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Sample records for ameliorates recognition memory

  1. A cannabinoid CB(1) receptor antagonist ameliorates impairment of recognition memory on withdrawal from MDMA (Ecstasy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nawata, Yoko; Hiranita, Takato; Yamamoto, Tsuneyuki

    2010-01-01

    (+/-)-3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, 'Ecstasy') abusers have persistent neuropsychiatric deficits including memory impairments after the cessation of abuse. On the other hand, cannabinoid CB(1) receptors have been implicated in learning/memory, and are highly expressed in the hippocampus, a region of the brain believed to have an important function in certain forms of learning and memory. In this study, we clarified the mechanism underlying the cognitive impairment that develops during MDMA withdrawal from the standpoint of the cannabinoid CB(1) receptors. Mice were administered MDMA (10 mg/kg, i.p.) once a day for 7 days. On the 7th day of withdrawal, a novel object recognition task was performed and the amount of cannabinoid CB(1) receptor protein was measured with western blotting. Recognition performance was impaired on the 7th day of withdrawal. This impairment was blocked by AM251, a cannabinoid CB(1) receptor antagonist, administered 30 min before the training trial or co-administered with MDMA. At this time, the level of cannabinoid CB(1) receptor protein increased significantly in the hippocampus but not the prefrontal cortex or striatum. This increase of CB(1) receptor protein in the hippocampus was also blocked by the co-administration of AM251. Furthermore, CB(1) receptor knockout mice showed no impairment of recognition performance on the withdrawal from MDMA. The impairment of recognition memory during withdrawal from MDMA may result from the activation of cannabinoid CB(1) receptors in the hippocampus.

  2. Output Interference in Recognition Memory

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    Criss, Amy H.; Malmberg, Kenneth J.; Shiffrin, Richard M.

    2011-01-01

    Dennis and Humphreys (2001) proposed that interference in recognition memory arises solely from the prior contexts of the test word: Interference does not arise from memory traces of other words (from events prior to the study list or on the study list, and regardless of similarity to the test item). We evaluate this model using output…

  3. Object recognition memory in zebrafish.

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    May, Zacnicte; Morrill, Adam; Holcombe, Adam; Johnston, Travis; Gallup, Joshua; Fouad, Karim; Schalomon, Melike; Hamilton, Trevor James

    2016-01-01

    The novel object recognition, or novel-object preference (NOP) test is employed to assess recognition memory in a variety of organisms. The subject is exposed to two identical objects, then after a delay, it is placed back in the original environment containing one of the original objects and a novel object. If the subject spends more time exploring one object, this can be interpreted as memory retention. To date, this test has not been fully explored in zebrafish (Danio rerio). Zebrafish possess recognition memory for simple 2- and 3-dimensional geometrical shapes, yet it is unknown if this translates to complex 3-dimensional objects. In this study we evaluated recognition memory in zebrafish using complex objects of different sizes. Contrary to rodents, zebrafish preferentially explored familiar over novel objects. Familiarity preference disappeared after delays of 5 mins. Leopard danios, another strain of D. rerio, also preferred the familiar object after a 1 min delay. Object preference could be re-established in zebra danios by administration of nicotine tartrate salt (50mg/L) prior to stimuli presentation, suggesting a memory-enhancing effect of nicotine. Additionally, exploration biases were present only when the objects were of intermediate size (2 × 5 cm). Our results demonstrate zebra and leopard danios have recognition memory, and that low nicotine doses can improve this memory type in zebra danios. However, exploration biases, from which memory is inferred, depend on object size. These findings suggest zebrafish ecology might influence object preference, as zebrafish neophobia could reflect natural anti-predatory behaviour.

  4. Pattern Recognition Using Associative Memories

    OpenAIRE

    Burles, Nathan John

    2014-01-01

    The human brain is extremely effective at performing pattern recognition, even in the presence of noisy or distorted inputs. Artificial neural networks attempt to imitate the structure of the brain, often with a view to mimicking its success. The binary correlation matrix memory (CMM) is a particular type of neural network that is capable of learning and recalling associations extremely quickly, as well as displaying a high storage capacity and having the ability to generalise from patterns a...

  5. Finite Memory Model for Haptic Recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-12-01

    Slot 4 bu f fer s hort- term storel Slot N Long- ’erm store The model of memory proposed by Atkinson and Shiffrin . Primary memory here is as rehearsal...7 NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL Monterey, Califormia AD-A245 342 THESIS Finite Memory Model for Haptic Recognition by Philip G. Beieri December 1991...ELEMEN1 No.) NO. No. ACCESSION NO. I1. TITLE (include Securitn Classification) FINITE MEMORY MODEL FOR HAPTIC RECOGNITION’ 12. PERSONALEAUTHOR(S) Philip

  6. Recognition memory impairments caused by false recognition of novel objects.

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    Yeung, Lok-Kin; Ryan, Jennifer D; Cowell, Rosemary A; Barense, Morgan D

    2013-11-01

    A fundamental assumption underlying most current theories of amnesia is that memory impairments arise because previously studied information either is lost rapidly or is made inaccessible (i.e., the old information appears to be new). Recent studies in rodents have challenged this view, suggesting instead that under conditions of high interference, recognition memory impairments following medial temporal lobe damage arise because novel information appears as though it has been previously seen. Here, we developed a new object recognition memory paradigm that distinguished whether object recognition memory impairments were driven by previously viewed objects being treated as if they were novel or by novel objects falsely recognized as though they were previously seen. In this indirect, eyetracking-based passive viewing task, older adults at risk for mild cognitive impairment showed false recognition to high-interference novel items (with a significant degree of feature overlap with previously studied items) but normal novelty responses to low-interference novel items (with a lower degree of feature overlap). The indirect nature of the task minimized the effects of response bias and other memory-based decision processes, suggesting that these factors cannot solely account for false recognition. These findings support the counterintuitive notion that recognition memory impairments in this memory-impaired population are not characterized by forgetting but rather are driven by the failure to differentiate perceptually similar objects, leading to the false recognition of novel objects as having been seen before.

  7. Long-term visual object recognition memory in aged rats.

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    Platano, Daniela; Fattoretti, Patrizia; Balietti, Marta; Bertoni-Freddari, Carlo; Aicardi, Giorgio

    2008-04-01

    Aging is associated with memory impairments, but the neural bases of this process need to be clarified. To this end, behavioral protocols for memory testing may be applied to aged animals to compare memory performances with functional and structural characteristics of specific brain regions. Visual object recognition memory can be investigated in the rat using a behavioral task based on its spontaneous preference for exploring novel rather than familiar objects. We found that a behavioral task able to elicit long-term visual object recognition memory in adult Long-Evans rats failed in aged (25-27 months old) Wistar rats. Since no tasks effective in aged rats are reported in the literature, we changed the experimental conditions to improve consolidation processes to assess whether this form of memory can still be maintained for long term at this age: the learning trials were performed in a smaller box, identical to the home cage, and the inter-trial delays were shortened. We observed a reduction in anxiety in this box (as indicated by the lower number of fecal boli produced during habituation), and we developed a learning protocol able to elicit a visual object recognition memory that was maintained after 24 h in these aged rats. When we applied the same protocol to adult rats, we obtained similar results. This experimental approach can be useful to study functional and structural changes associated with age-related memory impairments, and may help to identify new behavioral strategies and molecular targets that can be addressed to ameliorate memory performances during aging.

  8. Phytoceramide Shows Neuroprotection and Ameliorates Scopolamine-Induced Memory Impairment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seikwan Oh

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The function and the role phytoceramide (PCER and phytosphingosine (PSO in the central nervous system has not been well studied. This study was aimed at investigating the possible roles of PCER and PSO in glutamate-induced neurotoxicity in cultured neuronal cells and memory function in mice. Phytoceramide showed neuro-protective activity in the glutamate-induced toxicity in cultured cortical neuronal cells. Neither phytosphingosine nor tetraacetylphytosphingosine (TAPS showed neuroproective effects in neuronal cells. PCER (50 mg/kg, p.o. recovered the scopolamine-induced reduction in step-through latency in the passive avoidance test; however, PSO did not modulate memory function on this task. The ameliorating effects of PCER on spatial memory were confirmed by the Morris water maze test. In conclusion, through behavioral and neurochemical experimental results, it was demonstrated that central administration of PCER produces amelioration of memory impairment. These results suggest that PCER plays an important role in neuroprotection and memory enhancement and PCER could be a potential new therapeutic agent for the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer’s disease.

  9. Articulation effects in melody recognition memory.

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    Wee Hun Lim, Stephen; Goh, Winston D

    2013-09-01

    Various surface features-timbre, tempo, and pitch-influence melody recognition memory, but articulation format effects, if any, remain unknown. For the first time, these effects were examined. In Experiment 1, melodies that remained in the same, or appeared in a different but similar, articulation format from study to test were recognized better than were melodies that were presented in a distinct format at test. A similar articulation format adequately induced matching processes to enhance recognition. Experiment 2 revealed that melodies rated as perceptually dissimilar on the basis of the location of the articulation mismatch did not impair recognition performance, suggesting an important boundary condition for articulation format effects on memory recognition-the matching of the memory trace and recognition probe may depend more on the overall proportion, rather than the temporal location, of the mismatch. The present findings are discussed in terms of a global matching advantage hypothesis.

  10. Object Recognition Memory and the Rodent Hippocampus

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    Broadbent, Nicola J.; Gaskin, Stephane; Squire, Larry R.; Clark, Robert E.

    2010-01-01

    In rodents, the novel object recognition task (NOR) has become a benchmark task for assessing recognition memory. Yet, despite its widespread use, a consensus has not developed about which brain structures are important for task performance. We assessed both the anterograde and retrograde effects of hippocampal lesions on performance in the NOR…

  11. Strong memories obscure weak memories in associative recognition.

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    Verde, Michael F; Rotello, Caren M

    2004-12-01

    The list strength effect, in which strengthening some memories has a detrimental effect on the retrieval of other memories, has generally not been found in item recognition. The present study shows that the list strength effect does occur in associative recognition. Study materials were sets of overlapping word pairs (A-B, A-C, D-B, etc.). Within critical sets of words, strong pairs were presented three times at study, as compared with one presentation for weak pairs. In Experiment 1, associative recognition for weak pairs was less accurate than that for baseline pairs, and response times for hits were slower. In Experiment 2, receiver-operating characteristic curve data provided further evidence of poor accuracy for weak pairs. These findings support a qualitative distinction between item and associative recognition.

  12. In search of a recognition memory engram

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    Brown, M.W.; Banks, P.J.

    2015-01-01

    A large body of data from human and animal studies using psychological, recording, imaging, and lesion techniques indicates that recognition memory involves at least two separable processes: familiarity discrimination and recollection. Familiarity discrimination for individual visual stimuli seems to be effected by a system centred on the perirhinal cortex of the temporal lobe. The fundamental change that encodes prior occurrence within the perirhinal cortex is a reduction in the responses of neurones when a stimulus is repeated. Neuronal network modelling indicates that a system based on such a change in responsiveness is potentially highly efficient in information theoretic terms. A review is given of findings indicating that perirhinal cortex acts as a storage site for recognition memory of objects and that such storage depends upon processes producing synaptic weakening. PMID:25280908

  13. Recognition memory for foreign language lexical stress.

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    Suárez, Lidia; Goh, Winston D

    2013-08-01

    This study investigated whether English speakers retained the lexical stress patterns of newly learned Spanish words. Participants studied spoken Spanish words (e.g., DUcha [shower], ciuDAD [city]; stressed syllables in capital letters) and subsequently performed a recognition task, in which studied words were presented with the same lexical stress pattern (DUcha) or the opposite lexical stress pattern (CIUdad). Participants were able to discriminate same- from opposite-stress words, indicating that lexical stress was encoded and used in the recognition process. Word-form similarity to English also influenced outcomes, with Spanish cognate words and words with trochaic stress (MANgo) being recognized more often and more quickly than Spanish cognate words with iambic stress (soLAR) and noncognates. The results suggest that while segmental and suprasegmental features of the native language influence foreign word recognition, foreign lexical stress patterns are encoded and not discarded in memory.

  14. The role of nitric oxide in the object recognition memory.

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    Pitsikas, Nikolaos

    2015-05-15

    The novel object recognition task (NORT) assesses recognition memory in animals. It is a non-rewarded paradigm that it is based on spontaneous exploratory behavior in rodents. This procedure is widely used for testing the effects of compounds on recognition memory. Recognition memory is a type of memory severely compromised in schizophrenic and Alzheimer's disease patients. Nitric oxide (NO) is sought to be an intra- and inter-cellular messenger in the central nervous system and its implication in learning and memory is well documented. Here I intended to critically review the role of NO-related compounds on different aspects of recognition memory. Current analysis shows that both NO donors and NO synthase (NOS) inhibitors are involved in object recognition memory and suggests that NO might be a promising target for cognition impairments. However, the potential neurotoxicity of NO would add a note of caution in this context.

  15. Consolidation and reconsolidation of object recognition memory.

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    Balderas, Israela; Rodriguez-Ortiz, Carlos J; Bermudez-Rattoni, Federico

    2015-05-15

    In the first part of this review, we will present evidence showing a functional double dissociation between different structures of the medial temporal lobe in the consolidation of object and object-in-context recognition memory. In addition, we will provide evidence to support this differential participation through protein synthesis inhibitors and neurotransmitters antagonists and agonists. This evidence points out that the perirhinal, prefrontal and insular cortices consolidate the information of individual stimuli, i.e., objects, while the hippocampus consolidates the contextual information where the objects were experimented. In the second part of this review, we will present evidence that shows that the perirhinal cortex is also necessary for reconsolidation of ORM; the destabilization/re-stabilization memory process upon its activation. In the final part of this review, we will present evidence that shows that ORM reconsolidation is an independent process from its retrieval in the perirhinal cortex. Altogether, this review depicts part of the mechanisms by which the medial temporal lobe processes the functional components of recognition memory, in both consolidation and reconsolidation.

  16. Object recognition memory: neurobiological mechanisms of encoding, consolidation and retrieval.

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    Winters, Boyer D; Saksida, Lisa M; Bussey, Timothy J

    2008-07-01

    Tests of object recognition memory, or the judgment of the prior occurrence of an object, have made substantial contributions to our understanding of the nature and neurobiological underpinnings of mammalian memory. Only in recent years, however, have researchers begun to elucidate the specific brain areas and neural processes involved in object recognition memory. The present review considers some of this recent research, with an emphasis on studies addressing the neural bases of perirhinal cortex-dependent object recognition memory processes. We first briefly discuss operational definitions of object recognition and the common behavioural tests used to measure it in non-human primates and rodents. We then consider research from the non-human primate and rat literature examining the anatomical basis of object recognition memory in the delayed nonmatching-to-sample (DNMS) and spontaneous object recognition (SOR) tasks, respectively. The results of these studies overwhelmingly favor the view that perirhinal cortex (PRh) is a critical region for object recognition memory. We then discuss the involvement of PRh in the different stages--encoding, consolidation, and retrieval--of object recognition memory. Specifically, recent work in rats has indicated that neural activity in PRh contributes to object memory encoding, consolidation, and retrieval processes. Finally, we consider the pharmacological, cellular, and molecular factors that might play a part in PRh-mediated object recognition memory. Recent studies in rodents have begun to indicate the remarkable complexity of the neural substrates underlying this seemingly simple aspect of declarative memory.

  17. Insular Cortex Is Involved in Consolidation of Object Recognition Memory

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    Bermudez-Rattoni, Federico; Okuda, Shoki; Roozendaal, Benno; McGaugh, James L.

    2005-01-01

    Extensive evidence indicates that the insular cortex (IC), also termed gustatory cortex, is critically involved in conditioned taste aversion and taste recognition memory. Although most studies of the involvement of the IC in memory have investigated taste, there is some evidence that the IC is involved in memory that is not based on taste. In…

  18. Transfer-Appropriate Processing in Recognition Memory: Perceptual and Conceptual Effects on Recognition Memory Depend on Task Demands

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    Parks, Colleen M.

    2013-01-01

    Research examining the importance of surface-level information to familiarity in recognition memory tasks is mixed: Sometimes it affects recognition and sometimes it does not. One potential explanation of the inconsistent findings comes from the ideas of dual process theory of recognition and the transfer-appropriate processing framework, which…

  19. Recognition memory for words and faces in the very old.

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    Diesfeldt, H; Vink, M

    1989-09-01

    The assessment of very elderly people is hindered by a scarcity of normative and reliability data for non-verbal memory tests. We tested the suitability of Warrington's Recognition Memory Test (RMT) for use with the elderly. The RMT consists of verbal (Recognition Memory for Words, RMW) and non-verbal (Recognition Memory for Faces, RMF) subtests. The facial recognition test was used in the standard format and a Dutch-language version of the word recognition test was developed using low frequency (10 or less/million) monosyllabic words. Eighty-nine subjects, varying in age from 69 to 93, were tested with the RMF. Means and SD are provided for three age groups (69-79, 80-84 and 85-93). Forty-five consecutive subjects were tested both with the RMW and the RMF. Recognition memory for words was better than recognition memory for faces in this sample. Moderate correlations (0.30-0.48) were found between RMT and WAIS Vocabulary and Raven's Coloured Progressive Matrices scores. Warrington's RMT was well tolerated, even by very elderly adults. The standardization data for the elderly over 70 add to the usefulness of this test of verbal and non-verbal episodic memory.

  20. Acute Alcohol Effects on Repetition Priming and Word Recognition Memory with Equivalent Memory Cues

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    Ray, Suchismita; Bates, Marsha E.

    2006-01-01

    Acute alcohol intoxication effects on memory were examined using a recollection-based word recognition memory task and a repetition priming task of memory for the same information without explicit reference to the study context. Memory cues were equivalent across tasks; encoding was manipulated by varying the frequency of occurrence (FOC) of words…

  1. Cysteamine treatment ameliorates alterations in GAD67 expression and spatial memory in heterozygous reeler mice.

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    Kutiyanawalla, Ammar; Promsote, Wanwisa; Terry, Alvin; Pillai, Anilkumar

    2012-09-01

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) signalling through its receptor, TrkB is known to regulate GABAergic function and glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) 67 expression in neurons. Alterations in BDNF signalling have been implicated in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia and as a result, they are a potential therapeutic target. Interestingly, heterozygous reeler mice (HRM) have decreased GAD67 expression in the frontal cortex and hippocampus and they exhibit many behavioural and neurochemical abnormalities similar to schizophrenia. In this study, we evaluated the potential of cysteamine, a neuroprotective compound to improve the deficits in GAD67 expression and cognitive function in HRM. We found that cysteamine administration (150 mg/kg.d, through drinking water) for 30 d significantly ameliorated the decreases in GAD67, mature BDNF and full-length TrkB protein levels found in frontal cortex and hippocampus of HRM. A significant attenuation of the increased levels of truncated BDNF in frontal cortex and hippocampus, as well as truncated TrkB in frontal cortex of HRM was also observed following cysteamine treatment. In behavioural studies, HRM were impaired in a Y-maze spatial recognition memory task, but not in a spontaneous alternation task or a sensorimotor, prepulse inhibition (PPI) procedure. Cysteamine improved Y-maze spatial recognition in HRM to the level of wide-type controls and it improved PPI in both wild-type and HRM. Finally, mice deficient in TrkB, showed a reduced response to cysteamine in GAD67 expression suggesting that TrkB signalling plays an important role in GAD67 regulation by cysteamine.

  2. Verifying Visual Properties in Sentence Verification Facilitates Picture Recognition Memory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D. Pecher (Diane); K. Zanolie (Kiki); R. Zeelenberg (René)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractAccording to the perceptual symbols theory (Barsalou, 1999), sensorimotor simulations underlie the representation of concepts. We investigated whether recognition memory for pictures of concepts was facilitated by earlier representation of visual properties of those concepts. During stud

  3. High speed optical object recognition processor with massive holographic memory

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    Chao, T.; Zhou, H.; Reyes, G.

    2002-01-01

    Real-time object recognition using a compact grayscale optical correlator will be introduced. A holographic memory module for storing a large bank of optimum correlation filters, to accommodate the large data throughput rate needed for many real-world applications, has also been developed. System architecture of the optical processor and the holographic memory will be presented. Application examples of this object recognition technology will also be demonstrated.

  4. fMRI characterization of visual working memory recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahm, Benjamin; Kaiser, Jochen; Unterrainer, Josef M; Simon, Juliane; Bledowski, Christoph

    2014-04-15

    Encoding and maintenance of information in visual working memory have been extensively studied, highlighting the crucial and capacity-limiting role of fronto-parietal regions. In contrast, the neural basis of recognition in visual working memory has remained largely unspecified. Cognitive models suggest that recognition relies on a matching process that compares sensory information with the mental representations held in memory. To characterize the neural basis of recognition we varied both the need for recognition and the degree of similarity between the probe item and the memory contents, while independently manipulating memory load to produce load-related fronto-parietal activations. fMRI revealed a fractionation of working memory functions across four distributed networks. First, fronto-parietal regions were activated independent of the need for recognition. Second, anterior parts of load-related parietal regions contributed to recognition but their activations were independent of the difficulty of matching in terms of sample-probe similarity. These results argue against a key role of the fronto-parietal attention network in recognition. Rather the third group of regions including bilateral temporo-parietal junction, posterior cingulate cortex and superior frontal sulcus reflected demands on matching both in terms of sample-probe-similarity and the number of items to be compared. Also, fourth, bilateral motor regions and right superior parietal cortex showed higher activation when matching provided clear evidence for a decision. Together, the segregation between the well-known fronto-parietal activations attributed to attentional operations in working memory from those regions involved in matching supports the theoretical view of separable attentional and mnemonic contributions to working memory. Yet, the close theoretical and empirical correspondence to perceptual decision making may call for an explicit consideration of decision making mechanisms in

  5. Electrophysiological distinctions between recognition memory with and without awareness.

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    Ko, Philip C; Duda, Bryant; Hussey, Erin P; Ally, Brandon A

    2013-03-01

    The influence of implicit memory representations on explicit recognition may help to explain cases of accurate recognition decisions made with high uncertainty. During a recognition task, implicit memory may enhance the fluency of a test item, biasing decision processes to endorse it as "old". This model may help explain recognition-without-identification, a remarkable phenomenon in which participants make highly accurate recognition decisions despite the inability to identify the test item. The current study investigated whether recognition-without-identification for pictures elicits a similar pattern of neural activity as other types of accurate recognition decisions made with uncertainty. Further, this study also examined whether recognition-without-identification for pictures could be attained by the use of perceptual and conceptual information from memory. To accomplish this, participants studied pictures and then performed a recognition task under difficult viewing conditions while event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded. Behavioral results showed that recognition was highly accurate even when test items could not be identified, demonstrating recognition-without-identification. The behavioral performance also indicated that recognition-without-identification was mediated by both perceptual and conceptual information, independently of one another. The ERP results showed dramatically different memory related activity during the early 300 to 500ms epoch for identified items that were studied compared to unidentified items that were studied. Similar to previous work highlighting accurate recognition without retrieval awareness, test items that were not identified, but correctly endorsed as "old," elicited a negative posterior old/new effect (i.e., N300). In contrast, test items that were identified and correctly endorsed as "old," elicited the classic positive frontal old/new effect (i.e., FN400). Importantly, both of these effects were elicited under

  6. Graded effects of social conformity on recognition memory.

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    Axmacher, Nikolai; Gossen, Anna; Elger, Christian E; Fell, Juergen

    2010-02-17

    Previous studies have shown that the opinion of confederates in a group influences recognition memory, but inconsistent results have been obtained concerning the question of whether recognition of items as old and new are affected similarly, possibly because only one or two confederates are present during the recognition phase. Here, we present data from a study where recognition of novel faces was tested in the presence of four confederates. In a long version of this experiment, recognition of items as old and new was similarly affected by group responses. However, in the short version, recognition of old items depended proportionally on the number of correct group responses, while rejection of new items only decreased significantly when all confederates gave an incorrect response. These findings indicate that differential effects of social conformity on recognition of items as old and new occur in situations with an intermediate level of group pressure.

  7. Developmental reversals in recognition memory in children and adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Julien; Gardiner, Beatrix; Hayne, Harlene

    2016-01-01

    Older members of a given species typically exhibit superior learning and memory abilities relative to younger members, however, the developmental difference does not always occur in this younger-to-older direction. Developmental reversals are thought to reflect adaptive responses to the unique challenges imposed by the infant's niche. In humans, identification of developmental reversals has largely been precluded because infants, children, and adults are rarely tested using the same experimental procedures. Here, we adapted the visual recognition memory task and tested 3-year-olds and adults using one set of child-oriented stimuli and one set of adult-orientated stimuli. When tested immediately, children and adults exhibited recognition memory for both stimuli. When tested after a 1-week delay, children exhibited recognition memory for the child-oriented stimuli, but not for the adult-oriented stimuli and adults exhibited recognition memory for the adult-oriented stimuli, but not for the child-oriented stimuli. These data have important implications for current theories of memory development.

  8. Rutin protects against neuronal damage in vitro and ameliorates doxorubicin-induced memory deficits in vivo in Wistar rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramalingayya GV

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Grandhi Venkata Ramalingayya, Sri Pragnya Cheruku, Pawan G Nayak, Anoop Kishore, Rekha Shenoy, Chamallamudi Mallikarjuna Rao, Nandakumar Krishnadas Department of Pharmacology, Manipal College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Manipal University, Manipal, Karnataka, India Abstract: Doxorubicin (DOX is the most widely used broad-spectrum anticancer agent, either alone or in combination, for most cancers including breast cancer. Long-term use of chemotherapeutic agents to treat breast cancer patients results in cognitive complications with a negative impact on survivors’ quality of life. The study objective was to evaluate rutin (RUT for its neuroprotective effect against DOX in human neuroblastoma (IMR32 cells in vitro and study its potential to ameliorate DOX-induced cognitive dysfunction in Wistar rats. Cell viability assay (3-[4,5 dimethyl thiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide, neurite growth assay, detection of apoptosis by (acridine orange/ethidium bromide staining, intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS assay, and flowcytometric analysis were carried out to assess neuroprotective potential against DOX. An in vivo study was conducted for assessing protective effect of RUT against memory deficit associated with DOX-induced chemobrain using object recognition task (ORT. Locomotion was assessed using open field test. Serum biochemistry, acetylcholinesterase, oxidative stress markers in hippocampus, and frontal cortex were assessed. Histopathological analysis of major organ systems was also carried out. Prior exposure to RUT at 100 µM protected IMR32 cells from DOX (1 µM neurotoxicity. DOX exposure resulted in increased cellular death, apoptosis, and intracellular ROS generation with inhibition of neurite growth in differentiated IMR32 cells, which was significantly ameliorated by RUT. Cognitive dysfunction was induced in Wistar rats by administering ten cycles of DOX (2.5 mg/kg, intraperitoneal, once in 5 days, as we observed

  9. Bacopa monniera leaf extract ameliorates hypobaric hypoxia induced spatial memory impairment.

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    Hota, Sunil Kumar; Barhwal, Kalpana; Baitharu, Iswar; Prasad, Dipti; Singh, Shashi Bala; Ilavazhagan, Govindasamy

    2009-04-01

    Hypobaric hypoxia induced memory impairment has been attributed to several factors including increased oxidative stress, depleted mitochondrial bioenergetics, altered neurotransmission and apoptosis. This multifactorial response of the brain to hypobaric hypoxia limits the use of therapeutic agents that target individual pathways for ameliorating hypobaric hypoxia induced memory impairment. The present study aimed at exploring the therapeutic potential of a bacoside rich leaf extract of Bacopa monniera in improving the memory functions in hypobaric conditions. The learning ability was evaluated in male Sprague Dawley rats along with memory retrieval following exposure to hypobaric conditions simulating an altitude of 25,000 ft for different durations. The effect of bacoside administration on apoptosis, cytochrome c oxidase activity, ATP levels, and oxidative stress markers and on plasma corticosterone levels was investigated. Expression of NR1 subunit of N-methyl-d-aspartate receptors, neuronal cell adhesion molecules and was also studied along with CREB phosphorylation to elucidate the molecular mechanisms of bacoside action. Bacoside administration was seen to enhance learning ability in rats along with augmentation in memory retrieval and prevention of dendritic atrophy following hypoxic exposure. In addition, it decreased oxidative stress, plasma corticosterone levels and neuronal degeneration. Bacoside administration also increased cytochrome c oxidase activity along with a concomitant increase in ATP levels. Hence, administration of bacosides could be a useful therapeutic strategy in ameliorating hypobaric hypoxia induced cognitive dysfunctions and other related neurological disorders.

  10. Recognition Memory, Self-Other Source Memory, and Theory-of-Mind in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lind, Sophie E.; Bowler, Dermot M.

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated semantic and episodic memory in autism spectrum disorder (ASD), using a task which assessed recognition and self-other source memory. Children with ASD showed undiminished recognition memory but significantly diminished source memory, relative to age- and verbal ability-matched comparison children. Both children with and…

  11. Examining object location and object recognition memory in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel-Ciernia, Annie; Wood, Marcelo A

    2014-10-08

    This unit is designed to provide sufficient instruction for the setup and execution of tests for object location and object recognition in adult mice. This task is ideally suited for the study of a variety of mouse models that examine disease mechanisms and novel therapeutic targets. By altering several key parameters, the experimenter can investigate short-term or long-term memory and look for either memory impairments or enhancements. Object location and object recognition memory tasks rely on a rodent's innate preference for novelty, and can be conducted sequentially in the same cohort of animals. These two tasks avoid the inherent stress induced with other common measures of rodent memory such as fear conditioning and the Morris water maze. This protocol covers detailed instructions on conducting both tasks, as well as key points concerning data collection, analysis, and interpretation.

  12. Amygdala lesions selectively impair familiarity in recognition memory.

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    Farovik, Anja; Place, Ryan James; Miller, Danielle Renée; Eichenbaum, Howard

    2011-09-25

    A major controversy in the study of memory concerns whether there are distinct medial temporal lobe (MTL) substrates of recollection and familiarity. Studies using receiver operating characteristics analyses of recognition memory indicate that the hippocampus is essential for recollection, but not for familiarity. We found the converse pattern in the amygdala, wherein damage impaired familiarity while sparing recollection. Combined with previous findings, these results dissociate recollection and familiarity by selective MTL damage.

  13. Arctigenin isolated from the seeds of Arctium lappa ameliorates memory deficits in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, In-Ah; Joh, Eun-Ha; Kim, Dong-Hyun

    2011-09-01

    The seeds of Arctium lappa L. (AL, family Asteraceae), the main constituents of which are arctiin and arctigenin, have been used as an herbal medicine or functional food to treat inflammatory diseases. These main constituents were shown to inhibit acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity. Arctigenin more potently inhibited AChE activity than arctiin. Arctigenin at doses of 30 and 60 mg/kg (p. o.) potently reversed scopolamine-induced memory deficits by 62 % and 73 %, respectively, in a passive avoidance test. This finding is comparable with that of tacrine (10 mg/kg p. o.). Arctigenin also significantly reversed scopolamine-induced memory deficits in the Y-maze and Morris water maze tests. On the basis of these findings, arctigenin may ameliorate memory deficits by inhibiting AChE.

  14. The Modality-Match Effect in Recognition Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulligan, Neil W.; Osborn, Katherine

    2009-01-01

    The modality-match effect in recognition refers to superior memory for words presented in the same modality at study and test. Prior research on this effect is ambiguous and inconsistent. The present study demonstrates that the modality-match effect is found when modality is rendered salient at either encoding or retrieval. Specifically, in…

  15. Recognition Confidence under Violated and Confirmed Memory Expectations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaeger, Antonio; Cox, Justin C.; Dobbins, Ian G.

    2012-01-01

    Individuals' memory experiences typically covary with those of others' around them, and on average, an item is more likely to be familiar if a companion recommends it as such. Although it would be ideal if observers could use the external recommendations of others' as statistical priors during recognition decisions, it is currently unclear how or…

  16. Assessing the Dissociability of Recollection and Familiarity in Recognition Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratte, Michael S.; Rouder, Jeffrey N.

    2012-01-01

    Recognition memory is often modeled as constituting 2 separate processes, recollection and familiarity, rather than as constituting a single process mediated by a generic latent strength. One way of stating evidence for the more complex 2-process model is to show dissociations with select manipulations, in which one manipulation affects…

  17. Spontaneous Object Recognition Memory in Aged Rats: Complexity versus Similarity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamiz, Fernando; Gallo, Milagros

    2012-01-01

    Previous work on the effect of aging on spontaneous object recognition (SOR) memory tasks in rats has yielded controversial results. Although the results at long-retention intervals are consistent, conflicting results have been reported at shorter delays. We have assessed the potential relevance of the type of object used in the performance of…

  18. Aging and recognition memory for emotional words: a bias account.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thapar, Anjali; Rouder, Jeffrey N

    2009-08-01

    The present study investigated age-related differences in the locus of the emotional enhancement effect in recognition memory. Younger and older adults studied an emotion-heterogeneous list followed by a forced choice recognition memory test. Luce's (1963) similarity choice model was used to assess whether emotional valence impacts memory sensitivity or response bias. Results revealed that the emotional enhancement effect in both age groups was due to a more liberal response bias for emotional words. However, the pattern of bias differed, with younger adults more willing to classify negative words as old and older adults more willing to classify positive words as old. The results challenge the conclusion that emotional words are more memorable than neutral words.

  19. LINGO-1 antibody ameliorates myelin impairment and spatial memory deficits in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jun-Jun; Ren, Qing-Guo; Xu, Lin; Zhang, Zhi-Jun

    2015-09-18

    More than 50% of multiple sclerosis patients develop cognitive impairment. However, the underlying mechanisms are still unclear, and there is no effective treatment. LINGO-1 (LRR and Ig domain containing NOGO receptor interacting protein 1) has been identified as an inhibitor of oligodendrocyte differentiation and myelination. Using the experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) mouse model, we assessed cognitive function at early and late stages of EAE, determined brain expression of myelin basic protein (MBP) and investigated whether the LINGO-1 antibody could restore deficits in learning and memory and ameliorate any loss of MBP. We found that deficits in learning and memory occurred in late EAE and identified decreased expression of MBP in the parahippocampal cortex (PHC) and fimbria-fornix. Moreover, the LINGO-1 antibody significantly improved learning and memory in EAE and partially restored MBP in PHC. Furthermore, the LINGO-1 antibody activated the AKT/mTOR signaling pathway regulating myelin growth. Our results suggest that demyelination in the PHC and fimbria-fornix might contribute to cognitive deficits and the LINGO-1 antibody could ameliorate these deficits by promoting myelin growth in the PHC. Our research demonstrates that LINGO-1 antagonism may be an effective approach to the treatment of the cognitive impairment of multiple sclerosis patients.

  20. How similar are recognition memory and inductive reasoning?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Brett K; Heit, Evan

    2013-07-01

    Conventionally, memory and reasoning are seen as different types of cognitive activities driven by different processes. In two experiments, we challenged this view by examining the relationship between recognition memory and inductive reasoning involving multiple forms of similarity. A common study set (members of a conjunctive category) was followed by a test set containing old and new category members, as well as items that matched the study set on only one dimension. The study and test sets were presented under recognition or induction instructions. In Experiments 1 and 2, the inductive property being generalized was varied in order to direct attention to different dimensions of similarity. When there was no time pressure on decisions, patterns of positive responding were strongly affected by property type, indicating that different types of similarity were driving recognition and induction. By comparison, speeded judgments showed weaker property effects and could be explained by generalization based on overall similarity. An exemplar model, GEN-EX (GENeralization from EXamples), could account for both the induction and recognition data. These findings show that induction and recognition share core component processes, even when the tasks involve flexible forms of similarity.

  1. Cross-situational consistency in recognition memory response bias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kantner, Justin; Lindsay, D Stephen

    2014-10-01

    Individuals taking an old-new recognition memory test differ widely in their bias to respond "old," ranging from strongly conservative to strongly liberal, even without any manipulation intended to affect bias. Kantner and Lindsay (2012) found stability of bias across study-test cycles, suggesting that bias is a cognitive trait. That consistency, however, could have arisen because participants perceived the two tests as being part of the same experiment in the same context. In the present study, we tested for stability across two recognition study-test procedures embedded in markedly different experiments, held weeks apart, that participants did not know were connected. Bias showed substantial cross-situational stability. Moreover, bias weakly predicted identifications on an eyewitness memory task and accuracy on a go-no-go task. Although we found little in the way of relationships between bias and five personality measures, these findings suggest that response bias is a stable and broadly influential characteristic of recognizers.

  2. Pattern recognition with magnonic holographic memory device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kozhevnikov, A.; Dudko, G.; Filimonov, Y. [Kotel' nikov Institute of Radioengineering and Electronics of Russian Academy of Sciences, Saratov Branch, Saratov 410019 (Russian Federation); Gertz, F.; Khitun, A. [Electrical Engineering Department, University of California - Riverside, Riverside, California 92521 (United States)

    2015-04-06

    In this work, we present experimental data demonstrating the possibility of using magnonic holographic devices for pattern recognition. The prototype eight-terminal device consists of a magnetic matrix with micro-antennas placed on the periphery of the matrix to excite and detect spin waves. The principle of operation is based on the effect of spin wave interference, which is similar to the operation of optical holographic devices. Input information is encoded in the phases of the spin waves generated on the edges of the magnonic matrix, while the output corresponds to the amplitude of the inductive voltage produced by the interfering spin waves on the other side of the matrix. The level of the output voltage depends on the combination of the input phases as well as on the internal structure of the magnonic matrix. Experimental data collected for several magnonic matrixes show the unique output signatures in which maxima and minima correspond to specific input phase patterns. Potentially, magnonic holographic devices may provide a higher storage density compare to optical counterparts due to a shorter wavelength and compatibility with conventional electronic devices. The challenges and shortcoming of the magnonic holographic devices are also discussed.

  3. Recognition memory in developmental prosopagnosia: electrophysiological evidence for abnormal routes to face recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Edwin J; Tree, Jeremy J; Weidemann, Christoph T

    2014-01-01

    DUAL PROCESS MODELS OF RECOGNITION MEMORY PROPOSE TWO DISTINCT ROUTES FOR RECOGNIZING A FACE: recollection and familiarity. Recollection is characterized by the remembering of some contextual detail from a previous encounter with a face whereas familiarity is the feeling of finding a face familiar without any contextual details. The Remember/Know (R/K) paradigm is thought to index the relative contributions of recollection and familiarity to recognition performance. Despite researchers measuring face recognition deficits in developmental prosopagnosia (DP) through a variety of methods, none have considered the distinct contributions of recollection and familiarity to recognition performance. The present study examined recognition memory for faces in eight individuals with DP and a group of controls using an R/K paradigm while recording electroencephalogram (EEG) data at the scalp. Those with DP were found to produce fewer correct "remember" responses and more false alarms than controls. EEG results showed that posterior "remember" old/new effects were delayed and restricted to the right posterior (RP) area in those with DP in comparison to the controls. A posterior "know" old/new effect commonly associated with familiarity for faces was only present in the controls whereas individuals with DP exhibited a frontal "know" old/new effect commonly associated with words, objects and pictures. These results suggest that individuals with DP do not utilize normal face-specific routes when making face recognition judgments but instead process faces using a pathway more commonly associated with objects.

  4. Recognition Memory in Developmental Prosopagnosia: Electrophysiological Evidence for Abnormal Routes to Face Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edwin James Burns

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Dual process models of recognition memory propose two distinct routes for recognizing a face: recollection and familiarity. Recollection is characterized by the remembering of some contextual detail from a previous encounter with a face whereas familiarity is the feeling of finding a face familiar without any contextual details. The Remember/Know (R/K paradigm is thought to index the relative contributions of recollection and familiarity to recognition performance. Despite researchers measuring face recognition deficits in developmental prosopagnosia (DP through a variety of methods, none have considered the distinct contributions of recollection and familiarity to recognition performance. The present study examined recognition memory for faces in 8 individuals with DP and a group of controls using an R/K paradigm while recording electroencephalogram (EEG data at scalp. Those with DP were found to produce fewer correct remember responses and more false alarms than controls. EEG results showed that posterior remember old/new effects were delayed and restricted to the right posterior area in those with DP in comparison to the controls. A posterior know old/new effect commonly associated with familiarity for faces was only present in the controls whereas individuals with DP exhibited a frontal know old/new effect commonly associated with words, objects and pictures. These results suggest that individuals with DP do not utilize normal face specific routes when making face recognition judgments but instead process faces using a pathway more commonly associated with objects.

  5. Developmental Changes in Item and Source Memory: Evidence from an ERP Recognition Memory Study with Children, Adolescents, and Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprondel, Volker; Kipp, Kerstin H.; Mecklinger, Axel

    2011-01-01

    Event-related potential (ERP) correlates of item and source memory were assessed in 18 children (7-8 years), 20 adolescents (13-14 years), and 20 adults (20-29 years) performing a continuous recognition memory task with object and nonobject stimuli. Memory performance increased with age and was particularly low for source memory in children. The…

  6. Emotion-attention interactions in recognition memory for distractor faces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, Narayanan; Gupta, Rashmi

    2010-04-01

    Effective filtering of distractor information has been shown to be dependent on perceptual load. Given the salience of emotional information and the presence of emotion-attention interactions, we wanted to explore the recognition memory for emotional distractors especially as a function of focused attention and distributed attention by manipulating load and the spatial spread of attention. We performed two experiments to study emotion-attention interactions by measuring recognition memory performance for distractor neutral and emotional faces. Participants performed a color discrimination task (low-load) or letter identification task (high-load) with a letter string display in Experiment 1 and a high-load letter identification task with letters presented in a circular array in Experiment 2. The stimuli were presented against a distractor face background. The recognition memory results show that happy faces were recognized better than sad faces under conditions of less focused or distributed attention. When attention is more spatially focused, sad faces were recognized better than happy faces. The study provides evidence for emotion-attention interactions in which specific emotional information like sad or happy is associated with focused or distributed attention respectively. Distractor processing with emotional information also has implications for theories of attention.

  7. Interplay between affect and arousal in recognition memory.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciara M Greene

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Emotional states linked to arousal and mood are known to affect the efficiency of cognitive performance. However, the extent to which memory processes may be affected by arousal, mood or their interaction is poorly understood. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Following a study phase of abstract shapes, we altered the emotional state of participants by means of exposure to music that varied in both mood and arousal dimensions, leading to four different emotional states: (i positive mood-high arousal; (ii positive mood-low arousal; (iii negative mood-high arousal; (iv negative mood-low arousal. Following the emotional induction, participants performed a memory recognition test. Critically, there was an interaction between mood and arousal on recognition performance. Memory was enhanced in the positive mood-high arousal and in the negative mood-low arousal states, relative to the other emotional conditions. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Neither mood nor arousal alone but their interaction appears most critical to understanding the emotional enhancement of memory.

  8. Canonical Wnt signaling is necessary for object recognition memory consolidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortress, Ashley M; Schram, Sarah L; Tuscher, Jennifer J; Frick, Karyn M

    2013-07-31

    Wnt signaling has emerged as a potent regulator of hippocampal synaptic function, although no evidence yet supports a critical role for Wnt signaling in hippocampal memory. Here, we sought to determine whether canonical β-catenin-dependent Wnt signaling is necessary for hippocampal memory consolidation. Immediately after training in a hippocampal-dependent object recognition task, mice received a dorsal hippocampal (DH) infusion of vehicle or the canonical Wnt antagonist Dickkopf-1 (Dkk-1; 50, 100, or 200 ng/hemisphere). Twenty-four hours later, mice receiving vehicle remembered the familiar object explored during training. However, mice receiving Dkk-1 exhibited no memory for the training object, indicating that object recognition memory consolidation is dependent on canonical Wnt signaling. To determine how Dkk-1 affects canonical Wnt signaling, mice were infused with vehicle or 50 ng/hemisphere Dkk-1 and protein levels of Wnt-related proteins (Dkk-1, GSK3β, β-catenin, TCF1, LEF1, Cyclin D1, c-myc, Wnt7a, Wnt1, and PSD95) were measured in the dorsal hippocampus 5 min or 4 h later. Dkk-1 produced a rapid increase in Dkk-1 protein levels and a decrease in phosphorylated GSK3β levels, followed by a decrease in β-catenin, TCF1, LEF1, Cyclin D1, c-myc, Wnt7a, and PSD95 protein levels 4 h later. These data suggest that alterations in Wnt/GSK3β/β-catenin signaling may underlie the memory impairments induced by Dkk-1. In a subsequent experiment, object training alone rapidly increased DH GSK3β phosphorylation and levels of β-catenin and Cyclin D1. These data suggest that canonical Wnt signaling is regulated by object learning and is necessary for hippocampal memory consolidation.

  9. On the Relationship between Memory and Perception: Sequential Dependencies in Recognition Memory Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malmberg, Kenneth J.; Annis, Jeffrey

    2012-01-01

    Many models of recognition are derived from models originally applied to perception tasks, which assume that decisions from trial to trial are independent. While the independence assumption is violated for many perception tasks, we present the results of several experiments intended to relate memory and perception by exploring sequential…

  10. Why does brain damage impair memory? A connectionist model of object recognition memory in perirhinal cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowell, Rosemary A; Bussey, Timothy J; Saksida, Lisa M

    2006-11-22

    Object recognition is the canonical test of declarative memory, the type of memory putatively impaired after damage to the temporal lobes. Studies of object recognition memory have helped elucidate the anatomical structures involved in declarative memory, indicating a critical role for perirhinal cortex. We offer a mechanistic account of the effects of perirhinal cortex damage on object recognition memory, based on the assumption that perirhinal cortex stores representations of the conjunctions of visual features possessed by complex objects. Such representations are proposed to play an important role in memory when it is difficult to solve a task using representations of only individual visual features of stimuli, thought to be stored in regions of the ventral visual stream caudal to perirhinal cortex. The account is instantiated in a connectionist model, in which development of object representations with visual experience provides a mechanism for judgment of previous occurrence. We present simulations addressing the following empirical findings: (1) that impairments after damage to perirhinal cortex (modeled by removing the "perirhinal cortex" layer of the network) are exacerbated by lengthening the delay between presentation of to-be-remembered items and test, (2) that such impairments are also exacerbated by lengthening the list of to-be-remembered items, and (3) that impairments are revealed only when stimuli are trial unique rather than repeatedly presented. This study shows that it may be possible to account for object recognition impairments after damage to perirhinal cortex within a hierarchical, representational framework, in which complex conjunctive representations in perirhinal cortex play a critical role.

  11. A new concept of vertically integrated pattern recognition associative memory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Ted; Hoff, Jim; Deptuch, Grzegorz; Yarema, Ray; /Fermilab

    2011-11-01

    Hardware-based pattern recognition for fast triggering on particle tracks has been successfully used in high-energy physics experiments for some time. The CDF Silicon Vertex Trigger (SVT) at the Fermilab Tevatron is an excellent example. The method used there, developed in the 1990's, is based on algorithms that use a massively parallel associative memory architecture to identify patterns efficiently at high speed. However, due to much higher occupancy and event rates at the LHC, and the fact that the LHC detectors have a much larger number of channels in their tracking detectors, there is an enormous challenge in implementing fast pattern recognition for a track trigger, requiring about three orders of magnitude more associative memory patterns than what was used in the original CDF SVT. Scaling of current technologies is unlikely to satisfy the scientific needs of the future, and investments in transformational new technologies need to be made. In this paper, we will discuss a new concept of using the emerging 3D vertical integration technology to significantly advance the state-of-the-art for fast pattern recognition within and outside HEP. A generic R and D proposal based on this new concept, with a few institutions involved, has recently been submitted to DOE with the goal to design and perform the ASIC engineering necessary to realize a prototype device. The progress of this R and D project will be reported in the future. Here we will only focus on the concept of this new approach.

  12. Process dissociation, single-process theories, and recognition memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratcliff, R; Van Zandt, T; McKoon, G

    1995-12-01

    According to the assumptions of L. L. Jacoby's (1991) process dissociation method, performance in recognition memory is determined by the combination of an unconscious familiarity process and a conscious intentional recollection process. The process dissociation method is used to produce estimates of the contributions of the 2 components to recognition performance. This article investigates whether the method provides the correct estimates of components if performance actually depends on only a single process or on 2 processes different from those assumed by the method. The SAM model (G. Gillund & R. M. Shiffrin, 1984) was used to produce simulated data based on a single process. Variants of SAM with 2 processes and R. C. Atkinson and J. F. Juola's (1973) 2-process model were used to produce data based on 2 processes.

  13. Vanadium-enriched chickpea sprout ameliorated hyperglycemia and impaired memory in streptozotocin-induced diabetes rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Xueqin; Zhang, Ling; Xia, Qing; Sun, Zhaofeng; Zhao, Xiaomin; Cai, Hongxin; Yang, Xiaoda; Xia, Zuoli; Tang, Yujing

    2008-10-01

    Vanadium compounds have been recognized for their hypoglycemic effects; however, potential short and long-term vanadium toxicity has slowed the acceptance for therapeutic use. In the present work, three batches of vanadium-enriched chickpea sprout (VCS) were prepared by incubating chickpea seeds in presence of 200, 100, and 50 microg/ml of sodium orthovanadate (SOV). The effects of oral administration of chickpea sprout (CS) and VCS food for 8 weeks on streptozotocin-induced (STZ) diabetic rats were investigated. Both CS and VCS food was found to ameliorate some hyperglycemic symptoms of the diabetic rats, i.e. improve lipid metabolism, decrease blood glucose level, prevent body weight loss, and reduce impairment of diabetic related spatial learning and memory. Serum insulin was substantially elevated in treated diabetic rats, which is probably one important reason for the hypoglycemic effect. Compared with CS alone, VCS100 food exhibited remarkably enhanced effectiveness in alleviating diabetes induced hyperglycemia and memory loss. Moreover, vanadium-enriched chickpeas appeared to abolish the vanadium induced toxicity associated with administration of this metal for diabetes during the 8-week study period. This study suggested further work of the vanadium speciation in CS and novel hypoglycemic mechanism for the antidiabetic activity of vanadium agents. Vanadium containing (VCS) food could be a dietary supplement for the diabetic status.

  14. A humanin derivative reduces amyloid beta accumulation and ameliorates memory deficit in triple transgenic mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takako Niikura

    Full Text Available Humanin (HN, a 24-residue peptide, was identified as a novel neuroprotective factor and shows anti-cell death activity against a wide spectrum of Alzheimer's disease (AD-related cytotoxicities, including exposure to amyloid beta (Abeta, in vitro. We previously demonstrated that the injection of S14G-HN, a highly potent HN derivative, into brain ameliorated memory loss in an Abeta-injection mouse model. To fully understand HN's functions under AD-associated pathological conditions, we examined the effect of S14G-HN on triple transgenic mice harboring APP(swe, tau(P310L, and PS-1(M146V that show the age-dependent development of multiple pathologies relating to AD. After 3 months of intranasal treatment, behavioral analyses showed that S14G-HN ameliorated cognitive impairment in male mice. Moreover, ELISA and immunohistochemical analyses showed that Abeta levels in brains were markedly lower in S14G-HN-treated male and female mice than in vehicle control mice. We also found the expression level of neprilysin, an Abeta degrading enzyme, in the outer molecular layer of hippocampal formation was increased in S14G-HN-treated mouse brains. NEP activity was also elevated by S14G-HN treatment in vitro. These findings suggest that decreased Abeta level in these mice is at least partly attributed to S14G-HN-induced increase of neprilysin level. Although HN was identified as an anti-neuronal death factor, these results indicate that HN may also have a therapeutic effect on amyloid accumulation in AD.

  15. The Memory State Heuristic: A Formal Model Based on Repeated Recognition Judgments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castela, Marta; Erdfelder, Edgar

    2017-01-01

    The recognition heuristic (RH) theory predicts that, in comparative judgment tasks, if one object is recognized and the other is not, the recognized one is chosen. The memory-state heuristic (MSH) extends the RH by assuming that choices are not affected by recognition judgments per se, but by the memory states underlying these judgments (i.e.,…

  16. Social Recognition Memory Requires Two Stages of Protein Synthesis in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Gerald; Engelmann, Mario; Richter, Karin

    2005-01-01

    Olfactory recognition memory was tested in adult male mice using a social discrimination task. The testing was conducted to begin to characterize the role of protein synthesis and the specific brain regions associated with activity in this task. Long-term olfactory recognition memory was blocked when the protein synthesis inhibitor anisomycin was…

  17. Dentate gyrus supports slope recognition memory, shades of grey-context pattern separation and recognition memory, and CA3 supports pattern completion for object memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesner, Raymond P; Kirk, Ryan A; Yu, Zhenghui; Polansky, Caitlin; Musso, Nick D

    2016-03-01

    In order to examine the role of the dorsal dentate gyrus (dDG) in slope (vertical space) recognition and possible pattern separation, various slope (vertical space) degrees were used in a novel exploratory paradigm to measure novelty detection for changes in slope (vertical space) recognition memory and slope memory pattern separation in Experiment 1. The results of the experiment indicate that control rats displayed a slope recognition memory function with a pattern separation process for slope memory that is dependent upon the magnitude of change in slope between study and test phases. In contrast, the dDG lesioned rats displayed an impairment in slope recognition memory, though because there was no significant interaction between the two groups and slope memory, a reliable pattern separation impairment for slope could not be firmly established in the DG lesioned rats. In Experiment 2, in order to determine whether, the dDG plays a role in shades of grey spatial context recognition and possible pattern separation, shades of grey were used in a novel exploratory paradigm to measure novelty detection for changes in the shades of grey context environment. The results of the experiment indicate that control rats displayed a shades of grey-context pattern separation effect across levels of separation of context (shades of grey). In contrast, the DG lesioned rats displayed a significant interaction between the two groups and levels of shades of grey suggesting impairment in a pattern separation function for levels of shades of grey. In Experiment 3 in order to determine whether the dorsal CA3 (dCA3) plays a role in object pattern completion, a new task requiring less training and using a choice that was based on choosing the correct set of objects on a two-choice discrimination task was used. The results indicated that control rats displayed a pattern completion function based on the availability of one, two, three or four cues. In contrast, the dCA3 lesioned rats

  18. Neuropeptide S interacts with the basolateral amygdala noradrenergic system in facilitating object recognition memory consolidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Ren-Wen; Xu, Hong-Jiao; Zhang, Rui-San; Wang, Pei; Chang, Min; Peng, Ya-Li; Deng, Ke-Yu; Wang, Rui

    2014-01-01

    The noradrenergic activity in the basolateral amygdala (BLA) was reported to be involved in the regulation of object recognition memory. As the BLA expresses high density of receptors for Neuropeptide S (NPS), we investigated whether the BLA is involved in mediating NPS's effects on object recognition memory consolidation and whether such effects require noradrenergic activity. Intracerebroventricular infusion of NPS (1nmol) post training facilitated 24-h memory in a mouse novel object recognition task. The memory-enhancing effect of NPS could be blocked by the β-adrenoceptor antagonist propranolol. Furthermore, post-training intra-BLA infusions of NPS (0.5nmol/side) improved 24-h memory for objects, which was impaired by co-administration of propranolol (0.5μg/side). Taken together, these results indicate that NPS interacts with the BLA noradrenergic system in improving object recognition memory during consolidation.

  19. Escitalopram Ameliorates Tau Hyperphosphorylation and Spatial Memory Deficits Induced by Protein Kinase A Activation in Sprague Dawley Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Qing-Guo; Wang, Yan-Juan; Gong, Wei-Gang; Xu, Lin; Zhang, Zhi-Jun

    2015-01-01

    Here, we investigated the effect of escitalopram pretreatment on protein kinase A (PKA)-induced tau hyperphosphorylation and spatial memory deficits in rats using western blot and behavioral tests, respectively. We demonstrated that escitalopram effectively ameliorated tau hyperphosphorylation and the spatial memory deficits induced by PKA activation. We measured the total and activity-dependent Ser9-phosphorylated levels of glycogen synthase kinase (GSK)-3β in hippocampal extracts. No significant change in the total level of GSK-3β was observed between the different groups. However, compared with forskolin injection alone, pretreatment with escitalopram increased the level of Ser9-phosphorylated GSK-3β. We also demonstrated that escitalopram increased Akt phosphorylation at Ser473 (the active form of Akt). Furthermore, we identified other important kinases and phosphatases, such as protein phosphatase 2A, extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1 and 2, and MAP kinase kinase-1/2, that have previously been reported to play a crucial role in tau phosphorylation; however, we did not detect any significant change in the activation of these kinases or phosphatases in our study. We unexpectedly demonstrated that forskolin caused anxiety-like behavior in rats, and pretreatment with escitalopram did not significantly ameliorate the anxiety-like behavior induced by forskolin. These data provide the first evidence that escitalopram ameliorates forskolin-induced tau hyperphosphorylation and spatial memory impairment in rats; these effects do not occur via the anti-anxiety activity of escitalopram but may involve the Akt/GSK-3β signaling pathway.

  20. Differential Effects of Stress-induced Cortisol Responses on Recollection and Familiarity-based Recognition Memory

    OpenAIRE

    McCullough, Andrew M.; Ritchey, Maureen; Ranganath, Charan; Yonelinas, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Stress-induced changes in cortisol can impact memory in various ways. However, the precise relationship between cortisol and recognition memory is still poorly understood. For instance, there is reason to believe that stress could differentially affect recollection-based memory, which depends on the hippocampus, and familiarity-based recognition, which can be supported by neocortical areas alone. Accordingly, in the current study we examined the effects of stress-related changes in cortisol o...

  1. Retrieval and reconsolidation of object recognition memory are independent processes in the perirhinal cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balderas, I; Rodriguez-Ortiz, C J; Bermudez-Rattoni, F

    2013-12-03

    Reconsolidation refers to the destabilization/re-stabilization process upon memory reactivation. However, the parameters needed to induce reconsolidation remain unclear. Here we evaluated the capacity of memory retrieval to induce reconsolidation of object recognition memory in rats. To assess whether retrieval is indispensable to trigger reconsolidation, we injected muscimol in the perirhinal cortex to block retrieval, and anisomycin (ani) to impede reconsolidation. We observed that ani impaired reconsolidation in the absence of retrieval. Therefore, stored memory underwent reconsolidation even though it was not recalled. These results indicate that retrieval and reconsolidation of object recognition memory are independent processes.

  2. Effect of frontal lobe lesions on the recollection and familiarity components of recognition memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacPherson, Sarah E; Bozzali, Marco; Cipolotti, Lisa; Dolan, Raymond J; Rees, Jeremy H; Shallice, Tim

    2008-11-01

    Single-process theories assume that familiarity is the sole influence on recognition memory with decisions being made as a continuous process. Dual-process theories claim that recognition involves both recollection and familiarity processes with recollection as a threshold process. Although, the frontal lobes of the brain play an important role in recognition memory, few studies have examined the effect of frontal lobe lesions on recollection and familiarity. In the current study, the nonverbal recognition memory of 24 patients with focal frontal lesions due to tumour or stroke was examined. Recollection and familiarity were estimated using the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) method. A secondary analysis was also conducted using standard signal detection theory methodology. Both analyses led to similar conclusions where only the familiarity component of recognition memory was impaired in frontal patients compared to healthy controls whilst the recollection-type (or variance ratio) processes remained intact.

  3. A Pilot Study of a Test for Visual Recognition Memory in Adults with Moderate to Severe Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyo, Geunyeong; Ala, Tom; Kyrouac, Gregory A.; Verhulst, Steven J.

    2010-01-01

    Objective assessment of memory functioning is an important part of evaluation for Dementia of Alzheimer Type (DAT). The revised Picture Recognition Memory Test (r-PRMT) is a test for visual recognition memory to assess memory functioning of persons with intellectual disabilities (ID), specifically targeting moderate to severe ID. A pilot study was…

  4. Medial temporal lobe contributions to intra-item associative recognition memory in the aging brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalton, Marshall Axel; Tu, Sicong; Hornberger, Michael; Hodges, John Russel; Piguet, Olivier

    2013-01-01

    Aging is associated with a decline in episodic memory function. This is accompanied by degradation of and functional changes in the medial temporal lobe (MTL) which subserves mnemonic processing. To date no study has investigated age-related functional change in MTL substructures during specific episodic memory processes such as intra-item associative memory. The aim of this study was to characterize age-related change in the neural correlates of intra-item associative memory processing. Sixteen young and 10 older subjects participated in a compound word intra-item associative memory task comprising a measure of associative recognition memory and a measure of recognition memory. There was no difference in performance between groups on the associative memory measure but each group recruited different MTL regions while performing the task. The young group recruited the left anterior hippocampus and posterior parahippocampal gyrus whereas the older participants recruited the hippocampus bilaterally. In contrast, recognition memory was significantly worse in the older subjects. The left anterior hippocampus was recruited in the young group during successful recognition memory whereas the older group recruited a more posterior region of the left hippocampus and showed a more bilateral activation of frontal brain regions than was observed in the young group. Our results suggest a reorganization of the neural correlates of intra-item associative memory in the aging brain.

  5. Atypical evening cortisol profile induces visual recognition memory deficit in healthy human subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilpin Heather

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Diurnal rhythm-mediated endogenous cortisol levels in humans are characterised by a peak in secretion after awakening that declines throughout the day to an evening trough. However, a significant proportion of the population exhibits an atypical cycle of diurnal cortisol due to shift work, jet-lag, aging, and mental illness. Results The present study has demonstrated a correlation between elevation of cortisol in the evening and deterioration of visual object recognition memory. However, high evening cortisol levels have no effect on spatial memory. Conclusion This study suggests that atypical evening salivary cortisol levels have an important role in the early deterioration of recognition memory. The loss of recognition memory, which is vital for everyday life, is a major symptom of the amnesic syndrome and early stages of Alzheimer's disease. Therefore, this study will promote a potential physiologic marker of early deterioration of recognition memory and a possible diagnostic strategy for Alzheimer's disease.

  6. Remembering the snake in the grass: Threat enhances recognition but not source memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Miriam Magdalena; Bell, Raoul; Buchner, Axel

    2015-12-01

    Research on the influence of emotion on source memory has yielded inconsistent findings. The object-based framework (Mather, 2007) predicts that negatively arousing stimuli attract attention, resulting in enhanced within-object binding, and, thereby, enhanced source memory for intrinsic context features of emotional stimuli. To test this prediction, we presented pictures of threatening and harmless animals, the color of which had been experimentally manipulated. In a memory test, old-new recognition for the animals and source memory for their color was assessed. In all 3 experiments, old-new recognition was better for the more threatening material, which supports previous reports of an emotional memory enhancement. This recognition advantage was due to the emotional properties of the stimulus material, and not specific for snake stimuli. However, inconsistent with the prediction of the object-based framework, intrinsic source memory was not affected by emotion.

  7. The relationship between protein synthesis and protein degradation in object recognition memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furini, Cristiane R G; Myskiw, Jociane de C; Schmidt, Bianca E; Zinn, Carolina G; Peixoto, Patricia B; Pereira, Luiza D; Izquierdo, Ivan

    2015-11-01

    For decades there has been a consensus that de novo protein synthesis is necessary for long-term memory. A second round of protein synthesis has been described for both extinction and reconsolidation following an unreinforced test session. Recently, it was shown that consolidation and reconsolidation depend not only on protein synthesis but also on protein degradation by the ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS), a major mechanism responsible for protein turnover. However, the involvement of UPS on consolidation and reconsolidation of object recognition memory remains unknown. Here we investigate in the CA1 region of the dorsal hippocampus the involvement of UPS-mediated protein degradation in consolidation and reconsolidation of object recognition memory. Animals with infusion cannulae stereotaxically implanted in the CA1 region of the dorsal hippocampus, were exposed to an object recognition task. The UPS inhibitor β-Lactacystin did not affect the consolidation and the reconsolidation of object recognition memory at doses known to affect other forms of memory (inhibitory avoidance, spatial learning in a water maze) while the protein synthesis inhibitor anisomycin impaired the consolidation and the reconsolidation of the object recognition memory. However, β-Lactacystin was able to reverse the impairment caused by anisomycin on the reconsolidation process in the CA1 region of the hippocampus. Therefore, it is possible to postulate a direct link between protein degradation and protein synthesis during the reconsolidation of the object recognition memory.

  8. Effects of hydrocortisone on false memory recognition in healthy men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duesenberg, Moritz; Weber, Juliane; Schaeuffele, Carmen; Fleischer, Juliane; Hellmann-Regen, Julian; Roepke, Stefan; Moritz, Steffen; Otte, Christian; Wingenfeld, Katja

    2016-12-01

    Most of the studies focusing on the effect of stress on false memories by using psychosocial and physiological stressors yielded diverse results. In the present study, we systematically tested the effect of exogenous hydrocortisone using a false memory paradigm. In this placebo-controlled study, 37 healthy men and 38 healthy women (mean age 24.59 years) received either 10 mg of hydrocortisone or placebo 75 min before using the false memory, that is, Deese-Roediger-McDermott (DRM), paradigm. We used emotionally charged and neutral DRM-based word lists to look for false recognition rates in comparison to true recognition rates. Overall, we expected an increase in false memory after hydrocortisone compared to placebo. No differences between the cortisol and the placebo group were revealed for false and for true recognition performance. In general, false recognition rates were lower compared to true recognition rates. Furthermore, we found a valence effect (neutral, positive, negative, disgust word stimuli), indicating higher rates of true and false recognition for emotional compared to neutral words. We further found an interaction effect between sex and recognition. Post hoc t tests showed that for true recognition women showed a significantly better memory performance than men, independent of treatment. This study does not support the hypothesis that cortisol decreases the ability to distinguish between old versus novel words in young healthy individuals. However, sex and emotional valence of word stimuli appear to be important moderators. (PsycINFO Database Record

  9. Hippocampal Infusion of Zeta Inhibitory Peptide Impairs Recent, but Not Remote, Recognition Memory in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jena B. Hales

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Spatial memory in rodents can be erased following the infusion of zeta inhibitory peptide (ZIP into the dorsal hippocampus via indwelling guide cannulas. It is believed that ZIP impairs spatial memory by reversing established late-phase long-term potentiation (LTP. However, it is unclear whether other forms of hippocampus-dependent memory, such as recognition memory, are also supported by hippocampal LTP. In the current study, we tested recognition memory in rats following hippocampal ZIP infusion. In order to combat the limited targeting of infusions via cannula, we implemented a stereotaxic approach for infusing ZIP throughout the dorsal, intermediate, and ventral hippocampus. Rats infused with ZIP 3–7 days after training on the novel object recognition task exhibited impaired object recognition memory compared to control rats (those infused with aCSF. In contrast, rats infused with ZIP 1 month after training performed similar to control rats. The ability to form new memories after ZIP infusions remained intact. We suggest that enhanced recognition memory for recent events is supported by hippocampal LTP, which can be reversed by hippocampal ZIP infusion.

  10. Hippocampal Infusion of Zeta Inhibitory Peptide Impairs Recent, but Not Remote, Recognition Memory in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hales, Jena B.; Ocampo, Amber C.; Broadbent, Nicola J.; Clark, Robert E.

    2015-01-01

    Spatial memory in rodents can be erased following the infusion of zeta inhibitory peptide (ZIP) into the dorsal hippocampus via indwelling guide cannulas. It is believed that ZIP impairs spatial memory by reversing established late-phase long-term potentiation (LTP). However, it is unclear whether other forms of hippocampus-dependent memory, such as recognition memory, are also supported by hippocampal LTP. In the current study, we tested recognition memory in rats following hippocampal ZIP infusion. In order to combat the limited targeting of infusions via cannula, we implemented a stereotaxic approach for infusing ZIP throughout the dorsal, intermediate, and ventral hippocampus. Rats infused with ZIP 3–7 days after training on the novel object recognition task exhibited impaired object recognition memory compared to control rats (those infused with aCSF). In contrast, rats infused with ZIP 1 month after training performed similar to control rats. The ability to form new memories after ZIP infusions remained intact. We suggest that enhanced recognition memory for recent events is supported by hippocampal LTP, which can be reversed by hippocampal ZIP infusion. PMID:26380123

  11. Conceptual priming and familiarity: different expressions of memory during recognition testing with distinct neurophysiological correlates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voss, Joel L; Lucas, Heather D; Paller, Ken A

    2010-11-01

    Familiarity and recollection are qualitatively different explicit-memory phenomena evident during recognition testing. Investigations of the neurocognitive substrates of familiarity and recollection, however, have typically disregarded implicit-memory processes likely to be engaged during recognition tests. We reasoned that differential neural responses to old and new items in a recognition test may reflect either explicit or implicit memory. Putative neural correlates of familiarity in prior experiments, for example, may actually reflect contamination by implicit memory. In two experiments, we used obscure words that subjects could not formally define to tease apart electrophysiological correlates of familiarity and one form of implicit memory, conceptual priming. In Experiment 1, conceptual priming was observed for words only if they elicited meaningful associations. In Experiment 2, two distinct neural signals were observed in conjunction with familiarity-based recognition: late posterior potentials for words that both did and did not elicit meaningful associations and FN400 potentials only for the former. Given that symbolic meaning is a prerequisite for conceptual priming, the combined results specifically link late posterior potentials and FN400 potentials with familiarity and conceptual priming, respectively. These findings contradict previous interpretations of FN400 potentials as generic signals of familiarity and show that repeated stimuli in recognition tests can engender facilitated processing of conceptual information in addition to retrieval processing that leads to the awareness of memory retrieval. The different characteristics of the electrical markers of these two types of process further underscore the biological validity of the distinction between implicit memory and explicit memory.

  12. Caffeine and modafinil given during 48 h sleep deprivation modulate object recognition memory and synaptic proteins in the hippocampus of the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wadhwa, M; Sahu, S; Kumari, P; Kauser, H; Ray, K; Panjwani, U

    2015-11-01

    We aimed to evaluate the effect of caffeine/modafinil on sleep deprivation (SD) induced alterations in recognition memory and synaptic proteins. The data revealed a beneficial effect of caffeine/modafinil against deficit in the familiar object retrieval performance and object exploration ratio after 48 h SD. Caffeine treatment prevented the SD induced down-regulation of synaptophysin and synapsin I proteins with no change in PSD-95 protein in hippocampus. However, modafinil administration improved the down-regulation of synaptophysin, synapsin I and PSD-95 proteins in hippocampus. Hence, caffeine/modafinil can serve as counter measures in amelioration of SD induced consequences at behavioural and protein levels.

  13. Joint attention, social cognition and recognition memory in adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwanguk eKim

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The early emerging capacity for Joint Attention, or socially coordinated visual attention, is thought to be integral to the development of social-cognition in childhood. Recent studies have also begun to suggest that joint attention affects adult cognition as well, but methodological limitations hamper research on this topic. To address this issue we developed a novel virtual reality (VR paradigm that integrates eye-tracking and virtual avatar technology to measure two types of joint attention in adults, Initiating Joint Attention (IJA and Responding to Joint Attention (RJA. Distinguishing these types of joint attention in research is important because they are thought to reflect unique, as well as common constellations of processes involved in human social-cognition and social learning. We tested the validity of the differentiation of IJA and RJA in our paradigm in two studies of picture recognition memory in undergraduate students. Study 1 indicated that young adults correctly identified more pictures they had previously viewed in an IJA condition (67% than in a RJA (58% condition, η2 = .57. Study 2 controlled for IJA and RJA stimulus viewing time differences, and replicated the findings of Study 1. The implications of these results for the validity of the paradigm and research on the affects of joint attention on adult social-cognition are discussed.

  14. Is there a recognition memory deficit in Parkinson's disease? Evidence from estimates of recollection and familiarity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiermann, Brigitte; Stephan, Marianne A; Kaelin-Lang, Alain; Meier, Beat

    2010-03-01

    There is conflicting evidence whether Parkinson's disease (PD) is associated with impaired recognition memory and which of its underlying processes, namely recollection and familiarity, is more affected by the disease. The present study explored the contribution of recollection and familiarity to verbal recognition memory performance in 14 nondemented PD patients and a healthy control group with two different methods: (i) the word-frequency mirror effect, and (ii) Remember/Know judgments. Overall, recognition memory of patients was intact. The word-frequency mirror effect was observed both in patients and controls: Hit rates were higher and false alarm rates were lower for low-frequency compared to high-frequency words. However, Remember/Know judgments indicated normal recollection, but impaired familiarity. Our findings suggest that mild to moderate PD patients are selectively impaired at familiarity whereas recollection and overall recognition memory are intact.

  15. Satureja bachtiarica ameliorate beta-amyloid induced memory impairment, oxidative stress and cholinergic deficit in animal model of Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soodi, Maliheh; Saeidnia, Soodabeh; Sharifzadeh, Mohammad; Hajimehdipoor, Homa; Dashti, Abolfazl; Sepand, Mohammad Reza; Moradi, Shahla

    2016-04-01

    Extracellular deposition of Beta-amyloid peptide (Aβ) is the main finding in the pathophysiology of Alzheimer's disease (AD), which damages cholinergic neurons through oxidative stress and reduces the cholinergic neurotransmission. Satureja bachtiarica is a medicinal plant from the Lamiaceae family which was widely used in Iranian traditional medicine. The aim of the present study was to investigate possible protective effects of S. bachtiarica methanolic extract on Aβ induced spatial memory impairment in Morris Water Maze (MWM), oxidative stress and cholinergic neuron degeneration. Pre- aggregated Aβ was injected into the hippocampus of each rat bilaterally (10 μg/rat) and MWM task was performed 14 days later to evaluate learning and memory function. Methanolic extract of S.bachtiarica (10, 50 and 100 mg/Kg) was injected intraperitoneally for 19 consecutive days, after Aβ injection. After the probe test the brain tissue were collected and lipid peroxidation, Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity and Cholin Acetyl Transferees (ChAT) immunorectivity were measured in the hippocampus. Intrahipocampal injection of Aβ impaired learning and memory in MWM in training days and probe trail. Methanolic extract of S. bachtiarica (50 and 100 mg/Kg) could attenuate Aβ-induced memory deficit. ChAT immunostaining revealed that cholinergic neurons were loss in Aβ- injected group and S. bachtiarica (100 mg/Kg) could ameliorate Aβ- induced ChAT reduction in the hippocampus. Also S. bachtiarica could ameliorate Aβ-induced lipid peroxidation and AChE activity increase in the hippocampus. In conclusion our study represent that S.bachtiarica methanolic extract can improve Aβ-induced memory impairment and cholinergic loss then we recommended this extract as a candidate for further investigation in treatment of AD.

  16. Histamine ameliorates spatial memory deficits induced by MK-801 infusion into ventral hippocampus as evaluated by radial maze task in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li-sha XU; Li-xia YANG; Wei-wei HU; Xiao YU; Li MA; Lu-ying LIU; Er-qing WEI; Zhong CHEN

    2005-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the role of histamine in memory deficits induced by MK-801 infusion into the ventral hippocampus in rats. Methods: An 8-arm radial maze (4arms baited) was used to assess spatial memory. Results: Bilateral ventral intrahippocampal (ih) infusion of MK-801 (0.3 μg/site), an N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) antagonist, impaired the retrieval process in both working memory and reference memory. Intrahippocampal injection of histamine (25 or 50 ng/site) or intraperitoneal (ip) injection of histidine (25, 50 or 100 mg/kg) markedly ameliorated the spatial memory deficits induced by MK-801. Both the histamine H1 antagonist pyrilamine (0.5 or 1.0 μg/site, ih) and the H2 antagonist cimetidine (2.5 μg/site,ih) abolished the ameliorating effect of histidine (100 mg/kg, ip) on reference memory deficits, but not that on working memory deficits induced by MK-801. Conclusion:The results indicate that histamine in the ventral hippocampus can ameliorate MK-801-induced spatial memory deficits, and that histamine's effect on reference memory is mediated by postsynaptic histamine H1 and H2 receptors.

  17. CBP gene transfer increases BDNF levels and ameliorates learning and memory deficits in a mouse model of Alzheimer's disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caccamo, Antonella; Maldonado, Monica A.; Bokov, Alex F.; Majumder, Smita; Oddo, Salvatore

    2010-01-01

    Cognitive dysfunction and memory loss are common features of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Abnormalities in the expression profile of immediate early genes that play a critical role in memory formation, such as the cAMP-response element binding protein (CREB), have been reported in the brains of AD patients. Here we show that amyloid-β (Aβ) accumulation, which plays a primary role in the cognitive deficits of AD, interferes with CREB activity. We further show that restoring CREB function via brain viral delivery of the CREB-binding protein (CBP) improves learning and memory deficits in an animal model of AD. Notably, such improvements occur without changes in Aβ and tau pathology, and instead are linked to an increased level of brain-derived neurotrophic factor. The resulting data suggest that Aβ-induced learning and memory deficits are mediated by alterations in CREB function, based on the finding that restoring CREB activity by directly modulating CBP levels in the brains of adult mice is sufficient to ameliorate learning and memory. Therefore, increasing CBP expression in adult brains may be a valid therapeutic approach not only for AD, but also for various brain disorders characterized by alterations in immediate early genes, further supporting the concept that viral vector delivery may be a viable therapeutic approach in neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:21149712

  18. Post-training reversible inactivation of the hippocampus enhances novel object recognition memory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oliveira, Ana M M; Hawk, Joshua D; Abel, Ted; Havekes, Robbert

    2010-01-01

    Research on the role of the hippocampus in object recognition memory has produced conflicting results. Previous studies have used permanent hippocampal lesions to assess the requirement for the hippocampus in the object recognition task. However, permanent hippocampal lesions may impact performance

  19. Post-Training Reversible Inactivation of the Hippocampus Enhances Novel Object Recognition Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Ana M. M.; Hawk, Joshua D.; Abel, Ted; Havekes, Robbert

    2010-01-01

    Research on the role of the hippocampus in object recognition memory has produced conflicting results. Previous studies have used permanent hippocampal lesions to assess the requirement for the hippocampus in the object recognition task. However, permanent hippocampal lesions may impact performance through effects on processes besides memory…

  20. The Consolidation of Object and Context Recognition Memory Involve Different Regions of the Temporal Lobe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balderas, Israela; Rodriguez-Ortiz, Carlos J.; Salgado-Tonda, Paloma; Chavez-Hurtado, Julio; McGaugh, James L.; Bermudez-Rattoni, Federico

    2008-01-01

    These experiments investigated the involvement of several temporal lobe regions in consolidation of recognition memory. Anisomycin, a protein synthesis inhibitor, was infused into the hippocampus, perirhinal cortex, insular cortex, or basolateral amygdala of rats immediately after the sample phase of object or object-in-context recognition memory…

  1. Event-Related Potential (ERP) Evidence for Fluency-Based Recognition Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leynes, P. Andrew; Zish, Kevin

    2012-01-01

    Two experiments investigated the influence of perceptual fluency on recognition memory. Words were studied using a shallow encoding task to decrease the contribution of recollection on recognition. Fluency was manipulated by blurring half of the test probes. Clarity varied randomly across trials in one experiment and was grouped into two blocks…

  2. Recognition Memory: Adding a Response Deadline Eliminates Recollection but Spares Familiarity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauvage, Magdalena M.; Beer, Zachery; Eichenbaum, Howard

    2010-01-01

    A current controversy in memory research concerns whether recognition is supported by distinct processes of familiarity and recollection, or instead by a single process wherein familiarity and recollection reflect weak and strong memories, respectively. Recent studies using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analyses in an animal model have…

  3. Proposal for the development of 3D Vertically Integrated Pattern Recognition Associative Memory (VIPRAM)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deptuch, Gregory; Hoff, Jim; Kwan, Simon; Lipton, Ron; Liu, Ted; Ramberg, Erik; Todri, Aida; Yarema, Ray; /Fermilab; Demarteua, Marcel,; Drake, Gary; Weerts, Harry; /Argonne /Chicago U. /Padua U. /INFN, Padua

    2010-10-01

    Future particle physics experiments looking for rare processes will have no choice but to address the demanding challenges of fast pattern recognition in triggering as detector hit density becomes significantly higher due to the high luminosity required to produce the rare process. The authors propose to develop a 3D Vertically Integrated Pattern Recognition Associative Memory (VIPRAM) chip for HEP applications, to advance the state-of-the-art for pattern recognition and track reconstruction for fast triggering.

  4. Deficits in long-term recognition memory reveal dissociated subtypes in congenital prosopagnosia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stollhoff, Rainer; Jost, Jürgen; Elze, Tobias; Kennerknecht, Ingo

    2011-01-25

    The study investigates long-term recognition memory in congenital prosopagnosia (CP), a lifelong impairment in face identification that is present from birth. Previous investigations of processing deficits in CP have mostly relied on short-term recognition tests to estimate the scope and severity of individual deficits. We firstly report on a controlled test of long-term (one year) recognition memory for faces and objects conducted with a large group of participants with CP. Long-term recognition memory is significantly impaired in eight CP participants (CPs). In all but one case, this deficit was selective to faces and didn't extend to intra-class recognition of object stimuli. In a test of famous face recognition, long-term recognition deficits were less pronounced, even after accounting for differences in media consumption between controls and CPs. Secondly, we combined test results on long-term and short-term recognition of faces and objects, and found a large heterogeneity in severity and scope of individual deficits. Analysis of the observed heterogeneity revealed a dissociation of CP into subtypes with a homogeneous phenotypical profile. Thirdly, we found that among CPs self-assessment of real-life difficulties, based on a standardized questionnaire, and experimentally assessed face recognition deficits are strongly correlated. Our results demonstrate that controlled tests of long-term recognition memory are needed to fully assess face recognition deficits in CP. Based on controlled and comprehensive experimental testing, CP can be dissociated into subtypes with a homogeneous phenotypical profile. The CP subtypes identified align with those found in prosopagnosia caused by cortical lesions; they can be interpreted with respect to a hierarchical neural system for face perception.

  5. Deficits in long-term recognition memory reveal dissociated subtypes in congenital prosopagnosia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rainer Stollhoff

    Full Text Available The study investigates long-term recognition memory in congenital prosopagnosia (CP, a lifelong impairment in face identification that is present from birth. Previous investigations of processing deficits in CP have mostly relied on short-term recognition tests to estimate the scope and severity of individual deficits. We firstly report on a controlled test of long-term (one year recognition memory for faces and objects conducted with a large group of participants with CP. Long-term recognition memory is significantly impaired in eight CP participants (CPs. In all but one case, this deficit was selective to faces and didn't extend to intra-class recognition of object stimuli. In a test of famous face recognition, long-term recognition deficits were less pronounced, even after accounting for differences in media consumption between controls and CPs. Secondly, we combined test results on long-term and short-term recognition of faces and objects, and found a large heterogeneity in severity and scope of individual deficits. Analysis of the observed heterogeneity revealed a dissociation of CP into subtypes with a homogeneous phenotypical profile. Thirdly, we found that among CPs self-assessment of real-life difficulties, based on a standardized questionnaire, and experimentally assessed face recognition deficits are strongly correlated. Our results demonstrate that controlled tests of long-term recognition memory are needed to fully assess face recognition deficits in CP. Based on controlled and comprehensive experimental testing, CP can be dissociated into subtypes with a homogeneous phenotypical profile. The CP subtypes identified align with those found in prosopagnosia caused by cortical lesions; they can be interpreted with respect to a hierarchical neural system for face perception.

  6. Directed forgetting in the list method affects recognition memory for source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottlob, Lawrence R; Golding, Jonathan M

    2007-11-01

    The effects of list-method directed forgetting on recognition memory were explored. In Experiment 1 (N = 40), observers were instructed to remember words and their type-cases; in Experiment 2 (N = 80), the instruction was to remember words and their colours. Two lists of 10 words were presented; after the first list, half of the observers (forget) were instructed to forget that list, and the other half (remember) were not given the forget instruction. Recognition of items (words) as well as source (encoding list + case/colour) was measured for forget and remember observers. The forget instruction affected case/colour memory more consistently than item and list memory, a multinomial analysis indicated that source information was affected by the forget instructions. The results indicated that recognition of source information may be a more sensitive indicator of forgetting than recognition of items.

  7. The effect of mood-context on visual recognition and recall memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Sarita J; Rollings, Lucy J L

    2011-01-01

    Although it is widely known that memory is enhanced when encoding and retrieval occur in the same state, the impact of elevated stress/arousal is less understood. This study explores mood-dependent memory's effects on visual recognition and recall of material memorized either in a neutral mood or under higher stress/arousal levels. Participants' (N = 60) recognition and recall were assessed while they experienced either the same o a mismatched mood at retrieval. The results suggested that both visual recognition and recall memory were higher when participants experienced the same mood at encoding and retrieval compared with those who experienced a mismatch in mood context between encoding and retrieval. These findings offer support for a mood dependency effect on both the recognition and recall of visual information.

  8. Recognition memory is improved by a structured temporal framework during encoding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sathesan eThavabalasingam

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to function optimally within our environment, we continuously extract temporal patterns from our experiences and formulate expectations that facilitate adaptive behavior. Given that our memories are embedded within spatiotemporal contexts, an intriguing possibility is that mnemonic processes are sensitive to the temporal structure of events. To test this hypothesis, in a series of behavioral experiments we manipulated the regularity of interval durations at encoding to create temporally structured and unstructured frameworks. Our findings revealed enhanced recognition memory (d’ for stimuli that were explicitly encoded within a temporally structured versus unstructured framework. Encoding information within a temporally structured framework was also associated with a reduction in the negative effects of proactive interference and was linked to greater recollective recognition memory. Furthermore, rhythmic temporal structure was found to enhance recognition memory for incidentally encoded information. Collectively, these results support the possibility that we possess a greater capacity to learn and subsequently remember temporally structured information.

  9. Cold-pressor stress after learning enhances familiarity-based recognition memory in men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCullough, Andrew M; Yonelinas, Andrew P

    2013-11-01

    Stress that is experienced after items have been encoded into memory can protect memories from the effects of forgetting. However, very little is known about how stress impacts recognition memory. The current study investigated how an aversive laboratory stressor (i.e., the cold-pressor test) that occurs after information has been encoded into memory affects subsequent recognition memory in an immediate and a delayed test (i.e., 2-h and 3-month retention interval). Recognition was assessed for negative and neutral photographs using a hybrid remember/know confidence procedure in order to characterize overall performance and to separate recollection- and familiarity-based responses. The results indicated that relative to a non-stress control condition, post-encoding stress significantly improved familiarity but not recollection-based recognition memory or free recall. The beneficial effects of stress were observed in males for negative and neutral materials at both immediate and long-term delays, but were not significant in females. The results indicate that aversive stress can have long-lasting beneficial effects on the memory strength of information encountered prior to the stressful event.

  10. True and false recognition memories of odors induce distinct neural signatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Pierre eRoyet

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Neural bases of human olfactory memory are poorly understood. Very few studies have examined neural substrates associated with correct odor recognition, and none has tackled neural networks associated with incorrect odor recognition. We investigated the neural basis of task performance during a yes-no odor recognition memory paradigm in young and elderly subjects using event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging. We explored four response categories: correct (Hit and incorrect (False Alarm recognition, as well as correct (CR and incorrect (Miss rejection, and we characterized corresponding brain responses using multivariate analysis and linear regression analysis. We hypothesized that areas of the medial temporal lobe were differentially involved depending on the accuracy of odor recognition. In young adults, we found that significant activity in the hippocampus and the parahippocampal gyrus was associated with correct (true recognition of odors, whereas the perirhinal cortex was associated with False Alarms and Misses. These findings are consistent with literature regarding hypothetical functional organization for memory processing. We also found that for correct recognition and rejection responses, the involvement of the hippocampus decreased when memory performances improved. In contrast to young individuals, elderly subjects were more prone to false memories and exhibited less specific activation patterns for the four response categories. Activation in the hippocampus and the parahippocampal gyrus was positively correlated with response bias scores for true and false recognition, demonstrating that conservative subjects produced an additional search effort leading to more activation of these two medial temporal lobe regions. These findings demonstrate that correct and incorrect recognition and rejection induce distinct neural signatures.

  11. The effectiveness of music as a mnemonic device on recognition memory for people with multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Kimberly Sena; Peterson, David A; O'Shea, Geoffrey; McIntosh, Gerald C; Thaut, Michael H

    2008-01-01

    Research shows that people with multiple sclerosis exhibit learning and memory difficulties and that music can be used successfully as a mnemonic device to aid in learning and memory. However, there is currently no research investigating the effectiveness of music mnemonics as a compensatory learning strategy for people with multiple sclerosis. Participants with clinically definitive multiple sclerosis (N = 38) were given a verbal learning and memory test. Results from a recognition memory task were analyzed that compared learning through music (n = 20) versus learning through speech (n = 18). Preliminary baseline neuropsychological data were collected that measured executive functioning skills, learning and memory abilities, sustained attention, and level of disability. An independent samples t test showed no significant difference between groups on baseline neuropsychological functioning or on recognition task measures. Correlation analyses suggest that music mnemonics may facilitate learning for people who are less impaired by the disease. Implications for future research are discussed.

  12. Enhanced Recognition Memory in Grapheme-Colour Synaesthesia for Different Categories of Visual Stimuli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamie eWard

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Memory has been shown to be enhanced in grapheme-colour synaesthesia, and this enhancement extends to certain visual stimuli (that don’t induce synaesthesia as well as stimuli comprised of graphemes (which do. Previous studies have used a variety of testing procedures to assess memory in synaesthesia (e.g. free recall, recognition, associative learning making it hard to know the extent to which memory benefits are attributable to the stimulus properties themselves, the testing method, participant strategies, or some combination of these factors. In the first experiment, we use the same testing procedure (recognition memory for a variety of stimuli (written words, nonwords, scenes, and fractals and also check which memorisation strategies were used. We demonstrate that grapheme-colour synaesthetes show enhanced memory across all these stimuli, but this is not found for a non-visual type of synaesthesia (lexical-gustatory. In the second experiment, the memory advantage for scenes is explored further by manipulating the properties of the old and new images (changing colour, orientation, or object presence. Again, grapheme-colour synaesthetes show a memory advantage for scenes across all manipulations. Although recognition memory is generally enhanced in this study, the largest effects were found for abstract visual images (fractals and scenes for which colour can be used to discriminate old/new status.

  13. Enhanced recognition memory in grapheme-color synaesthesia for different categories of visual stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Jamie; Hovard, Peter; Jones, Alicia; Rothen, Nicolas

    2013-01-01

    Memory has been shown to be enhanced in grapheme-color synaesthesia, and this enhancement extends to certain visual stimuli (that don't induce synaesthesia) as well as stimuli comprised of graphemes (which do). Previous studies have used a variety of testing procedures to assess memory in synaesthesia (e.g., free recall, recognition, associative learning) making it hard to know the extent to which memory benefits are attributable to the stimulus properties themselves, the testing method, participant strategies, or some combination of these factors. In the first experiment, we use the same testing procedure (recognition memory) for a variety of stimuli (written words, non-words, scenes, and fractals) and also check which memorization strategies were used. We demonstrate that grapheme-color synaesthetes show enhanced memory across all these stimuli, but this is not found for a non-visual type of synaesthesia (lexical-gustatory). In the second experiment, the memory advantage for scenes is explored further by manipulating the properties of the old and new images (changing color, orientation, or object presence). Again, grapheme-color synaesthetes show a memory advantage for scenes across all manipulations. Although recognition memory is generally enhanced in this study, the largest effects were found for abstract visual images (fractals) and scenes for which color can be used to discriminate old/new status.

  14. Pioglitazone ameliorates memory deficits in streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice by reducing brain β-amyloid through PPARY activation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li-ping LIU; Tian-hua YAN; Li-ying JIANG; Wei HU; Meng HU; Chao WANG; Qian ZHANG

    2013-01-01

    Aim:To examine the effects of pioglitazone,a PPARY agonist,on memory performance and brain amyloidogenesis in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic mice.Methods:ICR male mice were injected with STZ (150 mg/kg,iv) to induce experimental diabetes.Pioglitazone (9 and 18 mg·kg1-d-1,po) was administered for 6 weeks.Passive avoidance and Morris water maze (MWM) tests were used to evaluate cognitive function.The blood glucose and serum insulin levels were detected using the glucose oxidase method and an ELISA assay,respectively.β-amyloid (Aβ),β-amyloid precursor protein (APP),β-amyloid precursor protein cleaving enzyme 1 (BACE1),NF-κB p65,the receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) and PPARy in the brains were analyzed using Western blotting assays.Results:The STZ-induced diabetic mice characterized by hyperglycemia and hypoinsulinemia performed poorly in both the passive avoidance and MWM tests,accompanied by increased Aβ1-40/Aβ1-42,APP,BACE1,NF-κB p65 and RAGE levels and decreased PPARy level in the hippocampus and cortex.Chronic pioglitazone treatment significantly ameliorated the memory deficits of STZ-induced diabetic mice,and suppressed expression of APP,BACE1,RAGE and NF-κB p65,and activated PPARy in the hippocampus and cortex.However,pioglitazone did not significantly affect blood glucose and insulin levels.Conclusion:Pioglitazone ameliorates memory deficits in STZ-induced diabetic mice by reducing brain Aβ level via activation of PPARy,which is independent of its effects on blood glucose and insulin levels.The results suggest that pioglitazone may be used for treating the cognitive dysfunction in type 1 diabetes mellitus.

  15. Automaticity of basic-level categorization accounts for labeling effects in visual recognition memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richler, Jennifer J; Gauthier, Isabel; Palmeri, Thomas J

    2011-11-01

    Are there consequences of calling objects by their names? Lupyan (2008) suggested that overtly labeling objects impairs subsequent recognition memory because labeling shifts stored memory representations of objects toward the category prototype (representational shift hypothesis). In Experiment 1, we show that processing objects at the basic category level versus exemplar level in the absence of any overt labeling produces the same qualitative pattern of results. Experiment 2 demonstrates that labeling does not always disrupt memory as predicted by the representational shift hypothesis: Differences in memory following labeling versus preference are more likely an effect of judging preference, not an effect of overt labeling. Labeling does not influence memory by shifting memory representations toward the category prototype. Rather, labeling objects at the basic level produces memory representations that are simply less robust than those produced by other kinds of study tasks.

  16. Distinct parietal sites mediate the influences of mood, arousal, and their interaction on human recognition memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, Ciara M; Flannery, Oliver; Soto, David

    2014-12-01

    The two dimensions of emotion, mood valence and arousal, have independent effects on recognition memory. At present, however, it is not clear how those effects are reflected in the human brain. Previous research in this area has generally dealt with memory for emotionally valenced or arousing stimuli, but the manner in which interacting mood and arousal states modulate responses in memory substrates remains poorly understood. We investigated memory for emotionally neutral items while independently manipulating mood valence and arousal state by means of music exposure. Four emotional conditions were created: positive mood/high arousal, positive mood/low arousal, negative mood/high arousal, and negative mood/low arousal. We observed distinct effects of mood valence and arousal in parietal substrates of recognition memory. Positive mood increased activity in ventral posterior parietal cortex (PPC) and orbitofrontal cortex, whereas arousal condition modulated activity in dorsal PPC and the posterior cingulate. An interaction between valence and arousal was observed in left ventral PPC, notably in a parietal area distinct from the those identified for the main effects, with a stronger effect of mood on recognition memory responses here under conditions of relative high versus low arousal. We interpreted the PPC activations in terms of the attention-to-memory hypothesis: Increased arousal may lead to increased top-down control of memory, and hence dorsal PPC activation, whereas positive mood valence may result in increased activity in ventral PPC regions associated with bottom-up attention to memory. These findings indicate that distinct parietal sites mediate the influences of mood, arousal, and their interplay during recognition memory.

  17. The effect of prenatal methamphetamine exposure on recognition memory in adult rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fialová, Markéta; Šírová, Jana; Bubeníková-Valešová, Věra; Šlamberová, Romana

    2015-01-01

    The use of methamphetamine (MA) among pregnant women is an increasing world-wide health problem. Prenatal MA exposure may cause changes in foetus but the exact effects have remained unclear. The aim of this study is to present the effect of prenatal MA exposure on recognition memory in adult rats. Adult female Wistar rats were injected daily with D-methamphetamine HCl (MA; 5 mg/kg, s.c.) during the entire gestation period. Control females were treated with saline in the same regime. Adult male offspring was administrated acutely by MA (1 mg/kg i.p.) or saline 30 minutes before beginning of an experiment. For testing recognition memory two tasks were chosen: Novel Object Recognition Test (NORT) and Object Location Test (OLT). Our results demonstrate that prenatally MA-exposed animals were worse in NORT independently on an acute administration of MA in adulthood. Prenatally MA-exposed rats did not deteriorate in OLT, but after acute administration of MA in adulthood, there was significant worsening compared to appropriate control. Prenatally saline-exposed offspring did not deteriorate in any test even after acute administration of MA. Our data suggest that prenatal MA exposure in rats cause impairment in recognition memory in adult offspring, but not in spatial memory. In addition, acute administration of MA to controls did not deteriorate either recognition or spatial memory.

  18. Neurotrophins play differential roles in short and long-term recognition memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callaghan, Charlotte K; Kelly, Aine M

    2013-09-01

    The neurotrophin family of proteins are believed to mediate various forms of synaptic plasticity in the adult brain. Here we have assessed the roles of these proteins in object recognition memory in the rat, using icv infusions of function-blocking antibodies or the tyrosine kinase antagonist, tyrphostin AG879, to block Trk receptors. We report that tyrphostin AG879 impairs both short-term and long-term recognition memory, indicating a requirement for Trk receptor activation in both processes. The effect of inhibition of each of the neurotrophins with activity-blocking neutralising antibodies was also tested. Treatment with anti-BDNF, anti-NGF or anti-NT4 had no effect on short-term memory, but blocked long-term recognition memory. Treatment with anti-NT3 had no effect on either process. We also assessed changes in expression of neurotrophins and their respective receptors in the hippocampus, dentate gyrus and perirhinal cortex over a 24 h period following training in the object recognition task. We observed time-dependent changes in expression of the Trk receptors and their ligands in the dentate gyrus and perirhinal cortex. The data are consistent with a pivotal role for neurotrophic factors in the expression of recognition memory.

  19. Blockade of glutamatergic transmission in perirhinal cortex impairs object recognition memory in macaques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malkova, Ludise; Forcelli, Patrick A; Wellman, Laurie L; Dybdal, David; Dubach, Mark F; Gale, Karen

    2015-03-25

    The perirhinal cortex (PRc) is essential for visual recognition memory, as shown by electrophysiological recordings and lesion studies in a variety of species. However, relatively little is known about the functional contributions of perirhinal subregions. Here we used a systematic mapping approach to identify the critical subregions of PRc through transient, focal blockade of glutamate receptors by intracerebral infusion of kynurenic acid. Nine macaques were tested for visual recognition memory using the delayed nonmatch-to-sample task. We found that inactivation of medial PRc (consisting of Area 35 together with the medial portion of Area 36), but not lateral PRc (the lateral portion of Area 36), resulted in a significant delay-dependent impairment. Significant impairment was observed with 30 and 60 s delays but not with 10 s delays. The magnitude of impairment fell within the range previously reported after PRc lesions. Furthermore, we identified a restricted area located within the most anterior part of medial PRc as critical for this effect. Moreover, we found that focal blockade of either NMDA receptors by the receptor-specific antagonist AP-7 or AMPA receptors by the receptor-specific antagonist NBQX was sufficient to disrupt object recognition memory. The present study expands the knowledge of the role of PRc in recognition memory by identifying a subregion within this area that is critical for this function. Our results also indicate that, like in the rodent, both NMDA and AMPA-mediated transmission contributes to object recognition memory.

  20. Intraperirhinal cortex administration of the synthetic cannabinoid, HU210, disrupts object recognition memory in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sticht, Martin A; Jacklin, Derek L; Mechoulam, Raphael; Parker, Linda A; Winters, Boyer D

    2015-03-25

    Cannabinoids disrupt learning and memory in human and nonhuman participants. Object recognition memory, which is particularly susceptible to the impairing effects of cannabinoids, relies critically on the perirhinal cortex (PRh); however, to date, the effects of cannabinoids within PRh have not been assessed. In the present study, we evaluated the effects of localized administration of the synthetic cannabinoid, HU210 (0.01, 1.0 μg/hemisphere), into PRh on spontaneous object recognition in Long-Evans rats. Animals received intra-PRh infusions of HU210 before the sample phase, and object recognition memory was assessed at various delays in a subsequent retention test. We found that presample intra-PRh HU210 dose dependently (1.0 μg but not 0.01 μg) interfered with spontaneous object recognition performance, exerting an apparently more pronounced effect when memory demands were increased. These novel findings show that cannabinoid agonists in PRh disrupt object recognition memory.

  1. LASSBio-579, a prototype antipsychotic drug, and clozapine are effective in novel object recognition task, a recognition memory model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonio, Camila B; Betti, Andresa H; Herzfeldt, Vivian; Barreiro, Eliezer J; Fraga, Carlos A M; Rates, Stela M K

    2016-06-01

    Previous studies on the N-phenylpiperazine derivative LASSBio-579 have suggested that LASSBio-579 has an atypical antipsychotic profile. It binds to D2, D4 and 5-HT1A receptors and is effective in animal models of schizophrenia symptoms (prepulse inhibition disruption, apomorphine-induced climbing and amphetamine-induced stereotypy). In the current study, we evaluated the effect of LASSBio-579, clozapine (atypical antipsychotic) and haloperidol (typical antipsychotic) in the novel object recognition task, a recognition memory model with translational value. Haloperidol (0.01 mg/kg, orally) impaired the ability of the animals (CF1 mice) to recognize the novel object on short-term and long-term memory tasks, whereas LASSBio-579 (5 mg/kg, orally) and clozapine (1 mg/kg, orally) did not. In another set of experiments, animals previously treated with ketamine (10 mg/kg, intraperitoneally) or vehicle (saline 1 ml/100 g, intraperitoneally) received LASSBio-579, clozapine or haloperidol at different time-points: 1 h before training (encoding/consolidation); immediately after training (consolidation); or 1 h before long-term memory testing (retrieval). LASSBio-579 and clozapine protected against the long-term memory impairment induced by ketamine when administered at the stages of encoding, consolidation and retrieval of memory. These findings point to the potential of LASSBio-579 for treating cognitive symptoms of schizophrenia and other disorders.

  2. Changes in recognition memory over time: an ERP investigation into vocabulary learning.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shekeila D Palmer

    Full Text Available Although it seems intuitive to assume that recognition memory fades over time when information is not reinforced, some aspects of word learning may benefit from a period of consolidation. In the present study, event-related potentials (ERP were used to examine changes in recognition memory responses to familiar and newly learned (novel words over time. Native English speakers were taught novel words associated with English translations, and subsequently performed a Recognition Memory task in which they made old/new decisions in response to both words (trained word vs. untrained word, and novel words (trained novel word vs. untrained novel word. The Recognition task was performed 45 minutes after training (Day 1 and then repeated the following day (Day 2 with no additional training session in between. For familiar words, the late parietal old/new effect distinguished old from new items on both Day 1 and Day 2, although response to trained items was significantly weaker on Day 2. For novel words, the LPC again distinguished old from new items on both days, but the effect became significantly larger on Day 2. These data suggest that while recognition memory for familiar items may fade over time, recognition of novel items, conscious recollection in particular may benefit from a period of consolidation.

  3. Changes in recognition memory over time: an ERP investigation into vocabulary learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Shekeila D; Havelka, Jelena; van Hooff, Johanna C

    2013-01-01

    Although it seems intuitive to assume that recognition memory fades over time when information is not reinforced, some aspects of word learning may benefit from a period of consolidation. In the present study, event-related potentials (ERP) were used to examine changes in recognition memory responses to familiar and newly learned (novel) words over time. Native English speakers were taught novel words associated with English translations, and subsequently performed a Recognition Memory task in which they made old/new decisions in response to both words (trained word vs. untrained word), and novel words (trained novel word vs. untrained novel word). The Recognition task was performed 45 minutes after training (Day 1) and then repeated the following day (Day 2) with no additional training session in between. For familiar words, the late parietal old/new effect distinguished old from new items on both Day 1 and Day 2, although response to trained items was significantly weaker on Day 2. For novel words, the LPC again distinguished old from new items on both days, but the effect became significantly larger on Day 2. These data suggest that while recognition memory for familiar items may fade over time, recognition of novel items, conscious recollection in particular may benefit from a period of consolidation.

  4. Interaction between serum BDNF and aerobic fitness predicts recognition memory in healthy young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiteman, Andrew S; Young, Daniel E; He, Xuemei; Chen, Tai C; Wagenaar, Robert C; Stern, Chantal E; Schon, Karin

    2014-02-01

    Convergent evidence from human and non-human animal studies suggests aerobic exercise and increased aerobic capacity may be beneficial for brain health and cognition. It is thought growth factors may mediate this putative relationship, particularly by augmenting plasticity mechanisms in the hippocampus, a brain region critical for learning and memory. Among these factors, glucocorticoids, brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), hormones that have considerable and diverse physiological importance, are thought to effect normal and exercise-induced hippocampal plasticity. Despite these predictions, relatively few published human studies have tested hypotheses that relate exercise and fitness to the hippocampus, and none have considered the potential links to all of these hormonal components. Here we present cross-sectional data from a study of recognition memory; serum BDNF, cortisol, IGF-1, and VEGF levels; and aerobic capacity in healthy young adults. We measured circulating levels of these hormones together with performance on a recognition memory task, and a standard graded treadmill test of aerobic fitness. Regression analyses demonstrated BDNF and aerobic fitness predict recognition memory in an interactive manner. In addition, IGF-1 was positively associated with aerobic fitness, but not with recognition memory. Our results may suggest an exercise adaptation-related change in the BDNF dose-response curve that relates to hippocampal memory.

  5. Differential effects of stress-induced cortisol responses on recollection and familiarity-based recognition memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCullough, Andrew M; Ritchey, Maureen; Ranganath, Charan; Yonelinas, Andrew

    2015-09-01

    Stress-induced changes in cortisol can impact memory in various ways. However, the precise relationship between cortisol and recognition memory is still poorly understood. For instance, there is reason to believe that stress could differentially affect recollection-based memory, which depends on the hippocampus, and familiarity-based recognition, which can be supported by neocortical areas alone. Accordingly, in the current study we examined the effects of stress-related changes in cortisol on the processes underlying recognition memory. Stress was induced with a cold-pressor test after incidental encoding of emotional and neutral pictures, and recollection and familiarity-based recognition memory were measured one day later. The relationship between stress-induced cortisol responses and recollection was non-monotonic, such that subjects with moderate stress-related increases in cortisol had the highest levels of recollection. In contrast, stress-related cortisol responses were linearly related to increases in familiarity. In addition, measures of cortisol taken at the onset of the experiment showed that individuals with higher levels of pre-learning cortisol had lower levels of both recollection and familiarity. The results are consistent with the proposition that hippocampal-dependent memory processes such as recollection function optimally under moderate levels of stress, whereas more cortically-based processes such as familiarity are enhanced even with higher levels of stress. These results indicate that whether post-encoding stress improves or disrupts recognition memory depends on the specific memory process examined as well as the magnitude of the stress-induced cortisol response.

  6. How Does Using Object Names Influence Visual Recognition Memory?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richler, Jennifer J.; Palmeri, Thomas J.; Gauthier, Isabel

    2013-01-01

    Two recent lines of research suggest that explicitly naming objects at study influences subsequent memory for those objects at test. Lupyan (2008) suggested that naming "impairs" memory by a representational shift of stored representations of named objects toward the prototype (labeling effect). MacLeod, Gopie, Hourihan, Neary, and Ozubko (2010)…

  7. Effect of Time Delay on Recognition Memory for Pictures: The Modulatory Role of Emotion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bo

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the modulatory role of emotion in the effect of time delay on recognition memory for pictures. Participants viewed neutral, positive and negative pictures, and took a recognition memory test 5 minutes, 24 hours, or 1 week after learning. The findings are: 1) For neutral, positive and negative pictures, overall recognition accuracy in the 5-min delay did not significantly differ from that in the 24-h delay. For neutral and positive pictures, overall recognition accuracy in the 1-week delay was lower than in the 24-h delay; for negative pictures, overall recognition in the 24-h and 1-week delay did not significantly differ. Therefore negative emotion modulates the effect of time delay on recognition memory, maintaining retention of overall recognition accuracy only within a certain frame of time. 2) For the three types of pictures, recollection and familiarity in the 5-min delay did not significantly differ from that in the 24-h and the 1-week delay. Thus emotion does not appear to modulate the effect of time delay on recollection and familiarity. However, recollection in the 24-h delay was higher than in the 1-week delay, whereas familiarity in the 24-h delay was lower than in the 1-week delay. PMID:24971457

  8. Conversion of short-term to long-term memory in the novel object recognition paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Shannon J; Deshpande, Kaivalya; Stinnett, Gwen S; Seasholtz, Audrey F; Murphy, Geoffrey G

    2013-10-01

    It is well-known that stress can significantly impact learning; however, whether this effect facilitates or impairs the resultant memory depends on the characteristics of the stressor. Investigation of these dynamics can be confounded by the role of the stressor in motivating performance in a task. Positing a cohesive model of the effect of stress on learning and memory necessitates elucidating the consequences of stressful stimuli independently from task-specific functions. Therefore, the goal of this study was to examine the effect of manipulating a task-independent stressor (elevated light level) on short-term and long-term memory in the novel object recognition paradigm. Short-term memory was elicited in both low light and high light conditions, but long-term memory specifically required high light conditions during the acquisition phase (familiarization trial) and was independent of the light level during retrieval (test trial). Additionally, long-term memory appeared to be independent of stress-mediated glucocorticoid release, as both low and high light produced similar levels of plasma corticosterone, which further did not correlate with subsequent memory performance. Finally, both short-term and long-term memory showed no savings between repeated experiments suggesting that this novel object recognition paradigm may be useful for longitudinal studies, particularly when investigating treatments to stabilize or enhance weak memories in neurodegenerative diseases or during age-related cognitive decline.

  9. Nicotine enhances the reconsolidation of novel object recognition memory in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Shaowen; Pan, Si; You, Yong

    2015-02-01

    There is increasing evidence that nicotine is involved in learning and memory. However, there are only few studies that have evaluated the relationship between nicotine and memory reconsolidation. In this study, we investigated the effects of nicotine on the reconsolidation of novel object recognition memory in rats. Behavior procedure involved four training phases: habituation (Days 1 and 2), sample (Day 3), reactivation (Day 4) and test (Day 6). Rats were injected with saline or nicotine (0.1, 0.2 and 0.4 mg/kg) immediately or 6h after reactivation. The discrimination index was used to assess memory performance and calculated as the difference in time exploring on the novel and familiar objects. Results showed that nicotine administration immediately but not 6 h after reactivation significantly enhanced memory performance of rats. Further results showed that the enhancing effect of nicotine on memory performance was dependent on memory reactivation, and was not attributed to the changes of the nonspecific responses (locomotor activity and anxiety level) 48 h after nicotine administration. The results suggest that post-reactivation nicotine administration enhances the reconsolidation of novel object recognition memory. Our present finding extends previous research on the nicotinic effects on learning and memory.

  10. A unique memory process modulated by emotion underpins successful odor recognition and episodic retrieval in humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne-Lise eSaive

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available We behaviorally explore the link between olfaction, emotion and memory by testing the hypothesis that the emotion carried by odors facilitates the memory of specific unique events. To investigate this idea, we used a novel behavioral approach inspired by a paradigm developed by our team to study episodic memory in a controlled and as ecological as possible way in humans. The participants freely explored three unique and rich laboratory episodes; each episode consisted of three unfamiliar odors (What positioned at three specific locations (Where within a visual context (Which context. During the retrieval test, which occurred 24 to 72 hours after the encoding, odors were used to trigger the retrieval of the complex episodes. The participants were proficient in recognizing the target odors among distractors and retrieving the visuospatial context in which they were encountered. The episodic nature of the task generated high and stable memory performances, which were accompanied by faster responses and slower and deeper breathing. Successful odor recognition and episodic memory were not related to differences in odor investigation at encoding. However, memory performances were influenced by the emotional content of the odors, regardless of odor valence, with both pleasant and unpleasant odors generating higher recognition and episodic retrieval than neutral odors. Finally, the present study also suggested that when the binding between the odors and the spatio-contextual features of the episode was successful, the odor recognition and the episodic retrieval collapsed into a unique memory process that began as soon as the participants smelled the odors.

  11. Electroacupuncture Ameliorates Learning and Memory via Activation of the CREB Signaling Pathway in the Hippocampus to Attenuate Apoptosis after Cerebral Hypoperfusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaohua Han

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Studies have shown that electroacupuncture (EA ameliorates learning and memory after ischemic injury. However, there have been few studies elucidating the mechanisms of EA on learning and memory in cerebral hypoperfusion. In this study, we explored the cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB signaling pathway-mediated antiapoptotic action involved in EA-induced improvement of learning and memory. EA at GV20 and GV14 acupoints was applied in cerebral hypoperfusion rats. A Morris water maze task was performed, and the immunoreactivities of pCREB, Bcl-2, and Bax in the hippocampal CA1 area were evaluated by the Western blotting technique. Our findings indicated that (1 EA ameliorated spatial learning and memory impairment in cerebral hypoperfusion rats; (2 EA increased the immunoreactivities of pCREB and Bcl-2 and decreased the immunoreactivity of Bax; (3 intracerebroventricular administration of H89 (the inhibitor of protein kinase A blocked EA-induced, pCREB-mediated antiapoptotic action and improved learning and memory. These results suggest that EA can ameliorate learning and memory via activation of the CREB signaling pathway in the hippocampus to attenuate apoptosis after cerebral hypoperfusion.

  12. Genetic variation in the serotonin transporter gene influences ERP old/new effects during recognition memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Robert S; Medrano, Paolo; Boyle, Kaitlin; Smolen, Andrew; Curran, Tim; Nyhus, Erika

    2015-11-01

    Recognition memory is defined as the ability to recognize a previously encountered stimulus and has been associated with spatially and temporally distinct event-related potentials (ERPs). Allelic variations of the serotonin transporter gene (SLC6A4) have recently been shown to impact memory performance. Common variants of the serotonin transporter-linked polymorphic region (5HTTLPR) of the SLC6A4 gene result in long (l) and short (s) allelic variants with carriers of the s allele having lowered transcriptional efficiency. Thus, the current study examines the effects polymorphisms of the SLC6A4 gene have on performance and ERP amplitudes commonly associated with recognition memory. Electroencephalogram (EEG), genetic, and behavioral data were collected from sixty participants as they performed an item and source memory recognition task. In both tasks, participants studied and encoded 200 words, which were then mixed with 200 new words during retrieval. Participants were monitored with EEG during the retrieval portion of each memory task. EEG electrodes were grouped into four ROIs, left anterior superior, right anterior superior, left posterior superior, and right posterior superior. ERP mean amplitudes during hits in the item and source memory task were compared to correctly recognizing new items (correct rejections). Results show that s-carriers have decreased mean hit amplitudes in both the right anterior superior ROI 1000-1500ms post stimulus during the source memory task and the left anterior superior ROI 300-500ms post stimulus during the item memory task. These results suggest that individual differences due to genetic variation of the serotonin transporter gene influences recognition memory.

  13. Recognition memory measures yield disproportionate effects of aging on learning face-name associations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Lori E; Fogler, Kethera A; Tauber, Sarah K

    2008-09-01

    No previous research has tested whether the specific age-related deficit in learning face-name associations that has been identified using recall tasks also occurs for recognition memory measures. Young and older participants saw pictures of unfamiliar people with a name and an occupation for each person, and were tested on a matching (in Experiment 1) or multiple-choice (in Experiment 2) recognition memory test. For both recognition measures, the pattern of effects was the same as that obtained using a recall measure: More face-occupation associations were remembered than face-name associations, young adults remembered more associated information than older adults overall, and older adults had disproportionately poorer memory for face-name associations. Findings implicate age-related difficulty in forming and retrieving the association between the face and the name as the primary cause of obtained deficits in previous name learning studies.

  14. Arctigenin effectively ameliorates memory impairment in Alzheimer's disease model mice targeting both β-amyloid production and clearance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Zhiyuan; Yan, Jianming; Jiang, Wei; Yao, Xin-gang; Chen, Jing; Chen, Lili; Li, Chenjing; Hu, Lihong; Jiang, Hualiang; Shen, Xu

    2013-08-07

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) chiefly characterizes a progressively neurodegenerative disorder of the brain, and eventually leads to irreversible loss of intellectual abilities. The β-amyloid (Aβ)-induced neurodegeneration is believed to be the main pathological mechanism of AD, and Aβ production inhibition or its clearance promotion is one of the promising therapeutic strategies for anti-AD research. Here, we report that the natural product arctigenin from Arctium lappa (L.) can both inhibit Aβ production by suppressing β-site amyloid precursor protein cleavage enzyme 1 expression and promote Aβ clearance by enhancing autophagy through AKT/mTOR signaling inhibition and AMPK/Raptor pathway activation as investigated in cells and APP/PS1 transgenic AD model mice. Moreover, the results showing that treatment of arctigenin in mice highly decreased Aβ formation and senile plaques and efficiently ameliorated AD mouse memory impairment strongly highlight the potential of arctigenin in anti-AD drug discovery.

  15. Neural mechanisms of semantic interference and false recognition in short-term memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkins, Alexandra S; Reuter-Lorenz, Patricia A

    2011-06-01

    Decades of research using the Deese-Roediger-McDermott (DRM) paradigm have demonstrated that episodic memory is vulnerable to semantic distortion, and neuroimaging investigations of this phenomenon have shown dissociations between the neural mechanisms subserving true and false retrieval from long-term memory. Recently, false short-term memories have also been demonstrated, with false recognition of items related in meaning to memoranda encoded less than 5s earlier. Semantic interference is also evident in short-term memory, such that correct rejection of related lures is slowed relative to correct rejection of unrelated lures. The present research constitutes the first fMRI investigation of false recognition and semantic interference in short-term memory using a short-term DRM paradigm in which participants retained 4 semantic associates over a short 4-s filled retention interval. Results showed increased activation in the left mid-ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (BA45) associated with semantic interference, and significant correlations between these increases and behavioral measures of interference across subjects. Furthermore, increases in dorsolateral PFC occurred when related lures were correctly rejected versus falsely remembered. Compared with false recognition, true recognition was associated with increases in left fusiform gyrus, a finding consistent with the notion that increased perceptual processing may distinguish true from false recognition over both short and long retention intervals. Findings are discussed in relation to current models of interference resolution in short-term memory, and suggest that false short-term recognition occurs as a consequence of the failure of frontally mediated cognitive control processes which adjudicate semantic familiarity in support of accurate mnemonic retrieval.

  16. Prefrontal-temporal disconnection impairs recognition memory but not familiarity discrimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browning, Philip G F; Baxter, Mark G; Gaffan, David

    2013-06-05

    Neural mechanisms in the temporal lobe are essential for recognition memory. Evidence from human functional imaging and neuropsychology, and monkey neurophysiology and neuropsychology also suggests a role for prefrontal cortex in recognition memory. To examine the interaction of these cortical regions in support of recognition memory we tested rhesus monkeys with prefrontal-inferotemporal (PFC-IT) cortical disconnection on two recognition memory tasks, a "constant negative" task, and delayed nonmatching-to-sample (DNMS). In the constant negative task monkeys were presented with sets of 100 discrimination problems. In each problem one unrewarded object was presented once every day, and became familiar over the course of several days testing. The other, rewarded object was always novel. In this task monkeys learned to avoid the familiar constant negatives and choose the novel objects, so performance on this task is guided by a sense of familiarity for the constant negatives. Following PFC-IT disconnection monkeys were severely impaired at reacquiring the rule (to avoid familiar items) but were subsequently unimpaired at acquiring new constant negative problems, thus displaying intact familiarity recognition. The same monkeys were impaired in the acquisition of the DNMS task, as well as memory for lists of objects. This dissociation between two tests of recognition memory is best explained in terms of our general hypothesis that PFC-IT interactions support the representation of temporally complex events, which is necessary in DNMS but not in constant negative. These findings, furthermore, indicate that stimulus familiarity can be represented in temporal cortex without input from prefrontal cortex.

  17. Recognition memory and the medial temporal lobe: from monkey research to human pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meunier, M; Barbeau, E

    2013-01-01

    This review provides a historical overview of decades of research on recognition memory, the process that allows both humans and animals to tell familiar from novel items. The emphasis is put on how monkey research improved our understanding of the medial temporal lobe (MTL) role and how tasks designed for monkeys influenced research in humans. The story starts in the early 1950s. Back then, memory was not a fashionable scientific topic. It was viewed as a function of the whole brain and not of specialized brain areas. All that changed in 1957-1958 when Brenda Milner, a neuropsychologist from Montreal, described patient H.M. He forgot all events as he lived them despite a fully preserved intelligence. He had received a MTL resection to relieve epilepsy. H.M. (1926-2008) would become the most influential patient in brain science. Which structures among those included in H.M.'s large lesion were important for recognition memory could not be evaluated in humans. It was gradually understood only after the successful development of a monkey model of human amnesia by Mishkin in 1978. Selective lesions and two behavioral tasks, delayed nonmatching-to-sample and visual paired comparison, were used to distinguish the contribution of the hippocampus from that of adjacent cortical areas. Driven by findings in non-human primates, human research on recognition memory is now trying to solve the question of whether the different structures composing MTL contributes to familiarity and recollection, the two possible forms taken by recognition. We described in particular two French patients, FRG and JMG, whose deficits support the currently dominant model attributing to the perirhinal cortex a critical role in recognition memory. Research on recognition memory has implications for the clinician as it may help understanding the cognitive deficits observed in different diseases. An illustration of such approach, linking basic and applied research, is provided for Alzheimer's disease.

  18. Nicotine ameliorates impairment of working memory in methamphetamine-treated rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizoguchi, Hiroyuki; Ibi, Daisuke; Takase, Fumiaki; Nagai, Taku; Kamei, Hiroyuki; Toth, Erika; Sato, Jun; Takuma, Kazuhiro; Yamada, Kiyofumi

    2011-06-20

    Nicotine is hypothesized to have therapeutic effects on attentional and cognitive abnormalities in psychosis. In this study, we investigated the effect of nicotine on impaired spatial working memory in repeated methamphetamine (METH)-treated rats. Rats were administered METH (4 mg/kg, s.c.) once a day for 7 days, and their working memory was assessed with a delayed spatial win-shift task in a radial arm maze. The task consisted of two phases, a training phase and a test phase, separated by a delay. Control animals showed impaired performance in the test phase when the delay time was increased to 120 min or longer, while METH-treated rats showed impaired performance with a shorter delay time of 90 min. Memory impairment in METH-treated rats persisted for at least 14 days after drug withdrawal. METH-induced impairment of working memory was reversed by nicotine (0.3mg/kg, p.o., for 7 days), but the effect was diminished 7 days after the withdrawal. In control rats, nicotine decreased the number of working memory errors in the test with delay time of 120 min when administered before the training phase. Neither post-training nor pre-test administration of nicotine had any effect on working memory. These findings suggest that nicotine may have some protective effect against the impairment of working memory.

  19. Tet1 oxidase regulates neuronal gene transcription, active DNA hydroxymethylation, object location memory, and threat recognition memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinesh Kumar

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available A dynamic equilibrium between DNA methylation and demethylation of neuronal activity-regulated genes is crucial for memory processes. However, the mechanisms underlying this equilibrium remain elusive. Tet1 oxidase has been shown to play a key role in the active DNA demethylation in the central nervous system. In this study, we used Tet1 gene knockout (Tet1KO mice to examine the involvement of Tet1 in memory consolidation and storage in the adult brain. We found that Tet1 ablation leads to altered expression of numerous neuronal activity-regulated genes, compensatory upregulation of active demethylation pathway genes, and upregulation of various epigenetic modifiers. Moreover, Tet1KO mice showed an enhancement in the consolidation and storage of threat recognition (cued and contextual fear conditioning and object location memories. We conclude that Tet1 plays a critical role in regulating neuronal transcription and in maintaining the epigenetic state of the brain associated with memory consolidation and storage.

  20. Examining Event-Related Potential (ERP correlates of decision bias in recognition memory judgments.

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    Holger Hill

    Full Text Available Memory judgments can be based on accurate memory information or on decision bias (the tendency to report that an event is part of episodic memory when one is in fact unsure. Event related potentials (ERP correlates are important research tools for elucidating the dynamics underlying memory judgments but so far have been established only for investigations of accurate old/new discrimination. To identify the ERP correlates of bias, and observe how these interact with ERP correlates of memory, we conducted three experiments that manipulated decision bias within participants via instructions during recognition memory tests while their ERPs were recorded. In Experiment 1, the bias manipulation was performed between blocks of trials (automatized bias and compared to trial-by-trial shifts of bias in accord with an external cue (flexibly controlled bias. In Experiment 2, the bias manipulation was performed at two different levels of accurate old/new discrimination as the memory strength of old (studied items was varied. In Experiment 3, the bias manipulation was added to another, bottom-up driven manipulation of bias induced via familiarity. In the first two Experiments, and in the low familiarity condition of Experiment 3, we found evidence of an early frontocentral ERP component at 320 ms poststimulus (the FN320 that was sensitive to the manipulation of bias via instruction, with more negative amplitudes indexing more liberal bias. By contrast, later during the trial (500-700 ms poststimulus, bias effects interacted with old/new effects across all three experiments. Results suggest that the decision criterion is typically activated early during recognition memory trials, and is integrated with retrieved memory signals and task-specific processing demands later during the trial. More generally, the findings demonstrate how ERPs can help to specify the dynamics of recognition memory processes under top-down and bottom-up controlled retrieval conditions.

  1. Enhanced recognition memory after incidental encoding in children with developmental dyslexia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina Hedenius

    Full Text Available Developmental dyslexia (DD has previously been associated with a number of cognitive deficits. Little attention has been directed to cognitive functions that remain intact in the disorder, though the investigation and identification of such strengths might be useful for developing new, and improving current, therapeutical interventions. In this study, an old/new recognition memory paradigm was used to examine previously untested aspects of declarative memory in children with DD and typically developing control children. The DD group was not only not impaired at the task, but actually showed superior recognition memory, as compared to the control children. These findings complement previous reports of enhanced cognition in other domains (e.g., visuo-spatial processing in DD. Possible underlying mechanisms for the observed DD advantage in declarative memory, and the possibility of compensation by this system for reading deficits in dyslexia, are discussed.

  2. The role of reinstating generation operations in recognition memory and reality monitoring

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    Nieznański Marek

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The role of encoding/retrieval conditions compatibility was investigated in a reality-monitoring task. An experiment was conducted which showed a positive effect of reinstating distinctive encoding operations at test. That is, generation of a low-frequency (LF word from the same word fragment at study and test significantly enhanced item recognition memory. However, reinstating of relatively more automatic operations of reading or generating a highfrequency (HF word did not influence recognition performance. Moreover, LF words were better recognized than HF words, but memory for source did not depend on the encoding/retrieval match or on the word-frequency. In comparison with reading, generating an item at study significantly enhanced source memory but generating it at test had no effect. The data were analysed using a multinomial modelling approach which allowed ruling out the influence of a response bias on the measurement of memory ability.

  3. Conjunction error rates on a continuous recognition memory test: little evidence for recollection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Todd C; Atchley, Paul

    2002-03-01

    Two experiments examined conjunction memory errors on a continuous recognition task where the lag between parent words (e.g., blackmail, jailbird) and later conjunction lures (blackbird) was manipulated. In Experiment 1, contrary to expectations, the conjunction error rate was highest at the shortest lag (1 word) and decreased as the lag increased. In Experiment 2 the conjunction error rate increased significantly from a 0- to a 1-word lag, then decreased slightly from a 1- to a 5-word lag. The results provide mixed support for simple familiarity and dual-process accounts of recognition. Paradoxically, searching for an item in memory does not appear to be a good encoding task.

  4. The neural basis of nonvisual object recognition memory in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albasser, Mathieu M; Olarte-Sánchez, Cristian M; Amin, Eman; Horne, Murray R; Newton, Michael J; Warburton, E Clea; Aggleton, John P

    2013-02-01

    Research into the neural basis of recognition memory has traditionally focused on the remembrance of visual stimuli. The present study examined the neural basis of object recognition memory in the dark, with a view to determining the extent to which it shares common pathways with visual-based object recognition. Experiment 1 assessed the expression of the immediate-early gene c-fos in rats that discriminated novel from familiar objects in the dark (Group Novel). Comparisons made with a control group that explored only familiar objects (Group Familiar) showed that Group Novel had higher c-fos activity in the rostral perirhinal cortex and the lateral entorhinal cortex. Outside the temporal region, Group Novel showed relatively increased c-fos activity in the anterior medial thalamic nucleus and the anterior cingulate cortex. Both the hippocampal CA fields and the granular retrosplenial cortex showed borderline increases in c-fos activity with object novelty. The hippocampal findings prompted Experiment 2. Here, rats with hippocampal lesions were tested in the dark for object recognition memory at different retention delays. Across two replications, no evidence was found that hippocampal lesions impair nonvisual object recognition. The results indicate that in the dark, as in the light, interrelated parahippocampal sites are activated when rats explore novel stimuli. These findings reveal a network of linked c-fos activations that share superficial features with those associated with visual recognition but differ in the fine details; for example, in the locus of the perirhinal cortex activation. While there may also be a relative increase in c-fos activation in the extended-hippocampal system to object recognition in the dark, there was no evidence that this recognition memory problem required an intact hippocampus.

  5. Effects of Stress and Hippocampal NMDA Receptor Antagonism on Recognition Memory in Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Kevin B Baker; Kim, Jeansok J

    2002-01-01

    Exposures to uncontrollable stress have been shown to alter ensuing synaptic plasticity in the hippocampus and interfere with hippocampal-dependent spatial memory in rats. The present study examined whether stress, which impairs hippocampal long-term potentiation (LTP), also affects (nonspatial) hippocampal-dependent object-recognition memory, as tested on the visual paired comparison task (VPC) in rats. After undergoing an inescapable restraint–tailshock stress experience, rats exhibited mar...

  6. Can changes in eye movement scanning alter the age-related deficit in recognition memory?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica P.K. Chan

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Older adults typically exhibit poorer face recognition compared to younger adults. These recognition differences may be due to underlying age-related changes in eye movement scanning. We examined whether older adults’ recognition could be improved by yoking their eye movements to those of younger adults. Participants studied younger and older faces, under free viewing conditions (bases, through a gaze-contingent moving window (own, or a moving window which replayed the eye movements of a base participant (yoked. During the recognition test, participants freely viewed the faces with no viewing restrictions. Own-age recognition biases were observed for older adults in all viewing conditions, suggesting that this effect occurs independently of scanning. Participants in the bases condition had the highest recognition accuracy, and participants in the yoked condition were more accurate than participants in the own condition. Among yoked participants, recognition did not depend on age of the base participant. These results suggest that successful encoding for all participants requires the bottom-up contribution of peripheral information, regardless of the locus of control of the viewer. Although altering the pattern of eye movements did not increase recognition, the amount of sampling of the face during encoding predicted subsequent recognition accuracy for all participants. Increased sampling may confer some advantages for subsequent recognition, particularly for people who have declining memory abilities.

  7. The effect of glial glutamine synthetase inhibition on recognition and temporal memories in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kant, Deepika; Tripathi, Shweta; Qureshi, Munazah F; Tripathi, Shweta; Pandey, Swati; Singh, Gunjan; Kumar, Tankesh; Mir, Fayaz A; Jha, Sushil K

    2014-02-07

    The glutamate neurotransmitter is intrinsically involved in learning and memory. Glial glutamine synthetase enzyme synthesizes glutamine, which helps maintain the optimal neuronal glutamate level. However, the role of glutamine synthetase in learning and memory remains unclear. Using associative trace learning task, we investigated the effects of methionine sulfoximine (MSO) (glutamine synthetase inhibitor) on recognition and temporal memories. MSO and vehicle were injected (i.p.) three hours before training in separate groups of male Wistar rats (n=11). Animals were trained to obtain fruit juice after following a set of sequential events. Initially, house-light was presented for 15s followed by 5s trace interval. Thereafter, juice was given for 20s followed by 20s inter-presentation interval. A total of 75 presentations were made over five sessions during the training and testing periods. The average number of head entries to obtain juice per session and during individual phases at different time intervals was accounted as an outcome measure of recognition and temporal memories. The total head entries in MSO and vehicle treated animals were comparable on training and testing days. However, it was 174.90% (p=0.08), 270.61% (pGlutamine synthetase inhibition did not induce recognition memory deficit, while temporal memory was altered, suggesting that glutamine synthetase modulates some aspects of mnemonic processes.

  8. Hippocampal NMDA receptors are involved in rats' spontaneous object recognition only under high memory load condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugita, Manami; Yamada, Kazuo; Iguchi, Natsumi; Ichitani, Yukio

    2015-10-22

    The possible involvement of hippocampal N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors in spontaneous object recognition was investigated in rats under different memory load conditions. We first estimated rats' object memory span using 3-5 objects in "Different Objects Task (DOT)" in order to confirm the highest memory load condition in object recognition memory. Rats were allowed to explore a field in which 3 (3-DOT), 4 (4-DOT), or 5 (5-DOT) different objects were presented. After a delay period, they were placed again in the same field in which one of the sample objects was replaced by another object, and their object exploration behavior was analyzed. Rats could differentiate the novel object from the familiar ones in 3-DOT and 4-DOT but not in 5-DOT, suggesting that rats' object memory span was about 4. Then, we examined the effects of hippocampal AP5 infusion on performance in both 2-DOT (2 different objects were used) and 4-DOT. The drug treatment before the sample phase impaired performance only in 4-DOT. These results suggest that hippocampal NMDA receptors play a critical role in spontaneous object recognition only when the memory load is high.

  9. Hplc-ESI-MS/MS analysis of the water-soluble extract from Ziziphi spinosae semen and its ameliorating effect of learning and memory performance in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanqing Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Ziziphi Spinosae Semen (ZSS, the seed of Ziziphus jujuba var. spinosa (Bunge Hu ex H. F. Chow., is a traditional herb for insomnia and anxiety in eastern Asia. However, few researches have been concerned with its effect on ameliorating memory and learning performance. Objective: To investigate the constituents of ZSS water soluble extract and its ameliorating learning and memory in mice. Materials and Methods: A new high performance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-MS/MS method was developed and validated to determine the main constituents in the extract. The effect of ZSS water soluble extract on memory and learning performance was investigated in mice by Y-maze and passive avoidance test. Results: The extract could significantly decrease the number of errors (NOE, and increase the transfer latency time (TLT and electrical stimuli time (EST. In addition, spinosin, jujuboside A (JuA and jujuboside B (JuB were simultaneously identified and quantified in the extract. Their contents in the extract were as followed: Spinosin (223.51mg/g, JuA (63.76mg/g and JuB (26.29mg/g. Conclusion: The extract played a promising role in ameliorating memory in mice with alcohol induced memory retrieval disorders, and might help to improve learning capacity to some extent. Spinosin, JuA and JuB were the predominant constituents, which might be mainly responsible for the definite activity.

  10. Face Memory and Object Recognition in Children with High-Functioning Autism or Asperger Syndrome and in Their Parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuusikko-Gauffin, Sanna; Jansson-Verkasalo, Eira; Carter, Alice; Pollock-Wurman, Rachel; Jussila, Katja; Mattila, Marja-Leena; Rahko, Jukka; Ebeling, Hanna; Pauls, David; Moilanen, Irma

    2011-01-01

    Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASDs) have reported to have impairments in face, recognition and face memory, but intact object recognition and object memory. Potential abnormalities, in these fields at the family level of high-functioning children with ASD remains understudied despite, the ever-mounting evidence that ASDs are genetic and…

  11. Exploratory behavior and recognition memory in medial septal electrolytic, neuro- and immunotoxic lesioned rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dashniani, M G; Burjanadze, M A; Naneishvili, T L; Chkhikvishvili, N C; Beselia, G V; Kruashvili, L B; Pochkhidze, N O; Chighladze, M R

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, the effect of the medial septal (MS) lesions on exploratory activity in the open field and the spatial and object recognition memory has been investigated. This experiment compares three types of MS lesions: electrolytic lesions that destroy cells and fibers of passage, neurotoxic - ibotenic acid lesions that spare fibers of passage but predominantly affect the septal noncholinergic neurons, and immunotoxin - 192 IgG-saporin infusions that only eliminate cholinergic neurons. The main results are: the MS electrolytic lesioned rats were impaired in habituating to the environment in the repeated spatial environment, but rats with immuno- or neurotoxic lesions of the MS did not differ from control ones; the MS electrolytic and ibotenic acid lesioned rats showed an increase in their exploratory activity to the objects and were impaired in habituating to the objects in the repeated spatial environment; rats with immunolesions of the MS did not differ from control rats; electrolytic lesions of the MS disrupt spatial recognition memory; rats with immuno- or neurotoxic lesions of the MS were normal in detecting spatial novelty; all of the MS-lesioned and control rats clearly reacted to the object novelty by exploring the new object more than familiar ones. Results observed across lesion techniques indicate that: (i) the deficits after nonselective damage of MS are limited to a subset of cognitive processes dependent on the hippocampus, (ii) MS is substantial for spatial, but not for object recognition memory - the object recognition memory can be supported outside the septohippocampal system; (iii) the selective loss of septohippocampal cholinergic or noncholinergic projections does not disrupt the function of the hippocampus to a sufficient extent to impair spatial recognition memory; (iv) there is dissociation between the two major components (cholinergic and noncholinergic) of the septohippocampal pathway in exploratory behavior assessed in the open

  12. Ameliorating Effects of Ethanol Extract of Fructus mume on Scopolamine-Induced Memory Impairment in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min-Soo Kim

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We previously reported that Fructus mume (F. mume extract shows protective effects on memory impairments and anti-inflammatory effects induced by chronic cerebral hypoperfusion. Neurodegeneration of basal cholinergic neurons is also observed in the brain with chronic cerebral hypoperfusion. Therefore, the present study was conducted to examine whether F. mume extracts enhance cognitive function via the action of cholinergic neuron using a scopolamine-induced animal model of memory impairments. F. mume (50, 100, or 200 mg/kg was administered to C57BL/6 mice for 14 days (days 1–14 and memory impairment was induced by scopolamine (1 mg/kg, a muscarinic receptor antagonist for 7 days (days 8–14. Spatial memory was assessed using Morris water maze and hippocampal level of acetylcholinesterase (AChE and choline acetyltransferase (ChAT was examined by ELISA and immunoblotting. Mice that received scopolamine alone showed impairments in acquisition and retention in Morris water maze task and increased activity of AChE in the hippocampus. Mice that received F. mume and scopolamine showed no scopolamine-induced memory impairment and increased activity of AChE. In addition, treatments of F. mume increased ChAT expression in the hippocampus. These results indicated that F. mume might enhance cognitive function via action of cholinergic neurons.

  13. Treatment with Akebia Saponin D Ameliorates Aβ1–42-Induced Memory Impairment and Neurotoxicity in Rats

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    Yongde Chen

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Amyloid-β peptide (Aβ is known to be directly associated with the progressive neuronal death observed in Alzheimer’s disease (AD. However, effective neuroprotective approaches against Aβ neurotoxicity are still unavailable. In the present study, we investigated the protective effects of Akebia saponin D (ASD, a typical compound isolated from the rhizome of Dipsacus asper Wall, on Aβ1–42-induced impairment of learning and memory formation and explored the probable underlying molecular mechanisms. We found that treatment with ASD (30, 90 or 270 mg/kg significantly ameliorated impaired spatial learning and memory in intracerebroventricularly (ICV Aβ1–42-injected rats, as evidenced by a decrease tendency in escape latency during acquisition trials and improvement in exploratory activities in the probe trial in Morris water maze (MWM. Further study showed that ASD reversed Aβ1–42-induced accumulation of Aβ1–42 and Aβ1–40 in the hippocampus through down-regulating the expression of BACE and Presenilin 2 accompanied with increased the expression of TACE, IDE and LRP-1. Taken together, our findings suggested that ASD exerted therapeutic effects on Aβ-induced cognitive deficits via amyloidogenic pathway.

  14. Ameliorating effect of new constituents from the hooks of Uncaria rhynchophylla on scopolamine-induced memory impairment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHIN Suk-Chul; LEE Dong-Ung

    2013-01-01

    AIM:To study the chemical constituents and their anti-amnesic effect from the hooks of Uncaria rhynchophylla.METHODS:The isolation of compounds was performed by chromatographic techniques and their structures were identified on the basis of spectral analysis.Their ameliorating effects on scopolamine-induced memory impairment in vivo using a Morris water-maze task and passive avoidance task system were evaluated.RESULTS:Activity-guided fractionation of the total extracts resulted in the isolation of four constituents,trans-anethole (1),p-anisaldehyde (2),estragole (3),and 3-oxo-olean-12-en-28-oic acid (4),which were found for the first time from this plant.CONCLUSION:Compound 1 exhibited a better memory enhancing effect than tacrine,a positive agent,at the same dose in the passive avoidance test and a similar property in the water-maze test,and its action may be mediated,in part,by the acetylcholine enhancing cholinergic nervous system.

  15. The Ameliorating Effect of Steamed and Fermented Codonopsis lanceolata on Scopolamine-Induced Memory Impairment in Mice

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    Jin Bae Weon

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Codonopsis lanceolata (Campanulaceae have been traditionally used to treat lung inflammatory diseases, such as asthma, tonsillitis, and pharyngitis. The present study was performed to evaluate the cognitive-enhancing effects of steamed and fermented C. lanceolata in scopolamine-induced memory impairments in mice. Cognitive abilities were determined by the Morris water maze and passive avoidance tests. Mice orally received fermented C. lanceolata extract at doses of 100, 300, or 500 mg/kg body weight. Fermented C. lanceolata extract (500 mg/kg body weight, p.o. significantly shortened the escape latency times that were increased by scopolamine on the 4th day of trial sessions in the Morris water maze task. In addition, it exerted longer step-through latency times than those of the scopolamine-treated group in the passive avoidance test. Furthermore, the neuroprotective effects of fermented C. lanceolata extract on glutamate-induced neurocytotoxicity were investigated in HT22 cells. Fermented C. lanceolata extract showed a relative protection ratio of 59.62% at 500 μg/mL. In conclusion, fermented C. lanceolata extract ameliorated scopolamine-induced memory impairments, exerted neuroprotective effects, and improved activity compared to that found with original C. lanceolata. Further study will be required to investigate the mechanisms underlying this cognitive-enhancing activity.

  16. Fractionating the Neural Substrates of Incidental Recognition Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, Ciara M.; Vidaki, Kleio; Soto, David

    2015-01-01

    Familiar stimuli are typically accompanied by decreases in neural response relative to the presentation of novel items, but these studies often include explicit instructions to discriminate old and new items; this creates difficulties in partialling out the contribution of top-down intentional orientation to the items based on recognition goals.…

  17. Design and testing of the first 2D Prototype Vertically Integrated Pattern Recognition Associative Memory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, T.; Deptuch, G.; Hoff, J.; Jindariani, S.; Joshi, S.; Olsen, J.; Tran, N.; Trimpl, M.

    2015-02-01

    An associative memory-based track finding approach has been proposed for a Level 1 tracking trigger to cope with increasing luminosities at the LHC. The associative memory uses a massively parallel architecture to tackle the intrinsically complex combinatorics of track finding algorithms, thus avoiding the typical power law dependence of execution time on occupancy and solving the pattern recognition in times roughly proportional to the number of hits. This is of crucial importance given the large occupancies typical of hadronic collisions. The design of an associative memory system capable of dealing with the complexity of HL-LHC collisions and with the short latency required by Level 1 triggering poses significant, as yet unsolved, technical challenges. For this reason, an aggressive R&D program has been launched at Fermilab to advance state of-the-art associative memory technology, the so called VIPRAM (Vertically Integrated Pattern Recognition Associative Memory) project. The VIPRAM leverages emerging 3D vertical integration technology to build faster and denser Associative Memory devices. The first step is to implement in conventional VLSI the associative memory building blocks that can be used in 3D stacking, in other words, the building blocks are laid out as if it is a 3D design. In this paper, we report on the first successful implementation of a 2D VIPRAM demonstrator chip (protoVIPRAM00). The results show that these building blocks are ready for 3D stacking.

  18. The Effect of Modality on Long-Term Recognition Memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, Raymond S.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    The effects of visual and auditory modes of input on long-term memory were examined in two experiments, each with 40 and 80 undergraduates, respectively. In both experiments, visual stimulus attributes were a more salient dimension than were auditory features in the long-term encoding and retrieval process. (SLD)

  19. The role of histamine receptors in the consolidation of object recognition memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silveira, Clarice Krás Borges; Furini, Cristiane R G; Benetti, Fernando; Monteiro, Siomara da Cruz; Izquierdo, Ivan

    2013-07-01

    Findings have shown that histamine receptors in the hippocampus modulate the acquisition and extinction of fear motivated learning. In order to determine the role of hippocampal histaminergic receptors on recognition memory, adult male Wistar rats with indwelling infusion cannulae stereotaxically placed in the CA1 region of dorsal hippocampus were trained in an object recognition learning task involving exposure to two different stimulus objects in an enclosed environment. In the test session, one of the objects presented during training was replaced by a novel one. Recognition memory retention was assessed 24 h after training by comparing the time spent in exploration (sniffing and touching) of the known object with that of the novel one. When infused in the CA1 region immediately, 30, 120 or 360 min posttraining, the H1-receptor antagonist, pyrilamine, the H2-receptor antagonist, ranitidine, and the H3-receptor agonist, imetit, blocked long-term memory retention in a time dependent manner (30-120 min) without affecting general exploratory behavior, anxiety state or hippocampal function. Our data indicate that histaminergic system modulates consolidation of object recognition memory through H1, H2 and H3 receptors.

  20. Stimulus Similarity and Encoding Time Influence Incidental Recognition Memory in Adult Monkeys with Selective Hippocampal Lesions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeamer, Alyson; Meunier, Martine; Bachevalier, Jocelyne

    2011-01-01

    Recognition memory impairment after selective hippocampal lesions in monkeys is more profound when measured with visual paired-comparison (VPC) than with delayed nonmatching-to-sample (DNMS). To clarify this issue, we assessed the impact of stimuli similarity and encoding duration on the VPC performance in monkeys with hippocampal lesions and…

  1. The Effects of Environmental Context on Recognition Memory and Claims of Remembering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hockley, William E.

    2008-01-01

    Recognition memory for words was tested in same or different contexts using the remember/know response procedure. Context was manipulated by presenting words in different screen colors and locations and by presenting words against real-world photographs. Overall hit and false-alarm rates were higher for tests presented in an old context compared…

  2. On the Role of Individual Items in Recognition Memory and Metacognition: Challenges for Signal Detection Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busey, Thomas A.; Arici, Anne

    2009-01-01

    The authors tested the role of individual items in recognition memory using a forced-choice paradigm with face stimuli. They constructed distractor stimuli using morphing procedures that were similar to two parent faces and then compared a studied morph against an unstudied morph that was similar to two studied parents. The similarity of the…

  3. Processing Strategy and PI Effects in Recognition Memory of Word Lists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodge, Milton H.; Britton, Bruce K.

    Previous research by A. I. Schulman argued that an observed systematic decline in recognition memory in long word lists was due to the build-up of input and output proactive interference (PI). It also suggested that input PI resulted from process automatization; that is, each list item was processed or encoded in much the same way, producing a set…

  4. On the Measurement of Criterion Noise in Signal Detection Theory: The Case of Recognition Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellen, David; Klauer, Karl Christoph; Singmann, Henrik

    2012-01-01

    Traditional approaches within the framework of signal detection theory (SDT; Green & Swets, 1966), especially in the field of recognition memory, assume that the positioning of response criteria is not a noisy process. Recent work (Benjamin, Diaz, & Wee, 2009; Mueller & Weidemann, 2008) has challenged this assumption, arguing not only…

  5. Test-Enhanced Learning of Natural Concepts: Effects on Recognition Memory, Classification, and Metacognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacoby, Larry L.; Wahlheim, Christopher N.; Coane, Jennifer H.

    2010-01-01

    Three experiments examined testing effects on learning of natural concepts and metacognitive assessments of such learning. Results revealed that testing enhanced recognition memory and classification accuracy for studied and novel exemplars of bird families on immediate and delayed tests. These effects depended on the balance of study and test…

  6. genetic overexpression of NR2B subunit enhances social recognition memory for different strains and species.

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    Stephanie A Jacobs

    Full Text Available The ability to learn and remember conspecifics is essential for the establishment and maintenance of social groups. Many animals, including humans, primates and rodents, depend on stable social relationships for survival. Social learning and social recognition have become emerging areas of interest for neuroscientists but are still not well understood. It has been established that several hormones play a role in the modulation of social recognition including estrogen, oxytocin and arginine vasopression. Relatively few studies have investigated how social recognition might be improved or enhanced. In this study, we investigate the role of the NMDA receptor in social recognition memory, specifically the consequences of altering the ratio of the NR2B:NR2A subunits in the forebrain regions in social behavior. We produced transgenic mice in which the NR2B subunit of the NMDA receptor was overexpressed postnatally in the excitatory neurons of the forebrain areas including the cortex, amygdala and hippocampus. We investigated the ability of both our transgenic animals and their wild-type littermate to learn and remember juvenile conspecifics using both 1-hr and 24-hr memory tests. Our experiments show that the wild-type animals and NR2B transgenic mice preformed similarly in the 1-hr test. However, transgenic mice showed better performances in 24-hr tests of recognizing animals of a different strain or animals of a different species. We conclude that NR2B overexpression in the forebrain enhances social recognition memory for different strains and animal species.

  7. Ameliorative Effect and Its Mechanism of Forsythiaside on Learning and Memory of Composite Alzheimer’s Disease Model Mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIONG Yu-ping; TIAN Ya-jie

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To explore the ameliorative effect of forsythiaside and its mechanism on learning and memory of composite Alzheimer’s disease (AD) model mice. Methods: Fifty SAMP8 mice of 8 months old were randomly divided into negative control group (gavage of distilled water), positive control group (gavage of donepezil), low-, middle-, and high-dose groups (gavage of forsythiaside 60, 120, and 240 mg/kg, respectively), 10 cases for each group. Another 10 SAMR1 male mice of 8-month old were designed as blank control group (gavage of distilled water). After gavage for 30 consecutive days, Morris water maze test was used to conduct behavioral test 1 h after gavage everyday. 24 h after completing behavior test, the vitality of superoxide dismutase (SOD), acetylcholine esterase (AchE), choline acetyl transferase (ChAT), monoamine oxidase (MAO), and glutathion peroxidase (GSH-PX) as well as the content of malondialdehyde (MDA) and nitric oxide (NO) in brain tissue of mice in each group were tested. Results:In water maze test, forsythiaside could improve the learning and memory ability of composite AD model mice. After being given different doses of forsythiaside for a long term, the activity of SOD, ChAT, and GSH-PX increased inordinately and the content of MDA and NO reduced in varying degrees in a dose-dependent manner. Of all, the high-dose forsythiaside group was the best in therapeutic effect. Conclusion: Forsythiaside has a therapeutic effect on the learning and memory impairment of composite AD model mice probably by regulating the mechanism of the cholinergic system and antioxygenation.

  8. Ameliorative Effect and Its Mechanism of Forsythiaside on Learning and Memory of Composite Alzheimer's Disease Model Mice

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    Yu-ping XIONG

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To explore the ameliorative effect of forsythiaside and its mechanism on learning and memory of composite Alzheimer’s disease (AD model mice. Methods: Fifty SAMP8 mice of 8 months old were randomly divided into negative control group (gavage of distilled water, positive control group (gavage of donepezil, low-, middle-, and high-dose groups (gavage of forsythiaside 60, 120, and 240 mg/kg, respectively, 10 cases for each group. Another 10 SAMR1 male mice of 8-month old were designed as blank control group (gavage of distilled water. After gavage for 30 consecutive days, Morris water maze test was used to conduct behavioral test 1 h after gavage everyday. 24 h after completing behavior test, the vitality of superoxide dismutase (SOD, acetylcholine esterase (AchE, choline acetyl transferase (ChAT, monoamine oxidase (MAO, and glutathion peroxidase (GSH-PX as well as the content of malondialdehyde (MDA and nitric oxide (NO in brain tissue of mice in each group were tested. Results: In water maze test, forsythiaside could improve the learning and memory ability of composite AD model mice. After being given different doses of forsythiaside for a long term, the activity of SOD, ChAT, and GSH-PX increased inordinately and the content of MDA and NO reduced in varying degrees in a dose-dependent manner. Of all, the high-dose forsythiaside group was the best in therapeutic effect. Conclusion: Forsythiaside has a therapeutic effect on the learning and memory impairment of composite AD model mice probably by regulating the mechanism of the cholinergic system and antioxygenation.

  9. Temporal cortex direct current stimulation enhances performance on a visual recognition memory task in Alzheimer disease.

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    Boggio, P S; Khoury, L P; Martins, D C S; Martins, O E M S; de Macedo, E C; Fregni, F

    2009-04-01

    Several studies have reported that transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS), a non-invasive method of neuromodulation, enhances some aspects of working memory in healthy and Parkinson disease subjects. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of anodal tDCS on recognition memory, working memory and selective attention in Alzheimer disease (AD). Ten patients with diagnosis of AD received three sessions of anodal tDCS (left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, left temporal cortex and sham stimulation) with an intensity of 2 mA for 30 min. Sessions were performed in different days in a randomised order. The following tests were assessed during stimulation: Stroop, Digit Span and a Visual Recognition Memory task (VRM). The results showed a significant effect of stimulation condition on VRM (p = 0.0085), and post hoc analysis showed an improvement after temporal (p = 0.01) and prefrontal (p = 0.01) tDCS as compared with sham stimulation. There were no significant changes in attention as indexed by Stroop task performance. As far as is known, this is the first trial showing that tDCS can enhance a component of recognition memory. The potential mechanisms of action and the implications of these results are discussed.

  10. Apelin-13 exerts antidepressant-like and recognition memory improving activities in stressed rats.

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    Li, E; Deng, Haifeng; Wang, Bo; Fu, Wan; You, Yong; Tian, Shaowen

    2016-03-01

    Apelin is the endogenous ligand for the G-protein-coupled receptor (APJ). The localization of APJ in limbic structures suggests a potential role for apelin in emotional processes. However, the role of apelin in the regulation of stress-induced responses such as depression and memory impairment is largely unknown. In the present study, we evaluated the role of apelin-13 in the regulation of stress-induced depression and memory impairment in rats. We report that repeated intracerebroventricular injections of apelin-13 reversed behavioral despair (immobility) in the forced swim (FS) test, a model widely used for the selection of new antidepressant agents. Apelin-13 also reversed behavioral deficits (escape failure) in the learned helplessness test. The magnitude of the antiimmobility and anti-escape failure effects of apelin-13 was comparable to that of imipramine, a classic antidepressant used as a positive control. Rats exposed to FS stress showed memory performance impairment in the novel object recognition test, and this impairment was improved by apelin-13 treatment. Apelin-13 did not affect recognition memory performance in non-stressed rats. Furthermore, the pretreatment of LY294002 (PI3K inhibitors) or PD98059 (ERK1/2 inhibitor) blocked apelin-13-mediated activities in FS-stressed rats. These findings suggest that apelin-13 exerts antidepressant-like and recognition memory improving activities through activating PI3K and ERK1/2 signaling pathways in stressed rats.

  11. Ameliorative effect of rosmarinic acid on scopolamine-induced memory impairment in rats.

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    Hasanein, Parisa; Mahtaj, Azam Kazemian

    2015-01-12

    Rosmarinic acid (RA) is a natural phenol that exerts different biological activities, such as antioxidant activity and neuroprotective effects. In this study, we hypothesized that administration of RA (8, 16, and 32 mg/kg, p.o.) for 7 days would effect on scopolamine-induced cognitive dysfunction as an extensively used model of cognitive impairment. The rats were divided into 10 groups. The acquisition trial was done 1h after the last administration of RA. Animals were divided into control, RA (8, 16, and 32 mg/kg) and donepezil (2 mg/kg) treated controls, scopolamine, RA (8, 16, and 32 mg/kg), and donepezil (2 mg/kg) treated scopolamine groups. Memory impairment was induced by scopolamine treatment (1 mg/kg, i.p.) 30 min after the administration of RA, donepezil, or saline. Scopolamine administration caused cognition deficits in the PAL and memory paradigm. While orally RA administration (16 and 32 mg/kg) improved learning and memory in control rats, it reversed learning and memory deficits of scopolamine received groups. Administration of RA at the dose of 8 mg/kg did not alter cognitive function in control and scopolamine treated groups. The combination of anticholinesterase, neuroprotective, and antioxidant properties of RA may all be responsible for the observed effects. These results indicate the beneficial effects of subchronic RA administration in passive avoidance learning and memory in control rats as well as in a pharmacological model of cholinergic deficit which continue to expand the knowledge base in creating new treatment strategies for cognition deficits and dementia. Of course, further studies are warranted for clinical use of RA in the management of demented subjects.

  12. Activation and Binding in Verbal Working Memory: A Dual-Process Model for the Recognition of Nonwords

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberauer, Klauss; Lange, Elke B.

    2009-01-01

    The article presents a mathematical model of short-term recognition based on dual-process models and the three-component theory of working memory [Oberauer, K. (2002). Access to information in working memory: Exploring the focus of attention. "Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 28", 411-421]. Familiarity arises…

  13. Communicative Signals Promote Object Recognition Memory and Modulate the Right Posterior STS.

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    Redcay, Elizabeth; Ludlum, Ruth S; Velnoskey, Kayla R; Kanwal, Simren

    2016-01-01

    Detection of communicative signals is thought to facilitate knowledge acquisition early in life, but less is known about the role these signals play in adult learning or about the brain systems supporting sensitivity to communicative intent. The current study examined how ostensive gaze cues and communicative actions affect adult recognition memory and modulate neural activity as measured by fMRI. For both the behavioral and fMRI experiments, participants viewed a series of videos of an actress acting on one of two objects in front of her. Communicative context in the videos was manipulated in a 2 × 2 design in which the actress either had direct gaze (Gaze) or wore a visor (NoGaze) and either pointed at (Point) or reached for (Reach) one of the objects (target) in front of her. Participants then completed a recognition memory task with old (target and nontarget) objects and novel objects. Recognition memory for target objects in the Gaze conditions was greater than NoGaze, but no effects of gesture type were seen. Similarly, the fMRI video-viewing task revealed a significant effect of Gaze within right posterior STS (pSTS), but no significant effects of Gesture. Furthermore, pSTS sensitivity to Gaze conditions was related to greater memory for objects viewed in Gaze, as compared with NoGaze, conditions. Taken together, these results demonstrate that the ostensive, communicative signal of direct gaze preceding an object-directed action enhances recognition memory for attended items and modulates the pSTS response to object-directed actions. Thus, establishment of a communicative context through ostensive signals remains an important component of learning and memory into adulthood, and the pSTS may play a role in facilitating this type of social learning.

  14. Individual differences in forced-choice recognition memory: partitioning contributions of recollection and familiarity.

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    Migo, Ellen M; Quamme, Joel R; Holmes, Selina; Bendell, Andrew; Norman, Kenneth A; Mayes, Andrew R; Montaldi, Daniela

    2014-01-01

    In forced-choice recognition memory, two different testing formats are possible under conditions of high target-foil similarity: Each target can be presented alongside foils similar to itself (forced-choice corresponding; FCC), or alongside foils similar to other targets (forced-choice noncorresponding; FCNC). Recent behavioural and neuropsychological studies suggest that FCC performance can be supported by familiarity whereas FCNC performance is supported primarily by recollection. In this paper, we corroborate this finding from an individual differences perspective. A group of older adults were given a test of FCC and FCNC recognition for object pictures, as well as standardized tests of recall, recognition, and IQ. Recall measures were found to predict FCNC, but not FCC performance, consistent with a critical role for recollection in FCNC only. After the common influence of recall was removed, standardized tests of recognition predicted FCC, but not FCNC performance. This is consistent with a contribution of only familiarity in FCC. Simulations show that a two-process model, where familiarity and recollection make separate contributions to recognition, is 10 times more likely to give these results than a single-process model. This evidence highlights the importance of recognition memory test design when examining the involvement of recollection and familiarity.

  15. Recency Effects in the Inferior Parietal Lobe during Verbal Recognition Memory

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    Bradley Russell Buchsbaum

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The most recently encountered information is often most easily remembered in psychological tests of memory. Recent investigations of the neural basis of such recency effects have shown that activation in the lateral inferior parietal cortex (LIPC tracks the recency of a probe item when subjects make recognition memory judgments. A key question regarding recency effects in the LIPC is whether they fundamentally reflect the storage (and strength of information in memory, or whether such effects are a consequence of task difficulty or an upswing in resting state network activity. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI we show that recency effects in the LIPC are independent of the difficulty of recognition memory decisions, that they are not a by-product of an increase in resting state network activity, and that they appear to dissociate from regions known to be involved in verbal working memory maintenance. We conclude with a discussion of two alternative explanations – the memory strength and expectancy hypotheses, respectively -- of the parietal lobe recency effect.

  16. Short theta burst stimulation to left frontal cortex prior to encoding enhances subsequent recognition memory.

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    Demeter, Elise; Mirdamadi, Jasmine L; Meehan, Sean K; Taylor, Stephan F

    2016-08-01

    Deep semantic encoding of verbal stimuli can aid in later successful retrieval of those stimuli from long-term episodic memory. Evidence from numerous neuropsychological and neuroimaging experiments demonstrate regions in left prefrontal cortex, including left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), are important for processes related to encoding. Here, we investigated the relationship between left DLPFC activity during encoding and successful subsequent memory with transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS). In a pair of experiments using a 2-session within-subjects design, we stimulated either left DLPFC or a control region (Vertex) with a single 2-s train of short theta burst stimulation (sTBS) during a semantic encoding task and then gave participants a recognition memory test. We found that subsequent memory was enhanced on the day left DLPFC was stimulated, relative to the day Vertex was stimulated, and that DLPFC stimulation also increased participants' confidence in their decisions during the recognition task. We also explored the time course of how long the effects of sTBS persisted. Our data suggest 2 s of sTBS to left DLPFC is capable of enhancing subsequent memory for items encoded up to 15 s following stimulation. Collectively, these data demonstrate sTBS is capable of enhancing long-term memory and provide evidence that TBS protocols are a potentially powerful tool for modulating cognitive function.

  17. Astaxanthin ameliorates aluminum chloride-induced spatial memory impairment and neuronal oxidative stress in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Amin, Md Mamun; Reza, Hasan Mahmud; Saadi, Hasan Mahmud; Mahmud, Waich; Ibrahim, Abdirahman Adam; Alam, Musrura Mefta; Kabir, Nadia; Saifullah, A R M; Tropa, Sarjana Tarannum; Quddus, A H M Ruhul

    2016-04-15

    Aluminum chloride induces neurodegenerative disease in animal model. Evidence suggests that aluminum intake results in the activation of glial cells and generation of reactive oxygen species. By contrast, astaxanthin is an antioxidant having potential neuroprotective activity. In this study, we investigate the effect of astaxanthin on aluminum chloride-exposed behavioral brain function and neuronal oxidative stress (OS). Male Swiss albino mice (4 months old) were divided into 4 groups: (i) control (distilled water), (ii) aluminum chloride, (iii) astaxanthin+aluminum chloride, and (iv) astaxanthin. Two behavioral tests; radial arm maze and open field test were conducted, and OS markers were assayed from the brain and liver tissues following 42 days of treatment. Aluminum exposed group showed a significant reduction in spatial memory performance and anxiety-like behavior. Moreover, aluminum group exhibited a marked deterioration of oxidative markers; lipid peroxidation (MDA), nitric oxide (NO), glutathione (GSH) and advanced oxidation of protein products (AOPP) in the brain. To the contrary, co-administration of astaxanthin and aluminum has shown improved spatial memory, locomotor activity, and OS. These results indicate that astaxanthin improves aluminum-induced impaired memory performances presumably by the reduction of OS in the distinct brain regions. We suggest a future study to determine the underlying mechanism of astaxanthin in improving aluminum-exposed behavioral deficits.

  18. Robust Face Recognition by Hierarchical Kernel Associative Memory Models Based on Spatial Domain Gabor Transforms

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    Bai-ling Zhang

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Face recognition can be studied as an associative memory (AM problem and kernel-based AM models have been proven efficient. In this paper, a hierarchical Kernel Associative Memory (KAM face recognition scheme with a multiscale Gabor transform, is proposed. The pyramidal multiscale Gabor decomposition proposed by Nestares, Navarro, Portilla and Tabernero not only provides a very efficient implementation of the Gabor transform in the spatial domain, but also permits a fast reconstruction of images. In our method, face images of each person are first decomposed into their multiscale representations by a quasicomplete Gabor transform, which are then modelled by Kernel Associative Memories. In the recognition stage, a query face image is also represented by a Gabor multiresolution pyramid and the reconstructions from different KAM models corresponding to even Gabor channels are then simply summed to give the recall. The recognition scheme was thoroughly tested using several benchmarking face datasets, including the AR faces, UMIST faces, JAFFE faces and Yale A faces, which include different kind of face variations from occlusions, pose, expression and illumination. The experiment results show that the proposed method demonstrated strong robustness in recognizing faces under different conditions, particularly under occlusions, pose alterations and expression changes.

  19. Estradiol enhances object recognition memory in Swiss female mice by activating hippocampal estrogen receptor α.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Luciana M; Bastos, Cristiane P; de Souza, Jéssica M; Ribeiro, Fabíola M; Pereira, Grace S

    2014-10-01

    In rodents, 17β-estradiol (E2) enhances hippocampal function and improves performance in several memory tasks. Regarding the object recognition paradigm, E2 commonly act as a cognitive enhancer. However, the types of estrogen receptor (ER) involved, as well as the underlying molecular mechanisms are still under investigation. In the present study, we asked whether E2 enhances object recognition memory by activating ERα and/or ERβ in the hippocampus of Swiss female mice. First, we showed that immediately post-training intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of E2 (0.2 mg/kg) allowed object recognition memory to persist 48 h in ovariectomized (OVX) Swiss female mice. This result indicates that Swiss female mice are sensitive to the promnesic effects of E2 and is in accordance with other studies, which used C57/BL6 female mice. To verify if the activation of hippocampal ERα or ERβ would be sufficient to improve object memory, we used PPT and DPN, which are selective ERα and ERβ agonists, respectively. We found that PPT, but not DPN, improved object memory in Swiss female mice. However, DPN was able to improve memory in C57/BL6 female mice, which is in accordance with other studies. Next, we tested if the E2 effect on improving object memory depends on ER activation in the hippocampus. Thus, we tested if the infusion of intra-hippocampal TPBM and PHTPP, selective antagonists of ERα and ERβ, respectively, would block the memory enhancement effect of E2. Our results showed that TPBM, but not PHTPP, blunted the promnesic effect of E2, strongly suggesting that in Swiss female mice, the ERα and not the ERβ is the receptor involved in the promnesic effect of E2. It was already demonstrated that E2, as well as PPT and DPN, increase the phospho-ERK2 level in the dorsal hippocampus of C57/BL6 mice. Here we observed that PPT increased phospho-ERK1, while DPN decreased phospho-ERK2 in the dorsal hippocampus of Swiss female mice subjected to the object recognition sample phase

  20. Cognitive theories as reinforcement history surrogates: the case of likelihood ratio models of human recognition memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wixted, John T; Gaitan, Santino C

    2002-11-01

    B. F. Skinner (1977) once argued that cognitive theories are essentially surrogates for the organism's (usually unknown) reinforcement history. In this article, we argue that this notion applies rather directly to a class of likelihood ratio models of human recognition memory. The point is not that such models are fundamentally flawed or that they are not useful and should be abandoned. Instead, the point is that the role of reinforcement history in shaping memory decisions could help to explain what otherwise must be explained by assuming that subjects are inexplicably endowed with the relevant distributional information and computational abilities. To the degree that a role for an organism's reinforcement history is appreciated, the importance of animal memory research in understanding human memory comes into clearer focus. As Skinner was also fond of pointing out, it is only in the animal laboratory that an organism's history of reinforcement can be precisely controlled and its effects on behavior clearly understood.

  1. The relationships between trait anxiety, place recognition memory, and learning strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawley, Wayne R; Grissom, Elin M; Dohanich, Gary P

    2011-01-20

    Rodents learn to navigate mazes using various strategies that are governed by specific regions of the brain. The type of strategy used when learning to navigate a spatial environment is moderated by a number of factors including emotional states. Heightened anxiety states, induced by exposure to stressors or administration of anxiogenic agents, have been found to bias male rats toward the use of a striatum-based stimulus-response strategy rather than a hippocampus-based place strategy. However, no study has yet examined the relationship between natural anxiety levels, or trait anxiety, and the type of learning strategy used by rats on a dual-solution task. In the current experiment, levels of inherent anxiety were measured in an open field and compared to performance on two separate cognitive tasks, a Y-maze task that assessed place recognition memory, and a visible platform water maze task that assessed learning strategy. Results indicated that place recognition memory on the Y-maze correlated with the use of place learning strategy on the water maze. Furthermore, lower levels of trait anxiety correlated positively with better place recognition memory and with the preferred use of place learning strategy. Therefore, competency in place memory and bias in place strategy are linked to the levels of inherent anxiety in male rats.

  2. Amelioration of the haloperidol-induced memory impairment and brain oxidative stress by cinnarizine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Salam, Omar M E; El-Sayed El-Shamarka, Marwa; Salem, Neveen A; El-Mosallamy, Aliaa E M K; Sleem, Amany A

    2012-01-01

    Haloperidol is a classic antipsychotic drug known for its propensity to cause extrapyramidal symptoms and impaired memory, owing to blockade of striatal dopamine D2 receptors. Cinnarizine is a calcium channel blocker with D2 receptor blocking properties which is widely used in treatment of vertiginous disorders. The present study aimed to see whether cinnarizine would worsen the effect of haloperidol on memory function and on oxidative stress in mice brain. Cinnarizine (5, 10 or 20 mg/kg), haloperidol, or haloperidol combined with cinnarizine was administered daily via the subcutaneous route and mice were examined on weekly basis for their ability to locate a submerged plate in the water maze test. Mice were euthanized 30 days after starting drug injection. Malondialdehyde (MDA), reduced glutathione (GSH) and nitric oxide (nitrite/nitrate) were determined in brain. Haloperidol substantially impaired water maze performance. The mean time taken to find the escape platform (latency) was significantly delayed by haloperidol (2 mg/kg, i.p.) on weeks 1-8 of the test, compared with saline control group. In contrast, those treated with haloperidol and cinnarizine showed significantly shorter latencies, which indicated that learning had occurred immediately. Haloperidol resulted in increased MDA in cortex, striatum, cerebellum and midbrain. GSH decreased in cortex, striatum and cerebellum and nitric oxide increased in cortex. Meanwhile, treatment with cinnarizine (20 mg/kg) and haloperidol resulted in significant decrease in MDA cortex, striatum, cerebellum and midbrain and an increase in GSH in cortex and striatum, compared with haloperidol group. These data suggest that cinnarizine improves the haloperidol induced brain oxidative stress and impairment of learning and memory in the water maze test in mice.

  3. A multimodal imaging study of recognition memory in very preterm born adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Chieh-En Jane; Froudist-Walsh, Seán; Brittain, Philip J; Karolis, Vyacheslav; Caldinelli, Chiara; Kroll, Jasmin; Counsell, Serena J; Williams, Steven C R; Murray, Robin M; Nosarti, Chiara

    2017-02-01

    Very preterm (memory impairments throughout childhood and adolescence. Here, we used functional MRI (fMRI) to study the neuroanatomy of recognition memory in 49 very preterm-born adults and 50 controls (mean age: 30 years) during completion of a task involving visual encoding and recognition of abstract pictures. T1-weighted and diffusion-weighted images were also collected. Bilateral hippocampal volumes were calculated and tractography of the fornix and cingulum was performed and assessed in terms of volume and hindrance modulated orientational anisotropy (HMOA). Online recognition memory task performance, assessed with A scores, was poorer in the very preterm compared with the control group. Analysis of fMRI data focused on differences in neural activity between the recognition and encoding trials. Very preterm born adults showed decreased activation in the right middle frontal gyrus and posterior cingulate cortex/precuneus and increased activation in the left inferior frontal gyrus and bilateral lateral occipital cortex (LOC) compared with controls. Hippocampi, fornix and cingulum volume was significantly smaller and fornix HMOA was lower in very preterm adults. Among all the structural and functional brain metrics that showed statistically significant group differences, LOC activation was the best predictor of online task performance (P = 0.020). In terms of association between brain function and structure, LOC activation was predicted by fornix HMOA in the preterm group only (P = 0.020). These results suggest that neuroanatomical alterations in very preterm born individuals may be underlying their poorer recognition memory performance. Hum Brain Mapp 38:644-655, 2017. © 2016 The Authors Human Brain Mapping Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. An ERP study of recognition memory for concrete and abstract pictures in school-aged children.

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    Boucher, Olivier; Chouinard-Leclaire, Christine; Muckle, Gina; Westerlund, Alissa; Burden, Matthew J; Jacobson, Sandra W; Jacobson, Joseph L

    2016-08-01

    Recognition memory for concrete, nameable pictures is typically faster and more accurate than for abstract pictures. A dual-coding account for these findings suggests that concrete pictures are processed into verbal and image codes, whereas abstract pictures are encoded in image codes only. Recognition memory relies on two successive and distinct processes, namely familiarity and recollection. Whether these two processes are similarly or differently affected by stimulus concreteness remains unknown. This study examined the effect of picture concreteness on visual recognition memory processes using event-related potentials (ERPs). In a sample of children involved in a longitudinal study, participants (N=96; mean age=11.3years) were assessed on a continuous visual recognition memory task in which half the pictures were easily nameable, everyday concrete objects, and the other half were three-dimensional abstract, sculpture-like objects. Behavioral performance and ERP correlates of familiarity and recollection (respectively, the FN400 and P600 repetition effects) were measured. Behavioral results indicated faster and more accurate identification of concrete pictures as "new" or "old" (i.e., previously displayed) compared to abstract pictures. ERPs were characterized by a larger repetition effect, on the P600 amplitude, for concrete than for abstract images, suggesting a graded recollection process dependent on the type of material to be recollected. Topographic differences were observed within the FN400 latency interval, especially over anterior-inferior electrodes, with the repetition effect more pronounced and localized over the left hemisphere for concrete stimuli, potentially reflecting different neural processes underlying early processing of verbal/semantic and visual material in memory.

  5. Face recognition performance of individuals with Asperger syndrome on the Cambridge Face Memory Test.

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    Hedley, Darren; Brewer, Neil; Young, Robyn

    2011-12-01

    Although face recognition deficits in individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), including Asperger syndrome (AS), are widely acknowledged, the empirical evidence is mixed. This in part reflects the failure to use standardized and psychometrically sound tests. We contrasted standardized face recognition scores on the Cambridge Face Memory Test (CFMT) for 34 individuals with AS with those for 42, IQ-matched non-ASD individuals, and age-standardized scores from a large Australian cohort. We also examined the influence of IQ, autistic traits, and negative affect on face recognition performance. Overall, participants with AS performed significantly worse on the CFMT than the non-ASD participants and when evaluated against standardized test norms. However, while 24% of participants with AS presented with severe face recognition impairment (>2 SDs below the mean), many individuals performed at or above the typical level for their age: 53% scored within +/- 1 SD of the mean and 9% demonstrated superior performance (>1 SD above the mean). Regression analysis provided no evidence that IQ, autistic traits, or negative affect significantly influenced face recognition: diagnostic group membership was the only significant predictor of face recognition performance. In sum, face recognition performance in ASD is on a continuum, but with average levels significantly below non-ASD levels of performance.

  6. The activation of visual face memory and explicit face recognition are delayed in developmental prosopagnosia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parketny, Joanna; Towler, John; Eimer, Martin

    2015-08-01

    Individuals with developmental prosopagnosia (DP) are strongly impaired in recognizing faces, but the causes of this deficit are not well understood. We employed event-related brain potentials (ERPs) to study the time-course of neural processes involved in the recognition of previously unfamiliar faces in DPs and in age-matched control participants with normal face recognition abilities. Faces of different individuals were presented sequentially in one of three possible views, and participants had to detect a specific Target Face ("Joe"). EEG was recorded during task performance to Target Faces, Nontarget Faces, or the participants' Own Face (which had to be ignored). The N250 component was measured as a marker of the match between a seen face and a stored representation in visual face memory. The subsequent P600f was measured as an index of attentional processes associated with the conscious awareness and recognition of a particular face. Target Faces elicited reliable N250 and P600f in the DP group, but both of these components emerged later in DPs than in control participants. This shows that the activation of visual face memory for previously unknown learned faces and the subsequent attentional processing and conscious recognition of these faces are delayed in DP. N250 and P600f components to Own Faces did not differ between the two groups, indicating that the processing of long-term familiar faces is less affected in DP. However, P600f components to Own Faces were absent in two participants with DP who failed to recognize their Own Face during the experiment. These results provide new evidence that face recognition deficits in DP may be linked to a delayed activation of visual face memory and explicit identity recognition mechanisms.

  7. Cerebrolysin improves memory and ameliorates neuronal atrophy in spontaneously hypertensive, aged rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solis-Gaspar, Carlos; Vazquez-Roque, Ruben A; De Jesús Gómez-Villalobos, Ma; Flores, Gonzalo

    2016-09-01

    The spontaneously hypertensive (SH) rat has been used as an animal model of vascular dementia (VD). Our previous report showed that, SH rats exhibited dendritic atrophy of pyramidal neurons of the CA1 dorsal hippocampus and layers 3 and 5 of the prefrontal cortex (PFC) at 8 months of age. In addition, we showed that cerebrolysin (Cbl), a neurotrophic peptide mixture, reduces the dendritic atrophy in aged animal models. This study aimed to determine whether Cbl was capable of reducing behavioral and neuronal alterations, in old female SH rats. The level of diastolic and systolic pressure was measured every month for the 6 first months and only animals with more than 160 mm Hg of systolic pressure were used. Female SH rats (6 months old) received 6 months of Cbl treatment. Immediately after the Cbl treatment, two behavioral tests were applied, the Morris water maze test for memory and learning and locomotor activity in novel environments. Immediately after the last behavioral test, dendritic morphology was studied with the Golgi-Cox stain procedure followed by a Sholl analysis. Clearly, SH rats with Cbl showed an increase in the dendritic length and dendritic spine density of pyramidal neurons in the CA1 in the dorsal hippocampus and layers 3 and 5 of the PFC. Interestingly, Cbl improved memory of the old SH rats. Our results support the possibility that Cbl may have beneficial effects on the management of brain alterations in an animal model with VD. Synapse 70:378-389, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Electroacupuncture ameliorates learning and memory in rats with cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury by inhibiting oxidative stress and promoting p-CREB expression in the hippocampus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Ruhui; Lin, Yukun; Tao, Jing; Chen, Bin; Yu, Kunqiang; Chen, Jixiang; Li, Xiaojie; Chen, Li-Dian

    2015-11-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the mechanisms by which electroacupuncture (EA) ameliorates learning and memory in rats with cerebral ischemic‑reperfusion (I/R) injury. Focal cerebral ischemia was induced in adult male Sprague‑Dawley (SD) rats by transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO). Following MCAO surgery, the rats received EA at the Shenting (DU24) and Baihui (DU20) acupoints. The results of the present study demonstrated that treatment with EA significantly ameliorated neurological deficits and reduced cerebral infarct volume (Plearning and memory ability of the rats, and markedly activated the cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) response element‑binding protein (CREB) signaling pathway, resulting in the inhibition of cerebral cell apoptosis in the ischemic penumbra. Furthermore, EA increased the activity of superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase, the protein expression levels of phosphorylated‑CREB and B‑cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl‑2), and the mRNA expression levels of Bcl‑2. Conversely, EA decreased the levels of malondialdehyde and inhibited the expression levels of Bcl2‑associated X protein. The results of the present study suggest that treatment with EA may result in the amelioration of learning and memory ability in rats with cerebral I/R injury.

  9. ROC in animals: uncovering the neural substrates of recollection and familiarity in episodic recognition memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauvage, Magdalena M

    2010-09-01

    It is a consensus that familiarity and recollection contribute to episodic recognition memory. However, it remains controversial whether familiarity and recollection are qualitatively distinct processes supported by different brain regions, or whether they reflect different strengths of the same process and share the same support. In this review, I discuss how adapting standard human recognition memory paradigms to rats, performing circumscribed brain lesions and using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) methods contributed to solve this controversy. First, I describe the validation of the animal ROC paradigms and report evidence that familiarity and recollection are distinct processes in intact rats. Second, I report results from rats with hippocampal dysfunction which confirm this finding and lead to the conclusion that the hippocampus supports recollection but not familiarity. Finally, I describe a recent study focusing on the medial entorhinal cortex (MEC) that investigates the contribution of areas upstream of the hippocampus to recollection and familiarity.

  10. The effects of age and emotional valence on recognition memory: an ex-Gaussian components analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moret-Tatay, Carmen; Moreno-Cid, Amparo; Argimon, Irani Iracema de Lima; Quarti Irigaray, Tatiana; Szczerbinski, Marcin; Murphy, Mike; Vázquez-Martínez, Andrea; Vázquez-Molina, Joan; Sáiz-Mauleón, Begoña; Navarro-Pardo, Esperanza; Fernández de Córdoba Castellá, Pedro

    2014-10-01

    The aim of this work was to study the effects of valence and age on visual image recognition memory. The International Affective Picture System (IAPS) battery was used, and response time data were analyzed using analysis of variance, as well as an ex-Gaussian fit method. Older participants were slower and more variable in their reaction times. Response times were longer for negative valence pictures, however this was statistically significant only for young participants. This suggests that negative emotional valence has a strong effect on recognition memory in young but not in old participants. The τ parameter, often related to attention in the literature, was smaller for young than old participants in an ex-Gaussian fit. Differences on the τ parameter might suggest poorer attentional performance in old participants.

  11. Constructing Long Short-Term Memory based Deep Recurrent Neural Networks for Large Vocabulary Speech Recognition

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Xiangang; Wu, Xihong

    2014-01-01

    Long short-term memory (LSTM) based acoustic modeling methods have recently been shown to give state-of-the-art performance on some speech recognition tasks. To achieve a further performance improvement, in this research, deep extensions on LSTM are investigated considering that deep hierarchical model has turned out to be more efficient than a shallow one. Motivated by previous research on constructing deep recurrent neural networks (RNNs), alternative deep LSTM architectures are proposed an...

  12. Using unitization as encoding strategy in associative recognition memory : behavioral, fMRI, and ERP evidence

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Recognition memory is thought to depend on two processes. Whereas familiarity refers to a simple feeling of knowing a stimulus, recollection enables us to remember associative information such as the place of a particular episode in which the stimulus has occurred. Accordingly, recollection, which relies on the integrity of the hippocampus, is generally required to remember arbitrary associations. In contrast, a familiarity signal, presumably arising in the perirhinal cortex, is sufficient to...

  13. Tc1 mouse model of trisomy-21 dissociates properties of short- and long-term recognition memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Jessica H; Wiseman, Frances K; Fisher, Elizabeth M C; Tybulewicz, Victor L J; Harwood, John L; Good, Mark A

    2016-04-01

    The present study examined memory function in Tc1 mice, a transchromosomic model of Down syndrome (DS). Tc1 mice demonstrated an unusual delay-dependent deficit in recognition memory. More specifically, Tc1 mice showed intact immediate (30sec), impaired short-term (10-min) and intact long-term (24-h) memory for objects. A similar pattern was observed for olfactory stimuli, confirming the generality of the pattern across sensory modalities. The specificity of the behavioural deficits in Tc1 mice was confirmed using APP overexpressing mice that showed the opposite pattern of object memory deficits. In contrast to object memory, Tc1 mice showed no deficit in either immediate or long-term memory for object-in-place information. Similarly, Tc1 mice showed no deficit in short-term memory for object-location information. The latter result indicates that Tc1 mice were able to detect and react to spatial novelty at the same delay interval that was sensitive to an object novelty recognition impairment. These results demonstrate (1) that novelty detection per se and (2) the encoding of visuo-spatial information was not disrupted in adult Tc1 mice. The authors conclude that the task specific nature of the short-term recognition memory deficit suggests that the trisomy of genes on human chromosome 21 in Tc1 mice impacts on (perirhinal) cortical systems supporting short-term object and olfactory recognition memory.

  14. Exercise improves object recognition memory and induces BDNF expression and cell proliferation in cognitively enriched rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bechara, R G; Kelly, Á M

    2013-05-15

    Exercise and environmental enrichment are behavioural interventions that have been shown to improve learning and increase neurogenesis in rodents, possibly via neurotrophin-mediated mechanisms. However, many enrichment protocols incorporate exercise, which can itself be viewed as a source of cognitive stimulation in animals housed in standard laboratory conditions. In this experiment we investigate the effect of each intervention separately and in combination on object recognition memory, and analyse associated changes in the dentate gyrus: specifically, in BDNF expression and cell division. We show that both exercise and enrichment improve object recognition memory, but that BDNF mRNA expression and cell proliferation in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus increase only in exercised rats. These results are in general agreement with recent studies suggesting that the exercise component is the major neurogenic and neurotrophic stimulus in environmental enrichment protocols. We add to the expanding literature several novel aspects including the finding that enrichment in the absence of exercise can improve object recognition memory, probably via mechanisms that are independent of BDNF upregulation and neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus.

  15. Astrocytic expression of HIV-1 Nef impairs spatial and recognition memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chompre, Gladys; Cruz, Emmanuel; Maldonado, Lucianette; Rivera-Amill, Vanessa; Porter, James T; Noel, Richard J

    2013-01-01

    Despite the widespread use of antiretroviral therapy that effectively limits viral replication, memory impairment remains a dilemma for HIV infected people. In the CNS, HIV infection of astrocytes leads to the production of the HIV-1 Nef protein without viral replication. Post mortem studies have found Nef expression in hippocampal astrocytes of people with HIV associated dementia suggesting that astrocytic Nef may contribute to HIV associated cognitive impairment even when viral replication is suppressed. To test whether astrocytic expression of Nef is sufficient to induce cognitive deficits, we examined the effect of implanting primary rat astrocytes expressing Nef into the hippocampus on spatial and recognition memory. Rats implanted unilaterally with astrocytes expressing Nef showed impaired novel location and novel object recognition in comparison with controls implanted with astrocytes expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP). This impairment was correlated with an increase in chemokine ligand 2 (CCL2) expression and the infiltration of peripheral macrophages into the hippocampus at the site of injection. Furthermore, the Nef exposed rats exhibited a bilateral loss of CA3 neurons. These results suggest that Nef protein expressed by the implanted astrocytes activates the immune system leading to neuronal damage and spatial and recognition memory deficits. Therefore, the continued expression of Nef by astrocytes in the absence of viral replication has the potential to contribute to HIV associated cognitive impairment.

  16. Intracellular Zn(2+) signaling in the dentate gyrus is required for object recognition memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeda, Atsushi; Tamano, Haruna; Ogawa, Taisuke; Takada, Shunsuke; Nakamura, Masatoshi; Fujii, Hiroaki; Ando, Masaki

    2014-11-01

    The role of perforant pathway-dentate granule cell synapses in cognitive behavior was examined focusing on synaptic Zn(2+) signaling in the dentate gyrus. Object recognition memory was transiently impaired when extracellular Zn(2+) levels were decreased by injection of clioquinol and N,N,N',N'-tetrakis-(2-pyridylmethyl) ethylendediamine. To pursue the effect of the loss and/or blockade of Zn(2+) signaling in dentate granule cells, ZnAF-2DA (100 pmol, 0.1 mM/1 µl), an intracellular Zn(2+) chelator, was locally injected into the dentate molecular layer of rats. ZnAF-2DA injection, which was estimated to chelate intracellular Zn(2+) signaling only in the dentate gyrus, affected object recognition memory 1 h after training without affecting intracellular Ca(2+) signaling in the dentate molecular layer. In vivo dentate gyrus long-term potentiation (LTP) was affected under the local perfusion of the recording region (the dentate granule cell layer) with 0.1 mM ZnAF-2DA, but not with 1-10 mM CaEDTA, an extracellular Zn(2+) chelator, suggesting that the blockade of intracellular Zn(2+) signaling in dentate granule cells affects dentate gyrus LTP. The present study demonstrates that intracellular Zn(2+) signaling in the dentate gyrus is required for object recognition memory, probably via dentate gyrus LTP expression.

  17. Memory for Star Trek: the role of prior knowledge in recognition revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Debra L; Prat, Chantel S

    2002-11-01

    Prior studies have found robust knowledge effects on recall of text ideas but have seldom found comparable effects on recognition. This inconsistency was examined in light of recent research on the component processes that underlie recognition memory. Using the remember/know paradigm, the authors found that experts made more remember judgments than novices, but only in response to text ideas relevant to their domain of expertise. Using the process-dissociation procedure, the authors found knowledge effects on recollection estimates, but not on familiarity estimates. The authors contend that knowledge effects have been difficult to detect in recognition because knowledge primarily affects recollection, whereas familiarity gives rise to good performance even among novices.

  18. A benefit of context reinstatement to recognition memory in aging: the role of familiarity processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Emma V; Maylor, Elizabeth A; Poirier, Marie; Korko, Malgorzata; Ruud, Jens C M

    2016-11-16

    Reinstatement of encoding context facilitates memory for targets in young and older individuals (e.g., a word studied on a particular background scene is more likely to be remembered later if it is presented on the same rather than a different scene or no scene), yet older adults are typically inferior at recalling and recognizing target-context pairings. This study examined the mechanisms of the context effect in normal aging. Age differences in word recognition by context condition (original, switched, none, new), and the ability to explicitly remember target-context pairings were investigated using word-scene pairs (Experiment 1) and word-word pairs (Experiment 2). Both age groups benefited from context reinstatement in item recognition, although older adults were significantly worse than young adults at identifying original pairings and at discriminating between original and switched pairings. In Experiment 3, participants were given a three-alternative forced-choice recognition task that allowed older individuals to draw upon intact familiarity processes in selecting original pairings. Performance was age equivalent. Findings suggest that heightened familiarity associated with context reinstatement is useful for boosting recognition memory in aging.

  19. Effect of general anesthesia in infancy on long-term recognition memory in humans and rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stratmann, Greg; Lee, Joshua; Sall, Jeffrey W; Lee, Bradley H; Alvi, Rehan S; Shih, Jennifer; Rowe, Allison M; Ramage, Tatiana M; Chang, Flora L; Alexander, Terri G; Lempert, David K; Lin, Nan; Siu, Kasey H; Elphick, Sophie A; Wong, Alice; Schnair, Caitlin I; Vu, Alexander F; Chan, John T; Zai, Huizhen; Wong, Michelle K; Anthony, Amanda M; Barbour, Kyle C; Ben-Tzur, Dana; Kazarian, Natalie E; Lee, Joyce Y Y; Shen, Jay R; Liu, Eric; Behniwal, Gurbir S; Lammers, Cathy R; Quinones, Zoel; Aggarwal, Anuj; Cedars, Elizabeth; Yonelinas, Andrew P; Ghetti, Simona

    2014-09-01

    Anesthesia in infancy impairs performance in recognition memory tasks in mammalian animals, but it is unknown if this occurs in humans. Successful recognition can be based on stimulus familiarity or recollection of event details. Several brain structures involved in recollection are affected by anesthesia-induced neurodegeneration in animals. Therefore, we hypothesized that anesthesia in infancy impairs recollection later in life in humans and rats. Twenty eight children ages 6-11 who had undergone a procedure requiring general anesthesia before age 1 were compared with 28 age- and gender-matched children who had not undergone anesthesia. Recollection and familiarity were assessed in an object recognition memory test using receiver operator characteristic analysis. In addition, IQ and Child Behavior Checklist scores were assessed. In parallel, thirty three 7-day-old rats were randomized to receive anesthesia or sham anesthesia. Over 10 months, recollection and familiarity were assessed using an odor recognition test. We found that anesthetized children had significantly lower recollection scores and were impaired at recollecting associative information compared with controls. Familiarity, IQ, and Child Behavior Checklist scores were not different between groups. In rats, anesthetized subjects had significantly lower recollection scores than controls while familiarity was unaffected. Rats that had undergone tissue injury during anesthesia had similar recollection indices as rats that had been anesthetized without tissue injury. These findings suggest that general anesthesia in infancy impairs recollection later in life in humans and rats. In rats, this effect is independent of underlying disease or tissue injury.

  20. Recognition memory for distractor faces depends on attentional load at exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Rob; Lavie, Nilli; Driver, Jon

    2005-04-01

    Incidental recognition memory for faces previously exposed as task-irrelevant distractors was assessed as a function of the attentional load of an unrelated task performed on superimposed letter strings at exposure. In Experiment 1, subjects were told to ignore the faces and either to judge the color of the letters (low load) or to search for an angular target letter among other angular letters (high load). A surprise recognition memory test revealed that despite the irrelevance of all faces at exposure, those exposed under low-load conditions were later recognized, but those exposed under high-load conditions were not. Experiment 2 found a similar pattern when both the high- and low-load tasks required shape judgments for the letters but made differing attentional demands. Finally, Experiment 3 showed that high load in a nonface task can significantly reduce even immediate recognition of a fixated face from the preceding trial. These results demonstrate that load in a nonface domain (e.g., letter shape) can reduce face recognition, in accord with Lavie's load theory. In addition to their theoretical impact, these results may have practical implications for eyewitness testimony.

  1. 2,2',4'-trihydroxychalcone from Glycyrrhiza glabra as a new specific BACE1 inhibitor efficiently ameliorates memory impairment in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Zhiyuan; Li, Chenjing; Wang, Xu; Yang, Zhengyi; Chen, Jing; Hu, Lihong; Jiang, Hualiang; Shen, Xu

    2010-07-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) characterizes a progressive neurodegenerative disorder of the brain, while AD patients are afflicted with irreversible loss of neurons and further the intellectual abilities including memory and reasoning. One of the typical hallmarks of AD is the deposition of senile plaque that is contributed mainly by amyloid-beta (Abeta), whose production is initiated by beta-site amyloid precursor protein (APP)-cleaving enzyme 1 (BACE1). Inhibition of BACE1 is thereby regarded as an attractive strategy for anti-AD drug discovery. Here, we reported that the natural product 2,2',4'-trihydroxychalcone (TDC) from Glycyrrhiza glabra functioned as a specific non-competitive inhibitor against BACE1 enzyme, and potently repressed beta-cleavage of APP and production of Abeta in human embryo kidney cells-APPswe cells. Moreover, the amelioration ability of this compound against the in vivo memory impairment was further evaluated by APP-PS1 double transgenic mice model. It is discovered that treatment of 9 mg/kg/day of TDC could obviously decrease Abeta production and Abeta plaque formation, while efficiently improve the memory impairment based on Morris water maze test. Our findings thus demonstrated that the natural product TDC as a new BACE1 inhibitor could ameliorate memory impairment in mice, and is expected to be potentially used as a lead compound for further anti-AD reagent development.

  2. Propofol ameliorates electroconvulsive shock-induced learning and memory impairment by regulation of synaptic metaplasticity via autophosphorylation of CaMKIIa at Thr 305 in stressed rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Li; Zhang, Fan; Min, Su; Hao, Xuechao; Qin, Peipei; Zhu, Xianlin

    2016-06-30

    Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is an effective treatment for depression, but it can induce learning and memory impairment. Our previous study found propofol (γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptor agonist) could ameliorate electroconvulsive shock (ECS, an analog of ECT to animals)-induced cognitive impairment, however, the underlying molecular mechanisms remain unclear. This study aimed to investigate the effects of propofol on metaplasticity and autophosphorylation of CaMKIIa in stressed rats receiving ECS. Depressive-like behavior and learning and memory function were assessed by sucrose preference test and Morris water test respectively. LTP were tested by electrophysiological experiment, the expression of CaMKIIa, p-T305-CaMKII in hippocampus and CaMKIIα in hippocampal PSD fraction were evaluated by western blot. Results suggested ECS raised the baseline fEPSP and impaired the subsequent LTP, increased the expression of p-T305-CaMKII and decreased the expression of CaMKIIα in hippocampal PSD fraction, leading to cognitive dysfunction in stressed rats. Propofol could down-regulate the baseline fEPSP and reversed the impairment of LTP partly, decreased the expression of p-T305-CaMKII and increased the expression of CaMKIIα in hippocampal PSD fraction and alleviated ECS-induced learning and memory impairment. In conclusion, propofol ameliorates ECS-induced learning and memory impairment, possibly by regulation of synaptic metaplasticity via p-T305-CaMKII.

  3. Standard object recognition memory and "what" and "where" components: Improvement by post-training epinephrine in highly habituated rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurado-Berbel, Patricia; Costa-Miserachs, David; Torras-Garcia, Meritxell; Coll-Andreu, Margalida; Portell-Cortés, Isabel

    2010-02-11

    The present work examined whether post-training systemic epinephrine (EPI) is able to modulate short-term (3h) and long-term (24 h and 48 h) memory of standard object recognition, as well as long-term (24 h) memory of separate "what" (object identity) and "where" (object location) components of object recognition. Although object recognition training is associated to low arousal levels, all the animals received habituation to the training box in order to further reduce emotional arousal. Post-training EPI improved long-term (24 h and 48 h), but not short-term (3 h), memory in the standard object recognition task, as well as 24 h memory for both object identity and object location. These data indicate that post-training epinephrine: (1) facilitates long-term memory for standard object recognition; (2) exerts separate facilitatory effects on "what" (object identity) and "where" (object location) components of object recognition; and (3) is capable of improving memory for a low arousing task even in highly habituated rats.

  4. Dopamine D1 receptor stimulation modulates the formation and retrieval of novel object recognition memory: Role of the prelimbic cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pezze, Marie A; Marshall, Hayley J; Fone, Kevin C F; Cassaday, Helen J

    2015-11-01

    Previous studies have shown that dopamine D1 receptor antagonists impair novel object recognition memory but the effects of dopamine D1 receptor stimulation remain to be determined. This study investigated the effects of the selective dopamine D1 receptor agonist SKF81297 on acquisition and retrieval in the novel object recognition task in male Wistar rats. SKF81297 (0.4 and 0.8 mg/kg s.c.) given 15 min before the sampling phase impaired novel object recognition evaluated 10 min or 24 h later. The same treatments also reduced novel object recognition memory tested 24 h after the sampling phase and when given 15 min before the choice session. These data indicate that D1 receptor stimulation modulates both the encoding and retrieval of object recognition memory. Microinfusion of SKF81297 (0.025 or 0.05 μg/side) into the prelimbic sub-region of the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) in this case 10 min before the sampling phase also impaired novel object recognition memory, suggesting that the mPFC is one important site mediating the effects of D1 receptor stimulation on visual recognition memory.

  5. Effects of multiparity on recognition memory, monoaminergic neurotransmitters, and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macbeth, Abbe H; Scharfman, Helen E; Maclusky, Neil J; Gautreaux, Claris; Luine, Victoria N

    2008-06-01

    Recognition memory and anxiety were examined in nulliparous (NP: 0 litters) and multiparous (MP: 5-6 litters) middle-aged female rats (12 months old) to assess possible enduring effects of multiparity at least 3 months after the last litter was weaned. MP females performed significantly better than NP females on the non-spatial memory task, object recognition, and the spatial memory task, object placement. Anxiety as measured on the elevated plus maze did not differ between groups. Monoaminergic activity and levels were measured in prefrontal cortex, CA1 hippocampus, CA3 hippocampus, and olfactory bulb (OB). NP and MP females differed in monoamine concentrations in the OB only, with MP females having significantly greater concentrations of dopamine and metabolite DOPAC, norepinephrine and metabolite MHPG, and the serotonin metabolite 5-HIAA, as compared to NP females. These results indicate a long-term change in OB neurochemistry as a result of multiparity. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) was also measured in hippocampus (CA1, CA3, dentate gyrus) and septum. MP females had higher BDNF levels in both CA1 and septum; as these regions are implicated in memory performance, elevated BDNF may underlie the observed memory task differences. Thus, MP females (experiencing multiple bouts of pregnancy, birth, and pup rearing during the first year of life) displayed enhanced memory task performance but equal anxiety responses, as compared to NP females. These results are consistent with previous studies showing long-term changes in behavioral function in MP, as compared to NP, rats and suggest that alterations in monoamines and a neurotrophin, BDNF, may contribute to the observed behavioral changes.

  6. Lithium chloride ameliorates learning and memory ability and inhibits glycogen synthase kinase-3 beta activity in a mouse model of fragile X syndrome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shengqiang Chen; Xuegang Luo; Quan Yang; Weiwen Sun; Kaiyi Cao; Xi Chen; Yueling Huang; Lijun Dai; Yonghong Yi

    2011-01-01

    In the present study, Fmr1 knockout mice (KO mice) were used as the model for fragile X syndrome. The results of step-through and step-down tests demonstrated that Fmr1 KO mice had shorter latencies and more error counts, indicating a learning and memory disorder. After treatment with 30, 60, 90, 120, or 200 mg/kg lithium chloride, the learning and memory abilities of the Fmr1 KO mice were significantly ameliorated, in particular, the 200 mg/kg lithium chloride treatment had the most significant effect. Western blot analysis showed that lithium chloride significantly enhanced the expression of phosphorylated glycogen synthase kinase 3 beta, an inactive form of glycogen synthase kinase 3 beta, in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus of the Fmr1 KO mice. These results indicated that lithium chloride improved learning and memory in the Fmr1 KO mice, possibly by inhibiting glycogen synthase kinase 3 beta activity.

  7. Individual recognition of social rank and social memory performance depends on a functional circadian system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, L; Weinert, D

    2016-11-01

    In a natural environment, social abilities of an animal are important for its survival. Particularly, it must recognize its own social rank and the social rank of a conspecific and have a good social memory. While the role of the circadian system for object and spatial recognition and memory is well known, the impact of the social rank and circadian disruptions on social recognition and memory were not investigated so far. In the present study, individual recognition of social rank and social memory performance of Djungarian hamsters revealing different circadian phenotypes were investigated. Wild type (WT) animals show a clear and well-synchronized daily activity rhythm, whereas in arrhythmic (AR) hamsters, the suprachiasmatic nuclei (SCN) do not generate a circadian signal. The aim of the study was to investigate putative consequences of these deteriorations in the circadian system for animalś cognitive abilities. Hamsters were bred and kept under standardized housing conditions with food and water ad libitum and a 14l/10 D lighting regimen. Experimental animals were assigned to different groups (WT and AR) according to their activity pattern obtained by means of infrared motion sensors. Before the experiments, the animals were given to develop a dominant-subordinate relationship in a dyadic encounter. Experiment 1 dealt with individual recognition of social rank. Subordinate and dominant hamsters were tested in an open arena for their behavioral responses towards a familiar (known from the agonistic encounters) or an unfamiliar hamster (from another agonistic encounter) which had the same or an opposite social rank. The investigation time depended on the social rank of the WT subject hamster and its familiarity with the stimulus animal. Both subordinate and dominant WT hamsters preferred an unfamiliar subordinate stimulus animal. In contrast, neither subordinate nor dominant AR hamsters preferred any of the stimulus animals. Thus, disruptions in circadian

  8. A Temporally Distinct Role for Group I and Group II Metabotropic Glutamate Receptors in Object Recognition Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Malcolm Watson; Warburton, Elizabeth Clea; Barker, Gareth Robert Isaac; Bashir, Zafar Iqbal

    2006-01-01

    Recognition memory, involving the ability to discriminate between a novel and familiar object, depends on the integrity of the perirhinal cortex (PRH). Glutamate, the main excitatory neurotransmitter in the cortex, is essential for many types of memory processes. Of the subtypes of glutamate receptor, metabotropic receptors (mGluRs) have received…

  9. Estradiol-Induced Object Recognition Memory Consolidation Is Dependent on Activation of mTOR Signaling in the Dorsal Hippocampus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortress, Ashley M.; Fan, Lu; Orr, Patrick T.; Zhao, Zaorui; Frick, Karyn M.

    2013-01-01

    The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathway is an important regulator of protein synthesis and is essential for various forms of hippocampal memory. Here, we asked whether the enhancement of object recognition memory consolidation produced by dorsal hippocampal infusion of 17[Beta]-estradiol (E[subscript 2]) is dependent on mTOR…

  10. Parsing the recognition memory components of the WMS-III face memory subtest: normative data and clinical findings in dementia groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holdnack, James A; Delis, Dean C

    2004-06-01

    The WMS-III face memory subtest was developed as a quick, reliable, measure of non-verbal recognition memory. While the face memory subtest has demonstrated clinical sensitivity, the test has been criticized for low correlation with other WMS-III visual memory subtests and for failing to differentiate performance between clinical groups. One possible reason for these findings may be due to the impact of response bias associated with recognition memory tests. Four studies were conducted to evaluate the utility of applying signal detection measures to the face memory subtests. The first two studies used the WMS-III standardization data set to determine age and education effects and to present normative and reliability data for hits, false positives, discriminability and response bias. The third study tested the hypothesis that using response components and signal detection measures would enhance the correlation between face memory and the other WMS-III visual memory subtests. The fourth study compared performance of patients with Alzheimer's disease, Huntington's disease, Korsakoff's syndrome and demographically matched controls on the new face memory scores. The new measures did not have higher correlation with other WMS-III visual memory measures than the standard scoring of the test. Analysis of the clinical samples indicated that the discriminability index best differentiated patients from controls. The response components, particularly delayed false positives, differentiated performance among the clinical groups. Normative and reliability data are presented.

  11. Dissociations in the effect of delay on object recognition: evidence for an associative model of recognition memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tam, Shu K E; Robinson, Jasper; Jennings, Dómhnall J; Bonardi, Charlotte

    2014-01-01

    Rats were administered 3 versions of an object recognition task: In the spontaneous object recognition task (SOR) animals discriminated between a familiar object and a novel object; in the temporal order task they discriminated between 2 familiar objects, 1 of which had been presented more recently than the other; and, in the object-in-place task, they discriminated among 4 previously presented objects, 2 of which were presented in the same locations as in preexposure and 2 in different but familiar locations. In each task animals were tested at 2 delays (5 min and 2 hr) between the sample and test phases in the SOR and object-in-place task, and between the 2 sample phases in the temporal order task. Performance in the SOR was poorer with the longer delay, whereas in the temporal order task performance improved with delay. There was no effect of delay on object-in-place performance. In addition the performance of animals with neurotoxic lesions of the dorsal hippocampus was selectively impaired in the object-in-place task at the longer delay. These findings are interpreted within the framework of Wagner's (1981) model of memory.

  12. Serotonin 2a Receptor and Serotonin 1a Receptor Interact Within the Medial Prefrontal Cortex During Recognition Memory in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morici, Juan F.; Ciccia, Lucia; Malleret, Gaël; Gingrich, Jay A.; Bekinschtein, Pedro; Weisstaub, Noelia V.

    2015-01-01

    Episodic memory, can be defined as the memory for unique events. The serotonergic system one of the main neuromodulatory systems in the brain appears to play a role in it. The serotonin 2a receptor (5-HT2aR) one of the principal post-synaptic receptors for 5-HT in the brain, is involved in neuropsychiatric and neurological disorders associated with memory deficits. Recognition memory can be defined as the ability to recognize if a particular event or item was previously encountered and is thus considered, under certain conditions, a form of episodic memory. As human data suggest that a constitutively decrease of 5-HT2A signaling might affect episodic memory performance we decided to compare the performance of mice with disrupted 5-HT2aR signaling (htr2a−/−) with wild type (htr2a+/+) littermates in different recognition memory and working memory tasks that differed in the level of proactive interference. We found that ablation of 5-HT2aR signaling throughout development produces a deficit in tasks that cannot be solved by single item strategy suggesting that 5-HT2aR signaling is involved in interference resolution. We also found that in the absence of 5-HT2aR signaling serotonin has a deleterious effect on recognition memory retrieval through the activation of 5-HT1aR in the medial prefrontal cortex. PMID:26779016

  13. Serotonin 2a Receptor and serotonin 1a receptor interact within the medial prefrontal cortex during recognition memory in mice

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    Juan Facundo Morici

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Episodic memory, can be defined as the memory for unique events. The serotonergic system one of the main neuromodulatory systems in the brain appears to play a role in it. The serotonin 2a receptor (5-HT2aR one of the principal post-synaptic receptors for 5-HT in the brain, is involved in neuropsychiatric and neurological disorders associated with memory deficits. Recognition memory can be defined as the ability to recognize if a particular event or item was previously encountered and is thus considered, under certain conditions, a form of episodic memory. As human data suggest that a constitutively decrease of 5-HT2A signaling might affect episodic memory performance we decided to compare the performance of mice with disrupted 5-HT2aR signaling (htr2a -/- with wild type (htr2a+/+ littermates in different recognition memory and working memory tasks that differed in the level of proactive interference. We found that ablation of 5-HT2aR signaling throughout development produces a deficit in tasks that cannot be solved by single item strategy suggesting that 5-HT2aR signaling is involved in interference resolution. We also found that in the absence of 5-HT2aR signaling serotonin has a deleterious effect on recognition memory retrieval through the activation of 5-HT1aR in the medial prefrontal cortex.

  14. The role of the human hippocampus in familiarity-based and recollection-based recognition memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wixted, John T; Squire, Larry R

    2010-12-31

    The ability to recognize a previously encountered stimulus is dependent on the structures of the medial temporal lobe and is thought to be supported by two processes, recollection and familiarity. A focus of research in recent years concerns the extent to which these two processes depend on the hippocampus and on the other structures of the medial temporal lobe. One view holds that the hippocampus is important for both processes, whereas a different view holds that the hippocampus supports only the recollection process and the perirhinal cortex supports the familiarity process. One approach has been to study patients with hippocampal lesions and to contrast old/new recognition (which can be supported by familiarity) to free recall (which is supported by recollection). Despite some early case studies suggesting otherwise, several group studies have now shown that hippocampal patients exhibit comparable impairments on old/new recognition and free recall. These findings suggest that the hippocampus is important for both recollection and familiarity. Neuroimaging studies and Receiver Operating Characteristic analyses also initially suggested that the hippocampus was specialized for recollection, but these studies involved a strength confound (strong memories have been compared to weak memories). When steps are taken to compare strong recollection-based memories with strong familiarity-based memories, or otherwise control for memory strength, evidence for a familiarity signal (as well as a recollection signal) is evident in the hippocampus. These findings suggest that the functional organization of the medial temporal lobe is probably best understood in terms unrelated to the distinction between recollection and familiarity.

  15. Individual differences in holistic processing predict the own-race advantage in recognition memory.

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    Degutis, Joseph; Mercado, Rogelio J; Wilmer, Jeremy; Rosenblatt, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    Individuals are consistently better at recognizing own-race faces compared to other-race faces (other-race effect, ORE). One popular hypothesis is that this recognition memory ORE is caused by differential own- and other-race holistic processing, the simultaneous integration of part and configural face information into a coherent whole. Holistic processing may create a more rich, detailed memory representation of own-race faces compared to other-race faces. Despite several studies showing that own-race faces are processed more holistically than other-race faces, studies have yet to link the holistic processing ORE and the recognition memory ORE. In the current study, we sought to use a more valid method of analyzing individual differences in holistic processing by using regression to statistically remove the influence of the control condition (part trials in the part-whole task) from the condition of interest (whole trials in the part-whole task). We also employed regression to separately examine the two components of the ORE: own-race advantage (regressing other-race from own-race performance) and other-race decrement (regressing own-race from other-race performance). First, we demonstrated that own-race faces were processed more holistically than other-race faces, particularly the eye region. Notably, using regression, we showed a significant association between the own-race advantage in recognition memory and the own-race advantage in holistic processing and that these associations were weaker when examining the other-race decrement. We also demonstrated that performance on own- and other-race faces across all of our tasks was highly correlated, suggesting that the differences we found between own- and other-race faces are quantitative rather than qualitative. Together, this suggests that own- and other-race faces recruit largely similar mechanisms, that own-race faces more thoroughly engage holistic processing, and that this greater engagement of holistic

  16. Individual differences in holistic processing predict the own-race advantage in recognition memory.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Degutis

    Full Text Available Individuals are consistently better at recognizing own-race faces compared to other-race faces (other-race effect, ORE. One popular hypothesis is that this recognition memory ORE is caused by differential own- and other-race holistic processing, the simultaneous integration of part and configural face information into a coherent whole. Holistic processing may create a more rich, detailed memory representation of own-race faces compared to other-race faces. Despite several studies showing that own-race faces are processed more holistically than other-race faces, studies have yet to link the holistic processing ORE and the recognition memory ORE. In the current study, we sought to use a more valid method of analyzing individual differences in holistic processing by using regression to statistically remove the influence of the control condition (part trials in the part-whole task from the condition of interest (whole trials in the part-whole task. We also employed regression to separately examine the two components of the ORE: own-race advantage (regressing other-race from own-race performance and other-race decrement (regressing own-race from other-race performance. First, we demonstrated that own-race faces were processed more holistically than other-race faces, particularly the eye region. Notably, using regression, we showed a significant association between the own-race advantage in recognition memory and the own-race advantage in holistic processing and that these associations were weaker when examining the other-race decrement. We also demonstrated that performance on own- and other-race faces across all of our tasks was highly correlated, suggesting that the differences we found between own- and other-race faces are quantitative rather than qualitative. Together, this suggests that own- and other-race faces recruit largely similar mechanisms, that own-race faces more thoroughly engage holistic processing, and that this greater engagement of

  17. Effects of regulating positive emotions through reappraisal and suppression on verbal and non-verbal recognition memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortner, Catherine N M; de Koning, Monica

    2013-01-01

    Previous research has suggested that regulating emotions through reappraisal does not incur cognitive costs. However, in those experiments, cognitive costs were often assessed by recognition memory for information that was contextually related to the emotionally evocative stimuli and may have been incorporated into the reappraisal script, facilitating memory. Furthermore, there is little research on the cognitive correlates of regulating positive emotions. In the current experiment, we tested memory for information that was contextually unrelated to the emotional stimuli and could not easily be related to the reappraisal. Participants viewed neutral and mildly positive slides and either reappraised, suppressed their emotions, or viewed the images with no emotion regulation instruction. At the same time, they heard abstract words that were unrelated to the picture stimuli. Subsequent verbal recognition memory was lower after reappraising than viewing, whereas non-verbal recognition memory (of the slides) was higher after reappraising, but only for positive pictures and when participants viewed the positive pictures first. Suppression had no significant effect on either verbal or non-verbal recognition scores, although there was a trend towards poorer recognition of verbal information. The findings support the notion that reappraisal is effortful and draws on limited cognitive resources, causing decrements in performance in a concurrent memory task.

  18. Angiotensin II and its 3-7 fragment improve recognition but not spatial memory in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braszko, J J; Kułakowska, A; Wiśniewski, K

    1995-01-01

    The effects of angiotensin II (AII), its 3-7 fragment [AII(3-7)] and the substituted 3-7 fragment [Leu-5,AII(3-7)] given intracerebroventricularly (ICV) at the dose of 1 nmole each, on spatial memory and recognition were tested. AII(3-7) increased while Leu-5,AII(3-7) slightly decreased session to session foot shock reinforced runtime to the goal in a complex 6 chamber maze. The animals treated with AII performed in the maze similarly to saline injected controls. Overall number of errors was unchanged in all peptide treated groups in comparison with the control group. Object recognition was significantly improved in all the peptide treated groups except for the Leu-5,AII(3-7) group. The results point to the facilitation of recognition and lack of influence on, or even attenuation of, spatial memory by AII and its 3-7 fragment. Leu-5,AII(3-7) caused similar though less pronounced effects.

  19. Exercise can rescue recognition memory impairment in a model with reduced adult hippocampal neurogenesis

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    Pauline Lafenetre

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Running is a potent stimulator of cell proliferation in the adult dentate gyrus and these newly generated hippocampal neurons seem to be implicated in memory functions. Here we have used a mouse model expressing activated Ras under the direction of the neuronal Synapsin I promoter (named synRas mice. These mice develop down-regulated proliferation of adult hippocampal precursor cells and show decreased short-term recognition memory performances. Voluntary physical activity reversed the genetically blocked generation of hippocampal proliferating cells and enhanced the dendritic arborisation of the resulting doublecortin newly generated neurons. Moreover, running improved novelty recognition in both wild type and synRas littermates, compensating their memory deficits. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF has been proposed to be a potential mediator of physical exercise acting in the hippocampus on dentate neurons and their precursors. This was confirmed here by the identification of doublecortin-immunoreactive cells expressing TrkB BDNF receptor. While no difference in BDNF levels were detected in basal conditions between the synRas mice and their wild type littermates, running was associated with enhanced BDNF expression levels. Thus increased BDNF signalling is a candidate mechanism to explain the observed effects of running. Our studies demonstrate that voluntary physical activity has a robust beneficial effect even in mice with genetically restricted neurogenesis and cognition.

  20. Does emotion modulate the efficacy of spaced learning in recognition memory?

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    Nicola Mammarella

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Memory for repeated items improves when presentations are spaced during study. Here, two experiments assessed the so-called spacing effect on a yes–no recognition memory task using affective and neutral words. In Experiment 1, a group of participants was asked to orient their attention to semantic features of target words (deep semantic analysis that were consecutively repeated or spaced, while another group was engaged in a graphemic shallow analysis of words (Experiment 2. The depth of word processing approach was meant to highlight the role of repetition priming mechanisms in the generation of spacing effects. We found that spacing effects occurred for both affective and neutral words (Experiment 1. However, following shallow analysis of words, the spacing effect was reduced for both affective and neutral words (Experiment 2. No differences were detected in terms of positive versus negative words. These results suggest that spaced learning operates when the to-be-remembered material is also affectively charged and that, under certain circumstances, it may enhance recognition memory as affective connotation does.

  1. Human recognition memory and conflict control: An event-related potential study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, T; Liu, X; Xiao, T; Shi, J

    2016-01-28

    The relationship between recognition memory and cognitive control is an important research topic. The current study investigated how conflict control influences an individual's emotional memory. During the encoding phase, participants were required to judge the affective valence of a Chinese Chengyu word (either positive or negative) in a modified Simon paradigm and to remember the word. Half of the words were presented in the congruent condition and the other half were displayed in the incongruent condition. During the retrieval phase, participants were instructed to make an 'old/new judgment' and decide whether the word had been presented previously. Electrophysiological responses were recorded using the event-related potential (ERP) technique. The behavioral results of retrieval processes showed that participants remembered more positive than negative words when they were encoded in the congruent condition. The electrophysiological results revealed that the retrieval of words encoded in the incongruent condition elicited less negative frontal negativity (FN) and early posterior negativity (EPN) amplitudes than those encoded in the congruent condition. The retrieval of words encoded in the incongruent condition induced greater late positive complex (LPC) amplitudes, relative to those encoded in the congruent condition on the left hemisphere. It was also observed that the recognition of positive words induced faster LPC responses than negative words when they were encoded in the incongruent condition. The present electrophysiological study illustrates that emotional memory processes may be affected by conflict control.

  2. Recognition memory for Braille or spoken words: an fMRI study in early blind.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, Harold; Sinclair, Robert J; Agato, Alvin

    2012-02-15

    We examined cortical activity in early blind during word recognition memory. Nine participants were blind at birth and one by 1.5years. In an event-related design, we studied blood oxygen level-dependent responses to studied ("old") compared to novel ("new") words. Presentation mode was in Braille or spoken. Responses were larger for identified "new" words read with Braille in bilateral lower and higher tier visual areas and primary somatosensory cortex. Responses to spoken "new" words were larger in bilateral primary and accessory auditory cortex. Auditory cortex was unresponsive to Braille words and occipital cortex responded to spoken words but not differentially with "old"/"new" recognition. Left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex had larger responses to "old" words only with Braille. Larger occipital cortex responses to "new" Braille words suggested verbal memory based on the mechanism of recollection. A previous report in sighted noted larger responses for "new" words studied in association with pictures that created a distinctiveness heuristic source factor which enhanced recollection during remembering. Prior behavioral studies in early blind noted an exceptional ability to recall words. Utilization of this skill by participants in the current study possibly engendered recollection that augmented remembering "old" words. A larger response when identifying "new" words possibly resulted from exhaustive recollecting the sensory properties of "old" words in modality appropriate sensory cortices. The uniqueness of a memory role for occipital cortex is in its cross-modal responses to coding tactile properties of Braille. The latter possibly reflects a "sensory echo" that aids recollection.

  3. Rapid eye movement sleep deprivation disrupts consolidation but not reconsolidation of novel object recognition memory in rats.

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    Chen, Lin; Tian, Shaowen; Ke, Jie

    2014-03-20

    There is increasing evidence that sleep plays a critical role in memory consolidation. However, there are comparatively few studies that have assessed the relationship between sleep and memory reconsolidation. In the present study, we explored the effects of rapid eye movement sleep deprivation (RSD) on the consolidation (experiment 1) and reconsolidation (experiment 2) of novel object recognition memory in rats. In experiment 1 behavioral procedure involved two training phases: sample and test. Rats were subjected to 6h RSD starting either immediately after sample (exposed to 2 objects) or 6h later. In experiment 2 behavioral procedure involved three training phases: sample, reactivation and test. Rats were subjected to 6h RSD starting either immediately after reactivation (exposed to the same 2 sample objects to reactivate the memory trace) or 6h later. Results from experiment 1 showed that post-sample RSD from 0 to 6h but not 6 to 12h disrupted novel object recognition memory consolidation. However, we found that post-reactivation RSD whether from 0 to 6h or 6 to 12h had no effect on novel object recognition memory reconsolidation in experiment 2. The results indicated that RSD selectively disrupted consolidation of novel object recognition memory, suggesting a dissociation effect of RSD on consolidation and reconsolidation.

  4. Amnesiacs might get the gist: reduced false recognition in amnesia may be the result of impaired item-specific memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nissan, Jack; Abrahams, Sharon; Sala, Sergio Della

    2013-01-01

    It is a common finding in tests of false recognition that amnesic patients recognize fewer related lures than healthy controls, and this has led to assumptions that gist memory is damaged in these patients (Schacter, Verfaellie, & Anes, 1997, Neuropsychology, 11; Schacter, Verfaellie, Anes, & Racine, 1998, Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 10; Schacter, Verfaellie, & Pradere, 1996, Journal of Memory and Language, 35). However, clinical observations find that amnesic patients typically hold meaningful conversations and make relevant remarks, and there is some experimental evidence highlighting preserved immediate recall of prose (Baddeley & Wilson, 2002, Neuropsychologia, 40; Gooding, Isaac, & Mayes, 2005, Neuropsychologia, 43; Rosenbaum, Gilboa, Levine, Winocur, & Moscovitch, 2009, Neuropsychologia, 47), which suggests that amnesiacs can get the gist. The present experiment used false recognition paradigms to assess whether the reduced rate of false recognition found in amnesic patients may be a consequence of their impaired item-specific memory. It examined the effect of increasing the item-specific memory of amnesic patient DA by bringing her to criterion on relevant study-lists and compared her performance on a false recognition paradigm with a group of 32 healthy young adults. Results indicated that when DA's item-specific memory was increased she was more able to gist and her performance was no different to the healthy young adults. Previous assumptions that gist memory is necessarily damaged in amnesia might therefore be revisited, since the reduced rate of false recognition could be caused by impaired item-specific memory. The experiment also highlights a positive relationship between item-specific and gist memory which has not previously been accounted for in false-recognition experiments.

  5. Lactobacillus casei-01 facilitates the ameliorative effects of proanthocyanidins extracted from lotus seedpod on learning and memory impairment in scopolamine-induced amnesia mice.

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    Juan Xiao

    Full Text Available Learning and memory abilities are associated with alterations in gut function. The two-way proanthocyanidins-microbiota interaction in vivo enhances the physiological activities of proanthocyanidins and promotes the regulation of gut function. Proanthocyanidins extracted from lotus seedpod (LSPC have shown the memory-enhancing ability. However, there has been no literature about whether Lactobacillus casei-01 (LC enhances the ameliorative effects of LSPC on learning and memory abilities. In this study, learning and memory abilities of scopolamine-induced amnesia mice were evaluated by Y-maze test after 20-day administration of LC (10(9 cfu/kg body weight (BW, LSPC (low dose was 60 mg/kg BW (L-LSPC and high dose was 90 mg/kg BW (H-LSPC, or LSPC and LC combinations (L-LSPC+LC and H-LSPC+LC. Alterations in antioxidant defense ability and oxidative damage of brain, serum and colon, and brain cholinergic system were investigated as the possible mechanisms. As a result, the error times of H-LSPC+LC group were reduced by 41.59% and 68.75% relative to those of H-LSPC and LC groups respectively. LSPC and LC combinations ameliorated scopolamine-induced memory impairment by improving total antioxidant capacity (TAOC level, glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px and total superoxide dismutase (T-SOD activities of brain, serum and colon, suppressing malondialdehyde (MDA level of brain, serum and colon, and inhibiting brain acetylcholinesterase (AchE, myeloperoxidase, total nitric oxide synthase and neural nitric oxide synthase (nNOS activities, and nNOS mRNA level. Moreover, LC facilitated the ameliorative effects of H-LSPC on GSH-Px activity of colon, TAOC level, GSH-Px activity and ratio of T-SOD to MDA of brain and serum, and the inhibitory effects of H-LSPC on serum MDA level, brain nNOS mRNA level and AchE activity. These results indicated that LC promoted the memory-enhancing effect of LSPC in scopolamine-induced amnesia mice.

  6. Memory for Emotional Pictures in Patients with Alzheimer's Dementia: Comparing Picture-Location Binding and Subsequent Recognition

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    Marloes J. Huijbers

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Emotional content typically facilitates subsequent memory, known as the emotional enhancement effect. We investigated whether emotional content facilitates spatial and item memory in patients with Alzheimer's dementia (AD. Twenty-three AD patients, twenty-three healthy elderly, and twenty-three young adults performed a picture relocation task and a delayed recognition task with positive, negative, and neutral stimuli. AD patients showed a benefit in immediate spatial memory for positive pictures, while healthy young and older participants did not benefit from emotional content. No emotional enhancement effects on delayed item recognition were seen. We conclude that AD patients may have a memory bias for positive information in spatial memory. Discrepancies between our findings and earlier studies are discussed.

  7. Medial temporal lobe function and recognition memory: a novel approach to separating the contribution of recollection and familiarity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Zhuang; Jeneson, Annette; Squire, Larry R

    2011-11-02

    Human neuroimaging studies of recognition memory have often been interpreted to mean that the hippocampus supports recollection but not familiarity. This interpretation is complicated by the fact that recollection-based decisions are typically associated with stronger memories than familiarity-based decisions. Some studies of source memory controlled for this difference in memory strength and found that hippocampal activity during learning predicted subsequent item memory strength while recollection-based memory (performance on source memory questions) was held at chance. This result suggests that the hippocampus is important for familiarity. However, a difficulty with this approach is that when source memory is assessed by asking specific, task-relevant source memory questions, participants who fail to answer the prescribed questions might nevertheless have available other (task-irrelevant) source information. Accordingly, successful item memory could still be associated with recollection. The present study used a novel method to assess item memory and source memory. Instead of responding to specific source questions, participants rated their source memory strength based on any information about the learning episode that was available to them. When subsequent source memory strength was held constant at the lowest possible level, we identified regions bilaterally in hippocampus, as well as in perirhinal cortex, where activity during learning increased as subsequent item memory increased in strength. In addition, activity in cortical regions (including prefrontal cortex) was related to source memory success independently of item memory strength. These findings suggest that activity in the hippocampus is related to the encoding of familiarity-based item memory, independent of subsequent recollection-based success.

  8. Spontaneous object recognition: a promising approach to the comparative study of memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel eBlaser

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Spontaneous recognition of a novel object is a popular measure of exploratory behavior, perception and recognition memory in rodent models. Because of its relative simplicity and speed of testing, the variety of stimuli that can be used, and its ecological validity across species, it is also an attractive task for comparative research. To date, variants of this test have been used with vertebrate and invertebrate species, but the methods have seldom been sufficiently standardized to allow cross-species comparison. Here, we review the methods necessary for the study of novel object recognition in mammalian and non-mammalian models, as well as the results of these experiments. Critical to the use of this test is an understanding of the organism’s initial response to a novel object, the modulation of exploration by context, and species differences in object perception and exploratory behaviors. We argue that with appropriate consideration of species differences in perception, object affordances, and natural exploratory behaviors, the spontaneous object recognition test can be a valid and versatile tool for translational research with non-mammalian models.

  9. A robust cellular associative memory for pattern recognitions using composite trigonometric chaotic neuron models

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    Wimol San-Um

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a robust cellular associative memory for pattern recognitions using composite trigonometric chaotic neuron models. Robust chaotic neurons are designed through a scan of positive Lyapunov Exponent (LE bifurcation structures, which indicate the quantitative measure of chaoticity for one-dimensional discrete-time dynamical systems. The proposed chaotic neuron model is a composite of sine and cosine chaotic maps, which are independent from the output activation function. Dynamics behaviors are demonstrated through bifurcation diagrams and LE-based bifurcation structures. An application to associative memories of binary patterns in Cellular Neural Networks (CNN topology is demonstrated using a signum output activation function. Examples of English alphabets are stored using symmetric auto-associative matrix of n-binary patterns. Simulation results have demonstrated that the cellular neural network can quickly and effectively restore the distorted pattern to expected information.

  10. Probing the brain substrates of cognitive processes responsible for context effects on recognition memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vakil, Eli; Raz, Tal; Levy, Daniel A

    2010-09-01

    Context effects on episodic recognition memory involve separable contributions of target-context binding, additive familiarity, and configural constancy. Here we examine whether these factors reflect contributions of processes attributed to different brain substrates. First, we challenged frontal and medial temporal lobe-based cognitive capacities in healthy young adults, employing divided attention tasks at encoding and retrieval, and extended retrieval delay, respectively. Target-context binding effects were specifically attenuated by delay, but not by divided attention. In a second experiment, older adults were identified by neuropsychological testing as having different levels of frontal and medial temporal lobe-dependent cognitive functions. Consistent with Experiment 1, older adults with low medial temporal lobe function exhibited reduced target-context binding effects, but levels of frontal function did not modulate binding effects. These findings indicate that unlike source memory, context effects on memory are associated with the integrity of medial temporal lobe-based processes but not with the integrity of frontal lobe-based processes. Our findings also emphasize the importance of discriminating between functional subgroups in the attempt to characterize memory processes in older adults.

  11. A direct test of the unequal-variance signal detection model of recognition memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mickes, Laura; Wixted, John T; Wais, Peter E

    2007-10-01

    Analyses of the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) almost invariably suggest that, on a recognition memory test, the standard deviation of memory strengths associated with the lures (sigma(lure)) is smaller than that of the targets (sigma(target)). Often, sigma(lure)/ sigma(target) approximately = 0.80. However, that conclusion is based on a model that assumes that the memory strength distributions are Gaussian in form. In two experiments, we investigated this issue in a more direct way by asking subjects to simply rate the memory strengths of targets and lures using a 20-point or a 99-point strength scale. The results showed that the standard deviation of the ratings made to the targets (S(target)) was, indeed, larger than the standard deviation of the ratings made to the lures (S(lure)). Moreover, across subjects, the ratio S(lure)/ S(target) correlated highly with the estimate of sigma(lure)/ sigma(target) obtained from ROC analysis, and both estimates were, on average, approximately equal to 0.80.

  12. Aging and associative recognition: A view from the DRYAD model of age-related memory deficits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benjamin, Aaron S

    2016-02-01

    How do we best characterize the memory deficits that accompany aging? A popular hypothesis, articulated originally by Naveh-Benjamin (2000) and reviewed in the accompanying article by Smyth and Naveh-Benjamin (2016), suggests that older adults are selectively deficient in establishing associations between to-be-learned memoranda and as a result have deficits in memory for sources or contexts. An alternative proposal, called density of representations yields age-related deficits (DRYAD) and outlined in recent articles by Benjamin (2010) and colleagues (Benjamin, Diaz, Matzen, & Johnson, 2012), attributes disproportionate deficits in memory to a global, rather than a selective, deficit of memory. In an attempt to adjudicate between these competing positions, Smyth and Naveh-Benjamin (2016) discussed 2 sets of experimental data that they claim speak against the global deficit model. Here I review some general principles of how the global-deficit view is applied to experimental paradigms and demonstrate that even a simplified form of DRYAD can comfortably accommodate the critical findings cited by Smyth and Naveh-Benjamin. I also evaluate aspects of their results that may be problematic for DRYAD and describe ways in which DRYAD's account of associative recognition can be falsified. I end with a discussion of the complementary strengths and weaknesses of the 2 approaches and consider ways in which the associative deficit hypothesis and DRYAD might work more profitably together than apart.

  13. Developement of 3D Vertically Integrated Pattern Recognition Associative Memory (VIPRAM)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deputch, G.; Hoff, J.; Lipton, R.; Liu, T.; Olsen, J.; Ramberg, E.; Wu, Jin-Yuan; Yarema, R.; /Fermilab; Shochet, M.; Tang, F.; /Chicago U.; Demarteau, M.; /Argonne /INFN, Padova

    2011-04-13

    Many next-generation physics experiments will be characterized by the collection of large quantities of data, taken in rapid succession, from which scientists will have to unravel the underlying physical processes. In most cases, large backgrounds will overwhelm the physics signal. Since the quantity of data that can be stored for later analysis is limited, real-time event selection is imperative to retain the interesting events while rejecting the background. Scaling of current technologies is unlikely to satisfy the scientific needs of future projects, so investments in transformational new technologies need to be made. For example, future particle physics experiments looking for rare processes will have to address the demanding challenges of fast pattern recognition in triggering as detector hit density becomes significantly higher due to the high luminosity required to produce the rare processes. In this proposal, we intend to develop hardware-based technology that significantly advances the state-of-the-art for fast pattern recognition within and outside HEP using the 3D vertical integration technology that has emerged recently in industry. The ultimate physics reach of the LHC experiments will crucially depend on the tracking trigger's ability to help discriminate between interesting rare events and the background. Hardware-based pattern recognition for fast triggering on particle tracks has been successfully used in high-energy physics experiments for some time. The CDF Silicon Vertex Trigger (SVT) at the Fermilab Tevatron is an excellent example. The method used there, developed in the 1990's, is based on algorithms that use a massively parallel associative memory architecture to identify patterns efficiently at high speed. However, due to much higher occupancy and event rates at the LHC, and the fact that the LHC detectors have a much larger number of channels in their tracking detectors, there is an enormous challenge in implementing pattern

  14. Get the gist? The effects of processing depth on false recognition in short-term and long-term memory.

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    Flegal, Kristin E; Reuter-Lorenz, Patricia A

    2014-07-01

    Gist-based processing has been proposed to account for robust false memories in the converging-associates task. The deep-encoding processes known to enhance verbatim memory also strengthen gist memory and increase distortions of long-term memory (LTM). Recent research has demonstrated that compelling false memory illusions are relatively delay-invariant, also occurring under canonical short-term memory (STM) conditions. To investigate the contributions of gist to false memory at short and long delays, processing depth was manipulated as participants encoded lists of four semantically related words and were probed immediately, following a filled 3- to 4-s retention interval, or approximately 20 min later, in a surprise recognition test. In two experiments, the encoding manipulation dissociated STM and LTM on the frequency, but not the phenomenology, of false memory. Deep encoding at STM increases false recognition rates at LTM, but confidence ratings and remember/know judgments are similar across delays and do not differ as a function of processing depth. These results suggest that some shared and some unique processes underlie false memory illusions at short and long delays.

  15. Baclofen ameliorates spatial working memory impairments induced by chronic cerebral hypoperfusion via up-regulation of HCN2 expression in the PFC in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Pan; Chen, Cheng; Lu, Yun; Fu, TianLi; Lu, Qing; Xu, Xulin; Li, Changjun; He, Zhi; Guo, Lianjun

    2016-07-15

    Chronic cerebral hypoperfusion (CCH) causes memory deficits and increases the risk of vascular dementia (VD) through several biologically plausible pathways. However, whether CCH causes prefrontal cortex (PFC)-dependent spatial working memory impairments and Baclofen, a GABAB receptor agonist, could ameliorate the impairments is still not clear especially the mechanisms underlying the process. In this study, rats were subjected to permanent bilateral occlusion of the common carotid arteries (two-vessel occlusion, 2VO) to induce CCH. Two weeks later, rats were treated with 25mg/kg Baclofen (intraperitioneal injection, i.p.) for 3 weeks. Spatial working memory was evaluated in a Morris water maze using a modified delayed matching-to-place (DMP) procedure. Western blotting and immunohistochemistry were used to quantify the protein levels and protein localization. Our results showed that 2VO caused striking spatial working memory impairments, accompanied with a decreased HCN2 expression in PFC, but the protein levels of protein gene product 9.5 (PGP9.5, a neuron specific protein), glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), synaptophysin (SYP), brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), parvalbumin (PV) and HCN1 were not distinguishably changed as compared with sham-operated rats. Baclofen treatment significantly improved the spatial working memory impairments caused by 2VO, accompanied with a reversion of 2VO-induced down-regulation of HCN2. Furthermore, there was a co-localization of HCN2 subunits and parvalbumin-positive neurons in PFC. Therefore, HCN2 may target inhibitory interneurons that is implicated in working memory processes, which may be a possible mechanism of the up-regulation of HCN2 by Baclofen treatment that reliefs spatial working memory deficits in rats with CCH.

  16. Dexmedetomidine ameliorates intracerebral hemorrhage-induced memory impairment by inhibiting apoptosis and enhancing brain-derived neurotrophic factor expression in the rat hippocampus.

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    Hwang, Lakkyong; Choi, In-Young; Kim, Sung-Eun; Ko, Il-Gyu; Shin, Mal-Soon; Kim, Chang-Ju; Kim, Sang-Hoon; Jin, Jun-Jang; Chung, Jun-Young; Yi, Jae-Woo

    2013-05-01

    Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) is a severe type of stroke causing neurological dysfunction with a high mortality rate. Dexmedetomidine is an agonist for α2‑adrenoreceptors with sedative, anxiolytic, analgesic and anesthetic effects. In the present study, we investigated the effects of dexmedetomidine on short‑term and spatial learning memory, as well as its effects on apoptosis following the induction of ICH in rats. A rat model of IHC was created by an injection of collagenase into the hippocampus using a stereotaxic instrument. Dexmedetomidine was administered intraperitoneally daily for 14 consecutive days, commencing 1 day after the induction of ICH. The step‑down avoidance test for short‑term memory and the radial 8‑arm maze test for spatial learning memory were conducted. Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase‑mediated dUTP nick end-labeling (TUNEL) assay, immunohistochemistry for caspase‑3, and western blot analysis for Bcl‑2, Bax, Bid and caspase-3 expression were performed for the detection of apoptosis in the hippocampus. Western blot analysis for the brain‑derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and tyrosine kinase B (TrkB) was also performed for the detection of cell survival in the hippocampus. The induction of ICH deteriorated short‑term and spatial learning memory, increased apoptosis and suppressed BDNF and TrkB expression in the hippocampus. Treatment with dexmedetomidine ameliorated the ICH‑induced impairment of short‑term and spatial learning memory by suppressing apoptosis and enhancing BDNF and TrkB expression. In the normal rats, dexmedetomidine exerted no significant effects on memory function and apoptosis. The present results suggest the possibility that dexmedetomidine may be used as a therapeutic agent for the conservation of memory function in stroke patients.

  17. The role of 5-HT7 receptor antagonism in the amelioration of MK-801-induced learning and memory deficits by the novel atypical antipsychotic drug lurasidone.

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    Horisawa, Tomoko; Nishikawa, Hiroyuki; Toma, Satoko; Ikeda, Atsushi; Horiguchi, Masakuni; Ono, Michiko; Ishiyama, Takeo; Taiji, Mutsuo

    2013-05-01

    Lurasidone is a novel atypical antipsychotic with high affinity for dopamine D2, serotonin 5-HT7 and 5-HT2A receptors. We previously reported that lurasidone and the selective 5-HT7 receptor antagonist, SB-656104-A improved learning and memory deficits induced by MK-801, an N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist, in the rat passive avoidance test. In this study, we first examined the role of the 5-HT7 receptor antagonistic activity of lurasidone in its pro-cognitive effect to ameliorate MK-801-induced deficits in the rat passive avoidance test. The 5-HT7 receptor agonist, AS19, (2S)-(+)-5-(1,3,5-trimethylpyrazol-4-yl)-2-(dimethylamino) tetralin, (3 mg/kg, s.c.) completely blocked the attenuating effects of lurasidone (3 mg/kg, p.o.), highlighting the importance of 5-HT7 receptor antagonism in the pro-cognitive effect of lurasidone. AS19 (3 mg/kg, s.c.) also blocked the ameliorating effect of SB-656104-A (10 mg/kg, i.p.) in the same experimental paradigm. To further extend our observation, we next tested whether 5-HT7 receptor antagonism still led to the amelioration of MK-801-induced deficits when combined with D2 and 5-HT2A receptor antagonists, and found that SB-656104-A (10 mg/kg, i.p.) significantly ameliorated MK-801-induced deficits even in the presence of the D2 receptor antagonist raclopride (0.1 mg/kg, s.c.) and 5-HT2A receptor antagonist ketanserin (1 mg/kg, s.c.). Taken together, these results suggest that the 5-HT7 receptor antagonistic activity of lurasidone plays an important role in its effectiveness against MK-801-induced deficits, and may contribute to its pharmacological actions in patients with schizophrenia.

  18. Neural bases of recognition memory investigated through an analysis of imprinting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horn, G

    1990-08-29

    Through a learning process known as imprinting, the young of some animals, including the domestic chick, come to recognize an object by being exposed to it. Visually naive chicks vigorously approach a wide range of objects. After an adequate period of exposure to one object chicks selectively approach it in a recognition test. The nervous system of dark-reared chicks is not a tabula rasa, as chicks have predispositions to approach some stimuli rather than others. Nevertheless, visual imprinting leads to changes in a nervous system that may not have been 'marked' by previous visual experience, and so encourages the hope of discovering the neural bases of the learning process. The intermediate and medial part of the hyperstriatum ventrale, a sheet of cells within the cerebral hemispheres, plays a crucial role in visual imprinting, particularly in the memory process of recognition. The cellular and sub-cellular changes that take place in this part of the hyperstriatum ventrale after imprinting are described. The right and left hyperstriatum ventrale regions play different roles in the imprinting process, and evidence is given for the existence of multiple memory systems in the chick brain.

  19. Oxytocin eliminates the own-race bias in face recognition memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blandón-Gitlin, Iris; Pezdek, Kathy; Saldivar, Sesar; Steelman, Erin

    2014-09-11

    The neuropeptide Oxytocin influences a number of social behaviors, including processing of faces. We examined whether Oxytocin facilitates the processing of out-group faces and reduce the own-race bias (ORB). The ORB is a robust phenomenon characterized by poor recognition memory of other-race faces compared to the same-race faces. In Experiment 1, participants received intranasal solutions of Oxytocin or placebo prior to viewing White and Black faces. On a subsequent recognition test, whereas in the placebo condition the same-race faces were better recognized than other-race faces, in the Oxytocin condition Black and White faces were equally well recognized, effectively eliminating the ORB. In Experiment 2, Oxytocin was administered after the study phase. The ORB resulted, but Oxytocin did not significantly reduce the effect. This study is the first to show that Oxytocin can enhance face memory of out-group members and underscore the importance of social encoding mechanisms underlying the own-race bias. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Oxytocin and Social Behav.

  20. CRF₂ receptor-deficiency reduces recognition memory deficits and vulnerability to stress induced by cocaine withdrawal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morisot, Nadège; Le Moine, Catherine; Millan, Mark J; Contarino, Angelo

    2014-12-01

    Psychostimulant drug abuse, dependence and withdrawal are associated with cognitive dysfunction and impact stress-sensitive systems. The corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) system orchestrates stress responses via CRF1 and CRF2 receptors and is implicated in substance use disorders. However, CRF2 role in psychostimulant drug-induced cognitive dysfunction remains to be elucidated. In the present study, wild-type and CRF2-/- mice are injected with cocaine and memory assessed by the novel object recognition (NOR) task throughout relatively long periods of drug withdrawal. Following recovery from the drug-induced memory deficits, the mice are stressed prior to the NOR task and brain gene expression evaluated by in situ hybridization. Cocaine impairs NOR memory in wild-type and CRF2-/- mice. However, following cocaine withdrawal NOR memory deficits last less time in CRF2-/- than in wild-type mice. Furthermore, a relatively mild stressor induces the re-emergence of NOR deficits in long-term cocaine-withdrawn wild-type but not CRF2-/- mice. Cocaine-withdrawn mice show a genotype-independent higher c-fos expression in the NOR memory-relevant perirhinal cortex than drug-naïve mice. However neither genotype nor drug withdrawal affect the expression of tyrosine hydroxylase in the ventral tegmental area or the locus coeruleus and CRF in the central nucleus of the amygdala or the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus, brain regions implicated in stress and drug responses. These data indicate a new role for the CRF2 receptor in cognitive deficits induced by cocaine withdrawal, both as regards to their duration and their re-induction by stress. Interestingly, prototypical brain stress systems other than CRF do not appear to be involved.

  1. Distinct roles of the hippocampus and perirhinal cortex in GABAA receptor blockade-induced enhancement of object recognition memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jong Min; Kim, Dong Hyun; Lee, Younghwan; Park, Se Jin; Ryu, Jong Hoon

    2014-03-13

    It is well known that the hippocampus plays a role in spatial and contextual memory, and that spatial information is tightly regulated by the hippocampus. However, it is still highly controversial whether the hippocampus plays a role in object recognition memory. In a pilot study, the administration of bicuculline, a GABAA receptor antagonist, enhanced memory in the passive avoidance task, but not in the novel object recognition task. In the present study, we hypothesized that these different results are related to the characteristics of each task and the different roles of hippocampus and perirhinal cortex. A region-specific drug-treatment model was employed to clarify the role of the hippocampus and perirhinal cortex in object recognition memory. After a single habituation in the novel object recognition task, intra-perirhinal cortical injection of bicuculline increased and intra-hippocampal injection decreased the exploration time ratio to novel object. In addition, when animals were repeatedly habituated to the context, intra-perirhinal cortical administration of bicuculline still increased exploration time ratio to novel object, but the effect of intra-hippocampal administration disappeared. Concurrent increases of c-Fos expression and ERK phosphorylation were observed in the perirhinal cortex of the object with context-exposed group either after single or repeated habituation to the context, but no changes were noted in the hippocampus. Altogether, these results suggest that object recognition memory formation requires the perirhinal cortex but not the hippocampus, and that hippocampal activation interferes with object recognition memory by the information encoding of unfamiliar environment.

  2. A Broader View of Perirhinal Function: From Recognition Memory to Fluency-Based Decisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabeza, Roberto

    2013-01-01

    Although it is well established that the perirhinal cortex (PRC) makes an important contribution to recognition memory, the specific nature of this contribution remains uncertain. The finding that PRC activity is reduced for old compared with new items is typically attributed to the recovery of a long-term memory (LTM) signal. However, because old items are processed more easily or fluently than new items, reduced PRC activity could reflect increased fluency rather than LTM retrieval per se. We tested this hypothesis in humans using fMRI and a well-validated method to manipulate fluency: the masked priming paradigm. Some words during an old–new recognition test were preceded by conceptually related words (primes) that were subliminally presented (masked). The behavioral results replicated previous findings using this paradigm, whereby the fluency manipulation increased “oldness” responses to both old and new items. The fMRI analyses yielded two main sets of results. First, in the case of new items, which are independent from LTM retrieval, masked priming reduced PRC activity and predicted behavioral misattribution of fluency to oldness. Second, in the case of old items, the same PRC region showing fluency-related reductions for new items also contributed to “old” responding to old items. Individual differences in PRC attenuation also predicted oldness ratings to old items, and fluency modulated PRC connectivity with other brain regions associated with processing oldness signals, including visual cortex and right lateral prefrontal cortex. These results support a broader view in which the PRC serves a function more general than memory. PMID:24005298

  3. The Neural Substrates of Recognition Memory for Verbal Information: Spanning the Divide between Short- and Long-Term Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchsbaum, Bradley R.; Padmanabhan, Aarthi; Berman, Karen Faith

    2011-01-01

    One of the classic categorical divisions in the history of memory research is that between short-term and long-term memory. Indeed, because memory for the immediate past (a few seconds) and memory for the relatively more remote past (several seconds and beyond) are assumed to rely on distinct neural systems, more often than not, memory research…

  4. Effect of dietary iron loading on recognition memory in growing rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Murui; Kim, Jonghan

    2015-01-01

    While nutritional and neurobehavioral problems are associated with both iron deficiency during growth and overload in the elderly, the effect of iron loading in growing ages on neurobehavioral performance has not been fully explored. To characterize the role of dietary iron loading in memory function in the young, weanling rats were fed iron-loading diet (10,000 mg iron/kg diet) or iron-adequate control diet (50 mg/kg) for one month, during which a battery of behavioral tests were conducted. Iron-loaded rats displayed elevated non-heme iron levels in serum and liver, indicating a condition of systemic iron overload. In the brain, non-heme iron was elevated in the prefrontal cortex of iron-loaded rats compared with controls, whereas there was no difference in iron content in other brain regions between the two diet groups. While iron loading did not alter motor coordination or anxiety-like behavior, iron-loaded rats exhibited a better recognition memory, as represented by an increased novel object recognition index (22% increase from the reference value) than control rats (12% increase; P=0.047). Western blot analysis showed an up-regulation of dopamine receptor 1 in the prefrontal cortex from iron-loaded rats (142% increase; P=0.002). Furthermore, levels of glutamate receptors (both NMDA and AMPA) and nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) were significantly elevated in the prefrontal cortex of iron-loaded rats (62% increase in NR1; 70% increase in Glu1A; 115% increase in nAChR). Dietary iron loading also increased the expression of NMDA receptors and nAChR in the hippocampus. These results support the idea that iron is essential for learning and memory and further reveal that iron supplementation during developmental and rapidly growing periods of life improves memory performance. Our investigation also demonstrates that both cholinergic and glutamatergic neurotransmission pathways are regulated by dietary iron and provides a molecular basis for the role of iron

  5. Effect of dietary iron loading on recognition memory in growing rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murui Han

    Full Text Available While nutritional and neurobehavioral problems are associated with both iron deficiency during growth and overload in the elderly, the effect of iron loading in growing ages on neurobehavioral performance has not been fully explored. To characterize the role of dietary iron loading in memory function in the young, weanling rats were fed iron-loading diet (10,000 mg iron/kg diet or iron-adequate control diet (50 mg/kg for one month, during which a battery of behavioral tests were conducted. Iron-loaded rats displayed elevated non-heme iron levels in serum and liver, indicating a condition of systemic iron overload. In the brain, non-heme iron was elevated in the prefrontal cortex of iron-loaded rats compared with controls, whereas there was no difference in iron content in other brain regions between the two diet groups. While iron loading did not alter motor coordination or anxiety-like behavior, iron-loaded rats exhibited a better recognition memory, as represented by an increased novel object recognition index (22% increase from the reference value than control rats (12% increase; P=0.047. Western blot analysis showed an up-regulation of dopamine receptor 1 in the prefrontal cortex from iron-loaded rats (142% increase; P=0.002. Furthermore, levels of glutamate receptors (both NMDA and AMPA and nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR were significantly elevated in the prefrontal cortex of iron-loaded rats (62% increase in NR1; 70% increase in Glu1A; 115% increase in nAChR. Dietary iron loading also increased the expression of NMDA receptors and nAChR in the hippocampus. These results support the idea that iron is essential for learning and memory and further reveal that iron supplementation during developmental and rapidly growing periods of life improves memory performance. Our investigation also demonstrates that both cholinergic and glutamatergic neurotransmission pathways are regulated by dietary iron and provides a molecular basis for the

  6. Dynamic Relation Between Working Memory Capacity and Speech Recognition in Noise During the First 6 Months of Hearing Aid Use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elaine H. N. Ng

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to investigate the changing relationship between aided speech recognition and cognitive function during the first 6 months of hearing aid use. Twenty-seven first-time hearing aid users with symmetrical mild to moderate sensorineural hearing loss were recruited. Aided speech recognition thresholds in noise were obtained in the hearing aid fitting session as well as at 3 and 6 months postfitting. Cognitive abilities were assessed using a reading span test, which is a measure of working memory capacity, and a cognitive test battery. Results showed a significant correlation between reading span and speech reception threshold during the hearing aid fitting session. This relation was significantly weakened over the first 6 months of hearing aid use. Multiple regression analysis showed that reading span was the main predictor of speech recognition thresholds in noise when hearing aids were first fitted, but that the pure-tone average hearing threshold was the main predictor 6 months later. One way of explaining the results is that working memory capacity plays a more important role in speech recognition in noise initially rather than after 6 months of use. We propose that new hearing aid users engage working memory capacity to recognize unfamiliar processed speech signals because the phonological form of these signals cannot be automatically matched to phonological representations in long-term memory. As familiarization proceeds, the mismatch effect is alleviated, and the engagement of working memory capacity is reduced.

  7. The Cambridge Face Memory Test for Children (CFMT-C): a new tool for measuring face recognition skills in childhood.

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    Croydon, Abigail; Pimperton, Hannah; Ewing, Louise; Duchaine, Brad C; Pellicano, Elizabeth

    2014-09-01

    Face recognition ability follows a lengthy developmental course, not reaching maturity until well into adulthood. Valid and reliable assessments of face recognition memory ability are necessary to examine patterns of ability and disability in face processing, yet there is a dearth of such assessments for children. We modified a well-known test of face memory in adults, the Cambridge Face Memory Test (Duchaine & Nakayama, 2006, Neuropsychologia, 44, 576-585), to make it developmentally appropriate for children. To establish its utility, we administered either the upright or inverted versions of the computerised Cambridge Face Memory Test - Children (CFMT-C) to 401 children aged between 5 and 12 years. Our results show that the CFMT-C is sufficiently sensitive to demonstrate age-related gains in the recognition of unfamiliar upright and inverted faces, does not suffer from ceiling or floor effects, generates robust inversion effects, and is capable of detecting difficulties in face memory in children diagnosed with autism. Together, these findings indicate that the CFMT-C constitutes a new valid assessment tool for children's face recognition skills.

  8. Recognition memory strength is predicted by pupillary responses at encoding while fixation patterns distinguish recollection from familiarity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kafkas, Alexandros; Montaldi, Daniela

    2011-10-01

    Thirty-five healthy participants incidentally encoded a set of man-made and natural object pictures, while their pupil response and eye movements were recorded. At retrieval, studied and new stimuli were rated as novel, familiar (strong, moderate, or weak), or recollected. We found that both pupil response and fixation patterns at encoding predict later recognition memory strength. The extent of pupillary response accompanying incidental encoding was found to be predictive of subsequent memory. In addition, the number of fixations was also predictive of later recognition memory strength, suggesting that the accumulation of greater visual detail, even for single objects, is critical for the creation of a strong memory. Moreover, fixation patterns at encoding distinguished between recollection and familiarity at retrieval, with more dispersed fixations predicting familiarity and more clustered fixations predicting recollection. These data reveal close links between the autonomic control of pupil responses and eye movement patterns on the one hand and memory encoding on the other. Moreover, the data illustrate quantitative as well as qualitative differences in the incidental visual processing of stimuli, which are differentially predictive of the strength and the kind of memory experienced at recognition.

  9. Differential effects of spaced vs. massed training in long-term object-identity and object-location recognition memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bello-Medina, Paola C; Sánchez-Carrasco, Livia; González-Ornelas, Nadia R; Jeffery, Kathryn J; Ramírez-Amaya, Víctor

    2013-08-01

    Here we tested whether the well-known superiority of spaced training over massed training is equally evident in both object identity and object location recognition memory. We trained animals with objects placed in a variable or in a fixed location to produce a location-independent object identity memory or a location-dependent object representation. The training consisted of 5 trials that occurred either on one day (Massed) or over the course of 5 consecutive days (Spaced). The memory test was done in independent groups of animals either 24h or 7 days after the last training trial. In each test the animals were exposed to either a novel object, when trained with the objects in variable locations, or to a familiar object in a novel location, when trained with objects in fixed locations. The difference in time spent exploring the changed versus the familiar objects was used as a measure of recognition memory. For the object-identity-trained animals, spaced training produced clear evidence of recognition memory after both 24h and 7 days, but massed-training animals showed it only after 24h. In contrast, for the object-location-trained animals, recognition memory was evident after both retention intervals and with both training procedures. When objects were placed in variable locations for the two types of training and the test was done with a brand-new location, only the spaced-training animals showed recognition at 24h, but surprisingly, after 7 days, animals trained using both procedures were able to recognize the change, suggesting a post-training consolidation process. We suggest that the two training procedures trigger different neural mechanisms that may differ in the two segregated streams that process object information and that may consolidate differently.

  10. Recognition memory for low- and high-frequency-filtered emotional faces: Low spatial frequencies drive emotional memory enhancement, whereas high spatial frequencies drive the emotion-induced recognition bias.

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    Rohr, Michaela; Tröger, Johannes; Michely, Nils; Uhde, Alarith; Wentura, Dirk

    2017-02-17

    This article deals with two well-documented phenomena regarding emotional stimuli: emotional memory enhancement-that is, better long-term memory for emotional than for neutral stimuli-and the emotion-induced recognition bias-that is, a more liberal response criterion for emotional than for neutral stimuli. Studies on visual emotion perception and attention suggest that emotion-related processes can be modulated by means of spatial-frequency filtering of the presented emotional stimuli. Specifically, low spatial frequencies are assumed to play a primary role for the influence of emotion on attention and judgment. Given this theoretical background, we investigated whether spatial-frequency filtering also impacts (1) the memory advantage for emotional faces and (2) the emotion-induced recognition bias, in a series of old/new recognition experiments. Participants completed incidental-learning tasks with high- (HSF) and low- (LSF) spatial-frequency-filtered emotional and neutral faces. The results of the surprise recognition tests showed a clear memory advantage for emotional stimuli. Most importantly, the emotional memory enhancement was significantly larger for face images containing only low-frequency information (LSF faces) than for HSF faces across all experiments, suggesting that LSF information plays a critical role in this effect, whereas the emotion-induced recognition bias was found only for HSF stimuli. We discuss our findings in terms of both the traditional account of different processing pathways for HSF and LSF information and a stimulus features account. The double dissociation in the results favors the latter account-that is, an explanation in terms of differences in the characteristics of HSF and LSF stimuli.

  11. Impaired spatial information processing in aged monkeys with preserved recognition memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapp, P R; Kansky, M T; Roberts, J A

    1997-05-27

    Spatial information processing was examined in a non-human primate model of cognitive aging, using procedures formally similar to tasks designed for rats. The test apparatus was a large open field containing eight reward locations. Monkeys rapidly learned to visit each location once per trial, and probe manipulations confirmed that young animals navigated according to the distribution of cues surrounding the maze. In contrast, aged monkeys solved the task using a response sequencing strategy, independent of extramaze spatial information. Object recognition memory was normal in the aged group. The results reveal substantial correspondence in the cognitive effects of aging across rat and primate models, and they establish appropriate procedures for testing the long-standing proposal that the role of the hippocampus in normal spatial learning is similarly conserved.

  12. Aerobic exercise ameliorates learning and memory deficits of aging rats induced by D-galactose via promoting SYP and BNDF expression in hippocampus

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    Fu Yan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to explore the effects of aerobic exercise on learning and memory of aging brain and the underlying potential mechanism. We adopted the method of intraperitoneal administration for 6 weeks to induce aging rat model and gave rats swimming exercise intervention in the process of aging modeling. Then the Morris Water Maze test, immunofluorescence, western blotting and real time PCR technology were adopted to estimate rats’ learning and memory abilities and the expression levels of BDNF and SYP in hippocampus respectively. Compared with the aging model rats induced by D-gal administration, the rats subjected to swimming exercise in the process of aging modeling showed not only faster acquisition and better retention of the maze but also higher expression levels of BDNF and SYP in hippocampus. These findings provide evidence that aerobic exercise could ameliorate learning and memory deficits of aging rats induced by D-gal, which is related to aerobic exercise’ promoting hippocampal BNDF and SYP expression.

  13. Effect of 1.8 GHz radiofrequency electromagnetic radiation on novel object associative recognition memory in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kai; Lu, Jun-Mei; Xing, Zhen-He; Zhao, Qian-Ru; Hu, Lin-Qi; Xue, Lei; Zhang, Jie; Mei, Yan-Ai

    2017-01-01

    Mounting evidence suggests that exposure to radiofrequency electromagnetic radiation (RF-EMR) can influence learning and memory in rodents. In this study, we examined the effects of single exposure to 1.8 GHz RF-EMR for 30 min on subsequent recognition memory in mice, using the novel object recognition task (NORT). RF-EMR exposure at an intensity of >2.2 W/kg specific absorption rate (SAR) power density induced a significant density-dependent increase in NORT index with no corresponding changes in spontaneous locomotor activity. RF-EMR exposure increased dendritic-spine density and length in hippocampal and prefrontal cortical neurons, as shown by Golgi staining. Whole-cell recordings in acute hippocampal and medial prefrontal cortical slices showed that RF-EMR exposure significantly altered the resting membrane potential and action potential frequency, and reduced the action potential half-width, threshold, and onset delay in pyramidal neurons. These results demonstrate that exposure to 1.8 GHz RF-EMR for 30 min can significantly increase recognition memory in mice, and can change dendritic-spine morphology and neuronal excitability in the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex. The SAR in this study (3.3 W/kg) was outside the range encountered in normal daily life, and its relevance as a potential therapeutic approach for disorders associated with recognition memory deficits remains to be clarified. PMID:28303965

  14. Short-term blueberry-enriched antioxidant diet prevents and reverses object recognition memory loss in aged rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Objective Previously, four months of a blueberry-enriched (BB) antioxidant diet prevented impaired object recognition memory in aged rats. Experiment 1 determined whether one and two-month BB diets would have a similar effect and whether the benefits would disappear promptly after terminating the d...

  15. [Effects of recollection and familiarity on recognition memory in the Concealed Information Test].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaitsu, Wataru; Shibuya, Yusuke

    2013-08-01

    The effects of recollection and familiarity on recognition memory in the Concealed Information Test (CIT) were investigated. In the learning phase, participants encoded 20 words that were presented in one of four frames on a personal computer screen. Next, in the recognition test, the participants were divided into "Remember judgment (Recollection)" or "Know judgment (Familiarity)" groups, based on their Remember/Know judgment when recognizing learned items. In the CIT phase, physiological responses to questions about learned (i.e., critical) and non-learned (i.e., non-critical) items were measured and recorded. The results indicated that there was a deceleration of respiration speed (RS), an increase in skin conductance response (SCR), and a drop in heart rate in responses to critical items for both groups. Furthermore, the effect sizes of RS and SCR were greater in the "Remember judgment" group compared to the "Know judgment" group. These results suggest that critical response patterns are generated by recollection and familiarity. However, the more vividly participants recognized critical items the larger were the magnitudes of RS and SCR response patterns.

  16. Perirhinal cortex lesions impair tests of object recognition memory but spare novelty detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olarte-Sánchez, Cristian M; Amin, Eman; Warburton, E Clea; Aggleton, John P

    2015-12-01

    The present study examined why perirhinal cortex lesions in rats impair the spontaneous ability to select novel objects in preference to familiar objects, when both classes of object are presented simultaneously. The study began by repeating this standard finding, using a test of delayed object recognition memory. As expected, the perirhinal cortex lesions reduced the difference in exploration times for novel vs. familiar stimuli. In contrast, the same rats with perirhinal cortex lesions appeared to perform normally when the preferential exploration of novel vs. familiar objects was tested sequentially, i.e. when each trial consisted of only novel or only familiar objects. In addition, there was no indication that the perirhinal cortex lesions reduced total levels of object exploration for novel objects, as would be predicted if the lesions caused novel stimuli to appear familiar. Together, the results show that, in the absence of perirhinal cortex tissue, rats still receive signals of object novelty, although they may fail to link that information to the appropriate object. Consequently, these rats are impaired in discriminating the source of object novelty signals, leading to deficits on simultaneous choice tests of recognition.

  17. Striatal intrinsic reinforcement signals during recognition memory: relationship to response bias and dysregulation in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Daniel H; Gerraty, Raphaelt; Satterthwaite, Theodore D; Loughead, James; Campellone, Timothy; Elliott, Mark A; Turetsky, Bruce I; Gur, Ruben C; Gur, Raquel E

    2011-01-01

    Ventral striatum (VS) is a critical brain region for reinforcement learning and motivation, and VS hypofunction is implicated in psychiatric disorders including schizophrenia. Providing rewards or performance feedback has been shown to activate VS. Intrinsically motivated subjects performing challenging cognitive tasks are likely to engage reinforcement circuitry even in the absence of external feedback or incentives. However, such intrinsic reinforcement responses have received little attention, have not been examined in relation to behavioral performance, and have not been evaluated for impairment in neuropsychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia. Here we used fMRI to examine a challenging "old" vs. "new" visual recognition task in healthy subjects and patients with schizophrenia. Targets were unique fractal stimuli previously presented as salient distractors in a visual oddball task, producing incidental memory encoding. Based on the prediction error theory of reinforcement learning, we hypothesized that correct target recognition would activate VS in controls, and that this activation would be greater in subjects with lower expectation of responding correctly as indexed by a more conservative response bias. We also predicted these effects would be reduced in patients with schizophrenia. Consistent with these predictions, controls activated VS and other reinforcement processing regions during correct recognition, with greater VS activation in those with a more conservative response bias. Patients did not show either effect, with significant group differences suggesting hyporesponsivity in patients to internally generated feedback. These findings highlight the importance of accounting for intrinsic motivation and reward when studying cognitive tasks, and add to growing evidence of reward circuit dysfunction in schizophrenia that may impact cognition and function.

  18. Striatal intrinsic reinforcement signals during recognition memory: relationship to response bias and dysregulation in schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel H Wolf

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Ventral striatum (VS is a critical brain region for reinforcement learning and motivation, and VS hypofunction is implicated in psychiatric disorders including schizophrenia. Providing rewards or performance feedback has been shown to activate VS. Intrinisically motivated subjects performing challenging cognitive tasks are likely to engage reinforcement circuitry even in the absence of external feedback or incentives. However, such intrinsic reinforcement responses have received little attention, have not been examined in relation to behavioral performance, and have not been evaluated for impairment in neuropsychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia. Here we used fMRI to examine a challenging 'old' vs. 'new' visual recognition task in healthy subjects and patients with schizophrenia. Targets were unique fractal stimuli previously presented as salient distractors in a visual oddball task, producing incidental memory encoding. Based on the prediction error theory of reinforcement learning, we hypothesized that correct target recognition would activate VS in controls, and that this activation would be greater in subjects with lower expectation of responding correctly as indexed by a more conservative response bias. We also predicted these effects would be reduced in patients with schizophrenia. Consistent with these predictions, controls activated VS and other reinforcement processing regions during correct recognition, with greater VS activation in those with a more conservative response bias. Patients did not show either effect, with significant group differences suggesting hyporesponsivity in patients to internally-generated feedback. These findings highlight the importance of accounting for intrinsic motivation and reward when studying cognitive tasks, and add to growing evidence of reward circuit dysfunction in schizophrenia that may impact cognition and function.

  19. Effects of acute psychosocial stress on neural activity to emotional and neutral faces in a face recognition memory paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shijia; Weerda, Riklef; Milde, Christopher; Wolf, Oliver T; Thiel, Christiane M

    2014-12-01

    Previous studies have shown that acute psychosocial stress impairs recognition of declarative memory and that emotional material is especially sensitive to this effect. Animal studies suggest a central role of the amygdala which modulates memory processes in hippocampus, prefrontal cortex and other brain areas. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to investigate neural correlates of stress-induced modulation of emotional recognition memory in humans. Twenty-seven healthy, right-handed, non-smoker male volunteers performed an emotional face recognition task. During encoding, participants were presented with 50 fearful and 50 neutral faces. One hour later, they underwent either a stress (Trier Social Stress Test) or a control procedure outside the scanner which was followed immediately by the recognition session inside the scanner, where participants had to discriminate between 100 old and 50 new faces. Stress increased salivary cortisol, blood pressure and pulse, and decreased the mood of participants but did not impact recognition memory. BOLD data during recognition revealed a stress condition by emotion interaction in the left inferior frontal gyrus and right hippocampus which was due to a stress-induced increase of neural activity to fearful and a decrease to neutral faces. Functional connectivity analyses revealed a stress-induced increase in coupling between the right amygdala and the right fusiform gyrus, when processing fearful as compared to neutral faces. Our results provide evidence that acute psychosocial stress affects medial temporal and frontal brain areas differentially for neutral and emotional items, with a stress-induced privileged processing of emotional stimuli.

  20. Object Location and Object Recognition Memory Impairments, Motivation Deficits and Depression in a Model of Gulf War Illness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bharathi eHattiangady

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Memory and mood deficits are the enduring brain-related symptoms in Gulf War illness (GWI. Both animal model and epidemiological investigations have indicated that these impairments in a majority of GW veterans are linked to exposures to chemicals such as pyridostigmine bromide (PB, an anti nerve gas drug, permethrin (PM, an insecticide and DEET (a mosquito repellant encountered during the Persian Gulf War-1. Our previous study in a rat model has shown that combined exposures to low doses of GWI-related (GWIR chemicals PB, PM and DEET with or without 5-minutes of restraint stress (a mild stress paradigm causes hippocampus-dependent spatial memory dysfunction in a water maze test and increased depressive-like behavior in a forced swim test. In this study, using a larger cohort of rats exposed to GWIR-chemicals and stress, we investigated whether the memory deficiency identified earlier in a water maze test is reproducible with an alternative and stress free hippocampus-dependent memory test such as the object location test. We also ascertained the possible co-existence of hippocampus-independent memory dysfunction using a novel object recognition test, and alterations in mood function with additional tests for motivation and depression. Our results provide new evidence that exposure to low doses of GWIR-chemicals and stress for four weeks causes deficits in hippocampus-dependent object location memory and perirhinal cortex-dependent novel object recognition memory. An open field test performed prior to other behavioral analyses revealed that memory impairments were not associated with increased anxiety or deficits in general motor ability. However, behavioral tests for mood function such as a voluntary physical exercise paradigm and a novelty suppressed feeding test showed decreased motivation and depression. Thus, exposure to GWIR-chemicals and stress causes both hippocampus-dependent and hippocampus-independent memory impairments as well as

  1. Object location and object recognition memory impairments, motivation deficits and depression in a model of Gulf War illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hattiangady, Bharathi; Mishra, Vikas; Kodali, Maheedhar; Shuai, Bing; Rao, Xiolan; Shetty, Ashok K

    2014-01-01

    Memory and mood deficits are the enduring brain-related symptoms in Gulf War illness (GWI). Both animal model and epidemiological investigations have indicated that these impairments in a majority of GW veterans are linked to exposures to chemicals such as pyridostigmine bromide (PB, an antinerve gas drug), permethrin (PM, an insecticide) and DEET (a mosquito repellant) encountered during the Persian Gulf War-1. Our previous study in a rat model has shown that combined exposures to low doses of GWI-related (GWIR) chemicals PB, PM, and DEET with or without 5-min of restraint stress (a mild stress paradigm) causes hippocampus-dependent spatial memory dysfunction in a water maze test (WMT) and increased depressive-like behavior in a forced swim test (FST). In this study, using a larger cohort of rats exposed to GWIR-chemicals and stress, we investigated whether the memory deficiency identified earlier in a WMT is reproducible with an alternative and stress free hippocampus-dependent memory test such as the object location test (OLT). We also ascertained the possible co-existence of hippocampus-independent memory dysfunction using a novel object recognition test (NORT), and alterations in mood function with additional tests for motivation and depression. Our results provide new evidence that exposure to low doses of GWIR-chemicals and mild stress for 4 weeks causes deficits in hippocampus-dependent object location memory and perirhinal cortex-dependent novel object recognition memory. An open field test performed prior to other behavioral analyses revealed that memory impairments were not associated with increased anxiety or deficits in general motor ability. However, behavioral tests for mood function such as a voluntary physical exercise paradigm and a novelty suppressed feeding test (NSFT) demonstrated decreased motivation levels and depression. Thus, exposure to GWIR-chemicals and stress causes both hippocampus-dependent and hippocampus-independent memory

  2. Spatial memory and long-term object recognition are impaired by circadian arrhythmia and restored by the GABAAAntagonist pentylenetetrazole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruby, Norman F; Fernandez, Fabian; Garrett, Alex; Klima, Jessy; Zhang, Pei; Sapolsky, Robert; Heller, H Craig

    2013-01-01

    Performance on many memory tests varies across the day and is severely impaired by disruptions in circadian timing. We developed a noninvasive method to permanently eliminate circadian rhythms in Siberian hamsters (Phodopus sungorus) [corrected] so that we could investigate the contribution of the circadian system to learning and memory in animals that are neurologically and genetically intact. Male and female adult hamsters were rendered arrhythmic by a disruptive phase shift protocol that eliminates cycling of clock genes within the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), but preserves sleep architecture. These arrhythmic animals have deficits in spatial working memory and in long-term object recognition memory. In a T-maze, rhythmic control hamsters exhibited spontaneous alternation behavior late in the day and at night, but made random arm choices early in the day. By contrast, arrhythmic animals made only random arm choices at all time points. Control animals readily discriminated novel objects from familiar ones, whereas arrhythmic hamsters could not. Since the SCN is primarily a GABAergic nucleus, we hypothesized that an arrhythmic SCN could interfere with memory by increasing inhibition in hippocampal circuits. To evaluate this possibility, we administered the GABAA antagonist pentylenetetrazole (PTZ; 0.3 or 1.0 mg/kg/day) to arrhythmic hamsters for 10 days, which is a regimen previously shown to produce long-term improvements in hippocampal physiology and behavior in Ts65Dn (Down syndrome) mice. PTZ restored long-term object recognition and spatial working memory for at least 30 days after drug treatment without restoring circadian rhythms. PTZ did not augment memory in control (entrained) animals, but did increase their activity during the memory tests. Our findings support the hypothesis that circadian arrhythmia impairs declarative memory by increasing the relative influence of GABAergic inhibition in the hippocampus.

  3. Central noradrenergic depletion by DSP-4 prevents stress-induced memory impairments in the object recognition task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scullion, G A; Kendall, D A; Sunter, D; Marsden, C A; Pardon, M-C

    2009-12-01

    Environmental stress produces adverse affects on memory in humans and rodents. Increased noradrenergic neurotransmission is a major component of the response to stress and noradrenaline (NA) plays an important role in modulating processes involved in learning and memory. The present study investigated the effect of NA depletion on stress-induced changes on memory performance in the mouse. Central NA depletion was induced using the selective neurotoxin N-(2-chloroethyl)-N-ethyl-2 bromobenzylamine (DSP-4) and verified by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). A novel cage stress procedure involving exposure to a new clean cage for 1 h per day, 4 days per week for 4 weeks, was used to produce stress-induced memory deficits measured using the object recognition task. 50 mg/kg DSP-4 produced large and sustained reductions in NA levels in the frontal cortex and hippocampus measured 24 h, 1 week and 5 weeks after treatment. Four weeks of exposure to novel cage stress induced a memory deficit in the object recognition task which was prevented by DSP-4 pre-treatment (50 mg/kg 1 week before the commencement of stress).These findings indicate that chronic environmental stress adversely affects recognition memory and that this effect is, in part, mediated by the noradrenergic stress response. The implication of these findings is that drugs targeting the noradrenergic system to reduce over-activity may be beneficial in the treatment of stress-related mental disorders such as post-traumatic stress disorder or anxiety in which memory is affected.

  4. Neural correlates of memory encoding and recognition for own-race and other-race faces in an associative-memory task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herzmann, Grit; Minor, Greta; Adkins, Makenzie

    2017-01-15

    The ability to recognize faces of family members, friends, and acquaintances plays an important role in our daily interactions. The other-race effect is the reduced ability to recognize other-race faces as compared to own-race faces. Previous studies showed different patterns of event-related potentials (ERPs) associated with recollection and familiarity during memory encoding (i.e., Dm) and recognition (i.e., parietal old/new effect) for own-race and other-race faces in a subjective-recollection task (remember-know judgments). The present study investigated the same neural correlates of the other-race effect in an associative-memory task, in which Caucasian and East Asian participants learned and recognized own-race and other-race faces along with background colors. Participants made more false alarms for other-race faces indicating lower memory performance. During the study phase, subsequently recognized other-race faces (with and without correct background information) elicited more positive mean amplitudes than own-race faces, suggesting increased neural activation during encoding of other-race faces. During the test phase, recollection-related old/new effects dissociated between own-race and other-race faces. Old/new effects were significant only for own-race but not for other-race faces, indicating that recognition only of own-race faces was supported by recollection and led to more detailed memory retrieval. Most of these results replicated previous studies that used a subjective-recollection task. Our study also showed that the increased demand on memory encoding during an associative-memory task led to Dm patterns that indicated similarly deep memory encoding for own-race and other-race faces.

  5. The impact of beliefs about face recognition ability on memory retrieval processes in young and older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphries, Joyce E; Flowe, Heather D; Hall, Louise C; Williams, Louise C; Ryder, Hannah L

    2016-01-01

    This study examined whether beliefs about face recognition ability differentially influence memory retrieval in older compared to young adults. Participants evaluated their ability to recognise faces and were also given information about their ability to perceive and recognise faces. The information was ostensibly based on an objective measure of their ability, but in actuality, participants had been randomly assigned the information they received (high ability, low ability or no information control). Following this information, face recognition accuracy for a set of previously studied faces was measured using a remember-know memory paradigm. Older adults rated their ability to recognise faces as poorer compared to young adults. Additionally, negative information about face recognition ability improved only older adults' ability to recognise a previously seen face. Older adults were also found to engage in more familiarity than item-specific processing than young adults, but information about their face recognition ability did not affect face processing style. The role that older adults' memory beliefs have in the meta-cognitive strategies they employ is discussed.

  6. The role of relational binding in item memory: evidence from face recognition in a case of developmental amnesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Rosanna K; Lee, Yunjo; Kube, Jana; Rosenbaum, R Shayna; Grady, Cheryl L; Moscovitch, Morris; Ryan, Jennifer D

    2015-04-01

    Current theories state that the hippocampus is responsible for the formation of memory representations regarding relations, whereas extrahippocampal cortical regions support representations for single items. However, findings of impaired item memory in hippocampal amnesics suggest a more nuanced role for the hippocampus in item memory. The hippocampus may be necessary when the item elements need to be bound within and across episodes to form a lasting representation that can be used flexibly. The current investigation was designed to test this hypothesis in face recognition. H.C., an individual who developed with a compromised hippocampal system, and control participants incidentally studied individual faces that either varied in presentation viewpoint across study repetitions or remained in a fixed viewpoint across the study repetitions. Eye movements were recorded during encoding and participants then completed a surprise recognition memory test. H.C. demonstrated altered face viewing during encoding. Although the overall number of fixations made by H.C. was not significantly different from that of controls, the distribution of her viewing was primarily directed to the eye region. Critically, H.C. was significantly impaired in her ability to subsequently recognize faces studied from variable viewpoints, but demonstrated spared performance in recognizing faces she encoded from a fixed viewpoint, implicating a relationship between eye movement behavior in the service of a hippocampal binding function. These findings suggest that a compromised hippocampal system disrupts the ability to bind item features within and across study repetitions, ultimately disrupting recognition when it requires access to flexible relational representations.

  7. Noradrenergic Activation of the Basolateral Amygdala Enhances Object Recognition Memory and Induces Chromatin Remodeling in the Insular Cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassiba eBeldjoud

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available It is well established that arousal-induced memory enhancement requires noradrenergic activation of the basolateral complex of the amygdala (BLA and modulatory influences on information storage processes in its many target regions. While this concept is well accepted, the molecular basis of such BLA effects on neural plasticity changes within other brain regions remains to be elucidated. The present study investigated whether noradrenergic activation of the BLA after object recognition training induces chromatin remodeling through histone post-translational modifications in the insular cortex (IC, a brain region that is importantly involved in object recognition memory. Male Sprague–Dawley rats were trained on an object recognition task, followed immediately by bilateral microinfusions of norepinephrine (1.0 µg or saline administered into the BLA. Saline-treated control rats exhibited poor 24-h retention, whereas norepinephrine treatment induced robust 24-h object recognition memory. Most importantly, this memory-enhancing dose of norepinephrine induced a global reduction in the acetylation levels of histone H3 at lysine 14, H2B and H4 in the IC 1 h later, whereas it had no effect on the phosphorylation of histone H3 at serine 10 or tri-methylation of histone H3 at lysine 27. Norepinephrine administered into the BLA of non-trained control rats did not induce any changes in the histone marks investigated in this study. These findings indicate that noradrenergic activation of the BLA induces training-specific effects on chromatin remodeling mechanisms, and presumably gene transcription, in its target regions, which may contribute to the understanding of the molecular mechanisms of stress and emotional arousal effects on memory consolidation.

  8. Protective effect of berberine, an isoquinoline alkaloid ameliorates ethanol-induced oxidative stress and memory dysfunction in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, Shaktipal; Tawari, Santosh; Mundhada, Dharmendra; Nadeem, Sayyed

    2015-09-01

    Memory impairment induced by ethanol in rats is a consequence of changes in the CNS that are secondary to impaired oxidative stress and cholinergic dysfunction. Treatment with antioxidants and cholinergic agonists are reported to produce beneficial effects in this model. Berberine, an isoquinoline alkaloid is reported to exhibit antioxidant effect and cholinesterase (ChE) inhibitor activity. However, no report is available on the influence of berberine on ethanol-induced memory impairment. Therefore, we tested its influence against cognitive dysfunction in ethanol-induced rats using Morris water maze paradigm. Lipid peroxidation and glutathione levels as parameter of oxidative stress and cholinesterase (ChE) activity as a marker of cholinergic function were assessed in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus. Forty five days after ethanol treated rats showed a severe deficit in learning and memory associated with increased lipid peroxidation, decreased glutathione, and elevated ChE activity. In contrast, chronic treatment with berberine (25-100mg/kg, p.o., once a day for 45days) improved cognitive performance, and lowered oxidative stress and ChE activity in ethanol treated rats. In another set of experiments, berberine (100mg/kg) treatment during training trials also improved learning and memory, and lowered oxidative stress and ChE activity. Chronic treatment (45days) with vitamin C, and donepezil during training trials also improved ethanol-induced memory impairment and reduced oxidative stress and/or cholinesterase activity. In conclusion, the present study demonstrates that treatment with berberine prevents the changes in oxidative stress and ChE activity, and consequently memory impairment in ethanol treated rats.

  9. A pattern recognition mezzanine based on associative memory and FPGA technology for L1 track triggering at HL-LHC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alunni, L.; Biesuz, N.; Bilei, G. M.; Citraro, S.; Crescioli, F.; Fanò, L.; Fedi, G.; Magalotti, D.; Magazzù, G.; Servoli, L.; Storchi, L.; Palla, F.; Placidi, P.; Papi, A.; Piadyk, Y.; Rossi, E.; Spiezia, A.

    2016-07-01

    The increase of luminosity at HL-LHC will require the introduction of tracker information at Level-1 trigger system for the experiments to maintain an acceptable trigger rate to select interesting events despite the one order of magnitude increase in the minimum bias interactions. To extract in the required latency the track information a dedicated hardware has to be used. We present the tests of a prototype system (Pattern Recognition Mezzanine) as core of pattern recognition and track fitting for HL-LHC ATLAS and CMS experiments, combining the power of both Associative Memory custom ASIC and modern Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) devices.

  10. A pattern recognition mezzanine based on associative memory and FPGA technology for L1 track triggering at HL-LHC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alunni, L. [INFN Sezione di Perugia (Italy); Biesuz, N. [INFN Sezione di Pisa (Italy); Bilei, G.M. [INFN Sezione di Perugia (Italy); Citraro, S. [Università di Pisa, Pisa (Italy); Crescioli, F. [LPNHE, Paris (France); Fanò, L. [INFN Sezione di Perugia (Italy); Fedi, G., E-mail: giacomo.fedi@pi.infn.it [INFN Sezione di Pisa (Italy); Magalotti, D. [INFN Sezione di Perugia (Italy); UNIMORE, Modena (Italy); Magazzù, G. [INFN Sezione di Pisa (Italy); Servoli, L.; Storchi, L. [INFN Sezione di Perugia (Italy); Palla, F. [INFN Sezione di Pisa (Italy); Placidi, P. [INFN Sezione di Perugia (Italy); DIEI, Perugia (Italy); Papi, A. [INFN Sezione di Perugia (Italy); Piadyk, Y. [LPNHE, Paris (France); Rossi, E. [INFN Sezione di Pisa (Italy); Spiezia, A. [IHEP (China)

    2016-07-11

    The increase of luminosity at HL-LHC will require the introduction of tracker information at Level-1 trigger system for the experiments to maintain an acceptable trigger rate to select interesting events despite the one order of magnitude increase in the minimum bias interactions. To extract in the required latency the track information a dedicated hardware has to be used. We present the tests of a prototype system (Pattern Recognition Mezzanine) as core of pattern recognition and track fitting for HL-LHC ATLAS and CMS experiments, combining the power of both Associative Memory custom ASIC and modern Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) devices.

  11. Correlations between Event-related Potentials with Pictures Recognition and WMS-RC Scores in Patients with Memory Disorder Caused by Severe Traumatic Brain Injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zilong LIU; Liang LIU; Zebing FAN; Xiaorui CHEN; Xiaohong ZHAO; Lingli ZHANG; Guangxun Rao; Haixia LI

    2008-01-01

    This study explored the possibility of using event-related potentials (ERP) for the measurement of picture-recognition memory and examined its correlation with the Chinese Wechsler Memory Scale-revised (WMS-RC) in patients with memory disorder caused by severe traumatic brain injury (sTBI). The subjects included 20 sTBI patients with memory disorder and 22 healthy individuals. Memory function was measured by using WMS-RC. Behavioral and ERP responses were recorded on-line during performance on a battery of picture recognition and the responses were analyzed off-line for recognition memory effects. Mean memory quotient (MQ) of patients with sTBI was significantly lower than that of the control group. Mean reaction time (RT) was significantly longer and the mean correctness rate (CR) of picture recognition was significantly lower in sTBI group than that of the controls. In controls, the main components of average ERP of picture recognition includes two positive-going waves, designated as P170 and P500, that appear 170 ms and 500 ms after stimulation when the subject could later successfully recall and recognize the pictures. P500 amplitude of target stimulus was significantly higher than that of non-target stimulus. Compared to controls, P500 responses of sTBI group were significantly delayed in latency (P<0.001) and lower in amplitude (P<0.001). P500 latency showed significant negative correlation with MQ and the scores of "addition", "visual recognition", "picture recall", "visual reproduction" and "tactile memory" in WMS-RC. ERP of picture recognition provides a neurophysiological approach to directly assess memory impairment, and P500 may serve as a helpful index for memory disorder caused by sTBI in forensic practice.

  12. Cadmium exposure during lactation causes learning and memory-impairment in F1 generation mice: amelioration by quercetin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halder, Sumita; Kar, Rajarshi; Galav, Vikas; Mehta, Ashish K; Bhattacharya, Swapan K; Mediratta, Pramod K; Banerjee, Basu D

    2016-01-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is a known pollutant present in the environment at low levels and is reported to affect reproduction in many ways. The present study was undertaken to explore the effect of Cd in F1 generation mice on cognitive parameters, and to further investigate whether quercetin could modulate these effects. In this study, female lactating mice were exposed to cadmium for seven days just after delivery. The new born pups in their adulthood were tested for learning and memory parameters by passive avoidance task and Morris water maze (MWM) test. It was observed that pups exposed to Cd showed significant impairment of memory in step down latency test, which was reversed by quercetin (100 mg/kg). In MWM test for spatial memory, animals exposed to Cd exhibited increased escape latency, which was reversed by quercetin (50 mg/kg) significantly. Quercetin alone (50 and 100 mg/kg) also demonstrated improved spatial memory, and showed improved retention memory in the passive avoidance paradigm at dose 50 mg/kg. On testing oxidative stress parameters, we observed significantly increased malondialdehyde (MDA) levels in brain tissue of Cd-treated mice. Moreover, co-treatment with quercetin (50 mg/kg) and Cd significantly reduced these MDA levels. The other doses (25 and 100 mg/kg) also showed reduction in MDA levels as compared to the group exposed to Cd alone, though the difference was not statistically significant. Hence, this study highlights the possibility of cognitive impairment in adulthood if there is Cd exposure during lactation and oxidative stress could possibly attribute to this effect.

  13. The effect of high and low exercise intensity periods on a simple memory recognition test

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ben Rattray; Disa J. Smee

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of variable intensities on a simple memory recognition task during exercise. Methods: Twenty active participants took part in initial testing, a familiarization trial and then four 60 min cycling interventions in a randomized order. Interventions consisted of no exercise (control), constant exercise at 90%ventilatory threshold (constant) and 2 trials that initially mimicked the constant trial, but then included periods of high (∼90%VO2peak) and low intensities (∼50%VO2peak). Cardiorespiratory measures and capillary blood samples were taken throughout. A short tablet-based cognitive task was completed prior to and during (50 and 55 min into exercise) each intervention. Results: The exercise conditions facilitated response time (p=0.009), although the extent of this effect was not as strong in the variable exercise conditions (p = 0.011–0.089). High intensity exercise periods resulted in some cognitive regression back towards control trial performance. Elevations in cardiorespiratory measures and periods of hypocapnia could not explain changes in cognitive performance. Conclusion: Changes in cognitive performance with variations in exercise intensity are likely to have implications for sport and occupational settings. The timing of cognitive tests to exercise intensity changes as well as use of short cognitive assessments will be important for future work.

  14. Transgenic miR132 alters neuronal spine density and impairs novel object recognition memory.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katelin F Hansen

    Full Text Available Inducible gene expression plays a central role in neuronal plasticity, learning, and memory, and dysfunction of the underlying molecular events can lead to severe neuronal disorders. In addition to coding transcripts (mRNAs, non-coding microRNAs (miRNAs appear to play a role in these processes. For instance, the CREB-regulated miRNA miR132 has been shown to affect neuronal structure in an activity-dependent manner, yet the details of its physiological effects and the behavioral consequences in vivo remain unclear. To examine these questions, we employed a transgenic mouse strain that expresses miR132 in forebrain neurons. Morphometric analysis of hippocampal neurons revealed that transgenic miR132 triggers a marked increase in dendritic spine density. Additionally, miR132 transgenic mice exhibited a decrease in the expression of MeCP2, a protein implicated in Rett Syndrome and other disorders of mental retardation. Consistent with these findings, miR132 transgenic mice displayed significant deficits in novel object recognition. Together, these data support a role for miR132 as a regulator of neuronal structure and function, and raise the possibility that dysregulation of miR132 could contribute to an array of cognitive disorders.

  15. Could masked conceptual primes increase recollection? The subtleties of measuring recollection and familiarity in recognition memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Jason R; Henson, Richard N

    2012-11-01

    We begin with a theoretical overview of the concepts of recollection and familiarity, focusing, in the spirit of this special issue, on the important contributions made by Andrew Mayes. In particular, we discuss the issue of when the generation of semantically-related information in response to a retrieval cue might be experienced as recollection rather than familiarity. We then report a series of experiments in which two different types of masked prime, presented immediately prior to the test cue in a recognition memory paradigm, produced opposite effects on Remember vs. Know judgments. More specifically, primes that were conceptually related to the test item increased the incidence of Remember judgments, though only when intermixed with repetition primes (which increased the incidence of Know judgments instead, as in prior studies). One possible explanation--that the fluency of retrieval of item-context associations can be experienced as recollection, even when the source of that fluency is unknown--is counter to conventional views of recollection and familiarity, though it was anticipated by Andrew in his writings nearly two decades ago.

  16. Effect of the multimodal acting antidepressant vortioxetine on rat hippocampal plasticity and recognition memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bétry, Cécile; Etiévant, Adeline; Pehrson, Alan; Sánchez, Connie; Haddjeri, Nasser

    2015-04-03

    Depression is frequently associated with cognitive disturbances. Vortioxetine is a multimodal acting antidepressant that functions as a 5-HT3 and 5-HT7 and 5-HT1D receptor antagonist, 5-HT1B receptor partial agonist, 5-HT1A receptor agonist and inhibitor of the 5-HT transporter. Given its pharmacological profile, the present study was undertaken to determine whether vortioxetine could modulate several preclinical parameters known to be involved in cognitive processing. In the dorsal hippocampus of anaesthetized rats, the high-frequency stimulation of the Schaffer collaterals provoked a stable long-term potentiation (LTP) of ~25%. Interestingly, vortioxetine (10mg/kg, i.p.) counteracted the suppressant effect of elevated platform stress on hippocampal LTP induction. In the novel object recognition test, vortioxetine (10mg/kg, i.p.) increased the time spent exploring the novel object during the retention test and this pro-cognitive effect was prevented by the partial 5-HT3 receptor agonist SR57227 (1mg/kg, i.p.). Finally, compared to fluoxetine, sustained administration of vortioxetine (5mg/kg/day, s.c.) induced a rapid increase of cell proliferation in the hippocampal dentate gyrus. In summary, vortioxetine prevented the effect of stress on hippocampal LTP, increased rapidly hippocampal cell proliferation and enhanced short-term episodic memory, via, at least in part, its 5-HT3 receptor antagonism. Taken together, these preclinical data suggest that the antidepressant vortioxetine may have a beneficial effect on human cognitive processes.

  17. Yes/no versus forced-choice recognition memory in mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease: patterns of impairment and associations with dementia severity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Lindsay R; Stricker, Nikki H; Libon, David J; Delano-Wood, Lisa; Salmon, David P; Delis, Dean C; Bondi, Mark W

    2012-01-01

    Memory tests are sensitive to early identification of Alzheimer's disease (AD) but less useful as the disease advances. However, assessing particular types of recognition memory may better characterize dementia severity in later stages of AD. We sought to examine patterns of recognition memory deficits in individuals with AD and mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Memory performance and global cognition data were collected from participants with AD (n = 37), MCI (n = 37), and cognitively intact older adults (normal controls, NC; n = 35). One-way analyses of variance (ANOVAs) examined differences between groups on yes/no and forced-choice recognition measures. Individuals with amnestic MCI performed worse than NC and nonamnestic MCI participants on yes/no recognition, but were comparable on forced-choice recognition. AD patients were more impaired across yes/no and forced-choice recognition tasks. Individuals with mild AD (≥120 Dementia Rating Scale, DRS) performed better than those with moderate-to-severe AD (yes/no recognition. There were differences in the relationships between learning, recall, and recognition performance across groups. Although yes/no recognition testing may be sensitive to MCI, forced-choice procedures may provide utility in assessing severity of anterograde amnesia in later stages of AD. Implications for assessment of insufficient effort and malingering are also discussed.

  18. Effects of repeated collaborative retrieval on individual memory vary as a function of recall versus recognition tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blumen, Helena M; Rajaram, Suparna

    2009-11-01

    Our research examines how prior group collaboration modulates later individual memory. We recently showed that repeated collaborative recall sessions benefit later individual recall more than a single collaborative recall session (Blumen & Rajaram, 2008). Current research compared the effects of repeated collaborative recall and repeated collaborative recognition on later individual recall and later individual recognition. A total of 192 participants studied a list of nouns and then completed three successive retrieval sessions in one of four conditions. While two collaborative recall sessions and two collaborative recognition sessions generated comparable levels of individual recall (CRecall-CRecall-I Recall approximately CRecognition-CRecognition-I Recall , Experiment 1a), two collaborative recognition sessions generated greater levels of individual recognition than two collaborative recall sessions (CRecognition-CRecognition- IRecognition > CRecall-CRecall- I Recognition , Experiment 1b). These findings are discussed in terms of two opposing mechanisms that operate during collaborative retrieval-re-exposure and retrieval disruption-and in terms of transfer-appropriate processing across collaborative and individual retrieval sessions.

  19. ERP correlates of object recognition memory in Down syndrome: Do active and passive tasks measure the same thing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Hoogmoed, A H; Nadel, L; Spanò, G; Edgin, J O

    2016-02-01

    Event related potentials (ERPs) can help to determine the cognitive and neural processes underlying memory functions and are often used to study populations with severe memory impairment. In healthy adults, memory is typically assessed with active tasks, while in patient studies passive memory paradigms are generally used. In this study we examined whether active and passive continuous object recognition tasks measure the same underlying memory process in typically developing (TD) adults and in individuals with Down syndrome (DS), a population with known hippocampal impairment. We further explored how ERPs in these tasks relate to behavioral measures of memory. Data-driven analysis techniques revealed large differences in old-new effects in the active versus passive task in TD adults, but no difference between these tasks in DS. The group with DS required additional processing in the active task in comparison to the TD group in two ways. First, the old-new effect started 150 ms later. Second, more repetitions were required to show the old-new effect. In the group with DS, performance on a behavioral measure of object-location memory was related to ERP measures across both tasks. In total, our results suggest that active and passive ERP memory measures do not differ in DS and likely reflect the use of implicit memory, but not explicit processing, on both tasks. Our findings highlight the need for a greater understanding of the comparison between active and passive ERP paradigms before they are inferred to measure similar functions across populations (e.g., infants or intellectual disability).

  20. Physical exercise during adolescence versus adulthood: differential effects on object recognition memory and brain-derived neurotrophic factor levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, M E; Nitecki, R; Bucci, D J

    2011-10-27

    It is well established that physical exercise can enhance hippocampal-dependent forms of learning and memory in laboratory animals, commensurate with increases in hippocampal neural plasticity (brain-derived neurotrophic factor [BDNF] mRNA/protein, neurogenesis, long-term potentiation [LTP]). However, very little is known about the effects of exercise on other, non-spatial forms of learning and memory. In addition, there has been little investigation of the duration of the effects of exercise on behavior or plasticity. Likewise, few studies have compared the effects of exercising during adulthood versus adolescence. This is particularly important since exercise may capitalize on the peak of neural plasticity observed during adolescence, resulting in a different pattern of behavioral and neurobiological effects. The present study addressed these gaps in the literature by comparing the effects of 4 weeks of voluntary exercise (wheel running) during adulthood or adolescence on novel object recognition and BDNF levels in the perirhinal cortex (PER) and hippocampus (HP). Exercising during adulthood improved object recognition memory when rats were tested immediately after 4 weeks of exercise, an effect that was accompanied by increased BDNF levels in PER and HP. When rats were tested again 2 weeks after exercise ended, the effects of exercise on recognition memory and BDNF levels were no longer present. Exercising during adolescence had a very different pattern of effects. First, both exercising and non-exercising rats could discriminate between novel and familiar objects immediately after the exercise regimen ended; furthermore there was no group difference in BDNF levels. Two or four weeks later, however, rats that had previously exercised as adolescents could still discriminate between novel and familiar objects, while non-exercising rats could not. Moreover, the formerly exercising rats exhibited higher levels of BDNF in PER compared to HP, while the reverse was

  1. Recognition memory and β-amyloid plaques in adult Tg2576 mice are not modified after oral exposure to aluminum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribes, Diana; Torrente, Margarita; Vicens, Paloma; Colomina, Maria Teresa; Gómez, Mercedes; Domingo, José L

    2012-01-01

    The role of aluminum (Al) in Alzheimer disease is highly controversial. However, this element has been detected in neuritic plaques and neurofibrillary tangles in patients with Alzheimer disease. Its presence in neuritic plaques in hippocampus is especially relevant, as this is an area closely related to spatial learning and memory. In this study, the diet of wild-type and Tg2576 mice (animals overexpressing the human amyloid precursor protein) was supplemented with Al lactate (1 mg/g). General neurotoxic Al effects were evaluated using a functional observational battery and a novel object recognition task. Four experimental groups were used: Control-wild, Al-wild, Control-Tg, and Al-Tg mice. The results show a decreased home-cage activity and an increase in piloerection in all Al-exposed animals, and an increased sensorimotor reactivity in Tg2576 mice given Al. Neither Al treatment nor genotype had any noticeable effect on corticosterone levels and Al concentrations in frontal cortex and cerebellum of the mice. Recognition memory was impaired in Tg2576 mice, whereas β-amyloid plaque depositions were observed in all these animals. However, Al did not alter the recognition memory and β-amyloid plaque loads of Tg2576 mice.

  2. Early-life stress impairs recognition memory and perturbs the functional maturation of prefrontal-hippocampal-perirhinal networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reincke, Samuel A. J.; Hanganu-Opatz, Ileana L.

    2017-01-01

    Early life exposure to stressful situations impairs cognitive performance of adults and contributes to the etiology of several psychiatric disorders. Most of affected cognitive abilities rely on coupling by synchrony within complex neuronal networks, including prefrontal cortex (PFC), hippocampus (HP), and perirhinal cortex (PRH). Yet it remains poorly understood how early life stress (ELS) induces dysfunction within these networks during the course of development. Here we used intermittent maternal separation during the first 2 postnatal weeks to mimic ELS and monitored the recognition memory and functional coupling within prefrontal-hippocampal-perirhinal circuits in juvenile rats. While maternally-separated female rats showed largely normal behavior, male rats experiencing this form of ELS had poorer location and recency recognition memory. Simultaneous multi-site extracellular recordings of network oscillations and neuronal spiking from PFC, HP, and PRH in vivo revealed corresponding decrease of oscillatory activity in theta and beta frequency bands in the PFC of male but not female rats experiencing maternal separation. This deficit was accompanied by weaker cross-frequency coupling within juvenile prefrontal-hippocampal networks. These results indicate that already at juvenile age ELS mimicked by maternal separation induces sex-specific deficits in recognition memory that might have as underlying mechanism a disturbed communication between PFC and HP. PMID:28169319

  3. Object recognition as a measure of memory in 1-2 years old transgenic minipigs carrying the APPsw mutation for Alzheimer's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Lene Vammen; Ladewig, Jan; Dagnæs-Hansen, Frederik;

    2012-01-01

    impairment is the most striking and consistent feature. The aim of the present study was to examine effects of the APPsw transgene on memory of AD minipigs compared with non-transgenic controls at two ages (1–2 years) using the spontaneous object recognition test (SORT), which is based on behavioural...... discrimination of familiar and novel objects. No significant difference between AD minipigs and controls was found when comparing object recognition as a measure of memory. The minipigs did explore the novel object significantly more than the familiar, indicating the expected recognition of the familiar object....... Two different inter-phase intervals were used (IPI: 10–40 min). For both ages, object recognition was evident using 10 min IPI. When using 40 min IPI, object recognition was evident only at age 1 year. Comparing memory of a relatively small group of AD minipigs and controls at two rather young ages...

  4. Voluntary exercise does not ameliorate spatial learning and memory deficits induced by chronic administration of nandrolone decanoate in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanehkar, Fatemeh; Rashidy-Pour, Ali; Vafaei, Abbas Ali; Sameni, Hamid Reza; Haghighi, Saeed; Miladi-Gorji, Hossien; Motamedi, Fereshteh; Akhavan, Maziar Mohammad; Bavarsad, Kowsar

    2013-01-01

    Chronic exposure to the anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) nandrolone decanoate (ND) in supra-physiological doses is associated with learning and memory impairments. Given the well-known beneficial effects of voluntary exercise on cognitive functions, we examined whether voluntary exercise would improve the cognitive deficits induced by chronic administration of ND. We also investigated the effects of ND and voluntary exercise on hippocampal BDNF levels. The rats were randomly distributed into 4 experimental groups: the vehicle-sedentary group, the ND-sedentary group, the vehicle-exercise group, and the ND-exercise group. The vehicle-exercise and the ND-exercise groups were allowed to freely exercise in a running wheel for 15 days. The vehicle-sedentary and the ND-sedentary groups were kept sedentary for the same period. Vehicle or ND injections were started 14 days prior to the voluntary exercise and continued throughout the 15 days of voluntary exercise. After the 15-day period, the rats were trained and tested on a water maze spatial task using four trials per day for 5 consecutive days followed by a probe trial two days later. Exercise significantly improved performance during both the training and retention of the water maze task, and enhanced hippocampal BDNF. ND impaired spatial learning and memory, and this effect was not rescued by exercise. ND also potentiated the exercise-induced increase in hippocampal BDNF levels. These results seem to indicate that voluntary exercise is unable to improve the disruption of cognitive functions by chronic ND. Moreover, increased levels of BDNF may play a role in ND-induced impairments in learning and memory. The harmful effects of ND and other AAS on learning and memory should be taken into account when athletes decide to use AAS for performance or body image improvement.

  5. Selenofuranoside Ameliorates Memory Loss in Alzheimer-Like Sporadic Dementia: AChE Activity, Oxidative Stress, and Inflammation Involvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiano Chiapinotto Spiazzi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Alzheimer’s disease (AD is becoming more common due to the increase in life expectancy. This study evaluated the effect of selenofuranoside (Se in an Alzheimer-like sporadic dementia animal model. Male mice were divided into 4 groups: control, Aβ, Se, and Aβ + Se. Single administration of Aβ peptide (fragments 25–35; 3 nmol/3 μL or distilled water was administered via intracerebroventricular (i.c.v. injection. Selenofuranoside (5 mg/kg or vehicle (canola oil was administered orally 30 min before Aβ and for 7 subsequent days. Memory was tested through the Morris water maze (MWM and step-down passive-avoidance (SDPA tests. Antioxidant defenses along with reactive species (RS were assessed. Inflammatory cytokines levels and AChE activity were measured. SOD activity was inhibited in the Aβ group whereas RS were increased. AChE activity, GSH, and IL-6 levels were increased in the Aβ group. These changes were reflected in impaired cognition and memory loss, observed in both behavioral tests. Se compound was able to protect against memory loss in mice in both behavioral tests. SOD and AChE activities as well as RS and IL-6 levels were also protected by Se administration. Therefore, Se is promising for further studies.

  6. Aminoguanidine treatment ameliorates inflammatory responses and memory impairment induced by amyloid-beta 25-35 injection in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz, Alfonso; Rojas, Karla; Espinosa, Blanca; Chávez, Raúl; Zenteno, Edgar; Limón, Daniel; Guevara, Jorge

    2014-06-01

    Alzheimer disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disorder caused by accumulation of the amyloid-beta peptide (Aβ) in neuritic plaques. Its neurotoxic mechanisms are associated with inflammatory responses and nitrosative stress generation that promote expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and increased nitric oxide causing neuronal death and memory impairment. Studies suggest that treatment with anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant agents decreases the risk of developing AD. Aminoguanidine (AG) is an iNOS inhibitor with anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant effects. In this study, we evaluated the effects of systemic administration of AG (100 mg/kg/day for 4 days) on spatial memory and inflammatory responses induced by an injection of Aβ(25-35) [100 μM] into the temporal cortex (TCx) of rats. A significant improvement of spatial memory was evident in the Aβ(25-35)-treated group at day 30 post-injection subjected to AG treatment; this effect was correlated with decreases in reactive gliosis, IL-1β, TNF-α, and nitrite levels, as well as a reduction in neurodegeneration in the TCx and hippocampus (Hp). These results suggest that AG treatment inhibited glia activation and cytokine release, which may help to counteract neurodegenerative events induced by the toxicity of Aβ.

  7. Guarana (Paullinia cupana) ameliorates memory impairment and modulates acetylcholinesterase activity in Poloxamer-407-induced hyperlipidemia in rat brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruchel, Jader B; Braun, Josiane B S; Adefegha, Stephen A; Guedes Manzoni, Alessandra; Abdalla, Fátima H; de Oliveira, Juliana S; Trelles, Kelly; Signor, Cristiane; Lopes, Sônia T A; da Silva, Cássia B; Castilhos, Lívia G; Rubin, Maribel A; Leal, Daniela B R

    2017-01-01

    Hyperlipidemia is a risk factor for the development of cognitive dysfunction and atherosclerosis. Natural compounds have recently received special attention in relation to the treatment of disease due to their low cost and wide margin of safety. Thus, the aim of this study was to determine the possible preventive effect of guarana powder (Paullinia cupana) on memory impairment and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity in the brain structures of rats with Poloxamer-407-induced hyperlipidemia. Adult male Wistar rats were pretreated with guarana (12.5, 25 and 50mg/kg/day) and caffeine (0.2mg/kg/day) by gavage for a period of 30days. Simvastatin (0.04mg/kg) was administered as a comparative standard. Acute hyperlipidemia was induced with intraperitoneal injections of 500mg/kg of Poloxamer-407. Memory tests and evaluations of anxiety were performed. The cortex, cerebellum, hippocampus, hypothalamus and striatum were separated to assess acetylcholinesterase activity. Our results revealed that guarana powder was able to reduce the levels of TC and LDL-C in a manner similar to simvastatin. Guarana powder also partially reduced the liver damage caused by hyperlipidemia. Guarana was able to prevent changes in the activity of AChE and improve memory impairment due to hyperlipidemia. Guarana powder may therefore be a source of promising phytochemicals that can be used as adjuvant therapy in the management of hyperlipidemia and cognitive disorders.

  8. Effects of acute restraint stress on different components of memory as assessed by object-recognition and object-location tasks in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Song; Fan, Ya-Xin; Wang, Wei; Tang, Yi-Yuan

    2012-02-01

    Studies on how acute stress and the stress-related hormones affect learning and memory have yielded inconsistent findings, which might be due to some variables such as the properties of stressors, the nature of memory, the protocols for behavioral tasks and the characteristics of the subjects. However, the impacts of acute stress on different memory components have not been clearly demonstrated within one single experiment. The aim of present study was to evaluate the effects of 1-h restraint stress and the stress-induced plasma corticosterone elevation on memory acquisition, consolidation, and retrieval in mice, using object-recognition task (ORT) and object-location task (OLT) with a 4-h or 24-h intertrial interval (ITI). The results showed that, regardless of ITI, the recognition memory retrieval was significantly disrupted by acute restraint stress exposure, which started 75 min before the test session of both ORT and OLT. Acute restraint stress performed immediately after memory acquisition interrupted the consolidation of short-term recognition memories (4-h ITI) into long-term ones (24-h ITI). Moreover, the disrupted memory retrieval or consolidation was strongly related to the stress-induced plasma corticosterone elevation in a negative manner. These preliminary results clarified that acute restraint stress differently impacts three memory components, and the enhanced plasma corticosterone level under stressful situation plays critical roles in the information processing of memory under the stressful situation.

  9. An Exemplar-Familiarity Model Predicts Short-Term and Long-Term Probe Recognition across Diverse Forms of Memory Search

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nosofsky, Robert M.; Cox, Gregory E.; Cao, Rui; Shiffrin, Richard M.

    2014-01-01

    Experiments were conducted to test a modern exemplar-familiarity model on its ability to account for both short-term and long-term probe recognition within the same memory-search paradigm. Also, making connections to the literature on attention and visual search, the model was used to interpret differences in probe-recognition performance across…

  10. Divergent short- and long-term effects of acute stress in object recognition memory are mediated by endogenous opioid system activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nava-Mesa, Mauricio O; Lamprea, Marisol R; Múnera, Alejandro

    2013-11-01

    Acute stress induces short-term object recognition memory impairment and elicits endogenous opioid system activation. The aim of this study was thus to evaluate whether opiate system activation mediates the acute stress-induced object recognition memory changes. Adult male Wistar rats were trained in an object recognition task designed to test both short- and long-term memory. Subjects were randomly assigned to receive an intraperitoneal injection of saline, 1 mg/kg naltrexone or 3 mg/kg naltrexone, four and a half hours before the sample trial. Five minutes after the injection, half the subjects were submitted to movement restraint during four hours while the other half remained in their home cages. Non-stressed subjects receiving saline (control) performed adequately during the short-term memory test, while stressed subjects receiving saline displayed impaired performance. Naltrexone prevented such deleterious effect, in spite of the fact that it had no intrinsic effect on short-term object recognition memory. Stressed subjects receiving saline and non-stressed subjects receiving naltrexone performed adequately during the long-term memory test; however, control subjects as well as stressed subjects receiving a high dose of naltrexone performed poorly. Control subjects' dissociated performance during both memory tests suggests that the short-term memory test induced a retroactive interference effect mediated through light opioid system activation; such effect was prevented either by low dose naltrexone administration or by strongly activating the opioid system through acute stress. Both short-term memory retrieval impairment and long-term memory improvement observed in stressed subjects may have been mediated through strong opioid system activation, since they were prevented by high dose naltrexone administration. Therefore, the activation of the opioid system plays a dual modulating role in object recognition memory.

  11. Vortioxetine dose-dependently reverses 5-HT depletion-induced deficits in spatial working and object recognition memory: a potential role for 5-HT1A receptor agonism and 5-HT3 receptor antagonism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    du Jardin, Kristian Gaarn; Jensen, Jesper Bornø; Sanchez, Connie; Pehrson, Alan L

    2014-01-01

    We previously reported that the investigational multimodal antidepressant, vortioxetine, reversed 5-HT depletion-induced memory deficits while escitalopram and duloxetine did not. The present report studied the effects of vortioxetine and the potential impact of its 5-HT1A receptor agonist and 5-HT3 receptor antagonist properties on 5-HT depletion-induced memory deficits. Recognition and spatial working memory were assessed in the object recognition (OR) and Y-maze spontaneous alternation (SA) tests, respectively. 5-HT depletion was induced in female Long-Evans rats using 4-cholro-DL-phenylalanine methyl ester HCl (PCPA) and receptor occupancies were determined by ex vivo autoradiography. Rats were acutely dosed with vortioxetine, ondansetron (5-HT3 receptor antagonist) or flesinoxan (5-HT1A receptor agonist). The effects of chronic vortioxetine administration on 5-HT depletion-induced memory deficits were also assessed. 5-HT depletion reliably impaired memory performance in both the tests. Vortioxetine reversed PCPA-induced memory deficits dose-dependently with a minimal effective dose (MED) ≤0.1mg/kg (∼80% 5-HT3 receptor occupancy; OR) and ≤3.0mg/kg (5-HT1A, 5-HT1B, 5-HT3 receptor occupancy: ∼15%, 60%, 95%) in SA. Ondansetron exhibited a MED ≤3.0μg/kg (∼25% 5-HT3 receptor occupancy; OR), but was inactive in the SA test. Flesinoxan had a MED ≤1.0mg/kg (∼25% 5-HT1A receptor occupancy; SA); only 1.0mg/kg ameliorated deficits in the NOR. Chronic p.o. vortioxetine administration significantly improved memory performance in OR and occupied 95%, 66%, and 9.5% of 5-HT3, 5-HT1B, and 5-HT1A receptors, respectively. Vortioxetine's effects on SA performance may involve 5-HT1A receptor agonism, but not 5-HT3 receptor antagonism, whereas the effects on OR performance may involve 5-HT3 receptor antagonism and 5-HT1A receptor agonism.

  12. Schizandrin, an Antioxidant Lignan from Schisandra chinensis, Ameliorates Aβ1–42-Induced Memory Impairment in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Di Hu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, we examined the effect of schisandrin (SCH of Schisandra chinensis on the amyloid-beta1–42- (Aβ1–42- induced memory impairment in mice and elucidated the possible antioxidative mechanism. Mice were intracerebroventricular (i.c.v. injected with the aggregated Aβ1–42 and then treated with SCH (4, 12, and 36 mg/kg body weight or donepezil (DPZ, a reference drug (0.65 mg/kg by intragastric infusion for 14 days. Noncognitive disturbances and cognitive performance were evaluated by locomotor activity test, Y-maze test, and water maze test. Antioxidative enzyme activities including superoxide dismutase (SOD and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-px and levels of malondialdehyde (MDA, glutathione (GSH, and oxidized glutathione (GSSG within the cerebral cortex and hippocampus of mice were measured to elucidate the mechanism. Our results showed that SCH significantly improved Aβ1–42-induced short-term and spatial reference memory impairments in Y-maze test and water maze test. Furthermore, in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus of mice, SOD and GSH-px activities, GSH level, and GSH/GSSG ratio were increased, and levels of MDA and GSSG were decreased by the treatment of SCH. These results suggest that SCH is a potential cognitive enhancer against Alzheimer’s disease through antioxidative action.

  13. Schizandrin, an antioxidant lignan from Schisandra chinensis, ameliorates Aβ1-42-induced memory impairment in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Di; Cao, Yunfeng; He, Rongrong; Han, Na; Liu, Zhihui; Miao, Lijing; Yin, Jun

    2012-01-01

    In the present study, we examined the effect of schisandrin (SCH) of Schisandra chinensis on the amyloid-beta(1-42)- (Aβ(1-42)-) induced memory impairment in mice and elucidated the possible antioxidative mechanism. Mice were intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) injected with the aggregated Aβ(1-42) and then treated with SCH (4, 12, and 36 mg/kg body weight) or donepezil (DPZ), a reference drug (0.65 mg/kg) by intragastric infusion for 14 days. Noncognitive disturbances and cognitive performance were evaluated by locomotor activity test, Y-maze test, and water maze test. Antioxidative enzyme activities including superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-px) and levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), glutathione (GSH), and oxidized glutathione (GSSG) within the cerebral cortex and hippocampus of mice were measured to elucidate the mechanism. Our results showed that SCH significantly improved Aβ(1-42)-induced short-term and spatial reference memory impairments in Y-maze test and water maze test. Furthermore, in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus of mice, SOD and GSH-px activities, GSH level, and GSH/GSSG ratio were increased, and levels of MDA and GSSG were decreased by the treatment of SCH. These results suggest that SCH is a potential cognitive enhancer against Alzheimer's disease through antioxidative action.

  14. Computerized Spatial-Delayed Recognition Span Task: a specific tool to assess visuospatial working memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corina eSatler

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available A new tablet device version (IOS platform of the Spatial Delayed Recognition Span Task (SDRST was developed with the aim of investigating visuospatial Working Memory (WM abilities based on touchscreen technology. This new WM testing application will be available to download for free in Apple Store app (SDRST app. In order to verify the feasibility of this computer-based task, we conducted three experiments with different manipulations and groups of participants. We were interested in investigating if (1 the SDRST is sensitive enough to tap into cognitive differences brought by ageing and dementia; (2 different experimental manipulations work successfully; (3 cortical brain activations seen in other WM tasks are also demonstrated here; and (4 non-human primates are able to answer the task. Performance (scores and response time was better for young than older adults and higher for the latter when compared to Alzheimer’s disease patients. All groups performed better with facial stimuli than with images of scenes and with emotional than with neutral stimuli. Electrophysiology data showed activation on prefrontal and frontal areas of scalp, theta band activity on the midline area, and gamma activity in left temporal area. There are all scalp regions known to be related to attention and WM. Besides those data, our sample of adult captive capuchin monkeys (Sapajus libidinosus answered the task above chance level. Taken together, these results corroborate the reliability of this new computer-based SDRST as a measure of visuospatial WM in clinical and non-clinical populations as well as in non-human primates. Its tablet app allows the task to be administered in a wide range of settings, including hospitals, homes, schools, laboratories, universities, and research institutions.

  15. Recognition Memory in Elderly with Depression and Dementia: A Signal Detection Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Edgar; Lewis, Peter

    1977-01-01

    Elderly depressives sometimes perform as badly as patients with dementia on tests of memory. It was hypothesized that this might be because depressives adopt a very conservative response strategy rather than because their memory is really impaired. (Editor)

  16. Correlations between event-related potentials with pictures recognition and WMS-RC scores in patients with memory disorder caused by severe traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zilong; Liu, Liang; Fan, Zebing; Chen, Xiaorui; Zhao, Xiaohong; Zhang, Lingli; Rao, Guangxun; Li, Haixia

    2008-12-01

    This study explored the possibility of using event-related potentials (ERP) for the measurement of picture-recognition memory and examined its correlation with the Chinese Wechsler Memory Scale-revised (WMS-RC) in patients with memory disorder caused by severe traumatic brain injury (sTBI). The subjects included 20 sTBI patients with memory disorder and 22 healthy individuals. Memory function was measured by using WMS-RC. Behavioral and ERP responses were recorded on-line during performance on a battery of picture recognition and the responses were analyzed off-line for recognition memory effects. Mean memory quotient (MQ) of patients with sTBI was significantly lower than that of the control group. Mean reaction time (RT) was significantly longer and the mean correctness rate (CR) of picture recognition was significantly lower in sTBI group than that of the controls. In controls, the main components of average ERP of picture recognition includes two positive-going waves, designated as P(170) and P(500), that appear 170 ms and 500 ms after stimulation when the subject could later successfully recall and recognize the pictures. P(500) amplitude of target stimulus was significantly higher than that of non-target stimulus. Compared to controls, P(500) responses of sTBI group were significantly delayed in latency (PWMS-RC. ERP of picture recognition provides a neurophysiological approach to directly assess memory impairment, and P(500) may serve as a helpful index for memory disorder caused by sTBI in forensic practice.

  17. Physical exercise prevents short and long-term deficits on aversive and recognition memory and attenuates brain oxidative damage induced by maternal deprivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neves, Ben-Hur; Menezes, Jefferson; Souza, Mauren Assis; Mello-Carpes, Pâmela B

    2015-12-01

    It is known from previous research that physical exercise prevents long-term memory deficits induced by maternal deprivation in rats. But we could not assume similar effects of physical exercise on short-term memory, as short- and long-term memories are known to result from some different memory consolidation processes. Here we demonstrated that, in addition to long-term memory deficit, the short-term memory deficit resultant from maternal deprivation in object recognition and aversive memory tasks is also prevented by physical exercise. Additionally, one of the mechanisms by which the physical exercise influences the memory processes involves its effects attenuating the oxidative damage in the maternal deprived rats' hippocampus and prefrontal cortex.

  18. False Memories Seconds Later: The Rapid and Compelling Onset of Illusory Recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flegal, Kristin E.; Atkins, Alexandra S.; Reuter-Lorenz, Patricia A.

    2010-01-01

    Distortions of long-term memory (LTM) in the converging associates task are thought to arise from semantic associative processes and monitoring failures due to degraded verbatim and/or contextual memory. Sensory-based coding is traditionally considered more prevalent than meaning-based coding in short-term memory (STM), whereas the converse is…

  19. Retrieval Is Not Necessary to Trigger Reconsolidation of Object Recognition Memory in the Perirhinal Cortex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santoyo-Zedillo, Marianela; Rodriguez-Ortiz, Carlos J.; Chavez-Marchetta, Gianfranco; Bermudez-Rattoni, Federico; Balderas, Israela

    2014-01-01

    Memory retrieval has been considered as requisite to initiate memory reconsolidation; however, some studies indicate that blocking retrieval does not prevent memory from undergoing reconsolidation. Since N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) and a-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) glutamate receptors in the perirhinal cortex have…

  20. Dissociation of Active Working Memory and Passive Recognition in Rhesus Monkeys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basile, Benjamin M.; Hampton, Robert R.

    2013-01-01

    Active cognitive control of working memory is central in most human memory models, but behavioral evidence for such control in nonhuman primates is absent and neurophysiological evidence, while suggestive, is indirect. We present behavioral evidence that monkey memory for familiar images is under active cognitive control. Concurrent cognitive…

  1. From brain synapses to systems for learning and memory: Object recognition, spatial navigation, timed conditioning, and movement control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossberg, Stephen

    2015-09-24

    This article provides an overview of neural models of synaptic learning and memory whose expression in adaptive behavior depends critically on the circuits and systems in which the synapses are embedded. It reviews Adaptive Resonance Theory, or ART, models that use excitatory matching and match-based learning to achieve fast category learning and whose learned memories are dynamically stabilized by top-down expectations, attentional focusing, and memory search. ART clarifies mechanistic relationships between consciousness, learning, expectation, attention, resonance, and synchrony. ART models are embedded in ARTSCAN architectures that unify processes of invariant object category learning, recognition, spatial and object attention, predictive remapping, and eye movement search, and that clarify how conscious object vision and recognition may fail during perceptual crowding and parietal neglect. The generality of learned categories depends upon a vigilance process that is regulated by acetylcholine via the nucleus basalis. Vigilance can get stuck at too high or too low values, thereby causing learning problems in autism and medial temporal amnesia. Similar synaptic learning laws support qualitatively different behaviors: Invariant object category learning in the inferotemporal cortex; learning of grid cells and place cells in the entorhinal and hippocampal cortices during spatial navigation; and learning of time cells in the entorhinal-hippocampal system during adaptively timed conditioning, including trace conditioning. Spatial and temporal processes through the medial and lateral entorhinal-hippocampal system seem to be carried out with homologous circuit designs. Variations of a shared laminar neocortical circuit design have modeled 3D vision, speech perception, and cognitive working memory and learning. A complementary kind of inhibitory matching and mismatch learning controls movement. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled SI: Brain and Memory.

  2. Visual recognition memory is related to basic expression level of NMDA receptor NR1/NR2B subtype in hippocampus and striatum of rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shu-jun XU; Zhong CHEN; Li-jun ZHU; Hai-qing SHEN; Jian-hong LUO

    2005-01-01

    Aim: To examine the basic expression levels of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor NR1 and NR2B subunits in six brain regions of Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats with different visual recognition memory. Methods: Rats were tested by a novelobject-recognition model and grouped into the high and the low visual recognition memory groups. The expression levels of NR1 and NR2B subunits in the cortex, hippocampus, striatum, amygdala, diencephalon, and olfactory bulb were measured by semiquantitative immunoblotting. Results: The NR1 and NR2B subunit protein levels in the hippocampus of the high visual recognition memory group were 35.9% (P<0.01) and 53.4% (P<0.05) higher respectively than those in the low group. In addition, the NR2B level in the striatum in the high visual recognition memory group was 25.0% (P<0.05) higher than that in the low one. However, no significant difference was found in the levels of the subunits between the two groups in other brain regions. Conclusion: The visual recognition memory in rats is related to the basic expression level of NMDA receptor NR1/NR2B subtype in the hippocampus and striatum.

  3. A new face of sleep: The impact of post-learning sleep on recognition memory for face-name associations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurer, Leonie; Zitting, Kirsi-Marja; Elliott, Kieran; Czeisler, Charles A; Ronda, Joseph M; Duffy, Jeanne F

    2015-12-01

    Sleep has been demonstrated to improve consolidation of many types of new memories. However, few prior studies have examined how sleep impacts learning of face-name associations. The recognition of a new face along with the associated name is an important human cognitive skill. Here we investigated whether post-presentation sleep impacts recognition memory of new face-name associations in healthy adults. Fourteen participants were tested twice. Each time, they were presented 20 photos of faces with a corresponding name. Twelve hours later, they were shown each face twice, once with the correct and once with an incorrect name, and asked if each face-name combination was correct and to rate their confidence. In one condition the 12-h interval between presentation and recall included an 8-h nighttime sleep opportunity ("Sleep"), while in the other condition they remained awake ("Wake"). There were more correct and highly confident correct responses when the interval between presentation and recall included a sleep opportunity, although improvement between the "Wake" and "Sleep" conditions was not related to duration of sleep or any sleep stage. These data suggest that a nighttime sleep opportunity improves the ability to correctly recognize face-name associations. Further studies investigating the mechanism of this improvement are important, as this finding has implications for individuals with sleep disturbances and/or memory impairments.

  4. A Valepotriate Fraction of Valeriana glechomifolia Shows Sedative and Anxiolytic Properties and Impairs Recognition But Not Aversive Memory in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natasha Maurmann

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Plants of the genus Valeriana (Valerianaceae are used in traditional medicine as a mild sedative, antispasmodic and tranquilizer in many countries. This study was undertaken to explore the neurobehavioral effects of systemic administration of a valepotriate extract fraction of known quantitative composition of Valeriana glechomifolia (endemic of southern Brazil in mice. Adult animals were treated with a single intraperitoneal injection of valepotriate fraction (VF in the concentrations of 1, 3 or 10 mg kg-1, or with vehicle in the pre-training period before each behavioral test. During the exploration of an open field, mice treated with 10 mg kg-1 of VF showed reduced locomotion and exploratory behavior. Although overall habituation sessions for locomotion and exploratory behavior among vehicle control and doses of VF were not affected, comparison between open-field and habituation sessions within each treatment showed that VF administration at 1 and 10 mg kg-1 impaired habituation. In the elevated plus-maze test, mice treated with VF (10 mg kg-1 showed a significant increase in the percentage of time spent in the open arms without significant effects in the number of total arm entries. VF at 3 mg kg-1 produced an impairment of novel-object recognition memory. In contrast, VF did not affect fear-related memory assessed in an inhibitory avoidance task. The results indicate that VF can have sedative effects and affect behavioral parameters related to recognition memory.

  5. Face recognition memory across the adult life span: event-related potential evidence from the own-age bias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolff, Nicole; Wiese, Holger; Schweinberger, Stefan R

    2012-12-01

    Young adult participants are more accurate at remembering young as compared with old faces (own-age bias). This study investigated behavioral and event-related potential (ERP) correlates of recognition memory in 4 consecutive age categories (ranging from 19-29, 30-44, 45-59, and 60-80 years), both with respect to face and participant age. Young and young middle-aged participants yielded more accurate recognition memory for both young and young middle-aged as compared to old middle-aged and old faces, suggesting that the own-age bias in adults is not exclusively directed toward age-congruent "in-group" faces. No own-age bias was observed in old middle-aged and elderly participants. Analysis of ERPs revealed significant positive correlations of both N170 latency and amplitude with participant age, thus, suggesting an age-related delay of processing speed and an increase in processing demands at early perceptual stages of face processing. Furthermore, an ERP old-new effect (400-700 ms), with more positive amplitudes for hits as compared with correct rejections, was detected in young and young middle-aged participants but not in the 2 older groups. Because these older groups did not demonstrate enhanced memory performance for own-age faces, we suggest that detailed recollection of study-episode information, as reflected in the ERP old-new effect, may be a necessary prerequisite for the own-age bias.

  6. Maternal deprivation effects on brain plasticity and recognition memory in adolescent male and female rats.

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    Marco, Eva M; Valero, Manuel; de la Serna, Oscar; Aisa, Barbara; Borcel, Erika; Ramirez, Maria Javier; Viveros, María-Paz

    2013-05-01

    Data from both human and animal studies suggest that exposure to stressful life events at neonatal stages may increase the risk of psychopathology at adulthood. In particular, early maternal deprivation, 24 h at postnatal day (pnd) 9, has been associated with persistent neurobehavioural changes similar to those present in developmental psychopathologies such as depression and schizophrenic-related disorders. Most neuropsychiatric disorders first appear during adolescence, however, the effects of MD on adolescent animals' brain and behaviour have been scarcely explored. In the present study, we aimed to investigate the emotional and cognitive consequences of MD in adolescent male and female rats, as well as possible underlying neurobiological mechanisms within frontal cortex and hippocampus. Animals were exposed to a battery of behavioural tasks, from pnd 35 to 42, to evaluate cognitive [spontaneous alternation task (SAT) and novel object test (NOT)] and anxiety-related responses [elevated plus maze (EPM)] during adolescence. Changes in neuronal and glial cells, alterations in synaptic plasticity as well as modifications in cannabinoid receptor expression were investigated in a parallel group of control and adolescent (pnd 40) male and female animals. Notably, MD induced a significant impairment in recognition memory exclusively among females. A generalized decrease in NeuN expression was found in MD animals, together with an increase in hippocampal glial fibrillar acidic protein (GFAP) expression exclusively among MD adolescent males. In addition, MD induced in the frontal cortex and hippocampus of male and female adolescent rats a significant reduction in brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and postsynaptic density (PSD95) levels, together with a decrease in synaptophysin in frontal cortex and neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM) in hippocampus. MD induced, in animals of both sexes, a significant reduction in CB1R expression, but an increase in CB2R that was

  7. Control of working memory: effects of attention training on target recognition and distractor salience in an auditory selection task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melara, Robert D; Tong, Yunxia; Rao, Aparna

    2012-01-09

    Behavioral and electrophysiological measures of target and distractor processing were examined in an auditory selective attention task before and after three weeks of distractor suppression training. Behaviorally, training improved target recognition and led to less conservative and more rapid responding. Training also effectively shortened the temporal distance between distractors and targets needed to achieve a fixed level of target sensitivity. The effects of training on event-related potentials were restricted to the distracting stimulus: earlier N1 latency, enhanced P2 amplitude, and weakened P3 amplitude. Nevertheless, as distractor P2 amplitude increased, so too did target P3 amplitude, connecting experience-dependent changes in distractor processing with greater distinctiveness of targets in working memory. We consider the effects of attention training on the processing priorities, representational noise, and inhibitory processes operating in working memory.

  8. Systemic and intra-rhinal-cortical 17-β estradiol administration modulate object-recognition memory in ovariectomized female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gervais, Nicole J; Jacob, Sofia; Brake, Wayne G; Mumby, Dave G

    2013-09-01

    Previous studies using the novel-object-preference (NOP) test suggest that estrogen (E) replacement in ovariectomized rodents can lead to enhanced novelty preference. The present study aimed to determine: 1) whether the effect of E on NOP performance is the result of enhanced preference for novelty, per se, or facilitated object-recognition memory, and 2) whether E affects NOP performance through actions it has within the perirhinal cortex/entorhinal cortex region (PRh/EC). Ovariectomized rats received either systemic chronic low 17-β estradiol (E2; ~20 pg/ml serum) replacement alone or in combination with systemic acute high administration of estradiol benzoate (EB; 10 μg), or in combination with intracranial infusions of E2 (244.8 pg/μl) or vehicle into the PRh/EC. For one of the intracranial experiments, E2 was infused either immediately before, immediately after, or 2 h following the familiarization (i.e., learning) phase of the NOP test. In light of recent evidence that raises questions about the internal validity of the NOP test as a method of indexing object-recognition memory, we also tested rats on a delayed nonmatch-to-sample (DNMS) task of object recognition following systemic and intra-PRh/EC infusions of E2. Both systemic acute and intra-PRh/EC infusions of E enhanced novelty preference, but only when administered either before or immediately following familiarization. In contrast, high E (both systemic acute and intra-PRh/EC) impaired performance on the DNMS task. The findings suggest that while E2 in the PRh/EC can enhance novelty preference, this effect is probably not due to an improvement in object-recognition abilities.

  9. One-trial object recognition memory in the domestic rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) is disrupted by NMDA receptor antagonists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Kurt Leroy; Basurto, Enrique

    2013-08-01

    The spontaneous response to novelty is the basis of one-trial object recognition tests for the study of object recognition memory (ORM) in rodents. We describe an object recognition task for the rabbit, based on its natural tendency to scent-mark ("chin") novel objects. The object recognition task comprised a 15min sample phase in which the rabbit was placed into an open field arena containing two similar objects, then removed for a 5-360min delay, and then returned to the same arena that contained one object similar to the original ones ("Familiar") and one that differed from the original ones ("Novel"), for a 15min test phase. Chin-marks directed at each of the objects were registered. Some animals received injections (sc) of saline, ketamine (1mg/kg), or MK-801 (37μg/kg), 5 or 20min before the sample phase. We found that chinning decreased across the sample phase, and that this response showed stimulus specificity, a defining characteristic of habituation: in the test phase, chinning directed at the Novel, but not Familiar, object was increased. Chinning directed preferentially at the novel object, which we interpret as novelty-induced sensitization and the behavioral correlate of ORM, was promoted by tactile/visual and spatial novelty. ORM deficits were induced by pre-treatment with MK-801 and, to a lesser extent, ketamine. Novel object discrimination was not observed after delays longer than 5min. These results suggest that short-term habituation and sensitization, not long-term memory, underlie novel object discrimination in this test paradigm.

  10. Not all attention orienting is created equal: recognition memory is enhanced when attention orienting involves distractor suppression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markant, Julie; Worden, Michael S; Amso, Dima

    2015-04-01

    Learning through visual exploration often requires orienting of attention to meaningful information in a cluttered world. Previous work has shown that attention modulates visual cortex activity, with enhanced activity for attended targets and suppressed activity for competing inputs, thus enhancing the visual experience. Here we examined the idea that learning may be engaged differentially with variations in attention orienting mechanisms that drive eye movements during visual search and exploration. We hypothesized that attention orienting mechanisms that engaged suppression of a previously attended location would boost memory encoding of the currently attended target objects to a greater extent than those that involve target enhancement alone. To test this hypothesis we capitalized on the classic spatial cueing task and the inhibition of return (IOR) mechanism (Posner, 1980; Posner, Rafal, & Choate, 1985) to demonstrate that object images encoded in the context of concurrent suppression at a previously attended location were encoded more effectively and remembered better than those encoded without concurrent suppression. Furthermore, fMRI analyses revealed that this memory benefit was driven by attention modulation of visual cortex activity, as increased suppression of the previously attended location in visual cortex during target object encoding predicted better subsequent recognition memory performance. These results suggest that not all attention orienting impacts learning and memory equally.

  11. Entorhinal volume, aerobic fitness, and recognition memory in healthy young adults: A voxel-based morphometry study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiteman, Andrew S; Young, Daniel E; Budson, Andrew E; Stern, Chantal E; Schon, Karin

    2016-02-01

    Converging evidence supports the hypothesis effects of aerobic exercise and environmental enrichment are beneficial for cognition, in particular for hippocampus-supported learning and memory. Recent work in humans suggests that exercise training induces changes in hippocampal volume, but it is not known if aerobic exercise and fitness also impact the entorhinal cortex. In animal models, aerobic exercise increases expression of growth factors, including brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). This exercise-enhanced expression of growth hormones may boost synaptic plasticity, and neuronal survival and differentiation, potentially supporting function and structure in brain areas including but not limited to the hippocampus. Here, using voxel based morphometry and a standard graded treadmill test to determine cardio-respiratory fitness (Bruce protocol; ·VO2 max), we examined if entorhinal and hippocampal volumes were associated with cardio-respiratory fitness in healthy young adults (N=33). In addition, we examined if volumes were modulated by recognition memory performance and by serum BDNF, a putative marker of synaptic plasticity. Our results show a positive association between volume in right entorhinal cortex and cardio-respiratory fitness. In addition, average gray matter volume in the entorhinal cortex, bilaterally, was positively associated with memory performance. These data extend prior work on the cerebral effects of aerobic exercise and fitness to the entorhinal cortex in healthy young adults thus providing compelling evidence for a relationship between aerobic fitness and structure of the medial temporal lobe memory system.

  12. Effects of chronic fluoride exposure on object recognition memory and mRNA expression of SNARE complex in hippocampus of male mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Haijun; Du, Wenjuan; Zhou, Bingrui; Zhang, Wen; Xu, Guoli; Niu, Ruiyan; Sun, Zilong

    2014-04-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effects of long-term fluoride exposure on object recognition memory and mRNA expression of soluble N-ethylmaleimidesensitive fusion protein attachment protein receptors (SNARE) complex (synaptosome-associated protein of 25 kDa (SNAP-25), vesicle-associated membrane protein 2 (VAMP-2), and syntaxin 1A) in the hippocampus of male mice. Sixty sexually matured male Kunming mice were randomly divided into four groups: control group (given distilled water), low F group (25 mg/L NaF, corresponding to 11 mg/L F(-)), medium F group (50 mg/L NaF, corresponding to 22 mg/L F(-)), and high F group (100 mg/L NaF, corresponding to 45 mg/L F(-)). After 180 days, the spontaneous locomotor behavior and object recognition memory were detected by open field test and novel object recognition (NOR) test. Results showed that compared with the control group, frequency in each zone, total distance, and line crosses were significantly increased in low F and medium F groups, suggesting fluoride enhanced excitement of mice, while there were no marked changes in high F group. Twenty-four hours after training, a deficit of long-term memory (LTM) occurred only in high F group (P recognition memory, and upregulate VAMP-2 mRNA expression, which are involved in the adverse effects of fluoride on the object recognition memory of nervous system.

  13. 1,2-Dilinoleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine ameliorates age-related spatial memory deterioration by preventing neuronal cell death

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    Yaguchi Takahiro

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Accumulating evidence has pointed that a variety of lipids could exert their beneficial actions against dementia including Alzheimer disease and age-related cognitive decline via diverse signaling pathways. Endoplasmic reticulum (ER stress-induced neuronal apoptosis, on the other hand, is a critical factor for pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer disease and Parkinson disease, senile dementia, and ischemic neuronal damage. The present study examined the effects of 1,2-dilinoleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine (DLPhtEtn, a phospholipid, on ER stress-induced neuronal death and age-related cognitive disorders. Methods PC-12 cell viability was assayed before and after treatment with amyloid-β1-40 peptide or thapsigargin in the presence and absence of DLPhtEtn. A series of behavioral tests were performed for senescence-accelerated mouse-prone 8 (SAMP8 mice after 7-month oral administration with polyethylene glycol (PEG or DLPhtEtn and then, the number of hippocampal neurons was counted. Results Amyloid-β1-40 peptide or thapsigargin is capable of causing ER stress-induced apoptosis. DLPhtEtn (30 μM significantly inhibited PC-12 cell death induced by amyloid-β1-40 peptide or thapsigargin. In the water maze test, oral administration with DLPhtEtn (1 mg/kg for 7 months (three times a week significantly shortened the prolonged retention latency for SAMP8 mice. In contrast, DLPhtEtn had no effect on the acquisition and retention latencies in both the open field test and the passive avoidance test for SAMP8 mice. Oral administration with DLPhtEtn (1 mg/kg for 7 months prevented a decrease in the number of hippocampal neurons for SAMP8 mice. Conclusion The results of the present study show that DLPhtEtn ameliorates age-related spatial memory decline without affecting motor activities or fear memory, possibly by protecting hippocampal neuronal death. DLPhtEtn, thus, might exert its beneficial action against

  14. Mice deficient for striatal Vesicular Acetylcholine Transporter (VAChT) display impaired short-term but normal long-term object recognition memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Daniel; Creighton, Samantha; Prado, Vania F; Prado, Marco A M; Choleris, Elena; Winters, Boyer D

    2016-09-15

    Substantial evidence implicates Acetylcholine (ACh) in the acquisition of object memories. While most research has focused on the role of the cholinergic basal forebrain and its cortical targets, there are additional cholinergic networks that may contribute to object recognition. The striatum contains an independent cholinergic network comprised of interneurons. In the current study, we investigated the role of this cholinergic signalling in object recognition using mice deficient for Vesicular Acetylcholine Transporter (VAChT) within interneurons of the striatum. We tested whether these striatal VAChT(D2-Cre-flox/flox) mice would display normal short-term (5 or 15min retention delay) and long-term (3h retention delay) object recognition memory. In a home cage object recognition task, male and female VAChT(D2-Cre-flox/flox) mice were impaired selectively with a 15min retention delay. When tested on an object location task, VAChT(D2-Cre-flox/flox) mice displayed intact spatial memory. Finally, when object recognition was tested in a Y-shaped apparatus, designed to minimize the influence of spatial and contextual cues, only females displayed impaired recognition with a 5min retention delay, but when males were challenged with a 15min retention delay, they were also impaired; neither males nor females were impaired with the 3h delay. The pattern of results suggests that striatal cholinergic transmission plays a role in the short-term memory for object features, but not spatial location.

  15. Differential roles for Nr4a1 and Nr4a2 in object location vs. object recognition long-term memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNulty, Susan E; Barrett, Ruth M; Vogel-Ciernia, Annie; Malvaez, Melissa; Hernandez, Nicole; Davatolhagh, M Felicia; Matheos, Dina P; Schiffman, Aaron; Wood, Marcelo A

    2012-11-16

    Nr4a1 and Nr4a2 are transcription factors and immediate early genes belonging to the nuclear receptor Nr4a family. In this study, we examine their role in long-term memory formation for object location and object recognition. Using siRNA to block expression of either Nr4a1 or Nr4a2, we found that Nr4a2 is necessary for both long-term memory for object location and object recognition. In contrast, Nr4a1 appears to be necessary only for object location. Indeed, their roles in these different types of long-term memory may be dependent on their expression in the brain, as NR4A2 was found to be expressed in hippocampal neurons (associated with object location memory) as well as in the insular and perirhinal cortex (associated with object recognition memory), whereas NR4A1 showed minimal neuronal expression in these cortical areas. These results begin to elucidate how NR4A1 and NR4A2 differentially contribute to object location versus object recognition memory.

  16. On the Role of Hippocampal Protein Synthesis in the Consolidation and Reconsolidation of Object Recognition Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossato, Janine I.; Bevilaqua, Lia R. M.; Myskiw, Jociane C.; Medina, Jorge H.; Izquierdo, Ivan; Cammarota, Martin

    2007-01-01

    Upon retrieval, consolidated memories are again rendered vulnerable to the action of metabolic blockers, notably protein synthesis inhibitors. This has led to the hypothesis that memories are reconsolidated at the time of retrieval, and that this depends on protein synthesis. Ample evidence indicates that the hippocampus plays a key role both in…

  17. An empirical investigation of sparse distributed memory using discrete speech recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danforth, Douglas G.

    1990-01-01

    Presented here is a step by step analysis of how the basic Sparse Distributed Memory (SDM) model can be modified to enhance its generalization capabilities for classification tasks. Data is taken from speech generated by a single talker. Experiments are used to investigate the theory of associative memories and the question of generalization from specific instances.

  18. The medial prefrontal cortex-lateral entorhinal cortex circuit is essential for episodic-like memory and associative object-recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Owen Y; Huston, Joseph P; Li, Jay-Shake; Wang, An-Li; de Souza Silva, Maria A

    2016-05-01

    The prefrontal cortex directly projects to the lateral entorhinal cortex (LEC), an important substrate for engaging item-associated information and relaying the information to the hippocampus. Here we ask to what extent the communication between the prefrontal cortex and LEC is critically involved in the processing of episodic-like memory. We applied a disconnection procedure to test whether the interaction between the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and LEC is essential for the expression of recognition memory. It was found that male rats that received unilateral NMDA lesions of the mPFC and LEC in the same hemisphere, exhibited intact episodic-like (what-where-when) and object-recognition memories. When these lesions were placed in the opposite hemispheres (disconnection), episodic-like and associative memories for object identity, location and context were impaired. However, the disconnection did not impair the components of episodic memory, namely memory for novel object (what), object place (where) and temporal order (when), per se. Thus, the present findings suggest that the mPFC and LEC are a critical part of a neural circuit that underlies episodic-like and associative object-recognition memory.

  19. Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... it has to decide what is worth remembering. Memory is the process of storing and then remembering this information. There are different types of memory. Short-term memory stores information for a few ...

  20. Altered object-in-place recognition memory, prepulse inhibition, and locomotor activity in the offspring of rats exposed to a viral mimetic during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howland, J G; Cazakoff, B N; Zhang, Y

    2012-01-10

    Infection during pregnancy (i.e., prenatal infection) increases the risk of psychiatric illnesses such as schizophrenia and autism in the adult offspring. The present experiments examined the effects of prenatal immune challenge on behavior in three paradigms relevant to these disorders: prepulse inhibition (PPI) of the acoustic startle response, locomotor responses to an unfamiliar environment and the N-methyl-d-aspartate antagonist MK-801, and three forms of recognition memory. Pregnant Long-Evans rats were exposed to the viral mimetic polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid (PolyI:C; 4 mg/kg, i.v.) on gestational day 15. Offspring were tested for PPI and locomotor activity before puberty (postnatal days (PNDs)35 and 36) and during young adulthood (PNDs 56 and 57). Four prepulse-pulse intervals (30, 50, 80, and 140 ms) were employed in the PPI test. Recognition memory testing was performed using three different spontaneous novelty recognition tests (object, object location, and object-in-place recognition) after PND 60. Regardless of sex, offspring of PolyI:C-treated dams showed disrupted PPI at 50-, 80-, and 140-ms prepulse-pulse intervals. In the prepubescent rats, we observed prepulse facilitation for the 30-ms prepulse-pulse interval trials that was selectively retained in the adult PolyI:C-treated offspring. Locomotor responses to MK-801 were significantly reduced before puberty, whereas responses to an unfamiliar environment were increased in young adulthood. Both male and female PolyI:C-treated offspring showed intact object and object location recognition memory, whereas male PolyI:C-treated offspring displayed significantly impaired object-in-place recognition memory. Females were unable to perform the object-in-place test. The present results demonstrate that prenatal immune challenge during mid/late gestation disrupts PPI and locomotor behavior. In addition, the selective impairment of object-in-place recognition memory suggests tasks that depend on prefrontal

  1. Assessment of motor function, sensory motor gating and recognition memory in a novel BACHD transgenic rat model for huntington disease.

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    Yah-Se K Abada

    Full Text Available RATIONALE: Huntington disease (HD is frequently first diagnosed by the appearance of motor symptoms; the diagnosis is subsequently confirmed by the presence of expanded CAG repeats (> 35 in the HUNTINGTIN (HTT gene. A BACHD rat model for HD carrying the human full length mutated HTT with 97 CAG-CAA repeats has been established recently. Behavioral phenotyping of BACHD rats will help to determine the validity of this model and its potential use in preclinical drug discovery studies. OBJECTIVES: The present study seeks to characterize the progressive emergence of motor, sensorimotor and cognitive deficits in BACHD rats. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Wild type and transgenic rats were tested from 1 till 12 months of age. Motor tests were selected to measure spontaneous locomotor activity (open field and gait coordination. Sensorimotor gating was assessed in acoustic startle response paradigms and recognition memory was evaluated in an object recognition test. RESULTS: Transgenic rats showed hyperactivity at 1 month and hypoactivity starting at 4 months of age. Motor coordination imbalance in a Rotarod test was present at 2 months and gait abnormalities were seen in a Catwalk test at 12 months. Subtle sensorimotor changes were observed, whereas object recognition was unimpaired in BACHD rats up to 12 months of age. CONCLUSION: The current BACHD rat model recapitulates certain symptoms from HD patients, especially the marked motor deficits. A subtle neuropsychological phenotype was found and further studies are needed to fully address the sensorimotor phenotype and the potential use of BACHD rats for drug discovery purposes.

  2. The contribution of familiarity to recognition memory is a function of test format when using similar foils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Migo, Ellen; Montaldi, Daniela; Norman, Kenneth A; Quamme, Joel; Mayes, Andrew

    2009-06-01

    Patient Y.R., who suffered hippocampal damage that disrupted recollection but not familiarity, was impaired on a yes/no (YN) object recognition memory test with similar foils. However, she was not impaired on a forced-choice corresponding (FCC) version of the test that paired targets with corresponding similar foils (Holdstock et al., 2002). This dissociation is explained by the Complementary Learning Systems (CLS) neural-network model (Norman & O'Reilly, 2003) if recollection is impaired but familiarity is preserved. The CLS model also predicts that participants relying exclusively on familiarity should be impaired on forced-choice noncorresponding (FCNC) tests, where targets are presented with foils similar to other targets. The present study tests these predictions for all three test formats (YN, FCC, FCNC) in normal participants using two variants of the remember/know procedure. As predicted, performance using familiarity alone was significantly worse than standard recognition on the YN and FCNC tests, but not on the FCC test. Recollection in the form of recall-to-reject was the major process driving YN recognition. This adds support to the interpretation of patient data, according to which hippocampal damage causes a recollection deficit that leads to poor performance on the YN test relative to FCC.

  3. Verbal learning on depressive pseudodementia: accentuate impairment of free recall, moderate on learning processes, and spared short-term and recognition memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonas Jardim de Paula

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective Depressive pseudodementia (DPD is a clinical condition characterized by depressive symptoms followed by cognitive and functional impairment characteristics of dementia. Memory complaints are one of the most related cognitive symptoms in DPD. The present study aims to assess the verbal learning profile of elderly patients with DPD. Methods Ninety-six older adults (34 DPD and 62 controls were assessed by neuropsychological tests including the Rey auditory-verbal learning test (RAVLT. A multivariate general linear model was used to assess group differences and controlled for demographic factors. Results Moderate or large effects were found on all RAVLT components, except for short-term and recognition memory. Conclusion DPD impairs verbal memory, with large effect size on free recall and moderate effect size on the learning. Short-term storage and recognition memory are useful in clinical contexts when the differential diagnosis is required.

  4. ERP profiles for face and word recognition are based on their status in semantic memory not their stimulus category.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Aiqing; Griffin, Michael; Keinath, Alexander; Walsh, Matthew; Dittmann, Andrea; Reder, Lynne

    2014-04-04

    Previous research has suggested that faces and words are processed and remembered differently as reflected by different ERP patterns for the two types of stimuli. Specifically, face stimuli produced greater late positive deflections for old items in anterior compared to posterior regions, while word stimuli produced greater late positive deflections in posterior compared to anterior regions. Given that words have existing representations in subjects׳ long-term memories (LTM) and that face stimuli used in prior experiments were of unknown individuals, we conducted an ERP study that crossed face and letter stimuli with the presence or absence of a prior (stable or existing) memory representation. During encoding, subjects judged whether stimuli were known (famous face or real word) or not known (unknown person or pseudo-word). A surprise recognition memory test required subjects to distinguish between stimuli that appeared during the encoding phase and stimuli that did not. ERP results were consistent with previous research when comparing unknown faces and words; however, the late ERP pattern for famous faces was more similar to that for words than for unknown faces. This suggests that the critical ERP difference is mediated by whether there is a prior representation in LTM, and not whether the stimulus involves letters or faces.

  5. Learning task affects ERP-correlates of the own-race bias, but not recognition memory performance.

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    Stahl, Johanna; Wiese, Holger; Schweinberger, Stefan R

    2010-06-01

    People are generally better in recognizing faces from their own ethnic group as opposed to faces from another ethnic group, a finding which has been interpreted in the context of two opposing theories. Whereas perceptual expertise theories stress the role of long-term experience with one's own ethnic group, race feature theories assume that the processing of an other-race-defining feature triggers inferior coding and recognition of faces. The present study tested these hypotheses by manipulating the learning task in a recognition memory test. At learning, one group of participants categorized faces according to ethnicity, whereas another group rated facial attractiveness. Subsequent recognition tests indicated clear and similar own-race biases for both groups. However, ERPs from learning and test phases demonstrated an influence of learning task on neurophysiological processing of own- and other-race faces. While both groups exhibited larger N170 responses to Asian as compared to Caucasian faces, task-dependent differences were seen in a subsequent P2 ERP component. Whereas the P2 was more pronounced for Caucasian faces in the categorization group, this difference was absent in the attractiveness rating group. The learning task thus influences early face encoding. Moreover, comparison with recent research suggests that this attractiveness rating task influences the processes reflected in the P2 in a similar manner as perceptual expertise for other-race faces does. By contrast, the behavioural own-race bias suggests that long-term expertise is required to increase other-race face recognition and hence attenuate the own-race bias.

  6. Aging Effects in Item and Associative Recognition Memory for Pictures and Words

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratcliff, Roger; McKoon, Gail

    2015-01-01

    Item and associative recognition for pictures and words with college-age young adults and 60–75 year old adults were examined in the experiment reported in this article. The diffusion model (Ratcliff & McKoon, 2008) was used to extract estimates of components of processing from the empirical values of accuracy and correct and error response time distributions. The model fit the empirical data well for both picture and word stimuli. Results showed that boundary separation was larger and nondecision time was longer for older relative to young adults. Drift rates were not lower for older adults for item recognition but they were for associative recognition, indicating that the richer structure of pictures did not provide an enhanced ability to form associations for the older adults. There were also significant correlations among the components of processing across the tasks of the experiment, suggesting common factors, but participants’ accuracy and response times did not significantly correlate across the tasks. PMID:25985326

  7. Vision models for target detection and recognition in memory of Arthur Menendez

    CERN Document Server

    Peli, Eli

    1995-01-01

    This book is an international collection of contributions from academia, industry and the armed forces. It addresses current and emerging Spatial Vision Models and their application to the understanding, prediction and evaluation of the tasks of target detection and recognition. The discussion in many of the chapters is framed in terms of military targets and military vision aids. However, the techniques analyses and problems are by no means limited to this area of application. The detection and recognition of an armored vehicle from a reconnaissance image are performed by the same visual syst

  8. Theoretical Framework of A Computational Model of Auditory Memory for Music Emotion Recognition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Caetano, Marcelo; Wiering, Frans

    2014-01-01

    The bag of frames (BOF) approach commonly used in music emotion recognition (MER) has several limitations. The semantic gap is believed to be responsible for the glass ceiling on the performance of BOF MER systems. However, there are hardly any alternative proposals to address it. In this article, w

  9. How Does the Linguistic Distance Between Spoken and Standard Language in Arabic Affect Recall and Recognition Performances During Verbal Memory Examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taha, Haitham

    2016-10-13

    The current research examined how Arabic diglossia affects verbal learning memory. Thirty native Arab college students were tested using auditory verbal memory test that was adapted according to the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test and developed in three versions: Pure spoken language version (SL), pure standard language version (SA), and phonologically similar version (PS). The result showed that for immediate free-recall, the performances were better for the SL and the PS conditions compared to the SA one. However, for the parts of delayed recall and recognition, the results did not reveal any significant consistent effect of diglossia. Accordingly, it was suggested that diglossia has a significant effect on the storage and short term memory functions but not on long term memory functions. The results were discussed in light of different approaches in the field of bilingual memory.

  10. Right frontal lobe mediation of recollection- and familiarity-based verbal recognition memory: evidence from patients with tumor resections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Nicole D; Davidson, Patrick S R; Mason, Warren P; Gao, Fuqiang; Binns, Malcolm A; Winocur, Gordon

    2011-12-01

    Medial-temporal, parietal, and pFC regions have been implicated in recollection and familiarity, but existing evidence from neuroimaging and patient studies is limited and conflicting regarding the role of specific regions within pFC in these memory processes. We report a study of 20 patients who had undergone resection of right frontal lobe tumors and 20 matched healthy control participants. The location and extent of lesions were traced on the patients' scans. A process dissociation procedure was employed to yield estimates of the contributions of recollection and familiarity in verbal recognition performance. Group comparisons revealed deficits in recollection but not familiarity in the patient group relative to their healthy counterparts. We found a positive relationship between estimates of familiarity and lesion sizes in the right inferior pFC (BA 11, 47) which was significant upon bootstrap resampling. These results are discussed in terms of prior work linking this area to an overextended sense of familiarity.

  11. Interteaching and Lecture: A Comparison of Long-Term Recognition Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saville, Bryan K.; Bureau, Alex; Eckenrode, Claire; Fullerton, Alison; Herbert, Reanna; Maley, Michelle; Porter, Allen; Zombakis, Julie

    2014-01-01

    Although a number of studies suggest that interteaching is an effective alternative to traditional teaching methods, no studies have systematically examined whether interteaching improves long-term memory. In this study, we assigned students to different teaching conditions--interteaching, lecture, or control--and then gave them a multiple-choice…

  12. Effects of Memory Load on Word Recognition: Are There Dual-Routers in Norway?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lervag, Arne; Braten, Ivar

    2002-01-01

    Attempts to replicate the release-from-competition effect (a difficult concurrent memory task speeds pronunciation of low-frequency irregular words but slows pronunciation of other word types) with mature normal readers of Norwegian (undergraduate education students) and thus tested the generalizability of dual-route models to a considerably more…

  13. Differential Involvement of Dopamine D1 Receptor and MEK Signaling Pathway in the Ventromedial Prefrontal Cortex in Consolidation and Reconsolidation of Recognition Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maroun, Mouna; Akirav, Irit

    2009-01-01

    We investigated MEK and D1 receptors in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) in consolidation and reconsolidation of recognition memory in rats nonhabituated to the experimental context (NH) or with reduced arousal due to extensive prior habituation (H). The D1 receptor antagonist enhanced consolidation and impaired reconsolidation in NH but…

  14. Neuritin reverses deficits in murine novel object associative recognition memory caused by exposure to extremely low-frequency (50 Hz) electromagnetic fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Qian-Ru; Lu, Jun-Mei; Yao, Jin-Jing; Zhang, Zheng-Yu; Ling, Chen; Mei, Yan-Ai

    2015-07-03

    Animal studies have shown that electromagnetic field exposure may interfere with the activity of brain cells, thereby generating behavioral and cognitive disturbances. However, the underlying mechanisms and possible preventions are still unknown. In this study, we used a mouse model to examine the effects of exposure to extremely low-frequency (50 Hz) electromagnetic fields (ELF MFs) on a recognition memory task and morphological changes of hippocampal neurons. The data showed that ELF MFs exposure (1 mT, 12 h/day) induced a time-dependent deficit in novel object associative recognition memory and also decreased hippocampal dendritic spine density. This effect was observed without corresponding changes in spontaneous locomotor activity and was transient, which has only been seen after exposing mice to ELF MFs for 7-10 days. The over-expression of hippocampal neuritin, an activity-dependent neurotrophic factor, using an adeno-associated virus (AAV) vector significantly increased the neuritin level and dendritic spine density. This increase was paralleled with ELF MFs exposure-induced deficits in recognition memory and reductions of dendritic spine density. Collectively, our study provides evidence for the association between ELF MFs exposure, impairment of recognition memory, and resulting changes in hippocampal dendritic spine density. Neuritin prevented this ELF MFs-exposure-induced effect by increasing the hippocampal spine density.

  15. Restoration of Dopamine Release Deficits during Object Recognition Memory Acquisition Attenuates Cognitive Impairment in a Triple Transgenic Mice Model of Alzheimer's Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzman-Ramos, Kioko; Moreno-Castilla, Perla; Castro-Cruz, Monica; McGaugh, James L.; Martinez-Coria, Hilda; LaFerla, Frank M.; Bermudez-Rattoni, Federico

    2012-01-01

    Previous findings indicate that the acquisition and consolidation of recognition memory involves dopaminergic activity. Although dopamine deregulation has been observed in Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients, the dysfunction of this neurotransmitter has not been investigated in animal models of AD. The aim of this study was to assess, by in vivo…

  16. Effects of varying presentation time on long-term recognition memory for scenes: Verbatim and gist representations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Fahad N; Moscovitch, Morris; Hockley, William E

    2016-11-17

    Konkle, Brady, Alvarez and Oliva (Psychological Science, 21, 1551-1556, 2010) showed that participants have an exceptional long-term memory (LTM) for photographs of scenes. We examined to what extent participants' exceptional LTM for scenes is determined by presentation time during encoding. In addition, at retrieval, we varied the nature of the lures in a forced-choice recognition task so that they resembled the target in gist (i.e., global or categorical) information, but were distinct in verbatim information (e.g., an "old" beach scene and a similar "new" beach scene; exemplar condition) or vice versa (e.g., a beach scene and a new scene from a novel category; novel condition). In Experiment 1, half of the list of scenes was presented for 1 s, whereas the other half was presented for 4 s. We found lower performance for shorter study presentation time in the exemplar test condition and similar performance for both study presentation times in the novel test condition. In Experiment 2, participants showed similar performance in an exemplar test for which the lure was of a different category but a category that was used at study. In Experiment 3, when presentation time was lowered to 500 ms, recognition accuracy was reduced in both novel and exemplar test conditions. A less detailed memorial representation of the studied scene containing more gist (i.e., meaning) than verbatim (i.e., surface or perceptual details) information is retrieved from LTM after a short compared to a long study presentation time. We conclude that our findings support fuzzy-trace theory.

  17. Impairment of object recognition memory by maternal bisphenol A exposure is associated with inhibition of Akt and ERK/CREB/BDNF pathway in the male offspring hippocampus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chong; Li, Zhihui; Han, Haijun; Luo, Guangying; Zhou, Bingrui; Wang, Shaolin; Wang, Jundong

    2016-02-03

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is a commonly used endocrine-disrupting chemical used as a component of polycarbonates plastics that has potential adverse effects on human health. Exposure to BPA during development has been implicated in memory deficits, but the mechanism of action underlying the effect is not fully understood. In this study, we investigated the effect of maternal exposure to BPA on object recognition memory and the expressions of proteins important for memory, especially focusing on the ERK/CREB/BDNF pathway. Pregnant Sprague-Dawley female rats were orally treated with either vehicle or BPA (0.05, 0.5, 5 or 50 mg/kg BW/day) during days 9-20 of gestation. Male offspring were tested on postnatal day 21 with the object recognition task. Recognition memory was assessed using the object recognition index (index=the time spent exploring the novel object/(the time spent exploring the novel object+the time spent exploring the familiar object)). In the test session performed 90 min after the training session, BPA-exposed male offspring not only spent more time in exploring the familiar object at the highest dose than the control, but also displayed a significantly decreased the object recognition index at the doses of 0.5, 5 and 50 mg/kg BW/day. During the test session performed 24h after the training session, BPA-treated males did not change the time spent exploring the familiar object, but had a decreased object recognition index at 5 and 50 mg/kg BW/day, when compared to control group. These findings indicate that object recognition memory was susceptible to maternal BPA exposure. Western blot analysis of hippocampi from BPA-treated male offspring revealed a decrease in Akt, phospho-Akt, p44/42 MAPK and phospho-p44/42 MAPK protein levels, compared to controls. In addition, BPA significantly inhibited the levels of phosphorylation of CREB and BDNF in the hippocampus. Our results show that maternal BPA exposure may full impair object recognition memory, and that

  18. An animal model of amnesia that uses Receiver Operating Characteristics (ROC) analysis to distinguish recollection from familiarity deficits in recognition memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichenbaum, H; Fortin, N; Sauvage, M; Robitsek, R J; Farovik, A

    2010-07-01

    Here we review our development of an animal model of episodic memory and amnesia that employs a signal detection analyses to characterize recognition memory performance in rats. This approach aims to distinguish episodic recollection of studied items from mere familiarity for recently experienced stimuli, and then to examine the neural basis of these memory processes. Our findings on intact animals indicate that it is possible to distinguish independent components of recognition that are associated with features of recollection and familiarity in humans. Furthermore, we have found that damage limited to the hippocampus results in a selective deficit in recollection and not familiarity. Also, aging and prefrontal damage result in a similar pattern of impaired recollection and spared familiarity. However, whereas the recollection deficit following hippocampal damage can be attributed to the forgetting of studied materials, the impairment following prefrontal damage is due to false alarms, likely reflecting a deficit in source monitoring.

  19. Astrocytic expression of HIV-1 Nef impairs spatial and recognition memory

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Despite the widespread use of antiretroviral therapy that effectively limits viral replication, memory impairment remains a dilemma for HIV infected people. In the CNS, HIV infection of astrocytes leads to the production of the HIV-1 Nef protein without viral replication. Post mortem studies have found Nef expression in hippocampal astrocytes of people with HIV associated dementia suggesting that astrocytic Nef may contribute to HIV associated cognitive impairment even when viral replication ...

  20. Common and specific brain regions in high- versus low-confidence recognition memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hongkeun; Cabeza, Roberto

    2009-01-01

    The goal of the present functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study was to investigate whether and to what extent brain regions involved in high-confidence recognition (HCR) versus low-confidence recognition (LCR) overlap or separate from each other. To this end, we performed conjunction analyses involving activations elicited during high-confidence hit, low-confidence hit, and high-confidence correct-rejection responses. The analyses yielded 3 main findings. First, sensory/perceptual and associated posterior regions were common to HCR and LCR, indicating contribution of these regions to both HCR and LCR activity. This finding may help explain why these regions are among the most common in functional neuroimaging studies of episodic retrieval. Second, medial temporal lobe (MTL) and associated midline regions were associated with HCR, possibly reflecting recollection-related processes, whereas specific prefrontal cortex (PFC) regions were associated with LCR, possibly reflecting executive control processes. This finding is consistent with the notion that the MTL and PFC networks play complementary roles during episodic retrieval. Finally, within posterior parietal cortex, a dorsal region was associated with LCR, possibly reflecting top-down attentional processes, whereas a ventral region was associated with HCR, possibly reflecting bottom-up attentional processes. This finding may help explain why functional neuroimaging studies have found diverse parietal effects during episodic retrieval. Taken together, our findings provide strong evidence that HCR versus LCR, and by implication, recollection versus familiarity processes, are represented in common as well as specific brain regions. PMID:19501072

  1. α₄β₂ Nicotinic receptor stimulation of the GABAergic system within the orbitofrontal cortex ameliorates the severe crossmodal object recognition impairment in ketamine-treated rats: implications for cognitive dysfunction in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cloke, Jacob M; Winters, Boyer D

    2015-03-01

    Schizophrenia is associated with atypical multisensory integration. Rats treated sub-chronically with NMDA receptor antagonists to model schizophrenia are severely impaired on a tactile-to-visual crossmodal object recognition (CMOR) task, and this deficit is reversed by systemic nicotine. The current study assessed the receptor specificity of the ameliorative effect of nicotine in the CMOR task, as well as the potential for nicotinic receptor (nAChR) interactions with GABA and glutamate. Male Long-Evans rats were treated sub-chronically for 10 days with ketamine or saline and then tested on the CMOR task after a 10-day washout. Systemic nicotine given before the sample phase of the CMOR task reversed the ketamine-induced impairment, but this effect was blocked by co-administration of the GABAA receptor antagonist bicuculline at a dosage that itself did not cause impairment. Pre-sample systemic co-administration of the NMDA receptor antagonist MK-801 did not block the remediating effect of nicotine in ketamine-treated rats. The selective α7 nAChR agonist GTS-21 and α4β2 nAChR agonist ABT-418 were also tested, with only the latter reversing the ketamine impairment dose-dependently; bicuculline also blocked this effect. Similarly, infusions of nicotine or ABT-418 into the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) reversed the CMOR impairment in ketamine-treated rats, and systemic bicuculline blocked the effect of intra-OFC ABT-418. These results suggest that nicotine-induced agonism of α4β2 nAChRs within the OFC ameliorates CMOR deficits in ketamine-treated rats via stimulation of the GABAergic system. The findings of this research may have important implications for understanding the nature and potential treatment of cognitive impairment in schizophrenia.

  2. An exemplar-familiarity model predicts short-term and long-term probe recognition across diverse forms of memory search.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nosofsky, Robert M; Cox, Gregory E; Cao, Rui; Shiffrin, Richard M

    2014-11-01

    Experiments were conducted to test a modern exemplar-familiarity model on its ability to account for both short-term and long-term probe recognition within the same memory-search paradigm. Also, making connections to the literature on attention and visual search, the model was used to interpret differences in probe-recognition performance across diverse conditions that manipulated relations between targets and foils across trials. Subjects saw lists of from 1 to 16 items followed by a single item recognition probe. In a varied-mapping condition, targets and foils could switch roles across trials; in a consistent-mapping condition, targets and foils never switched roles; and in an all-new condition, on each trial a completely new set of items formed the memory set. In the varied-mapping and all-new conditions, mean correct response times (RTs) and error proportions were curvilinear increasing functions of memory set size, with the RT results closely resembling ones from hybrid visual-memory search experiments reported by Wolfe (2012). In the consistent-mapping condition, new-probe RTs were invariant with set size, whereas old-probe RTs increased slightly with increasing study-test lag. With appropriate choice of psychologically interpretable free parameters, the model accounted well for the complete set of results. The work provides support for the hypothesis that a common set of processes involving exemplar-based familiarity may govern long-term and short-term probe recognition across wide varieties of memory- search conditions.

  3. Rhythms of Memory and Bits on Edge: Symbol Recognition as a Physical Phenomenon

    CERN Document Server

    Myers, John M

    2011-01-01

    Preoccupied with measurement, physics has neglected the need, before anything can be measured, to recognize what it is that is to be measured. The recognition of symbols employs a known physical mechanism. The elemental mechanism-a damped inverted pendulum joined by a driven adjustable pendulum (in effect a clock)-both recognizes a binary distinction and records a single bit. Referred to by engineers as a "clocked flip-flop," this paired-pendulum mechanism pervades scientific investigation. It shapes evidence by imposing discrete phases of allowable leeway in clock readings; and it generates a mathematical form of evidence that neither assumes a geometry nor assumes quantum states, and so separates statements of evidence from further assumptions required to explain that evidence, whether the explanations are made in quantum terms or in terms of general relativity. Cleansed of unnecessary assumptions, these expressions of evidence form a platform on which to consider the working together of general relativity ...

  4. They can take a hint: Older adults effectively integrate memory cues during recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konkel, Alex; Selmeczy, Diana; Dobbins, Ian G

    2015-12-01

    Adaptively biasing recognition judgments in light of environmental cues improves net accuracy. Based on previous work suggesting that strategically shifting biases on a trial-wise basis should be cognitively demanding, the authors predicted that older adults would not achieve the same accuracy benefits from environmental cues as the young. However, despite showing clear declines in cognitive control as indexed by complex span, older adults demonstrated similar accuracy gains and similar alterations of response probabilities with cues of 75% reliability (Experiment 1) and more complex cues spanning 3 levels of reliability (Experiment 2). Despite preserved gains in accuracy, older adults clearly demonstrated disproportionate slowing that was specific to trials in which cues were invalid. This slowing may reflect impairments in behavioral inhibition that could impinge upon accuracy were responding increasingly sped and future work manipulating response speed and measures of inhibition may yield further insights.

  5. Memory Conjunction Errors: Factors Influencing False Recognition and Theory Construction%记忆中的错误联接:影响因素和理论建构

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王红椿; 刘鸣; 张积家

    2009-01-01

    Memory conjunction errors refer to false recognitions a subject makes of new stimuli which have been reconstructed partly or entirely from previously studied stimuli. False recognitions of those types of items have been referred to as feature errors and conjunction errors. This paper briefly introduces the factors that influence the feature and conjtmction errors and the theories which intend to explain memory conjunction errors.%记忆中的错误联接是指被试在测验中,对先前学过的刺激的某部分重新组合成的新刺激产生错误再认,包括特征错误和联合错误.近年来,出现了众多的有关记忆中的错误联接的理论模型,对影响错误联接的因素,人们也进行了深入探讨.

  6. The effects of prolonged administration of norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors on long-term potentiation in dentate gyrus, and on tests of spatial and object recognition memory in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walling, Susan G; Milway, J Stephen; Ingram, Matthew; Lau, Catherine; Morrison, Gillian; Martin, Gerard M

    2016-02-01

    Phasic norepinephrine (NE) release events are involved in arousal, novelty detection and in plasticity processes underlying learning and memory in mammalian systems. Although the effects of phasic NE release events on plasticity and memory are prevalently documented, it is less understood what effects chronic NE reuptake inhibition and sustained increases in noradrenergic tone, might have on plasticity and cognitive processes in rodent models of learning and memory. This study investigates the effects of chronic NE reuptake inhibition on hippocampal plasticity and memory in rats. Rats were administered NE reuptake inhibitors (NRIs) desipramine (DMI; 0, 3, or 7.5mg/kg/day) or nortriptyline (NTP; 0, 10 or 20mg/kg/day) in drinking water. Long-term potentiation (LTP; 200 Hz) of the perforant path-dentate gyrus evoked potential was examined in urethane anesthetized rats after 30-32 days of DMI treatment. Short- (4-h) and long-term (24-h) spatial memory was tested in separate rats administered 0 or 7.5mg/kg/day DMI (25-30 days) using a two-trial spatial memory test. Additionally, the effects of chronically administered DMI and NTP were tested in rats using a two-trial, Object Recognition Test (ORT) at 2- and 24-h after 45 and 60 days of drug administration. Rats administered 3 or 7.5mg/kg/day DMI had attenuated LTP of the EPSP slope but not the population spike at the perforant path-dentate gyrus synapse. Short- and long-term memory for objects is differentially disrupted in rats after prolonged administration of DMI and NTP. Rats that were administered 7.5mg/kg/day DMI showed decreased memory for a two-trial spatial task when tested at 4-h. In the novel ORT, rats receiving 0 or 7.5mg/kg/day DMI showed a preference for the arm containing a Novel object when tested at both 2- and 24-h demonstrating both short- and long-term memory retention of the Familiar object. Rats that received either dose of NTP or 3mg/kg/day DMI showed impaired memory at 2-h, however this

  7. The molecules of social recognition memory: implications for social cognition, extended mind, and neuroethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bickle, John

    2008-06-01

    Social cognition, cognitive neuroscience, and neuroethics have reached a synthesis of late, but some troubling features are present. The neuroscience that currently dominates the study of social cognition is exclusively cognitive neuroscience, as contrasted with the cellular and increasingly molecular emphasis that has gripped mainstream neuroscience over the past three decades. Furthermore, the recent field of molecular and cellular cognition has begun to unravel some molecular mechanisms involved in social cognition, especially pertaining to the consolidation of memories of particular conspecific organisms. Some new experimental techniques for positive interventions into these hypothesized mechanisms offer opportunities for establishing direct causal linkages between intra-neuronal molecular events and the behaviors used to measure social cognitive phenomena. Predicted results from an experiment described below also cast doubt on the application of the "extended mind" approach from recent cognitive science to ground the neuroscience of social cognition. Since neuroethics relies heavily on our best neuroscience of social cognition, that field may soon need to extend its attention beyond cognitive neuroscience, and into neuroscience's cellular and molecular mainstream.

  8. Differential Roles for "Nr4a1" and "Nr4a2" in Object Location vs. Object Recognition Long-Term Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNulty, Susan E.; Barrett, Ruth M.; Vogel-Ciernia, Annie; Malvaez, Melissa; Hernandez, Nicole; Davatolhagh, M. Felicia; Matheos, Dina P.; Schiffman, Aaron; Wood, Marcelo A.

    2012-01-01

    "Nr4a1" and "Nr4a2" are transcription factors and immediate early genes belonging to the nuclear receptor Nr4a family. In this study, we examine their role in long-term memory formation for object location and object recognition. Using siRNA to block expression of either "Nr4a1" or "Nr4a2", we found that "Nr4a2" is necessary for both long-term…

  9. Turning up the Noise or Turning Down the Volume? On the Nature of the Impairment of Episodic Recognition Memory by Midazolam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malmberg, Kenneth J.; Zeelenberg, Rene; Shiffrin, Richard M.

    2004-01-01

    E. Hirshman, J. Fisher, T. Henthom, J. Amdt, and A. Passanname (2002) found that Midazolam disrupts the mirror-patterned word-frequency effect for recognition memory by reversing the typical hit-rate advantage for low-frequency words. They noted that this result is consistent with dual-process accounts (e.g., R. C. Atkinson & J. F. Juola, 1974; G.…

  10. Object-in-place associative recognition memory depends on glutamate receptor neurotransmission within two defined hippocampal-cortical circuits: a critical role for AMPA and NMDA receptors in the hippocampus, perirhinal, and prefrontal cortices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, Gareth Robert Issac; Warburton, Elizabeth Clea

    2015-02-01

    Object-in-place associative recognition memory depends on an interaction between the hippocampus (HPC), perirhinal (PRH), and medial prefrontal (mPFC) cortices, yet the contribution of glutamate receptor neurotransmission to these interactions is unknown. NMDA receptors (NMDAR) in the HPC were critical for encoding of object-in-place memory but not for single-item object recognition. Next, a disconnection procedure was used to examine the importance of "concurrent" glutamate neurotransmission in the HPC-mPFC and HPC-PRH. Contralateral unilateral infusions of NBQX (AMPAR antagonist), into the HPC-mPFC, or HPC-PRH, either before acquisition or test, impaired object-in-place performance. Thus, both circuits are necessary for encoding and retrieval. Crossed unilateral AP5 (NMDAR antagonist) infusions into the HPC-mPFC or HPC-PRH impaired encoding, but not retrieval. Specifically crossed HPC-mPFC infusions impaired both short-term (5 min) and longer term (1 h) memory while HPC-PRH infusions impaired longer term memory only. This delay-dependent effect of AP5 in the HPC-PRH on object-in-place memory, accords with its effects in the PRH, on single item object recognition memory, thereby suggesting that a single PRH synaptic plasticity mechanism underpins different recognition memory processes. Further, blocking excitatory neurotransmission in any pair of structures within the networks impaired "both" encoding and retrieval, thus object-in-place memory clearly requires network interdependency across multiple structures.

  11. Déjà vu in unilateral temporal-lobe epilepsy is associated with selective familiarity impairments on experimental tasks of recognition memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Chris B; Mirsattari, Seyed M; Pruessner, Jens C; Pietrantonio, Sandra; Burneo, Jorge G; Hayman-Abello, Brent; Köhler, Stefan

    2012-11-01

    In déjà vu, a phenomenological impression of familiarity for the current visual environment is experienced with a sense that it should in fact not feel familiar. The fleeting nature of this phenomenon in daily life, and the difficulty in developing experimental paradigms to elicit it, has hindered progress in understanding déjà vu. Some neurological patients with temporal-lobe epilepsy (TLE) consistently experience déjà vu at the onset of their seizures. An investigation of such patients offers a unique opportunity to shed light on its possible underlying mechanisms. In the present study, we sought to determine whether unilateral TLE patients with déjà vu (TLE+) show a unique pattern of interictal memory deficits that selectively affect familiarity assessment. In Experiment 1, we employed a Remember-Know paradigm for categorized visual scenes and found evidence for impairments that were limited to familiarity-based responses. In Experiment 2, we administered an exclusion task for highly similar categorized visual scenes that placed both recognition processes in opposition. TLE+ patients again displayed recognition impairments, and these impairments spared their ability to engage recollective processes so as to counteract familiarity. The selective deficits we observed in TLE+ patients contrasted with the broader pattern of recognition-memory impairments that was present in a control group of unilateral patients without déjà vu (TLE-). MRI volumetry revealed that ipsilateral medial temporal structures were less broadly affected in TLE+ than in TLE- patients, with a trend for more focal volume reductions in the rhinal cortices of the TLE+ group. The current findings establish a first empirical link between déjà vu in TLE and processes of familiarity assessment, as defined and measured in current cognitive models. They also reveal a pattern of selectivity in recognition impairments that is rarely observed and, thus, of significant theoretical interest to

  12. Brain catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) inhibition by tolcapone counteracts recognition memory deficits in normal and chronic phencyclidine-treated rats and in COMT-Val transgenic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Detrait, Eric R; Carr, Greg V; Weinberger, Daniel R; Lamberty, Yves

    2016-08-01

    The critical involvement of dopamine in cognitive processes has been well established, suggesting that therapies targeting dopamine metabolism may alleviate cognitive dysfunction. Catechol-O-methyl transferase (COMT) is a catecholamine-degrading enzyme, the substrates of which include dopamine, epinephrine, and norepinephrine. The present work illustrates the potential therapeutic efficacy of COMT inhibition in alleviating cognitive impairment. A brain-penetrant COMT inhibitor, tolcapone, was tested in normal and phencyclidine-treated rats and COMT-Val transgenic mice. In a novel object recognition procedure, tolcapone counteracted a 24-h-dependent forgetting of a familiar object as well as phencyclidine-induced recognition deficits in the rats at doses ranging from 7.5 to 30 mg/kg. In contrast, entacapone, a COMT inhibitor that does not readily cross the blood-brain barrier, failed to show efficacy at doses up to 30 mg/kg. Tolcapone at a dose of 30 mg/kg also improved novel object recognition performance in transgenic mice, which showed clear recognition deficits. Complementing earlier studies, our results indicate that central inhibition of COMT positively impacts recognition memory processes and might constitute an appealing treatment for cognitive dysfunction related to neuropsychiatric disorders.

  13. The effects of unitization on the contribution of familiarity and recollection processes to associative recognition memory: evidence from event-related potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Zhiwei; Li, Juan; Xiao, Fengqiu; Broster, Lucas S; Jiang, Yang; Xi, Mingjing

    2015-03-01

    Familiarity and recollection are two independent cognitive processes involved in recognition memory. It is traditionally believed that both familiarity and recollection can support item recognition, whereas only recollection can support associative recognition. Here, using a standard associative recognition task, we examined whether associative retrieval of unitized associations involved differential patterns of familiarity and recollection processes relative to non-unitized associations. The extent of engagement of familiarity and recollection processes during associative retrieval was estimated by using event-related potentials (ERPs). Twenty participants studied compound words and unrelated word pairs during encoding. Subsequently, they were asked to decide whether a presented word pair was intact, rearranged, or a new pair while electroencephalogram (EEG) was recorded. ERP results showed that compound words evoked a significant early frontal old/new effect (associated with familiarity) between ERPs to intact and rearranged word pairs, whereas this effect disappeared for the unrelated word pairs. In addition, the left parietal old/new effect (associated with recollection) between ERPs to intact and rearranged word pairs was greater for compounds than for unrelated word pairs. These findings suggest that unitization enhances the contribution of both familiarity and recollection processes to associative recognition.

  14. Amyloid beta 25-35 impairs reconsolidation of object recognition memory in rats and this effect is prevented by lithium carbonate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Álvarez-Ruíz, Yarummy; Carrillo-Mora, Paul

    2013-08-26

    Previous studies in transgenic mice models of Alzheimer's disease (AD) have demonstrated an age dependent memory reconsolidation failure, suggesting that this may be an additional mechanism that contributes to the memory impairment observed in AD. However, so far it is unknown whether this effect can be caused by exogenous administration of amyloid beta (Aβ). The purpose was to determine the effects of soluble Aβ 25-35 on reconsolidation of object recognition memory (ORM) in rats, and assess whether these effects can be prevented by lithium carbonate (LiCa). In this study, male Wistar rats were used and the following groups were formed (N=6-13): (a) control, given saline solution; (b) [NMDA antagonist] MK-801 (0.1 mg/kg); (c) LiCa (350 mg/kg); (d) Aβ 25-35 (100 μM) injected into both hippocampi; and (e) Aβ 25-35+LiCa. In all cases, treatments were administered with or without reactivation of memory. The results showed that soluble Aβ 25-35 produces ORM impairment similar to MK-801 when given shortly after memory reactivation, and this effect is prevented by prior administration of LiCa.

  15. Green Tea Extract Ameliorates Learning and Memory Deficits in Ischemic Rats via Its Active Component Polyphenol Epigallocatechin-3-gallate by Modulation of Oxidative Stress and Neuroinflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuo-Jen Wu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Ischemic stroke results in brain damage and behavioral deficits including memory impairment. Protective effects of green tea extract (GTex and its major functional polyphenol (−-epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG on memory were examined in cerebral ischemic rats. GTex and EGCG were administered 1 hr before middle cerebral artery ligation in rats. GTex, EGCG, and pentoxifylline (PTX significantly improved ishemic-induced memory impairment in a Morris water maze test. Malondialdehyde (MDA levels, glutathione (GSH, and superoxide dismutase (SOD activity in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus were increased by long-term treatment with GTex and EGCG. Both compounds were also associated with reduced cerebral infraction breakdown of MDA and GSH in the hippocampus. In in vitro experiments, EGCG had anti-inflammatory effects in BV-2 microglia cells. EGCG inhibited lipopolysaccharide- (LPS- induced nitric oxide production and reduced cyclooxygenase-2 and inducible nitric oxide synthase expression in BV-2 cells. GTex and its active polyphenol EGCG improved learning and memory deficits in a cerebral ischemia animal model and such protection may be due to the reduction of oxidative stress and neuroinflammation.

  16. Multiple ways to the prior occurrence of an event: an electrophysiological dissociation of experimental and conceptually driven familiarity in recognition memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiegand, Iris; Bader, Regine; Mecklinger, Axel

    2010-11-11

    Recent research has shown that familiarity contributes to associative memory when the to-be-associated stimuli are unitized during encoding. However, the specific processes underlying familiarity-based recognition of unitized representations are still indefinite. In this study, we present electrophysiologically dissociable early old/new effects, presumably related to two different kinds of familiarity inherent in associative recognition tasks. In a study-test associative recognition memory paradigm, we employed encoding conditions that established unitized representations of two pre-experimentally unrelated words, e.g. vegetable-bible. We compared event-related potentials (ERP) during the retrieval of these unitized word pairs using different retrieval cues. Word pairs presented in the same order as during unitization at encoding elicited a parietally distributed early old/new effect which we interpret as reflecting conceptually driven familiarity for newly formed concepts. Conversely, word pairs presented in reversed order only elicited a topographically dissociable early effect, i.e. the mid-frontal old/new effect, the putative correlate of experimental familiarity. The late parietal old/new effect, the putative ERP correlate of recollection, was obtained irrespective of word order, though it was larger for words presented in same order. These results indicate that familiarity may not be a unitary process and that different task demands can promote the assessment of conceptually driven familiarity for novel unitized concepts or experimentally-induced increments of experimental familiarity, respectively.

  17. Neural Correlates of Confidence during Item Recognition and Source Memory Retrieval: Evidence for Both Dual-Process and Strength Memory Theories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Scott M.; Buchler, Norbou; Stokes, Jared; Kragel, James; Cabeza, Roberto

    2011-01-01

    Although the medial-temporal lobes (MTL), PFC, and parietal cortex are considered primary nodes in the episodic memory network, there is much debate regarding the contributions of MTL, PFC, and parietal subregions to recollection versus familiarity (dual-process theory) and the feasibility of accounts on the basis of a single memory strength…

  18. Xanthoceraside Ameliorates Mitochondrial Dysfunction Contributing to the Improvement of Learning and Memory Impairment in Mice with Intracerebroventricular Injection of Aβ1-42

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xue-Fei Ji

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of xanthoceraside on learning and memory impairment were investigated and the possible mechanism associated with the protection of mitochondria was also preliminarily explored in Alzheimer’s disease (AD mice model induced by intracerebroventricular (i.c.v. injection of Aβ1-42. The results indicated that xanthoceraside (0.08–0.32 mg/kg significantly improved learning and memory impairment in Morris water maze test and Y-maze test. Xanthoceraside significantly reversed the aberrant decrease of ATP levels and attenuated the abnormal increase of ROS levels both in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus in mice injected with Aβ1-42. Moreover, xanthoceraside dose dependently reversed the decrease of COX, PDHC, and KGDHC activity in isolated cerebral cortex mitochondria of the mice compared with Aβ1-42 injected model mice. In conclusion, xanthoceraside could improve learning and memory impairment, promote the function of mitochondria, decrease the production of ROS, and inhibit oxidative stress. The improvement effects on mitochondria may be through withstanding the damage of Aβ to mitochondrial respiratory chain and the key enzymes in Kreb’s cycle. Therefore, the results from present study and previous study indicate that xanthoceraside could be a competitive candidate for the treatment of AD.

  19. PWZ-029, an inverse agonist selective for α₅ GABAA receptors, improves object recognition, but not water-maze memory in normal and scopolamine-treated rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milić, Marija; Timić, Tamara; Joksimović, Srđan; Biawat, Poonam; Rallapalli, Sundari; Divljaković, Jovana; Radulović, Tamara; Cook, James M; Savić, Miroslav M

    2013-03-15

    Inverse agonism at the benzodiazepine site of α(5) subunit-containing GABA(A) receptors is an attractive approach for the development of putative cognition-enhancing compounds, which are still far from clinical application. Several ligands with binding and/or functional selectivity for α(5) GABA(A) receptors have been synthesized and tested in a few animal models. PWZ-029 is an α(5) GABA(A) selective inverse agonist whose memory enhancing effects were demonstrated in the passive avoidance task in rats and in Pavlovian fear conditioning in mice. In the present study we investigated the effects of PWZ-029 administration in novel object recognition test and Morris water maze, in normal and scopolamine-treated rats. All the three doses of PWZ-029 (2, 5 and 10 mg/kg) improved object recognition after the 24-h delay period, as shown by significant differences between the exploration times of the novel and old object, and the respective discrimination indices. PWZ-029 (2 mg/kg) also successfully reversed the 0.3 mg/kg scopolamine-induced deficit in recognition memory after the 1-h delay. In the Morris water maze test, PWZ-029 (5, 10 and 15 mg/kg) did not significantly influence swim patterns, either during five acquisition days or during the treatment-free probe trial. PWZ-029 (2, 5 and 10 mg/kg) also proved to be ineffective in the reversal of the 1mg/kg scopolamine-induced memory impairment in the water maze. The present mixed results encourage use of a variety of tests and experimental conditions in order to increase the predictability of preclinical testing of selective α(5) GABA(A) inverse agonists.

  20. The effect of passive listening versus active observation of music and dance performances on memory recognition and mild to moderate depression in cognitively impaired older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, Kara; Flores, Roberto; Butterfield, Jacyln; Blackman, Melinda; Lee, Stephanie

    2012-10-01

    The study examined the effects of music therapy and dance/movement therapy on cognitively impaired and mild to moderately depressed older adults. Passive listening to music and active observation of dance accompanied by music were studied in relation to memory enhancement and relief of depressive symptoms in 100 elderly board and care residents. The Beck Depression Inventory and the Recognition Memory Test-Faces Inventory were administered to two groups (one group exposed to a live 30-min. session of musical dance observation, the other to 30 min. of pre-recorded music alone) before the intervention and measured again 3 and 10 days after the intervention. Scores improved for both groups on both measures following the interventions, but the group exposed to dance therapy had significantly lower Beck Depression scores that lasted longer. These findings suggest that active observation of Dance Movement Therapy could play a role in temporarily alleviating moderate depressive symptoms and some cognitive deficits in older adults.

  1. Response to Algarabel et al., 2012 "Recognition memory deficits in mild cognitive impairment". Reconsidering claims of familiarity disruptions in mild cognitive impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Migo, E M; Westerberg, C E

    2014-01-01

    There is some debate over the relative impairment of recollection and familiarity in mild cognitive impairment (MCI). A recent publication by Algarabel et al. (2012, Recognition memory deficits in mild cognitive impairment, Aging, Neuropsychology, and Cognition, 19, 608-619) claims to undermine previous studies reporting preserved familiarity in patients with MCI. Here, we respond to their main criticisms, concluding that they are not sufficiently supported by the data presented. The role of recollection and familiarity in MCI remains unresolved and further work will be required to disentangle the mixed literature.

  2. Dissociable effects of acetylcholinesterase inhibitors and phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors on object recognition memory: acquisition versus consolidation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prickaerts, L.; Sik, A.; Staay, van der F.J.; Vente, de J.; Blokland, A.

    2005-01-01

    Rationale Phosphodiesterase enzyme type 5 (PDE5) inhibitors and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitors have cognition-enhancing properties. However, it is not known whether these drug classes affect the same memory processes. Objective We investigated the memory-enhancing effects of the PDE5 inhibit

  3. Six Regularities of Source Recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glanzer, Murray; Hilford, Andy; Kim, Kisok

    2004-01-01

    In recent work, researchers have shown that source-recognition memory can be incorporated in an extended signal detection model that covers both it and item-recognition memory (A. Hilford, M. Glanzer, K. Kim, & L. T. DeCarlo, 2002). In 5 experiments, using learning variables that have an established effect on item recognition, the authors tested…

  4. Intracerebroventricular transplantation of human amniotic epithelial cells ameliorates spatial memory deficit in the doubly transgenic mice coexpressing APPswe and PS1ΔE9-deleted genes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XUE Shou-ru; CHEN Chong-fang; DONG Wan-li; HUI Guo-zhen; LIU Tian-jun; GUO Li-he

    2011-01-01

    Background Human amniotic epithelial cells (HAECs),which have characteristics of both embryonic and pluripotent stem cells,are therefore a candidate in cell therapy without creating legal or ethical problems.In the present study,we aimed to investigate the effects of intracerebroventricular transplantation of HAECs on doubly transgenic mice of Alzheimer's disease (AD) coexpressing presenilin-1 (PS1) and mutant Sweden amyloid precursor protein (APPswe)genes.Methods The offspring mice genotypes were detected using PCR identification of APPswe and PS1 gene.The doubly transgenic (TG) mice (n=20) and wild-type (WT) mice (n=20) were randomly divided into two groups respectively:the transplantation group treated with HAECs and the control group with phosphate buffered saline.Six radial arm water maze test was used to assess the spatial memory in the TG and WT mice.Amyloid plaques and neurofibrillary tangles were analyzed using congo red and acid-silver methenamine staining respectively.Immunofluorescence cytochemistry was used to track the survival of HAECs.Immunohistochemistry was used to determine the expression of octamer-binding protein 4 (Oct-4) and Nanog in the HAECs.High performance liquid chromatography was used to measure acetylcholine in hippocampus.The density of cholinergic neurons in basal forebrain and nerve fibers in hippocampus was measured using acetylcholinesterase staining.Results Amyloid deposition occurred in hippocampus and frontal cortex in the double TG mice aged 8 months,but not in WT mice.The results also showed that transplanted HAECs can survive for at least 8 weeks and migrate to the third ventricle without immune rejection.The graft HAECs can also express the specific marker Oct-4 and Nanog of stem cell.Compared with the control group,transplantation of HAECs can not only significantly improve the spatial memory of the TG mice,but also increase acetylcholine concentration and the number of hippocampal cholinergic neurites.Conclusions These

  5. Berberine exerts an anticonvulsant effect and ameliorates memory impairment and oxidative stress in a pilocarpine-induced epilepsy model in the rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gao F

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Fei Gao,1,* Ying Gao,2,* Yang-feng Liu,3 Li Wang,4 Ya-jun Li1 1Department of Neurology, First Affiliated Hospital of Xi’an Medical University, Xi’an, People’s Republic of China; 2Department of Radiotherapy Oncology, First Affiliated Hospital of Medical College of Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an, People’s Republic of China; 3Department of Neurology, People’s Liberation Army No. 451 Hospital, Xi’an, People’s Republic of China; 4Department of Scientific Research, First Affiliated Hospital of Xi’an Medical University, Xi’an, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: Though new antiepileptic drugs are emerging, approximately a third of epileptic patients still suffer from recurrent convulsions and cognitive dysfunction. Therefore, we tested whether berberine (Ber, a vegetable drug, has an anticonvulsant property and attenuates memory impairment in a pilocarpine (Pilo-induced epilepsy model in rats. The rats were injected with 400 mg/kg Pilo to induce convulsions, and Ber 25, 50, and 100 mg/kg were administrated by the intragastric route once daily 7 days before Pilo injection until the experiment was over. Convulsions were observed after Pilo injection. For the rats that developed status epilepticus (SE, malondialdehyde, glutathione levels, superoxide dismutase, and catalase activity in the hippocampus were measured 24 hours after SE. The rats received the Morris water-maze test 2 weeks after SE, and then were killed for fluoro-jade B staining to detect the degenerating neurons. We found Ber delayed latency to the first seizure and the time to develop SE in a dose-dependent manner. Malondialdehyde levels were decreased, while glutathione and catalase activity were strengthened in Ber-injected SE rats. In the Morris water-maze test, Ber decreased escape latency compared to saline-treated SE rats. Additionally, Ber reduced the number of fluoro-jade B-positive cells in the

  6. Berberine exerts an anticonvulsant effect and ameliorates memory impairment and oxidative stress in a pilocarpine-induced epilepsy model in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Fei; Gao, Ying; Liu, Yang-Feng; Wang, Li; Li, Ya-Jun

    2014-01-01

    Though new antiepileptic drugs are emerging, approximately a third of epileptic patients still suffer from recurrent convulsions and cognitive dysfunction. Therefore, we tested whether berberine (Ber), a vegetable drug, has an anticonvulsant property and attenuates memory impairment in a pilocarpine (Pilo)-induced epilepsy model in rats. The rats were injected with 400 mg/kg Pilo to induce convulsions, and Ber 25, 50, and 100 mg/kg were administrated by the intragastric route once daily 7 days before Pilo injection until the experiment was over. Convulsions were observed after Pilo injection. For the rats that developed status epilepticus (SE), malondialdehyde, glutathione levels, superoxide dismutase, and catalase activity in the hippocampus were measured 24 hours after SE. The rats received the Morris water-maze test 2 weeks after SE, and then were killed for fluoro-jade B staining to detect the degenerating neurons. We found Ber delayed latency to the first seizure and the time to develop SE in a dose-dependent manner. Malondialdehyde levels were decreased, while glutathione and catalase activity were strengthened in Ber-injected SE rats. In the Morris water-maze test, Ber decreased escape latency compared to saline-treated SE rats. Additionally, Ber reduced the number of fluoro-jade B-positive cells in the hippocampal CA1 region. Our data suggest that Ber exerts anticonvulsant and neuroprotective effects on Pilo-induced epilepsy in rats. Simultaneously, Ber attenuates memory impairment. The beneficial effect may be partly due to mitigation of the oxidative stress burden.

  7. Sweet Dream Liquid Chinese Medicine Ameliorates Learning and Memory Deficit in a Rat Model of Paradoxical Sleep Deprivation through the ERK/CREB Signaling Pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Xinyun; Wang, Chunhua; Wang, Xiuhua; Han, Fang; Lv, Changjun; Zhang, Xiuli

    2016-05-01

    Sweet dream oral liquid (SDOL), a traditional Chinese herbal compound contains 17 traditional Chinese medicines. It has various pharmacological effects, such as improving brain dysfunction and increasing sleeping quality. This study investigated the neuroprotective effect and the underlying mechanisms of SDOL-impaired hippocampus learning and memory-induced paradoxical sleep deprivation (PSD) in rats. Sixty Male Wistar rats were randomly divided into six groups. Before PSD, SDOL treatment group rats were intragastrically administered SDOL for 25 days at dose of 2.1, 4.2, and 8.4 mL/kg body weight per day. Normal control group, large platform control group, and PSD groups were treated with normal saline instead of SDOL. After 25 days treatment, PSD and SDOL groups were deprived of paradoxical sleep for 72 h. Then two behavioral studies were conducted to test the spatial learning and memory ability using the open field test and Morris water maze test. Expression of the c-fos, c-jun, cyclic AMP response element binding protein (CREB), extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase (ERK), mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK)/ERK kinase (MEK), and p-CREB, p-ERK, and p-MEK in the hippocampus were also assayed by western blot. In this study, PSD decreased the levels of p-CREB, p-ERK, p-MEK, c-fos, and c-jun. However, SDOL treatment increased expressions of these proteins. Our results showed that SDOL improved 72-h PSD-induced cognitive impairment. These affects may be mediated by increasing the contents of c-fos, c-jun, and p-CREB/ERK signaling.

  8. Dietary Supplementation of Hericium erinaceus Increases Mossy Fiber-CA3 Hippocampal Neurotransmission and Recognition Memory in Wild-Type Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cesaroni, Valentina; Gregori, Andrej; Repetti, Margherita; Romano, Chiara; Orrù, Germano; Botta, Laura; Girometta, Carolina; Guglielminetti, Maria Lidia; Savino, Elena

    2017-01-01

    Hericium erinaceus (Bull.) Pers. is a medicinal mushroom capable of inducing a large number of modulatory effects on human physiology ranging from the strengthening of the immune system to the improvement of cognitive functions. In mice, dietary supplementation with H. erinaceus prevents the impairment of spatial short-term and visual recognition memory in an Alzheimer model. Intriguingly other neurobiological effects have recently been reported like the effect on neurite outgrowth and differentiation in PC12 cells. Until now no investigations have been conducted to assess the impact of this dietary supplementation on brain function in healthy subjects. Therefore, we have faced the problem by considering the effect on cognitive skills and on hippocampal neurotransmission in wild-type mice. In wild-type mice the oral supplementation with H. erinaceus induces, in behaviour test, a significant improvement in the recognition memory and, in hippocampal slices, an increase in spontaneous and evoked excitatory synaptic current in mossy fiber-CA3 synapse. In conclusion, we have produced a series of findings in support of the concept that H. erinaceus induces a boost effect onto neuronal functions also in nonpathological conditions.

  9. The role of the prefrontal cortex in familiarity and recollection processes during verbal and non-verbal recognition memory: an rTMS study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turriziani, Patrizia; Smirni, Daniela; Oliveri, Massimiliano; Semenza, Carlo; Cipolotti, Lisa

    2010-08-01

    Neuroimaging and lesion studies have documented the involvement of the frontal lobes in recognition memory. However, the precise nature of prefrontal contributions to verbal and non-verbal memory and to familiarity and recollection processes remains unclear. The aim of the current rTMS study was to investigate for the first time the role of the DLPFC in encoding and retrieval of non-verbal and verbal memoranda and its contribution to recollection and familiarity processes. Recollection and familiarity processes were studied using the ROC and unequal variance signal detection methodologies. We found that rTMS delivered over left and right DLPFC at encoding resulted in material specific laterality effects with a disruption of recognition of verbal and non-verbal memoranda. Interestingly, rTMS over DLPFCs at encoding significantly affected both recollection and familiarity. However, at retrieval rTMS did not affect recollection and familiarity. Our results suggest that DLPFC has a degree of functional specialisation and plays an important role in the encoding of verbal and non-verbal memoranda.

  10. Dietary Supplementation of Hericium erinaceus Increases Mossy Fiber-CA3 Hippocampal Neurotransmission and Recognition Memory in Wild-Type Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federico Brandalise

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Hericium erinaceus (Bull. Pers. is a medicinal mushroom capable of inducing a large number of modulatory effects on human physiology ranging from the strengthening of the immune system to the improvement of cognitive functions. In mice, dietary supplementation with H. erinaceus prevents the impairment of spatial short-term and visual recognition memory in an Alzheimer model. Intriguingly other neurobiological effects have recently been reported like the effect on neurite outgrowth and differentiation in PC12 cells. Until now no investigations have been conducted to assess the impact of this dietary supplementation on brain function in healthy subjects. Therefore, we have faced the problem by considering the effect on cognitive skills and on hippocampal neurotransmission in wild-type mice. In wild-type mice the oral supplementation with H. erinaceus induces, in behaviour test, a significant improvement in the recognition memory and, in hippocampal slices, an increase in spontaneous and evoked excitatory synaptic current in mossy fiber-CA3 synapse. In conclusion, we have produced a series of findings in support of the concept that H. erinaceus induces a boost effect onto neuronal functions also in nonpathological conditions.

  11. Dietary Supplementation of Hericium erinaceus Increases Mossy Fiber-CA3 Hippocampal Neurotransmission and Recognition Memory in Wild-Type Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandalise, Federico; Cesaroni, Valentina; Gregori, Andrej; Repetti, Margherita; Romano, Chiara; Orrù, Germano; Botta, Laura; Girometta, Carolina; Guglielminetti, Maria Lidia; Savino, Elena; Rossi, Paola

    2017-01-01

    Hericium erinaceus (Bull.) Pers. is a medicinal mushroom capable of inducing a large number of modulatory effects on human physiology ranging from the strengthening of the immune system to the improvement of cognitive functions. In mice, dietary supplementation with H. erinaceus prevents the impairment of spatial short-term and visual recognition memory in an Alzheimer model. Intriguingly other neurobiological effects have recently been reported like the effect on neurite outgrowth and differentiation in PC12 cells. Until now no investigations have been conducted to assess the impact of this dietary supplementation on brain function in healthy subjects. Therefore, we have faced the problem by considering the effect on cognitive skills and on hippocampal neurotransmission in wild-type mice. In wild-type mice the oral supplementation with H. erinaceus induces, in behaviour test, a significant improvement in the recognition memory and, in hippocampal slices, an increase in spontaneous and evoked excitatory synaptic current in mossy fiber-CA3 synapse. In conclusion, we have produced a series of findings in support of the concept that H. erinaceus induces a boost effect onto neuronal functions also in nonpathological conditions.

  12. Chronic glucocorticoids increase hippocampal vulnerability to neurotoxicity under conditions that produce CA3 dendritic retraction but fail to impair spatial recognition memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conrad, Cheryl D; McLaughlin, Katie J; Harman, James S; Foltz, Cainan; Wieczorek, Lindsay; Lightner, Elizabeth; Wright, Ryan L

    2007-08-01

    We previously found that chronic stress conditions producing CA3 dendritic retraction and spatial memory deficits make the hippocampus vulnerable to the neurotoxin ibotenic acid (IBO). The purpose of this study was to determine whether exposure to chronic corticosterone (CORT) under conditions that produce CA3 dendritic retraction would enhance CA3 susceptibility to IBO. Male Sprague Dawley rats were chronically treated for 21 d with CORT in drinking water (400 microg/ml), and half were given daily injections of phenytoin (40 mg/kg), an antiepileptic drug that prevents CA3 dendritic retraction. Three days after treatments stopped, IBO was infused into the CA3 region. Conditions producing CA3 dendritic retraction (CORT and vehicle) exacerbated IBO-induced CA3 damage compared with conditions in which CA3 dendritic retraction was not observed (vehicle and vehicle, vehicle and phenytoin, CORT and phenytoin). Additionally, spatial recognition memory was assessed using the Y-maze, revealing that conditions producing CA3 dendritic retraction failed to impair spatial recognition memory. Furthermore, CORT levels in response to a potentially mild stressor (injection and Y-maze exposure) stayed at basal levels and failed to differ among key groups (vehicle and vehicle, CORT and vehicle, CORT and phenytoin), supporting the interpretations that CORT levels were unlikely to have been elevated during IBO infusion and that the neuroprotective actions of phenytoin were not through CORT alterations. These data are the first to show that conditions with prolonged glucocorticoid elevations leading to structural changes in hippocampal dendritic arbors can make the hippocampus vulnerable to neurotoxic challenges. These findings have significance for many disorders with elevated glucocorticoids that include depression, schizophrenia, Alzheimer's disease, and Cushing's disease.

  13. Comparison of the CPU and memory performance of StatPatternRecognition (SPR) and Toolkit for MultiVariate Analysis (TMVA)

    CERN Document Server

    Palombo, Giulio

    2011-01-01

    High Energy Physics data sets are often characterized by a huge number of events. Therefore, it is extremely important to use statistical packages able to efficiently analyze these unprecedented amounts of data. We compare the performance of the statistical packages StatPatternRecognition (SPR) and Toolkit for MultiVariate Analysis (TMVA). We focus on how CPU time and memory usage of the learning process scale versus data set size. As classifiers, we consider Random Forests, Boosted Decision Trees and Neural Networks. For our tests, we employ a data set widely used in the machine learning community, "Threenorm" data set, as well as data tailored for testing various edge cases. For each data set, we constantly increase its size and check CPU time and memory needed to build the classifiers implemented in SPR and TMVA. We show that SPR is often significantly faster and consumes significantly less memory. For example, the SPR implementation of Random Forest is by an order of magnitude faster and consumes an order...

  14. Ameliorating of Memory Impairment and Apoptosis in Amyloid β-Injected Rats Via Inhibition of Nitric Oxide Synthase: Possible Participation of Autophagy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shariatpanahi, Marjan; Khodagholi, Fariba; Ashabi, Ghorbangol; Aghazadeh Khasraghi, Azar; Azimi, Leila; Abdollahi, Mohammad; Ghahremani, Mohammad Hossein; Ostad, Seyed Nasser; Noorbakhsh, Farshid; Sharifzadeh, Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    It has been proposed that appearance of amyloid beta (Aβ) in hippocampus is one of the characteristic features of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). The role of Nitric oxide (NO) in neurodegenerative disorders is controversy in different contexts. Here, we examined the effect of NO on spatial memory. For this purpose, we compared the effects of three different concentrations of L-NG-Nitroarginine Methyl Ester (L-NAME) as a nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibitor. We used Morris water maze (MWM) for evaluation of behavioral alterations. We also assessed the apoptosis and autophagy markers as two possible interfering pathways with NO signaling by western blot method. We found that in Aβ pretreated rats, intra-hippocampal injection of 1or 2 (μg/side) of L-NAME caused a significant reduction in escape latency and traveled distance comparing to Aβ-treatment group. Our molecular findings revealed that L-NAME could induce autophagy and attenuate apoptosis dose dependently. The protective role of autophagy and the deteriorative role of apoptosis is the hypothesis that can vindicate our findings. Thus using NOS inhibitors at low concentrations can be one of the therapeutic approaches in the future studies. PMID:26330869

  15. 1'-Acetoxychavicol acetate ameliorates age-related spatial memory deterioration by increasing serum ketone body production as a complementary energy source for neuronal cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kojima-Yuasa, Akiko; Yamamoto, Tomiya; Yaku, Keisuke; Hirota, Shiori; Takenaka, Shigeo; Kawabe, Kouichi; Matsui-Yuasa, Isao

    2016-09-25

    1'-Acetoxychavicol acetate (ACA) is naturally obtained from the rhizomes and seeds of Alpinia galangal. Here, we examined the effect of ACA on learning and memory in senescence-accelerated mice prone 8 (SAMP8). In mice that were fed a control diet containing 0.02% ACA for 25 weeks, the learning ability in the Morris water maze test was significantly enhanced in comparison with mice that were fed the control diet alone. In the Y-maze test, SAMP8 mice showed decreased spontaneous alterations in comparison with senescence-accelerated resistant/1 (SAMR1) mice, a homologous control, which was improved by ACA pretreatment. Serum metabolite profiles were obtained by GC-MS analysis, and each metabolic profile was plotted on a 3D score plot. Based upon the diagram, it can be seen that the distribution areas for the three groups were completely separate. Furthermore, the contents of β-hydroxybutyric acid and palmitic acid in the serum of SAMP8-ACA mice were higher than those of SAMP8-control mice and SAMR1-control mice. We also found that SAMR1 mice did not show histological abnormalities, whereas histological damage in the CA1 region of the hippocampus in SAMP8-control mice was observed. However, SAMP8-ACA mice were observed in a similar manner as SAMR1 mice. These findings confirm that ACA increases the serum concentrations of β-hydroxybutyric acid and palmitic acid levels and thus these fuels might contribute to the maintenance of the cognitive performance of SAMP8 mice.

  16. Real-time learning of predictive recognition categories that chunk sequences of items stored in working memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen eGrossberg

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available How are sequences of events that are temporarily stored in a cognitive working memory unitized, or chunked, through learning? Such sequential learning is needed by the brain in order to enable language, spatial understanding, and motor skills to develop. In particular, how does the brain learn categories, or list chunks, that become selectively tuned to different temporal sequences of items in lists of variable length as they are stored in working memory, and how does this learning process occur in real time? The present article introduces a neural model that simulates learning of such list chunks. In this model, sequences of items are temporarily stored in an Item-and-Order, or competitive queuing, working memory before learning categorizes them using a categorization network, called a Masking Field, which is a self-similar, multiple-scale, recurrent on-center off-surround network that can weigh the evidence for variable-length sequences of items as they are stored in the working memory through time. A Masking Field hereby activates the learned list chunks that represent the most predictive item groupings at any time, while suppressing less predictive chunks. In a network with a given number of input items, all possible ordered sets of these item sequences, up to a fixed length, can be learned with unsupervised or supervised learning. The self-similar multiple-scale properties of Masking Fields interacting with an Item-and-Order working memory provide a natural explanation of George Miller's Magical Number Seven and Nelson Cowan's Magical Number Four. The article explains why linguistic, spatial, and action event sequences may all be stored by Item-and-Order working memories that obey similar design principles, and thus how the current results may apply across modalities. Item-and-Order properties may readily be extended to Item-Order-Rank working memories in which the same item can be stored in multiple list positions, or ranks, as in the list

  17. Differential effects of swimming training on neuronal calcium sensor-1 expression in rat hippocampus/cortex and in object recognition memory tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drumond, Luciana Estefani; Mourão, Flávio Afonso Gonçalves; Leite, Hércules Ribeiro; Abreu, Renata Viana; Reis, Helton José; Moraes, Márcio Flávio Dutra; Pereira, Grace Schenatto; Massensini, André Ricardo

    2012-07-01

    Physical activity has been proposed as a behavioral intervention that improves learning and memory; nevertheless, the mechanisms underlying these health benefits are still not well understood. Neuronal Calcium Sensor-1 (NCS-1) is a member of a superfamily of proteins that respond to local Ca(2+) changes shown to have an important role in learning and memory. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of swimming training on NCS-1 levels in the rat brain after accessing cognitive performance. Wistar rats were randomly assigned to sedentary (SG) or exercised groups (EG). The EG was subject to forced swimming activity, 30 min/day, 5 days/week, during 8 weeks. Progressive load trials were performed in the first and last week in order to access the efficiency of the training. After the 8 week training protocol, memory performance was evaluated by the novel object preference and object location tasks. NCS-1 levels were measured in the cortex and hippocampus using immunoblotting. The EG performed statistically better for the spatial short-term memory (0.73 ± 0.01) when compared to the SG (0.63 ± 0.02; P0.05). In addition, chronic exercise promoted a significant increase in hippocampal NCS-1 levels (1.8 ± 0.1) when compared to SG (1.17 ± 0.08; P0.05). Results suggest that physical exercise would modulate the state of the neural network regarding its potential for plastic changes: physical exercise could be modulating NCS-1 in an activity dependent manner, for specific neural substrates, thus enhancing the cellular/neuronal capability for plastic changes in these areas; which, in turn, would differentially effect ORM task performance for object recognition and displacement.

  18. The influence of age, hearing, and working memory on the speech comprehension benefit derived from an automatic speech recognition system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zekveld, A.A.; Kramer, S.E.; Kessens, J.M.; Vlaming, M.S.M.G.; Houtgast, T.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The aim of the current study was to examine whether partly incorrect subtitles that are automatically generated by an Automatic Speech Recognition (ASR) system, improve speech comprehension by listeners with hearing impairment. In an earlier study (Zekveld et al. 2008), we showed that spe

  19. The Facial Expressive Action Stimulus Test. A test battery for the assessment of face memory, face and object perception, configuration processing, and facial expression recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Gelder, Beatrice; Huis In 't Veld, Elisabeth M J; Van den Stock, Jan

    2015-01-01

    There are many ways to assess face perception skills. In this study, we describe a novel task battery FEAST (Facial Expressive Action Stimulus Test) developed to test recognition of identity and expressions of human faces as well as stimulus control categories. The FEAST consists of a neutral and emotional face memory task, a face and shoe identity matching task, a face and house part-to-whole matching task, and a human and animal facial expression matching task. The identity and part-to-whole matching tasks contain both upright and inverted conditions. The results provide reference data of a healthy sample of controls in two age groups for future users of the FEAST.

  20. The Vasopressin 1b Receptor Antagonist A-988315 Blocks Stress Effects on the Retrieval of Object-Recognition Memory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barsegyan, A.; Atsak, P.; Hornberger, W.B.; Jacobson, P.B.; Gaalen, M.M. van; Roozendaal, B.

    2015-01-01

    Stress-induced activation of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis and high circulating glucocorticoid levels are well known to impair the retrieval of memory. Vasopressin can activate the HPA axis by stimulating vasopressin 1b (V1b) receptors located on the pituitary. In the present s

  1. Dentate Gyrus-Specific Knockdown of Adult Neurogenesis Impairs Spatial and Object Recognition Memory in Adult Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jessberger, Sebastian; Clark, Robert E.; Broadbent, Nicola J.; Clemenson, Gregory D., Jr.; Consiglio, Antonella; Lie, D. Chichung; Squire, Larry R.; Gage, Fred H.

    2009-01-01

    New granule cells are born throughout life in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampal formation. Given the fundamental role of the hippocampus in processes underlying certain forms of learning and memory, it has been speculated that newborn granule cells contribute to cognition. However, previous strategies aiming to causally link newborn neurons…

  2. Superadditive Memory Strength for Item and Source Recognition: The Role of Hierarchical Relational Binding in the Medial Temporal Lobe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimamura, Arthur P.; Wickens, Thomas D.

    2009-01-01

    Source memory depends on our ability to recollect contextual information--such as the time, place, feelings, and thoughts associated with a past event. It is acknowledged that the medial temporal lobe (MTL) plays a critical role in binding such episodic features. Yet, controversy exists over the nature of MTL binding--whether it contributes…

  3. Emotional Memory Enhancement Effect in Dual-processing Recognition Retrieval%双加工再认提取中的情绪记忆增强效应

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毛新瑞; 徐慧芳; 郭春彦

    2015-01-01

    根据双加工理论,再认提取可以划分为两种不同的加工:熟悉性与回想。以往的研究普遍认为情绪对再认提取具有增强效应,但是情绪对再认记忆中两种不同加工方式(熟悉性与回想)的增强效应的神经机制尚存争议。本研究以 ERP 作为测量手段,采用修正的“记得/知道”范式对情绪图片进行再认测验,旨在探究在学习‒测验间隔较长的条件下,情绪信息如何对熟悉性与回想产生增强效应。在行为结果中,对于知道判断,情绪图片的记忆表现显著高于中性图片,情绪效价间没有差异;对于记得判断,负性情绪图片的记忆表现要显著高于正性与中性图片。在 ERP 数据上,对于知道判断,情绪图片的 FN400新旧效应有增强作用。对于记得判断,负性图片的 LPC的新旧效应波幅显著高于中性与负性图片;而正性图片的 LPC新旧效应增强作用不显著。以上证据表明:学习‒测验间隔较长的情况下,熟悉性再认提取中,情绪记忆增强效应主要体现在情绪唤醒对记忆强度的提高,而不仅仅体现在情绪效价对熟悉判断反应倾向的影响。在回想的再认提取中,情绪效价的调节占据主导地位,负性情绪图片有显著的情绪记忆增强效应;正性情绪图片则不具有增强效应。%In studies of recognition retrieval, emotional memory enhancement effect was described as better memory performance for emotional stimuli than neutral ones. Based on dual-processing theory, recognition retrieval can be divided into two different processes: familiarity and recollection. Two important event-related potential correlates, the FN400 (a negative shift in frontal regions at 300~500ms time window), and the late positive complex (LPC; a positive peak over posterior regions at 500~800ms time window) was associated with familiarity and recollection, respectively. Some researchers considered

  4. Effects of voluntary physical exercise, citicoline, and combined treatment on object recognition memory, neurogenesis, and neuroprotection after traumatic brain injury in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacotte-Simancas, Alejandra; Costa-Miserachs, David; Coll-Andreu, Margalida; Torras-Garcia, Meritxell; Borlongan, Cesar V; Portell-Cortés, Isabel

    2015-05-15

    The biochemical and cellular events that lead to secondary neural damage after traumatic brain injury (TBI) contribute to long-term disabilities, including memory deficits. There is a need to search for single and/or combined treatments aimed at reducing these TBI-related disfunctions. The effects of citicoline and of voluntary physical exercise in a running wheel (3 weeks), alone or in combination, on TBI-related short-term (3 h) and long-term (24 h) object recognition memory (ORM) deficits and on neurogenesis and neuroprotection were examined using a rodent model of TBI (controlled cortical impact injury). Citicoline improved memory deficits at the two times tested, while physical exercise only in the long-term test. Physical exercise had a clear neuroprotective effect as indicated by reduced interhemispheric differences in hippocampal formation and lateral ventricle volumes and in density of mature neurons in the hilus of the dentate gyrus and the perirhinal cortex. Physical exercise also increased cell proliferation and neurogenesis in the granular cell layer of the dentate gyrus. Some degree of neuroprotection of citicoline was suggested by reduced interhemispheric differences in the volume of the hippocampal formation. Contrary to what was expected, the effects of citicoline and physical exercise did not sum up. Further, a negative interference between both treatments was found in several behavioral and histological variables. The promising profiles of both treatments as therapeutic tools in TBI when applied singly underscore the need to perform further works looking for other combined treatment regimens that increase the benefit of each treatment alone.

  5. Time-dependent impact of glutamatergic modulators on the promnesiant effect of 5-HT6R blockade on mice recognition memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asselot, Rachel; Simon-O'Brien, Emmanuelle; Lebourgeois, Sophie; Nee, Gérald; Delaunay, Virgile; Duchatelle, Pascal; Bouet, Valentine; Dauphin, François

    2017-04-01

    Selective antagonists at serotonin 5-HT6 receptors (5-HT6R) improve memory performance in rodents and are currently under clinical investigations. If blockade of 5-HT6R is known to increase glutamate release, only two studies have so far demonstrated an interaction between 5-HT6R and glutamate transmission, but both, using the non-competitive NMDA antagonist MK-801, insensitive to variations of glutamate concentrations. In a place recognition task, we investigated here in mice the role of glutamate transmission in the beneficial effects of 5-HT6R blockade (SB-271046). Through the use of increasing intervals (2, 4 and 6h) between acquisition and retrieval, we investigated the time-dependent impact of two different glutamatergic modulators. NMDAR-dependant glutamate transmission (NMDA Receptors) was either blocked by the competitive antagonist at NMDAR, CGS 19755, or potentiated by the glycine transporter type 1 (GlyT1) inhibitor, NFPS. Results showed that neither SB-271046, nor CGS 19755, nor NFPS, alter behavioural performances after short intervals, i.e. when control mice displayed significant memory performances (2h and 4h) (respectively 10, 3, and 0.625mg.kg(-1)). Conversely, with the 6h-interval, a situation in which spontaneous forgetting is observed in control mice, SB-271046 improved recognition memory performances. This beneficial effect was prevented when co-administered with either CGS 19755 or NFPS, which themselves had no effect. Interestingly, a dose-dependent effect was observed with NFPS, with promnesic effect observed at lower dose (0.156mg.kg(-1)) when administrated alone, whereas it did no modify promnesic effect of SB-271046. These results demonstrate that promnesiant effect induced by 5-HT6R blockade is sensitive to the competitive blockade of NMDAR and underline the need of a fine adjustment of the inhibition of GlyT1. Overall, our findings support the idea of a complex crosstalk between serotonergic and glutamatergic systems in the promnesic

  6. On the Optimum Architecture of the Biologically Inspired Hierarchical Temporal Memory Model Applied to the Hand-Written Digit Recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Štolc, Svorad; Bajla, Ivan

    2010-01-01

    In the paper we describe basic functions of the Hierarchical Temporal Memory (HTM) network based on a novel biologically inspired model of the large-scale structure of the mammalian neocortex. The focus of this paper is in a systematic exploration of possibilities how to optimize important controlling parameters of the HTM model applied to the classification of hand-written digits from the USPS database. The statistical properties of this database are analyzed using the permutation test which employs a randomization distribution of the training and testing data. Based on a notion of the homogeneous usage of input image pixels, a methodology of the HTM parameter optimization is proposed. In order to study effects of two substantial parameters of the architecture: the patch size and the overlap in more details, we have restricted ourselves to the single-level HTM networks. A novel method for construction of the training sequences by ordering series of the static images is developed. A novel method for estimation of the parameter maxDist based on the box counting method is proposed. The parameter sigma of the inference Gaussian is optimized on the basis of the maximization of the belief distribution entropy. Both optimization algorithms can be equally applied to the multi-level HTM networks as well. The influences of the parameters transitionMemory and requestedGroupCount on the HTM network performance have been explored. Altogether, we have investigated 2736 different HTM network configurations. The obtained classification accuracy results have been benchmarked with the published results of several conventional classifiers.

  7. Comparison of associative recognition versus source recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Heekyeong; Abellanoza, Cheryl; Schaeffer, James D

    2014-10-03

    The importance of the medial temporal lobe (MTL) for memory of arbitrary associations has been well established. However, the contribution of the MTL in concurrent retrieval of different classes of associations remains unclear. The present fMRI study investigated neural correlates of concurrent retrieval of associative and source memories. Participants studied a list of object pairs with two study tasks and judged the status and context of the pair during test. Associative retrieval was supported by neural activity in bilateral prefrontal cortex and left ventral occipito-temporal cortex, while source recognition was linked to activity in the right caudate. Both the hippocampus and MTL cortex showed retrieval activity for associative and source memory. Importantly, greater brain activity for successful associative recognition accompanied with successful source recognition was evident in left perirhinal and anterior hippocampal regions. These results indicate that the MTL is critical in the retrieval of different classes of associations.

  8. The effect on recognition memory of noise cancelling headphones in a noisy environment with native and non-native speakers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molesworth, Brett R C; Burgess, Marion; Gunnell, Belinda; Löffler, Diana; Venjakob, Antje

    2014-01-01

    Noise has the potential to impair cognitive performance. For nonnative speakers, the effect of noise on performance is more severe than their native counterparts. What remains unknown is the effectiveness of countermeasures such as noise attenuating devices in such circumstances. Therefore, the main aim of the present research was to examine the effectiveness of active noise attenuating countermeasures in the presence of simulated aircraft noise for both native and nonnative English speakers. Thirty-two participants, half native English speakers and half native German speakers completed four recognition (cued) recall tasks presented in English under four different audio conditions, all in the presence of simulated aircraft noise. The results of the research indicated that in simulated aircraft noise at 65 dB(A), performance of nonnative English speakers was poorer than for native English speakers. The beneficial effects of noise cancelling headphones in improving the signal to noise ratio led to an improved performance for nonnative speakers. These results have particular importance for organizations operating in a safety-critical environment such as aviation.

  9. The effect on recognition memory of noise cancelling headphones in a noisy environment with native and nonnative speakers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brett R C Molesworth

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Noise has the potential to impair cognitive performance. For nonnative speakers, the effect of noise on performance is more severe than their native counterparts. What remains unknown is the effectiveness of countermeasures such as noise attenuating devices in such circumstances. Therefore, the main aim of the present research was to examine the effectiveness of active noise attenuating countermeasures in the presence of simulated aircraft noise for both native and nonnative English speakers. Thirty-two participants, half native English speakers and half native German speakers completed four recognition (cued recall tasks presented in English under four different audio conditions, all in the presence of simulated aircraft noise. The results of the research indicated that in simulated aircraft noise at 65 dB(A, performance of nonnative English speakers was poorer than for native English speakers. The beneficial effects of noise cancelling headphones in improving the signal to noise ratio led to an improved performance for nonnative speakers. These results have particular importance for organizations operating in a safety-critical environment such as aviation.

  10. Specificity and false positive rates of the Test of Memory Malingering, Rey 15-item Test, and Rey Word Recognition Test among forensic inpatients with intellectual disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, Christopher M; Glassmire, David M; Zanolini, Shanna Jordan; Wolf, Amanda

    2014-10-01

    This study evaluated the specificity and false positive (FP) rates of the Rey 15-Item Test (FIT), Word Recognition Test (WRT), and Test of Memory Malingering (TOMM) in a sample of 21 forensic inpatients with mild intellectual disability (ID). The FIT demonstrated an FP rate of 23.8% with the standard quantitative cutoff score. Certain qualitative error types on the FIT showed promise and had low FP rates. The WRT obtained an FP rate of 0.0% with previously reported cutoff scores. Finally, the TOMM demonstrated low FP rates of 4.8% and 0.0% on Trial 2 and the Retention Trial, respectively, when applying the standard cutoff score. FP rates are reported for a range of cutoff scores and compared with published research on individuals diagnosed with ID. Results indicated that although the quantitative variables on the FIT had unacceptably high FP rates, the TOMM and WRT had low FP rates, increasing the confidence clinicians can place in scores reflecting poor effort on these measures during ID evaluations.

  11. Transient increase in Zn2+ in hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons causes reversible memory deficit.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atsushi Takeda

    Full Text Available The translocation of synaptic Zn(2+ to the cytosolic compartment has been studied to understand Zn(2+ neurotoxicity in neurological diseases. However, it is unknown whether the moderate increase in Zn(2+ in the cytosolic compartment affects memory processing in the hippocampus. In the present study, the moderate increase in cytosolic Zn(2+ in the hippocampus was induced with clioquinol (CQ, a zinc ionophore. Zn(2+ delivery by Zn-CQ transiently attenuated CA1 long-term potentiation (LTP in hippocampal slices prepared 2 h after i.p. injection of Zn-CQ into rats, when intracellular Zn(2+ levels was transiently increased in the CA1 pyramidal cell layer, followed by object recognition memory deficit. Object recognition memory was transiently impaired 30 min after injection of ZnCl(2 into the CA1, but not after injection into the dentate gyrus that did not significantly increase intracellular Zn(2+ in the granule cell layer of the dentate gyrus. Object recognition memory deficit may be linked to the preferential increase in Zn(2+ and/or the preferential vulnerability to Zn(2+ in CA1 pyramidal neurons. In the case of the cytosolic increase in endogenous Zn(2+ in the CA1 induced by 100 mM KCl, furthermore, object recognition memory was also transiently impaired, while ameliorated by co-injection of CaEDTA to block the increase in cytosolic Zn(2+. The present study indicates that the transient increase in cytosolic Zn(2+ in CA1 pyramidal neurons reversibly impairs object recognition memory.

  12. A 600-µW ultra-low-power associative processor for image pattern recognition employing magnetic tunnel junction-based nonvolatile memories with autonomic intelligent power-gating scheme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yitao; Miura, Sadahiko; Honjo, Hiroaki; Ikeda, Shoji; Hanyu, Takahiro; Ohno, Hideo; Endoh, Tetsuo

    2016-04-01

    A novel associative processor using magnetic tunnel junction (MTJ)-based nonvolatile memories has been proposed and fabricated under a 90 nm CMOS/70 nm perpendicular-MTJ (p-MTJ) hybrid process for achieving the exceptionally low-power performance of image pattern recognition. A four-transistor 2-MTJ (4T-2MTJ) spin transfer torque magnetoresistive random access memory was adopted to completely eliminate the standby power. A self-directed intelligent power-gating (IPG) scheme specialized for this associative processor is employed to optimize the operation power by only autonomously activating currently accessed memory cells. The operations of a prototype chip at 20 MHz are demonstrated by measurement. The proposed processor can successfully carry out single texture pattern matching within 6.5 µs using 128-dimension bag-of-feature patterns, and the measured average operation power of the entire processor core is only 600 µW. Compared with the twin chip designed with 6T static random access memory, 91.2% power reductions are achieved. More than 88.0% power reductions are obtained compared with the latest associative memories. The further power performance analysis is discussed in detail, which verifies the special superiority of the proposed processor in power consumption for large-capacity memory-based VLSI systems.

  13. Social investigation and long-term recognition memory performance in 129S1/SvImJ and C57BL/6JOlaHsd mice and their hybrids.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Hädicke

    Full Text Available When tested for their behavioural performance, the mixed genetic background of transgenic mice is a critical, but often ignored, issue. Such issues can arise because of the significant differences in defined behavioural parameters between embryonic stem cell donor and recipient strains. In this context, the commonly used stem cell donor strain '129' shows 'deficits' in different paradigms for learning and long-term memory. We investigated the long-term social recognition memory performance and the investigative behaviour in commercially available 129S1/SvImJ and C57BL/6JOlaHsd mice and two F1-hybrids (129S1/SvImJ×C57BL/6JOlaHsd by using the social discrimination procedure and its modification, the volatile fraction cage (VFC. Our data revealed an unimpaired olfactory long-term recognition memory not only in female and male 129S1/SvImJ and C57BL/6JOlaHsd mice but also in the two hybrid lines (129S1/SvImJxC57BL/6JOlaHsd when the full 'olfactory signature' of the 'to-be-recognized' conspecific was presented. Under these conditions we also failed to detect differences in the long-term recognition memory between male and female mice of the tested strains and revealed that the oestrus cycle did not affect the performance in this memory task. The performance in the VFC, based only on the volatile components of the 'olfactory signature' of the 'to-be-recognized' conspecific, was similar to that observed under direct exposure except that females of one F1 hybrid group failed to show an intact long-term memory. Thus, the social discrimination procedure allowing direct access between the experimental subject and the stimulus animal(s is highly suitable to investigate the impact of genetic manipulations on long-term memory in male and female mice of the strain 129S1/SvImJ, C57BL/6JOlaHsd and 129S1/SvImJxC57BL/6JOlaHsd hybrids.

  14. Differential requirements of hippocampal de novo protein and mRNA synthesis in two long-term spatial memory tests: Spontaneous place recognition and delay-interposed radial maze performance in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozawa, Takaaki; Yamada, Kazuo; Ichitani, Yukio

    2017-01-01

    Hippocampal de novo mRNA and protein synthesis has been suggested to be critical for long-term spatial memory. However, its requirement in each memory process (i.e. encoding, consolidation and retrieval) and the differences in the roles of de novo mRNA and protein synthesis in different situations where spatial memory is tested have not been thoroughly investigated. To address these questions, we examined the effects of hippocampal administration of the protein synthesis inhibitors, anisomycin (ANI) and emetine (EME), as well as that of an mRNA synthesis inhibitor, 5,6-dichlorobenzimidazole 1-β-D-ribofuranoside (DRB), on rat performance in two long-term spatial memory tests. In a spontaneous place recognition test with a 6 h delay, ANI, administered either before or immediately after the sample phase, but not before the test phase, eliminated the exploratory preference for the object in a novel place. This amnesic effect was replicated by both EME and DRB. In a 6 h delay-interposed radial maze task, however, administering ANI before the first-half and before the second-half, but not immediately or 2 h after the first-half, impaired performance in the second-half. This disruptive effect of ANI was successfully replicated by EME. However, DRB administered before the first-half performance did not impair the second-half performance, while it did impair it if injected before the second-half. None of these drugs caused amnesic effects during the short (5 min)/non-delayed conditions in either tests. These results suggest that 1) hippocampal protein synthesis is required for the consolidation of spatial memory, while mRNA synthesis is not necessarily required, and 2) hippocampal mRNA and protein synthesis requirement for spatial memory retrieval depends on the types of memory tested, probably because their demands are different.

  15. Differential requirements of hippocampal de novo protein and mRNA synthesis in two long-term spatial memory tests: Spontaneous place recognition and delay-interposed radial maze performance in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozawa, Takaaki; Yamada, Kazuo; Ichitani, Yukio

    2017-01-01

    Hippocampal de novo mRNA and protein synthesis has been suggested to be critical for long-term spatial memory. However, its requirement in each memory process (i.e. encoding, consolidation and retrieval) and the differences in the roles of de novo mRNA and protein synthesis in different situations where spatial memory is tested have not been thoroughly investigated. To address these questions, we examined the effects of hippocampal administration of the protein synthesis inhibitors, anisomycin (ANI) and emetine (EME), as well as that of an mRNA synthesis inhibitor, 5,6-dichlorobenzimidazole 1-β-D-ribofuranoside (DRB), on rat performance in two long-term spatial memory tests. In a spontaneous place recognition test with a 6 h delay, ANI, administered either before or immediately after the sample phase, but not before the test phase, eliminated the exploratory preference for the object in a novel place. This amnesic effect was replicated by both EME and DRB. In a 6 h delay-interposed radial maze task, however, administering ANI before the first-half and before the second-half, but not immediately or 2 h after the first-half, impaired performance in the second-half. This disruptive effect of ANI was successfully replicated by EME. However, DRB administered before the first-half performance did not impair the second-half performance, while it did impair it if injected before the second-half. None of these drugs caused amnesic effects during the short (5 min)/non-delayed conditions in either tests. These results suggest that 1) hippocampal protein synthesis is required for the consolidation of spatial memory, while mRNA synthesis is not necessarily required, and 2) hippocampal mRNA and protein synthesis requirement for spatial memory retrieval depends on the types of memory tested, probably because their demands are different. PMID:28178292

  16. Regionally Selective Requirement for D[subscript 1]/D[subscript 5] Dopaminergic Neurotransmission in the Medial Prefrontal Cortex in Object-in-Place Associative Recognition Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savalli, Giorgia; Bashir, Zafar I.; Warburton, E. Clea

    2015-01-01

    Object-in-place (OiP) memory is critical for remembering the location in which an object was last encountered and depends conjointly on the medial prefrontal cortex, perirhinal cortex, and hippocampus. Here we examined the role of dopamine D[subscript 1]/D[subscript 5] receptor neurotransmission within these brain regions for OiP memory. Bilateral…

  17. Predicting Reasoning from Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heit, Evan; Hayes, Brett K.

    2011-01-01

    In an effort to assess the relations between reasoning and memory, in 8 experiments, the authors examined how well responses on an inductive reasoning task are predicted from responses on a recognition memory task for the same picture stimuli. Across several experimental manipulations, such as varying study time, presentation frequency, and the…

  18. Visual Memory at Birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slater, Alan; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Explored new-born babys' capacity for forming visual memories. Used an habituation procedure that accommodated individual differences by allowing each infant to control the time course of habituation trials. Found significant novelty preference, providing strong evidence that recognition memory can be reliably demonstrated from birth. (Author/JAC)

  19. Pleiotropic locus for emotion recognition and amygdala volume identified using univariate and bivariate linkage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knowles, Emma E. M.; McKay, D. Reese; Kent, Jack W.; Sprooten, Emma; Carless, Melanie A.; Curran, Joanne E.; de Almeida, Marcio A. A.; Dyer, Thomas D.; Göring, Harald H. H.; Olvera, Rene; Duggirala, Ravi; Fox, Peter; Almasy, Laura; Blangero, John; Glahn, David. C.

    2014-01-01

    The role of the amygdala in emotion recognition is well established and separately each trait has been shown to be highly heritable, but the potential role of common genetic influences on both traits has not been explored. Here we present an investigation of the pleiotropic influences of amygdala and emotion recognition in a sample of randomly selected, extended pedigrees (N = 858). Using a combination of univariate and bivariate linkage we found a pleiotropic region for amygdala and emotion recognition on 4q26 (LOD = 4.34). Association analysis conducted in the region underlying the bivariate linkage peak revealed a variant meeting the corrected significance level (pBonferroni = 5.01×10−05) within an intron of PDE5A (rs2622497, Χ2 =16.67, p = 4.4×10−05) as being jointly influential on both traits. PDE5A has been implicated previously in recognition-memory deficits and is expressed in subcortical structures that are thought to underlie memory ability including the amygdala. The present paper extends our understanding of the shared etiology between amygdala and emotion recognition by showing that the overlap between the two traits is due, at least in part, to common genetic influences. Moreover, the present paper identifies a pleiotropic locus for the two traits and an associated variant, which localizes the genetic signal even more precisely. These results, when taken in the context of previous research, highlight the potential utility of PDE5-inhibitors for ameliorating emotion-recognition deficits in populations including, but not exclusively, those individuals suffering from mental or neurodegenerative illness. PMID:25322361

  20. Pharmacological enhancement of memory and executive functioning in laboratory animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floresco, Stan B; Jentsch, James D

    2011-01-01

    Investigating how different pharmacological compounds may enhance learning, memory, and higher-order cognitive functions in laboratory animals is the first critical step toward the development of cognitive enhancers that may be used to ameliorate impairments in these functions in patients suffering from neuropsychiatric disorders. Rather than focus on one aspect of cognition, or class of drug, in this review we provide a broad overview of how distinct classes of pharmacological compounds may enhance different types of memory and executive functioning, particularly those mediated by the prefrontal cortex. These include recognition memory, attention, working memory, and different components of behavioral flexibility. A key emphasis is placed on comparing and contrasting the effects of certain drugs on different cognitive and mnemonic functions, highlighting methodological issues associated with this type of research, tasks used to investigate these functions, and avenues for future research. Viewed collectively, studies of the neuropharmacological basis of cognition in rodents and non-human primates have identified targets that will hopefully open new avenues for the treatment of cognitive disabilities in persons affected by mental disorders.

  1. Proactive interference and concurrent inhibitory processes do not differentially affect item and associative recognition: Implication for the age-related associative memory deficit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guez, Jonathan; Naveh-Benjamin, Moshe

    2016-09-01

    Previous studies have suggested an associative deficit hypothesis [Naveh-Benjamin, M. ( 2000 ). Adult age differences in memory performance: Tests of an associative deficit hypothesis. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 26, 1170-1187] to explain age-related episodic memory declines. The hypothesis attributes part of the deficient episodic memory performance in older adults to a difficulty in creating and retrieving cohesive episodes. In this article, we further evaluate this hypothesis by testing two alternative processes that potentially mediate associative memory deficits in older adults. Four experiments are presented that assess whether failure of inhibitory processes (proactive interference in Experiments 1 and 2), and concurrent inhibition (in Experiments 3 and 4) are mediating factors in age-related associative deficits. The results suggest that creating conditions that require the operation of inhibitory processes, or that interfere with such processes, cannot simulate associative memory deficit in older adults. Instead, such results support the idea that associative memory deficits reflect a unique binding failure in older adults. This failure seems to be independent of other cognitive processes, including inhibitory and other resource-demanding processes.

  2. Mechanisms underlying molecularly imprinted polymer molecular memory and the role of crosslinker: resolving debate on the nature of template recognition in phenylalanine anilide imprinted polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsson, Gustaf D; Karlsson, Björn C G; Shoravi, Siamak; Wiklander, Jesper G; Nicholls, Ian A

    2012-02-01

    A series of molecular dynamics simulations of prepolymerization mixtures for phenylalanine anilide imprinted co-(ethylene glycol dimethacrylate-methacrylic acid) molecularly imprinted polymers have been employed to investigate the mechanistic basis for template selective recognition in these systems. This has provided new insights on the mechanisms underlying template recognition, in particular the significant role played by the crosslinking agent. Importantly, the study supports the occurrence of template self-association events that allows us to resolve debate between the two previously proposed models used to explain this system's underlying recognition mechanisms. Moreover, the complexity of the molecular level events underlying template complexation is highlighted by this study, a factor that should be considered in rational molecularly imprinted polymer design, especially with respect to recognition site heterogeneity.

  3. Recognition without Identification for Words, Pseudowords and Nonwords

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arndt, Jason; Lee, Karen; Flora, David B.

    2008-01-01

    Three experiments examined whether the representations underlying recognition memory familiarity can be episodic in nature. Recognition without identification [Cleary, A. M., & Greene, R. L. (2000). Recognition without identification. "Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition," 26, 1063-1069; Peynircioglu, Z. F. (1990).…

  4. 语音记忆和视觉记忆在儿童汉语识字能力中同样重要吗?一个元分析综述%Are Phonological Memory and Visual Memory Equally Important in Children’ s Chinese Word Recognition?A Meta-Analytical Review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    伍秋萍; 郑佩芸; 邢滨钰; 康洁; 郭琎

    2014-01-01

    国外基于拼音文字的众多实证研究发现有阅读困难的儿童可能存在语音记忆方面的缺陷,表现为对文字信息而非视觉空间信息的存储困难。然而,关于普通儿童汉语识字能力方面,虽不少研究探讨到了工作记忆在其中的重要贡献,但目前为止依然对语音与视觉记忆在当中的角色没有一致的定论,也尚未有一篇元分析研究整合过过往的实证文献。因此,本文尝试采用元分析的方法试图澄清两种不同的工作记忆在儿童习得汉字中的不同功能。结果发现,工作记忆与儿童汉语识字能力的整体相关为0.24;语音记忆与儿童汉语识字能力的相关是0.34,而视觉记忆与儿童汉语识字能力的相关仅有0.14。本研究的结果支持以 Wagner和 Torgesen为代表的“泛语音论”的推测,也符合 Perfetti和 Dunlap(2008)的普适性的语音原则的预期,表明汉语阅读中代表着语音加工技能的语音记忆依然是汉字习得的核心驱动器。%Numerous studies of alphabetic languages suggested that memory deficits in children with literacy difficulties are pervasive across verbal items but not with visual-spatial items.Although a considerable amount of studies have investigated the importance of working memory in Chinese reading acquisition, the issue referring to discriminating different functions of phonological memory and visual memory in Chinese word reading has not been explored sys-tematically.We thus conducted a meta-analytical review to delineate the different roles of these two types of working memory in Chinese word recognition.The results showed that:1) working memory was consistently related to Chi-nese word recognition with a mean effect size around .24;2 ) the synthesized correlation between phonological mem-ory and Chinese word recognition was about .34;3) the correlation between visual memory and Chinese word recog-nition was just.14.The findings support

  5. Infant visual attention and object recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Greg D

    2015-05-15

    This paper explores the role visual attention plays in the recognition of objects in infancy. Research and theory on the development of infant attention and recognition memory are reviewed in three major sections. The first section reviews some of the major findings and theory emerging from a rich tradition of behavioral research utilizing preferential looking tasks to examine visual attention and recognition memory in infancy. The second section examines research utilizing neural measures of attention and object recognition in infancy as well as research on brain-behavior relations in the early development of attention and recognition memory. The third section addresses potential areas of the brain involved in infant object recognition and visual attention. An integrated synthesis of some of the existing models of the development of visual attention is presented which may account for the observed changes in behavioral and neural measures of visual attention and object recognition that occur across infancy.

  6. Antiamnesic Effects of a Hydroethanolic Extract of Crinum macowanii on Scopolamine-Induced Memory Impairment in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew T. Mugwagwa

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Crinum macowanii has been found to contain alkaloids that have activity against acetylcholinesterase enzyme in vitro. The present study was undertaken to investigate the in vivo ability of hydroethanolic crude extract of Crinum macowanii to ameliorate memory impairment induced by scopolamine. Thirty-six male Balb/c mice weighing around 25–35 g were employed in the present investigation. Y-maze and novel object recognition apparatus served as the exteroceptive behavioural models, and scopolamine-induced amnesia served as the interoceptive behavioural model. C. macowanii (10, 20, and 40 mg/kg p.o. was administered in single doses to the mice. Donepezil (3 mg/kg p.o. was used as a positive control agent. C. macowanii extract reversed the amnesia induced by scopolamine as indicated by a dose-dependent increase in spontaneous alternation performance in the Y-maze task. C. macowanii 40 mg/kg showed significant activity (p<0.05 versus negative control, comparable to that of the positive control. C. macowanii also showed memory-enhancing activity against scopolamine-induced memory deficits in the long-term memory novel object recognition performance as indicated by a dose-dependent increase in the discrimination index. The results indicate that the hydroethanolic extract of C. macowanii may be a useful memory restorative mediator in the treatment of cognitive disorders such as Alzheimer’s disease.

  7. 基于模糊免疫算法的管道缺陷磁记忆识别%A defect recognition model for pipeline magnetic memory testing based on fuzzy-immune algorithm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李远利; 李著信; 刘书俊

    2012-01-01

    The defect recognition of metal pipeline was generally based on sinai signal feature in magnetic memory testing. This method has high false detection rate and low reliability. To achieve accurate recognition of pipeline defect, a recognition model based on fuzzy-immune algorithm was established to analysis the vector combined with multiple signal features. The experiments show that the pipeline defect can be recognised by this method.%在金属管道的磁记忆检测中,管道缺陷状态的识别普遍是基于单个检测信号特征值来进行分析的。这种方法存在误检率高、可靠性低等问题。为此,构建了一个基于模糊免疫算法的智能识别模型,将磁记忆检测信号多个特征值组合为一个向量,作为识别模型的输入向量,以分析识别管道缺陷的状况。实验表明,该方法能够对管道缺陷进行准确、有效的识别。

  8. Corticosterone impairs reconsolidation of novel object recognition memory in rats%皮质酮损害大鼠新颖物体识别记忆的再巩固

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周梅芳; 王波; 田绍文; 谭德容; 旷昕

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The formation of long-term memory includes acquisition, consolidation and reconsolidation. Reconsolidation is very important for the new memory transforming into stable memory. Stress is an important environmental factor in the process of learning and memory. Corticosterone is very important for stress response. At present, research about the impact of corticosterone on reconsolidation of novel object recognition memory is less. Thus, it is very important to test the impact of corticosterone on reconsolidation of novel object recognition memory in rats. OBJECTIVE: To analyze the effects of corticosterone on the reconsolidation of novel object recognition memory in rats. METHODS: (1) The rats were intraperitoneal y injected with corticosterone (0.1, 1 and 3 mg/kg) immediately after reactivation. The discrimination index was used to assess memory performance and calculated as the difference in time exploring the novel and familiar objects. (2) The rats were intraperitoneal y injected with corticosterone (3 mg/kg) 6 hours after reactivation. The discrimination index was used to assess memory performance and calculated as the difference in time exploring the novel and familiar objects. (3) The rats were intraperitoneal y injected with corticosterone 3 mg/kg without reactivation. The discrimination index was used to assess memory performance and calculated as the difference in time exploring the novel and familiar objects. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: Immediate injection of corticosterone 3 mg/kg after reactivation significantly decreased the discrimination index. At 6 hours after reactivation or without reactivation, corticosterone administration did not impact the discrimination index. These results confirmed that corticosterone administration immediately after reactivation impairs the reconsolidation of novel object recognition memory. The damage effect depends on the reactivation experience and the specific time window after reactivation.%背景:长时程

  9. Episodic memory recognition in mild cognitive impairment:a combined structural and functional magnetic resonance imaging study%轻度认知障碍老年人情节记忆功能的磁共振成像研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    柏峰; 张志珺; 宇辉; 施咏梅; 朱万林; 袁勇贵; 钱云

    2008-01-01

    Objective To investigate differences in structural and functional brain changes between the aged with mild cognitive impairment(MCI)and ones with normal aging.Methods The voxel-based morphometry(VBM)method was applied to evaluate the differences in brain regional gray matter volume between MCI and normal aging groups.Brain responses,during a suitable episodic memory recognition task,were also examined and compared between the two groups.Results Compared to normal aging,the MCI subjects had greater atrophy in memory related brain regions(P<0.001).In addition,the MCI subjects showed significant activation in the ventrolateral and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex,the right superior and inferior temporal cortex and the occipital cortex when undertook the visual episodic memory recognition task (P<0.005).Conclusions The results support that there is gray matter atrophy in memory related brain regions in the elderly with MCI,and in performing the suitable episodic memory recognition task,the additional brain regions may be activated for compensation for memory related brain regions deficits.%目的 运用核磁共振(MRI)技术探讨轻度认知障碍(MCI)老人与健康老人脑结构和功能的异同.方法 对14例MCI老人(MCI组)和15名健康老人(正常对照组)进行神经心理学检查,并应用基于体素的形态测量方法 ,测定两组的灰质体积,并用事件相关功能MRI技术,测定两组在执行情节记忆提取任务时相关脑区的功能变化.结果 (1)神经心理学:MCI组听觉词语记忆测试[(2.1±1.7)分]和画钟试验[(7.8±1.2)分]成绩差于正常对照组[分别为(9.2±1.3)分和(9.2±0.8)分;P<0.05].(2)结构影像:MCI组的灰质体积小于正常对照组,主要位于情节记忆相关脑区(P<0.001).(3)功能影像:MCI组与正常对照组任务正确率和反应时间的差别无统计学意义;MCI组激活降低的脑区主要是海马旁回,而增强激活的脑区主要是前额叶前侧、背外

  10. Atorvastatin ameliorates cognitive impairment, Aβ1-42 production and Tau hyperphosphorylation in APP/PS1 transgenic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Dongsheng; Liu, Huaxia; Li, Chenli; Wang, Fangyan; Shi, Yaosheng; Liu, Lingjiang; Zhao, Xin; Liu, Aiming; Zhang, Junfang; Wang, Chuang; Chen, Zhongming

    2016-06-01

    Amyloid-beta (Aβ) interacts with the serine/threonine protein kinase AKT (also known as protein kinase B)/glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK3β) pathway and deactivates GSK3β signaling, which result in microtubule protein tau phosphorylation. Atorvastatin, a HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor, has been proven to improve learning and memory performance, reduce Aβ and phosphorylated tau levels in mouse model of Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, it still remains unclear whether atorvastatin is responsible for regulation of AKT/GSK3β signaling and contributes to subsequent down-regulation of Aβ1-42 and phosphorylated tau in APP/PS1 transgenic (Tg APP/PS1) mice. Herein, we aimed to investigate the possible impacts of atorvastatin (10 mg/kg, p.o.) on the memory deficit by behavioral tests and changes of AKT/GSK3β signaling in hippocampus and prefrontal cortex by western blot test in Tg APP/PS1 mice. The results showed that treatment with atorvastatin significantly reversed the memory deficit in the Tg APP/PS1 mice in a novel object recognition and the Morris water maze tests. Moreover, atorvastatin significantly attenuated Aβ1-42 accumulation and phosphorylation of tau (Ser396) in the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex of Tg APP/PS1 mice. In addition, atorvastatin treatment also increased phosphorylation of AKT, inhibited GSK3β activity by increasing phosphorylation of GSK3β (Ser9) and decreasing the beta-site APP cleaving enzyme 1 (BACE1) expression. These results indicated that the memory ameliorating effect of atorvastatin may be, in part, by regulation the AKT/GSK3β signaling which may contribute to down-regulation of Aβ1-42 and tau hyperphosphorylation.

  11. Long-term cilostazol administration ameliorates memory decline in senescence-accelerated mouse prone 8 (SAMP8) through a dual effect on cAMP and blood-brain barrier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanai, Shuichi; Toyohara, Jun; Ishiwata, Kiichi; Ito, Hideki; Endo, Shogo

    2016-12-12

    Phosphodiesterases (PDEs), which hydrolyze and inactivate 3', 5'-cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) and 3', 5'-cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP), play an important role in synaptic plasticity that underlies memory. Recently, several PDE inhibitors were assessed for their possible therapeutic efficacy in treating cognitive disorders. Here, we examined how cilostazol, a selective PDE3 inhibitor, affects brain functions in senescence-accelerated mouse prone 8 (SAMP8), an animal model of age-related cognitive impairment. Long-term administration of cilostazol restored the impaired context-dependent conditioned fear memory of SAMP8 to match that in normal aging control substrain SAMR1. Cilostazol also increased the number of cells containing phosphorylated cAMP-responsive element binding protein (CREB), a downstream component of the cAMP pathway. Finally, cilostazol improves blood-brain barrier (BBB) integrity, demonstrated by reduced extravasation of 2-deoxy-2-(18)F-fluoro-d-glucose and Evans Blue dye in the brains of SAMP8. This improvement in BBB integrity was associated with an increased amount of zona occludens protein 1 (ZO-1) and occludin proteins, components of tight junctions integral to the BBB. The results suggest that long-term administration of cilostazol exerts its beneficial effects on age-related cognitive impairment through a dual mechanism: by enhancing the cAMP system in the brain and by maintaining or improving BBB integrity.

  12. Dopamine D1 Receptors Regulate Protein Synthesis-Dependent Long-Term Recognition Memory via Extracellular Signal-Regulated Kinase 1/2 in the Prefrontal Cortex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagai, Taku; Takuma, Kazuhiro; Kamei, Hiroyuki; Ito, Yukio; Nakamichi, Noritaka; Ibi, Daisuke; Nakanishi, Yutaka; Murai, Masaaki; Mizoguchi, Hiroyuki; Nabeshima, Toshitaka; Yamada, Kiyofumi

    2007-01-01

    Several lines of evidence suggest that extracellular signal-regulated kinase1/2 (ERK1/2) and dopaminergic system is involved in learning and memory. However, it remains to be determined if the dopaminergic system and ERK1/2 pathway contribute to cognitive function in the prefrontal cortex (PFC). The amount of phosphorylated ERK1/2 was increased in…

  13. Subcutaneous administration of liraglutide ameliorates learning and memory impairment by modulating tau hyperphosphorylation via the glycogen synthase kinase-3β pathway in an amyloid β protein induced alzheimer disease mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Liqin; Ke, Linfang; Liu, Xiaohong; Liao, Lianming; Ke, Sujie; Liu, Xiaoying; Wang, Yanping; Lin, Xiaowei; Zhou, Yu; Wu, Lijuan; Chen, Zhou; Liu, Libin

    2016-07-15

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus is a risk factor for Alzheimer's disease (AD). The glucagon-like peptide-1 analog liraglutide, a novel long-lasting incretin hormone, has been used to treat type 2 diabetes mellitus. In addition, liraglutide has been shown to be neurotrophic and neuroprotective. Here, we investigated the effects of liraglutide on amyloid β protein (Aβ)-induced AD in mice and explored its mechanism of action. The results showed that subcutaneous administration of liraglutide (25nmol/day), once daily for 8 weeks, prevented memory impairments in the Y Maze and Morris Water Maze following Aβ1-42 intracerebroventricular injection, and alleviated the ultra-structural changes of pyramidal neurons and chemical synapses in the hippocampal CA1 region. Furthermore, liraglutide reduced Aβ1-42-induced tau phosphorylation via the protein kinase B and glycogen synthase kinase-3β pathways. Thus liraglutide may alleviate cognitive impairment in AD by at least decreasing the phosphorylation of tau.

  14. Early Developmental Low-Dose Methylmercury Exposure Alters Learning and Memory in Periadolescent but Not Young Adult Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albores-Garcia, Damaris; Hernandez, Alberto J.; Loera, Miriam J.

    2016-01-01

    Few studies have assessed the effects of developmental methylmercury (MeHg) exposure on learning and memory at different ages. The possibility of the amelioration or worsening of the effects has not been sufficiently investigated. This study aimed to assess whether low-dose MeHg exposure in utero and during suckling induces differential disturbances in learning and memory of periadolescent and young adult rats. Four experimental groups of pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats were orally exposed to MeHg or vehicle from gestational day 5 to weaning: (1) control (vehicle), (2) 250 μg/kg/day MeHg, (3) 500 μg/kg/day MeHg, and (4) vehicle, and treated on the test day with MK-801 (0.15 mg/kg i.p.), an antagonist of the N-methyl D-aspartate receptor. The effects were evaluated in male offspring through the open field test, object recognition test, Morris water maze, and conditioned taste aversion. For each test and stage assessed, different groups of animals were used. MeHg exposure, in a dose-dependent manner, disrupted exploratory behaviour, recognition memory, spatial learning, and acquisition of aversive memories in periadolescent rats, but alterations were not observed in littermates tested in young adulthood. These results suggest that developmental low-dose exposure to MeHg induces age-dependent detrimental effects. The relevance of decreasing exposure to MeHg in humans remains to be determined. PMID:26885512

  15. Early Developmental Low-Dose Methylmercury Exposure Alters Learning and Memory in Periadolescent but Not Young Adult Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damaris Albores-Garcia

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Few studies have assessed the effects of developmental methylmercury (MeHg exposure on learning and memory at different ages. The possibility of the amelioration or worsening of the effects has not been sufficiently investigated. This study aimed to assess whether low-dose MeHg exposure in utero and during suckling induces differential disturbances in learning and memory of periadolescent and young adult rats. Four experimental groups of pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats were orally exposed to MeHg or vehicle from gestational day 5 to weaning: (1 control (vehicle, (2 250 μg/kg/day MeHg, (3 500 μg/kg/day MeHg, and (4 vehicle, and treated on the test day with MK-801 (0.15 mg/kg i.p., an antagonist of the N-methyl D-aspartate receptor. The effects were evaluated in male offspring through the open field test, object recognition test, Morris water maze, and conditioned taste aversion. For each test and stage assessed, different groups of animals were used. MeHg exposure, in a dose-dependent manner, disrupted exploratory behaviour, recognition memory, spatial learning, and acquisition of aversive memories in periadolescent rats, but alterations were not observed in littermates tested in young adulthood. These results suggest that developmental low-dose exposure to MeHg induces age-dependent detrimental effects. The relevance of decreasing exposure to MeHg in humans remains to be determined.

  16. Pattern recognition

    CERN Document Server

    Theodoridis, Sergios

    2003-01-01

    Pattern recognition is a scientific discipline that is becoming increasingly important in the age of automation and information handling and retrieval. Patter Recognition, 2e covers the entire spectrum of pattern recognition applications, from image analysis to speech recognition and communications. This book presents cutting-edge material on neural networks, - a set of linked microprocessors that can form associations and uses pattern recognition to ""learn"" -and enhances student motivation by approaching pattern recognition from the designer's point of view. A direct result of more than 10

  17. Gesture recognition on smart cameras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dziri, Aziz; Chevobbe, Stephane; Darouich, Mehdi

    2013-02-01

    Gesture recognition is a feature in human-machine interaction that allows more natural interaction without the use of complex devices. For this reason, several methods of gesture recognition have been developed in recent years. However, most real time methods are designed to operate on a Personal Computer with high computing resources and memory. In this paper, we analyze relevant methods found in the literature in order to investigate the ability of smart camera to execute gesture recognition algorithms. We elaborate two hand gesture recognition pipelines. The first method is based on invariant moments extraction and the second on finger tips detection. The hand detection method used for both pipeline is based on skin color segmentation. The results obtained show that the un-optimized versions of invariant moments method and finger tips detection method can reach 10 fps on embedded processor and use about 200 kB of memory.

  18. Musical and Verbal Memory in Alzheimer's Disease: A Study of Long-Term and Short-Term Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menard, Marie-Claude; Belleville, Sylvie

    2009-01-01

    Musical memory was tested in Alzheimer patients and in healthy older adults using long-term and short-term memory tasks. Long-term memory (LTM) was tested with a recognition procedure using unfamiliar melodies. Short-term memory (STM) was evaluated with same/different judgment tasks on short series of notes. Musical memory was compared to verbal…

  19. Glucose-Dependent Insulinotropic Polypeptide Ameliorates Mild Traumatic Brain Injury-Induced Cognitive and Sensorimotor Deficits and Neuroinflammation in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yu-Wen; Hsieh, Tsung-Hsun; Chen, Kai-Yun; Wu, John Chung-Che; Hoffer, Barry J.; Greig, Nigel H.; Li, Yazhou; Lai, Jing-Huei; Chang, Cheng-Fu; Lin, Jia-Wei; Chen, Yu-Hsin

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) is a major public health issue, representing 75–90% of all cases of TBI. In clinical settings, mTBI, which is defined as a Glascow Coma Scale (GCS) score of 13–15, can lead to various physical, cognitive, emotional, and psychological-related symptoms. To date, there are no pharmaceutical-based therapies to manage the development of the pathological deficits associated with mTBI. In this study, the neurotrophic and neuroprotective properties of glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP), an incretin similar to glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), was investigated after its steady-state subcutaneous administration, focusing on behavior after mTBI in an in vivo animal model. The mTBI rat model was generated by a mild controlled cortical impact (mCCI) and used to evaluate the therapeutic potential of GIP. We used the Morris water maze and novel object recognition tests, which are tasks for spatial and recognition memory, respectively, to identify the putative therapeutic effects of GIP on cognitive function. Further, beam walking and the adhesive removal tests were used to evaluate locomotor activity and somatosensory functions in rats with and without GIP administration after mCCI lesion. Lastly, we used immunohistochemical (IHC) staining and Western blot analyses to evaluate the inflammatory markers, glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), amyloid-β precursor protein (APP), and bone marrow tyrosine kinase gene in chromosome X (BMX) in animals with mTBI. GIP was well tolerated and ameliorated mTBI-induced memory impairments, poor balance, and sensorimotor deficits after initiation in the post-injury period. In addition, GIP mitigated mTBI-induced neuroinflammatory changes on GFAP, APP, and BMX protein levels. These findings suggest GIP has significant benefits in managing mTBI-related symptoms and represents a novel strategy for mTBI treatment. PMID:26972789

  20. Endomorphin-1 attenuates Aβ42 induced impairment of novel object and object location recognition tasks in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Rui-san; Xu, Hong-jiao; Jiang, Jin-hong; Han, Ren-wen; Chang, Min; Peng, Ya-li; Wang, Yuan; Wang, Rui

    2015-12-10

    A growing body of evidence suggests that the agglomeration of amyloid-β (Aβ) may be a trigger for Alzheimer׳s disease (AD). Central infusion of Aβ42 can lead to memory impairment in mice. Inhibiting the aggregation of Aβ has been considered a therapeutic strategy for AD. Endomorphin-1 (EM-1), an endogenous agonist of μ-opioid receptors, has been shown to inhibit the aggregation of Aβ in vitro. In the present study, we investigated whether EM-1 could alleviate the memory-impairing effects of Aβ42 in mice using novel object recognition (NOR) and object location recognition (OLR) tasks. We showed that co-administration of EM-1 was able to ameliorate Aβ42-induced amnesia in the lateral ventricle and the hippocampus, and these effects could not be inhibited by naloxone, an antagonist of μ-opioid receptors. Infusion of EM-1 or naloxone separately into the lateral ventricle had no influence on memory in the tasks. These results suggested that EM-1 might be effective as a drug for AD preventative treatment by inhibiting Aβ aggregation directly as a molecular modifier.

  1. Cognitive Memory Network

    CERN Document Server

    James, Alex Pappachen; 10.1049/el.2010.0279

    2012-01-01

    A resistive memory network that has no crossover wiring is proposed to overcome the hardware limitations to size and functional complexity that is associated with conventional analogue neural networks. The proposed memory network is based on simple network cells that are arranged in a hierarchical modular architecture. Cognitive functionality of this network is demonstrated by an example of character recognition. The network is trained by an evolutionary process to completely recognise characters deformed by random noise, rotation, scaling and shifting

  2. On the Susceptibility of Adaptive Memory to False Memory Illusions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, Mark L.; Derbish, Mary H.

    2010-01-01

    Previous research has shown that survival-related processing of word lists enhances retention for that material. However, the claim that survival-related memories are more accurate has only been examined when true recall and recognition of neutral material has been measured. In the current experiments, we examined the adaptive memory superiority…

  3. Famous face recognition, face matching, and extraversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lander, Karen; Poyarekar, Siddhi

    2015-01-01

    It has been previously established that extraverts who are skilled at interpersonal interaction perform significantly better than introverts on a face-specific recognition memory task. In our experiment we further investigate the relationship between extraversion and face recognition, focusing on famous face recognition and face matching. Results indicate that more extraverted individuals perform significantly better on an upright famous face recognition task and show significantly larger face inversion effects. However, our results did not find an effect of extraversion on face matching or inverted famous face recognition.

  4. Perception and Memory of Pictures

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-08-20

    altogether. His explanation for the efftct is similar to that proposed by Raijmakers and Shiffrin (1981) in the SAM model of memory : Items from... Atkinson , R. C., & Juola, J. E (1974). Search and decision processes in recognition memory . In D. H. Krantz et al. (Eds.), Contemporary Developments in...Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory , and Cognition, 12, 426-431. Raaijmakers, J. G. W, & Shiffrin , R. M. (1981). Search of

  5. Effects of saffron (Crocus sativus L.) and its active constituent, crocin, on recognition and spatial memory after chronic cerebral hypoperfusion in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseinzadeh, Hossein; Sadeghnia, Hamid Reza; Ghaeni, Fatemeh Abbasi; Motamedshariaty, Vahideh Sadat; Mohajeri, Seyed Ahmad

    2012-03-01

    Cerebral ischemia produces brain damage and related behavioral deficits such as memory. In this study, a rat model of chronic cerebral hypoperfusion was used to determine whether saffron extract and crocin, which are potent antioxidants and free radical scavengers, can reduce vascular cognitive impairment. Male adult Wistar rats were administered different doses of an aqueous solution of crocin or hydroalcohol extract of saffron intraperitoneally (i.p.) 5 days after permanent occlusion of the common carotid arteries. Spatial learning and memory were assessed in training trials, 7-11 days after common carotid artery ligation using the Morris water maze. The results showed that the escape latency time was significantly reduced from 24.64 s in the control group to 8.77 and 10.47 s by crocin (25 mg/kg) and saffron extract (250 mg/kg). The traveled distance to find the platform was also changed from 772 cm in the control group to 251 and 294 cm in the crocin (25 mg/kg) and saffron extract (250 mg/kg) groups. The percentages of time spent in the target quadrant, in comparison with the control group (24.16%), increased to 34.25% in the crocin (25 mg/kg) and 34.85% in the saffron extract (250 mg/kg) group. This study suggests that saffron extract and crocin improve spatial cognitive abilities following chronic cerebral hypoperfusion and that these effects may be related to the antioxidant effects of these compounds.

  6. GAM模型稳定性分析及其在图像识别中的应用%Stability analysis of Gauss Auto-associative Memory model and its application on image recognition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王传栋; 陈蕾; 杨庚; 孙知信

    2011-01-01

    多值指数关联联想记忆模型(MMECAM)是一种高存储容量的自联想记忆神经网络.在详细分析其优缺点的基础上,通过改进MMECAM模型的更新规则,首先提出一个新的高斯自联想记忆模型(GAM),然后通过定义简单的能量函数从理论上证明其在同、异步方式下的稳定性,从而保证所存储的模式能最终成为GAM的稳定点;其次,通过引入一般相似性测度进一步提出广义GAM模型(G-GAMs)框架,使得GAM模型成为其特例;最后,将GAM模型应用于单样本图像识别,计算机模拟证实了该模型的鲁棒性能.%Modified Multi-valued Exponential Correlation Associative Memory Model (MMECAM) is a neural network with higher storage capacity. In this paper, based on the analyses of the strengths and weaknesses of MMECAM, a new Gauss Auto-associative Memory Model ( GAM ) is proposed by modifying its update rule. Then the stability of the proposed GAM is tested in synchronous and asynchronous update modes with a defined energy function, which ensures that the learnt patterns become stable points of the GAM. Further, a framework of Generalized GAM models (G-GAMs) is presented by introducing general similarity measures which makes GAM become its special cases. Finally, the GAM is applied to image recognition from a single sample per image successfully, and the computer simulation results verify GAM' s robust performance.

  7. Experience and information loss in auditory and visual memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gloede, Michele E; Paulauskas, Emily E; Gregg, Melissa K

    2017-07-01

    Recent studies show that recognition memory for sounds is inferior to memory for pictures. Four experiments were conducted to examine the nature of auditory and visual memory. Experiments 1-3 were conducted to evaluate the role of experience in auditory and visual memory. Participants received a study phase with pictures/sounds, followed by a recognition memory test. Participants then completed auditory training with each of the sounds, followed by a second memory test. Despite auditory training in Experiments 1 and 2, visual memory was superior to auditory memory. In Experiment 3, we found that it is possible to improve auditory memory, but only after 3 days of specific auditory training and 3 days of visual memory decay. We examined the time course of information loss in auditory and visual memory in Experiment 4 and found a trade-off between visual and auditory recognition memory: Visual memory appears to have a larger capacity, while auditory memory is more enduring. Our results indicate that visual and auditory memory are inherently different memory systems and that differences in visual and auditory recognition memory performance may be due to the different amounts of experience with visual and auditory information, as well as structurally different neural circuitry specialized for information retention.

  8. NBM-T-L-BMX-OS01, Semisynthesized from Osthole, Is a Novel Inhibitor of Histone Deacetylase and Enhances Learning and Memory in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ying-Chen; Chen, Chia-Nan; Wu, Carol-Imei; Huang, Wei-Jan; Kuo, Tsun-Yung; Kuan, Ming-Chung; Tsai, Tung-Hu; Huang, Jing-Shi; Huang, Chung-Yang

    2013-01-01

    NBM-T-L-BMX-OS01 (BMX) was derived from the semisynthesis of osthole, isolated from Cnidium monnieri (L.) Cuss., and was identified to be a potent inhibitor of HDAC8. This study shows that HDAC8 is highly expressed in the pancreas and the brain. The function of HDAC8 in the brain has not been adequately studied. Because BMX enhances neurite outgrowth and cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) activation, the effect of BMX on neural plasticity such as learning and memory is examined. To examine declarative and nondeclarative memory, a water maze, a passive one-way avoidance task, and a novel object recognition task were performed. Results from the water maze revealed that BMX and suberoylanilide-hydroxamic-acid-(SAHA-) treated rats showed shorter escape latency in finding the hidden platform. The BMX-treated animals spent more time in the target quadrant in the probe trial performance. An analysis of the passive one-way avoidance results showed that the BMX-treated animals stayed longer in the illuminated chamber by 1 day and 7 days after footshock. The novel object recognition task revealed that the BMX-treated animals showed a marked increase in the time spent exploring novel objects. Furthermore, BMX ameliorates scopolamine-(Sco-) induced learning and memory impairment in animals, indicating a novel role of BMX in learning and memory.

  9. NBM-T-L-BMX-OS01, Semisynthesized from Osthole, Is a Novel Inhibitor of Histone Deacetylase and Enhances Learning and Memory in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying-Chen Yang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available NBM-T-L-BMX-OS01 (BMX was derived from the semisynthesis of osthole, isolated from Cnidium monnieri (L. Cuss., and was identified to be a potent inhibitor of HDAC8. This study shows that HDAC8 is highly expressed in the pancreas and the brain. The function of HDAC8 in the brain has not been adequately studied. Because BMX enhances neurite outgrowth and cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB activation, the effect of BMX on neural plasticity such as learning and memory is examined. To examine declarative and nondeclarative memory, a water maze, a passive one-way avoidance task, and a novel object recognition task were performed. Results from the water maze revealed that BMX and suberoylanilide-hydroxamic-acid-(SAHA- treated rats showed shorter escape latency in finding the hidden platform. The BMX-treated animals spent more time in the target quadrant in the probe trial performance. An analysis of the passive one-way avoidance results showed that the BMX-treated animals stayed longer in the illuminated chamber by 1 day and 7 days after footshock. The novel object recognition task revealed that the BMX-treated animals showed a marked increase in the time spent exploring novel objects. Furthermore, BMX ameliorates scopolamine-(Sco- induced learning and memory impairment in animals, indicating a novel role of BMX in learning and memory.

  10. La Edad Se Correlaciona Directamente con la Fuerza de los Estereotipos de Género: Evidencia Obtenida en una Tarea de Memoria de Reconocimiento Age Correlates Directly With Gender Stereotype Strength: Evidence From a Recognition Memory Task

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio E Chaigneau

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Varias teorías predicen una correlación directa entre edad y estereotipos. Sin embargo, los estudios que muestran este efecto típicamente comparan adultos mayores (> 55-60 años con adultos jóvenes. Por contraste, en el estudio que se reporta participaron 79 individuos de 18 a 60 años de nivel socioeconómico alto, alumnos y profesores de una universidad privada en Santiago de Chile que respondieron a una invitación masiva. El trabajo se enfoca en los estereotipos de género, preguntando si los adultos medios (k 40 años también muestran un nivel más elevado de estereotipos que los jóvenes. Se utilizó una tarea de memoria en la que los participantes leían listas de oraciones que describían a hombres y mujeres realizando actividades estereotipadas y neutras, y debían luego reconocerlas en listas que incluían además oraciones distractoras. Los datos se analizaron con ANOVAs mixtos, revelando que la muestra como un todo exhibía un mejor rendimiento de memoria para estímulos estereotipados para género que para estímulos neutros y que, como se predijo, los adultos medios mostraron un efecto casi 2 veces mayor que los jóvenes.Several theories predict a direct correlation between age and stereotypes. However, studies that show this effect typically compare older adults (> 55-60 years of age with young adults. Contrastingly, in the current study participants were 79 high-SES individuals between 18 and 60 years of age, students and professors of a private university in Santiago de Chile, who responded to a mass email. The work reported here focuses on gender stereotypes and asks whether middle aged adults (k 40 years of age also show a higher level of stereotypes than adolescents and young adults. A recognition memory task was used, in which participants read lists of sentences describing men and women carrying out stereotyped and neutral daily activities, and then had to recognize them intermixed with distractor sentences. Data were

  11. Co-learning facilitates memory in mice: a new avenue in social neuroscience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipina, Tatiana V; Roder, John C

    2013-01-01

    Social context affects brain function but our understanding of its neurobiology is at an early stage. The mere presence of one individual can alter the cognitive capacities of another and social learning has been demonstrated in many species, including the mouse. We asked several questions: 1. How can active engagement of two familiar mice in the same learning activity (co-learning) alter their memory? 2. Under which environmental conditions (aversive vs non-aversive) can we expect the memory to be enhanced, impaired, or not affected? 3. Can a genetic factor modify the co-learning effect on memory? More specifically, can co-learning correct memory deficits in autistic-like BTBR inbred mice with deficient sociability? We demonstrated that pairs of familiar inbred mice of the same or different genotypes (C57BL/6J and BTBR) that were habituated to new objects and their spatial location, had enhanced episodic memory in the spatial object recognition test, whereas individually-trained animals failed to solve this task. Notably, the co-learning effect was genotype-dependent. BTBR mice paired with BTBR cage-mates in the habituation session modestly ameliorated their performance in the object recognition test but co-learning with a familiar C57BL/6J mouse completely normalized episodic memory deficit. Next, we explored the co-learning effect on fear memory in these inbred strains. Interestingly, mice of both genotypes displayed significantly enhanced contextual fear memory once they had been conditioned together with BTBR animals. The same influence of BTBR presence was observed on cued fear memory in C57BL/6J mice, whereas a modest co-learning effect was found on cued fear conditioning in the BTBR strain. Taken together, we demonstrated for the first time the co-learning effect on cognitive capacities in mice, which can be modified by genetic background and environmental conditions. The possible implications of this methodological approach in social neuroscience are

  12. Voice congruency facilitates word recognition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Campeanu

    Full Text Available Behavioral studies of spoken word memory have shown that context congruency facilitates both word and source recognition, though the level at which context exerts its influence remains equivocal. We measured event-related potentials (ERPs while participants performed both types of recognition task with words spoken in four voices. Two voice parameters (i.e., gender and accent varied between speakers, with the possibility that none, one or two of these parameters was congruent between study and test. Results indicated that reinstating the study voice at test facilitated both word and source recognition, compared to similar or no context congruency at test. Behavioral effects were paralleled by two ERP modulations. First, in the word recognition test, the left parietal old/new effect showed a positive deflection reflective of context congruency between study and test words. Namely, the same speaker condition provided the most positive deflection of all correctly identified old words. In the source recognition test, a right frontal positivity was found for the same speaker condition compared to the different speaker conditions, regardless of response success. Taken together, the results of this study suggest that the benefit of context congruency is reflected behaviorally and in ERP modulations traditionally associated with recognition memory.

  13. False memories in highly superior autobiographical memory individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patihis, Lawrence; Frenda, Steven J; LePort, Aurora K R; Petersen, Nicole; Nichols, Rebecca M; Stark, Craig E L; McGaugh, James L; Loftus, Elizabeth F

    2013-12-24

    The recent identification of highly superior autobiographical memory (HSAM) raised the possibility that there may be individuals who are immune to memory distortions. We measured HSAM participants' and age- and sex-matched controls' susceptibility to false memories using several research paradigms. HSAM participants and controls were both susceptible to false recognition of nonpresented critical lure words in an associative word-list task. In a misinformation task, HSAM participants showed higher overall false memory compared with that of controls for details in a photographic slideshow. HSAM participants were equally as likely as controls to mistakenly report they had seen nonexistent footage of a plane crash. Finding false memories in a superior-memory group suggests that malleable reconstructive mechanisms may be fundamental to episodic remembering. Paradoxically, HSAM individuals may retrieve abundant and accurate autobiographical memories using fallible reconstructive processes.

  14. Implicit Memory in Multiple Sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Latchford

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available A number of neuropsychological studies have revealed that memory problems are relatively common in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS. It may be useful to compare MS with conditions such as Huntington's disease (HD, which have been referred to as subcortical dementia. A characteristic of these conditions may be an impairment in implicit (unconscious memory, but not in explicit (conscious memory. The present study examined the functioning of explicit and implicit memory in MS. Results showed that implicit memory was not significantly impaired in the MS subjects, and that they were impaired on recall but not recognition. A correlation was found between implicit memory performance and disability status in MS patients. Findings also suggest the possibility of long-term priming of implicit memory in the control subjects. The implications of these results are discussed.

  15. Human learning and memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, M K; Hasher, L

    1987-01-01

    There have been several notable recent trends in the area of learning and memory. Problems with the episodic/semantic distinction have become more apparent, and new efforts have been made (exemplar models, distributed-memory models) to represent general knowledge without assuming a separate semantic system. Less emphasis is being placed on stable, prestored prototypes and more emphasis on a flexible memory system that provides the basis for a multitude of categories or frames of reference, derived on the spot as tasks demand. There is increasing acceptance of the idea that mental models are constructed and stored in memory in addition to, rather than instead of, memorial representations that are more closely tied to perceptions. This gives rise to questions concerning the conditions that permit inferences to be drawn and mental models to be constructed, and to questions concerning the similarities and differences in the nature of the representations in memory of perceived and generated information and in their functions. There has also been a swing from interest in deliberate strategies to interest in automatic, unconscious (even mechanistic!) processes, reflecting an appreciation that certain situations (e.g. recognition, frequency judgements, savings in indirect tasks, aspects of skill acquisition, etc) seem not to depend much on the products of strategic, effortful or reflective processes. There is a lively interest in relations among memory measures and attempts to characterize memory representations and/or processes that could give rise to dissociations among measures. Whether the pattern of results reflects the operation of functional subsystems of memory and, if so, what the "modules" are is far from clear. This issue has been fueled by work with amnesics and has contributed to a revival of interaction between researchers studying learning and memory in humans and those studying learning and memory in animals. Thus, neuroscience rivals computer science as a

  16. Discriminant Phase Component for Face Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naser Zaeri

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Numerous face recognition techniques have been developed owing to the growing number of real-world applications. Most of current algorithms for face recognition involve considerable amount of computations and hence they cannot be used on devices constrained with limited speed and memory. In this paper, we propose a novel solution for efficient face recognition problem for systems that utilize small memory capacities and demand fast performance. The new technique divides the face images into components and finds the discriminant phases of the Fourier transform of these components automatically using the sequential floating forward search method. A thorough study and comprehensive experiments relating time consumption versus system performance are applied to benchmark face image databases. Finally, the proposed technique is compared with other known methods and evaluated through the recognition rate and the computational time, where we achieve a recognition rate of 98.5% with computational time of 6.4 minutes for a database consisting of 2360 images.

  17. Ameliorating Intrusive Memories of Distressing Experiences Using Computerized Reappraisal Training

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woud, M.L.; Holmes, E.A.; Postma, P.; Dalgleish, T.; Mackintosh, B.

    2012-01-01

    The types of appraisals that follow traumatic experiences have been linked to the emergence of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Could changing reappraisals following a stressful event reduce the emergence of PTSD symptoms? The present proof-of-principle study examined whether a nonexplicit, sys

  18. Memory of Sponsorship-Linked Marketing Communications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Bettina Cornwell

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Corporate sponsorship value is brought into question when false recognition of foils suggests confusion regarding true sponsors. While an indicator of confusion, recognition false alarms do not tell the entire story regarding memory for sponsor-event relationships. Two free recall experiments show relatively good memory for sponsors and also that under certain conditions, the mention of direct competitors can actually facilitate recall of true sponsors and events. The findings point to the importance of understanding the memory-based characteristics of measurement as well as to the memory-supported decision-making tasks that sponsorship information might eventually influence.

  19. Fingerprint recognition

    OpenAIRE

    Diefenderfer, Graig T.

    2006-01-01

    The use of biometrics is an evolving component in today's society. Fingerprint recognition continues to be one of the most widely used biometric systems. This thesis explores the various steps present in a fingerprint recognition system. The study develops a working algorithm to extract fingerprint minutiae from an input fingerprint image. This stage incorporates a variety of image pre-processing steps necessary for accurate minutiae extraction and includes two different methods of ridge thin...

  20. Implicit Recognition Based on Lateralized Perceptual Fluency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iliana M. Vargas

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available In some circumstances, accurate recognition of repeated images in an explicit memory test is driven by implicit memory. We propose that this “implicit recognition” results from perceptual fluency that influences responding without awareness of memory retrieval. Here we examined whether recognition would vary if images appeared in the same or different visual hemifield during learning and testing. Kaleidoscope images were briefly presented left or right of fixation during divided-attention encoding. Presentation in the same visual hemifield at test produced higher recognition accuracy than presentation in the opposite visual hemifield, but only for guess responses. These correct guesses likely reflect a contribution from implicit recognition, given that when the stimulated visual hemifield was the same at study and test, recognition accuracy was higher for guess responses than for responses with any level of confidence. The dramatic difference in guessing accuracy as a function of lateralized perceptual overlap between study and test suggests that implicit recognition arises from memory storage in visual cortical networks that mediate repetition-induced fluency increments.

  1. Physical attractiveness stereotype and memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohner, Jean-Christophe; Rasmussen, Anders

    2011-08-01

    Three experiments examined explicit and implicit memory for information that is congruent with the physical attractiveness stereotype (i.e. attractive-positive and unattractive-negative) and information that is incongruent with the physical attractiveness stereotype (i.e. attractive-negative and unattractive-positive). Measures of explicit recognition sensitivity and implicit discriminability revealed a memorial advantage for congruent compared to incongruent information, as evident from hit and false alarm rates and reaction times, respectively. Measures of explicit memory showed a recognition bias toward congruent compared to incongruent information, where participants tended to call congruent information old, independently of whether the information had been shown previously or not. This recognition bias was unrelated to reports of subjective confidence in retrieval. The present findings shed light on the cognitive mechanisms that might mediate discriminatory behavior towards physically attractive and physically unattractive individuals.

  2. The role of articulatory suppression in immediate false recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macé, Anne-Laure; Caza, Nicole

    2011-11-01

    False memory for critical lures has been widely documented in long-term memory using the Deese/Roediger-McDermott paradigm. Recent evidence suggests that false memory effects can also be found in short-term memory (STM), supporting models that assume a strong relationship between short-term and long-term memory processes. However, no study has examined the role of articulatory suppression on immediate false memory, even though phono-articulatory factors are critically involved in STM performance and are an intrinsic part of all STM accounts. The current study proposes a novel paradigm to assess false memory effects in a STM task under both silent and articulatory suppression conditions. Using immediate serial recognition, in which participants had to judge whether two successive mixed lists of six associated and non-associated words were matched, we examined true recognition of matching lists and false recognition of mismatching lists comprising a critical lure or unrelated distractor in two experiments. Results from both experiments indicated reduced true recognition of matching lists and greater false serial recognition of mismatching lists comprising a critical lure under articulatory suppression relative to silence. These findings provide further support for some current models of verbal short-term memory, which posit a strong relationship between short-term and long-term memory processes.

  3. Sleep in Children Enhances Preferentially Emotional Declarative But Not Procedural Memories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prehn-Kristensen, Alexander; Goder, Robert; Chirobeja, Stefania; Bressman, Inka; Ferstl, Roman; Baving, Lioba

    2009-01-01

    Although the consolidation of several memory systems is enhanced by sleep in adults, recent studies suggest that sleep supports declarative memory but not procedural memory in children. In the current study, the influence of sleep on emotional declarative memory (recognition task) and procedural memory (mirror tracing task) in 20 healthy children…

  4. Neural correlates of true memory, false memory, and deception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, Nobuhito; Okuda, Jiro; Suzuki, Maki; Sasaki, Hiroshi; Matsuda, Tetsuya; Mori, Etsuro; Tsukada, Minoru; Fujii, Toshikatsu

    2008-12-01

    We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to determine whether neural activity can differentiate between true memory, false memory, and deception. Subjects heard a series of semantically related words and were later asked to make a recognition judgment of old words, semantically related nonstudied words (lures for false recognition), and unrelated new words. They were also asked to make a deceptive response to half of the old and unrelated new words. There were 3 main findings. First, consistent with the notion that executive function supports deception, 2 types of deception (pretending to know and pretending not to know) recruited prefrontal activity. Second, consistent with the sensory reactivation hypothesis, the difference between true recognition and false recognition was found in the left temporoparietal regions probably engaged in the encoding of auditorily presented words. Third, the left prefrontal cortex was activated during pretending to know relative to correct rejection and false recognition, whereas the right anterior hippocampus was activated during false recognition relative to correct rejection and pretending to know. These findings indicate that fMRI can detect the difference in brain activity between deception and false memory despite the fact that subjects respond with "I know" to novel events in both processes.

  5. Memory Matters

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Emergency Room? What Happens in the Operating Room? Memory Matters KidsHealth > For Kids > Memory Matters A A ... of your complex and multitalented brain. What Is Memory? When an event happens, when you learn something, ...

  6. Memory Matters

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... de los dientes Video: Getting an X-ray Memory Matters KidsHealth > For Kids > Memory Matters Print A ... of your complex and multitalented brain. What Is Memory? When an event happens, when you learn something, ...

  7. Differential effects of modafinil on memory in naïve and memory-impaired rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Vanessa Athaíde; Souza de Freitas, Betânia; Busato, Stefano Boemler; D'avila Portal, Bernardo Chaves; Piazza, Francisco Correa; Schröder, Nadja

    2013-12-01

    Modafinil is a wake-promoting drug and has been approved for the treatment of excessive daytime sleepiness in narcolepsy and obstructive sleep apnea. Modafinil was shown to improve learning and memory in rodents, and to reverse memory deficits induced by sleep deprivation or stress. However, depending on the memory paradigm used, modafinil might also impair memory. We aimed to investigate the effects of modafinil on memory consolidation and retrieval for object recognition and inhibitory avoidance in naïve adult rats. We also investigated whether acute or chronic administration of modafinil would reverse memory deficits induced by iron overload, a model of memory impairment related to neurodegenerative disorders. Adult naïve rats received modafinil (0.0, 0.75, 7.5 or 75 mg/kg) either immediately after training or 1 h prior to testing in object recognition or inhibitory avoidance. Iron-treated rats received modafinil immediately after training in object recognition. In order to investigate the effects of chronic modafinil, iron-treated rats received daily injections of modafinil for 17 days, and 24 h later they were trained in object recognition or inhibitory avoidance. Acute modafinil does not affect memory consolidation or retrieval in naive rats. A single injection of modafinil at the highest dose was able to recover recognition memory in iron-treated rats. Chronic modafinil completely recovered iron-induced recognition memory and emotional memory deficits. Additional preclinical and clinical studies are necessary in order to support the applicability of modafinil in recovering memory impairment associated with neurodegenerative disorders.

  8. Holistic processing predicts face recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richler, Jennifer J; Cheung, Olivia S; Gauthier, Isabel

    2011-04-01

    The concept of holistic processing is a cornerstone of face-recognition research. In the study reported here, we demonstrated that holistic processing predicts face-recognition abilities on the Cambridge Face Memory Test and on a perceptual face-identification task. Our findings validate a large body of work that relies on the assumption that holistic processing is related to face recognition. These findings also reconcile the study of face recognition with the perceptual-expertise work it inspired; such work links holistic processing of objects with people's ability to individuate them. Our results differ from those of a recent study showing no link between holistic processing and face recognition. This discrepancy can be attributed to the use in prior research of a popular but flawed measure of holistic processing. Our findings salvage the central role of holistic processing in face recognition and cast doubt on a subset of the face-perception literature that relies on a problematic measure of holistic processing.

  9. Strong Memories Are Hard to Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mickes, Laura; Hwe, Vivian; Wais, Peter E.; Wixted, John T.

    2011-01-01

    People are generally skilled at using a confidence scale to rate the strength of their memories over a wide range. Specifically, low-confidence recognition decisions are often associated with close-to-chance accuracy, whereas high-confidence recognition decisions can be associated with close-to-perfect accuracy. However, using a 20-point rating…

  10. Sleep loss produces false memories.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanne Diekelmann

    Full Text Available People sometimes claim with high confidence to remember events that in fact never happened, typically due to strong semantic associations with actually encoded events. Sleep is known to provide optimal neurobiological conditions for consolidation of memories for long-term storage, whereas sleep deprivation acutely impairs retrieval of stored memories. Here, focusing on the role of sleep-related memory processes, we tested whether false memories can be created (a as enduring memory representations due to a consolidation-associated reorganization of new memory representations during post-learning sleep and/or (b as an acute retrieval-related phenomenon induced by sleep deprivation at memory testing. According to the Deese, Roediger, McDermott (DRM false memory paradigm, subjects learned lists of semantically associated words (e.g., "night", "dark", "coal",..., lacking the strongest common associate or theme word (here: "black". Subjects either slept or stayed awake immediately after learning, and they were either sleep deprived or not at recognition testing 9, 33, or 44 hours after learning. Sleep deprivation at retrieval, but not sleep following learning, critically enhanced false memories of theme words. This effect was abolished by caffeine administration prior to retrieval, indicating that adenosinergic mechanisms can contribute to the generation of false memories associated with sleep loss.

  11. Familiarity is related to conceptual implicit memory: an examination of individual differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei-chun; Yonelinas, Andrew P

    2012-12-01

    Explicit memory is thought to be distinct from implicit memory. However, growing evidence has indicated that explicit familiarity-based recognition memory judgments rely on the same process that supports conceptual implicit memory. We tested this hypothesis by examining individual differences using a paradigm wherein we measured both familiarity and conceptual implicit memory within the same participants. In Experiments 1a and 1b, we examined recognition memory confidence ROCs and remember/know responses, respectively, to estimate recollection and familiarity, and used a free association task to measure conceptual implicit memory. The results demonstrated that, across participants, familiarity, but not recollection, was significantly correlated with conceptual priming. In contrast, in Experiment 2, utilizing a similar paradigm, a comparison of recognition memory ROCs and explicit associative cued-recall performance indicated that cued recall was related to both recollection and familiarity. These results are consistent with models assuming that familiarity-based recognition and conceptual implicit memory rely on similar underlying processes.

  12. Effects of Aging and IQ on Item and Associative Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratcliff, Roger; Thapar, Anjali; McKoon, Gail

    2011-01-01

    The effects of aging and IQ on performance were examined in 4 memory tasks: item recognition, associative recognition, cued recall, and free recall. For item and associative recognition, accuracy and the response time (RT) distributions for correct and error responses were explained by Ratcliff's (1978) diffusion model at the level of individual…

  13. Impaired face recognition is associated with social inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avery, Suzanne N; VanDerKlok, Ross M; Heckers, Stephan; Blackford, Jennifer U

    2016-02-28

    Face recognition is fundamental to successful social interaction. Individuals with deficits in face recognition are likely to have social functioning impairments that may lead to heightened risk for social anxiety. A critical component of social interaction is how quickly a face is learned during initial exposure to a new individual. Here, we used a novel Repeated Faces task to assess how quickly memory for faces is established. Face recognition was measured over multiple exposures in 52 young adults ranging from low to high in social inhibition, a core dimension of social anxiety. High social inhibition was associated with a smaller slope of change in recognition memory over repeated face exposure, indicating participants with higher social inhibition showed smaller improvements in recognition memory after seeing faces multiple times. We propose that impaired face learning is an important mechanism underlying social inhibition and may contribute to, or maintain, social anxiety.

  14. Sex differences in episodic memory: minimal influence of estradiol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yonker, Julie E; Eriksson, Elias; Nilsson, Lars Göran; Herlitz, Agneta

    2003-07-01

    Sex differences exist for several cognitive tasks and estrogen has been suggested to influence these differences. Eighteen men and 18 women were matched on age and estradiol level. Potential sex differences were assessed in episodic memory, semantic memory, verbal fluency, problem solving, and visuospatial ability. Significant sex differences, favoring women, were found for tasks assessing episodic memory. Correlations between estradiol level and cognitive performance were significant for face recognition in females. Since sex differences remained in verbal episodic memory tasks and face recognition despite matched levels of estradiol, circulating estradiol does not appear to be of paramount consequence for observed sex differences in episodic memory.

  15. Ameliorative effect of 2,3,5,4'-tetrahydroxystilbene-2-O-β-D-glucoside on learning and memory disorder induced by scopolamine in mice%二苯乙烯苷对东莨菪碱致小鼠学习记忆障碍的改善作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶翠飞; 魏海峰; 张丽; 张兰; 李林

    2005-01-01

    潜伏期有延长的趋势[(300±0.00),(300±0.00),(269.71±80.128)S].结论:对东莨菪碱所致学习记忆障碍模型小鼠,给予二苯乙烯苷后可缩短其在Morris水迷宫中的搜索时间和搜索距离,减少避暗的错误次数,对学习记忆障碍有一定的改善作用.%BACKGROUND: Chinese herb tuber fleeceflower root can enhance learning and memory ability and anti-cerebral ischemia ability in rats,while 2,3,5,4'-tetrahydroxystilbene-2-O-β-D-glucoside,the main effective component of tuber fleeceflower root,has very strong brain-protecting ef fects such as anti-oxidation and anti-aging.OBJECTIVE: To observe the amelioration of learning and memory dis order after administration of 2,3,5,4'-tetrahydroxystilbene-2-O-3-D-glucoside in mice with learning and memory disorder caused by scopolamine.DESIGN: Randomized controlled trial.SETTING: Institute of Pharmacology, Xuanwu Hospital of Capital University of Medical Sciences.MATERIALS: The experiment was conducted in the Institute of Pharmacology,Xuanwu Hospital of Capital University of Medical Sciences,be tween February 2000 and May 2000.Totally 50 male Kunming mice were recruited and randomized into 5 groups: normal control group, model group,positive control group, 2,3,5,4'-tetrahydroxystilbene-2-O-β-D-glucoside 0.03 g/kg group (low-dose group), and 2,3,5,4 '-tetrahydroxystilbene-2-O-β- D-glucoside 0.1 g/kg group(high-dose group).2,3,5,4'-tetrahydroxystil bene-2-O-β-D-glucoside was an effective component extracted from Chinese herb tuber fleeceflower root in the Department of Pharmacology, Xuanwu Hospital of Capital University of Medical Sciences.Piracetam was the positive control drug.Morris water maze and passive avoidance reflex box were made in the Institute of Materia Medica, the Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences.METHODS:Administration was given 5 days before experiment.Tap water was intragastrically grven into the mice in normal group and model group. Piracetam of 0.7 g/(kg.d) was given to the mice in positive control

  16. Hemispheric Asymmetries in the Activation and Monitoring of Memory Errors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giammattei, Jeannette; Arndt, Jason

    2012-01-01

    Previous research on the lateralization of memory errors suggests that the right hemisphere's tendency to produce more memory errors than the left hemisphere reflects hemispheric differences in semantic activation. However, all prior research that has examined the lateralization of memory errors has used self-paced recognition judgments. Because…

  17. Noradrenergic enhancement of associative fear memory in humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soeter, M.; Kindt, M.

    2011-01-01

    Ample evidence in animals and humans supports the noradrenergic modulation in the formation of emotional memory. However, in humans the effects of stress on emotional memory are traditionally investigated by declarative memory tests (e.g., recall, recognition) for non-associative emotional stimuli (

  18. Prospective Memory in Context: Moving through a Familiar Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Rebekah E.; Hunt, R. Reed; Murray, Amy E.

    2017-01-01

    Successful completion of delayed intentions is a common but important aspect of daily behavior. Such behavior requires not only memory for the intended action but also recognition of the opportunity to perform that action, known collectively as prospective memory. The fact that prospective memory tasks occur in the midst of other activities is…

  19. Predictors of Verbal Working Memory in Children with Cerebral Palsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peeters, Marieke; Verhoeven, Ludo; de Moor, Jan

    2009-01-01

    The goal of the present study was to examine the precursors of verbal working memory in 52 children with cerebral palsy with varying degrees of speech impairments in the first grade of special education. Following Baddeley's model of working memory, children's verbal working memory was measured by means of a forced-recognition task. As precursors…

  20. Facial Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihalache Sergiu

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available During their lifetime, people learn to recognize thousands of faces that they interact with. Face perception refers to an individual's understanding and interpretation of the face, particularly the human face, especially in relation to the associated information processing in the brain. The proportions and expressions of the human face are important to identify origin, emotional tendencies, health qualities, and some social information. From birth, faces are important in the individual's social interaction. Face perceptions are very complex as the recognition of facial expressions involves extensive and diverse areas in the brain. Our main goal is to put emphasis on presenting human faces specialized studies, and also to highlight the importance of attractiviness in their retention. We will see that there are many factors that influence face recognition.

  1. Memory-Based Shallow Parsing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tjong Kim Sang, E.F.

    2002-01-01

    We present memory-based learning approaches to shallow parsing and apply these to five tasks: base noun phrase identification, arbitrary base phrase recognition, clause detection, noun phrase parsing and full parsing. We use feature selection techniques and system combination methods for improving t

  2. Fucoidan Extracts Ameliorate Acute Colitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lean, Qi Ying; Eri, Rajaraman D; Fitton, J Helen; Patel, Rahul P; Gueven, Nuri

    2015-01-01

    Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), such as ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease, are an important cause of morbidity and impact significantly on quality of life. Overall, current treatments do not sustain a long-term clinical remission and are associated with adverse effects, which highlight the need for new treatment options. Fucoidans are complex sulphated, fucose-rich polysaccharides, found in edible brown algae and are described as having multiple bioactivities including potent anti-inflammatory effects. Therefore, the therapeutic potential of two different fucoidan preparations, fucoidan-polyphenol complex (Maritech Synergy) and depyrogenated fucoidan (DPF) was evaluated in the dextran sulphate sodium (DSS) mouse model of acute colitis. Mice were treated once daily over 7 days with fucoidans via oral (Synergy or DPF) or intraperitoneal administration (DPF). Signs and severity of colitis were monitored daily before colons and spleens were collected for macroscopic evaluation, cytokine measurements and histology. Orally administered Synergy and DPF, but not intraperitoneal DPF treatment, significantly ameliorated symptoms of colitis based on retention of body weight, as well as reduced diarrhoea and faecal blood loss, compared to the untreated colitis group. Colon and spleen weight in mice treated with oral fucoidan was also significantly lower, indicating reduced inflammation and oedema. Histological examination of untreated colitis mice confirmed a massive loss of crypt architecture and goblet cells, infiltration of immune cells and oedema, while all aspects of this pathology were alleviated by oral fucoidan. Importantly, in this model, the macroscopic changes induced by oral fucoidan correlated significantly with substantially decreased production of at least 15 pro-inflammatory cytokines by the colon tissue. Overall, oral fucoidan preparations significantly reduce the inflammatory pathology associated with DSS-induced colitis and could therefore represent

  3. Memory, metamemory, and social cues: Between conformity and resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zawadzka, Katarzyna; Krogulska, Aleksandra; Button, Roberta; Higham, Philip A; Hanczakowski, Maciej

    2016-02-01

    When presented with responses of another person, people incorporate these responses into memory reports: a finding termed memory conformity. Research on memory conformity in recognition reveals that people rely on external social cues to guide their memory responses when their own ability to respond is at chance. In this way, conforming to a reliable source boosts recognition performance but conforming to a random source does not impair it. In the present study we assessed whether people would conform indiscriminately to reliable and unreliable (random) sources when they are given the opportunity to exercise metamemory control over their responding by withholding answers in a recognition test. In Experiments 1 and 2, we found the pattern of memory conformity to reliable and unreliable sources in 2 variants of a free-report recognition test, yet at the same time the provision of external cues did not affect the rate of response withholding. In Experiment 3, we provided participants with initial feedback on their recognition decisions, facilitating the discrimination between the reliable and unreliable source. This led to the reduction of memory conformity to the unreliable source, and at the same time modulated metamemory decisions concerning response withholding: participants displayed metamemory conformity to the reliable source, volunteering more responses in their memory report, and metamemory resistance to the random source, withholding more responses from the memory report. Together, the results show how metamemory decisions dissociate various types of memory conformity and that memory and metamemory decisions can be independent of each other.

  4. p300/CBP Histone Acetyltransferase Activity Is Required for Newly Acquired and Reactivated Fear Memories in the Lateral Amygdala

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maddox, Stephanie A.; Watts, Casey S.; Schafe, Glenn E.

    2013-01-01

    Modifications in chromatin structure have been widely implicated in memory and cognition, most notably using hippocampal-dependent memory paradigms including object recognition, spatial memory, and contextual fear memory. Relatively little is known, however, about the role of chromatin-modifying enzymes in amygdala-dependent memory formation.…

  5. Dissociation between source and item memory in Parkinson's disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hu Panpan; Li Youhai; Ma Huijuan; Xi Chunhua; Chen Xianwen; Wang Kai

    2014-01-01

    Background Episodic memory includes information about item memory and source memory.Many researches support the hypothesis that these two memory systems are implemented by different brain structures.The aim of this study was to investigate the characteristics of item memory and source memory processing in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD),and to further verify the hypothesis of dual-process model of source and item memory.Methods We established a neuropsychological battery to measure the performance of item memory and source memory.Totally 35 PD individuals and 35 matched healthy controls (HC) were administrated with the battery.Item memory task consists of the learning and recognition of high-frequency national Chinese characters; source memory task consists of the learning and recognition of three modes (character,picture,and image) of objects.Results Compared with the controls,the idiopathic PD patients have been impaired source memory (PD vs.HC:0.65±0.06 vs.0.72±0.09,P=0.001),but not impaired in item memory (PD vs.HC:0.65±0.07 vs.0.67±0.08,P=0.240).Conclusions The present experiment provides evidence for dissociation between item and source memory in PD patients,thereby strengthening the claim that the item or source memory rely on different brain structures.PD patients show poor source memory,in which dopamine plays a critical role.

  6. Featuring Old/New Recognition: The Two Faces of the Pseudoword Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joordens, Steve; Ozubko, Jason D.; Niewiadomski, Marty W.

    2008-01-01

    In his analysis of the pseudoword effect, [Greene, R.L. (2004). Recognition memory for pseudowords. "Journal of Memory and Language," 50, 259-267.] suggests nonwords can feel more familiar that words in a recognition context if the orthographic features of the nonword match well with the features of the items presented at study. One possible…

  7. The Role of Object Recognition in Young Infants' Object Segregation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, Susan; Williams, Travis

    2001-01-01

    Discusses Needham's findings by asserting that they extend understanding of infant perception by showing that the memory representations infants draw upon have bound together information about shape, color, and pattern. Considers the distinction between two senses of "recognition" and asks in which sense object recognition contributes to object…

  8. A Novel Neural Network Based Method Developed for Digit Recognition Applied to Automatic Speed Sign Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanene Rouabeh

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This Paper presents a new hybrid technique for digit recognition applied to the speed limit sign recognition task. The complete recognition system consists in the detection and recognition of the speed signs in RGB images. A pretreatment is applied to extract the pictogram from a detected circular road sign, and then the task discussed in this work is employed to recognize digit candidates. To realize a compromise between performances, reduced execution time and optimized memory resources, the developed method is based on a conjoint use of a Neural Network and a Decision Tree. A simple Network is employed firstly to classify the extracted candidates into three classes and secondly a small Decision Tree is charged to determine the exact information. This combination is used to reduce the size of the Network as well as the memory resources utilization. The evaluation of the technique and the comparison with existent methods show the effectiveness.

  9. Speaker Recognition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mølgaard, Lasse Lohilahti; Jørgensen, Kasper Winther

    2005-01-01

    Speaker recognition is basically divided into speaker identification and speaker verification. Verification is the task of automatically determining if a person really is the person he or she claims to be. This technology can be used as a biometric feature for verifying the identity of a person...... in applications like banking by telephone and voice mail. The focus of this project is speaker identification, which consists of mapping a speech signal from an unknown speaker to a database of known speakers, i.e. the system has been trained with a number of speakers which the system can recognize....

  10. Improvement of the detection response time of gas sensors using the association of artificial neural networks with pattern recognition technique; Amelioration de la reponse temporelle de capteurs de gaz par reconnaissance de forme a l'aide de reseaux de neurones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bordieu, Ch.; Rebiere, D. [Bordeaux-1 Univ., Lab. IXL, UMR CNRS 5818, 33 (France); Pistre, J.; Planata, R. [Centre d' Etudes du Bouchet, 91 - Vert-le-Petit (France)

    1999-07-01

    The association of artificial neural networks (multilayer perceptrons) with a real time pattern recognition technique (shifting windows) allowed the development of systems for the detection and the quantification of gases. Shifting window technique is presented and offers an interesting way to improve the detection response time. The partial detector characterization with regard to its parameters was realized. Applications dealing with the detection of gas compounds using surface acoustic sensors permit to show the shifting window technique feasibility. (author)

  11. The recognition of work

    OpenAIRE

    Nierling, Linda

    2007-01-01

    The following article argues that recognition structures in work relations differ significantly in the sphere of paid work in contrast to unpaid work in private spheres. According to the systematic approach on recognition of Axel Honneth three different levels of recognition are identified: the interpersonal recognition, organisational recognition and societal recognition. Based on this framework it can be stated that recognition structures in the sphere of paid work and in private spheres di...

  12. Item Memory, Context Memory and the Hippocampus: fMRI Evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rugg, Michael D.; Vilberg, Kaia L.; Mattson, Julia T.; Yu, Sarah S.; Johnson, Jeffrey D.; Suzuki, Maki

    2012-01-01

    Dual-process models of recognition memory distinguish between the retrieval of qualitative information about a prior event (recollection), and judgments of prior occurrence based on an acontextual sense of familiarity. fMRI studies investigating the neural correlates of memory encoding and retrieval conducted within the dual-process framework have…

  13. Rapid induction of false memory for pictures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinstein, Yana; Shanks, David R

    2010-07-01

    Recognition of pictures is typically extremely accurate, and it is thus unclear whether the reconstructive nature of memory can yield substantial false recognition of highly individuated stimuli. A procedure for the rapid induction of false memories for distinctive colour photographs is proposed. Participants studied a set of object pictures followed by a list of words naming those objects, but embedded in the list were names of unseen objects. When subsequently shown full colour pictures of these unseen objects, participants consistently claimed that they had seen them, while discriminating with high accuracy between studied pictures and new pictures whose names did not appear in the misleading word list. These false memories can be reported with high confidence as well as the feeling of recollection. This new procedure allows the investigation of factors that influence false memory reports with ecologically valid stimuli and of the similarities and differences between true and false memories.

  14. Emotional memory for musical excerpts in young and older adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene eAlonso

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The emotions evoked by music can enhance recognition of excerpts. It has been suggested that memory is better for high than for low arousing music (Eschrich et al., 2005; Samson et al., 2009, but it remains unclear whether positively (Eschrich et al., 2008 or negatively valenced music (Aubé et al., 2013; Vieillard and Gilet, 2013 may be better recognized. Moreover, we still know very little about the influence of age on emotional memory for music. To address these issues, we tested emotional memory for music in young and older adults using musical excerpts varying in terms of arousal and valence. Participants completed immediate and 24h delayed recognition tests. We predicted highly arousing excerpts to be better recognized by both groups in immediate recognition. We hypothesized that arousal may compensate consolidation deficits in aging, thus showing more prominent benefit of high over low arousing stimuli in older than younger adults on delayed recognition. We also hypothesized worst retention of negative excerpts for the older group, resulting in a recognition benefit for positive over negative excerpts specific to older adults. Our results suggest that although older adults had worse recognition than young adults overall, effects of emotion on memory do not seem to be modified by aging. Results on immediate recognition suggest that recognition of low arousing excerpts can be affected by valence, with better memory for positive relative to negative low arousing music. However, 24h delayed recognition results demonstrate effects of emotion on memory consolidation regardless of age, with a recognition benefit for high arousal and for negatively valenced music. The present study highlights the role of emotion on memory consolidation. Findings are examined in light of to the literature on emotional memory for music and for other stimuli. We finally discuss the implication of the present results for potential music interventions in aging and

  15. Hippocampal histone acetylation regulates object recognition and the estradiol-induced enhancement of object recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zaorui; Fan, Lu; Fortress, Ashley M; Boulware, Marissa I; Frick, Karyn M

    2012-02-15

    Histone acetylation has recently been implicated in learning and memory processes, yet necessity of histone acetylation for such processes has not been demonstrated using pharmacological inhibitors of histone acetyltransferases (HATs). As such, the present study tested whether garcinol, a potent HAT inhibitor in vitro, could impair hippocampal memory consolidation and block the memory-enhancing effects of the modulatory hormone 17β-estradiol E2. We first showed that bilateral infusion of garcinol (0.1, 1, or 10 μg/side) into the dorsal hippocampus (DH) immediately after training impaired object recognition memory consolidation in ovariectomized female mice. A behaviorally effective dose of garcinol (10 μg/side) also significantly decreased DH HAT activity. We next examined whether DH infusion of a behaviorally subeffective dose of garcinol (1 ng/side) could block the effects of DH E2 infusion on object recognition and epigenetic processes. Immediately after training, ovariectomized female mice received bilateral DH infusions of vehicle, E2 (5 μg/side), garcinol (1 ng/side), or E2 plus garcinol. Forty-eight hours later, garcinol blocked the memory-enhancing effects of E2. Garcinol also reversed the E2-induced increase in DH histone H3 acetylation, HAT activity, and levels of the de novo methyltransferase DNMT3B, as well as the E2-induced decrease in levels of the memory repressor protein histone deacetylase 2. Collectively, these findings suggest that histone acetylation is critical for object recognition memory consolidation and the beneficial effects of E2 on object recognition. Importantly, this work demonstrates that the role of histone acetylation in memory processes can be studied using a HAT inhibitor.

  16. Effects of betaine on lipopolysaccharide-induced memory impairment in mice and the involvement of GABA transporter 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miwa Masaya

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Betaine (glycine betaine or trimethylglycine plays important roles as an osmolyte and a methyl donor in animals. While betaine is reported to suppress expression of proinflammatory molecules and reduce oxidative stress in aged rat kidney, the effects of betaine on the central nervous system are not well known. In this study, we investigated the effects of betaine on lipopolysaccharide (LPS-induced memory impairment and on mRNA expression levels of proinflammatory molecules, glial markers, and GABA transporter 2 (GAT2, a betaine/GABA transporter. Methods Mice were continuously treated with betaine for 13 days starting 1 day before they were injected with LPS, or received subacute or acute administration of betaine shortly before or after LPS injection. Then, their memory function was evaluated using Y-maze and novel object recognition tests 7 and 10-12 days after LPS injection (30 μg/mouse, i.c.v., respectively. In addition, mRNA expression levels in hippocampus were measured by real-time RT-PCR at different time points. Results Repeated administration of betaine (0.163 mmol/kg, s.c. prevented LPS-induced memory impairment. GAT2 mRNA levels were significantly increased in hippocampus 24 hr after LPS injection, and administration of betaine blocked this increase. However, betaine did not affect LPS-induced increases in levels of mRNA related to inflammatory responses. Both subacute administration (1 hr before, and 1 and 24 hr after LPS injection and acute administration (1 hr after LPS injection of betaine also prevented LPS-induced memory impairment in the Y-maze test. Conclusions These data suggest that betaine has protective effects against LPS-induced memory impairment and that prevention of LPS-induced changes in GAT2 mRNA expression is crucial to this ameliorating effect.

  17. Harpagoside ameliorates the amyloid-β-induced cognitive impairment in rats via up-regulating BDNF expression and MAPK/PI3K pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, J; Ding, X; Zhang, R; Jiang, W; Sun, X; Xia, Z; Wang, X; Wu, E; Zhang, Y; Hu, Y

    2015-09-10

    So far, no effective disease-modifying therapies for Alzheimer's disease (AD) aiming at protecting or reversing neurodegeneration of the disease have been established yet. The present work aims to elucidate the effect of Harpagoside (abbreviated HAR), an iridoid glycosides purified from the Chinese medicinal herb Scrophularia ningpoensis, on neurodegeneration induced by β-amyloid peptide (Aβ) and the underlying molecular mechanism. Here we show that HAR exerts neuroprotective effects against Aβ neurotoxicity. Rats injected aggregated Aβ₁₋₄₀ into the bilateral hippocampus displayed impaired spatial learning and memory ability in a Y-maze test and novel object recognition test, while HAR treatment ameliorated Aβ₁₋₄₀-induced behavioral deficits. Moreover, administration of HAR increased the expression levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and activated the extracellular-regulated protein kinase (ERK) and the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3-kinase) pathways both in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus of the Aβ₁₋₄₀-insulted rat model. Furthermore, in cultured primary cortical neurons, Aβ₁₋₄₂ induced significant decrease of choline acetyltransferase (ChAT)-positive neuron number and neurite outgrowth length, both of which were dose dependently increased by HAR. In addition, HAR pretreatment also significantly attenuated the decrease of cell viability in Aβ₁₋₄₂-injured primary cortical neurons. Finally, when K252a, an inhibitor of Trk tyrosine kinases, and a BDNF neutralizing antibody were added to the culture medium 2 h prior to HAR addition, the protective effect of HAR on Aβ₁₋₄₂-induced neurodegeneration in the primary cortical neuron was almost inhibited. Taken together, HAR exerting neuroprotection effect and ameliorating learning and memory deficit appears to be associated, at least in part, with up-regulation of BDNF content as well as activating its downstream signaling pathways, e.g., MAPK

  18. Parallel and distributed computation for fault-tolerant object recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wechsler, Harry

    1988-01-01

    The distributed associative memory (DAM) model is suggested for distributed and fault-tolerant computation as it relates to object recognition tasks. The fault-tolerance is with respect to geometrical distortions (scale and rotation), noisy inputs, occulsion/overlap, and memory faults. An experimental system was developed for fault-tolerant structure recognition which shows the feasibility of such an approach. The approach is futher extended to the problem of multisensory data integration and applied successfully to the recognition of colored polyhedral objects.

  19. Memory Modulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roozendaal, Benno; McGaugh, James L.

    2011-01-01

    Our memories are not all created equally strong: Some experiences are well remembered while others are remembered poorly, if at all. Research on memory modulation investigates the neurobiological processes and systems that contribute to such differences in the strength of our memories. Extensive evi

  20. Memory for music in Alzheimer's disease: unforgettable?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baird, Amee; Samson, Séverine

    2009-03-01

    The notion that memory for music can be preserved in patients with Alzheimer's Disease (AD) has been raised by a number of case studies. In this paper, we review the current research examining musical memory in patients with AD. In keeping with models of memory described in the non-musical domain, we propose that various forms of musical memory exist, and may be differentially impaired in AD, reflecting the pattern of neuropathological changes associated with the condition. Our synthesis of this literature reveals a dissociation between explicit and implicit musical memory functions. Implicit, specifically procedural musical memory, or the ability to play a musical instrument, can be spared in musicians with AD. In contrast, explicit musical memory, or the recognition of familiar or unfamiliar melodies, is typically impaired. Thus, the notion that music is unforgettable in AD is not wholly supported. Rather, it appears that the ability to play a musical instrument may be unforgettable in some musicians with AD.

  1. Memory fMRI predicts verbal memory decline after anterior temporal lobe resection

    OpenAIRE

    Sidhu, Meneka K; Stretton, Jason; Winston, Gavin P.; Symms, Mark; Thompson, Pamela J; Koepp, Matthias J; Duncan, John S.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To develop a clinically applicable memory functional MRI (fMRI) method of predicting postsurgical memory outcome in individual patients. Methods: In this prospective cohort study, 50 patients with temporal lobe epilepsy (23 left) and 26 controls underwent an fMRI memory encoding paradigm of words with a subsequent out-of-scanner recognition assessment. Neuropsychological assessment was performed preoperatively and 4 months after anterior temporal lobe resection, and at equal time i...

  2. Pattern Recognition of mtDNA with Associative Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Acevedo María Elena

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we applied an associative memory for the pattern recognition of mtDNA that can be useful to identify bodies and human remains. In particular, we used both morphological hetroassociative memories: max and min. We process the problem of pattern recognition as a classification task. Our proposal showed a correct recall, we obtained the 100% of recalling of all the learned patterns. We simulated a corrupted sample of mtDNA by adding noise of two types: additive and subtractive. The memory showed a correct recall when we applied less or equal than 55% of both types of noise.

  3. The Complexity of Recognition in the Single-Layered PLN Network with Feedback Connections

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1993-01-01

    Regarding a single-layered PLN network with feedback connections as an associative memory network,the complexity of recognitions is discussed.We have the main result:if the size of the network N is m,then the complexity of recognition is an exponential function of m.The necessary condition under which the complexity of recognition is polynomial is given.

  4. Influence of Gaze Direction on Face Recognition: A Sensitive Effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noémy Daury

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available This study was aimed at determining the conditions in which eye-contact may improve recognition memory for faces. Different stimuli and procedures were tested in four experiments. The effect of gaze direction on memory was found when a simple “yes-no” recognition task was used but not when the recognition task was more complex (e.g., including “Remember-Know” judgements, cf. Experiment 2, or confidence ratings, cf. Experiment 4. Moreover, even when a “yes-no” recognition paradigm was used, the effect occurred with one series of stimuli (cf. Experiment 1 but not with another one (cf. Experiment 3. The difficulty to produce the positive effect of gaze direction on memory is discussed.

  5. Parallel computing-based sclera recognition for human identification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yong; Du, Eliza Y.; Zhou, Zhi

    2012-06-01

    Compared to iris recognition, sclera recognition which uses line descriptor can achieve comparable recognition accuracy in visible wavelengths. However, this method is too time-consuming to be implemented in a real-time system. In this paper, we propose a GPU-based parallel computing approach to reduce the sclera recognition time. We define a new descriptor in which the information of KD tree structure and sclera edge are added. Registration and matching task is divided into subtasks in various sizes according to their computation complexities. Every affine transform parameters are generated by searching on KD tree. Texture memory, constant memory, and shared memory are used to store templates and transform matrixes. The experiment results show that the proposed method executed on GPU can dramatically improve the sclera matching speed in hundreds of times without accuracy decreasing.

  6. Confidence in Forced-Choice Recognition: What Underlies the Ratings?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zawadzka, Katarzyna; Higham, Philip A; Hanczakowski, Maciej

    2016-09-29

    Two-alternative forced-choice recognition tests are commonly used to assess recognition accuracy that is uncontaminated by changes in bias. In such tests, participants are asked to endorse the studied item out of 2 presented alternatives. Participants may be further asked to provide confidence judgments for their recognition decisions. It is often assumed that both recognition decisions and confidence judgments in 2-alternative forced-choice recognition tests depend on participants' assessments of a difference in strength of memory evidence supporting the 2 alternatives-the relative account. In the present study we focus on the basis of confidence judgments and we assess the relative account of confidence against the absolute account of confidence, by which in assigning confidence participants consider only strength of memory evidence supporting the chosen alternative. The results of the study show that confidence in 2-alternative forced-choice recognition decisions is higher when memory evidence is stronger for the chosen alternative and also when memory evidence is stronger for the unchosen alternative. These patterns of results are consistent with the absolute account of confidence in 2-alternative forced-choice recognition but they are inconsistent with the relative account. (PsycINFO Database Record

  7. Episodic memory, perceptual memory, and their interaction: foundations for a theory of posttraumatic stress disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewin, Chris R

    2014-01-01

    A number of autobiographical memory theories and clinical theories of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) make claims that are different from standard views of memory and have been the subject of controversy. These claims include the existence of a long-term perceptual memory system supporting conscious experience separate to episodic memory; greater involvement of perceptual memory in the response to emotion-laden and personally meaningful events; increased perceptual memory intrusions accompanied by impaired episodic memory for the traumatic event among PTSD patients; and a lack of association, or inverse association, between indices of voluntary recall and involuntary images relating to the same traumatic materials. In this article I review current research on perceptual memory, which supports the presence of long-term representations that are selective or incomplete reflections of sensory input. The functional independence of perceptual and episodic memory is illustrated by research on verbal overshadowing but is most clearly exemplified by the strong evidence in favor of enhanced perceptual memory and impaired episodic memory in PTSD. Theoretical predictions concerning the relation between perceptual priming and the development of intrusive images, the effect of verbal versus visuospatial secondary tasks on intrusive trauma images, and the independence of voluntary and involuntary memory for the same materials have garnered widespread support. Reasons for the continuing controversy over traumatic memory are discussed, and some implications of the review for general theories of recall and recognition, clinical theories of PTSD, and "special mechanism" views of memory are set out.

  8. Memory protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denning, Peter J.

    1988-01-01

    Accidental overwriting of files or of memory regions belonging to other programs, browsing of personal files by superusers, Trojan horses, and viruses are examples of breakdowns in workstations and personal computers that would be significantly reduced by memory protection. Memory protection is the capability of an operating system and supporting hardware to delimit segments of memory, to control whether segments can be read from or written into, and to confine accesses of a program to its segments alone. The absence of memory protection in many operating systems today is the result of a bias toward a narrow definition of performance as maximum instruction-execution rate. A broader definition, including the time to get the job done, makes clear that cost of recovery from memory interference errors reduces expected performance. The mechanisms of memory protection are well understood, powerful, efficient, and elegant. They add to performance in the broad sense without reducing instruction execution rate.

  9. Memory in autistic spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boucher, Jill; Mayes, Andrew; Bigham, Sally

    2012-05-01

    Behavioral evidence concerning memory in forms of high-functioning autism (HFA) and in moderately low-functioning autism (M-LFA) is reviewed and compared. Findings on M-LFA are sparse. However, it is provisionally concluded that memory profiles in HFA and M-LFA (relative to ability-matched controls) are similar but that declarative memory impairments are more extensive in M-LFA than in HFA. Specifically, both groups have diminished memory for emotion- or person-related stimuli. Regarding memory for nonsocial stimuli, both groups probably have mental-age-appropriate nondeclarative memory, and within declarative memory, both groups have mental-age-appropriate immediate free recall of within-span or supraspan lists of unrelated items, as well as cued recall and paired associate learning. By contrast, recognition is largely unimpaired in HFA but moderately impaired in M-LFA, and free recall of meaningful or structured stimuli is moderately impaired in HFA but more severely impaired in M-LFA. Theoretical explanations of data on declarative memory in HFA identify problems in the integrative processing, or the consolidation and storage, of complex stimuli or a specific problem of recollection. Proposed neural substrates include the following: disconnectivity of primary sensory and association areas; dysfunctions of medial prefrontal cortex, hippocampus, or posterior parietal lobe; or combinations of these associated with neural disconnectivity. Hypothetically, perirhinal dysfunction might explain the more extensive declarative memory impairments in M-LFA. Foreseeable consequences of uneven memory abilities in HFA and M-LFA are outlined, including possible effects on language and learning in M-LFA. Finally, priorities for future research are identified, highlighting the urgent need for research on memory in lower functioning individuals.

  10. Mobile Visual Recognition on Smartphones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenwen Gui

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the recognition of large-scale outdoor scenes on smartphones by fusing outputs of inertial sensors and computer vision techniques. The main contributions can be summarized as follows. Firstly, we propose an ORD (overlap region divide method to plot image position area, which is fast enough to find the nearest visiting area and can also reduce the search range compared with the traditional approaches. Secondly, the vocabulary tree-based approach is improved by introducing GAGCC (gravity-aligned geometric consistency constraint. Our method involves no operation in the high-dimensional feature space and does not assume a global transform between a pair of images. Thus, it substantially reduces the computational complexity and memory usage, which makes the city scale image recognition feasible on the smartphone. Experiments on a collected database including 0.16 million images show that the proposed method demonstrates excellent recognition performance, while maintaining the average recognition time about 1 s.

  11. Ameliorative Effect of Ginsenoside Rg1 on Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Cognitive Impairment: Role of Cholinergic System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Yang; Peng, Jian; Wang, Xiaona; Zhang, Dong; Wang, Tianyin

    2017-01-11

    Bacterial endotoxin lipopolysaccharide (LPS) can induce systemic inflammation, and therefore disrupt learning and memory processes. Ginsenoside Rg1, a major bioactive component of ginseng, is shown to greatly improve cognitive function. The present study was designed to further investigate whether administration of ginsenoside Rg1 can ameliorate LPS-induced cognitive impairment in the Y-maze and Morris water maze (MWM) task, and to explore the underlying mechanisms. Results showed that exposure to LPS (500 μg/kg) significantly impaired working and spatial memory and that repeated treatment with ginsenoside Rg1 (200 mg/kg/day, for 30 days) could effectively alleviate the LPS-induced cognitive decline as indicated by increased working and spatial memory in the Y-maze and MWM tests. Furthermore, ginsenoside Rg1 treatment prevented LPS-induced decrease of acetylcholine (ACh) levels and increase of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity. Ginsenoside Rg1 treatment also reverted the decrease of alpha7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (α7 nAChR) protein expression in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and hippocampus of LPS-treated rats. These findings suggest that ginsenoside Rg1 has protective effect against LPS-induced cognitive deficit and that prevention of LPS-induced changes in cholinergic system is crucial to this ameliorating effect.

  12. 27 CFR 24.178 - Amelioration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Amelioration. 24.178 Section 24.178 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT... is calculated as tartaric acid for grapes, malic acid for apples, and citric acid for other...

  13. Face and body recognition show similar improvement during childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bank, Samantha; Rhodes, Gillian; Read, Ainsley; Jeffery, Linda

    2015-09-01

    Adults are proficient in extracting identity cues from faces. This proficiency develops slowly during childhood, with performance not reaching adult levels until adolescence. Bodies are similar to faces in that they convey identity cues and rely on specialized perceptual mechanisms. However, it is currently unclear whether body recognition mirrors the slow development of face recognition during childhood. Recent evidence suggests that body recognition develops faster than face recognition. Here we measured body and face recognition in 6- and 10-year-old children and adults to determine whether these two skills show different amounts of improvement during childhood. We found no evidence that they do. Face and body recognition showed similar improvement with age, and children, like adults, were better at recognizing faces than bodies. These results suggest that the mechanisms of face and body memory mature at a similar rate or that improvement of more general cognitive and perceptual skills underlies improvement of both face and body recognition.

  14. Parallel Architecture for Face Recognition using MPI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalia Shouman Ibrahim

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The face recognition applications are widely used in different fields like security and computer vision. The recognition process should be done in real time to take fast decisions. Princi-ple Component Analysis (PCA considered as feature extraction technique and is widely used in facial recognition applications by projecting images in new face space. PCA can reduce the dimensionality of the image. However, PCA consumes a lot of processing time due to its high intensive computation nature. Hence, this paper proposes two different parallel architectures to accelerate training and testing phases of PCA algorithm by exploiting the benefits of distributed memory architecture. The experimental results show that the proposed architectures achieve linear speed-up and system scalability on different data sizes from the Facial Recognition Technology (FERET database.

  15. Working memory predicts the rejection of false memories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leding, Juliana K

    2012-01-01

    The relationship between working memory capacity (WMC) and false memories in the memory conjunction paradigm was explored. Previous research using other paradigms has shown that individuals high in WMC are not as likely to experience false memories as low-WMC individuals, the explanation being that high-WMC individuals are better able to engage in source monitoring. In the memory conjunction paradigm participants are presented at study with parent words (e.g., eyeglasses, whiplash). At test, in addition to being presented with targets and foils, participants are presented with lures that are composed of previously studied features (e.g., eyelash). It was found that high-WMC individuals had lower levels of false recognition than low-WMC individuals. Furthermore, recall-to-reject responses were analysed (e.g., "I know I didn't see eyelash because I remember seeing eyeglasses") and it was found that high-WMC individuals were more likely to utilise this memory editing strategy, providing direct evidence that one reason that high-WMC individuals are not as prone to false memories is because they are better able to engage in source monitoring.

  16. Recognition criteria vary with fluctuating uncertainty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, Joshua A; Cavanagh, Patrick; Gorea, Andrei

    2012-08-06

    In distinct experiments we examined memories for orientation and size. After viewing a randomly oriented Gabor patch (or a plain white disk of random size), observers were given unlimited time to reproduce as faithfully as possible the orientation (or size) of that standard stimulus with an adjustable Gabor patch (or disk). Then, with this match stimulus still in view, a recognition probe was presented. On half the trials, this probe was identical to the standard. We expected observers to classify the probe (a same/different task) on the basis of its difference from the match, which should have served as an explicit memory of the standard. Observers did better than that. Larger differences were classified as "same" when probe and standard were indeed identical. In some cases, recognition performance exceeded that of a simulated observer subject to the same matching errors, but forced to adopt the single most advantageous criterion difference between the probe and match. Recognition must have used information that was not or could not be exploited in the reproduction phase. One possible source for that information is observers' confidence in their reproduction (e.g., in their memory of the standard). Simulations confirm the enhancement of recognition performance when decision criteria are adjusted trial-by-trial, on the basis of the observer's estimated reproduction error.

  17. Memory design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tanderup, Sisse

    Mind and Matter - Nordik 2009 Conference for Art Historians Design Matters Contributed Memory design BACKGROUND My research concerns the use of memory categories in the designs by the companies Alessi and Georg Jensen. When Alessi's designers create their products, they are usually inspired...... by cultural forms, often specifically by the concept of memory in philosophy, sociology and psychology, while Danish design traditionally has been focusing on form and function with frequent references to the forms of nature. Alessi's motivation for investigating the concept of memory is that it adds...... a cultural dimension to the design objects, enabling the objects to make an identity-forming impact. Whether or not the concept of memory plays a significant role in Danish design has not yet been elucidated fully. TERMINOLOGY The concept of "memory design" refers to the idea that design carries...

  18. Disputed Memory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The world wars, genocides and extremist ideologies of the 20th century are remembered very differently across Central, Eastern and Southeastern Europe, resulting sometimes in fierce memory disputes. This book investigates the complexity and contention of the layers of memory of the troubled 20th...... century in the region. Written by an international group of scholars from a diversity of disciplines, the chapters approach memory disputes in methodologically innovative ways, studying representations and negotiations of disputed pasts in different media, including monuments, museum exhibitions......, individual and political discourse and electronic social media. Analyzing memory disputes in various local, national and transnational contexts, the chapters demonstrate the political power and social impact of painful and disputed memories. The book brings new insights into current memory disputes...

  19. Main Memory

    OpenAIRE

    Boncz, Peter; Liu, Lei; Özsu, Tamer, M.

    2008-01-01

    Primary storage, presently known as main memory, is the largest memory directly accessible to the CPU in the prevalent Von Neumann model and stores both data and instructions (program code). The CPU continuously reads instructions stored there and executes them. It is also called Random Access Memory (RAM), to indicate that load/store instructions can access data at any location at the same cost, is usually implemented using DRAM chips, which are connected to the CPU and other peripherals (di...

  20. The Novel 7 Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor Agonist N-[(3R)-1-Azabicyclo[2.2.2]oct-3-yl]-7-[2-(methoxy)phenyl]-1-benzofuran-2-carboxamide Improves Working and Recognition Memory in Rodents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boess, F.G.; Vry, de J.; Erb, C.; Flessner, T.; Luithle, J.; Methfessel, C.; Schnizler, K.; Staay, van der F.J.; Kampen, van M.; Wiese, W.B.; Hendrix, M.; König, G.

    2007-01-01

    The relative contribution of alpha 4 beta 2, alpha 7 and other nicotinic acetylcholine receptor ( nAChR) subtypes to the memory enhancing versus the addictive effects of nicotine is the subject of ongoing debate. In the present study, we characterized the pharmacological and behavioral properties of

  1. Sensitivity of negative subsequent memory and task-negative effects to age and associative memory performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Chastelaine, Marianne; Mattson, Julia T; Wang, Tracy H; Donley, Brian E; Rugg, Michael D

    2015-07-01

    The present fMRI experiment employed associative recognition to investigate the relationships between age and encoding-related negative subsequent memory effects and task-negative effects. Young, middle-aged and older adults (total n=136) were scanned while they made relational judgments on visually presented word pairs. In a later memory test, the participants made associative recognition judgments on studied, rearranged (items studied on different trials) and new pairs. Several regions, mostly localized to the default mode network, demonstrated negative subsequent memory effects in an across age-group analysis. All but one of these regions also demonstrated task-negative effects, although there was no correlation between the size of the respective effects. Whereas negative subsequent memory effects demonstrated a graded attenuation with age, task-negative effects declined markedly between the young and the middle-aged group, but showed no further reduction in the older group. Negative subsequent memory effects did not correlate with memory performance within any age group. By contrast, in the older group only, task-negative effects predicted later memory performance. The findings demonstrate that negative subsequent memory and task-negative effects depend on dissociable neural mechanisms and likely reflect distinct cognitive processes. The relationship between task-negative effects and memory performance in the older group might reflect the sensitivity of these effects to variations in amount of age-related neuropathology. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled SI: Memory.

  2. Catching the engram: strategies to examine the memory trace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sakaguchi Masanori

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Memories are stored within neuronal ensembles in the brain. Modern genetic techniques can be used to not only visualize specific neuronal ensembles that encode memories (e.g., fear, craving but also to selectively manipulate those neurons. These techniques are now being expanded for the study of various types of memory. In this review, we will summarize the genetic methods used to visualize and manipulate neurons involved in the representation of memory engrams. The methods will help clarify how memory is encoded, stored and processed in the brain. Furthermore, these approaches may contribute to our understanding of the pathological mechanisms associated with human memory disorders and, ultimately, may aid the development of therapeutic strategies to ameliorate these diseases.

  3. Assessment of Alzheimer's disease symptom recognition in Korean Americans and psychometric analysis of Alzheimer's Disease Symptom Recognition Scale (ADSRS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sang E; Casado, Banghwa Lee

    2015-01-01

    This study examined recognition of Alzheimer's disease symptoms among Korean Americans (KAs) and assessed psychometric properties of the Alzheimer's Disease Symptom Recognition Scale (ADSRS). A cross-sectional survey collected data from 209 KAs, using a self-administered questionnaire. Results show that KAs recognized symptoms related to memory and cognitive functioning well, but had very limited recognition of neuropsychiatric symptoms. Psychometric analysis of ADSRS identified 4 factors in their symptom recognition. Findings suggest a need to raise awareness of Alzheimer's symptoms over the course of the disease. Assessment using ADSRS can be incorporated in communication in the practice context and public outreach.

  4. Molecular programming of B cell memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McHeyzer-Williams, Michael; Okitsu, Shinji; Wang, Nathaniel; McHeyzer-Williams, Louise

    2011-12-09

    The development of high-affinity B cell memory is regulated through three separable phases, each involving antigen recognition by specific B cells and cognate T helper cells. Initially, antigen-primed B cells require cognate T cell help to gain entry into the germinal centre pathway to memory. Once in the germinal centre, B cells with variant B cell receptors must access antigens and present them to germinal centre T helper cells to enter long-lived memory B cell compartments. Following antigen recall, memory B cells require T cell help to proliferate and differentiate into plasma cells. A recent surge of information - resulting from dynamic B cell imaging in vivo and the elucidation of T follicular helper cell programmes - has reshaped the conceptual landscape surrounding the generation of memory B cells. In this Review, we integrate this new information about each phase of antigen-specific B cell development to describe the newly unravelled molecular dynamics of memory B cell programming.

  5. Contribution of auditory working memory to speech understanding in mandarin-speaking cochlear implant users.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duoduo Tao

    Full Text Available To investigate how auditory working memory relates to speech perception performance by Mandarin-speaking cochlear implant (CI users.Auditory working memory and speech perception was measured in Mandarin-speaking CI and normal-hearing (NH participants. Working memory capacity was measured using forward digit span and backward digit span; working memory efficiency was measured using articulation rate. Speech perception was assessed with: (a word-in-sentence recognition in quiet, (b word-in-sentence recognition in speech-shaped steady noise at +5 dB signal-to-noise ratio, (c Chinese disyllable recognition in quiet, (d Chinese lexical tone recognition in quiet. Self-reported school rank was also collected regarding performance in schoolwork.There was large inter-subject variability in auditory working memory and speech performance for CI participants. Working memory and speech performance were significantly poorer for CI than for NH participants. All three working memory measures were strongly correlated with each other for both CI and NH participants. Partial correlation analyses were performed on the CI data while controlling for demographic variables. Working memory efficiency was significantly correlated only with sentence recognition in quiet when working memory capacity was partialled out. Working memory capacity was correlated with disyllable recognition and school rank when efficiency was partialled out. There was no correlation between working memory and lexical tone recognition in the present CI participants.Mandarin-speaking CI users experience significant deficits in auditory working memory and speech performance compared with NH listeners. The present data suggest that auditory working memory may contribute to CI users' difficulties in speech understanding. The present pattern of results with Mandarin-speaking CI users is consistent with previous auditory working memory studies with English-speaking CI users, suggesting that the lexical

  6. Recognition of Telugu characters using neural networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukhaswami, M B; Seetharamulu, P; Pujari, A K

    1995-09-01

    The aim of the present work is to recognize printed and handwritten Telugu characters using artificial neural networks (ANNs). Earlier work on recognition of Telugu characters has been done using conventional pattern recognition techniques. We make an initial attempt here of using neural networks for recognition with the aim of improving upon earlier methods which do not perform effectively in the presence of noise and distortion in the characters. The Hopfield model of neural network working as an associative memory is chosen for recognition purposes initially. Due to limitation in the capacity of the Hopfield neural network, we propose a new scheme named here as the Multiple Neural Network Associative Memory (MNNAM). The limitation in storage capacity has been overcome by combining multiple neural networks which work in parallel. It is also demonstrated that the Hopfield network is suitable for recognizing noisy printed characters as well as handwritten characters written by different "hands" in a variety of styles. Detailed experiments have been carried out using several learning strategies and results are reported. It is shown here that satisfactory recognition is possible using the proposed strategy. A detailed preprocessing scheme of the Telugu characters from digitized documents is also described.

  7. Subjective Memory Ability and Long-Term Forgetting in Patients Referred for Neuropsychological Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Werf, Sieberen P; Geurts, Sofie; de Werd, Maartje M E

    2016-01-01

    It has been suggested that the memory complaints of patients who are not impaired on formal memory tests may reflect accelerated forgetting. We examined this