were observed in lean rats after CBX treatment. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We conclude that 11β-HSD1 inhibition by CBX decreases obesity and associated co-morbidities in WNIN/Ob obese rats. Our study supports the hypothesis that inhibition of 11β-HSD1 is a key strategy to treat metabolic syndrome. Severe fat loss and glucose -intolerance by CBX treatment in lean rats suggest that chronic 11β-HSD1 inhibition may lead to insulin resistance in normal conditions.

  14. Influence of the body mass and visceral adiposity on glucose metabolism in obese women with Pro12Pro genotype in PPARgamma2 gene

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    Vanessa Chaia Kaippert

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Glucose metabolism may be altered in obesity and genotype for PPAR 2 can influence this variable. Objective: To evaluate the influence of body mass (BM and visceral adiposity (VA in glucose metabolism in morbid obese women with Pro12Pro genotype. Methods: Were selected 25 morbidly obese women. Groups were formed according to body mass index (BMI [G1: 40-45 kg/m² (n = 17; G2: > 45 kg/m² (n = 8]. Anthropometric, glycemia and insulinemia assessments (fasting, 60 and 120 minutes after high polyunsaturated fatty acids meal were carried out. The insulin resistance (IR and insulin sensitivity (IS were assessed by HOMA-IR and QUICKI respectively. Results: G2 had higher BMI and waist circumference, compared to G1, impaired fasting glucose, low IS and higher IR. The postprandial glucose was normal, but there was a higher insulin peak one hour after the meal in G2. Conclusion: Increased BM and VA were associated with worse glucose metabolism suggesting metabolic differences between morbid obese with Pro12Pro genotype.

  15. Treatment with a novel oleic-acid–dihydroxyamphetamine conjugation ameliorates non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in obese Zucker rats

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    Juan M. Decara

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Fatty liver disease is one of the main hepatic complications associated with obesity. To date, there are no effective treatments for this pathology apart from the use of classical fibrates. In this study, we have characterized the in vivo effects of a novel conjugation of oleic acid with an amphetamine derivative (OLHHA in an animal model of genetic obesity. Lean and obese Zucker rats received a daily intraperitoneal administration of OLHHA (5 mg kg−1 for 15 days. Plasma and liver samples were collected for the biochemical and molecular biological analyses, including both immunohistochemical and histological studies. The expression of key enzymes and proteins that are involved in lipid metabolism and energy homeostasis was evaluated in the liver samples. The potential of OLHHA to produce adverse drug reactions or toxicity was also evaluated through the monitoring of interactions with hERG channel and liver cytochrome. We found that OLHHA is a drug with a safe pharmacological profile. Treatment for 15 days with OLHHA reduced the liver fat content and plasma triglyceride levels, and this was accompanied by a general improvement in the profile of plasma parameters related to liver damage in the obese rats. A decrease in fat accumulation in the liver was confirmed using histological staining. Additionally, OLHHA was observed to exert anti-apoptotic effects. This hepatoprotective activity in obese rats was associated with an increase in the mRNA and protein expression of the cannabinoid type 1 receptor and a decrease in the expression of the lipogenic enzymes FAS and HMGCR primarily. However, changes in the mRNA expression of certain proteins were not associated with changes in the protein expression (i.e. L-FABP and INSIG2. The present results demonstrate that OLHHA is a potential anti-steatotic drug that ameliorates the obesity-associated fatty liver and suggest the potential use of this new drug for the treatment of non-alcoholic fatty

  16. Potential renoprotective effects of piceatannol in ameliorating the early-stage nephropathy associated with obesity in obese Zucker rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llarena, Marta; Andrade, Fernando; Hasnaoui, Mounia; Portillo, María P; Pérez-Matute, Patricia; Arbones-Mainar, Jose M; Hijona, Elizabeth; Villanueva-Millán, María Jesús; Aguirre, Leixuri; Carpéné, Christian; Aldámiz-Echevarría, Luis

    2016-09-01

    Obesity-associated nephropathy is considered to be a leading cause of end-stage renal disease. Resveratrol supplementation represents a promising therapy to attenuate kidney injury, but the poor solubility and limited bioavailability of this polyphenol limits its use in dietary intervention. Piceatannol, a resveratrol analogue, has been suggested as a better option. In this study, we aimed to provide evidence of a preventive action of piceatannol in very early stages of obesity-associated nephropathy. Thirty obese Zucker rats were divided into three experimental groups: one control and two groups orally treated for 6 weeks with 15 and 45 mg piceatannol/kg body weight/day. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) were used to determine renal and urinary kidney injury molecule-1 (Kim-1), renal fibrosis markers (transforming growth factor β1 and fibronectin) and renal sirtuin-1 protein. Oxidative stress was assessed in the kidney by measuring lipid peroxidation and nitrosative stress (thiobarbituric acid reactive substrates and 3-nitrotyrosine levels, respectively) together with the activity of the antioxidant enzyme superoxide dismutase. Renal fatty acids profile analysis was performed by thin-layer and gas chromatography. Piceatannol-treated rats displayed lower levels of urinary and renal Kim-1. Renal fibrosis biomarkers and lipid peroxidation exhibited a tendency to decrease in the piceatannol-treated groups. Piceatannol treatment did not modify superoxide dismutase activity or sirtuin-1 protein levels, while it seemed to increase the levels of polyunsaturated and omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids in the kidneys. Our findings suggest a mild renoprotective effect of piceatannol in obese Zucker rats and the need of intervention at early stages of renal damage.

  17. Expressions of neuropeptide Y and Y1 receptor in subcutaneous and visceral fat tissues in normal weight and obese humans and their correlations with clinical parameters and peripheral metabolic factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sitticharoon, Chantacha; Chatree, Saimai; Churintaraphan, Malika

    2013-08-10

    Recently, neuropeptide Y (NPY) and Y1 receptor (Y1R) were found to be expressed and synthesized in adipose tissue. This study aimed to compare NPY and Y1R mRNA expressions in subcutaneous and visceral fat tissues as well as serum NPY in normal weight and obese humans and their correlations with clinical parameters and peripheral metabolic factors. We demonstrated that NPY mRNA expression was higher in obese than in normal weight humans (ptissues and was significantly greater in visceral when compared with subcutaneous fat in overall (ptissue and was statistically greater in subcutaneous when compared to visceral adipose tissue in obese (ptissue was positively correlated with body weight (R=0.586), BMI (R=0.611), waist (R=0.474) and hip (R=0.483) circumferences, insulin levels (R=0.539), and HOMA-IR (R=0.480). As the result, Y1R expression in visceral adipose tissue might be an indicator of increased risk of metabolic syndrome. Further studies about blocking specific Y1R may propose strategies for risk reduction in metabolic syndrome and prevention or treatment of obesity.

  18. CD40L Deficiency Ameliorates Adipose Tissue Inflammation and Metabolic Manifestations of Obesity in Mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Poggi; D. Engel; A. Christ; L. Beckers; E. Wijnands; L. Boon; A. Driessen; J. Cleutjens; C. Weber; N. Gerdes; E. Lutgens

    2011-01-01

    Obese adipose tissue shows hallmarks of chronic inflammation, which promotes the development of metabolic disorders. The mechanisms by which immune cells interact with each other or with metabolism-associated cell types, and the players involved, are still unclear. The CD40-CD40L costimulatory dyad

  19. Vitis thunbergii var. taiwaniana Extracts and Purified Compounds Ameliorate Obesity in High-Fat Diet-Induced Obese Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Shyr-Yi; Huang, Guan-Cheng; Hsieh, Ying-Ying; Lin, Yin-Shiou; Han, Chuan-Hsiao; Wen, Chi-Luan; Chang, Chi-I; Hou, Wen-Chi

    2015-10-28

    The increasing prevalence of obesity continues to gain more attention worldwide. In this study, diet-induced obese mice were used to evaluate the antiobesity effects of extracts, fractions, and purified compounds from Vitis thunbergii var. taiwaniana (VTT). The C57BL/6J mice were fed a 5-week high-fat diet (HF) concurrently with ethanol extracts (Et-ext, 80 mg/kg) from roots (R), stems (S), and leaves (L) by oral gavage daily. Only R-Et-ext interventions showed significant weight reduction in mice compared with those in the HF group; however, mouse plasma contents of total cholesterols (TC), total triglycerides (TG) and low-density lipoproteins (LDL) of all three Et-ext intervened groups showed significant reductions compared with those in the HF group. Furthermore, intervention with the ethyl acetate-partitioned fraction (EA-fra, 60 mg/kg) from R-Et-ext but not the n-butanol-partitioned fraction or water fraction from R-Et-ext showed significant weight reduction in mice compared with those in the HF group. The same molecular weights of three resveratrol tetramers, (+)-hopeaphenol, (+)-vitisin A, and (-)-vitisin B, were isolated from the EA-fra of VTT-R. The (+)-vitisin A and fenofibrate (25 mg/kg) but not the (+)-hopeaphenol and (-)-vitisin B interventions showed significant weight reduction in mice compared with those in the HF group. The total feed intake among the HF groups with or without interventions showed no significant differences. The mouse plasma contents of TC, TG, LDL, free fatty acid, and plasma lipase activity of the three resveratrol tetramer-intervened groups showed reductions in the mice compared with those in the HF group. It was proposed that the lipase inhibitory activities of VTT extracts and purified resveratrol tetramers might contribute in part to the antiobesity effect, and these results suggested that VTT may be developed as functional food for achieving antiobesity objectives and requires further investigation.

  20. Undaria pinnatifida and Fucoxanthin Ameliorate Lipogenesis and Markers of Both Inflammation and Cardiovascular Dysfunction in an Animal Model of Diet-Induced Obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ameyalli Grasa-López

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Brown algae and its carotenoids have been shown to have a positive influence on obesity and its comorbidities. This study evaluated the effect of Undaria pinnatifida and fucoxanthin on biochemical, physiological and inflammation markers related to obesity and on the expression of genes engaged on white adipose tissue lipid metabolism in a murine model of diet-induced obesity. The treatments improved energy expenditure, β-oxidation and adipogenesis by upregulating PPARα, PGC1α, PPARγ and UCP-1. Adipogenesis was also confirmed by image analysis of the retroperitoneal adipose tissue, by measuring cell area, perimeter and cellular density. Additionally, the treatments, ameliorated adipose tissue accumulation, insulin resistance, blood pressure, cholesterol and triglycerides concentration in serum, and reduced lipogenesis and inflammation by downregulating acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC gene expression, increasing serum concentration and expression of adiponectin as well as downregulating IL-6 expression. Both fucoxanthin and Undaria pinnatifida may be considered for treating obesity and other diseases related.

  1. Undaria pinnatifida and Fucoxanthin Ameliorate Lipogenesis and Markers of Both Inflammation and Cardiovascular Dysfunction in an Animal Model of Diet-Induced Obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grasa-López, Ameyalli; Miliar-García, Ángel; Quevedo-Corona, Lucía; Paniagua-Castro, Norma; Escalona-Cardoso, Gerardo; Reyes-Maldonado, Elba; Jaramillo-Flores, María-Eugenia

    2016-01-01

    Brown algae and its carotenoids have been shown to have a positive influence on obesity and its comorbidities. This study evaluated the effect of Undaria pinnatifida and fucoxanthin on biochemical, physiological and inflammation markers related to obesity and on the expression of genes engaged on white adipose tissue lipid metabolism in a murine model of diet-induced obesity. The treatments improved energy expenditure, β-oxidation and adipogenesis by upregulating PPARα, PGC1α, PPARγ and UCP-1. Adipogenesis was also confirmed by image analysis of the retroperitoneal adipose tissue, by measuring cell area, perimeter and cellular density. Additionally, the treatments, ameliorated adipose tissue accumulation, insulin resistance, blood pressure, cholesterol and triglycerides concentration in serum, and reduced lipogenesis and inflammation by downregulating acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) gene expression, increasing serum concentration and expression of adiponectin as well as downregulating IL-6 expression. Both fucoxanthin and Undaria pinnatifida may be considered for treating obesity and other diseases related. PMID:27527189

  2. The carbonyl scavenger carnosine ameliorates dyslipidaemia and renal function in Zucker obese rats.

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    Aldini, Giancarlo; Orioli, Marica; Rossoni, Giuseppe; Savi, Federica; Braidotti, Paola; Vistoli, Giulio; Yeum, Kyung-Jin; Negrisoli, Gianpaolo; Carini, Marina

    2011-06-01

    The metabolic syndrome is a risk factor that increases the risk for development of renal and vascular complications. This study addresses the effects of chronic administration of the endogenous dipeptide carnosine (β-alanyl-L-histidine, L-CAR) and of its enantiomer (β-alanyl-D-histidine, D-CAR) on hyperlipidaemia, hypertension, advanced glycation end products, advanced lipoxidation end products formation and development of nephropathy in the non-diabetic, Zucker obese rat. The Zucker rats received a daily dose of L-CAR or D-CAR (30 mg/kg in drinking water) for 24 weeks. Systolic blood pressure was recorded monthly. At the end of the treatment, plasma levels of triglycerides, total cholesterol, glucose, insulin, creatinine and urinary levels of total protein, albumin and creatinine were measured. Several indices of oxidative/carbonyl stress were also measured in plasma, urine and renal tissue. We found that both L- and D-CAR greatly reduced obese-related diseases in obese Zucker rat, by significantly restraining the development of dyslipidaemia, hypertension and renal injury, as demonstrated by both urinary parameters and electron microscopy examinations of renal tissue. Because the protective effect elicited by L- and D-CAR was almost superimposable, we conclude that the pharmacological action of L-CAR is not due to a pro-histaminic effect (D-CAR is not a precursor of histidine, since it is stable to peptidic hydrolysis), and prompted us to propose that some of the biological effects can be mediated by a direct carbonyl quenching mechanism.

  3. Short-term lenalidomide (Revlimid) administration ameliorates cardiomyocyte contractile dysfunction in ob/ob obese mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Linlin; Hua, Yinan; Dong, Maolong; Li, Quan; Smith, Derek T; Yuan, Ming; Jones, Kyla R; Ren, Jun

    2012-11-01

    Lenalidomide is a potent immunomodulatory agent capable of downregulating proinflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and upregulating anti-inflammatory cytokines. Lenalidomide has been shown to elicit cardiovascular effects, although its impact on cardiac function remains obscure. This study was designed to examine the effect of lenalidomide on cardiac contractile function in ob/ob obese mice. C57BL lean and ob/ob obese mice were given lenalidomide (50 mg/kg/day, p.o.) for 3 days. Body fat composition was assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Cardiomyocyte contractile and intracellular Ca(2+) properties were evaluated. Expression of TNF-α, interleukin-6 (IL-6), Fas, Fas ligand (FasL), the short-chain fatty acid receptor GPR41, the NFκB regulator IκB, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, the apoptotic protein markers Bax, Bcl-2, caspase-8, tBid, cytosolic cytochrome C, and caspase-12; and the stress signaling molecules p38 and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) were evaluated by western blot. ob/ob mice displayed elevated serum TNF-α and IL-6 levels, fat composition and glucose intolerance, the effects of which except glucose intolerance and fat composition were attenuated by lenalidomide. Cardiomyocytes from ob/ob mice exhibited depressed peak shortening (PS) and maximal velocity of shortening/relengthening, prolonged time-to-PS and time-to-90% relengthening as well as intracellular Ca(2+) mishandling, which were ablated by lenalidomide. Western blot analysis revealed elevated levels of TNF-α, IL-6, Fas, Bip, Bax, caspase-8, tBid, cleaved caspase-3 caspase-12, cytochrome C, phosphorylation of p38, and ERK in ob/ob mouse hearts, the effects of which with the exception of Bip, Bax, and caspase-12 were alleviated by lenalidomide. Taken together, these data suggest that lenalidomide is protective against obesity-induced cardiomyopathy possibly through antagonism of cytokine/Fas-induced activation of stress signaling and

  4. Co-expressed immune and metabolic genes in visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue from severely obese individuals are associated with plasma HDL and glucose levels: a microarray study

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    Wolfs Marcel GM

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Excessive accumulation of body fat, in particular in the visceral fat depot, is a major risk factor to develop a variety of diseases such as type 2 diabetes. The mechanisms underlying the increased risk of obese individuals to develop co-morbid diseases are largely unclear. We aimed to identify genes expressed in subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT and visceral adipose tissue (VAT that are related to blood parameters involved in obesity co-morbidity, such as plasma lipid and glucose levels, and to compare gene expression between the fat depots. Methods Whole-transcriptome SAT and VAT gene expression levels were determined in 75 individuals with a BMI >35 kg/m2. Modules of co-expressed genes likely to be functionally related were identified and correlated with BMI, plasma levels of glucose, insulin, HbA1c, triglycerides, non-esterified fatty acids, ALAT, ASAT, C-reactive protein, and LDL- and HDL cholesterol. Results Of the approximately 70 modules identified in SAT and VAT, three SAT modules were inversely associated with plasma HDL-cholesterol levels, and a fourth module was inversely associated with both plasma glucose and plasma triglyceride levels (p -5. These modules were markedly enriched in immune and metabolic genes. In VAT, one module was associated with both BMI and insulin, and another with plasma glucose (p -5. This module was also enriched in inflammatory genes and showed a marked overlap in gene content with the SAT modules related to HDL. Several genes differentially expressed in SAT and VAT were identified. Conclusions In obese subjects, groups of co-expressed genes were identified that correlated with lipid and glucose metabolism parameters; they were enriched with immune genes. A number of genes were identified of which the expression in SAT correlated with plasma HDL cholesterol, while their expression in VAT correlated with plasma glucose. This underlines both the singular importance of these genes for lipid

  5. Inhibition of ceramide synthesis ameliorates glucocorticoid-, saturated-fat-, and obesity-induced insulin resistance.

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    Holland, William L; Brozinick, Joseph T; Wang, Li-Ping; Hawkins, Eric D; Sargent, Katherine M; Liu, Yanqi; Narra, Krishna; Hoehn, Kyle L; Knotts, Trina A; Siesky, Angela; Nelson, Don H; Karathanasis, Sotirios K; Fontenot, Greg K; Birnbaum, Morris J; Summers, Scott A

    2007-03-01

    Insulin resistance occurs in 20%-25% of the human population, and the condition is a chief component of type 2 diabetes mellitus and a risk factor for cardiovascular disease and certain forms of cancer. Herein, we demonstrate that the sphingolipid ceramide is a common molecular intermediate linking several different pathological metabolic stresses (i.e., glucocorticoids and saturated fats, but not unsaturated fats) to the induction of insulin resistance. Moreover, inhibition of ceramide synthesis markedly improves glucose tolerance and prevents the onset of frank diabetes in obese rodents. Collectively, these data have two important implications. First, they indicate that different fatty acids induce insulin resistance by distinct mechanisms discerned by their reliance on sphingolipid synthesis. Second, they identify enzymes required for ceramide synthesis as therapeutic targets for combating insulin resistance caused by nutrient excess or glucocorticoid therapy.

  6. Apigenin Ameliorates Dyslipidemia, Hepatic Steatosis and Insulin Resistance by Modulating Metabolic and Transcriptional Profiles in the Liver of High-Fat Diet-Induced Obese Mice.

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    Jung, Un Ju; Cho, Yun-Young; Choi, Myung-Sook

    2016-05-19

    Several in vitro and in vivo studies have reported the anti-inflammatory, anti-diabetic and anti-obesity effects of the flavonoid apigenin. However, the long-term supplementary effects of low-dose apigenin on obesity are unclear. Therefore, we investigated the protective effects of apigenin against obesity and related metabolic disturbances by exploring the metabolic and transcriptional responses in high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obese mice. C57BL/6J mice were fed an HFD or apigenin (0.005%, w/w)-supplemented HFD for 16 weeks. In HFD-fed mice, apigenin lowered plasma levels of free fatty acid, total cholesterol, apolipoprotein B and hepatic dysfunction markers and ameliorated hepatic steatosis and hepatomegaly, without altering food intake and adiposity. These effects were partly attributed to upregulated expression of genes regulating fatty acid oxidation, tricarboxylic acid cycle, oxidative phosphorylation, electron transport chain and cholesterol homeostasis, downregulated expression of lipolytic and lipogenic genes and decreased activities of enzymes responsible for triglyceride and cholesterol ester synthesis in the liver. Moreover, apigenin lowered plasma levels of pro-inflammatory mediators and fasting blood glucose. The anti-hyperglycemic effect of apigenin appeared to be related to decreased insulin resistance, hyperinsulinemia and hepatic gluconeogenic enzymes activities. Thus, apigenin can ameliorate HFD-induced comorbidities via metabolic and transcriptional modulations in the liver.

  7. Tratamento multidisciplinar reduz o tecido adiposo visceral, leptina, grelina e a prevalência de esteatose hepática não alcoólica (NAFLD em adolescentes obesos Tratamiento multidisciplinar reduce el tejido adiposo visceral, leptina, grelina y la prevalencia de esteatosis hepática no alcohólica (NAFLD en adolescentes obesos Multidisciplinary treatment reduces visceral adiposity tissue, leptin, ghrelin and the prevalence of non-alcoholic fat liver disease (NAFLD in obese adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana R. Dâmaso

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do presente estudo foi avaliar as alterações promovidas, por intervenção multidisciplinar, nas concentrações plasmáticas de grelina e leptina, adiposidade visceral e prevalência de esteatose hepática não alcoólica (NAFLD, em adolescentes obesos. Foram avaliados 28 adolescentes obesos, 16 meninas (IMC 34,58 ± 3,86kg/m² e 12 meninos (IMC 37,08 ± 3,17kg/m², com idade entre 15 e 19 anos, quanto à concentração de leptina, grelina, insulina, assim como a adiposidade visceral e o diagnóstico de NAFLD pelo método de ultra-sonografia. Os resultados demonstraram redução significante na concentração circulante de grelina e leptina e na adiposidade visceral (p El objetivo del presente trabajo ha sido evaluar las alteraciones promovidas por la intervención multidisciplinar, en las concentra- ciones plasmáticas de grelina y leptina, adiposidad visceral y prevalencia de esteatosis hepática no alcohólica - NAFLD, en adolescentes obesos. 28 adolescentes obesos, 16 chicas (IMC 34,58 ± 3,86 kg/m² y 12 chicos (IMC 37,08 ± 3,17 kg/m², con edades entre 15 y 19 años, fueron evaluados respecto a la concentración de leptina, grelina, insulina, así como a la adiposidad visceral y el diagnóstico de NAFLD por el método de ultrasonografía. Los resultados demostraron una reducción significante en la concentra- ción circulante de grelina y leptina y en la adiposidad visceral (p The aim of this study was to assess the changes promoted by a multidisciplinary therapy in ghrelin and leptin concentrations, visceral adiposity and non-alcoholic fat liver disease-NAFLD, in obese adolescents. A total of 28 obese adolescents, 16 girls (BMI 34.58 ± 3,86 wt/ht² and 12 boys (BMI 37.08 ± 3.17 wt/ht², aged between 15 and 19 years old, was evaluated to leptin, ghrelin and insulin concentrations, visceral adiposity and NAFLD through ultrasonography. The results showed a significant decrease in ghrelin, leptin concentrations and visceral

  8. Maternal low-protein diet up-regulates the neuropeptide Y system in visceral fat and leads to abdominal obesity and glucose intolerance in a sex- and time-specific manner

    OpenAIRE

    Han, Ruijun; Li, Aiyun; Lijun LI; Kitlinska, Joanna B.; Zukowska, Zofia

    2012-01-01

    Neuropeptide Y (NPY) mediates stress-induced obesity in adult male mice by activating its Y2 receptor (Y2R) in visceral adipose tissue (VAT). Here, we studied whether the NPY-Y2R system is also activated by maternal low-protein diet (LPD) and linked to obesity in offspring. Prenatal LPD offspring had lower birth weights compared to normal-protein diet (NPD) offspring. Female prenatal and lactation stress (PLS) offspring from mothers fed an LPD developed abdominal adiposity and glucose intoler...

  9. Calorie restriction and endurance exercise share potent anti-inflammatory function in adipose tissues in ameliorating diet-induced obesity and insulin resistance in mice

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    Yan Zhen

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Calorie restriction (CR and endurance exercise are known to attenuate obesity and improve the metabolic syndrome. The aim of this study was to directly compare the effects of CR and endurance exercise in a mouse model of diet-induced obesity and insulin resistance. Methods Adult male C57BL/6N mice were randomly assigned and subjected to one of the six interventions for 8 weeks: low-fat diet (LC, 10% fat, low-fat diet with 30% calorie restriction (LR, high-fat diet (HC, 60% fat, high-fat diet with 30% calorie restriction (HR, high-fat diet with voluntary running exercise (HE, and high-fat diet with a combination of 30% calorie restriction and exercise (HRE. The impacts of the interventions were assessed by comprehensive metabolic analyses and pro-inflammatory cytokine gene expression. Results Endurance exercise significantly attenuated high-fat diet-induced obesity. CR dramatically prevented high-fat diet-induced metabolic abnormalities. A combination of CR and endurance exercise further reduced obesity and insulin resistance under the condition of high-fat diet. CR and endurance exercise each potently suppressed the expression of inflammatory cytokines in white adipose tissues with additive effects when combined, but the effects of diet and exercise interventions in the liver were moderate to minimal. Conclusions CR and endurance exercise share a potent anti-inflammatory function in adipose tissues in ameliorating diet-induced obesity and insulin resistance.

  10. Calorie restriction and endurance exercise share potent anti-inflammatory function in adipose tissues in ameliorating diet-induced obesity and insulin resistance in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background Calorie restriction (CR) and endurance exercise are known to attenuate obesity and improve the metabolic syndrome. The aim of this study was to directly compare the effects of CR and endurance exercise in a mouse model of diet-induced obesity and insulin resistance. Methods Adult male C57BL/6N mice were randomly assigned and subjected to one of the six interventions for 8 weeks: low-fat diet (LC, 10% fat), low-fat diet with 30% calorie restriction (LR), high-fat diet (HC, 60% fat), high-fat diet with 30% calorie restriction (HR), high-fat diet with voluntary running exercise (HE), and high-fat diet with a combination of 30% calorie restriction and exercise (HRE). The impacts of the interventions were assessed by comprehensive metabolic analyses and pro-inflammatory cytokine gene expression. Results Endurance exercise significantly attenuated high-fat diet-induced obesity. CR dramatically prevented high-fat diet-induced metabolic abnormalities. A combination of CR and endurance exercise further reduced obesity and insulin resistance under the condition of high-fat diet. CR and endurance exercise each potently suppressed the expression of inflammatory cytokines in white adipose tissues with additive effects when combined, but the effects of diet and exercise interventions in the liver were moderate to minimal. Conclusions CR and endurance exercise share a potent anti-inflammatory function in adipose tissues in ameliorating diet-induced obesity and insulin resistance. PMID:20633301

  11. Visceral injuries.

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    Wisner, D H; Blaisdell, F W

    1992-06-01

    Abdominal visceral injuries are encountered by every surgeon who deals with trauma. It is simple and useful to divide abdominal visceral injuries into those caused by penetrating mechanisms of injury and those due to blunt mechanisms. Determination of the need for operative intervention is generally easier after penetrating trauma. Gunshot wounds to the abdomen should be explored, as should stab wounds to the anterior abdomen that penetrate the fascia. A midline incision is the standard approach to abdominal visceral injuries because of its ease and versatility. Abdominal exploration should be consistent and systemic so as not to miss significant injuries. Hollow viscus injury is most common after penetrating injury, while blunt injury most often results in injury to solid viscera. Diagnostic and operative aspects of the treatment of specific visceral injuries are reviewed.

  12. MATERNAL AND POST-WEANING EXPOSURE TO A HIGH FAT DIET PROMOTES VISCERAL OBESITY AND HEPATIC STEATOSIS IN ADULT RATS.

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    dos Santos Perez, Gabriela; Santana dos Santos, Lucimeire; dos Santos Cordeiro, Gabriele; Matos Paraguassú, Gardênia; Abensur Athanazio, Daniel; Couto, Ricardo David; Bonfim de Jesus Deiró, Tereza Cristina; Manhães de Castro, Raul; Barreto-Medeiros, Jairza Maria

    2015-10-01

    Objetivo: teniendo en cuenta el consumo frecuente de dietas ricas en grasas por las mujeres en edad reproductiva, el objetivo del presente estudio fue investigar los efectos del consumo materno de una dieta alta en grasas durante el periodo perinatal y/o post-destete en el higado y el metabolismo de los lipidos en ratas jovenes. Métodos: ratas hembra Wistar fueron alimentadas durante el embarazo y la lactancia con un alto contenido de grasa (H) o de control (C). La descendencia se asigno a cuatro grupos: Control (CC, n = 11), descendencia alimentada con una dieta de control despues del destete; Control de dieta alta en grasa (CH, n = 10), crias alimentadas con una dieta alta en grasas despues del destete; Alta en grasas de alta en grasa (HH, n = 10), hijos de madres H alimentados con una dieta alta en grasas despues del destete; y Control de alta en grasa (HC, n = 9), hijos de madres H alimentados con dieta de control tras el destete. Resultados y discusión: la ingesta de alimentos no difirio entre los grupos; sin embargo, el peso relativo del tejido adiposo fue mayor en los animales de los grupos HC, HH y CH (p ≤ 0,005). La esteatosis hepatica se encontro en los CH y HH, que tambien presentaban hipercolesterolemia (p ≤ 0,05). Los niveles de las enzimas hepaticas alanina aminotransferasa (ALT) y gamma-glutamil transpeptidasa (GGT) fueron mayores en el grupo de HH, y el nivel de LDL fue mayor en el grupo CH en comparacion con el CC. El consumo de la dieta propicio la obesidad durante los periodos criticos del desarrollo y puede contribuir a la aparicion de obesidad visceral, esteatosis hepatica e hipercolesterolemia en ratas adultas, incluso en ausencia de cambios en la ingesta dietetica.

  13. Ameliorative effects of Monascus pilosus-fermented black soybean (Glycine max L. Merrill) on high-fat diet-induced obesity.

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    Oh, Hong-Geun; Kang, Young-Rye; Lee, Hak-Yong; Kim, Jung-Hoon; Shin, Eun-Hye; Lee, Bong-Gun; Park, Sang-Hoon; Moon, Dae-In; Kim, Ok-Jin; Lee, In-Ae; Choi, Jongkeun; Lee, Ji-Ean; Park, Kwang-Hyun; Suh, Joo-Won

    2014-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the antiobesity effects of Monascus pilosus-fermented black soybean (F-BS) in C57BL/6 mice with high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity. F-BS (oral, 0.5 and 1.0 g/kg per body weight, twice per day) ameliorated obesity by reducing body and liver weight increases, and regulating blood glucose and cholesterol levels in C57BL/6 mice fed a control or HFD with oral administration of F-BS for 12 weeks. F-BS suppressed the growth of epididymal, retroperitoneal, and perirenal fat pads by preventing increases in the adipocyte size. Moreover, the levels of blood glucose, total cholesterol, and leptin were significantly lowered by F-BS administration in a dose-dependent manner. These results indicated that F-BS is a beneficial food supplement for preventing obesity, controlling blood glucose, and lowering cholesterol. Future research strategies should address the mechanisms that selectively regulate obesity, including hyperglycemia and hypercholesterolemia.

  14. Effects of weight-reduction on obesity-associated diseases

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    Liebermeister, Hermann

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available Even moderate, but persistent weight-loss ameliorates most of the related diseases in obesity. Besides the consequences of the metabolic syndrome, this includes less well-known obesity-associated changes, such as impaired fertility, menstrual disorders, psychic changes, total leucocyte-count as a parameter of immunity and the impaired pulmonary function in asthma and sleep-apnoea. Life-expectancy is prolonged by diminution of visceral fat depots, whilst weight-loss by shrinking of fat-free body-mass seems to have a contrary effect.

  15. Acylated and desacyl ghrelin are associated with hepatic lipogenesis, β-oxidation and autophagy: role in NAFLD amelioration after sleeve gastrectomy in obese rats.

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    Ezquerro, Silvia; Méndez-Giménez, Leire; Becerril, Sara; Moncada, Rafael; Valentí, Víctor; Catalán, Victoria; Gómez-Ambrosi, Javier; Frühbeck, Gema; Rodríguez, Amaia

    2016-12-23

    Bariatric surgery improves non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Our aim was to investigate the potential role of ghrelin isoforms in the resolution of hepatic steatosis after sleeve gastrectomy, a restrictive bariatric surgery procedure, in diet-induced obese rats. Male Wistar rats (n = 161) were subjected to surgical (sham operation and sleeve gastrectomy) or dietary interventions [fed ad libitum a normal (ND) or a high-fat (HFD) diet or pair-fed]. Obese rats developed hepatosteatosis and showed decreased circulating desacyl ghrelin without changes in acylated ghrelin. Sleeve gastrectomy induced a dramatic decrease of desacyl ghrelin, but increased the acylated/desacyl ghrelin ratio. Moreover, sleeve gastrectomy reduced hepatic triglyceride content and lipogenic enzymes Mogat2 and Dgat1, increased mitochondrial DNA amount and induced AMPK-activated mitochondrial FFA β-oxidation and autophagy to a higher extent than caloric restriction. In primary rat hepatocytes, the incubation with both acylated and desacyl ghrelin (10, 100 and 1,000 pmol/L) significantly increased TG content, triggered AMPK-activated mitochondrial FFA β-oxidation and autophagy. Our data suggest that the decrease in the most abundant isoform, desacyl ghrelin, after sleeve gastrectomy contributes to the reduction of lipogenesis, whereas the increased relative acylated ghrelin levels activate factors involved in mitochondrial FFA β-oxidation and autophagy in obese rats, thereby ameliorating NAFLD.

  16. Acylated and desacyl ghrelin are associated with hepatic lipogenesis, β-oxidation and autophagy: role in NAFLD amelioration after sleeve gastrectomy in obese rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezquerro, Silvia; Méndez-Giménez, Leire; Becerril, Sara; Moncada, Rafael; Valentí, Víctor; Catalán, Victoria; Gómez-Ambrosi, Javier; Frühbeck, Gema; Rodríguez, Amaia

    2016-01-01

    Bariatric surgery improves non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Our aim was to investigate the potential role of ghrelin isoforms in the resolution of hepatic steatosis after sleeve gastrectomy, a restrictive bariatric surgery procedure, in diet-induced obese rats. Male Wistar rats (n = 161) were subjected to surgical (sham operation and sleeve gastrectomy) or dietary interventions [fed ad libitum a normal (ND) or a high-fat (HFD) diet or pair-fed]. Obese rats developed hepatosteatosis and showed decreased circulating desacyl ghrelin without changes in acylated ghrelin. Sleeve gastrectomy induced a dramatic decrease of desacyl ghrelin, but increased the acylated/desacyl ghrelin ratio. Moreover, sleeve gastrectomy reduced hepatic triglyceride content and lipogenic enzymes Mogat2 and Dgat1, increased mitochondrial DNA amount and induced AMPK-activated mitochondrial FFA β-oxidation and autophagy to a higher extent than caloric restriction. In primary rat hepatocytes, the incubation with both acylated and desacyl ghrelin (10, 100 and 1,000 pmol/L) significantly increased TG content, triggered AMPK-activated mitochondrial FFA β-oxidation and autophagy. Our data suggest that the decrease in the most abundant isoform, desacyl ghrelin, after sleeve gastrectomy contributes to the reduction of lipogenesis, whereas the increased relative acylated ghrelin levels activate factors involved in mitochondrial FFA β-oxidation and autophagy in obese rats, thereby ameliorating NAFLD. PMID:28008992

  17. Ameliorative Effect of Hexane Extract of Phalaris canariensis on High Fat Diet-Induced Obese and Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Mice

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    Perez Gutierrez, Rosa Martha; Madrigales Ahuatzi, Diana; Horcacitas, Maria del Carmen; Garcia Baez, Efren; Cruz Victoria, Teresa; Mota-Flores, Jose Maria

    2014-01-01

    Obesity is one of the major factors to increase various disorders like diabetes. The present paper emphasizes study related to the antiobesity effect of Phalaris canariensis seeds hexane extract (Al-H) in high-fat diet- (HFD-) induced obese CD1 mice and in streptozotocin-induced mild diabetic (MD) and severely diabetic (SD) mice.AL-H was orally administered to MD and SD mice at a dose of 400 mg/kg once a day for 30 days, and a set of biochemical parameters were studied: glucose, cholesterol, triglycerides, lipid peroxidation, liver and muscle glycogen, ALP, SGOT, SGPT, glucose-6-phosphatase, glucokinase, hexokinase, SOD, CAT, GSH, GPX activities, and the effect on insulin level. HS-H significantly reduced the intake of food and water and body weight loss as well as levels of blood glucose, serum cholesterol, triglyceride, lipoprotein, oxidative stress, showed a protective hepatic effect, and increased HDL-cholesterol, serum insulin in diabetic mice. The mice fed on the high-fat diet and treated with AL-H showed inhibitory activity on the lipid metabolism decreasing body weight and weight of the liver and visceral adipose tissues and cholesterol and triglycerides in the liver. We conclude that AL-H can efficiently reduce serum glucose and inhibit insulin resistance, lipid abnormalities, and oxidative stress in MD and SD mice. Our results demonstrate an antiobesity effect reducing lipid droplet accumulation in the liver, indicating that its therapeutic properties may be due to the interaction plant components soluble in the hexane extract, with any of the multiple targets involved in obesity and diabetes pathogenesis. PMID:24523819

  18. Ameliorative Effect of Hexane Extract of Phalaris canariensis on High Fat Diet-Induced Obese and Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Mice

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    Rosa Martha Perez Gutierrez

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is one of the major factors to increase various disorders like diabetes. The present paper emphasizes study related to the antiobesity effect of Phalaris canariensis seeds hexane extract (Al-H in high-fat diet- (HFD- induced obese CD1 mice and in streptozotocin-induced mild diabetic (MD and severely diabetic (SD mice.AL-H was orally administered to MD and SD mice at a dose of 400 mg/kg once a day for 30 days, and a set of biochemical parameters were studied: glucose, cholesterol, triglycerides, lipid peroxidation, liver and muscle glycogen, ALP, SGOT, SGPT, glucose-6-phosphatase, glucokinase, hexokinase, SOD, CAT, GSH, GPX activities, and the effect on insulin level. HS-H significantly reduced the intake of food and water and body weight loss as well as levels of blood glucose, serum cholesterol, triglyceride, lipoprotein, oxidative stress, showed a protective hepatic effect, and increased HDL-cholesterol, serum insulin in diabetic mice. The mice fed on the high-fat diet and treated with AL-H showed inhibitory activity on the lipid metabolism decreasing body weight and weight of the liver and visceral adipose tissues and cholesterol and triglycerides in the liver. We conclude that AL-H can efficiently reduce serum glucose and inhibit insulin resistance, lipid abnormalities, and oxidative stress in MD and SD mice. Our results demonstrate an antiobesity effect reducing lipid droplet accumulation in the liver, indicating that its therapeutic properties may be due to the interaction plant components soluble in the hexane extract, with any of the multiple targets involved in obesity and diabetes pathogenesis.

  19. Preventive Effect of Boiogito on Metabolic Disorders in the TSOD Mouse, a Model of Spontaneous Obese Type II Diabetes Mellitus

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    Tsutomu Shimada

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available “Boiogito” is a Kampo preparation which has been used since ancient times in patients with obesity of the “asthenic constitution” type, so-called “watery obesity”, and its effect has been recognized clinically. In this study, we investigated the anti-obesity effect of Boiogito in the TSOD (Tsumura Suzuki Obese Diabetes mouse, a model of spontaneous obese type II diabetes mellitus. Boiogito showed a significant anti-obesity effect in TSOD mice by suppressing body weight gain in a dosage-dependent manner. In addition, Boiogito showed significant ameliorative effects on features of metabolic syndrome such as hyperinsulinemia, fasting hyperglycemia and abnormal lipid metabolism. Regarding lipid accumulation in TSOD mice, Boiogito showed a significant suppressive effect on accumulation of subcutaneous fat, but the effect on the visceral fat accumulation that constitutes the basis of metabolic syndrome was weak, and the suppressive effect on insulin resistance was also weak. Furthermore, Boiogito did not alleviate the abnormal glucose tolerance, the hypertension or the peripheral neuropathy characteristically developed in the TSOD mice. In contrast, in the TSNO (Tsumura Suzuki Non-Obesity mice used as controls, Boiogito suppressed body weight gain and accumulation of subcutaneous and visceral fat. The above results suggested that Boiogito is effective as an anti-obesity drug against obesity of the “asthenic constitution” type in which subcutaneous fat accumulates, but cannot be expected to exert a preventive effect against various symptoms of metabolic syndrome that are based on visceral fat accumulation.

  20. Pepsin Egg White Hydrolysate Ameliorates Obesity-Related Oxidative Stress, Inflammation and Steatosis in Zucker Fatty Rats.

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    M Garcés-Rimón

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of the administration of egg white hydrolysates on obesity-related disorders, with a focus on lipid metabolism, inflammation and oxidative stress, in Zucker fatty rats. Obese Zucker rats received water, pepsin egg white hydrolysate (750 mg/kg/day or Rhizopus aminopeptidase egg white hydrolysate (750 mg/kg/day for 12 weeks. Lean Zucker rats received water. Body weight, solid and liquid intakes were weekly measured. At the end of the study, urine, faeces, different organs and blood samples were collected. The consumption of egg white hydrolysed with pepsin significantly decreased the epididymal adipose tissue, improved hepatic steatosis, and lowered plasmatic concentration of free fatty acids in the obese animals. It also decreased plasma levels of tumor necrosis factor-alpha and reduced oxidative stress. Pepsin egg white hydrolysate could be used as a tool to improve obesity-related complications.

  1. Nebivolol Ameliorates Cardiac NLRP3 Inflammasome Activation in a Juvenile-Adolescent Animal Model of Diet-Induced Obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Qihai; Wei, Tong; Huang, Chenglin; Liu, Penghao; Sun, Mengwei; Shen, Weili; Gao, Pingjin

    2016-01-01

    NLRP3 is involved in obesity-induced cardiac remodeling and dysfunction. In this study, we evaluated whether the cardiac protective effects of nebivolol relied on attenuating NLRP3 activation in a juvenile-adolescent animal model of diet-induced obesity. Weaning male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed with either a standard chow diet (ND) or a high-fat diet (HFD) for 8 weeks. The obese rats were subsequently subdivided into three groups: 1) HFD control group; 2) HFD with low-dose nebivolol (5 mg/kg/d); 3) HFD with high-dose nebivolol (10 mg/kg/d). Treatment with nebivolol prevented HFD-induced obesity associated excess cardiac lipid accumulation as well as myocardial mitochondrial dysfunction. Nebivolol attenuated pro-inflammatory cytokines secretion and NLRP3 inflammasome activation in myocardium of obese rats. In parallel, nebivolol treatment of obese animals increased cardiac β3-AR expression, reversing the reduction of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS). In vitro, nebivolol treatment of palmitate-incubated H9C2 cells suppressed autophagy, restored mitochondrial biogenesis, leading to decreased mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (mtROS) generation, and suppressed NLRP3 inflammasome activation. Meanwhile the presence of shRNA against β3-AR or against eNOS deteriorated the protective effects of nebivolol. These data suggest the beneficial effect of nebivolol on myocardial lipotoxicity contributing to inhibiting NLRP3 inflammasome activation possibly via improved mitochondrial dysfunction. PMID:27686325

  2. AMPK Activation by Metformin Suppresses Abnormal Extracellular Matrix Remodeling in Adipose Tissue and Ameliorates Insulin Resistance in Obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Ting; Nocon, Allison; Fry, Jessica; Sherban, Alex; Rui, Xianliang; Jiang, Bingbing; Xu, X Julia; Han, Jingyan; Yan, Yun; Yang, Qin; Li, Qifu; Zang, Mengwei

    2016-08-01

    Fibrosis is emerging as a hallmark of metabolically dysregulated white adipose tissue (WAT) in obesity. Although adipose tissue fibrosis impairs adipocyte plasticity, little is known about how aberrant extracellular matrix (ECM) remodeling of WAT is initiated during the development of obesity. Here we show that treatment with the antidiabetic drug metformin inhibits excessive ECM deposition in WAT of ob/ob mice and mice with diet-induced obesity, as evidenced by decreased collagen deposition surrounding adipocytes and expression of fibrotic genes including the collagen cross-linking regulator LOX Inhibition of interstitial fibrosis by metformin is likely attributable to the activation of AMPK and the suppression of transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1)/Smad3 signaling, leading to enhanced systemic insulin sensitivity. The ability of metformin to repress TGF-β1-induced fibrogenesis is abolished by the dominant negative AMPK in primary cells from the stromal vascular fraction. TGF-β1-induced insulin resistance is suppressed by AMPK agonists and the constitutively active AMPK in 3T3L1 adipocytes. In omental fat depots of obese humans, interstitial fibrosis is also associated with AMPK inactivation, TGF-β1/Smad3 induction, aberrant ECM production, myofibroblast activation, and adipocyte apoptosis. Collectively, integrated AMPK activation and TGF-β1/Smad3 inhibition may provide a potential therapeutic approach to maintain ECM flexibility and combat chronically uncontrolled adipose tissue expansion in obesity.

  3. Obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and what treatment may be appropriate. Measuring your waist circumference. Fat stored around your waist, sometimes called visceral ... smaller waist measurements. Like the BMI measurement, your waist circumference should be checked at least once a year. ...

  4. Visceral adiposity, insulin resistance and cancer risk

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Donohoe, Claire L

    2011-06-22

    Abstract Background There is a well established link between obesity and cancer. Emerging research is characterising this relationship further and delineating the specific role of excess visceral adiposity, as opposed to simple obesity, in promoting tumorigenesis. This review summarises the evidence from an epidemiological and pathophysiological perspective. Methods Relevant medical literature was identified from searches of PubMed and references cited in appropriate articles identified. Selection of articles was based on peer review, journal and relevance. Results Numerous epidemiological studies consistently identify increased risk of developing carcinoma in the obese. Adipose tissue, particularly viscerally located fat, is metabolically active and exerts systemic endocrine effects. Putative pathophysiological mechanisms linking obesity and carcinogenesis include the paracrine effects of adipose tissue and systemic alterations associated with obesity. Systemic changes in the obese state include chronic inflammation and alterations in adipokines and sex steroids. Insulin and the insulin-like growth factor axis influence tumorigenesis and also have a complex relationship with adiposity. There is evidence to suggest that insulin and the IGF axis play an important role in mediating obesity associated malignancy. Conclusions There is much evidence to support a role for obesity in cancer progression, however further research is warranted to determine the specific effect of excess visceral adipose tissue on tumorigenesis. Investigation of the potential mechanisms underpinning the association, including the role of insulin and the IGF axis, will improve understanding of the obesity and cancer link and may uncover targets for intervention.

  5. Visceral adiposity syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Heno F; Corrêa-Giannella, Maria Lúcia; Consolim-Colombo, Fernanda M; Egan, Brent M

    2016-01-01

    The association of anthropometric (waist circumference) and hemodynamic (blood pressure) changes with abnormalities in glucose and lipid metabolism has been motivation for a lot of discussions in the last 30 years. Nowadays, blood pressure, body mass index/abdominal circumference, glycemia, triglyceridemia, and HDL-cholesterol concentrations are considered in the definition of Metabolic syndrome, referred as Visceral adiposity syndrome (VAS) in the present review. However, more than 250 years ago an association between visceral and mediastinal obesity with hypertension, gout, and obstructive apnea had already been recognized. Expansion of visceral adipose tissue secondary to chronic over-consumption of calories stimulates the recruitment of macrophages, which assume an inflammatory phenotype and produce cytokines that directly interfere with insulin signaling, resulting in insulin resistance. In turn, insulin resistance (IR) manifests itself in various tissues, contributing to the overall phenotype of VAS. For example, in white adipose tissue, IR results in lipolysis, increased free fatty acids release and worsening of inflammation, since fatty acids can bind to Toll-like receptors. In the liver, IR results in increased hepatic glucose production, contributing to hyperglycemia; in the vascular endothelium and kidney, IR results in vasoconstriction, sodium retention and, consequently, arterial hypertension. Other players have been recognized in the development of VAS, such as genetic predisposition, epigenetic factors associated with exposure to an unfavourable intrauterine environment and the gut microbiota. More recently, experimental and clinical studies have shown the autonomic nervous system participates in modulating visceral adipose tissue. The sympathetic nervous system is related to adipose tissue function and differentiation through beta1, beta2, beta3, alpha1, and alpha2 adrenergic receptors. The relation is bidirectional: sympathetic denervation of

  6. The obesity paradox: is it really a paradox? Hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lechi, Alessandro

    2017-03-01

    This article is a narrative overview of the role of hypertension on the relationships between obesity, morbidity, and mortality. We used as sources MEDLINE/PubMed, CINAHL, EMBASE, and Cochrane Library, from inception to March 2016. Key words include overweight, obesity, visceral obesity, obesity paradox, and hypertension. In addition, we hand-searched references from the retrieved articles. This work is one of the works of the topical collection "Obesity Paradox". The positive association between overweight, obesity, and cardiovascular diseases is well established, though this relation is typically U shaped with an increased risk in low-weight subjects or even a beneficial effect of overweight and obesity, the so-called "obesity paradox". In addition, the relationship between obesity and arterial hypertension has been demonstrated in both children and adults by many epidemiological studies. Moreover, weight reduction is followed by a decrease in blood pressure in many patients and ameliorates the cardiovascular risk profile. Recent studies using more appropriate obesity indices raise some doubt about the real significance of obesity paradox and there are several studies that central obesity shows either no protective or even a worse effect. These observations raise the question: what kind of obesity is protective and what kind of obesity is harmful? The studies of obesity paradox suffer from several methodological limitations: most of these are retrospective analyses or were not specifically designed to study obesity paradox as a primary goal; a few studies have data on preceding unintentional weight loss and on some particular confounding variables. In conclusion, more prospective and accurate studies are necessary to better elucidate the clinical importance of obesity paradox. When weight loss is functional to reduce hypertension and cardiovascular risk, it should be encouraged, while an unintentional weight in a patient with chronic diseases may indicate an

  7. Magnolia Extract (BL153 Ameliorates Kidney Damage in a High Fat Diet-Induced Obesity Mouse Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenpeng Cui

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Accumulating evidence demonstrated that obesity is a risk factor for renal structural and functional changes, leading to the end-stage renal disease which imposes a heavy economic burden on the community. However, no effective therapeutic method for obesity-associated kidney disease is available. In the present study, we explored the therapeutic potential of a magnolia extract (BL153 for treating obesity-associated kidney damage in a high fat diet- (HFD- induced mouse model. The results showed that inflammation markers (tumor necrosis factor-α and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 and oxidative stress markers (3-nitrotyrosine and 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal were all significantly increased in the kidney of HFD-fed mice compared to mice fed with a low fat diet (LFD. Additionally, proteinuria and renal structure changes in HFD-fed mice were much more severe than that in LFD-fed mice. However, all these alterations were attenuated by BL153 treatment, accompanied by upregulation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator-1α (PGC-1α and hexokinase II (HK II expression in the kidney. The present study indicates that BL153 administration may be a novel approach for renoprotection in obese individuals by antiinflammation and anti-oxidative stress most likely via upregulation of PGC-1α and HK II signal in the kidney.

  8. A novel and selective melanin-concentrating hormone receptor 1 antagonist ameliorates obesity and hepatic steatosis in diet-induced obese rodent models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawata, Yayoi; Okuda, Shoki; Hotta, Natsu; Igawa, Hideyuki; Takahashi, Masashi; Ikoma, Minoru; Kasai, Shizuo; Ando, Ayumi; Satomi, Yoshinori; Nishida, Mayumi; Nakayama, Masaharu; Yamamoto, Syunsuke; Nagisa, Yasutaka; Takekawa, Shiro

    2017-02-05

    Melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH), a cyclic neuropeptide expressed predominantly in the lateral hypothalamus, plays an important role in the control of feeding behavior and energy homeostasis. Mice lacking MCH or MCH1 receptor are resistant to diet-induced obesity (DIO) and MCH1 receptor antagonists show potent anti-obesity effects in preclinical studies, indicating that MCH1 receptor is a promising target for anti-obesity drugs. Moreover, recent studies have suggested the potential of MCH1 receptor antagonists for treatment of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). In the present study, we show the anti-obesity and anti-hepatosteatosis effect of our novel MCH1 receptor antagonist, Compound A. Repeated oral administration of Compound A resulted in dose-dependent body weight reduction and had an anorectic effect in DIO mice. The body weight lowering effect of Compound A was more potent than that of pair-feeding. Compound A also reduced lipid content and the expression level of lipogenesis-, inflammation-, and fibrosis-related genes in the liver of DIO mice. Conversely, intracerebroventricular infusion of MCH caused induction of hepatic steatosis as well as increase in body weight in high-fat diet-fed wild type mice, but not MCH1 receptor knockout mice. The pair-feeding study revealed the MCH-MCH1 receptor system affects hepatic steatosis through a mechanism that is independent of body weight change. Metabolome analysis demonstrated that Compound A upregulated lipid metabolism-related molecules, such as acylcarnitines and cardiolipins, in the liver. These findings suggest that our novel MCH1 receptor antagonist, Compound A, exerts its beneficial therapeutic effect on NAFLD and obesity through a central MCH-MCH1 receptor pathway.

  9. Role of n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids in Ameliorating the Obesity-Induced Metabolic Syndrome in Animal Models and Humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao-Wei Huang

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The incidence of obesity and its comorbidities, such as insulin resistance and type II diabetes, are increasing dramatically, perhaps caused by the change in the fatty acid composition of common human diets. Adipose tissue plays a role as the major energy reservoir in the body. An excess of adipose mass accumulation caused by chronic positive energy balance results in obesity. The n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA, DHA (docosahexaenoic acid and EPA (eicosapentaenoic acid exert numerous beneficial effects to maintain physiological homeostasis. In the current review, the physiology of n-3 PUFA effects in the body is delineated from studies conducted in both human and animal experiments. Although mechanistic studies in human are limited, numerous studies conducted in animals and models in vitro provide potential molecular mechanisms of the effects of these fatty acids. Three aspects of n-3 PUFA in adipocyte regulation are discussed: (1 lipid metabolism, including adipocyte differentiation, lipolysis and lipogenesis; (2 energy expenditure, such as mitochondrial and peroxisomal fatty acid β-oxidation; and (3 inflammation, including adipokines and specialized pro-resolving lipid mediators. Additionally, the mechanisms by which n-3 PUFA regulate gene expression are highlighted. The beneficial effects of n-3 PUFA may help to reduce the incidence of obesity and its comorbidities.

  10. Role of n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids in Ameliorating the Obesity-Induced Metabolic Syndrome in Animal Models and Humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chao-Wei; Chien, Yi-Shan; Chen, Yu-Jen; Ajuwon, Kolapo M.; Mersmann, Harry M.; Ding, Shih-Torng

    2016-01-01

    The incidence of obesity and its comorbidities, such as insulin resistance and type II diabetes, are increasing dramatically, perhaps caused by the change in the fatty acid composition of common human diets. Adipose tissue plays a role as the major energy reservoir in the body. An excess of adipose mass accumulation caused by chronic positive energy balance results in obesity. The n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA), DHA (docosahexaenoic acid) and EPA (eicosapentaenoic acid) exert numerous beneficial effects to maintain physiological homeostasis. In the current review, the physiology of n-3 PUFA effects in the body is delineated from studies conducted in both human and animal experiments. Although mechanistic studies in human are limited, numerous studies conducted in animals and models in vitro provide potential molecular mechanisms of the effects of these fatty acids. Three aspects of n-3 PUFA in adipocyte regulation are discussed: (1) lipid metabolism, including adipocyte differentiation, lipolysis and lipogenesis; (2) energy expenditure, such as mitochondrial and peroxisomal fatty acid β-oxidation; and (3) inflammation, including adipokines and specialized pro-resolving lipid mediators. Additionally, the mechanisms by which n-3 PUFA regulate gene expression are highlighted. The beneficial effects of n-3 PUFA may help to reduce the incidence of obesity and its comorbidities. PMID:27735847

  11. Maternal low-protein diet up-regulates the neuropeptide Y system in visceral fat and leads to abdominal obesity and glucose intolerance in a sex- and time-specific manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Ruijun; Li, Aiyun; Li, Lijun; Kitlinska, Joanna B; Zukowska, Zofia

    2012-08-01

    Neuropeptide Y (NPY) mediates stress-induced obesity in adult male mice by activating its Y2 receptor (Y2R) in visceral adipose tissue (VAT). Here, we studied whether the NPY-Y2R system is also activated by maternal low-protein diet (LPD) and linked to obesity in offspring. Prenatal LPD offspring had lower birth weights compared to normal-protein diet (NPD) offspring. Female prenatal and lactation stress (PLS) offspring from mothers fed an LPD developed abdominal adiposity and glucose intolerance associated with a 5-fold up-regulation of NPY mRNA and a 6-fold up-regulation of Y2R mRNA specifically in VAT, in addition to elevated platelet-rich-plasma (PRP) NPY, compared to control females fed a high-fat diet (HFD). Conversely, PLS male offspring showed lower NPY in PRP, a 10-fold decrease of Y2R mRNA in VAT, lower adiposity, and improved glucose tolerance compared to control males. Interestingly, prenatal LPD offspring cross-fostered to control lactating mothers had completely inverse metabolic and NPY phenotypes. Taken together, these findings suggested that maternal LPD activates the VAT NPY-Y2R system and increases abdominal adiposity and glucose intolerance in a sex- and time-specific fashion, suggesting that the peripheral NPY system is a potential mediator of programming for the offspring's vulnerability to obesity and metabolic syndrome.

  12. Obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obesity means having too much body fat. It is different from being overweight, which means weighing too ... what's considered healthy for his or her height. Obesity occurs over time when you eat more calories ...

  13. A clerodane diterpene inhibit adipogenesis by cell cycle arrest and ameliorate obesity in C57BL/6 mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beg, Muheeb; Shankar, Kripa; Varshney, Salil; Rajan, Sujith; Singh, Suriya Pratap; Jagdale, Pankaj; Puri, Anju; Chaudhari, Bhushan P; Sashidhara, Koneni V; Gaikwad, Anil Nilkanth

    2015-01-01

    A clerodane diterpene, 16α-Hydroxycleroda-3, 13 (14) Z-dien-15, 16-olide (compound 1) isolated from Polyalthia longifolia had previously been reported as a new structural class of HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor apart from statins. Statins are known to be anti-adipogenic in nature. The distant structural similarity between compound 1 and lovastatin (polyketide class of compound) prompted us to investigate effects of diterpene compound 1 on adipogenesis and thereby obesity. High content microscopy proved diterpene compound 1 exhibits better anti-adipogenic activity and less toxicity in differentiating adipocytes. Moreover, it reduced expression levels of PPARγ, C/EBPα and GLUT4 during differentiation in a time and concentration dependent manner. Diterpene compound 1 during early differentiation reduced MDI induced-Akt/mTOR phosphorylation and expression of cell cycle proteins, and thereby halted mitotic clonal expansion, the decisive factor in early adipogenesis. Further, its anti-adipogenic activity was validated in murine mesenchymal cell-line C3H10T1/2 and human mesenchymal stem cell models of adipogenic differentiation. When compound 1 was administered along with HFD, for another 8 weeks in 2 month HFD fed overweight mice (with BMI > 30 and impaired glucose tolerance), it attenuated weight gain and epididymal fat accumulation. It improved body glucose tolerance, reduced HFD induced increase in total cholesterol and leptin/adiponectin ratio. All these effects were comparable with standard anti-obesity drug Orlistat with added edge of potently decreasing circulating triglyceride levels comparable with normal chow fed group. Histological analysis shows that compound 1 inhibit adipocyte hypertrophy and decreased steatosis in hepatocytes. Both in vivo and in vitro results demonstrate a potential value of compound 1 as a novel anti-adipogenic and anti-obesity agent.

  14. The lysyl oxidase inhibitor (β-aminopropionitrile) reduces leptin profibrotic effects and ameliorates cardiovascular remodeling in diet-induced obesity in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Martínez, Ernesto; Rodríguez, Cristina; Galán, María; Miana, María; Jurado-López, Raquel; Bartolomé, María Visitación; Luaces, María; Islas, Fabián; Martínez-González, José; López-Andrés, Natalia; Cachofeiro, Victoria

    2016-03-01

    Lysyl oxidase (LOX) is an extracellular matrix (ECM)-modifying enzyme that has been involved in cardiovascular remodeling. We explore the impact of LOX inhibition in ECM alterations induced by obesity in the cardiovascular system. LOX is overexpressed in the heart and aorta from rats fed a high-fat diet (HFD). β-Aminopropionitrile (BAPN), an inhibitor of LOX activity, significantly attenuated the increase in body weight and cardiac hypertrophy observed in HFD rats. No significant differences were found in cardiac function or blood pressure among any group. However, HFD rats showed cardiac and vascular fibrosis and enhanced levels of superoxide anion (O2(-)), collagen I and transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) in heart and aorta and connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) in aorta, effects that were attenuated by LOX inhibition. Interestingly, BAPN also prevented the increase in circulating leptin levels detected in HFD fed animals. Leptin increased protein levels of collagen I, TGF-β and CTGF, Akt phosphorylation and O2(-) production in both cardiac myofibroblasts and vascular smooth muscle cells in culture, while LOX inhibition ameliorated these alterations. LOX knockdown also attenuated leptin-induced collagen I production in cardiovascular cells. Our findings indicate that LOX inhibition attenuates the fibrosis and the oxidative stress induced by a HFD on the cardiovascular system. The reduction of leptin levels by BAPN in vivo and the ability of this compound to inhibit leptin-induced profibrotic mediators and ROS production in cardiac and vascular cells suggest that interactions between leptin and LOX regulate downstream events responsible for myocardial and vascular fibrosis in obesity.

  15. Ferulic acid lowers body weight and visceral fat accumulation via modulation of enzymatic, hormonal and inflammatory changes in a mouse model of high-fat diet-induced obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.S. de Melo

    Full Text Available Previous studies have reported on the glucose and lipid-lowering effects of ferulic acid (FA but its anti-obesity potential has not yet been firmly established. This study investigated the possible anti-obesitogenic effects of FA in mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD for 15 weeks. To assess the antiobesity potential of FA, 32 male Swiss mice, weighing 20–25 g (n=6–8 per group were fed a normal diet (ND or HFD, treated orally or not with either FA (10 mg/kg or sibutramine (10 mg/kg for 15 weeks and at the end of this period, the body weights of animals, visceral fat accumulation, plasma levels of glucose and insulin hormone, amylase and lipase activities, the satiety hormones ghrelin and leptin, and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCH-1 were analyzed. Results revealed that FA could effectively suppress the HFD-associated increase in visceral fat accumulation, adipocyte size and body weight gain, similar to sibutramine, the positive control. FA also significantly (P<0.05 decreased the HFD-induced elevations in serum lipid profiles, amylase and lipase activities, and the levels of blood glucose and insulin hormone. The markedly elevated leptin and decreased ghrelin levels seen in HFD-fed control mice were significantly (P<0.05 reversed by FA treatment, almost reaching the values seen in ND-fed mice. Furthermore, FA demonstrated significant (P<0.05 inhibition of serum levels of inflammatory mediators TNF-α, and MCH-1. These results suggest that FA could be beneficial in lowering the risk of HFD-induced obesity via modulation of enzymatic, hormonal and inflammatory responses.

  16. Ferulic acid lowers body weight and visceral fat accumulation via modulation of enzymatic, hormonal and inflammatory changes in a mouse model of high-fat diet-induced obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Melo, T.S.; Lima, P.R.; Carvalho, K.M.M.B.; Fontenele, T.M.; Solon, F.R.N.; Tomé, A.R.; de Lemos, T.L.G.; da Cruz Fonseca, S.G.; Santos, F.A.; Rao, V.S.; de Queiroz, M.G.R.

    2017-01-01

    Previous studies have reported on the glucose and lipid-lowering effects of ferulic acid (FA) but its anti-obesity potential has not yet been firmly established. This study investigated the possible anti-obesitogenic effects of FA in mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD) for 15 weeks. To assess the antiobesity potential of FA, 32 male Swiss mice, weighing 20–25 g (n=6–8 per group) were fed a normal diet (ND) or HFD, treated orally or not with either FA (10 mg/kg) or sibutramine (10 mg/kg) for 15 weeks and at the end of this period, the body weights of animals, visceral fat accumulation, plasma levels of glucose and insulin hormone, amylase and lipase activities, the satiety hormones ghrelin and leptin, and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCH-1) were analyzed. Results revealed that FA could effectively suppress the HFD-associated increase in visceral fat accumulation, adipocyte size and body weight gain, similar to sibutramine, the positive control. FA also significantly (P<0.05) decreased the HFD-induced elevations in serum lipid profiles, amylase and lipase activities, and the levels of blood glucose and insulin hormone. The markedly elevated leptin and decreased ghrelin levels seen in HFD-fed control mice were significantly (P<0.05) reversed by FA treatment, almost reaching the values seen in ND-fed mice. Furthermore, FA demonstrated significant (P<0.05) inhibition of serum levels of inflammatory mediators TNF-α, and MCH-1. These results suggest that FA could be beneficial in lowering the risk of HFD-induced obesity via modulation of enzymatic, hormonal and inflammatory responses. PMID:28076453

  17. Correlation between complicated diverticulitis and visceral fat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Jong Heon; Lee, Hang Lak; Kim, Jin Ok; Tae, Hye Jin; Jung, Suk Hyun; Lee, Kang Nyeong; Jun, Dae Won; Lee, Oh Young; Yoon, Byung Chul; Choi, Ho Soon; Hahm, Joon Soo; Song, Soon Young

    2011-10-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the relationship of complications related to diverticulitis and visceral obesity. The study was based on a retrospective case note review conducted at the Hanyang University Hospital. Patients were diagnosed with diverticulitis based on clinical symptoms and abdominal computed tomography (CT) findings and divided into two groups: those admitted with complicated diverticulitis and those with a simple diverticulitis episode. We compared the body mass index (BMI) and degree of visceral obesity, measured by abdominal CT. The study included 140 patients, 87 (62.1%) were simple diverticulitis and 53 (37.9%) were complicated diverticulitis. In the complicated diverticulitis group, 9 (6.4%) cases were recurrent, 29 (20.7%) were perforation or abscess patients, and 28 (20%) were patients with systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS). Of the SIRS patients, 13 were involved in other complication groups. When comparing in the two groups, the complicated diverticulitis group had a significantly higher visceral fat area (128.57 cm(2) vs 102.80 cm(2), P = 0.032) and a higher ratio of visceral fat area/subcutaneous fat area (0.997 vs 0.799, P = 0.014). Visceral obesity is significantly associated with complications of diverticulitis.

  18. Raphanus sativus cv. Sango Sprout Juice Decreases Diet-Induced Obesity in Sprague Dawley Rats and Ameliorates Related Disorders.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Vivarelli

    Full Text Available Obesity is recognized as a leading global health problem, correlated with an increased risk for several chronic diseases. One strategy for weight control management includes the use of vegetables rich in bioactive compounds to counteract weight gain, improve the antioxidant status and stimulate lipid catabolism.The aim of this study was to investigate the role of Raphanus sativus Sango sprout juice (SSJ, a Brassica extraordinarily rich in anthocyanins (AC and isothiocyanates (ITCs, in a non-genetic model of obesity (high fat diet-HFD induced.Control groups were fed with HFD or regular diet (RD. After a 10-week period, animals were assigned to experimental units and treated by gavage for 28 days as follows: HFD and RD control groups (rats fed HFD or RD and treated with vehicle only and HFD-treated groups (rats fed HFD and treated with 15, 75 or 150 mg/kg b.w. of SSJ. Body weight and food consumption were recorded and serum lipid profile was measured (total cholesterol, triglycerides, and non-esterified fatty acids. Hepatic phase-I, phase-II as well as antioxidant enzymatic activities were assessed.SSJ lowered total cholesterol level, food intake and liver weight compared with HFD rodents. SSJ at medium dose proved effective in reducing body-weight (~19 g reduction. SSJ was effective in up-regulating the antioxidant enzymes catalase,quinone reductase, oxidised glutathione reductase and superoxide dismutase, which reached or exceeded RD levels, as well as the phase II metabolic enzyme UDP-glucuronosyl transferase (up to about 43%. HFD up-regulated almost every cytochrome P450 isoform tested, and a mild down-regulation to baseline was observed after SSJ intervention.This work reveals, for the first time, the antioxidant, hypolipidemic and antiobesity potential of SSJ, suggesting its use as an efficient new functional food/nutraceutical product.

  19. Fenugreek Seed Extract Inhibit Fat Accumulation and Ameliorates Dyslipidemia in High Fat Diet-Induced Obese Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parveen Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the inhibitory effect of aqueous extract of Trigonella foenum-graecum seeds (AqE-TFG on fat accumulation and dyslipidemia in high fat diet- (HFD- induced obese rats. Female Wistar rats were fed with HFD ad libitum, and the rats on HFD were treated orally with AqE-TFG or orlistat ((HFD for 28 days + AqE-TFG (0.5 and 1.0 g/kg or orlistat (10 mg/kg from day 8 to 28, respectively. Treatment with AqE-TFG produced significant reduction in body weight gain, body mass index (BMI, white adipose tissue (WAT weights, blood glucose, serum insulin, lipids, leptin, lipase, and apolipoprotein-B levels and elevation in adiponectin levels. AqE-TFG improved serum aspartate amino transferase (AST, alanine amino transferase (ALT, and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH levels. AqE-TFG treatment reduced the hepatic and cardiac thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS and elevated the antioxidant enzyme (glutathione (GSH, superoxide dismutase (SOD, and catalase (CAT levels. In addition, liver and uterine WAT lipogenic enzyme (fatty acid synthetase (FAS and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD activities were restored towards normal levels. These findings demonstrated the preventive effect of AqE-TFG on fat accumulation and dyslipidemia, due to inhibition of impaired lipid digestion and absorption, in addition to improvement in glucose and lipid metabolism, enhancement of insulin sensitivity, increased antioxidant defense, and downregulation of lipogenic enzymes.

  20. Killer Treg cells ameliorate inflammatory insulitis in non-obese diabetic mice through local and systemic immunomodulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaminitz, Ayelet; Yolcu, Esma S; Mizrahi, Keren; Shirwan, Haval; Askenasy, Nadir

    2013-08-01

    Treg cells endowed with enhanced killing activity through decoration with Fas-ligand (FasL) protein (killer Treg) have been effective in delay of hyperglycemia in prediabetic non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice. In this study, we assessed the therapeutic efficacy of these cells, harvested from age-matched euglycemic NOD donors, on the course of disease in new-onset diabetics. One dose of 4 × 10(6) killer Treg cells stabilized blood glucose associated with increased insulin levels in 5 of 9 mice and partially reversed the severity of islet inflammation, whereas naive Treg cells did not modulate the course of disease significantly. Killer Treg cells were shown to operate through induction of cell apoptosis within the pancreatic lymph nodes, resulting in reduced efficiency of adoptive disease transfer to NOD/SCID recipients. A second mechanism of action consisted of increased fractions of CD4(+)CD25(-)FoxP3(+) T cells in the pancreas and all lymphoid organs. Immunomodulation with FasL rather than Treg cells enhanced the expression of CD25 and FoxP3 in the thymus, suggesting a possible contribution of thymic output to prolonged stabilization of the glucose levels. Autologous Treg cells evolve as excellent vehicles for targeted delivery of FasL as an immunomodulatory protein, which delete pathogenic cells at the site of inflammation and induce systemic dominance of suppressor subsets.

  1. Monoclonal antibody targeting of fibroblast growth factor receptor 1c ameliorates obesity and glucose intolerance via central mechanisms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher J Lelliott

    Full Text Available We have generated a novel monoclonal antibody targeting human FGFR1c (R1c mAb that caused profound body weight and body fat loss in diet-induced obese mice due to decreased food intake (with energy expenditure unaltered, in turn improving glucose control. R1c mAb also caused weight loss in leptin-deficient ob/ob mice, leptin receptor-mutant db/db mice, and in mice lacking either the melanocortin 4 receptor or the melanin-concentrating hormone receptor 1. In addition, R1c mAb did not change hypothalamic mRNA expression levels of Agrp, Cart, Pomc, Npy, Crh, Mch, or Orexin, suggesting that R1c mAb could cause food intake inhibition and body weight loss via other mechanisms in the brain. Interestingly, peripherally administered R1c mAb accumulated in the median eminence, adjacent arcuate nucleus and in the circumventricular organs where it activated the early response gene c-Fos. As a plausible mechanism and coinciding with the initiation of food intake suppression, R1c mAb induced hypothalamic expression levels of the cytokines Monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 and 3 and ERK1/2 and p70 S6 kinase 1 activation.

  2. In Hispanic, obese adolescents, a controlled aerobic exercise program teduced visceral and hepatic fat and improved insulin sensitivity, while resistance training only increased lean body mass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adolescent obesity is a serious public health concern. Aerobic and/or resistance exercise are potential strategies to improve metabolism, but data are scarce on the effects of well-controlled exercise programs in adolescents. Our objective was to test the hypothesis that a 12-wk controlled aerobic o...

  3. Splanchnic lipolysis in human obesity

    OpenAIRE

    Nielsen, Soren; Guo, ZengKui; Johnson, C. Michael; Hensrud, Donald D.; Jensen, Michael D

    2004-01-01

    Elevated FFA concentrations have been shown to reproduce some of the metabolic abnormalities of obesity. It has been hypothesized that visceral adipose tissue lipolysis releases excess FFAs into the portal vein, exposing the liver to higher FFA concentrations. We used isotope dilution/hepatic vein catheterization techniques to examine whether intra-abdominal fat contributes a greater portion of hepatic FFA delivery in visceral obesity. Obese women (n = 24) and men (n = 20) with a range of obe...

  4. Obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... little free time may have less time to exercise. The term eating disorder means a group of medical conditions that have an unhealthy focus on eating, dieting, losing or gaining weight, and body image. A person may be obese, follow an unhealthy ...

  5. Obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morgen, Camilla Schmidt; Sørensen, Thorkild I A

    2014-01-01

    A new report provides compelling evidence of the high prevalence of overweight and obesity throughout the world. The prevalence has increased since 1980, but at different rates across ages, times and locations. Studies exploring the causes of these differences could aid development of effective...

  6. Influence of the body mass and visceral adiposity on glucose metabolism in obese women with Pro12Pro genotype in PPARgamma2 gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaippert, Vanessa Chaia; Uehara, Sofia Kimi; D'Andrea, Carla Lima; Nogueira, Juliana; do Lago, Márcia Fófano; Cunha Oliveira dos Santos Lopes, Marcelly; Oliveira, Edna Maria Morais; Rosado, Eliane Lopes

    2013-01-01

    Introducción: El metabolismo de la glucosa puede estar alterado en la obesidad y el genotipo del gene PPAR 2 puede influir en este variable. Objetivo: Evaluar la influencia de la masa corporal (MC) y de la adiposidad visceral (AV) en el metabolismo de la glucosa en mujeres con obesidad de grado 3 con el genotipo Pro12Pro. Métodos: Se seleccionaron 25 mujeres con obesidad de grado 3. Se formaron grupos de acuerdo con el índice de masa corporal (IMC) [G1: 40-45 kg/m2 (n = 17), G2: > 45 kg/m2 (n = 8)]. Fueron hechas evaluaciones antropométricas, de la glucemia y de la insulinemia (en ayunas, 60 y 120 minutos después de la comida rica en ácidos grasos poliinsaturados). La resistencia a la insulina (RI) y sensibilidad a la insulina (SI) fueron evaluados por el HOMA-IR y QUICKI, respectivamente. Resultados: G2 tuvieron mayor índice de masa corporal y circunferencia de la cintura, en comparación con G1, peor glucemia en ayunas, baja SI y alta RI. La glucosa postprandial fue normal, pero hubo un pico de insulina más alto una hora después de la comida en G2. Conclusión: El aumento de la MC y de la AV se asociaron con peor metabolismo de la glucosa lo que sugiere diferencias metabólicas entre obesos de grado 3 con el genotipo Pro12Pro.

  7. Metabolic alterations following visceral fat removal and expansion

    OpenAIRE

    Foster, Michelle T.; Pagliassotti, Michael J.

    2012-01-01

    Increased visceral adiposity is a risk factor for metabolic disorders such as dyslipidemia, hypertension, insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes, whereas peripheral (subcutaneous) obesity is not. Though the specific mechanisms which contribute to these adipose depot differences are unknown, visceral fat accumulation is proposed to result in metabolic dysregulation because of increased effluent, e.g., fatty acids and/or adipokines/cytokines, to the liver via the hepatic portal vein. Pathologic...

  8. Obesity.

    OpenAIRE

    Callaway, C W

    1987-01-01

    Obesity is not a single disease, but a variety of conditions resulting from different mechanisms and associated with various types and degrees of risks. To determine who should lose weight, how much weight should be lost, and how to undertake weight loss, the following types of information are needed: personal-demographic data, developmental patterns, family history, energy balance, body composition/fat distribution, psychological/behavioral measures, endocrine/metabolic measures, complicatio...

  9. Exploring the obesity-asthma link

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fenger, R V; Gonzalez-Quintela, A; Vidal, C;

    2012-01-01

    Obesity and risk of asthma are linked. Different distributions of adiposity, such as visceral, subcutaneous or ectopic adiposity, may affect asthma risk differently.......Obesity and risk of asthma are linked. Different distributions of adiposity, such as visceral, subcutaneous or ectopic adiposity, may affect asthma risk differently....

  10. Bofutsushosan ameliorates obesity in mice through modulating PGC-1α expression in brown adipose tissues and inhibiting inflammation in white adipose tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ying-Ying; Yan, Yan; Zhao, Zheng; Shi, Mei-Jing; Zhang, Yu-Bin

    2016-06-01

    The inducible co-activator PGC-1α plays a crucial role in adaptive thermogenesis and increases energy expenditure in brown adipose tissue (BAT). Meanwhile, chronic inflammation caused by infiltrated-macrophage in the white adipose tissue (WAT) is a target for the treatment of obesity. Bofutsushosan (BF), a traditional Chinese medicine composed of 17 crude drugs, has been widely used to treat obesity in China, Japan, and other Asia countries. However, the mechanism underlying anti-obesity remains to be elucidated. In the present study, we demonstrated that BF oral administration reduced the body weight of obese mice induced by high-fat diet (HFD) and alleviated the level of biochemical markers (P obesity was at least partially through increasing gene expression of PGC-1α and UCP1 for energy consumption in BAT and inhibiting inflammation in WAT.

  11. 苦瓜乙醇提取物对肥胖大鼠糖代谢和内脏脂肪的影响%Effects of ethanol extract from Momordica charantia on glycometabolism and visceral fat in obese rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨静玉; 王春明; 侯悦; 江晓妹; 郭荣; 曹馨月; 吴春福

    2012-01-01

    To study the effects of ethanol extract from Momordica charantia (EEMC) on glycometabolism and visceral fat in obese rats fed with high-fat diet (HFD). Methods After 5-week HFD induction, the obese rat mode\\ was established successfully. The obese rats were divided into model group, EEMC low-, midium-, and high-dose (9, 18, and 36 g/kg) groups, and/,-carnitine 600 mg/kg group. The rats fed with normal diet were randomly divided into control group and EEMC (36 g/kg) group. The rats in different groups were treated with 0.5% CMC-Na or ig administrated with the same volume of EEMC respectively. The daily food intake and weekly body weight of rats were recorded. Oral glucose tolerance experiment was performed at the sixth week after the administration; Then one week later, all the rats were fasted for 18 h, and the serum samples from abdominal arteria of rats were harvested for the levels of glucose and insulin determination. The epididymal, perirenal, and mesentery white adipose tissue were collected and weighed. At last the adipocyte hypertrophy of epididymal white adipose tissue was determined with HE staining. Results The body weight, food utilization, fasting blood glucose, and weight of epididymal, perirenal, and mesentery white adipose tissue were obviously decreased by high-dose of EEMC and the adipocyte hypertrophy induced by high fat diet was also mitigated. Epididymal white adipose tissue weight was also reduced by midium dose of EEMC. But the glucose tolerance and insulin resistance index were nol influenced by EEMC. Conclusion The anti-obesity and antidiabetic effects of EEMC in obese rats were mediated by inhibiting visceral fat accumulation and adipocyte hypertrophy of epididymal white adipose tissue and decreasing fasting blood glucose.%目的 研究苦瓜乙醇提取物对喂饲高脂饲料所致肥胖大鼠糖代谢和内脏脂肪量的影响.方法 高脂饲料饲养制备肥胖大鼠模型.肥胖大鼠随机分为模型组,苦瓜乙醇

  12. 健步走对老年高血压患者肥胖和中心性肥胖的干预研究%Study for the intervention effect of nurse lead Brisk walking for elder hypertension patients with obesity and visceral obesity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏莉娟; 张琳; 耿瑶; 宁艳花

    2011-01-01

    Objective To study the intervention effect of brisk walking for the prevention of n obesity and visceral obesity among community elders with hypertension, to find out bases for further guide on the practice of physical activity for hypertension intervention Method Two communities were selected as research communities which are no obvious differences economically and geographically in Yinchuan city of Ningxia Hui Autonomous region. After systemic healthy education on hypertension in the two communities, 45 hypertensive subjects were randomly selected in each community based on the include criteria and exclude criteria. The communities were randomly selected as intervention community and control community. The intervention community was applied nurse lead brisk walking intervention, and the intervention used social cognitive theory as intervention theory and made brisk walking plan for every subject. The control community was applied the normal hypertension intervention. The effects of the interventions were compared after 6 months. The subjects were all kept the eating habits as usual and ate the same anti-hypertension medications. Result (l)The systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood pressure of the intervention group lowered 11. 25mmHg and 9. 09 mmHg, respectively. Compared with control group, The differences was significant (P<0. 05). (2) After 6 months intervention, the mean of weight, waist line and BMI level of the intervention group subject decreased 3. 36kg,6. 39cm and 1. 41 respectively. Compared with control group, the differences of the waist line between the two groups were statistically significant (P<0. 05). (3)After 6 months intervention, the subjects of over weight and obesity of the intervention group all decreased 4(9. 09%), the subjects of visceral obesity decreased 20(45. 45%). The differences of visceral obesity between the two groups were significant (P<0. 05). Conclusion The nurse lead brisk walking intervention on hypertension among

  13. IL-1 signaling in obesity-induced hepatic lipogenesis and steatosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimberly A Negrin

    Full Text Available Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease is prevalent in human obesity and type 2 diabetes, and is characterized by increases in both hepatic triglyceride accumulation (denoted as steatosis and expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as IL-1β. We report here that the development of hepatic steatosis requires IL-1 signaling, which upregulates Fatty acid synthase to promote hepatic lipogenesis. Using clodronate liposomes to selectively deplete liver Kupffer cells in ob/ob mice, we observed remarkable amelioration of obesity-induced hepatic steatosis and reductions in liver weight, triglyceride content and lipogenic enzyme expressions. Similar results were obtained with diet-induced obese mice, although visceral adipose tissue macrophage depletion also occurred in response to clodronate liposomes in this model. There were no differences in the food intake, whole body metabolic parameters, serum β-hydroxybutyrate levels or lipid profiles due to clodronate-treatment, but hepatic cytokine gene expressions including IL-1β were decreased. Conversely, treatment of primary mouse hepatocytes with IL-1β significantly increased triglyceride accumulation and Fatty acid synthase expression. Furthermore, the administration of IL-1 receptor antagonist to obese mice markedly reduced obesity-induced steatosis and hepatic lipogenic gene expression. Collectively, our findings suggest that IL-1β signaling upregulates hepatic lipogenesis in obesity, and is essential for the induction of pathogenic hepatic steatosis in obese mice.

  14. Bofutsushosan ameliorates obesity in mice through modulating PGC-la expression in brown adipose tissues and inhibiting inflammation in white adipose tissues

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Ying-Ying; YAN Yan; ZHAO Zheng; SHI Mei-Jing; ZHANG Yu-Bin

    2016-01-01

    The inducible co-activator PGC-1a plays a crucial role in adaptive thermogenesis and increases energy expenditure in brown adipose tissue (BAT).Meanwhile,chronic inflammation caused by infiltrated-macrophage in the white adipose tissue (WAT) is a target for the treatment of obesity.Bofutsushosan (BF),a traditional Chinese medicine composed of 17 crude drugs,has been widely used to treat obesity in China,Japan,and other Asia countries.However,the mechanism underlying anti-obesity remains to be elucidated.In the present study,we demonstrated that BF oral administration reduced the body weight of obese mice induced by high-fat diet (HFD) and alleviated the level of biochemical markers (P < 0.05),including blood glucose (Glu),total cholesterol (TC),triglyceride (TG),low density lipoprotein (LDL-C) and insulin.Our further results also indicated that oral BF administration increased the expression of PGC-1α and UCP1 in BAT.Moreover,BF also reduced the expression of inflammatory cytokines in WAT,such as tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6).These findings suggested that the mechanism of BF against obesity was at least partially through increasing gene expression of PGC-1α and UCP1 for energy consumption in BAT and inhibiting inflammation in WAT.

  15. Lagenaria siceraria fruit extract ameliorate fat amassment and serum TNF-αin high-fat diet-induced obese rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sayyed Nadeem; Pradeep Dhore; Mohsin Quazi; Sunil Pawar; Navin Raj

    2012-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the effects of ethanolic extract ofLagenaria siceraria fruit(ELSF) on fat amassment and serumTNF-α in high-fat diet-induced obese rats.Methods:The high fat diet induced obese rats were orally treated with orlistat(50 mg/kg) andELSF(100,200,300 mg/kg/day) to the respective treatment groups.The body weight, fasting blood glucose level, lipid profile, serum levels of tumor necrosis factor-α(TNF-α) in rats were measured after30 days of treatment and compared to the obese control animals.Results:ELSF significantly(P <0.001) reduced the body weight gain, fasting blood glucose, total cholesterol, triglyceride, total protein andTNF-α.Conclusions:These encouraging findings suggest thatLagenaria siceraria has excellent pharmacological potential to prevent fat amassment.

  16. The expression of 11 β-HSD1 in subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissues from patients with obesity%肥胖患者皮下及内脏脂肪组织中11β-羟基类固醇脱氢酶1的表达

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张晓洁; 杨雁; 张木勋

    2011-01-01

    Objective To compare the expression of 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 ( 11β-HSD1 ) in subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissue from obese and normal subjects ,explore the variable expression of 11β-HSD1 in different fat depots and its association with obesity.Methods 23 patients undergoing appendicitis surgery were divided into obesity group and control group according to BMl.Gene expression of 11β-HSD1 in subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissue samples from both groups were determined by real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction( RT-PCR), and protein expression of 11β-HSD1 were determined by western blots.Results Both groups had higher 11β-HSD1 expression in visceral adipose tissue than that in subcutaneous adipose tissue.11β-HSD1 expression in visceral adipose tissue from OB group was higher than that from control group,whereas no significant difference was found in subcutaneous adipose tissue between two groups.Conclusions 11β-HSD1 was expressed either in subcutaneous or in visceral adipose tissue.The over-expression of 11β-HSD1 is associated with obesity, which mainly promotes the accumulation of visceral adipose tissue.%目的 检测肥胖患者皮下及内脏脂肪组织中11β-羟基类固醇脱氢酶1(11β-HSD1)含量,了解11β-HSD1在脂肪组织的分布以及与肥胖症之间的关系.方法 选取急性阑尾炎手术患者23例,根据BMI分为肥胖组及正常体重组.术中采集肥胖及正常体重者皮下和内脏脂肪组织,运用RT-PCR法及免疫印迹法检测皮下和内脏脂肪组织中11β-HSD1的表达.结果 RT-PCR和免疫印迹检测结果显示11β-HSD1在肥胖组及正常体重组皮下及内脏脂肪组织均有表达,其中两组内脏脂肪组织的表达均显著高于皮下脂肪组织表达.组间比较显示,肥胖组内脏脂肪组织中检测到11β-HSD1表达量要显著高于正常体重组,但在两组间皮下脂肪组织中的表达量无明显差异.结论 人皮

  17. Splanchnic lipolysis in human obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Soren; Guo, ZengKui; Johnson, C. Michael; Hensrud, Donald D.; Jensen, Michael D.

    2004-01-01

    Elevated FFA concentrations have been shown to reproduce some of the metabolic abnormalities of obesity. It has been hypothesized that visceral adipose tissue lipolysis releases excess FFAs into the portal vein, exposing the liver to higher FFA concentrations. We used isotope dilution/hepatic vein catheterization techniques to examine whether intra-abdominal fat contributes a greater portion of hepatic FFA delivery in visceral obesity. Obese women (n = 24) and men (n = 20) with a range of obesity phenotypes, taken together with healthy, lean women (n = 12) and men (n = 12), were studied. Systemic, splanchnic, and leg FFA kinetics were measured. The results showed that plasma FFA concentrations were approximately 20% greater in obese men and obese women. The contribution of splanchnic lipolysis to hepatic FFA delivery ranged from less than 10% to almost 50% and increased as a function of visceral fat in women (r = 0.49, P = 0.002) and in men (r = 0.52, P = 0.002); the slope of the relationship was greater in women than in men (P < 0.05). Leg and splanchnic tissues contributed a greater portion of systemic FFA release in obese men and women than in lean men and women. We conclude that the contribution of visceral adipose tissue lipolysis to hepatic FFA delivery increases with increasing visceral fat in humans and that this effect is greater in women than in men. PMID:15173884

  18. Metformin ameliorates diabetes but does not normalize the decreased GLUT 4 content in skeletal muscle of obese (fa/fa) Zucker rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Handberg, A; Kayser, L; Høyer, P E

    1993-01-01

    We studied the expression of the glucose transporter GLUT 4 in the soleus and red gastrocnemius muscles from obese, diabetic (fa/fa) Zucker rats compared to their lean littermates (Fa/-), with and without treatment with the antidiabetic drug metformin. In the untreated groups of rats, the GLUT 4...... content in a crude membrane fraction of both the soleus and the red gastrocnemius muscles were significantly lower in the obese (fa/fa) rats (3.46 +/- 0.28 vs. 6.04 +/- 0.41, p GLUT 4 expression in soleus muscle from...... the same rats were confirmed by quantitative immunofluorescence microscopy, and the results were significantly correlated with the results obtained from quantitative immunoblotting (rho = 0.70, p GLUT 4 in fa/fa rats could contribute to the well-established insulin...

  19. Role of Nampt and Visceral Adiposity in Esophagogastric Junction Adenocarcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haijun Li

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Nampt including eNampt and iNampt may contribute to mediating obesity-associated cancers. This study investigated the role of Nampt in esophagogastric junction adenocarcinoma (EGA, a cancer strongly correlated with obesity. Visceral adiposity was defined by waist circumference or VFA. eNampt in sera were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. iNampt expression in EGA was determined by PCR, western blot, and immunohistochemistry. Sera eNampt were significantly elevated in these overweight and obese patients, especially for viscerally obese patients, and positively correlated with BMI, waist circumference, VFA, and also primary tumor, regional lymph nodes, and TNM stage (P<0.05. iNampt expression in both the mRNA and protein levels was upregulated in EGAs (P<0.05. iNampt staining was found primarily in the cytoplasm and nuclei and significantly associated with tumor, lymph nodes, and TNM stage and also correlated positively with serum eNampt, BMI, total fat area, VFA, superficial fat area, and waist circumference (P<0.05. iNampt, eNampt, tumor, lymph nodes, and TNM stage correlated to the survival of EGAs, and iNampt expression and TNM stage affected the prognosis independently (P<0.05. This study highlighted the association of eNampt/iNampt with visceral obesity and a potential impact on the biology of EGA.

  20. Stress and Visceral Perception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel M Delvaux

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Functional bowel disorders are characterized by the presence of a visceral hyperalgesia in most patients. This visceral hyperalgesia is related to an enhanced perception of sensations originating from the gut. Stressful events can dramatically influence the course of functional bowel disorders, and patients suffering from these syndromes appear to be more susceptible to the stressful events of daily life. However, until now, few studies have evaluated the relationship between stress and visceral perception. Some studies of healthy volunteers indicated contradictory results, but the studies used different methodologies. During stress conditions, either physical or mental, thresholds of perception of rectal distension were increased, suggesting a ‘distraction effect’, or were decreased, supporting a sensitizing effect of stress. In most studies, rectal compliance was not affected, but stress has been shown to alter the rectal tone, as measured by a barostat. One study comparing irritable bowel syndrome patients with controls demonstrated the importance of cognitive processes in the modulation of visceral perception by stress. Animal studies have also demonstrated the sensitizing effect of stress on the perception of rectal distension. Mediators involved may be numerous, but corticotropin-releasing factor has been demonstrated to play a major role at the central level. Mast cells and histamine release may play a role at the peripheral level. Stress can thus be included in an integrative model explaining the pathophysiology of functional bowel disorders. Advances in the understanding of the relationship between stress and visceral perception may constitute a basis for a therapeutic approach of functional bowel disorders targeted on the central nervous system.

  1. Lactobacillus sakei OK67 ameliorates high-fat diet-induced blood glucose intolerance and obesity in mice by inhibiting gut microbiota lipopolysaccharide production and inducing colon tight junction protein expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Su-Min; Jeong, Jin-Ju; Woo, Kyung Hee; Han, Myung Joo; Kim, Dong-Hyun

    2016-04-01

    A high-fat diet (HFD) induces obesity and the associated increases in blood glucose and inflammation through changes in gut microbiota, endotoxemia, and increased gut permeability. To counteract this, researchers have suggested that the use of probiotics that suppress production of proinflammatory lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Here, we tested whether Lactobacillus sakei OK67, which inhibits gut microbiota LPS production selected from among the lactic acid bacteria isolated from kimchi, exerted antihypoglycemic or anti-inflammatory effects in HFD-fed mice. Mice were randomly divided into 2 groups and fed an HFD or a low-fat diet for 4 weeks. These groups were further subdivided; 1 subgroup was treated with L sakei OK67 and fed the experimental diet for 4.5 weeks, whereas the other subgroup was fed the experimental diet alone. L sakei OK67 treatment lowered HFD-elevated LPS levels in blood and colonic fluid and significantly decreased HFD-elevated fasting blood glucose levels and the area under the curve in an oral glucose tolerance test. L sakei OK67 treatment inhibited HFD-induced body and epididymal fat weight gains, suppressed HFD-induced tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-1β expression and nuclear factor-κB activation in the colon, and significantly increased HFD-suppressed interleukin-10 and tight junction protein expression in the colon. Oral administration of L sakei OK67 significantly downregulated HFD-induced expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ, fatty acid synthase, and tumor necrosis factor-α in adipose tissue. In addition, L sakei OK67 treatment strongly inhibited nuclear factor-κB activation in LPS-stimulated peritoneal macrophages. We report that L sakei OK67 ameliorates HFD-induced hyperglycemia and obesity by reducing inflammation and increasing the expression of colon tight junction proteins in mice.

  2. Switching harmful visceral fat to beneficial energy combustion improves metabolic dysfunctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiaoyan; Sui, Wenhai; Zhang, Meng; Dong, Mei; Lim, Sharon; Seki, Takahiro; Guo, Ziheng; Fischer, Carina; Lu, Huixia; Zhang, Cheng; Yang, Jianmin; Zhang, Meng; Wang, Yangang; Cao, Caixia; Gao, Yanyan; Zhao, Xingguo; Sun, Meili; Sun, Yuping; Zhuang, Rujie; Samani, Nilesh J.; Zhang, Yun

    2017-01-01

    Visceral fat is considered the genuine and harmful white adipose tissue (WAT) that is associated to development of metabolic disorders, cardiovascular disease, and cancer. Here, we present a new concept to turn the harmful visceral fat into a beneficial energy consumption depot, which is beneficial for improvement of metabolic dysfunctions in obese mice. We show that low temperature–dependent browning of visceral fat caused decreased adipose weight, total body weight, and body mass index, despite increased food intake. In high-fat diet–fed mice, low temperature exposure improved browning of visceral fat, global metabolism via nonshivering thermogenesis, insulin sensitivity, and hepatic steatosis. Genome-wide expression profiling showed upregulation of WAT browning–related genes including Cidea and Dio2. Conversely, Prdm16 was unchanged in healthy mice or was downregulated in obese mice. Surgical removal of visceral fat and genetic knockdown of UCP1 in epididymal fat largely ablated low temperature–increased global thermogenesis and resulted in the death of most mice. Thus, browning of visceral fat may be a compensatory heating mechanism that could provide a novel therapeutic strategy for treating visceral fat–associated obesity and diabetes. PMID:28239649

  3. Carnosic acid as a major bioactive component in rosemary extract ameliorates high-fat-diet-induced obesity and metabolic syndrome in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yantao; Sedighi, Rashin; Wang, Pei; Chen, Huadong; Zhu, Yingdong; Sang, Shengmin

    2015-05-20

    In this study, we investigated the preventive effects of carnosic acid (CA) as a major bioactive component in rosemary extract (RE) on high-fat-diet-induced obesity and metabolic syndrome in mice. The mice were given a low-fat diet, a high-fat diet or a high-fat diet supplemented with either 0.14% or 0.28% (w/w) CA-enriched RE (containing 80% CA, RE#1L and RE#1H), or 0.5% (w/w) RE (containing 45% CA, RE#2), for a period of 16 weeks. There was the same CA content in the RE#1H and RE#2 diets and half of this amount in the RE#1L diet. The dietary RE supplementation significantly reduced body weight gain, percent of fat, plasma ALT, AST, glucose, insulin levels, liver weight, liver triglyceride, and free fatty acid levels in comparison with the mice fed with a HF diet without RE treatment. RE administration also decreased the levels of plasma and liver malondialdehyde, advanced glycation end products (AGEs), and the liver expression of receptor for AGE (RAGE) in comparison with those for mice of the HF group. Histological analyses of liver samples showed decreased lipid accumulation in hepatocytes in mice administrated with RE in comparison with that of HF-diet-fed mice. Meanwhile, RE administration enhanced fecal lipid excretion to inhibit lipid absorption and increased the liver GSH/GSSG ratio to perform antioxidant activity compared with HF group. Our results demonstrate that rosemary is a promising dietary agent to reduce the risk of obesity and metabolic syndrome.

  4. Exploiting anti-obesity mechanism of Clerodendrum phlomidis against two different models of rodents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijay R Chidrawar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Roots of Clerodendrum phlomidis are used by the local people of Dibrugarh district of Assam state India as a dietary supplement for treating weight issues and are also mentioned in the traditional system of Indian medicine as a remedy for obesity. We examined the anti-obesity effect of Clerodendrum phlomidis (family Verbenaceae L. roots against cafeteria diet (CD and progesterone-induced obesity. In CD-induced model obesity was induced by feeding CD for 48-days and increase in body weight and fat storage was suppressed co-administration with methanolic extract of Clerodendrum phlomidis (MECP at 400 mg/kg. Blood analysis showed that the levels of triglyceride and cholesterol were significantly lowered by MECP administration and there is subsequent rise in HDL-cholesterol level. From this experiment, we demonstrated that MECP is effective in ameliorating the CD-induced hyperglycemia, hyperinsulimenia, dyslepidemia, increase in wet weight of white adipose tissue, and hypertrophy of fat cells. In drug induced obesity model hyperphagia was induced by progesterone (10 mg/kg s.c. for 28 days and was suppressed by co-administration with MECP in dose dependent manner. It is tempting to speculate that these protective effects shown by Clerodendrum phlomidis is by multiple mechanisms. MECP contains β-sitosterol in the abundant quantity because of the structural similarity it do the physical competition with natural sterols while absorption of food stuffs from GIT and moreover the crude saponin and flavonoid has been reported for it′s the appιtit suppressant property and hence reduces hyperphagia produced by progesterone. This is the first report demonstrating that Clerodendrum phlomidis is effective in ameliorating insulin resistance and visceral obesity induced by CD and Progesterone.

  5. Gut microbiota as a key player in triggering obesity, systemic inflammation and insulin resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escobedo, Galileo; López-Ortiz, Eduardo; Torres-Castro, Israel

    2014-01-01

    Obesity-related systemic inflammation contributes to develop insulin resistance. The main factors involved in the relationship of obesity with systemic inflammation and insulin resistance have not been completely elucidated. Microbiota includes around 1013 to 1014 microbes harboring the human gut, which are clustered in approximately a thousand different bacterial species. Several studies suggest that imbalance in the intestinal bacterial population could result in obesity, systemic inflammation and metabolic dysfunction. Here, we review the main bacterial groups observed in obesity as well as their possible role in increasing the intestinal permeability and lipopolysaccharide-related endotoxemia. Furthermore, we point out the role of intestinal dysbiosis in the inflammatory activation of macrophages with the ability to infiltrate in the visceral adipose tissue and induce insulin resistance. Finally, we discuss the apparent beneficial use of prebiotics and probiotics in ameliorating both systemic inflammation and metabolic dysfunction. Present information may be useful in the future design of novel therapies focused on treating obesity and insulin resistance by restoring the gut microbiota balance.

  6. Marked insulin resistance in obese spontaneously hypertensive rat adipocytes is ameliorated by in vivo but not in vitro treatment with moxonidine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Zheng; Ernsberger, Paul

    2007-02-01

    The obese spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHROB) is a model of marked insulin resistance with normoglycemia. We sought to determine whether insulin resistance extends to adipocytes and the impact of an insulin-sensitizing imidazoline, moxonidine (4 mg/kg/days for 21 days). Gonadal adipocytes were isolated from SHROB and lean spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR) littermates. In lean SHR adipocytes, Akt activation by 100 nM insulin peaked at 3 min at 25-fold, whereas SHROB adipocytes showed only 4-fold activation. In dose-response experiments, the maximal response (E(max)) was markedly reduced 18.8 +/- 2.3 versus 3.7 +/- 0.8. Insulin sensitivity was also attenuated, with higher concentrations required for responses (EC(50) = 3.5 +/- 0.5 versus 29 +/- 3.8 nM). Glucose uptake as determined with [(3)H]2-deoxyglucose was also less responsive to insulin in SHROB relative to lean SHR. Moxonidine had little or no effect when applied acutely in vitro, but adipocytes isolated from SHROB treated with moxonidine in vivo showed significantly improved responses to insulin, both in terms of Akt activation and facilitation of glucose uptake. Chronic but not acute moxonidine treatment partially restores insulin sensitivity in SHROB adipocytes, suggesting an indirect action of this agent.

  7. Oxidative Damage and Inflammation in Obese Diabetic Emirati Subjects

    OpenAIRE

    Salah Gariballa; Melita Kosanovic; Javed Yasin; Awad El Essa

    2014-01-01

    Visceral obesity is more common in the Arab population and more closely related to morbidity, including diabetes and related cardiovascular diseases (CVD). Possible mechanisms that link visceral fat/obesity to diabetes and CVD complications include inflammation and increased oxidative stress; however, few data are available from the Arab population. Our aim was to determine whether increased adiposity in obese diabetic United Arab Emirates citizens is associated with sub-clinical inflammation...

  8. Clinical significance of visceral adiposity assessed by computed tomography: A Japanese perspective

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Miwa; Ryo; Ken; Kishida; Tadashi; Nakamura; Tohru; Yoshizumi; Tohru; Funahashi; Iichiro; Shimomura

    2014-01-01

    Abdominal obesity,rather than total amount of fat,is linked to obesity-related disorders.Visceral adiposity is an important component of obesity-related disorders in Japanese individuals with a mild degree of adiposity compared with Western subjects.In 1983,our group reported techniques for body fat analysis using computed tomography(CT)and established the concept of visceral fat obesity in which intra-abdominal fat accumulation is an important factor in the development of obesity-related complications,such as diabetes,lipid disorders,hypertension and atherosclerosis.Our group also established ideal imaging conditions for determining abdominal fat area at the umbilical level CT scan.Visceral fat area(VFA)measured in a single slice at L4level correlated significantly with the total abdominal visceral fat volume measured on multislice CT scan.In a large-scale study of a Japanese population,the mean number of obesity-related cardiovascular risk factors(hypertension,low high-density lipoprotein cholesterolemia and/or hypertriglyceridemia,and hyperglycemia)was greater than 1.0 at 100 cm2 of VFA,irrespective of gender,age and body mass index.Our group also demonstrated that reduction of visceral fat accumulation subsequent to voluntary lifestyle modification,"Hokenshido",correlated with a decrease in the number of obesity-related cardiovascular risk factors.It is important to select the most appropriate subjects from the general population(e.g.,non-obese subjects with a cluster of risk factors for the metabolic syndrome)that are most suitable for body weight reduction,with the goal of preventing atherosclerotic cardiovascular diseases.

  9. [Visceral leishmaniasis: new drugs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minodier, P; Robert, S; Retornaz, K; Garnier, J M

    2003-12-01

    The standard treatment of visceral leishmaniasis is pentavalent antimony (meglumine antimoniate or sodium stibogluconate), but toxicity is frequent with this drug. Moreover, antimony unresponsiveness is increasing, both in immunocompetent and in immunosuppressed patients. Amphotericin B is a polyene macrolide antibiotic that binds to sterols in cell membranes. It is the most active antileishmanial agent in use. Its infusion-related and renal toxicity may be reduced by lipid-based delivery. Liposomal amphotericin B (Ambisome) seems to be less toxic than other amphotericin B lipid formulations (Amphocil, Amphotec). Optimal drug regimens of Ambisome vary from one geographical area to another. In the Mediterranean Basin, a total dose of 18 to 24 mg/kg is safe and effective. Shortening the duration of treatment without decreasing the total dose (i.e., 10 mg/kg/day for 2 days) seems promising to reduce the global cost of the therapy.

  10. Peripheral contributions to visceral hyperalgesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebhart, G F

    1999-03-01

    Hyperalgesia has long been recognized clinically as a consequence of tissue injury. Primary hyperalgesia (arising from the site of injury) is generally considered to be due to sensitization of sensory receptors (eg, nociceptors) and perhaps activation of so-called 'silent nociceptors' by mediators released, synthesized or attracted to the site of tissue injury. Key questions associated with understanding visceral hyperalgesia relate to whether the viscera are innervated by nociceptors (ie, sensory receptors that respond selectively to noxious intensities of stimulation), whether visceral receptors and/or afferent fibres sensitize after tissue injury and whether silent nociceptors exist in the viscera. Studies in nonhuman animals have revealed that hollow organs such as the esophagus, gall bladder, stomach, urinary bladder, colon and uterus are innervated by mechanically sensitive receptors with low or high thresholds for response. Accordingly, it appears that the viscera are innervated by nociceptors, although the issue is far from settled. One characteristic of cutaneous nociceptors is their ability to be sensitized when tissue is injured. Mechanosensitive visceral receptors also sensitize when the viscera are experimentally inflamed, but both visceral receptors with low thresholds and those with high thresholds for response are sensitized. Moreover, it is often not appreciated that visceral receptors are likely polymodal rather than unimodal - that is, mechanically sensitive visceral receptors typically are also sensitive to chemical and/or thermal stimuli. In this sense, visceral receptors may be considered evolutionarily older than more highly developed, specialized cutaneous receptors. Finally, there are mechanically insensitive receptors that innervate the viscera and, when tissue is injured, develop spontaneous activity and acquire sensitivity to mechanical stimuli. In the aggregrate, visceral receptors change their behaviour in the presence of tissue injury

  11. Management of chronic visceral pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Anne E; Farmer, Adam D; Olesen, Søren S

    2016-01-01

    ' symptoms, adopting an empathic approach and taking time to educate patients. To optimize treatment and outcomes in chronic visceral pain we need to move away from approaches exclusively based on dealing with peripheral nociceptive input toward more holistic strategies, taking into account alterations......Despite marked differences in underlying pathophysiology, the current management of visceral pain largely follows the guidelines derived from the somatic pain literature. The effective management of patients with chronic visceral pain should be multifaceted, including both pharmacological...... in central pain processing....

  12. Visceral adiposity influences glucose and glycogen metabolism in control and hyperlipidic-fed animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle Kaiser de Souza

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Evidences suggest that fat intake, visceral obesity and intracellular lipids are related to insulin impairment. Objective: The objective of the present paper was correlate visceral obesity and metabolic alterations in control (CTR and hyperlipidic cafeteria diet (CFT fed animals. Methods: After 6 months of diet treatment, liver and muscle of the male rats were utilized to determined glucose uptake and glycogen metabolism after administration of 0.4I U/kg insulin in vivo, and correlate the visceral adiposity to these two parameters. Results: Ample range of physiologic answers to body composition in metabolic profile of the both diets was found. No differences were found in glycemia and triacylglycerol after insulin action in both groups, however CFT group accumulated higher adiposity, mostly visceral fat, and showed lower glycogen content in the liver. We also found an inverse correlation between visceral adiposity and glucose uptake and a decrease of the glycogen synthase active form in the liver. CTR animals demonstrated an inverse correlation between glucose uptake and visceral adiposity in the muscle. Discussion and conclusion: It was observed a variability of metabolic alterations in animals which can be related to degree of accumulation of abdominal adiposity and ingestion of diet fats. Further studies will be required to clarify the reasons for the observed liver alterations in CFT and muscle alterations in CTR animals.

  13. Blood pressure rhythmicity and visceral fat in children with hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niemirska, Anna; Litwin, Mieczysław; Feber, Janusz; Jurkiewicz, Elżbieta

    2013-10-01

    Primary hypertension is associated with disturbed activity of the sympathetic nervous system and altered blood pressure rhythmicity. We analyzed changes in cardiovascular rhythmicity and its relation with target organ damage during 12 months of antihypertensive treatment in 50 boys with hypertension (median, 15.0 years). The following parameters were obtained before and after 12 months of antihypertensive treatment: 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure, left ventricular mass, carotid intima-media thickness, and MRI for visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue. Amplitudes and acrophases of mean arterial pressure and heart rate rhythms were obtained for 24-, 12-, and 8-hour periods. After 1 year of treatment, 68% of patients were normotensive, and left ventricular mass and carotid intima-media thickness decreased in 60% and 62% of patients, respectively. Blood pressure and heart rate rhythmicity patterns did not change. Changes in blood pressure amplitude correlated with the decrease of waist circumference (P=0.035). Moreover, the decrease of visceral fat correlated with the decrease of 24-hour mean arterial pressure and heart rate acrophases (both Phypertension despite effective antihypertensive treatment, which suggests that it may be the primary abnormality. The correlation between changes in cardiovascular rhythmicity and visceral obesity may indicate that the visceral fat plays an important role in the sympathetic activity of adolescents with hypertension.

  14. Secondary obesity. Part 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M B Babarina

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Glucocorticoids, prolactin and growth hormone play an important role in the regulation of metabolic homeostasis. Hypercortisolism, hyperprolactinemia and growth hormone deficiency lead to an increase in body weight due to visceral fat accumulation. Mechanisms of development of obesity in various endocrine diseases are different. Adequate correction of hormonal disorders usually is accompanied by a decrease in body weight and the improvement of metabolic parameters.

  15. IS OBESITY ASSOCIATED WITH ANAEMIA IN KIDNEY TRANSPLANT RECIPIENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Winnie Chan

    2012-06-01

    This study demonstrated that overall adiposity correlates positively with inflammation but this is not applicable to indices of visceral fat. However, no correlation was established between obesity and anaemia in this study.

  16. Central nervous system lipocalin-type prostaglandin D2-synthase is correlated with orexigenic neuropeptides, visceral adiposity and markers of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis in obese humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elias, E; Benrick, A; Behre, C J; Ekman, R; Zetterberg, H; Stenlöf, K; Wallenius, V

    2011-06-01

    Lipocalin-type prostaglandin D2-synthase (L-PGDS) is the main producer of prostaglandin D2 (PGD2) in the central nervous system (CNS). Animal data suggest effects of central nervous L-PGDS in the regulation of food intake and obesity. No human data are available. We hypothesised that a role for CNS L-PGDS in metabolic function in humans would be reflected by correlations with known orexigenic neuropeptides. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and serum samples were retrieved from 26 subjects in a weight loss study, comprising a 3-week dietary lead-in followed by 12-weeks of leptin or placebo treatment. At baseline, CSF L-PGDS was positively correlated with neuropeptide Y (NPY) (ρ = 0.695, P obesity by interaction with the neuroendocrine circuits regulating appetite and fat distribution. Further interventional studies will be needed to characterise these interactions in more detail.

  17. Visceral adipose tissue as a source of inflammation and promoter of atherosclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexopoulos, Nikolaos; Katritsis, Demosthenes; Raggi, Paolo

    2014-03-01

    The current epidemic of obesity with the associated increasing incidence of insulin resistance, diabetes mellitus and atherosclerosis affecting a large proportion of the North American and Western populations, has generated a strong interest in the potential role of visceral adipose tissue in the development of atherosclerosis and its complications. The intra-abdominal and epicardial space are two compartments that contain visceral adipose tissue with a similar embryological origin. These visceral fats are highly inflamed in obese patients, patients with the metabolic syndrome and in those with established coronary artery disease; additionally they are capable of secreting large quantities of pro-inflammatory cytokines and free fatty acids. There is accumulating evidence to support a direct involvement of these regional adipose tissue deposits in the development of atherosclerosis and its complicating events, as will be reviewed in this article.

  18. Management of chronic visceral pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olesen, Anne E; Farmer, Adam D; Olesen, Søren S; Aziz, Qasim; Drewes, Asbjørn M

    2016-10-01

    Despite marked differences in underlying pathophysiology, the current management of visceral pain largely follows the guidelines derived from the somatic pain literature. The effective management of patients with chronic visceral pain should be multifaceted, including both pharmacological and psychological interventions, thereby providing a mechanism-orientated approach to treatment. Patients can frequently become disenfranchised, and subsequently disengaged, with healthcare providers leading to repeated consultations. Thus, a key aspect of management is to break this cycle by validating patients' symptoms, adopting an empathic approach and taking time to educate patients. To optimize treatment and outcomes in chronic visceral pain we need to move away from approaches exclusively based on dealing with peripheral nociceptive input toward more holistic strategies, taking into account alterations in central pain processing.

  19. Obesity and arterial compliance alterations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seifalian, Alexander M; Filippatos, Theodosios D; Joshi, Jatin; Mikhailidis, Dimitri P

    2010-03-01

    Obesity is associated with increased cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk, especially when excess body fat is distributed preferentially within the abdominal region. Obese subjects usually have increased arterial stiffness compared with non-obese subjects of similar age. The factors associated with increased arterial stiffness in obesity include endothelial dysfunction (decreased nitric oxide bioavailability), impaired smooth muscle cell function, insulin resistance, as well as elevated cholesterol and C-peptide levels. Furthermore, visceral fat, the adipose tissue-related renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system and hyperleptinaemia contribute to the obesity-associated impaired arterial compliance. Weight loss improves CVD risk factors and arterial compliance. Because increased arterial stiffness is a marker of CVD risk these findings support the concept that the presence of obesity has vascular implications.

  20. Treatment of visceral leishmaniasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E M Moore

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The available treatment options for visceral leishmaniasis (VL have problems relating to efficacy, adverse effects and cost, making treatment a complex issue. We review the evidence relating to the different methods of treatment in relation to - efficacy and toxicity of the drugs in different areas of the world; ability to monitor side effects, length of treatment; ability of patients to pay for and stay safe during treatment, ability of the healthcare services to give intramuscular, intravenous or oral therapy; the sex and child-bearing potential of the patient and the immune status of the patient. The high mortality of untreated/ poorly treated VL infection makes the decisions paramount, but a unified and coordinated response by each area is likely to be more effective and informative to future policies than an ad hoc response. For patients in resource-rich countries, liposomal amphotericin B appears to be the optimal treatment. In South Asia, miltefosine is being used; the combination of single dose liposomal amphotericin B and short course miltefosine looks encouraging but has the problem of potential reproductive toxicities in females. In Africa, the evidence to switch from SSG is not yet compelling. The need to monitor and plan for evolving drug failure, secondary to leishmania parasite resistance, is paramount. With a few drugs the options may be limited; however, we await key ongoing trials in both Africa and India to explore the effects of combination treatment. If safe and reliable combinations are revealed by the ongoing studies, it is far from clear as to whether this will avoid leishmania parasite resistance. The development of new drugs to add to the armamentarium is paramount. Lessons can be learnt from the management of diseases such as tuberculosis and malaria in terms of planning the switch to combination treatment. As important as establishing the best choice for specific antileishmanial agent is ensuring treatment centers

  1. Epidemiology of visceral leishmaniasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ready PD

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Paul D ReadyDisease Control Department, Faculty of Infectious and Tropical Diseases, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, UKAbstract: Leishmania species are the causative agents of leishmaniasis, a neglected tropical disease. These parasitic protozoans are usually transmitted between vertebrate hosts by the bite of blood sucking female phlebotomine sand flies. This review focuses on the two parasites causing most human visceral leishmaniasis (VL, which leads to substantial health problems or death for up to 400,000 people per year. Except for travel cases, Leishmania donovani infections are restricted to the (sub-tropics of Asia and Africa, where transmission is mostly anthroponotic, while Leishmania infantum occurs in the drier parts of Latin America as well as in the Mediterranean climate regions of the Old World, with the domestic dog serving as the main reservoir host. The prevalence of VL caused by L. infantum has been declining where living standards have improved. In contrast, infections of L. donovani continue to cause VL epidemics in rural areas on the Indian subcontinent and in East Africa. The current review compares and contrasts these continental differences and suggests priorities for basic and applied research that might improve VL control. Transmission cycles, pathogenesis, diagnosis, treatment and prognosis, prevention (including vector control, surveillance, transmission modeling, and international control efforts are all reviewed. Most case detection is passive, and so routine surveillance does not usually permit accurate assessments of any changes in the incidence of VL. Also, it is not usually possible to estimate the human inoculation rate of parasites by the sand fly vectors because of the limitations of survey methods. Consequently, transmission modeling rarely passes beyond the proof of principle stage, and yet it is required to help develop risk factor analysis for control programs. Anthroponotic VL

  2. [Digestive tract, obesity and cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Actis, Andrea; Outomuro, Delia

    2010-01-01

    Current statistics show that overweight and obesity are seriously increasing, mainly in occidental countries with high industrialization rate. Simultaneously sedentarism has increased as a consequence of technological comforts that the dominant market economy offers. Obesity, sedentarism, excessive adiposity, especially if centrally distributed, insulin resistance and hyperinsulinemia interact for cancer development. Visceral adipose tissue is considerate as an endocrine organ which produces and liberates cytokines and inflammatory peptides with hormonal and metabolic signals. Although there are several obesity-related types of cancer, in this paper we focus on digestive system tumors.

  3. Identification of a novel peptide ligand targeting visceral adipose tissue via transdermal route by in vivo phage display.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Nam Kyung; Kim, Hong Shin; Kim, Kyung Hyun; Kim, Eun-Bae; Cho, Chong Su; Kang, Sang Kee; Choi, Yun Jaie

    2011-11-01

    To find novel peptide ligands targeting visceral adipose tissue (visceral fat) via transdermal route, in vivo phage display screening was conducted by dermal administration of a phage-peptide library to rats and a peptide sequence, CGLHPAFQC (designated as TDA1), was identified as a targeting ligand to visceral adipose tissue through the consecutive transdermal biopannings. Adipocyte-specific affinity and transdermal activity of the TDA1 were validated in vitro and targeting ability of the dermally administered TDA1 to visceral adipose tissue was also confirmed in vivo. TDA1 was effectively translocated into systemic circulation after dermal administration and selectively targeted visceral adipose tissue without any preference to other organs tested. Fluorescent microscopic analysis revealed that the TDA1 could be specifically localized in the hair follicles of the skin, as well as in the visceral adipose tissue. Thus, we inferred that dermally administered TDA1 would first access systemic circulation via hair follicles as its transdermal route and then could target visceral fat effectively. The overall results suggest that the TDA1 peptide could be potentially applied as a homing moiety for delivery of anti-obesity therapeutics to visceral fat through the convenient transdermal pathway.

  4. Stop feeding cancer: pro-inflammatory role of visceral adiposity in liver cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jun; Lawless, Matthew W

    2013-12-01

    Liver cancer is the fifth most common cancer in the world with an estimated over half a million new cases diagnosed every year. Due to the difficulty in early diagnosis and lack of treatment options, the prevalence of liver cancer continues to climb with a 5-year survival rate of between 6% and 11%. Coinciding with the rise of liver cancer, the prevalence of obesity has rapidly increased over the past two decades. Evidence from epidemiological studies demonstrates a higher risk of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in obese individuals. Obesity is recognised as a low-grade inflammatory disease, this is of particular relevance as inflammation has been proposed as the seventh hallmark of cancer development with abdominal visceral adiposity considered as an important source of pro-inflammatory stimuli. Emerging evidence points towards the direct role of visceral adipose tissue rather than generalised body fat in carcinogenesis. Cytokines such as IL-6 and TNF-α secreted from visceral adipose tissue have been demonstrated to induce a chronic inflammatory condition predisposing the liver to a protumourigenic milieu. This review focuses on excess visceral adiposity rather than simple obesity; particularly adipokines and their implications for chronic inflammation, lipid accumulation, insulin resistance, Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER) stress and angiogenesis. Evidence of molecular signalling pathways that may give rise to the onset and progression of HCC in this context are depicted. Delineation of the pro-inflammatory role of visceral adiposity in liver cancer and its targeting will provide better rational and therapeutic approaches for HCC prevention and elimination. The concept of a central role for metabolism in cancer is the culmination of an effort that began with one of the 20th century's leading biochemists and Nobel laureate of 1931, Otto Warburg.

  5. Using Abdominal CT Data for Visceral Fat Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Pop

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Quantitative assessment of body fat is important for the diagnosis and treatment of diseases related to obesity, Computed tomography (CT becoming the standard procedure for measuring the abdominal fat distribution. Material and method: The retrospective study included 111 inpatients, who underwent routine abdominal CT exams in the Radiology Laboratory of SCJU Tg.Mures (2013. MPR MDCT (SOMATOM AS 64 data was processed using a custom written MATLAB R2009b software, ImageJ being used for tracing of the visceral fat area (VFA. Patient data (including blood glucose, cholesterol and triglycerides were analyzed using MO Excel and GraphPad Inprism5. Results: Visceral Fat percentage varied in population from 14.59-68.69 (SD = 11.83 with significant difference between sexes (male vs. female, 46.98 vs. 31.62, p 220 mg% and triglycerides >150 mg% are significantly associated with the VF percent (p <0.05. Overall there is a weak correlation between the lab variables and the measured fat, the strongest one being between triglycerides and the VFA (r = +0.23 and between age and VFA percentage (certain samples. Conclusions: The technique used should decreases the human error in marking of the fat areas providing a better estimation of the VF/VF percentage. CT measured VF relates with certain lab tests. Further analysis, is required for a better use of CT in obesity related pathology diagnosis and treatment

  6. Obesity and regional fat distribution in Kenyan populations:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Dirk L.; Eis, Jeannette; Hansen, Andreas W.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Obesity is increasing rapidly in Africa, and may not be associated with the same changes in body composition among different ethnic groups in Africa. Objective: To assess abdominal visceral and subcutaneous fat thickness, prevalence of obesity, and differences in body composition...

  7. Metabolic alterations following visceral fat removal and expansion: Beyond anatomic location.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Michelle T; Pagliassotti, Michael J

    2012-10-01

    Increased visceral adiposity is a risk factor for metabolic disorders such as dyslipidemia, hypertension, insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes, whereas peripheral (subcutaneous) obesity is not. Though the specific mechanisms which contribute to these adipose depot differences are unknown, visceral fat accumulation is proposed to result in metabolic dysregulation because of increased effluent, e.g., fatty acids and/or adipokines/cytokines, to the liver via the hepatic portal vein. Pathological significance of visceral fat accumulation is also attributed to adipose depot/adipocyte-specific characteristics, specifically differences in structural, physiologic and metabolic characteristics compared with subcutaneous fat. Fat manipulations, such as removal or transplantation, have been utilized to identify location dependent or independent factors that play a role in metabolic dysregulation. Obesity-induced alterations in adipose tissue function/intrinsic characteristics, but not mass, appear to be responsible for obesity-induced metabolic dysregulation, thus "quality" is more important than "quantity." This review summarizes the implications of obesity-induced metabolic dysfunction as it relates to anatomic site and inherent adipocyte characteristics.

  8. BMI changes during childhood and adolescence as predictors of amount of adult subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissue in men: the GOOD Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kindblom, Jenny M; Lorentzon, Mattias; Hellqvist, Asa

    2009-01-01

    but an unaffected amount of visceral adipose tissue. BMI changes during adolescence predict both visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue of the abdomen, whereas BMI changes during late childhood predict only the subcutaneous adipose tissue. CONCLUSIONS: The amount of visceral adipose tissue in young adult men......OBJECTIVE: The amount of visceral adipose tissue is a risk factor for the metabolic syndrome. It is unclear how BMI changes during childhood and adolescence predict adult fat distribution. We hypothesized that there are critical periods during development for the prediction of adult subcutaneous...... and visceral fat mass by BMI changes during childhood and adolescence. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Detailed growth charts were retrieved for the men participating in the population-based Gothenburg Osteoporosis and Obesity Determinants (GOOD) Study (n = 612). Body composition was analyzed using dual-energy X...

  9. Abdominal visceral adiposity influences CD4+ T cell cytokine production in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozias, Marlies K; Li, Shengqi; Hull, Holly R; Brooks, William M; Petroff, Margaret G; Carlson, Susan E

    2015-02-01

    Women with pre-gravid obesity are at risk for pregnancy complications. While the macrophage response of obese pregnant women categorized by body mass index (BMI) has been documented, the relationship between the peripheral CD4(+) T cell cytokine profile and body fat compartments during pregnancy is unknown. In this study, third trimester peripheral CD4(+) T cell cytokine profiles were measured in healthy pregnant women [n=35; pre-pregnancy BMI: 18.5-40]. CD4(+) T cells were isolated from peripheral blood mononuclear cells and stimulated to examine their capacity to generate cytokines. Between 1 and 3weeks postpartum, total body fat was determined by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and abdominal subcutaneous and visceral fat masses were determined by magnetic resonance imaging. Pearson's correlation was performed to assess relationships between cytokines and fat mass. Results showed that greater abdominal visceral fat mass was associated with a decrease in stimulated CD4(+) T cell cytokine expression. IFN-gamma, TNF-alpha, IL-12p70, IL-10 and IL-17A were inversely related to visceral fat mass. Chemokines CCL3 and IL-8 and growth factors G-CSF and FLT-3L were also inversely correlated. Additionally, total body fat mass was inversely correlated with FGF-2 while abdominal subcutaneous fat mass and BMI were unrelated to any CD4(+) T cell cytokine. In conclusion, lower responsiveness of CD4(+) T cell cytokines associated with abdominal visceral fat mass is a novel finding late in gestation.

  10. Muscle loss and obesity: the health implications of sarcopenia and sarcopenic obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wannamethee, S Goya; Atkins, Janice L

    2015-11-01

    This paper reviews the health implications of obesity, sarcopenia and sarcopenic obesity on CVD and mortality in older adults and discusses the obesity paradox seen in patients with CVD. Obesity is a major public health problem with increasing prevalence worldwide. It is an established risk factor for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in adult populations. However, there is controversy surrounding the effects of obesity as measured by BMI in older people, and overweight and obesity (BMI ⩾ 25 kg/m2) are apparently associated with increased survival in those with CVD (obesity paradox). Ageing is associated with an increase in visceral fat and a progressive loss of muscle mass which have opposing effects on mortality. Thus BMI is not a good indicator of obesity in older adults. Sarcopenia, the age-associated loss of skeletal muscle mass, is a major concern in ageing populations and has been associated with metabolic impairment, CVD risk factors, physical disability and mortality. Sarcopenia often coexists with obesity. Sarcopenic obesity is a new category of obesity in older adults who have high adiposity coupled with low muscle mass. To fully understand the effect of obesity on mortality in the elderly it is important to take muscle mass into account. The evidence suggests that sarcopenia with obesity may be associated with higher levels of metabolic disorders and an increased risk of mortality than obesity or sarcopenia alone. Efforts to promote healthy ageing should focus on both preventing obesity and maintaining or increasing muscle mass.

  11. Obesity, Exercise and Orthopedic Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frye, Christopher W; Shmalberg, Justin W; Wakshlag, Joseph J

    2016-09-01

    Osteoarthritis is common among aging canine and feline patients. The incidence and severity of clinical lameness are closely correlated to body condition in overweight and obese patients. Excessive adiposity may result in incongruous and excessive mechanical loading that worsens clinical signs in affected patients. Data suggest a potential link between adipokines, obesity-related inflammation, and a worsening of the underlying pathology. Similarly, abnormal physical stress and generalized systemic inflammation propagated by obesity contribute to neurologic signs associated with intervertebral disc disease. Weight loss and exercise are critical to ameliorating the pain and impaired mobility of affected animals.

  12. [The endocannabinoid system in obesity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pataky, Zoltan; Bobbioni-Harsch, Elisabetta; Carpentier, Anne; Golay, Alain

    2013-03-27

    The endocannabinoid system is involved in the regulation of energy balance and metabolism. Endocannabinoids have central effects with raising appetite and hunger. On the other hand, different components of the endocannabinoid system are also found in peripheral organs and tissues and they could impact the lipid and glucose metabolism. Obesity is associated with an overactivity of the endocannabinoid system with increased both plasmatic and visceral adipose tissue levels. The amount of the intra-abdominal fat mass is an indicator of the peripheral endocannabinoid system dysregulation. Endocannabinoids-like molecules with more pronounced peripheral effects on lipids and glucose metabolism could be a new target of obesity treatment.

  13. Metabolic Effects of Obesity and Its Interaction with Endocrine Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Melissa; Hoenig, Margarethe

    2016-09-01

    Obesity in pet dogs and cats is a significant problem in developed countries, and seems to be increasing in prevalence. Excess body fat has adverse metabolic consequences, including insulin resistance, altered adipokine secretion, changes in metabolic rate, abnormal lipid metabolism, and fat accumulation in visceral organs. Obese cats are predisposed to endocrine and metabolic disorders such as diabetes and hepatic lipidosis. A connection likely also exists between obesity and diabetes mellitus in dogs. No system has been developed to identify obese pets at greatest risk for development of obesity-associated metabolic diseases, and further study in this area is needed.

  14. Erectile dysfunction and central obesity: an Italian perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Corona

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Erectile dysfunction (ED is a frequent complication of obesity. The aim of this review is to critically analyze the framework of obesity and ED, dissecting the connections between the two pathological entities. Current clinical evidence shows that obesity, and in particular central obesity, is associated with both arteriogenic ED and reduced testosterone (T levels. It is conceivable that obesity-associated hypogonadism and increased cardiovascular risk might partially justify the higher prevalence of ED in overweight and obese individuals. Conversely, the psychological disturbances related to obesity do not seem to play a major role in the pathogenesis of obesity-related ED. However, both clinical and preclinical data show that the association between ED and visceral fat accumulation is independent from known obesity-associated comorbidities. Therefore, how visceral fat could impair penile microcirculation still remains unknown. This point is particularly relevant since central obesity in ED subjects categorizes individuals at high cardiovascular risk, especially in the youngest ones. The presence of ED in obese subjects might help healthcare professionals in convincing them to initiate a virtuous cycle, where the correction of sexual dysfunction will be the reward for improved lifestyle behavior. Unsatisfying sexual activity represents a meaningful, straightforward motivation for consulting healthcare professionals, who, in turn, should take advantage of the opportunity to encourage obese patients to treat, besides ED, the underlying unfavorable conditions, thus not only restoring erectile function, but also overall health.

  15. Divergent effects of obesity on bone health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gower, Barbara A; Casazza, Krista

    2017-01-01

    Historically, obesity was thought to be advantageous for maintaining healthy bones due to the greater BMD observed in overweight individuals. However, recent observations of increased fracture in some obese individuals has led to concern that common metabolic complications of obesity, such as type 2 diabetes, metabolic syndrome, impaired glucose tolerance, insulin resistance, hyperglycemia, and inflammation may be associated with poor bone health. In support of this hypothesis, greater visceral fat, a hallmark of insulin resistance and metabolic syndrome, is associated with lower BMD. Research is needed to determine if and how visceral fat and/or poor metabolic health are causally associated with bone health. Clinicians should consider adding a marker metabolic health, such as waist circumference or fasting plasma glucose concentration, to other known risk factors for osteoporosis and fracture. PMID:24063845

  16. Association of visceral adiposity with oesophageal and junctional adenocarcinomas.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Beddy, P

    2012-02-01

    BACKGROUND: Obesity is associated with an increased incidence of oesophageal and oesophagogastric junction adenocarcinoma, in particular Siewert types I and II. This study compared abdominal fat composition in patients with oesophageal\\/junctional adenocarcinoma with that in patients with oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma and gastric adenocarcinoma, and in controls. METHOD: In total, 194 patients (110 with oesophageal\\/junctional adenocarcinoma, 38 with gastric adenocarcinoma and 46 with oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma) and 90 matched control subjects were recruited. The abdominal fat area was assessed using computed tomography (CT), and the total fat area (TFA), visceral fat area (VFA) and subcutaneous fat area (SFA) were calculated. RESULTS: Patients with oesophageal\\/junctional adenocarcinoma had significantly higher TFA and VFA values compared with controls (both P < 0.001), patients with gastric adenocarcinoma (P = 0.013 and P = 0.006 respectively) and patients with oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma (both P < 0.001). For junctional tumours, the highest TFA and VFA values were seen in patients with Siewert type I tumours (respectively P = 0.041 and P = 0.033 versus type III; P = 0.332 and P = 0.152 versus type II). CONCLUSION: Patients with oesophageal\\/junctional adenocarcinoma, in particular oesophageal and Siewert type I junctional tumours, have greater CT-defined visceral adiposity than patients with gastric adenocarcinoma or oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma, or controls.

  17. Visceral fat accumulation is an indicator of adipose tissue macrophage infiltration in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michaud, Andréanne; Drolet, Renée; Noël, Suzanne; Paris, Gaëtan; Tchernof, André

    2012-05-01

    We tested the hypothesis that visceral obesity is the best correlate of abdominal adipose tissue macrophage infiltration in women. Omental and subcutaneous fat samples were surgically obtained from 40 women (age, 47.0 ± 4.0 years; body mass index, 28.4 ± 5.8 kg/m(2)). CD68+ cells were identified using fluorescence immunohistochemistry. Expression of macrophage markers was measured by real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. Body composition and fat distribution were measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry and computed tomography, respectively. Mean CD68+ cell percentage tended to be higher in subcutaneous (18.3%) compared with omental adipose tissue (15.5%, P = .07). Positive correlations were observed between CD68+ cell percentage as well as CD68 messenger RNA expression in a given depot vs the other (P ≤ .01). Visceral adipose tissue area and omental adipocyte diameter were positively related to CD68+ cell percentage in omental fat (r = 0.52 and r = 0.35, P ≤ .05). Total and visceral adipose tissue areas as well as subcutaneous adipocyte diameter were significantly correlated with CD68+ cell percentage in subcutaneous adipose tissue (0.32 ≤ r ≤ 0.40, P ≤ .05). Adipose tissue areas and subcutaneous adipocyte diameter were also significantly associated with expression of commonly used macrophage markers including CD68 in the subcutaneous fat compartment (0.32 ≤ r ≤ 0.57, P ≤ .05). Visceral adipose tissue area was the best correlate of CD68+ cell percentage in both omental and subcutaneous fat tissues, explaining, respectively, 20% and 12% of the variance in models also including subcutaneous adipose tissue area, adipocyte sizes, and total body fat mass. Visceral adipose tissue accumulation is the best correlate of macrophage infiltration in both the subcutaneous and omental fat compartments of lean to obese women.

  18. Development of automated quantification of visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue volumes from abdominal CT scans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mensink, Sanne D.; Spliethoff, Jarich W.; Belder, Ruben; Klaase, Joost M.; Bezooijen, Roland; Slump, Cornelis H.

    2011-03-01

    This contribution describes a novel algorithm for the automated quantification of visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue volumes from abdominal CT scans of patients referred for colorectal resection. Visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue volumes can accurately be measured with errors of 1.2 and 0.5%, respectively. Also the reproducibility of CT measurements is good; a disadvantage is the amount of radiation. In this study the diagnostic CT scans in the work - up of (colorectal) cancer were used. This implied no extra radiation. For the purpose of segmentation alone, a low dose protocol can be applied. Obesity is a well known risk factor for complications in and after surgery. Body Mass Index (BMI) is a widely accepted indicator of obesity, but it is not specific for risk assessment of colorectal surgery. We report on an automated method to quantify visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue volumes as a basic step in a clinical research project concerning preoperative risk assessment. The outcomes are to be correlated with the surgery results. The hypothesis is that the balance between visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue together with the presence of calcifications in the major bloodvessels, is a predictive indicator for post - operatieve complications such as anastomotic leak. We start with four different computer simulated humanoid abdominal volumes with tissue values in the appropriate Hounsfield range at different dose levels. With satisfactory numerical results for this test, we have applied the algorithm on over a 100 patient scans and have compared results with manual segmentations by an expert for a smaller pilot group. The results are within a 5% difference. Compared to other studies reported in the literature, reliable values are obtained for visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue areas.

  19. Dysregulation of the peripheral and adipose tissue endocannabinoid system in human abdominal obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blüher, Matthias; Engeli, Stefan; Klöting, Nora; Berndt, Janin; Fasshauer, Mathias; Bátkai, Sándor; Pacher, Pál; Schön, Michael R; Jordan, Jens; Stumvoll, Michael

    2006-11-01

    The endocannabinoid system has been suspected to contribute to the association of visceral fat accumulation with metabolic diseases. We determined whether circulating endocannabinoids are related to visceral adipose tissue mass in lean, subcutaneous obese, and visceral obese subjects (10 men and 10 women in each group). We further measured expression of the cannabinoid type 1 (CB(1)) receptor and fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) genes in paired samples of subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissue in all 60 subjects. Circulating 2-arachidonoyl glycerol (2-AG) was significantly correlated with body fat (r = 0.45, P = 0.03), visceral fat mass (r = 0.44, P = 0.003), and fasting plasma insulin concentrations (r = 0.41, P = 0.001) but negatively correlated to glucose infusion rate during clamp (r = 0.39, P = 0.009). In visceral adipose tissue, CB(1) mRNA expression was negatively correlated with visceral fat mass (r = 0.32, P = 0.01), fasting insulin (r = 0.48, P endocannabinoid system in human obesity. Thus, the endocannabinoid system may represent a primary target for the treatment of abdominal obesity and associated metabolic changes.

  20. Surrogate markers of visceral adiposity in young adults: waist circumference and body mass index are more accurate than waist hip ratio, model of adipose distribution and visceral adiposity index.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susana Borruel

    Full Text Available Surrogate indexes of visceral adiposity, a major risk factor for metabolic and cardiovascular disorders, are routinely used in clinical practice because objective measurements of visceral adiposity are expensive, may involve exposure to radiation, and their availability is limited. We compared several surrogate indexes of visceral adiposity with ultrasound assessment of subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissue depots in 99 young Caucasian adults, including 20 women without androgen excess, 53 women with polycystic ovary syndrome, and 26 men. Obesity was present in 7, 21, and 7 subjects, respectively. We obtained body mass index (BMI, waist circumference (WC, waist-hip ratio (WHR, model of adipose distribution (MOAD, visceral adiposity index (VAI, and ultrasound measurements of subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissue depots and hepatic steatosis. WC and BMI showed the strongest correlations with ultrasound measurements of visceral adiposity. Only WHR correlated with sex hormones. Linear stepwise regression models including VAI were only slightly stronger than models including BMI or WC in explaining the variability in the insulin sensitivity index (yet BMI and WC had higher individual standardized coefficients of regression, and these models were superior to those including WHR and MOAD. WC showed 0.94 (95% confidence interval 0.88-0.99 and BMI showed 0.91 (0.85-0.98 probability of identifying the presence of hepatic steatosis according to receiver operating characteristic curve analysis. In conclusion, WC and BMI not only the simplest to obtain, but are also the most accurate surrogate markers of visceral adiposity in young adults, and are good indicators of insulin resistance and powerful predictors of the presence of hepatic steatosis.

  1. Serotonin, visceral sensation in irritable bowel syndrome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIAN Jia-ming

    2007-01-01

    @@ Irritable bowel syndrome(IBS) is highly prevalent and can affect up to 20% of the population.1 It is a common gastrointestinal(GI) disorder associated with alterations in motility,secretion and visceral sensation.

  2. Obesity Is Associated with Neutrophil Dysfunction and Attenuation of Murine Acute Lung Injury

    OpenAIRE

    Kordonowy, Lauren L.; Burg, Elianne; Lenox, Christopher C.; Gauthier, Lauren M.; Petty, Joseph M.; Antkowiak, Maryellen; Palvinskaya, Tatsiana; Ubags, Niki; Rincón, Mercedes; Dixon, Anne E.; Vernooy, Juanita H. J.; Fessler, Michael B.; Poynter, Matthew E.; Suratt, Benjamin T.

    2012-01-01

    Although obesity is implicated in numerous health complications leading to increased mortality, the relationship between obesity and outcomes for critically ill patients appears paradoxical. Recent studies have reported better outcomes and lower levels of inflammatory cytokines in obese patients with acute lung injury (ALI)/acute respiratory distress syndrome, suggesting that obesity may ameliorate the effects of this disease. We investigated the effects of obesity in leptin-resistant db/db o...

  3. Epistaxis in Visceral Leishmaniasis with Hematological Correlation

    OpenAIRE

    Sigdel, B.; Bhandary, S.; Rijal, S

    2012-01-01

    Objective. To study the prevalence of epistaxis in visceral leismaniasis and its correlation with hematological profile. Methods. Out of 80 diagnosed cases of visceral leishmaniasis, 19 patients with epistaxis were included in the study. Diagnosis was made by Rk-39 from peripheral smear and LD bodies from bone marrow. Before starting anti-kala-azar treatment, nasal examination findings and hematological profile were noted. Study Design. Prospective cross-sectional hospital-based study. Result...

  4. The association between obesity factor and esophageal caner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Qi; Zhuang, Hengguo; Liu, Yanhui

    2012-09-01

    Accumulating epidemiological studies have supported the link between increased body mass index, central obesity and esophageal adenocarcinoma. This association appears stronger than that for other types of obesity-related cancers. Central obesity or visceral fat, more often observed in men, is much more strongly associated with adenocarcinoma than body mass index alone, possibly contributing to the imbalance of disease occurrence between the sexes. Potential mechanisms underlying the association between obesity and esophageal adenocarcinoma have been recently identified, including the insulin-like growth factor pathway, adipokines and sex hormone disturbances. These findings are summarized in this review; however, more research is warranted before these mechanisms are conclusively established.

  5. Obesity and late-onset hypogonadism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corona, G; Vignozzi, L; Sforza, A; Mannucci, E; Maggi, M

    2015-12-15

    Obesity and male hypogonadism (HG) are often associated, as demonstrated in all cross-sectional studies. Prospective studies have indicated that i) having HG at baseline increases the risk of visceral obesity (and metabolic syndrome) and that ii) obesity induces incident HG. Hence, there is a bidirectional relationship between the two conditions. This is the main topic of this review, along with some pathogenic considerations. Meta-analysis of intervention studies indicates that treating obesity is a very efficient treatment for obesity-induced HG. The mechanism by which obesity induces HG has not yet been completely understood, but dietary-induced hypothalamic inflammation, along with a decreased GnRH release, is plausible. Among patients seeking medical care for obesity, the proportion of HG is relatively high. The prevalence of obesity among patients referring for sexual dysfunction is also elevated. Hence, in symptomatic, obese, hypogonadal subjects, testosterone supplementation (TS) can be considered. Whereas long-term uncontrolled register studies suggest that TS could decrease weight, analysis of controlled studies only support a parallel increase in lean mass and decrease in fat mass, with a resulting null effect on weight. Considering that T induces an increase in muscle mass, it is conceivable that the amount of activity obese people can undertake after TS will increase, allowing a closer adherence to physical exercise programs. Some studies, here meta-analyzed, support this concept.

  6. Obesity, hypertension, and chronic kidney disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hall ME

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Michael E Hall,1,2 Jussara M do Carmo,2 Alexandre A da Silva,2 Luis A Juncos,1,2 Zhen Wang,2 John E Hall2 1Department of Medicine, 2Department of Physiology and Biophysics, Mississippi Center for Obesity Research, University of Mississippi Medical Center, Jackson, MS, USA Abstract: Obesity is a major risk factor for essential hypertension, diabetes, and other comorbid conditions that contribute to development of chronic kidney disease. Obesity raises blood pressure by increasing renal tubular sodium reabsorption, impairing pressure natriuresis, and causing volume expansion via activation of the sympathetic nervous system and renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system and by physical compression of the kidneys, especially when there is increased visceral adiposity. Other factors such as inflammation, oxidative stress, and lipotoxicity may also contribute to obesity-mediated hypertension and renal dysfunction. Initially, obesity causes renal vasodilation and glomerular hyperfiltration, which act as compensatory mechanisms to maintain sodium balance despite increased tubular reabsorption. However, these compensations, along with increased arterial pressure and metabolic abnormalities, may ultimately lead to glomerular injury and initiate a slowly developing vicious cycle that exacerbates hypertension and worsens renal injury. Body weight reduction, via caloric restriction and increased physical activity, is an important first step for management of obesity, hypertension, and chronic kidney disease. However, this strategy may not be effective in producing long-term weight loss or in preventing cardiorenal and metabolic consequences in many obese patients. The majority of obese patients require medical therapy for obesity-associated hypertension, metabolic disorders, and renal disease, and morbidly obese patients may require surgical interventions to produce sustained weight loss. Keywords: visceral adiposity, type II diabetes, sodium reabsorption

  7. Obesity and gastrointestinal liver disorders in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuura, Bunzo; Nunoi, Hiroaki; Miyake, Teruki; Hiasa, Yoichi; Onji, Morikazu

    2013-12-01

    In Japan, the prevalence of obesity in adult men has increased since the 1970s, while that in adult women has not changed. The prevalence of obesity in 5-, 8-, 11-, and 14-year-old boys and girls increased from the late 1980s to late 1990 s and has decreased since 2000, while that in 17-year-old girls increased in 2002, similar to that for boys, but has since decreased. In 2009, 33.3% of adult men and 25.0% of adult women were obese, and 8-10% of children (age, 5-17 years) were obese. The prevalence of visceral obesity in adults was 50.8% of men and 18.0% of women. Obesity, especially visceral obesity, affects insulin resistance and increases metabolic diseases (diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia, hypertension, cardiovascular disease, and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease [NAFLD]) and various cancers. In Japan, with a body mass index (BMI) of 23-25 as the reference category, the hazard ratio of total mortality is 1.36 for a BMI of 30-40 in men and 1.37 with a BMI of 30-40 in women. The frequency of patients with NAFLD has gradually increased in proportion to the increase in the population with obesity. From recent studies in Japan, the number of NAFLD patients is estimated to be 10 million, and around 2 million are considered to have non-alcoholic steatohepatitis. Dietary and behavioral modification is effective for body weight loss and for improvement of obesity-related gastrointestinal liver diseases. If necessary, bariatric surgery is useful for obesity treatment.

  8. Imaging immune and metabolic cells of visceral adipose tissues with multimodal nonlinear optical microscopy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasuyo Urasaki

    Full Text Available Visceral adipose tissue (VAT inflammation is recognized as a mechanism by which obesity is associated with metabolic diseases. The communication between adipose tissue macrophages (ATMs and adipocytes is important to understanding the interaction between immunity and energy metabolism and its roles in obesity-induced diseases. Yet visualizing adipocytes and macrophages in complex tissues is challenging to standard imaging methods. Here, we describe the use of a multimodal nonlinear optical (NLO microscope to characterize the composition of VATs of lean and obese mice including adipocytes, macrophages, and collagen fibrils in a label-free manner. We show that lipid metabolism processes such as lipid droplet formation, lipid droplet microvesiculation, and free fatty acids trafficking can be dynamically monitored in macrophages and adipocytes. With its versatility, NLO microscopy should be a powerful imaging tool to complement molecular characterization of the immunity-metabolism interface.

  9. Long-term characterization of the diet-induced obese and diet-resistant rat model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Andreas Nygaard; Hansen, Gitte; Paulsen, Sarah Juel

    2010-01-01

    including blood biochemistry and glucose homeostasis was examined at 2, 3, 6, and 9 months of age. Furthermore, in 6-month-old HE-fed DIO rats, the anti-obesity effects of liraglutide and sibutramine were examined in a 28-day study. Only HE-fed DIO rats developed visceral obesity, hyperleptinemia...

  10. Mitochondrial DNA Copy Number in Peripheral Blood Is Independently Associated with Visceral Fat Accumulation in Healthy Young Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jee-Yon Lee

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims. Visceral obesity is associated with an increased risk of cardiometabolic diseases and it is important to identify the underlying mechanisms. There is growing evidence that mitochondrial dysfunction is associated with metabolic disturbances related to visceral obesity. In addition, maintaining mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA copy number is important for preserving mitochondrial function. Therefore, we investigated the relationship between mtDNA copy number and visceral fat in healthy young adults. Methods. A total of 94 healthy young subjects were studied. Biomarkers of metabolic risk factors were assessed along with body composition by computed tomography. mtDNA copy number was measured in peripheral leukocytes using real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR methods. Results. The mtDNA copy number correlated with BMI (r=-0.22, P=0.04, waist circumference (r=-0.23, P=0.03, visceral fat area (r=-0.28, P=-0.01, HDL-cholesterol levels (r=0.25, P=0.02, and hs-CRP (r=0.32, P=0.02 after adjusting for age and sex. Both stepwise and nonstepwise multiple regression analyses confirmed that visceral fat area was independently associated with mtDNA copy number (β=-0.33, P<0.01, β=0.32, and P=0.03, resp.. Conclusions. An independent association between mtDNA content and visceral adiposity was identified. These data suggest that mtDNA copy number is a potential predictive marker for metabolic disturbances. Further studies are required to understand the causality and clinical significance of our findings.

  11. A systematic review and meta-analysis on the effects of exercise training versus hypocaloric diet: distinct effects on body weight and visceral adipose tissue.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verheggen, R.J.; Maessen, M.F.; Green, D.J.; Hermus, A.R.M.M.; Hopman, M.T.E.; Thijssen, D.H.J.

    2016-01-01

    Exercise training ('exercise') and hypocaloric diet ('diet') are frequently prescribed for weight loss in obesity. Whilst body weight changes are commonly used to evaluate lifestyle interventions, visceral adiposity (VAT) is a more relevant and stronger predictor for morbidity and mortality. A meta-

  12. Visceral fat accumulation is an important determinant of PAI-1 levels in young, nonobese men and women: Modulation by cross-sex hormone administration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giltay, E.J.; Elbers, J.M.H.; Gooren, L.J.G.; Emeis, J.J.; Kooistra, T.; Asscheman, H.; Stehouwer, C.D.A.

    1998-01-01

    Increased plasminogen activator inhibitor type-1 (PAI-1) levels, leading to impaired fibrinolysis, are associated with increased visceral fat in middle-aged and obese subjects. It is unknown, however, whether this association is independent of other disturbances clustered in the insulin resistance s

  13. Low dietary protein intake during pregnancy differentially affects mitochondrial copy number in stromal vascular cells from subcutaneous versus visceral adipose tissue in the offspring

    Science.gov (United States)

    The present study examined the influence of protein intake during pregnancy on mitochondrial metabolism in stromal vascular cells from subcutaneous (SVSu) and visceral (SVVi) adipose tissue of offspring fed a high fat diet. Obese-prone Sprague-Dawley rats were fed diets containing either 8% or 20% p...

  14. Obesity, inflammation, and the gut microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Amanda J; West, Nicholas P; Cripps, Allan W

    2015-03-01

    As the prevalence of obesity and associated disease continues to rise and concerns for the spiralling economic and social costs also escalate, innovative management strategies beyond primary prevention and traditional lifestyle interventions are urgently needed. The biological basis of disease is one avenue for further exploration in this context. Several key inflammatory markers have been consistently associated with both obesity and risk of adverse outcomes in obesity-associated diseases, which suggests that a persistent, low-grade, inflammatory response is a potentially modifiable risk factor. In this Review, we provide evidence supporting perturbation of the intestinal microbiota and changes in intestinal permeability as potential triggers of inflammation in obesity. Further characterisation of the mechanisms underpinning the triggers of such inflammatory responses in overweight and obese individuals could offer unique opportunities for intervention strategies to help ameliorate the risk of obesity-associated disease.

  15. Genome-wide DNA promoter methylation and transcriptome analysis in human adipose tissue unravels novel candidate genes for obesity

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Keller; Lydia Hopp; Xuanshi Liu; Tobias Wohland; Kerstin Rohde; Raffaella Cancello; Matthias Klös; Karl Bacos; Matthias Kern; Fabian Eichelmann; Arne Dietrich; Michael R Schön; Daniel Gärtner; Tobias Lohmann; Miriam Dreßler

    2017-01-01

    Objective/methods: DNA methylation plays an important role in obesity and related metabolic complications. We examined genome-wide DNA promoter methylation along with mRNA profiles in paired samples of human subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) and omental visceral adipose tissue (OVAT) from non-obese vs. obese individuals. Results: We identified negatively correlated methylation and expression of several obesity-associated genes in our discovery dataset and in silico replicated ETV6 in two i...

  16. The Relationship of Abdominal Obesity and Lipid Profiles by Computed Tomography in Adult Women

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Mi Young [Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology, Dankook University Hospital, Yongin (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-03-15

    Abdominal obesity, especially, visceral obesity is thought to be a risk factor of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease such as hypertension, hyperlipidemia, coronary artery disease. Based on previous studies visceral fat accumulation is highly related to these diseases compared to subcutaneous fat accumulation. The purpose of this study was to see the relation between abdominal obesity and lipid profiles in adult women. The included subjects were 25 adult women(BMI > 23 kg/m{sup 2} ), who visited the obesity clinic in a general hospital from April 2006 to September 2007. Blood pressure, fasting glucose and lipid profiles were measured. The abdominal fat distribution had been assessed by CT scan at the level of L4-L5. From bivariate analyses, the visceral fat accumulation showed negative correlations with TC and TC/HDL. The BMI, total abdominal fat and Visceral fat/Subcutaneous fat ratio showed significant correlations with visceral fat accumulation. From linear regression analyses of all the study subjects, TC, TG and HDL were found to be determinants of the visceral fat accumulation (R{sup 2}=0.474).

  17. Vaccines for visceral leishmaniasis: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Keerti; Jain, N K

    2015-07-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis, which is also known as Kala-Azar, is one of the most severely neglected tropical diseases recognized by the World Health Organization (WHO). The threat of this debilitating disease continues due to unavailability of promising drug therapy or human vaccine. An extensive research is undergoing to develop a promising vaccine to prevent this devastating disease. In this review we compiled the findings of recent research with a view to facilitate knowledge on experimental vaccinology for visceral leishmaniasis. Various killed or attenuated parasite based first generation vaccines, second generation vaccines based on antigenic protein or recombinant protein, and third generation vaccines derived from antigen-encoding DNA plasmids including heterologous prime-boost Leishmania vaccine have been examined for control and prevention of visceral leishmaniasis. Vaccines based on recombinant protein and antigen-encoding DNA plasmids have given promising results and few vaccines including Leishmune®, Leishtec, and CaniLeish® have been licensed for canine visceral leishmaniasis. A systematic investigation of these vaccine candidates can lead to development of promising vaccine for human visceral leishmaniasis, most probably in the near future.

  18. Visceral versus somatic pain: similarities and differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cervero, Fernando

    2009-01-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease and the irritable bowel syndrome are conditions characterized by chronic pain that generates persistent, hyperalgesic states in many regions of the body. It is difficult to explain the pain of conditions such as inflammatory bowel disease and irritable bowel syndrome by extrapolating directly from what is known about the mechanisms of somatic pain. Visceral and somatic pain show many differences not only in the psychophysics of the sensation, but also in the neurobiological mechanisms that mediate the sensory process. The activation and sensitization of visceral nociceptors are heavily influenced by the secretory and motor properties of the microenvironment where the sensory receptors are located. In some cases, epithelial cells can play a direct role in the activation of primary sensory neurons. Subclinical alterations of the epithelium can contribute to enhanced visceral sensitivity. Central hypersensitivity induced by visceral activation also shows differences with its somatic counterpart. Mobilization of AMPA receptors from the cytosol to the membrane of nociceptive neurons has been identified as a mechanism of sensitization of visceral pain pathways. Finally, functional pain syndromes, such as irritable bowel syndrome could be triggered or maintained by hormonal alterations, particularly those involving sex hormones such as estrogen.

  19. The effect of exercise on visceral adipose tissue in overweight adults: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dirk Vissers

    Full Text Available Excessive visceral adipose tissue appears to trigger a cascade of metabolic disturbances that seem to coexist with ectopic fat storage in muscle, liver, heart and the ß-cell. Therefore, the reduction of visceral adipose tissue potentially plays a pivotal role in the treatment of the metabolic syndrome. The purpose of this systematic review and meta-analysis is to describe the overall effect of exercise on visceral adipose tissue and to provide an overview of the effect of different exercise regimes, without caloric restriction, on visceral adipose tissue in obese persons. A systematic literature search was performed according to the PRISMA statement for reporting systematic reviews and meta-analyses. The initial search resulted in 87 articles after removing duplicates. After screening on title, abstract and full-text 15 articles (totalling 852 subjects fulfilled the a priori inclusion criteria. The quality of each eligible study was assessed in duplicate with "The Critical Review Form for Quantitative Studies". Using random-effects weights, the standardized mean difference (Hedge's g of the change in visceral adipose tissue was -0.497 with a 95% confidence interval of -0.655 to -0.340. The Z-value was -6.183 and the p-value (two tailed was <0.001. A subgroup analysis was performed based on gender, type of training and intensity. Aerobic training of moderate or high intensity has the highest potential to reduce visceral adipose tissue in overweight males and females. These results suggest that an aerobic exercise program, without hypocaloric diet, can show beneficial effects to reduce visceral adipose tissue with more than 30 cm(2 (on CT analysis in women and more than 40 cm(2 in men, even after 12 weeks.

  20. Visceral fat and insulin resistance as predictors of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Abhasnee Sobhonslidsuk; Sutipong Jongjirasiri; Ammarin Thakkinstian; Naruemon Wisedopas; Pongamorn Bunnag; Gobchai Puavilai

    2007-01-01

    AIM: TO examine whether visceral fat is associated with non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), to assess for parameters associated with visceral adiposity and to investigate for factors associated with fibrotic severity in NASH.METHODS: Thirty NASH and 30 control subjects underwent biochemical tests, anthropometric assessment, bioelectrical impedance, dual energy X-ray absorptiometry and abdominal fat study by CT scan.Liver biopsies were graded according to the Brunt criteria.RESULTS: NASH subjects had elevated blood pressure,body mass index, waist circumference and waist-to-hip ratio. A greater number of diabetes mellitus, impaired glucose tolerance test and HOMA-IR > 3.5 were found in NASH patients. HOMA-IR > 2.8 (OR 20.98, 95% CI 3.22-136.62; P < 0.001) and visceral fat area > 158cm2 (OR 18.55, 95% CI 1.60-214.67; P = 0.019) were independent predictors for NASH. Advanced stage of NASH was found in 15 (50%) patients. HOMA-IR > 3.5(OR 23.12, 95% CI 2.00-266.23; P = 0.012) and grading of portal inflammation (OR 7.15, 95% CI 1.63-31.20; P =0.009) were determined as independent risk factors for advanced stage of NASH.CONCLUSION: Obesity (especially central obesity) and metabolic syndrome are common in Thai NASH. Insulin resistance and elevated visceral fat are risk factors for the presence of NASH. The advanced stage of the disease is related to insulin resistance.

  1. An increase in visceral fat is associated with a decrease in the taste and olfactory capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez-Garcia, Jose Carlos; Alcaide, Juan; Santiago-Fernandez, Concepcion; Roca-Rodriguez, MM.; Aguera, Zaida; Baños, Rosa; Botella, Cristina; de la Torre, Rafael; Fernandez-Real, Jose M.; Fruhbeck, Gema; Gomez-Ambrosi, Javier; Jimenez-Murcia, Susana; Menchon, Jose M.; Casanueva, Felipe F.; Fernandez-Aranda, Fernando; Tinahones, Francisco J.; Garrido-Sanchez, Lourdes

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Sensory factors may play an important role in the determination of appetite and food choices. Also, some adipokines may alter or predict the perception and pleasantness of specific odors. We aimed to analyze differences in smell–taste capacity between females with different weights and relate them with fat and fat-free mass, visceral fat, and several adipokines. Materials and methods 179 females with different weights (from low weight to morbid obesity) were studied. We analyzed the relation between fat, fat-free mass, visceral fat (indirectly estimated by bioelectrical impedance analysis with visceral fat rating (VFR)), leptin, adiponectin and visfatin. The smell and taste assessments were performed through the "Sniffin’ Sticks" and "Taste Strips" respectively. Results We found a lower score in the measurement of smell (TDI-score (Threshold, Discrimination and Identification)) in obese subjects. All the olfactory functions measured, such as threshold, discrimination, identification and the TDI-score, correlated negatively with age, body mass index (BMI), leptin, fat mass, fat-free mass and VFR. In a multiple linear regression model, VFR mainly predicted the TDI-score. With regard to the taste function measurements, the normal weight subjects showed a higher score of taste functions. However a tendency to decrease was observed in the groups with greater or lesser BMI. In a multiple linear regression model VFR and age mainly predicted the total taste scores. Discussion We show for the first time that a reverse relationship exists between visceral fat and sensory signals, such as smell and taste, across a population with different body weight conditions. PMID:28158237

  2. Influence of Cortisol on zinc metabolism in morbidly obese women

    OpenAIRE

    Luana Mota Martins; Ana Raquel Soares de Oliveira; Kyria Jayanne Clímaco Cruz; Camila Guedes Borges de Araújo; Francisco Erasmo de Oliveira; Gustavo Santos Sousa; Nadir do Nascimento Nogueira; Dilina do Nascimento Marreiro

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: The accumulation of visceral fat affects the metabolism of hormones and some nutrients, but these mechanisms remain unclear. Objective: To assess the influence of cortisol on the metabolism of zinc in morbidly obese women. Method: Cross-sectional, case-control study involving 80 women aged between 20 and 59 years. The participants were divided into two groups: experimental (morbidly obese, n = 40) and control (normal weight, n = 40). Zinc concentrations were determined by atomic...

  3. Obesity: a transgenerational problem linked to nutrition during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frias, Antonio E; Grove, Kevin L

    2012-12-01

    The increased obstetric risks of maternal obesity have been well described. These include increased risks of gestational diabetes mellitus, preeclampsia, stillbirth, and cesarean delivery. The fetal/neonatal consequences of prenatal maternal obesity have received less attention. In addition to an increased risk of stillbirth, the fetal/neonatal consequences include increased adiposity and a metabolic status that increases the lifetime risk of obesity and diabetes. This review focuses on the clinical obstetric consequences of maternal obesity and highlights recent mechanistic insights on fetal programming as well as evidence suggesting that prenatal care provides a unique opportunity to ameliorate these risks and decrease the cycle of childhood obesity.

  4. Estrogen Receptor α Participates to the Beneficial Effect of Red Wine Polyphenols in a Mouse Model of Obesity-Related Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonetti, Daniela; Soleti, Raffaella; Clere, Nicolas; Vergori, Luisa; Jacques, Caroline; Duluc, Lucie; Dourguia, Catherine; Martínez, Maria C.; Andriantsitohaina, Ramaroson

    2017-01-01

    Red wine polyphenol extracts (polyphenols) ameliorate cardiovascular and metabolic disorders associated with obesity. Previously, we demonstrated that the alpha isoform of estrogen receptor (ERα) triggers the vascular protection of polyphenols. Here, we investigated the contribution of ERα on the effects of polyphenols on cardiovascular and metabolic alterations associated with obesity. We used ovariectomized wild type or ERα-deficient mice receiving standard (SD) or western (WD) diets, or SD and WD containing polyphenols (SD+polyphenols and WD+polyphenols, respectively) over a 12-week period. Body weight was measured during treatment. Echocardiography examination was performed before sacrifice. Blood and tissues were sampled for biochemical and functional analysis with respect to nitric oxide (NO•) and oxidative stress. Vascular reactivity and liver mitochondrial complexes were analyzed. In WD-fed mice, polyphenols reduced adiposity, plasma triglycerides and oxidative stress in aorta, heart, adipose and liver tissues and enhanced NO• production in aorta and liver. ERα deletion prevented or reduced the beneficial effects of polyphenols, especially visceral adiposity, aortic and liver oxidative stresses and NO• bioavailability. ERα deletion, however, had no effect on polyphenol’s ability to decrease the fat accumulation and oxidative stress of subcutaneous adipose tissue. Also, ERα deletion did not modify the decrease of ROS levels induced by polyphenols treatment in the visceral adipose tissue and heart from WD-fed mice. Dietary supplementation of polyphenols remarkably attenuates features of metabolic syndrome; these effects are partially mediated by ERα-dependent mechanisms. This study demonstrates the therapeutic potential of this extract in metabolic and cardiovascular alterations linked to excessive energy intake. PMID:28119607

  5. Obesity and regional fat distribution in Kenyan populations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Dirk Lund; Eis, Jeanette; Hansen, Andreas Wolff

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Obesity is increasing rapidly in Africa, and may not be associated with the same changes in body composition among different ethnic groups in Africa. OBJECTIVE: To assess abdominal visceral and subcutaneous fat thickness, prevalence of obesity, and differences in body composition...... in rural and urban Kenya. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: In a cross-sectional study carried out among Luo, Kamba and Maasai in rural and urban Kenya, abdominal visceral and subcutaneous fat thicknesses were measured by ultrasonography. Height and weight, waist, mid-upper arm circumferences, and triceps skinfold...... thickness were measured. Body mass index (BMI), arm fat area (AFA) and arm muscle area (AMA) were calculated. RESULTS: Among 1430 individuals (58.3% females) aged 17-68 years, abdominal visceral and subcutaneous fat, BMI, AFA and waist circumference (WC) increased with age, and were highest in the Maasai...

  6. Childhood obesity, adipose tissue distribution, and the pediatric practitioner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slyper, A H

    1998-07-01

    The prevalence of pediatric obesity is increasing in the United States. Sequelae from pediatric obesity are increasingly being seen, and long-term complications can be anticipated. Obesity is the most common cause of abnormal growth acceleration in childhood. Obesity in females is associated with an early onset of puberty and early menarche. Puberty is now occurring earlier in females than in the past, and this is probably related either directly or indirectly to the population increase in body weight. The effect of obesity on male pubertal maturation is more variable, and obesity can lead to both early and delayed puberty. Pubertal gynecomastia is a common problem in the obese male. Many of the complications of obesity seen in adults appear to be related to increased accumulation of visceral fat. It has been proposed that subcutaneous fat may be protective against the adverse effects of visceral fat. Males typically accumulate fat in the upper segment of the body, both subcutaneously and intraabdominally. In females, adiposity is usually subcutaneous and is found particularly over the thighs, although visceral fat deposition also occurs. Gender-related patterns of fat deposition become established during puberty and show significant familial associations. There are no reliable means for assessing childhood and adolescent visceral fat other than radiologically. Noninsulin-dependent diabetes is being seen more commonly in the pediatric population. Diabetes and impaired glucose tolerance are noted particularly in obese children with a family history of diabetes. In this situation, a glucose tolerance test may be indicated, even in the presence of fasting normoglycemia. Hypertriglyceridemia and low high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol levels are the primary lipid abnormalities of obesity and are related primarily to the amount of visceral fat. Low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol levels are not typically elevated in simple obesity. The offspring of parents with early

  7. Epistaxis in visceral leishmaniasis with hematological correlation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigdel, B; Bhandary, S; Rijal, S

    2012-01-01

    Objective. To study the prevalence of epistaxis in visceral leismaniasis and its correlation with hematological profile. Methods. Out of 80 diagnosed cases of visceral leishmaniasis, 19 patients with epistaxis were included in the study. Diagnosis was made by Rk-39 from peripheral smear and LD bodies from bone marrow. Before starting anti-kala-azar treatment, nasal examination findings and hematological profile were noted. Study Design. Prospective cross-sectional hospital-based study. Results. Epistaxis was found in the age group of 7-66 years. Epistaxis was observed in 19 (23.8%) cases. One patient died because of epistaxis and neck hematoma. Conclusion. Epistaxis is a common ENT finding in endemic area of visceral leishmaniasis like our case.

  8. Epistaxis in Visceral Leishmaniasis with Hematological Correlation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Sigdel

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To study the prevalence of epistaxis in visceral leismaniasis and its correlation with hematological profile. Methods. Out of 80 diagnosed cases of visceral leishmaniasis, 19 patients with epistaxis were included in the study. Diagnosis was made by Rk-39 from peripheral smear and LD bodies from bone marrow. Before starting anti-kala-azar treatment, nasal examination findings and hematological profile were noted. Study Design. Prospective cross-sectional hospital-based study. Results. Epistaxis was found in the age group of 7–66 years. Epistaxis was observed in 19 (23.8% cases. One patient died because of epistaxis and neck hematoma. Conclusion. Epistaxis is a common ENT finding in endemic area of visceral leishmaniasis like our case.

  9. APOA2 Polymorphism in Relation to Obesity and Lipid Metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moushira Erfan Zaki

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. This study aims to analysis the relationship between c.-492T>C polymorphism in APOA2 gene and the risk for obesity in a sample of Egyptian adolescents and investigates its effect on body fat distribution and lipid metabolism. Material and Methods. A descriptive, cross-sectional study was conducted on 303 adolescents. They were 196 obese and 107 nonobese, aged 16–19 years old. Variables examined included body mass index (BMI, waist circumference (WC, waist to hip ratio (WHR, systolic and diastolic blood pressure (BP, body fat percentage (BF%, abdominal visceral fat layer, and dietary intake. Abdominal visceral fat thickness was determined by ultrasonography. The polymorphism in the APOA2 c.-492T>C was analyzed by PCR amplification. Results. Genotype frequencies were in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. The frequency of the mutant C allele was significantly higher in obese cases compared to nonobese. After multivariate adjustment, waist, BF% and visceral adipose layer, food consumption, and HDL-C were significantly higher in homozygous allele CC carriers than TT+TC carriers. Conclusions. Homozygous individuals for the C allele had higher obesity risk than carriers of the T allele and had elevated levels of visceral adipose tissue and serum HDL-C. Moreover, the study shows association between the APOA2 c.-492T>C polymorphism and food consumption.

  10. Immunity and immunosuppression in experimental visceral leishmaniasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goto H.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Leishmaniasis is a disease caused by protozoa of the genus Leishmania, and visceral leishmaniasis is a form in which the inner organs are affected. Since knowledge about immunity in experimental visceral leishmaniasis is poor, we present here a review on immunity and immunosuppression in experimental visceral leishmaniasis in mouse and hamster models. We show the complexity of the mechanisms involved and differences when compared with the cutaneous form of leishmaniasis. Resistance in visceral leishmaniasis involves both CD4+ and CD8+ T cells, and interleukin (IL-2, interferon (IFN- gamma, and IL-12, the latter in a mechanism independent of IFN- gamma and linked to transforming growth factor (TGF-ß production. Susceptibility involves IL-10 but not IL-4, and B cells. In immune animals, upon re-infection, the elements involved in resistance are different, i.e., CD8+ T cells and IL-2. Since one of the immunopathological consequences of active visceral leishmaniasis in humans is suppression of T-cell responses, many studies have been conducted using experimental models. Immunosuppression is mainly Leishmania antigen specific, and T cells, Th2 cells and adherent antigen-presenting cells have been shown to be involved. Interactions of the co-stimulatory molecule family B7-CTLA-4 leading to increased level of TGF-ß as well as apoptosis of CD4+ T cells and inhibition of macrophage apoptosis by Leishmania infection are other components participating in immunosuppression. A better understanding of this complex immune response and the mechanisms of immunosuppression in experimental visceral leishmaniasis will contribute to the study of human disease and to vaccine development.

  11. Visceral hypersensitivity in irritable bowel syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanazawa, Motoyori; Hongo, Michio; Fukudo, Shin

    2011-04-01

    Altered central processing, abnormal gastrointestinal motility and visceral hypersensitivity may be possible major pathophysiology of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). These factors affect each other and are probably associated with development of IBS symptoms. It has been confirmed that lower pain threshold to colonic distention was observed in most of patients with IBS than healthy subjects. We have investigated pain perception of the descending colon among different subtypes of IBS. There was no difference in pain threshold to colonic distention between IBS with diarrhea and constipation. Some brain regions such as the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) may play a major role for generating pain and/or pain-related emotion in humans. IBS patients showed greater activation in the perigenual ACC during painful rectal distention compared with healthy subjects. Inflammation, stress and the combination of both stimuli can induce significant increase in visceral sensitivity in animal models. Serotonin (5-HT) can modulate visceral perception. It has been thought that 5-HT(3) receptors may play an important role for conveying visceral sensation from the gut. Corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) may also modulate visceral pain hypersensitivity in IBS. CRH receptor-1 antagonist significantly prevented an increase in gut sensitivity in rats. It has been demonstrated that non-specific CRH receptor antagonist α-helical CRH significantly reduced abdominal pain score during gut stimulus in patients with IBS. In conclusion, visceral hypersensitivity is common in IBS patients and probably plays a major role in development of the symptoms and both central and peripheral factors may enhance the pain sensitivity.

  12. Metformin and rosiglitazone maleate tablets ameliorate insulin resistance and hyperandrogenism in obese and nonobese women with polycystic ovarian syndrome%二甲双胍马来酸罗格列酮改善肥胖及非肥胖多囊卵巢综合征患者胰岛素抵抗及高雄激素血症

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴良燕; 刘玲娇; 王珊; 雷闽湘; 吴静

    2014-01-01

    with PCOS were divided into the over weight/obese group (body mass index ≥ 25 kg/m2,n =34) and the nonobese group (body mass index<25 kg/m2,n =36).All women with PCOS took metformin hydrochloride and rosiglitazone maleate tablets twice daily for 3 months.The following indexes were measured before and after the treatment:height,weight,waist circumference,hip circumference,fasting plasma glucose,fasting plasma insulin,luteinizing hormone (LH),follicle stimulating hormone (FSH),total testosterone,free testosterone,follicular number and ovarian area,body mass index,waist to hip ratio,and homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) were calculated.Results (1) Compared with the nonobese group,dramatic increases in HOMA-IR and follicle number were observed in over weight/obese group(P<0.05),while LH,LH/FSH,total testosterone,free testosterone showed no significant difference between two groups.(2) After the treatment with metformin hydrochloride and rosiglitazone maleate tablets,weight,body mass index,fasting plasma glucose,fasting plasma insulin,HOMA-IR significantly decreased in two groups (P < 0.05).There were also significant declines of LH,LH/FSH,free testosterone,ovarian area,follicular number,especially in the over weight/ obese women with PCOS (P<0.05),while total testosterone and FSH did not change significantly.(3) The incidence of gastrointestinal adverse reactions in nonobese and over weight/obese group was 9.3% and 6.3% respectively,and no liver toxicity,edema,hypoglycemia and other adverse reactions was observed during treatment.Conclusion Compared with the nonobese group,there were severer insulin resistance and more marked polycystic change of ovary in over weight/obese women with PCOS,while total testosterone and free testosterone showed no significant difference between two gruops.Metformin hydrochloride and rosiglitazone maleate tablets can ameliorate insulin resistance and polycystic ovary,and also reduce body mass index and

  13. MUVA: a MUltimodal Visceral design Ambient device

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kivac, Robert; Klem, Sune Øllgaard; Olsen, Sophus Béneé

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents MUVA (MUltimodal Visceral design Ambient device), a prototype for a storytelling light- and sound-based ambient device. The aim of this device is to encourage social interaction and expand the emotional closeness in families with children where at least one parent has irregular...... work schedule. MUVA differs from the other ambient devices, because it is targeted to children, and it adopts a visceral design approach in order to be appealing to its users. It is a raindrop-shaped lamp, which features audio playing, while its light color is affected by the audio playing. MUVA can...

  14. Intraretinal hemorrhage associated with visceral leishmaniasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Evangelista Marrocos de Aragão

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Visceral Leishmaniasis, also know as Kala-azar, is a parasitic tropical disease caused by protozoa of the genus Leishmania donovani. It is an endemic disease in many countries. It affects approximately 1,5 million people every year, and when associated with mal-nutrition and co-infection it may be fatal. Fever, hepatosplenomegaly, and pancytopenia is its typical clinical picture. Ocular manifestations of Kalaazar are relatively rare and can affect either anterior or posterior segment of the eye. We report a patient with kala-azar presenting intraretinal hemorrhages that regress completely after the successful treatment for visceral leishmaniasis.

  15. From obesity to diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, U

    2006-07-01

    The prevalence of obesity has been increasing dramatically in the last decades in the whole world, not only in industrialized countries but also in developing areas. A major complication of obesity is insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. Diabetes is also rapidly increasing world-wide--reaching a prevalence in adults of approx. 5-6% in Central Europe and in the US, and more than 50% in specific, genetically prone populations. This article reviews pathogenetic mechanisms linking obesity and type 2 diabetes. Emphasis is placed on the observation that excessive amounts of adipocytes are associated with an impairment of insulin sensitivity, a key feature of the "metabolic syndrome". This is a cluster of metabolic abnormalities such as type 2 diabetes, hypertension and dyslipidemia; all of them are enhanced by the presence of visceral (abdominal) obesity and all contribute to the increased cardiovascular risk observed in these patients. Besides release of free fatty acids, adipocytes secrete substances that contribute to peripheral insulin resistance, including adiponectin, resistin, TNF-alpha and interleukin 6. Increased turnover of free fatty acids interferes with intracellular metabolism of glucose in the muscle, and they exert lipotoxic effect on pancreatic beta-cells. The pre-receptor metabolism of cortisol is enhanced in visceral adipose tissue by activation of 11 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1. A new class of anti-diabetic drugs (thiazolidinediones, or glitazones) bind to peroxisome proliferator activated receptor (PPAR-gamma) and lower thereby plasma free fatty acids and cytokine production in adipocytes, in addition to a decrease of resistin and an increase in adiponectin observed in animals, resulting in an overall increase in insulin sensitivity and in an improvement of glucose homeostasis. However, the first step to avoid insulin resistance and prevent the development of diabetes should be a reduction in body weight in overweight subjects, and an

  16. Telomere length differences between subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissue in humans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lakowa, Nicole; Trieu, Nhu; Flehmig, Gesine [Department of Medicine, University of Leipzig, Leipzig (Germany); Lohmann, Tobias [Municipal Clinic Dresden-Neustadt, Dresden (Germany); Schön, Michael R. [Städtisches Klinikum Karlsruhe, Clinic of Visceral Surgery, Karlsruhe (Germany); Dietrich, Arne [Department of Surgery, University of Leipzig, Leipzig (Germany); IFB AdiposityDiseases, University of Leipzig, Leipzig (Germany); Zeplin, Philip Helge; Langer, Stefan [Department of Orthopaedics, Traumatology and Plastic Surgery, University of Leipzig, Leipzig (Germany); Stumvoll, Michael; Blüher, Matthias [Department of Medicine, University of Leipzig, Leipzig (Germany); Klöting, Nora, E-mail: nora.kloeting@medizin.uni-leipzig.de [IFB AdiposityDiseases, Junior Research Group 2 “Animal Models of Obesity”, University of Leipzig, Leipzig (Germany)

    2015-02-13

    Adipocyte hypertrophy and hyperplasia have been shown to be associated with shorter telomere length, which may reflect aging, altered cell proliferation and adipose tissue (AT) dysfunction. In individuals with obesity, differences in fat distribution and AT cellular composition may contribute to obesity related metabolic diseases. Here, we tested the hypotheses that telomere lengths (TL) are different between: (1) abdominal subcutaneous and omental fat depots, (2) superficial and deep abdominal subcutaneous AT (SAT), and (3) adipocytes and cells of the stromal vascular fraction (SVF). We further asked whether AT TL is related to age, anthropometric and metabolic traits. TL was analyzed by quantitative PCR in total human genomic DNA isolated from paired subcutaneous and visceral AT of 47 lean and 50 obese individuals. In subgroups, we analyzed TL in isolated small and large adipocytes and SVF cells. We find significantly shorter TL in subcutaneous compared to visceral AT (P < 0.001) which is consistent in men and subgroups of lean and obese, and individuals with or without type 2 diabetes (T2D). Shorter TL in SAT is entirely due to shorter TL in the SVF compared to visceral AT (P < 0.01). SAT TL is most strongly correlated with age (r = −0.205, P < 0.05) and independently of age with HbA1c (r = −0.5, P < 0.05). We found significant TL differences between superficial SAT of lean and obese as well as between individuals with our without T2D, but not between the two layers of SAT. Our data indicate that fat depot differences in TL mainly reflect shorter TL of SVF cells. In addition, we found an age and BMI-independent relationship between shorter TL and HbA1c suggesting that chronic hyperglycemia may impair the regenerative capacity of AT more strongly than obesity alone. - Highlights: • Telomere lengths (TL) differ between fat depots mainly due to different lengths in SVF. • TL is not associated with gender, BMI and T2D. • The tendency for

  17. Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis in children with visceral leishmaniasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blázquez-Gamero, Daniel; Domínguez-Pinilla, Nerea; Chicharro, Carmen; Negreira, Sagrario; Galán, Pilar; Pérez-Gorricho, Beatriz; Calvo, Cristina; Prieto, Luis; De la Parte, María; Otheo, Enrique; Vivanco, Jose Luis; Ruiz-Contreras, Jesús

    2015-06-01

    Acquired hemophagocytic lymphohistiocitosis (HLH) syndrome can be a complication of visceral leishmaniasis (VL). A multicenter prospective study was conducted to determine the frequency of HLH syndrome in children with VL. Twenty-four children with VL were identified, and 10 (41%) developed HLH syndrome. VL should be ruled out in all children with HLH criteria living in or coming from endemic areas.

  18. Sympathetic blocks for visceral cancer pain management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mercadante, Sebastiano; Klepstad, Pal; Kurita, Geana Paula

    2015-01-01

    The neurolytic blocks of sympathetic pathways, including celiac plexus block (CPB) and superior hypogastric plexus block (SHPB) , have been used for years. The aim of this review was to assess the evidence to support the performance of sympathetic blocks in cancer patients with abdominal visceral...

  19. Sexual and vertical transmission of visceral leishmaniasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turchetti, Andreia P; Souza, Tayse D; Paixão, Tatiane A; Santos, Renato L

    2014-04-15

    Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is an important zoonosis caused by Leishmania infantum, which has in the domestic dog its principal vertebrate host. VL is usually transmitted by phlebotomine sand flies, however atypical routes of transmission have been described. In this review we discuss the the role of sexual and vertical transmissions, and their role in the maintenance of VL in canine populations.

  20. [Visceral leishmaniasis: not only a tropical disease].

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cuperus, F.J.C.; Oosterwijk, P.R.; Vos, A.; Remijn, J.A.; Dobbenburgh, A. van; Bisseling, T.M.

    2013-01-01

    We report 2 cases of visceral leishmaniasis in Dutch patients after a stay in Greece and the former Yugoslavia, respectively. Patient A, a 69-year-old woman, was referred to our department with abdominal pain. Additional examinations were suggestive of chronic liver disease. After a liver biopsy, wh

  1. Galectin-3 Deletion Enhances Visceral Adipose Tissue Inflammation and Dysregulates Glucose Metabolism in Mice on a High-Fat Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeftic Ilija

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM constitute major health problems worldwide. Increased visceral adiposity enhances the risk of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. The mechanisms involved in obesity-associated chronic inflammation in metabolic tissues (metaflammation that lead to insulin resistance and dysregulated glucose metabolism are incompletely defined. Galectin-3 (Gal-3, a β-galactoside-binding lectin, modulates immune/inflammatory responses and specifically binds to metabolic danger molecules. To dissect the role of Gal-3 in obesity and diabetes, Gal-3-deficient (LGALS3-/- and wild-type (WT C57Bl/6 male mice were placed on a high-fat diet (HFD, 60% kcal fat or a standard chow diet (10% kcal fat for 6 months and metabolic, histological and immunophenotypical analyses of the visceral adipose tissue were performed. HFD-fed LGALS3-/- mice had higher body weights and more body weight gain, visceral adipose tissue (VAT, hyperglycaemia, hyperinsulinemia, insulin resistance and hyperlipidemia than diet-matched WT mice. Compared to WT mice, the enlarged VAT in obese LGALS3-/- mice contained larger adipocytes. Additionally, we demonstrate enhanced inflammation in the VAT of LGALS3-/- mice compared with diet-matched WT mice. The VAT of LGALS3-/- mice fed a HFD contained more numerous dendritic cells and proinflammatory F4/80+CD11c+CD11b+ and F4/80high macrophages. In contrast to WT mice, the numbers of CXCR3+ and CD8+ T cells were increased in the VAT of Gal-3-deficient mice after 6 months of high-fat feeding. We provide evidence that Gal-3 ablation results in enhanced HFD-induced adiposity, inflammation in the adipose tissue, insulin resistance and hyperglycaemia. Thus, Gal-3 represents an important regulator of obesity-associated immunometabolic alterations.

  2. Maternal Obesity, Inflammation, and Developmental Programming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie A. Segovia

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of obesity, especially in women of child-bearing age, is a global health concern. In addition to increasing the immediate risk of gestational complications, there is accumulating evidence that maternal obesity also has long-term consequences for the offspring. The concept of developmental programming describes the process in which an environmental stimulus, including altered nutrition, during critical periods of development can program alterations in organogenesis, tissue development, and metabolism, predisposing offspring to obesity and metabolic and cardiovascular disorders in later life. Although the mechanisms underpinning programming of metabolic disorders remain poorly defined, it has become increasingly clear that low-grade inflammation is associated with obesity and its comorbidities. This review will discuss maternal metainflammation as a mediator of programming in insulin sensitive tissues in offspring. Use of nutritional anti-inflammatories in pregnancy including omega 3 fatty acids, resveratrol, curcumin, and taurine may provide beneficial intervention strategies to ameliorate maternal obesity-induced programming.

  3. Association of total body and visceral fat mass with iron deficiency in preadolescents: the Healthy Growth Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moschonis, George; Chrousos, George P; Lionis, Christos; Mougios, Vassilis; Manios, Yannis

    2012-08-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the associations of obesity, percentage body fat and visceral fat mass with body Fe status in a representative sample of 1493 schoolchildren aged 9-13 years. Anthropometric, body composition, biochemical, clinical (Tanner stage, age of menarche) and dietary intake data were collected. Fe deficiency (ID) was defined as transferrin saturation (TS) deficiency anaemia (IDA) as ID with Hb < 120 g/l. Obese boys and girls and those in the highest quartiles of percentage body fat mass had significantly higher levels of serum ferritin (P ≤ 0.05) compared to their normal-weight peers and those in the corresponding lowest quartiles. Similarly, obese boys and girls and those in the highest quartiles of percentage body fat and visceral fat mass had significantly lower levels of TS (P ≤ 0.05) compared to normal-weight children and those in the corresponding lowest quartiles. The prevalence of ID and IDA was significantly higher in boys and girls in the highest quartiles of percentage body fat than in peers in the lowest quartile. Higher quartiles of percentage body fat and visceral fat mass were the main significant predictors of ID in boys, after controlling for other important confounders, with OR of 2.48 (95 % CI, 1.26, 4.88) and 2.12 (95 % CI, 1.07, 4.19), respectively. Similar significant associations were observed for girls. In conclusion, percentage body fat and visceral fat mass were positively associated with ID in both sexes of preadolescents. These associations might be attributed to the chronic inflammation induced by excess adiposity.

  4. Childhood Obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuca, Sevil Ari, Ed.

    2012-01-01

    This book aims to provide readers with a general as well as an advanced overview of the key trends in childhood obesity. Obesity is an illness that occurs due to a combination of genetic, environmental, psychosocial, metabolic and hormonal factors. The prevalence of obesity has shown a great rise both in adults and children in the last 30 years.…

  5. Anterior herniation of lumbar disc induces persistent visceral pain:discogenic visceral pain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TANG Yuan-zhang; Moore-Langston Shannon; LAI Guang-hui; LI Xuan-ying; LI Na; NI Jia-xiang

    2013-01-01

    Background Visceral pain is a common cause for seeking medical attention.Afferent fibers innervating viscera project to the central nervous system via sympathetic nerves.The lumbar sympathetic nerve trunk lies in front of the lumbar spine.Thus,it is possible for patients to suffer visceral pain originating from sympathetic nerve irritation induced by anterior herniation of the lumbar disc.This study aimed to evaluate lumbar discogenic visceral pain and its treatment.Methods Twelve consecutive patients with a median age of 56.4 years were enrolled for investigation between June 2012 and December 2012.These patients suffered from long-term abdominal pain unresponsive to current treatment options.Apart from obvious anterior herniation of the lumbar discs and high signal intensity anterior to the herniated disc on magnetic resonance imaging,no significant pathology was noted on gastroscopy,vascular ultrasound,or abdominal computed tomography (CT).To prove that their visceral pain originated from the anteriorly protruding disc,we evaluated whether pain was relieved by sympathetic block at the level of the anteriorly protruding disc.If the block was effective,CT-guided continuous lumbar sympathetic nerve block was finally performed.Results All patients were positive for pain relief by sympathetic block.Furthermore,the average Visual Analog Scale of visceral pain significantly improved after treatment in all patients (P <0.05).Up to 11/12 patients had satisfactory pain relief at 1 week after discharge,8/12 at 4 weeks,7/12 at 8 weeks,6/12 at 12 weeks,and 5/12 at 24 weeks.Conclusions It is important to consider the possibility of discogenic visceral pain secondary to anterior herniation of the lumbar disc when forming a differential diagnosis for seemingly idiopathic abdominal pain.Continuous lumbar sympathetic nerve block is an effective and safe therapy for patients with discogenic visceral pain.

  6. Reduced cortical thickness associated with visceral fat and BMI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ralf Veit

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Structural brain imaging studies have shown that obesity is associated with widespread reductions in gray matter (GM volume. Although the body mass index (BMI is an easily accessible anthropometric measure, substantial health problems are more related to specific body fat compartments, like visceral adipose tissue (VAT. We investigated cortical thickness measures in a group of 72 healthy subjects (BMI range 20–35 kg/m2, age range 19–50 years. Multiple regression analyses were performed using VAT and BMI as predictors and age, gender, total surface area and education as confounds. BMI and VAT were independently associated with reductions in cortical thickness in clusters comprising the left lateral occipital area, the left inferior temporal cortex, and the left precentral and inferior parietal area, while the right insula, the left fusiform gyrus and the right inferior temporal area showed a negative correlation with VAT only. In addition, we could show significant reductions in cortical thickness with increasing VAT adjusted for BMI in the left temporal cortex. We were able to detect widespread cortical thinning in a young to middle-aged population related to BMI and VAT; these findings show close resemblance to studies focusing on GM volume differences in diabetic patients. This may point to the influence of VAT related adverse effects, like low-grade inflammation, as a potentially harmful factor on brain integrity already in individuals at risk of developing diabetes, metabolic syndromes and arteriosclerosis.

  7. The role of cyclooxygenase-2/prostanoid pathway in visceral pain induced liver stress response in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PISTON Donald; WANG Shan; FENG Yi; YE Ying-jiang; ZHOU Jing; JIANG Ke-wei; XU Feng; ZHAO Yong; CUI Zhi-rong

    2007-01-01

    Background Cyclooxygenase (COX) is the rate-limiting enzyme in the production of prostanoids from arachidonic acid.COX-2 is the inducible enzyme in the COX family, together with the prostanoids forms the COX-2/prostanoid pathway.Research showed that the COX-2/prostanoid pathway is activated in hepatic diseases and liver stress reaction, such as fibrogenesis, portal hypertension, carcinogenesis, and ischemic/reperfusion injury. But there was no report on visceral pain induced liver stress. This study was to investigate the role of the COX-2/prostanoid pathway in liver stress response in rat acute colitis visceral pain liver stress model.Methods Fifty-three male SD rats were randomly divided into Naive, Model, NS398 treatment, and Morphine treatment groups. The rat acute colitis visceral pain liver stress model was established under anesthesia by the colonic administration of 0.5 ml of 6% acetic acid using a urethral catheter. NS398 and morphine were administrated 30 minutes prior to model establishment in NS398 and Morphine treatment groups respectively. Spontaneous activities and pain behavior were counted and the extent of colonic inflammation was assessed histologically. Liver tissue levels of Glutathione-S-Transferase (GST) activity, COX-2 mRNA, prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), thromboxane B2 (TXB2) and 6-Ketone-prostaglandin F1α (6-K-PGF1α) contents were assessed.Results Thirty minutes after the colonic administration of acetic acid, a significant decrease in spontaneous activities and an increase in pain behaviors were observed in Model group (P<0.01 and P<0.05 respectively), accompanied by colonic inflammation. Liver GST activity levels significantly dropped (P<0.05). Liver COX-2 mRNA expression significantly increased, accompanied by an increase in liver concentrations of PGE2 and TXB2, but no obvious change in 6-K-PGF1α concentrations. NS398 and morphine both ameliorated post-stress liver GST activity (P<0.05 and P<0.01respectively), decreased stress

  8. Low birth weight male guinea pig offspring display increased visceral adiposity in early adulthood.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ousseynou Sarr

    Full Text Available Uteroplacental insufficiency (UPI-induced intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR predisposes individuals to adult visceral obesity. We postulated that low birth weight (LBW offspring, from UPI-induced IUGR pregnancies, would display a visceral adipose lipogenic molecular signature involving altered gene expression, phosphorylation status of proteins of the lipid synthesis pathway and microRNA (miR expression profile, occurring in association with increased visceral adiposity. Normal birth weight (NBW and LBW (obtained by uterine artery ablation male guinea pig pups were fed a control diet from weaning to 145 days and sacrificed. Despite being lighter at birth, LBW pups displayed body weights similar to NBW offspring at 145 days. At this age, which represents young adulthood, the relative weights of LBW epididymal white adipose tissue (EWAT and lipid content were increased; which was consistent with adipocyte hypertrophy in the LBW offspring. Additionally, the mRNA expression of lipid synthesis-related genes including acetyl-CoA carboxylase 1 (ACC1, diglyceride acyltransferase 2 (DGAT2 and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma 1 (PPARγ1, was increased in LBW EWAT. Further, LBW EWAT displayed decreased phospho-ACC (Ser79 and phospho-PPARγ (Ser273 proteins. Moreover, the mRNA expression of hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL and fatty acid binding protein 4 (FABP4, both involved in promoting adipose lipid storage, was increased in LBW EWAT. Finally, miR-24 and miR-103-2, miRs related to adipocyte development, were both increased in LBW EWAT. These findings indicate that, following an adverse in utero environment, lipid synthesis-related genes and miR expression, along with phosphorylation status of key regulators of lipid synthesis, appear to be chronically altered and occur in association with increased visceral adiposity in young adult IUGR male offspring.

  9. Visceral response to acute retrograde gastric electrical stimulation in healthy human

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shu-Kun Yao; Mei-Yun Ke; Zhi-Feng Wang; Da-Bo Xu; Yan-Li Zhang

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the visceral response to acute retrograde gastric electrical stimulation (RGES) in healthy humans and to derive optimal parameters for treatment of patients with obesity.METHODS: RGES with a series of effective parameters were performed via a bipolar mucosal electrode implanted along the great curvature 5 cm above pylorus of stomach in 12 healthy human subjects. Symptoms associated with dyspepsia and other discomfort were observed and graded during RGES at different settings, including long pulse and pulse train. Gastric myoelectrical activity at baseline and during different settings of stimulation was recorded by a multi-channel electrogastrography.RESULTS: The gastric slow wave was entrained in all the subjects at the pacing parameter of 9 cpm in frequency, 500 ms in pulse width, and 5 mA in amplitude.The frequently appeared symptoms during stimulation were satiety, bloating, discomfort, pain, sting, and nausea. The total symptom score for each subject significantly increased as the amplitude or pulse width was adjusted to a higher scale in both long pulse and pulse train. There was a wide diversity of visceral responses to RGES among individuals.CONCLUSION: Acute RGES can result in a series of symptoms associated with dyspepsia, which is beneficial to the treatment of obesity. Optimal parameter should be determined according to the individual sensitivity to electrical stimulation.

  10. Oral mucosal involvement in visceral leishmaniasis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sunny Garg; Richik Tripathi; Kamlakar Tripathi

    2013-01-01

    Leishmaniasis affects both the visceral and cutaneous tissues in body.OralMucosal involvement in leishmaniasis is rare and is often overlooked.We present a case17 year old boy from the north east region ofBihar who has a history of visceral leishmaniasis one year back, came to the department of oral surgery for treatment of persistent oral ulcers.Oral examination did not give any diagnostic information while systemic examination revealed enlarged spleen and low grade fever.Patient was screened for leishmaniasis by rK39 based immunochromatographic strip test which came to be positive.Biopsy of the ulcer as well as splenic and bone marrow aspirate confirmed the presence of leishmaniasis.Patient was administeredAmphotericinB for20 days following which significant clinical and haematological improvement followed.

  11. Development of Vaccines against Visceral Leishmaniasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krystal J. Evans

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Leishmaniasis is a neglected disease resulting in a global morbidity of 2,090 thousand Disability-Adjusted Life Years and a mortality rate of approximately 60,000 per year. Among the three clinical forms of leishmaniasis (cutaneous, mucosal, and visceral, visceral leishmaniasis (VL accounts for the majority of mortality, as if left untreated VL is almost always fatal. Caused by infection with Leishmania donovani or L. infantum, VL represents a serious public health problem in endemic regions and is rapidly emerging as an opportunistic infection in HIV patients. To date, no vaccine exists for VL or any other form of leishmaniasis. In endemic areas, the majority of those infected do not develop clinical symptoms and past infection leads to robust immunity against reinfection. Thus the development of vaccine for Leishmania is a realistic public health goal, and this paper summarizes advances in vaccination strategies against VL.

  12. Considerations for Systemic Treatment of Psoriasis in Obese Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gisondi, Paolo; Del Giglio, Micol; Girolomoni, Giampiero

    2016-12-01

    Psoriasis is an immune-mediated inflammatory skin disease frequently associated with metabolic disorders, including diabetes, dyslipidaemia and metabolic syndrome. Moreover, a growing number of studies confirm the association between psoriasis and obesity. It has been found that obesity, as measured by body mass index >30 kg/m(2), can double the risk of incident psoriasis. A positive correlation between different measures of adiposity and the severity of psoriasis has also been reported. Epidemiologic studies have also provided robust evidence confirming the association between obesity and psoriatic arthritis. Genetic, metabolic and environmental factors are all likely to contribute to these associations. Adipose tissue is an active endocrine and paracrine organ that has a key role in lipid and glucose metabolism as well as inflammation. Fat tissue is traditionally distributed into two main compartments with different metabolic characteristics, i.e. the subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissue. Particular attention has been devoted to visceral adiposity because of its contribution to inflammation and atherosclerosis. The association between psoriasis and obesity should be properly considered when choosing a systemic treatment, because it could exert negative effects on metabolic parameters, including liver enzymes, serum lipids and renal function. Obesity may increase the risk of liver and renal toxicity from methotrexate and cyclosporine. Moreover, obesity can compromise the effectiveness of systemic treatments for psoriasis (conventional and biological therapies). Dermatologists are also expected to promote a healthy lifestyle and weight loss for obese patients because they could improve metabolic parameters and responsiveness to psoriasis therapies.

  13. Childhood obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seth, Anju; Sharma, Rajni

    2013-04-01

    Childhood obesity is an issue of serious medical and social concern. In developing countries including India, it is a phenomenon seen in higher socioeconomic strata due to the adoption of a western lifestyle. Consumption of high calorie food, lack of physical activity and increased screen time are major risk factors for childhood obesity apart from other genetic, prenatal factors and socio-cultural practices. Obese children and adolescents are at increased risk of medical and psychological complications. Insulin resistance is commonly present especially in those with central obesity and manifests as dyslipidemia, type 2 diabetes mellitus, impaired glucose tolerance, hypertension, polycystic ovarian syndrome and metabolic syndrome. Obese children and adolescents often present to general physicians for management. The latter play a key role in prevention and treatment of obesity as it involves lifestyle modification of the entire family. This article aims at discussing the approach to diagnosis and work-up, treatment and preventive strategies for childhood obesity from a general physician's perspective.

  14. Visceral Leishmaniasis In A Native Kashmiri Boy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepti Mahajan, M.L. Bhat

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Leishmaniasis, though widely prevalent in South Asia, is not seen in the Kashmir valley where the coldclimatic conditions create a hostile environment for the growth of the parasite or its vector, the sandfly.However, a few cases of cutaneous leishmaniasis have been documented from the hot and arid Uri belt ofKashmir. We present a case of visceral leishmaniasis in a boy hailing from Uri, a rarity in this region.

  15. Intraretinal hemorrhage associated with visceral leishmaniasis

    OpenAIRE

    Ricardo Evangelista Marrocos de Aragão; Barreira,Ieda Maria A.; Leidiane Alexandre Pereira; Arrais,Barbara Lorena A.; Francisco Holanda Oliveira Neto; Everton Fernandes Vieira de Almeida; André Jucá Machado

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Visceral Leishmaniasis, also know as Kala-azar, is a parasitic tropical disease caused by protozoa of the genus Leishmania donovani. It is an endemic disease in many countries. It affects approximately 1,5 million people every year, and when associated with mal-nutrition and co-infection it may be fatal. Fever, hepatosplenomegaly, and pancytopenia is its typical clinical picture. Ocular manifestations of Kalaazar are relatively rare and can affect either anterior or posterior segment...

  16. The Role of Aldosterone in Obesity-Related Hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawarazaki, Wakako; Fujita, Toshiro

    2016-04-01

    Obese subjects often have hypertension and related cardiovascular and renal diseases, and this has become a serious worldwide health problem. In obese subjects, impaired renal-pressure natriuresis causes sodium retention, leading to the development of salt-sensitive hypertension. Physical compression of the kidneys by visceral fat and activation of the sympathetic nervous system, renin-angiotensin systems (RAS), and aldosterone/mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) system are involved in this mechanism. Obese subjects often exhibit hyperaldosteronism, with increased salt sensitivity of blood pressure (BP). Adipose tissue excretes aldosterone-releasing factors, thereby stimulating aldosterone secretion independently of the systemic RAS, and aldosterone/MR activation plays a key role in the development of hypertension and organ damage in obesity. In obese subjects, both salt sensitivity of BP, enhanced by obesity-related metabolic disorders including aldosterone excess, and increased dietary sodium intake are closely related to the incidence of hypertension. Some salt sensitivity-related gene variants affect the risk of obesity, and together with salt intake, its combination is possibly associated with the development of hypertension in obese subjects. With high salt levels common in modern diets, salt restriction and weight control are undoubtedly important. However, not only MR blockade but also new diagnostic modalities and therapies targeting and modifying genes that are related to salt sensitivity, obesity, or RAS regulation are expected to prevent obesity and obesity-related hypertension.

  17. Leishmaniasis visceral: senderos que confluyen, se bifurcan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Daniel Salomón

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available La leishmaniasis visceral urbana es una zoonosis emergente en Argentina. En América es producida por Leishmania infantum, con el perro como reservorio principal e insectos flebotomíneos como vectores. En este artículo se presenta el conocimiento acumulado a partir de su emergencia y dispersión en el país, por los referentes del Programa Nacional de Leishmaniasis, en el diagnóstico clínico y de laboratorio, tratamiento, biología de vectores, manejo de reservorio, y el conflicto generado con las acciones recomendadas en relación con los perros infectados. La detección temprana y el tratamiento precoz, con estrategias descentralizadas y horizontales, contribuirán a disminuir la morbimortalidad asociada a la leishmaniasis visceral. El control de su transmisión y dispersión requiere de un manejo ambiental integral y la tenencia responsable de perros. Se discuten los intereses y discursos en conflicto generados por la leishmaniasis visceral en el marco de la relación humano-perro, proponiendo la búsqueda de un discurso consensuado de riesgo.

  18. Visceral Afferent Pathways and Functional Brain Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stuart W.G. Derbyshire

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The application of functional imaging to study painful sensations has generated considerable interest regarding insight into brain dysfunction that may be responsible for functional pain such as that suffered in patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS. This review provides a brief introduction to the development of brain science as it relates to pain processing and a snapshot of recent functional imaging results with somatic and visceral pain. Particular emphasis is placed on current hypotheses regarding dysfunction of the brain-gut axis in IBS patients. There are clear and interpretable differences in brain activation following somatic as compared with visceral noxious sensation. Noxious visceral distension, particularly of the lower gastrointestinal tract, activates regions associated with unpleasant affect and autonomic responses. Noxious somatic sensation, in contrast, activates regions associated with cognition and skeletomotor responses. Differences between IBS patients and control subjects, however, were far less clear and interpretable. While this is in part due to the newness of this field, it also reflects weaknesses inherent within the current understanding of IBS. Future use of functional imaging to examine IBS and other functional disorders will be more likely to succeed by describing clear theoretical and clinical endpoints.

  19. [White adipose tissue dysfunction observed in obesity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewandowska, Ewa; Zieliński, Andrzej

    2016-05-01

    Obesity is a disease with continuingly increasing prevalence. It occurs worldwide independently of age group, material status or country of origin. At these times the most common reasons for obesity are bad eating habits and dramatic reduction of physical activity, which cause the energy imbalance of organism. Fundamental alteration observed in obese subjects is white adipose tissue overgrowth, which is linked to increased incidence of obesity-related comorbidities, such as: cardiovascular diseases, type 2 diabetes or digestive tract diseases. What is more, obesity is also a risk factor for some cancers. Special risk for diseases linked to excessive weight is associated with overgrowth of visceral type of adipose tissue. Adipose tissue, which is the main energy storehouse in body and acts also as an endocrine organ, undergoes both the morphological and the functional changes in obesity, having a negative impact on whole body function. In this article we summarize the most important alterations in morphology and function of white adipose tissue, observed in obese subjects.

  20. Immunometabolism in Obese Asthmatics: Are We There Yet?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa G. Wood

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is now recognised as a worldwide epidemic. The recent International Association for the Study of Obesity/International Obesity Taskforce (IASO/IOTF analysis estimates that approximately 1.0 billion adults are currently overweight and a further 475 million are obese. Obesity has huge psychosocial impact with obese children and adolescents facing discrimination and stigmatization in many areas of their lives leading to body dissatisfaction, low self-esteem and depression. Indeed, obesity is recognised as an important risk factor for the development of several chronic diseases such as hypertension, cancer, asthma and metabolic syndrome. Chronic low grade systemic inflammation is considered as a hallmark of obesity and may possibly explain the link between obesity and chronic disease, in particular the increased incidence, prevalence and severity of asthma in obese individuals. There is now strong evidence for infiltration of immune and inflammatory cells into adipose tissue that drives systemic inflammation and subsequent end organ damage. In addition to adipocytes, the key adipose tissue resident immune cells are macrophages and mast cells. Immunometabolism, as an emerging field of investigation, explores the pivotal role of these immune cells in translating immunological changes to metabolic effects in obesity. Abundance of free fatty acids, along with other inflammatory cytokines shift the balance of metabolic homeostasis to pro-inflammatory status by influencing the development of inflammatory cell lineage, which, further exhibits distinct functional phenotypes. There is emerging evidence for macrophage activation and functional polarization of an anti-inflammatory M2 phenotype towards a pro-inflammatory M1 phenotype of macrophages in obese adipose tissue. Similarly, studies in both obese humans and murine models reveal the pathognomic presence of an increased number of mast cells in visceral adipose tissue. These suggest a possible

  1. Topographical body fat distribution links to amino acid and lipid metabolism in healthy obese women [corrected].

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francois-Pierre J Martin

    Full Text Available Visceral adiposity is increasingly recognized as a key condition for the development of obesity related disorders, with the ratio between visceral adipose tissue (VAT and subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT reported as the best correlate of cardiometabolic risk. In this study, using a cohort of 40 obese females (age: 25-45 y, BMI: 28-40 kg/m(2 under healthy clinical conditions and monitored over a 2 weeks period we examined the relationships between different body composition parameters, estimates of visceral adiposity and blood/urine metabolic profiles. Metabonomics and lipidomics analysis of blood plasma and urine were employed in combination with in vivo quantitation of body composition and abdominal fat distribution using iDXA and computerized tomography. Of the various visceral fat estimates, VAT/SAT and VAT/total abdominal fat ratios exhibited significant associations with regio-specific body lean and fat composition. The integration of these visceral fat estimates with metabolic profiles of blood and urine described a distinct amino acid, diacyl and ether phospholipid phenotype in women with higher visceral fat. Metabolites important in predicting visceral fat adiposity as assessed by Random forest analysis highlighted 7 most robust markers, including tyrosine, glutamine, PC-O 44∶6, PC-O 44∶4, PC-O 42∶4, PC-O 40∶4, and PC-O 40∶3 lipid species. Unexpectedly, the visceral fat associated inflammatory profiles were shown to be highly influenced by inter-days and between-subject variations. Nevertheless, the visceral fat associated amino acid and lipid signature is proposed to be further validated for future patient stratification and cardiometabolic health diagnostics.

  2. The Roles of Adipokines, Proinflammatory Cytokines, and Adipose Tissue Macrophages in Obesity-Associated Insulin Resistance in Modest Obesity and Early Metabolic Dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Yea Eun; Kim, Ji Min; Joung, Kyong Hye; Lee, Ju Hee; You, Bo Ram; Choi, Min Jeong; Ryu, Min Jeong; Ko, Young Bok; Lee, Min A; Lee, Junguee; Ku, Bon Jeong; Shong, Minho; Lee, Ki Hwan; Kim, Hyun Jin

    2016-01-01

    The roles of adipokines, proinflammatory cytokines, and adipose tissue macrophages in obesity-associated insulin resistance have been explored in both animal and human studies. However, our current understanding of obesity-associated insulin resistance relies on studies of artificial metabolic extremes. The purpose of this study was to explore the roles of adipokines, proinflammatory cytokines, and adipose tissue macrophages in human patients with modest obesity and early metabolic dysfunction. We obtained omental adipose tissue and fasting blood samples from 51 females undergoing gynecologic surgery. We investigated serum concentrations of proinflammatory cytokines and adipokines as well as the mRNA expression of proinflammatory and macrophage phenotype markers in visceral adipose tissue using ELISA and quantitative RT-PCR. We measured adipose tissue inflammation and macrophage infiltration using immunohistochemical analysis. Serum levels of adiponectin and leptin were significantly correlated with HOMA-IR and body mass index. The levels of expression of MCP-1 and TNF-α in visceral adipose tissue were also higher in the obese group (body mass index ≥ 25). The expression of mRNA MCP-1 in visceral adipose tissue was positively correlated with body mass index (r = 0.428, p = 0.037) but not with HOMA-IR, whereas TNF-α in visceral adipose tissue was correlated with HOMA-IR (r = 0.462, p = 0.035) but not with body mass index. There was no obvious change in macrophage phenotype or macrophage infiltration in patients with modest obesity or early metabolic dysfunction. Expression of mRNA CD163/CD68 was significantly related to mitochondrial-associated genes and serum inflammatory cytokine levels of resistin and leptin. These results suggest that changes in the production of inflammatory biomolecules precede increased immune cell infiltration and induction of a macrophage phenotype switch in visceral adipose tissue. Furthermore, serum resistin and leptin have specific

  3. Internal organ obesity%内脏型肥胖

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田成功

    2004-01-01

    @@ 1947年,Vague及其同事首先提出肥胖不是一种均一的疾病,脂肪组织的区域分布与糖代谢、脂代谢紊乱密切相关,并将肥胖分为两种类型,一种为内脏型肥胖(visceral obesity),又叫中心型肥胖(central obesity)、男性型肥胖(android obesity)、上半身肥胖、苹果型肥胖;另一种为外周型肥胖(peripheral obesity),也叫女性型肥胖(gynoid obesity)、下半身肥胖、梨型肥胖.

  4. IL-37 protects against obesity-induced inflammation and insulin resistance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ballak, D.B.; Diepen, van J.A.; Moschen, A.R.; Jansen, H.; Hijmans, A.; Groenhof, G.J.; Leenders, F.; Bufler, P.; Boekschoten, M.V.

    2014-01-01

    Cytokines of the IL-1 family are important modulators of obesity-induced inflammation and the development of systemic insulin resistance. Here we show that IL-1 family member ¿IL-37, recently characterized as an anti-inflammatory cytokine, ameliorates obesity-induced inflammation and insulin resista

  5. Obesity Statistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Kristy Breuhl; Smith, Michael Seth

    2016-03-01

    Obesity is a chronic disease that is strongly associated with an increase in mortality and morbidity including, certain types of cancer, cardiovascular disease, disability, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, osteoarthritis, and stroke. In adults, overweight is defined as a body mass index (BMI) of 25 kg/m(2) to 29 kg/m(2) and obesity as a BMI of greater than 30 kg/m(2). If current trends continue, it is estimated that, by the year 2030, 38% of the world's adult population will be overweight and another 20% obese. Significant global health strategies must reduce the morbidity and mortality associated with the obesity epidemic.

  6. Poor sleep quality potentiates stress-induced cytokine reactivity in postmenopausal women with high visceral abdominal adiposity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prather, Aric A; Puterman, Eli; Epel, Elissa S; Dhabhar, Firdaus S

    2014-01-01

    Sleep disturbance is a key behavioral risk factor for chronic medical conditions observed at high rates among overweight and obese individuals. Systemic inflammation, including that induced by stress, may serve as a common biological mechanism linking sleep, adiposity, and disease risk. To investigate these relationships, 48 postmenopausal women (mean age=61.8) completed a standardized laboratory stress task during which time blood was collected at baseline and 30, 50 and 90+ min after stressor onset to assess circulating levels of interleukin (IL)-6, IL-10, and IL-6/IL-10 ratio. Self-reported global sleep quality was assessed using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) while adiposity was estimated by body mass index. Sagittal diameter was obtained in clinic to estimate visceral abdominal adiposity. Multi-level growth curve models revealed that poorer self-reported sleep quality was associated with greater stress-induced increases in IL-6/IL-10 ratio. In terms of adiposity, higher sagittal diameter, but not BMI, was associated with greater IL-6 reactivity (p's<0.05). Further, associations between sleep quality and cytokine reactivity varied as a function of sagittal diameter. Among poor sleepers (1 SD above mean of PSQI score), stress-induced increases in IL-6 and IL-6/IL-10 ratio were significantly steeper in those with high visceral adiposity (1 SD above the mean of sagittal diameter) compared to those with low visceral adiposity (1 SD below the mean of sagittal diameter). In sum, poorer sleep quality and greater visceral adiposity, separately and especially in combination, are associated with greater stress-related increases in systemic inflammation. This research may help elucidate the complex link between sleep, obesity and inflammatory disease risk.

  7. Larva migrans visceral: relato de caso Visceral larva migrans: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Bortoli Machado

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Larva migrans visceral é doença infecciosa, adquirida por ingestão de ovos provenientes dos vermes Toxocara canis e/ou Toxocara cati que infestam cães e gatos; as larvas penetram a parede intestinal e migram através dos tecidos levando a alterações diversas, conseqüentes a uma resposta inflamatória imune.¹ Os autores descrevem um caso clínico de larva migrans visceral com apresentação clínica atípica.Visceral larva migrans is an infectious human disease that occurs following ingestion of eggs from the environment originating from roundworms which commonly infect dogs and cats, Toxocara canis and Toxocara cati. The larvae penetrate the gut wall and migrate through the tissues causing disorders consequent to an inflammatory immune response¹. The authors describe a clinical case of visceral larva migrans with an unusual clinical presentation and also its clinical aspects, diagnosis and treatment are reviewed.

  8. Leishmaniasis visceral: senderos que confluyen, se bifurcan

    OpenAIRE

    Oscar Daniel Salomón; Andrea Verónica Mastrángelo; María Soledad Santini; Silvina Ruvinsky; Tomás Orduna; Angel Sinagra; Concepción Luna; Adelina Riarte; Natalia Casas; Paola Amiotti

    2012-01-01

    La leishmaniasis visceral urbana es una zoonosis emergente en Argentina. En América es producida por Leishmania infantum, con el perro como reservorio principal e insectos flebotomíneos como vectores. En este artículo se presenta el conocimiento acumulado a partir de su emergencia y dispersión en el país, por los referentes del Programa Nacional de Leishmaniasis, en el diagnóstico clínico y de laboratorio, tratamiento, biología de vectores, manejo de reservorio, y el conflicto generado con la...

  9. Immune regulation during chronic visceral leishmaniasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faleiro, Rebecca J; Kumar, Rajiv; Hafner, Louise M; Engwerda, Christian R

    2014-07-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis is a chronic parasitic disease associated with severe immune dysfunction. Treatment options are limited to relatively toxic drugs, and there is no vaccine for humans available. Hence, there is an urgent need to better understand immune responses following infection with Leishmania species by studying animal models of disease and clinical samples from patients. Here, we review recent discoveries in these areas and highlight shortcomings in our knowledge that need to be addressed if better treatment options are to be developed and effective vaccines designed.

  10. Is there a paradox in obesity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyal, Akankasha; Nimmakayala, Kameswara Rao; Zonszein, Joel

    2014-01-01

    In an industrialized society, the increase in obesity incidence has led to an increase in premature morbidity and mortality rates. There is a relationship between body mass index (BMI) and the increased incidence of hypertension, dyslipidemia, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and cardiovascular disease, an increase in mortality. However, obese individuals with these conditions may have better outcomes than their lean counterparts, thus the term "obesity paradox." Most studies supporting this paradox are cross-sectional and do not take into account the quantity or type of adiposity, the disease severity, and comorbidities. Although BMI is an indicator of the amount of body fat, it does not differentiate between adiposity types. Adipocytes that are highly functional have good fuel storage capacity are different from adipocytes found in visceral obesity, which are poorly functioning, laden with macrophages, and causing low-grade inflammation. Individuals with high BMI may be physically fit and have a lower mortality risk when compared with individuals with a lower BMI and poorly functioning adiposity. We review the complexity of adipose tissue and its location, function, metabolic implications, and role in cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. The terminology "obesity paradox" may reflect a lack of understanding of the complex pathophysiology of obesity and the association between adiposity and cardiovascular disease.

  11. Sympathetic nervous system behavior in human obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davy, Kevin P; Orr, Jeb S

    2009-02-01

    The sympathetic nervous system (SNS) plays an essential role in the regulation of metabolic and cardiovascular homeostasis. Low SNS activity has been suggested to be a risk factor for weight gain and obesity development. In contrast, SNS activation is characteristic of a number of metabolic and cardiovascular diseases that occur more frequently in obese individuals. Until recently, the relation between obesity and SNS behavior has been controversial because previous approaches for assessing SNS activity in humans have produced inconsistent findings. Beginning in the early 1990s, many studies using state of the art neurochemical and neurophysiological techniques have provided important insight. The purpose of the present review is to provide an overview of our current understanding of the region specific alterations in SNS behavior in human obesity. We will discuss findings from our own laboratory which implicate visceral fat as an important depot linking obesity with skeletal muscle SNS activation. The influence of weight change on SNS behavior and the potential mechanisms and consequences of region specific SNS activation in obesity will also be considered.

  12. Best single-slice location to measure visceral adipose tissue on paediatric CT scans and the relationship between anthropometric measurements, gender and VAT volume in children

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Visceral adipose tissue (VAT) is a significant risk factor for obesity-related metabolic diseases. This study investigates (1) the best single CT slice location for predicting total abdominal VAT volume in paediatrics and (2) the relationship between waist circumference (WC), sagittal diameter (SD), gender and VAT volume. Methods: A random sample of 130 paediatric abdomen CT scans, stratified according to age and gender, was collected. Three readers measured VAT area at each interv...

  13. Childhood obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strauss, R

    1999-01-01

    Approximately 10% of children are obese. Twin and adoption studies demonstrate a large genetic component to obesity, especially in adults. However, the increasing prevalence of obesity over the last 20 years can only be explained by environmental factors. In most obese individuals, no measurable differences in metabolism can be detected. Few children engage in regular physical activity. Obese children and adults uniformly underreport the amount of food they eat. Obesity is particularly related to increased consumption of high-fat foods. BMI is a quick and easy way to screen for childhood obesity. Treating childhood obesity relies on positive family support and lifestyle changes involving the whole family. Food preferences are influenced early by parental eating habits, and when developed in childhood, they tend to remain fairly constant into adulthood. Children learn to be active or inactive from their parents. In addition, physical activity (or more commonly, physical inactivity) habits that are established in childhood tend to persist into adulthood. Weight loss is usually followed by changes in appetite and metabolism, predisposing individuals to regain their weight. However, when the right family dynamics exist--a motivated child with supportive parents--long-term success is possible.

  14. Prostaglandin potentiates 5-HT responses in stomach and ileum innervating visceral afferent sensory neurons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sojin; Jin, Zhenhua; Lee, Goeun [Department of Physiology, School of Medicine, Kyung Hee University, Seoul 130-701 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Yong Seek; Park, Cheung-Seog [Department of Microbiology, School of Medicine, Kyung Hee University, Seoul 130-701 (Korea, Republic of); Jin, Young-Ho, E-mail: jinyh@khu.ac.kr [Department of Physiology, School of Medicine, Kyung Hee University, Seoul 130-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-01-02

    Highlights: • Prostaglandin E2 (PGE{sub 2}) effect was tested on visceral afferent neurons. • PGE{sub 2} did not evoke response but potentiated serotonin (5-HT) currents up to 167%. • PGE{sub 2}-induced potentiation was blocked by E-prostanoid type 4 receptors antagonist. • PGE{sub 2} effect on 5-HT response was also blocked by protein kinase A inhibitor KT5720. • Thus, PGE{sub 2} modulate visceral afferent neurons via synergistic signaling with 5-HT. - Abstract: Gastrointestinal disorder is a common symptom induced by diverse pathophysiological conditions that include food tolerance, chemotherapy, and irradiation for therapy. Prostaglandin E{sub 2} (PGE{sub 2}) level increase was often reported during gastrointestinal disorder and prostaglandin synthetase inhibitors has been used for ameliorate the symptoms. Exogenous administration of PGE{sub 2} induces gastrointestinal disorder, however, the mechanism of action is not known. Therefore, we tested PGE{sub 2} effect on visceral afferent sensory neurons of the rat. Interestingly, PGE{sub 2} itself did not evoked any response but enhanced serotonin (5-HT)-evoked currents up to 167% of the control level. The augmented 5-HT responses were completely inhibited by a 5-HT type 3 receptor antagonist, ondansetron. The PGE{sub 2}-induced potentiation were blocked by a selective E-prostanoid type4 (EP{sub 4}) receptors antagonist, L-161,982, but type1 and 2 receptor antagonist AH6809 has no effect. A membrane permeable protein kinase A (PKA) inhibitor, KT5720 also inhibited PGE{sub 2} effects. PGE{sub 2} induced 5-HT current augmentation was observed on 15% and 21% of the stomach and ileum projecting neurons, respectively. Current results suggest a synergistic signaling in visceral afferent neurons underlying gastrointestinal disorder involving PGE{sub 2} potentiation of 5-HT currents. Our findings may open a possibility for screen a new type drugs with lower side effects than currently using steroidal prostaglandin

  15. Unsupervised Assessment of Subcutaneous and Visceral Fat by MRI

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Peter Stanley; Larsen, Rasmus; Wraae, Kristian

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a. method for unsupervised assessment of visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue in the abdominal region by MRI. The identification of the subcutaneous and the visceral regions were achieved by dynamic programming constrained by points acquired from an active shape model...

  16. Visceral and Somatic Hypersensitivity in TNBS induced Colitis in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, QiQi; Price, Donald D.; Caudle, Robert M.; Verne, G. Nicholas

    2010-01-01

    Inflammation of visceral structures in rats has been shown to produce visceral/somatic hyperalgesia. Our objectives were to determine if trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS) induced colitis in rats leads to visceral/somatic hypersensitivity. Male Sprague-Dawley rats (200g–250g) were treated with 20 mg of TNBS in 50% ethanol (n=40) or an equivalent volume of ethanol (n=40) or saline (n=25) via the colon. Colonic distension, Von-Frey, Hargreaves, and tail reflex test were used to evaluate for visceral, mechanical, and thermal sensitivity. The rats demonstrated visceral hypersensitivity at 2–28 days following TNBS (p<0.0001). The ethanol treated rats also demonstrated visceral hypersensitivity that resolved after day 14. TNBS treated rats demonstrated somatic hypersensitivity at days 14–28 (p<0.0001) in response to somatic stimuli of the hind-paw. TNBS colitis is associated with visceral and somatic hypersensitivity in areas of somatotopic overlap. This model of colitis should allow further investigation into the mechanisms of visceral and somatic hypersensitivity. PMID:17703363

  17. Familial visceral myopathy associated with a mitochondrial myopathy.

    OpenAIRE

    Lowsky, R; Davidson, G.; Wolman, S; Jeejeebhoy, K N; Hegele, R. A.

    1993-01-01

    A 27 year old man with intestinal pseudo-obstruction who developed parenteral nutrition induced hyperlipidaemia and who also had ophthalmoplegia and an undifferentiated myopathy is described. Histological examination of biopsy specimens and molecular analysis show that this patient had both familial visceral myopathy and a mitochondrial myopathy, suggesting that a mitochondrial DNA mutation is the molecular lesion in familial visceral myopathy.

  18. Abdominal obesity status among Arora preschool children (2-5 years of Amritsar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Kaur

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Abdominal obesity is a state of excessive accumulation of central subcutaneous and visceral fat, has emerged as an important predictor for cardiovascular and metabolic risks in children and adolescents. Waist circumference is a highly sensitive and specific measure of abdominal obesity. Very few studies are available to the prevalence of abdominal obesity. Therefore in the present study an attempt has been made to report the prevalence of abdominal obesity among preschool children of Amritsar (Punjab. This study was undertaken among 1879 (949 boys and 930 girls Arora preschool children aged 2-5 years of Amritsar. Waist circumference was taken on each subjects using standard technique. Abdominal obesity was assessed by using waist circumference criterion of National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Present study revealed that abdominal obese were10.4% and 6.3% among boys and girls, respectively. The percentage prevalence of abdominal obesity was lower in the Amritsar children than other populations.

  19. Genetically Modified Organisms and Visceral Leishmaniasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NAHID eALI

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Vaccination is the most effective method of preventing infectious diseases. Since the eradication of small pox in 1976, many other potentially life compromising if not threatening diseases have been dealt with subsequently. This event was a major leap not only in the scientific world already burdened with many diseases but also in the mindset of the common man who became more receptive to novel treatment options. Among the many protozoan diseases, the leishmaniases have emerged as one of the largest parasite killers of the world, second only to malaria. There are three types of leishmaniases namely cutaneous (CL, mucocutaneous (ML and visceral (VL, caused by a group of more than 20 species of Leishmania parasites. Visceral leishmaniasis, also known as kala-azar is the most severe form and almost fatal if untreated. Since the first attempts at leishmanization, we have killed parasite vaccines, subunit protein or DNA vaccines, and now we have live recombinant carrier vaccines and live attenuated parasite vaccines under various stages of development. Although some research has shown promising results, many more potential genes need to be evaluated as live attenuated vaccine candidates. This mini-review attempts to summarize the success and failures of genetically modified organisms used in vaccination against some of major parasitic diseases for their application in leishmaniasis.

  20. Genetically modified organisms and visceral leishmaniasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chhajer, Rudra; Ali, Nahid

    2014-01-01

    Vaccination is the most effective method of preventing infectious diseases. Since the eradication of small pox in 1976, many other potentially life compromising if not threatening diseases have been dealt with subsequently. This event was a major leap not only in the scientific world already burdened with many diseases but also in the mindset of the common man who became more receptive to novel treatment options. Among the many protozoan diseases, the leishmaniases have emerged as one of the largest parasite killers of the world, second only to malaria. There are three types of leishmaniasis namely cutaneous (CL), mucocutaneous (ML), and visceral (VL), caused by a group of more than 20 species of Leishmania parasites. Visceral leishmaniasis, also known as kala-azar is the most severe form and almost fatal if untreated. Since the first attempts at leishmanization, we have killed parasite vaccines, subunit protein, or DNA vaccines, and now we have live recombinant carrier vaccines and live attenuated parasite vaccines under various stages of development. Although some research has shown promising results, many more potential genes need to be evaluated as live attenuated vaccine candidates. This mini-review attempts to summarize the success and failures of genetically modified organisms used in vaccination against some of major parasitic diseases for their application in leishmaniasis.

  1. Activation of transient receptor potential vanilloid type-1 channel prevents adipogenesis and obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Li Li; Yan Liu, Dao; Ma, Li Qun

    2007-01-01

    in visceral adipose tissue from obese humans was accompanied by reduced capsaicin-induced calcium influx. The oral administration of capsaicin for 120 days prevented obesity in male wild type mice but not in TRPV1 knockout mice assigned to high fat diet. We conclude that the activation of TRPV1 channels......We tested the hypothesis that activation of transient receptor potential vanilloid type-1 (TRPV1) by capsaicin prevents adipogenesis. TRPV1 channels in 3T3-L1-preadipocytes and visceral adipose tissue from mice and humans were detected by immunoblotting and quantitative real-time RT-PCR. The effect...... of TRPV1 on cytosolic calcium was determined fluorometrically in 3T3-L1-preadipocytes and in human visceral fat tissue. Adipogenesis in stimulated 3T3-L1-preadipocytes was determined by oil red O-staining of intracellular lipid droplets, triglyceride levels, expression of peroxisome proliferator...

  2. Pomegranate: a fruit that ameliorates metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medjakovic, Svjetlana; Jungbauer, Alois

    2013-01-01

    Pomegranate is an ancient fruit that is still part of the diet in the Mediterranean area, the Middle East, and India. Health-promoting effects have long been attributed to this fruit. Modern research corroborates the use of pomegranate as a folk remedy for diabetes and metabolic syndrome, and is responsible for a new evaluation of nutritional and pharmaceutical aspects of pomegranate in the general public. In the last decade, industry and agricultural production have been adapted to meet higher market demands for pomegranate. In vivo and in vitro studies have demonstrated that pomegranate exerts hypoglycaemic effects, including increased insulin sensitivity, inhibition of α-glucosidase, and impact on glucose transporter type 4 function, but is also responsible for a reduction of total cholesterol, and the improvement of blood lipid profiles, as well as anti-inflammatory effects through the modulation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor pathways. These effects may also explain how pomegranate-derived compounds function in the amelioration of adverse health effects caused by metabolic syndrome. Pomegranate contains polyphenols such as ellagitannins and anthocyanins, as well as phenolic acids, fatty acids and a variety of volatile compounds. Ellagitannins are some of the most prevalent compounds present in pomegranate, and may be responsible for certain benevolent characteristics associated with pomegranate. A brief overview of rising health problems due to obesity will be provided, followed by characterisation of the biological activity, bioavailability, and safety of pomegranate and pomegranate-derived compounds. Although the fruit is consumed in many countries, epidemiological and clinical studies are unavailable. Additional research is necessary to corroborate the promise of current in vivo and in vitro findings.

  3. Effects of dietary CLA on n-3 HUFA score and N-acylethanolamides biosynthesis in the liver of obese Zucker rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piras, Antonio; Carta, Gianfranca; Murru, Elisabetta; Lopes, Paula A; Martins, Susana V; Prates, José A M; Banni, Sebastiano

    2015-07-01

    We have recently shown that PPAR alpha agonists induce N-oleoylethanolamide (OEA) and N-palmitoylethanolamide (PEA) biosynthesis. Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA), a known dietary PPAR alpha inducer, may therefore increase OEA and PEA levels and favor docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) biosynthesis by enhancing peroxisomal β-oxidation via induction of liver PPARα. To evaluate whether CLA is able to increase DHA, OEA and PEA levels and thereby influencing liver lipid deposition in a model of visceral obesity-induced fatty liver, Zucker rats were fed a background diet rich in saturated fat with or without 1% of CLA for 4 weeks. Our data showed that CLA intake increased DHA, OEA and PEA levels in the liver by 24%, 31% and 36% respectively, and reduced hepatic lipid accumulation by 16%. We may conclude that dietary CLA is able to influence not only fatty acid metabolism but also the biosynthesis of bioactive mediators such as OEA and PEA which may contribute to ameliorate fatty liver.

  4. Subcutaneous rather than visceral adipose tissue is associated with adiponectin levels and insulin resistance in young men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, L; Nielsen, T L; Wraae, K

    2009-01-01

    on relatively healthy young men, minimizing the possible effects of age, obesity, and severe comorbidity. DESIGN, METHODS, AND SUBJECTS: A population-based, cross-sectional study of 783 men aged 20-29 yr, randomly drawn from the Danish Central Personal Registry. Adiponectin was assessed using an in-house assay......, and IR was determined using HOMA. Central fat mass (CFM) and lower extremity fat mass (LEFM) was measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry, and visceral adipose tissue (VAT), sc adipose tissue (SAT), and thigh fat area (TFA) were assessed by magnetic resonance imaging. RESULTS: Using multiple linear...

  5. The l-α-Lysophosphatidylinositol/GPR55 System and Its Potential Role in Human Obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno-Navarrete, José María; Catalán, Victoria; Whyte, Lauren; Díaz-Arteaga, Adenis; Vázquez-Martínez, Rafael; Rotellar, Fernando; Guzmán, Rocío; Gómez-Ambrosi, Javier; Pulido, Marina R.; Russell, Wendy R.; Imbernón, Mónica; Ross, Ruth A.; Malagón, María M.; Dieguez, Carlos; Fernández-Real, José Manuel; Frühbeck, Gema; Nogueiras, Ruben

    2012-01-01

    GPR55 is a putative cannabinoid receptor, and l-α-lysophosphatidylinositol (LPI) is its only known endogenous ligand. We investigated 1) whether GPR55 is expressed in fat and liver; 2) the correlation of both GPR55 and LPI with several metabolic parameters; and 3) the actions of LPI on human adipocytes. We analyzed CB1, CB2, and GPR55 gene expression and circulating LPI levels in two independent cohorts of obese and lean subjects, with both normal or impaired glucose tolerance and type 2 diabetes. Ex vivo experiments were used to measure intracellular calcium and lipid accumulation. GPR55 levels were augmented in the adipose tissue of obese subjects and further so in obese patients with type 2 diabetes when compared with nonobese subjects. Visceral adipose tissue GPR55 correlated positively with weight, BMI, and percent fat mass, particularly in women. Hepatic GPR55 gene expression was similar in obese and type 2 diabetic subjects. Circulating LPI levels were increased in obese patients and correlated with fat percentage and BMI in women. LPI increased the expression of lipogenic genes in visceral adipose tissue explants and intracellular calcium in differentiated visceral adipocytes. These findings indicate that the LPI/GPR55 system is positively associated with obesity in humans. PMID:22179809

  6. Molecular mechanisms of the anti-obesity potential effect of Moringa oleifera in the experimental model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fateheya Mohamed Metwally

    2017-03-01

    Conclusions: It is reasonable to assume that the anti-obesity, anti-atherogenic and anti-diabetic properties of M. oleifera are mechanistically achieved via working directly on the adipokines of the visceral adipose tissue. Therefore, M. oleifera may be a good therapeutic candidate for the symptoms of metabolic syndrome.

  7. Relationship between Visceral Adiposity and Plasma Adiponectin Concentration: Effect of Weight Loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Nasseri

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Adiponectin is an anti-inflammatory and antiatherogenic protein that has a protective effect against athero­sclero­sis and diabetes. It is exclusively secreted by adipose tissue. Serum adiponectin levels are inversely associated with pa­rame­ters of overall adiposity including body mass index (BMI, fat mass, and percentage of body fat. Methods: In a cross-sectional study of 76 women we sought to evaluate if adiponectin is associated primarily with central adi­pos­ity rather than overall adiposity. We also assessed adiponectin changes after weight loss in a subgroup of 42 obese sub­jects.Results: Waist to hip ratio (WHR, an index of central obesity, was the only variable independently associated to adi­ponectin (Beta= 0.25, P< 0.05. A mean increase of 8.2±24.2% in adiponectin concentration was observed in response to the dietary restriction and weight loss (P= 0.03. Our findings provide evidence for association of serum adiponectin level with visceral fat, represented by waist to hip ratio index.Conclusion: Moderate weight loss result in significant improvements in adiponectin concentration and provide another bio­logi­cal explanation for the beneficial effect of body weight loss on reducing cardiovascular and diabetes risks in obese pa­tients.

  8. Visceral adiposity index and prognosis among patients with ischemic heart failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Vogel

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVES: The obesity paradox has already been established in relation to heart failure, but it is not known which obesity indicator best reflects this phenomenon. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between obesity indexes and mortality among patients with heart failure. DESIGN AND SETTING: Cohort study conducted in the Department of Cardiology of Hospital Nossa Senhora da Conceição (Brazil. METHODS: Clinical, demographic, socioeconomic, biochemical and anthropometric data on 116 patients aged 30 to 85 years with a diagnosis of heart failure were evaluated. Arm fat area, body mass index, body surface area, body adiposity index, lipid accumulation product (LAP and visceral adiposity index (VAI were calculated. Cox regression was used to perform survival analyses. RESULTS: At baseline, the individuals with ischemic heart failure who remained alive showed higher VAI (3.60 ± 3.71 versus 1.48 ± 1.58; P = 0.04 and a trend towards higher LAP, in comparison with the individuals who died. After an average follow-up of 14.3 months, ischemic heart failure patients who had VAI > 1.21 showed 78% lower risk of death (HR 0.12; 95% CI: 0.02-0.67; P = 0.02 and the Kaplan-Meier survival curves showed better prognosis for these individuals (P = 0.005; log-rank test. CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that VAI is a good predictor of better prognosis among ischemic heart failure patients.

  9. Obesity indices and metabolic markers are related to hs-CRP and adiponectin levels in overweight and obese females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanip, Zulkefli; Ariffin, Farah Diana; Al-Tahami, Belqes Abdullah Mohammed; Sulaiman, Wan Azman Wan; Rasool, Aida Hanum Ghulam

    2013-01-01

    Obese subjects had increased serum high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), decreased adiponectin levels, and impaired microvascular endothelial function compared to lean subjects. We investigated the relationships of serum hs-CRP, adiponectin and microvascular endothelial function with obesity indices and metabolic markers in overweight and obese female subjects. Anthropometric profile, body fat composition, biochemical analysis, serum hs-CRP and adiponectin levels, and microvascular endothelial function were measured in 91 female subjects. Microvascular endothelial function was determined using laser Doppler fluximetry and the process of iontophoresis. Mean age and body mass index (BMI) of subjects were 34.88 (7.87) years and 32.93 (4.82) kg/m(2). hs-CRP levels were positively correlated with weight, BMI, waist circumference, hip circumference, body fat and visceral fat. Adiponectin levels were positively correlated with insulin sensitivity index (HOMA-%S), and inversely correlated with waist hip ratio, triglyceride, fasting insulin and insulin resistance index (HOMA-IR). No relationship was seen between microvascular endothelial function and obesity indices, and metabolic markers. In overweight and obese female subjects, hs-CRP levels were correlated with obesity indices while adiponectin levels were inversely correlated with obesity indices and metabolic markers. No significant relationship was seen between microvascular endothelial function with obesity indices and metabolic markers including hs-CRP and adiponectin in female overweight and obese subjects.

  10. Ethnicity and obesity: why are some people more vulnerable?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Dirk Lund; Jørgensen, Marit Eika

    2008-01-01

    that the association between BMI, percentage and distribution of body fat differs across populations, with Asians having the highest percentage of body fat compared with other populations. Asians also have a higher amount of visceral adipose tissue. The variation in percentage of body fat and body fat distribution......-Saharan Africa has the lowest prevalence of obesity. The greatest increase in obesity is occurring in countries with a diverse ethnic  population, such as Mauritius and Brazil. An increased percentage of body fat is normally coupled to an increase in body weight. However, there is evidence to show...

  11. Visceral States Call for Visceral Measures: Verbal Overshadowing of Hunger Ratings Across Assessment Modalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creswell, Kasey G; Sayette, Michael A; Schooler, Jonathan W; Wright, Aidan G C; Pacilio, Laura E

    2016-04-27

    We introduce a nonverbal "visceral" measure of hunger (i.e., squeezing a handheld dynamometer) and provide the first evidence of verbal overshadowing effects in this visceral domain. We presented 106 participants with popcorn and recorded their hunger levels in one of three conditions: (1) first report hunger using a traditional self-report rating scale (i.e., verbal measure) and then indicate hunger by squeezing a dynamometer (i.e., nonverbal measure), (2) first indicate hunger verbally and then indicate hunger nonverbally, or (3) indicate hunger only nonverbally. As hypothesized, nonverbal measures of hunger predicted subsequent eating behavior when they were uncontaminated by verbal measures-either because they preceded verbal measures of hunger or because they were the sole measure of hunger. Moreover, nonverbal measures of hunger were a better predictor of eating behavior than verbal measures. Implications of the study for communicating embodied experiences in a way that escapes the confines of symbolic representations are discussed.

  12. Patologias genitais associadas à leishmaniose visceral canina Genital pathologies associated with canine visceral leishmaniasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinícius Vasconcelos Gomes de Oliveira

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available A leishmaniose visceral canina (LVC é uma doença parasitária crônica causada por protozoários pertencentes ao gênero Leishmania. No Brasil, a transmissão se dá, principalmente, pela ação hematófaga de insetos vetores pertencentes à subfamília Phlebotominae, particularmente, a espécie Lutzomyia longipalpis. Todavia, a trasmissão vertical e venérea da LVC está presente. Os principais sinais clínicos observados nos animais acometidos pela LVC são linfoadenomegalia, dermatopatias, hepatoesplenomegalia, onicogrifose e oftalmopatias, contudo quadros atípicos podem ser observados, inclusive com o envolvimento do sistema genital. Dessa forma, o objetivo deste artigo é realizar revisão sobre as principais patologias genitais em cães machos e fêmeas com leishmaniose visceral (LV.The canine visceral leishmaniasis (CanL is a chronic parasitic disease caused by protozoa belonging to the genus Leishmania. In Brazil, the transmission occurs mainly by the action of blood-sucking insects belonging to the subfamily Phlebotominae, particularly the Lutzomyia longipalpis species. However, the venereal and vertical transmission of the CanL is present. The main clinical signs observed in animals affected by the CanL are lymphadenopathy, skin diseases, hepatosplenomegaly, onychogryphosis and ophthalmopathy, however atypical manifestations can be observed, including the involvement of the genital system. Thus, the aim of this paper is to review on the major pathologies in genital male and female dogs with visceral leishmaniasis (VL.

  13. Differential Effects of Bariatric Surgery Versus Exercise on Excessive Visceral Fat Deposits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Fu-Zong; Huang, Yi-Luan; Wu, Carol C; Wang, Yen-Chi; Pan, Hsiang-Ju; Huang, Chin-Kun; Yeh, Lee-Ren; Wu, Ming-Ting

    2016-02-01

    The aim of the present study was to compare differential impacts of bariatric surgery and exercise-induced weight loss on excessive abdominal and cardiac fat deposition.Excessive fat accumulation around the heart may play an important role in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease. Recent evidences have suggested that bariatric surgery results in relatively less decrease in epicardial fat compared with abdominal visceral fat and paracardial fat.Sixty-four consecutive overweight or obese subjects were enrolled in the study. Clinical characteristics and metabolic profiles were recorded. The volumes of abdominal visceral adipose tissue (AVAT), abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue (ASAT), epicardial (EAT), and paracardial adipose tissue (PAT) were measured by computed tomography in the bariatric surgery group (N = 25) and the exercise group (N = 39) at baseline and 3 months after intervention. Subjects in both the surgery and exercise groups showed significant reduction in body mass index (15.97%, 7.47%), AVAT (40.52%, 15.24%), ASAT (31.40, 17.34%), PAT (34.40%, 12.05%), and PAT + EAT (22.31%, 17.72%) (all P PAT, EAT+PAT) (P PAT, was relatively preserved despite weight reduction in both the groups. The physiological impact of persistent EAT deserves further investigation.

  14. Robust separation of visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissues in micro-CT of mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Bibo; Xie, Shuisheng; Berryman, Darlene; List, Ed; Liu, Jundong

    2013-01-01

    One of the common practices in obesity and diabetes studies is to measure the volumes and weights of various adipose tissues, among which, visceral adipose tissue (VAT) and subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) play critical yet different physiological roles in mouse aging. In this paper, a robust two-stage VAT/SAT separation framework for micro-CT mouse data is proposed. The first stage is to distinguish adipose from other tissue types, including background, soft tissue and bone, through a robust mixture of Gaussian model. Spatial recognition relevant to anatomical locations is carried out in the second step to determine whether the adipose is visceral or subcutaneous. We tackle this problem through a novel approach that relies on evolving the abdominal muscular wall to keep VAT/SAT separated. The VAT region of interest (ROI) is also automatically set up through an atlas based skeleton matching procedure. The results of our method are compared with VAT/SAT delineations by human experts, and a high classification accuracy is demonstrated on eight micro-CT mouse volume sets.

  15. Obesity & osteoarthritis

    OpenAIRE

    King, Lauren K.; Lyn March; Ananthila Anandacoomarasamy

    2013-01-01

    The most significant impact of obesity on the musculoskeletal system is associated with osteoarthritis (OA), a disabling degenerative joint disorder characterized by pain, decreased mobility and negative impact on quality of life. OA pathogenesis relates to both excessive joint loading and altered biomechanical patterns together with hormonal and cytokine dysregulation. Obesity is associated with the incidence and progression of OA of both weight-bearing and non weight-bearing joints, to rate...

  16. Childhood obesity

    OpenAIRE

    Wilkinson, Justine; Howard, Simon

    2006-01-01

    Childhood obesity has important consequences for health and wellbeing both during childhood and also in later adult life. The rising prevalence of childhood obesity poses a major public health challenge in both developed and developing countries by increasing the burden of chronic non-communicable diseases. Despite the urgent need for effective preventative strategies, there remains disagreement over its definition due to a lack of evidence on the optimal cut-offs linking childhood BMI to dis...

  17. NEWER DRUGS FOR VISCERAL LEISHMANIASIS: A REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishna Pandey

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Visceral Leishmaniasis (VL is one of the most neglected tropical diseases worldwide. The diagnosis and treatment of this disease is quite complex. Sodium Antimony Gluconate (SAG which used to be a very effective treatment has now developed resistance and is potentially a cardio-toxic drug. Pentamidine has now been discarded because of adverse effect of diabetes mellitus. Amphotericin-B is an effective drug but can cause nephrotoxicity. Miltefosine is a new oral effective drug which has recently been introduced in the kala-azar elimination program in the Indian subcontinent. Paromomycin is an injectable aminoglycoside which is quite cheap but can cause ototoxicity and nephrotoxicity. Sitamaquine, an oral antimalarial drug is still in phase-II trial stage. Combination Therapy is been tried with good results. Single dose Ambisome (liposomal Amphotericin-B though costly is a very good alternative.

  18. Hyponatremia in visceral leishmaniasis Hiponatremia no calazar

    OpenAIRE

    Frederico A. Lima Verde; Francisco A.A. Lima Verde; Francisco José V. Veronese; Augusto S. Neto; Galdino Fuc; Emir M. Lima Verde

    2010-01-01

    There are few reports linking hyponatremia and visceral leishmaniasis (kala-azar). This is a study of 55 consecutive kala-azar patients and 20 normal individuals as a control group. Hyponatremia and serum hypo-osmolality were detected in 100% of kala-azar patients. High first morning urine osmolality (750.0 ± 52.0 vs. 894.5 ± 30.0mOsm/kg H2O, p < 0.05), and high 24-hour urine osmolality (426.0 ± 167.0 vs. 514.6 ± 132.0 mOsm/kg H2O, p < 0.05) demonstrated persistent antidiuretic hormone secret...

  19. [Visceral leishmaniasis in an HIV positive patient].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossiere-Echazarreta, Natalia Lorena; Rodríguez-Campos, Esther Alicia; Morales-Esponda, Mario; Domínguez-Moreno, Rogelio; Cruz-Ortiz, Margarita; Rodríguez-Guzmán, Leoncio Miguel

    2013-01-01

    Introducción: la leishmaniasis visceral o kala azar es la presentación clínica más grave. En México, es una enfermedad rara por lo que su diagnóstico es tardío y generalmente culmina en la muerte del paciente. Se describe a un paciente VIH positivo que desarrolló leishmaniasis visceral. El objetivo es explicar sus características fisiopatológicas y de su tratamiento. Caso clínico: hombre de 45 años de edad, quien ingresó al hospital por cuadro crónico de diarrea sanguinolenta, distensión abdominal, dolor tipo cólico, pérdida de peso y fiebre. A la exploración física se identificó paciente febril con dolor en fosa iliaca derecha y hepatoesplenomegalia. La prueba ELISA para VIH resultó positiva y el ultrasonido hizo evidente una tumoración en ciego, por lo que se realizó biopsia. El informe histopatológico indicó que se trataba de leishmaniasis. Conclusiones: en los pacientes con leishmaniasis e infección por VIH existe pobre respuesta al tratamiento y la mortalidad es alta, causada por la menor respuesta inmune del huésped. En la literatura especializada se sugiere el tratamiento establecido para la infección por VIH combinado con miltefosine y anfotericina B liposomal para la leishmaniasis.

  20. Causes of pediatric visceral leishmaniasis in southeastern iran.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Hosseininasab

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Leishmania infantum is the most frequent cause of visceral leishmaniasis and L. tropica has been rarely linked to the disease in Iran. In this study, bone marrow aspirates were collected from 10 child patients, suspected with visceral leishmaniasis referred to the Pediatric Wards of Kerman Medical Hospitals, Kerman, Iran during 2002-2011. Leishmania species were identified by using nested PCR in all slides. The PCR samples from nine patients indicated L. infantum as principal causative agent of visceral leishmaniasis and one L.tropica as a minor species.

  1. Visceral and Somatic Hypersensitivity in TNBS induced Colitis in Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou, Qiqi; Price, Donald D.; Caudle, Robert M; Verne, G Nicholas

    2007-01-01

    Inflammation of visceral structures in rats has been shown to produce visceral/somatic hyperalgesia. Our objectives were to determine if trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS) induced colitis in rats leads to visceral/somatic hypersensitivity. Male Sprague-Dawley rats (200g–250g) were treated with 20 mg of TNBS in 50% ethanol (n=40) or an equivalent volume of ethanol (n=40) or saline (n=25) via the colon. Colonic distension, Von-Frey, Hargreaves, and tail reflex test were used to evaluate for v...

  2. Modulation of IGFBP2 mRNA expression in white adipose tissue upon aging and obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Z; Picard, F

    2010-10-01

    The insulin/IGF-1 signaling pathway is a determinant of aging and age-related diseases. IGF-binding protein 2 (IGFBP2) is secreted by white adipocytes and contributes to the prevention of diet-induced obesity and age-related insulin resistance in mice. However, the expression levels of IGFBP2 in insulin resistance disorders have not been evaluated. The present study was aimed at determining IGFBP2 mRNA levels in adipose tissue in conditions of insulin resistance such as aging and obesity. In visceral white adipose tissue (WAT), but not in subcutaneous WAT, IGFBP2 mRNA levels were significantly lower in obese OB/OB, DB/DB and high fat-fed mice compared with those of their respective lean and chow-fed littermates. IGFBP2 mRNA levels were also decreased in visceral WAT of 12 and 24 months old mice compared with those of their 4 months old counterparts. Visceral WAT IGFBP2 expression was significantly associated with IGFBP2 circulating levels in mice, suggesting an important contribution from this tissue. The negative effect of aging on IGFBP2 mRNA levels in visceral WAT was confirmed in obese men. These findings demonstrate that the transcription of the IGFBP2 gene is modulated in a depot-specific fashion in obesity and aging in mice and men. Because IGFBP2 is an adipokine, an altered production from visceral WAT depots could impact on IGF-1 signaling and its downstream targets. This supports the need for further molecular and clinical studies to determine the factors regulating IGFBP2 expression and its relevance to metabolic diseases.

  3. Hormones and Obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Balance › Hormones and Obesity Fact Sheet Hormones and Obesity March, 2010 Download PDFs English Espanol Editors Caroline Apovian, MD Judith Korner, MD, PhD What is obesity? Obesity is a chronic (long-term) medical problem ...

  4. Associations between lower extremity muscle mass and metabolic parameters related to obesity in Japanese obese patients with type 2 diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hidetaka Hamasaki

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Background. Age-related loss of muscle mass (sarcopenia increases the incidence of obesity in the elderly by reducing physical activity. This sarcopenic obesity may become self-perpetuating, increasing the risks for metabolic syndrome, disability, and mortality. We investigated the associations of two sarcopenic indices, the ratio of lower extremity muscle mass to body weight (L/W ratio and the ratio of lower extremity muscle mass to upper extremity muscle mass (L/U ratio, with metabolic parameters related to obesity in patients with type 2 diabetes and obesity.Methods. Of 148 inpatients with type 2 diabetes treated between October 2013 and April 2014, we recruited 26 with obesity but no physical disability. Daily physical activity was measured by a triaxial accelerometer during a period of hospitalization, and which was also evaluated by our previously reported non-exercise activity thermogenesis questionnaire. We measured body composition by bioelectrical impedance and investigated the correlations of L/W and L/U ratios with body weight, body mass index (BMI, waist circumference (WC, waist-to-hip ratio (WHR, visceral fat area, subcutaneous fat area, serum lipid profile, and daily physical activity.Results. The L/W ratio was significantly and negatively correlated with BMI, WC, WHR, body fat mass, body fat percentage, subcutaneous fat area, and serum free fatty acid concentration, was positively correlated with daily physical activity: the locomotive non-exercise activity thermogenesis score, but was not correlated with visceral fat area. The L/U ratio was significantly and positively correlated with serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol.Conclusions. High L/W and L/U ratios, indicative of relatively preserved lower extremity muscle mass, were predictive of improved metabolic parameters related to obesity. Preserved muscle fitness in obesity, especially of the lower extremities, may prevent sarcopenic obesity and lower associated risks for

  5. Genetic determinants of obesity and related vascular diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, Yaroslav; Sankowski, Roman; Back, Tobias

    2013-01-01

    Obesity is one of the major risk factors of vascular diseases, and its prevalence is increasing worldwide. In the past decade, progress has been made in the understanding of genetic determinants of obesity and obesity-associated diseases. Genome-wide association studies identified a number of genetic variants associated with obesity. In addition to common variants, FTO and MC4R, new loci, such as TMEM18, KCTD15, GNPDA2, SH2B1, MTCH2, and NEGR1 have been detected. In the past years, abdominal obesity has been shown to be a more important vascular risk factor than the body mass index. In the context of vascular risk assessment, identification of genetic polymorphisms associated with accumulation of visceral fat is of special importance. Some polymorphisms associated with abdominal obesity, such as variants of gene encoding microsomal triglyceride transfer protein, have been already discovered. In this chapter, we provide a review of genetic determinants of obesity and discuss their role in obesity-related vascular diseases.

  6. Obesity-induced hypertension: interaction of neurohumoral and renal mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, John E; do Carmo, Jussara M; da Silva, Alexandre A; Wang, Zhen; Hall, Michael E

    2015-03-13

    Excess weight gain, especially when associated with increased visceral adiposity, is a major cause of hypertension, accounting for 65% to 75% of the risk for human primary (essential) hypertension. Increased renal tubular sodium reabsorption impairs pressure natriuresis and plays an important role in initiating obesity hypertension. The mediators of abnormal kidney function and increased blood pressure during development of obesity hypertension include (1) physical compression of the kidneys by fat in and around the kidneys, (2) activation of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, and (3) increased sympathetic nervous system activity. Activation of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system is likely due, in part, to renal compression, as well as sympathetic nervous system activation. However, obesity also causes mineralocorticoid receptor activation independent of aldosterone or angiotensin II. The mechanisms for sympathetic nervous system activation in obesity have not been fully elucidated but may require leptin and activation of the brain melanocortin system. With prolonged obesity and development of target organ injury, especially renal injury, obesity-associated hypertension becomes more difficult to control, often requiring multiple antihypertensive drugs and treatment of other risk factors, including dyslipidemia, insulin resistance and diabetes mellitus, and inflammation. Unless effective antiobesity drugs are developed, the effect of obesity on hypertension and related cardiovascular, renal and metabolic disorders is likely to become even more important in the future as the prevalence of obesity continues to increase.

  7. Obesity and Physical Modalities

    OpenAIRE

    Kokino, Siranuş; Özdemir, Ferda; Zateri, Coşkun

    2006-01-01

    The prevalence of obesity is increasing. It is one of the commonest pathologies in developed countries. In general, obesity is caused by an imbalance between energy obtained by food and energy expended. A sedentary life-style is also associated with obesity and obesity-related chronic diseases. The result of childhood obesity is adult obesity, so obesity should be treated early. Obesity is a complex problem and effective treatment will probably require incorporation of different approaches. I...

  8. Sympathetic system activity in obesity and metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tentolouris, N; Liatis, S; Katsilambros, N

    2006-11-01

    Obesity is a very common disease worldwide, resulting from a disturbance in the energy balance. The metabolic syndrome is also a cluster of abnormalities with basic characteristics being insulin resistance and visceral obesity. The major concerns of obesity and metabolic syndrome are the comorbidities, such as type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease, stroke, and certain types of cancers. Sympathetic nervous system (SNS) activity is associated with both energy balance and metabolic syndrome. Sympathomimetic medications decrease food intake, increase resting metabolic rate (RMR), and thermogenic responses, whereas blockage of the SNS exerts opposite effects. The contribution of the SNS to the daily energy expenditure, however, is small ( approximately 5%) in normal subjects consuming a weight maintenance diet. Fasting suppresses, whereas meal ingestion induces SNS activity. Most of the data agree that obesity is characterized by SNS predominance in the basal state and reduced SNS responsiveness after various sympathetic stimuli. Weight loss reduces SNS overactivity in obesity. Metabolic syndrome is characterized by enhanced SNS activity. Most of the indices used for the assessment of its activity are better associated with visceral fat than with total fat mass. Visceral fat is prone to lipolysis: this effect is mediated by catecholamine action on the sensitive beta(3)-adrenoceptors found in the intraabdominal fat. In addition, central fat distribution is associated with disturbances in the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis, suggesting that a disturbed axis may be implicated in the development of the metabolic syndrome. Furthermore, SNS activity induces a proinflammatory state by IL-6 production, which in turn results in an acute phase response. The increased levels of inflammatory markers seen in the metabolic syndrome may be elicited, at least in part, by SNS overactivity. Intervention studies showed that the disturbances of the autonomic nervous system seen in the

  9. Hypertrophic Obesity and Subcutaneous Adipose Tissue Dysfunction

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    Anna Meiliana

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Over the past 50 years, scientists have recognized that not all adipose tissue is alike, and that health risk is associated with the location as well as the amount of body fat. Different depots are sufficiently distinct with respect to fatty-acid storage and release as to probably play unique roles in human physiology. Whether fat redistribution causes metabolic disease or whether it is a marker of underlying processes that are primarily responsible is an open question. CONTENT: The limited expandability of the subcutaneous adipose tissue leads to inappropriate adipose cell expansion (hypertrophic obesity with local inflammation and a dysregulated and insulin-resistant adipose tissue. The inability to store excess fat in the subcutaneous adipose tissue is a likely key mechanism for promoting ectopic fat accumulation in tissues and areas where fat can be stored, including the intra-abdominal and visceral areas, in the liver, epi/pericardial area, around vessels, in the myocardium, and in the skeletal muscles. Many studies have implicated ectopic fat accumulation and the associated lipotoxicity as the major determinant of the metabolic complications of obesity driving systemic insulin resistance, inflammation, hepatic glucose production, and dyslipidemia. SUMMARY: In summary, hypertrophic obesity is due to an impaired ability to recruit and differentiate available adipose precursor cells in the subcutaneous adipose tissue. Thus, the subcutaneous adipose tissue may be particular in its limited ability in certain individuals to undergo adipogenesis during weight increase. Inability to promote subcutaneous adipogenesis under periods of affluence would favor lipid overlow and ectopic fat accumulation with negative metabolic consequences. KEYWORDS: obesity, adipogenesis, subcutaneous adipose tissue, visceral adipose tissue, adipocyte dysfunction.

  10. Differential expression among tissues in morbidly obese individuals using a finite mixture model under BLUP approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kogelman, Lisette; Trabzuni, Daniah; Bonder, Marc Jan

    Morbid obesity, the excessive accumulation of body fat, has major consequences for human health by its association with several severe diseases, like Type 2 Diabetes. The biological mechanisms behind this association are mostly unclear, however, the biological complexity of morbid obesity indicates...... an important role for pathogenesis arising from different tissues/organs and interactions among them. We hypothesized that differentially expressed (DE) genes between different organs in morbidly obese individuals result in a better insight in the biological mechanisms explaining the link between obesity...... and obesity-related diseases. We used whole-transcriptome expression levels of subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT), visceral adipose tissue (VAT), liver, and muscle of 93 morbidly obese individuals (26 males, 67 females) who were all phenotyped for different metabolic parameters. We estimated genetic random...

  11. Mechanisms underlying visceral hypersensitivity in irritable bowel syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbara, Giovanni; Cremon, Cesare; De Giorgio, Roberto; Dothel, Giovanni; Zecchi, Lisa; Bellacosa, Lara; Carini, Giovanni; Stanghellini, Vincenzo; Corinaldesi, Roberto

    2011-08-01

    Visceral hypersensitivity is currently considered a key pathophysiological mechanism involved in pain perception in large subgroups of patients with functional gastrointestinal disorders, including irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). In IBS, visceral hypersensitivity has been described in 20%-90% of patients. The contribution of the central nervous system and psychological factors to visceral hypersensitivity in patients with IBS may be significant, although still debated. Peripheral factors have gained increasing attention following the recognition that infectious enteritis may trigger the development of persistent IBS symptoms, and the identification of mucosal immune, neural, endocrine, microbiological, and intestinal permeability abnormalities. Growing evidence suggests that these factors play an important role in pain transmission from the periphery to the brain via sensory nerve pathways in large subsets of patients with IBS. In this review, we will report on recent data on mechanisms involved in visceral hypersensitivity in IBS, with particular attention paid to peripheral mechanisms.

  12. Endocannabinoids may mediate the ability of (n-3) fatty acids to reduce ectopic fat and inflammatory mediators in obese Zucker rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batetta, Barbara; Griinari, Mikko; Carta, Gianfranca; Murru, Elisabetta; Ligresti, Alessia; Cordeddu, Lina; Giordano, Elena; Sanna, Francesca; Bisogno, Tiziana; Uda, Sabrina; Collu, Maria; Bruheim, Inge; Di Marzo, Vincenzo; Banni, Sebastiano

    2009-08-01

    Dietary (n-3) long-chain PUFA [(n-3) LCPUFA] ameliorate several metabolic risk factors for cardiovascular diseases, although the mechanisms of these beneficial effects are not fully understood. In this study, we compared the effects of dietary (n-3) LCPUFA, in the form of either fish oil (FO) or krill oil (KO) balanced for eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) content, with a control (C) diet containing no EPA and DHA and similar contents of oleic, linoleic, and alpha-linolenic acids, on ectopic fat and inflammation in Zucker rats, a model of obesity and related metabolic dysfunction. Diets were fed for 4 wk. Given the emerging evidence for an association between elevated endocannabinoid concentrations and metabolic syndrome, we also measured tissue endocannabinoid concentrations. In (n-3) LCPUFA-supplemented rats, liver triglycerides and the peritoneal macrophage response to an inflammatory stimulus were significantly lower than in rats fed the control diet, and heart triglycerides were lower, but only in KO-fed rats. These effects were associated with a lower concentration of the endocannabinoids, anandamide and 2-arachidonoylglycerol, in the visceral adipose tissue and of anandamide in the liver and heart, which, in turn, was associated with lower levels of arachidonic acid in membrane phospholipids, but not with higher activity of endocannabinoid-degrading enzymes. Our data suggest that the beneficial effects of a diet enriched with (n-3) LCPUFA are the result of changes in membrane fatty acid composition. The reduction of substrates for inflammatory molecules and endocannabinoids may account for the dampened inflammatory response and the physiological reequilibration of body fat deposition in obese rats.

  13. Genome-wide association studies suggest sex-specific loci associated with abdominal and visceral fat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, Yun Ju; Pérusse, Louis; Sarzynski, Mark A.; Fornage, Myriam; Sidney, Steve; Sternfeld, Barbara; Rice, Treva; Terry, Gregg; Jacobs, David R.; Katzmarzyk, Peter; Curran, Joanne E; Carr, John Jeffrey; Blangero, John; Ghosh, Sujoy; Després, Jean-Pierre; Rankinen, Tuomo; Rao, D.C.; Bouchard, Claude

    2015-01-01

    Background To identify loci associated with abdominal fat and replicate prior findings, we performed genome-wide association (GWA) studies of abdominal fat traits: subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT), visceral adipose tissue (VAT), total adipose tissue (TAT) and visceral to subcutaneous adipose tissue ratio (VSR). Subjects and Methods Sex-combined and sex-stratified analyses were performed on each trait with (TRAIT-BMI) or without (TRAIT) adjustment for BMI, and cohort-specific results were combined via a fixed effects meta-analysis. A total of 2,513 subjects of European descent were available for the discovery phase. For replication, 2,171 European Americans and 772 African Americans were available. Results A total of 52 SNPs encompassing 7 loci showed suggestive evidence of association (p < 1.0 × 10−6) with abdominal fat in the sex-combined analyses. The strongest evidence was found on chromosome 7p14.3 between a SNP near BBS9 gene and VAT (rs12374818; p= 1.10 × 10−7), an association that was replicated (p = 0.02). For the BMI-adjusted trait, the strongest evidence of association was found between a SNP near CYCSP30 and VAT-BMI (rs10506943; p= 2.42 × 10−7). Our sex-specific analyses identified one genome-wide significant (p < 5.0 × 10−8) locus for SAT in women with 11 SNPs encompassing the MLLT10, DNAJC1 and EBLN1 genes on chromosome 10p12.31 (p = 3.97 × 10−8 to 1.13 × 10−8). The THNSL2 gene previously associated with VAT in women was also replicated (p= 0.006). The six gene/loci showing the strongest evidence of association with VAT or VAT-BMI were interrogated for their functional links with obesity and inflammation using the Biograph knowledge-mining software. Genes showing the closest functional links with obesity and inflammation were ADCY8 and KCNK9, respectively. Conclusions Our results provide evidence for new loci influencing abdominal visceral (BBS9, ADCY8, KCNK9) and subcutaneous (MLLT10/DNAJC1/EBLN1) fat, and confirmed a locus (THNSL2

  14. Sarcopenic Obesity and Endocrinal Adaptation with Age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kunihiro Sakuma

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In normal aging, changes in the body composition occur that result in a shift toward decreased muscle mass and increased fat mass. The loss of muscle mass that occurs with aging is termed sarcopenia and is an important cause of frailty, disability, and loss of independence in older adults. Age-related changes in the body composition as well as the increased prevalence of obesity determine a combination of excess weight and reduced muscle mass or strength, recently defined as sarcopenic obesity. Weight gain increases total/abdominal fat, which, in turn, elicits inflammation and fatty infiltration in muscle. Sarcopenic obesity appears to be linked with the upregulation of TNF-α, interleukin (IL-6, leptin, and myostatin and the downregulation of adiponectin and IL-15. Multiple combined exercise and mild caloric restriction markedly attenuate the symptoms of sarcopenic obesity. Intriguingly, the inhibition of myostatin induced by gene manipulation or neutralizing antibody ameliorates sarcopenic obesity via increased skeletal muscle mass and improved glucose homeostasis. In this review, we describe the possible influence of endocrinal changes with age on sarcopenic obesity.

  15. [Obesity paradox].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aursulesei, Viviana; Cozma, A; Datcu, M D

    2009-01-01

    Obesity has reached global epidemic proportions and is associated with major cardiovascular diseases and reduced overall survival. This paper reviews the metabolic and vascular consequences of dysfunctional adipocytokines in obesity as well as the pathological effects on blood pressure, cardiovascular structure and function. Despite this adverse association, numerous studies have documented an obesity paradox in which overweight and obese population with established cardiovascular disease have a better prognosis. There are potential explanations offered by literature for these puzzling data. For obese hypertensive patients the paradox is possibly linked to the lower systemic vascular resistance and plasma renin activity. In heart failure the excess body weight may confer some protective effects on mortality, due to a more metabolic reserve, higher levels of arterial pressure compatible with higher doses of cardioprotective medications, and a specific neuroendocrine profile with lower levels of circulating natriuretic atrial peptides, attenuated sympathetic nervous system and renin-angiotensin responses. For coronary heart disease and peripheral arterial disease the mechanisms are still uncertain. There are discussed a lesser severity of coronary lesions and left ventricular dysfunction, or a reduced prevalence of moderate-severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in patients selected for surgery. On the other hand, the constellation of data which supports purposeful weight reduction in the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular diseases, induces a controversial position regarding this new concept.

  16. Complex relationship of obesity and obesity paradox in heart failure - higher risk of developing heart failure and better outcomes in established heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alagiakrishnan, Kannayiram; Banach, Maciej; Ahmed, Ali; Aronow, Wilbert S

    2016-12-01

    Heart failure (HF) and obesity are major public health problems. Studies have shown that obesity may increase the risk of developing new HF but after patients have developed HF, obesity may be associated with improved outcomes. This paradoxical association of obesity with HF remains poorly understood. It is believed that the obesity paradox may in part be due to the inherent limitations of body mass index (BMI) as a measure of obesity. BMI may not appropriately measure important components of body mass like body fat, fat distribution, lean body mass, and body fluid content and may not be ideal for examining the relationship of body composition with health outcomes. Differentiating between body fat and lean body mass may explain some of the paradoxical association between higher BMI and better prognosis in patients with HF. Paradoxical outcomes in HF may also be due to phenotypes of obesity. Future studies need to develop and test metrics that may better measure body composition and may serve as a better tool for the estimation of the true association of obesity and outcomes in HF and determine whether the association may vary by obesity phenotypes. KEY MESSAGES Obesity predisposes to heart failure in all age groups. But obesity in heart failure is an area of controversy, because of obesity paradox, the apparent protective effect of overweight and mild obesity on mortality after development of heart failure. Traditional markers of obesity do not measure different components of body weight like muscle mass, fat, water, and skeletal weight. Body Mass Index in heart failure subjects does not measure accurately body fat or fluid retention. So new markers of obesity like visceral adiposity index, body composition analysis, sarcopenic status assessment may be helpful in the assessment of heart failure outcomes. Different phenotypes of obesity may be responsible for the different morbidity, mortality as well as therapeutic outcomes in heart failure.

  17. RENAL HISTOPATHOLOGICAL FINDINGS IN DOGS WITH VISCERAL LEISHMANIASIS

    OpenAIRE

    Rosangela Silva Rigo; Cristiano Marcelo Espínola Carvalho; Michael Robin Honer; Gisele Braziliano de Andrade; Iandara Shetter Silva; Leonardo Rigo; Helen Rezende Figueiredo; Wanessa Teixeira Gomes Barreto

    2013-01-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis affects various organs including the kidneys; which can lead to renal failure and death. In order to verify this renal involvement, material was evaluated from 100 dogs naturally infected and with serological diagnosis of canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL). Inflammatory changes were present in 25.3% of the tubules, in 67.0% of interstitium and in 52.0% of glomeruli. There was no significant difference (p > 0.05) between the presence of glomerulonephritis in symptomatic...

  18. Visceral and renal arteries stenosis associated with Takayasu arteritis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Ting; FU Wei-guo; CHEN Bin; SHI Zhen-yu; GUO Da-qiao; JIANG Jun-hao; YANG Jue

    2006-01-01

    @@ Takayasu arteritis (TA) is a nonspecific granulomatous inflammatory arteriopathy of unknown cause that results in occlusive obliteration or less commonly aneurysm degeneration of large and medium-sized elastic arteries. Most descriptions of this disease have emphasized the "pulseless"syndrome, however, less attention has been paid to involvement of other segments of the aorta, renal arteries, and in particular the visceral arteries. We reported a case of type Ⅱ TA, in which both the visceral and the bilateral renal arteries were involved.

  19. VLSI circuits for bidirectional interface to peripheral and visceral nerves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenwald, Elliot; Wang, Qihong; Thakor, Nitish V

    2015-08-01

    This paper presents an architecture for sensing nerve signals and delivering functional electrical stimulation to peripheral and visceral nerves. The design is based on the very large scale integration (VLSI) technology and amenable to interface to microelectrodes and building a fully implantable system. The proposed stimulator was tested on the vagus nerve and is under further evaluation and testing of various visceral nerves and their functional effects on the innervated organs.

  20. Emergency endovascular repair of ruptured visceral artery aneurysms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tang Tjun

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Visceral artery aneurysms although rare, have very high mortality if they rupture. Case presentation An interesting case of a bleeding inferior pancreaticduodenal artery aneurysm is reported in a young patient who presented with hypovolemic shock while being treated in the hospital after undergoing total knee replacement. Endovascular embolization was successfully employed to treat this patient, with early hospital discharge. Conclusion Prompt diagnosis and endovascular management of ruptured visceral aneuryms can decrease the associated mortality and morbidity.

  1. Inflammatory Mediators and Insulin Resistance in Obesity: Role of Nuclear Receptor Signaling in Macrophages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucía Fuentes

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Visceral obesity is coupled to a general low-grade chronic inflammatory state characterized by macrophage activation and inflammatory cytokine production, leading to insulin resistance (IR. The balance between proinflammatory M1 and antiinflammatory M2 macrophage phenotypes within visceral adipose tissue appears to be crucially involved in the development of obesity-associated IR and consequent metabolic abnormalities. The ligand-dependent transcription factors peroxisome proliferator activated receptors (PPARs have recently been implicated in the determination of the M1/M2 phenotype. Liver X receptors (LXRs, which form another subgroup of the nuclear receptor superfamily, are also important regulators of proinflammatory cytokine production in macrophages. Disregulation of macrophage-mediated inflammation by PPARs and LXRs therefore underlies the development of IR. This review summarizes the role of PPAR and LXR signaling in macrophages and current knowledge about the impact of these actions in the manifestation of IR and obesity comorbidities such as liver steatosis and diabetic osteopenia.

  2. Hyponatremia in visceral leishmaniasis Hiponatremia no calazar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederico A. Lima Verde

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available There are few reports linking hyponatremia and visceral leishmaniasis (kala-azar. This is a study of 55 consecutive kala-azar patients and 20 normal individuals as a control group. Hyponatremia and serum hypo-osmolality were detected in 100% of kala-azar patients. High first morning urine osmolality (750.0 ± 52.0 vs. 894.5 ± 30.0mOsm/kg H2O, p Existem poucos relatos relacionando hiponatremia com a leshmaniose visceral (calazar. Este é um estudo de 55 pacientes portadores de calazar e um grupo controle de 20 indivíduos normais. Hiponatremia e hipo-osmolalidade sérica foram detectados em 100% dos pacientes portadores de calazar. A presença de alta osmolalidade da primeira urina da manhã (750,0 ± 52,0 vs. 894,5 ± 30 mOsm/Kg H2O, p < 0,05 e da urina de 24h (426,0 ± 167,0 vs. 514,6 ± 132,0 mOsm/Kg H2O, p < 0,05, demonstraram a presença de persistente secreção de hormônio antidiurético. A concentração de sódio urinário foi elevada (82,3 ± 44,2 vs. 110,3 ± 34,7 mEq/L, p < 0,05. Hipouricemia ocorreu em 61,8% dos pacientes e aumento da fração de excreção urinária de ácido úrico foi detectada em 74,5% dos casos. Aumento da velocidade de filtração glomerular estava presente em 25,4% dos pacientes. Não havia evidência clínica de depleção de volume extracelular. Valores normais de ADH plasmático foram observados nos pacientes com calazar. Não foi detectada disfunção renal ou endócrina. É provável, que a maioria dos pacientes com calazar apresente uma síndrome de secreção inapropriada de hormônio antidiurético.

  3. Childhood obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heitmann, Berit L; Koplan, Jeffrey; Lissner, Lauren

    2009-01-01

    Despite progress toward assuring the health of today's young population, the 21(st) century began with an epidemic of childhood obesity. There is general agreement that the situation must be addressed by means of primary prevention, but relatively little is known about how to intervene effectively....... The evidence behind the assumption that childhood obesity can be prevented was discussed critically in this roundtable symposium. Overall, there was general agreement that action is needed and that the worldwide epidemic itself is sufficient evidence for action. As the poet, writer, and scholar Wittner Bynner...... (1881-1968) wrote, "The biggest problem in the world could have been solved when it was small"....

  4. Visceral and somatic pain modalities reveal NaV 1.7-independent visceral nociceptive pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hockley, James R F; González-Cano, Rafael; McMurray, Sheridan; Tejada-Giraldez, Miguel A; McGuire, Cian; Torres, Antonio; Wilbrey, Anna L; Cibert-Goton, Vincent; Nieto, Francisco R; Pitcher, Thomas; Knowles, Charles H; Baeyens, José Manuel; Wood, John N; Winchester, Wendy J; Bulmer, David C; Cendán, Cruz Miguel; McMurray, Gordon

    2017-01-20

    Voltage-gated sodium channel NaV 1.7 is required for acute and inflammatory pain in mice and humans but its significance for visceral pain is unknown. Here we examine the role of NaV 1.7 in visceral pain processing and the development of referred hyperalgesia using a conditional nociceptor-specific NaV 1.7 knockout mouse (NaV 1.7(Nav1.8) ) and selective small-molecule NaV 1.7 antagonist PF-5198007. NaV 1.7(Nav1.8) mice showed normal nociceptive behaviours to intracolonic application of either capsaicin or mustard oil, stimuli known to evoke sustained nociceptor activity and sensitization following tissue damage, respectively. Normal responses following induction of cystitis by cyclophosphamide were also observed in both NaV 1.7(Nav1.8) and littermate controls. Loss, or blockade, of NaV 1.7 did not affect afferent responses to noxious mechanical and chemical stimuli in nerve-gut preparations in mouse, or following antagonism of NaV 1.7 in resected human appendix stimulated by noxious distending pressures. However, expression analysis of voltage-gated sodium channel α subunits revealed NaV 1.7 mRNA transcripts in nearly all retrogradely-labelled colonic neurons suggesting redundancy in function. By contrast, using comparative somatic behavioral models we identify that genetic deletion of NaV 1.7 (in NaV 1.8-expressing neurons) regulates noxious heat pain threshold and that this can be recapitulated by the selective NaV 1.7 antagonist PF-5198007. Our data demonstrates that NaV 1.7 (in NaV 1.8-expressing neurons) contributes to defined pain pathways in a modality-dependent manner, modulating somatic noxious heat pain but is not required for visceral pain processing, and advocates that pharmacological block of NaV 1.7 alone in the viscera may be insufficient in targeting chronic visceral pain. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  5. n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and mechanisms to mitigate inflammatory paracrine signaling in obesity-associated breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monk, Jennifer M; Turk, Harmony F; Liddle, Danyelle M; De Boer, Anna A; Power, Krista A; Ma, David W L; Robinson, Lindsay E

    2014-10-30

    Globally, the prevalence of obesity is increasing which subsequently increases the risk of the development of obesity-related chronic diseases. Low-grade chronic inflammation and dysregulated adipose tissue inflammatory mediator/adipokine secretion are well-established in obesity, and these factors increase the risk of developing inflammation-associated cancer. Breast cancer is of particular interest given that increased inflammation within the subcutaneous mammary adipose tissue depot can alter the local tissue inflammatory microenvironment such that it resembles that of obese visceral adipose tissue. Therefore, in obese women with breast cancer, increased inflammatory mediators both locally and systemically can perpetuate inflammation-associated pro-carcinogenic signaling pathways, thereby increasing disease severity. Herein, we discuss some of these inflammation-associated pro-carcinogenic mechanisms of the combined obese breast cancer phenotype and offer evidence that dietary long chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) may have utility in mitigating the severity of obesity-associated inflammation and breast cancer.

  6. Human visceral leishmaniasis: a picture from Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdalmaula, Giuma Harun; Barbadoro, Pamela; Marigliano, Anna; Illuminati, Diego; Di Stanislao, Francesco; D'Errico, Marcello Mario; Prospero, Emilia

    2013-12-01

    The aim of our study was to describe the distribution of Visceral Leishmaniasis (VL) in Italy, focusing on HIV-infected patients, to estimate the burden of the disease and the public health actions that should be undertaken. A review of official notifications and hospitalization data has been performed. From 2006 to 2008, a total of 289 cases of VL were notified; the overall notification rate was 1.63/1,000,000 (95% CI 1.45-1.83). In total, 1192 VL-associated hospitalizations were detected, with a hospitalization rate of 6.71/1,000,000 (95% CI 6.34-7.10). For the age group "≤ 24 years", a statistically significant increase was detected (p<0.05). A total of 68.9% (n = 821) of hospitalizations were detected in HIV-positive patients. The geographic distribution of rates revealed a significant increase in the north-eastern area of the country. Our study confirms that the epidemiological pattern of VL is changing and that, in Italy, control measures and preventive strategies should be based on not only the official notification system but also hospital data. This would lead to the identification of areas of parasite spread and to the creation of awareness campaigns geared toward general practitioners in the affected areas. Easy case detection would allow for timely public health actions and strategies for the implementation of more effective interventions for reservoir control.

  7. Visceral-locomotory pistoning in crawling caterpillars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Michael A; Woods, William A; Serebrenik, Yevgeniy V; Simon, Sharotka M; van Griethuijsen, Linnea I; Socha, John J; Lee, Wah-Keat; Trimmer, Barry A

    2010-08-24

    Animals with an open coelom do not fully constrain internal tissues, and changes in tissue or organ position during body movements cannot be readily discerned from outside of the body. This complicates modeling of soft-bodied locomotion, because it obscures potentially important changes in the center of mass as a result of internal tissue movements. We used phase-contrast synchrotron X-ray imaging and transmission light microscopy to directly visualize internal soft-tissue movements in freely crawling caterpillars. Here we report a novel visceral-locomotory piston in crawling Manduca sexta larvae, in which the gut slides forward in advance of surrounding tissues. The initiation of gut sliding is synchronous with the start of the terminal prolegs' swing phase, suggesting that the animal's center of mass advances forward during the midabdominal prolegs' stance phase and is therefore decoupled from visible translations of the body. Based on synchrotron X-ray data and transmission light microscopy results, we present evidence for a two-body mechanical system with a nonlinear elastic gut that changes size and translates between the anterior and posterior of the animal. The proposed two-body system--the container and the contained--is unlike any form of legged locomotion previously reported and represents a new feature in our emerging understanding of crawling.

  8. Diet-induced obesity in zebrafish shares common pathophysiological pathways with mammalian obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shimada Yasuhito

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Obesity is a multifactorial disorder influenced by genetic and environmental factors. Animal models of obesity are required to help us understand the signaling pathways underlying this condition. Zebrafish possess many structural and functional similarities with humans and have been used to model various human diseases, including a genetic model of obesity. The purpose of this study was to establish a zebrafish model of diet-induced obesity (DIO. Results Zebrafish were assigned into two dietary groups. One group of zebrafish was overfed with Artemia (60 mg dry weight/day/fish, a living prey consisting of a relatively high amount of fat. The other group of zebrafish was fed with Artemia sufficient to meet their energy requirements (5 mg dry weight/day/fish. Zebrafish were fed under these dietary protocols for 8 weeks. The zebrafish overfed with Artemia exhibited increased body mass index, which was calculated by dividing the body weight by the square of the body length, hypertriglyceridemia and hepatosteatosis, unlike the control zebrafish. Calorie restriction for 2 weeks was applied to zebrafish after the 8-week overfeeding period. The increased body weight and plasma triglyceride level were improved by calorie restriction. We also performed comparative transcriptome analysis of visceral adipose tissue from DIO zebrafish, DIO rats, DIO mice and obese humans. This analysis revealed that obese zebrafish and mammals share common pathophysiological pathways related to the coagulation cascade and lipid metabolism. Furthermore, several regulators were identified in zebrafish and mammals, including APOH, IL-6 and IL-1β in the coagulation cascade, and SREBF1, PPARα/γ, NR1H3 and LEP in lipid metabolism. Conclusion We established a zebrafish model of DIO that shared common pathophysiological pathways with mammalian obesity. The DIO zebrafish can be used to identify putative pharmacological targets and to test novel drugs for the

  9. Comparison of Electroacupuncture and Moxibustion for Relieving Visceral Hypersensitivity in Rats with Constipation-Predominant Irritable Bowel Syndrome

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    Ji-Meng Zhao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To compare whether there is different effect between electroacupuncture (EA and moxibustion (Mox on visceral hypersensitivity (their analgesic effects in constipation-predominant irritable bowel syndrome (C-IBS. Methods. EA at 1 mA and 3 mA and Mox at 43°C and 46°C were applied to the Shangjuxu (ST37, bilateral acupoint in rats with C-IBS and normal rats. An abdominal withdrawal reflex (AWR score was used to assess visceral hypersensitivity. Toluidine blue staining was used to assess mast cell (MC activity in colon of rats. Immunochemistry was used to measure 5-HT and 5-HT4 receptor expression in the colon. Results. AWR scores in all EA (1 mA and 3 mA and Mox (43°C and 46°C treatment groups after colorectal distention (CRD stimulation pressure of 20, 40, 60, and 80 mmHg were significantly lower than those of the model (MC group (P all < 0.01. The MC counts and degranulation rates in the colon of all EA and Mox treatment groups and the MC group were significantly higher than those of the NC group (P all < 0.01. MC degranulation rates in the colon of all EA and Mox treatment groups were lower than those of the MC group (P all < 0.05. 5-HT expression in colon of all EA and Mox treatment groups was significantly lower than that of the MC group (P all < 0.01, and 5-HT4R expression in colon of both EA groups was significantly higher than that of the MC group (P both < 0.01. Conclusion. EA and Mox treatments may both ameliorate visceral hypersensitivity at different degree in rats with C-IBS, and EA treatment was better than Mox.

  10. Single-nucleotide polymorphisms and DNA methylation markers associated with central obesity and regulation of body weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goni, Leticia; Milagro, Fermín I; Cuervo, Marta; Martínez, J Alfredo

    2014-11-01

    Visceral fat is strongly associated with the development of specific obesity-related metabolic alterations. Genetic and epigenetic mechanisms seem to be involved in the development of obesity and visceral adiposity. The aims of this review are to identify the single-nucleotide polymorphisms related to central obesity and to summarize the main findings on DNA methylation and obesity. A search of the MEDLINE database was conducted to identify genome-wide association studies, meta-analyses of genome-wide association studies, and gene-diet interaction studies related to central obesity, and, in addition, studies that analyzed DNA methylation in relation to body weight regulation. A total of 8 genome-wide association studies and 9 meta-analyses of genome-wide association studies reported numerous single-nucleotide polymorphisms to be associated with central obesity. Ten studies analyzed gene-diet interactions and central obesity, while 2 epigenome-wide association studies analyzed DNA methylation patterns and obesity. Nine studies investigated the relationship between DNA methylation and weight loss, excess body weight, or adiposity outcomes. Given the development of new sequencing and omics technologies, significantly more knowledge on genomics and epigenomics of obesity and body fat distribution will emerge in the near future.

  11. Childhood Obesity

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2013-08-06

    In this podcast, Dr. Tom Frieden, CDC Director, discusses the decrease in childhood obesity rates and what strategies have been proven to work to help our children grow up and thrive.  Created: 8/6/2013 by National Center for Injury Prevention and Control.   Date Released: 3/6/2014.

  12. Anti-Obesity Effects of Aster spathulifolius Extract in High-Fat Diet-Induced Obese Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sa-Jic; Bang, Chae-Young; Guo, Yuan-Ri; Choung, Se-Young

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the anti-obesity and antihyperlipidemic efficacy and molecular mechanisms of Aster spathulifolius Maxim extract (ASE) in rats with high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity. Rats were separately fed a normal diet or a HFD for 8 weeks, then they were treated with ASE (62.5, 125, or 250 mg/kg) for another 4.5 weeks. The ASE supplementation significantly lowered body weight gain, visceral fat pad weights, serum lipid levels, as well as hepatic lipid levels in HFD-induced obese rats. Histological analysis showed that the ASE-treated group showed lowered numbers of lipid droplets and smaller size of adipocytes compared to the HFD group. To understand the mechanism of action of ASE, the expression of genes and proteins involved in obesity were measured in liver and skeletal muscle. The expression of fatty acid oxidation and thermogenesis-related genes (e.g., PPAR-α, ACO, CPT1, UCP2, and UCP3) of HFD-induced obese rats were increased by ASE treatment. On the other hand, ASE treatment resulted in decreased expression of fat intake-related gene ACC2 and lipogenesis-related genes (e.g., SREBP-1c, ACC1, FAS, SCD1, GPATR, AGPAT, and DGAT). Furthermore, ASE treatment increased the level of phosphorylated AMPKα in obese rats. Similarly, the level of phosphorylated ACC, a target protein of AMPKα in ASE groups, was increased by ASE treatment compared with the HFD group. These results suggest that ASE attenuated visceral fat accumulation and improved hyperlipidemia in HFD-induced obese rats by increasing lipid metabolism through the regulation of AMPK activity and the expression of genes and proteins involved in lipolysis and lipogenesis.

  13. A 12-week aerobic exercise program reduces hepatic fat accumulation and insulin resistance in obese, Hispanic adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The rise in obesity-related morbidity in children and adolescents requires urgent prevention and treatment strategies. Currently, only limited data are available on the effects of exercise programs on insulin resistance, and visceral, hepatic, and intramyocellular fat accumulation. We hypothesized t...

  14. Orlistat 60 mg reduces visceral adipose tissue: a 24-week randomized, placebo-controlled, multicenter trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Steven R; Stenlof, Kaj S; Greenway, Frank L; McHutchison, John; Schwartz, Susan M; Dev, Vidhu B; Berk, Evan S; Kapikian, Roxanne

    2011-09-01

    It is well established that abdominal obesity or upper body fat distribution is associated with increased risk of metabolic and cardiovascular disease. The purpose of the present study was to determine if a 24 week weight loss program with orlistat 60 mg in overweight subjects would produce a greater change in visceral adipose tissue (VAT) as measured by computed tomography (CT) scan, compared to placebo. The effects of orlistat 60 mg on changes in total fat mass (EchoMRI-AH and BIA), ectopic fat (CT) and glycemic variables were assessed. One-hundred thirty-one subjects were randomized into a multicenter, double-blind placebo controlled study in which 123 subjects received at least one post baseline efficacy measurement (intent-to-treat population). Both orlistat-and placebo-treated subjects significantly decreased their VAT at 24 weeks with a significantly greater loss of VAT by orlistat treated subjects (-15.7% vs. -9.4%, P orlistat-treated subjects had significantly greater weight loss (-5.93 kg vs. -3.94 kg, P orlistat 60 mg significantly reduces VAT in addition to total body fat compared to placebo treated subjects after a 24 week weight loss program. These results suggest that orlistat 60 mg may be an effective weight loss tool to reduce metabolic risk factors associated with abdominal obesity.

  15. Therapeutic potential of flurbiprofen against obesity in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosoi, Toru; Baba, Sachiko; Ozawa, Koichiro

    2014-06-20

    Obesity is associated with several diseases including diabetes, nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), hypertension, cardiovascular disease, and cancer. Therefore, anti-obesity drugs have the potential to prevent these diseases. In the present study, we demonstrated that flurbiprofen, a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID), exhibited therapeutic potency against obesity. Mice were fed a high-fat diet (HFD) for 6 months, followed by a normal-chow diet (NCD). The flurbiprofen treatment simultaneously administered. Although body weight was significantly decreased in flurbiprofen-treated mice, growth was not affected. Flurbiprofen also reduced the HFD-induced accumulation of visceral fat. Leptin resistance, which is characterized by insensitivity to the anti-obesity hormone leptin, is known to be involved in the development of obesity. We found that one of the possible mechanisms underlying the anti-obesity effects of flurbiprofen may have been mediated through the attenuation of leptin resistance, because the high circulating levels of leptin in HFD-fed mice were decreased in flurbiprofen-treated mice. Therefore, flurbiprofen may exhibit therapeutic potential against obesity by reducing leptin resistance.

  16. The pathophysiology of hypertension in patients with obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeMarco, Vincent G; Aroor, Annayya R; Sowers, James R

    2014-06-01

    The combination of obesity and hypertension is associated with high morbidity and mortality because it leads to cardiovascular and kidney disease. Potential mechanisms linking obesity to hypertension include dietary factors, metabolic, endothelial and vascular dysfunction, neuroendocrine imbalances, sodium retention, glomerular hyperfiltration, proteinuria, and maladaptive immune and inflammatory responses. Visceral adipose tissue also becomes resistant to insulin and leptin and is the site of altered secretion of molecules and hormones such as adiponectin, leptin, resistin, TNF and IL-6, which exacerbate obesity-associated cardiovascular disease. Accumulating evidence also suggests that the gut microbiome is important for modulating these mechanisms. Uric acid and altered incretin or dipeptidyl peptidase 4 activity further contribute to the development of hypertension in obesity. The pathophysiology of obesity-related hypertension is especially relevant to premenopausal women with obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus who are at high risk of developing arterial stiffness and endothelial dysfunction. In this Review we discuss the relationship between obesity and hypertension with special emphasis on potential mechanisms and therapeutic targeting that might be used in a clinical setting.

  17. Utilização de medidas antropométricas para a avaliação do acúmulo de gordura visceral The use of anthropometric measures to assess visceral fat accumulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Carolina Junqueira Vasques

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available A obesidade visceral tem sido associada ao desenvolvimento de doenças cardiovasculares e a alguns tipos de câncer. Nesse sentido, é crescente o interesse na avaliação da adiposidade intra-abdominal, de forma a se analisarem o risco de doenças e alterações metabólicas, como intolerância à glicose, hiperinsulinemia, diabetes mellitus tipo 2, dislipidemias e hipertensão arterial. Técnicas de imagem, como a tomografia computadorizada e a ressonância magnética, permitem a mensuração acurada e precisa da gordura visceral..Contudo, ambas são dispendiosas e inaplicáveis na prática clínica de rotina e nos estudos epidemiológicos..Parâmetros antro-pométricos surgem como uma opção para a avaliação da gordura visceral nessas situações, por serem inócuos, de fácil aplicação e de baixo custo. À luz dessas questões, este trabalho objetivou analisar criticamente estudos que avaliaram a pertinência em empregar parâmetros antropométricos como indicadores da gordura visceral. Realizou-se um levantamento bibliográfico, no qual foram consultados periódicos nacionais e internacionais disponíveis nas seguintes bases científicas: Portal de periódicos da Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior, Scientific Electronic Library Online, Science Direct e Pubmed, abrangendo publicações entre os anos de 1947 e 2007. Procurou-se dar ênfase aos parâmetros antropométricos, como o índice de massa corporal, a circunferência da cintura, a relação cintura-quadril e o diâmetro abdominal sagital.Visceral obesity has been associated with the development of cardiovascular diseases and some types of cancer. Therefore, there is an increasing interest in quantifying intra-abdominal adiposity in order to assess the risk of metabolic disorders, such as glucose intolerance, hyperinsulinemia, type 2 diabetes, dyslipidemia and hypertension. Imaging techniques such as computed tomography and magnetic resonance provide an

  18. Progression from high insulin resistance to type 2 diabetes does not entail additional visceral adipose tissue inflammation.

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    Nuria Barbarroja

    Full Text Available Obesity is associated with a low-grade chronic inflammation state. As a consequence, adipose tissue expresses pro-inflammatory cytokines that propagate inflammatory responses systemically elsewhere, promoting whole-body insulin resistance and consequential islet β-cell exhaustation. Thus, insulin resistance is considered the early stage of type 2 diabetes. However, there is evidence of obese individuals that never develop diabetes indicating that the mechanisms governing the association between the increase of inflammatory factors and type 2 diabetes are much more complex and deserve further investigation. We studied for the first time the differences in insulin signalling and inflammatory pathways in blood and visceral adipose tissue (VAT of 20 lean healthy donors and 40 equal morbidly obese (MO patients classified in high insulin resistance (high IR degree and diabetes state. We studied the changes in proinflammatory markers and lipid content from serum; macrophage infiltration, mRNA expression of inflammatory cytokines and transcription factors, activation of kinases involved in inflammation and expression of insulin signalling molecules in VAT. VAT comparison of these experimental groups revealed that type 2 diabetic-MO subjects exhibit the same pro-inflammatory profile than the high IR-MO patients, characterized by elevated levels of IL-1β, IL-6, TNFα, JNK1/2, ERK1/2, STAT3 and NFκB. Our work rules out the assumption that the inflammation should be increased in obese people with type 2 diabetes compared to high IR obese. These findings indicate that some mechanisms, other than systemic and VAT inflammation must be involved in the development of type 2 diabetes in obesity.

  19. Progression from high insulin resistance to type 2 diabetes does not entail additional visceral adipose tissue inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbarroja, Nuria; Lopez-Pedrera, Chary; Garrido-Sanchez, Lourdes; Mayas, Maria Dolores; Oliva-Olivera, Wilfredo; Bernal-Lopez, Maria Rosa; El Bekay, Rajaa; Tinahones, Francisco Jose

    2012-01-01

    Obesity is associated with a low-grade chronic inflammation state. As a consequence, adipose tissue expresses pro-inflammatory cytokines that propagate inflammatory responses systemically elsewhere, promoting whole-body insulin resistance and consequential islet β-cell exhaustation. Thus, insulin resistance is considered the early stage of type 2 diabetes. However, there is evidence of obese individuals that never develop diabetes indicating that the mechanisms governing the association between the increase of inflammatory factors and type 2 diabetes are much more complex and deserve further investigation. We studied for the first time the differences in insulin signalling and inflammatory pathways in blood and visceral adipose tissue (VAT) of 20 lean healthy donors and 40 equal morbidly obese (MO) patients classified in high insulin resistance (high IR) degree and diabetes state. We studied the changes in proinflammatory markers and lipid content from serum; macrophage infiltration, mRNA expression of inflammatory cytokines and transcription factors, activation of kinases involved in inflammation and expression of insulin signalling molecules in VAT. VAT comparison of these experimental groups revealed that type 2 diabetic-MO subjects exhibit the same pro-inflammatory profile than the high IR-MO patients, characterized by elevated levels of IL-1β, IL-6, TNFα, JNK1/2, ERK1/2, STAT3 and NFκB. Our work rules out the assumption that the inflammation should be increased in obese people with type 2 diabetes compared to high IR obese. These findings indicate that some mechanisms, other than systemic and VAT inflammation must be involved in the development of type 2 diabetes in obesity.

  20. Obesity, inflammation and the immune system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Heredia, Fátima Pérez; Gómez-Martínez, Sonia; Marcos, Ascensión

    2012-05-01

    Obesity shares with most chronic diseases the presence of an inflammatory component, which accounts for the development of metabolic disease and other associated health alterations. This inflammatory state is reflected in increased circulating levels of pro-inflammatory proteins, and it occurs not only in adults but also in adolescents and children. The chronic inflammatory response has its origin in the links existing between the adipose tissue and the immune system. Obesity, like other states of malnutrition, is known to impair the immune function, altering leucocyte counts as well as cell-mediated immune responses. In addition, evidence has arisen that an altered immune function contributes to the pathogenesis of obesity. This review attempts to briefly comment on the various plausible explanations that have been proposed for the phenomenon: (1) the obesity-associated increase in the production of leptin (pro-inflammatory) and the reduction in adiponectin (anti-inflammatory) seem to affect the activation of immune cells; (2) NEFA can induce inflammation through various mechanisms (such as modulation of adipokine production or activation of Toll-like receptors); (3) nutrient excess and adipocyte expansion trigger endoplasmic reticulum stress; and (4) hypoxia occurring in hypertrophied adipose tissue stimulates the expression of inflammatory genes and activates immune cells. Interestingly, data suggest a greater impact of visceral adipose tissue and central obesity, rather than total body fat, on the inflammatory process. In summary, there is a positive feedback loop between local inflammation in adipose tissue and altered immune response in obesity, both contributing to the development of related metabolic complications.

  1. Pathophysiological mechanisms linking obesity and esophageal adenocarcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Leo; Alexandre; Elizabeth; Long; Ian; LP; Beales

    2014-01-01

    In recent decades there has been a dramatic rise in the incidence of esophageal adenocarcinoma(EAC) in the developed world. Over approximately the same period there has also been an increase in the prevalence of obesity. Obesity, especially visceral obesity, is an important independent risk factor for the development of gastro-esophageal reflux disease, Barrett’s esophagus and EAC. Although the simplest explanation is that this mediated by the mechanical effects of abdominal obesity promoting gastro-esophageal reflux, the epidemiological data suggest that the EAC-promoting effects are independent of reflux. Several, not mutually exclusive, mechanisms have been implicated, which may have different effects at various points along the refluxBarrett’s-cancer pathway. These mechanisms include a reduction in the prevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection enhancing gastric acidity and possibly appetite byincreasing gastric ghrelin secretion, induction of both low-grade systemic inflammation by factors secreted by adipose tissue and the metabolic syndrome with insulin-resistance. Obesity is associated with enhanced secretion of leptin and decreased secretion of adiponectin from adipose tissue and both increased leptin and decreased adiponectin have been shown to be independent risk factors for progression to EAC. Leptin and adiponectin have a set of mutually antagonistic actions on Barrett’s cells which appear to influence the progression of malignant behaviour. At present no drugs are of proven benefit to prevent obesity associated EAC. Roux-en-Y reconstruction is the preferred bariatric surgical option for weight loss in patients with reflux. Statins and aspirin may have chemopreventative effects and are indicated for their circulatory benefits.

  2. Laboratory diagnosis of human visceral leishmaniasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hercules Sakkas

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Visceral leishmaniasis (VL, caused by the Leishmania donovani complex, is a vector-borne systemic disease, with a worldwide distribution causing high morbidity and mortality in the developing world. VL patients may be asymptomatic or they may present symptoms and findings of a systemic infection. The positive predictive value of clinical diagnosis in patients with typical symptoms is usually high, but more often, the signs and symptoms are inconclusive and mistaken with other co-endemic diseases. The fact that HIV co-infections often produce atypical presentations and the heterogeneity of Leishmania species, which is common in many endemic regions, also complicate the diagnosis. Despite that, some of the parasitological methods are still considered to be the reference standard for VL diagnosis due to their specificity. The development of serological and molecular tests has further enhanced the diagnostic approach of VL. Recombinant antigens have improved the performance of serodiagnostic tests, with DAT and the rK39 antigen based immunochromatographic test being the most appropriate methods for the serological diagnosis of VL. Molecular techniques, despite the fact that their implementation is often difficult and infeasible, have become increasingly relevant due to remarkable sensitivity and specificity, and to the variability of tested samples. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR has been shown to be superior than conventional PCR for the differentiation between active VL and asymptomatic infections, such as for the detection of VL-HIV coinfection. This review summarizes the available methods with their applications in the diagnosis of VL, and focuses on the recent developments in VL diagnostics.

  3. Acupuncture for Visceral Pain: Neural Substrates and Potential Mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuping Chen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Visceral pain is the most common form of pain caused by varied diseases and a major reason for patients to seek medical consultation. Despite much advances, the pathophysiological mechanism is still poorly understood comparing with its somatic counterpart and, as a result, the therapeutic efficacy is usually unsatisfactory. Acupuncture has long been used for the management of numerous disorders in particular pain and visceral pain, characterized by the high therapeutic benefits and low adverse effects. Previous findings suggest that acupuncture depresses pain via activation of a number of neurotransmitters or modulators including opioid peptides, serotonin, norepinephrine, and adenosine centrally and peripherally. It endows us, by advancing the understanding of the role of ion channels and gut microbiota in pain process, with novel perspectives to probe the mechanisms underlying acupuncture analgesia. In this review, after describing the visceral innervation and the relevant afferent pathways, in particular the ion channels in visceral nociception, we propose three principal mechanisms responsible for acupuncture induced benefits on visceral pain. Finally, potential topics are highlighted regarding the future studies in this field.

  4. Galectin-3 In Obesity And Type 2 Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pejnovic Nada

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Galectin-3 is an important regulator of inflammation and acts as a receptor for advanced-glycation (AGE and lipoxidation end-products (ALE. Evidence indicates a significant upregulation in circulating levels and visceral adipose tissue production of Galectin-3 in obesity and type 2 diabetes. Recent studies demonstrate development of obesity and dysregulation of glucose metabolism in Galectin-3 “knockout” (KO mice, which also develop accelerated and more severe pathology in models of atherosclerosis and metabolically-induced kidney damage. Thus, evidence that Galectin-3 is an important player in metabolic disease is accumulating. This review discusses current evidence on the connection between Galectin-3 and metabolic disease, focusing on mechanisms by which this galectin modulates adiposity, glucose metabolism and obesity-associated inflammatory responses.

  5. Fucoidan Extracts Ameliorate Acute Colitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lean, Qi Ying; Eri, Rajaraman D; Fitton, J Helen; Patel, Rahul P; Gueven, Nuri

    2015-01-01

    Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), such as ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease, are an important cause of morbidity and impact significantly on quality of life. Overall, current treatments do not sustain a long-term clinical remission and are associated with adverse effects, which highlight the need for new treatment options. Fucoidans are complex sulphated, fucose-rich polysaccharides, found in edible brown algae and are described as having multiple bioactivities including potent anti-inflammatory effects. Therefore, the therapeutic potential of two different fucoidan preparations, fucoidan-polyphenol complex (Maritech Synergy) and depyrogenated fucoidan (DPF) was evaluated in the dextran sulphate sodium (DSS) mouse model of acute colitis. Mice were treated once daily over 7 days with fucoidans via oral (Synergy or DPF) or intraperitoneal administration (DPF). Signs and severity of colitis were monitored daily before colons and spleens were collected for macroscopic evaluation, cytokine measurements and histology. Orally administered Synergy and DPF, but not intraperitoneal DPF treatment, significantly ameliorated symptoms of colitis based on retention of body weight, as well as reduced diarrhoea and faecal blood loss, compared to the untreated colitis group. Colon and spleen weight in mice treated with oral fucoidan was also significantly lower, indicating reduced inflammation and oedema. Histological examination of untreated colitis mice confirmed a massive loss of crypt architecture and goblet cells, infiltration of immune cells and oedema, while all aspects of this pathology were alleviated by oral fucoidan. Importantly, in this model, the macroscopic changes induced by oral fucoidan correlated significantly with substantially decreased production of at least 15 pro-inflammatory cytokines by the colon tissue. Overall, oral fucoidan preparations significantly reduce the inflammatory pathology associated with DSS-induced colitis and could therefore represent

  6. Obesity & osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Lauren K; March, Lyn; Anandacoomarasamy, Ananthila

    2013-01-01

    The most significant impact of obesity on the musculoskeletal system is associated with osteoarthritis (OA), a disabling degenerative joint disorder characterized by pain, decreased mobility and negative impact on quality of life. OA pathogenesis relates to both excessive joint loading and altered biomechanical patterns together with hormonal and cytokine dysregulation. Obesity is associated with the incidence and progression of OA of both weight-bearing and non weight-bearing joints, to rate of joint replacements as well as operative complications. Weight loss in OA can impart clinically significant improvements in pain and delay progression of joint structural damage. Further work is required to determine the relative contributions of mechanical and metabolic factors in the pathogenesis of OA.

  7. Obesity & osteoarthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauren K King

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The most significant impact of obesity on the musculoskeletal system is associated with osteoarthritis (OA, a disabling degenerative joint disorder characterized by pain, decreased mobility and negative impact on quality of life. OA pathogenesis relates to both excessive joint loading and altered biomechanical patterns together with hormonal and cytokine dysregulation. Obesity is associated with the incidence and progression of OA of both weight-bearing and non weight-bearing joints, to rate of joint replacements as well as operative complications. Weight loss in OA can impart clinically significant improvements in pain and delay progression of joint structural damage. Further work is required to determine the relative contributions of mechanical and metabolic factors in the pathogenesis of OA.

  8. Correlation between obesity and chronic kidney disease: is obstructive sleep apnea an interfering factor?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santos-Camilo M

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Mariana Santos-Camilo, Stefanie Pires Arães, Camila Hirotsu, Sergio Tufik, Monica Levy Andersen Department of Psychobiology, Universidade Federal de São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil The increasing prevalence of obesity can be considered an alarming issue throughout the world.1 In only 4 years, for example, the People’s Republic of China has experienced an increase in the overweight population from 29.1% to 34.4%.2 Therefore, we would like to congratulate Xu et al3 for conducting an elegant study on a less explored topic: the accumulation of visceral fat in kidney disease. The rise in obesity may result, at least in part, from changes in lifestyle, currently characterized by sedentary, poor eating, and sleep habits. The reduction in sleep duration is known to predispose individuals to obesity by increasing the white adipose tissue deposits such as visceral fat.4,5 Of note, obesity and visceral fat accumulation are etiopathological factors for both chronic kidney disease (CKD and sleep disorders.6,7  View the original paper by Xu et al

  9. New obesity indices and adipokines in normotensive patients and patients with hypertension: comparative pilot analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepien, Mariusz; Stepien, Anna; Banach, Maciej; Wlazel, Rafal N; Paradowski, Marek; Rizzo, Manfredi; Toth, Peter P; Rysz, Jacek

    2014-04-01

    We compared the obesity parameters and selected adipokines-leptin, adiponectin, and resistin-in obese patients with hypertension and normotensive patients. A total of 67 nondiabetic obese outpatients were divided into 2 groups: A-hypertensive and B-normotensive. Serum levels of leptin, adiponectin, resistin, and insulin were measured. Weight, height, waist circumference, and hip circumference were measured to calculate waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), weight-to-height ratio, visceral adiposity index, and body adiposity index (BAI). Among patients with hypertension, significant positive correlations were observed between leptin and body mass index and BAI (r = .31 and r = .63, respectively). In normotensive patients, leptin positively correlated with BAI (r = .73, P obesity and leptin are associated with hypertension in obese patients.

  10. The role of the sympathetic nervous system in obesity-related hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Alexandre A; do Carmo, Jussara; Dubinion, John; Hall, John E

    2009-06-01

    Obesity is recognized as a major health problem throughout the world. Excess weight is a major cause of increased blood pressure in most patients with essential hypertension and greatly increases the risk for diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, and end-stage renal disease. Although the mechanisms by which obesity raises blood pressure are not completely understood, increased renal sodium reabsorption, impaired pressure natriuresis, and volume expansion appear to play important roles. Several potential mechanisms have been suggested to contribute to altered kidney function and hypertension in obesity, including activation of the sympathetic nervous system and the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, as well as physical compression of the kidneys, especially when visceral obesity is present. Activation of the sympathetic nervous system in obesity may be due, in part, to hyperleptinemia and other factors secreted by adipocytes and the gastrointestinal tract, activation of the central nervous system melanocortin pathway, and baroreceptor dysfunction.

  11. Exercise Ameliorates High Fat Diet Induced Cardiac Dysfunction by Increasing Interleukin 10

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varun eKesherwani

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Increasing evidence suggests that a sedentary lifestyle and a high fat diet (HFD leads to cardiomyopathy. Moderate exercise ameliorates cardiac dysfunction, however underlying molecular mechanisms are poorly understood. Increased inflammation due to induction of pro-inflammatory cytokine such as tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α and attenuation of anti-inflammatory cytokine such as interleukin10 (IL-10 contributes to cardiac dysfunction in obese and diabetics. We hypothesized that exercise training ameliorates HFD- induced cardiac dysfunction by mitigating obesity and inflammation through upregulation of IL-10 and downregulation of TNF-α. To test this hypothesis, eight week old, female C57BL/6J mice were fed with HFD and exercised (swimming 1hr/day for 5 days/week for eight weeks. The four treatment groups: normal diet (ND, HFD, HFD + exercise (HFD + Ex and ND + Ex were analyzed for mean body weight, blood glucose level, TNF-α, IL-10, cardiac fibrosis by Masson Trichrome, and cardiac dysfunction by echocardiography. Mean body weights were increased in HFD but comparatively less in HFD + Ex. The level of TNF-α was elevated and IL-10 was downregulated in HFD but ameliorated in HFD + Ex. Cardiac fibrosis increased in HFD and was attenuated by exercise in the HFD + Ex group. The percentage ejection fraction and fractional shortening were decreased in HFD but comparatively increased in HFD + Ex. There was no difference between ND and ND + Ex for the above parameters except an increase in IL-10 level following exercise. Based on these results, we conclude that exercise mitigates HFD- induced cardiomyopathy by decreasing obesity, inducing IL-10, and reducing TNF-α in mice.

  12. Tuberous sclerosis with visceral leishmaniasis: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pandey Krishna

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Visceral leishmaniasis, a tropical infectious disease, is a major public health problem in India. Tuberous sclerosis, a congenital neuro-ectodermosis, is an uncommon disease which requires life long treatment. Case presentation A 15-year-old Indian patient, presented to the outpatient department of our institute with a high-grade fever for two months, splenomegaly and a history of generalized tonic-clonic convulsions since childhood. The clinical and laboratory findings suggested visceral leishmaniasis with tuberous sclerosis. The patient was treated with miltefosine and antiepileptics. Conclusion The patient responded well and in a follow up six months after presentation, she was found free of visceral leishmaniasis and seizures. Diagnosis and treatment of this rare combination of diseases is difficult.

  13. Visceral metabolism and efficiency of energy use by ruminants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kozloski Gilberto Vilmar

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The visceral system (liver and portal-drained viscera represents an interface between diet and the animal, and it acts as the main site of regulation of nutrients that are used for maintenance, growth, lactation, reproduction, and physical activities of animals. However the functions carried out by visceral organs have, however, a significant energetic cost and are influenced by a variety of factors, such as the level of feed intake and diet composition, among others. As a result, variable quantities of substances are metabolized by them and, thus, the pattern and the quantity of nutrients available to the peripheral tissues can be quite different from those absorbed at the intestinal lumen. Probably, the major source of variation in the efficiency of utilization of metabolizable energy among feeds is associated mainly with visceral metabolism and it is unlikely that the ratio ketogenic/glucogenic of absorbed substances has determinant effect under physiological conditions.

  14. Visceral and somatic hypersensitivity in TNBS-induced colitis in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, QiQi; Price, Donald D; Caudle, Robert M; Verne, G Nicholas

    2008-02-01

    Inflammation of visceral structures in rats has been shown to produce visceral/somatic hyperalgesia. Our objectives were to determine if trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS) induced colitis in rats leads to visceral/somatic hypersensitivity. Male Sprague-Dawley rats (200-250 g) were treated with 20 mg of TNBS in 50% ethanol (n = 40) or an equivalent volume of ethanol (n = 40) or saline (n = 25) via the colon. Colonic distension, Von Frey, Hargreaves, and tail reflex tests were used to evaluate for visceral, mechanical, and thermal sensitivity. The rats demonstrated visceral hypersensitivity at 2-28 days following TNBS administration (P rats also demonstrated visceral hypersensitivity that resolved after day 14. TNBS-treated rats demonstrated somatic hypersensitivity at days 14-28 (P TNBS colitis is associated with visceral and somatic hypersensitivity in areas of somatotopic overlap. This model of colitis should allow further investigation into the mechanisms of visceral and somatic hypersensitivity.

  15. Cannabinoid CB1 receptor expression in relation to visceral adipose depots, endocannabinoid levels, microvascular damage, and the presence of the Cnr1 A3813G variant in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bordicchia, Marica; Battistoni, Ilaria; Mancinelli, Lucia; Giannini, Elena; Refi, Giada; Minardi, Daniele; Muzzonigro, Giovanni; Mazzucchelli, Roberta; Montironi, Rodolfo; Piscitelli, Fabiana; Petrosino, Stefania; Dessì-Fulgheri, Paolo; Rappelli, Alessandro; Di Marzo, Vincenzo; Sarzani, Riccardo

    2010-05-01

    Dysregulation of the endocannabinoid system in the visceral adipose tissue (VAT) is associated with metabolic and cardiovascular complications of obesity. We studied perirenal VAT CB1 receptor expression in relation to anthropometry, VAT area and endocannabinoid levels, kidney microvascular damage (MVDa), and the presence of the CB1 gene A3813G variant, the frequency of which was also evaluated in a large population of obese-hypertensive (OH) patients with or without the metabolic syndrome (MetS). Perirenal VAT and kidney samples were obtained from 30 patients undergoing renal surgery. Total and perirenal VAT areas were determined by computed tomography. CB1 messenger RNA expression and endocannabinoid levels in perirenal VAT were determined by quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, respectively. The MVDa was evaluated in healthy portions of kidney cortex. The A3813G alleles were identified by genotyping in these patients and in 280 nondiabetic OH patients (age endocannabinoid anandamide. A 2-fold higher CB1 expression was associated with MVDa. The OH patients with the A3813G allele had lower prevalence of MetS in both unadjusted and adjusted models. Genetics influence perirenal VAT CB1 expression and the prevalence of MetS in OH. Increased VAT is associated with increased perirenal VAT endocannabinoid tone, which in turn correlates with increased MVDa. Endocannabinoid overactivity might be involved in human visceral obesity and its renal complications.

  16. Subsets of Visceral Adipose Tissue Nuclei with Distinct Levels of 5-Hydroxymethylcytosine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Ping; Ji, Lexiang; Lee, Kevin J; Yu, Miao; He, Chuan; Ambati, Suresh; McKinney, Elizabeth C; Jackson, Crystal; Baile, Clifton A; Schmitz, Robert J; Meagher, Richard B

    2016-01-01

    The reprogramming of cellular memory in specific cell types, and in visceral adipocytes in particular, appears to be a fundamental aspect of obesity and its related negative health outcomes. We explored the hypothesis that adipose tissue contains epigenetically distinct subpopulations of adipocytes that are differentially potentiated to record cellular memories of their environment. Adipocytes are large, fragile, and technically difficult to efficiently isolate and fractionate. We developed fluorescence nuclear cytometry (FNC) and fluorescence activated nuclear sorting (FANS) of cellular nuclei from visceral adipose tissue (VAT) using the levels of the pan-adipocyte protein, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma-2 (PPARg2), to distinguish classes of PPARg2-Positive (PPARg2-Pos) adipocyte nuclei from PPARg2-Negative (PPARg2-Neg) leukocyte and endothelial cell nuclei. PPARg2-Pos nuclei were 10-fold enriched for most adipocyte marker transcripts relative to PPARg2-Neg nuclei. PPARg2-Pos nuclei showed 2- to 50-fold higher levels of transcripts encoding most of the chromatin-remodeling factors assayed, which regulate the methylation of histones and DNA cytosine (e.g., DNMT1, TET1, TET2, KDM4A, KMT2C, SETDB1, PAXIP1, ARID1A, JMJD6, CARM1, and PRMT5). PPARg2-Pos nuclei were large with decondensed chromatin. TAB-seq demonstrated 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC) levels were remarkably dynamic in gene bodies of various classes of VAT nuclei, dropping 3.8-fold from the highest quintile of expressed genes to the lowest. In short, VAT-derived adipocytes appear to be more actively remodeling their chromatin than non-adipocytes.

  17. Obesity and asthma: beyond T(H)2 inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leiria, Luiz O S; Martins, Milton A; Saad, Mário J A

    2015-02-01

    Obesity is a major risk factor for asthma. Likewise, obesity is known to increase disease severity in asthmatic subjects and also to impair the efficacy of first-line treatment medications for asthma, worsening asthma control in obese patients. This concept is in agreement with the current understanding that some asthma phenotypes are not accompanied by detectable inflammation, and may not be ameliorated by classical anti-inflammatory therapy. There are growing evidences suggesting that the obesity-related asthma phenotype does not necessarily involve the classical T(H)2-dependent inflammatory process. Hormones involved in glucose homeostasis and in the pathogeneses of obesity likely directly or indirectly link obesity and asthma through inflammatory and non-inflammatory pathways. Furthermore, the endocrine regulation of the airway-related pre-ganglionic nerves likely contributes to airway hyperreactivity (AHR) in obese states. In this review, we focused our efforts on understanding the mechanism underlying obesity-related asthma by exploring the T(H)2-independent mechanisms leading to this disease.

  18. Obesity and Hispanic Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Data > Minority Population Profiles > Hispanic/Latino > Obesity Obesity and Hispanic Americans Among Mexican American women, 77 ... ss6304.pdf [PDF | 3.38MB] HEALTH IMPACT OF OBESITY More than 80 percent of people with type ...

  19. Obesity Hypoventilation Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. What Is Obesity Hypoventilation Syndrome? Obesity hypoventilation (HI-po-ven-tih- ... NHLBI Research Featured in HBO Documentary Series on Obesity Hear people talk about their challenges and successes ...

  20. Obesity and African Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Data > Minority Population Profiles > Black/African American > Obesity Obesity and African Americans African American women have the ... ss6304.pdf [PDF | 3.38MB] HEALTH IMPACT OF OBESITY More than 80 percent of people with type ...

  1. Obesity and Asian Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Data > Minority Population Profiles > Asian American > Obesity Obesity and Asian Americans Non-Hispanic whites are 60% ... youthonline . [Accessed 05/25/2016] HEALTH IMPACT OF OBESITY More than 80 percent of people with type ...

  2. Childhood Obesity Facts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Breastfeeding Micronutrient Malnutrition State and Local Programs Childhood Obesity Facts Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir On ... Children (WIC) Program, 2000–2014 Prevalence of Childhood Obesity in the United States, 2011-2014 Childhood obesity ...

  3. Epidemiology of visceral leishmaniasis in Georgia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giorgi Babuadze

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the transmission and prevalence of Leishmania parasite infection of humans in two foci of Visceral Leishmaniasis (VL in Georgia, the well known focus in Tbilisi in the East, and in Kutaisi, a new focus in the West of the country. The seroprevalence of canine leishmaniasis was investigated in order to understand the zoonotic transmission. Blood samples of 1575 dogs (stray and pet and 77 wild canids were tested for VL by Kalazar Detect rK39 rapid diagnostic tests. Three districts were investigated in Tbilisi and one in Kutaisi. The highest proportions of seropositive pet dogs were present in District #2 (28.1%, 82/292 and District #1 (26.9%, 24/89 in Tbilisi, compared to 17.3% (26/150 of pet dogs in Kutaisi. The percentage of seropositive stray dogs was also twice as high in Tbilisi (16.1%, n = 670 than in Kutaisi (8%, n = 50; only 2/58 wild animals screened were seropositive (2. 6%. A total of 873 Phlebotomine sand flies were collected, with 5 different species identified in Tbilisi and 3 species in Kutaisi; 2.3% of the females were positive for Leishmania parasites. The Leishmanin Skin Test (LST was performed on 981 human subjects in VL foci in urban areas in Tbilisi and Kutaisi. A particularly high prevalence of LST positives was observed in Tbilisi District #1 (22.2%, 37.5% and 19.5% for ages 5-9, 15-24 and 25-59, respectively; lower prevalence was observed in Kutaisi (0%, 3.2% and 5.2%, respectively; P<0.05. This study shows that Tbilisi is an active focus for leishmaniasis and that the infection prevalence is very high in dogs and in humans. Although exposure is as yet not as high in Kutaisi, this is a new VL focus. The overall situation in the country is alarming and new control measures are urgently needed.

  4. Drug resistance in Indian visceral leishmaniasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundar, S

    2001-11-01

    Throughout the world, pentavalent antimonial compounds (Sb(v)) have been the mainstay of antileishmanial therapy for more than 50 years. Sb(v) has been highly effective in the treatment of Indian visceral leishmaniasis (VL: kala-azar) at a low dose (10 mg/kg) for short durations (6-10 days). But in the early 1980s reports of its ineffectiveness emerged, and the dose of Sb(v) was eventually raised to 20 mg/kg for 30-40 days. This regimen cures most patients with VL except in India, where the proportion of patients unresponsive to Sb(v) has steadily increased. In hyperendemic districts of north Bihar, 50-65% patients fail treatment with Sb(v). Important reasons are rampant use of subtherapeutic doses, incomplete duration of treatment and substandard drugs. In vitro experiments have established emergence of Sb(v) resistant strains of Leishmania donovani, as isolates from unresponsive patients require 3-5 times more Sb(v) to reach similarly effectiveness against the parasite as in Sb(v) responders. Anthroponotic transmission in India has been an important factor in rapid increase in the Sb(v) refractoriness. Pentamidine was the first drug to be used and cured 99% of these refractory patients, but over time even with double the amount of initial doses, it cures only 69-78% patients now and its use has largely been abandoned in India. Despite several disadvantages, amphotericin B is the only drug available for use in these areas and should be used as first-line drug instead of Sb(v). The new oral antileishmanial drug miltefosine is likely to be the first-line drug in future. Unfortunately, development of newer antileishmanial drugs is rare; two promising drugs, aminosidine and sitamaquine, may be developed for use in the treatment of VL. Lipid associated amphotericin B has an excellent safety and efficacy profile, but remains out of reach for most patients because of its high cost.

  5. Management of visceral leishmaniasis with therapeutic vaccines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rawat K

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Keerti Rawat,1 Narendra K Yadav,1 Sumit Joshi,1 Sneha Ratnapriya,1 Amogh A Sahasrabuddhe,2 Anuradha Dube1 1Division of Parasitology, 2Division of Molecular and Structural Biology, Council of Scientific and Industrial Research-Central Drug Research Institute, Lucknow, India Abstract: Visceral leishmaniasis (VL, a phlebotomine-borne neglected tropical disease, is caused by parasites of the Leishmania donovani complex. While L. donovani infection is restricted to the Indian subcontinent and East Africa, where transmission is anthroponotic, Leishmania infantum occurs in Europe, North Africa, and parts of Latin America, where it is zoonotic in nature with dogs as reservoir hosts. Though the incidence of VL caused by L. infantum has been on the decline, L. donovani continues to cause epidemics periodically. By and large, a small proportion of L. donovani infection manifests as clinical disease but majority of the infected individuals remain asymptomatic and contribute to the perpetuation of the VL transmission cycle via the sand fly vector. This is one of the major stumbling blocks to World Health Organization initiatives to eliminate this deadly disease by 2020. These parasites reside within the host macrophages and impair the immune system of the infected individual, which ultimately results in marked immunosuppression. In the absence of any safe and effective vector control measure, attempts have been made to design therapeutic vaccine(s that can exclusively target infected macrophages. So far, two vaccines – a glycoprotein complex from L. donovani promastigote, fucose–mannose ligand with saponin, commercialized as Leishmune®, as well as a polyprotein vaccine formulation, Leish-111f + monophosphoryl lipid A plus squalene emulsion in combination with glucantime, have been successfully evaluated for their immunotherapeutic potential against canine VL. However, encouraging results obtained from several experimental trials so far against human VL

  6. Pediatric visceral leishmaniasis in northwest of Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdinia, Babak; Oliaei-Motlagh, Mohammad; Teimouri-Dereshki, Amir

    2016-11-01

    Leishmaniasis is one of the major health problems in Iran. Although the incidence of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is reported almost everywhere, the northwestern Iran is one of the major endemic regions.To do this study, clinical, laboratory as well as disease characteristics of children admitted to Children Cure and Health Hospital, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, were examined as the reference hospital for the treatment of VL in northwestern Iran.In this study, 156 children hospitalized in a pediatric hospital from 2000 to 2015 for VL were included. Gender, age, anemia, thrombocytopenia, increase in the erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), alanine transaminase (SGPT), and aspartate transaminase (SGOT), major clinical manifestations such as fever, splenomegaly, hepatomegaly, treatment type, and the disease were studied.Among 156 patients examined in this study, 88 (56.41%) and 68 (43.59%) participants were male and female, respectively. The minimum and maximum ages of the infection were 4.5 months and 6 years, respectively. The mean age of the infected children was 17.94 months. Fever (94.24%) and splenomegaly (86.53%) were the most common symptoms of this disease among children. In addition, 49 (31.41%), 64 (41.02%), 18 (11.53%), 33 (21.15%), and 40 (25.64%) participants had leukopenia, hemoglobin count below 8, ESR above 100, ESR above 60, and platelets below 100,000, respectively. Moreover, 39 (25%) and 17 (10.89%) patients had high aspartate transaminase (AST) and alanine transaminase (ALT). Also, 96.2% of the participants responded to the treatment with glucantime. The rate of mortality in this study was 3.2%.Clinically, almost all children had fever and splenomegaly at the onset of the disease. In addition, hepatic involvement was observed in all cases of mortality, cases with a lack of initial response, and those in need of auxiliary medication. Hepatic involvement appears to be related to the prognosis of the disease. In our study, bone marrow

  7. Functional dyspepsia: the role of visceral hypersensitivity in its pathogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keohane, John; Quigley, Eamonn M M

    2006-05-01

    Functional, or non-ulcer, dyspepsia (FD) is one of the most common reasons for referral to gastroenterologists. It is associated with significant morbidity and impaired quality of life. Many authorities believe that functional dyspepsia and irritable bowel syndrome represent part of the spectrum of the same disease process. The pathophysiology of FD remains unclear but several theories have been proposed including visceral hypersensitivity, gastric motor dysfunction, Helicobacter pylori infection and psychosocial factors. In this review, we look at the evidence, to date, for the role of visceral hypersensitivity in the aetiology of FD.

  8. Functional dyspepsia: The role of visceral hypersensitivity in its pathogenesis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    John Keohane; Eamonn M M Quigley

    2006-01-01

    Functional, or non-ulcer, dyspepsia (FD) is one of the most common reasons for referral to gastroenterologists.It is associated with significant morbidity and impaired quality of life. Many authorities believe that functional dyspepsia and irritable bowel syndrome represent part of the spectrum of the same disease process.The pathophysiology of FD remains unclear but several theories have been proposed including visceral hypersensitivity, gastric motor dysfunction, Helicobacter pylori infection and psychosocial factors. In this review,we look at the evidence, to date, for the role of visceral hypersensitivity in the aetiology of FD.

  9. Visceral leishmaniasis diagnosed in a patient with MALT lymphoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaae, Jeanette; Nørgaard, Peter; Himmelstrup, B

    2007-01-01

    We report a case of visceral leishmaniasis in a 66-year-old female with a history of MALT lymphoma in the gastrointestinal tract. The patient presented with major hemorrhage per rectum and perforation of the small intestine. Due to unexplained decreasing platelets, lymphoma bone marrow involvement...... was suspected and bone marrow examination was performed. Surprisingly, Leishman-Donovan bodies were detected. The low platelet count, caused by the combination of MALT lymphoma and visceral leishmaniasis, appears to have aggravated the symptoms of the intestinal lymphoma. Leishmaniasis should be suspected even...... among asymptomatic patients with immune compromising illnesses and a travel history to areas where leishmaniasis is endemic....

  10. Animal reservoirs for visceral leishmaniasis in densely populated urban areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diniz, Soraia A; Silva, Fabiana L; Carvalho Neta, Alcina C; Bueno, Regina; Guerra, Rita M S N C; Abreu-Silva, Ana L; Santos, Renato L

    2008-02-01

    Leishmaniasis is a zoonotic disease of major public health and veterinary importance, affecting 88 countries with up to 2 million cases per year. This review emphasizes the animal reservoirs and spreading of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in urban areas, particularly in two Brazilian metropolitan areas, namely São Luis and Belo Horizonte, where the disease has become endemic in the past few years. Urbanization of visceral leishmaniasis in Brazil during the last decades has created favorable epidemiological conditions for maintenance of the disease, with dense human populations sharing a tropical environment with abundant populations of the mammalian reservoir and the invertebrate vector, facilitating transmission of the disease.

  11. Functional dyspepsia: the role of visceral hypersensitivity in its pathogenesis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Keohane, John

    2012-02-03

    Functional, or non-ulcer, dyspepsia (FD) is one of the most common reasons for referral to gastroenterologists. It is associated with significant morbidity and impaired quality of life. Many authorities believe that functional dyspepsia and irritable bowel syndrome represent part of the spectrum of the same disease process. The pathophysiology of FD remains unclear but several theories have been proposed including visceral hypersensitivity, gastric motor dysfunction, Helicobacter pylori infection and psychosocial factors. In this review, we look at the evidence, to date, for the role of visceral hypersensitivity in the aetiology of FD.

  12. TRC150094 attenuates progression of nontraditional cardiovascular risk factors associated with obesity and type 2 diabetes in obese ZSF1 rats

    OpenAIRE

    Shitalkumar P Zambad; Munshi, Siralee; Dubey, Amita; Gupta, Ram; Busiello, Rosa Anna; Lanni, Antonia; Goglia, Fernando; Gupta, Ramesh C.; Chauthaiwale, Vijay; Dutt, Chaitanya

    2011-01-01

    Chronic overnutrition and consequential visceral obesity is associated with a cluster of risk factors for cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Moreover, individuals who have a triad of hypertension, dysglycemia, and elevated triglycerides along with reduced high-density lipoprotein cholesterol have a greater residual cardiovascular risk even after factoring for the traditional risk factors such as age, smoking, diabetes, and elevated low-density lipoprotein cholesterol. In our...

  13. Effect of early enteral and parenteral nutrition on visceral ischemic lesion of rat burn model%早期肠道营养对烧伤大鼠模型内脏缺血损害的效应

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐世伟; 冯怀志; 尤忠义; 王裴; 汪仕良

    2003-01-01

    AIM:To compare the effects of early enteral nutrition and early parenteral nutrition on ameliorating visceral ischemia and relieving free radical damage.METHODS:66 Wistar rats were divided into 3 groups: control group(C),parenteral nutrition group( PN) and enteral nutrition group( EN), PN and EN groups made up of 30% TBSAⅢ degree burn model.We delivered nutrient solution with same calorie and calorie- nitrogen ratio via vein or enteral tract respectively.Blood flow of liver,kidney and change of SOD of heart,liver and kidney at 6,12,24,48,72 h after burn were tested.RESULTS:Tissue blood flow and SOD of EN group were higher than those of PN group in many phase( P< 0.05-0.01) .CONCLUSION: Early enternal nutrition can relieve the increase of visceral vascular permeability and damage of oxygen free radical.

  14. Intragastric balloon for morbid obesity causing chronic gastric dilatation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pretolesi, F.; Derchi, L.E. [Dept. of Radiology, University of Genoa (Italy); Redaelli, G.; Papagni, L. [IRCCS, Ist. Auxologico Italiano, Milan (Italy)

    2001-04-01

    We describe the radiographic findings observed in a morbidly obese and diabetic patient with an intragastric air-filled balloon introduced as a therapeutic measure to reduce food intake. The balloon was associated with chronic gastric dilatation and had to be removed 3 months after insertion. However, together with diet and behavioural therapy, it proved effective in reducing body weight and ameliorating glycaemic control. Although rarely used, intragastric balloons for the treatment of morbid obesity are still encountered in radiological practice. Radiologists must be able to recognize them and to understand their complications. (orig.)

  15. Obesity Prevalence Maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Breastfeeding Micronutrient Malnutrition State and Local Programs Adult Obesity Prevalence Maps Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Obesity Prevalence in 2015 Varies Across States and Territories ...

  16. The Effects of Combined Exercise on Health-Related Fitness, Endotoxin, and Immune Function of Postmenopausal Women with Abdominal Obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sung-Mo; Kwak, Yi-Sub; Ji, Jin-Goo

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted to examine the effects of combined exercise on health-related fitness, endotoxin concentrations, and immune functions of postmenopausal women with abdominal obesity. 20 voluntary participants were recruited and they were randomly allocated to the combined exercise group (n = 10) or the control group (n = 10). Visceral obesity was defined as a visceral-to-subcutaneous fat ratio ≥0.4 based on computed tomography (CT) results. Body composition, exercise stress testing, fitness measurement, CT scan, and blood variables were analyzed to elucidate the effects of combined exercise. The SPSS Statistics 18.0 program was used to calculate means and standard deviations for all variables. Significant differences between the exercise group and control group were determined with 2-way ANOVA and paired t-tests. The exercise group's abdominal obesity was mitigated due to visceral fat reduction; grip strength, push-ups, and oxygen uptake per weight improved; and HDL-C and IgA level also increased, while TNF-α, CD14, and endotoxin levels decreased. Lowered TNF-α after exercise might have an important role in the obesity reduction. Therefore, we can conclude that combined exercise is effective in mitigating abdominal obesity, preventing metabolic diseases, and enhancing immune function. PMID:26075288

  17. The Effects of Combined Exercise on Health-Related Fitness, Endotoxin, and Immune Function of Postmenopausal Women with Abdominal Obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung-Mo Park

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to examine the effects of combined exercise on health-related fitness, endotoxin concentrations, and immune functions of postmenopausal women with abdominal obesity. 20 voluntary participants were recruited and they were randomly allocated to the combined exercise group (n=10 or the control group (n=10. Visceral obesity was defined as a visceral-to-subcutaneous fat ratio ≥0.4 based on computed tomography (CT results. Body composition, exercise stress testing, fitness measurement, CT scan, and blood variables were analyzed to elucidate the effects of combined exercise. The SPSS Statistics 18.0 program was used to calculate means and standard deviations for all variables. Significant differences between the exercise group and control group were determined with 2-way ANOVA and paired t-tests. The exercise group’s abdominal obesity was mitigated due to visceral fat reduction; grip strength, push-ups, and oxygen uptake per weight improved; and HDL-C and IgA level also increased, while TNF-α, CD14, and endotoxin levels decreased. Lowered TNF-α after exercise might have an important role in the obesity reduction. Therefore, we can conclude that combined exercise is effective in mitigating abdominal obesity, preventing metabolic diseases, and enhancing immune function.

  18. Influence of Cortisol on zinc metabolism in morbidly obese women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luana Mota Martins

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The accumulation of visceral fat affects the metabolism of hormones and some nutrients, but these mechanisms remain unclear. Objective: To assess the influence of cortisol on the metabolism of zinc in morbidly obese women. Method: Cross-sectional, case-control study involving 80 women aged between 20 and 59 years. The participants were divided into two groups: experimental (morbidly obese, n = 40 and control (normal weight, n = 40. Zinc concentrations were determined by atomic absorption spectroscopy and serum and urinary cortisol by chemiluminescence method. Results: Zinc intake was significantly different between groups. Mean plasma zinc was lower in obese compared to control group. Mean values for erythrocyte zinc were 44.52 ± 7.84 μg/gHb and 40.17 ± 6.71 μg/gHb for obese and control groups, respectively. Urinary excretion of this mineral was higher in obese compared to control subjects (p 0.05. The correlation analysis between cortisol and zinc was not significant (p > 0.05. Conclusions: Obese patients have hypozincemia and high erythrocyte zinc levels. The correlation between zinc parameters and cortisol concentration showed no influence of this hormone on zinc metabolism.

  19. Interleukin-17A Gene Expression in Morbidly Obese Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Zapata-Gonzalez

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Data from recent studies conducted in rodent models and humans suggest that interleukin-17A (IL-17A plays a role in the induction of inflammation in adipose tissue during obesity. The aim of this study was to assess the gene expression of IL-17A in adipose tissue of morbidly obese patients. We used RT-PCR to evaluate the expression of IL-17A and several adipo/cytokines in the visceral adipose tissue (VAT and subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT of 10 normal-weight control women (BMI < 25 kg/m2 and 30 morbidly obese women (MO, BMI > 40 kg/m2. We measured serum levels of IL-17A and adipo/cytokines in MO and normal weight women. IL-17A expression was significantly higher in VAT than in SAT in MO patients (p = 0.0127. It was very low in normal-weight controls in both VAT and SAT tissues. We found positive correlations between IL-17A and IL-6, lipocalin-2 and resistin in VAT of MO patients. The circulating level of IL-17A was higher in the normal-weight group than the MO patients (p = 0.032, and it was significantly related to adiponectin and TNFRII levels. In conclusion, IL-17A expression in VAT is increased in morbidly obese women, which suggests a link between obesity and innate immunity in low-grade chronic inflammation in morbidly obese women.

  20. Clinical evaluation of physical fitness in male obese Japanese

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Abstract:Objective To establish an effective exercise prescription, the exercise capacity of obese subjects was investigated.Methods In 71 male obese (body mass index: BMI≥26.4) Japanese, aged 26-77 years, the body composition and physical fitness such as aerobic exercise level, muscle strength and flexibility were determined and compared with those of age- and sex-matched 71 borderline (24.2≤BMI<26.4) and 71 normal Japanese men (19.8≤BMI<24.2). The relationship between body composition and other parameters was evaluated in obese subjects.Results In obese subjects, body weight, BMI, body fat percentage, waist hip ratio, and skinfold thickness were higher than those of borderline and normal subjects. Lower aerobic exercise level and weight bearing index (WBI) were noted in obese subjects. There was a negative correlation between waist hip ratio and aerobic exercise level (oxygen uptake at ventilatory threshold) (r=-0.509, P<0.01) and also between waist hip ratio and WBI (r=-0.315, P<0.01). Conclusions Lower physical fitness is considered to be a general characteristic of male obese Japanese, and the accumulation of visceral adipose tissue might affect exercise capacity.

  1. Mechanisms by which heme oxygenase rescue renal dysfunction in obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Fomusi Ndisang

    2014-01-01

    Collectively, these data suggest that hemin ameliorates nephropathy by potentiating the expression of proteins of repair/regeneration, abating oxidative/inflammatory mediators, reducing renal histo-pathological lesions, while enhancing nephrin, podocin, podocalyxin, CD2AP and creatinine clearance, with corresponding reduction of albuminuria/proteinuria suggesting improved renal function in hemin-treated ZFs. Importantly, the concomitant potentiation regeneration proteins and podocyte cytoskeletal proteins are novel mechanisms by which hemin rescue nephropathy in obesity.

  2. The "Big Bang" in obese fat: Events initiating obesity-induced adipose tissue inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wensveen, Felix M; Valentić, Sonja; Šestan, Marko; Turk Wensveen, Tamara; Polić, Bojan

    2015-09-01

    Obesity is associated with the accumulation of pro-inflammatory cells in visceral adipose tissue (VAT), which is an important underlying cause of insulin resistance and progression to diabetes mellitus type 2 (DM2). Although the role of pro-inflammatory cytokines in disease development is established, the initiating events leading to immune cell activation remain elusive. Lean adipose tissue is predominantly populated with regulatory cells, such as eosinophils and type 2 innate lymphocytes. These cells maintain tissue homeostasis through the excretion of type 2 cytokines, such as IL-4, IL-5, and IL-13, which keep adipose tissue macrophages (ATMs) in an anti-inflammatory, M2-like state. Diet-induced obesity is associated with the loss of tissue homeostasis and development of type 1 inflammatory responses in VAT, characterized by IFN-γ. A key event is a shift of ATMs toward an M1 phenotype. Recent studies show that obesity-induced adipocyte hypertrophy results in upregulated surface expression of stress markers. Adipose stress is detected by local sentinels, such as NK cells and CD8(+) T cells, which produce IFN-γ, driving M1 ATM polarization. A rapid accumulation of pro-inflammatory cells in VAT follows, leading to inflammation. In this review, we provide an overview of events leading to adipose tissue inflammation, with a special focus on adipose homeostasis and the obesity-induced loss of homeostasis which marks the initiation of VAT inflammation.

  3. Why Obesity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bray, George A

    2015-01-01

    As Erwin Chargaff observed, "Scientific autobiography belongs to a most awkward literary genre," and mine is no exception. In reviewing my scientific life, I contrast the nutritional influences that would have existed had I been born 100 or 200 years earlier than I actually was. With this background, I trace the influences on my formative years in science beginning in high school and ending as a postdoctoral fellow in Professor E.B. Astwood's laboratory, when my directional sails were set and obesity was the compass heading. With this heading, the need for organized national and international meetings on obesity and the need for a scientific journal dealing with obesity as its subject matter became evident and occupied considerable energy over the next 30 years. The next section of this memoir traces the wanderings of an itinerant academic who moved from Boston to Los Angeles and finally to Baton Rouge. The influence of Sir William Osler's idea that there is a time for education, a time for scholarship, a time for teaching, and time to retire has always been a guide to allocating time ever since I was an intern at Johns Hopkins Hospital. It was in Baton Rouge that the final phase began: I agreed to become the first full-time executive director of the Pennington Biomedical Research Center, a decision that changed my life. The article ends with a quotation from Tennessee Williams that reflects the theater, which has given me so much pleasure over the years: "There is a time for departure even when there's no certain place to go."

  4. The obese healthy paradox: is inflammation the answer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbarroja, Nuria; López-Pedrera, Rosario; Mayas, Maria Dolores; García-Fuentes, Eduardo; Garrido-Sánchez, Lourdes; Macías-González, M; El Bekay, Rajaa; Vidal-Puig, Antonio; Tinahones, Francisco J

    2010-08-15

    A paradoxical but common finding in the obesity clinic is the identification of individuals who can be considered 'inappropriately' healthy for their degree of obesity. We think that studying these obese but metabolically healthy individuals and comparing them with equally obese but insulin-resistant individuals could provide important insights into the mechanistic link between adipose tissue expansion and associated metabolic alterations. In the present study, we investigated whether there are differences in inflammatory and insulin signalling pathways in VAT (visceral adipose tissue) that could account for the metabolic differences exhibited by morbidly obese individuals who are either insulin-resistant (IR-MO) or paradoxically insulin-sensitive (NIR-MO). Our results indicate that there are pathways common to obesity and unrelated to insulin resistance and others that are discriminative for insulin resistance for a similar degree of obesity. For instance, all morbidly obese patients, irrespective of their insulin resistance, showed increased expression of TNFalpha (tumour necrosis factor alpha) and activation of JNK1/2 (c-Jun N-terminal kinase 1/2). However, the IR-MO group showed significantly elevated expression levels of IL (interleukin)-1beta and IL-6 and increased macrophage infiltrates compared with non-obese individuals and NIR-MO. IkappaBalpha [inhibitor of NF-kappaB (nuclear factor kappaB) alpha], the activation of ERK1/2 (extracellular-signal-regulated kinase 1/2) and NF-kappaB were discriminative of the state of insulin resistance and correlated with differential changes in IRS-1 (insulin receptor substrate 1) expression and Akt activation between IR-MO and NIR-MO individuals. Our results support the concept that NIR-MO individuals lack the inflammatory response that characterizes the IR-MO patient and that IL-6, IL-1beta, ERK and NF-kappaB are important effectors that mediate the inflammation effects promoting insulin resistance.

  5. Ethnic differences in lipid metabolism in two groups of obese South African women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Punyadeera, C; van der Merwe, M T; Crowther, N J; Toman, M; Schlaphoff, G P; Gray, I P

    2001-05-01

    There is a higher prevalence of ischemic heart disease (IHD) in South African white than black women. The objective of this study was to determine biochemical explanations for this prevalence. The study group contained 15 obese black women (OBW) and 14 obese white women (OWW), all premenopausal, who were examined after an overnight fast. Anthropometric measurements and blood concentrations of glucose, non-esterified fatty acids (NEFAs), catecholamines, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1, C-peptide, proinsulin, lipograms, cortisol, growth hormone, and post-heparin lipoprotein lipase activity were measured during an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). Body composition was measured using bioelectrical impedance analysis, and subcutaneous and visceral fat mass were assessed with CT-scans. Visceral fat area was higher in OWW (139.7 +/- 10.7 cm(2)) than in OBW (72.3 +/- 3.9 cm(2)) (P Fasting cortisol (266 +/- 24 vs. 197 +/- 19 nmol/l; P < 0.05) was higher in OWW than in OBW. These data demonstrate that OWW have higher visceral fat mass than OBW, which may lead to a more atherogenic fasting and postprandial lipid profile. The higher cortisol levels of the OWW may promote visceral fat deposition.

  6. Characterization of the human visceral adipose tissue secretome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alvarez Llamas, Gloria; Szalowska, Ewa; de Vries, Marcel P.; Weening, Desiree; Landman, Karloes; Hoek, Annemieke; Wolffenbuttel, Bruce H. R.; Roelofsen, Johan; Vonk, Roel J.

    2007-01-01

    Adipose tissue is an endocrine organ involved in storage and release of energy but also in regulation of energy metabolism in other organs via secretion of peptide and protein hormones (adipokines). Especially visceral adipose tissue has been implicated in the development of metabolic syndrome and t

  7. Early visceral pain predicts chronic pain after laparoscopic cholecystectomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blichfeldt-Eckhardt, Morten Rune; Ording, Helle; Andersen, Claus;

    2014-01-01

    , and 3, 6, and 12months postoperatively for pain, psychological factors, and signs of hypersensitivity. Overall pain, incisional pain (somatic pain component), deep abdominal pain (visceral pain component), and shoulder pain (referred pain component) were registered on a 100-mm visual analogue scale...

  8. [Visceral leishmaniasis and pregnancy in renal transplanted patient: case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Jaqueline de Almeida; Araújo, Ivan de Melo; Pavanetti, Luiz Carlos; Okamoto, Liene Shigaki; Dias, Mônica

    2015-01-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a severe and potentially fatal disease caused by different Leishmania species, Leishmania chagasi prevailing in Brazil. Main symptoms include fever, malaise, anorexia, weight loss and abdominal enlargement with typically occurring hepatosplenomegaly Currently, VL is considered an opportunistic infection in immunocompromised hosts, including solid organ transplanted patients. The present study reports a case of VL associated to pregnancy after renal transplantation.

  9. Raoultella ornithinolytica bacteremia in an infant with visceral heterotaxy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mau, Nicole; Ross, Lawrence A

    2010-05-01

    A case of Raoultella ornithinolytica bacteremia in an infant with visceral heterotaxy is reported. Physical examination was remarkable for markedly red skin flushing, not unlike that seen during histamine fish poisoning. R. ornithinolytica is a histamine-producing bacterium recently elucidated as a major cause of histamine fish poisoning. Only 2 other cases of human infection by R. ornithinolytica have been reported.

  10. Visceral Pedagogies: Pornography, Affect, and Safety in the University Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paasonen, Susanna

    2016-01-01

    This article addresses the pedagogical choices and the visceral reverberations involved in teaching porn in the university classroom. The author discusses different aims and goals for teaching pornography, as well as the some key pedagogical considerations and options involved in this, drawing on her own experiences teaching porn in Finnish gender…

  11. Quantification of Abdominal Fat in Obese and Healthy Adolescents Using 3 Tesla Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Free Software for Image Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eloi, Juliana Cristina; Epifanio, Matias; de Gonçalves, Marília Maia; Pellicioli, Augusto; Vieira, Patricia Froelich Giora; Dias, Henrique Bregolin; Bruscato, Neide; Soder, Ricardo Bernardi; Santana, João Carlos Batista; Mouzaki, Marialena; Baldisserotto, Matteo

    2017-01-01

    Background and Aims Computed tomography, which uses ionizing radiation and expensive software packages for analysis of scans, can be used to quantify abdominal fat. The objective of this study is to measure abdominal fat with 3T MRI using free software for image analysis and to correlate these findings with anthropometric and laboratory parameters in adolescents. Methods This prospective observational study included 24 overweight/obese and 33 healthy adolescents (mean age 16.55 years). All participants underwent abdominal MRI exams. Visceral and subcutaneous fat area and percentage were correlated with anthropometric parameters, lipid profile, glucose metabolism, and insulin resistance. Student’s t test and Mann-Whitney’s test was applied. Pearson’s chi-square test was used to compare proportions. To determine associations Pearson’s linear correlation or Spearman’s correlation were used. Results In both groups, waist circumference (WC) was associated with visceral fat area (P = 0.001 and P = 0.01 respectively), and triglycerides were associated with fat percentage (P = 0.046 and P = 0.071 respectively). In obese individuals, total cholesterol/HDL ratio was associated with visceral fat area (P = 0.03) and percentage (P = 0.09), and insulin and HOMA-IR were associated with visceral fat area (P = 0.001) and percentage (P = 0.005). Conclusions 3T MRI can provide reliable and good quality images for quantification of visceral and subcutaneous fat by using a free software package. The results demonstrate that WC is a good predictor of visceral fat in obese adolescents and visceral fat area is associated with total cholesterol/HDL ratio, insulin and HOMA-IR. PMID:28129354

  12. Gastric bypass surgery reveals independency of obesity and diabetes melitus type 2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fenger, Mogens; Hansen, Dorte Lindqvist; Worm, Dorte

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery is widely applied to ameliorate morbid obesity, including diabetes in people with type 2 diabetes. The latter vanish a few days after surgery for many, but not in all patients before any weight reduction has occurred. The explanation for this change in...

  13. Correlation of Visceral Fat Area with Metabolic Risk Factors in Romanian Patients: A Cross-Sectional Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hâncu Anca

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship between visceral fat area (VFA, estimated by bioimpedance, and cardiovascular risk factors independent of BMI and waist circumference in a cohort of Romanian patients. Material and Methods: This was a cross-sectional study, in which were collected data from 751 patients ≥18 years of age from Cluj-Napoca. Anthropometric, biochemistry, body composition and medical history parameters were recorded from patients’ files. Results: Compared with the participants with VFA <100 cm2, those with VFA ≥100 cm2 had significantly worse levels of the laboratory parameters describing the glycemic metabolism, lipid metabolism and liver functions (p <0.05 for all. A higher percentage of participants with VFA ≥100 cm2 had diabetes, obesity, hypertension, hypertriglyceridemia and hypo-HDL cholesterolemia (p <0.05 for all. VFA was correlated with systolic and diastolic blood pressure, total and LDL-cholesterol levels, triglycerides, ALT, previous diagnosis of diabetes, hypertriglyceridemia and hypo-HDL cholesterolemia independent of BMI and waist circumference. Conclusions: Among this cohort of Romanian adults, an increasing level of visceral adiposity was correlated with worse lipid and glucose metabolism parameters as well as with increased levels of ALT, which probably reflects liver fat deposition.

  14. Gender differences in the association of visceral and subcutaneous adiposity with adiponectin in African Americans: the Jackson Heart Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bidulescu Aurelian

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Adiponectin, paradoxically reduced in obesity and with lower levels in African Americans (AA, modulates several cardiometabolic risk factors. Because abdominal visceral adipose tissue (VAT, known to be reduced in AA, and subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT compartments may confer differential metabolic risk profiles, we investigated the associations of VAT and SAT with serum adiponectin, separately by gender, with the hypothesis that VAT is more strongly inversely associated with adiponectin than SAT. Methods Participants from the Jackson Heart Study, an ongoing cohort of AA (n = 2,799; 64% women; mean age, 55 ± 11 years underwent computer tomography assessment of SAT and VAT volumes, and had stored serum specimens analyzed for adiponectin levels. These levels were examined by gender in relation to increments of VAT and SAT. Results Compared to women, men had significantly lower mean levels of adiponectin (3.9 ± 3.0 μg/mL vs. 6.0 ± 4.4 μg/mL; p 3 vs. 2,668 ± 968 cm3; p 3 vs. 801 ± 363 cm3; p  Conclusion In African Americans, abdominal visceral adipose tissue had an inverse association with serum adiponectin concentrations only among women. Abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue appeared as a protective fat depot in men.

  15. Anti-obesity effect of alkaline reduced water in high fat-fed obese mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ignacio, Rosa Mistica Coles; Kang, Tae-Young; Kim, Cheol-Su; Kim, Soo-Ki; Yang, Young-Chul; Sohn, Joon-Hyung; Lee, Kyu-Jae

    2013-01-01

    Whether or not alkaline reduced water (ARW) has a positive effect on obesity is unclear. This study aims to prove the positive effect of ARW in high-fat (HF) diet-induced obesity (DIO) in C57BL/6 mice model. Toward this, obesity was induced by feeding the C57BL/6 male mice with high-fat diet (w/w 45% fat) for 12 weeks. Thereafter, the animals were administered with either ARW or tap water. Next, the degree of adiposity and DIO-associated parameters were assessed: clinico-pathological parameters, biochemical measurements, histopathological analysis of liver, the expression of cholesterol metabolism-related genes in the liver, and serum levels of adipokine and cytokine. We found that ARW-fed mice significantly ameliorated adiposity: controlled body weight gain, reduced the accumulation of epididymal fats and decreased liver fats as compared to control mice. Accordingly, ARW coordinated the level of adiponectin and leptin. Further, mRNA expression of cytochrome P450 (CYP)7A1 was upregulated. In summary, our data shows that ARW intake inhibits the progression of HF-DIO in mice. This is the first note on anti-obesity effect of ARW, clinically implying the safer fluid remedy for obesity control.

  16. Dietary component isorhamnetin is a PPARγ antagonist and ameliorates metabolic disorders induced by diet or leptin deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yu; Gu, Ming; Cai, Wujie; Yu, Lijing; Feng, Li; Zhang, Lu; Zang, Qingqing; Wang, Yahui; Wang, Dongshan; Chen, Hui; Tong, Qingchun; Ji, Guang; Huang, Cheng

    2016-01-18

    Studies on peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-γ ligands have been focused on agonists. However, PPARγ activation may induce obesity and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), one of the most challenging medical conditions. Here, we identified that isorhamnetin, a naturally occurring compound in fruits and vegetables and the metabolite of quercetin, is a novel antagonist of PPARγ. Isorhamnetin treatment inhibited the adipocyte differentiation induced by the PPARγ agonist rosiglitazone, reduced obesity development and ameliorated hepatic steatosis induced by both high-fat diet treatment and leptin deficiency. Our results suggest that dietary supplement of isorhamnetin may be beneficial to prevent obesity and steatosis and PPARγ antagonists may be useful to treat hepatic steatosis.

  17. Association between aerobic exercise training effects of serum adropin level, arterial stiffness, and adiposity in obese elderly adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujie, Shumpei; Hasegawa, Natsuki; Kurihara, Toshiyuki; Sanada, Kiyoshi; Hamaoka, Takafumi; Iemitsu, Motoyuki

    2017-01-01

    Serum levels of adropin, which enhances endothelial cell release of nitric oxide (NO), are lower in obese patients. Although habitual aerobic exercise reduces arterial stiffness and adiposity, the relationship between these effects and circulating levels of adropin remains unclear. The purpose of this study was to determine if serum adropin level is associated with the effects of aerobic exercise training on arterial stiffness and adiposity in obese adults. In Experiment 1, we examined whether serum adropin levels are associated with cardiorespiratory fitness, carotid β-stiffness, plasma nitrite/nitrate (NOx) level, and abdominal visceral fat in 27 normal, 20 overweight, and 25 obese adults (age, 41-79 years). In Experiment 2, we examined the effects of an 8-week aerobic exercise training program on the relationship between serum adropin level and arterial stiffness or adiposity in 13 obese adults (age, 54-76 years). Serum adropin levels in normal, overweight, and obese adults negatively correlated with carotid β-stiffness and abdominal visceral fat, and positively correlated with plasma NOx level and cardiorespiratory fitness. After the 8-week exercise program, serum adropin levels in obese adults were elevated, and correlated with training-induced changes in carotid β-stiffness (r = -0.573, P exercise training-induced increase in serum adropin may be related to the training effects of arterial stiffness and adiposity in obese adults.

  18. Interest in paromomycin for the treatment of visceral leishmaniasis (kala-azar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiwanitkit V

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Viroj Wiwanitkit1–31Wiwanitkit House, Bang Khae, Bangkok, Thailand; 2Hainan Medical University, Haikou, Hainan, People's Republic of China; 3Joseph Ayo Babalola University, Ikeji-Arakeji, Osun State, NigeriaAbstract: Leishmaniasis is an important vector-borne disease, and it is classified as one of the most important tropical fly-borne infections. This disease can cause two types of clinical manifestations: cutaneous forms and visceral forms. Visceral leishmaniasis, which is also called kala-azar, is a very serious infection that can be fatal. The management of visceral leishmaniasis requires informed diagnostic and therapeutic approaches. Continuous research and development regarding the treatment of visceral leishmaniasis had led to many improvements. Paromomycin is a relatively new antibiotic drug that has been used for the treatment of visceral leishmaniasis for several years. This article reviews and discusses the use of paromomycin for visceral leishmaniasis therapy.Keywords: visceral, leishmaniasis, paromomycin

  19. The influence of hip circumference on the relationship between abdominal obesity and mortality

    OpenAIRE

    Cameron, Adrian J.; Magliano, Dianna J; Shaw, Jonathan E.; Zimmet, Paul Z; Carstensen, Bendix; Alberti, K George MM; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Barr, Elizabeth L M; Pauvaday, Vassen K; Kowlessur, Sudhirsen; Söderberg, Stefan

    2012-01-01

    Background Higher waist circumference and lower hip circumference are both associated with increased cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk, despite being directly correlated. The real effects of visceral obesity may therefore be underestimated when hip circumference is not fully taken into account. We hypothesized that adding waist and hip circumference to traditional risk factors would significantly improve CVD risk prediction. Methods In a population-based survey among South Asian and African M...

  20. 27 CFR 24.178 - Amelioration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Amelioration. 24.178 Section 24.178 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT... is calculated as tartaric acid for grapes, malic acid for apples, and citric acid for other...

  1. β-glycosphingolipids ameliorated non-alcoholic steatohepatitis in the Psammomys obesus model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zigmond E

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Ehud Zigmond,1,* Oshrat Tayer-Shifman,1,* Gadi Lalazar,1 Ami Ben Ya'acov,1 Sarah Weksler-Zangen,2 David Shasha,1 Miriam Sklair-Levy,3 Lidya Zolotarov,1 Zvi Shalev,1 Rony Kalman,2 Ehud Ziv,2 Itamar Raz,2 Yaron Ilan1 1Liver Unit, 2Diabetes Unit, 3Department of Radiology, Hebrew University-Hadassah Medical Center, Jerusalem, Israel *These authors contributed equally to this workAbstract: Liver steatosis is a common characteristic of obesity and type 2 diabetes, and fatty liver disease is increasingly recognized as a major health burden. Accumulating evidence suggests that β-glycosphingolipids play an important role in insulin sensitivity and thus could affect hepatic steatosis. To determine the effect associated with β-glycosphingolipid-mediated amelioration of liver injury, seven groups of Psammomys obesus on a high-energy diet were studied. Animals were treated with daily injections of β-glucosylceramide, β-lactosylceramide, or a combination of both. β-glycosphingolipids ameliorated the hepatic injury manifested by decreased liver enzymes, liver weight, and hepatic fat, and improved liver histology. Administration of both β-glucosylceramide and β-lactosylceramide also decreased interferon (IFN-γ serum levels. These effects were associated with improved serum cholesterol and triglyceride levels. These data suggest that β-glycosphingolipids ameliorate liver injury in an animal model of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis.Keywords: NAFLD, glycolipids, STAT, NASH, insulin resistance, diabetes

  2. Unmyelinated visceral afferents exhibit frequency dependent action potential broadening while myelinated visceral afferents do not.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bai-Yan; Feng, Bin; Tsu, Hwa Y; Schild, John H

    2007-06-21

    Sensory information arising from visceral organ systems is encoded into action potential trains that propagate along afferent fibers to target nuclei in the central nervous system. These information streams range from tight patterns of action potentials that are well synchronized with the sensory transduction event to irregular, patternless discharge with no clear correlation to the sensory input. In general terms these afferent pathways can be divided into unmyelinated and myelinated fiber types. Our laboratory has a long standing interest in the functional differences between these two types of afferents in terms of the preprocessing of sensory information into action potential trains (synchrony, frequency, duration, etc.), the reflexogenic consequences of this sensory input to the central nervous system and the ionic channels that give rise to the electrophysiological properties of these unique cell types. The aim of this study was to determine whether there were any functional differences in the somatic action potential characteristics of unmyelinated and myelinated vagal afferents in response to different rates of sensory nerve stimulation. Our results showed that activity and frequency-dependent widening of the somatic action potential was quite prominent in unmyelinated but not myelinated vagal afferents. Spike broadening often leads to increased influx of Ca(2+) ions that has been associated with a diverse range of modulatory mechanisms both at the cell body and central synaptic terminations (e.g. increased neurotransmitter release.) We conclude that our observations are indicative of fundamentally different mechanisms for neural integration of sensory information arising from unmyelinated and myelinated vagal afferents.

  3. Obesidad y menopausia Obesity and menopause

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Pavón de Paz

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available La menopausia es una de las etapas críticas en la vida de la mujer en la que se favorece la ganancia de peso y el desarrollo o agravamiento de la obesidad. Es en ésta época cuando se encuentra la prevalencia de obesidad más elevada. Las causas de éste problema son múltiples, unas se relacionan claramente con el hipoestrogenismo y otras dependen de la edad, condicionando un aumento de la ingesta y una disminución del gasto energético. Esta ganancia ponderal se asocia a consecuencias adversas para la salud, que se agravan por los cambios de distribución grasa que se observan durante la menopausia. El aumento de la grasa visceral facilita el desarrollo de insulinorresistencia y sus consecuencias clínicas como las alteraciones del metabolismo de los hidratos de carbono y la diabetes tipo 2, la hipertensión arterial y la dislipemia con el consiguiente aumento de riesgo cardiovascular, entre otras complicaciones.Menopause is one of the critical periods of a woman's life during which weight gain and onset or worsening of obesity are favoured. It is at this period when obesity prevalence is the highest. There are several causes for this disorder, ones clearly related with hypo-oestrogenism and others depend on age favouring increased food intake and decreased energy waste. This weight gain is related to adverse health effects that get worse due to changes in fat distribution observed during menopause. The increase in visceral fat favours the development of insulin resistance and its clinical consequences such as carbohydrate metabolism impairments and type 2 diabetes, arterial hypertension, and dyslipidaemia, leading to increased cardiovascular risk, among other complications.

  4. [Obesity and cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salaün, Hélène; Thariat, Juliette; Vignot, Marina; Merrouche, Yacine; Vignot, Stéphane

    2017-01-01

    The proportion of people affected by obesity is increasing and this finding emphasizes several issues in oncology: obesity as a risk factor for cancer, prognostic value of obesity in cancer patients, nutritional assessment in overweight patients and impact of obesity on treatment management. It is important to remember the common underevaluation of malnutrition in overweight or obese patients. Every caregiver must be especially careful about the management of comorbidities in these patients.

  5. Anesthetizing the obese child

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Anette; Lenz, Katja; Abildstrøm, Hanne

    2011-01-01

    The prevalence of childhood obesity is increasing. The focus of this review is the special anesthetic considerations regarding the perioperative management of obese children. With obesity the risk of comorbidity such as asthma, obstructive sleep apnea, hypertension, and diabetes increases....... The obese child has an increased risk of perioperative complications especially related to airway management and ventilation. There is a significantly increased risk of difficult mask ventilation and perioperative desaturation. Furthermore, obesity has an impact on the pharmacokinetics of most anesthetic...

  6. Inflammatory cytokines in general and central obesity and modulating effects of physical activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank M Schmidt

    Full Text Available Chronic systemic inflammation in obesity originates from local immune responses in visceral adipose tissue. However, assessment of a broad range of inflammation-mediating cytokines and their relationship to physical activity and adipometrics has scarcely been reported to date.To characterize the profile of a broad range of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines and the impact of physical activity and energy expenditure in individuals with general obesity, central obesity, and non-obese subjects.A cross-sectional study comprising 117 obese patients (body mass index (BMI ≥ 30 and 83 non-obese community-based volunteers.Serum levels of interleukin (IL-2, IL-4, IL-5, IL-10, IL-12, IL-13, granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF, interferon (IFN-γ and tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α were measured. Physical activity and energy expenditure (MET were assessed with actigraphy. Adipometrics comprised BMI, weight, abdominal-, waist- and hip-circumference, waist to hip ratio (WHR, and waist-to-height-ratio (WHtR.General obesity was associated with significantly elevated levels of IL-5, IL-10, IL-12, IL-13, IFN-γ and TNF-α, central obesity with significantly elevated IL-5, IL-10, IL-12, IL-13 and IFN-γ-levels. In participants with general obesity, levels of IL-4, IL-10 and IL-13 were significantly elevated in participants with low physical activity, even when controlled for BMI which was negatively associated with physical acitivity. Cytokines significantly correlated with adipometrics, particularly in obese participants.Results confirm up-regulation of certain pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines in obesity. In obese subjects, physical activity may lower levels and thus reduce pro-inflammatory effects of cytokines that may link obesity, insulin resistance and diabetes.

  7. Experimental modeling hernia of anterior abdominal wall with abdomino-visceral obesity

    OpenAIRE

    KHAYITOV ILKHOM

    2016-01-01

    Improve the results of treatment of patients with postoperative ventral hernias, and based on the study of changes in the anterior abdominal wall of the experimental method of modeling To achieve this goal the first objective of the study was to develop an adequate experimental model of postoperative ventral hernias.

  8. Mitochondrial respiration in subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissue from patients with morbid obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kraunsøe, Regitze; Boushel, Robert Christopher; Hansen, Christina Neigaard

    2010-01-01

    were permeabilized and respirometric measurements were performed in duplicate at 37 degrees C. Substrates (glutamate (G) + malate (M) + octanoyl carnitine (O) + succinate (S)) were added sequentially to provide electrons to complex I + II. ADP ((D)) for state 3 respiration was added after GM. Uncoupled...

  9. Periconceptional nutrition and the early programming of a life of obesity or adversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, S; Rattanatray, L; McMillen, I C; Suter, C M; Morrison, J L

    2011-07-01

    Women entering pregnancy with a high body weight and fat mass have babies at increased risk of becoming overweight or obese in childhood and later life. It is not known, whether exposure to a high level of maternal nutrition before pregnancy and exposure to a high transplacental nutrient supply in later pregnancy act through similar mechanisms to program later obesity. Using the pregnant sheep we have shown that maternal overnutrition in late pregnancy results in an upregulation of PPARγ activated genes in fetal visceral fat and a subsequent increase in the mass of subcutaneous fat in the postnatal lamb. Exposure to maternal overnutrition during the periconceptional period alone, however, results in an increase in total body fat mass in female lambs only with a dominant effect on visceral fat depots. Thus the early programming of later obesity may result from 'two hits', the first occurring as a result of maternal overnutrition during the periconceptional period and the second occurring as a result of increased fetal nutrition in late pregnancy. Whilst a short period of dietary restriction during the periconceptional period reverses the impact of periconceptional overnutrition on the programming of obesity, it also results in an increased lamb adrenal weight and cortisol stress response, together with changes in the epigenetic state of the insulin like growth factor 2 (IGF2) gene in the adrenal. Thus, not all of the effects of dietary restriction in overweight or obese mother in the periconceptional period may be beneficial in the longer term.

  10. Relation of epicardial fat thickness to right ventricular cavity size in obese subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iacobellis, Gianluca

    2009-12-01

    Epicardial fat is the visceral fat depot of the heart and is commonly increased in obese subjects. Obesity is also associated with right ventricular (RV) enlargement. Nevertheless, whether epicardial fat might be independently associated with RV morphology is unknown. I evaluated the correlation between echocardiographic epicardial fat and RV cavity size in subjects with a wide range of adiposity. Echocardiographic epicardial fat thickness and RV end-diastolic diameter (RVEDD) were assessed in 50 obese and 50 normal weight subjects. Patients with clinical conditions that could affect the RVEDD were excluded. Obese subjects had a significantly greater epicardial fat thickness and RVEDD than normal weight subjects (10 +/- 4 vs 5 +/- 2 mm and 22 +/- 10 vs 15 +/- 5, respectively; p subjects. Multiple regression analysis showed that epicardial fat thickness was the best independent correlate of RVEDD (r(2) = 0.42, p subjects. In conclusion, increased RV epicardial fat accumulation is associated with enlarged RV cavity size.

  11. Resistin induces lipolysis and suppresses adiponectin secretion in cultured human visceral adipose tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Neng; Zhou, Lingmei; Zhang, Zixiang; Xu, Jiaying; Wan, Zhongxiao; Qin, Liqiang

    2014-11-01

    Resistin is an adipokine secreted from adipose tissue, which is likely involved in the development of obesity and insulin resistance via its interaction with other organs, as well as affecting adipose tissue function. The impact of resistin treatment on lipolysis and adiponectin secretion in human visceral adipose tissue is currently unknown. Mesenteric adipose tissue samples were obtained from 14 male subjects [age 54±6 yr, body mass index (BMI) 23.59±0.44 kg/m(2)] undergoing abdominal surgeries. Adipose tissues were cultured and treated with resistin (100 ng/mL, 24h) in the absence or presence of different signaling inhibitors: H89 (1 μM), PD98059 (25 μM) and SB201290 (20 μM) for glycerol and non-esterified fatty acid (NEFA) measurement. Adiponectin level from media at 24 h was also measured via ELISA. Adipose tissue minces after resistin incubation (100 ng/mL, 24 h) were also collected for further Western blotting analysis. Resistin resulted in significant induction of glycerol (3.62±0.57 vs. 5.30±1.11 mmol/L/g tissue, ptissue, ptissue, ptissues via its effect on adipose tissue function.

  12. Beneficial effects of calcitriol on hypertension, glucose intolerance, impairment of endothelium-dependent vascular relaxation, and visceral adiposity in fructose-fed hypertensive rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chu-Lin Chou

    Full Text Available Besides regulating calcium homeostasis, the effects of vitamin D on vascular tone and metabolic disturbances remain scarce in the literature despite an increase intake with high-fructose corn syrup worldwide. We investigated the effects of calcitriol, an active form of vitamin D, on vascular relaxation, glucose tolerance, and visceral fat pads in fructose-fed rats. Male Wistar-Kyoto rats were divided into 4 groups (n = 6 per group. Group Con: standard chow diet for 8 weeks; Group Fru: high-fructose diet (60% fructose for 8 weeks; Group Fru-HVD: high-fructose diet as Group Fru, high-dose calcitriol treatment (20 ng / 100 g body weight per day 4 weeks after the beginning of fructose feeding; and Group Fru-LVD: high-fructose diet as Group Fru, low-dose calcitriol treatment (10 ng / 100 g body weight per day 4 weeks after the beginning of fructose feeding. Systolic blood pressure was measured twice a week by the tail-cuff method. Blood was examined for serum ionized calcium, phosphate, creatinine, glucose, triglycerides, and total cholesterol. Intra-peritoneal glucose intolerance test, aortic vascular reactivity, the weight of visceral fat pads, adipose size, and adipose angiotensin II levels were analyzed at the end of the study. The results showed that the fructose-fed rats significantly developed hypertension, impaired glucose tolerance, heavier weight and larger adipose size of visceral fat pads, and raised adipose angiotensin II expressions compared with the control rats. High- and low-dose calcitriol reduced modestly systolic blood pressure, increased endothelium-dependent aortic relaxation, ameliorated glucose intolerance, reduced the weight and adipose size of visceral fat pads, and lowered adipose angiotensin II expressions in the fructose-fed rats. However, high-dose calcitriol treatment mildly increased serum ionized calcium levels (1.44 ± 0.05 mmol/L. These results suggest a protective role of calcitriol treatment on endothelial

  13. Beneficial effects of calcitriol on hypertension, glucose intolerance, impairment of endothelium-dependent vascular relaxation, and visceral adiposity in fructose-fed hypertensive rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Chu-Lin; Pang, Cheng-Yoong; Lee, Tony J F; Fang, Te-Chao

    2015-01-01

    Besides regulating calcium homeostasis, the effects of vitamin D on vascular tone and metabolic disturbances remain scarce in the literature despite an increase intake with high-fructose corn syrup worldwide. We investigated the effects of calcitriol, an active form of vitamin D, on vascular relaxation, glucose tolerance, and visceral fat pads in fructose-fed rats. Male Wistar-Kyoto rats were divided into 4 groups (n = 6 per group). Group Con: standard chow diet for 8 weeks; Group Fru: high-fructose diet (60% fructose) for 8 weeks; Group Fru-HVD: high-fructose diet as Group Fru, high-dose calcitriol treatment (20 ng / 100 g body weight per day) 4 weeks after the beginning of fructose feeding; and Group Fru-LVD: high-fructose diet as Group Fru, low-dose calcitriol treatment (10 ng / 100 g body weight per day) 4 weeks after the beginning of fructose feeding. Systolic blood pressure was measured twice a week by the tail-cuff method. Blood was examined for serum ionized calcium, phosphate, creatinine, glucose, triglycerides, and total cholesterol. Intra-peritoneal glucose intolerance test, aortic vascular reactivity, the weight of visceral fat pads, adipose size, and adipose angiotensin II levels were analyzed at the end of the study. The results showed that the fructose-fed rats significantly developed hypertension, impaired glucose tolerance, heavier weight and larger adipose size of visceral fat pads, and raised adipose angiotensin II expressions compared with the control rats. High- and low-dose calcitriol reduced modestly systolic blood pressure, increased endothelium-dependent aortic relaxation, ameliorated glucose intolerance, reduced the weight and adipose size of visceral fat pads, and lowered adipose angiotensin II expressions in the fructose-fed rats. However, high-dose calcitriol treatment mildly increased serum ionized calcium levels (1.44 ± 0.05 mmol/L). These results suggest a protective role of calcitriol treatment on endothelial function, glucose

  14. Frailty in the elderly: contributions of sarcopenia and visceral protein depletion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanitallie, Theodore B

    2003-10-01

    administering GH to the frail elderly will outweigh the disadvantages. The poor appetite and weight loss that occur in many frail individuals are likely to be accompanied by a degree of visceral protein depletion (with its attendant morbidity), which can be estimated by making serial measurements of indicators of visceral protein status such as transthyretin (TTR), retinol-binding protein (RBP), and albumin. One characteristic of the frailty syndrome that distinguishes it from the effects of aging per se is the potential reversibility of many of its features. Progressive resistance training is feasible for many elderly individuals-even the oldest old-and, by increasing muscle mass and strength, can ameliorate or reverse important aspects of physical frailty. To the extent that visceral protein depletion has been caused by an inadequate intake of calories and protein, consumption of a more adequate diet can result in betterment of the frail patient's nutritional status, as determined by clinical improvement and favorable changes in TTR, RBP, and albumin.

  15. Phlorizin Supplementation Attenuates Obesity, Inflammation, and Hyperglycemia in Diet-Induced Obese Mice Fed a High-Fat Diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Su-Kyung; Cho, Su-Jung; Jung, Un Ju; Ryu, Ri; Choi, Myung-Sook

    2016-02-16

    Obesity, along with its related complications, is a serious health problem worldwide. Many studies reported the anti-diabetic effect of phlorizin, while little is known about its anti-obesity effect. We investigated the beneficial effects of phlorizin on obesity and its complications, including diabetes and inflammation in obese animal. Male C57BL/6J mice were divided into three groups and fed their respective experimental diets for 16 weeks: a normal diet (ND, 5% fat, w/w), high-fat diet (HFD, 20% fat, w/w), or HFD supplemented with phlorizin (PH, 0.02%, w/w). The findings revealed that the PH group had significantly decreased visceral and total white adipose tissue (WAT) weights, and adipocyte size compared to the HFD. Plasma and hepatic lipids profiles also improved in the PH group. The decreased levels of hepatic lipids in PH were associated with decreased activities of enzymes involved in hepatic lipogenesis, cholesterol synthesis and esterification. The PH also suppressed plasma pro-inflammatory adipokines levels such as leptin, adipsin, tumor necrosis factor-α, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, interferon-γ, and interleukin-6, and prevented HFD-induced collagen accumulation in the liver and WAT. Furthermore, the PH supplementation also decreased plasma glucose, insulin, glucagon, and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance levels. In conclusion, phlorizin is beneficial for preventing diet-induced obesity, hepatic steatosis, inflammation, and fibrosis, as well as insulin resistance.

  16. RENAL HISTOPATHOLOGICAL FINDINGS IN DOGS WITH VISCERAL LEISHMANIASIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosangela Silva Rigo

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Visceral leishmaniasis affects various organs including the kidneys; which can lead to renal failure and death. In order to verify this renal involvement, material was evaluated from 100 dogs naturally infected and with serological diagnosis of canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL. Inflammatory changes were present in 25.3% of the tubules, in 67.0% of interstitium and in 52.0% of glomeruli. There was no significant difference (p > 0.05 between the presence of glomerulonephritis in symptomatic and oligosymptomatic dogs. The membranous and membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis were the most frequent, both with 18.0% frequency, followed by focal segmental glomerulosclerosis with 14.0%. Changes such as cylindruria, tubular and fibrosis hypertrophy, periglomerular inflammatory infiltrate, and multifocal and diffuse peritubular inflammatory infiltrate were observed. The findings are consistent with those of other authors indicating that renal involvement is common in CVL and the standards of membranous and membranoploriferative glomerulonephritis, as well as the tubulointerstitial involvement, are frequent.

  17. Renal histopathological findings in dogs with visceral leishmaniasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigo, Rosangela Silva; Carvalho, Cristiano Marcelo Espínola; Honer, Michael Robin; Andrade, Gisele Braziliano de; Silva, Iandara Shetter; Rigo, Leonardo; Figueiredo, Helen Rezende; Barreto, Wanessa Teixeira Gomes

    2013-01-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis affects various organs including the kidneys; which can lead to renal failure and death. In order to verify this renal involvement, material was evaluated from 100 dogs naturally infected and with serological diagnosis of canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL). Inflammatory changes were present in 25.3% of the tubules, in 67.0% of interstitium and in 52.0% of glomeruli. There was no significant difference (p > 0.05) between the presence of glomerulonephritis in symptomatic and oligosymptomatic dogs. The membranous and membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis were the most frequent, both with 18.0% frequency, followed by focal segmental glomerulosclerosis with 14.0%. Changes such as cylindruria, tubular and fibrosis hypertrophy, periglomerular inflammatory infiltrate, and multifocal and diffuse peritubular inflammatory infiltrate were observed. The findings are consistent with those of other authors indicating that renal involvement is common in CVL and the standards of membranous and membranoploriferative glomerulonephritis, as well as the tubulointerstitial involvement, are frequent.

  18. Maiden Visit of Visceral Leishmaniasis to Malwa Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shirish S Nandedkar, Kamal Malukani, Amit Varma

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Visceral Leishmaniasis is a well known public health problem in eastern parts of India. So far the cases have not been reported from Malwa plateu of Madhya Pradesh, to the best of our knowledge and available literature. We report here two cases of Visceral Leishmaniasis first time from the Malwa region. Both the cases are from the migratory population of Bihar. The diseases like Leishmaniasis which were previously restricted to endemic areas of the country are spreading to non endemic areas along with the large migratory population, which is seen with the development of the country.. The cases are reported to inform the National health authorities to take proper steps to curb the spread of the disease to non -endemic areas and to emphasize the need of vector surveys in these areas.

  19. Scintigraphy usefulness in the diagnosis of visceral candidiasis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ythier, H.; Legghe, R.; Foucher, C.

    1987-01-01

    From the features of two cases, the authors stress the usefulness of the scintigraphy as regards to the diagnosis of visceral candidial abscesses. Such fungal localisations are not unfrequent, especially in immunodeficient patients (haematologic malignancies undergoing chemotherapy, lupus, serious visceral illness...). The positive diagnosis is uneasy because of non-specific clinical features and frequent negative blood cultures. Splenic localisation is the most likely. Citrate Gallium scintigraphy together with splenic labelled RBC scan enables us to give a precise view of the splenic involvment and even of the abdominal extension of the fungal abscess. From the literature review and these two cases, the excellent adequacy of the scintigraphy to the follow-up of systemic candidiasis is underlined and is compared to other usual morphological studies such as US scan and CT examination. In both cases, the diagnosis is fully confirmed by mycological examination.

  20. Leishmaniose visceral: estudo retrospectivo de fatores associados à letalidade Visceral leishmaniasis: retrospective study on factors associated with lethality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Gomes de Alvarenga

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: A leishmaniose visceral é um problema de saúde pública, com grau de letalidade alcançando 10%. Para o tratamento medicamentoso, é recomendado o antimoniato de metilglucamina. Este estudo tem como objetivo avaliar o uso de medicamento em casos de leishmaniose visceral atendidos no Serviço de Infectologia do Núcleo de Hospital Universitário de Campo Grande Estado do Mato Grosso do Sul. MÉTODOS: Para coleta de dados, foram pesquisados prontuários de 76 pacientes com diagnóstico de leishmaniose visceral atendidos pelo Serviço de Infectologia do Hospital Universitário de Campo Grande. RESULTADOS: Foram analisados prontuários de 76 (28,9% pacientes (56 homens e 20 mulheres apresentavam comorbidades. Como droga de 1ª escolha, 88,2% dos pacientes utilizaram o antimoniato-N-metil glucamina com evolução para óbito de 18,4%. A análise de sobrevida mostrou diferença estatisticamente significativa em pacientes com e sem comorbidades (pINTRODUCTION: Visceral leishmaniasis is a public health problem, with lethality reaching 10%. The recommended drug treatment is methylglucamine antimoniate. This study aimed to evaluate drug use for cases of visceral leishmaniasis treated at the Infectology Clinic of the Campo Grande University Hospital Center, State of Mato Grosso do Sul. METHODS: To collect data, we examined the medical records of 76 patients with a diagnosis of visceral leishmaniasis treated at this Infectology Clinic. RESULTS: The medical files of 76 patients (56 men and 20 women; 28.9% showed comorbidities. The first choice drug for 88.2% of the patients was N-methylglucamine antimoniate, with a fatal outcome for 18.4%. Survival analysis showed a statistically significant difference between patients with and without comorbidities (p <0.0001 and with comorbidities who used Glucantime® (p < 0.0009. The fatality rate of 18.4% indicates the low efficiency of the healthcare measures used. CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest that

  1. Membranoproliferative Glomerulonephritis due to Visceral Leishmaniasis in an HIV Patient

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Patient: Male, 47 Final Diagnosis: Membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis Symptoms: Nephrotic syndrome Medication: — Clinical Procedure: Renal biopsy Specialty: Nephrology Objective: Rare disease Background: Visceral leishmaniasis is an important opportunistic disease in HIV-positive patients. The information available on the effects of such co-infection in the kidney is limited. We describe a patient with HIV/leishmania coinfection who developed nephrotic syndrome and membranoproliferative...

  2. Visceral leishmaniasis: immunology and prospects for a vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaye, P M; Aebischer, T

    2011-10-01

    Human visceral leishmaniasis (HVL) is the most severe clinical form of a spectrum of neglected tropical diseases caused by protozoan parasites of the genus Leishmania. Caused mainly by L. donovani and L. infantum/chagasi, HVL accounts for more than 50 000 deaths every year. Drug therapy is available but costly, and resistance against several drug classes has evolved. Here, we review our current understanding of the immunology of HVL and approaches to and the status of vaccine development against this disease.

  3. Liposomal amphotericin B for the treatment of visceral leishmaniasis

    OpenAIRE

    Bern, C.; Adler-Moore, J.; Berenguer, J.; Boelaert, M; van den Boer, M.; Davidson, R N; Figueras, C; Gradoni, L.; Kafetzis, D. A.; Ritmeijer, E.; Rosenthal, E.; Royce, C; Russo, R; Sundar, S; Alvar, J.

    2006-01-01

    During the past decade, liposomal amphotericin B has been used with increasing frequency to treat visceral leishmaniasis (VL). The World Health Organization convened a workshop to review current knowledge and to develop guidelines for liposomal amphotericin B use for VL. In Europe, liposomal amphotericin B is widely used to treat VL. In Africa and Asia, the VL disease burden is high and drug access is poor; liposomal amphotericin B is available only through preferential pricing for nonprofit ...

  4. Current treatment of visceral leishmaniasis (Kala-azar: an overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Premshanker S. Singh

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Visceral Leishmaniasis (VL is also popularly known as kala-azar which was first reported in early forties and since then it continues to affect millions of people. The ranges of common drugs available for the treatment of visceral leishmaniasis are limited. It mainly includes pentavalent antimonials e.g. stibogluconate (SbV, amphotericin B deoxycholate (AB, lipid formulations of amphotericin B (L-AB, miltefosine (MF and paromomycin (PM - all of which have limitations in terms of toxicity, variable efficacy, price and inconvenient treatment schedules. Most are parenteral except MF which is administered orally. Due to the parasite and #8217;s drug resistance, the most widely used (SbV of these drugs is now of little use in northern Bihar, India, which alone accounts for 50% of the worlds burden of visceral leishmaniasis. In areas of resistance to SbV, AB is highly effective. The formulation of AB in liposomes (L-AB has been a major advancement in the treatment of visceral leishmaniasis. However, despite a significant reduction in price, this treatment remains very expensive for endemic countries like India. Combination short course therapy has been reported by many researchers who found that it is equally effective as conventional monotherapy with added benefits of less side effects, better compliance and less resistance. The aim of this article is to review the current aspects of the treatment for leishmaniasis, giving an overview of current agents clinically used to new agents and modalities of treatment under development. [Int J Res Med Sci 2014; 2(3.000: 810-817

  5. TRC150094 attenuates progression of nontraditional cardiovascular risk factors associated with obesity and type 2 diabetes in obese ZSF1 rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zambad, Shitalkumar P; Munshi, Siralee; Dubey, Amita; Gupta, Ram; Busiello, Rosa Anna; Lanni, Antonia; Goglia, Fernando; Gupta, Ramesh C; Chauthaiwale, Vijay; Dutt, Chaitanya

    2011-01-01

    Chronic overnutrition and consequential visceral obesity is associated with a cluster of risk factors for cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Moreover, individuals who have a triad of hypertension, dysglycemia, and elevated triglycerides along with reduced high-density lipoprotein cholesterol have a greater residual cardiovascular risk even after factoring for the traditional risk factors such as age, smoking, diabetes, and elevated low-density lipoprotein cholesterol. In our previous study we demonstrated that TRC150094, when administered to rats receiving a high-fat diet, stimulated mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation (FAO) and reduced visceral adiposity, opening an interesting perspective for a possible clinical application. In the present study, oral administration of TRC150094 to obese Zucker spontaneously hypertensive fatty rats (obese ZSF1) improved glucose tolerance and glycemic profile as well as attenuated a rise in blood pressure. Obese ZSF1 rats treated with TRC150094 also showed reduced hepatic steatosis, reduced progression of nephropathy, and improved skeletal muscle function. At the cellular level, TRC150094 induced a significant increase in mitochondrial respiration as well as an increased FAO in liver and skeletal muscle, ultimately resulting in reduced hepatic as well as total body fat accumulation, as evaluated by magnetic resonance spectroscopy and magnetic resonance imaging, respectively. If reproduced in humans, these results could confirm that TRC150094 may represent an attractive therapeutic agent to counteract multiple residual cardiovascular risk components. PMID:21448317

  6. [The obesity paradox].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du Pan, Rémi C Martin; Golay, Alain

    2014-06-25

    In general population, cardiovascular (CV) mortality increases in parallel with obesity severity, determined by body mass index (BMI). However in cohorts of patients with coronary diseases or heart failure a decrease of the global mortality has been observed in patients aged more than 65 years old with moderate obesity (BMI = 30-35) compared to normal weight people (BMI = 20-25) and morbid obese (BMI > 35). This "obesity paradox" could result from the selection of obese people with healthy metabolic profile and way of life. BMI does not allow to distinguish lean body mass from fat mass and therefore to evaluate abdominal obesity which is associated with metabolic syndrome and CV risk.

  7. Infecções experimentaes na Leishmaniose visceral americana Experimental infections in american visceral leishmaniasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aristides Marques da Cunha

    1938-01-01

    Full Text Available Passando em revista as experiencias de infecção que effectuamos e que acabamos de relatar, vemos que, as culturas isoladas de casos de Leishmaniose visceral americana quer do homem quer do cão, são capazes de infectar hamsters, rhesus e cães de maneira identica ao que acontece com as outras formas de Kala-Azar. Notamos ainda que a evolução da doença e as lesões observadas nos animaes assim infectados, se assemelham ao que tem sido observado nessa enfermidade aproximando-a de maneira singular do Kala-Azar mediterraneo. É sobretudo no cão que a semelhança se torna mais patente. A infecção da pelle e as lesões por ella provocadas que observamos, não differem em nada das que tem sido descriptas na infecção natural do cão e já assignaladas tambem na infecção experimental desse animal, embora de maneira menos completa do que fazemos agora aqui. As lesões oculares com formação de placas de keratite, a infeccção massiça do intestino nos casos fataes de infecção e até mesmo as lesões do figado descriptas por Adler como peculiares á infecção experimental, (infiltração em torno da veia central do lobulo constituem outros tantos caracteres que mostram a completa analogia entre as infecções do cão que obtivemos e as já observadas no Kala-Azar mediterraneo. Além disso, a presença de Leishmanias na pelle, as vezes em grande numero e a constancia dessa localisação parasitaria, vem mostrar que o cão apresenta as condições necessarias para desempenhar o papel de depositario de virus tal como acontece no Kala-Azar mediterraneo, tanto mais que é elle encontrado naturalmente infectado, nas regiões em que grassa a doença. Mas não é só a infecção do cão que mostra essa semelhança; nos outros animaes tambem se verifica o mesmo facto e até pequenos signaes, taes como a tumefacção das patas assignalada nos hamsters infectados com Leishmania infantum, foram tambem observados aqui. Por outro lado, a reacção de

  8. Obesity in Infants to Preschoolers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is childhood obesity? Overweight in Children BMI in Children Is Childhood Obesity an Issue in Your Home? Addressing your Child's Weight at the Doctor Preventing Childhood Obesity: Tips for Parents and Caretakers Obesity in Infants ...

  9. Chronic psychosocial stress induces visceral hyperalgesia in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tramullas, Mónica; Dinan, Timothy G; Cryan, John F

    2012-05-01

    Experimental and clinical evidence has shown that chronic stress plays an important role in the onset and/or exacerbation of symptoms of functional gastrointestinal disorders. Here, we aimed to investigate whether exposure to a chronic and temporally unpredictable psychosocial stressor alters visceral and somatic nociception as well as anxiety-related behaviour. In male C57BL/6J mice, chronic stress was induced by repeated exposure to social defeat (SD, 2 h) and overcrowding (OC, 24 h) during 19 consecutive days. Visceral and somatic nociception was evaluated by colorectal distension and a hot plate, respectively. The social interaction test was used to assess social anxiety. Mice exposed to psychosocial stress developed visceral hyperalgesia and somatic hypoalgesia 24 h following the last stress session. SD/OC mice also exhibited social anxiety-like behaviour. All these changes were also associated with physiological alterations, measured as a decreased faecal pellet output and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis disruption. Taken together, these data confirm that this mouse model of chronic psychosocial stress may be useful for studies on the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying such stress-associated disorders and to further test potential therapies.

  10. Cortical processing of human somatic and visceral sensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziz, Q; Thompson, D G; Ng, V W; Hamdy, S; Sarkar, S; Brammer, M J; Bullmore, E T; Hobson, A; Tracey, I; Gregory, L; Simmons, A; Williams, S C

    2000-04-01

    Somatic sensation can be localized precisely, whereas localization of visceral sensation is vague, possibly reflecting differences in the pattern of somatic and visceral input to the cerebral cortex. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging to study the cortical processing of sensation arising from the proximal (somatic) and distal (visceral) esophagus in six healthy male subjects. Esophageal stimulation was performed by phasic distension of a 2 cm balloon at 0.5 Hz. For each esophageal region, five separate 30 sec periods of nonpainful distension were alternated with five periods of similar duration without distension. Gradient echoplanar images depicting bold contrast were acquired using a 1.5 T GE scanner. Distension of the proximal esophagus was localized precisely to the upper chest and was represented in the trunk region of the left primary somatosensory cortex. In contrast, distension of the distal esophagus was perceived diffusely over the lower chest and was represented bilaterally at the junction of the primary and secondary somatosensory cortices. Different activation patterns were also observed in the anterior cingulate gyrus with the proximal esophagus being represented in the right midanterior cingulate cortex (BA 24) and the distal esophagus in the perigenual area (BA32). Differences in the activation of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and cerebellum were also observed for the two esophageal regions. These findings suggest that cortical specialization in the sensory-discriminative, affective, and cognitive areas of the cortex accounts for the perceptual differences observed between the two sensory modalities.

  11. Evaluating Eve: visceral states influence the evaluation of impulsive behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordgren, Loran F; van der Pligt, Joop; van Harreveld, Frenk

    2007-07-01

    Impulsive behavior is a common source of stigma. The authors argue that people often stigmatize impulsive behavior because they fail to appreciate the influence visceral impulses have on behavior. Because people tend to underestimate the motivational force of cravings for sex, drugs, food, and so forth, they are prone to stigmatize those who act on these impulses. In line with this reasoning, in 4 studies, the authors found that participants who were in a cold state (e.g., not hungry) made less favorable evaluations of a related impulsive behavior (impulsive eating) than did participants who were in a hot state (e.g., hungry). This empathy gap effect was tested with 3 different visceral states--fatigue, hunger, and sexual arousal--and was found both when participants evaluated others' impulsive behavior (Studies 1 & 2) and when participants evaluated their own impulsive behavior (Study 3). Study 3 also demonstrated that the empathy gap effect is due to different perceptions of the strength of the visceral state itself. Finally, Study 4 revealed that this effect is state specific: Hungry people, for example, evaluated only hunger-driven impulses, and not other forms of impulse, more favorably.

  12. Ameliorating antipsychotic-induced weight gain by betahistine: Mechanisms and clinical implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lian, Jiamei; Huang, Xu-Feng; Pai, Nagesh; Deng, Chao

    2016-04-01

    Second generation antipsychotic drugs (SGAs) cause substantial body weight gain/obesity and other metabolic side-effects such as dyslipidaemia. Their antagonistic affinity to the histaminergic H1 receptor (H1R) has been identified as one of the main contributors to weight gain/obesity side-effects. The effects and mechanisms of betahistine (a histaminergic H1R agonist and H3 receptor antagonist) have been investigated for ameliorating SGA-induced weight gain/obesity in both animal models and clinical trials. It has been demonstrated that co-treatment with betahistine is effective in reducing weight gain, associated with olanzapine in drug-naïve patients with schizophrenia, as well as in the animal models of both drug-naïve rats and rats with chronic, repeated exposure to olanzapine. Betahistine co-treatment can reduce food intake and increase the effect of thermogenesis in brown adipose tissue by modulating hypothalamic H1R-NPY-AMPKα (NPY: neuropeptide Y; AMPKα: AMP-activated protein kinase α) pathways, and ameliorate olanzapine-induced dyslipidaemia through modulation of AMPKα-SREBP-1-PPARα-dependent pathways (SREBP-1: Sterol regulatory element binding protein 1; PPARα: Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α) in the liver. Although reduced locomotor activity was observed from antipsychotic treatment in rats, betahistine did not affect locomotor activity. Importantly, betahistine co-treatment did not influence the effects of antipsychotics on serotonergic receptors in the key brain regions for antipsychotic therapeutic efficacy. However, betahistine co-treatment reverses the upregulated dopamine D2 binding caused by chronic olanzapine administration, which may be beneficial in reducing D2 supersensitivity often observed in chronic antipsychotic treatment. Therefore, these results provide solid evidence supporting further clinical trials in treating antipsychotics-induced weight gain using betahistine in patients with schizophrenia and other mental

  13. White tea (Camellia sinensis extract reduces oxidative stress and triacylglycerols in obese mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lílian Gonçalves Teixeira

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available White tea is an unfermented tea made from young shoots of Camellia sinensis protected from sunlight to avoid polyphenol degradation. Although its levels of catechins are higher than those of green tea (derived from the same plant, there are no studies addressing the relationship between this tea and obesity associated with oxidative stress.The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of white tea on obesity and its complications using a diet induced obesity model. Forty male C57BL/6 mice were fed a high-fat diet to induce obesity (Obese group or the same diet supplemented with 0.5% white tea extract (Obese + WTE for 8 weeks. Adipose tissue, serum lipid profile, and oxidative stress were studied. White tea supplementation was not able to reduce food intake, body weight, or visceral adiposity. Similarly, there were no changes in cholesterol rich lipoprotein profile between the groups. A reduction in blood triacylglycerols associated with increased cecal lipids was observed in the group fed the diet supplemented with white tea. White tea supplementation also reduced oxidative stress in liver and adipose tissue. In conclusion, white tea extract supplementation (0.5% does not influence body weight or adiposity in obese mice. Its benefits are restricted to the reduction in oxidative stress associated with obesity and improvement of hypertriacylglycerolemia.

  14. Protective efficacy of antioxidants on cisplatin-induced tissue damage caused in Leishmania donovani infected BALB/c mice against murine visceral leishmaniasis

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    Meenakshi Sharma

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Therapeutic interventions against visceral leishmaniasis (VL are limited and facing serious concerns of toxicity, high cost and emerging resistance, there is a greater interest in new drug developments which are cost effective, efficient and easily available to people suffering from leishmaniasis. Cisplatin (cis-diamminedichloroplatinum II; CDDP has been found to have antileishmanial activity in vitro and in vivo which lead towards an apoptosis like cell death of both promastigotes and amastigotes and a significant reduction in parasite load and enhanced DTH responses which suggested the generation of protective cell-mediated immune responses. But, at higher doses it causes nephrotoxicity-a major side effect. The present study was designed to evaluate the protective efficacy of antioxidants on cisplatin induced tissue damage in Leishmania donovani infected BALB/c mice. Materials and methods: L. donovani infected and uninfected animals were treated with higher doses (5 and 2.5 mg/kg body weight of cisplatin alone and in combination with antioxidants (vitamin C, vitamin E and silibinin for 5 days. Mice were examined for the protective effects of antioxidants on cisplatin indiced tissue damage by DNA fragmentation and histological studies of kidneys, liver and spleen. Results: The damage caused by cisplatin was ameliorated after the supplementation of antioxidants showing a marked reduction in the extent of tubular damage, the focal reaction changes in liver were reversed and no signs of toxicity in the spleen were reported. Moreover, no DNA damage was observed in animals treated with cisplatin along with various antioxidants. Conclusion: The present results showed that antioxidants helped in the amelioration of drug induced toxic effects against murine visceral leishmaniasis, making the combination a potential anti-leishmanial therapy. [J Interdiscipl Histopathol 2013; 1(3.000: 121-136

  15. Calcium ameliorates diarrhea in immune compromised children

    OpenAIRE

    Cheng, Sam X.; Bai, Harrison X.; Gonzalez-Peralta, Regino; Mistry, Pramod K.; Gorelick, Fred S.

    2013-01-01

    Treatment of infectious diarrheas remains a challenge, particularly in immunocompromised patients in whom infections usually persist and resultant diarrhea is often severe and protracted. Children with infectious diarrhea who become dehydrated are normally treated with oral or intravenous rehydration therapy. Although rehydration therapy can replace the loss of fluid, it does not ameliorate diarrhea. Thus, over the past decades, there has been continuous effort to search for ways to safely st...

  16. Relationships of Dietary Histidine and Obesity in Northern Chinese Adults, an Internet-Based Cross-Sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yan-Chuan; Li, Chun-Long; Qi, Jia-Yue; Huang, Li-Na; Shi, Dan; Du, Shan-Shan; Liu, Li-Yan; Feng, Ren-Nan; Sun, Chang-Hao

    2016-07-11

    Our previous studies have demonstrated that histidine supplementation significantly ameliorates inflammation and oxidative stress in obese women and high-fat diet-induced obese rats. However, the effects of dietary histidine on general population are not known. The objective of this Internet-based cross-sectional study was to evaluate the associations between dietary histidine and prevalence of overweight/obesity and abdominal obesity in northern Chinese population. A total of 2376 participants were randomly recruited and asked to finish our Internet-based dietary questionnaire for the Chinese (IDQC). Afterwards, 88 overweight/obese participants were randomly selected to explore the possible mechanism. Compared with healthy controls, dietary histidine was significantly lower in overweight (p obese (p obese participants. Higher dietary histidine was associated with lower prevalence of overweight/obesity and abdominal obesity, especially in women. Further studies indicated that higher dietary histidine was associated with lower fasting blood glucose (FBG), homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), 2-h postprandial glucose (2 h-PG), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-1β (IL-1β), interleukin-6 (IL-6), C-reactive protein (CRP), malonaldehyde (MDA) and vaspin and higher glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and adiponectin of overweight/obese individuals of both sexes. In conclusion, higher dietary histidine is inversely associated with energy intake, status of insulin resistance, inflammation and oxidative stress in overweight/obese participants and lower prevalence of overweight/obesity in northern Chinese adults.

  17. Aerobic plus resistance training improves bone metabolism and inflammation in adolescents who are obese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, Raquel M S; de Mello, Marco T; Tock, Lian; Silva, Patrícia L; Masquio, Deborah C L; de Piano, Aline; Sanches, Priscila L; Carnier, June; Corgosinho, Flávia C; Foschini, Denis; Tufik, Sergio; Dâmaso, Ana R

    2014-03-01

    Obesity is a worldwide epidemic with a high prevalence of comorbidities, including alterations in bone mineral metabolism. The purpose of this yearlong study was to evaluate the role of 2 types of exercise training (aerobic and aerobic plus resistance exercise) on adipokines parameters and bone metabolism in adolescents who are obese. This was a clinical trial study with interdisciplinary weight loss therapy. Forty-two postpubertal adolescents who are obese were subjected to interdisciplinary weight loss therapy with physical exercise, medical monitoring, nutritional intervention, and psychological intervention. Data were collected from serum analyses of leptin, ghrelin, adiponectin, glucose, and insulin. Anthropometric measurements of body composition, bone mineral density, visceral, and subcutaneous fat were also performed. Statistical tests were applied using repeated-measures analysis of variance. Correlations were established using the Pearson test, and dependencies of variables were established using simple linear regression test. Both training types promoted reductions in body mass index, total central, visceral and subcutaneous fat, insulin concentration, and homeostasis model assessment insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) index, but only aerobic plus resistance training showed statistical improvements in the bone mineral content, adiponectin concentration, and lean tissue. Effective reduction in the visceral/subcutaneous ratio, central/peripheral ratio, and leptin concentration was observed. Insulin and the HOMA-IR index were negative predictors of bone mineral content in the combined training group. Moreover, fat distribution was a negative predictor for bone mineral density in both groups. Aerobic plus resistance training promotes a protective role in bone mineral content associated with an improvement in adiponectin and leptin concentrations, favoring the control of the inflammatory state related to obesity in adolescents. Aerobic plus resistance training

  18. Enhanced biglycan gene expression in the adipose tissues of obese women and its association with obesity-related genes and metabolic parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jimin; Lee, Seul Ki; Shin, Ji-Min; Jeoun, Un-Woo; Jang, Yeon Jin; Park, Hye Soon; Kim, Jong-Hyeok; Gong, Gyung-Yub; Lee, Taik Jong; Hong, Joon Pio; Lee, Yeon Ji; Heo, Yoon-Suk

    2016-07-28

    Extracellular matrix (ECM) remodeling dynamically occurs to accommodate adipose tissue expansion during obesity. One non-fibrillar component of ECM, biglycan, is released from the matrix in response to tissue stress; the soluble form of biglycan binds to toll-like receptor 2/4 on macrophages, causing proinflammatory cytokine secretion. To investigate the pattern and regulatory properties of biglycan expression in human adipose tissues in the context of obesity and its related diseases, we recruited 21 non-diabetic obese women, 11 type 2 diabetic obese women, and 59 normal-weight women. Regardless of the presence of diabetes, obese patients had significantly higher biglycan mRNA in both visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue. Biglycan mRNA was noticeably higher in non-adipocytes than adipocytes and significantly decreased during adipogenesis. Adipose tissue biglycan mRNA positively correlated with adiposity indices and insulin resistance parameters; however, this relationship disappeared after adjusting for BMI. In both fat depots, biglycan mRNA strongly correlated with the expression of genes related to inflammation and endoplasmic reticulum stress. In addition, culture of human preadipocytes and differentiated adipocytes under conditions mimicking the local microenvironments of obese adipose tissues significantly increased biglycan mRNA expression. Our data indicate that biglycan gene expression is increased in obese adipose tissues by altered local conditions.

  19. An EASO Position Statement on Multidisciplinary Obesity Management in Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volkan Yumuk

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Obesity has proven to be a gateway to ill health. It has already reached epidemic proportions becoming one of the leading causes of death and disability in Europe and world-wide. Obesity plays a central role in the development of a number of risk factors and chronic diseases like hypertension, dyslipidaemia and type 2 diabetes mellitus inducing cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Therefore weight management plays a central role in controlling the respective risk factors and their consequences. Obesity is a complex condition of multifactorial origin. Biological but also psychological and social factors interfere to lead to excess body weight and its deleterious outcomes. Obesity management cannot focus any more only on weight (and BMI reduction. More attention is to be paid to waist circumference (or waist-to-hip ratio, especially in females, the improvement in body composition (measured with body composition tracking systems like BOD POD, dual energy X-ray absorptiometry or bioelectrical impedance analysis which is focusing on ameliorating or maintaining fat-free mass and decreasing fat mass. Management of co-morbidities, improving quality of life and well-being of obese patients are also included in treatment aims. This statement emphasises the importance of a comprehensive approach to obesity management.

  20. An EASO position statement on multidisciplinary obesity management in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yumuk, Volkan; Frühbeck, Gema; Oppert, Jean Michel; Woodward, Euan; Toplak, Hermann

    2014-01-01

    Obesity has proven to be a gateway to ill health. It has already reached epidemic proportions becoming one of the leading causes of death and disability in Europe and world-wide. Obesity plays a central role in the development of a number of risk factors and chronic diseases like hypertension, dyslipidaemia and type 2 diabetes mellitus inducing cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Therefore weight management plays a central role in controlling the respective risk factors and their consequences. Obesity is a complex condition of multifactorial origin. Biological but also psychological and social factors interfere to lead to excess body weight and its deleterious outcomes. Obesity management cannot focus any more only on weight (and BMI) reduction. More attention is to be paid to waist circumference (or waist-to-hip ratio, especially in females), the improvement in body composition (measured with body composition tracking systems like BOD POD, dual energy X-ray absorptiometry or bioelectrical impedance analysis) which is focusing on ameliorating or maintaining fat-free mass and decreasing fat mass. Management of co-morbidities, improving quality of life and well-being of obese patients are also included in treatment aims. This statement emphasises the importance of a comprehensive approach to obesity management.

  1. Long-term hematological, visceral, and growth outcomes in children with Gaucher disease type 3 treated with imiglucerase in the International Collaborative Gaucher Group Gaucher Registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Beshlawy, Amal; Tylki-Szymanska, Anna; Vellodi, Ashok; Belmatoug, Nadia; Grabowski, Gregory A; Kolodny, Edwin H; Batista, Julie L; Cox, Gerald F; Mistry, Pramod K

    In Gaucher disease (GD), deficiency of lysosomal acid β-glucosidase results in a broad phenotypic spectrum that is classified into three types based on the absence (type 1 [GD1]) or presence and severity of primary central nervous system involvement (type 2 [GD2], the fulminant neuronopathic form, and type 3 [GD3], the milder chronic neuronopathic form). Enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) with imiglucerase ameliorates and prevents hematological and visceral manifestations in GD1, but data in GD3 are limited to small, single-center series. The effects of imiglucerase ERT on hematological, visceral and growth outcomes (note: ERT is not expected to directly impact neurologic outcomes) were evaluated during the first 5years of treatment in 253 children and adolescents (Gaucher Group (ICGG) Gaucher Registry. The vast majority of GBA mutations in this diverse global population consisted of only 2 mutations: L444P (77%) and D409H (7%). At baseline, GD3 patients exhibited early onset of severe hematological and visceral disease and growth failure. During the first year of imiglucerase treatment, hemoglobin levels and platelet counts increased and liver and spleen volumes decreased, leading to marked decreases in the number of patients with moderate or severe anemia, thrombocytopenia, and hepatosplenomegaly. These improvements were maintained through Year 5. There was also acceleration in linear growth as evidenced by increasing height Z-scores. Despite devastating disease at baseline, the probability of surviving for at least 5years after starting imiglucerase was 92%. In this large, multinational cohort of pediatric GD3 patients, imiglucerase ERT provided a life-saving and life-prolonging benefit for patients with GD3, suggesting that, with proper treatment, many such severely affected patients can lead productive lives and contribute to society.

  2. Reducing Childhood Obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the NHLBI Obesity Education Initiative. (See accompanying article, " Obesity Research: A New Approach. ") We Can! focuses on three important behaviors: improved food choices, increased physical activity, and reduced recreational screen time. ...

  3. Obesity: Pathophysiology and Intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Zhang

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Obesity presents a major health hazard of the 21st century. It promotes co-morbid diseases such as heart disease, type 2 diabetes, obstructive sleep apnea, certain types of cancer, and osteoarthritis. Excessive energy intake, physical inactivity, and genetic susceptibility are main causal factors for obesity, while gene mutations, endocrine disorders, medication, or psychiatric illnesses may be underlying causes in some cases. The development and maintenance of obesity may involve central pathophysiological mechanisms such as impaired brain circuit regulation and neuroendocrine hormone dysfunction. Dieting and physical exercise offer the mainstays of obesity treatment, and anti-obesity drugs may be taken in conjunction to reduce appetite or fat absorption. Bariatric surgeries may be performed in overtly obese patients to lessen stomach volume and nutrient absorption, and induce faster satiety. This review provides a summary of literature on the pathophysiological studies of obesity and discusses relevant therapeutic strategies for managing obesity.

  4. Endocrine system and obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashburn, Doyle D; Reed, Mary Jane

    2010-10-01

    Obesity is associated with significant alterations in endocrine function. An association with type 2 diabetes mellitus and dyslipidemia has been well documented. This article highlights the complexities of treating endocrine system disorders in obese patients.

  5. Obesity and health (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obesity increases a person's risk of illness and death due to diabetes, stroke, heart disease, hypertension, high cholesterol, and kidney and gallbladder disease. Obesity may increase the risk for some types of ...

  6. Obesity and Anesthesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Apnea and Anesthesia Smoking and Anesthesia Outpatient Surgery Obesity and Anesthesia More than one-third of Americans ... Sleep Apnea, a chronic medical problem common with obesity, can present with serious breathing problems before, during, ...

  7. Overweight and Obesity Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the full list of resources ​​. Overweight and Obesity Statistics Page Content About Overweight and Obesity Prevalence of ... adults age 20 and older [ Top ] Physical Activity Statistics Adults Research Findings Research suggests that staying active ...

  8. Obesity paradox in end-stage kidney disease patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jongha; Ahmadi, Seyed-Foad; Streja, Elani; Molnar, Miklos Z; Flegal, Katherine M; Gillen, Daniel; Kovesdy, Csaba P; Kalantar-Zadeh, Kamyar

    2014-01-01

    In the general population, obesity is associated with increased cardiovascular risk and decreased survival. In patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD), however, an "obesity paradox" or "reverse epidemiology" (to include lipid and hypertension paradoxes) has been consistently reported, i.e. a higher body mass index (BMI) is paradoxically associated with better survival. This survival advantage of large body size is relatively consistent for hemodialysis patients across racial and regional differences, although published results are mixed for peritoneal dialysis patients. Recent data indicate that both higher skeletal muscle mass and increased total body fat are protective, although there are mixed data on visceral (intra-abdominal) fat. The obesity paradox in ESRD is unlikely to be due to residual confounding alone and has biologic plausibility. Possible causes of the obesity paradox include protein-energy wasting and inflammation, time discrepancy among competitive risk factors (undernutrition versus overnutrition), hemodynamic stability, alteration of circulatory cytokines, sequestration of uremic toxin in adipose tissue, and endotoxin-lipoprotein interaction. The obesity paradox may have significant clinical implications in the management of ESRD patients especially if obese dialysis patients are forced to lose weight upon transplant wait-listing. Well-designed studies exploring the causes and consequences of the reverse epidemiology of cardiovascular risk factors, including the obesity paradox, among ESRD patients could provide more information on mechanisms. These could include controlled trials of nutritional and pharmacologic interventions to examine whether gain in lean body mass or even body fat can improve survival and quality of life in these patients.

  9. Association of lower limb muscle mass and energy expenditure with visceral fat mass in healthy men

    OpenAIRE

    Yagi, S.; Kadota, M; Aihara, K; Nishikawa, K.; Hara, T.; Ise, T.; Ueda, Y; Iwase, T; Akaike, M; Shimabukuro, M; Katoh, S.; Sata, M

    2014-01-01

    Background A high-calorie diet and physical inactivity, an imbalance between caloric intake and energy consumption, are major causes of metabolic syndrome (MetS), which manifests as accumulation of visceral fat and insulin resistance. However, the lifestyle-related factors associated with visceral fat mass in healthy men are not fully understood. Methods We evaluated visceral fat area (VFA), skeletal muscle mass, caloric intake, and energy expenditure in 67 healthy male participants (mean age...

  10. The future of GI and liver research: editorial perspectives. IV. Visceral afferents: an update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raybould, Helen E

    2003-06-01

    The number of articles published in American Journal of Physiology Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology over the last 15 years on visceral afferents has increased dramatically. This reflects our growing ability to study the characteristics and function of visceral afferents and also the recognition of their importance in the maintenance of homeostasis and also in a number of pathophysiological conditions. However, there are several key unanswered questions concerning the function of visceral afferents that await further investigation.

  11. OSTEOARTHRITIS AND OBESITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. A. Strebkova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The review highlights the impact of obesity on the development, progression, and severity of osteoarthritis (OA and discusses treatments for obesity in this disease. Weight loss in obese patients with OA is shown to lead to a reduction in clinical manifestations. Despite a great deal of performed investigations of the impact of non-drug therapy for obesity (diet, physical activity, their results are contradictory and call for further investigation

  12. Obesity-Related Hypertension

    OpenAIRE

    Re, Richard N.

    2009-01-01

    Obesity-associated arterial hypertension is characterized by activation of the sympathetic nervous system, activation of the renin-angiotensin system, and sodium retention, among other abnormalities. In this review, the following 3 facets of the obesity/hypertension nexus will be discussed: the potential mechanisms by which obesity can lead to elevated arterial pressure, the interaction of obesity with the sequelae of hypertension, and the therapies that are believed to optimally treat obesit...

  13. Abdominal obesity, cardiometabolic risk and endocannabinoid system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Bittolo Bon

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Abdominal obesity is the most prevalent manifestation of metabolic syndrome and is of central importance in the definition of global cardiometabolic risk. Visceral adipose tissue releases a large number of bioactive mediators, which influence body weight homeostasis, insulin resistance, alterations in lipids, blood pressure, coagulation, fibrinolysis and inflammation, leading to increased risk of cardiovascular events and of type 2 diabetes. Lifestyle modification is the first-line approach to the management of abdominal obesity and metabolic syndrome. However for patients at higher risk, who cannot achieve an appreciable reduction in weight and in global cardiometabolic risk with lifestyle modification alone, an adjunctive long term pharmacotherapy should be considered. The endocannabinoid system activity regulates food intake and metabolic factors through cannabinoid-1 (CB1 receptor located in multiple sites, including hypothalamus and limbic forebrain, adipose tissue, skeletal muscle, liver and the gastrointestinal tract. Evidence suggests that CB1 receptor blockade offers a novel therapeutic strategy. Data from four phase III trials suggest that rimonabant, the first cannabinoid receptor inhibitor, modulates cardiometabolic risk factors, both through its impact on body weight and metabolic parameters such as HDL-cholesterol, tryglicerides, Hb1Ac, through direct pathways that are not related to weight loss.

  14. The Relation between Visceral and Subcutaneous Fat to Bone Mass among Egyptian Children and Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahar A. El-Masry

    2014-12-01

    CONCLUSIONS: Visceral and subcutaneous fat had significant positive association with bone mass in children; males and females respectively. On the contrary such association disappeared during adolescence.

  15. Asthma and obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juel, Caroline Trunk-Black; Ali, Zarqa; Nilas, Lisbeth

    2012-01-01

    Obesity is a major health problem, and obesity is associated with a high incidence of asthma and poor asthma control. The aim of the present paper is to systematically review the current knowledge of the effect on overall asthma control of weight reduction in overweight and obese adults with asthma....

  16. Obesity, Physical Activity - Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilliam, Thomas B.

    Childhood obesity starts at a very early age, and preventive measures taken early enough may retard the development of fat cells. It appears that physical activity plays an important role in reducing obesity. The activity program must start early, in preschool days. It is felt that screening children for obesity when they first enter school and…

  17. Childhood Obesity: An Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reilly, John J.

    2007-01-01

    This article reviews recent research evidence, largely from systematic reviews, on a number of aspects of childhood obesity: its definition and prevalence; consequences; causes and prevention. The basis of the body mass index (BMI) as a means of defining obesity in children and adolescents is discussed: a high BMI for age constitutes obesity. In…

  18. Obesity and respiratory diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Zammit

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Christopher Zammit, Helen Liddicoat, Ian Moonsie, Himender MakkerSleep and Ventilation Unit, Department of Respiratory Medicine, North Middlesex University Hospital, London, UKAbstract: The obesity epidemic is a global problem, which is set to increase over time. However, the effects of obesity on the respiratory system are often underappreciated. In this review, we will discuss the mechanical effects of obesity on lung physiology and the function of adipose tissue as an endocrine organ producing systemic inflammation and effecting central respiratory control. Obesity plays a key role in the development of obstructive sleep apnea and obesity hypoventilation syndrome. Asthma is more common and often harder to treat in the obese population, and in this study, we review the effects of obesity on airway inflammation and respiratory mechanics. We also discuss the compounding effects of obesity on chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD and the paradoxical interaction of body mass index and COPD severity. Many practical challenges exist in caring for obese patients, and we highlight the complications faced by patients undergoing surgical procedures, especially given the increased use of bariatric surgery. Ultimately, a greater understanding of the effects of obesity on the respiratory disease and the provision of adequate health care resources is vital in order to care for this increasingly important patient population.Keywords: obesity, lung function, obstructive sleep apnea, obesity hypoventilation syndrome, anesthesia

  19. Childhood environment and obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    US children are at risk for developing childhood obesity. Currently, 23% of children ages 2–5 are overweight or obese, i.e., at or above the 85th percentile. This prevalence becomes even higher as children age, with 34% of children ages 6–11 being overweight or obese. Ethnic minority children are at...

  20. The Complexity of Obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Katti

    2010-01-01

    With Americans fatter and more malnourished than ever--almost two-thirds of the population is considered overweight or obese compared with 56 percent in the late 1980s and early 1990s, and people of color and the poor are the most obese of all--federal and university researchers and outreach workers from various anti-obesity organizations aim to…

  1. Obesity and renal hemodynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosma, R. J.; Krikken, J. A.; van der Heide, J. J. Homan; de Jong, P. E.; Navis, G. J.

    2006-01-01

    Obesity is a risk factor for renal damage in native kidney disease and in renal transplant recipients. Obesity is associated with several renal risk factors such as hypertension and diabetes that may convey renal risk, but obesity is also associated with an unfavorable renal hemodynamic profile inde

  2. A gut microbiota-targeted dietary intervention for amelioration of chronic inflammation underlying metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Shuiming; Fei, Na; Pang, Xiaoyan; Shen, Jian; Wang, Linghua; Zhang, Baorang; Zhang, Menghui; Zhang, Xiaojun; Zhang, Chenhong; Li, Min; Sun, Lifeng; Xue, Zhengsheng; Wang, Jingjing; Feng, Jie; Yan, Feiyan; Zhao, Naisi; Liu, Jiaqi; Long, Wenmin; Zhao, Liping

    2014-02-01

    Chronic inflammation induced by endotoxin from a dysbiotic gut microbiota contributes to the development of obesity-related metabolic disorders. Modification of gut microbiota by a diet to balance its composition becomes a promising strategy to help manage obesity. A dietary scheme based on whole grains, traditional Chinese medicinal foods, and prebiotics (WTP diet) was designed to meet human nutritional needs as well as balance the gut microbiota. Ninety-three of 123 central obese volunteers (BMI ≥ 28 kg m(-2) ) completed a self-controlled clinical trial consisting of 9-week intervention on WTP diet followed by a 14-week maintenance period. The average weight loss reached 5.79 ± 4.64 kg (6.62 ± 4.94%), in addition to improvement in insulin sensitivity, lipid profiles, and blood pressure. Pyrosequencing of fecal samples showed that phylotypes related to endotoxin-producing opportunistic pathogens of Enterobacteriaceae and Desulfovibrionaceae were reduced significantly, while those related to gut barrier-protecting bacteria of Bifidobacteriaceae increased. Gut permeability, measured as lactulose/mannitol ratio, was decreased compared with the baseline. Plasma endotoxin load as lipopolysaccharide-binding protein was also significantly reduced, with concomitant decrease in tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-6, and an increase in adiponectin. These results suggest that modulation of the gut microbiota via dietary intervention may enhance the intestinal barrier integrity, reduce circulating antigen load, and ultimately ameliorate the inflammation and metabolic phenotypes.

  3. Increased peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ expression levels in visceral adipose tissue, and serum CCL2 and interleukin-6 levels during visceral adipose tissue accumulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yogarajah, Thaneswary; Bee, Yvonne-Tee Get; Noordin, Rahmah; Yin, Khoo Boon

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine the mRNA and protein expression levels of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) in visceral adipose tissue, as well as serum adipokine levels, in Sprague Dawley rats. The rats were fed either a normal (control rats) or excessive (experimental rats) intake of food for 8 or 16 weeks, then sacrificed, at which time visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissues, as well as blood samples, were collected. The mRNA and protein expression levels of PPARs in the visceral adipose tissues were determined using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and Western blotting, respectively. In addition, the levels of adipokines in the serum samples were determined using commercial ELISA kits. The results revealed that at 8 weeks, the mass of subcutaneous adipose tissue was higher than that of the visceral adipose tissue in the experimental rats, but the reverse occurred at 16 weeks. Furthermore, at 16 weeks the experimental rats exhibited an upregulation of PPARγ mRNA and protein expression levels in the visceral adipose tissues, and significant increases in the serum levels of CCL2 and interleukin (IL)-6 were observed, compared with those measured at 8 weeks. In conclusion, this study demonstrated that the PPARγ expression level was likely correlated with serum levels of CCL2 and IL-6, molecules that may facilitate visceral adipose tissue accumulation. In addition, the levels of the two adipokines in the serum may be useful as surrogate biomarkers for the expression levels of PPARγ in accumulated visceral adipose tissues.

  4. Super obese behave different from simple and morbid obese patients in the changes of body composition after tailored one anastomosis gastric bypass (BAGUA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Garciacaballero

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Super obese patients behave different from simple and morbid obese patients when they reach final changes of body composition (BC after bariatric surgery. This has led us to tailor One Anastomosis Gastric Bypass (BAGUA to achieve better results in this group of patients. Patients and Methods: We studied 83 (37 diabetic and 46 nondiabetic BMI 30 and up patients who completed all evaluation appointment (preoperative, 10 days, 1, 3, 6 and 12 months after tailored BAGUA for diabesity. We used the Tanita body composition analyzer BC-420 MA by the method of single frequency impedance to analyze the evolution of BC in patients classified by BMI 30 - 34,9, 35 - 50, and >50. Results: While preoperative excess weight presented dramatic decreases after tailored BAGUA in all the groups, super obese have different final BC. Diabetics retained more fat mass and visceral fat, where super obese have double (14 kg that simple obese patients (6 kg, they lost more muscle mass, and have higher basal metabolism. The final BC is altered in all parameters if diabetes is added. Conclusions: The reduction of the preoperative excess weight is motivated largely by the tailored effect of BAGUA. Patients BMI 30-50 behaved homogeneous in BC after surgery while patients BMI >50 behave different. Super obese lose less weight, retained more fat mass, visceral fat, bone mass, and total water. This effect should be treated by more aggressive surgery by measuring the entire small intestine to make a proper exclusion (tailored to achieve homogeneous effects.

  5. Hepatic genome-wide expression of lipid metabolism in diet-induced obesity rats treated with cocoa polyphenols

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ali, Faisal; Ismail, Amin; Esa, Norhaizan Mohd; Pei, Chong Pei; Kersten, Sander

    2015-01-01

    Cocoa polyphenols (CPs) have been shown to exhibit hypolipidaemic actions, suggesting that CPs offer great potential for ameliorating lipid abnormalities. However, the conceivable molecular mechanisms underlying the pharmacological activity of CPs in obesity-induced liver steatosis have yet to be

  6. Adipose tissue gene expression is differentially regulated with different rates of weight loss in overweight and obese humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vink, R G; Roumans, N J; Fazelzadeh, P; Tareen, S H K; Boekschoten, M V; van Baak, M A; Mariman, E C

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Moderate weight loss (WL) can ameliorate adverse health effects associated with obesity, reflected by an improved adipose tissue (AT) gene expression profile. However, the effect of rate of WL on the AT transcriptome is unknown. We investigated the global AT gene expression pr

  7. 病毒感染与肥胖%Viral Infection and Obesity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邵惠训

    2012-01-01

    Nine different viruses have been implicated in obesity in animal models,but their role in human obesity has not been established conclusively. Avian adenovirus SMAM-1 is the first virus to be implicated in human obesity. hAd-36 has been found to be more prevalent in obese humans. Chickens inoculated with hAd-37 had much more visceral fat and body fat. Rous-associated virus type 7 induces a syndrome in chickens characterized by stunting and obesity,clearly,not every case of obesity is of infectious origin. However,if a few pathogens can cause obesity, there may be more awaiting discovery. These data give a new perspective to the etiology of obesity and raise the possibility of infection as a contributing factor for obesity in some humans. When such a relationship between pathogens and human obesity is well established, vaccines or antimicrobial agents may be employed to prevent or treat some forms of obesity.%肥胖是一种多病原疾病,病毒感染仅仅是引发肥胖的一种因素.已发现9种病毒和生物因子与人类、动物肥胖有关,尚有与肥胖有关的病毒和生物因子有待发现.“感染性肥胖”是一种新的概念,有助于人们将来生产出预防肥胖的疫苗和抗病毒治疗药物.

  8. Position of the American Dietetic Association and American Society for Nutrition: obesity, reproduction, and pregnancy outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siega-Riz, Anna Maria; King, Janet C

    2009-05-01

    Given the detrimental influence of maternal overweight and obesity on reproductive and pregnancy outcomes for the mother and child, it is the position of the American Dietetic Association and the American Society for Nutrition that all overweight and obese women of reproductive age should receive counseling on the roles of diet and physical activity in reproductive health prior to pregnancy,during pregnancy, and in the inter conceptional period, in order to ameliorate these adverse outcomes. The effect of maternal nutritional status prior to pregnancy on reproduction and pregnancy outcomes is of great public health importance. Obesity in the United States and worldwide has grown to epidemic proportions, with an estimated 33% of US women classified as obese. This position paper has two objectives: (a) to help nutrition professionals become aware of the risks and possible complications of overweight and obesity for fertility,the course of pregnancy, birth outcomes, and short- and long-term maternal and child health outcomes;and (b) related to the commitment to research by the American Dietetic Association and the American Society for Nutrition, to identify the gaps in research to improve our knowledge of the risks and complications associated with being overweight and obese before and during pregnancy.Only with an increased knowledge of these risks and complications can health care professionals develop effective strategies that can be implemented before and during pregnancy as well as during the inter conceptional period to ameliorate adverse outcomes.

  9. Hypovitaminosis D and adipose tissue - cause and effect relationships in obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelczyńska, Marta; Grzelak, Teresa; Walczak, Marcelina; Czyżewska, Krystyna

    2016-09-01

    In recent years, attention has been focused on pleiotropic directions of effects exerted by vitamin D. Epidemiological data indicate that deficiency of vitamin D in various population groups represents an increasingly widespread phenomenon, while a decreased serum concentration of calcitriol correlates with manifestation of civilization-linked diseases, including visceral obesity. This study aims at a review and synthesis of data linked to relationships between lowered vitamin D concentrations in blood and manifestation of obesity, and potential mechanisms which affect the concentration of the vitamin in conditions of an excessive accumulation of adipose tissue. Several variables are distinguished which can affect the status of vitamin D in obesity, but the key role in this respect is ascribed to the metabolic activity of visceral adipose tissue. Among others, the activity favours sequestration and modulation of calcitriol turnover. On the other hand, the effects of vitamin D on the process of adipogenesis and its involvement in remodelling of adipose tissue are pointed out. Also, several factors of an environmental nature (e.g. time of year/day, dietetic supply of vitamin D), genetic nature (e.g. genetic polymorphisms) and other conditioning (e.g. coexisting diseases, age, content of melanin in skin) cannot be bypassed as they may affect the concentration of vitamin D. Nevertheless, it still remains unresolved to what extent hypovitaminosis D represents the cause and to which it is the effect of obesity.

  10. Garlic extract attenuates brain mitochondrial dysfunction and cognitive deficit in obese-insulin resistant rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pintana, Hiranya; Sripetchwandee, Jirapas; Supakul, Luerat; Apaijai, Nattayaporn; Chattipakorn, Nipon; Chattipakorn, Siriporn

    2014-12-01

    Oxidative stress in the obese-insulin resistant condition has been shown to affect cognitive as well as brain mitochondrial functions. Garlic extract has exerted a potent antioxidant effect. However, the effects of garlic extract on the brain of obese-insulin resistant rats have never been investigated. We hypothesized that garlic extract improves cognitive function and brain mitochondrial function in obese-insulin resistant rats induced by long-term high-fat diet (HFD) consumption. Male Wistar rats were fed either normal diet or HFD for 16 weeks (n = 24/group). At week 12, rats in each dietary group received either vehicle or garlic extract (250 and 500 mg·kg(-1)·day(-1)) for 28 days. Learning and memory behaviors, metabolic parameters, and brain mitochondrial function were determined at the end of treatment. HFD led to increased body weight, visceral fat, plasma insulin, cholesterol, and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels, indicating the development of insulin resistance. Furthermore, HFD rats had cognitive deficit and brain mitochondrial dysfunction. HFD rats treated with both doses of garlic extract had decreased body weight, visceral fat, plasma cholesterol, and MDA levels. Garlic extract also improved cognitive function and brain mitochondrial function, which were impaired in obese-insulin resistant rats caused by HFD consumption.

  11. Determination of fat tissue area in the abdomen and evaluation of degree of obesity. Pt. 1. A unique application of a densitometric technique of computed tomography for CT values of fat tissue area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakayama, Fumie [Saint Marianna Univ., Kawasaki, Kanagawa (Japan). School of Medicine

    1995-06-01

    Computed tomography (CT) scanning images were taken from 26 normal subjects, 23 obesity patients and 11 with leanness to determine fat tissue values. Setting three regions of interest (ROIs) for fat tissues identified by a double-window display, a total of 52 images were employed. Histograms were constructed for each of the 3 ROIs, and the maximum, mean and minimum values were computed for each fat tissues. Areas of entire fat tissues were computed on each image with the above-cited CT software for thyroidal iodine contents by setting ROIs along the outline of body, the abdominal wall and the wall of colon, respectively. Areas of subcutaneous fat tissues were calculated by simply subtracting the values of visceral fat tissues from those of entire fat tissues. Means of maximum and minimum CT values of visceral fat tissues on 52 images were -34.7 HU and -162.1 HU, respectively. The double-window display indicated that the spectrum of CT values of fat tissue included not only visceral and subcutaneous fat tissues but fecal materials with air bubbles in the colon. Areas of fecal materials with the same CT values as that of the fat tissues occupied 2.5{+-}3.0% of that of the visceral fat tissue. The areas of subcutaneous and visceral fat tissues were largest at the levels of -20 to 0 mm and 60 to 100 mm, respectively, on all images. At the level of 0 mm, the areas of visceral fat tissue did not show any differences among normal subjects, obesity patients and patients with leanness. It was concluded that the CT software is applicable to obtain satisfactory values for areas of visceral fat tissue, and that CT images at the levels of 0, 40, 60 and 100 mm are necessary to accurately determine areas of visceral fat tissues. (S.Y.).

  12. 内脏脂肪组织中调节性T细胞的研究进展%Research Progress of Regulatory T Cells in Visceral Adipose Tissue

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨帆(综述); 胡蕴; 毛晓明(审校)

    2016-01-01

    Regulatory T( Treg) cell can regulate and suppress the immune response,which plays a fun-damental role in maintaining immune homeostasis in vivo .Visceral adipose tissue-resident Tregs( Such as the retina,epididymis adipose tissue,etc.) are distinct from their counterparts in lymphoid organs on the pheno-type,numbers and function.Tregs are abundant in visceral adipose tissue of normal mice,but their number is greatly reduced in obese mice.They are in crucial control of obese-induced adipose tissue inflammation and metabolic disorders,which represent a potential novel strategy for treating obesity,type 2 diabetes and other metabolic syndrome.%调节性T( Treg)细胞是一群具有免疫抑制功能的T细胞亚群,参与维持体内免疫稳态。近来研究发现,内脏脂肪组织(如网膜、附睾脂肪组织等)中 Treg细胞在表型、数量及功能上与淋巴组织不同。而且Treg细胞在正常小鼠内脏脂肪组织中大量存在,而在肥胖小鼠中数量明显减少,在肥胖导致的脂肪组织炎症及代谢紊乱中起重要调控作用,为治疗肥胖、2型糖尿病及其他代谢综合征提供新思路。

  13. Obesity and hypertension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Shu-Zhong; Lu, Wen; Zong, Xue-Feng; Ruan, Hong-Yun; Liu, Yi

    2016-01-01

    The imbalance between energy intake and expenditure is the main cause of excessive overweight and obesity. Technically, obesity is defined as the abnormal accumulation of ≥20% of body fat, over the individual's ideal body weight. The latter constitutes the maximal healthful value for an individual that is calculated based chiefly on the height, age, build and degree of muscular development. However, obesity is diagnosed by measuring the weight in relation to the height of an individual, thereby determining or calculating the body mass index. The National Institutes of Health have defined 30 kg/m2 as the limit over which an individual is qualified as obese. Accordingly, the prevalence of obesity in on the increase in children and adults worldwide, despite World Health Organization warnings. The growth of obesity and the scale of associated health issues induce serious consequences for individuals and governmental health systems. Excessive overweight remains among the most neglected public health issues worldwide, while obesity is associated with increasing risks of disability, illness and death. Cardiovascular diseases, the leading cause of mortality worldwide, particularly hypertension and diabetes, are the main illnesses associated with obesity. Nevertheless, the mechanisms underlying obesity-associated hypertension or other associated metabolic diseases remains to be adequately investigated. In the present review, we addressed the association between obesity and cardiovascular disease, particularly the biological mechanisms linking obesity and hypertension. PMID:27703502

  14. Linking obesity and asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutherland, E Rand

    2014-04-01

    A growing body of literature suggests that obesity has a significant impact on asthma risk, phenotype, and prognosis. Epidemiological studies have clearly demonstrated that asthma is more likely to occur in obese patients, and health status is impaired in obese individuals with asthma, with obese asthmatics experiencing more symptoms, worse quality of life, increased healthcare use, and increased asthma severity. However, obesity has well-described effects on lung function and mechanics that can lead to symptoms of dyspnea without causing the pathophysiologic changes of asthma. Adding to the challenges of evaluating this association, some studies have failed to demonstrate a robust relationship between obesity and traditional biomarkers of airway inflammation in adult asthmatics, leading to the conclusion that obesity does not necessarily worsen airway inflammation in asthma. In this regard, emerging data suggest that nonatopic mechanisms may be relevant in obese asthmatics, and that these mechanisms may have a direct impact on the response of obese asthmatics to asthma therapies, most notably inhaled glucocorticoids. This article will review selected aspects of the contributions of obesity-related airway and systemic inflammation to asthma, with a focus on the impact of obesity as a modifier of risk, prognosis, and therapeutic response in asthma.

  15. Challenges in obesity research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreu Palou

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is the main nutritional problem and one of the most important health problems in developed societies. Central to the challenge of obesity prevention and management is a thoroughly understanding of its determinants. Multiple socio-cultural, socio-economic, behavioural and biological factors -often interrelated and many of them still unknown or poorly understood- can contribute to the establishment and perpetuation of obese phenotypes. Here, we address current research challenges regarding basic aspects of obesity and emerging science for its control, including brown adipose tissue thermogenesis and browning of white fat as possible therapeutic targets for obesity, the influence of the microbioma, and genetics, epigenetics, nutrigenomics and nutrigenetics of obesity. We also highlight hot topics in relation to food and lifestyle as determinants of obesity, including the brain mechanisms underlying environmental motivation to eat, the biological control of spontaneous physical activity, the possible role of concrete foods and food components, and the importance of early life nutrition and environment. Challenges regarding the connections of obesity with other alterations and pathologies are also briefly addressed, as well as social and economical challenges in relation to healthy food production and lifestyle for the prevention of obesity, and technological challenges in obesity research and management. The objective is to give a panoramic of advances accomplished and still ahead relevant to the different stakeholders engaged in understanding and combating obesity.

  16. Challenges in obesity research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palou, Andreu; Bonet, M Luisa

    2013-09-01

    Obesity is the main nutritional problem and one of the most important health problems in developed societies. Central to the challenge of obesity prevention and management is a thoroughly understanding of its determinants. Multiple socio-cultural, socio-economic, behavioural and biological factors--often interrelated and many of them still unknown or poorly understood--can contribute to the establishment and perpetuation of obese phenotypes. Here, we address current research challenges regarding basic aspects of obesity and emerging science for its control, including brown adipose tissue thermogenesis and browning of white fat as possible therapeutic targets for obesity, the influence of the microbioma, and genetics, epigenetics, nutrigenomics and nutrigenetics of obesity. We also highlight hot topics in relation to food and lifestyle as determinants of obesity, including the brain mechanisms underlying environmental motivation to eat, the biological control of spontaneous physical activity, the possible role of concrete foods and food components, and the importance of early life nutrition and environment. Challenges regarding the connections of obesity with other alterations and pathologies are also briefly addressed, as well as social and economical challenges in relation to healthy food production and lifestyle for the prevention of obesity, and technological challenges in obesity research and management. The objective is to give a panoramic of advances accomplished and still ahead relevant to the different stakeholders engaged in understanding and combating obesity.

  17. Obesity and Gastrointestinal Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ai Fujimoto

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of obesity in the Japanese population has been increasing dramatically in step with the Westernization of lifestyles and food ways. Our study demonstrated significant associations between obesity and a number of gastrointestinal disorders in a large sample population in Japan. We demonstrated that reflux esophagitis and hiatal hernia were strongly related to obesity (BMI > 25 in the Japanese. In particular, obesity with young male was a high risk for these diseases. On the other hand, it has been reported that obesity is also associated with Barrett’s esophagus and colorectal adenoma; however, obesity was not a risk factor for these diseases in our study. The difference of ethnicity of our subjects may partly explain why we found no data to implicate obesity as a risk factor for Barrett’s esophagus. Arterial sclerosis associated with advanced age and hyperglycemia was accompanied by an increased risk of colorectal adenoma.

  18. OPEN about obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lissner, L; Troiano, R P; Midthune, D

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Obesity-related under-reporting of usual dietary intake is one of the most persistent sources of bias in nutrition research. The aim of this paper is to characterize obese and non-obese individuals with respect to reporting errors observed with two common dietary instruments, using...... energy and protein recovery biomarkers as reference measures. POPULATION AND METHODS: This report employs data from the Observing Protein and Energy Nutrition (OPEN) study. Analyses are based on stratified samples of 211 (57 obese) men and 179 (50 obese) women who completed 24-h recalls (24HR), food...... frequency questionnaires (FFQ), doubly labelled water (DLW) and urinary nitrogen (UN) assessments. RESULTS: In obese and non-obese subgroups, FFQ yielded lower energy and protein intake estimates than 24HR, although biomarker-based information indicated under-reporting with both dietary instruments. Gender...

  19. Modest Visceral Fat Gain Causes Endothelial Dysfunction In Healthy Humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero-Corral, Abel; Sert-Kuniyoshi, Fatima H.; Sierra-Johnson, Justo; Orban, Marek; Gami, Apoor; Davison, Diane; Singh, Prachi; Pusalavidyasagar, Snigdha; Huyber, Christine; Votruba, Susanne; Lopez-Jimenez, Francisco; Jensen, Michael D.; Somers, Virend K.

    2014-01-01

    Objective This study sought to determine the impact of fat gain and its distribution on endothelial function in lean healthy humans. Background Endothelial dysfunction has been identified as an independent predictor of cardiovascular events. Whether fat gain impairs endothelial function is unknown. Methods A randomized controlled study to assess the effects of fat gain on endothelial function. We recruited 43 normal weight healthy volunteers (mean age 29 years; 18 women). Subjects were assigned to gain weight (approximately 4 kg) (n=35) or to maintain weight (n=8). Endothelial function (brachial artery flow mediated dilation -FMD) was measured at baseline, after fat gain (8 weeks) and after weight loss (16 weeks) for fat-gainers and at baseline and follow-up (8 weeks) for weight-maintainers. Body composition was measured by DXA and abdominal CT scans. Results After an average weight gain of 4.1 kg, fat-gainers significantly increased their total, visceral and subcutaneous fat. Blood pressure and overnight polysomnography did not change after fat gain or loss. FMD remained unchanged in weight-maintainers. FMD decreased in fat-gainers (9.1 ± 3% vs. 7.8 ± 3.2%, p =0.003), but recovered to baseline when subjects shed the gained weight. There was a significant correlation between the decrease in FMD and the increase in visceral fat gain (rho = −0.42, p=0.004), but not with subcutaneous fat gain (rho = −0.22, p=0.15). Conclusions In normal weight healthy young subjects, modest fat gain results in impaired endothelial function, even in the absence of changes in blood pressure. Endothelial function recovers after weight loss. Increased visceral rather than subcutaneous fat predicts endothelial dysfunction. PMID:20705223

  20. Effects of diet-induced obesity on metabolic parameters and reproductive function in female Ossabaw minipigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newell-Fugate, Annie E; Taibl, Jessica N; Clark, Sherrie G; Alloosh, Mouhamad; Sturek, Michael; Krisher, Rebecca L

    2014-02-01

    This study characterizes the effect of an excess-calorie, high-fat, high-cholesterol, high-fructose diet on metabolic parameters and reproductive function in female Ossabaw minipigs. Cycling sows were fed a hypercaloric, high-fat, high-cholesterol, and high-fructose diet (obese, n = 4) or a control diet (control, n = 5) for 13 mo. During the final 4 mo, ovarian ultrasonography was done, blood was collected, and weights and measures were taken. Pigs then underwent ovarian stimulation. Cycle length and androstenedione, total testosterone, progesterone, estradiol, follicle-stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone, insulin, fructosamine, lipid, and glucose levels were measured. In addition, adipose tissue aromatase gene expression was assessed. As compared with control pigs, obese pigs were hyperglycemic and hyperinsulinemic; had elevated total cholesterol, triglyceride, and leptin levels, and demonstrated abdominal adiposity. Visceral adipose tissue of obese pigs, as compared with control pigs, showed increased aromatase gene expression. Obese pigs had longer estrous cycles, higher serum androstenedione, and higher luteal phase serum luteinizing hormone, compared with control pigs. During the luteal phase, obese pigs had more medium, ovulatory, and cystic ovarian follicles, whereas control pigs had more small ovarian follicles. When fed an excess-calorie, high-fat, high-cholesterol, high-fructose diet, female Ossabaw minipigs develop obesity, metabolic syndrome, and abnormal reproductive function. This animal model may be applicable to studies of the effects of obesity on fertility in women.

  1. CCR7 Maintains Nonresolving Lymph Node and Adipose Inflammation in Obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellmann, Jason; Sansbury, Brian E; Holden, Candice R; Tang, Yunan; Wong, Blenda; Wysoczynski, Marcin; Rodriguez, Jorge; Bhatnagar, Aruni; Hill, Bradford G; Spite, Matthew

    2016-08-01

    Accumulation of immune cells in adipose tissue promotes insulin resistance in obesity. Although innate and adaptive immune cells contribute to adipose inflammation, the processes that sustain these interactions are incompletely understood. Here we show that obesity promotes the accumulation of CD11c(+) adipose tissue immune cells that express C-C chemokine receptor 7 (CCR7) in mice and humans, and that CCR7 contributes to chronic inflammation and insulin resistance. We identified that CCR7(+) macrophages and dendritic cells accumulate in adipose tissue in close proximity to lymph nodes (LNs) (i.e., perinodal) and visceral adipose. Consistent with the role of CCR7 in regulating the migration of immune cells to LNs, obesity promoted the accumulation of CD11c(+) cells in LNs, which was prevented by global or hematopoietic deficiency of Ccr7 Obese Ccr7(-/-) mice had reduced accumulation of CD8(+) T cells, B cells, and macrophages in adipose tissue, which was associated with reduced inflammatory signaling. This reduction in maladaptive inflammation translated to increased insulin signaling and improved glucose tolerance in obesity. Therapeutic administration of an anti-CCR7 antibody phenocopied the effects of genetic Ccr7 deficiency in mice with established obesity. These results suggest that CCR7 plays a causal role in maintaining innate and adaptive immunity in obesity.

  2. Antissaliva Antibodies of Lutzomyia Longipalpis in area of Visceral Leishmaniasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraga, Thiago Leite; Fernandes, Magda Freitas; Pontes, Elenir Rose Jardim Cury; Levay, Ana Paula Silva; Almeida da Cunha, Elenice Brandão; França, Adriana de Oliveira; Dorval, Maria Elizabeth Cavalheiros

    2016-07-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess the presence of antissaliva antibodies of Lutzomyia longipalpis in human hosts living in area of visceral leishmaniasis, located in the Center-West region of Brazil. The presence of antissaliva antibodies of L. longipalpis exhibited a strong correlation with the protection and development of antibodies against Leishmania sp. Of the 492 children studied, elevated antissaliva antibodies of L. longipalpis were detected in 38.4% of the participants. There was a higher percentage of positivity (64.7%) among children who exhibited anti-Leishmania sp. antibodies and among those who were positive in the delayed hypersensitivity test (34.8%).

  3. Radiological features of the visceral and skeletal involvement of hemochromatosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaeger, H.J.; Mehring, U.M.; Goetz, G.F.; Mathias, K.D. [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, City Hospital Dortmund, Beurhausstrasse 40, D-44 137 Dortmund (Germany); Neise, M. [Department of Medicine, St. Johannes Hospital, An der Abtei 7-11, D-47 166 Duisburg (Germany); Erlemann, R. [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, St. Johannes Hospital, An der Abtei 7-11, D-47 166 Duisburg (Germany); Kapp, H.J. [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Center for Rheumatology, Rheingaustrasse, D-65 388 Schlangenbad (Germany)

    1997-10-01

    Hemochromatosis is a multisystem disorder produced by the excessive accumulation of iron in visceral organs and the musculoskeletal system. Clinically the disease may be silent, but characteristic radiological features may point to the diagnosis. The increased iron stores in the organs involved, especially in the liver and pancreas, result in an increased attenuation at unenhanced CT and an decreased signal intensity at MR imaging. Hemochromatosis arthropathy includes degenerative osteoarthritis and chondrocalcinosis. The distribution of the arthropathy is distinctive, but not unique, frequently affecting the second and third metacarpophalangeal joints of the hand. (orig.). With 15 figs., 4 tabs.

  4. ANTHROPOMETRY TO IDENTIFY HIGH VISCERAL FAT AREA IN POSTMENOPAUSAL WOMEN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gondim Pitanga, Francisco José; Seara Pitanga, Cristiano Penas; Calçada Dias Gabriel, Ronaldo Eugénio; Cristina Beck, Carmem; Rodrigues Moreira, Maria Helena

    2015-12-01

    Introducción: la evaluación de la distribución de la grasa corporal por antropometría puede servir para identificar el exceso de grasa visceral. Este diagnóstico permitirá la aplicación de medidas específicas para prevenir y tratar el exceso de grasa visceral en mujeres posmenopáusicas. Objetivo: el objetivo de este estudio fue analizar diferentes indicadores antropométricos e identificar los mejores puntos de corte para discriminar sujetos con alta área de grasa visceral (AAGS) en mujeres posmenopáusicas. Métodos: estudio transversal con una muestra de 255 mujeres posmenopáusicas. Se construyeron diferentes curvas Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) y las áreas bajo ellas comparadas en términos del índice de conicidad (índice C), el índice de masa corporal (IMC), razón cintura-cadera (RCC), circunferencia de la cintura (CC), relación cintura-estatura (RCEst) y AAGS. La sensibilidad y la especificidad identificaron los mejores puntos de corte entre los diferentes indicadores antropométricos para discriminar sujetos con AAGS. El intervalo de confianza se fijó en 95%. Resultados: las zonas estadísticamente significativas bajo la curva ROC se encontraron para todos los indicadores antropométricos analizados. Fueron sugeridos los siguientes puntos de corte, con sus respectivas sensibilidades y especificidades, para discriminar sujetos con AAGS: índice C (1,19; 75,00%–74,77%); IMC (27,3 kg / m2; 81,08%–80,37%); RCC (0,98; 90,54%-83,18%); CC (85 cm; 85,14%-81,31%); y RCEst (0,55; 80,41%–80,37%). Conclusión: estos resultados demuestran que los indicadores antropométricos identifican bien a las mujeres postmenopáusicas con AAGS y pueden ser utilizados en lugar de los exámenes más sofisticados para detectar altos niveles de grasa visceral.

  5. Trace elements in sera from patients with visceral leishmaniasis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mukhopadhyay, R.; Bhattacharya, A. [Department of Zoology, Calcutta University, Calcutta (India); Chakraborty, A.; Sudarshan, M.; Jal, P.K.; Chintalapudi, S.N. [Inter University Consortium for DAE Facilities, Calcutta Centre 3/LB-8, Bidhan Nagar, Calcutta (India); Dutta, R.K. [Schonland Research Centre for Nuclear Sciences, University of Witwatersrand, Johannesburg (South Africa)

    2000-07-01

    Trace elements are known to have pivotal role in human health and disease. Present investigation employed PIXE analysis to probe into the elemental profile of patients suffering from visceral Leishmaniasis. Remarkable alternations were observed in concentration of elements like Cl, K, Ca, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn. The pattern of enhancement of elemental concentration corresponds to the progression of the disease. Additionally, our present data reflect probable correlation between alteration in trace elemental status and other pathological syndromes associated with Leishmaniasis. The possibility of considering trace elements as a diagnostic marker for a better understanding of the disease is discussed. (author)

  6. Visceral fat dominant distribution in male type 2 diabetic patients is closely related to hepatic insulin resistance, irrespective of body type

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miyazaki Yoshinori

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background All previous studies that investigated the association between abdominal fat distribution and insulin resistance evaluated subcutaneous and visceral fat area and/or volume, but these values were not related to the body type of each subject. In the present study we have examined the association between abdominal fat distribution and peripheral (muscle/hepatic sensitivity to insulin using the visceral to abdominal subcutaneous fat area ratio (VF/SF ratio in male patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. This ratio defines the predominancy of visceral or subcutaneous abdominal adiposity, independent of the body type of each individual. Methods Thirty-six type 2 diabetic male patients underwent a euglycemic insulin clamp (insulin infusion rate = 40 mU/m2·min with 3-3H-glucose to measure insulin-mediated total body (primarily reflects muscle glucose disposal (TGD and suppression of endogenous (primarily reflects liver glucose production (EGP in response to a physiologic increase in plasma insulin concentration. Abdominal subcutaneous (SF and intraabdominal visceral fat (VF areas were quantitated with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI at the level of L4–5. Results TGD and TGD divided by steady state plasma insulin concentration during the insulin clamp (TGD/SSPI correlated inversely with body mass index (BMI, total fat mass (FM measured by 3H2O, SF and VF areas, while VF/SF ratio displayed no significant relationship with TGD or TGD/SSPI. In contrast, EGP and the product of EGP and SSPI during the insulin clamp (an index hepatic insulin resistance correlated positively with VF/SF ratio, but not with BMI, FM, VF or SF. Conclusion We conclude that, independent of the individual's body type, visceral fat dominant accumulation as opposed to subcutaneous fat accumulation is associated with hepatic insulin resistance, whereas peripheral (muscle insulin resistance is more closely related to general obesity (i.e. higher BMI and total FM

  7. The Systemic Inflammome of Severe Obesity before and after Bariatric Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arismendi, Ebymar; Rivas, Eva; Agustí, Alvar; Ríos, José; Barreiro, Esther; Vidal, Josep; Rodriguez-Roisin, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Obesity is associated with low-grade systemic inflammation. The “inflammome” is a network layout of the inflammatory pattern. The systemic inflammome of obesity has not been described as yet. We hypothesized that it can be significantly worsened by smoking and other comorbidities frequently associated with obesity, and ameliorated by bariatric surgery (BS). Besides, whether or not these changes are mirrored in the lungs is unknown, but obesity is often associated with pulmonary inflammation and bronchial hyperresponsiveness. Objectives We sought to: (1) describe the systemic inflammome of morbid obesity; (2) investigate the effects of sex, smoking, sleep apnea syndrome, metabolic syndrome and BS upon this systemic inflammome; and, (3) determine their interplay with pulmonary inflammation. Methods We studied 129 morbidly obese patients (96 females; age 46±12 years; body mass index [BMI], 46±6 kg/m2) before and one year after BS, and 20 healthy, never-smokers, (43±7 years), with normal BMI and spirometry. Results Before BS, compared with controls, all obese subjects displayed a strong and coordinated (inflammome) systemic inflammatory response (adiponectin, C-reactive protein, interleukin (IL)-8, IL-10, leptin, soluble tumor necrosis factor-receptor 1(sTNF-R1), and 8-isoprostane). This inflammome was not modified by sex, smoking, or coexistence of obstructive sleep apnea and/or metabolic syndrome. By contrast, it was significantly ameliorated, albeit not completely abolished, after BS. Finally, obese subjects had evidence of pulmonary inflammation (exhaled condensate) that also decreased after BS. Conclusions The systemic inflammome of morbid obesity is independent of sex, smoking status and/or comorbidities, it is significantly reduced by BS and mirrored in the lungs. PMID:25238542

  8. Leishmanization revisited: immunization with a naturally attenuated cutaneous Leishmania donovani isolate from Sri Lanka protects against visceral leishmaniasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCall, Laura-Isobel; Zhang, Wen-Wei; Ranasinghe, Shanlindra; Matlashewski, Greg

    2013-02-27

    Leishmaniasis is a neglected tropical disease caused by Leishmania protozoa and associated with three main clinical presentations: cutaneous, mucocutaneous and visceral leishmaniasis. Visceral leishmaniasis is the second most lethal parasitic disease after malaria and there is so far no human vaccine. Leishmania donovani is a causative agent of visceral leishmaniasis in South East Asia and Eastern Africa. However, in Sri Lanka, L. donovani causes mainly cutaneous leishmaniasis, while visceral leishmaniasis is rare. We investigate here the possibility that the cutaneous form of L. donovani can provide immunological protection against the visceral form of the disease, as a potential explanation for why visceral leishmaniasis is rare in Sri Lanka. Subcutaneous immunization with a cutaneous clinical isolate from Sri Lanka was significantly protective against visceral leishmaniasis in BALB/c mice. Protection was associated with a mixed Th1/Th2 response. These results provide a possible rationale for the scarcity of visceral leishmaniasis in Sri Lanka and could guide leishmaniasis vaccine development efforts.

  9. Immunoactivation and immunopathogeny during active visceral leishmaniasis Imunoativação e imunopatogenia durante leishmaniose visceral ativa

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    Hiro Goto

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Visceral leishmaniasis is caused by protozoan parasites of the Leishmania donovani complex. During active disease in humans, high levels of IFN-γ and TNF-α detected in blood serum, and high expression of IFN-γ mRNA in samples of the lymphoid organs suggest that the immune system is highly activated. However, studies using peripheral blood mononuclear cells have found immunosuppression specific to Leishmania antigens; this poor immune response probably results from Leishmania antigen-engaged lymphocytes being trapped in the lymphoid organs. To allow the parasites to multiply, deactivating cytokines IL-10 and TGF-β may be acting on macrophages as well as anti-Leishmania antibodies that opsonize amastigotes and induce IL-10 production in macrophages. These high activation and deactivation processes are likely to occur mainly in the spleen and liver and can be confirmed through the examination of organ samples. However, an analysis of sequential data from studies of visceral leishmaniasis in hamsters suggests that factors outside of the immune system are responsible for the early inactivation of inducible nitric oxide synthase, which occurs before the expression of deactivating cytokines. In active visceral leishmaniasis, the immune system actively participates in non-lymphoid organ lesioning. While current views only consider immunocomplex deposition, macrophages, T cells, cytokines, and immunoglobulins by diverse mechanism also play important roles in the pathogenesis.A leishmaniose visceral é causada por protozoários do gênero do complexo Leishmania donovani. Durante a doença ativa no homem são detectados altos níveis de IFN-γ e de TNF-α no soro, e elevada expressão de mRNA de IFN-γ em amostras de órgãos linfóides sugerindo um estado intensamente ativado do sistema imunológico. A visão atual, no entanto, refere-se à imunossupressão específica aos antígenos de Leishmania com base em estudos utilizando células mononucleares

  10. Discriminatory power of indicators predictors of visceral adiposity evaluated by computed tomography in adults and elderly individuals

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    Anna Karla Cameiro Roriz

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Identifying anthropometric methods of abdominal adiposity, predictors of excess area of visceral adipose tissue (VAT allows rapid and low cost evaluation for the risk of cardiovascular diseases in the elderly. Objective: To evaluate the discriminatory power of anthropometric indicators for detection of excess of the area of VAT. Methods: Cross-sectional study comprising 194 adults and elderly individuals for comparison of both sexes and age groups. Anthropometric variables: waist-to-height Ratio (WHtR, waist-to-thigh Ratio (WTR, Abdominal Diameter Index (ADI and Sagittal Abdominal Diameter Height Index (SAD/Height. The VAT area was identified by computed tomography (CT. Analysis with the ROC curve. Results: There was a high correlation between the VAT area and most of the anthropometric indicators (p ≤ 0.001. Among elderly men, WHtR showed areas under the ROC curve over 0.90 and cutoff of 0.55 (sens: 85.7%; spec: 82.4%, PPV: 99.9%. For older women, the WHtR cutoff was 0.58 (sens: 81.0%; spec: 78.6%. For the SAD/Height, the areas under the ROC curve were ≥ 0.83 (p ≤ 0.01, with cutoffs of 0.12 for men and 0.13 for women. Conclusion: There was a strong discriminatory power of the anthropometric indicators abdominal visceral obesity. The WHtR and SAD/Height showed better performance to predict the VAT area of risk in elderly, without the need of measuring it by computed tomography.

  11. Aneurisma toracoabdominal roto: modificação do circuito de perfusão visceral Thoracoabdominal aneurysm rupture: a modification of the visceral perfusion circuit

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    Eduardo Faccini Rocha

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Paciente portador de aneurisma toracoabdominal (ATA tipo lV, roto, submetido a tratamento cirúrgico utilizando perfusão visceral assistida por bomba centrífuga e oxigenador de membrana neonatal. Este circuito permite a perfusão visceral com sangue oxigenado, durante o período de isquemia, e infusão de volume rápido via venosa após a retirada da pinça.A patient with ruptured type IV thoracoabdominal aortic aneurysm (TAAA, underwent surgical treatment utilizing visceral perfusion assisted by a centrifugal pump and neonatal membrane oxygenator. This circuit allows visceral perfusion with oxygenated blood during the ischemic period and the fast infusion of intravenous volume after clamp removal.

  12. Evaluation of Obesity in School-Age Children.

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    Dobashi, Kazushige

    2016-01-01

    To prevent obesity in middle age, early precautions and interventions are required during childhood. Therefore, it is very important to accurately evaluate the degree of overweight in children. Body mass index (BMI) is widely used worldwide in adults, but not in children. Because standard BMI, which is calculated using the average height and weight for age, changes widely during growth, a constant cut-off point cannot be set for children. An international unified method defining childhood obesity has not been established. In many countries, BMI-for-age percentile (BMI%) value or Z (standard deviation) score is used, whereas in Japan, the percentage of overweight (POW), which is the modified weight-for-height method, is used. We compared BMI% values with POW values obtained using the anthropometric data of elementary and junior high school students based on the Japanese school survey conducted in 2000 and found that the values for the degree of overweight were significantly different between the two methods. It became clear that tall students were easily defined as being overweight, whereas short students tended to be evaluated as being underweight when using BMI%. POW method seemed to be more appropriate than BMI% for school-age children. Abdominal obesity, excess visceral adipose tissue (VAT), is highly associated with obesity-related complications. Waist circumference (WC) is now accepted as an appropriate guide to VAT accumulation. The cut-off value of WC defining excess VAT is 80 cm at the umbilical level in Japanese school-age children. It is not easy to decide the obesity criteria and optimum WC in school-age children. Childhood obesity should be discussed more internationally.

  13. Chemotherapy of leishmaniasis: recent advances in the treatment of visceral disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berman, J

    1998-12-01

    New lipid formulations of amphotericin B--AmBisome, Amphotec, and Abelcet--have dramatically decreased the toxicity associated with amphotericin B and have made this group of agents the treatment of choice for visceral leishmaniasis. An agent of a completely different chemical class, the aminoglycoside aminosidine, was 97% curative in India. This agent too may be used for visceral leishmaniasis.

  14. Acetylcholinesterase inhibition ameliorates deficits in motivational drive

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    Martinowich Keri

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Apathy is frequently observed in numerous neurological disorders, including Alzheimer's and Parkinson's, as well as neuropsychiatric disorders including schizophrenia. Apathy is defined as a lack of motivation characterized by diminished goal-oriented behavior and self-initiated activity. This study evaluated a chronic restraint stress (CRS protocol in modeling apathetic behavior, and determined whether administration of an anticholinesterase had utility in attenuating CRS-induced phenotypes. Methods We assessed behavior as well as regional neuronal activity patterns using FosB immunohistochemistry after exposure to CRS for 6 h/d for a minimum of 21 d. Based on our FosB findings and recent clinical trials, we administered an anticholinesterase to evaluate attenuation of CRS-induced phenotypes. Results CRS resulted in behaviors that reflect motivational loss and diminished emotional responsiveness. CRS-exposed mice showed differences in FosB accumulation, including changes in the cholinergic basal forebrain system. Facilitating cholinergic signaling ameliorated CRS-induced deficits in initiation and motivational drive and rescued immediate early gene activation in the medial septum and nucleus accumbens. Conclusions Some CRS protocols may be useful for studying deficits in motivation and apathetic behavior. Amelioration of CRS-induced behaviors with an anticholinesterase supports a role for the cholinergic system in remediation of deficits in motivational drive.

  15. Cacao polyphenols ameliorate autoimmune myocarditis in mice.

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    Zempo, Hirofumi; Suzuki, Jun-ichi; Watanabe, Ryo; Wakayama, Kouji; Kumagai, Hidetoshi; Ikeda, Yuichi; Akazawa, Hiroshi; Komuro, Issei; Isobe, Mitsuaki

    2016-04-01

    Myocarditis is a clinically severe disease; however, no effective treatment has been established. The aim of this study was to determine whether cacao bean (Theobroma cacao) polyphenols ameliorate autoimmune myocarditis. We used an experimental autoimmune myocarditis (EAM) model in Balb/c mice. Mice with induced EAM were treated with a cacao polyphenol extract (CPE, n=12) or vehicle (n=12). On day 21, hearts were harvested and analyzed. Elevated heart weight to body weight and fibrotic area ratios as well as high cardiac cell infiltration were observed in the vehicle-treated EAM mice. However, these increases were significantly suppressed in the CPE-treated mice. Reverse transcriptase-PCR revealed that mRNA expressions of interleukin (Il)-1β, Il-6, E-selectin, vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 and collagen type 1 were lower in the CPE group compared with the vehicle group. The mRNA expressions of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate-oxidase (Nox)2 and Nox4 were increased in the vehicle-treated EAM hearts, although CPE treatment did not significantly suppress the transcription levels. However, compared with vehicle treatment of EAM hearts, CPE treatment significantly suppressed hydrogen peroxide concentrations. Cardiac myeloperoxidase activity, the intensity of dihydroethidium staining and the phosphorylation of nuclear factor-κB p65 were also lower in the CPE group compared with the vehicle group. Our data suggest that CPE ameliorates EAM in mice. CPE is a promising dietary supplement to suppress cardiovascular inflammation and oxidative stress.

  16. Obesity and respiratory diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zammit, Christopher; Liddicoat, Helen; Moonsie, Ian; Makker, Himender

    2010-10-20

    The obesity epidemic is a global problem, which is set to increase over time. However, the effects of obesity on the respiratory system are often underappreciated. In this review, we will discuss the mechanical effects of obesity on lung physiology and the function of adipose tissue as an endocrine organ producing systemic inflammation and effecting central respiratory control. Obesity plays a key role in the development of obstructive sleep apnea and obesity hypoventilation syndrome. Asthma is more common and often harder to treat in the obese population, and in this study, we review the effects of obesity on airway inflammation and respiratory mechanics. We also discuss the compounding effects of obesity on chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and the paradoxical interaction of body mass index and COPD severity. Many practical challenges exist in caring for obese patients, and we highlight the complications faced by patients undergoing surgical procedures, especially given the increased use of bariatric surgery. Ultimately, a greater understanding of the effects of obesity on the respiratory disease and the provision of adequate health care resources is vital in order to care for this increasingly important patient population.

  17. Asthma and obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulet, L-P

    2013-01-01

    The prevalence and incidence of asthma have increased among obese children and adults, particularly among women. Obesity seems to be a predisposing factor for the development of asthma, but the underlying mechanisms of its influence are still uncertain. Various hypotheses have been proposed to explain the link between obesity and asthma such as a common genetic predisposition, developmental changes, altered lung mechanics, the presence of a systemic inflammatory process, and an increased prevalence of associated comorbid conditions. Over-diagnosis of asthma does not seem to be more frequent in obese compared to non-obese subjects, but the added effects of obesity on respiratory symptoms can affect asthma control assessment. Obesity can make asthma more difficult to control and is associated with a reduced beneficial effect of asthma medications. This could be due to a change in asthma phenotype, particularly evidenced as a less eosinophilic type of airway inflammation combined to the added effects of changes in lung mechanics. Weight loss is associated with a universal improvement of asthma and should be part of asthma management in the obese patient. Additional research should be conducted to better determine how obesity influences the development and clinical expression of asthma, establish the optimal management of asthma in this population and determine how obesity affects long-term asthma outcomes in these patients.

  18. Obesity and asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Peter G

    2013-12-01

    There is a global epidemic of asthma and obesity that is concentrated in Westernized and developed countries. A causal association in some people with asthma is suggested by observations that obesity precedes the onset of asthma and that bariatric surgery for morbid obesity can resolve asthma. The obese asthma phenotype features poor asthma control, limited response to corticosteroids, and an exaggeration of the physiological effects of obesity on lung function, which includes a reduction in expiratory reserve volume and airway closure occurring during tidal breathing. Obesity has important implications for asthma treatment. Increasing corticosteroid doses based on poor asthma control, as currently recommended in guidelines, may lead to overtreatment with corticosteroids in obese asthma. Enhanced bronchodilation, particularly of the small airways, may reduce the component of airway closure due to increased bronchomotor tone and suggests that greater emphasis should be placed on long-acting bronchodilators in obese asthma. The societal implications of this are important: with increasing obesity there will be increasing asthma from obesity, and the need to identify successful individual and societal weight-control strategies becomes a key goal.

  19. Protective Effect of Gymnema sylvestre Ethanol Extract on High Fat Diet-induced Obese Diabetic Wistar Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, V; Bhandari, Uma; Tripathi, C D; Khanna, Geetika

    2014-07-01

    Obesity is associated with numerous co-morbidities such as cardiovascular diseases, type 2 diabetes, hypertension and others. Therefore, the present study was planned to investigate the effect of water- soluble fraction of Gymnema sylvestre ethanol extract on biochemical and molecular alterations in obese diabetic rats. Diabetes was induced by single i.v. injection of streptozotocin (45 mg/kg) via tail vein. Obesity was induced by oral feeding of high fat diet for a period of 28 days in diabetic rats. Body weight gain, food intake, water intake, hemodynamic parameters (systolic, diastolic, mean arterial blood pressures and heart rate), serum biochemical parameters (leptin, insulin, lipid levels, apolipoprotein B and glucose), cardiomyocyte apoptosis (cardiac caspase-3, Na(+)/K(+) ATPase activity and DNA fragmentation) organs and visceral fat pad weight and oxidative stress parameters were measured. Oral treatment with water soluble fraction of Gymnema sylvestre ethanol extracts (120 mg/kg/p.o.) for a period of 21 days, resulted in significant reduction in heart rate, mean arterial pressure, serum leptin, insulin, apolipoprotein B, lipids, glucose, cardiac caspase-3 levels, Na(+)/K(+) ATPase activity and DNA laddering, visceral fat pad and organ's weight and improved the antioxidant enzymes levels in the high fat diet induced obesity in diabetic rats. The results of present study reveal that water soluble fraction of Gymnema sylvestre ethanol extract could be useful intervention in the treatment of obesity and type-2 diabetes mellitus.

  20. Protective effect of gymnema sylvestre ethanol extract on high fat diet-induced obese diabetic wistar rats

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    V Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is associated with numerous co-morbidities such as cardiovascular diseases, type 2 diabetes, hypertension and others. Therefore, the present study was planned to investigate the effect of water- soluble fraction of Gymnema sylvestre ethanol extract on biochemical and molecular alterations in obese diabetic rats. Diabetes was induced by single i.v. injection of streptozotocin (45 mg/kg via tail vein. Obesity was induced by oral feeding of high fat diet for a period of 28 days in diabetic rats. Body weight gain, food intake, water intake, hemodynamic parameters (systolic, diastolic, mean arterial blood pressures and heart rate, serum biochemical parameters (leptin, insulin, lipid levels, apolipoprotein B and glucose, cardiomyocyte apoptosis (cardiac caspase-3, Na + /K + ATPase activity and DNA fragmentation organs and visceral fat pad weight and oxidative stress parameters were measured. Oral treatment with water soluble fraction of Gymnema sylvestre ethanol extracts (120 mg/kg/p.o. for a period of 21 days, resulted in significant reduction in heart rate, mean arterial pressure, serum leptin, insulin, apolipoprotein B, lipids, glucose, cardiac caspase-3 levels, Na + /K + ATPase activity and DNA laddering, visceral fat pad and organ′s weight and improved the antioxidant enzymes levels in the high fat diet induced obesity in diabetic rats. The results of present study reveal that water soluble fraction of Gymnema sylvestre ethanol extract could be useful intervention in the treatment of obesity and type-2 diabetes mellitus.

  1. Suppression of Adaptive Immune Cell Activation Does Not Alter Innate Immune Adipose Inflammation or Insulin Resistance in Obesity.

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    Manikandan Subramanian

    Full Text Available Obesity-induced inflammation in visceral adipose tissue (VAT is a major contributor to insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. Whereas innate immune cells, notably macrophages, contribute to visceral adipose tissue (VAT inflammation and insulin resistance, the role of adaptive immunity is less well defined. To address this critical gap, we used a model in which endogenous activation of T cells was suppressed in obese mice by blocking MyD88-mediated maturation of CD11c+ antigen-presenting cells. VAT CD11c+ cells from Cd11cCre+Myd88fl/fl vs. control Myd88fl/fl mice were defective in activating T cells in vitro, and VAT T and B cell activation was markedly reduced in Cd11cCre+Myd88fl/fl obese mice. However, neither macrophage-mediated VAT inflammation nor systemic inflammation were altered in Cd11cCre+Myd88fl/fl mice, thereby enabling a focused analysis on adaptive immunity. Unexpectedly, fasting blood glucose, plasma insulin, and the glucose response to glucose and insulin were completely unaltered in Cd11cCre+Myd88fl/fl vs. control obese mice. Thus, CD11c+ cells activate VAT T and B cells in obese mice, but suppression of this process does not have a discernible effect on macrophage-mediated VAT inflammation or systemic glucose homeostasis.

  2. The endocannabinoid system: a new pharmacological target for obesity treatment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jia; Zhu, Chao; Huang, Mao

    2009-06-01

    Being a great threaten for human health, obesity has become a pandemic chronic disease. There have been several therapeutic treatments for this social health issue, including diet and exercise therapy, medication and surgery, among which the diet is still the most common way. However, none of these therapeutic measures available is ideal, making it necessary to find an effective medical treatment. The endocannabinoid system, which is well known for its contributions in certain mental processes such as relaxation, amelioration of pain and anxiety, and sedation initiation, has been recently reported to play an essential role in regulating appetite and metabolism to maintain energy balance, leading to the belief that endocannabinoid system is closely related to obesity. This new discovery deepens our understanding of obesity, and provides us with a new direction for clinical obesity treatment. Rimonabant is an antagonist for CB1, and has entered the market in some countries. However, although effective as an anti-obesity drug, rimonabant also causes obviously adverse side-effects, thus is being doubted and denied for medical usage.

  3. Ameliorative potential of Tamarindus indica on high fat diet induced nonalcoholic fatty liver disease in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasidharan, Suja Rani; Joseph, Joshua Allan; Anandakumar, Senthilkumar; Venkatesan, Vijayabalaji; Madhavan, Chandrasekharan Nair Ariyattu; Agarwal, Amit

    2014-01-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), the prevalence of which is rising globally with current upsurge in obesity, is one of the most frequent causes of chronic liver diseases. The present study evaluated the ameliorative effect of extract of Tamarindus indica seed coat (ETS) on high fat diet (HFD) induced NAFLD, after daily administration at 45, 90, and 180 mg/kg body weight dose levels for a period of 6 weeks, in albino Wistar rats. Treatment with ETS at all tested dose levels significantly attenuated the pathological alterations associated with HFD induced NAFLD viz. hepatomegaly, elevated hepatic lipid and lipid peroxides, serum alanine aminotransferase, and free fatty acid levels as well as micro-/macrohepatic steatosis. Moreover, extract treatment markedly reduced body weight and adiposity along with an improvement in insulin resistance index. The study findings, therefore suggested the therapeutic potential of ETS against NAFLD, acting in part through antiobesity, insulin sensitizing, and antioxidant mechanisms.

  4. Ameliorative Potential of Tamarindus indica on High Fat Diet Induced Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease in Rats

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    Suja Rani Sasidharan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD, the prevalence of which is rising globally with current upsurge in obesity, is one of the most frequent causes of chronic liver diseases. The present study evaluated the ameliorative effect of extract of Tamarindus indica seed coat (ETS on high fat diet (HFD induced NAFLD, after daily administration at 45, 90, and 180 mg/kg body weight dose levels for a period of 6 weeks, in albino Wistar rats. Treatment with ETS at all tested dose levels significantly attenuated the pathological alterations associated with HFD induced NAFLD viz. hepatomegaly, elevated hepatic lipid and lipid peroxides, serum alanine aminotransferase, and free fatty acid levels as well as micro-/macrohepatic steatosis. Moreover, extract treatment markedly reduced body weight and adiposity along with an improvement in insulin resistance index. The study findings, therefore suggested the therapeutic potential of ETS against NAFLD, acting in part through antiobesity, insulin sensitizing, and antioxidant mechanisms.

  5. A role for whey-derived lactoferrin and immunoglobulins in the attenuation of obesity-related inflammation and disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brimelow, Rachel E; West, Nicholas P; Williams, Lauren T; Cripps, Allan W; Cox, Amanda J

    2017-05-24

    Obesity is a strong predictive factor in the development of chronic disease and has now superseded undernutrition as a major public health issue. Chronic inflammation is one mechanism thought to link excess body weight with disease. Increasingly, the gut and its extensive population of commensal microflora are recognized as playing an important role in the development of obesity-related chronic inflammation. Obesity and a high fat diet are associated with altered commensal microbial communities and increased intestinal permeability which contributes to systemic inflammation as a result of the translocation of lipopolysaccharide into the circulation and metabolic endotoxemia. Various milk proteins are showing promise in the prevention and treatment of obesity and chronic low-grade inflammation via reductions in visceral fat, neutralization of bacteria at the mucosa and reduced intestinal permeability. In this review, we focus on evidence supporting the potential antiobesogenic and anti-inflammatory effects of bovine whey-derived lactoferrin and immunoglobulins.

  6. Can we be aware of both visceral and somatic sensations via a single neuronal pathway?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Sensory information arising from somatic and visceral area is thought to be respectively transmitted to the brain by two distinct sensory neuronal systems, the somatic and visceral sensory pathway. A novel and unique spinal sensory system, the spinosolitary tract-dorsal column postsynaptic neuronal system (SST-DCPS), was physiolo- gically and anatomically identified. The spinal neurons project to both visceral (the solitary tract nucleus) and somatic sensory (the dorsal column nuclei) nuclei via their branched axons and receive both visceral and somatic sensory information ascending from periphery through dichotomized primary afferents and descending from their targets via their branched axons. The brain might thus be aware of both visceral and somatic sensation via a single SST-DCPS neuronal channel. The finding of SST-DCPS system, as an example, might be considered as an intersection or fuzzy set of the SST and DCPS system and the concept of dichotomy in classification of neurons and neuronal pathways might thus be challenged.

  7. Surgical options for the management of visceral artery aneurysms.

    Scie