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Sample records for ameixeira prunus salicina

  1. Efeito do ácido indolbutírico no enraizamento de estacas de ramos de plantas de ameixeira (Prunus salicina, Lindl. Effect of indolbutyric acid on the rooting of plum branch cuttings (Prunus sofrena, Lindl.

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    E. Kersten

    1993-05-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho foi realizado com o objetivo de avaliar o efeito de quatro concentrações de ácido indolbutírico (IBA, no enraizamento de estacas de ramos de ameixeira (Prunus salicina, Lindl., coletadas de plantas tratadas com bórax e sulfato de zinco e controle, executado em quatro épocas. Os experimentos foram conduzidos em viveiros, sob condição de nebulização artificial intermitente. Os resultados obtidos mostram a influência de cultivar, época e concentração de IBA, não sendo verificado efeito de bórax ou sulfato de zinco na percentagem de estacas enraizadas.The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of four concentrations of indolbutyric acid on the rooting of plum branch cuttings (Prunus salicina, Lindl. collected from plants treated with borax and zinc sulfate, in four periods. The experiments were conducted in a nursery with intermitent artificial mist conditions. The results showed a positive effect of cultivars, periods and IBA concentrations, and there was no effect of either borax or zinc sulfate on rooting of branch cuttings.

  2. Enraizamento de ameixeira (Prunus salicina, Lindl. em diferentes épocas de coleta das estacas Rooting of stem cuttings of plum (Prunus salicina, Lindl. in different times

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    Elio Kersten

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de verificar a melhor época de coleta das estacas para o enraizamento de ameixeira, cultivares Reubennel e Frontier, foram conduzidos experimentos em Pelotas - RS. As estacas foram retiradas de ramos do ano de 6 anos de idade, em três épocas diferentes (novembro de 1992, janeiro e março 1993. Foram utilizados tubetes plásticos, com substrato de cinza de casca de arroz e mantidos em nebulização intermitente. Pelos resultados observou-se que, para a cultivar Reubennel, a época de coleta das estacas não influenciou o percentual de enraizamento, que foi baixo em todas as épocas, porém, para a cultivar Frontier, a época que proporcionou o maior enraizamento foi novembro (94,9%, seguida de março e janeiro (34,8 e 25,8%, respectivamente.The objective of the present work was to verify the best time for cropping stem cuttings of plum for rooting. The experiment was conducted in Pelotas, RS with two cultivars: Reubennel and Frontier. The stem cuttings were taken from the season growth of six years old stem base in three different times: November of 1992, January and March of 1993. Cuttings from the other times were rooting in plastic tubets using rice hulls ash as substrato and kept under intermitent misting. The results showed no cropping time influence in the percentual rooting of Reubennel cultivar, which was low in each determination. However, the cultivar Frontier presented a greater percentual of rooting in November (94.9%, followed in March (34.8% and in January (25,8%.

  3. Efeito do substrato e da época de coleta dos ramos no enraizamento de estacas de ameixeira (Prunus salicina Lindl. Effect of substrate and time of cutting collection on rooting of cuttings of plum (Prunus salicina Lindl.

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    Leonardo Ferreira Dutra

    1996-12-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho foi realizado em casa de vegetação do Departamento de Fitotecnia da Faculdade de Agronomia Eliseu Maciel, Universidade Federal de Pelotas, com o objetivo de verificar o efeito de diversos substratos no enraizamento de estacas de ameixeira em diferentes épocas de coleta dos ramos. Foram utilizadas estacas medianas da cultivar Frontier, com comprimento de 15cm e um par de folhas, coletadas nos meses de novembro de 1993, janeiro e março de 1994, obtidas em um pomar comercial com 8 anos de idade. Todas as estacas utilizadas foram tratadas com ácido indolbutirico na concentração de 3000ppm, introduziu-se em torno delem da base das estacas em ácido indolbutirico, na forma de pó e colocou-se em tubetes, acondicionados em bandejas de isopor, contendo diferentes substratos: areia média lavada; vermiculila de grânulos médios; cinza de casca de arroz e serragem de eucalipto, utilizados isolados e em misturas (1: 1v/v. O período de permanência das estacas na casa de vegetação foi de 60 dias. Observou-se maiores índices de enraizamento na coleta dos ramos realizadas em janeiro e março, e que o substrato areia + serragem proporcionou os maiores percentuais de estacas enraizadas com 68,22% e 65,99% nos meses de janeiro e março.This work was carried out in a greenhouse with intermittent mist out at the plant Science Department, Eliseu Maciel Agronomy College of Federal University of Pelotas (Brazil, aiming to evaluate the effect of different substratos and time of cutting on rooting of pium cuttings. Mild cuttings with 15cm length andapair of ieaves of Frontier cultivar were coilected from a commercial orchard eight years old in November 1993, January and March 1994. All cuttings were treated with indolbutiric acid (IBA at 3000ppm concentration introducing about 1.0cm of their basal end in IBA powder and placed in tubes on isopor trays containing different substratos: washed mild sand: vermiculite of medium grains; rice husk ash

  4. De novo transcriptome assembly of two different Prunus salicina cultivars

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    Yeonhwa Jo

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Plum is a globally grown stone fruit and can be divided into several species. In particular, the Prunus salicina, which is native to China, is widely grown in many fruit orchards in Korea and Japan, as well as the United States and Australia. The transcriptome data for Prunus salicina has not been reported to our knowledge. In this study, we performed de novo transcriptome assembly for two selected P. salicina cultivars referred to as Akihime and Formosa (commercially important plum cultivars in Korea using next generation sequencing. We obtained a total of 9.04 GB and 8.68 GB raw data from Akihime and Formosa, respectively. De novo transcriptome assembly using Trinity revealed 155,169 and 160,186 transcripts for Akihime and Formosa. Next, we identified 121,278 and 116,544 proteins from Akihime and Formosa using TransDecoder. We performed BLASTP against the NCBI non-redundant (nr dataset to annotate proteins. Taken together, this is the first transcriptome data for P. salicina to our knowledge.

  5. A Systematic Review on the Health Effects of Plums (Prunus domestica and Prunus salicina).

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    Igwe, Ezinne O; Charlton, Karen E

    2016-05-01

    In recent times, plums have been described as foods with health-promoting properties. Research on the health effects of plum continue to show promising results on its antiinflammatory, antioxidant and memory-improving characteristics. The increased interest in plum research has been attributed to its high phenolic content, mostly the anthocyanins, which are known to be natural antioxidants. A systematic review of literature was carried out to summarize the available evidence on the impact of plums (Prunus species; domestica and salicina) on disease risk factors and health outcomes. A number of databases were searched according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines for relevant studies on plum health effects in vitro, animal studies and clinical trials. A total of 73 relevant peer-reviewed journal articles were included in this review. The level of evidence remains low. Of the 25 human studies, 6 were confirmatory studies of moderate quality, while 19 were exploratory. Plums have been shown to possess antioxidant and antiallergic properties, and consumption is associated with improved cognitive function, bone health parameters and cardiovascular risk factors. Most of the human trials used the dried version of plums rather than fresh fruit, thus limiting translation to dietary messages of the positioning of plums in a healthy diet. Evidence on the health effect of plums has not been extensively studied, and the available evidence needs further confirmation. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26992121

  6. Influences of Cross Pollination on Pollen Tube Growth and Fruit Set in Zuili Plums (Prunus salicina)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hui-Juan Jia; Feng-Jie He; Cai-Zhen Xiong; Fu-Rong Zhu; Goro Okamoto

    2008-01-01

    Zuill plum (Prunus salicina L.) trees usually set fruit poorly, although they produce high quality fruit. To elucidate the causes of the poor fruit set, pollen tube growth Into pistils and fruit set percentage were investigated after cross-, self- and open-pollination. Ovule development in Zuili pistils was also investigated. Pollen tube penetration into the ovules via the obturator and micropyle was best when Zuili pistils were pollinated by cv. Black Amber (P. domestica) pollen grains, although cross-pollinations with Hongxinli and Miili (P. salicina) pollen were more effective than self- and open-pollination. The fruit set percentage was also highest In pistils pollinated with Black Amber pollen grains. Morphological observation of Zuili pistils revealed that the trees produce "double pistils", developing two ovaries from a basal pistil, at a rate as high as 28%. In such abnormal pistils, most ovules were lacking an embryo sac or were entirely degenerated. The percentage of normally developed ovules was 24.3% and 8.9% in normal and double pistils, respectively. From these results, we conclude that the main causes of poor fruit set of Zuili plums are a lack of effective cross-pollination and the production of high percentages of double pistils in which normally developed ovules are scarcely formed.

  7. Identification of volatile compounds in thinning discards from plum trees (Prunus salicina Lindl. cultivar Harry Pickstone

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    Rossana Podestá

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Plum (Prunus salicina Lindl. cv. Harry Pickstone, a China indigenous fruit, is widely produced and consumed in countries such as Japan and Brazil. The practice of thinning is common in horticulture and the fruits removed are discarded as waste. Like the great majority of vegetables, these thinning discards also contain essential oils which have not been investigated until the present time. The extraction of the plum thinning discards volatile oil, through the hydrodistillation method, produced a yield of 0.06% (m/m and a total of 21 components were identified, with 11 of them being responsible for 72,9% of the total oil composition. The major compounds determined through GC and GC-MS were Z-α-bisabolene (13.7%, n-hexadecanoic acid (12.7%, phytol (12.7%, and β-caryophyllene (10.4%.

  8. De novo transcriptome assembly of 'Angeleno' and 'Lamoon' Japanese plum cultivars (Prunus salicina).

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    González, Máximo; Maldonado, Jonathan; Salazar, Erika; Silva, Herman; Carrasco, Basilio

    2016-09-01

    Japanese plum (Prunus salicina L.) is a fruit tree of the Rosaceae family, which is an economically important stone fruit around the world. Currently, Japanese plum breeding programs combine traditional breeding and plant physiology strategies with genetic and genomic analysis. In order to understand the flavonoid pathway regulation and to develop molecular markers associated to the fuit skin color (EST-SSRs), we performed a next generation sequencing based on Illumina Hiseq2000 platform. A total of 22.4 GB and 21 GB raw data were obtained from 'Lamoon' and 'Angeleno' respectively, corresponding to 85,404,726 raw reads to 'Lamoon' and 79,781,666 to 'Angeleno'. A total of 139,775,975 reads were filtered after removing low-quality reads and trimming the adapter sequences. De novo transcriptome assembly was performed using CLC Genome Workbench software and a total of 54,584 unique contigs were generated, with an N50 of 1343 base pair (bp) and a mean length of 829 bp. This work contributed with a specific Japanese plum skin transcriptome, providing two libraries of contrasting fruit skin color phenotype (yellow and red) and increasing substantially the GB of raw data available until now for this specie.

  9. De novo transcriptome assembly of 'Angeleno' and 'Lamoon' Japanese plum cultivars (Prunus salicina).

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    González, Máximo; Maldonado, Jonathan; Salazar, Erika; Silva, Herman; Carrasco, Basilio

    2016-09-01

    Japanese plum (Prunus salicina L.) is a fruit tree of the Rosaceae family, which is an economically important stone fruit around the world. Currently, Japanese plum breeding programs combine traditional breeding and plant physiology strategies with genetic and genomic analysis. In order to understand the flavonoid pathway regulation and to develop molecular markers associated to the fuit skin color (EST-SSRs), we performed a next generation sequencing based on Illumina Hiseq2000 platform. A total of 22.4 GB and 21 GB raw data were obtained from 'Lamoon' and 'Angeleno' respectively, corresponding to 85,404,726 raw reads to 'Lamoon' and 79,781,666 to 'Angeleno'. A total of 139,775,975 reads were filtered after removing low-quality reads and trimming the adapter sequences. De novo transcriptome assembly was performed using CLC Genome Workbench software and a total of 54,584 unique contigs were generated, with an N50 of 1343 base pair (bp) and a mean length of 829 bp. This work contributed with a specific Japanese plum skin transcriptome, providing two libraries of contrasting fruit skin color phenotype (yellow and red) and increasing substantially the GB of raw data available until now for this specie. PMID:27408806

  10. Micropropagation of Chinese Plum (Prunus salicina Lindl. Using Mature Stem Segments

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    Ying-Ning ZOU

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available An effective in vitro culture system for mature stem segments of Chinese plum (Prunus salicina Lindl. cv. �Gulf-ruby� was established. The nodal segments of 1 cm were cut from young shoots in open field, sterilized and established in vitro. The successfully induced culture was achieved on woody plant medium (WPM supplemented with 0.05-0.1 mg/l IBA, 0.5-1.0 mg/l BA, 30 g/l glucose, 5 g/l agar and 1.0 g/l Vc. The successful shoot multiplication was achieved on WPM with 0.05-0.1 mg/l IBA, 0.2 mg/l BA, 0.3 mg/l KT and 1.0 g/l casein hydrolysate. Elongation of the shoot in vitro was facilitated on WPM with 0.05 mg/l IBA, 0.3 mg/l KT/BA and 1.0 g/l casein hydrolysate. The shoots from microcuttings were rooted in 1/2 MS (half strength MS supplemented with 0.2-0.5 mg/l IBA, 15 g/l sucrose and 20-40 mg/l phloroglucinol (PG. Regenerated shoots successfully acclimatized to greenhouse conditions and grew vigorously with no apparent phenotypic aberrations.

  11. Incidência e severidade do "furo de bala" em folhas da ameixeira sob doses de nitrogênio e potássio Incidence and severity of 'shot hole' in plum´s leaves related into nitrogen and potassium doses

    OpenAIRE

    Inês Tutida; Louise Larissa May-De Mio; Antonio Carlos Vargas Motta; Joel Maurício Corrêa da Rosa

    2007-01-01

    A produção integrada (PI) vem suprir uma demanda crescente de frutos de qualidade, garantir segurança alimentar, produção com qualidade ambiental e rastreabilidade. Na visão da PI, as práticas da adubação e do controle de doenças estão intimamente relacionadas; no entanto, tem sido negligenciadas e pouco estudadas, principalmente para a doença "furo de bala" (Wilsonomyces carpophilus) em folhas de ameixeira (Prunus salicina). O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a incidência e severidade des...

  12. 空心李组织培养条件研究%Research on Tissue Culture of Prunus salicina

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    陈卫雪; 石开明; 李闯; 周梦莹; 杨秋玲; 池政松

    2014-01-01

    [目的]探索空心李实生苗高效再生系统的培养基类型和培养基配方。[方法]以沿河沙子、香蜜空心、红心道、东门3号4个品种的空心李为试验材料,研究空心李组织培养过程中的一些关键技术措施。以4种李成年嫁接树梢尖、带芽茎段为外植体,研究空心李嫁接树营养器官组织培养的主要调控因素及控制外植体微生物污染的措施,建立完整、高效、实用的空心李组织培养快速繁殖体系。[结果]研究结果表明,春季生长的植物体内存在大量生长素、细胞分裂素和赤霉素等生长调节物质,因而组织培养时成活率高、生长快;不同条件的培养结果不同,空心李种子发苗的最佳方案是成熟种子在半固体1/2MS萌发后,转至固体MS上培养;不同外植体的培养结果是带腋芽的茎段繁殖系数大于茎尖,差异达到显著水平;在激素配比中,细胞分裂素6-BA与生长素NAA浓度配比适当时有利于丛生芽的诱导和分化。[结论]最适合空心李幼穗的6-BA浓度为0.5 mg/L,而健壮梢则为1.0 mg/L;NAA浓度以1.0 mg/L为好。%The aim was to establish a optimal medium type system, optimum medium for efficient regeneration of Prunus salicina seedlings . [Method]Taking mature embryos of Yanhe plum, Xiangmikongxin plum, Honxindao plum and Dongmen3 plum as materials ,the key technical measures of tissue culture of Prunus salicina were researched. Moreover, according to four grapefruit trees grafted tip and stems with buds as explants, the main regulatory factors of vegetative organs and tissue culture explants and the measures to control microbial contamination were studied. In following that, a complete practical and efficient grapefruit rapid propagation technology system was established. [Result]The results showed that there were a lot of auxin, cytokinins and gibberellins and other growth regulators, and thus tissue culture high survival rate

  13. ENRAIZAMENTO DE ESTACAS LENHOSAS DE CULTIVARES DE AMEIXEIRA (Prunus spp., EM CONDIÇÕES DE CAMPO

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    V. PASINATO

    1998-05-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho foi conduzido com o objetivo de avaliar o efeito de duas concentrações (0 e 3.000ppm do ácido indolbutírico (AIB no enraizamento de estacas de ramos de sete cultivares de ameixeira (All Producer, Ace, Sangal, Roxa de Itaquera, Frontier, Reubennel e Beauty, coletadas de plantas com 8 anos de idade. O experimento foi conduzido em Pelotas, RS, com estacas lenhosas obtidas dos ramos do último período de crescimento e instalado em condições de campo, em junho de 1994. Os resultados obtidos foram bastante variáveis entre as cultivares. Todavia, não observou-se influência estatisticamente significativa do AIB no enraizamento das estacas. Utilizando-se AIB nas cultivares Ace, Sangal e Roxa de Itaquera, obteve-se percentuais de enraizamento superiores a 60%. Para as cultivares All Producer e Frontier obteve-se o máximo de enraizamento de 25,7 e 20,2%, respectivamente. Para a cultivar Beauty os percentuais de enraizamento obtidos na ausência de AIB e com 3000ppm foram de 37,3 e 21,2%, respectivamente. Para a cv. Reubennel, embora não tenha sido verificada influência significativa do AIB, o percentual de enraizamento obtido com a concentração de 3.000ppm foi bastante superior ao obtido na ausência do mesmo, 30,1 e 6,2% de enraizamento.The present work was conducted to evaluate the effect of two concentrations (0 and 3,000ppm of indolbutyric acid (IBA on the rooting of cuttings of seven plum cultivars (All Producer, Ace, Sangal, Roxa de Itaquera, Frontier, Reubennel and Beauty, excised from 8-year plants. The experiments were performed in Pelotas, RS, Brazil, and cuttings were taken from the stems of the last growth period and taken to field begining July 1994. The results varied strongly among cultivars. There was no significant influence of IBA on the emission of roots. In the cultivars Ace, Sangal and Roxa de Itaquera, the rate of rooting was above 60% with 3,000ppm of IBA. For the cultivars All Producer and Frontier

  14. Identification of phenolic compounds in plum fruits (Prunus salicina L. and Prunus domestica L.) by high-performance liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry and characterization of varieties by quantitative phenolic fingerprints.

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    Jaiswal, Rakesh; Karaköse, Hande; Rühmann, Susanne; Goldner, Katharina; Neumüller, Michael; Treutter, Dieter; Kuhnert, Nikolai

    2013-12-11

    Plums (Prunus domestica L. and Prunus salicina L.) are edible fruits mostly consumed in America, China, and Europe. We have used LC-MS(n) to detect and characterize the phenolic compounds in plum varieties. Forty-one phenolics were detected comprising caffeoylquinic acids, feruloylquinic acid, p-coumaroylquinic acids, methyl caffeoylquinates, methyl p-coumaroylquinate, caffeoylshikimic acids, catechin, epicatechin, rutin, esculin, quercetin, quercetin-3-O-hexosides, dimeric proanthocyanidins, trimeric proanthocyanidins, caffeoyl-glucoside, feruloyl-glucoside, p-coumaroyl-glucoside, vanillic acid-glucosides, 3,4-dihydroxybenzoyl-glucoside, quercetin-3-O-pentosides, quercetin-3-O-rhamnoside, quercetin-pentoside-rhamnosides, and 3-p-methoxycinnamoylquinic acid. This is the first time when 3-p-methoxycinnamoylquinic acid is reported in nature. Chlorogenic acids and proanthocyanidins were the major phenolics present in plums. Furthermore, HPLC with DAD and chemical reaction detection was used to generate quantitative phenolic fingerprints from the fruit flesh of 33 plum varieties. The predominant compound was 3-caffeoylquinic acid in nearly all varieties studied; generally, however, the qualitative and quantitative profiles showed high diversity even among closely related progenies.

  15. Effect of management (organic vs conventional) on volatile profiles of six plum cultivars (Prunus salicina Lindl.). A chemometric approach for varietal classification and determination of potential markers.

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    Cuevas, F J; Moreno-Rojas, J M; Arroyo, F; Daza, A; Ruiz-Moreno, M J

    2016-05-15

    The volatile profiles of six plum cultivars ('Laetitia', 'Primetime', 'Sapphire', 'Showtime', 'Songold' and 'Souvenir') produced under two management systems (conventional and organic) and harvested in two consecutive years were obtained by HS-SPME-GC-MS. Twenty-five metabolites were determined, five of which (pentanal, (E)-2-heptenal, 1-octanol, eucalyptol and 2-pentylfuran) are reported for the first time in Prunus salicina Lindl. Hexanal stood out as a major volatile compound affected by the management system. In addition, partial least square discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) achieved an effective classification of genotypes based on their volatile profiles. A high classification accuracy model was obtained with a sensitivity of 97.9% and a specificity of 99.6%. Furthermore, the application of a dual criterion, based on a method of variable selection, VIP (variable importance in projection) and the results of a univariate analysis (ANOVA), allowed the identification of potential volatile markers in 'Primetime', 'Showtime' and 'Souvenir' genotypes (cultivars not characterised to date).

  16. Characterisation of Phenolic Compounds in South African Plum Fruits (Prunus salicina Lindl. using HPLC Coupled with Diode-Array, Fluorescence, Mass Spectrometry and On-Line Antioxidant Detection

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    Dalene de Beer

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Phenolic compounds are abundant secondary metabolites in plums, with potential health benefits believed to be due to their antioxidant activity, amongst others. Phenolic characterisation of South African Prunus salicina Lindl. plums is necessary to fully evaluate their potential health benefits. An HPLC method using diode-array detection (DAD for quantification of phenolic compounds was improved and fluorescence detection (FLD was added for quantification of flavan-3-ols. Validation of the HPLC-DAD-FLD method showed its suitability for quantification of 18 phenolic compounds, including flavan-3-ols using FLD, and phenolic acids, anthocyanins and flavonols using DAD. The method was suitable for characterisation of the phenolic composition of 11 South African plum cultivars and selections, including various types with yellow and red skin and flesh. The method was used in conjunction with mass spectrometry (MS to identify 24 phenolic compounds. Neochlorogenic acid and cyanidin-3-O-glucoside were the major compounds in most of the plums, while cyanidin-3-O-glucoside was absent in Sun Breeze plums with yellow skin and flesh. Post-column on-line coupling of the ABTS•+ scavenging assay with HPLC-DAD enabled qualitative evaluation of the relative contribution of individual phenolic compounds to the antioxidant activity. The flavan-3-ols, neochlorogenic acid and cyanidin-3-O-glucoside displayed the largest antioxidant response peaks.

  17. Identification of Candidate Anthocyanin-Related Genes by Transcriptomic Analysis of ‘Furongli’ Plum (Prunus salicina Lindl.) during Fruit Ripening Using RNA-Seq

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    Fang, Zhi-Zhen; Zhou, Dan-Rong; Ye, Xin-Fu; Jiang, Cui-Cui; Pan, Shao-Lin

    2016-01-01

    Anthocyanins are important pigments and are responsible for red coloration in plums. However, little is known about the molecular mechanisms underlying anthocyanin accumulation in plum fruits. In this study, the RNA-seq technique was used to analyze the transcriptomic changes during fruit ripening in the red-fleshed plum (Prunus salicina Lindl.) cultivar ‘Furongli’. Over 161 million high-quality reads were assembled into 52,093 unigenes and 49.4% of these were annotated using public databases. Of these, 25,681 unigenes had significant hits to the sequences in the NCBI Nr database, 17,203 unigenes showed significant similarity to known proteins in the Swiss-Prot database and 5816 and 8585 unigenes had significant similarity to existing sequences in the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes and the Cluster of Orthologous Groups databases, respectively. A total of 3548 unigenes were differentially expressed during fruit ripening and 119 of these were annotated as involved in “biosynthesis of other secondary metabolites.” Biological pathway analysis and gene ontology term enrichment analysis revealed that 13 differentially expressed genes are involved in anthocyanin biosynthesis. Furthermore, transcription factors such as MYB and bHLH, which may control anthocyanin biosynthesis, were identified through coexpression analysis of transcription factors, and structural genes. Real-time qPCR analysis of candidate genes showed good correlation with the transcriptome data. These results contribute to our understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying anthocyanin biosynthesis in plum flesh. The transcriptomic data generated in this study provide a basis for further studies of fruit ripening in plum. PMID:27630660

  18. Identification of Candidate Anthocyanin-Related Genes by Transcriptomic Analysis of 'Furongli' Plum (Prunus salicina Lindl.) during Fruit Ripening Using RNA-Seq.

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    Fang, Zhi-Zhen; Zhou, Dan-Rong; Ye, Xin-Fu; Jiang, Cui-Cui; Pan, Shao-Lin

    2016-01-01

    Anthocyanins are important pigments and are responsible for red coloration in plums. However, little is known about the molecular mechanisms underlying anthocyanin accumulation in plum fruits. In this study, the RNA-seq technique was used to analyze the transcriptomic changes during fruit ripening in the red-fleshed plum (Prunus salicina Lindl.) cultivar 'Furongli'. Over 161 million high-quality reads were assembled into 52,093 unigenes and 49.4% of these were annotated using public databases. Of these, 25,681 unigenes had significant hits to the sequences in the NCBI Nr database, 17,203 unigenes showed significant similarity to known proteins in the Swiss-Prot database and 5816 and 8585 unigenes had significant similarity to existing sequences in the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes and the Cluster of Orthologous Groups databases, respectively. A total of 3548 unigenes were differentially expressed during fruit ripening and 119 of these were annotated as involved in "biosynthesis of other secondary metabolites." Biological pathway analysis and gene ontology term enrichment analysis revealed that 13 differentially expressed genes are involved in anthocyanin biosynthesis. Furthermore, transcription factors such as MYB and bHLH, which may control anthocyanin biosynthesis, were identified through coexpression analysis of transcription factors, and structural genes. Real-time qPCR analysis of candidate genes showed good correlation with the transcriptome data. These results contribute to our understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying anthocyanin biosynthesis in plum flesh. The transcriptomic data generated in this study provide a basis for further studies of fruit ripening in plum. PMID:27630660

  19. Identification of Candidate Anthocyanin-related Genes by Transcriptomic Analysis of ‘Furongli’ Plum (Prunus salicina Lindl. During Fruit Ripening Using RNA-Seq

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    Zhizhen Fang

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Anthocyanins are important pigments and are responsible for red coloration in plums. However, little is known about the molecular mechanisms underlying anthocyanin accumulation in plum fruits. In this study, the RNA-seq technique was used to analyze the transcriptomic changes during fruit ripening in the red-fleshed plum (Prunus salicina Lindl. cultivar ‘Furongli’. Over 161 million high-quality reads were assembled into 52,093 unigenes and 49.4% of these were annotated using public databases. Of these, 25,681 unigenes had significant hits to the sequences in the NCBI Nr database, 17,203 unigenes showed significant similarity to known proteins in the Swiss-Prot database and 5,816 and 8,585 unigenes had significant similarity to existing sequences in the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes and the Cluster of Orthologous Groups databases, respectively. A total of 3,548 unigenes were differentially expressed during fruit ripening and 119 of these were annotated as involved in ‘biosynthesis of other secondary metabolites’. Biological pathway analysis and gene ontology term enrichment analysis revealed that 13 differentially expressed genes are involved in anthocyanin biosynthesis. Furthermore, transcription factors such as MYB and bHLH, which may control anthocyanin biosynthesis, were identified through coexpression analysis of transcription factors and structural genes. Real-time qPCR analysis of candidate genes showed good correlation with the transcriptome data. These results contribute to our understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying anthocyanin biosynthesis in plum flesh. The transcriptomic data generated in this study provide a basis for further studies of fruit ripening in plum.

  20. Comportamento de duas cultivares de pessegueiro com interenxerto da ameixeira 'Januária' Behavior of two peach cultivars with 'Januária' as a Japanese plum interstock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JOÃO ALEXIO SCARPARE FILHO

    2000-04-01

    Full Text Available Os efeitos da utilização de interenxerto (filtro da ameixeira 'Januária' (Prunus salicina L. foram verificados em duas cultivares de pessegueiro (Prunus persica L., Tropical e Ouromel-2. O porta-enxerto básico utilizado foi o pessegueiro 'Okinawa'. Foram avaliadas duas safras, respectivamente, na 4ª e 5ª folha de plantas enxertadas e estabelecidas no campo em 1994. O uso do enxerto intermediário diminuiu o vigor das plantas -- perímetro e área da secção do tronco, perímetro das pernadas e comprimento dos entrenós -- e aumentou o peso do fruto e a produção por planta, em comparação com as copas-controle enxertadas diretamente no 'Okinawa'. A eficiência produtiva, o índice de fertilidade, o florescimento e a frutificação efetiva foram incrementados com o uso do filtro. A interenxertia com ameixeira 'Januária' apresenta adequadas características de compatibilidade com o pessegueiro, como forma de compactar as copas e aumentar a produtividade e o tamanho do fruto.The effects of interstock with 'Januária' Japanese plum (Prunus salicina L. were verified in the performance of peach (Prunus persica L. cultivars Tropical and Ouromel-2. The basic rootstock used was 'Okinawa' peach. Two crops were evaluated at fourth and fifth leaves of plants established in 1994. The interstock caused decrease of the vigour of the plants -- perimeter and cross-sectional area of the trunk, perimeter of the primary branches and length of the internodes -- and increased fruit weight and production per plant, in comparison to the plant control without interstock budded on 'Okinawa'. Yield efficiency, fertility index, flowering and fruit set were increased with 'Januária' interstock. This interstock process presents an adequate characteristic of compatibility for the peach tree, as a form of compacting the plants, increasing the productivity and the fruit size.

  1. Produção de etileno em frutos de ameixeiraPrunus domestica’ sujeitos a duas temperaturas de conservação Ethylene production by ‘Prunus domestica’ plums during storage at two different temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.E. Rato

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available A síntese de etileno em frutos climatéricos tem sido bastante estudada pela influência que tem na conservação dos mesmos. Por esse motivo tem-se tentado através de alterações das condições ambientais, influenciar a produção de etileno. Em muitas espécies a exposição dos frutos ao frio favorece a síntese de etileno, quando estes são transferidos para a temperatura ambiente, também a actividade enzimática da ACC sintetase aumenta rapidamente nos frutos quando da sua passagem para a temperatura ambiente. Em algumas variedades de pêras e maçãs têm-se mesmo utilizado a exposição a baixas temperaturas apenas com o objectivo de conseguir uma maturação mais homogénea e uma textura aceitável. Relativamente à ameixeira Prunus domestica L. ‘Rainha Claudia Verde’ existe pouca informação acerca da expressão dos genes que controlam a maturação, mais concretamente das enzimas ACC sintetase e ACC oxidase. Durante a maturação da ameixa ‘Rainha Claudia Verde’ observa-se um aumento na produção de etileno e na taxa de respiração, paralelamente a um decréscimo da acidez e da firmeza dos frutos. No entanto, contrariamente à maioria das espécies fruteiras, nesta variedade observa-se uma diminuição na taxa de produção de etileno quando os frutos, sujeitos à conservação pelo frio, são posteriormente retirados para a temperatura ambiente. Este decréscimo é tanto mais acentuado quanto maior for o período de exposição ao frio. Esta variedade é habitualmente conservada entre os 0-2 ºC e apresentando um período de comercialização de 2 semanas após a colheita. Pretendeu-se com este trabalho perceber que tipo de efeito existe relativamente à produção de etileno nesta variedade. Estudou-se a influência de duas temperaturas de conservação, (1 ºC e 7 ºC ± 1 ºC, na produção de etileno. Os frutos foram sujeitos a diferentes períodos de conservação frigorífica: 0, 2, 5, 8 e 14 dias, ao fim dos

  2. (捺)果实中花青素合成酶基因PsANS的克隆及原核表达分析%Identification and Prokaryotic Expression of Anthocyanidin Synthase Gene in Prunus salicina

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜翠翠; 陈桂信; 潘东明; 吕恃衡

    2011-01-01

    A cDNA encoded anthocyanidin synthase(ANS)was separated from a normalization and full-length cDNA library prepared previously with the ripe fruit of 'oil Lai' (Primus salicina)by gene special primers designed from ANS genes of other Rosaceae plants. The cDNA named PsANS was 1 478 bp in full length and encoded a protein with 358 amino acids. The deduced amino acid sequence shares 98%, 93% and 89% identity with those ANS from sweet cherry, apple and strawberry, respectively. Prokaryotic expression was conducted with the constructed vectors used PsANS and prokaryotic expression vector(pGEX-6P-l and pET-32a)in E.coli BL21. The obtained fusion protein had a molecular weight consistent with that expected, and it further confirmed that the PsANS obtained by this experiment encoded ANS of 'oil Lai'(Prunus salicina).%根据NCBI数据库中已知的蔷薇科植物花青素合成酶基因序列设计特异引物,从本实验室已经构建好的(捺)成熟果实均一化全长cDNA文库中筛选分离得到了一个编码花青素合成酶的cDNA:基因命名为PsA NS,登录号:JN560957.该cDNA长1 478 bp,包含137 bp 5′非编码区,267 bp 3′非编码区,开放阅读框长度为1 074 bp.PsA NS编码358个氨基酸,分子量为40.41 ku,理论等电点为5.35.经BLAST分析对比发现,PsA NS氨基酸序列与甜樱桃、苹果和草莓的ANS氨基酸同源性都很高,分别为98%、93%和89%.将PsA NS亚克隆到原核表达载体pGEX-6P-1和pET-32a上,在大肠杆菌BL21中经1mmol/LITPG诱导表达获得了(捺)PsA NS融合表达蛋白,其分子量大小与预期的一致,进一步确认本试验克隆得到的PsA NS为(捺)花青素合成酶基因.

  3. Incidência e severidade do "furo de bala" em folhas da ameixeira sob doses de nitrogênio e potássio Incidence and severity of 'shot hole' in plum´s leaves related into nitrogen and potassium doses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inês Tutida

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available A produção integrada (PI vem suprir uma demanda crescente de frutos de qualidade, garantir segurança alimentar, produção com qualidade ambiental e rastreabilidade. Na visão da PI, as práticas da adubação e do controle de doenças estão intimamente relacionadas; no entanto, tem sido negligenciadas e pouco estudadas, principalmente para a doença "furo de bala" (Wilsonomyces carpophilus em folhas de ameixeira (Prunus salicina. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a incidência e severidade dessa doença em doses combinadas de adubação com N e K em dois ciclos de cultivo comercial de ameixeira cv "Reubennel", no município de Araucária (PR. Foram utilizadas cinco doses de N (40, 80, 120, 160 e 200kg ha-1ano-1 e duas de K (55 e 110kg ha-1ano-1. Realizaram-se sete avaliações para incidência e severidade a cada 20 dias, no período de novembro/2004 a março/2005 e em data única em outubro/2005. Os dados da primeira safra foram integralizados no tempo, constituindo a área abaixo da curva de progresso da doença (AACPD da incidência e severidade, e os dados foram analisados estatisticamente pela teoria dos modelos lineares generalizados para dados longitudinais. A doença foi mais severa no segundo ano de avaliação, sendo observado o máximo de 0,70 e 2,25 para o primeiro e o segundo ano, respectivamente. A incidência e a severidade de "furo de bala" em folhas de ameixeira são superiores nas doses de 160 e 200kg ha-1ano-1 de nitrogênio. O potássio não interfere na incidência e severidade da doença devido ao seu elevado teor encontrado no solo e na planta.Integrated Production (IP can provide the growing demand for quality fruit, food safety, environmental protection, and product traceability. In IP, fertilization practices and disease control are viewed as being closely related. However, this linkage has been mostly ignored and few studies are available concerning the 'shot hole' phytopathogen (Wilsonomyces carpophilus in

  4. Adubação nitrogenada e potássica na produtividade da ameixeira 'Reubennel', na região de Araucária - PR Nitrogen and potassium fertilization on yield of plum at Araucaria County Parana Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Antonio Dolinski

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available A adubação é um dos fatores que podem influenciar na produção e na qualidade dos frutos, contudo existem poucas pesquisas nessa área em frutíferas no sul do Brasil para auxiliar no momento da sua recomendação. O presente trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar o efeito de doses de adubação nitrogenada e potássica para a produtividade da ameixeira (Prunus salicina, cv. 'Reubennel'. O experimento foi instalado em um pomar comercial com cinco anos, no município de Araucária-PR. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi em blocos ao acaso, distribuídos em parcelas subsubdivididas, com três repetições. Na parcela, foi aplicado o potássio (55 e 110 kg de K2O ha-1 ano-1, e na subparcela o nitrogênio (40; 80; 120; 160 e 200 kg de N ha-1 ano-1, durante três anos. O fator ano foi analisado como subsubparcela. Foram avaliados a produção, o número de frutos antes do raleio e durante a colheita, e a massa e calibre dos frutos. Os resultados obtidos evidenciaram alto potencial produtivo do pomar, com uma produção média de 38,7 t ha-1 ano-1, nos três anos avaliados. Contudo não foram observadas diferenças nos tratamentos e na interação entre eles para nenhuma das características avaliadas, podendo estar associado às características químicas e físicas do solo e ao efeito do manejo (poda e raleio. O fator ano apresentou diferença significativa para a produção, calibre e número de frutos. Independentemente dos tratamentos, a produtividade da ameixeira foi direta e inversamente proporcional ao número e tamanho dos frutos, respectivamente. As menores doses de nitrogênio e de potássio foram suficientes para obter altas produtividades durante três anos.Fertilization is one of the factors that can influence in the yield and quality of the fruits, however, there are few researches in that area fruit in the south of Brazil in order to guide the moment of its recommendation. The research aim was to evaluate nitrogen and potassium

  5. Efeito do raleio e do anelamento do tronco no crescimento, produção e qualidade da ameixeira japonesa Effect of thinning and of trunk girdling on growth, production and quality of japanese plums

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano Larruscahim Hamilton Ilha

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available Na produção de ameixas (Prunus salicina Lindley para consumo in natura, o tamanho do fruto é um dos aspectos mais valorizados. O raleio de frutos é tradicionalmente utilizado para obter, entre outros efeitos, a melhoria do tamanho dos frutos remanescentes. Uma antiga prática, que está recebendo renovada atenção, é o anelamento, que em muitas situações pode aumentar o tamanho dos frutos e antecipar a colheita. Este trabalho avaliou os efeitos do raleio manual de frutos em intensidades de 0, 25, 50 e 75%, associado ou não ao anelamento do tronco (4 mm de largura, sobre o crescimento, a produção e a qualidade da ameixeira cv. Amarelinha. O experimento foi conduzido na Estação Experimental Agronômica da Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (EEA/UFRGS no ciclo 1995/96. O raleio foi realizado em 16/10/95, 36 dias após a plena floração, e o anelamento, sete dias após o raleio. O raleio reduziu a produção proporcionalmente à intensidade de raleio aplicada. O anelamento antecipou a colheita, diminuiu a firmeza e a acidez titulável, e aumentou a relação sólidos solúveis totais/acidez titulável dos frutos; mas diminuiu o vigor e o crescimento das plantas. Nenhum dos tratamentos alterou significativamente o peso médio dos frutos.In the production of plums (Prunus salicina Lindley for in natura consumption the fruit size is a very important feature. Fruit thinning is traditionally used to increase fruit size. Girdling is a practice which is deserving renewed attention, since in many situations is useful to improve fruit size and to advance harvest. This study seeks to evaluate the effect of manual fruit thinning at intensities of 0, 25, 50, and 75% associated or not to trunk girdling (4 mm wide on the growth, production and quality of plum cv. Amarelinha. The experiment was carried out at the Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul Experimental Research Station (Southern Brazil, during the growth season of 1995

  6. 三华李花色苷对D-半乳糖致衰小鼠皮肤组织的抗氧化作用%Antioxidation Effect of Anthocyanin from Prunus salicina Lindl.cv."Sanhua" on Skin Tissue of Aged Mice Induced by D-galactose

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董桂红; 刘延吉

    2011-01-01

    研究三华李花色苷对D-半乳糖所致衰老小鼠皮肤组织的抗氧化能力。用D-半乳糖(1 000 mg/kg.d)建立小鼠衰老模型,同时分别灌胃不同剂量的三华李花色素溶液(20,50,100 mg/kg.d);30 d后,测定小鼠血清和背部皮肤组织匀浆中的超氧化物歧化酶(SOD)活力、丙二醛(MDA)含量和皮肤羟脯氨酸(Hyp)含量,并与正常组,衰老模型组,维生素C对照组(20 mg/kg.d)进行对比。三华李花色苷能使D-半乳糖致衰小鼠血清和皮肤中的SOD酶活性显著升高(p〈0.01)MDA含量显著降低(p〈0.05),皮肤中Hyp含量显著升高(p〈0.01)。三华李花色苷具有较强的抗氧化生物活性,在一定程度上,能够延缓皮肤衰老。%Investigated the antioxidative ability of anthocyanin from Prunus salicina Lindl.cv."sanhua"(APLS) on skin tissue of aged mice induced by D-galactose.The aged mice were induced by subcutaneous injection of D-galactose for 30 d and simultaneously received gastric infusion of APLS at different dosages(20,50,100 mg/kg·d);After 30 d,The activity of SOD,the content of MDA in serum and skin tissue as well as the content of hydroproline(Hyp) in skin tissue were measured,and compared with normal group,model group,vitamin C group.APLS can increase the activity of SOD significantly(p0.01)and decreased the content of MDA(p0.05)in serum and skin tissue;The content of Hyp in skin tissue also increased significantly(p0.01).APLS showed marked effect of antioxidation,and can delay the aging process of the skin.

  7. Cloning,Expression Analysis and Promoter Isolation of Chalcone-synthase Gene from Fruits of Nane,Prunus salicina Lindl.var.cordata%油果实中查尔酮合成酶基因 PsCHS 的克隆表达分析及其启动子的分离

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜翠翠; 王玉珍; 叶新福

    2016-01-01

    Chalcone-synthase (CHS,EC 2.3.1.74)is an important enzyme involved inflavonoids synthesis pathway in plants.This study aimed to investigate the gene structure and expression profile of CHS gene in the fruits of nane (Prunus salicina Lindl.var.cordata).A full-length cDNA sequence harboring a CHS gene,named PsCHS ,was successfully separated from a normalized full-length cDNA library of matured nane fruits.The up-stream promoter sequence of PsCHS was separated by genome walking strategy using primer pair designed byPsCHS sequence.The length of PsCHS was 1 442 bp with ORF of 1 176 bp and deduced amino acid of 392 aa.From the prediction by an online software,the promoter sequence of PsCHS have typical structure element TATA-box and CAAT-box, photon-response element, anaerote-induced element, endosperm-related element, MYB-bingding element and hormone-response element,etc.RT-PCR indicated that PsCHS had higher expression level at the earlier stage of development of the fruit,especially 40 d after blossom,then decreased to a lower level at the maturing stage. PsCHS seperated in this study was a member of the CHS gene family.Since CHS is a key enzyme involved in flavonoid biosynthesis pathway,PsCHS might act with a regulatory role in biosynthesis of flavonoids.%从成熟果实均一化全长 cDNA 文库中分离了编码 CHS 基因的全长 cDNA 序列,命名为 PsCHS ,根据其序列设计引物,采用 Genome Walking 方法从基因组 DNA 中分离获得 PsCHS 基因上游的调控序列,命名为 PsCHSp ,PsCHS 基因全长1442 bp,其中 ORF 1176 bp,编码392个氨基酸;采用 APA-Walking 技术,获得该基因的5′端调控区,经在线软件预测,启动子序列含有典型的结构特征元件 TATA-box 和 CAAT-box,还包含光响应元件、厌氧诱导元件、胚乳表达相关元件、MYB 结合位点以及激素响应元件;RT-PCR 结果显示,PsCHS 基因在果实发育的前期表达量较高,花后40 d 表达量最高,随

  8. DNA variation and polymorphism in Tunisian plum species (Prunus spp): contribution of flow cytometry and molecular markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Tamarzizt, H; Walker, D; Ben Mustapha, S; Abdallah, D; Baraket, G; Salhi Hannachi, A; Zehdi Azzouzi, S

    2015-01-01

    Plums (Prunus spp) are among the most important stone fruit crops in the world. European (Prunus domestica) and Japanese (Prunus salicina) plums are characterized by different levels of ploidy. Because genetic variability is the prerequisite for any plant-breeding program, we aimed to establish the taxonomic status of Tunisian plums and study their genetic variability. The nuclear DNA content of 45 wild and cultivated Tunisian plums was determined by flow cytometry. Two arbitrary primers (AD10, AD17) were used to elaborate SCAR markers useful to identify plum species. Three wild trees, Zenou 1, Zenou 6, and Zenou 3, which had 2C nuclear DNA contents of 1.99, 2.05, and 2.13 pg, were shown to be hexaploid (2n = 6x = 48), whereas the others were diploid (2n = 2x = 16). These results suggest that the three hexaploid wild plums belong to Prunus insititia, and the others belong to Prunus salicina. No SCAR markers were revealed using the AD10 and AD17 RAPD primers in relation to the ploidy of plums. We note also that AD17 primer appears to be the most informative concerning the genetic diversity. Morphological and pomological traits revealed similarity between introduced and Tunisian plum cultivars. Despite the significant morphological differences found, all the cultivars studied belong to P. salicina. The information obtained in this analysis provided on local plum genetic resources will be helpful to establish a core collection, to evaluate genetic diversity, and to initiate an improvement and selection program.

  9. Novel Phaeoacremonium species associated with necrotic wood of Prunus trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damm, U; Mostert, L; Crous, P W; Fourie, P H

    2008-06-01

    The genus Phaeoacremonium is associated with opportunistic human infections, as well as stunted growth and die-back of various woody hosts, especially grapevines. In this study, Phaeoacremonium species were isolated from necrotic woody tissue of Prunus spp. (plum, peach, nectarine and apricot) from different stone fruit growing areas in South Africa. Morphological and cultural characteristics as well as DNA sequence data (5.8S rDNA, ITS1, ITS2, beta-tubulin, actin and 18S rDNA) were used to identify known, and describe novel species. From the total number of wood samples collected (257), 42 Phaeoacremonium isolates were obtained, from which 14 species were identified. Phaeoacremonium scolyti was most frequently isolated, and present on all Prunus species sampled, followed by Togninia minima (anamorph: Pm. aleophilum) and Pm. australiense. Almost all taxa isolated represent new records on Prunus. Furthermore, Pm. australiense,Pm. iranianum, T. fraxinopennsylvanica and Pm. griseorubrum represent new records for South Africa, while Pm. griseorubrum, hitherto only known from humans, is newly reported from a plant host. Five species are newly described, two of which produce a Togninia sexual state. Togninia africana, T. griseo-olivacea and Pm. pallidum are newly described from Prunus armeniaca, while Pm. prunicolum and Pm. fuscum are described from Prunus salicina.

  10. Prunus rootstocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    New clonal Prunus hybrid rootstocks offer improved adaptation to site related problems including droughty or calcareous soils and root-knot nematodes. Additionally, they offer varying degrees of vigor control compared to standard seedling types which provide significant reductions in pruning and th...

  11. Prunus rootstocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    New clonal Prunus hybrid rootstocks for apricot and plums offer improved adaptation to site related problems including soil borne diseases, waterlogging, calcareous soils and various species of nematodes. Additionally, they offer varying degrees of vigor control compared to standard seedling and cl...

  12. Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of Musa spp.cv.Tianbao with cDNA encodina S6PDH(NADP-dependent sorbitol-6-phosphate dehydrogenase) from Prunus salicina var.cordata%根癌农杆菌介导的榇S6PDH基因转化香蕉研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    匡云波; 赖钟雄

    2012-01-01

    研究以香蕉栽培品种“天宝蕉”(Musa spp.cv.Tianbao)横切薄片(Thin cross-sections,TCSs)为材料,采用根癌农杆菌介导的方法,进行棒S6PDH基因转化香蕉的研究.结果表明,在横切薄片继代增殖培养基M4中添加5%~7%(V/V)的椰汁明显增强了香蕉芽苗的生长势;GUS基因瞬时表达检测表明,长势旺盛的香蕉芽苗(直径为7~8 mm)适宜作为香蕉遗传转化的受体材料,横切薄片厚度以2mm左右为佳;采用两步法进行抗性芽的筛选得到37个抗性芽苗,生根移栽后获得31株成活苗;目的基因S6PDH和报告基因GUS的PCR检测表明其中4株是转基因植株.该研究为将蔷薇科山梨醇代谢途径引入香蕉以提高其耐渗透胁迫的能力奠定了重要的基础.%Musa spp. cv. Tianbao was transformed with cDNA encoding S6PDH(NADP-dependent sorbitol-6-phosphate dehydrogenase) isolated from Prunus sa/icina var. cordata by an Agrobacterium-mediated thin cross-sections (TCSs) transformation system. The condition of the buds was effectively improved when the TCSs were transferred onto the medium M4 adding 5%-7%(V/V) coconut water. And the highest GUS transient expression occurred while 2 mm thin TCSs from the healthy and strong buds were used as the recepted material. Total 37 putative transformants were selected via the two-step method and 31 putative transformants survived after transplanting. Finally, four transgenic lines were conformed by PCR analysis of S6PDH gene and GUS gene. Sorbitol synthesis pathway which was unique to the Rosaceae plants had been introduced into Musa spp.cv.Tianbao, laying the groundwork to increase its tolerance to environmental stress.

  13. Enraizamento de estacas lenhosas de ameixeiras tratadas com ácido indolbutírico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mindêllo Neto Ubirajara Ribeiro

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Considerando o grande interesse pela ameixeira no mercado de frutas, existe a necessidade de buscar técnicas mais eficientes na produção de mudas de qualidade e com maior uniformidade. Buscou-se, neste trabalho, verificar o potencial de enraizamento de estacas lenhosas de 12 cultivares de ameixeira (América, Amarelinha, Letícia, Pluma 7, Reubennel, Rosa Mineira, Santa Rita, Santa Rosa, Simka, The First, Wade e XV de novembro tratadas com ácido indolbutírico (AIB, em concentrações de 0, 1000 e 3000mg L-1, em imersão rápida por 5 segundos na sua parte basal. O estudo foi desenvolvido de junho a setembro de 2004, na EMBRAPA Transferência de Tecnologia, localizada no município de Canoinhas, SC. Estacas lenhosas foram coletadas de plantas matrizes de dois anos, situadas em casa-de-vegetação e padronizadas com um comprimento médio de 12cm e diâmetro de 6mm, sendo acondicionadas em bandejas de poliestireno expandido com 72 células de 0,000015m3, contendo vermiculita como substrato e mantidas em casa de vegetação sem nebulização intermitente por 97 dias. O delineamento experimental foi o inteiramente casualizado com quatro repetições e 12 estacas por parcela. As maiores porcentagens de enraizamento (acima de 70% foram obtidas nas estacas das cultivares XV de Novembro, Rosa Mineira e Santa Rita. A aplicação de 1000mg L-1 AIB, foi melhor no enraizamento de estacas de ameixeira proporcionando maior número de raízes por estaca e maior comprimento das raízes.

  14. Raleio químico de frutos de ameixeira com ethephon

    OpenAIRE

    Alexandre Pozzobom Pavanello; Ricardo Antônio Ayub

    2014-01-01

    O raleio promove equilíbrio entre o crescimento vegetativo e produtivo, aumento no tamanho dos frutos e evita alternância da produção. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito de diferentes concentrações de ethephon no raleio químico de frutos das ameixeiras cultivares 'Irati' e 'Reubennel', na região de Arapoti-PR. Os tratamentos foram cinco concentrações de ethephon (0, 60, 80, 100, 120 μL L-1) para cultivar 'Irati' e quatro concentrações (0, 60, 80, 120 μL L-1) para a cultivar 'Reube...

  15. Fruit bearing shoot characteristics of European plum (Prunus domestica L. and Japanese plum (Prunus salicina Lindl. cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milatović Dragan P.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Morphological properties of fruit bearing shoots: length, number of flower buds and vegetative buds and their ratio were studied in 11 cultivars of European plum and 11 cultivars of Japanese plum during a two-year period. Fruit bearing shoots were divided into two groups: long (shoots and short (spurs. For all studied traits, statistically significant differences between plum cultivars were found. Japanese plums had lesser thickness and shorter internodes of shoots in relation to European plums. They also had a significantly higher number of flower buds both on shoots and spurs. Based on obtained results, recommendations for pruning can be made. Cultivars with a higher number of flower buds per 1-m length and in relation to vegetative buds, like most varieties of Japanese plum and some varieties of European plum ("Stanley", "Topper", "Top", "Topking", require severe pruning. On the other hand, cultivars with lower density of flower buds, such as "Čačanska rana" and "Golden Plum", can be pruned slightly.

  16. Enzymatic changes in plum (Prunus salicina Lindl.) subjected to some chemical treatments and cold storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majeed, Ruqiya; Jawandha, S K

    2016-05-01

    The objective of the present work is to see the effect of different chemical treatments on pectin methylesterase (PME) activity and softening of the fruits. Purple plums (cv. Satluj) fruits were harvested at colour break stage and treated for 5- minutes in aqueous solutions of salicylic acid at 138, 276 and 414 ppm, Ascorbic acid at 10,000, 20,000 and 30,000 ppm, and Gibberelic acid at 20, 40 and 60 ppm. For control the fruits were dipped in distilled water. Treated fruits were stored at low temperature conditions for 40 days. Physico chemical characteristics and PME activity were determined at 10 day interval. The colour of the fruits improved with respect to a* and b* values progressively throughout the storage, whereas, fruit firmness decreased. Total sugars and PME activity increased before showing a declining trend. Pre-storage application of salicylic acid (414 ppm) significantly delayed colour development. Fruits treated with salicylic acid (414 ppm) retained highest firmness, total sugars and PME activity at the end of storage. PMID:27407203

  17. Multiplicação in vitro da ameixeira 'Santa Rosa': efeito da citocinina BAP

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    Rogalski Marcelo

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available A ameixeira 'Santa Rosa' apresenta alta produtividade, ótimo sabor e aparência dos frutos para a comercialização. No entanto, por ser altamente suscetível à escaldadura das folhas (Xylella fastidiosa Wells, esta variedade apresenta problemas de cultivo no sul do Brasil. As técnicas de cultura in vitro permitem propagar e rapidamente espécies de interesse, além de permitir a limpeza de patógenos e a produção de matrizes com qualidade genética e sanitária comprovada. Porém, o uso prático da propagação in vitro requer a otimização das condições de cultura para cada espécie e/ou variedade. Dentre os fatores que mais influenciam a micropropagação, estão as citocininas, com destaque para o BAP. O objetivo principal deste trabalho foi avaliar o potencial de multiplicação in vitro da ameixeira 'Santa Rosa' sob diferentes concentrações de BAP. Após três subculturas em meio MA1, segmentos nodais com 0,5-1,0 cm foram submetidos a diferentes concentrações de BAP (0,5; 1,0; 2,0 e 3,0 mg.L-1. Os resultados mostraram que não ocorreram diferenças significativas no número de brotos para as diferentes concentrações de BAP testadas. No entanto, o maior número de brotos por explante (3,6 obteve-se na concentração de 2,0 mg.L-1 e a maior altura média dos brotos foi obtido na concentração de 0,5 mg.L-1 de BAP. Concentrações maiores que a 0,5 mg.L-1 de BAP inibiram o crescimento dos brotos. A micropropagação da ameixeira 'Santa Rosa' a partir de ápices caulinares e gemas laterais em meio de cultura MA1 mostrou-se eficaz.

  18. Antigenotoxic activities of crude extracts from Acacia salicina leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansour, Hédi B; Boubaker, Jihed; Bouhlel, Inès; Mahmoud, Amor; Bernillon, Stéphane; Chibani, Jemni B; Ghedira, Kamel; Chekir-Ghedira, Leila

    2007-01-01

    For centuries, plants have been used in traditional medicines and there has been recent interest in the chemopreventive properties of compounds derived from plants. In the present study, we investigated the effects of extracts of Acacia salicina leaves on the genotoxicity of benzo[a]pyrene (B(a)P) and nifuroxazide in the SOS Chromotest. Aqueous, total oligomers flavonoids (TOF)-enriched, petroleum ether, chloroform, ethyl acetate, and methanol extracts were prepared from powdered Acacia leaves, and characterized qualitatively for the presence of tannins, flavonoids, and sterols. All the extracts significantly decreased the genotoxicity induced by 1 microg B(a)P (+S9) and 10 microg nifuroxazide (-S9). The TOF-enriched and methanol extracts decreased the SOS response induced by B(a)P to a greater extent, whereas the TOF-enriched and the ethyl acetate extracts exhibited increased activity against the SOS response produced by nifuroxazide. In addition, the aqueous, ethyl acetate, and methanol extracts showed increased activity in scavenging the 1,1-diphenyl- 2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical, while 100-300 microg/ml of all the test extracts were active in inhibiting O2-production in a xanthine/xanthine oxidase system. In contrast, only the petroleum ether extract was effective at inhibiting nitroblue tetrazolium reduction by the superoxide radical in a nonenzymatic O2- -generating system. The present study indicates that extracts of A. salicina leaves are a significant source of compounds with antigenotoxic and antioxidant activity (most likely phenolic compounds and sterols), and thus may be useful for chemoprevention. PMID:17177209

  19. Botryosphaeriaceae as potential pathogens of prunus species in South Africa, with descriptions of Diplodia africana and Lasiodiplodia plurivora sp. nov.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damm, Ulrike; Crous, Pedro W; Fourie, Paul H

    2007-01-01

    Botryosphaeriaceae are common dieback and canker pathogens of woody host plants, including stone fruit trees. In the present study the diversity of members of the Botryosphaeriaceae isolated from symptomatic wood of Prunus species (plum, peach, nectarine and apricot) was determined in stone fruit-growing areas in South Africa. Morphological and cultural characteristics as well as DNA sequence data (5.8S rDNA, ITS-1, ITS-2 and EF-1a) were used to identify known members and describe novel members of Botryosphaeriaceae. From the total number of wood samples collected (258) 67 isolates of Botryosphaeriaceae were obtained, from which eight species were identified. All species were associated with wood necrosis. Diplodia seriata (= "Botryosphaeria" obtusa) was dominant, and present on all four Prunus species sampled, followed by Neofusicoccum vitifusiforme and N. australe. First reports from Prunus spp. include N. vitifusiforme, Dothiorella viticola and Diplodia pinea. This is also the first report of D. mutila from South Africa. Two species are newly described, namely Lasiodiplodia plurivora sp. nov. from P. salicina and Diplodia africana sp. nov. from P. persica. All species, except Dothiorella viticola, caused lesions on green nectarine and/or plum shoots in a detached shoot pathogenicity assay.

  20. Coniochaeta (Lecythophora), Collophora gen. nov. and Phaeomoniella species associated with wood necroses of Prunus trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damm, U; Fourie, P H; Crous, P W

    2010-06-01

    Species of the genus Coniochaeta (anamorph: Lecythophora) are known as pathogens of woody hosts, but can also cause opportunistic human infections. Several fungi with conidial stages resembling Lecythophora were isolated from necrotic wood samples of Prunus trees in South Africa. In order to reveal their phylogenetic relationships, these fungi were studied on a morphological and molecular (5.8S nrDNA, ITS-1, ITS-2, GAPDH, EF-1alpha, 28S nrDNA, 18S nrDNA) basis. Some of the isolates were identified as Coniochaeta (Sordariomycetes), including C. velutina and two new species, C. africana and C. prunicola. The majority of the isolates, however, formed pycnidial or pseudopycnidial synanamorphs and were not closely related to Coniochaeta. According to their 28S nrDNA phylogeny, they formed two distinct groups, one of which was closely related to Helotiales (Leotiomycetes). The new genus Collophora is proposed, comprising five species that frequently occur in necrotic peach and nectarine wood, namely Co. africana, Co. capensis, Co. paarla, Co. pallida and Co. rubra. The second group was closely related to Phaeomoniella chlamydospora (Eurotiomycetes), occurring mainly in plum wood. Besides P. zymoides occurring on Prunus salicina, four new species are described, namely P. dura, P. effusa, P. prunicola and P. tardicola. In a preliminary inoculation study, pathogenicity was confirmed for some of the new species on apricot, peach or plum wood.

  1. Polar extracts from (Tunisian Acacia salicina Lindl. Study of the antimicrobial and antigenotoxic activities

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    Boubaker Jihed

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Methanolic, aqueous and Total Oligomer Flavonoids (TOF-enriched extracts obtained from the leaves of Acacia salicina 'Lindl.' were investigated for antibacterial, antimutagenic and antioxidant activities. Methods The antimicrobial activity was tested on the Gram positive and Gram negative reference bacterial strains. The Mutagenic and antimutagenic activities against direct acting mutagens, methylmethane sulfonate (MMS and 4-nitro-o-phenylenediamine (NOPD, and indirect acting mutagens, 2-aminoanthracene (2-AA and benzo[a]pyrene (B(aP were performed with S. typhimurium TA102 and TA98 assay systems. In addition, the enzymatic and nonenzymatic methods were employed to evaluate the anti-oxidative effects of the tested extracts. Results A significant effect against the Gram positive and Gram negative reference bacterial strains was observed with all the extracts. The mutagenic and antimutagenic studies revealed that all the extracts decreased the mutagenicity induced by B(aP (7.5 μg/plate, 2-AA (5 μg/plate, MMS (1.3 mg/plate and NOPD (10 μg/plate. Likewise, all the extracts showed an important free radical scavenging activity towards the superoxide anion generated by the xanthine/xanthine oxidase assay system, as well as high Trolox Equivalent Antioxidant Capacity (TEAC, against the 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid diammonium salt (ABTS+• radical. TOF-enriched extract exhibited the highest protective effect against free radicals, direct acting-mutagen and metabolically activated S9-dependent mutagens. Conclusions The present study indicates that the extracts from A. salicina leaves are a significant source of compounds with the antimutagenic and antioxidant activities, and this may be useful for developing potential chemopreventive substances.

  2. Screening of antimutagenicity via antioxidant activity in different extracts from the leaves of Acacia salicina from the center of Tunisia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouhlel, Ines; Mansour, Hedi Ben; Limem, Ilef; Sghaier, Mohamed Ben; Mahmoud, Amor; Chibani, Jemni Ben; Ghedira, Kamel; Chekir-Ghedira, Leila

    2007-01-01

    The effect of extracts obtained from Acacia salicina on genotoxicity and SOS response induced by Benzo(a)pyrene (B[a]P) as well as nifuroxazide was investigated in a bacterial assay system, i.e., the SOS chromotest with Escherichia coli PQ37. Preparations obtained from the leaves of A. salicina exhibited no genotoxicity either with or without the external S9 activation mixture. However, all extracts significantly decreased the genotoxicity induced by (B[a]P) and nifuroxazide. Ethyl acetate, methanol and TOF extracts exhibited the highest inhibition level of the SOS response induced by the direct mutagen nifuroxazide. Whereas, aqueous, ethyl acetate and methanol extracts displayed the greatest level of protection towards the indirect mutagen, (B[a]P), induced response. In addition to their antigenotoxic activity, TOF, aqueous, methanol and chloroform extracts showed an important free radical scavenging activity towards the 1,1-diphenyl 2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical. These extracts showed IC(50) value of 36, 73, 65, and 87μg/ml respectively. Taken together, our finding showed that A. salicina exhibits significant antioxidant and antigenotoxic activities. PMID:21783737

  3. Prunus transcription factors: Breeding perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valmor João Bianchi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Many plant processes depend on differential gene expression, which is generally controlled by complex proteins called transcription factors (TFs. In peach, 1,533 TFs have been identified, accounting for about 5.5% of the 27,852 protein-coding genes. These TFs are the reference for the rest of the Prunus species. TF studies in Prunus have been performed on the gene expression analysis of different agronomic traits, including control of the flowering process, fruit quality, and biotic and abiotic stress resistance. These studies, using quantitative RT-PCR, have mainly been performed in peach, and to a lesser extent in other species, including almond, apricot, black cherry, Fuji cherry, Japanese apricot, plum, and sour and sweet cherry. Other tools have also been used in TF studies, including cDNA-AFLP, LC-ESI-MS, RNA and DNA blotting or mapping. More recently, new tools assayed include microarray and high-throughput DNA sequencing (DNA-Seq and RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq. New functional genomics opportunities include genome resequencing and the well-known synteny among Prunus genomes and transcriptomes. These new functional studies should be applied in breeding programs in the development of molecular markers. With the genome sequences available, some strategies that have been used in model systems (such as SNP genotyping assays and genotyping-by-sequencing may be applicable in the functional analysis of Prunus TFs as well. In addition, the knowledge of the gene functions and position in the peach reference genome of the TFs represents an additional advantage. These facts could greatly facilitate the isolation of genes via QTL (quantitative trait loci map-based cloning in the different Prunus species, following the association of these TFs with the identified QTLs using the peach reference genome.

  4. Aplicação de ethephon no raleio químico de ameixeira e seu efeito sobre a produtividade

    OpenAIRE

    Alexandre Pozzobom Pavanello; Ricardo Antonio Ayub

    2012-01-01

    O raleio promove aumento no tamanho dos frutos, equilíbrio entre o crescimento vegetativo e produtivo e evita alternância da produção. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito de diferentes concentrações de ethephon no raleio químico da ameixeira cv. Irati, com 4 anos de idade, sobre o porta-enxerto A-9, em espaçamento 5,0 x 2,5 m, no município de Arapoti - PR. Os tratamentos foram cinco concentrações de ethephon, 0,1; 0,125; 0,15; 0,2 mg L-1, aplicados 30 dias após a plena florada. As ...

  5. Genetic relationships between diploid and allotetraploid cherry species (Prunus avium, Prunus x gondouinii and Prunus cerasus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavaud, M; Zanetto, A; David, J L; Laigret, F; Dirlewanger, E

    2004-12-01

    Prunus avium L. (diploid, AA, 2n=2x=16), Prunus cerasus L. (allotetraploid, AAFF, 2n=4x=32) species, and their hybrid Prunus x gondouinii Rehd., constitute the most widely cultivated cherry tree species. P. cerasus is supposed to be an hybrid species produced by the union of unreduced P. avium gametes and normal P. fruticosa gametes. A continuum of morphological traits between these three species makes their assignation difficult. The aim of this paper is to study the genetic relationships between tetraploid and diploid cherry species. In all, 114 genotypes belonging to these species were analyzed using 75 AFLP markers. The coordinates of these genotypes on the first axis of a correspondence analysis allowed us to clearly distinguish each species, to identify misclassifications and to assign unknown genotypes to one species. We showed that there are specific alleles in P. cerasus, which are not present in the A genome of P. avium and which probably come from the F genome of P. cerasus. The frequencies of each marker in the A and the F genomes were estimated in order to identify A and F specific markers. We discuss the utility of these specific markers for finding the origin of the A and F genomes in the allopolyploid species. PMID:15354194

  6. Characterization of New Isolates of Apricot vein clearing-associated virus and of a New Prunus-Infecting Virus: Evidence for Recombination as a Driving Force in Betaflexiviridae Evolution.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armelle Marais

    Full Text Available Double stranded RNAs from Prunus samples gathered from various surveys were analyzed by a deep-sequencing approach. Contig annotations revealed the presence of a potential new viral species in an Azerbaijani almond tree (Prunus amygdalus and its genome sequence was completed. Its genomic organization is similar to that of the recently described Apricot vein clearing associated virus (AVCaV for which two new isolates were also characterized, in a similar fashion, from two Japanese plums (Prunus salicina from a French germplasm collection. The amino acid identity values between the four proteins encoded by the genome of the new virus have identity levels with those of AVCaV which fall clearly outside the species demarcation criteria. The new virus should therefore be considered as a new species for which the name of Caucasus prunus virus (CPrV has been proposed. Phylogenetic relationships and nucleotide comparisons suggested that together with AVCaV, CPrV could define a new genus (proposed name: Prunevirus in the family Betaflexiviridae. A molecular test targeting both members of the new genus was developed, allowing the detection of additional AVCaV isolates, and therefore extending the known geographical distribution and the host range of AVCaV. Moreover, the phylogenetic trees reconstructed with the amino acid sequences of replicase, movement and coat proteins of representative Betaflexiviridae members suggest that Citrus leaf blotch virus (CLBV, type member of the genus Citrivirus may have evolved from a recombination event involving a Prunevirus, further highlighting the importance of recombination as a driving force in Betaflexiviridae evolution. The sequences reported in the present manuscript have been deposited in the GenBank database under accession numbers KM507061-KM504070.

  7. Characterization of New Isolates of Apricot vein clearing-associated virus and of a New Prunus-Infecting Virus: Evidence for Recombination as a Driving Force in Betaflexiviridae Evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marais, Armelle; Faure, Chantal; Mustafayev, Eldar; Candresse, Thierry

    2015-01-01

    Double stranded RNAs from Prunus samples gathered from various surveys were analyzed by a deep-sequencing approach. Contig annotations revealed the presence of a potential new viral species in an Azerbaijani almond tree (Prunus amygdalus) and its genome sequence was completed. Its genomic organization is similar to that of the recently described Apricot vein clearing associated virus (AVCaV) for which two new isolates were also characterized, in a similar fashion, from two Japanese plums (Prunus salicina) from a French germplasm collection. The amino acid identity values between the four proteins encoded by the genome of the new virus have identity levels with those of AVCaV which fall clearly outside the species demarcation criteria. The new virus should therefore be considered as a new species for which the name of Caucasus prunus virus (CPrV) has been proposed. Phylogenetic relationships and nucleotide comparisons suggested that together with AVCaV, CPrV could define a new genus (proposed name: Prunevirus) in the family Betaflexiviridae. A molecular test targeting both members of the new genus was developed, allowing the detection of additional AVCaV isolates, and therefore extending the known geographical distribution and the host range of AVCaV. Moreover, the phylogenetic trees reconstructed with the amino acid sequences of replicase, movement and coat proteins of representative Betaflexiviridae members suggest that Citrus leaf blotch virus (CLBV, type member of the genus Citrivirus) may have evolved from a recombination event involving a Prunevirus, further highlighting the importance of recombination as a driving force in Betaflexiviridae evolution. The sequences reported in the present manuscript have been deposited in the GenBank database under accession numbers KM507061-KM504070. PMID:26086395

  8. Cloning and Bioinformatic Analysis of PGIP Gene from Prunus caoyuan%草原樱桃PGIP基因的克隆及生物信息学分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于文全; 刘海荣; 杨晓华; 赵恒田

    2012-01-01

    为了克隆草原樱桃多聚半乳糖醛酸酶抑制蛋白基因,并进行生物信息学分析.以草原樱桃叶片基因组为模板,PGIP基因保守序列设计引物,通过PCR扩增获得约1 kb的DNA片段.序列分析表明,该基因全长1 193 bp,包含有1个完整的开放阅读框,由2个外显子和1个内含子构成,外显子总长990 bp,编码330个氨基酸,其编码的氨基酸序列中含有一段典型的亮氨酸重复序列,GenBank登录号为GU068977;该基因与中国李、杏、桃、马哈利樱桃、梅等李属植物的PGIP基因序列一致度达95%~99%.系统进化分析显示,属内亲缘关系较近、属间亲缘关系较远的特点.克隆了草原樱桃PGIP基因,为樱桃抗病育种提供一条新的基因资源.%Disease resistance mechanism was studied by methods of cloning of the PGIP gene in Prunus ca-oyuan. A DNA fragment about 1 kb was amplified from the genomic DNA of Prunus caoyuan leaves by PCR with a pair of specific primers based on the conserved sequences of the PGIP genes of genus Prunus. Sequence analysis showed that the fragment contains a full coding region of 1 193 bp(GenBank accession: GU068977 ). This sequence had a full open reading frame encoding the PGIP, and contained two exons interrupted by one intron. The total exons were comprised by 990 bp of deoxynucleotide encoding 330 amino acid. A conserved leucine-rich fragmenthad existed in the derived protein sequence. Sequencing analysis showed that it was 95% to 99% identical with the sequences of Prunus PGIP genes including P. salicina,P. armeniaca,P. persica,P. mahaleb,P. mume. Phylogenic tree showed that genetic relationship within the genus was closer and between the genera was farther. A PGIP gene of Prunus caoyuan was cloned. As a result,a gene resource was provided for molecular breeding of plants.

  9. The genome of Prunus mume

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qixiang; Chen, Wenbin; Sun, Lidan; Zhao, Fangying; Huang, Bangqing; Yang, Weiru; Tao, Ye; Wang, Jia; Yuan, Zhiqiong; Fan, Guangyi; Xing, Zhen; Han, Changlei; Pan, Huitang; Zhong, Xiao; Shi, Wenfang; Liang, Xinming; Du, Dongliang; Sun, Fengming; Xu, Zongda; Hao, Ruijie; Lv, Tian; Lv, Yingmin; Zheng, Zequn; Sun, Ming; Luo, Le; Cai, Ming; Gao, Yike; Wang, Junyi; Yin, Ye; Xu, Xun; Cheng, Tangren; Wang, Jun

    2012-01-01

    Prunus mume (mei), which was domesticated in China more than 3,000 years ago as ornamental plant and fruit, is one of the first genomes among Prunus subfamilies of Rosaceae been sequenced. Here, we assemble a 280M genome by combining 101-fold next-generation sequencing and optical mapping data. We further anchor 83.9% of scaffolds to eight chromosomes with genetic map constructed by restriction-site-associated DNA sequencing. Combining P. mume genome with available data, we succeed in reconstructing nine ancestral chromosomes of Rosaceae family, as well as depicting chromosome fusion, fission and duplication history in three major subfamilies. We sequence the transcriptome of various tissues and perform genome-wide analysis to reveal the characteristics of P. mume, including its regulation of early blooming in endodormancy, immune response against bacterial infection and biosynthesis of flower scent. The P. mume genome sequence adds to our understanding of Rosaceae evolution and provides important data for improvement of fruit trees. PMID:23271652

  10. Brooks and Olmo List 45, Prunus Rootstocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    New clonal Prunus hybrid rootstocks offer improved adaptation to site related problems including soilborne diseases, droughty or calcareous soils and various species of nematodes. Additionally, they offer varying degrees of vigor control compared to standard seedling types which provide significant...

  11. Brooks and olmo list 46, Prunus rootstocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    New clonal Prunus hybrid rootstocks offer improved adaptation to site related problems including soilborne diseases, droughty or calcareous soils and various species of nematodes. Additionally, they offer varying degrees of vigor control compared to standard seedling types which provide significant...

  12. Nutraceutical Value of Yellow- and Red-Fleshed South African Plums (Prunus salicina Lindl.: Evaluation of Total Antioxidant Capacity and Phenolic Composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alet Venter

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Ten South African plum cultivars and selections, including yellow- and red-fleshed plums from two harvest seasons were evaluated in terms of nutraceutical value (phenolic composition, total polyphenol content (TPC and total antioxidant capacity (TAC and fruit attributes (colour, fruit mass, etc.. Plums were evaluated at two maturity stages, i.e., directly after harvest (unripe and after a commercial cold storage and ripening regime (ripe. The phenolic composition of South African plums varied greatly, both qualitatively and quantitatively, between cultivars and selections. Neochlorogenic acid, cyanidin-3-O-glucoside and quercetin-3-O-glucoside were the predominant hydroxycinnamic acid, anthocyanin and flavonol, respectively, although not present in all plums. The flavan-3-ols, (+-catechin, (−-epicatechin and procyanidins B1 and B2, were present in all plums. Red-fleshed plums tended to display higher TAC and TPC than yellow-fleshed plums. The flavan-3-ol content was highly correlated with TAC. The effect of harvest season was cultivar-dependent, but cultivar differences were not obscured. In terms of maturity stage, the ripe fruits tended to contain higher levels of anthocyanins and some flavonol compounds, although the TPC and TAC were not affected in most cases. South African plums, especially the red-fleshed selections PR04-32 and PR04-35, were shown to provide generally high TAC and TPC compared to literature values.

  13. ARMAZENAMENTO REFRIGERADO DE AMEIXAS `REUBENNEL' (Prunus salicina Lindl.): EFEITOS DO ESTÁDIO DE MATURAÇÃO E DO POLIETILENO

    OpenAIRE

    R.A. Kluge; A.B. Bilhalva; R.F.F. Cantillano

    1996-01-01

    Para verificar os efeitos do estádio de maturação e da embalagem de polietileno, ameixas `Reubennel' foram colhidas em dois estádios de maturação: verde (25-50% de coloração vermelha) e semimaduro (50-75% de coloração vermelha) e armazenadas à 0oC e 90-95% UR por 14, 28 e 42 dias (+ 3 dias de comercialização simulada à 25-26oC). A metade das frutas foi embalada em sacos de polietileno perfurado. O polietileno reduziu as perdas de peso das frutas durante o armazenamento, sem afetar outros parâ...

  14. Utilização de diferentes recipientes na propagação da ameixeira através de estacas Utilization of diferents containers in propagation of plum cuttings

    OpenAIRE

    JOSÉ ERNANI SCHWENGBER; LEONARDO FERREIRA DUTRA; ADILSON TONIETTO; ELIO KERSTEN

    2002-01-01

    O experimento foi desenvolvido em estufa com nebulização intermitente, objetivando comparar quatro tipos de recipientes no enraizamento de estacas de ameixeira. Foram utilizados ramos do ano das cultivares Frontier e Reubennel, dos quais foram retiradas estacas da porção mediana, com aproximadamente 12cm de comprimento, um par de folhas secionadas pela metade e duas incisões laterais na base. Posteriormente, as mesmas tiveram sua base tratada por imersão rápida durante 5 segundos em solução d...

  15. Assessment of isorhamnetin 3-O-neohesperidoside from Acacia salicina: protective effects toward oxidation damage and genotoxicity induced by aflatoxin B1 and nifuroxazide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouhlel, Ines; Limem, Ilef; Skandrani, Ines; Nefatti, Aicha; Ghedira, Kamel; Dijoux-Franca, Marie-Genevieve; Leila, Chekir-Ghedira

    2010-08-01

    Antioxidant activity of isorhamnetin 3-O-neohesperidoside, isolated from the leaves of Acacia salicina, was determined by the ability of this compound to inhibit xanthine oxidase activity and to scavenge the free radical 2,2'-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS(.-)) diammonium salt. Antigenotoxic activity was assessed using the SOS chromotest assay. This compound has the ability to scavenge the ABTS(.+) radical by a hydrogen donating mechanism. We also envisaged the study of the antioxidant effect of this compound by the enzymatic xanthine/xanthine oxidase (X/XOD) assay. Results indicated that isorhamnetin 3-O-neohesperidoside was a potent inhibitor of xanthine oxidase and superoxide anion scavengers. Moreover, this compound induced an inhibitory activity against nifuroxazide and aflatoxine B1 (AFB1) induced genotoxicity. Taken together, these observations provide evidence that isorhamnetin 3-O-neohesperidoside isolated from the leaves of A. salicina is able to protect cells against the consequences of oxidative stress. PMID:20809543

  16. Dinâmica populacional da mariposa oriental em pomares de pessegueiro e ameixeira Population dynamics of oriental fruit moth in peach and plum orchards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Rodrigues Hickel

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar a dinâmica populacional da mariposa oriental [Grapholita molesta (Busk] em pomares de pessegueiro e ameixeira. Os adultos foram monitorados em dois pomares de pessegueiro e um de ameixeira por cinco anos. Séries temporais equivalentes de temperaturas máximas e mínimas foram correlacionadas aos dados de flutuação populacional para se aferir a correspondência entre a ocorrência da praga e as flutuações de temperatura. A análise de Fourier das séries temporais das armadilhas de coleta de mariposas revelou dinâmicas cíclicas, com período principal médio de 53,91 semanas. Um período menor médio, de 7,45 semanas, também ficou evidente e se aproxima do tempo médio de geração do inseto. A análise do espectro de potência das séries temporais, com e sem periodicidade, revelou que a dinâmica populacional de G. molesta possui um componente regular, caracterizado pelos períodos observados, e outro componente irregular, reminiscente de ruído 1/f, caracterizado pelas variações de amplitude, aparentemente irregulares, na ocorrência do inseto. A combinação desses dois componentes ocasiona um processo com domínio de baixas freqüências, próprio das dinâmicas periódicas ruidosas. Os ciclos de aparecimento da praga ocorrem em fase com os ciclos de flutuação de temperaturas máximas e mínimas.The objective of this work was to study the populational dynamics of oriental fruit moth [Grapholita molesta (Busk] in peach and plum orchards. Adults were monitored in two peach and one plum orchards for five years. Equivalent time series of maximum and minimum temperatures were correlated to the population fluctuation data to verify the correspondence between pest occurrence and temperature fluctuations. A Fourier analysis of the moth time series revealed cyclic dynamics, with a main average period of 53.91 weeks. Another mean short period of 7.45 weeks was also obtained, and approximates to the

  17. Phylogeny and classification of Prunus sensu lato (Rosaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Shuo; Li, Jinlu; Sun, Jiahui; Yu, Jing; Zhou, Shiliang

    2013-11-01

    The classification of the economically important genus Prunus L. sensu lato (s.l.) is controversial due to the high levels of convergent or the parallel evolution of morphological characters. In the present study, phylogenetic analyses of fifteen main segregates of Prunus s.l. represented by eighty-four species were conducted with maximum parsimony and Bayesian approaches using twelve chloroplast regions (atpB-rbcL, matK, ndhF, psbA-trnH, rbcL, rpL16, rpoC1, rps16, trnS-G, trnL, trnL-F and ycf1) and three nuclear genes (ITS, s6pdh and SbeI) to explore their infrageneric relationships. The results of these analyses were used to develop a new, phylogeny-based classification of Prunus s.l. Our phylogenetic reconstructions resolved three main clades of Prunus s.l. with strong supports. We adopted a broad-sensed genus, Prunus, and recognised three subgenera corresponding to the three main clades: subgenus Padus, subgenus Cerasus and subgenus Prunus. Seven sections of subgenus Prunus were recognised. The dwarf cherries, which were previously assigned to subgenus Cerasus, were included in this subgenus Prunus. One new section name, Prunus L. subgenus Prunus section Persicae (T. T. Yü & L. T. Lu) S. L. Zhou and one new species name, Prunus tianshanica (Pojarkov) S. Shi, were proposed. PMID:23945216

  18. Phylogeny and Classification of Prunus sensu lato (Rosaceae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shuo Shi; Jinlu Li; Jiahui Sun; Jing Yu; Shiliang Zhou

    2013-01-01

    The classification of the economically important genus Prunus L. sensu lato (s.l.) is controversial due to the high levels of convergent or the parallel evolution of morphological characters. In the present study, phylogenetic analyses of fifteen main segregates of Prunus s.l. represented by eighty-four species were conducted with maximum parsimony and Bayesian approaches using twelve chloroplast regions (atpB-rbcL, matK, ndhF, psbA-trnH, rbcL, rpL16, rpoC1, rps16, trnS-G, trnL, trnL-F and ycf1) and three nuclear genes (ITS, s6pdh and SbeI) to explore their infrageneric relationships. The results of these analyses were used to develop a new, phylogeny-based classification of Prunus s.l. Our phylogenetic reconstructions resolved three main clades of Prunus s.l. with strong supports. We adopted a broad-sensed genus, Prunus, and recognised three subgenera corresponding to the three main clades: subgenus Padus, subgenus Cerasus and subgenus Prunus. Seven sections of subgenus Prunus were recognised. The dwarf cherries, which were previously assigned to subgenus Cerasus, were included in this subgenus Prunus. One new section name, Prunus L. subgenus Prunus section Persicae (T. T. Yü&L. T. Lu) S. L. Zhou and one new species name, Prunus tianshanica (Pojarkov) S. Shi, were proposed.

  19. Prunus hybrids rootstocks for flat peach

    OpenAIRE

    Pilar Legua; Jorge Pinochet; María Ángeles Moreno; Juan José Martínez; Francisca Hernández

    2012-01-01

    Peach (Prunus persica L.) is the most important stone fruit tree grown in Spain and is the second most important fruit crop in Europe. The influence of eight Prunus rootstocks (GF-677, Krymsk® 86, PADAC 97-36, PADAC 99-05, PADAC 9912-03, PADAC 0024-01, PAC 0021-01 and PAC 0022-01) on vigor, yield and fruit quality traits of 'UFO 3' flat peach cultivar was studied. The highest trunk cross sectional area was exhibited by GF-677 and the lowest by PADAC 99-05, while intermediate values were found...

  20. Evaluación del cultivo ecológico del ciruelo japonés (Prunus salicina Lindl.) y del albaricoquero (Prunus armeniaca L.). Crecimiento, fenología, producción y calidad

    OpenAIRE

    Pérez Romero, Luis Felipe

    2015-01-01

    La agricultura ecológica ha tenido un gran desarrollo en los últimos años aunque todavía representa un porcentaje bajo con respecto a la superficie total cultivada en el mundo. España es el quinto país del mundo en superficie y Andalucía la Comunidad Autónoma con mayor número de hectáreas de España. No obstante, el desarrollo de la fruticultura ecológica es aún escaso, debido a los problemas derivados del adecuado control fitosanitario, unos rendimientos inferiores y un sistema de comercializ...

  1. Formulation of indomethacin emulsion using biopolymer of Prunus avium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shivangi Verma

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the investigation was to formulate Indomethacin Emulsion using Bio-polymer as Emulsifier. Different batches of emulsions were prepared by varying concentration of biopolymer prunus avium. Based evaluation of the prepared polymers, a conclusion can be drawn that in the Prunus avium bio-material can serve as a promising film forming agent for formulating various drug.

  2. Formulation of indomethacin emulsion using biopolymer of Prunus avium

    OpenAIRE

    Shivangi Verma; Prashant Dabral; Vinod Rana; Kumud Upadhaya; Bhardwaj

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the investigation was to formulate Indomethacin Emulsion using Bio-polymer as Emulsifier. Different batches of emulsions were prepared by varying concentration of biopolymer prunus avium. Based evaluation of the prepared polymers, a conclusion can be drawn that in the Prunus avium bio-material can serve as a promising film forming agent for formulating various drug.

  3. Endodormência de gemas de pessegueiro e ameixeira em região de baixa ocorrência de frio Endodormancy of peach and plum tree buds in a region of low chill occurrence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruy Inacio Neiva de Carvalho

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo desta pesquisa foi determinar a endodormência de gemas de pessegueiro cv. Chimarrita e ameixeira cv. Poli Rosa em uma região de baixa ocorrência de frio. Os ramos foram coletados em um pomar situado no município de Fazenda Rio Grande, Paraná, no período de abril a agosto dos anos de 2007 e 2008. Na última coleta, um grupo adicional de ramos foi coletado e mantido em refrigerador à temperatura de 4 a 7°C, por 672 horas. A avaliação da endodormência foi realizada por meio do teste biológico de estacas de nós isolados, que foram mantidas em condições controladas de temperatura (25°C e fotoperíodo (16 h. Foi realizada a quantificação das horas de frio (HF e das unidades de frio (UF ocorridas na região. As duas espécies foram avaliadas separadamente, como dois experimentos distintos. O delineamento experimental adotado foi o completamente casualizado, com nove tratamentos para o pessegueiro e 11 tratamentos para a ameixeira, ambos com quatro repetições. Os dois anos foram analisados individualmente. A endodormência mais intensa das gemas de pessegueiro cv. Chimarrita ocorreu no mês de maio, nos dois anos avaliados. A endodormência mais intensa de gemas de ameixeira cv. Poli Rosa ocorreu no mês de maio em 2007 e se estendeu até o mês de junho em 2008.The objective of this research was to evaluate the dormancy dynamic of peach tree 'Chimarrita' and plum tree 'Poli Rosa' buds in a region of low chill occurrence. The stems were collected in an orchard in Fazenda Rio Grande, State of Parana, Brazil, from April to August of 2007 and 2008. In the last date, an additional group of stems was collected and maintained in a refrigerator (4 to 7°C by 672 hours. The evaluation of dormancy was observed by the biological test of single node cuttings under controlled conditions of temperature (25°C and photoperiod (16 h. The quantification of chilling hours (CH and the chilling units (CU occurred in the region were performed

  4. Prunus hybrids rootstocks for flat peach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pilar Legua

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Peach (Prunus persica L. is the most important stone fruit tree grown in Spain and is the second most important fruit crop in Europe. The influence of eight Prunus rootstocks (GF-677, Krymsk® 86, PADAC 97-36, PADAC 99-05, PADAC 9912-03, PADAC 0024-01, PAC 0021-01 and PAC 0022-01 on vigor, yield and fruit quality traits of 'UFO 3' flat peach cultivar was studied. The highest trunk cross sectional area was exhibited by GF-677 and the lowest by PADAC 99-05, while intermediate values were found on the other rootstocks. The highest yield efficiency was found on PADAC 99-05, PAC 0021-01, PAC 0022-01 and PADAC 0024-01 and the lowest was shown on Krymsk® 86. The fruit quality parameters measured were color, fruit and stone weights, equatorial diameter, pulp thickness, pulp yield, firmness, pH, soluble solids content and titratable acidity. 'UFO 3' grafted on GF-677 resulted in the largest fruit weight, while the smallest was on PADAC 99-05. Fruits of 'UFO 3' showed a tendency to have higher firmness, higher red colored skin and RI when grafted on PADAC 99-05.

  5. Chemical constituents of the genus Prunus and their medicinal properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poonam, V; Raunak; Kumar, G; Reddy L, C S; Jain, R; Sharma, S K; Prasad, A K; Parmar, V S

    2011-01-01

    Prunus is a genus of trees and shrubs, including the plums, cherries, peaches, apricots and almonds. Nearly five hundred seventy chemical compounds have so far been isolated from several Prunus species. This comprehensive review summarizes the isolation of chemical compounds reported during the period 1908 to June 2010. As per scrutiny of literature, we did not find any review on the chemistry or biology of genus Prunus or on the biological activities of its constituents. Extensive work has been done at the Department of Chemistry, University of Delhi by several groups on the isolation, identification, biological activity evaluation and synthesis of a large number of novel compounds from different Prunus species during the the last six decades (1940-2000), primarly by Seshadri, Nagarajan and Parmar et al. on P. domestica, P. cerasus, P. cerasoides, P. puddum and P. communis. This comprehensive review will benefit a large number of researchers in the fields of chemistry, botany, drug industries and pharmacology. PMID:21831039

  6. Perspectives for sustainable Prunus africana production and trade. Factsheets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ingram, V.J.; Loo, van J.; Dawson, I.; Vinceti, B.; Duminil, J.; Muchugi, A.; Awono, A.; Asaah, E.

    2015-01-01

    This brief documents current knowledge about pygeum (Prunus africana). It aims to inform decision makers in governments in producing and consumer countries, international and civil society organisations and researchers, about sustainable (international) trade and governance of the species.

  7. Comparative assessment of physicochemical properties of unripe peach (Prunus persica) and Japanese apricot (Prunus mume)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hye-Ryun Kim; Il-Doo Kim; Sanjeev Kumar Dhungana; Mi-Ok Kim; Dong-Hyun Shin

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the physicochemical properties of unripe peach-Prunus persica cv. Mibaekdo (Mibaekdo) and Prunus persica cv. Nagasawa Hakuho (Nagasawa Hakuho) as an alternative to food supplement while Japanese apricot (Prunus mume cv. Backaha) (Backaha) was used as a control sample.Methods:The unripe fruits were analyzed for soluble solid (˚Brix), titratable acidity, pH, total polyphenol content, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity, amygdalin content, free amino acid content, organic acid content, free sugar content, and α-amylase activities.Results:Total polyphenol content of unripe peach ranged between 137.27-151.64 µg/g whereas that of apricot was 160.73 µg/g. DPPH radical scavenging activities of Backaha was the highest (89.16%) followed by Mibaekdo (85.05%) and Nagasawa Hakuho (41.50%). The highest amount of oxalic acid (612.8 mg/100 g) was observed in Mibaekdo while that of Nagasawa Hakuho and Backaha were (184.6±18.1) and (334.8±16.1) mg/100 g, respectively. Amygdalin contents of Mibaekdo, Nagasawa Hakuho and Backaha were 486.61, 548.60 and 174.28 µg/g, respectively.Conclusions:The results suggest that the unripe fruit of peach has a significant biochemical potential of using as a food supplement with potential health benefit for human health.

  8. Dehydrogenase isoenzyme polymorphism in genus Prunus, subgenus Cerasus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Čolić Slavica

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Dehydrogenase polymorphism was studied in 36 sour cherry (Prunus cerasus L., sweet cherry (Prunus avuim L., mahaleb (Prunus mahaleb L., ground cherry (Prunus fruticosa Pall., duke cherry (Prunus gondounii Redh., Japanese flowering cherry (Prunus serrulata Lindl. and four iterspecific hybrids (standard cherry rootstocks ‘Gisela 5’, ‘Gisela 6’, ‘Max Ma’ and ‘Colt’. Inner bark of one-year-old shoots, in dormant stage, was used for enzyme extraction. Vertical PAGE was used for isoenzyme analysis: alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH, formate dehydrogenase (FDH, glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH, isocitrate dehydrogenaze (IDH, malate dehydrogenase (MDH, phosphogluconate dehydrogenase (PGD, and shikimate dehydrogenase (SDH. All studied systems were polymorphic at 10 loci: Adh -1 (3 genotypes and Adh-2 (5 genotypes, Fdh-1 (2 genotypes, Gdh-1 (3 genotypes, Idh-1 (4 genotypes i Idh -2 (5 genotypes, Mdh-1 (3 genotypes, Pgd-1 (4 genotypes, Sdh-1 (1 genotype i Sdh-2 (3 genotypes. Cluster analysis was used to construct dendrogram on which four groups of similar genotypes were separated. Obtained results indicate that studied enzyme systems can be used for determination of genus Prunus, subgenus Cerasus. Among studied enzyme systems ADH, IDH and SDH were the most polymorphic and most useful to identify genetic variability. Polymorphism of FDH and GDH in genus Prunus, subgenus Cerasus was described first time in this work. First results for dehydrogenase variability of Oblačinska indicate that polymorphism of loci Idh-2 and Sdh-2 can be useful for discrimination of different clones.

  9. Characterization of sour (Prunus cerasus L.) and sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.) varieties with five isozyme systems

    OpenAIRE

    Morales Corts, Remedios; Rodrigues, Luciano MR; Ortiz, Jesús María; Pérez Sánches, Rodrigo

    2008-01-01

    Extracts from young leaves of nine sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.) and eight sour cherry (Prunus cerasus L.) varieties, located in the germplasm collection of the 'Direção Regional de Agricultura da Beira Interior' (Fundão, Portugal), were analysed for five isozyme systems in order to characterise these varieties and detect problems of synonymies and homonymies that frequently present. The sweet and sour cherry varieties analyzed showed low isoenzymatic polymorphism, being PGM and PGI the syst...

  10. Analysis of Agromorphological Descriptors to Differentiate between Duke Cherry (Prunus x gondouinii (Poit. & Turpin)Rehd.) and Its Progenitors: Sweet Cherry (Prunus avium L.) and Sour Cherry (Prunus cerasus L.) Análisis de Descriptores Agromorfológicos para Diferenciar entre Cerezo Duke (Prunus x gondouinii (Poit. & Turpin) Rehd.) y sus Progenitores: Cerezo (Prunus avium L.) y Guindo (Prunus cerasus L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Rodrigo Pérez; Florentino Navarro; María Ángeles Sánchez; Jesús María Ortíz; Remedios Morales

    2010-01-01

    The rapid identification of the hybrids between sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.) and sour cherry (Prunus cerasus L.) is not easy. In order to resolve this problem, 18 Spanish sweet, sour and duke cherry cultivars were surveyed and characterized using 43 agromorphological descriptors evaluated in flowers, leaves, dormant 1-yr-old shoots, fruits, and trees during 2005 and 2006. Based on quantitative parameters, ANOVA and stepwise discriminant analysis (SDA) were carried out. For qualitative descr...

  11. Variabilidad interspecífica de duraznos (Prunus pérsica L. Batsch. y ciruelos (Prunus domestica usando RAMs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Cruz Morillo Coronado

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Título en inglés: Intraespecific variability of peach (Prunus persica L. Batsch. and plums (Prunus domestica using RAMsResumen: Se seleccionó una muestra de 41 materiales de Prunus de la colección de caducifolios de la Universidad Pedagógica y Tecnológica de Colombia, para evaluar su variabilidad genética usando ocho marcadores Microsatélites Amplificados al Azar (RAMs. Se generaron un total de 121 alelos con pesos moleculares entre 260 y 1000 Kb. Se formaron tres grupos, a un coeficiente de similitud de 0.75, de acuerdo a las características del fruto y a la especie, encontrándose en el grupo II a los materiales de ciruelo. El porcentaje de loci polimórficos varío entre 71 y 99% para los cebadores CGA y CCA, respectivamente. El valor promedio de heterocigosidad fue de 0.22, mucho más bajo que los encontrados en otros estudios de diversidad genética en el género Prunus. La técnica RAMs mostró ser una herramienta útil para evaluar la diversidad genética en frutales caducifolios, al discriminar a los materiales en tres grupos e identificar el alto grado de consanguinidad que existe entre las diferentes especies de Prunus lo cual debe ser aprovechado dentro de las estrategias de hibridación que busquen la obtención de nuevos y mejores materiales. Palabras claves: Prunus, Diversidad genética, Microsatélites RAMs, caducifolios.Abstract: A sample of 41 Prunus materials from the deciduous collection of the Pedagogical and Technological University of Colombia was selected to evaluate its genetic diversity using eight primers for Random Amplified Microsatellite (RAMs. A total of 121 alleles were generated with molecular weights ranging between 260 and 1000 Kb. Three groups were formed, a similarity coefficient of 0.75, according to fruit characteristics and specie, found plum materials in group II. The percentage of polymorphic loci ranged from 71 to 99% for the primers CGA and CCA, respectively. The average value of

  12. Molecular characterization of Spanish Prunus avium plus trees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Fernandez-Cruz

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim of the study: The Breeding Program of wild cherry (Prunus avium developed by Lourizán Forest Research Center (NW Spain, aims for the creation of the Main Breeding Population, that is formed by a large number of plus trees and for obtaining an Elite Population generated from controlled crosses of a number of plus trees selected by, at least, one trait of economic importance. The aim of this study was to genotype 131 accessions of Prunus avium plus trees, included in the breeding program.Area of study: The Prunus avium plus trees are located in the North, Northwest and Central Spain.Material and Methods: The Prunus avium plus trees were genotyped with nine microsatellites. Several genetic parameters were calculated. Genetic data were analyzed with STRUCTURE and the genetic distance between the plus trees were calculated.Main results: A total of 122 multilocus genotypes were detected. Several accessions with the same genotype were identified, which could be due to clonality or to labelling errors. The nine microsatellites are useful for identifying individuals because the combined probability of identity was low (PI = 5.19X10-9. Bayesian methods detected two genetic clusters in the sampled plus trees.Research highlights: The unique genotypes identified in this work are suitable for being included in the elite breeding population for economic traits.Keywords: Prunus avium; breeding program; microsatellite; genetic distance.

  13. Molecular characterization of Spanish Prunus avium plus trees

    OpenAIRE

    Javier Fernandez-Cruz; Josefa Fernandez-Lopez; Maria Eugenia Miranda-Fontaiña; Raquel Diaz; Gabriel Toval

    2014-01-01

    Aim of the study: The Breeding Program of wild cherry (Prunus avium) developed by Lourizán Forest Research Center (NW Spain), aims for the creation of the Main Breeding Population, that is formed by a large number of plus trees and for obtaining an Elite Population generated from controlled crosses of a number of plus trees selected by, at least, one trait of economic importance. The aim of this study was to genotype 131 accessions of Prunus avium plus trees, included in the breeding program....

  14. Waardplantonderzoek Prunus laurocerasus voor Xanthomonas : Consultancy-onderzoek

    OpenAIRE

    Kuik, van, GAM Gijs; Hollinger, T.C.

    2010-01-01

    In de teelt van Prunus laurocerasus komt de laatste jaren een nieuwe ziekte voor, veroorzaakt door de Q-bacterie Xanthomonas aboricola pv pruni (Xap). r Op 9 oktober 2009 is een door de NBvB georganiseerde Xanthomonas-bijeenkomst geweest. Gezien de ernst van de situatie voor de boomkwekerijsector is geadviseerd om snel onderzoek te doen naar de verspreiding van Xap in Prunus. Deze concultancy is direct daarna gestart. Het doel was om een protocol te ontwikkelen om Prunussoorten snel en betrou...

  15. 柰李细菌性黑斑病菌侵染过程研究%INFECTION PROCESS OF Xanthomonas arboricola pv. pruni ON NAI PLUM (Prunus salicina var. cordata )

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    戴良英; 高必达

    2001-01-01

    @@ The bacterial spot on Nai plum caused by Xanthomonas arboricola pv. pruni is an important disease in Hu nan Province, causing a considerable yield loss. Studies were carried out on this disease, such as field investiga tion on occurrence and development and integrated control. In this paper we report the fine structure study of the diseased tissues.

  16. Comparative of Methods for RNA Extraction From Plum (Prunus salicina Lindl.) Fruit Flesh%李果实果肉组织RNA提取方法的比较分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宣继萍; 贾展慧; 钱美华; 张计育; 王刚; 郭忠仁

    2015-01-01

    以中国李品种‘携李’的果肉组织为试材,比较了Trizol法、RNA提取试剂盒和改良的CTAB法提取RNA的效果,筛选出适合李果实果肉组织总RNA的提取方法.结果表明:Trizol法和RNA提取试剂盒均不能得到完整的RNA;改良的CTAB法能有效去除多糖,28S条带的荧光亮度是18S条带的1.5~2.0倍,D260/D80值都在1.8~2.1,样品的平均得率为770.96~1 029.04ng/μL,RT-PCR结果扩增出了特异性条带,说明改良CTAB法从李果实果肉组织中提取的RNA质量高、完整性好、产率高,完全可以用于后续的分子生物学试验.

  17. Vasorelaxant effect of Prunus yedoensis bark

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Kyungjin

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prunus yedoensis Matsum. is used as traditional medicine—‘Yaeng-Pi’ or ‘Hua-Pi’—in Japan and Korea. However, no studies have examined the pharmacological activities of the P. yedoensis bark. Only the antioxidant and antiviral activities of P. yedoensis fruit and the anti-hyperglycaemic effect of P. yedoensis leaf have been investigated. While studying the antihypertensive effects of several medicinal plants, we found that a methanol extract of P. yedoensis bark (MEPY had distinct vasorelaxant effects on rat aortic rings. Methods The aortic rings were removed from Sprague–Dawley rats and suspended in organ chambers containing 10 ml Krebs-Henseleit solution. The aortic rings were placed between 2 tungsten stirrups and connected to an isometric force transducer. Changes in tension were recorded via isometric transducers connected to a data acquisition system. Results MEPY relaxed the contraction induced by phenylephrine (PE both in endothelium-intact and endothelium-denuded aortic rings concentration dependently. However, the vasorelaxant effects of MEPY on endothelium-denuded aortic rings were lower than endothelium-intact aortic rings. The vasorelaxant effects of MEPY on endothelium-intact aortic rings were reduced by pre-treatment with l-NAME, methylene blue, or ODQ. However, pre-treatment with indomethacin, atropine, glibenclamide, tetraethylammonium, or 4-aminopyridine had no affection. In addition, MEPY inhibited the contraction induced by extracellular Ca2+ in endothelium-denuded rat thoracic aorta rings pre-contracted by PE (1 μM or KCl (60 mM in Ca2+-free solution. Conclusions Our results suggest that MEPY exerts its vasorelaxant effects via the activation of NO formation by means of l-Arg and NO-cGMP pathways and via the blockage of extracellular Ca2+ channels.

  18. Waardplantonderzoek Prunus laurocerasus voor Xanthomonas : Consultancy-onderzoek

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuik, van A.J.; Hollinger, T.C.

    2010-01-01

    In de teelt van Prunus laurocerasus komt de laatste jaren een nieuwe ziekte voor, veroorzaakt door de Q-bacterie Xanthomonas aboricola pv pruni (Xap). r Op 9 oktober 2009 is een door de NBvB georganiseerde Xanthomonas-bijeenkomst geweest. Gezien de ernst van de situatie voor de boomkwekerijsector is

  19. Novel Phaeoacremonium species associated with necrotic wood of Prunus trees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Damm, U.; Mostert, L.; Crous, P.W.; Fourie, P.H.

    2008-01-01

    The genus Phaeoacremonium is associated with opportunistic human infections, as well as stunted growth and die-back of various woody hosts, especially grapevines. In this study, Phaeoacremonium species were isolated from necrotic woody tissue of Prunus spp. (plum, peach, nectarine and apricot) from

  20. Enraizamento in vitro de porta-enxertos de Prunus In vitro rooting of Prunus rootstocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Rogalski

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available Na micropropagação de Prunus sp., o enraizamento tem sido considerado uma fase crítica, pois determina a sobrevivência das plantas durante a aclimatização. Dentre os fatores importantes ao enraizamento in vitro, destacam-se o genótipo e as auxinas por serem determinantes na indução e na formação de raízes. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito de diferentes concentrações de IBA no enraizamento in vitro dos porta-enxertos de espécies do gênero Prunus: cultivares Capdeboscq e GF677, e seleções VP411 e VP417. Para o enraizamento in vitro, brotos com 2-3cm de comprimento foram introduzidos em meio de Lepoivre suplementado com 0,1; 0,5; 1,0 e 2,0 mg.L-1 IBA. Observou-se que o porta-enxerto 'Capdeboscq' apresentou maior taxa de enraizamento e maior número de raízes in vitro, sendo superior aos demais genótipos quanto a estas características. O nível de 1,0 mg.L-1 de IBA esteve associado à maior taxa média de enraizamento (100%, 64% e 64,0%, respectivamente para os porta-enxertos 'Capdeboscq', 'GF677' e VP411. O nível de 2,0 mg.L-1 de IBA foi superior para a seleção VP417 com taxa de 64% de enraizamento. Para os porta-enxertos 'Capdeboscq' e 'GF677', o número máximo de raízes foi de 9,6 e 5,2 raízes por broto, respectivamente, em resposta ao nível de 2,0 mg.L-1 de IBA, enquanto as seleções VP411 e VP417 apresentaram o maior número de raízes (3,6 e 3,9, respectivamente em resposta ao nível de 1,0 mg.L-1 de IBA.In Prunus sp. micropropagation of rooting is considered a critical stage, since it determines the plant survival during the acclimatization. Among important factors associated with rooting, the genotype and the auxins are considered important in the induction and formation of roots. The objective of the present work was to evaluate the effect of different IBA on the in vitro rooting of Prunus rootstocks Capdeboscq and GF677, and the selections VP411 and VP417. For the in vitro rooting stage, shoots of

  1. Procyanidins in fruit from Sour cherry (Prunus cerasus) differ strongly in chainlength from those in Laurel cherry (Prunus lauracerasus) and Cornelian cherry (Cornus mas)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Capanoglu, E.; Boyacioglu, D.; Vos, de R.C.H.; Hall, R.D.; Beekwilder, M.J.

    2011-01-01

    Sour cherry (Prunus cerasus), Laurel cherry (Prunus lauracerasus), and Cornelian cherry (Cornus mas) fruits are widely used in Turkey, both as food and as traditional medicines. The phytochemical composition and antioxidant capacities of these three cherry types were compared. Fruit flesh was evalua

  2. CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE MORPHOLOGY OF POLLEN FROM SOME VARIETIES OF MALUS DOMESTICA, PYRUS COMMUNIS, PRUNUS DOMESTICA, PRUNUS PERSICA AND PRUNUS ARMENIACA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicoleta IANOVICI

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to compare Rosaceae genotypes from for their pollen viability and morphology. The pollen of some varieties of Malus domestica, Pyrus communis, Prunus domestica, Prunus persica and Prunus armeniaca was identified. Pollen from mature anthers was collected. Pollen grains of all genera of Rosaceae surveyed occur as radially symmetric isopolar monads. The main aspect studied were the shape of pollen in the polar view (polar perimeter and polar area of pollen. Shape of pollen is triangular-obtuse-convex in polar view. The pollen class is trizonocolpate-obtus-triangular while the sculpturing of exine surface is striate. The number of colpi is three while the spines are absent. Apart from fully developed pollen grains, also much smaller, not completely developed pollen were found in the samples of the examined species. The viability of the pollen was determined on 1% 2,3,5-triphenyl tetrazolium chloride (TTC. Viable, semi-viable and dead pollen numbers and their percentages were determined. This stain test may be used to determine pollen viability in these species to provide only a rough estimate of viability. The results presented here are important for improving our understanding of Rosaceae reproduction biology. Knowledge of reproduction biology, particularly pollen viability and quality, is critical for the newly-developed cultivars.

  3. Pollen morphology of the Maddenia clade of Prunus and its taxonomic and phylogenetic implications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wenting SHI; Jun WEN; Susan LUTZ

    2013-01-01

    Maddenia (Rosaceae) was long recognized as a distinct genus closely related to Prunus and was recently merged with the latter.The Maddenia clade of Prunus has been revised taxonomically with four species from eastern Asia recognized.Recent molecular studies have provided evidence that this group is nested within Prunus,having a close relationship with the Padus-Laurocerasus complex.To further test the phylogenetic position of Maddenia,this study investigates pollen morphology of all former Maddenia species and 28 other Prunus species,using scanning electron microscopy and light microscopy.The Prunus species sampled here represent major subgenera:Amygdalus,Cerasus,Laurocerasus,Padus,and Prunus s.s.We found that pollen grains of these groups are all monad and tricolporate with striate or rugulate sculpturing.The pollen evidence supports a close relationship between Maddenia and species of Padus and Laurocerasus subgroups (excluding the Pygeum group),all of which have elongated,thicker,and less directional muri.Pollen of the subgenera ofCerasus,Amygdalus,and Prunus has generally thinner,highly directional,and predominantly parallel muff.The pollen grains of the Pygeum subgroup are quite distinct from the other groups of Prunus.Pygeum pollen has rugulate exines with much shorter and rod-shaped muri.

  4. Utilização de diferentes recipientes na propagação da ameixeira através de estacas Utilization of diferents containers in propagation of plum cuttings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JOSÉ ERNANI SCHWENGBER

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available O experimento foi desenvolvido em estufa com nebulização intermitente, objetivando comparar quatro tipos de recipientes no enraizamento de estacas de ameixeira. Foram utilizados ramos do ano das cultivares Frontier e Reubennel, dos quais foram retiradas estacas da porção mediana, com aproximadamente 12cm de comprimento, um par de folhas secionadas pela metade e duas incisões laterais na base. Posteriormente, as mesmas tiveram sua base tratada por imersão rápida durante 5 segundos em solução de ácido indolbutírico (AIB, a 2000mg.L-1 e acondicionadas nos seguintes recipientes: tubetes, bandejas de isopor (128 células, sacos plásticos grandes (14 x 20cm e sacos plásticos pequenos (10 x 17cm, contendo vermiculita como substrato. O delineamento experimental adotado foi o inteiramente casualizado, com 3 repetições e 12 estacas por repetição. Após 70 dias, não foi observada diferença no percentual de enraizamento entre as cultivares. A bandeja proporcionou o menor enraizamento entre os recipientes, não havendo diferença entre os demais. O maior número de raízes foi obtido com a cultivar Frontier. O maior peso da matéria seca das raízes foi obtido com a cultivar Frontier em saco grandes. Maiores comprimentos de raízes foram obtidos nos maiores recipientes. O tubete proporciona maior economia e menor movimentação de substrato, sem reduzir o enraizamento.An experiment was carried out in the greenhouse with intermitent mist to compare four types of countainers in the rooting of plum cuttings. The cuttings were taken from growing stems of cultivars Frontier and Reubennel, having 12cm length, on which one was left two half leaves and it was made two laterals lesions in the base. The cuttings base were treated by immersion in a solution of indolebutyric acid (IBA of 2000mg.L-1 concentration, for five seconds. Subsequently, the cuttings were distributed in different containers: plastics tubets, styrofoam trays (128 cells

  5. Micropropagation of Prunus species relevant to cherry fruit production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Druart, Philippe

    2013-01-01

    Cherry tree micropropagation is limited to the production of healthy cultivars of Prunus avium and Prunus cerasus, and their rootstocks; mainly the dwarfing ones. By using meristem-tip (0.1 mm long) or healthy shoot tips/nodes, four successive steps are needed to obtain whole plants capable of growing in the nursery: multiplication by axillary branching, shoot elongation, rooting, and plantlet acclimation. Along this process, several parameters have to be adjusted for each phase of the culture, including media composition, environmental culture conditions and plant handling. These parameters vary depending on genotypic response and specific vulnerability to physiological disorders such as hyperhydricity, apex necrosis, unstable propagation, and rooting rates. Based on a 40 year-long experience of study and application of culture conditions to large-scale plant production, this document summarizes the main problems (variability of the propagation rate, hyperhydricity, apex necrosis, plant re-growth) and solutions encountered to solve them, with means validated on many mericlones. PMID:23179694

  6. Genetic Relationships among Prunus mume var. pendula Using AFLP Markers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ming Jun; Zhang Qixiang; Ru Guangxin; Mao Qingshan; Yan Xiaolan; Lan Yanping

    2003-01-01

    Genetic relationships among Prunus mume var. pendula were studied by using AFLP markers. 18 accessions representing 14 cultivars ofPrunus murne var. pendula were selected from the germplasm collection at the Research Center of China Mci Flower. Seven Mse I-EcoR I AFLP primer combinations revealed 450 legible bands, and 269 of which were polymorphic markers. A similarity matrix was prepared using the simple matching coefficient of similarity and Nei's (72) distance coefficient. A UPGMA dendrogram demonstrated the genetic relationships of the cultivars. The information given by AFLP markers was basically consistent with the morphological classification and the evolutionary history of the morphotypes, and roughly supported the new revised classification system for Chinese Mci Cultivars. But there were still several exceptions: 1) the 'Guhong Chuizhi' inserted between the 'Tiaoxue Chuizhi' and the 'Danfen Chuizhi'; 2) the 'Wufu Chuizhi' kept off the Pink Pendant Form, and the 'Moshan Chuizhi' was removed from Viridiflora Pendant Form; 3) the 'Danbi Chuizhi' and the 'Shuangbi Chuizhi' of Viridiflora Pendant Form got together well but fell within the Pink Pendant Form.

  7. Development of microsatellite markers in peach [ Prunus persica (L.) Batsch] and their use in genetic diversity analysis in peach and sweet cherry ( Prunus avium L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dirlewanger, E.; Cosson, P.; Tavaud, M.; Aranzana, J.; Poizat, C.; Zanetto, A.; Arús, P.; Laigret, F.

    2002-07-01

    We report the sequence of 41 primer pairs of microsatellites from a CT-enriched genomic library of the peach cultivar 'Merrill O'Henry'. Ten microsatellite-containing clones had sequences similar to plant coding sequences in databases and could be used as markers for known functions. For microsatellites segregating at least in one of the two Prunus F(2) progenies analyzed, it was possible to demonstrate Mendelian inheritance. Microsatellite polymorphism was evaluated in 27 peach and 21 sweet cherry cultivars. All primer pairs gave PCR-amplification products on peach and 33 on cherry (80.5%). Six PCR-amplifications revealed several loci (14.6%) in peach and eight (19.5%) in sweet cherry. Among the 33 single-locus microsatellites amplified in peach and sweet cherry, 13 revealed polymorphism both in peach and cherry, 19 were polymorphic only on peach and one was polymorphic only on cherry. The number of alleles per locus ranged from 1 to 9 for peach and from 1 to 6 on sweet cherry with an average of 4.2 and 2.8 in peach and sweet cherry, respectively. Cross-species amplification was tested within the Prunus species: Prunus avium L. (sweet cherry and mazzard), Prunus cerasus L. (sour cherry), Prunus domestica L. (European plum), Prunus amygdalus Batsch. (almond), Prunus armeniaca L. (apricot), Prunus cerasifera Ehrh. (Myrobalan plum). Plants from other genera of the Rosaceae were also tested: Malus (apple) and Fragaria (strawberry), as well as species not belonging to the Rosaceae: Castanea (chestnut tree), Juglans (walnut tree) and Vitis (grapevine). Six microsatellites gave amplification on all the tested species. Among them, one had an amplified region homologous to sequences encoding a MADS-box protein in Malus x domestica. Twelve microsatellites (29.3%) were amplified in all the Rosaceae species tested and 31 (75.6%) were amplified in all the six Prunus species tested. Thirty three (80.5%), 18 (43.9%) and 13 (31.7%) gave amplification on chestnut tree, grapevine

  8. Antioxidative and antiviral properties of flowering cherry fruits (Prunus serrulata L. var. spontanea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yook, Hong-Sun; Kim, Kyoung-Hee; Park, Jung-Eun; Shin, Hyun-Jin

    2010-01-01

    The phenolic compounds of many fruits have been known to be efficient cellular protective antioxidants. In this study, antioxidative and antiviral properties of flowering cherry cultivars (Prunus yedoensis, Prunus sargentii, Prunus lannesiana, and Prunus cerasus) in Korea were investigated. The antioxidant property was assayed for specific activities including 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) hydroxy radical scavenging activity, reducing power capacity, and superoxide dismutase (SOD) like activity. In addition, antiviral activity was determined by inhibition studies on the infection cycle of porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV), measured as minimum concentration of cherry extracts that inhibited 50% of cytopathic effect (CPE) on PEDV. Our results show that the four varieties of cherries contain substantially high antioxidants and antiviral activities. In particular, P. cerasus contains higher antioxidants and antiviral activities as well as polyphenolic content than other varieties. Our data indicate that Korean native cherry cultivars could be beneficial supplements of dietary antioxidants and natural antiviral agents. PMID:20821824

  9. Extraction and characterization of montmorency (Prunus cerasus L.) sour cherry pit oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montmorency sour cherry (Prunus cerasus L.) pit oil was extracted and characterized by various methods including: gas chromatography (GC), liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (LC-MS), nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), differential scanning calorime...

  10. Physicochemical characterisation of four cherry species (Prunus spp.) grown in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Jinping; Jiang, Qing; Lin, Juanying; Li, Xian; Sun, Chongde; Chen, Kunsong

    2015-04-15

    The physicochemical characteristics of four cherry species (Prunus avium, Prunus cerasus, Prunus pseudocerasus and Prunus tomentosa) were evaluated. Inter-species variability was greater than intra-species differences. Glucose and fructose were the main sugars, and malic acid was the main organic acid in all species. Combining HPLC-DAD and LC-ESI-MS/MS technologies, total 25 phenolic components were preliminarily identified. P. avium was characterised by high fruit weight, edible proportion, sugar content and low acid content, which made it suitable for fresh eating. P. cerasus was high in acid content and anthocyanins content, making it a good processing species. P. pseudocerasus had rich flavonols varieties and high proportion of hydrocinnamic acids. P. tomentosa was characterised by high total phenolics content (especially flavonols and tannins) and antioxidant activity, indicating a great developmental potential as a health fruit. The results of the present study might provide theoretical guidance for the further development and utilisation of cherries. PMID:25466099

  11. Impact of Prunus Cerasus on PGR and HAS2 in Cumulus Cells and Fertility Outcome

    OpenAIRE

    Fatemeh Namvar Vansofla; Leila Roshangar; Azadeh Montaseri; Jafar Soleimani Rad

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Cumulus cells have a critical role in normal oocyte development and fertilization. Prunus cerasus is an anthocyanin rich berry and performs strong antioxidant activity. The present study set to determine if Prunus cerasus can affect expression of HAS2 (hyaluronan synthase 2) and progesterone receptor in Cumulus cells and its consequences outcome of the in vitro fertilization. Methods: 60 female and 15 male adult mice were used for mating and IVF (in vitro fer...

  12. Characterization of sour (Prunus cerasus L.) and sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.) varieties with five isozyme systems Caracterização de variedades de ginjeira (Prunus cerasus L.) e cerejeira (Prunus avium L.) em cinco sistemas isoenzimáticos

    OpenAIRE

    Remedios Morales Corts; Luciano Cordeiro Rodrigues; Jesús Maria Ortíz Marcide; Rodrigo Pérez Sánches

    2008-01-01

    Extracts from young leaves of nine sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.) and eight sour cherry (Prunus cerasus L.) varieties, located in the germplasm collection of the 'Direção Regional de Agricultura da Beira Interior' (Fundão, Portugal), were analysed for five isozyme systems in order to characterise these varieties and detect problems of synonymies and homonymies that frequently present. The sweet and sour cherry varieties analyzed showed low isoenzymatic polymorphism, being PGM and PGI the syst...

  13. De novo assembly of sweet cherry (Prunus avium) transcriptome from 454 sequencing data

    OpenAIRE

    Le Dantec, Loick; Quero-Garcia, José; Dirlewanger, Elisabeth

    2012-01-01

    Very few genomic resources are actually available for sweet cherry. Emergence and generalization of next‐generation DNA sequencing technologies that reduce cost, labor, and time, provide the opportunity to conduct large‐scale genomic projects at lower cost even for non‐model organisms like prunus avium. In order to obtain a panel of prunus avium expressed genes for functional studies and candidate gene strategy, a normalized complementary DNA library has been sequenced using high throughput 4...

  14. ETUDE DE L’ETAT NUTRITIONNEL ET SANITAIRE DE QUELQUES VARIETES DU GENRE PRUNUS DANS LA WILAYA DE TLEMCEN

    OpenAIRE

    HADJ ABDELKADER, Fatima Zohra

    2014-01-01

    ETUDE DE L’ETAT NUTRITIONNEL ET SANITAIRE DE QUELQUES VARIETES DU GENRE PRUNUS DANS LA WILAYA DE TLEMCEN La présente expérimentation s'inscrit dans le cadre d'une recherche sur la nutrition minérale et l’état sanitaire de quelques espèces du genre Prunus en l’occurrence le merisier (Prunus avium) et Sainte Lucie (Prunus mahaleb) avec quelques cultivars tels que Gaouar et Bigarreau Noir. Ce travail est basé essentiellement sur l'analyse physicochimique de l’eau et du sol ainsi que l'anal...

  15. Ilarviruses of Prunus spp.: a continued concern for fruit trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pallas, V; Aparicio, F; Herranz, M C; Amari, K; Sanchez-Pina, M A; Myrta, A; Sanchez-Navarro, J A

    2012-12-01

    Prunus spp. are affected by a large number of viruses, causing significant economic losses through either direct or indirect damage, which results in reduced yield and fruit quality. Among these viruses, members of the genus Ilarvirus (isometric labile ringspot viruses) occupy a significant position due to their distribution worldwide. Although symptoms caused by these types of viruses were reported early in the last century, their molecular characterization was not achieved until the 1990s, much later than for other agronomically relevant viruses. This was mainly due to the characteristic liability of virus particles in tissue extracts. In addition, ilarviruses, together with Alfalfa mosaic virus, are unique among plant viruses in that they require a few molecules of the coat protein in the inoculum in order to be infectious, a phenomenon known as genome activation. Another factor that has made the study of this group of viruses difficult is that infectious clones have been obtained only for the type member of the genus, Tobacco streak virus. Four ilarviruses, Prunus necrotic ringspot virus, Prune dwarf virus, Apple mosaic virus, and American plum line pattern virus, are pathogens of the main cultivated fruit trees. As stated in the 9th Report of the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses, virions of this genus are "unpromising subjects for the raising of good antisera." With the advent of molecular approaches for their detection and characterization, it has been possible to get a more precise view of their prevalence and genome organization. This review updates our knowledge on the incidence, genome organization and expression, genetic diversity, modes of transmission, and diagnosis, as well as control of this peculiar group of viruses affecting fruit trees. PMID:23148725

  16. Ilarviruses of Prunus spp.: a continued concern for fruit trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pallas, V; Aparicio, F; Herranz, M C; Amari, K; Sanchez-Pina, M A; Myrta, A; Sanchez-Navarro, J A

    2012-12-01

    Prunus spp. are affected by a large number of viruses, causing significant economic losses through either direct or indirect damage, which results in reduced yield and fruit quality. Among these viruses, members of the genus Ilarvirus (isometric labile ringspot viruses) occupy a significant position due to their distribution worldwide. Although symptoms caused by these types of viruses were reported early in the last century, their molecular characterization was not achieved until the 1990s, much later than for other agronomically relevant viruses. This was mainly due to the characteristic liability of virus particles in tissue extracts. In addition, ilarviruses, together with Alfalfa mosaic virus, are unique among plant viruses in that they require a few molecules of the coat protein in the inoculum in order to be infectious, a phenomenon known as genome activation. Another factor that has made the study of this group of viruses difficult is that infectious clones have been obtained only for the type member of the genus, Tobacco streak virus. Four ilarviruses, Prunus necrotic ringspot virus, Prune dwarf virus, Apple mosaic virus, and American plum line pattern virus, are pathogens of the main cultivated fruit trees. As stated in the 9th Report of the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses, virions of this genus are "unpromising subjects for the raising of good antisera." With the advent of molecular approaches for their detection and characterization, it has been possible to get a more precise view of their prevalence and genome organization. This review updates our knowledge on the incidence, genome organization and expression, genetic diversity, modes of transmission, and diagnosis, as well as control of this peculiar group of viruses affecting fruit trees.

  17. Construction of an intra-specific sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.) genetic linkage map and synteny analysis with the Prunus reference map

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linkage maps of the sweet cherry cultivar ‘Emperor Francis’ (EF) and the wild forest cherry ‘New York 54’ (NY) were constructed using primarily simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers and gene-derived markers with known positions on the Prunus reference map. The success rate for identifying SSR markers...

  18. Analysis of Agromorphological Descriptors to Differentiate between Duke Cherry (Prunus x gondouinii (Poit. & TurpinRehd. and Its Progenitors: Sweet Cherry (Prunus avium L. and Sour Cherry (Prunus cerasus L. Análisis de Descriptores Agromorfológicos para Diferenciar entre Cerezo Duke (Prunus x gondouinii (Poit. & Turpin Rehd. y sus Progenitores: Cerezo (Prunus avium L. y Guindo (Prunus cerasus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Pérez

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The rapid identification of the hybrids between sweet cherry (Prunus avium L. and sour cherry (Prunus cerasus L. is not easy. In order to resolve this problem, 18 Spanish sweet, sour and duke cherry cultivars were surveyed and characterized using 43 agromorphological descriptors evaluated in flowers, leaves, dormant 1-yr-old shoots, fruits, and trees during 2005 and 2006. Based on quantitative parameters, ANOVA and stepwise discriminant analysis (SDA were carried out. For qualitative descriptors, statistical comparisons were done by means of the chi-square (χ2 test. As result of the study, two quantitative (titratable acidity and number of lenticels and six qualitative descriptors (shape of the central and lateral lobes in the internal bracts of the flower fascicles, leaf shape and margin, pubescence in the veins of the lower side of the leaf, and type of sulci of the seed coat were identified as differential parameters in P. avium, P. cerasus and P. x gondouinii(Poit. & Turpin Rehd. Also, another four qualitative descriptors (petal coloration at the end of blooming, leaf stipule type, and seed shape and viability were found to be useful for easy differentiation between sour and duke cherry. None of these parameters has been employed previously to discriminate among sweet, sour and duke cherry.Los híbridos de cerezo (Prunus avium L. y guindo (Prunus cerasus L. no son fáciles de identificar. Para resolver este problema, 18 cultivares de cerezo, guindo y sus híbridos fueron prospectados y caracterizados agromorfológicamente mediante el estudio de 43 descriptores evaluados en flores, hojas, frutos, ramas de 1 año y árbol durante los años 2005 y 2006. En base a los resultados obtenidos del estudio de los diferentes parámetros cuantitativos se realizaron un ANDEVA y un análisis discriminante escalonado (SDA. Los descriptores cualitativos fueron analizados mediante el test de Chi-cuadrado (χ². Como resultado del estudio se identificaron

  19. Molecular characterization of Prunus mahaleb L. rootstock canditates by ISSR markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozyurt Ibrahim Kursat

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Prunus mahaleb is widely used as rootstocks particularly on calcareous and dry soils for both sweet and sour cherry cultivars in Turkey. Genetic diversity and relationships among members of Prunus mahaleb including 29 preselected rootstock candidate accessions from Tokat region in Turkey were investigated by using 15 ISSR markers. The study revealed high genetic diversity among accessions, detecting 138 fragments, of which 103 (75% were polymorphic. The number of polymorphic bands per primer was between 3-13, with average of 6.86. The primers 890 and 891 gave the highest polymorphism ratio (100%. The UPGMA dendrogram and the principal coordinate analysis revealed a clear differentiation among accessions. Reference rootstock, SL-64 clustered separately. The study demonstrates that ISSRs provide promising marker tools in revealing genetic diversity and relationships in Prunus mahaleb rootstock candidate accessions and can contribute to efficient identification, conservation, and utilization of germplasm for rootstock improvement through conventional as well as molecular breeding approaches.

  20. Genistein isoflavone glycoconjugates in sour cherry (Prunus cerasus L.) cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrankó, László; Nagy, Ádám; Szilvássy, Blanka; Stefanovits-Bányai, Éva; Hegedűs, Attila

    2015-01-01

    The isoflavone genistein on the contrary to its well-established health-beneficial effects is not a major component of the Western diet, since soy consumption, considered as the main dietary source of genistein, in these populations is low. Genistein compounds in twelve commercial sour cherry (Prunus cerasus L.) cultivars grown in Hungary were studied. High performance liquid chromatography coupled to electrospray ionisation quadrupole/time-of-flight mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-qToF-MS) was used for screening and confirmatory analyses. Genistin and genistein were found in 'Pipacs1', 'Kántorjánosi', 'Debreceni bőtermő' and 'Éva', which are native cultivars to Hungary. Genistein content of the latter three were in the range of 0.4-0.6, while in 'Pipacs1' in total 4.4 mg genistein compounds were measured expressed as aglycone equivalents per 100g of fresh fruit flesh. These cultivars may play important role as complementary genistein sources in the Western diet. Especially 'Pipacs 1', may be best utilised in functional food products. PMID:25053048

  1. Synthesis and antimicrobial activity of palladium nanoparticles from Prunus × yedoensis leaf extract

    Science.gov (United States)

    The eco-friendly production of palladium nanoparticles (PdNPs) by Prunus × yedoensis tree leaf extract was studied for the first time. Initial confirmation of PdNP production was confirmed by a color change from light yellow to dark brown. The optimization parameters show that pH 7, 8% leaf extract,...

  2. Pegamento e crescimento inicial de enxertos do pessegueiro 'Aurora-1' em clones de umezeiro (Prunus mume Sieb. et Zucc. e 'Okinawa' [Prunus persica (L. Batsch] propagados por estacas herbáceas Tissue union and initial growth of 'Aurora-1' peach buds on mume clones (Prunus mume Sieb. et Zucc. and 'Okinawa' [Prunus persica (L. Batsch] propagated by herbaceous cuttings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Newton Alex Mayer

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo teve por objetivo avaliar o pegamento e o crescimento inicial de enxertos do pessegueiro 'Aurora-1' em clones de umezeiro (Prunus mume Sieb. et Zucc. e 'Okinawa' [Prunus persica (L. Batsch] propagados por estacas herbáceas. Realizaram-se dois experimentos, adotando-se a enxertia de borbulhia por escudo (março e borbulhia por escudo modificada (julho. Com os resultados obtidos, pode-se concluir que é viável a realização da enxertia do 'Aurora-1' nos Clones 05; 10 e 15 de umezeiro e no 'Okinawa', tanto em março quanto em julho, com as metodologias utilizadas. O 'Okinawa' induz crescimento mais rápido ao enxerto, de forma que o ponto máximo do comprimento é atingido em tempo menor.This study aimed to evaluate the tissue union and initial growth of 'Aurora-1' peach buds on mume clones (Prunus mume Sieb. et Zucc. and 'Okinawa' [Prunus persica (L. Batsch] propagated by herbaceous cuttings. Two experiments were carried out, being adopted the chip budding (March and chip budding modified (July. The results showed that accomplishment of 'Aurora-1' peach bud on mume Clones 05, 10 and 15 and 'Okinawa' is viable, in both periods, with the methodologies used. The 'Okinawa' induces faster growth to the bud and the maximum length point is reached in a short time.

  3. The phylogenetic utility of nucleotide sequences of sorbitol 6-phosphate dehydrogenase in Prunus (Rosaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bortiri, Esteban; Oh, Sang-Hun; Gao, Fang-You; Potter, Dan

    2002-10-01

    Sequences from s6pdh, a gene that encodes sorbitol-6-phosphate dehydrogenase in the Rosaceae, are used to reconstruct the phylogeny of 22 species of Prunus. The s6pdh sequences alone and in combination with previously published sequences of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) and the cpDNA trnL-trnF spacer are analyzed using parsimony and maximum likelihood methods. Both methods reconstructed the same phylogeny when s6pdh sequences are used alone and in combination with ITS and trnL-trnF, and the topology is in agreement with previous studies that used a larger sample size. The s6pdh sequences have about twice as many informative sites as ITS. A molecular clock is rejected for s6pdh, most likely due to greater rates of evolution in subgenera Padus and Laurocerasus than in the rest of the genus. Phylogenetic reconstruction of Prunus as determined by analysis of the combined data set suggests an early split into two clades. One is composed of subgenera Cerasus, Laurocerasus, and Padus. The second includes subgenera Amygdalus, Emplectocladus, and Prunus. Species of section Microcerasus (formerly in subgenus Cerasus) are nested within subgenus Prunus. The order of branching and relationships among early diverging lineages is weakly supported, as a result of very short branches that may indicate rapid radiation. PMID:21665596

  4. Alternaria cerasidanica sp nov., isolated in Denmark from drupes of Prunus avium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roberts, R. G.; Reymond, S. T.; Andersen, Birgitte

    2010-01-01

    The ex-type strain of Alternaria cerasidanica was isolated in 2001 from an immature, asymptomatic drupe of Prunus avium collected at a commercial cherry orchard near Skaelskor, Denmark. Cultural morphology, sporulation pattern and cluster analyses of combined RAPD, RAMS (microsatellite), and AFLP...

  5. Analysis of wild sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.) germplasm diversity in south-east Serbia

    OpenAIRE

    Mratinić Evica; Fotirić-Akšić Milica; Jovković Radmila

    2012-01-01

    Ten wild growing sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.) genotypes from South-East Serbia with different fruit skin color were analyzed for its phenological, morphological and chemical traits. Agronomic evaluation of germplasm accessions revealed considerable diversity among different accessions for all the characters studied. The analysis of variance revealed significant differences among all genotypes for almost all examined properties. Cluster analysis showed ade...

  6. Tractor-mounted, GPS-based spot fumigation system manages Prunus replant disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Our research goal was to use recent advances in global positioning system (GPS) and computer technology to apply just the right amount of fumigant where it is most needed (i.e., in a small target treatment zone in and around each tree replanting site) to control Prunus replant disease (PRD). We deve...

  7. Sour Cherry (Prunus cerasus L.) Anthocyanins: effects of juice processing on phenolic compounds and bioavailability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toydemir, G.; Boyacioglu, D.; Beekwilder, M.J.; Vos, de R.C.H.; Hall, R.D.; Capanoglu, E.

    2014-01-01

    Sour cherry (Prunus cerasus L.), has gained growing interest in recent years due to the envisaged health benefits associated with a regular intake of anthocyanins and related polyphenolic compounds. Turkish sour cherries are widely consumed as processed products and are renowned for their high juice

  8. Changes in sour cherry (Prunus cerasus L.) antioxidants during nectar processing and in vitro gastrointestinal digestion.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toydemir, G.; Capanoglu, E.; Kamiloglu, S.; Boyacioglu, D.; Vos, de C.H.; Hall, R.D.; Beekwilder, M.J.

    2013-01-01

    Sour cherry (Prunus cerasus L.) is rich in polyphenols, and like its processed products, is especially rich in anthocyanins. We have applied HPLC, spectrophotometric and on-line antioxidant detection methods to follow the fate of cherry antioxidants during an entire multi-step industrial-scale proce

  9. Industrial processing effects on phenolic compounds in sour cherry (Prunus cerasus L.) fruit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toydemir, G.; Capanoglu, E.; Gomez-Roldan, M.V.; Vos, de R.C.H.; Boyacioglu, D.; Hall, R.D.; Beekwilder, M.J.

    2013-01-01

    The processed juice (or nectar) of the sour cherry, Prunus cerasus L., is widely consumed in the Balkan region and Turkey. Sour cherry is known to be rich in polyphenolic compounds, such as anthocyanins and procyanidins. In this work, the effects of processing of sour cherry fruit to nectar on polyp

  10. Coniochaeta (Lecythophora), Collophora gen. nov and Phaeomoniella species associated with wood necroses of Prunus trees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Damm, U.; Fourie, P.H.; Crous, P.W.

    2010-01-01

    Species of the genus Coniochaeta (anamorph: Lecythophora) are known as pathogens of woody hosts, but can also cause opportunistic human infections. Several fungi with conidial stages resembling Lecythophora were isolated from necrotic wood samples of Prunus trees in South Africa. In order to reveal

  11. Kirsipuu (Prunus avium) : [luuletused] / R. W. Stedingh ; tlk. ja saatesõna: Jüri Talvet

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Stedingh, R. W.

    2003-01-01

    Sisu: Kirsipuu (Prunus avium) ; Rubus spectabilis ; Rododendron (Rhododendron macrophyllum) ; Lysuchitum americanum ; Tulp (Tulipa gesneriana) ; Kanada hani (Branta canadensis) ; Metsorava pärastlõuna (Sciurus carolinensis) ; Ohakalind (Spinus tristis) ; Shakespeare'i mälestusmärk (kogust "Stanley pargi süit")

  12. Coniochaeta (Lecythophora), Collophora gen. nov. And Phaeomoniella species associated with wood necroses of Prunus trees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Damm, U.; Fourie, P.H.; Crous, P.W.

    2010-01-01

    Species of the genus Coniochaeta (anamorph: Lecythophora) are known as pathogens of woody hosts, but can also cause opportunistic human infections. Several fungi with conidial stages resembling Lecythophora were isolated from necrotic wood samples of Prunus trees in South Africa. In order to reveal

  13. Coniochaeta (Lecythophora), Collophora gen. nov. and Phaeomoniella species associated with wood necroses of Prunus trees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Damm, U.; Fourie, P.H.; Crous, P.W.

    2010-01-01

    Species of the genus Coniochaeta (anamorph: Lecythophora) are known as pathogens of woody hosts, but can also cause opportunistic human infections. Several fungi with conidial stages resembling Lecythophora were isolated from necrotic wood samples of Prunus trees in South Africa. In order to reveal

  14. Biochemical characterisation of chlorophyllase from leaves of selected Prunus species--a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sytykiewicz, Hubert; Sprawka, Iwona; Czerniewicz, Paweł; Sempruch, Cezary; Leszczyński, Bogumił; Sikora, Marlena

    2013-01-01

    Despite senescence-induced chlorophyll depletion in plants has been widely studied, the enzymatic background of this physiologically regulated process still remains highly unclear. The purpose of this study was to determine selected biochemical properties of partially purified fractions of chlorophyllase (Chlase, chlorophyll chlorophyllido-hydrolase, EC 3.1.1.14) from leaves of three Prunus species: bird cherry (Prunus padus L.), European plum (Prunus domestica L.), and sour cherry (Prunus cerasus L.). Secondarily, this report was aimed at comparing seasonal dynamics of Chlase activity and chlorophyll a (Chl a) content within investigated plant systems. Molecular weight of native Chlase F1 has been estimated at 90 kDa (bird cherry) and approximately 100 kDa (European plum and sour cherry), whereas molecular mass of Chlase F2 varied from 35 kDa (European plum) to 60 kDa (sour cherry). Furthermore, enzyme fractions possessed similar optimal pH values ranging from 7.6 to 8.0. It was found that among a broad panel of tested metal ions, Hg(+2), Fe(+2), and Cu(+2) cations showed the most pronounced inhibitory effect on the activity of Chlase. In contrast, the presence of Mg(+2) ions influenced a subtle stimulation of the enzymatic activity. Importantly, although Chlase activity was negatively correlated with the amount of Chl a in leaves of examined Prunus species, detailed comparative analyses revealed an incidental decrement of enzymatic activity in early or moderately senescing leaves. It provides evidence that foliar Chlase is not the only enzyme involved in autumnal chlorophyll breakdown and further in-depth studies elucidating this catabolic process are required. PMID:23894730

  15. Současná úroveň poznání genomu druhu Prunus persica (L.) Baatsch.

    OpenAIRE

    Chaloupský, Pavel

    2015-01-01

    Presented paper summarizes the status of knowledge on the peach (Prunus persica [L.] Batsch.) genome. Peach belongs to the Rosaceae family. This species is, along with other important crops, encompassed by Prunus genus. Peach is one of the least hardy fruit species. Despite that, it is widely cultivated in the temperate zone and has indisputable economic importance. Because of its importance and suitable properties, peach is genetically well characterized. Methods of molecular genetics have p...

  16. Mongolian Almond (Prunus mongolica Maxim): The Morpho-Physiological, Biochemical and Transcriptomic Response to Drought Stress

    OpenAIRE

    Jǖgang Wang; Rong Zheng; Shulan Bai; Xiaomin Gao; Min Liu; Wei Yan

    2015-01-01

    Prunus mongolica Maxim, which is widely established in the Gobi Desert, shows extreme tolerance to drought. However, there is a lack of available transcriptomic resources for this species related to its response to water deficiency. To investigate the mechanisms that allow P. mongolica to maintain growth in extremely arid environments, the response of P. mongolica seedlings to drought stress was analyzed using morphological, physiological, biochemical and high-throughput sequencing approaches...

  17. Convergent evolution at the gametophytic self-incompatibility system in Malus and Prunus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Aguiar

    Full Text Available S-RNase-based gametophytic self-incompatibility (GSI has evolved once before the split of the Asteridae and Rosidae. This conclusion is based on the phylogenetic history of the S-RNase that determines pistil specificity. In Rosaceae, molecular characterizations of Prunus species, and species from the tribe Pyreae (i.e., Malus, Pyrus, Sorbus revealed different numbers of genes determining S-pollen specificity. In Prunus only one pistil and pollen gene determine GSI, while in Pyreae there is one pistil but multiple pollen genes, implying different specificity recognition mechanisms. It is thus conceivable that within Rosaceae the genes involved in GSI in the two lineages are not orthologous but possibly paralogous. To address this hypothesis we characterised the S-RNase lineage and S-pollen lineage genes present in the genomes of five Rosaceae species from three genera: M. × domestica (apple, self-incompatible (SI; tribe Pyreae, P. persica (peach, self-compatible (SC; Amygdaleae, P. mume (mei, SI; Amygdaleae, Fragaria vesca (strawberry, SC; Potentilleae, and F. nipponica (mori-ichigo, SI; Potentilleae. Phylogenetic analyses revealed that the Malus and Prunus S-RNase and S-pollen genes belong to distinct gene lineages, and that only Prunus S-RNase and SFB-lineage genes are present in Fragaria. Thus, S-RNase based GSI system of Malus evolved independently from the ancestral system of Rosaceae. Using expression patterns based on RNA-seq data, the ancestral S-RNase lineage gene is inferred to be expressed in pistils only, while the ancestral S-pollen lineage gene is inferred to be expressed in tissues other than pollen.

  18. Convergent evolution at the gametophytic self-incompatibility system in Malus and Prunus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguiar, Bruno; Vieira, Jorge; Cunha, Ana E; Fonseca, Nuno A; Iezzoni, Amy; van Nocker, Steve; Vieira, Cristina P

    2015-01-01

    S-RNase-based gametophytic self-incompatibility (GSI) has evolved once before the split of the Asteridae and Rosidae. This conclusion is based on the phylogenetic history of the S-RNase that determines pistil specificity. In Rosaceae, molecular characterizations of Prunus species, and species from the tribe Pyreae (i.e., Malus, Pyrus, Sorbus) revealed different numbers of genes determining S-pollen specificity. In Prunus only one pistil and pollen gene determine GSI, while in Pyreae there is one pistil but multiple pollen genes, implying different specificity recognition mechanisms. It is thus conceivable that within Rosaceae the genes involved in GSI in the two lineages are not orthologous but possibly paralogous. To address this hypothesis we characterised the S-RNase lineage and S-pollen lineage genes present in the genomes of five Rosaceae species from three genera: M. × domestica (apple, self-incompatible (SI); tribe Pyreae), P. persica (peach, self-compatible (SC); Amygdaleae), P. mume (mei, SI; Amygdaleae), Fragaria vesca (strawberry, SC; Potentilleae), and F. nipponica (mori-ichigo, SI; Potentilleae). Phylogenetic analyses revealed that the Malus and Prunus S-RNase and S-pollen genes belong to distinct gene lineages, and that only Prunus S-RNase and SFB-lineage genes are present in Fragaria. Thus, S-RNase based GSI system of Malus evolved independently from the ancestral system of Rosaceae. Using expression patterns based on RNA-seq data, the ancestral S-RNase lineage gene is inferred to be expressed in pistils only, while the ancestral S-pollen lineage gene is inferred to be expressed in tissues other than pollen.

  19. Archaeological Evidence for Peach (Prunus persica) Cultivation and Domestication in China

    OpenAIRE

    Yunfei Zheng; Gary W Crawford; Xugao Chen

    2014-01-01

    The cultivated/domesticated peach (Prunus persica var. persica; Rosaceae, subgenus Amygdalus; synonym: Amygdalus persica) originated in China, but its wild ancestor, as well as where, when, and under what circumstances the peach was domesticated, is poorly known. Five populations of archaeological peach stones recovered from Zhejiang Province, China, document peach use and evolution beginning ca. 8000 BP. The majority of the archaeological sites from which the earliest peach stones have been ...

  20. Sour Cherry (Prunus cerasus L) Anthocyanins as Ingredients for Functional Foods

    OpenAIRE

    Federica Blando; Carmela Gerardi; Isabella Nicoletti

    2004-01-01

    In the recent years many studies on anthocyanins have revealed their strong antioxidant activity and their possible use as chemotherapeutics. The finding that sour cherries (Prunus cerasus L) (also called tart cherries) contain high levels of anthocyanins that possess strong antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties has attracted much attention to this species. Here we report the preliminary results of the induction of anthocyanin biosynthesis in sour cherry callus cell cultures. The evalu...

  1. Arbuscular mycorrhiza technology applied to micropropagated Prunus avium and to protection against Phytophthora cinnamomi

    OpenAIRE

    Cordier, Christelle; Trouvelot, A; GIANINAZZI, Silvio; Gianinazzi-Pearson, Vivienne

    1996-01-01

    Deux champignons endomycorhizogenes a arbuscules (Glomus intraradices, Glomus caledonium), introduits pendant la periode d'acclimatation, ont ete testes pour leur pouvoir infectieux et leur effet sur la croissance de plants micropropages de merisiers (Prunus avium L) transplantes dans deux differents sols neutres, prealablement desinfectes ou non. Les vitroplants endomycorhizes presentent une meilleure croissance que les plantes temoins sur les deux sols desinfectes. L'importance de l'augment...

  2. A new insight in desiccation tolerance and cryopreservation of mazzard cherry (Prunus avium L.) seeds

    OpenAIRE

    Michalak Marcin; Plitta-Michalak Beata P.; Chmielarz Paweł

    2015-01-01

    A variable response of Prunus avium L. seeds to desiccation and storage in liquid nitrogen (LN) has been reported in the literature. The majority of these experiments were conducted on initially dried seeds. The desiccation and LN exposure tolerance of fresh P. avium seeds is unknown. In the present study, fresh seeds were used to determine seed response to desiccation and cryopreservation. Desiccation of seeds from a moisture content (MC) of 19.7-20.2% to 10.1-10.9% o...

  3. Seed-borne fungi of the afromontane tree species Podocarpus falcatus and Prunus africana in Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Gure, Abdella

    2004-01-01

    This thesis is comprised of four studies regarding seed-borne fungi of the afromontane forest trees, Podocarpus falcatus (Thunb. Mirb.) and Prunus africana (Hook. F.) Kalkman, in Ethiopia. Based on morphology and molecular data from the rDNA (ITS) region, a diverse group of mainly Ascomycota, some Basidiomycota and a few Zygomycota were identified. Phylogenetic analysis of the ITS sequences revealed several clades differentiated according to the host. Some of these fungi were previously repor...

  4. Efficacy study of Prunus amygdalus (almond) nuts in scopolamine-induced amnesia in rats

    OpenAIRE

    Kulkarni, Kirti S.; Kasture, S.B.; Mengi, S.A.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Cognitive disorders such as amnesia, attention deficit and Alzheimer’s disease are emerging nightmares in the field of medicine because no exact cure exists for them, as existing nootropic agents (piractam, tacrine, metrifonate) have several limitations. The present study was undertaken to investigate the effect of Prunus amygdalus (PA) nuts on cognitive functions, total cholesterol levels and cholinesterase (ChE) activity in scopolamine-induced amnesia in rats. Materials and Metho...

  5. Characterization of sour (Prunus cerasus L. and sweet cherry (Prunus avium L. varieties with five isozyme systems Caracterização de variedades de ginjeira (Prunus cerasus L. e cerejeira (Prunus avium L. em cinco sistemas isoenzimáticos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Remedios Morales Corts

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Extracts from young leaves of nine sweet cherry (Prunus avium L. and eight sour cherry (Prunus cerasus L. varieties, located in the germplasm collection of the 'Direção Regional de Agricultura da Beira Interior' (Fundão, Portugal, were analysed for five isozyme systems in order to characterise these varieties and detect problems of synonymies and homonymies that frequently present. The sweet and sour cherry varieties analyzed showed low isoenzymatic polymorphism, being PGM and PGI the systems with the highest discrimination power. These systems presented seven and five different zymogrames, respectively. IDH showed four patterns. SKDH and 6-PGD grouped the varieties only into two patterns. The evident and discriminant restrictions of this type of analysis had got results that have only been a complement for agronomical and morphological characterization.Nove extratos de folhas com desenvolvimento encompleto foram obtidos de 9 variedades de cerejeira (Prunus avium L. e 8 de ginjeira (Prunus cerasus L., localizados no campo de germoplasma da "Direcção Regional de Agricultura da Beira Interior" (Fundão, Portugal. Esses extratos foram analisados para 5 sistemas isoenzimáticos a fim de caracterizar essas variedades e simultaneamente detectar sinonímias e homonímias, freqüentes neste tipo de estudos. As variedades de cerejeira e ginjeira analisadas mostraram baixo polimorfismo isoenzimático, sendo que os sistemas PGM e PGI mostraram maior poder de discriminação. Estes sistemas apresentaram 7 e 5 zimogramas diferentes, respectivamente. IDH mostrou 4 padrões. SKDH e 6-PGD agruparam as variedades em 2 padrões. Os evidentes limites discriminatórios desse tipo de análise serviram somente de complemento para a caracterização agronômica e morfológica.

  6. Transcriptomic analysis of Prunus domestica undergoing hypersensitive response to plum pox virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodamilans, Bernardo; San León, David; Mühlberger, Louisa; Candresse, Thierry; Neumüller, Michael; Oliveros, Juan Carlos; García, Juan Antonio

    2014-01-01

    Plum pox virus (PPV) infects Prunus trees around the globe, posing serious fruit production problems and causing severe economic losses. One variety of Prunus domestica, named 'Jojo', develops a hypersensitive response to viral infection. Here we compared infected and non-infected samples using next-generation RNA sequencing to characterize the genetic complexity of the viral population in infected samples and to identify genes involved in development of the resistance response. Analysis of viral reads from the infected samples allowed reconstruction of a PPV-D consensus sequence. De novo reconstruction showed a second viral isolate of the PPV-Rec strain. RNA-seq analysis of PPV-infected 'Jojo' trees identified 2,234 and 786 unigenes that were significantly up- or downregulated, respectively (false discovery rate; FDR≤0.01). Expression of genes associated with defense was generally enhanced, while expression of those related to photosynthesis was repressed. Of the total of 3,020 differentially expressed unigenes, 154 were characterized as potential resistance genes, 10 of which were included in the NBS-LRR type. Given their possible role in plant defense, we selected 75 additional unigenes as candidates for further study. The combination of next-generation sequencing and a Prunus variety that develops a hypersensitive response to PPV infection provided an opportunity to study the factors involved in this plant defense mechanism. Transcriptomic analysis presented an overview of the changes that occur during PPV infection as a whole, and identified candidates suitable for further functional characterization.

  7. Transcriptomic analysis of Prunus domestica undergoing hypersensitive response to plum pox virus infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernardo Rodamilans

    Full Text Available Plum pox virus (PPV infects Prunus trees around the globe, posing serious fruit production problems and causing severe economic losses. One variety of Prunus domestica, named 'Jojo', develops a hypersensitive response to viral infection. Here we compared infected and non-infected samples using next-generation RNA sequencing to characterize the genetic complexity of the viral population in infected samples and to identify genes involved in development of the resistance response. Analysis of viral reads from the infected samples allowed reconstruction of a PPV-D consensus sequence. De novo reconstruction showed a second viral isolate of the PPV-Rec strain. RNA-seq analysis of PPV-infected 'Jojo' trees identified 2,234 and 786 unigenes that were significantly up- or downregulated, respectively (false discovery rate; FDR≤0.01. Expression of genes associated with defense was generally enhanced, while expression of those related to photosynthesis was repressed. Of the total of 3,020 differentially expressed unigenes, 154 were characterized as potential resistance genes, 10 of which were included in the NBS-LRR type. Given their possible role in plant defense, we selected 75 additional unigenes as candidates for further study. The combination of next-generation sequencing and a Prunus variety that develops a hypersensitive response to PPV infection provided an opportunity to study the factors involved in this plant defense mechanism. Transcriptomic analysis presented an overview of the changes that occur during PPV infection as a whole, and identified candidates suitable for further functional characterization.

  8. Simple sequence repeat-based assessment of genetic relationships among Prunus rootstocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turkoglu, Z; Bilgener, S; Ercisli, S; Bakir, M; Koc, A; Akbulut, M; Gercekcioglu, R; Gunes, M; Esitken, A

    2010-01-01

    Ten SSR loci, previously developed for Prunus, were analyzed to examine genetic relationships among 23 rootstock candidates for sweet and sour cherries, of the species P. avium, P. cerasus, P. mahaleb, and P. angustifolia. Five genotypes of P. laurocerasus, not used as rootstock, were included in the molecular analysis. The number of alleles per locus ranged from 8 to 12, with a mean of 9, while the number of microsatellite genotypes varied from 8 to 17, indicating that the SSRs were highly informative. The degree of heterozygosity (0.61) was high. Clustering analysis resulted in two main clusters. The first cluster was divided into two subclusters; the first subcluster consisted of P. avium and P. cerasus, and the second subcluster consisted of P. laurocerasus. The second cluster was divided into two subclusters. The first subcluster consisted of P. mahaleb genotypes and the second consisted of P. angustifolia genotypes. The reference rootstocks also clustered with their associated botanical species. Unweighted pair-group method with arithmetic mean analysis demonstrated that P. laurocerasus genotypes had less genetic variation and that P. avium genotypes were more closely related to P. cerasus. The SSR-based phylogeny was generally consistent with Prunus taxonomy information, suggesting the applicability of SSR analysis for genotyping and phylogenetic studies in the genus Prunus. PMID:21053179

  9. Wild Prunus Fruit Species as a Rich Source of Bioactive Compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikulic-Petkovsek, Maja; Stampar, Franci; Veberic, Robert; Sircelj, Helena

    2016-08-01

    Sugars, organic acids, carotenoids, tocopherols, chlorophylls, and phenolic compounds were quantified in fruit of 4 wild growing Prunus species (wild cherry, bird cherry, blackthorn, and mahaleb cherry) using HPLC-DAD-MSn. In wild Prunus, the major sugars were glucose and fructose, whereas malic and citric acids dominated among organic acids. The most abundant classes of phenolic compounds in the analyzed fruit species were anthocyanins, flavonols, derivatives of cinnamic acids, and flavanols. Two major groups of anthocyanins measured in Prunus fruits were cyanidin-3-rutinoside and cyanidin-3-glucoside. Flavonols were represented by 19 derivatives of quercetin, 10 derivatives of kaempferol, and 2 derivatives of isorhamnetin. The highest total flavonol content was measured in mahaleb cherry and bird cherry, followed by blackthorn and wild cherry fruit. Total phenolic content varied from 2373 (wild cherry) to 11053 mg GAE per kg (bird cherry) and ferric reducing antioxidant power antioxidant activity from 7.26 to 31.54 mM trolox equivalents per kg fruits. PMID:27464261

  10. Detection of Self Incompatibility Genotypes in Prunus africana: Characterization, Evolution and Spatial Analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith Ssali Nantongo

    Full Text Available In flowering plants, self-incompatibility is an effective genetic mechanism that prevents self-fertilization. Most Prunus tree species exhibit a homomorphic gametophytic self-incompatibility (GSI system, in which the pollen phenotype is encoded by its own haploid genome. To date, no identification of S-alleles had been done in Prunus africana, the only member of the genus in Africa. To identify S-RNase alleles and hence determine S-genotypes in African cherry (Prunus africana from Mabira Forest Reserve, Uganda, primers flanking the first and second intron were designed and these amplified two bands in most individuals. PCR bands on agarose indicated 26 and 8 different S-alleles for second and first intron respectively. Partial or full sequences were obtained for all these fragments. Comparison with published S-RNase data indicated that the amplified products were S-RNase alleles with very high interspecies homology despite the high intraspecific variation. Against expectations for a locus under balancing selection, frequency and spatial distribution of the alleles in a study plot was not random. Implications of the results to breeding efforts in the species are discussed, and mating experiments are strongly suggested to finally prove the functionality of SI in P. africana.

  11. Detection of Self Incompatibility Genotypes in Prunus africana: Characterization, Evolution and Spatial Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nantongo, Judith Ssali; Eilu, Gerald; Geburek, Thomas; Schueler, Silvio; Konrad, Heino

    2016-01-01

    In flowering plants, self-incompatibility is an effective genetic mechanism that prevents self-fertilization. Most Prunus tree species exhibit a homomorphic gametophytic self-incompatibility (GSI) system, in which the pollen phenotype is encoded by its own haploid genome. To date, no identification of S-alleles had been done in Prunus africana, the only member of the genus in Africa. To identify S-RNase alleles and hence determine S-genotypes in African cherry (Prunus africana) from Mabira Forest Reserve, Uganda, primers flanking the first and second intron were designed and these amplified two bands in most individuals. PCR bands on agarose indicated 26 and 8 different S-alleles for second and first intron respectively. Partial or full sequences were obtained for all these fragments. Comparison with published S-RNase data indicated that the amplified products were S-RNase alleles with very high interspecies homology despite the high intraspecific variation. Against expectations for a locus under balancing selection, frequency and spatial distribution of the alleles in a study plot was not random. Implications of the results to breeding efforts in the species are discussed, and mating experiments are strongly suggested to finally prove the functionality of SI in P. africana.

  12. Endogenous hormones response to cytokinins with regard to organogenesis in explants of peach (Prunus persica L. Batsch) cultivars and rootstocks (P. persica × Prunus dulcis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Jiménez, Margarita; Cantero-Navarro, Elena; Pérez-Alfocea, Francisco; Cos-Terrer, José

    2014-11-01

    Organogenesis in peach (Prunus persica L. Batsch) and peach rootstocks (P. persica × Prunus dulcis) has been achieved and the action of the regeneration medium on 7 phytohormones, zeatin (Z), zeatin riboside (ZR), indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), abscisic acid (ABA), ethylene precursor 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC), salicylic acid (SA), and jasmonic acid (JA), has been studied using High performance liquid chromatography - mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS). Three scion peach cultivars, 'UFO-3', 'Flariba' and 'Alice Bigi', and the peach × almond rootstocks 'Garnem' and 'GF677' were cultured in two different media, Murashige and Skoog supplemented with plant growth regulators (PGRs) (regeneration medium) and without PGRs (control medium), in order to study the effects of the media and/or genotypes in the endogenous hormones content and their role in organogenesis. The highest regeneration rate was obtained with the peach × almond rootstocks and showed a lower content of Z, IAA, ABA, ACC and JA. Only Z, ZR and IAA were affected by the action of the culture media. This study shows which hormones are external PGRs-dependent and what is the weight of the genotype and hormones in peach organogenesis that provide an avenue to manipulate in vitro organogenesis in peach.

  13. Endogenous hormones response to cytokinins with regard to organogenesis in explants of peach (Prunus persica L. Batsch) cultivars and rootstocks (P. persica × Prunus dulcis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Jiménez, Margarita; Cantero-Navarro, Elena; Pérez-Alfocea, Francisco; Cos-Terrer, José

    2014-11-01

    Organogenesis in peach (Prunus persica L. Batsch) and peach rootstocks (P. persica × Prunus dulcis) has been achieved and the action of the regeneration medium on 7 phytohormones, zeatin (Z), zeatin riboside (ZR), indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), abscisic acid (ABA), ethylene precursor 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC), salicylic acid (SA), and jasmonic acid (JA), has been studied using High performance liquid chromatography - mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS). Three scion peach cultivars, 'UFO-3', 'Flariba' and 'Alice Bigi', and the peach × almond rootstocks 'Garnem' and 'GF677' were cultured in two different media, Murashige and Skoog supplemented with plant growth regulators (PGRs) (regeneration medium) and without PGRs (control medium), in order to study the effects of the media and/or genotypes in the endogenous hormones content and their role in organogenesis. The highest regeneration rate was obtained with the peach × almond rootstocks and showed a lower content of Z, IAA, ABA, ACC and JA. Only Z, ZR and IAA were affected by the action of the culture media. This study shows which hormones are external PGRs-dependent and what is the weight of the genotype and hormones in peach organogenesis that provide an avenue to manipulate in vitro organogenesis in peach. PMID:25289519

  14. Construction and ESTs Analysis of a Normalized Full-Length cDNA Library of Brown Prunus salicina%(木奈)褐变果实均一化全长cDNA文库的构建及部分ESTs序列分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜翠翠; 陈桂信; 潘东明; 赖燕; 郑鸿昌

    2013-01-01

    以发生褐变初期的(木奈)果肉总RNA为材料,对SMARTTM cDNA合成方法进行改良,并将长距离PCR、DSN处理和定向克隆相结合,成功构建(木奈)褐变果实均一化全长cDNA文库.经检测,该文库的初始滴度为2.0×106 pfu/mL,重组率为99%,插入片段大小平均为1.8 kb,文库质量良好.随机挑取720个阳性克隆进行5'EST测序,共获得684条有效的ESTs序列;并将684条有效序列拼接后,58条被组装成21个重叠群(contigs),单拷贝(singlets)基因有626条,共得到647个单基因簇(unigenes),文库冗余率为8.4%.用Blast 2 go在线软件对测序结果进行功能注释和归类分析,结果显示,已知功能基因与能量代谢、蛋白质合成与降解、次生代谢物质、细胞壁代谢和转录因子有关.该文库的构建有利于从分子水平上研究(木奈)果实褐变发生的机制.%Total RNA was extracted from the fruit of "Oil Nai" with beginning of browning. The full-length normalized cDNA library was constructed by the combination of long distance PCR, DSN (Duplex -Specific Nuclease) treatment and directed cloning. The titer of primary library was about 2.0 ×106 pfu/mL and 99% clones were recombinant, and the length of insert cDNAs was about 1.8 kb. The cDNA library was well normalized with 8.4% redundancy. A total of 720 random clones in this cDNA library were then sequenced by 5EST. A total of valid 684 ESTs were attained by fragment assembly, removing the contaminated sequences and frameshift mutation. Then 647 unigenes were attained, which included 21 contigs and 626 singlets. Annotation by the online Blast 2 go search against Genbank database on NCBI web server revealed that most of the genes with predicted function were related to energy metabolism, protein synthesis, degradation of secondary metabolites, cell wall metabolism and transcription factors. These results would lead to further research of mechanism of browning fruit in molecular level and develop good foundation of cloning related important genes of browning from "Oil Nai" .

  15. Genetic and molecular characterization of three novel S-haplotypes in sour cherry (Prunus cerasus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsukamoto, Tatsuya; Potter, Daniel; Tao, Ryutaro; Vieira, Cristina P; Vieira, Jorge; Iezzoni, Amy F

    2008-01-01

    Tetraploid sour cherry (Prunus cerasus L.) exhibits gametophytic self-incompatibility (GSI) whereby the specificity of self-pollen rejection is controlled by alleles of the stylar and pollen specificity genes, S-RNase and SFB (S haplotype-specific F-box protein gene), respectively. As sour cherry selections can be either self-compatible (SC) or self-incompatible (SI), polyploidy per se does not result in SC. Instead the genotype-dependent loss of SI in sour cherry is due to the accumulation of non-functional S-haplotypes. The presence of two or more non-functional S-haplotypes within sour cherry 2x pollen renders that pollen SC. Two new S-haplotypes from sour cherry, S(33) and S(34), that are presumed to be contributed by the P. fruticosa species parent, the complete S-RNase and SFB sequences of a third S-haplotype, S(35), plus the presence of two previously identified sweet cherry S-haplotypes, S(14) and S(16) are described here. Genetic segregation data demonstrated that the S(16)-, S(33)-, S(34)-, and S(35)-haplotypes present in sour cherry are fully functional. This result is consistent with our previous finding that 'hetero-allelic' pollen is incompatible in sour cherry. Phylogenetic analyses of the SFB and S-RNase sequences from available Prunus species reveal that the relationships among S-haplotypes show no correspondence to known organismal relationships at any taxonomic level within Prunus, indicating that polymorphisms at the S-locus have been maintained throughout the evolution of the genus. Furthermore, the phylogenetic relationships among SFB sequences are generally incongruent with those among S-RNase sequences for the same S-haplotypes. Hypotheses compatible with these results are discussed. PMID:18617504

  16. Melatonin enhances root regeneration, photosynthetic pigments, biomass, total carbohydrates and proline content in the cherry rootstock PHL-C (Prunus avium × Prunus cerasus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarropoulou, Virginia; Dimassi-Theriou, Kortessa; Therios, Ioannis; Koukourikou-Petridou, Magdalene

    2012-12-01

    The present study, investigates the effects of melatonin (0, 0.05, 0.1, 0.5, 1, 5 and 10 μM) on the morphogenic and biochemical responses in the cherry rootstock PHL-C (Prunus avium L. × Prunus cerasus L.), from shoot tip explants. The incorporation of melatonin (0-10 μM) in the Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium, greatly influenced rooting either positively or negatively. Melatonin, irrespective of its concentration, had a negative effect concerning the number of roots. However, application of 0.5 μM melatonin significantly increased the root length; while 1 μM melatonin increased the root length by 2.5 times, and the fresh weight of the roots by 4 times, in comparison to the control. Although 0.05 μM melatonin increased rooting by 11.11%, 5 μM melatonin had a significant reduction on the number, the fresh weight of roots, and the rooting percentage. Melatonin concentration of 0.1 μM resulted in the greatest chlorophyll (a + b) content, and 5-10 μM reduced the chlorophyll concentration by 2 times, compared to the control. The high melatonin concentrations (5 and 10 μM), increased the levels of proline and carbohydrates in leaves by 3-4 times. In the roots, 0.5 μM of melatonin concentration increased the carbohydrate levels by 1.5 times, while 0.05, 0.1 and 1 μM melatonin concentration significantly reduced the proline content. PMID:23127522

  17. Genetic Engineering of Black Cherry (Prunus serotina) for Reproductive Sterility and Insect Pest Resistance

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Ying(School of Physics, Shandong University, Jinan, 250100, PR China)

    2013-01-01

    Black cherry (Prunus serotina Ehrh.) is one of the most valuable hardwoods for high- end cabinetry, furniture, architectural millwork, paneling, and veneer. However, the damage caused by cambial-mining insect pests triggers gummosis in black cherry, a non-specific defense response in which resinous gum is deposited at the site of injury. The gum defects dramatically decrease the yield of high-quality black cherry lumber, and the value can be reduced by as much as 90%. The goal of this project...

  18. PRUNUS SERRULATA VAR. 'KANZAN' MICROSHOOTS BEHAVIOUR DURING IN VITRO ROOTING AND ACCLIMATIZATION PHASES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Duţă

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents aspects regarding in vitro rooting and acclimatization percentages of Prunus serrulata var. Kanzan vitroplants. During in vitro rooting stage, good results were obtained using a nutrient medium with the following composition: halved Murashige - Skoog mineral salts, Linsmaier – Skoog vitamins, gibberellic acid (GA 0.1 mg/l, indolelacetic acid (IAA 1.0 mg/l, activated carbon 0.3 mg/l, iron chelate 38 mg/l, 30 g/l dextrose, 7 g/l agar. The substrate recommended for acclimatization of in vitro plants is composed of black peat + perlite (1:1, at pH = 6.0.

  19. Unique expression, processing regulation, and regulatory network of peach (Prunus persica) miRNAs

    OpenAIRE

    Zhu Hong; Xia Rui; Zhao Bingyu; An Yong-qiang; Dardick Chris D; Callahan Ann M; Liu Zongrang

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have recently emerged as important gene regulators in plants. MiRNAs and their targets have been extensively studied in Arabidopsis and rice. However, relatively little is known about the characterization of miRNAs and their target genes in peach (Prunus persica), which is a complex crop with unique developmental programs. Results We performed small RNA deep sequencing and identified 47 peach-specific and 47 known miRNAs or families with distinct express...

  20. Molecular characterization of three non-functional S-haplotypes in sour cherry (Prunus cerasus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsukamoto, Tatsuya; Hauck, Nathanael R; Tao, Ryutaro; Jiang, Ning; Iezzoni, Amy F

    2006-10-01

    Tetraploid sour cherry (Prunus cerasus) exhibits a genotype-dependent loss of gametophytic self-incompatibility that is caused by the accumulation of non-functional S-haplotypes with disrupted pistil component (stylar-S) and/or pollen component (pollen-S) function. Genetic studies using diverse sour cherry germplasm identified non-functional S-haplotypes for which an equivalent wild-type S-haplotype was present in sweet cherry (Prunus avium), a diploid progenitor of sour cherry. In all cases, the non-functional S-haplotype resulted from mutations affecting the stylar component S-RNase or Prunus pollen component S-haplotype-specific F-box protein (SFB). This study determines the molecular bases of three of these S-haplotypes that confer unilateral incompatibility, two stylar-part mutants (S(6m2) and S(13m)) and one pollen-part mutant (S(13)'). Compared to their wild-type alleles, S(6m2)-RNase has a 1 bp deletion, S(13m) -RNase has a 23 bp deletion and SFB(13)' has a 1 bp substitution that lead to premature stop codons. Transcripts were identified for these three alleles, S(6m2)-RNase, S(13m)-RNase, and SFB(13)', however, these transcripts presumably result in altered proteins with a resulting loss of activity. Our characterization of natural pollen-part and stylar-part mutants in sour cherry along with other natural S-haplotype mutants identified in Prunus supports the view that loss of pollen specificity and stylar rejection evolve independently and are caused by structural alterations affecting the S-haplotype. The prevalence of non-functional S-haplotypes in sour cherry but not in sweet cherry (a diploid) suggests that polyploidization and gene duplication were indirectly responsible for the dysfunction of some S-haplotypes and the emergence of self-compatibility in sour cherry. This resembles the specific mode of evolution in yeast where accelerated evolution occurred to one member of the duplicated gene pair. PMID:16915517

  1. Propagation of the endangered Azorean cherry Prunus azorica using stem cuttings and air layering

    OpenAIRE

    Moreira, O.; José Martins; Luís Silva; Mónica Moura

    2009-01-01

    Prunus azorica (Hort. ex Mouillef.) Rivas Mart., Lousã, Fern. Prieto, E. Dias, J.C. Costa & C. Aguiar is an endangered tree endemic to the Azores, with an ecological and ornamental interest. The objective of this study was to determine the conditions necessary for the successful propagation of P. azorica by stem cuttings and air-layering. Stem cuttings collected in March with two apical leaf pairs pruned to 1/3 of their leaf area were submitted to different treatments, including a basal split...

  2. La cryoconservation des semences dormantes orthodoxes des arbres forestiers : le merisier (Prunus avium L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Chmielarz, Paweł

    2009-01-01

    International audience * The sensitivity of dormant seeds of mazzard cherry (Prunus avium L.) of Polish provenances to extreme desiccation and/or the ultra-low temperature of liquid nitrogen, LN (− 196 °C), was investigated to identify the optimum seed water content (w.c.) at this temperature.* Germination and seedling emergence tests in this study showed that there is no critical seed w.c. for deeply desiccated seeds (stone w.c. 1.6%), although such desiccated seeds were sensitive to the ...

  3. MIKRORAZMNOŽAVANJE DIVLJE TREŠNJE (Prunus avium L.) IZ KLONSKE SJEMENSKE PLANTAŽE

    OpenAIRE

    TANČEVA CRMARIĆ, Olivera; Kajba, Davorin

    2016-01-01

    Velika pozornost pridaje se divljoj trešnji (Prunus avium L.) zbog plemenitog i visokovrijednog drva, ali i zbog važnosti očuvanja njezine genetičke raznolikosti. Oplemenjivanje divlje trešnje uobičajenim metodama uzgoja mogao bi biti vrlo spor proces, otežan time da je u prirodi teško dobiti redovne i dovoljne količine sjemena. Iako osnivanje klonskih sjemenskih plantaža osigurava redovitiji prinos kvalitetnog sjemena, ipak ostaje ovisnost od vremenskih prilika koje utječu na cvjetanje tj. p...

  4. First Occurence of Fire Blight on Apricot (Prunus armeniaca) in Hungary

    OpenAIRE

    Végh, Anita; László PALKOVICS

    2013-01-01

    During July 2012, a severe unusual disease symptom was observed on young shoots on apricot (Prunus armeniaca 10/13 hybrid) in the city of Pomáz, near Budapest. The naturally infected shoots showed typical symptoms of fire blight including terminal shoots with brown to black necrotic lesions. Symptoms were the same as fire blight symptoms reported from other hosts and locations. The first occurrence of fire blight on an apricot tree in Europe was recorded in Czech Republic in 2011. Samples of ...

  5. [Treatment of prostatic disorders with a combination of Prunus africana and benzidamine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad Samhan, K

    1980-01-01

    A combination of Prunus africana and benzidamine has been administered to thirty-seven patients suffering from several prostate processes, with a predominance of prostatites and prostate adenoma into first two phases in the male and pseudoprostatism in the female. The patients' ages ranged between 28 and 82 years. Good results were achieved in 90% of the cases and there was perfect tolerance in 85%. The authors explain the methods of study and discuss the results. As there are no toxic or hormone risks, their final conclusion is to recommend this combination for prostate patients before attempting any other solution.

  6. Identification of components of Prunus africana extract that inhibit lipid peroxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hass, M A; Nowak, D M; Leonova, E; Levin, R M; Longhurst, P A

    1999-11-01

    Extractive and chromatographic separations were performed on V-1326, a chloroform extract from the bark of Prunus africana (also referred to as Pygeum africanum), which is used to treat the symptoms associated with benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH). The relative amounts of eleven identified constituents in crude V-1326 and in separated fractions were determined using gas chromatographic analysis. The ability of V-1326 and its separated fractions to inhibit ferrous ion-induced stimulation of lipid peroxidation in microsomal preparations from rabbit livers was evaluated. The extract, V-1326, and fractions containing high levels of myristic acid potently inhibited lipid peroxidation.

  7. Prokinetic Activity of Prunus persica (L. Batsch Flowers Extract and Its Possible Mechanism of Action in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Han

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The peach tree, Prunus persica (L. Batsch, is widely cultivated in China, and its flowers have been used for centuries in traditional Chinese medicine to treat gut motility disorders. But few studies have explored the pharmacological effect of Prunus persica (L. Batsch flowers on gastrointestinal motility. In this study, the activities of different extracts from Prunus persica (L. Batsch flowers on the smooth muscle contractions were evaluated using isolated colon model, and the ethyl acetate extract (EAE showed the strongest effects in vitro. EAE (10−8–10−5 g/mL caused a concentration-dependent stimulatory effect in rat colonic tissue. Additionally, ketotifen (100 µM, cimetidine (10 µM, and pyrilamine (1 µM produced a significant inhibition of contractions caused by EAE. Furthermore, immunofluorescence and toluidine blue staining revealed increased numbers of mast cells in the EAE group, and EAE increased histamine release from the colonic tissues. These data indicate that EAE has significant prokinetic activity and acts by a mechanism that mainly involves mast cell degranulation. Our study provides a pharmacological basis for the use of an extract of Prunus persica (L. Batsch flowers in the treatment of gut motility disorders.

  8. Botryosphaeriaceae as potential pathogens of Prunus species in South Africa, with descriptions of Diplodia africana and Lasiodiplodia plurivora sp. nov.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Damm, U.; Crous, P.W.; Fourie, P.H.

    2007-01-01

    Botryosphaeriaceae are common dieback and canker pathogens of woody host plants, including stone fruit trees. In the present study the diversity of members of the Botryosphaeriaceae isolated from symptomatic wood of Prunus species (plum, peach, nectarine and apricot) was determined in stone fruit-gr

  9. Botryosphaeriaceae as potential pathogens of prunus species in South Africa, with descriptions of Diplodia africana and Lasiodiplodia plurivora sp. nov

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Damm, Ulrike; Crous, Pedro W; Fourie, Paul H

    2008-01-01

    Botryosphaeriaceae are common dieback and canker pathogens of woody host plants, including stone fruit trees. In the present study the diversity of members of the Botryosphaeriaceae isolated from symptomatic wood of Prunus species (plum, peach, nectarine and apricot) was determined in stone fruit-gr

  10. A fissitunicate ascus mechanism in the Calosphaeriaceae, and novel species of Jattaea and Calosphaeria on Prunus wood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Damm, U.; Crous, P.W.; Fourie, P.H.

    2008-01-01

    During a survey of Prunus wood from South Africa, isolations were made of three presumably Calosphaerialean fungi that formed hyphomycetous, phialidic anamorphs in culture. In order to reveal the phylogenetic relationship of these fungi, they were characterised on a morphological and molecular (LSU

  11. Seed washing, exogenous application of gibberellic acid, and cold stratification enhance the germination of sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.) seed

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Javanmard, T.; Zamani, Z.; Keshavarz Afshar, R.; Hashemi, M.; Struik, P.C.

    2014-01-01

    Seed germination in sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.) is a slow and lengthy process which has delayed breeding efforts. In this study, seed from ripe fruit of the sweet cherry cultivar ‘Lambert’ were collected and, after removing the endocarp, various dormancy-breaking treatments such as seed washing,

  12. Brown Rot Strikes Prunus Fruit: An Ancient Fight Almost Always Lost.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira Lino, Leandro; Pacheco, Igor; Mercier, Vincent; Faoro, Franco; Bassi, Daniele; Bornard, Isabelle; Quilot-Turion, Bénédicte

    2016-05-25

    Brown rot (BR) caused by Monilinia spp., has been an economic problem for the stone fruit market due to dramatic losses, mainly during the postharvest period. There is much literature about basic aspects of Monilinia spp. infection, which indicates that environment significantly influences its occurrence in the orchard. However, progress is needed to sustainably limit this disease: the pathogen is able to develop resistance to pesticides, and most of BR resistance research programs in plant models perish. Solving this problem becomes important due to the need to decrease chemical treatments and reduce residues on fruit. Thus, research has recently increased, exploring a wide range of disease control strategies (e.g., genetic, chemical, physical). Summarizing this information is difficult, as studies evaluate different Monilinia and Prunus model species, with diverse strategies and protocols. Thus, the purpose of this review is to present the diversity and distribution of agents causing BR, focusing on the biochemical mechanisms of Monilinia spp. infection both of the fungi and of the fruit, and report on the resistance sources in Prunus germplasm. This review comprehensively compiles the information currently available to better understand mechanisms related to BR resistance. PMID:27133976

  13. Root density of cherry trees grafted on prunus mahaleb in a semi-arid region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paltineanu, Cristian; Septar, Leinar; Gavat, Corina; Chitu, Emil; Oprita, Alexandru; Moale, Cristina; Lamureanu, Gheorghe; Vrinceanu, Andrei

    2016-07-01

    Root density was investigated using the trench method in a cherry (Prunus avium grafted on Prunus mahaleb) orchard with clean cultivation in inter-rows and in-row. Trenches of 1 m width and 1.2 m depth were dug up between neighbouring trees. The objectives of the paper were to clarify the spatial distribution of root density of cherry trees under the soil and climate conditions of the region to expand knowledge of optimum planting distance and orchard management for a broad area of chernozems. Some soil physical properties were significantly worsened in inter-rows versus in-row, mainly due to soil compaction, and there were higher root density values in in-row versus inter-rows. Root density decreased more intensely with soil depth than with distance from trees. The pattern of root density suggests that the cherry tree density and fruit yield could be increased. However, other factors concerning orchard management and fruit yield should also be considered. The results obtained have a potential impact to improve irrigation and fertilizer application by various methods, considering the soil depth and distance from trees to wet soil, in accordance with root development.

  14. Geometric correlation of cultural landscape patterns and Prunus domestica L. species leaf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jović Biljana

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides the basics for more detailed research on the structures of bionic forms of different plant species and their application in the domain of landscape planning. The aim of this type of research is to expand knowledge of landscape planning with a deeper understanding of different geometric relations present in the existing natural forms. The correlation between structures in nature and structures that are present in contemporary landscape architecture could be established by the congruence with the geometric models from landscape. This paper is focused solely on the geometry of natural forms. The Voronoi diagram was used in order to examine the similarities and to perform a comparative analysis of the Prunus domestica L. leaf geometry and the geometry of cultural landscapes of Central Serbia. The resulting Voronoi diagram shows the similarity based on closed fields, Voronoi cells, which correspond to the nervation of Prunus domestica L. leaf by form. Using the comparative analysis, the geometric interpretation of cultural landscape examples could be linked to the geometric structure of the most frequent fruit tree species.

  15. Analysis of phenolic compounds in six Norwegian plum cultivars (Prunus domestica L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slimestad, Rune; Vangdal, Eivind; Brede, Cato

    2009-12-01

    Six European plum cultivars ( Prunus domestica L.) grown in Norway have been studied with respect to phenolic composition. Neochlorogenic acid was found to be the most important phenolic acid in all cultivars. Together with other phenolic acids, this compound varied significantly in amount among the cultivars. Cyanidin 3-rutinoside was found to account for >60% of the total anthocyanin content. Minor amounts of flavonols (rutin and quercetin 3-glucoside) were detected in all cultivars. Total antioxidant capacity varied from 814 to 290 micromol of Trolox 100 g(-1) of fresh weight. Measurement of total phenolic content in terms of Prussian blue complex formation revealed a method failure of magnitude order compared to results obtained by HPLC. Comparison of the response factors of a range of phenolic compounds obtained upon analysis by the Prussian blue and Folin-Ciocalteu assays revealed that the latter method returned higher yields in terms of gallic acid (GAE).

  16. Physical and Chemical Properties of Some European Plum Cultivars (Prunus domestica L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mira Elena IONICA

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Fruits from twelve plum cultivars (Prunus domestica L., were analyzed in terms of physical and chemical characteristics. The fruits trees were grown in a trial at University of Craiova - Fruit Growing Research Station (SCDP Valcea, which is located in Bujoreni, an important Romanian plum production area. Fruits were picked at harvest maturity. Several analyzes were performed, such as fruit linear dimensions, size index, fruit weight, dry matter, soluble solids content, titratable acidity, total anthocyanins, malic, tartaric and citric acids content. The best features in terms of physical and chemical properties proved to be found in ‘Alina’, ‘Alutus’, ‘Tuleu Timpuriu’, ‘Oltenal’ and ‘Renclod Althan’.

  17. Clone identification in Japanese flowering cherry (Prunus subgenus Cerasus) cultivars using nuclear SSR markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Shuri; Matsumoto, Asako; Yoshimura, Kensuke; Katsuki, Toshio; Iwamoto, Kojiro; Tsuda, Yoshiaki; Ishio, Shogo; Nakamura, Kentaro; Moriwaki, Kazuo; Shiroishi, Toshihiko; Gojobori, Takashi; Yoshimaru, Hiroshi

    2012-09-01

    Numerous cultivars of Japanese flowering cherry (Prunus subgenus Cerasus) are recognized, but in many cases they are difficult to distinguish morphologically. Therefore, we evaluated the clonal status of 215 designated cultivars using 17 SSR markers. More than half the cultivars were morphologically distinct and had unique genotypes. However, 22 cultivars were found to consist of multiple clones, which probably originate from the chance seedlings, suggesting that their unique characteristics have not been maintained through propagation by grafting alone. We also identified 23 groups consisting of two or more cultivars with identical genotypes. Most members of these groups were putatively synonymously related and morphologically identical. However, some of them were probably derived from bud sport mutants and had distinct morphologies. SSR marker analysis provided useful insights into the clonal status of the examined Japanese flowering cherry cultivars and proved to be a useful tool for cultivar characterization. PMID:23226085

  18. Characterization of cell wall polysaccharides of cherry (Prunus cerasus var. Schattenmorelle) fruit and pomace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosmala, Monika; Milala, Joanna; Kołodziejczyk, Krzysztof; Markowski, Jarosław; Mieszczakowska, Monika; Ginies, Christian; Renard, Catherine M G C

    2009-12-01

    The polysaccharide composition of cell wall of sour cherry (Prunus cerasus var. Schattenmorelle) fruit and pomace was investigated. Furthermore, the alcohol insoluble solids composition of 'Kelleriis' and 'Dobreczyn Botermo' varieties were studied too. Yield of alcohol insoluble solids for fruits was lower than 10%, and for pomaces circa 50%. Uronic acid was the main pectin component of alcohol insoluble solids. Enzymes used as juice processing aids decreased the content of uronic acid. Araban and galactan side chains bonded tightly to cellulose presence was suggested by high content of arabinose and galactose in hemicellulose fraction. The process of drying at below 70 degrees C did not influence polysaccharide composition of sour cherry pomaces. Alcohol insoluble solids of fruits expressed higher hydration properties than of pomaces. PMID:19757068

  19. Analysis of wild sweet cherry (Prunus avium L. germplasm diversity in south-east Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mratinić Evica

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Ten wild growing sweet cherry (Prunus avium L. genotypes from South-East Serbia with different fruit skin color were analyzed for its phenological, morphological and chemical traits. Agronomic evaluation of germplasm accessions revealed considerable diversity among different accessions for all the characters studied. The analysis of variance revealed significant differences among all genotypes for almost all examined properties. Cluster analysis showed adequate grouping of wild sweet cherry genotypes according to pomological characterization and distinguished them into two distinct groups. The first group had two subgroups and consisted of seven genotypes, while the second one included only three accessions. Despite of the significant differences among genotypes, the total concentration of phenols made a clear separation between the clusters. The level of genetic diversity in these wild sweet cherry genotypes is very high and therefore these trees are useful sources of variability for attributes studied and can be employed in further breeding programs or conservation.

  20. Unusual behavior of growing pollen tubes in the ovary of plum culture (Prunus domestica L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đorđević Milena

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Unusual behavior of growing pollen tubes in different combinations of pollination was observed in the ovary of the plum (Prunus domestica L. cv 'Čačanska Lepotica'. It primarily refers to several issues, i.e. the curling up of pollen tubes within the micropyle, the growth of two pollen tubes into the nucellus of an ovule, the occurrence of a bundle above the nucellar cap and fluorescence of the part of the embryo sac containing the egg apparatus. Upon the growth of pollen tubes into the nucellus of the ovule, subsequently penetrating pollen tubes form a bundle either above the micropyle entrance or above the nucellus. Branching and bending of pollen tubes by 180o upon their growth into the micropyle was also observed.

  1. Pomological and technological characteristics of collected selections of cherry plum Prunus cerasifera Erhr.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miletić Rade

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available A plantation collection containing 32 genotypes selected from spontaneous populations of cherry plum Prunus cerasifera Erhr. was set up in the region of the Eastern Serbian town of Svrljig. The fruit trees budded from Prunus cerasifera seedlings and were planted at 5x4 m spacing on a mild slope of south-western aspect. This study shows the most important characteristics of the 19 selections in the collection, and the average results recorded in the 2000-2003 period. The most significant characteristics of the trees, their productivity, and fruit and stone characteristics are presented. The average coarseness of fruits, i.e. their length, width and thickness, measured 25.0x 24.4x25.0 mm, while stone coarseness was 14.4x10.3x3.6 mm. The average fruit weight was 12.1 g (24.3-4.8 g, and stone weight 0.85 g (2.2-0.3 g. Depending on fruit and stone weight, the mesocarp content was 93% (96.3-90.3%. Taking into consideration the possibility of fruit exploitation for the production of biologically high-quality food, the mesocarp chemical composition was thoroughly examined. The fruits were found to have increased contents of total acids, achieving an average of 3.09% (3.44-2.60%, which was the initial objective of this selection. Total solids content was 13.5% (16.2-10.3%, total soluble solids 12.5% (14.5-9.5% and total sugars 6.00% (11.45-3.14%. Considering these characteristics, the selections that were singled out deserve more attention in terms of preserving their biodiversity, forming a gene bank and commercial cultivation.

  2. GENETIC DIVERSITY OF SOME IRANIAN SWEET CHERRY (PRUNUS AVIUM) CULTIVARS USING MICROSATELLITE MARKERS AND MORPHOLOGICAL TRAITS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farsad, A; Esna-Ashari, M

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to characterize 23 important Iranian sweet cherry (Prunus avium) cultivars collected from different provinces of Iran and 1 foreign cultivar, which was used as control, considered for breeding programs by using 21 microsatellite markers and 27 morphological traits. In sweet cherry (Prunus avium) accessions, leaf, fruit, and stone morphological characters were evaluated during two consecutive years. The study revealed a high variability in the set of evaluated sweet cherry accessions. The majority of important correlations were determined among variables representing fruit and leaf size and variables related to color. Cluster analysis distinguished sweet cherry accessions into two distinct groups. Principal component analysis (PCA) of qualitative and quantitative morphological parameters explained over 86.59% of total variability in the first seven axes. In PCA, leaf traits such as leaf length and width, and fruit traits such as length, width, and weight, and fruit flesh and juice color were predominant in the first two components, indicating that they were useful for the assessment of sweet cherry germplasm characterization. Out of 21 SSR markers, 16 were polymorphic, producing 177 alleles that varied from 4 to 16 alleles (9.35 on average) with a mean heterozygosity value of 0.82 that produced successful amplifications and revealed DNA polymorphisms. Allele size varied from 95 to 290 bp. Cluster analyses showed that the studied sweet cherry genotypes were classified intofive main groups based mainly on their species characteristics and SSR data. In general, our results did not show a clear structuring of genetic variability within the Iranian diffusion area of sweet cherry, so it was not possible to draw any indications on regions of provenance delimitation. The results of this study contribute to a better understanding of sweet cherry genetic variations in Iran, thus making for more efficient programs aimed at preserving biodiversity and

  3. Bioactive compounds contents, antioxidant and antimicrobial activities during ripening of Prunus persica L. varieties from the North West of Tunisia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belhadj, Feten; Somrani, Imen; Aissaoui, Neyssene; Messaoud, Chokri; Boussaid, Mohamed; Marzouki, M Nejib

    2016-08-01

    Bioactive molecules from fruits of four varieties of Prunus persica at different stages of ripening (green, small orange, red) were studied. For example, contents on polyphenols (20.36mg GAE/g FW) and flavonoids (0.764mg RE/g FW) were high and varied according variety. The antioxidant activity, using four different tests (DPPH radical scavenging activity, reducing power, β carotene bleaching system and TBARS assay) showed that the variety Chatos exhibited the highest antioxidant activity comparing with others varieties. The antibacterial activity of Prunus persica varieties studied seems to be more sensitive against Staphylococcus aureus and Listeria monocytogenes. The capacity of peach DMSO extracts to inhibit Candida albicans growth was more pronounced, especially, in the presence of Chatos DMSO extract. Enzymes inhibition gives results which correlate with polyphenols, flavonoids and condensed tannins contents, and so, confirm the fascinating bioactivity of this fruit. PMID:26988472

  4. Complete chloroplast genome of Prunus yedoensis Matsum.(Rosaceae), wild and endemic flowering cherry on Jeju Island, Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Myong-Suk; Hyun Cho, Chung; Yeon Kim, Su; Su Yoon, Hwan; Kim, Seung-Chul

    2016-09-01

    The complete chloroplast genome sequences of the wild flowering cherry, Prunus yedoensis Matsum., which is native and endemic to Jeju Island, Korea, is reported in this study. The genome size is 157 786 bp in length with 36.7% GC content, which is composed of LSC region of 85 908 bp, SSC region of 19 120 bp and two IR copies of 26 379 bp each. The cp genome contains 131 genes, including 86 coding genes, 8 rRNA genes and 37 tRNA genes. The maximum likelihood analysis was conducted to verify a phylogenetic position of the newly sequenced cp genome of P. yedoensis using 11 representatives of complete cp genome sequences within the family Rosaceae. The genus Prunus exhibited monophyly and the result of the phylogenetic relationship agreed with the previous phylogenetic analyses within Rosaceae. PMID:26329800

  5. Influence of Prunus spp., peach cultivars, and bark damage on oviposition choices by the lesser peachtree borer (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cottrell, T E; Fuest, J; Horton, D L

    2008-12-01

    An examination of oviposition choices by the lesser peachtree borer, Synanthedon pictipes (Grote and Robinson) (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae), showed that wounded peach, Prunus persica (L.) Batsch, bark was attractive to females for oviposition. Females responded to bark that was injured mechanically (e.g., hammer blows, knife cuts, pruning wounds), infested by lesser peachtree borer larvae or injured by disease. In fact, there was no difference in female oviposition response to knife cut wounds and knife cut wounds infested with lesser peachtree borer larvae. Oviposition on wounded bark from three different high chill peach cultivars was similar and strongly suggests that the narrow genetic base of high chill peach cultivars grown in the southeastern United States has little inherent resistance to the lesser peachtree borer. In stark contrast, when provided different Prunus spp., i.e., exotic peach and the native species P. angustifolia and P. serotina, the exotic peach was highly preferred for oviposition by the native lesser peachtree borer.

  6. Analysis of expressed sequence tags from Prunus mume flower and fruit and development of simple sequence repeat markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gao Zhihong

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Expressed Sequence Tag (EST has been a cost-effective tool in molecular biology and represents an abundant valuable resource for genome annotation, gene expression, and comparative genomics in plants. Results In this study, we constructed a cDNA library of Prunus mume flower and fruit, sequenced 10,123 clones of the library, and obtained 8,656 expressed sequence tag (EST sequences with high quality. The ESTs were assembled into 4,473 unigenes composed of 1,492 contigs and 2,981 singletons and that have been deposited in NCBI (accession IDs: GW868575 - GW873047, among which 1,294 unique ESTs were with known or putative functions. Furthermore, we found 1,233 putative simple sequence repeats (SSRs in the P. mume unigene dataset. We randomly tested 42 pairs of PCR primers flanking potential SSRs, and 14 pairs were identified as true-to-type SSR loci and could amplify polymorphic bands from 20 individual plants of P. mume. We further used the 14 EST-SSR primer pairs to test the transferability on peach and plum. The result showed that nearly 89% of the primer pairs produced target PCR bands in the two species. A high level of marker polymorphism was observed in the plum species (65% and low in the peach (46%, and the clustering analysis of the three species indicated that these SSR markers were useful in the evaluation of genetic relationships and diversity between and within the Prunus species. Conclusions We have constructed the first cDNA library of P. mume flower and fruit, and our data provide sets of molecular biology resources for P. mume and other Prunus species. These resources will be useful for further study such as genome annotation, new gene discovery, gene functional analysis, molecular breeding, evolution and comparative genomics between Prunus species.

  7. Seed washing, exogenous application of gibberellic acid, and cold stratification enhance the germination of sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.) seed

    OpenAIRE

    Javanmard, T.; Zamani, Z; Keshavarz Afshar, R.; M. Hashemi; Struik, P. C.

    2014-01-01

    Seed germination in sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.) is a slow and lengthy process which has delayed breeding efforts. In this study, seed from ripe fruit of the sweet cherry cultivar ‘Lambert’ were collected and, after removing the endocarp, various dormancy-breaking treatments such as seed washing, the application of exogenous gibberellic acid (GA3), or cold stratification were evaluated for their ability to enhance the percentage and rate of seed germination. The results indicated that seed ...

  8. Adsorption Properties of Low-Cost Biomaterial Derived from Prunus amygdalus L. for Dye Removal from Water

    OpenAIRE

    Fatih Deniz

    2013-01-01

    The capability of Prunus amygdalus L. (almond) shell for dye removal from aqueous solutions was investigated and methyl orange was used as a model compound. The effects of operational parameters including pH, ionic strength, adsorbent concentration and mesh size, dye concentration, contact time, and temperature on the removal of dye were evaluated. The adsorption kinetics conformed to the pseudo-second-order kinetic model. The equilibrium data pointed out excellent fit to the Langmuir isother...

  9. Cell number regulator genes in Prunus provide candidate genes for the control of fruit size in sweet and sour cherry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Franceschi, P; Stegmeir, T; Cabrera, A; van der Knaap, E; Rosyara, U R; Sebolt, A M; Dondini, L; Dirlewanger, E; Quero-Garcia, J; Campoy, J A; Iezzoni, A F

    2013-01-01

    Striking increases in fruit size distinguish cultivated descendants from small-fruited wild progenitors for fleshy fruited species such as Solanum lycopersicum (tomato) and Prunus spp. (peach, cherry, plum, and apricot). The first fruit weight gene identified as a result of domestication and selection was the tomato FW2.2 gene. Members of the FW2.2 gene family in corn (Zea mays) have been named CNR (Cell Number Regulator) and two of them exert their effect on organ size by modulating cell number. Due to the critical roles of FW2.2/CNR genes in regulating cell number and organ size, this family provides an excellent source of candidates for fruit size genes in other domesticated species, such as those found in the Prunus genus. A total of 23 FW2.2/CNR family members were identified in the peach genome, spanning the eight Prunus chromosomes. Two of these CNRs were located within confidence intervals of major quantitative trait loci (QTL) previously discovered on linkage groups 2 and 6 in sweet cherry (Prunus avium), named PavCNR12 and PavCNR20, respectively. An analysis of haplotype, sequence, segregation and association with fruit size strongly supports a role of PavCNR12 in the sweet cherry linkage group 2 fruit size QTL, and this QTL is also likely present in sour cherry (P. cerasus). The finding that the increase in fleshy fruit size in both tomato and cherry associated with domestication may be due to changes in members of a common ancestral gene family supports the notion that similar phenotypic changes exhibited by independently domesticated taxa may have a common genetic basis. PMID:23976873

  10. Morphological indicators of the quality of one-year-old bare-root seedlings of wild cherry (Prunus avium L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Stjepanović Stefan; Ivetić Vladan

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents morphological indicators of the quality of one-year-old seedlings of wild cherry (Prunus avium L.) with special reference to their correlations. The examined parameters were: length, diameter, weight of the aboveground and underground parts, number of buds, root volume, root length and leaf area. The ratio of heights was determined on the basis of the parameters derived: diameter, and the ratio of aboveground and underground parts of a s...

  11. Molecular and quantitative signatures of biparental inbreeding depression in the self-incompatible tree species Prunus avium

    OpenAIRE

    Jolivet, C.; Rogge, M.; Degen, B.

    2012-01-01

    Genetic diversity strongly influences populations' adaptability to changing environments and therefore survival. Sustainable forest management practices have multiple roles including conservation of genetic resources and timber production. In this study, we aimed at better understanding the variation in genetic diversity among adult and offspring individuals, and the effects of mating system on offspring survival and growth in wild cherry, Prunus avium. We analysed adult trees and open pollin...

  12. Anti-inflammatory effect of Prunus armeniaca L. (Apricot) extracts ameliorates TNBS-induced ulcerative colitis in rats

    OpenAIRE

    Minaiyan, M.; Ghannadi, A.; Asadi, M; Etemad, M.; Mahzouni, P.

    2014-01-01

    Prunus armeniaca L. (Apricot) is a tree cultivated in different parts of the world. Apricot kernel as a good dietary supplement has shown antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and other pharmacologic properties which suggest that it may be functional as an anticolitis agent. In this study we evaluated the effects of apricot kernel extract and oil on ulcerative colitis in rats. Rats were fasted for 36 h before the experiment. Colitis was induced by intra-rectal instillation of 50 mg/kg trinitrobenzen...

  13. Factors affecting within orchard variability of nutrition,yield and quality of sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Neilsen, Gerry H.; Neilsen, Denise; Herbert, Linda; Losso, Istvan; Rabie, Bill

    2009-01-01

    Continuous air temperature measurements were made during 2006-2008 at 30 different locations within a topographically complex orchard containing 10 yr old ‘Sweetheart’ sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.) on Mazzard rootstock in southern British Columbia. Yield, trunk cross-sectional area, fruit quality, and leaf and fruit mineral concentrations were measured throughout the study on adjacent trees at each location. Granier sap flow probes were installed on 10 nearby ‘Sweetheart’ trees to monitor ...

  14. Improved antioxidant and anti-inflammatory potential in mice consuming sour cherry juice (Prunus Cerasus cv. Maraska).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarić, Ana; Sobocanec, Sandra; Balog, Tihomir; Kusić, Borka; Sverko, Visnja; Dragović-Uzelac, Verica; Levaj, Branka; Cosić, Zrinka; Macak Safranko, Zeljka; Marotti, Tatjana

    2009-12-01

    The present investigation tested the in vivo antioxidant efficacy (superoxide dismutase, SOD; catalase, CAT; glutathione peroxidase; Gpx), lipid peroxidation (LPO) and anti-inflammatory properties (cyclooxygenase-2; COX-2) of sour cherry juices obtained from an autochthonous cultivar (Prunus cerasus cv. Maraska) that is grown in coastal parts of Croatia. Antioxidant potential was tested in mouse tissue (blood, liver, and brain), LPO (liver, brain) and anti-inflammatory properties in glycogen elicited macrophages. Additionally, the concentration of cyanidin-3-glucoside, cyanidin-3-rutinoside, pelargonidin-3-glucoside, pelargonidin-3-rutinoside and total anthocyanins present in Prunus cerasus cv. Maraska cherry juice was determined. Mice were randomly divided into a control group (fed with commercial food pellets) and 2 experimental groups (fed with commercial food pellets with 10% or 50% of cherry juice added). Among the anthocyanins, the cyanidin-3-glucoside was present in the highest concentration. These results show antioxidant action of cherry juice through increased SOD (liver, blood) and Gpx (liver) activity and decreased LPO concentration. The study highlights cherry juice as a potent COX-2 inhibitor and antioxidant in the liver and blood of mice, but not in the brain. Thus, according to our study, Prunus cerasus cv. Maraska cherry juice might potentially be used as an antioxidant and anti-inflammatory product with beneficial health-promoting properties. PMID:19763832

  15. Multiplicação in vitro dos porta-enxertos de Prunus sp. 'Barrier' e 'Cadaman' In vitro multiplication of 'Barrier' and 'Cadaman' Prunus sp. rootstocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Couto

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho foi realizado com o objetivo de estabelecer a melhor concentração de sais do meio MS e da citocinina BAP para a multiplicação dos porta-enxertos de Prunus sp. 'Barrier' e 'Cadaman'. Segmentos nodais foram introduzidos em tubos de ensaio contendo 10 mL de meio de cultura com variações na concentração de sais (MS; ½MS; e 2/3MS combinadas com cinco concentrações de BAP (0; 1,5; 2,5; 3,5 e 4,5 miM. Utilizou-se um fatorial 2x3x5, distribuído em blocos casualizados, compostos por quatro repetições contendo cinco tubos de ensaio cada uma, sendo inoculado um segmento nodal por tubo. As avaliações foram realizadas após cinco semanas de cultivo em ambiente com intensidade luminosa de 20 miE m-2 s-1, fotoperíodo de 16 horas e temperatura de 24 ± 4ºC. Verificou-se maior número médio de gemas e de brotações para a cultivar Barrier. À medida que se reduziu a concentração de sais do meio de cultura, obteve-se maior número de brotações, porém com menor tamanho. As regressões polinomiais das variáveis número de gemas, brotações por explante e comprimento das brotações apresentaram um ajustamento quadrático para níveis de BAP, atingindo os pontos de máximo 31,2 gemas/explante; 4,6 brotações por explante, e 8,1 mm de comprimento nas concentrações 3,3; 3,1, e 3,1 miM de BAP, respectivamente.The objective of this work was to establish the best salt and BAP concentration in MS medium for multiplication of 'Barrier' and 'Cadaman' Prunus sp. rootstocks. Nodal segments were introduced in test tubes with 10 mL of MS medium supplemented with different salt concentrations (MS; ½MS; and 2/3MS arranged with five BAP concentrations (0; 1.5; 2.5; 3.5; and 4.5 muM. It was applied a factorial 2x3x5, in a complete randomized block design with four replications composed by five test tubes each one. It was inoculated one nodal segment for each test tub. The evaluations was carried out after five weeks in room culture with

  16. 用叶绿体ndhF和核核糖体ITS序列推断李属(蔷薇科)的系统发育%Phylogenetic inferences in Prunus (Rosaceae) using chloroplast ndhF and nuclear ribosomal ITS sequences

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    文军; Scott T. BERGGREN; Chung-Hee LEE; Stefanie ICKERT-BOND; Ting-Shuang YI; Ki-Oug YOO; 谢磊; Joey SHAW; Dan POTTER

    2008-01-01

    Sequences of the chloroplast ndhF gene and the nuclear ribosomal ITS regions are employed to reconstruct the phylogeny of Prunus (Rosaceae), and evaluate the classification schemes of this genus. The two data sets are congruent in that the genera Prunus s.l. and Maddenia form a monophyletic group, with Maddenia nested within Prunus. However, the ndhF data set is incongruent with the ITS data supporting two major groups within Prunus: one consisting of subgenera Laurocerasus (including Pygeum) and Padus as well as the genus Maddenia and another of subgenera Amygdalus, Cerasus, and Prunus. The ITS data, on the other hand, support a clade composed of subgenera Amygdalus and Prunus and Prunus sect. Microcerasus in addition to a paraphyletic grade of subgenera Laurocerasus and Padus (and the genus Maddenia) taxa. In general, the subgeneric classifications of Prunus s.l. are not supported. The ITS and ndhF phylogenies differ mainly in interspecific relationships and the relative position of the Padus/Laurocerasus group. Both ITS and ndhF data sets suggest that the formerly recognized genus Pygeum is polyphyletic and that the distinction of the subgenera Padus and Laurocerasus is not supported. The biogeographic interactions of the temperate and tropical members in the Padus/Laurocera- sus/Maddenia alliance including Pygeum are shown to be highly dynamic and complex.

  17. Description of male and immature stages of Eupalopsellus hamedaniensis et al. (Acari: Eupalopsellidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Ueckermann, Edward Albert; Khanjani, Mohammad; Rostami, Elaheh; Abassipour, Habib

    2011-01-01

    The male, deutonymph, protonymph and larva of Eupalopsellus hamedaniensis Khanjani et al., 2007. A new are described and illustrated, based on 36 larva, six protonymph, two deutonymph and seven male available specimens from sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.) and plum (Prunus salicina Lindl) (Rosaceae ) in the type locality Hamedan, Hamedan province and other parts of western Iran. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/01647954.2010.519724

  18. [Effect of processing on the antioxidant capacity of the plum (Prunus domestica)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valero, Yolmar; Colina, Jhoana; Ineichen, Emilio

    2012-12-01

    Fruits are considered sources of antioxidant compounds whose properties could impair due to processing. The objective of this work was to determine the effect of blanching and osmotic dehydration on the total polyphenols content, tannins and antioxidant capacity of plums (Prunus domestica) in yellow and red varieties. The total phenolic content in plums was determined according to the Folin-Ciocalteu assay and tannins were determined by vanillin assay. The antiradical efficiency (AE) and ferric reducing power (FRP) were used to estimate the total antioxidant capacity. The content of total polyphenols and tannins were higher in the red plum. The content of polyphenols in the pulp was higher that the peel while for tannins the opposite was observed in both varieties. The red plum had higher antioxidant capacity. The AE was low and slow kinetics for the two varieties. There was a linear correlation between polyphenols and tannins with antiradical efficiency; however, there was no correlation with the reducing power. The total polyphenols content was increased with blanching, while the tannins and the AE decreased, ferric reducing power is unaffected. For osmotic dehydration, the tannins and the AE were decreased, while the total polyphenols content and ferric reducing power are unaffected. It is recommended the blanched as an alternative to consumption and conservation in the plum.

  19. Future Applications of Apricot (Prunus Armeniaca Kaisa ß Galactosidase in Dairy Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ansari Shakeel Ahmed

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The present study demonstrates the immobilization of β galactosidase from apricots (Prunus armeniaca kaisa on an inexpensive concanavalin A layered cellulose-alginate hybrid gel. Immobilized β galactosidase retained 78% of the initial activity after crosslinking by glutaraldehyde. It exhibited greater fraction of activity at both acidic and basic pH, and showed broad spectrum temperature optimum as compared to free enzyme. Moreover, immobilized enzyme exhibited higher thermal stability at 60°C and retained 80% of the original enzyme activity in presence of 3% galactose. The crosslinked immobilized enzyme showed improved hydrolysis of lactose from milk and whey in batch processes at 50°C as well as in continuous reactors operated at fl ow rate of 20 mL/h and 30 mL/h even after one month. Moreover, crosslinked adsorbed β galactosidase retained 76% activity even after its sixth repeated use, thereby promoting its use for lactose hydrolysis in various dairy products even for longer durations.

  20. Nutritional Value and Volatile Compounds of Black Cherry (Prunus serotina Seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leticia García-Aguilar

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Prunus serotina (black cherry, commonly known in Mexico as capulín, is used in Mexican traditional medicine for the treatment of cardiovascular, respiratory, and gastrointestinal diseases. Particularly, P. serotina seeds, consumed in Mexico as snacks, are used for treating cough. In the present study, nutritional and volatile analyses of black cherry seeds were carried out to determine their nutraceutical potential. Proximate analysis indicated that P. serotina raw and toasted seeds contain mostly fat, followed by protein, fiber, carbohydrates, and ash. The potassium content in black cherry raw and toasted seeds is high, and their protein digestibility-corrected amino acid scores suggest that they might represent a complementary source of proteins. Solid phase microextraction and gas chromatography/flame ionization detection/mass spectrometry analysis allowed identification of 59 and 99 volatile compounds in the raw and toasted seeds, respectively. The major volatile compounds identified in raw and toasted seeds were 2,3-butanediol and benzaldehyde, which contribute to the flavor and odor of the toasted seeds. Moreover, it has been previously demonstrated that benzaldehyde possesses a significant vasodilator effect, therefore, the presence of this compound along with oleic, linoleic, and α-eleostearic fatty acids indicate that black cherry seeds consumption might have beneficial effects on the cardiovascular system.

  1. Propagation of the endangered Azorean cherry Prunus azorica using stem cuttings and air layering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MOREIRA, O.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Prunus azorica (Hort. ex Mouillef. Rivas Mart., Lousã, Fern. Prieto, E. Dias, J.C. Costa &C. Aguiar is an endangered tree endemic to the Azores, with an ecological and ornamentalinterest. The objective of this study was to determine the conditions necessary for thesuccessful propagation of P. azorica by stem cuttings and air-layering. Stem cuttingscollected in March with two apical leaf pairs pruned to 1/3 of their leaf area were submittedto different treatments, including a basal split wound, two rooting mixtures, namely, perlite and peat (1:1 or perlite and natural soil (1:1, and dipping of the base in indole-3-butyric acid (IBA solution at four concentrations (0, 2500, 5000 or 7000 mg/L. After eight weeks 75% rooting was achieved with 75 to 88% survival, without addition of IBA and with split wound using both substrate mixtures. Air layering was conducted in June in branches of adult trees with the addition of 0, 2500 or 3000 mg/L of IBA. After 12 months 100%rooting and survival was recorded in all treatments. Our study thus indicates that P. azorica is a taxon amenable for vegetative propagation by stem cuttings and air layering withoutrequiring addition of IBA to induce rooting. Both methods should be used in order to recover natural populations, when seeds are not available or are available in reduced amounts.

  2. Durability of Prunus africana: Evidence of Biocidal and Lipophilic Properties Responsible for Natural Durability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Analysis of the prunus africana sapwood and heartwood extracts was studied with the aim of understanding the reasons for it's natural durability. Soxhlet extraction of wood powder using different solvents was done. The extracts were tested against the fungi coriolus versicolor, Poria placenta and Aureobasidium pullulans at concentrations of 50, 100, 500 and 1000 ppm. Soxhlet extraction of wood blocks using the same solvents was also carried out and the wood blocks finally tested against fungi and termites. The results showed high exhibition rate against fungi at low extract concentrations. Extracted wood blocks showed low resistance against termites while the un-extracted ones were resistant. Analysis of the products present in hexane, dichloromethane, acetone, toluene/ethanol and water extracts by HPLC indicates presence of phenols and lipophilic compounds, which could be associated with the preceding results. Inhibition against fungi increased with extract concentration and decreased with time. In some instances at high concentration, fungal growth started after the control Petri-dish was fully colonized. Inspite of the fungal and termiticidal properties of certain products contained in the extracts, these properties do not entirely explain the reasons for the high durability. Chemical synthesis with formulations based on the natural components present in the extracts of such durable wood could be interesting as potential additives in fungicides and insecticides. Such formulations based on natural compounds could environmentally friendly

  3. Changes of quality in the fruits of Prunus mume during deacidification by fermentation with Lactobacillus fermentium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yuanshan; Xiao, Gengsheng; Xu, Yujuan; Wu, Jijun; Zhang, Yousheng; Chen, Weidong

    2015-02-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the changes of quality attributes of Prunus mume fruits during deacidification using the fermentation of Lactobacillus fermentium. Results of HPLC analysis showed that the sucrose and glucose were dominant sugars, and citric acid was dominant organic acids in P. mume fruits. The level of citric acid reaches 39.3 g/kg, and yet the sucrose and glucose content in the P. mume fruits was very lower, which were 2.16 and 0.66 g/L, respectively. After 8 d of fermentation, sugar and citric acid in the P. mume fruits was completely consumed, and the total phenolics, antioxidant activity (oxygen radical absorbance capacity value), and sarcocarp firmness retained 64.4%, 70.0%, 62.6%, respectively. Also, the viability counts of L. fermentium in fermentation broth increased slowly, which were near 8.0 lg CFU/mL after 8 d of fermentation at 30 °C. Overall, fermentation with L. fermentium can be applied in deacidification of P. mume fruits, and also the fermented P. mume fruits can meet the standard to be further processed into prune or sauces, and the fermentation broth of P. mume fruits with L. fermentium have a good prospect in the development of probiotic beverage.

  4. Evaluation of seed quality and oil parameters in native Iranian almond (Prunus L. spp.) species

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Soghra Kiani; Shakiba Rajabpoor; Karim Sorkheh; Sezai Ercisli

    2015-01-01

    We assessed chemical composition and varia-tion in oil content and seed weight of 40 wild-growing almonds (Prunus L. spp.) accessions collected from dif-ferent parts of Iran. There were significant differences in kernel weight and oil parameters. Accessions ranged from 0.20 to 1.5 g in kernel weight, 0.2–3.0 mm in shell thick-ness, and 16–55% in oil content. The predominant vege-table oil components of kernels were 4.6–9.5% palmitic acid, 0.4–0.8% palmitoleic acid, 1.0–3.4% stearic acid, 48.8–88.4% oleic acid and 11.3–33.2% linoleic acid. Linolenic acid was detected in 15 accessions. High heri-tability was recorded for all studied traits and was maxi-mum for shell thickness (98.5%) and minimum for oil content (97.1%). Maximum and minimum ‘Euclidean’ pair wise dissimilarities were 17.9 and 0.5, respectively. All 40 accessions were grouped into two major clusters.

  5. Sour Cherry (Prunus cerasus L) Anthocyanins as Ingredients for Functional Foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blando, Federica; Gerardi, Carmela; Nicoletti, Isabella

    2004-01-01

    In the recent years many studies on anthocyanins have revealed their strong antioxidant activity and their possible use as chemotherapeutics. The finding that sour cherries (Prunus cerasus L) (also called tart cherries) contain high levels of anthocyanins that possess strong antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties has attracted much attention to this species. Here we report the preliminary results of the induction of anthocyanin biosynthesis in sour cherry callus cell cultures. The evaluation and characterization of the in vitro produced pigments are compared to those of the anthocyanins found in vivo in fruits of several sour cherry cultivars. Interestingly, the anthocyanin profiles found in whole fruit extracts were similar in all tested genotypes but were different with respect to the callus extract. The evaluation of antioxidant activity, performed by ORAC and TEAC assays, revealed a relatively high antioxidant capacity for the fruit extracts (from 1145 to 2592 $\\mu $ mol TE/100 g FW) and a lower one for the callus extract (688 $\\mu $ mol TE/100 g FW). PMID:15577186

  6. Molecular Identification and Cultivar Fingerprints of Prunus persica (L.)Batsch Germplasms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Shu-xia; LI Jing; JIANG Guo-liang; CHEN Dong; XIE Hong-jiang; TU Mei-yan

    2010-01-01

    [Objective]The aim was to study the molecular identification and cultivar fingerprints of Prunus persica(L.)Batsch germplasms.[Method]Sixty peach genotypes,representing China common local cultivars and European samples were screened by microsatellites(simple sequence repeats,SSRs)and Inter-Simple Sequence Repeat(ISSR)markers.[Result]26 reproducible bands were amplified by Nine SSR primers,and 24 of which were polymorphic; 236 bands were amplified by 30 ISSR primers,and 113 of which were polymorphic.31 genotypes were discriminated with 1-3 distinct polymorphic bands generated from the primers ISSR and SSR.Seven cultivar-specific ISSR fragments and two SSR unique alleles obtained from this study were available to be converted into Sequence Characterized Amplified Region(SCAR)markers.The genetic similarity coefficient(GS)estimated from these molecular data averaged were 0.939(ranged from 0.856 to 0.983)for ISSR and0.646(ranged from 0.240 to 1.000)for SSR,respectively.The combined grouping association indicated that most local Chinese peach cultivars and exotic accessions were clustered together.This could be related to the mode of introduction and maintenance of the peach cultivars involving limited foundation germplasm,exchange of cultivars between plantations,and periodic development of new recombinant cultivars following sexual reproduction.[Conclusion]The results obtained in this work would help to improve the conservation,molecular identification and management of peach germplasm in breeding.

  7. High concentrations of anthocyanins in genuine cherry-juice of old local Austrian Prunus avium varieties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schüller, Elisabeth; Halbwirth, Heidi; Mikulic-Petkovsek, Maja; Slatnar, Ana; Veberic, Robert; Forneck, Astrid; Stich, Karl; Spornberger, Andreas

    2015-04-15

    Antioxidant activity and polyphenols were quantified in vapour-extracted juice of nine Austrian, partially endemic varieties of sweet cherry (Prunus avium): cv. 'Spätbraune von Purbach', cv. 'Early Rivers', cv. 'Joiser Einsiedekirsche', cv. 'Große Schwarze Knorpelkirsche' and four unidentified local varieties. Additionally the effect of storage was evaluated for six of the varieties. A variety showing the highest antioxidant capacity (9.64 μmol Trolox equivalents per mL), total polyphenols (2747 mg/L) and total cyanidins (1085 mg/L) was suitable for mechanical harvest and its juice did not show any losses of antioxidant capacity and total anthocyanin concentration during storage. The juice of cv. 'Große Schwarze Knorpelkirsche' had also high concentrations of total anthocyanins (873 mg/L), but showed substantial losses through storage. The local Austrian sweet cherry varieties from the Pannonian climate zone are particularly suitable for the production of processed products like cherry juice with high content of anthocyanins and polyphenols. PMID:25466109

  8. Nutraceutical value of black cherry Prunus serotina Ehrh. fruits: antioxidant and antihypertensive properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luna-Vázquez, Francisco J; Ibarra-Alvarado, César; Rojas-Molina, Alejandra; Rojas-Molina, Juana I; Yahia, Elhadi M; Rivera-Pastrana, Dulce M; Rojas-Molina, Adriana; Zavala-Sánchez, Miguel Ángel

    2013-01-01

    In Mexico black cherry (Prunus serotina Ehrh.) fruits are consumed fresh, dried or prepared in jam. Considering the evidence that has linked intake of fruits and vegetables rich in polyphenols to cardiovascular risk reduction, the aim of this study was to characterize the phenolic profile of black cherry fruits and to determine their antioxidant, vasorelaxant and antihypertensive effects. The proximate composition and mineral contents of these fruits were also assessed. Black cherry fruits possess a high content of phenolic compounds and display a significant antioxidant capacity. High-performance liquid chromatography/mass spectrometric analysis indicated that hyperoside, anthocyanins and chlorogenic acid were the main phenolic compounds found in these fruits. The black cherry aqueous extract elicited a concentration-dependent relaxation of aortic rings and induced a significant reduction on systolic blood pressure in L-NAME induced hypertensive rats after four weeks of treatment. Proximate analysis showed that black cherry fruits have high sugar, protein, and potassium contents. The results derived from this study indicate that black cherry fruits contain phenolic compounds which elicit significant antioxidant and antihypertensive effects. These findings suggest that these fruits might be considered as functional foods useful for the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular diseases. PMID:24287993

  9. Investigation on the pollen morphology of traditional cultivars of Prunus species in Sicily

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Geraci

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available In this study pollen grains of 13 cultivars and 3 rootstocks belonging to 5 species (P. armeniaca, P. domestica, P. dulcis, P. persica, P. avium of the genus Prunus collected from North-East Sicily were examined for the micromorphological characterization through the scanning electron microscopy (SEM. The length of polar axis (P and the equatorial diameter (E of grain, P/E ratio, the length of colpi (C, diameter of perforations (DP and the number of perforations in 25 μm2 (PN, the width of muri (WM, the distance between muri (DM and their number in 25 μm2 (MN, the width of grooves (WG were measured and their variation was compared among studied taxa. Moreover multivariate statistical analysis was carried out to distinguish morphometric information from measured parameters. All pollen grains are trizonocolpate, isopolar, medium-large sized and their shape varies from prolate to perprolate. Regarding outline pollen grains are subtriangular in polar view and elliptic in equatorial view. Exine sculpturing is striate with perforations on grain surface. The arrangement of ridges appears roughly parallel but too sloped (sometimes curved compared to polar axis, or branched and oriented in different directions, or perfectly parallel or more irregular with bifurcated ridges often sinuous. The analyses showed a great variability (particularly in P. domestica cultivars related in some cases to the diversity in the morphological features of the leaves and the fruits of the investigated entities.

  10. Simple Sequence Repeat Analysis of Genetic Diversity in Primary Core Collection of Peach (Prunus persica)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    In this study, the genetic diversity of 51 cultivars in the primary core collection of peach (Prunus persica (L.) Batsch) was evaluated by using simple sequence repeats (SSRs). The phylogenetic relationships and the evolutionary history among different cultivars were determined on the basis of SSR data. Twenty-two polymorphic SSR primer pairs were selected, and a total of 111 alleles were identified in the 51 cultivars, with an average of 5 alleles per locus. According to traditional Chinese classification of peach cultivars, the 51 cultivars in the peach primary core collection belong to six variety groups. The SSR analysis revealed that the levels of the genetic diversity within each variety group were ranked as Sweet peach > Crisppeach > Flat peach > Nectarine > Honey Peach > Yellow fleshed peach. The genetic diversity among the Chinese cultivars was higher than that among the introduced cultivars. Cluster analysis by the unweighted pair group method with arithmetic averaging (UPGMA)placed the 51 cultivars into five linkage clusters. Cultivar members from the same variety group were distributed in different UPGMA clusters and some members from different variety groups were placed under the same cluster. Different variety groups could not be differentiated in accordance with SSR markers. The SSR analysis revealed rich genetic diversity in the peach primary core collection, representative of genetic resources of peach.

  11. Selection of autochthonous sour cherry (Prunus cerasus L. genotypes in Feketić region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radičević Sanja

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Autochthonous genotypes of fruit species are very important source of genetic variability and valuable material for breeding work. Fruit Research Institute-Čačak has a long tradition of studying autochthonous genotypes of temperate fruits sporadically spread and preserved in some localities in Serbia. Over 2005-2006, the following properties of nine autochthonous sour cherry genotypes grown in Feketic region were investigated: flowering and ripening time, pomological properties, biochemical composition of fruits and field resistance to causal agents of cherry diseases - cherry leaf spot (Blumeriella jaapii (Rehm. v. Arx., shot-hole (Clasterosporium carpophilum (Lév. Aderh. and brown rot (Monilinia laxa /Ader et Ruhl./ Honey ex Whetz.. The genotypes were tested for the presence of Prune dwarf virus and Prunus necrotic ring spot virus. In majority of genotypes fruits were large, with exceptional organoleptical properties, whereas ripening time was in the first ten or twenty days of June. The highest fruit weight was observed in F-1 genotype (8.1 g. The highest soluble solids and total sugars content were found in F- 4 genotype (17.60% and 14.25%, respectively. As for field resistance to causal agents of diseases and good pomo-technological properties, F-1, F-2, F-3, F-7 and F-8 genotypes were singled out. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR31064

  12. Sour Cherry (Prunus cerasus L Anthocyanins as Ingredients for Functional Foods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federica Blando

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available In the recent years many studies on anthocyanins have revealed their strong antioxidant activity and their possible use as chemotherapeutics. The finding that sour cherries (Prunus cerasus L (also called tart cherries contain high levels of anthocyanins that possess strong antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties has attracted much attention to this species. Here we report the preliminary results of the induction of anthocyanin biosynthesis in sour cherry callus cell cultures. The evaluation and characterization of the in vitro produced pigments are compared to those of the anthocyanins found in vivo in fruits of several sour cherry cultivars. Interestingly, the anthocyanin profiles found in whole fruit extracts were similar in all tested genotypes but were different with respect to the callus extract. The evaluation of antioxidant activity, performed by ORAC and TEAC assays, revealed a relatively high antioxidant capacity for the fruit extracts (from 1145 to 2592 μmol TE/100 g FW and a lower one for the callus extract (688 μmol TE/100 g FW.

  13. Phenolic Composition and Antioxidant Properties of Different Peach [Prunus persica (L. Batsch] Cultivars in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoyong Zhao

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available China is an important centre of diversity for Prunus persica. In the present study, 17 Chinese peach cultivars were evaluated for phenolic content and antioxidant activity. Neochlorogenic acid (NCHA, chlorogenic acid (CHA, procyanidin B1 (B1, catechin (CAT, cyanidin-3-O-glucoside (C3G, quercetin-3-O-galactoside (Q3GAL, quercetin-3-O-glucoside (Q3GLU, quercetin-3-O-rutinoside (Q3R, and kaempferol-3-O-rutinoside (K3R were identified and quantified. CHA and CAT were the predominant components in both the peel and pulp of this fruit. In general, peel extracts showed higher antioxidant activities than the pulp counterparts, consistent with the observed higher phenolic content. The melting peach cultivar “Xinyu” showed the highest antioxidant potency composite (APC index. The principal component analysis (PCA of peel phenolics showed a clear distinction between the melting peach and nectarine. Overall, peach cultivars rich in hydroxycinnamates and flavan-3-ols showed relatively higher antioxidant activities and might be excellent sources of phytochemicals and natural antioxidants.

  14. In Vitro Pollen Viability and Pollen Germination in Cherry Laurel (Prunus laurocerasus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melekber Sulusoglu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Pollen quality is important for growers and breeders. This study was carried out to determine in vitro pollen viability and pollen germination in seven genotypes of cherry laurel (Prunus laurocerasus L.. Two pollen viability tests, TTC (2,3,5-triphenyl tetrazolium chloride and IKI (iodine potassium iodide, were used. Pollen traits of genotypes were studied using an in vitro medium containing 0%, 5%, 10%, 15%, and 20% sucrose to determine the best sucrose concentrations for germination. In the second step, the germinated pollen was counted 1, 4, 6, 10, 12, 24, and 48 hours later until there was no further germination. The viability rates were different according to genotypes and tests used. The IKI and TTC staining tests and pollen germination had low correlation (r2 = 0.0614 and r2 = 0.0015, resp.. Painted pollen rate was higher and pollen was well-stained with IKI test and pollen viability estimated with TTC staining test was better than that estimated with the IKI staining test. 15% sucrose gave the best germination rates in most of the genotypes. Pollen germination rates were recorded periodically from one hour to 48 hours in 15% sucrose and the results showed that pollen germination rates increased after 6 hours of being placed in culture media.

  15. In vitro pollen viability and pollen germination in cherry laurel (Prunus laurocerasus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulusoglu, Melekber; Cavusoglu, Aysun

    2014-01-01

    Pollen quality is important for growers and breeders. This study was carried out to determine in vitro pollen viability and pollen germination in seven genotypes of cherry laurel (Prunus laurocerasus L.). Two pollen viability tests, TTC (2,3,5-triphenyl tetrazolium chloride) and IKI (iodine potassium iodide), were used. Pollen traits of genotypes were studied using an in vitro medium containing 0%, 5%, 10%, 15%, and 20% sucrose to determine the best sucrose concentrations for germination. In the second step, the germinated pollen was counted 1, 4, 6, 10, 12, 24, and 48 hours later until there was no further germination. The viability rates were different according to genotypes and tests used. The IKI and TTC staining tests and pollen germination had low correlation (r(2) = 0.0614 and r(2) = 0.0015, resp.). Painted pollen rate was higher and pollen was well-stained with IKI test and pollen viability estimated with TTC staining test was better than that estimated with the IKI staining test. 15% sucrose gave the best germination rates in most of the genotypes. Pollen germination rates were recorded periodically from one hour to 48 hours in 15% sucrose and the results showed that pollen germination rates increased after 6 hours of being placed in culture media.

  16. Exogenous application of ascorbic acid alleviates chilling injury in apricot (Prunus armeniaca L. cv. Shahroudi flowers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Bayat

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important limiting factors in spread of apricot in Iran is late spring frost, which damages flower bud and decrease total yield of crop. It has been found that ascorbic acid (AA plays a beneficial role during plant response to chilling and freezing stresses. To evaluate the effects of AA on alleviating of cold stress, the flower buds of Prunus armeniaca L. cv. Shahroudi were sprayed at pink cluster stage with AS at 4 levels (0, 100, 200 and 300 mg. L-1 and were then exposed to artificial cold stress (4 h at –4 °C or without cold stress (+ 25°C. Experimental attributes including electrolyte leakage (EL of flower buds and percentage of damage of pistil, anthers and petals to temperature treatments were determined. The results showed that at - 4°C the lowest and highest percentage of damage and EL of flower buds were observed in application of 200 and 0 mg. L-1 AA, respectively. The highest and lowest percentage of damage of flower organs and EL were obtained in application of 300 and 200 mg. L-1 AA, respectively at + 25 °C. Based on the results of this experiment, AA alleviates the negative effect of cold stress on EL and flower organ damages in apricot cv. Shahroudi, depending on the concentrations of AA used.

  17. Toxicity of chloroform extract of prunus africana stem bark in rats: gross and histological lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gathumbi, P K; Mwangi, J W; Mugera, G M; Njiro, S M

    2002-05-01

    Chloroform extract of Prunus africana (Hook f. (Rosaceae) did not cause clinical signs or pathology in rats at daily oral doses of up to 1,000 mg/kg for 8 weeks. The extract caused marked clinical signs, organ damage and a 50% mortality rate at a dose of 3.3 g/kg for 6 days. The main lesions observed at this dose were marked centrilobular hepatocellular degeneration and necrosis, diffuse nephrosis, myocardial degeneration, lymphocytic necrosis and neuronal degeneration. The morphological damage in these tissues caused a corresponding rise in blood biochemical parameters namely, aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, lactate dehydrogenase, creatine kinase and blood urea nitrogen. The target organs of toxicity of this extract are the liver, kidney and heart. Overt toxicity occurred only after the administration of multiple doses of 3.3 g/kg body weight. These findings confirm the suitability of this extract for therapeutic use, since the doses used in the therapy of prostate gland are much lower than those used in this study and would therefore not be expected to cause pathological changes.

  18. Fine-scale spatial genetic dynamics over the life cycle of the tropical tree Prunus africana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berens, D G; Braun, C; González-Martínez, S C; Griebeler, E M; Nathan, R; Böhning-Gaese, K

    2014-11-01

    Studying fine-scale spatial genetic patterns across life stages is a powerful approach to identify ecological processes acting within tree populations. We investigated spatial genetic dynamics across five life stages in the insect-pollinated and vertebrate-dispersed tropical tree Prunus africana in Kakamega Forest, Kenya. Using six highly polymorphic microsatellite loci, we assessed genetic diversity and spatial genetic structure (SGS) from seed rain and seedlings, and different sapling stages to adult trees. We found significant SGS in all stages, potentially caused by limited seed dispersal and high recruitment rates in areas with high light availability. SGS decreased from seed and early seedling stages to older juvenile stages. Interestingly, SGS was stronger in adults than in late juveniles. The initial decrease in SGS was probably driven by both random and non-random thinning of offspring clusters during recruitment. Intergenerational variation in SGS could have been driven by variation in gene flow processes, overlapping generations in the adult stage or local selection. Our study shows that complex sequential processes during recruitment contribute to SGS of tree populations.

  19. The African cherry (Prunus africana): can lessons be learned from an over-exploited medicinal tree?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, K M

    2003-11-01

    For the last 35 years, the African cherry (Prunus africana (Hook. f.) Kalm.) has been used in the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia and other disorders. The bark, from which the treatment is derived, is entirely wild-collected. The major exporters of bark include Cameroon, Madagascar, Equatorial Guinea, and Kenya. Groupe Fournier of France and Indena of Italy produce 86% of the world's bark extract, both for their own products and for the free market. Worldwide exports of dried bark in 2000 have been estimated at 1350-1525 metric tons per year, down from its peak of 3225 tons in 1997. Bark extracts (6370-7225 kg per year) are worth an estimated $4.36 million US dollars per year. In 2000, Plantecam, the largest bark exporter in Africa, closed its extraction factory in Cameroon, due to complex ecological, social, and economic factors. Wild-collection is no longer sustainable (and probably never was) where harvest seriously affects morbidity and mortality rates of harvested populations. Since 1995, it has been included in CITES Appendix II as an endangered species. In this paper, alternatives to wild-collection to meet future market demand are investigated, including conservation practices, enrichment plantings, small- and large-scale production, and protection of genetic resources. The species is at the beginning of a transition from an exclusively wild-collected species to that of a cultivated medicinal tree.

  20. Nutraceutical Value of Black Cherry Prunus serotina Ehrh. Fruits: Antioxidant and Antihypertensive Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco J. Luna-Vázquez

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In Mexico black cherry (Prunus serotina Ehrh. fruits are consumed fresh, dried or prepared in jam. Considering the evidence that has linked intake of fruits and vegetables rich in polyphenols to cardiovascular risk reduction, the aim of this study was to characterize the phenolic profile of black cherry fruits and to determine their antioxidant, vasorelaxant and antihypertensive effects. The proximate composition and mineral contents of these fruits were also assessed. Black cherry fruits possess a high content of phenolic compounds and display a significant antioxidant capacity. High-performance liquid chromatography/mass spectrometric analysis indicated that hyperoside, anthocyanins and chlorogenic acid were the main phenolic compounds found in these fruits. The black cherry aqueous extract elicited a concentration-dependent relaxation of aortic rings and induced a significant reduction on systolic blood pressure in L-NAME induced hypertensive rats after four weeks of treatment. Proximate analysis showed that black cherry fruits have high sugar, protein, and potassium contents. The results derived from this study indicate that black cherry fruits contain phenolic compounds which elicit significant antioxidant and antihypertensive effects. These findings suggest that these fruits might be considered as functional foods useful for the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular diseases.

  1. Xylem cavitation in the leaf of Prunus laurocerasus and its impact on leaf hydraulics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nardini, A; Tyree, M T; Salleo, S

    2001-04-01

    This paper reports how water stress correlates with changes in hydraulic conductivity of stems, leaf midrib, and whole leaves of Prunus laurocerasus. Water stress caused cavitation-induced dysfunction in vessels of P. laurocerasus. Cavitation was detected acoustically by counts of ultrasonic acoustic emissions and by the loss of hydraulic conductivity measured by a vacuum chamber method. Stems and midribs were approximately equally vulnerable to cavitations. Although midribs suffered a 70% loss of hydraulic conductance at leaf water potentials of -1.5 MPa, there was less than a 10% loss of hydraulic conductance in whole leaves. Cutting and sealing the midrib 20 mm from the leaf base caused only a 30% loss of conduction of the whole leaf. A high-pressure flow meter was used to measure conductance of whole leaves and as the leaf was progressively cut back from tip to base. These data were fitted to a model of hydraulic conductance of leaves that explained the above results, i.e. redundancy in hydraulic pathways whereby water can flow around embolized regions in the leaf, makes whole leaves relatively insensitive to significant changes in conductance of the midrib. The onset of cavitation events in P. laurocerasus leaves correlated with the onset of stomatal closure as found recently in studies of other species in our laboratory. PMID:11299351

  2. Adaptive responses of Acer ginnala, Pyrus ussuriensis and Prunus davidiana seedlings to soil moisture stress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANGQing-cheng; SUNZhi-hu; ZHANGYan-dong

    2003-01-01

    One-year-old seedlings of Amur maple (Acer ginnala Maxim), Ussurian pear (Pyrus ussuriensis Maxim) and David peach (Prunus davidiana Carr) were planted in pots in greenhouse and treated with four different soil moisture contents (75.0%,61.1%, 46.4% and 35.4%). The results showed that net photosynthesis rate (NPR), transpiration rate (TR) and stomatal conductance (Sc) of seedlings of the three species decreased with the decease of soil moisture content, and Amur maple seedlings had the greatest change in those physiological indices, followed by Ussurian pear, David peach. Amur maple and Ussurian pear seedlings also presented a decrease tendency in water use efficiency (WUE) under lower soil moisture content, whereas this was reversed for David peach. Under water stress the biomass allocation to seedling root had a significant increase for all the experimental species. As to root/shoot ratio, Amur maple seedlings had the biggest increase, while David peach had the smaliest increase. The leaf plasticity of Amur maple seedlings was greater, the leaf size and total leaf area decreased significantly as the stress was intensified. No significant change of leaf size and total leaf area was found in seedlings of Ussurian pear and David peach. It was concluded that Amur maple was more tolerant to soil moisture stress in comparison with David peach and Ussurian pear.

  3. High-density genetic map construction and identification of a locus controlling weeping trait in an ornamental woody plant (Prunus mume Sieb. et Zucc)

    OpenAIRE

    Jie ZHANG; Zhang, Qixiang; Cheng, Tangren; Yang, Weiru; Pan, Huitang; Zhong, Junjun; Huang, Long; Liu, Enze

    2015-01-01

    High-density genetic map is a valuable tool for fine mapping locus controlling a specific trait especially for perennial woody plants. In this study, we firstly constructed a high-density genetic map of mei (Prunus mume) using SLAF markers, developed by specific locus amplified fragment sequencing (SLAF-seq). The linkage map contains 8,007 markers, with a mean marker distance of 0.195 cM, making it the densest genetic map for the genus Prunus. Though weeping trees are used worldwide as landsc...

  4. 浅谈梅花在园林绿化中的应用%The Application of Prunus mume in Landscaping

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周玉敏

    2012-01-01

    Prunus mume belongs to Rosaceae Prunus. It is the first flower of top ten in China, which is colorful with high ornamental value. The authors expound on its characteristics, ornamentals and application in landscaping for other colleagues reference.%梅花是蔷薇科李属植物,为中国十大名花之首,梅花色彩多样、有很高的观赏价值。笔者阐述了梅花的特性、观赏性及其在园林绿化中的具体应用,以供同行参考。

  5. The effect of different types of rootstock on the quality of maiden trees of sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.) cv. ‘Regina’

    OpenAIRE

    Piotr Baryła; Magdalena Kapłan; Marcela Krawiec

    2014-01-01

    Over the period 2006–2009 in Lublin, a study was conducted to determine the effect of five types of rootstock: ‘Colt’, ‘F12/1’, sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.), ‘GiSelA 5’ and ‘Piast’ mahaleb cherry (Prunus mahaleb L.), on the growth and quality of maiden sweet cherry trees cv. ‘Regina’ in a commercial nursery. Based on the three-year average, rootstocks were shown to have a significant effect on the investigated quality characteristics of maiden sweet cherry trees. Trees budded on ‘Colt’ vege...

  6. Caracterização de três genótipos de umezeiro (Prunus mume Sieb. et Zucc. por marcadores RAPD Characterization of three mume genotypes (Prunus mume Sieb. et Zucc. by RAPD markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Newton Alex Mayer

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Um projeto de pesquisa visando à utilização de clones de umezeiro (Prunus mume Sieb. et Zucc. como porta-enxertos para pessegueiro [Prunus persica (L. Batsch] está sendo conduzido na FCAV/UNESP, Câmpus de Jaboticabal-SP, com promissoras perspectivas de sucesso. Três genótipos de umezeiro foram selecionados de acordo com características agronômicas desejáveis para esta finalidade. A distinção dos três genótipos entre si, baseada exclusivamente em características morfológicas, apresenta limitações. Dessa forma, o objetivo do presente trabalho foi identificar marcadores RAPD capazes de diferenciar e caracterizar os Clones 05, 15 e a cv. Rigitano (Clone 10 de umezeiro, utilizando-se das cultivares Aurora-1 e Okinawa de pessegueiro como outgroup. Dos 220 primers testados, foram selecionados 42, que amplificaram todos os cinco genótipos. Verificou-se que os marcadores RAPD permitiram a distinção entre o Clone 05, o Clone 15 e a cv. Rigitano de umezeiro, demonstrando a existência de variabilidade genética entre os mesmos. Dentre os três genótipos de umezeiro estudados, constatou-se que a similaridade genética é maior entre o Clone 05 e o Clone 15.A research project with the objective do develop mume clones (Prunus mume Sieb. et Zucc., to be used as rootstocks for peach tree [Prunus persica (L. Batsch] is been carried out at the Faculdade de Ciências Agrárias e Veterinárias (FCAV/UNESP, Jaboticabal Campus, São Paulo State, Brazil. These project showed promising perspectives of success, with three clones that were selected according to their characteristics for peach rootstock. But the distinction of the three clones among them, based only in morphologic characteristics, has presented limitations. The objective of the present research was to identify RAPD markers able to characterize and differentiate the 05 and 15 Clones and Rigitano mume cultivar, using Aurora-1 and Okinawa peach tree as outgroup. Among the 220 tested

  7. Using Perls Staining to Trace the Iron Uptake Pathway in Leaves of a Prunus Rootstock Treated with Iron Foliar Fertilizers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rios, Juan J.; Carrasco-Gil, Sandra; Abadía, Anunciación; Abadía, Javier

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to trace the Fe uptake pathway in leaves of Prunus rootstock (GF 677; Prunus dulcis × Prunus persica) plants treated with foliar Fe compounds using the Perls blue method, which detects labile Fe pools. Young expanded leaves of Fe-deficient plants grown in nutrient solution were treated with Fe-compounds using a brush. Iron compounds used were the ferrous salt FeSO4, the ferric salts Fe2(SO4)3 and FeCl3, and the chelate Fe(III)-EDTA, all of them at concentrations of 9 mM Fe. Leaf Fe concentration increases were measured at 30, 60, 90 min, and 24 h, and 70 μm-thick leaf transversal sections were obtained with a vibrating microtome and stained with Perls blue. In vitro results show that the Perls blue method is a good tool to trace the Fe uptake pathway in leaves when using Fe salts, but is not sensitive enough when using synthetic Fe(III)-chelates such as Fe(III)-EDTA and Fe(III)-IDHA. Foliar Fe fertilization increased leaf Fe concentrations with all Fe compounds used, with inorganic Fe salts causing larger leaf Fe concentration increases than Fe(III)-EDTA. Results show that Perls blue stain appeared within 30 min in the stomatal areas, indicating that Fe applied as inorganic salts was taken up rapidly via stomata. In the case of using FeSO4 a progression of the stain was seen with time toward vascular areas in the leaf blade and the central vein, whereas in the case of Fe(III) salts the stain mainly remained in the stomatal areas. Perls stain was never observed in the mesophyll areas, possibly due to the low concentration of labile Fe pools. PMID:27446123

  8. Using Perls Staining to Trace the Iron Uptake Pathway in Leaves of a Prunus Rootstock Treated with Iron Foliar Fertilizers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rios, Juan J; Carrasco-Gil, Sandra; Abadía, Anunciación; Abadía, Javier

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to trace the Fe uptake pathway in leaves of Prunus rootstock (GF 677; Prunus dulcis × Prunus persica) plants treated with foliar Fe compounds using the Perls blue method, which detects labile Fe pools. Young expanded leaves of Fe-deficient plants grown in nutrient solution were treated with Fe-compounds using a brush. Iron compounds used were the ferrous salt FeSO4, the ferric salts Fe2(SO4)3 and FeCl3, and the chelate Fe(III)-EDTA, all of them at concentrations of 9 mM Fe. Leaf Fe concentration increases were measured at 30, 60, 90 min, and 24 h, and 70 μm-thick leaf transversal sections were obtained with a vibrating microtome and stained with Perls blue. In vitro results show that the Perls blue method is a good tool to trace the Fe uptake pathway in leaves when using Fe salts, but is not sensitive enough when using synthetic Fe(III)-chelates such as Fe(III)-EDTA and Fe(III)-IDHA. Foliar Fe fertilization increased leaf Fe concentrations with all Fe compounds used, with inorganic Fe salts causing larger leaf Fe concentration increases than Fe(III)-EDTA. Results show that Perls blue stain appeared within 30 min in the stomatal areas, indicating that Fe applied as inorganic salts was taken up rapidly via stomata. In the case of using FeSO4 a progression of the stain was seen with time toward vascular areas in the leaf blade and the central vein, whereas in the case of Fe(III) salts the stain mainly remained in the stomatal areas. Perls stain was never observed in the mesophyll areas, possibly due to the low concentration of labile Fe pools. PMID:27446123

  9. Insights into the Prunus-Specific S-RNase-Based Self-Incompatibility System from a Genome-Wide Analysis of the Evolutionary Radiation of S Locus-Related F-box Genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akagi, Takashi; Henry, Isabelle M; Morimoto, Takuya; Tao, Ryutaro

    2016-06-01

    Self-incompatibility (SI) is an important plant reproduction mechanism that facilitates the maintenance of genetic diversity within species. Three plant families, the Solanaceae, Rosaceae and Plantaginaceae, share an S-RNase-based gametophytic SI (GSI) system that involves a single S-RNase as the pistil S determinant and several F-box genes as pollen S determinants that act via non-self-recognition. Previous evidence has suggested a specific self-recognition mechanism in Prunus (Rosaceae), raising questions about the generality of the S-RNase-based GSI system. We investigated the evolution of the pollen S determinant by comparing the sequences of the Prunus S haplotype-specific F-box gene (SFB) with those of its orthologs in other angiosperm genomes. Our results indicate that the Prunus SFB does not cluster with the pollen S of other plants and diverged early after the establishment of the Eudicots. Our results further indicate multiple F-box gene duplication events, specifically in the Rosaceae family, and suggest that the Prunus SFB gene originated in a recent Prunus-specific gene duplication event. Transcriptomic and evolutionary analyses of the Prunus S paralogs are consistent with the establishment of a Prunus-specific SI system, and the possibility of subfunctionalization differentiating the newly generated SFB from the original pollen S determinant.

  10. Ecofisiologia da cerejeira (Prunus avium L.),composição fenólica e actividade antioxidante dos frutos

    OpenAIRE

    Gonçalves, Berta Maria de Carvalho

    2006-01-01

    Tese de Doutoramento em Engenharia Biológica e Ambiental No contexto da fruticultura moderna, a cerejeira (Prunus avium L.) tem uma elevada importância económica, havendo, por isso, a preocupação especial de formar árvores produtoras de cerejas com elevada qualidade, mas com porte mais ananicante devido aos elevados custos da mão-de-obra na colheita e noutras práticas culturais do pomar. Assim, a expansão e a exploração rentável desta cultura implicam a aquisição de conhecimentos, entre ou...

  11. Early-screening for resistance to Phytophthora sp.p. in wild cherry clones (Prunus avium L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guerri S

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available A new method for early selection of wild cherry clones for resistance to Phytophthora sp. is presented. Four Phytophthora species (P. cinnamomi, P. citrophthora, P. megasperma, P. alni were tested in vitro on four micropropagated cherry (Prunus avium clones, obtaining reliable and reproducible results. Variability in clones susceptibilities and in parasite virulence has been evidenced. Phytophthora citrophthora is confirmed to be a dangerous parasite, due to its capability to produce symptoms rapidly and its fitness to Mediterranean environments. On the contrary P. alni does not seem a dangerous parasite for wild cherry.

  12. Genetic variability of Wild Cherry (Prunus avium L.) seed stands in Slovenia as revealed by nuclear microsatellite loci

    OpenAIRE

    Kristjan Jarni; Bart De Cuyper; Robert Brus

    2015-01-01

    Microsatellite markers were used to describe the genetic variability of four seed stands of wild cherry (Prunus avium L.). One hundred and thirty one individuals were genotyped at ten nuclear microsatellite loci. Total genetic diversity was high (H(E) = 0.704), while differences between stands were small but significant (F(ST) = 0.053, G'(ST) = 0.234). There was a significant amount of clonal reproduction in one stand, with only 11 genotypes identified among 36 trees. One stand showed a signi...

  13. Genome wide identification of chilling responsive microRNAs in Prunus persica

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    Barakat Abdelali

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background MicroRNAs (miRNAs are small RNAs (sRNAs approximately 21 nucleotides in length that negatively control gene expression by cleaving or inhibiting the translation of target gene transcripts. Within this context, miRNAs and siRNAs are coming to the forefront as molecular mediators of gene regulation in plant responses to annual temperature cycling and cold stress. For this reason, we chose to identify and characterize the conserved and non-conserved miRNA component of peach (Prunus persica (L. Batsch focusing our efforts on both the recently released whole genome sequence of peach and sRNA transcriptome sequences from two tissues representing non-dormant leaves and dormant leaf buds. Conserved and non-conserved miRNAs, and their targets were identified. These sRNA resources were used to identify cold-responsive miRNAs whose gene targets co-localize with previously described QTLs for chilling requirement (CR. Results Analysis of 21 million peach sRNA reads allowed us to identify 157 and 230 conserved and non-conserved miRNA sequences. Among the non-conserved miRNAs, we identified 205 that seem to be specific to peach. Comparative genome analysis between peach and Arabidopsis showed that conserved miRNA families, with the exception of miR5021, are similar in size. Sixteen of these conserved miRNA families are deeply rooted in land plant phylogeny as they are present in mosses and/or lycophytes. Within the other conserved miRNA families, five families (miR1446, miR473, miR479, miR3629, and miR3627 were reported only in tree species (Populustrichocarpa, Citrus trifolia, and Prunus persica. Expression analysis identified several up-regulated or down-regulated miRNAs in winter buds versus young leaves. A search of the peach proteome allowed the prediction of target genes for most of the conserved miRNAs and a large fraction of non-conserved miRNAs. A fraction of predicted targets in peach have not been previously reported in other

  14. Initial and final fruit set in some plum (Prunus domestica L. hybrids under different pollination types

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    Glišić Ivana

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents results of two-year study (2009-2010 of initial and final fruit set in promising plum (Prunus domestica L. hybrids developed at Fruit Research Institute - Čačak, under different pollination conditions. The following hybrids were studied: 38/62/70 (‘Hall’ x ‘California Blue’, 32/21/87 (‘Stanley’ x ‘Scoldus’, IV/63/81 (‘Large Sugar Prune’ x ‘Scoldus’, 22/17/87 (‘Čačanska Najbolja’ x ‘Zh'lta Butilcovidna’, 29/29/87 (‘Stanley’ x ‘Scoldus’ and 34/41/87 (‘Valjevka’ x ‘Čačanska Lepotica’. Each of the hybrids was studied both under self- pollination and open pollination. In vitro pollen germination was also performed as well as characteristics of flowering phenophase and flowering abundance. Generally, the results suggest lower flowering abundance in the second year of the study. Pollen germination ranged from averagely 25.31% (29/29/87 to 40.01% (38/62/70. With averagely 31.59% final fruit set under self-pollination and 29.38% under open pollination variants, respectively, hybrid 34/41/87 gave the best results. The lowest performance was observed in hybrid 32/21/87 with 1.61% and 7.69% final fruit set under self- and open pollination variants, respectively. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR-31064

  15. Gene Expression Analysis of Plum pox virus (Sharka) Susceptibility/Resistance in Apricot (Prunus armeniaca L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubio, Manuel; Ballester, Ana Rosa; Olivares, Pedro Manuel; Castro de Moura, Manuel; Dicenta, Federico; Martínez-Gómez, Pedro

    2015-01-01

    RNA-Seq has proven to be a very powerful tool in the analysis of the Plum pox virus (PPV, sharka disease)/Prunus interaction. This technique is an important complementary tool to other means of studying genomics. In this work an analysis of gene expression of resistance/susceptibility to PPV in apricot is performed. RNA-Seq has been applied to analyse the gene expression changes induced by PPV infection in leaves from two full-sib apricot genotypes, "Rojo Pasión" and "Z506-7", resistant and susceptible to PPV, respectively. Transcriptomic analyses revealed the existence of more than 2,000 genes related to the pathogen response and resistance to PPV in apricot. These results showed that the response to infection by the virus in the susceptible genotype is associated with an induction of genes involved in pathogen resistance such as the allene oxide synthase, S-adenosylmethionine synthetase 2 and the major MLP-like protein 423. Over-expression of the Dicer protein 2a may indicate the suppression of a gene silencing mechanism of the plant by PPV HCPro and P1 PPV proteins. On the other hand, there were 164 genes involved in resistance mechanisms that have been identified in apricot, 49 of which are located in the PPVres region (scaffold 1 positions from 8,050,804 to 8,244,925), which is responsible for PPV resistance in apricot. Among these genes in apricot there are several MATH domain-containing genes, although other genes inside (Pleiotropic drug resistance 9 gene) or outside (CAP, Cysteine-rich secretory proteins, Antigen 5 and Pathogenesis-related 1 protein; and LEA, Late embryogenesis abundant protein) PPVres region could also be involved in the resistance.

  16. Gene Expression Analysis of Plum pox virus (Sharka Susceptibility/Resistance in Apricot (Prunus armeniaca L..

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Rubio

    Full Text Available RNA-Seq has proven to be a very powerful tool in the analysis of the Plum pox virus (PPV, sharka disease/Prunus interaction. This technique is an important complementary tool to other means of studying genomics. In this work an analysis of gene expression of resistance/susceptibility to PPV in apricot is performed. RNA-Seq has been applied to analyse the gene expression changes induced by PPV infection in leaves from two full-sib apricot genotypes, "Rojo Pasión" and "Z506-7", resistant and susceptible to PPV, respectively. Transcriptomic analyses revealed the existence of more than 2,000 genes related to the pathogen response and resistance to PPV in apricot. These results showed that the response to infection by the virus in the susceptible genotype is associated with an induction of genes involved in pathogen resistance such as the allene oxide synthase, S-adenosylmethionine synthetase 2 and the major MLP-like protein 423. Over-expression of the Dicer protein 2a may indicate the suppression of a gene silencing mechanism of the plant by PPV HCPro and P1 PPV proteins. On the other hand, there were 164 genes involved in resistance mechanisms that have been identified in apricot, 49 of which are located in the PPVres region (scaffold 1 positions from 8,050,804 to 8,244,925, which is responsible for PPV resistance in apricot. Among these genes in apricot there are several MATH domain-containing genes, although other genes inside (Pleiotropic drug resistance 9 gene or outside (CAP, Cysteine-rich secretory proteins, Antigen 5 and Pathogenesis-related 1 protein; and LEA, Late embryogenesis abundant protein PPVres region could also be involved in the resistance.

  17. Gene Expression Analysis of Plum pox virus (Sharka) Susceptibility/Resistance in Apricot (Prunus armeniaca L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubio, Manuel; Ballester, Ana Rosa; Olivares, Pedro Manuel; Castro de Moura, Manuel; Dicenta, Federico; Martínez-Gómez, Pedro

    2015-01-01

    RNA-Seq has proven to be a very powerful tool in the analysis of the Plum pox virus (PPV, sharka disease)/Prunus interaction. This technique is an important complementary tool to other means of studying genomics. In this work an analysis of gene expression of resistance/susceptibility to PPV in apricot is performed. RNA-Seq has been applied to analyse the gene expression changes induced by PPV infection in leaves from two full-sib apricot genotypes, "Rojo Pasión" and "Z506-7", resistant and susceptible to PPV, respectively. Transcriptomic analyses revealed the existence of more than 2,000 genes related to the pathogen response and resistance to PPV in apricot. These results showed that the response to infection by the virus in the susceptible genotype is associated with an induction of genes involved in pathogen resistance such as the allene oxide synthase, S-adenosylmethionine synthetase 2 and the major MLP-like protein 423. Over-expression of the Dicer protein 2a may indicate the suppression of a gene silencing mechanism of the plant by PPV HCPro and P1 PPV proteins. On the other hand, there were 164 genes involved in resistance mechanisms that have been identified in apricot, 49 of which are located in the PPVres region (scaffold 1 positions from 8,050,804 to 8,244,925), which is responsible for PPV resistance in apricot. Among these genes in apricot there are several MATH domain-containing genes, although other genes inside (Pleiotropic drug resistance 9 gene) or outside (CAP, Cysteine-rich secretory proteins, Antigen 5 and Pathogenesis-related 1 protein; and LEA, Late embryogenesis abundant protein) PPVres region could also be involved in the resistance. PMID:26658051

  18. Efficacy study of Prunus amygdalus (almond nuts in scopolamine-induced amnesia in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kulkarni Kirti

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective : Cognitive disorders such as amnesia, attention deficit and Alzheimer′s disease are emerging nightmares in the field of medicine because no exact cure exists for them, as existing nootropic agents (piractam, tacrine, metrifonate have several limitations. The present study was undertaken to investigate the effect of Prunus amygdalus (PA nuts on cognitive functions, total cholesterol levels and cholinesterase (ChE activity in scopolamine-induced amnesia in rats. Materials and Methods : The paste of PA nuts was administered orally at three doses (150, 300 and 600 mg/kg for 7 and 14 consecutive days to the respective groups of rats. Piracetam (200 mg/kg was used as a standard nootropic agent. Learning and memory parameters were evaluated using elevated plus maze (EPM, passive avoidance and motor activity paradigms. Brain ChE activity and serum biochemical parameters like total cholesterol, total triglycerides and glucose were evaluated. Results : It was observed that PA at the above-mentioned doses after 7 and 14 days of administration in the respective groups significantly reversed scopolamine (1 mg/kg i.p.-induced amnesia, as evidenced by a decrease in the transfer latency in the EPM task and step-down latency in the passive avoidance task. PA reduced the brain ChE activity in rats. PA also exhibited a remarkable cholesterol and triglyceride lowering property and slight increase in glucose levels in the present study. Conclusion : Because diminished cholinergic transmission and increase in cholesterol levels appear to be responsible for the development of amyloid plaques and dementia in Alzheimer patients, PA may prove to be a useful memory-restorative agent. It would be worthwhile to explore the potential of this plant in the management of Alzheimer′s disease.

  19. Urbanisation induces early flowering: evidence from Platanus acerifolia and Prunus cerasus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mimet, A.; Pellissier, V.; Quénol, H.; Aguejdad, R.; Dubreuil, V.; Rozé, F.

    2009-05-01

    The effect of towns on plant phenology, i.e. advancement of spring development compared with a rural environment, via the urban heat island (UHI) phenomenon, has been shown for many towns in many countries. This work combines experimental and observational methodology to provide a better and deeper view of climatic habitat in an urban context with a view to understanding the relationship between plant development and urban climate on the intra-urban scale (by taking into account town structure). A dense network of 17 meteorological stations was set up in Rennes, France, enabling us to identify and quantify climatic changes associated with the UHI. Meanwhile, phenological observations were made during early spring (March and April) in 2005 on Platanus acerifolia and Prunus cerasus to study the relationship between climatic and phenological data. The results show that there is both a climatic gradient and a developmental gradient corresponding to the type of urbanisation in the town of Rennes. The town influences plant phenology by reducing the diurnal temperature range and by increasing the minimum temperature as one approaches the town centre. The influence of ground cover type (plants or buildings) on development is also shown. The developmental phases of preflowering and flowering are influenced to differing extents by climatic variables. The period during which climatic variables are effective before a given developmental phase varies considerably. The preflowering phases are best correlated with the mean of the minimum air temperature for the 15-day period before the observation, whereas flowering appears to be more dependent on the mean of the daily diurnal temperature range for the 8 days preceding the observation.

  20. The Technology Research on Prunus persica Pruning%碧桃整形修剪技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汤巧香; 王建团

    2013-01-01

    在对碧桃生物学特性进行观察的基础上,开展整形修剪试验研究。结果表明:整形修剪对碧桃树冠内枝条的组成、枝条的着花量、花期都有影响,通过抑上缓下、疏外缓内、缩前截后的综合修剪方法,能够改变树冠枝类比例,明显减少旺花枝的量,增加有效花枝的量,使花期延长;通过疏除上部旺枝和密挤大枝,回缩外围枝可以调整树冠的结构,使碧桃光秃带减少,观赏价值提高。%On the base of the study of Prunus persica’ s biological characteristics ,this research developed the pruning experiment ,it showed that pruning influenced the composition of branches ,amount of flowers,flowing period.Through the method of slowing down the inside and downside ,inhibiting the upside and pruning outside ,it could change the proportion of the tree branches ,reduce the a-mount of flourishing flowers and prolonged florescence.Through adjusting the structure of crown ,it could reduce the baldness of flow-ering peach ,and improve the ornamental value.

  1. Genome-Wide Identification, Characterization and Expression Analysis of the TCP Gene Family in Prunus mume

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yuzhen; Xu, Zongda; Zhao, Kai; Yang, Weiru; Cheng, Tangren; Wang, Jia; Zhang, Qixiang

    2016-01-01

    TCP proteins, belonging to a plant-specific transcription factors family, are known to have great functions in plant development, especially flower and leaf development. However, there is little information about this gene family in Prunus mume, which is widely cultivated in China as an ornamental and fruit tree. Here a genome-wide analysis of TCP genes was performed to explore their evolution in P. mume. Nineteen PmTCPs were identified and three of them contained putative miR319 target sites. Phylogenetic and comprehensive bioinformatics analyses of these genes revealed that different types of TCP genes had undergone different evolutionary processes and the genes in the same clade had similar chromosomal location, gene structure, and conserved domains. Expression analysis of these PmTCPs indicated that there were diverse expression patterns among different clades. Most TCP genes were predominantly expressed in flower, leaf, and stem, and showed high expression levels in the different stages of flower bud differentiation, especially in petal formation stage and gametophyte development. Genes in TCP-P subfamily had main roles in both flower development and gametophyte development. The CIN genes in double petal cultivars might have key roles in the formation of petal, while they were correlated with gametophyte development in the single petal cultivar. The CYC/TB1 type genes were highly detected in the formation of petal and pistil. The less-complex flower types of P. mume might result from the fact that there were only two CYC type genes present in P. mume and a lack of CYC2 genes to control the identity of flower types. These results lay the foundation for further study on the functions of TCP genes during flower development. PMID:27630648

  2. Genome-Wide Identification, Characterization and Expression Analysis of the TCP Gene Family in Prunus mume.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yuzhen; Xu, Zongda; Zhao, Kai; Yang, Weiru; Cheng, Tangren; Wang, Jia; Zhang, Qixiang

    2016-01-01

    TCP proteins, belonging to a plant-specific transcription factors family, are known to have great functions in plant development, especially flower and leaf development. However, there is little information about this gene family in Prunus mume, which is widely cultivated in China as an ornamental and fruit tree. Here a genome-wide analysis of TCP genes was performed to explore their evolution in P. mume. Nineteen PmTCPs were identified and three of them contained putative miR319 target sites. Phylogenetic and comprehensive bioinformatics analyses of these genes revealed that different types of TCP genes had undergone different evolutionary processes and the genes in the same clade had similar chromosomal location, gene structure, and conserved domains. Expression analysis of these PmTCPs indicated that there were diverse expression patterns among different clades. Most TCP genes were predominantly expressed in flower, leaf, and stem, and showed high expression levels in the different stages of flower bud differentiation, especially in petal formation stage and gametophyte development. Genes in TCP-P subfamily had main roles in both flower development and gametophyte development. The CIN genes in double petal cultivars might have key roles in the formation of petal, while they were correlated with gametophyte development in the single petal cultivar. The CYC/TB1 type genes were highly detected in the formation of petal and pistil. The less-complex flower types of P. mume might result from the fact that there were only two CYC type genes present in P. mume and a lack of CYC2 genes to control the identity of flower types. These results lay the foundation for further study on the functions of TCP genes during flower development. PMID:27630648

  3. Dormancy in sweet cherry (Prunus avium L. under Mediterranean climatic conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Mahhou

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available It is admitted that the lack of winter chilling is a limiting factor for the cultivation of temperate fruit trees in warm climates. Nevertheless, the characteristics of dormancy in sweet cherry under such conditions are still not fully understood. Therefore, and in order to contribute to the elucidation of these mechanisms, the objective of this work is to evaluate the dormancy of sweet cherry (Prunus avium L. under the Mediterranean conditions of Meknes region (Morocco. Evaluation of dormancy behaviour of four varieties was made on the basis of a biological test, known as the « single node cuttings », and histological dissections of flower buds at the time of bud break. The variations of mean time to bud break (MTB were interpreted in terms of the evolution of growth capacity of the buds. The lack of cold affected tree phenological development. The evolution of dormancy in cherry buds showed three phases with variable levels of inertia: the first and third phases being of similar intensity and duration while the second phase was of a high level of inertia (endo-dormancy. The correlative inhibitions of the leaves imposed on the buds continued up to the arrival of continuous low temperatures. The delay in the decrease of inertia reveals insufficient chilling accumulation causing incomplete release from dormancy and low bud break percentage in the orchard. Histological observations showed that vascular connection of flower buds was established during bud break stage. However, flowers showed certain abnormalities, ie low pollen production and malformations of pistils, which limit the possibilities of pollination.

  4. Effects of elevated CO[sub 2] on growth and chloroplast proteins in Prunus avium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilkins, D.; Oosten, J.-J. van; Besford, R.T. (Horticulture Research International, Littlehampton, Sussex (United Kingdom))

    1994-01-01

    A study was conducted of the growth response of Prunus avium L. Stella (wild cherry) to elevated CO[sub 2]. The associated changes in photosynthetic machinery of the leaf tissue were characterized. Self-pollinated seedlings and mature cuttings (clones) from the same parent plant of P. avium were grown for two consecutive growing seasons (about 60 days each) in ambient or elevated CO[sub 2] with high or low nutrient supply. The degree of acclimation of leaf biochemistry and growth response to elevated CO[sub 2] depended on the plant material (seedling or mature cutting) and nutrient supply. There was little or no growth response to elevated CO[sub 2] in seedlings or cuttings in the low nutrient supply treatments, whereas in both seasons, there was a strongly positive growth response to elevated CO[sub 2] in seedlings and cuttings in the high nutrient supply regimes, resulting in increases in the root/shoot ratio and in carbon allocation to the roots. In contrast, the protein content and activity of ribulose-1,5-biophosphate carboxylase-oxygenase (Rubisco, EC 4.1.1.39) were down regulated in elevated CO[sub 2]. The loss of Rubisco on an area basis in plants in the elevated CO[sub 2] treatments was compensated for at the canopy level by increased leaf area. The loss of Rubisco protein was accompanied by decreases in the contents of chlorophyll and the thylakoid membrane proteins D[sub 1], D[sub 2] and cytochrome f, which are involved in light harvesting and photo-electron transport. It is concluded that in the medium- to long-term, the initial stimulation of biomass production by elevated CO[sub 2] may be increasingly offset by a lower photosynthetic capacity per unit leaf area in perennial plants. 27 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  5. Management of genetic resources in the nursery system of wild cherry (Prunus avium L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Proietti R

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge of genetic and adaptive traits of reproductive materials used in the nursery system of wild cherry, could be an useful instrument to improve ecological and economic sustainability of plantation ecosystems. This work reports results from a research which the objectives were: 1 to study the genetic variation of a Prunus avium L. Population, used for seed harvesting, through its multi-locus genotypes detected by starch gel electrophoresis; 2 to analyze the level of genetic variation within and among different steps in a commercial nursery system (basic population and sub-populations, seedlings aged S1T1 and S1T2, plantation. Results showed low genetic variation levels of the basic population, similar to a reference system of other 12 wild cherry Italian populations and to other French and Caucasian materials. The genetic distances among Monte Baldo and some closer Lombardy provenances (Area Garda, Bosco Fontana, Valtellina were smaller than the Venice Region populations (Monti Lessini and Asiago. Number of alleles and percentage of polymorphic loci within the complex of Monte Baldo provenance and multiplication materials were similar, whilst a variable value of Fis was noted. Indeed, along with the nursery system until the plantation, heterozygosis initially (S1T1 increased, then decreased proceeding to the plantation. This fluctuation of FIS values could be determined by seed lots characterized initially by higher levels of variation, due to self-incompatibility. In the following steps, a possible selection pressure can affect randomly the genotypic structure of wild cherry by increasing the homozygosity. There is not among population a well defined geographic characterization, as suggested by genetic distances, therefore homogeneous seed harvest could be established an area larger than geographic and administrative borders. On this way we could have reproductive material with a wide genetic base and environmental adaptability. To

  6. Antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of bitter and sweet apricot (Prunus armeniaca L. kernels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Yiğit

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The present study describes the in vitro antimicrobial and antioxidant activity of methanol and water extracts of sweet and bitter apricot (Prunus armeniaca L. kernels. The antioxidant properties of apricot kernels were evaluated by determining radical scavenging power, lipid peroxidation inhibition activity and total phenol content measured with a DPPH test, the thiocyanate method and the Folin method, respectively. In contrast to extracts of the bitter kernels, both the water and methanol extracts of sweet kernels have antioxidant potential. The highest percent inhibition of lipid peroxidation (69% and total phenolic content (7.9 ± 0.2 µg/mL were detected in the methanol extract of sweet kernels (Hasanbey and in the water extract of the same cultivar, respectively. The antimicrobial activities of the above extracts were also tested against human pathogenic microorganisms using a disc-diffusion method, and the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC values of each active extract were determined. The most effective antibacterial activity was observed in the methanol and water extracts of bitter kernels and in the methanol extract of sweet kernels against the Gram-positive bacteria Staphylococcus aureus. Additionally, the methanol extracts of the bitter kernels were very potent against the Gram-negative bacteria Escherichia coli (0.312 mg/mL MIC value. Significant anti-candida activity was also observed with the methanol extract of bitter apricot kernels against Candida albicans, consisting of a 14 mm in diameter of inhibition zone and a 0.625 mg/mL MIC value.

  7. Enhanced seed dispersal of Prunus africana in fragmented and disturbed forests?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farwig, Nina; Böhning-Gaese, Katrin; Bleher, Bärbel

    2006-03-01

    Forest destruction and disturbance can have long-term consequences for species diversity and ecosystem processes such as seed dispersal. Understanding these consequences is a crucial component of conserving vulnerable ecosystems. In the heavily fragmented and disturbed Kakamega Forest, western Kenya, we studied seed dispersal of Prunus africana (Rosaceae). In the main forest, five forest fragments, and differently disturbed sites, we quantified the overall frugivore community as an indicator for species diversity. Furthermore, we determined the frugivores on 28 fruiting P. africana trees, estimated seed dispersal, crop size and the general fruit availability of surrounding trees. During the overall frugivore census we recorded 49 frugivorous species; 36 of them were observed visiting P. africana trees and feeding on their fruits. Although overall frugivore species richness was 1.1 times lower in fragments than in main forest sites and 1.02 times higher in highly disturbed than in less disturbed sites, P. africana experienced 1.1 times higher numbers of frugivores in fragments than in main forest sites and 1.5 times higher numbers of frugivores in highly disturbed than in less disturbed sites. Correspondingly, seed dispersal was 1.5 times higher in fragments than in main forest sites and 1.5 times higher in more disturbed than less disturbed sites. Fruit availability of surrounding trees and crop size influenced the number of visitors to some degree. Thus, the number of dispersed seeds seemed to be slightly higher in fragmented and highly disturbed sites. This indicates that loss of single species does not necessarily lead to a decrease of ecosystem services. However, loss of diversity could be a problem in the long term, as a multitude of species might act as buffer against future environmental change.

  8. Composition and antioxidant properties of fresh and frozen stored blackthorn fruits (Prunus spinosa L.

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    Elżbieta Sikora

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available   Aim. Blackthorn (Prunus spinosa L. is quite widespread bush occurring in Poland. Its fruits are easily available food products. The aim of this study was to investigate the basal chemical composition, especially antioxidant compounds in fresh and frozen stored blackthorn fruits. Material  and methods. Research material consisted of blackthorn fruits collected from the wild grown bushes, near Łącko. In the wash-out, dried and stone-loss fruits, the content of dry matter, protein, simple sugars, dietary fibre and ash was determined. The amount of antioxidant compounds was also tested: β-carotene, vitamin C, polyphenols,in this anthocyannins,as well as  antioxidantactivity expressed as an ability to quench free radical ABTS. Analyses were repeated in fruits stored in frozen state for three months. Results.  On the basis of the obtained results, it was observed that concerning basal chemical composition, the blackthorn fruits do not single out among other fruits from Rosaceae family. It was also reported that blackthorn fruits are rich in polyphenolic  compounds, as well as in vitamin C, and those compounds, most probably contribute to their high antioxidant activity, being at the level of 43.6 μmol Trolox/g f.m. Storage in the freezing state reduced the contents of water, fat, dietary fiber and ash, but did not have significant impact on the other compounds. Conclusions. Blackthorn fruits may constitute valuable source for preparations (tincture, wines, and teas, as well as an additive to other fruit processing, as a product of great pro-healthy properties. Freezing process and storage in that state did not significantlyinfluence on nutritive and antioxidant compounds of blackthorn fruits. It may be therefore observed that several months of frozen storage is a good way to make them avail- able for fruit processing and for the consumers, also the off-season.  

  9. In vitro cold-storage duration of sour cherry (Prunus cerasus L) shoots is affected by carbon source and nitrogen concentration

    Science.gov (United States)

    In vitro cold storage of fruit crop germplasm is useful for preservation of heritage or commercial cultivars. Shoot cultures of sour cherry (Prunus cerasus L.) cultivars Dolgozdannaya, Moya Radost and Zukovskaya, were cold stored at 4°C in either five-section tissue-culture bags or in 150 ml glass j...

  10. 青梅花提取物在护肤品中的应用研究%Study on Application of Prunus mume Blossom Extract in Cosmetics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵乐荣; 刘志河; 石丽花; 路万成; 邹鹏飞

    2012-01-01

    In China, there is rich of Prunus mume resource, however, the research on utilization of non-fruit part of Prunus mume is little. In this paper, after processing, the main components of Prunus mume blossom extract were determined, the application principle of extract of Prunus mume blossom on skin care products was analyzed, and a skin care cream with this extract was prepared. Also, the physical and chemical properties and effectiveness of this kind of skin care cream were evaluated, the results indicated that it has significant effects on skin moisture and anti-wrinkle.%我国有丰富的青梅资源,但是对青梅非果部位的研究利用较少.通过对青梅花进行提取,确定其主要成分,分析了青梅花提取物应用于护肤品的技术原理,并将青梅花提取物制备成护肤霜,同时对产品进行理化性能及功效评价,得出青梅花提取物应用于护肤品中在保湿和抗皱方面具有显著的效果.

  11. Techniques de production de plants de merisier (Prunus avium L.) par culture in vitro Bouturage herbacé, bouturage de racines

    OpenAIRE

    Chaix, C.

    1982-01-01

    Dans le cadre de l’amélioration génétique du merisier (Prunus avium L.) on a expérimenté trois techniques de multiplication végétative en masse : culture in vitro, bouturage de racines, bouturage herbacé.

  12. Multiple Events of Allopolyploidy in the Evolution of the Racemose Lineages in Prunus (Rosaceae Based on Integrated Evidence from Nuclear and Plastid Data.

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    Liang Zhao

    Full Text Available Prunus is an economically important genus well-known for cherries, plums, almonds, and peaches. The genus can be divided into three major groups based on inflorescence structure and ploidy levels: (1 the diploid solitary-flower group (subg. Prunus, Amygdalus and Emplectocladus; (2 the diploid corymbose group (subg. Cerasus; and (3 the polyploid racemose group (subg. Padus, subg. Laurocerasus, and the Maddenia group. The plastid phylogeny suggests three major clades within Prunus: Prunus-Amygdalus-Emplectocladus, Cerasus, and Laurocerasus-Padus-Maddenia, while nuclear ITS trees resolve Laurocerasus-Padus-Maddenia as a paraphyletic group. In this study, we employed sequences of the nuclear loci At103, ITS and s6pdh to explore the origins and evolution of the racemose group. Two copies of the At103 gene were identified in Prunus. One copy is found in Prunus species with solitary and corymbose inflorescences as well as those with racemose inflorescences, while the second copy (II is present only in taxa with racemose inflorescences. The copy I sequences suggest that all racemose species form a paraphyletic group composed of four clades, each of which is definable by morphology and geography. The tree from the combined At103 and ITS sequences and the tree based on the single gene s6pdh had similar general topologies to the tree based on the copy I sequences of At103, with the combined At103-ITS tree showing stronger support in most clades. The nuclear At103, ITS and s6pdh data in conjunction with the plastid data are consistent with the hypothesis that multiple independent allopolyploidy events contributed to the origins of the racemose group. A widespread species or lineage may have served as the maternal parent for multiple hybridizations involving several paternal lineages. This hypothesis of the complex evolutionary history of the racemose group in Prunus reflects a major step forward in our understanding of diversification of the genus and has

  13. Multiple Events of Allopolyploidy in the Evolution of the Racemose Lineages in Prunus (Rosaceae) Based on Integrated Evidence from Nuclear and Plastid Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Liang; Jiang, Xi-Wang; Zuo, Yun-Juan; Liu, Xiao-Lin; Chin, Siew-Wai; Haberle, Rosemarie; Potter, Daniel; Chang, Zhao-Yang; Wen, Jun

    2016-01-01

    Prunus is an economically important genus well-known for cherries, plums, almonds, and peaches. The genus can be divided into three major groups based on inflorescence structure and ploidy levels: (1) the diploid solitary-flower group (subg. Prunus, Amygdalus and Emplectocladus); (2) the diploid corymbose group (subg. Cerasus); and (3) the polyploid racemose group (subg. Padus, subg. Laurocerasus, and the Maddenia group). The plastid phylogeny suggests three major clades within Prunus: Prunus-Amygdalus-Emplectocladus, Cerasus, and Laurocerasus-Padus-Maddenia, while nuclear ITS trees resolve Laurocerasus-Padus-Maddenia as a paraphyletic group. In this study, we employed sequences of the nuclear loci At103, ITS and s6pdh to explore the origins and evolution of the racemose group. Two copies of the At103 gene were identified in Prunus. One copy is found in Prunus species with solitary and corymbose inflorescences as well as those with racemose inflorescences, while the second copy (II) is present only in taxa with racemose inflorescences. The copy I sequences suggest that all racemose species form a paraphyletic group composed of four clades, each of which is definable by morphology and geography. The tree from the combined At103 and ITS sequences and the tree based on the single gene s6pdh had similar general topologies to the tree based on the copy I sequences of At103, with the combined At103-ITS tree showing stronger support in most clades. The nuclear At103, ITS and s6pdh data in conjunction with the plastid data are consistent with the hypothesis that multiple independent allopolyploidy events contributed to the origins of the racemose group. A widespread species or lineage may have served as the maternal parent for multiple hybridizations involving several paternal lineages. This hypothesis of the complex evolutionary history of the racemose group in Prunus reflects a major step forward in our understanding of diversification of the genus and has important

  14. Inheritance of hetero-diploid pollen S-haplotype in self-compatible tetraploid Chinese cherry (Prunus pseudocerasus Lindl.

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    Chao Gu

    Full Text Available The breakdown of self-incompatibility, which could result from the accumulation of non-functional S-haplotypes or competitive interaction between two different functional S-haplotypes, has been studied extensively at the molecular level in tetraploid Rosaceae species. In this study, two tetraploid Chinese cherry (Prunus pseudocerasus cultivars and one diploid sweet cherry (Prunus avium cultivar were used to investigate the ploidy of pollen grains and inheritance of pollen-S alleles. Genetic analysis of the S-genotypes of two intercross-pollinated progenies showed that the pollen grains derived from Chinese cherry cultivars were hetero-diploid, and that the two S-haplotypes were made up of every combination of two of the four possible S-haplotypes. Moreover, the distributions of single S-haplotypes expressed in self- and intercross-pollinated progenies were in disequilibrium. The number of individuals of the two different S-haplotypes was unequal in two self-pollinated and two intercross-pollinated progenies. Notably, the number of individuals containing two different S-haplotypes (S1- and S5-, S5- and S8-, S1- and S4-haplotype was larger than that of other individuals in the two self-pollinated progenies, indicating that some of these hetero-diploid pollen grains may have the capability to inactivate stylar S-RNase inside the pollen tube and grow better into the ovaries.

  15. Endophytic bacteria in plant tissue culture: differences between easy- and difficult-to-propagate Prunus avium genotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quambusch, Mona; Pirttilä, Anna Maria; Tejesvi, Mysore V; Winkelmann, Traud; Bartsch, Melanie

    2014-05-01

    The endophytic bacterial communities of six Prunus avium L. genotypes differing in their growth patterns during in vitro propagation were identified by culture-dependent and culture-independent methods. Five morphologically distinct isolates from tissue culture material were identified by 16S rDNA sequence analysis. To detect and analyze the uncultivable fraction of endophytic bacteria, a clone library was established from the amplified 16S rDNA of total plant extract. Bacterial diversity within the clone libraries was analyzed by amplified ribosomal rDNA restriction analysis and by sequencing a clone for each identified operational taxonomic unit. The most abundant bacterial group was Mycobacterium sp., which was identified in the clone libraries of all analyzed Prunus genotypes. Other dominant bacterial genera identified in the easy-to-propagate genotypes were Rhodopseudomonas sp. and Microbacterium sp. Thus, the community structures in the easy- and difficult-to-propagate cherry genotypes differed significantly. The bacterial genera, which were previously reported to have plant growth-promoting effects, were detected only in genotypes with high propagation success, indicating a possible positive impact of these bacteria on in vitro propagation of P. avium, which was proven in an inoculation experiment. PMID:24812040

  16. Inheritance of hetero-diploid pollen S-haplotype in self-compatible tetraploid Chinese cherry (Prunus pseudocerasus Lindl).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Chao; Liu, Qing-Zhong; Yang, Ya-Nan; Zhang, Shu-Jun; Khan, Muhammad Awais; Wu, Jun; Zhang, Shao-Ling

    2013-01-01

    The breakdown of self-incompatibility, which could result from the accumulation of non-functional S-haplotypes or competitive interaction between two different functional S-haplotypes, has been studied extensively at the molecular level in tetraploid Rosaceae species. In this study, two tetraploid Chinese cherry (Prunus pseudocerasus) cultivars and one diploid sweet cherry (Prunus avium) cultivar were used to investigate the ploidy of pollen grains and inheritance of pollen-S alleles. Genetic analysis of the S-genotypes of two intercross-pollinated progenies showed that the pollen grains derived from Chinese cherry cultivars were hetero-diploid, and that the two S-haplotypes were made up of every combination of two of the four possible S-haplotypes. Moreover, the distributions of single S-haplotypes expressed in self- and intercross-pollinated progenies were in disequilibrium. The number of individuals of the two different S-haplotypes was unequal in two self-pollinated and two intercross-pollinated progenies. Notably, the number of individuals containing two different S-haplotypes (S1- and S5-, S5- and S8-, S1- and S4-haplotype) was larger than that of other individuals in the two self-pollinated progenies, indicating that some of these hetero-diploid pollen grains may have the capability to inactivate stylar S-RNase inside the pollen tube and grow better into the ovaries. PMID:23596519

  17. A fissitunicate ascus mechanism in the Calosphaeriaceae, and novel species of Jattaea and Calosphaeria on Prunus wood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damm, U; Crous, P W; Fourie, P H

    2008-06-01

    During a survey of Prunus wood from South Africa, isolations were made of three presumably Calosphaerialean fungi that formed hyphomycetous, phialidic anamorphs in culture. In order to reveal the phylogenetic relationship of these fungi, they were characterised on a morphological and molecular (LSU and ITS rDNA) basis. Two isolates that formed a teleomorph in culture are newly described as Calosphaeria africana sp. nov. Although asci of Calosphaeria are characterised by having non-amyloid apical rings, two functional wall layers were observed in asci of C. africana, which has hitherto not been observed in any member of the Calosphaeriaceae. However, Calosphaeriaceae (Calosphaeriales, Sordariomycetes) are not closely related to other bitunicate fungi like Dothideomycetes, Chaetothyriales and bitunicate lichens. Possession of two separating wall layers is considered to be a result of both inherited abilities and convergent evolution under a strong selection pressure of the environmental conditions that favour an extension of the ascus. The other two species represented a separate lineage within Calosphaeriaceae, and formed phialophora-like anamorphs. By obtaining the teleomorph in culture, one of them could be identified as a species of Jattaea, described here as Jattaea prunicola sp. nov., while the second, which only produced the anamorph, is named as Jattaea mookgoponga sp. nov. These findings suggest that some species of Jattaea are true members of the Calosphaeriaceae, though the phylogenetic relation of the type, J. algeriensis, remains unknown. Furthermore, it also represents the first report of Jattaea on Prunus wood, and from South Africa.

  18. Selected Wood Properties of Prunus Africana (Hook Grown in Kenya as Possible Reasons for its High Natural Durability

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    Francis Mburu

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Studies were carried out on the influence of Prunus africana heartwood extractives on the growth of selected wood decay fungi. Also, wood chemical and mineral content, dimensional stability and anatomical features of P. africana were studied. Heartwood extractives were tested in 100 ppm and 500 ppm concentrations on white, brown rot, and blue stain fungi and growth inhibition was determined as a factor of time. Dimensional stability was determined by computing the swelling coefficient after the blocks were saturated with moisture. Klason lignin, Kürschner cellulose, extractive and ash contents were determined by standard procedures. Infrared analyses were performed using Perkin Elmer FTIR spectrometer. Microscopic examination was performed using an environmental scanning electron microscope. The results showed that the wood is dimensionally stable, and contains 12.7 % extractives, 37.6 % cellulose and 30.4 % lignin. Extractives deposited in vessels are highly soluble in dichloromethane and mainly composed of terpenes. Extractives were able to inhibit the growth of white rot fungi Coriolus versicolor, brown rot fungi Poria placenta and blue stain fungi Aureobasidium pullulans at different concentrations tested and could explain the high durability of Prunus africana wood species.

  19. Evaluation of the Resistance of Transgenic C5 Plum (Prunus domestica L.) against Four Chilean Plum Pox Virus Isolates through Micro-Grafting Evaluación de la Resistencia de Ciruelo Transgénico C5 (Prunus domestica L.) contra Cuatro Aislamientos Chilenos del Virus Pox del Ciruelo a través de Microinjertos

    OpenAIRE

    Wendy Wong; Paola Barba; Catalina Álvarez; Álvaro Castro; Manuel Acuña; Pablo Zamora; Marlene Rosales; Paola Dell´Orto; Michael R Moynihan; Ralph Scorza; Humberto Prieto

    2010-01-01

    The transgenic plum (Prunus domestica L.) C5, in which the coat protein (CP) gene of the Plum pox virus (PPV) is inserted, represents a unique example of the use of genetic engineering for fruit crop improvement in Prunus spp. Field trials in Poland, Romania, and Spain have demonstrated resistance of C5 to several D and M strain PPV isolates. In Chile, the quarantine regulations for PPV and for genetically modified (GM) plants require that the testing of C5 for resistance to Chilean PPV isola...

  20. Efeito do comprimento de estacas herbáceas de dois clones de umezeiro (Prunus mume Sieb & Zucc.) no enraizamento adventício Effect of the length of herbaceous cuttings of two clones of japanese apricot (Prunus mume Sieb & Zucc.) in adventicious rooting

    OpenAIRE

    NEWTON ALEX MAYER; FERNANDO MENDES PEREIRA; JAIR COSTA NACHTIGAL

    2002-01-01

    O umezeiro (Prunus mumeSieb & Zucc.) é uma rosácea de folhas caducas, nativa da China, cujos frutos e flores são muito apreciados pelos povos orientais. No Brasil, alguns estudos foram realizados visando a sua utilização como porta-enxerto para pessegueiro e nectarineira, dadas as suas características de adaptação, rusticidade, redução do porte da planta e compatibilidade com algumas cultivares de Prunus persica. O presente estudo foi conduzido em câmara de nebulização sob ripado, pertencente...

  1. Estabelecimento e multiplicação in vitro de porta-enxertos de Prunus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silva Aparecido Lima da

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available A qualidade genética e sanitária das mudas é de fundamental importância para o sucesso da fruticultura moderna. Para o pessegueiro, a micropropagação vem permitindo a produção clonal massal de plantas, com matrizes e mudas de qualidade genética-sanitária comprovada. O presente trabalho objetivou avaliar a taxa de sobrevivência de explantes no estabelecimento in vitro, bem como avaliar o potencial de multiplicação in vitro de porta-enxertos de Prunus. Explantes constituídos por ápices caulinares e gemas laterais dos porta-enxertos Capdeboscq e GF677 e da seleção VP411 foram estabelecidos e multiplicados in vitro em meio de cultura de Lepoivre suplementado com BAP (0,5 mg.L-1. A taxa média de sobrevivência para os porta-enxertos foi 62,9% para ápices caulinares e 58,8% para gemas laterais. Ápices caulinares e gemas laterais apresentaram 14,8% e 29,8% de contaminação, respectivamente. O genótipo afetou significativamente as taxas de multiplicação in vitro. Quanto ao número de brotos por explantes, o porta-enxerto Capdeboscq e a seleção VP411 foram superiores ao porta-enxerto GF677, resultando em 14,7; 16,0 e 10,5 brotos, respectivamente. Para a altura média dos brotos, os porta-enxertos Capdeboscq e GF677 foram superiores à seleção VP411 com 9,3; 8,9 e 7,8 mm, respectivamente. O porta-enxerto Capdeboscq foi superior ao porta-enxerto GF677 e à seleção VP411 na variável número de brotos >20 mm com 2,0; 1,3 e 1,0 brotos, respectivamente.

  2. Nestedness in bipartite networks of Thuja plicata, Prunus laurocerasus and Buxus sempervirens and their pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ecaterina Fodor

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The trade with cultivated plants is one of the major pathways for the introduction of invasive species, pathogens included. Based on network analysis, the present study aimed the interaction between several species of cultivated woody perennials found in gardening outlets and nurseries trading with ornamental species and their documented pathogens. Focal species of the host list were Thuja plicata, Buxus sempervirens and Prunus laurocerasus, the selection being based on reported bestselling figures. Bipartite, qualitative, undirected networks were constructed to incorporate woody perennials as hosts and their documented pathogens. The tested network properties were: connectance, node degree distribution, web asymmetry and nestedness. Cluster analysis using Euclidian distance and niche overlap index of Pianka were employed as additional pattern description metrics. The main network containing 33 host species and 112 pathogens was characterized by truncated power law distribution fitting the observed degree distribution of hosts and power law distribution fitting the observed degree distribution of pathogens, low connectance (C = 0.12, intermediate web asymmetry (W = 0.54 and high significant nestedness (N = 0.94. The network containing three focal hosts showed significant lower nestedness (N = 0.54, higher asymmetry (W = 0.94 and higher connectance (C = 0.38. Cluster analysis revealed the separation of focal species distinctly, the majority of other hosts merging in one cluster. Due to the prevalence of specialized pathogens the niche breadth was narrow, with small overlap in resources’ partition (Pianka index = 0.31. Our results showed that a random assembly of hosts (woody ornamentals displayed for sale in retail centers and nurseries could harbor pathogens which attached in a non-random manner, generating a characteristic pathosystem, with distinctive topology. The possible implications of the study consisted in a

  3. Prunus persica crop management as step toward AMF diversity conservation for the sustainable soil management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alguacil, M. M.; Torrecillas, E.; Lozano, Z.; Garcia-Orenes, F.; Roldan, A.

    2012-04-01

    We investigated the diversity of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) in roots of Prunus persica under two fertilization treatments (CF: consisted of application of chicken manure (1400 kg.ha-1), urea (140 kg.ha-1), complex fertilizer 12-12-17/2 (280 kg.ha-1), and potassium sulfate (40 kg.ha-1) and IF: consisted of application of urea (140 kg.ha-1), complex fertilizer 12-12-17/2 (400 kg.ha-1) and potassium sulfate (70 kg.ha-1)) combined with integrated pest management (IM) or chemical pest management (CM), in a tropical agroecosystem in the north of Venezuela. Our goal was to ascertain how different fertilizers/pest management can modify the AMF diversity colonizing P. persica roots as an important step towards sustainable soil use and therefore protection of biodiversity. The AM fungal small-subunit (SSU) rRNA genes were subjected to PCR, cloning, sequencing and phylogenetic analyses. Twenty-one different phylotypes were identified, which were grouped in five families: Glomeraceae, Paraglomeraceae, Acaulosporaceae, Gigasporaceae and Archaeosporaceae. Sixteen of these sequence groups belonged to the genus Glomus, two to Paraglomus, one to Acaulospora, one to Scutellospora and one to Archaeospora. A different distribution of the AMF phylotypes as consequence of the difference between treatments was observed. Thus, the AMF communities of tree roots in the (IF+CM) treatment had the lowest diversity (H'=1.78) with the lowest total number of AMF sequence types (9). The trees from both (CF+IM) and (IF+IM) treatments had similar AMF diversity (H'?2.00); while the treatment (CF+CM) yielded the highest number of different AMF sequence types (17) and showed the highest diversity index (H'=2.69). In conclusion, the crop management including combination of organic and inorganic fertilization and chemical pest control appears to be the most suitable strategy with respect to reactivate the AMF diversity in the roots of this crop and thus, the agricultural and environmental

  4. First Occurence of Fire Blight on Apricot (Prunus armeniaca in Hungary

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    Anita VÉGH

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available During July 2012, a severe unusual disease symptom was observed on young shoots on apricot (Prunus armeniaca 10/13 hybrid in the city of Pomáz, near Budapest. The naturally infected shoots showed typical symptoms of fire blight including terminal shoots with brown to black necrotic lesions. Symptoms were the same as fire blight symptoms reported from other hosts and locations. The first occurrence of fire blight on an apricot tree in Europe was recorded in Czech Republic in 2011. Samples of the leaves and shoots with symptoms were macerated and spread on King’s medium B. After 24 hours of incubation at 26 °C, bacteria morphologically similar to E. amylovora were detected. Isolate induced hypersensitive reaction on tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L. ‘White Burley’ leaves. Biochemical test was also used for identification, and the result of API 20E kit (Biomérieux, Marcy l’Etoile, France, demonstrate that the bacterium belongs to Enterobacteriaceae family. A pathogenicity tests were positive on young apricot shoots and immature fruits. For molecular identification of the pathogen the 16S rDNA region was amplified from isolate Ea-ApricotPo1 with a general bacterial primer pair (63f forward and 1389r reverse. The PCR products were cloned into a pGEM T-Easy plasmid vector (Promega, Madison, WI USA and were transformed into Escherichia coli DH5α cells. A recombinant plasmid (2A2.5 was sequenced by M13 forward and reverse primers. The sequence was deposited in GenBank (Accession No. HF546214 and showed 99-100% sequence homology with a number of E. amylovora isolates, including type strain FN666575 with 100% similarity. On the basis of the symptoms, colony morphology, biochemical tests, and 16S rDNA sequence homology, the pathogen was identified as E. amylovora. This is a first record of a natural outbreak of fire blight on apricot in Hungary.

  5. Mites fluctuation population on peach tree (Prunus persica (L. Batsch and in associated plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Rosana Eichelberger

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Despite the importance of peach (Prunus persica (L. Batsch in Rio Grande do Sul, little is known about mites fluctuation population considered important to this crop. The objective of this study was to know the population diversity and fluctuation of mite species associated with Premier and Eldorado varieties in Roca Sales and Venâncio Aires counties, Rio Grande do Sul. The study was conducted from July 2008 to June 2009 when 15 plants were randomly chosen in each area. The plants were divided in quadrants and from each one a branch was chosen from which three leaves were removed: one collected in the apical region, another in the medium and the other in the basal region, totalizing 180 leaves/area. Five of the most abundant associated plants were collected monthly in enough amounts for the screening under the stereoscopic microscope during an hour. A total of 1,124 mites were found belonging to 14 families and 28 species. Tetranychus ludeni Zacher, 1913, Panonychus ulmi (Koch, 1836 and Mononychellus planki (McGregor, 1950 were the most abundant phytophagous mites, whereas Typhlodromalus aripo Deleon, 1967 and Phytoseiulus macropilis (Banks, 1904 the most common predatory mites. The period of one hour under stereoscopic microscope was enough to get a representative sample. In both places evaluated the ecologic indices were low, but little higherin Premier (H' 0.56; EqJ: 0.43 when compared to Eldorado (H' 0.53; EqJ 0.40. In Premier constant species were not observed and accessory only Brevipalpus phoenicis (Geijskes, 1939, T. ludeni and T. aripo. Higher abundance was observed in December and January and bigger amount in April. Already in Eldorado, T. ludeni and P. ulmi were constants. Greater abundance was observed in November and December, whereas grater richness in December and January. In both orchards were not found mites in buds. Tetranychus ludeni is the most abundant phytophagous mites with outbreak population in November, December and

  6. Bioactive constituents in Prunus africana: geographical variation throughout Africa and associations with environmental and genetic parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadu, Caroline A C; Parich, Alexandra; Schueler, Silvio; Konrad, Heino; Muluvi, Geoffrey M; Eyog-Matig, Oscar; Muchugi, Alice; Williams, Vivienne L; Ramamonjisoa, Lolona; Kapinga, Consolatha; Foahom, Bernard; Katsvanga, Cuthbert; Hafashimana, David; Obama, Crisantos; Vinceti, Barbara; Schumacher, Rainer; Geburek, Thomas

    2012-11-01

    Prunus africana--an evergreen tree found in Afromontane forests--is used in traditional medicine to cure benign prostate hyperplasia. Different bioactive constituents derived from bark extracts from 20 tree populations sampled throughout the species' natural range in Africa were studied by means of GC-MSD. The average concentration [mg/kgw/w] in increasing order was: lauric acid (18), myristic acid (22), n-docosanol (25), ferulic acid (49), β-sitostenone (198), β-sitosterol (490), and ursolic acid (743). The concentrations of many bark constituents were significantly correlated and concentration of n-docosanol was highly significantly correlated with all other analytes. Estimates of variance components revealed the highest variation among populations for ursolic acid (66%) and the lowest for β-sitosterol (20%). In general, environmental parameters recorded (temperature, precipitation, altitude) for the samples sites were not correlated with the concentration of most constituents; however, concentration of ferulic acid was significantly correlated with annual precipitation. Because the concentration of compounds in bark extracts may be affected by tree size, the diameter of sampled plants at 1.3m tree height (as proxy of age) was recorded. The only relationship with tree diameter was a negative correlation with ursolic acid. Under the assumption that genetically less variable populations have less variable concentrations of bark compounds, correlations between variation parameters of the concentration and the respective genetic composition based on chloroplast and nuclear DNA markers were assessed. Only variation of β-sitosterol concentration was significantly correlated with haplotypic diversity. The fixation index (F(IS)) was positively correlated with the variation in concentration of ferulic acid. Principal Components Analysis (PCA) indicated a weak geographic pattern. Mantel tests, however, revealed associations between the geographic patterns of bioactive

  7. Mongolian Almond (Prunus mongolica Maxim): The Morpho-Physiological, Biochemical and Transcriptomic Response to Drought Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jǖgang; Zheng, Rong; Bai, Shulan; Gao, Xiaomin; Liu, Min; Yan, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Prunus mongolica Maxim, which is widely established in the Gobi Desert, shows extreme tolerance to drought. However, there is a lack of available transcriptomic resources for this species related to its response to water deficiency. To investigate the mechanisms that allow P. mongolica to maintain growth in extremely arid environments, the response of P. mongolica seedlings to drought stress was analyzed using morphological, physiological, biochemical and high-throughput sequencing approaches. We generated 28,713,735 and 26,650,133 raw reads from no-stress control and drought-stressed P. mongolica seedlings, respectively. In total, we obtained 67,352 transcripts with an average length of 874.44 bp. Compared with the no-stress control, 3,365 transcripts were differentially expressed in the drought-stressed seedlings, including 55.75% (1,876 transcripts) up-regulated and 44.25% (1,489 transcripts) down-regulated transcripts. The photosynthesis response showed a decreasing tendency under drought stress, but the changes in the levels of hormones (auxins, cytokinins and abscisic acid) resulted in the closing of stomata and decreased cell enlargement and division; these changes were effective for promoting P. mongolica survival in Gobi Desert. Next, we analyzed the aquaporin and superoxide dismutase gene families due to their importance in plant resistance to drought stress. We found that all of the plasma membrane intrinsic protein transcripts were down-regulated in the drought-stressed treatment, whereas drought did not affect the expression of nodulin intrinsic protein or small basic intrinsic protein transcripts in P. mongolica seedlings. In addition, activation of iron superoxide dismutase transcription and enhanced transcription of manganese superoxide dismutase were observed in P. mongolica to promote tolerance of drought stress. This study identified drought response genes in P. mongolica seedlings. Our results provide a significant contribution to the

  8. Mongolian Almond (Prunus mongolica Maxim: The Morpho-Physiological, Biochemical and Transcriptomic Response to Drought Stress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jǖgang Wang

    Full Text Available Prunus mongolica Maxim, which is widely established in the Gobi Desert, shows extreme tolerance to drought. However, there is a lack of available transcriptomic resources for this species related to its response to water deficiency. To investigate the mechanisms that allow P. mongolica to maintain growth in extremely arid environments, the response of P. mongolica seedlings to drought stress was analyzed using morphological, physiological, biochemical and high-throughput sequencing approaches. We generated 28,713,735 and 26,650,133 raw reads from no-stress control and drought-stressed P. mongolica seedlings, respectively. In total, we obtained 67,352 transcripts with an average length of 874.44 bp. Compared with the no-stress control, 3,365 transcripts were differentially expressed in the drought-stressed seedlings, including 55.75% (1,876 transcripts up-regulated and 44.25% (1,489 transcripts down-regulated transcripts. The photosynthesis response showed a decreasing tendency under drought stress, but the changes in the levels of hormones (auxins, cytokinins and abscisic acid resulted in the closing of stomata and decreased cell enlargement and division; these changes were effective for promoting P. mongolica survival in Gobi Desert. Next, we analyzed the aquaporin and superoxide dismutase gene families due to their importance in plant resistance to drought stress. We found that all of the plasma membrane intrinsic protein transcripts were down-regulated in the drought-stressed treatment, whereas drought did not affect the expression of nodulin intrinsic protein or small basic intrinsic protein transcripts in P. mongolica seedlings. In addition, activation of iron superoxide dismutase transcription and enhanced transcription of manganese superoxide dismutase were observed in P. mongolica to promote tolerance of drought stress. This study identified drought response genes in P. mongolica seedlings. Our results provide a significant contribution

  9. Adsorption Properties of Low-Cost Biomaterial Derived from Prunus amygdalus L. for Dye Removal from Water

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    Fatih Deniz

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The capability of Prunus amygdalus L. (almond shell for dye removal from aqueous solutions was investigated and methyl orange was used as a model compound. The effects of operational parameters including pH, ionic strength, adsorbent concentration and mesh size, dye concentration, contact time, and temperature on the removal of dye were evaluated. The adsorption kinetics conformed to the pseudo-second-order kinetic model. The equilibrium data pointed out excellent fit to the Langmuir isotherm model with maximum monolayer adsorption capacity of 41.34 mg g−1 at 293 K. Thermodynamic analysis proved a spontaneous, favorable, and exothermic process. It can be concluded that almond shell might be a potential low-cost adsorbent for methyl orange removal from aqueous media.

  10. Proteomic Comparison of Fruit Ripening between 'Hedelfinger' Sweet Cherry (Prunus avium L.) and Its Somaclonal Variant 'HS'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prinsi, Bhakti; Negri, Alfredo S; Espen, Luca; Piagnani, M Claudia

    2016-05-25

    The somaclonal variant HS, from sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.) 'Hedelfinger' (H), was previously selected for reduced tree vegetative vigor and lesser canopy density. In this work, we compared H and HS fruits at early unripe (green) and full ripe (dark red) stages by biochemical and proteomic approaches. The main biochemical parameters showed that fruit quality was not affected by somaclonal variation. The proteomic analysis identified 39 proteins differentially accumulated between H and HS fruits at the two ripening stages, embracing enzymes involved in several pathways, such as carbon metabolism, cell wall modification, stress response, and secondary metabolism. The evaluation of fruit phenolic composition by mass spectrometry showed that HS sweet cherries have higher levels of procyanidin, flavonol, and anthocyanin compounds. This work provides the first proteomic characterization of fruit ripening in sweet cherry, revealing new positive traits of the HS somaclonal variant. PMID:27144542

  11. Morphological indicators of the quality of one-year-old bare-root seedlings of wild cherry (Prunus avium L.

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    Stjepanović Stefan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents morphological indicators of the quality of one-year-old seedlings of wild cherry (Prunus avium L. with special reference to their correlations. The examined parameters were: length, diameter, weight of the aboveground and underground parts, number of buds, root volume, root length and leaf area. The ratio of heights was determined on the basis of the parameters derived: diameter, and the ratio of aboveground and underground parts of a seedling and the Quality Index. Height and diameter have proven to be good indicators of quality. Root volume has proven to be a better indicator of the quality of seedlings than root length. The weight ratio of the aboveground and underground parts of broadleaved trees in the dry state must be defined in advance, both when the measurements are carried out with and without leaves. The Quality Index has proven to be the most comprehensive morphological indicator of quality.

  12. Parental participation in progeny and effective population sizes in experimental seed orchards of wild cherry Prunus avium L. (Batsch)

    OpenAIRE

    Mariette, Stéphanie; Balsemin, Emilie; Stoeckel, Solenn; Tavaud, Muriel; Le Bouler, Hervé; Santi, Frédérique; Verger, Michel

    2007-01-01

    La diversité génétique des parents et de leurs descendants, ainsi que les contributions mâle et femelle à la récolte de graines ont été estimées dans trois vergers à graines expérimentaux de Prunus avium. Les données collectées ont été utilisées pour comparer différentes tailles de population efficace, en se basant sur l'analyse de la phénologie, de la récolte de graines et de la paternité. Nos résultats n'ont pas montré de différence de diversité génétique entre les parents et les descendant...

  13. Antioxidant Activity and Phenolic Content of Sweet Cherries (Prunus Avium L. from West and South-West of Romania

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    Sofia Popescu

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available A diet rich in fruits and vegetables is associated with a lower incidence of degenerative diseases (such as cardiovascular disease and certain types of cancers. Currently, most research is focused on the content of polyphenols and antioxidant compounds found in fruit and vegetable. Sweet cherries (Prunus avium L. contain a significant amount of polyphenols and several antioxidants that possess many biological activities such as anticancer, antioxidant and anti-inflammation properties. In present study were investigated the quantification of total polyphenols and antioxidant capacity in fruits of a number of selected sweet cherry genotypes. Although sweet cherry fruits are a significant source of different phenolic compounds, antioxidant activity of sweet cherries is not related only with the total phenolic content.  

  14. Biochemical and haematological changes in rats administered an aqueous extract of Prunus africana stem-bark at various dosage levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gathumbi, P K; Mwangi, J W; Njiro, S M; Mugera, G M

    2000-06-01

    An aqueous extract of Prunus africana (Hook. f.) Kalkm. (syn. Pygeum africanum) (Hook. f.) (Rosaceae) was administered daily at dosage rates of 10, 100 and 1,000 mg/kg body mass to randomized groups of Sprague Dawley rats. The extract caused a moderate rise in plasma alanine aminotransferase and creatine kinase mainly at rates of 1,000 mg/kg body mass, but it did not cause any significant variations in haematological parameters or in plasma levels of total proteins, albumin, aspartate aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase and blood urea nitrogen at the dosage levels used. There were no overt clinical signs in any of the rats. It was concluded that the extract may contain components that are mildly toxic to the liver and heart of rats after repeated daily oral administrations of 1,000 mg/kg body mass.

  15. Genome-wide characterization and linkage mapping of simple sequence repeats in mei (Prunus mume Sieb. et Zucc..

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    Lidan Sun

    Full Text Available Because of its popularity as an ornamental plant in East Asia, mei (Prunus mume Sieb. et Zucc. has received increasing attention in genetic and genomic research with the recent shotgun sequencing of its genome. Here, we performed the genome-wide characterization of simple sequence repeats (SSRs in the mei genome and detected a total of 188,149 SSRs occurring at a frequency of 794 SSR/Mb. Mononucleotide repeats were the most common type of SSR in genomic regions, followed by di- and tetranucleotide repeats. Most of the SSRs in coding sequences (CDS were composed of tri- or hexanucleotide repeat motifs, but mononucleotide repeats were always the most common in intergenic regions. Genome-wide comparison of SSR patterns among the mei, strawberry (Fragaria vesca, and apple (Malus×domestica genomes showed mei to have the highest density of SSRs, slightly higher than that of strawberry (608 SSR/Mb and almost twice as high as that of apple (398 SSR/Mb. Mononucleotide repeats were the dominant SSR motifs in the three Rosaceae species. Using 144 SSR markers, we constructed a 670 cM-long linkage map of mei delimited into eight linkage groups (LGs, with an average marker distance of 5 cM. Seventy one scaffolds covering about 27.9% of the assembled mei genome were anchored to the genetic map, depending on which the macro-colinearity between the mei genome and Prunus T×E reference map was identified. The framework map of mei constructed provides a first step into subsequent high-resolution genetic mapping and marker-assisted selection for this ornamental species.

  16. Diversità funzionale in cloni di ciliegio da legno (Prunus avium L. di provenienza Appennino toscano

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    Andrea Cutini

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Functionality in wild cherry (Prunus avium L. clones of Tuscany Appenines provenances. Results of a research regarding the functionality of already selected wild cherry (Prunus avium L. clones are reported. The main target was to select the genotypes with the best ecological efficiency and less sensible to environmental stress, in order to give concrete indications for arboriculture for wood productions. Starting from 2002, measurements were carried out in the experimental plot of Papiano (Stia, AR, where the following clones with provenance from the Tuscan Apennines were compared: Casina Alpe 1 (A, Casina Alpe 2 (D, Puzzòlo (C, Paradisino (E, Piantata Catenaia (F. Dendrometrical data were collected at the beginning and at the end of each season, in order to evaluate the growth and the individual current increment of the clones. To better characterize the canopies of each clone, measurements of photosynthetic active radiation (PAR and of the leaf area index (LAI where carried out with ceptometers and PCA LAI 2000. In order to evaluate differences between the clones regarding functionality and response to environmental stress, growth and productivity were related to the most important canopy characteristics. Ecological efficiency was calculated for the different clones using the net assimilation rate (NAR. The results show that the clone E has the most developed canopies and the best results in terms of growth. But at the same time it also presents densely branched round canopies and results more sensible to the effects of summer drought. These elements contribute to advise against the use of this clone in future genetic improvement programs and in high quality wood productions. On the contrary, the clones C and A have both good growth characteristics and a better general architecture and are therefore advised for high quality wood productions especially in the same geographic region.

  17. Large-scale climate variability and its effects on mean temperature and flowering time of Prunus and Betula in Denmark

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gormsen, A. K.; Hense, A.; Toldam-Andersen, T. B.; Braun, P.

    2005-08-01

    Large-scale climate variability largely affects average climatic conditions and therefore is likely to influence the phenology of plants. In NW-Europe, the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) particularly influences winter climate and, through climate interactions on plants, flowering time of all tree species. In Denmark, like in many other NW-European countries, flowering of most tree species has become earlier since the end of the 1980’s. To quantify a possible relation between NAO and flowering time of tree species, two sources of phenological information from the Copenhagen area (Denmark) were analysed, i.e. pollen counts of the genus Betula and observed first bloom dates of Prunus avium. The Winter NAO explained 29 and 37% of the variation of monthly mean temperature for February and March, respectively. The influence of temperature on flowering time was up to 56% to 60% for the February April mean. A direct correlation of Winter NAO-index and flowering time also revealed a clear relation but the time of influence was earlier (December to February). This was shown to be the likely result of a combination of direct and time-lagged effects of the NAO on air and sea surface temperature. The NAO signal is apparently stored in the North Sea and then influences temperature east up to the Baltic States. It is shown that Denmark is right in the centre of direct and time-lagged effects of the NAO. This offers the possibility of using the NAO-index for predicting flowering time of Prunus avium. The beginning of pollen flow appears to be influenced too much by short-term perturbations of the climate system decreasing the value of the NAO-index for prediction. However, it indicates a close relationship between natural climate variability, measured by the NAO index, and flowering time of tree species for Denmark.

  18. De novo transcriptome assembly and comparative analysis of differentially expressed genes in Prunus dulcis Mill. in response to freezing stress.

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    Sadegh Mousavi

    Full Text Available Almond (Prunus dulcis Mill., one of the most important nut crops, requires chilling during winter to develop fruiting buds. However, early spring chilling and late spring frost may damage the reproductive tissues leading to reduction in the rate of productivity. Despite the importance of transcriptional changes and regulation, little is known about the almond's transcriptome under the cold stress conditions. In the current research, we used RNA-seq technique to study the response of the reproductive tissues of almond (anther and ovary to frost stress. RNA sequencing resulted in more than 20 million reads from anther and ovary tissues of almond, individually. About 40,000 contigs were assembled and annotated de novo in each tissue. Profile of gene expression in ovary showed significant alterations in 5,112 genes, whereas in anther 6,926 genes were affected by freezing stress. Around two thousands of these genes were common altered genes in both ovary and anther libraries. Gene ontology indicated the involvement of differentially expressed (DE genes, responding to freezing stress, in metabolic and cellular processes. qRT-PCR analysis verified the expression pattern of eight genes randomly selected from the DE genes. In conclusion, the almond gene index assembled in this study and the reported DE genes can provide great insights on responses of almond and other Prunus species to abiotic stresses. The obtained results from current research would add to the limited available information on almond and Rosaceae. Besides, the findings would be very useful for comparative studies as the number of DE genes reported here is much higher than that of any previous reports in this plant.

  19. Changes in biochemical compounds in flesh and peel from Prunus persica fruits grown in Tunisia during two maturation stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dabbou, Samia; Lussiana, Carola; Maatallah, Samira; Gasco, Laura; Hajlaoui, Hichem; Flamini, Guido

    2016-03-01

    Plants can synthesize tens to hundreds of thousands of primary and secondary metabolites with diverse biological properties and functions. Fatty acids (FA), phenolic compounds (PC) and volatile compounds (VC) of flesh and peel from three Prunus persica cultivars were evaluated at the Regional Centre of Agricultural Research--Experimental Farm (Sidi Bouzid, Tunisia) during two maturation stages. Palmitic, oleic and linoleic acids are the most abundant FA in Prunus persica cultivars. A genetic effect on FA composition was observed throughout the two sampling periods. Peel was rich in oleic acid with the highest content (31.3% on total FA) in 'O'Henry' cultivar at the commercial ripening date; flesh was rich in linoleic acid with the highest content (44.7% on total FA) in 'Sweet Cap' cultivar at the full ripening date. The monounsaturated/polyunsaturated fatty acids ratios were higher in the commercial ripe than in the full ripe fruits. The analysis of the composition of the VC led to the characterization of 98 different compounds, showing a very high variability among the cultivars. The full ripe fruit (peel and flesh) exhibited the highest total number of terpenoids. Commercial ripe peels were richest in the percentage of hydrocarbons. Comparing cultivars, 'Sweet Cap' cultivar showed the lowest contents of alcohols in peel and flesh of full ripe fruit but highest in peel of commercial ripe fruit, and lowest content of aldehydes in peel and flesh of commercial ripe fruit but highest in peel of ripe ones and the highest ones of lactones. Among PC, the highest contents were observed for o-diphenols and the values showed varietal influence. Total phenols contents decreased during ripening process (p < 0.05) in both peel and flesh tissues, except found for 'Sweet Cap' cultivar. In conclusion, to achieve better FA composition and greater VC and PC production of the peach fruit, P. persica cultivars should be harvested at the commercial ripening date. PMID:26773475

  20. The role of polar auxin transport through pedicels of Prunus avium L. in relation to fruit development and retention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Else, Mark A; Stankiewicz-Davies, Anna P; Crisp, Carol M; Atkinson, Christopher J

    2004-09-01

    It was investigated whether premature fruit abscission in Prunus avium L. was triggered by a reduction in polar auxin transport (PAT). The capacity of pedicels to transport tritiated IAA ([3H]-IAA) via the PAT pathway was measured at intervals throughout flower and fruit development. The extent of passive diffusion, assessed by concurrent applications of [14C]-benzoic acid ([14C]-BA), was negligible. Transported radioactivity recovered from agar blocks eluted at the same retention time as authentic [3H]-IAA during HPLC fractionation. The capacity for PAT was already high 7 d before anthesis and increased further following the fertilization of flowers at anthesis. PAT intensity was greatest immediately following fertilization and at the beginning of the cell expansion phase of fruit growth; the transport intensity in fruitlets destined to abscind was negligible. The amount of endogenous IAA moving through the PAT pathway was greatest during the first 3 weeks after fertilization and was again high at the beginning of the fruit expansion stage. IAA export in the phloem increased following fertilization then declined below detectable levels. ABA export in the phloem increased markedly during stone formation and at the onset of fruit expansion. TIBA applied to pedicels of fruit in situ promoted fruitlet abscission in 2000 but not in 2001, despite PAT capacity being reduced by over 98% in the treated pedicels. The application of TIBA to pedicels did not affect fruit expansion. The role of PAT and IAA in relation to the development and retention of Prunus avium fruit is discussed. PMID:15310825

  1. Different positively selected sites at the gametophytic self-incompatibility pistil S-RNase gene in the Solanaceae and Rosaceae (Prunus, Pyrus, and Malus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, Jorge; Morales-Hojas, Ramiro; Santos, Raquel A M; Vieira, Cristina P

    2007-08-01

    In this work we perform a comparative study on the location of positively selected sites (those likely responsible for defining specificity differences) at the S-RNase gene, the pistil component of the gametophytic self-incompatibility system. For Plantaginaceae and Rosaceae (Prunus and Pyrus/Malus) this is the first study of this kind. A clear sign of positive selection was observed for 13, 17, and 27 amino acid sites in Solanaceae, Prunus, and Pyrus/Malus, respectively, using two different methodologies. In Plantaginaceae no clear positively selected sites were identified. Possible reasons for this result are discussed. Indirect experimental evidence suggests that the identified positively selected amino acid sites play a role in specificity determination. The percentage of positively selected sites is similar in Solanaceae and Rosaceae but the location of those sites is different.

  2. The S haplotype-specific F-box protein gene, SFB, is defective in self-compatible haplotypes of Prunus avium and P. mume.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ushijima, Koichiro; Yamane, Hisayo; Watari, Akiko; Kakehi, Eiko; Ikeda, Kazuo; Hauck, Nathanael R; Iezzoni, Amy F; Tao, Ryutaro

    2004-08-01

    Many Prunus species, including sweet cherry and Japanese apricot, of the Rosaceae, display an S-RNase-based gametophytic self-incompatibility (GSI). The specificity of this outcrossing mechanism is determined by a minimum of two genes that are located in a multigene complex, termed the S locus, which controls the pistil and pollen specificities. SFB, a gene located in the S locus region, encodes an F-box protein that has appropriate S haplotype-specific variation to be the pollen determinant in the self-incompatibility reaction. This study characterizes SFBs of two self-compatible (SC) haplotypes, S(4') and S(f), of Prunus. S(4') of sweet cherry is a pollen-part mutant (PPM) that was produced by X-ray irradiation, while S(f) of Japanese apricot is a naturally occurring SC haplotype that is considered to be a PPM. DNA sequence analysis revealed defects in both SFB(4') and SFB(f). A 4 bp deletion upstream from the HVa coding region of SFB(4') causes a frame-shift that produces transcripts of a defective SFB lacking the two hypervariable regions, HVa and HVb. Similarly, the presence of a 6.8 kbp insertion in the middle of the SFB(f) coding region leads to transcripts for a defective SFB lacking the C-terminal half that contains HVa and HVb. As all reported SFBs of functional S haplotypes encode intact SFB, the fact that the partial loss-of-function mutations in SFB are present in SC mutant haplotypes of Prunus provides additional evidence that SFB is the pollen S gene in GSI in Prunus. PMID:15272875

  3. Effects of different products of peach (Prunus persica L. Batsch) from a variety developed in southern Brazil on oxidative stress and inflammatory parameters in vitro and ex vivo

    OpenAIRE

    Gasparotto, Juciano; Somensi, Nauana; Bortolin, Rafael Calixto; Moresco, Karla Suzana; Girardi, Carolina Saibro; Klafke, Karina; Rabelo, Thallita Kelly; Morrone, Maurilio da Silva; Vizzotto, Márcia; Raseira, Maria do Carmo Bassols; Moreira, José Claudio Fonseca; Gelain, Daniel Pens

    2014-01-01

    Antioxidant, anti-glycation and anti-inflammatory activities of fresh and conserved peach fruits (Prunus persica L. Batsch) were compared. Fresh peach pulps, peels, preserve peach pulps and the preserve syrup were prepared at equal concentrations. Rat liver, kidney and brain cortex tissue slices were pre-incubated with peach samples, subjected to oxidative stress with FeSO4 and hydrogen peroxide. Fresh peach pulps and peel conferred higher protection against cytotoxicity and oxidative stress ...

  4. Effect of the hydroalcoholic extract and juice of Prunus divaricata fruit on blood glucose and serum lipids of normal and streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minaiyan, M; Ghannadi, A; Movahedian, A; Ramezanlou, P; Osooli, F S

    2014-01-01

    Prunus divaricata (Alloocheh) is a small tree cultivating in Iran, Middle East and central Asia. Prunus genus has many species with anti-oxidant, anti-hyperlipidemia and anti-hyperglycemia effects. In the present study the anti-diabetic and anti-hyperlipidemic effects of P. divaricata fruits were examined in normal and streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. Both groups, control and reference rats received normal saline and glibenclamide respectively. Test groups were treated with Prunus freeze dried juice (PFDJ, 200, 400, 800 mg/kg) and Prunus freeze dried extract (PFDE, 100, 200, 400 mg/kg) started at the 3(rd) day of the experiment and continued for 27 days thereafter. Weight changes of animals were checked periodically. Fasting blood glucose (FBG) level as well as serum triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol (TC), high density lipoprotein (HDL) and low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol were determined. Different treatments had no significant effect on body weight increments of normal rats, while in diabetic rats, PFDJ (800 mg/kg) and PFDE (400 mg/kg) opposed with weight loss. In acute phase of experiment (0-8 h of 3(rd) day), none of tested fractions were effective in reducing FBG and serum lipids of normal rats. During the sub-acute phase (13(th) and 30(th) days) however, the greatest test doses of PFDJ (800 mg/kg) and PFDE (400 mg/kg) induced hypoglycema. In diabetic groups, PFDJ and PFDE, at all test doses, could diminish FBG during sub-acute phase of the experiment. In addition, PFDJ and PFDE at most examined doses could diminish TG significantly and they were also effective on cholesterol derivatives in different magnitude. PMID:26339257

  5. Comparative Transcriptome Analysis of Genes Involved in Anthocyanin Biosynthesis in the Red and Yellow Fruits of Sweet Cherry (Prunus avium L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Hairong Wei; Xin Chen; Xiaojuan Zong; Huairui Shu; Dongsheng Gao; Qingzhong Liu

    2015-01-01

    Background Fruit color is one of the most important economic traits of the sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.). The red coloration of sweet cherry fruit is mainly attributed to anthocyanins. However, limited information is available regarding the molecular mechanisms underlying anthocyanin biosynthesis and its regulation in sweet cherry. Methodology/Principal Findings In this study, a reference transcriptome of P. avium L. was sequenced and annotated to identify the transcriptional determinants of...

  6. Transcriptional dynamics of the developing sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.) fruit: sequencing, annotation and expression profiling of exocarp-associated genes

    OpenAIRE

    Merianne Alkio; Uwe Jonas; Myriam Declercq; Steven Van Nocker; Moritz Knoche

    2014-01-01

    The exocarp, or skin, of fleshy fruit is a specialized tissue that protects the fruit, attracts seed dispersing fruit eaters, and has large economical relevance for fruit quality. Development of the exocarp involves regulated activities of many genes. This research analyzed global gene expression in the exocarp of developing sweet cherry (Prunus avium L., ‘Regina’), a fruit crop species with little public genomic resources. A catalog of transcript models (contigs) representing expressed genes...

  7. The effect of different types of rootstock on the quality of maiden trees of sweet cherry (Prunus avium L. cv. ‘Regina’

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Baryła

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Over the period 2006–2009 in Lublin, a study was conducted to determine the effect of five types of rootstock: ‘Colt’, ‘F12/1’, sweet cherry (Prunus avium L., ‘GiSelA 5’ and ‘Piast’ mahaleb cherry (Prunus mahaleb L., on the growth and quality of maiden sweet cherry trees cv. ‘Regina’ in a commercial nursery. Based on the three-year average, rootstocks were shown to have a significant effect on the investigated quality characteristics of maiden sweet cherry trees. Trees budded on ‘Colt’ vegetative rootstock were characterized by strongest growth and best quality. In each year, they were thicker, higher and better branched than sweet cherries on the rootstock. Under the tested conditions, ‘GiSelA 5’ dwarf rootstock significantly reduced the growth and quality of budded sweet cherry trees in the nursery. During the period 2007–2009, no physiological incompatibility symptoms were observed ‘Regina’ sweet cherry cv. and ‘Piast’ seedling rootstocks. The growth of trees budded on ‘Piast’ mahaleb cherry was poorer than on ‘Colt’ clonal rootstock, but it was stronger than on ‘F12/1’ and Prunus avium L. rootstocks.

  8. The effect of the time of budding of mahaleb cherry (Prunus mahaleb L. seedlings on the quality of maiden trees of sour cherry (Prunus cerasus L. 'Łutówka'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Baryła

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted at the Felin Experi- mental Farm, belonging to the University of Life Sciences in Lublin, during the period 2005–2008. The experimental material consisted of maiden trees of sour cherry 'Łutówka' budded on seedlings of mahaleb cherry (Prunus mahaleb L. of unknown origin. The experiment evaluated the effect of four budding times: 15 July, 1 August, 15 August, and 1 September, on the quality of cherry trees in a nursery. The mean for the three years showed that budding time did not have a significant effect on the quality of cherry trees in the nursery. It was observed that the budding of mahaleb cherry performed on the two August dates (1st and 15th had a more beneficial effect on the growth and branching of trees than the budding done on 15 July and 1 September. The quality of maiden cherry trees 'Łutówka' in the nursery was primarily dependent on weather conditions in a given growing season, which is evidenced by the significant differences between production cycles, high variation in the quantitative results in individual years, and the absence of significant differences in the mean for 2006–2008.

  9. Effects of post-harvest light conditions on quality and aromatic volatile formation in 'Hakuho' peach (Prunus persica Batsch) fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bin; Jia, Hui-Juan; Okamoto, Goro

    2007-06-01

    The effect of light condition during post-harvest storage on fruit quality of 'Hakuho' peach (Prunus persica Batsch) was examined. Fruits were harvested at the immature stage (7 d before the tree-ripening stage) and firm-ripe (3 d before the tree-ripening) stage and stored at 25 degrees C under light (ca 80 micromol m(-2) s(-1) at the fruit top by a fluorescent lamp) and in darkness. The light and dark conditions did not significantly influence the ethylene production rate except for the fully ripened fruits harvested at firm-ripe stage and stored under light. However, no difference in fruit firmness was detected among treatments at full-ripe stage. The skin anthocyanin content increased significantly during storage under light. Total soluble solid (TSS) content of juice at the full ripe stage was not affected significantly by the storage condition, although titratable acidity (TA) in immature harvested fruits decreased more quickly during storage under light compared with those stored in darkness. Dark storage limited the decrease in juice asparagine to some extent. Aromatic lactones, such as gamma-decalactone and gamma-dodecalactone, both in skin and in flesh tissues increased more rapidly when the fruits were stored under a light condition, irrespective of fruit harvest stage. From these results, we conclude that fruit storage under a light condition is better for fruit quality of the 'Hakuho' peaches than storage in darkness. PMID:17556807

  10. Plum (Prunus domestica) trees transformed with poplar FT1 result in altered architecture, dormancy requirement, and continuous flowering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, Chinnathambi; Dardick, Chris; Callahan, Ann; Scorza, Ralph

    2012-01-01

    The Flowering Locus T1 (FT1) gene from Populus trichocarpa under the control of the 35S promoter was transformed into European plum (Prunus domestica L). Transgenic plants expressing higher levels of FT flowered and produced fruits in the greenhouse within 1 to 10 months. FT plums did not enter dormancy after cold or short day treatments yet field planted FT plums remained winter hardy down to at least -10°C. The plants also displayed pleiotropic phenotypes atypical for plum including shrub-type growth habit and panicle flower architecture. The flowering and fruiting phenotype was found to be continuous in the greenhouse but limited to spring and fall in the field. The pattern of flowering in the field correlated with lower daily temperatures. This apparent temperature effect was subsequently confirmed in growth chamber studies. The pleitropic phenotypes associated with FT1 expression in plum suggests a fundamental role of this gene in plant growth and development. This study demonstrates the potential for a single transgene event to markedly affect the vegetative and reproductive growth and development of an economically important temperate woody perennial crop. We suggest that FT1 may be a useful tool to modify temperate plants to changing climates and/or to adapt these crops to new growing areas.

  11. Phylogeography of Chinese cherry (Prunus pseudocerasus Lindl.) inferred from chloroplast and nuclear DNA: insights into evolutionary patterns and demographic history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, T; Chen, Q; Luo, Y; Huang, Z-L; Zhang, J; Tang, H-R; Pan, D-M; Wang, X-R

    2015-07-01

    Chinese cherry (Prunus pseudocerasus Lindl.) is a commercially valuable fruit crop in China. In order to obtain new insights into its evolutionary history and provide valuable recommendations for resource conservation, phylogeographic patterns of 26 natural populations (305 total individuals) from six geographic regions were analyzed using chloroplast and nuclear DNA fragments. Low levels of haplotype and nucleotide diversity were found in these populations, especially in landrace populations. It is likely that a combined effect of botanical characteristics impact the effective population size, such as inbreeding mating system, long life span, as well as vegetative reproduction. In addition, strong bottleneck effect caused by domestication, together with founder effect after dispersal and subsequent demographic expansion, might also accelerate the reduction of the genetic variation in landrace populations. Interestingly, populations from Longmen Mountain (LMM) and Daliangshan Mountain (DLSM) exhibited relatively higher levels of genetic diversity, inferring the two historical genetic diversity centers of the species. Moreover, moderate population subdivision was also detected by both chloroplast DNA (GST = 0.215; NST = 0.256) and nuclear DNA (GST = 0.146; NST = 0.342), respectively. We inferred that the episodes of efficient gene flow through seed dispersal, together with features of long generation cycle and inbreeding mating system, were likely the main contributors causing the observed phylogeographic patterns. Finally, factors that led to the present demographic patterns of populations from these regions and taxonomic varieties were also discussed. PMID:25521479

  12. Prunus domestica pathogenesis-related protein-5 activates the defense response pathway and enhances the resistance to fungal infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashraf El-kereamy

    Full Text Available Pathogenesis-related protein-5 (PR-5 has been implicated in plant disease resistance and its antifungal activity has been demonstrated in some fruit species. However, their roles, especially their interactions with the other defense responses in plant cells, are still not fully understood. In this study, we have cloned and characterized a new PR-5 cDNA named PdPR5-1 from the European plum (Prunus domestica. Expression of PdPR5-1 was studied in different cultivars varying in resistance to the brown rot disease caused by the necrotrophic fungus Monilinia fructicola. In addition transgenic Arabidopsis, ectopically expressing PdPR5-1 was used to study its role in other plant defense responses after fungal infection. We show that the resistant cultivars exhibited much higher levels of transcripts than the susceptible cultivars during fruit ripening. However, significant rise in the transcript levels after infection with M. fructicola was observed in the susceptible cultivars too. Transgenic Arabidopsis plants exhibited more resistance to Alternaria brassicicola. Further, there was a significant increase in the transcripts of genes involved in the phenylpropanoid biosynthesis pathway such as phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL and phytoalexin (camalexin pathway leading to an increase in camalexin content after fungal infection. Our results show that PdPR5-1 gene, in addition to its anti-fungal properties, has a possible role in activating other defense pathways, including phytoalexin production.

  13. Molecular adaptation within the coat protein-encoding gene of Tunisian almond isolates of Prunus necrotic ringspot virus

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Moncef Boulila; Sawssen Ben Tiba; Saoussen Jilani

    2013-04-01

    The sequence alignments of five Tunisian isolates of Prunus necrotic ringspot virus (PNRSV) were searched for evidence of recombination and diversifying selection. Since failing to account for recombination can elevate the false positive error rate in positive selection inference, a genetic algorithm (GARD) was used first and led to the detection of potential recombination events in the coat protein-encoding gene of that virus. The Recco algorithm confirmed these results by identifying, additionally, the potential recombinants. For neutrality testing and evaluation of nucleotide polymorphism in PNRSV CP gene, Tajima’s , and Fu and Li’s and statistical tests were used. About selection inference, eight algorithms (SLAC, FEL, IFEL, REL, FUBAR, MEME, PARRIS, and GA branch) incorporated in HyPhy package were utilized to assess the selection pressure exerted on the expression of PNRSV capsid. Inferred phylogenies pointed out, in addition to the three classical groups (PE-5, PV-32, and PV-96), the delineation of a fourth cluster having the new proposed designation SW6, and a fifth clade comprising four Tunisian PNRSV isolates which underwent recombination and selective pressure and to which the name Tunisian outgroup was allocated.

  14. Cultivar, harvest location and cold storage influence fruit softening and antioxidative activities of peach fruit (prunus persica (l.) batsch.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fruit softening and quality management is very important to reduce postharvest losses in peach. Present study was conducted to observe the effect of cultivars and harvest locations on peach fruit softening and quality during ripening following cold storage. Fruits of two peach cultivars Prunus persica (L.) Batsch., harvested from two different locations were evaluated at ripening for their postharvest fruit softening and quality after 28 days of low temperature storage. Fruit harvested from Sillanwali exhibited significantly higher ethylene production, respiration rate, fruit weight loss, ascorbic acid contents, activities of fruit softening enzymes (endo-polygalacturonase (endo-PG), exo-polygalacturonase (exo-PG)) and significantly lower fruit firmness, ground colour, soluble solid contents (SSC), SSC:TA, total phenolic contents (TPC), antioxidant scavenging activity (ASA), activities of catalase (CAT), peroxidase (POD), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and pectin esterase (PE) enzymes as compared to fruit harvested from Soan Valley. Peach cv Early Grand showed significantly higher ethylene production, respiration rate, ascorbic acid contents, activities of CAT, endo-PG and exo-PG enzymes, whereas lower fruit weight loss, fruit firmness, SSC, SSC:TA, TPC, ASA, activities of POD, SOD, PE and enzymes than Flordaking. Harvest location and cultivar significantly influenced various physico-chemical attributes including activities of various fruit softening and antioxidative enzymes in peach fruit during ripening after low temperature storage. (author)

  15. Prune extract (Prunus domestica L.) suppresses the proliferation and induces the apoptosis of human colon carcinoma Caco-2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujii, Takashi; Ikami, Takao; Xu, Jin-Wen; Ikeda, Katsumi

    2006-10-01

    Prunes are the dried fruits of certain cultivars of Prunus domestica L., and are recognized as a health food. The separated ethanol fraction from concentrated prune juice by DIAION HP-20 (PE) was investigated for cytotoxic effects on two different cancer cell lines in vitro. PE dose-dependently reduced the viable cell number of Caco-2, KATO III, but does not reduce the viable cell number of human normal colon fibroblast cells (CCD-18Co) used as a normal cell model. PE treatment for 24 h led to apoptotic changes in Caco-2 such as cell shrinkage and blebbed surfaces due to the convolutions of nuclear and plasma membranes and chromatin condensation, but this was not observed in CCD-18Co. PE induced nucleosomal DNA fragmentation typical of apoptosis in Caco-2 after 24 h of treatment. These results show that PE induced apoptosis in Caco-2. Furthermore, by Caco-2 treatment with H2O2 chelator catalase and Ca2+-chelator BAPTA/AM, the PE-induced cytotoxic pathway was completely blocked, and the viable cell number of Caco-2 was not affected. PMID:17190111

  16. Efficient synthesis of highly fluorescent nitrogen-doped carbon dots for cell imaging using unripe fruit extract of Prunus mume

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atchudan, Raji; Edison, Thomas Nesakumar Jebakumar Immanuel; Sethuraman, Mathur Gopalakrishnan; Lee, Yong Rok

    2016-10-01

    Highly fluorescent nitrogen-doped carbon dots (N-CDs) were synthesized using the extract of unripe Prunus mume (P. mume) fruit by a simple one step hydrothermal-carbonization method. The N-CDs were synthesized at different pH ranges, 2.3, 5, 7, and 9. The pH of the P. mume extract was adjusted using an aqueous ammonia solution (25%). The optical properties of N-CDs were examined by UV-vis and fluorescence spectroscopy. The N-CDs synthesized at pH 9 emitted high fluorescence intensity compared to other obtained N-CDs. The N-CDs synthesized at pH 9 was further characterized by high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and Fourier transform-infra red (FT-IR) spectroscopy. HR-TEM showed that the average size of the synthesized N-CDs was approximately 9 nm and the interlayer distance was 0.21 nm, which was validated by XRD. The graphitic nature of the synthesized N-CDs were confirmed by Raman spectroscopy. XPS and FT-IR spectroscopy confirmed the doping of the nitrogen moiety over the synthesized CDs. The synthesized nitrogen doped CDs (N-CDs) were low toxicity and were used as a staining probe for fluorescence cell imaging.

  17. Genome-Wide Transcriptional Profile Analysis of Prunus persica in Response to Low Sink Demand after Fruit Removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Wei; Xu, Hongguo; Liu, Guotian; Fan, Peige; Liang, Zhenchang; Li, Shaohua

    2016-01-01

    Prunus persica fruits were removed from 1-year-old shoots to analysis photosynthesis, chlorophyll fluorescence and genes changes in leaves to low sink demand caused by fruit removal (-fruit) during the final stage of rapid fruit growth. A decline in net photosynthesis rate was observed, accompanied with a decrease in stomatal conductance. The intercellular CO2 concentrations and leaf temperature increased as compared with a normal fruit load (+fruit). Moreover, low sink demand significantly inhibited the donor side and the reaction center of photosystem II. 382 genes in leaf with an absolute fold change ≥1 change in expression level, representing 116 up- and 266 down-regulated genes except for unknown transcripts. Among these, 25 genes for photosynthesis were down-regulated, 69 stress and 19 redox related genes up-regulated under the low sink demand. These studies revealed high leaf temperature may result in a decline of net photosynthesis rate through down-regulation in photosynthetic related genes and up-regulation in redox and stress related genes, especially heat shock proteins genes. The complex changes in genes at the transcriptional level under low sink demand provided useful starting points for in-depth analyses of source-sink relationship in P. persica.

  18. The phenology of cherry blossom (Prunus yedoensis ``Somei-yoshino'') and the geographic features contributing to its flowering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohashi, Yukitaka; Kawakami, Hiroshi; Shigeta, Yoshinori; Ikeda, Hiroshi; Yamamoto, Nobuko

    2012-09-01

    We investigated relationships between the flowering phenology of Prunus yedoensis "Somei-yoshino" (cherry blossom) and the local temperatures in Japan. Our observations were carried out across the Okayama Plain, which included Okayama City (about 700,000 inhabitants), from the winter of 2008 to the spring of 2009. Local air temperature (AT) and the globe temperature (GT) were recorded at the tree height. The flowering dates (FDs) of P. yedoensis were earliest in the central commercial area (located at the center of the plain), followed by the north residential area (further inland), and finally the south residential area (seaward). The recorded FDs were related to the period-averaged daily maximum/minimum AT and GT, and the phenologically effective AT and GT defined in this study. Of these parameters, the phenologically effective GTs correlated most with the FDs. Since the GT is determined by AT, solar and infrared radiations, and wind speed, our previous result suggests that a combination of these three components surrounding the tree is more important for budding and flowering than is AT alone. The supposition is supported by the flowering of P. yedoensis being the latest at the coastal region of the Okayama Plain where the AT were higher than at the inland region, excluding the urban area; it is probably caused by stronger winds there than at the other sites.

  19. Nutrients and antioxidant molecules in yellow plums (Prunus domestica L.) from conventional and organic productions: a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombardi-Boccia, Ginevra; Lucarini, Massimo; Lanzi, Sabina; Aguzzi, Altero; Cappelloni, Marsilio

    2004-01-14

    Yellow plums (Prunus domestica L) conventionally and organically grown in the same farm were selected to study the influence of different agronomic practices on antioxidant vitamins (ascorbic acid, vitamin E, beta-carotene) and phenolics (total polyphenols, phenolic acids, flavonols) concentration. Conventional plums were grown on tilled soil. Three organic cultivations were performed: tilled soil, soil covered with trifolium, and soil covered with natural meadow. Differences in macronutrients were marginal, whereas antioxidant vitamins and phenolic compounds concentration markedly differed among cultivations. Ascorbic acid, alpha-, gamma-tocopherols, and beta-carotene were higher in organic plums grown on soil covered with natural meadow. The highest phenolic acids content was detected in plums grown on soil covered with trifolium. Total polyphenols content was higher in conventional plums. Quercetin was higher in conventional plums, but myrecitin and kaempferol were higher in organic plums. Under the same cultivar and climate conditions, the type of soil management turned out of primary importance in influencing the concentration of health-promoting compounds. PMID:14709018

  20. Anti-inflammatory effect of Prunus armeniaca L. (Apricot) extracts ameliorates TNBS-induced ulcerative colitis in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minaiyan, M; Ghannadi, A; Asadi, M; Etemad, M; Mahzouni, P

    2014-01-01

    Prunus armeniaca L. (Apricot) is a tree cultivated in different parts of the world. Apricot kernel as a good dietary supplement has shown antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and other pharmacologic properties which suggest that it may be functional as an anticolitis agent. In this study we evaluated the effects of apricot kernel extract and oil on ulcerative colitis in rats. Rats were fasted for 36 h before the experiment. Colitis was induced by intra-rectal instillation of 50 mg/kg trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid in male Wistar rats. Treatments were started 6 h after colitis induction and continued every 24 h for 5 days. Apricot kernel extract (100, 200, 400 mg/kg p.o. and 100, 400 mg/kg i.p.) and apricot kernel extract/oil (100, 200, 400 mg/kg p.o.) were used as experimental treatments and prednisolone (4 mg/kg p.o. or i.p.) was used as reference drug. On the day 6, colon tissue was removed and macroscopic and pathologic parameters were evaluated. Ulcer index and total colitis index as representative of macroscopic and histologic parameters respectively showed ameliorating effects in experimental groups especially those treated by intraperitoneal administration route. Results also demonstrated that oil fraction was not able to potentiate the effects of extract. These data suggest that apricot kernel extracts (with or without oil) can be introduced for further mechanistic and clinical studies as a complementary medicine for inflammatory bowel disorders. PMID:25657793

  1. Immunomodulatory studies of a bioactive fraction from the fruit of Prunus cerasus in BALB/c mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abid, Sheikh; Khajuria, Anamika; Parvaiz, Qazi; Sidiq, Tabasum; Bhatia, Aruna; Singh, Surjeet; Ahmad, Shabir; Randhawa, M K; Satti, N K; Dutt, Prabhu

    2012-04-01

    In order to evaluate the role of ethyl acetate fraction (PNRS-EtOAC) obtained from the Prunus cerasus fruit in the modulation of immune responses, detailed studies were carried out using a panel of in vivo assays. Oral administration of PNRS-EtOAC (25-100 mg/kg) stimulated the IgM and IgG titre expressed in the form of hemagglutination antibody (HA) titre. Further, it elicited a dose related increase in the delayed type hypersensitivity reaction (DTH) after 24 and 48 h in BALB/c mice. Besides augmenting the humoral and cell mediated immune response, the concentration of cytokines (IFN-γ, IL-4, and TNF-α) in serum with respect to T cell interactions, i.e. the proliferation of lymphocytes were significantly increased at 50 mg/kg compared with the control. The results in these studies demonstrated the immunostimulatory effect of PNRS-EtOAC in a dose-dependent manner with respect to the macrophage activation possibly expressing the phagocytosis and nitrite production by the enhancement of TNF-α production as a mode of action. PMID:22366406

  2. Accumulation of nonfunctional S-haplotypes results in the breakdown of gametophytic self-incompatibility in tetraploid Prunus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauck, Nathanael R; Yamane, Hisayo; Tao, Ryutaro; Iezzoni, Amy F

    2006-02-01

    The transition from self-incompatibility (SI) to self-compatibility (SC) is regarded as one of the most prevalent transitions in Angiosperm evolution, having profound impacts on the genetic structure of populations. Yet, the identity and function of mutations that result in the breakdown of SI in nature are not well understood. This work provides the first detailed genetic description of the breakdown of S-RNase-mediated gametophytic self-incompatibility (GSI) in a polyploid species that exhibits genotype-dependent loss of SI. Genetic analyses of six natural sour cherry (Rosaceae, Prunus cerasus) selections identified seven independent, nonfunctional S-haplotypes with disrupted pistil component (stylar-S) and/or pollen component (pollen-S) function. A genetic model demonstrating that the breakdown of SI in sour cherry is due to the accumulation of a minimum of two nonfunctional S-haplotypes within a single individual is developed and validated. Our finding that sour cherry is SI when only one nonfunctional S-haplotype is present has significant evolutionary implications since nonfunctional S-haplotypes would be maintained in the population without causing an abrupt shift to SC. Furthermore, we demonstrate that heteroallelic sour cherry pollen is self-incompatible, which is counter to the well-documented phenomenon in the Solanaceae where SC accompanying polyploidization is frequently due to the SC of heteroallelic pollen. PMID:16219786

  3. Cardioprotective mechanisms of Prunus cerasus (sour cherry) seed extract against ischemia-reperfusion-induced damage in isolated rat hearts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bak, Istvan; Lekli, Istvan; Juhasz, Bela; Nagy, Norbert; Varga, Edit; Varadi, Judit; Gesztelyi, Rudolf; Szabo, Gergo; Szendrei, Levente; Bacskay, Ildiko; Vecsernyes, Miklos; Antal, Miklos; Fesus, Laszlo; Boucher, Francois; de Leiris, Joel; Tosaki, Arpad

    2006-09-01

    The effects of kernel extract obtained from sour cherry (Prunus cerasus) seed on the postischemic cardiac recovery were studied in isolated working rat hearts. Rats were treated with various daily doses of the extract for 14 days, and hearts were then isolated and subjected to 30 min of global ischemia followed by 120 min of reperfusion. The incidence of ventricular fibrillation (VF) and tachycardia (VT) fell from their control values of 92% and 100% to 50% (not significant) and 58% (not significant), 17% (P<0.05), and 25% (P<0.05) with the doses of 10 mg/kg and 30 mg/kg of the extract, respectively. Lower concentrations of the extract (1 and 5 mg/kg) failed to significantly reduce the incidence of VF and VT during reperfusion. Sour cherry seed kernel extract (10 and 30 mg/kg) significantly improved the postischemic recovery of cardiac function (coronary flow, aortic flow, and left ventricular developed pressure) during reperfusion. We have also demonstrated that the extract-induced protection in cardiac function significantly reflected in a reduction of infarct size. Immunohistochemistry indicates that a reduction in caspase-3 activity and apoptotic cells by the extract, beside other potential action mechanisms of proanthocyanidin, trans-resveratrol, and flavonoid components of the extract, could be responsible for the cardioprotection in ischemic-reperfused myocardium. PMID:16617126

  4. Isolation and analysis of bioactive constituents of sour cherry (Prunus cerasus) seed kernel: an emerging functional food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bak, Istvan; Lekli, Istvan; Juhasz, Bela; Varga, Edit; Varga, Balazs; Gesztelyi, Rudolf; Szendrei, Levente; Tosaki, Arpad

    2010-08-01

    A plant-based diet reduces the risk for the development of several chronic diseases, such as ischemic heart disease or cancer due to natural compounds found in plants. Numerous cereals, berries, fruits, and vegetables, including sour cherry (Prunus cerasus), which is a favored fruit worldwide, contain biological active components. The antioxidant components of the sour cherry seed kernel have not been investigated until now. The aim of our study was to isolate and analyze the bioactive constituents of sour cherry seed kernel. We separated the oil fraction of the kernel; then the remaining solid fraction was dried, and the oil-free kernel extract was further analyzed. Our results show that sour cherry seed kernel oil contains vegetable oils including unsaturated fatty acids, oleic acids, alpha-tocopherol, tocotrienols, and tocopherol-like components. The components of the solid fraction include various bioactive structures such as polyphenols, flavonoids, vegetable acids, and pro- and anthocyanidins, which could have useful therapeutic effects in the prevention of various vascular diseases. PMID:20482278

  5. Root endophyte symbiosis in vitro between the ectomycorrhizal basidiomycete Tricholoma matsutake and the arbuscular mycorrhizal plant Prunus speciosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murata, Hitoshi; Yamada, Akiyoshi; Yokota, Satoru; Maruyama, Tsuyoshi; Endo, Naoki; Yamamoto, Kohei; Ohira, Tatsuro; Neda, Hitoshi

    2014-05-01

    We previously reported that Tricholoma matsutake and Tricholoma fulvocastaneum, ectomycorrhizal basidiomycetes that associate with Pinaceae and Fagaceae, respectively, in the Northern Hemisphere, could interact in vitro as a root endophyte of somatic plants of Cedrela odorata (Meliaceae), which naturally harbors arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in South America, to form a characteristic rhizospheric colony or "shiro". We questioned whether this phenomenon could have occurred because of plant-microbe interactions between geographically separated species that never encounter one another in nature. In the present study, we document that these fungi formed root endophyte interactions and shiro within 140 days of inoculation with somatic plants of Prunus speciosa (=Cerasus speciosa, Rosaceae), a wild cherry tree that naturally harbors arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in Japan. Compared with C. odorata, infected P. speciosa plants had less mycelial sheath surrounding the exodermis, and the older the roots, especially main roots, the more hyphae penetrated. In addition, a large number of juvenile roots were not associated with hyphae. We concluded that such root endophyte interactions were not events isolated to the interactions between exotic plants and microbes but could occur generally in vitro. Our pure culture system with a somatic plant allowed these fungi to express symbiosis-related phenotypes that varied with the plant host; these traits are innately programmed but suppressed in nature and could be useful in genetic analyses of plant-fungal symbiosis. PMID:24158697

  6. The influence of severe shoot pruning on growth, carbon and nitrogen status in young peach trees (Prunus persica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mediene, S; Jordan, M O; Pagès, L; Lebot, J; Adamowicz, S

    2002-12-01

    One-year-old peach trees (Prunus persica (L.) Batsch) were severely pruned in July by removing 60% of the shoots. Tree responses were analyzed in terms of architecture and nutritional status. Tree growth was recorded from July to September by nondestructive (leaf production, thickening and branching of the remaining secondary axes) and destructive measurements (biomass partitioning and concentrations of total nitrogen (N) and nonstructural carbohydrates (NC) in specific tissues). The dry weights of pruned trees were lower than those of control trees at the end of the growing season (i.e., 2.5 months after pruning), whereas shoot:root ratios were restored to the initial values. Tree response occurred in two stages. During the first 24 days following pruning, the growth components of the remaining secondary axes were similar to the control, and new secondary axes were produced. During the next 17 days, increases in both diameter and branching of secondary axes contributed to the maintenance of pruned tree growth rate (similar to that of control trees) and restoration of initial shoot:root ratios. No significant effect of pruning was observed on NC concentrations, whereas N concentrations increased in several organs of the pruned trees during the first growth period. The transient increase in internal N availability contributed to the initiation of new axes and the restoration of a more functional biomass partitioning between shoots and roots.

  7. Fruit quality and bioactive compounds relevant to human health of sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.) cultivars grown in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballistreri, Gabriele; Continella, Alberto; Gentile, Alessandra; Amenta, Margherita; Fabroni, Simona; Rapisarda, Paolo

    2013-10-15

    The fruit quality characteristics, phenolic compounds and antioxidant capacities of 24 sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.) cultivars grown on the mountainsides of the Etna volcano (Sicily, Italy) were evaluated. High-performance liquid chromatographic methods were used to identify and quantify sugars, organic acids and phenolics. A total of seven phenolic compounds were characterised as hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives (neochlorogenic acid, p-coumaroylquinic acid and chlorogenic acid) and anthocyanins (cyanidin 3-glucoside, cyanidin 3-rutinoside, pelargonidin 3-rutinoside and peonidin 3-rutinoside). The total anthocyanin content ranged from 6.21 to 94.20mg cyanidin 3-glucoside equivalents/100g fresh weight (FW), while the total phenol content ranged from 84.96 to 162.21mg gallic acid equivalents/100g FW. The oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) assay indicated that fruit of all genotypes possessed considerable antioxidant activity. The high level of phenolic compounds and antioxidant capacity of some sweet cherry fruits implied that they might be sources of bioactive compounds that are relevant to human health. PMID:23692746

  8. Physicochemical characteristics, antioxidant activity, organic acid and sugar contents of 12 sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.) cultivars grown in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayaloglu, Ali Adnan; Demir, Nurullah

    2015-03-01

    Physical characteristics, antioxidant activity and chemical constituents of 12 cultivars (Prunus avium L.) of sweet cherry (Belge, Bing, Dalbasti, Durona di Cesena, Lambert, Merton Late, Starks Gold, Summit, Sweetheart, Van, Vista, and 0-900 Ziraat) were investigated. Significant differences (P anthocyanin contents. Belge cultivar showed the highest levels of total phenolic and anthocyanin, while Starks Gold contained the lowest level of anthocyanins. The darker cultivars, measured by ABTS(+•) , DPPH(•) and FRAP, exhibited higher antioxidant activities than the lighter ones. Bing (42.78 g/kg) and Sweetheart (40.53 g/kg) cultivars contained higher levels of malic acid, which was the most intense organic acid in sweet cherries. Four different sugars were observed in the samples and their concentrations ordered as glucose > fructose > sucrose > xylose. Sugar alcohol in the cherries was represented by sorbitol (more than 90%) and its concentration varied between 13.93 and 27.12 g/kg. As a result significant differences were observed among the physical properties and chemical constituents of the cherry cultivars. PMID:25631389

  9. Preharvest application of oxalic acid increased fruit size, bioactive compounds, and antioxidant capacity in sweet cherry cultivars (Prunus avium L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Esplá, Alejandra; Zapata, Pedro Javier; Valero, Daniel; García-Viguera, Cristina; Castillo, Salvador; Serrano, María

    2014-04-16

    Trees of 'Sweet Heart' and 'Sweet Late' sweet cherry cultivars (Prunus avium L.) were treated with oxalic acid (OA) at 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0 mM at 98, 112, and 126 days after full blossom. Results showed that all treatments increased fruit size at harvest, manifested by higher fruit volume and weight in cherries from treated trees than from controls, the higher effect being found with 2.0 mM OA (18 and 30% higher weight for 'Sweet Heart' and 'Sweet Late', respectively). Other quality parameters, such as color and firmness, were also increased by OA treatments, although no significant differences were found in total soluble solids or total acidity, showing that OA treatments did not affect the on-tree ripening process of sweet cherry. However, the increases in total anthocyanins, total phenolics, and antioxidant activity associated with the ripening process were higher in treated than in control cherries, leading to fruit with high bioactive compounds and antioxidant potential at commercial harvest (≅45% more anthocyanins and ≅20% more total phenolics). In addition, individual anthocyanins, flavonols, and chlorogenic acid derivatives were also increased by OA treatment. Thus, OA preharvest treatments could be an efficient and natural way to increase the quality and functional properties of sweet cherries. PMID:24684635

  10. Chemical constituents and ovicidal effects of mahlab, Prunus mahaleb L. kernels oil on cotton leafworm, Spodoptera littoralis (Boisd. eggs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mead Hala M.

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The carried out investigations evaluated ovicidal activity of mahlab, Prunus mahaleb L. kernel oil against cotton leafworm, Spodoptera littoralis (Boisd.. The chemical constituents of the fixed oil of mahlab were analyzed using gas-liquid chromatography (GLC. Timnodonic (33.07%, oleic (28.71% and linoleic (24.35% were the basic fatty acids, while the major hydrocarbon and sterol were found to be heneicosane (62.57% and β-sitosterol (10.57%. The LC50 values for the one-day-old egg masses were found to be more susceptible than 3-day-old ones. Moreover, the leaf dip technique occurred to be more efficient than spraying technique. The results also showed abnormalities in the external morphology of egg shell, chorion surface, shell imprints and aeropyles of S. littoralis eggs treated with mahlab and KZ oils as compared to a control by using scanning electron microscope. Generally, the tested oils significantly reduced the activities of transaminase enzymes (AST and ALT, acid and alkaline phosphatases and total soluble protein except mahlab oil on acid phosphatase as compared to a control. Additionally, the oils of both mahlab and KZ oil affected some biological aspects such as incubation period, larval duration, larval mortality and pupal weight comparing to a control.

  11. Post-storage cell wall metabolism in two sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.) cultivars displaying different postharvest performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belge, Burcu; Comabella, Eva; Graell, Jordi; Lara, Isabel

    2015-09-01

    The biochemical processes underlying firmness loss of sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.) fruit are poorly understood. Studies on cell wall metabolism of sweet cherry have been generally undertaken during on-tree development or at harvest maturity, while published reports on postharvest changes are scarce and fragmentary. In this work, cell wall modifications after storage at 0 ℃ were studied in two cherry cultivars ('Celeste' and 'Somerset') displaying different postharvest potential. Firmness was largely determined by the yields of the Na2CO3- and KOH-soluble fractions, enriched in covalently-bound pectins and in matrix glycans, respectively, and correlated well with ascorbic acid contents. The yields of these two cell wall fractions were correlated inversely with pectinmethylesterase and endo-1,4-β-d-glucanase activities, indicating a relevant role of these two enzymes in postharvest firmness changes in sweet cherry. The amount of solubilised cell wall materials was closely associated to the contents of dehydroascorbic acid, suggesting the possible involvement of oxidative mechanisms in cell wall disassembly. These data may help understanding the evolution of fruit quality during the marketing period, and give hints for the design of suitable management strategies to preserve key attributes. PMID:24986906

  12. Molecular and quantitative signatures of biparental inbreeding depression in the self-incompatible tree species Prunus avium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jolivet, C; Rogge, M; Degen, B

    2013-05-01

    Genetic diversity strongly influences populations' adaptability to changing environments and therefore survival. Sustainable forest management practices have multiple roles including conservation of genetic resources and timber production. In this study, we aimed at better understanding the variation in genetic diversity among adult and offspring individuals, and the effects of mating system on offspring survival and growth in wild cherry, Prunus avium. We analysed adult trees and open pollinated seed-families from three stands in Germany at eight microsatellite loci and one incompatibility system locus and conducted paternity analyses. Seed viability testing and seed sowing in a nursery allowed further testing for the effects of pollen donor diversity and genetic similarity between mates on the offspring performance at the seed and seedling stages. Our results were contrasting across stands. Loss of genetic diversity from adult to seedling stages and positive effect of mate diversity on offspring performance occurred in one stand only, whereas biparental inbreeding depression and significant decrease in fixation index from adults to seedlings was detected in two stands. We discussed the effects of stand genetic diversity on the magnitude of biparental inbreeding depression at several life-stages and its consequences on the management of genetic resources in P. avium. PMID:23211795

  13. Genetic variability of wild cherry (Prunus avium L. seed stands in Slovenia as revealed by nuclear microsatellite loci.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristjan Jarni

    Full Text Available Microsatellite markers were used to describe the genetic variability of four seed stands of wild cherry (Prunus avium L.. One hundred and thirty one individuals were genotyped at ten nuclear microsatellite loci. Total genetic diversity was high (H(E = 0.704, while differences between stands were small but significant (F(ST = 0.053, G'(ST = 0.234. There was a significant amount of clonal reproduction in one stand, with only 11 genotypes identified among 36 trees. One stand showed a significant excess (F(IS = -0.044 of heterozygosity, and one showed a deficit (F(IS = 0.044. Our results demonstrate the importance of taking into account the biological and genetic characteristics of species in forest management, especially when determining a new seed stand. The small genetic differences found between seed stands indicate that a large number of stands are not required. However, they should be carefully selected and should possess adequate genetic variability to ensure low relatedness between seed trees.

  14. Paternal-specific S-allele transmission in sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.): the potential for sexual selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedhly, A; Wünsch, A; Kartal, Ö; Herrero, M; Hormaza, J I

    2016-03-01

    Homomorphic self-incompatibility is a well-studied example of a physiological process that is thought to increase population diversity and reduce the expression of inbreeding depression. Whereas theoretical models predict the presence of a large number of S-haplotypes with equal frequencies at equilibrium, unequal allele frequencies have been repeatedly reported and attributed to sampling effects, population structure, demographic perturbation, sheltered deleterious mutations or selection pressure on linked genes. However, it is unclear to what extent unequal segregations are the results of gametophytic or sexual selection. Although these two forces are difficult to disentangle, testing S-alleles in the offspring of controlled crosses provides an opportunity to separate these two phenomena. In this work, segregation and transmission of S-alleles have been characterized in progenies of mixed donors and fully compatible pollinations under field conditions in Prunus avium. Seed set patterns and pollen performance have also been characterized. The results reveal paternal-specific distorted transmission of S-alleles in most of the crosses. Interestingly, S-allele segregation within any given paternal or maternal S-locus was random. Observations on pollen germination, pollen tube growth rate, pollen tube cohort size, seed set dynamics and transmission patterns strongly suggest post-pollination, prezygotic sexual selection, with male-male competition as the most likely mechanism. According to these results, post-pollination sexual selection takes precedence over frequency-dependent selection in explaining unequal S-haplotype frequencies. PMID:26559165

  15. Genetic diversity and relatedness of sweet cherry (Prunus avium L. cultivars based on single nucleotide polymorphic (SNP markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angel eFernandez i Marti

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Most previous studies on genetic fingerprinting and cultivar relatedness in sweet cherry were based on isoenzyme, RAPD and SSR markers. This study was carried out to assess the utility of SNP markers generated from 3’UTRs for genetic fingerprinting in sweet cherry. A total of 114 sweet cherry germplasm representing advanced selections, commercial cultivars and old cultivars imported from different parts of the world were screened with 7 SSR markers developed from other Prunus species and with 40 SNPs obtained from 3’UTR sequences of Rainier and Bing sweet cherry cultivars. Both types of marker study had 99 accessions in common. The SSR data was used to validate the SNP results. Results showed that the average number of alleles per locus, mean observed heterozygosity, expected heterozygosity and polymorphic information content (PIC values were higher in SSRs than in SNPs although both set of markers were similar in their grouping of the sweet cherry accessions as shown in the dendrogram. SNPs were able to distinguish sport mutants from their wild type germplasm. For example, ‘Stella’ was separated from ‘Compact Stella’. This demonstrates the greater power of SNPs for discriminating mutants from their original parents than SSRs. In addition, SNP markers confirmed parentage and also determined relationships of the accessions in a manner consistent with their pedigree relationships. We would recommend the use of 3’ UTR SNPs for genetic fingerprinting, parentage verification, gene mapping and study of genetic diversity in sweet cherry.

  16. The Anti-Inflammatory Effect of Prunus yedoensis Bark Extract on Adipose Tissue in Diet-Induced Obese Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hee Kang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic, low-grade inflammatory responses occur in obese adipose tissue and play a crucial role in the development of insulin resistance. Macrophages exposed to high glucose upregulate the expression of SRA, a macrophage-specific scavenger receptor. The present study investigated whether Prunus yedoensis (PY bark extract affects the inflammatory response and scavenger receptor gene expression observed in a diet-induced obesity model in vivo. Oral administration of PY extract significantly reduced fasting blood glucose levels without a change in body weight in mice fed a high fat diet for 17 weeks. PY extract significantly suppressed expression of inflammatory and macrophage genes such as tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-6, and F4/80 in epididymal adipose tissue. Among scavenger receptor genes, SRA expression was significantly reduced. The inhibitory responses of PY extract and its fractions were determined through evaluation of scavenger receptor expression in THP-1 cells. PY extract and its ethyl acetate fraction decreased the levels of SRA mRNA and phospho-ERK1/2 during monocyte differentiation. Our data indicate that the anti-inflammatory effects of PY extract and its downregulation of SRA seem to account for its hypoglycemic effects.

  17. [Effects of low temperature and weak light on the functions of photosystem in Prunus armeniaca L. leaves in solar greenhouse].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Shan; Zhang, Li-tao; Wang, Jia-Xi; Wang, Shao-Min; Gao, Hua-Jun; Gao, Hui-Yuan

    2008-03-01

    In this paper, the net photosynthetic rate (Pn), actual photochemical efficiency of PS II (PhiPSII), photochemical quenching (qp), and maximal photochemical efficiency of PS II in light (Fv'/Fm') of apricot (Prunus armeniaca) leaves in solar greenhouse were measured, and the effects of low temperature (7 degrees C) and weak light (200 micromol x m(-2) x s(-1) PFD) on the photoinhibition of PS I and PS II were investigated. The results showed that the optimal temperature for the photosynthesis of apricot leaves was around 25 degrees C, and the photosynthetic capacity was reduced greatly by the low temperature and weak light, inducing a markedly increased excitation press (1-qp) and in turn, resulting in photoinhibition. The functions of both PS I and PS II were damaged by the low temperature and weak light. Comparing with those only subjected to low temperature, the leaves subjected to both low temperature and weak light had a decreased activity of PS I, with a decrement of 28.26% within 2 h, but their maximal photochemical effeciency of PS II (Fv/Fm) had little change in the same period, suggesting that under low temperature and weak light, PS I was more suffered from photoinhibition than PS II.

  18. The importance of bee pollination of the sour cherry (Prunus cerasus Cultivar ‘Stevnsbaer’ in Denmark

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lise Hansted

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Low fruit set, despite normally-developed flowers, is often a significant contributor to poor yield of the self-fertile sour cherry (Prunus cerasus cultivar ‘Stevnsbaer’ in Denmark. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of insect, and particularly, bee pollination on the fruit set of this cultivar, in order to provide orchard management information for both Danish ‘Stevnsbaer’ growers and beekeepers. Visits to cherry flowers by honey bees (Apis mellifera, Bombus species and solitary bees, were recorded during the flowering of ‘Stevnsbaer’ in five separate Danish orchards. The results indicate that there is a significantly higher fruit set on open pollinated branches when compared to caged branches, where bees and other pollinating insects where excluded. The results were qualitatively consistent over three different seasons (2007, 2009 and 2010. A period of prolonged cold, humid weather before and during early flowering probably reduced fruit set significantly in 2010 compared to 2009. Regarding the apparent benefits of bee pollination on fruit set and subsequent implications for yield, we recommend placing honeybees in ‘Stevnsbaer’ orchards during flowering to sustain commercially viable production. Another valuable management strategy would be to improve foraging and nesting conditions to support both honey and wild bees in and around the orchards.

  19. Prunus africana (Hook.f.) Kalkman: the overexploitation of a medicinal plant species and its legal context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodeker, Gerard; van 't Klooster, Charlotte; Weisbord, Emma

    2014-11-01

    The linkage between herbal medicines and the sustainability of medical plants from which they are manufactured is increasingly being understood and receiving attention through international accords and trade labeling systems. However, little attention is paid to the fair trade aspects of this sector, including the issue of benefit-sharing agreements with traditional societies whose knowledge and resources are being exploited for commercial herbal medicine development and production. This article examines the case of Prunus africana (Hook.f.) Kalkman, from equatorial Africa. While the conservation and cultivation dimension of the trade in P. africana has been much discussed in literature, no research appears to have focused on the traditional resource rights and related ethical dimensions of this trade in traditional medicine of Africa. Serving as a cautionary tale for the unbridled exploitation of medicinal plants, the history of P. africana extraction is considered here in the context of relevant treaties and agreements existing today. These include the Nagoya Protocol, a supplementary agreement to the Convention on Biological Diversity, the Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights agreement from the World Trade Organization, and two African regional frameworks: the Swakopmund Protocol and the Organisation Africaine de la Propriété Intellectuelle Initiative. In the context of strengthening medicinal plant research in Africa, a novel international capacity-building project on traditional medicines for better public health in Africa will be discussed, illustrating how access and benefit sharing principles might be incorporated in future projects on traditional medicines. PMID:25225776

  20. Towards further understanding on the antioxidative activities of Prunus persica fruit: A comparative study with four different fractions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhingra, Naveen; Sharma, Rajesh; Kar, Anand

    2014-11-01

    In the present study we have evaluated the antioxidant activities of different fractions (hexane, ethyl acetate, n-butanol and aqueous fractions) of Prunus persica fruit. For extraction simple warring blender method was employed and total phenolic and flavonoid contents were correlated with different antioxidant activities (total antioxidant, 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), H2O2 scavenging, superoxide radical scavenging, iron chelating and their reducing power properties). Different in vitro antioxidant studies showed that ethyl acetate and n-butanol fractions had the maximum activities that were well correlated with total phenolic and flavonoid contents. Maximum yield (25.14 ± 2.2%) was obtained in its aqueous fraction. Both ethyl acetate and n-butanol fractions showed significant inhibitory effects on different antioxidant activities. A significantly high correlation coefficient existed between total antioxidant activities and with total phenolic as well as total flavonoid contents. It appears that ethyl acetate and n-butanol fractions of P. persica may serve as new potential sources of natural antioxidants and could be of therapeutic use in treating several diseases.

  1. Prunus africana (Hook.f.) Kalkman: the overexploitation of a medicinal plant species and its legal context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodeker, Gerard; van 't Klooster, Charlotte; Weisbord, Emma

    2014-11-01

    The linkage between herbal medicines and the sustainability of medical plants from which they are manufactured is increasingly being understood and receiving attention through international accords and trade labeling systems. However, little attention is paid to the fair trade aspects of this sector, including the issue of benefit-sharing agreements with traditional societies whose knowledge and resources are being exploited for commercial herbal medicine development and production. This article examines the case of Prunus africana (Hook.f.) Kalkman, from equatorial Africa. While the conservation and cultivation dimension of the trade in P. africana has been much discussed in literature, no research appears to have focused on the traditional resource rights and related ethical dimensions of this trade in traditional medicine of Africa. Serving as a cautionary tale for the unbridled exploitation of medicinal plants, the history of P. africana extraction is considered here in the context of relevant treaties and agreements existing today. These include the Nagoya Protocol, a supplementary agreement to the Convention on Biological Diversity, the Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights agreement from the World Trade Organization, and two African regional frameworks: the Swakopmund Protocol and the Organisation Africaine de la Propriété Intellectuelle Initiative. In the context of strengthening medicinal plant research in Africa, a novel international capacity-building project on traditional medicines for better public health in Africa will be discussed, illustrating how access and benefit sharing principles might be incorporated in future projects on traditional medicines.

  2. Phylogeography of the Afromontane Prunus africana reveals a former migration corridor between East and West African highlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadu, C A C; Schueler, S; Konrad, H; Muluvi, G M M; Eyog-Matig, O; Muchugi, A; Williams, V L; Ramamonjisoa, L; Kapinga, C; Foahom, B; Katsvanga, C; Hafashimana, D; Obama, C; Geburek, T

    2011-01-01

    Scattered populations of the same tree species in montane forests through Africa have led to speculations on the origins of distributions. Here, we inferred the colonization history of the Afromontane tree Prunus africana using seven chloroplast DNA loci to study 582 individuals from 32 populations sampled in a range-wide survey from across Africa, revealing 22 haplotypes. The predominant haplotype, HT1a, occurred in 13 populations of eastern and southern Africa, while a second common haplotype, HT1m, occurred in populations of western Uganda and western Africa. The high differentiation observed between populations in East Africa was unexpected, with stands in western Uganda belonging with the western African lineage. High genetic differentiation among populations revealed using ordered alleles (N(ST) = 0.840) compared with unordered alleles (G(ST) = 0.735), indicated a clear phylogeographic pattern. Bayesian coalescence modelling suggested that 'east' and 'west' African types likely split early during southward migration of the species, while further more recent splitting events occurred among populations in the East of the continent. The high genetic similarity found between western Uganda and west African populations indicates that a former Afromontane migration corridor may have existed through Equatorial Africa.

  3. Paternal-specific S-allele transmission in sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.): the potential for sexual selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedhly, A; Wünsch, A; Kartal, Ö; Herrero, M; Hormaza, J I

    2016-03-01

    Homomorphic self-incompatibility is a well-studied example of a physiological process that is thought to increase population diversity and reduce the expression of inbreeding depression. Whereas theoretical models predict the presence of a large number of S-haplotypes with equal frequencies at equilibrium, unequal allele frequencies have been repeatedly reported and attributed to sampling effects, population structure, demographic perturbation, sheltered deleterious mutations or selection pressure on linked genes. However, it is unclear to what extent unequal segregations are the results of gametophytic or sexual selection. Although these two forces are difficult to disentangle, testing S-alleles in the offspring of controlled crosses provides an opportunity to separate these two phenomena. In this work, segregation and transmission of S-alleles have been characterized in progenies of mixed donors and fully compatible pollinations under field conditions in Prunus avium. Seed set patterns and pollen performance have also been characterized. The results reveal paternal-specific distorted transmission of S-alleles in most of the crosses. Interestingly, S-allele segregation within any given paternal or maternal S-locus was random. Observations on pollen germination, pollen tube growth rate, pollen tube cohort size, seed set dynamics and transmission patterns strongly suggest post-pollination, prezygotic sexual selection, with male-male competition as the most likely mechanism. According to these results, post-pollination sexual selection takes precedence over frequency-dependent selection in explaining unequal S-haplotype frequencies.

  4. Leaf age affects the responses of foliar injury and gas exchange to tropospheric ozone in Prunus serotina seedlings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Jianwei, E-mail: jianweizhang@fs.fed.u [Environmental Resources Research Institute, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); School of Forest Resources, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Schaub, Marcus; Ferdinand, Jonathan A. [Environmental Resources Research Institute, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Skelly, John M. [Department of Plant Pathology, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Steiner, Kim C. [School of Forest Resources, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Savage, James E. [Department of Plant Pathology, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States)

    2010-08-15

    We investigated the effect of leaf age on the response of net photosynthesis (A), stomatal conductance (g{sub wv}), foliar injury, and leaf nitrogen concentration (N{sub L}) to tropospheric ozone (O{sub 3}) on Prunus serotina seedlings grown in open-plots (AA) and open-top chambers, supplied with either carbon-filtered or non-filtered air. We found significant variation in A, g{sub wv}, foliar injury, and N{sub L} (P < 0.05) among O{sub 3} treatments. Seedlings in AA showed the highest A and g{sub wv} due to relatively low vapor pressure deficit (VPD). Older leaves showed significantly lower A, g{sub wv}, N{sub L}, and higher foliar injury (P < 0.001) than younger leaves. Leaf age affected the response of A, g{sub wv}, and foliar injury to O{sub 3}. Both VPD and N{sub L} had a strong influence on leaf gas exchange. Foliar O{sub 3}-induced injury appeared when cumulative O{sub 3} uptake reached 8-12 mmol m{sup -2}, depending on soil water availability. The mechanistic assessment of O{sub 3}-induced injury is a valuable approach for a biologically relevant O{sub 3} risk assessment for forest trees. - Ozone effects on symptom development and leaf gas exchange interacted with leaf age and N-content on black cherry seedlings.

  5. A pollen-expressed gene for a novel protein with an F-box motif that is very tightly linked to a gene for S-RNase in two species of cherry, Prunus cerasus and P. avium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamane, Hisayo; Ikeda, Kazuo; Ushijima, Koichiro; Sassa, Hidenori; Tao, Ryutaro

    2003-07-01

    This study describes a novel F-box protein gene in the S-locus of sour cherry (Prunus cerasus) and sweet cherry (P. avium). The gene showed an S-haplotype-specific sequence polymorphism and the expression was specific to pollen. Genomic DNA blot analysis of eight sweet cherry cultivars with the probe for the F-box protein gene under low stringency conditions yielded RFLP bands specific to the S-haplotypes of each cultivar. We discuss the possibility of the gene for the F-box protein being a candidate for the male determinant of gametophytic self-incompatibility in PRUNUS: PMID:12881505

  6. 梅州山樱花与台湾樱花花部性状的比较研究%A Comparative Study of Floral Traits between Meizhou Cerasus campanulata and Taiwan Prunus cerasus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李坤新; 范玉琴; 黄思梅; 黄丽娥

    2013-01-01

    The floral traits including floral morphology, floral color and pollen viability among the Cerasus camparulata which grow naturally in Meizhou Mingshan Mountain and Primus cerasus including Prurws camparudata, Prunus lannesiana and C. yedoensis which were introduced from Taiwan and planting in cherry garden of Mingshan Mountain were investigated. The results showed that the Meizhou Cerasus camparudata pedicel was shorter and its petal was smaller than Taiwan Prunus cerasus. The calyx was longer than that of Prunus camparudata and Prunus laimesiana, but significantly shorter than that of C. yedoensis. However, the flowers were shorter than that of C. yedoensis but longer than that of Prunus lannesiana. The color of calyx, petal, filaments and style was diverse and varied with different degrees. There was no difference of pollen viability between Meizhou Cerasus campanulata, Prunus campanulata and C. yedoensis, while the pollen viability of Prunus lannesiana was lower markedly than that of Meizhou Cerasus campanulata (p <0.01) and Prunus campanulata (p <0.05).%以梅州明山自然生长的山樱花和从台湾引进并种植于明山樱花园的绯寒樱、八重樱和吉野樱为试材,对其花形、花色和花粉活力等花部性状进行了观测.结果表明,梅州山樱花的花梗较短,花瓣较小;花萼长于绯寒樱和八重樱,但明显短于吉野樱;花朵短于吉野樱而长于八重樱;山樱花与其他3种樱花的花萼、花瓣、花丝和花柱颜色有不同程度的差异.野生山樱花、绯寒樱和吉野樱的花粉活力没有明显差异;八重樱的花粉活力显著低于野生樱(p<0.01)和绯寒樱(p<0.05),而与吉野樱相比则没有显著性差异.

  7. Authenticity assessment of gamma- and delta-decalactone from prunus fruits by gas chromatography combustion/pyrolysis isotope ratio mass spectrometry (GC-C/P-IRMS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamura, Hirotoshi; Appel, Markus; Richling, Elke; Schreier, Peter

    2005-06-29

    Authenticity assessment of gamma-decalactone (1) and delta-decalactone (2) from peach (Prunus persica var. persica), apricot (Prunus armeniaca), and nectarine (Prunus persica var. nectarina) was performed using gas chromatography-isotope ratio mass spectrometry (GC-IRMS) in the combustion (C) and pyrolysis (P) mode. In addition, commercially available synthetic (nature-identical) 1 and 2 as well as biotechnologically produced samples (declared to be "natural") were characterized by their delta(2)H(V)(-)(SMOW) and delta(13)C(V)(-)(PDB) values. For the Prunus fruits under study, rather narrow ranges of delta(13)C(V)(-)(PDB) and delta(2)H(V)(-)(SMOW) data of 1, varying from - 34.6 per thousand to - 38.4 per thousand and -160 per thousand to -206 per thousand, respectively, were obtained. Synthetic references of 1 showed delta(13)C(V)(-)(PDB) and delta(2)H(V)(-)(SMOW) data ranging from -27.4 per thousand to -28.3 per thousand and -151 per thousand to -184 per thousand, respectively. Samples of 1 declared to be "natural" exhibited ranges from -28.1 per thousand to -29.2 per thousand and -192 per thousand to -286 per thousand for delta(13)C(V)(-)(PDB) and delta(2)H(V)(-)(SMOW), respectively. For 2 from peach, apricot, and nectarine, delta(13)C(V)(-)(PDB) values ranging from -34.0 per thousand to -37.9 per thousand were determined; the delta(2)H(V)(-)(SMOW) values ranged from -171 per thousand to -228 per thousand. The delta(13)C(V)(-)(PDB) and delta(2)H(V)(-)(SMOW) data for synthetic 2 were -28.2 per thousand and -171 per thousand, respectively, that is, similar to those of 2 from "natural" origin, ranging from -27.7 per thousand to -30.1 per thousand and -185 per thousand to -230 per thousand for delta(13)C(V)(-)(PDB) and delta(2)H(V)(-)(SMOW), respectively. GC-C/P-IRMS allowed clear-cut analytical differentiation of the synthetic and "ex-plant" origin of 1 and 2, whereas narrow ranges of delta(13)C(V)(-)(PDB) and delta(2)H(V)(-)(SMOW) data were found for samples of

  8. Fenología, producción y características de fruto de selecciones de durazno (Prunus persica L. Batsch.) Ana en Aguascalientes

    OpenAIRE

    F. Gutiérrez-Acosta; J. S. Padilla-Ramírez; L. Reyes-Muro

    2008-01-01

    El durazno (Prunus persica L. Batsch.) de la variedad Ana fue obtenido de un árbol proveniente de hueso en la huerta comercial San Carlos en Aguascalientes, y tiene las características de alta producción y fruto con buena aceptación en el mercado. La selección es un método de fitomejoramiento de especies frutícolas, que consiste en identificar individuos sobresalientes, teniendo como base las plantas que provienen de semilla y la preferencia de alguna característica deseada como criterio de...

  9. VPLIV UPORABE RASTNIH HORMONOV V RAZLIČNIH RAZVOJNIH FAZAH PLODOV NA KOLIČINO IN KAKOVOST PRIDELKA ČEŠNJE (Prunus avium L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Pelc, David

    2015-01-01

    V letu 2008 smo v Sadjarskem centru Maribor – Gačnik spremljali vpliv uporabe rastnih hormonov v različnih razvojnih fazah plodov na količino in kakovost pridelka češnje (Prunus avium L.). Namen poskusa je bil ugotoviti, ali rastni hormoni (avksini, citokinini) lahko pri češnji vplivajo na kakovost, velikost in na količino pridelka. Vključenih je bilo 6 obravnavanj, od katerih so 3 obravnavanja predstavljala tretiranje z avksini (Amid-thin, Maxim), 1 obravnavanje s citokinini (CPPU), 1 obravn...

  10. Size and Weight of Sweet Cherry (Prunus avium L. ‘Regina’) Fruit Treated with 3,5,6-TPA and GA3

    OpenAIRE

    Silvija Zeman; Zlatko Čmelik; Tomislav Jemrić

    2014-01-01

    The effect of 10 ppm 3,5,6-TPA (3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridyloxyocetic acid), 20 ppm GA 3 and their combination on size and weight of cherry fruit (Prunus avium L. ‘Regina’) were studied. 3,5,6-TPA was applied 25 days after full bloom and GA 3 during stage of fruit color change from green to straw-yellow. Fruit height, width, thickness and weight were measured. Width, thickness and weight of control fruit were the smallest. Fruit from 3,5,6-TPA - treated trees did not show significant differe...

  11. Effect of Salicylic Acid on Alleviating of Electrolyte Leakage and Flower Organ Damage in Apricot (Prunus armeniaca L. cv. ‘Shahroudi’)

    OpenAIRE

    Morteza ALIREZAIE NOGHONDAR; Hassan BAYAT; Hossein NEAMATI

    2013-01-01

    One of the most important limiting factors in spread of apricot in Iran is late spring frost, which damages flower bud and decrease total yield of crop. It has been found that salicylic acid (SA) plays a beneficial role during plant response to chilling and freezing stresses. To evaluate the effects of salicylic acid on alleviating of cold stress, the flower buds (FBs) of Prunus armeniaca L. cv. ‘Shahroudi’ were sprayed at pink cluster stage with SA at 4 levels (0, 0.5, 1 and 2 mM) and were ...

  12. Evaluación productiva, económica y social del agua de riego de durazno (Prunus persica L. Batsch) en Zacatecas (México)

    OpenAIRE

    José Luis Ríos-Flores; Miriam Torres-Moreno; José Ruiz-Torres; Marco Antonio Torres-Moreno; Jesús Enrique Cantú-Brito

    2015-01-01

    La escasez de agua limita la agricultura, por lo que su uso debe ser más eficiente en la producción de alimentos. El objetivo de este trabajo fue determinar la productividad económica, física y social del agua del cultivo de durazno (Prunus persica L. Batsch), en la región del Distrito de Desarrollo Rural 183 —correspondiente a Fresnillo, Zacatecas— para el ciclo 2012; se desarrollaron modelos matemáticos para estimar la productividad y eficiencia del agua. En Zacatecas se cosecharon 817 ha d...

  13. Effects of New Dietary Fiber from Japanese Apricot (Prunus mume Sieb. et Zucc.) on Gut Function and Intestinal Microflora in Adult Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Nobuki Gato; Motoi Tamura; Yuriko Ohnishi; Tatsuya Kotani

    2011-01-01

    Much attention has been focused recently on functional foods. Ume, the Japanese name for the apricot of Prunus mume Sieb. et Zucc., is an example of a Japanese traditional functional food. There are, however, few reports on the effects of fiber from this fruit on bowel function. With this objective, we prepared ume fiber to test the hypothesis that it can change gut function and intestinal flora in mice. Mice were fed an ume fiber (UF) or cellulose (CF) diet (control) for 40 days. The fecal w...

  14. Effects of fruit pre-harvest bagging on fruit quality of peach (Prunus persica Batsch cv. Hujingmilu).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bin; Jia, Hui-Juan; Zhang, Xiao-Meng

    2006-06-01

    Experiments were conducted to test the effects of pre-harvest bagging on fruit ripening and quality of peach (Prunus persica Batsch cv. Hujingmilu). Young fruits, at 50 days after full bloom (DAFB), were covered with bags made of single-, double-, and triple-layers of orange paper bag with 27.0%, 13.9% and 8.2% sunlight transmission, respectively. Ethylene production and respiration rate were measured, and fruit quality was analyzed at 111, 114, 117, 120 (firm-ripe stage) and 124 DAFB (full-ripe stage). Single- and triple-layer bagged fruits had higher ethylene production rates than double-layer bagged and un-bagged fruits. The skin of un-bagged fruit had higher brightness (L-value) but smaller hue angle (h degrees) at the full-ripe stage compared with that of bagged fruit. Flesh firmness of un-bagged fruit was higher than that of bagged fruit until the firm-ripe stage, although triple-layer bagged fruit had higher firmness than un-bagged fruit at the full-ripe stage. Total soluble solids in juice of single-layer bagged fruit were a little higher than those of other treated fruits at the full-ripe stage. Single-layer bagged fruit showed the highest level of gamma-decalactone, a main characteristic aroma of peach and total lactones at the firm-ripe and full-ripe stages. It was concluded that 'Hujingmilu' peach had high quality with abundant aromas when the fruits were bagged with single-layer orange paper bags at 50 DAFB. The biosynthesis of gamma-decalactone and other aromas may be affected by light to some extent. PMID:16775394

  15. Spatial and temporal assessment of pollen- and seed-mediated gene flow from genetically engineered plum Prunus domestica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scorza, Ralph; Kriss, Alissa B; Callahan, Ann M; Webb, Kevin; Demuth, Mark; Gottwald, Tim

    2013-01-01

    Pollen flow from a 0.46 ha plot of genetically engineered (GE) Prunus domestica located in West Virginia, USA was evaluated from 2000-2010. Sentinel plum trees were planted at distances ranging from 132 to 854 m from the center of the GE orchard. Plots of mixed plum varieties and seedlings were located at 384, 484 and 998 m from the GE plot. Bee hives (Apis mellifera) were dispersed between the GE plum plot and the pollen flow monitoring sites. Pollen-mediated gene flow from out of the GE plum plot to non-GE plums under the study conditions was low, only occurring at all in 4 of 11 years and then in only 0.31% of the 12,116 seeds analyzed. When it occurred, gene flow, calculated as the number of GUS positive embryos/total embryos sampled, ranged from 0.215% at 132 m from the center of the GE plum plot (28 m from the nearest GE plum tree) to 0.033-0.017% at longer distances (384-998 m). Based on the percentage of GUS positive seeds per individual sampled tree the range was 0.4% to 12%. Within the GE field plot, gene flow ranged from 4.9 to 39%. Gene flow was related to distance and environmental conditions. A single year sample from a sentinel plot 132 m from the center of the GE plot accounted for 65% of the total 11-year gene flow. Spatial modeling indicated that gene flow dramatically decreased at distances over 400 m from the GE plot. Air temperature and rainfall were, respectively, positively and negatively correlated with gene flow, reflecting the effects of weather conditions on insect pollinator activity. Seed-mediated gene flow was not detected. These results support the feasibility of coexistence of GE and non-GE plum orchards.

  16. Análisis de los compuestos volátiles de la ciruela amarilla (Prunus domestica L. ssp. domestica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yineth Ruiz

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available El aroma de las frutas se debe a los constituyentes volátiles presentes que, aunque se encuentran en muy bajas concentraciones, contribuyen al aroma global en grados muy diversos. Se hace necesario usar técnicas de aislamiento y concentración que garanticen el análisis de una composición química semejante a la de la fruta. Este trabajo tuvo como objetivo el análisis de los compuestos volátiles de la ciruela amarilla (Prunus domestica L. ssp. domestica por el método de evaporación del aroma asistida por solvente (SAFE. Este método utiliza un equipo de destilación conectado a una bomba de alto vacío que ofrece la posibilidad de aislar rápidamente compuestos volátiles sin daño térmico en diferentes matrices alimentarias. La separación e identificación de los compuestos volátiles se realizó por cromatografía de gases-espectrometría de masas (GC-MS. Se identificaron 47 compuestos (6,55 mg/kg de pulpa de fruta, entre ellos 14 alcoholes, 8 aldehídos, 7 ésteres, 5 cetonas, 4 ácidos carboxílicos, 4 hidrocarburos aromáticos, 3 lactonas, un compuesto azufrado y una hidroxicetona; 16 de ellos se informan por primera vez. El acetato de etilo (2,88 mg/kg, etanol (1 mg/kg y ácido octanoico (0,78 mg/kg fueron los constituyentes volátiles mayoritarios de esta variedad de ciruela.

  17. Análisis de los compuestos volátiles de la ciruela amarilla (Prunus domestica L. ssp. domestica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yineth Ruiz

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available El aroma de las frutas se debe a los constituyentes volátiles presentes que, aunque se encuentran en muy bajas concentraciones, contribuyen al aroma global en grados muy diversos. Se hace necesario usar técnicas de aislamiento y concentración que garanticen el análisis de una composición química semejante a la de la fruta. Este trabajo tuvo como objetivo el análisis de los compuestos volátiles de la ciruela amarilla (Prunus domestica L. ssp.domestica por el método de evaporación del aroma asistida por solvente (SAFE. Este método utiliza un equipo de destilación conectado a una bomba de alto vacío que ofrece la posibilidad de aislar rápidamente compuestos volátiles sin daño térmico en diferentes matrices alimentarias. La separación e identificación de los compuestos volátiles se realizó por cromatografía de gases-espectrometría de masas (GC-MS. Se identificaron 47 compuestos (6,55 mg/kg de pulpa de fruta, entre ellos 14 alcoholes, 8 aldehídos, 7 ésteres, 5 cetonas, 4 ácidos carboxílicos, 4 hidrocarburos aromáticos, 3 lactonas, un compuesto azufrado y una hidroxicetona; 16 de ellos se informan por primera vez. El acetato de etilo (2,88 mg/kg, etanol (1 mg/kg y ácido octanoico (0,78 mg/kg fueron los constituyentes volátiles mayoritarios de esta variedad de ciruela.

  18. cDNA Cloning, Expression and Characterization of an Allergenic 60s Ribosomal Protein of Almond (Prunus dulcis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abolhassani Mohsen

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Tree nuts, including almond (prunus dulcis are a source of food allergens often associated with life-threatening allergic reactions in susceptible individuals. Although the proteins in almonds have been biochemically characterized, relatively little has been reported regarding the identity of the allergens involved in almond sensitivity. The present study was undertaken to identify the allergens of the almond by cDNA library approach. cDNA library of almond seeds was constructed in Uni-Zap XR lamda vector and expressed in E. coli XL-1 blue. Plaques were immunoscreened with pooled sera of allergic patients. The cDNA clone reacting significantly with specific IgE antibodies was selected and subcloned and subsequently expressed in E. coli. The amino acids deducted from PCR product of clone showed homology to 60s acidic ribosomal protein of almond. The expressed protein was 11,450 Dalton without leader sequence. Immunoreactivity of the recombinant 60s ribosomal protein (r60sRP was evaluated with dot blot analysis using pooled and individual sera of allergic patients. The data showed that r60sRP and almond extract (as positive control possess the ability to bind the IgE antibodies. The results showed that expressed protein is an almond allergen.Whether this r60sRP represents a major allergen of almond needs to be further studied which requires a large number of sera from the almond atopic patients and also need to determine the IgE-reactive frequencies of each individual allergen.

  19. Genetic Diversity and Relatedness of Sweet Cherry (Prunus Avium L.) Cultivars Based on Single Nucleotide Polymorphic Markers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez i Marti, Angel; Athanson, Blessing; Koepke, Tyson; Font i Forcada, Carolina; Dhingra, Amit; Oraguzie, Nnadozie

    2012-01-01

    Most previous studies on genetic fingerprinting and cultivar relatedness in sweet cherry were based on isoenzyme, RAPD, and simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers. This study was carried out to assess the utility of single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers generated from 3′ untranslated regions (UTR) for genetic fingerprinting in sweet cherry. A total of 114 sweet cherry germplasm representing advanced selections, commercial cultivars, and old cultivars imported from different parts of the world were screened with seven SSR markers developed from other Prunus species and with 40 SNPs obtained from 3′ UTR sequences of Rainier and Bing sweet cherry cultivars. Both types of marker study had 99 accessions in common. The SSR data was used to validate the SNP results. Results showed that the average number of alleles per locus, mean observed heterozygosity, expected heterozygosity, and polymorphic information content values were higher in SSRs than in SNPs although both set of markers were similar in their grouping of the sweet cherry accessions as shown in the dendrogram. SNPs were able to distinguish sport mutants from their wild type germplasm. For example, “Stella” was separated from “Compact Stella.” This demonstrates the greater power of SNPs for discriminating mutants from their original parents than SSRs. In addition, SNP markers confirmed parentage and also determined relationships of the accessions in a manner consistent with their pedigree relationships. We would recommend the use of 3′ UTR SNPs for genetic fingerprinting, parentage verification, gene mapping, and study of genetic diversity in sweet cherry. PMID:22737155

  20. Cloning and characterization of genomic DNA sequences of four self-incompatibility alleles in sweet cherry ( Prunus avium L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wünsch, A; Hormaza, J I

    2004-01-01

    Gametophytic self-incompatibility (GSI) in sweet cherry is determined by a locus S with multiple alleles. In the style, the S-locus codifies for an allele-specific ribonuclease ( S-RNase) that is involved in the rejection of pollen that carries the same S allele. In this work we report the cloning and genomic DNA sequence analysis including the 5' flanking regions of four S-RNases of sweet cherry ( Prunus avium L., Rosaceae). DNA from the cultivars Ferrovia, Pico Colorado, Taleguera Brillante and Vittoria was amplified through PCR using primers designed in the conserved sequences of sweet cherry S-RNases. Two alleles were amplified for each cultivar and three of them correspond to three new S-alleles named S23, S24 and S25 present in 'Pico Colorado', 'Vittoria' and 'Taleguera Brillante' respectively. To confirm the identity of the amplified fragments, the genomic DNA of these three putative S-RNases and the allele S12 amplified in the cultivar Ferrovia were cloned and sequenced. The nucleotide and deduced amino-acid sequences obtained contained the structural features of rosaceous S-RNases. The isolation of the 5'-flanking sequences of these four S-RNases revealed a conserved putative TATA box and high similarity among them downstream from that sequence. However, similarity was low compared with the 5'-flanking regions of S-RNases from the Maloideae. S6- and S24-RNase sequences are highly similar, and most amino-acid substitutions among these two RNases occur outside the rosaceous hypervariable region (RHV), but within another highly variable region. The confirmation of the different specificity of these two S-RNases would help elucidate which regions of the S-RNase sequences play a role in S-pollen specific recognition.

  1. Leaf biomechanics, morphology, and anatomy of the deciduous mesophyte Prunus serrulata (Rosaceae) and the evergreen sclerophyllous shrub Heteromeles arbutifolia (Rosaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balsamo, Ronald A; Bauer, Aaron M; Davis, Stephen D; Rice, Benita M

    2003-01-01

    Leaf tensile properties were compared between the mesic deciduous tree Prunus serrulata (var. "Kwanzan") and the xeric and sclerophyllous chaparral evergreen shrub Heteromeles arbutifolia (M. Roem). All values for biomechanical parameters for H. arbutifolia were significantly greater than those of P. serrulata. The fracture planes also differed between the two species with P. serrulata fracturing along the secondary veins, while H. arbutifolia most often fractured across the leaf irrespective of the vein or mesophyll position, thus yielding qualitative differences in the stress-strain curves of the two species. Anatomically, P. serrulata exhibits features typical for a deciduous mesophytic leaf such as a thin cuticle, a single layer of palisade mesophyll, isodiametric spongy mesophyll, and extensive reticulation of the laminar veins. Heteromeles arbutifolia leaves, however, are typically two- to three-fold thicker with a 35% higher dry mass/fresh mass ratio. The vascular tissue is restricted to the interface of the palisade and spongy mesophyll near the center of the leaf. Both epidermal layers have a thick cuticle. The palisade mesophyll is tightly packed and two to three layers thick. The spongy mesophyll cells are ameboid in shape and tightly interlinked both to other spongy cells as well as to the overlying palisade layer. We conclude that the qualitative and quantitative biomechanical differences between the leaves of these two species are likely due to a complex interaction of internal architectural arrangement and the physical/chemical differences in the properties of their respective cell walls. These studies illustrate the importance that morphological and anatomical correlates play with mechanical behavior in plant material and ultimately reflect adaptations present in the leaves of chaparral shrubs that are conducive to surviving in arid environments.

  2. Development of an integrated pretreatment fractionation process for fermentable sugars and lignin: Application to almond (Prunus dulcis) shell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An environmentally friendly pretreatment process was developed to fractionate cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin from almond (Prunus dulcis) shells, consisting of hot water pretreatment (HWP) coupled with organic solvent (organosolv) pretreatment of water/ethanol (OWEP). This integrated pretreatment process proved more effective on the basis of yield of fermentable sugar and lignin separation compared with HWP alone, dilute acid pretreatment (DAP), ammonia pretreatment (AP), lime pretreatment LP, organosolv water/ethanol pretreatment (OWEP), and organosolv water/acetone pretreatment (OWAP). In the coupled hot water-organosolv process, hemicellulose sugars were recovered in the first residual liquid while varying amounts of cellulose was retained in the residual solid. The lignin fraction was obtained by simply adjusting the pH from the second liquid. The optimal two-stage process consisted of first HWP stage at 195 oC for 30 min, resulting in wglucose = 95.4% glucose recovery yield and wxylose = 92.2% xylose removal. The second organosolv OWEP stage was operated at 195 oC for 20 min, in ethanol in water mixtures of ethanol = 50% and resulted in nearly wglucose = 100% glucose recovery yield, wxylose = 90% xylose and wlignin = 61% lignin removal. After enzymatic hydrolysis, glucose yield was up to wglucose = 95%, compared to 61% yield from untreated almond. Images obtained via scanning electron microscopy (SEM) highlighted the differences in almond structure from the varying pretreatment methods during biomass fractionation. -- Highlights: → Almond shells are an under-utilized agriculture byproduct available in the world. → Almond shells are particularly attractive as bioenergy feedstock. → We have developed a new fractionation process for the almond shell. → The new process combined the HWP with OWEP. → The fractionation process has potential in the utilization of almond shell.

  3. Physico-chemical characteristics of seed oils extracted from different apricot (Prunus armeniaca L.) varieties from Pakistan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manzoor, M.; Anwar, F.; Ashraf, M.; Alkharfy, K. M.

    2012-11-01

    The fruit seed oils from four varieties of apricot (Prunus armeniaca L.), namely, Halmas, Nari, Travet and Charmagzi were analyzed for different physico-chemical characteristics. The oil yield from the apricot seeds (kernels) ranged from 32.23-42.51%, while the protein, fiber and ash contents ranged from 13.21-20.90%, 5.13-9.81% and 2.11-3.89%, respectively. The extracted oils had an average iodine value (g of I/100 g of oil) of 96.4-106.3; density at 24 degree centigrade 0.87-0.93 mg/mL; refractive index (40 degree centigrade), 1.4655-1.4790; saponification value, 189.1-199.4 mg of KOH/g oil; unsaponifiable matter, 0.59-0.88%; free fatty acid (mg of KOH/g oil), 0.41-1.28; and color (1-inch cell), 1.31-2.96R 1 14.8-29.8Y. With regard to the oxidation state, the tested oils showed values for specific extinction at 232 and 268 nm, 2.30-3.42 and 0.82-1.04, respectively, while the peroxide value was 1.0-2.32 meq O{sub 2}/kg and, p-anisidine was 1.22-1.90. The major fatty acid found in the oils was oleic acid (62.34-80.97%) followed by linoleic (13.13-30.33%), palmitic (3.35-5.93%), linolenic (0.73-1.03%) and stearic (1.10-1.68%) acids. The contents of {alpha}-, {gamma}-, and {delta}-, tocopherols in the oils ranged from 14.8-40.4, 330.8-520.8 and 28.5-60.2 mg/kg, respectively. The results of our present investigation revealed that apricot seed is a potential source of oil which can be used both for edible and oleo chemical applications. (Author) 55 refs.

  4. Antioxidant properties of sour cherries (Prunus cerasus L.): role of colorless phytochemicals from the methanolic extract of ripe fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piccolella, Simona; Fiorentino, Antonio; Pacifico, Severina; D'Abrosca, Brigida; Uzzo, Piera; Monaco, Pietro

    2008-03-26

    Many edible plant metabolites are known to be useful as cellular antioxidants. In the search for antioxidative chemicals from native fruits of the Campania region of Italy, Prunus cerasus L., an acidic cherry widely used for culinary purposes, has been studied. Fruit crude extracts (MeOH, EtOAc, and hexane) were submitted to an antioxidative screening using specific assay media characterized from the presence of highly reactive radical species (DPPH*, ABTS*+, O2*-, NO) or lipoperoxidation markers. The reducing power of the samples was also determined. It was observed that the most polar extracts in MeOH and EtOAc were able to exercise a massive and dose-increasing antioxidative capacity. The peculiar efficacy of the same extracts was revealed by investigating their protein and deoxyribose oxidation capacity. A preliminary analysis of total phenol, flavonoid, and anthocyanin contents together with biological screening data put the basis on P. cerasus fruit phytochemical investigation of methanolic extract. Twenty secondary metabolites were isolated and characterized by spectroscopic (especially 1D and 2D NMR) and spectrometric techniques. 1-(4-Hydroxyphenyl)-1,2-ethanediol-1,2-bis-1-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside (3), (4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)methanol-1-O-beta-D-gentiobioside (4), epicatechin-3-malate (14), and epicatechin-3-(1''-methyl)malate (15) were isolated for the first time. All of the compounds were evaluated for their radical scavenging activity on DPPH*, O2*-, and NO. Flavonoids and quinic acid derivatives were found to be the more antioxidative substances. PMID:18303821

  5. Molecular identification of species in Prunus sect.Persica (Rosaceae), with emphasis on evaluation of candidate barcodes for plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu QUAN; Shi-Liang ZHOU

    2011-01-01

    Species of Prunus L. sect. Persica are not only important fruit trees, but also popular ornamental and medicinal plants. Correct identification of seedlings, barks, or fruit kernels is sometimes required, but no reliable morphological characters are available. Nowadays, the technique of DNA barcoding has the potential to meet such requirements. In this study, we evaluated the suitability of 11 DNA loci (atpB-rbcL, trnH-psbA, trnL-F, trnS-G,atpF-H, rbcL, marK, rpoB, rpoC1, nad1, and internal transcribed spacer [ITS]) as candidate DNA barcodes for peaches, using samples from 38 populations, covering all the species in sect. Persica. On the whole, the primers worked well in this group and sequencing difficulties were met only in the case of ITS locus. Five loci (rbcL,matK, rpoB, rpoC, and nad1) have very low variation rates, whereas atpB-rbcL, atpF-H, trnH-psbA, trnL-F and trnS-G show more variability. The most variable loci, atpB-rbcL and trnH-psbA, can distinguish three of the five species. Two two-locus combinations, atpB-rbcL+trnL-F and atpB-rbcL+atpF-H, can resolve all five species. We also find that identification powers of the loci are method-dependent. The NeighborNet method shows higher species identification power than maximum parsimony, neighbor joining, and unweighted pair group method with arithmetic mean methods.

  6. Evaluation of different doses of gamma radiation on physicochemical characteristics of peach Prunus persica (cv. Chimarrita) minimally processed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Ana Claudia S.; Silva, Lucia C.A.S.; Perecin, Thalita Neme; Arthur, Valter; Harder, Marcia N.C. [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Radiobiologia e Ambiente], e-mail: acsoliveira@usp.br, e-mail: arthur@cena.usp.br; Mansi, Debora N.; Canniatti-Brazaca, Solange G. [Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz (ESALQ/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Agroindustria, Alimentos e Nutricao

    2009-07-01

    The objective was to evaluate the effect of different doses of gamma radiation on the physico-chemical characteristics of peach Prunus persica (cv. Chimarrita) minimally processed, to increase the useful life of the fruit. The peaches were purchased at Ceasa of Campinas/SP and taken to the Laboratory of Radiobiology and Environment of CENA/USP (Piracicaba/SP), which were washed in tap water, peeled and cut into four pieces. The pieces of peach were dipped in sodium hypochlorite solution of 15 mL/L for 4 minutes and dry in a plastic support. Then it were placed in plastic containers (polypropylene). Subsequently, they were irradiated in a Cobalt-60 source, type Gammacell-220 (dose rate of 0,543 kGy/hour) with doses of: 0 (control), 1.0 and 2.0 kGy and stored at a temperature of 8 deg C. The experimental was developed entirely at random with 3 replicates for each treatment. For the statistic analysis was using the Tuckey test at 5% level of probability. Subsequently, analysis was carried out: color factors (l, a, b), pH, soluble solids (deg Brix), acidity and vitamin C. The tests were performed at 1, 3 and 6 days after irradiation. According to the results concluded that the analysis of color and acidity there was no significant difference between treatments, however, for the soluble solids (deg Brix), vitamin C and texture significant difference showing a decrease proportional to increasing doses of radiation and storage time. But the pH increased in relation to dose and during the analysis. (author)

  7. Effects of 10-GHz microwaves on hematological parameters in Swiss albino mice and their modulation by Prunus avium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sisodia, Rashmi; Rifat, Faiza; Sharma, Archana; Srivastava, Preeti; Sharma, K

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the modulatory role of Prunus avium fruit extract (PAE) on several blood parameters after exposure to 10-GHz microwaves. Swiss albino mice from an inbred colony were selected and divided into 3 groups. Mice in group I served as the control; they were placed in a Plexiglas cage (without energizing the system) for 2 hours/day for 30 consecutive days. Group II mice were exposed to 10-GHz microwaves for 2 hours/day for 30 consecutive days. Mice in group III received PAE (500 mg/kg/body weight) orally once daily 1 hour before exposure to 10-GHz microwaves (2 hours/day) for 30 consecutive days. After 30 days of treatment, blood samples were collected from mice in all groups and analyzed. Hemoglobin, monocytes, packed cell volume, red blood cells, mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration declined significantly (P ≤ 0.01), whereas white blood cells, lymphocytes, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, and mean corpuscular volume increased significantly (P ≤ 0.01) compared to the control group (group I). Cholesterol, alkaline phosphatase, and lipid peroxidation also increased significantly (P ≤ 0.01). Depletion in blood sugar, total protein, acid phosphatase, and glutathione levels was noted after microwave exposure compared with levels in the sham-exposed (control) mice. Histopathological alterations in blood cells also were seen. Signs of improvements in the hematological, biochemical, and histopathological parameters were recorded in group III, where PAE was supplemented before exposure. Exposure to microwaves influences hematological parameters, which could be ameliorated by the supplementation of PAE. PMID:24266407

  8. Effect of pulsed electric fields on the flavour profile of red-fleshed sweet cherries (Prunus avium var. Stella).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sotelo, Kristine Ann Gualberto; Hamid, Nazimah; Oey, Indrawati; Gutierrez-Maddox, Noemi; Ma, Qianli; Leong, Sze Ying

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this research was to study the effect of pulsed electric fields (PEF) on the flavour profile of red-fleshed sweet cherries (Prunus avium variety Stella). The cherry samples were treated at a constant pulse frequency of 100 Hz, a constant pulse width of 20 μs, different electric field strengths between 0.3 and 2.5 kV/cm and specific energy ranging from 31 to 55 kJ/kg. Volatile compounds of samples were analysed using an automated headspace solid phase microextraction (HS-SPME) method coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). A total of 33 volatile compounds were identified with benzaldehyde, hexanal, (E)-2-hexenal, (Z)-2-hexen-1-ol, and benzyl alcohol being the predominant volatiles in different PEF-treated samples. Aldehydes namely butanal, octanal, 2-octenal, and nonanal, and (Z)-2-hexen-1-ol increased significantly 24 h after PEF treatment at electric field strengths of more than 1.0 kV/cm. Samples incubated for 24 h after PEF treatment (S3) generated higher concentrations of volatiles than samples immediately after PEF treatments (S2). Quantitative results revealed that more flavour volatiles were released and associated with S3 samples after 24 h storage and S2 samples immediately after PEF both with the highest electric field intensities. Interestingly, this study found that the PEF treatments at the applied electric field strength and energy did not result in releasing/producing undesirable flavour compounds. PMID:25806548

  9. Effect of Pulsed Electric Fields on the Flavour Profile of Red-Fleshed Sweet Cherries (Prunus avium var. Stella

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristine Ann Gualberto Sotelo

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to study the effect of pulsed electric fields (PEF on the flavour profile of red-fleshed sweet cherries (Prunus avium variety Stella. The cherry samples were treated at a constant pulse frequency of 100 Hz, a constant pulse width of 20 μs, different electric field strengths between 0.3 and 2.5 kV/cm and specific energy ranging from 31 to 55 kJ/kg. Volatile compounds of samples were analysed using an automated headspace solid phase microextraction (HS–SPME method coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC–MS. A total of 33 volatile compounds were identified with benzaldehyde, hexanal, (E-2-hexenal, (Z-2-hexen-1-ol, and benzyl alcohol being the predominant volatiles in different PEF-treated samples. Aldehydes namely butanal, octanal, 2-octenal, and nonanal, and (Z-2-hexen-1-ol increased significantly 24 h after PEF treatment at electric field strengths of more than 1.0 kV/cm. Samples incubated for 24 h after PEF treatment (S3 generated higher concentrations of volatiles than samples immediately after PEF treatments (S2. Quantitative results revealed that more flavour volatiles were released and associated with S3 samples after 24 h storage and S2 samples immediately after PEF both with the highest electric field intensities. Interestingly, this study found that the PEF treatments at the applied electric field strength and energy did not result in releasing/producing undesirable flavour compounds.

  10. Promising sour cherry hybrids (Prunus cerasus L. developed at Fruit Research Institute Čačak

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radičević Sanja

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available At Fruit Research Institute in Čačak, major objectives of the work on breeding new sour cherry (Prunus cerasus L. cultivars are high cropping, large, high-quality fruits and resistance to causal agents of diseases and pests. As a result of the planned hybridization, more than 10,000 hybrid seedlings have been developed from about 40 cultivars within more than 110 parental combinations, among which are 'Čačanski rubin' ('Shasse Morello' x 'Köröser Weichsel' and 'Šumadinka' ('Köröser Weichsel' x 'Heimanns Konserven Weichsel' which have been named and released. Ten-year study of 11 hybrids, selected from the population of about 3,000 hybrid seedlings, gave four hybrids which have been singled out as elite (III/23, III/31, II/40 i XII/57. These hybrids are currently under procedure of being released as new cultivars. The paper presents two-year results of the study of ripening time, pomological properties, biochemical composition of fruits, and field resistance to causal agents of diseases and pests attacking the above named genotypes which were compared to standard cultivar 'Heimanns Konserven Weichsel'. In the studied hybrids, fruit weight, soluble solids content and sugars content were higher than in standard cultivar. In addition, they exhibit substantial field resistance to causal agents of brown rot (Monilinia laxa /Ader et Ruhl./ Honey ex Whetz., cherry leaf spot (Blumeriella jaapii (Rehm. v. Arx., shot-hole (Clasterosporium carpophilum (Lév. Aderh. and cherry fruit fly (Rhagoletis cerasi L. attack.

  11. In-vitro free radical scavenging activity of biosynthesized gold and silver nanoparticles using Prunus armeniaca (apricot) fruit extract

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dauthal, Preeti; Mukhopadhyay, Mausumi, E-mail: mausumi_mukhopadhyay@yahoo.com [S.V. National Institute of Technology, Department of Chemical Engineering (India)

    2013-01-15

    In-vitro free radical scavenging activity of biosynthesized gold (Au-NPs) and silver (Ag-NPs) nanoparticles was investigated in the present study. Natural precursor Prunus armeniaca (apricot) fruit extract was used as a reducing agent for the nanoparticle synthesis. The free radical scavenging activity of the nanoparticles were observed by modified 1,1 Prime -diphynyl-2-picrylhydrazyl, DPPH and 2,2 Prime -azinobis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid), ABTS assay. The synthesized nanoparticles were characterized by UV-Visible spectroscopy, dynamic light scattering, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), energy dispersive spectroscopy, and fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). Appearance of optical absorption peak at 537 nm (2.20 keV) and 435 nm (3 keV) within 0.08 and 0.5 h of reaction time was confirmed the presence of metallic Au and Ag nanoclusters, respectively. Nearly spherical nanoparticles with majority of particle below 20 nm (TEM) for both Au-NPs and Ag-NPs were synthesized. XRD pattern confirmed the existence of pure nanocrystalline Au-NPs while few additional peaks in the vicinity of fcc silver-speculated crystallization of metalloproteins of fruit extract on the surface of the Ag-NPs and vice versa. FTIR spectra was supported the role of amino acids of protein/enzymes of fruit extract for synthesis and stabilization of nanoparticles. Dose-dependent scavenging activity was observed for Au-NPs and Ag-NPs in both DPPH and ABTS in-vitro assay. 50 % scavenging activity for DPPH were 11.27 and 16.18 mg and for ABTS 3.40 and 7.12 mg with Au-NPs and Ag-NPs, respectively.

  12. Conservation priorities for Prunus africana defined with the aid of spatial analysis of genetic data and climatic variables.

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    Barbara Vinceti

    Full Text Available Conservation priorities for Prunus africana, a tree species found across Afromontane regions, which is of great commercial interest internationally and of local value for rural communities, were defined with the aid of spatial analyses applied to a set of georeferenced molecular marker data (chloroplast and nuclear microsatellites from 32 populations in 9 African countries. Two approaches for the selection of priority populations for conservation were used, differing in the way they optimize representation of intra-specific diversity of P. africana across a minimum number of populations. The first method (S1 was aimed at maximizing genetic diversity of the conservation units and their distinctiveness with regard to climatic conditions, the second method (S2 at optimizing representativeness of the genetic diversity found throughout the species' range. Populations in East African countries (especially Kenya and Tanzania were found to be of great conservation value, as suggested by previous findings. These populations are complemented by those in Madagascar and Cameroon. The combination of the two methods for prioritization led to the identification of a set of 6 priority populations. The potential distribution of P. africana was then modeled based on a dataset of 1,500 georeferenced observations. This enabled an assessment of whether the priority populations identified are exposed to threats from agricultural expansion and climate change, and whether they are located within the boundaries of protected areas. The range of the species has been affected by past climate change and the modeled distribution of P. africana indicates that the species is likely to be negatively affected in future, with an expected decrease in distribution by 2050. Based on these insights, further research at the regional and national scale is recommended, in order to strengthen P. africana conservation efforts.

  13. Conservation priorities for Prunus africana defined with the aid of spatial analysis of genetic data and climatic variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinceti, Barbara; Loo, Judy; Gaisberger, Hannes; van Zonneveld, Maarten J; Schueler, Silvio; Konrad, Heino; Kadu, Caroline A C; Geburek, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Conservation priorities for Prunus africana, a tree species found across Afromontane regions, which is of great commercial interest internationally and of local value for rural communities, were defined with the aid of spatial analyses applied to a set of georeferenced molecular marker data (chloroplast and nuclear microsatellites) from 32 populations in 9 African countries. Two approaches for the selection of priority populations for conservation were used, differing in the way they optimize representation of intra-specific diversity of P. africana across a minimum number of populations. The first method (S1) was aimed at maximizing genetic diversity of the conservation units and their distinctiveness with regard to climatic conditions, the second method (S2) at optimizing representativeness of the genetic diversity found throughout the species' range. Populations in East African countries (especially Kenya and Tanzania) were found to be of great conservation value, as suggested by previous findings. These populations are complemented by those in Madagascar and Cameroon. The combination of the two methods for prioritization led to the identification of a set of 6 priority populations. The potential distribution of P. africana was then modeled based on a dataset of 1,500 georeferenced observations. This enabled an assessment of whether the priority populations identified are exposed to threats from agricultural expansion and climate change, and whether they are located within the boundaries of protected areas. The range of the species has been affected by past climate change and the modeled distribution of P. africana indicates that the species is likely to be negatively affected in future, with an expected decrease in distribution by 2050. Based on these insights, further research at the regional and national scale is recommended, in order to strengthen P. africana conservation efforts.

  14. 梅根际丛枝菌根真菌三个中国新记录种%Three new records of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi associated with Prunus mume in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡邦平; 陈俊愉; 张启翔; 郭良栋

    2008-01-01

    Three new Chinese records,Acaulospora paulinae,Glomus aureum,and Pacispora robigina were found in a survey of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi associated with Prunus mume in China.They were redescribed and illustrated in accordance with Chinese materials.These specimens were stored in the Herbarium Mycologicum Academiae Sinicae(HMAS)in Beijing.

  15. 'Candidatus Phytoplasmas pruni', a novel taxon associated with X-disease of stone fruits, Prunus spp.: multilocus characterization based on 16S rRNA, secY, and ribosomal protein genes

    Science.gov (United States)

    X-disease is one of the most serious diseases known in peach (Prunus persica). Based on RFLP analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences, peach X-disease phytoplasma strains from eastern and western United States and eastern Canada were classified in 16S rDNA RFLP group 16SrIII, subgroup A. Phylogenetic a...

  16. Préparation et caractérisation d'un charbon actif à partir de la coquille d'amande (Prunus amygdalus amère

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    Trachi, M.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Preparation and characterization of activated coal from bitter almond shells (Prunus amygdalus. Description of the subject. The present study concerns the preparation of activated coal (AC from bitter almond (Prunus amygdalus shells (BASh, a fruit that grows spontaneously in the Setif region (northeast Algeria. Obtaining and characterizing activated coal was the valorization method adopted here. Objectives. The aim of this study was to elucidate the feasibility of the chemical activation of BASh in order to obtain two types of activated coal (AC. Method. The two ACs were obtained from BASh by acid (CAa and basic (CAb activation. The final products were investigated for their different physicochemical characteristics: angle of repose, ash, differential screening calorimetry, etc. In the case of CAa, the modeling of the adsorption kinetic of methylene blue (MB, as well as of adsorption isotherms, was also performed. Results. The activation mode seemed to affect unequally the different physicochemical characteristics of both the obtained coals. On the other hand, the adsorption kinetics of the MB by CAa was correctly described by the pseudo-2nd-order model (R² = 0.999. Concerning the modeling of the adsorption isotherm, of the three models tested, the Freundlich model appeared to be the most appropriate to fit the experimental data (R2 = 0.898, mean relative error (MRE = 38.638 and root mean square error (RMSE = 1.039. In addition, the activated shell showed an interesting capacity for MB adsorption, estimated at 99.05%.

  17. Study on Processing Technology of Prunus humilis Leave Tea%欧李绿茶的加工工艺研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高婧; 杨鹏; 任玉婷; 王晓闻

    2012-01-01

    欧李叶具有很高的营养价值,是一类值得开发的食用资源。以传统绿茶加工工艺为参考将欧李叶制成绿茶成品,研究了漂烫及其时间,杀青时间对成品品质的影响。根据成品评分标准确定较佳漂烫时间为1min.每次锅炒时间为3min,并根据高效液相色谱测定炒制过程中欧李中苦杏仁苷的含量变化,确定较佳的炒制次数为5次,为欧李绿茶开发生产提供参考。%Prunus humilis leaf is an edible resource with abundant nutritions. It was worth to be developed. The Prunus humilis leaves were made into green tea according to the traditional processing. The effects of blanching or out of blanching, the blanching time, and the fixing time on the product quality were studied. The optimal blanching time (1 min) and each fixing time (3 min) were judged by the product sensory evaluation standards. The variation of amygdalin content was determined by HPLC to confirm the optimal pan removing times (5 times).

  18. Effet de la pectolyase Y-23 et de la cellulase Onozuka RS sur le rendement en protoplastes viables de Prunus cerasus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehri-Kamoun R.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Effect of pectolyase Y-23 and cellulase Onozuka RS on the yield of viable protoplasts of Prunus cerasus L. ""Montmorency"". To isolate leaf mesophyll, leaf and root callus protoplasts of Prunus cerasus L. ""Montmorency"", we have determined the optimum enzymatic mixtures to be used, and characterized the specific activity of these enzymes. The analysis of the specific activities of enzymes allows to compare the different cellulases and pectinases used to obtain protoplasts in relation with the tissue sources. This analysis concerned the FPase (degradation of filter paper and CMCase activities for cellulases Onozuka RS and R-10, and the PME (pectinmethylesterase, PL (pectate lyase and PG (polygalacturonase activities for the pectinases Macerozyme R-10 and Pectolyase Y-23. The results show that the digestion of leaf mesophyll tissues need cellulase Onozuka RS and Pectolyase Y-23 while callus protoplasts of the same material, can be isolated with cellulase Onozuka R-10 and Macerozyme R-10. The enzymes cellulase Onozuka RS and Pectolyase Y-23 (as pectinase improved significantly the yield and the viability of leaf mesophyll protoplasts compared to cellulase Onozuka R-10 and Macerozyme R-10. These results were correlated to the specific activities of the enzymes. Significant differences between the 2 pectinases are observed for PME, PL and PG activities and between the 2 cellulases for CMCase activity. From callus, the maximum amount of viable protoplasts was obtained with cellulase Onozuka R-10 (low CMCase activity and Macerozyme R-10 (low PG activity.

  19. Over-expression of the PaAP1 gene from sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.) causes early flowering in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jing; Zhang, Xiaoming; Yan, Guohua; Zhou, Yu; Zhang, Kaichun

    2013-02-15

    A homologue of SQUAMOSA/APETALA1, designated PaAP1, was isolated from Prunus avium by reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR). The full length of PaAP1 cDNA is 753 bp, and it codes for a polypeptide of 250 amino acid residues. Sequence comparison revealed that PaAP1 belongs to the MADS-box gene family. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that PaAP1 shared the highest identity with SQUA/AP1 homologues from Prunus serrulata. Real-time fluorescence quantitative PCR analysis showed that PaAP1 was expressed at high levels in petal, sepal, style, and flower buds, which was slightly different from the expression pattern of AP1 of Arabidopsis thaliana. To characterize the functions of PaAP1, we assessed Arabidopsis transformed with 35S::PaAP1. A total of 8 transgenic T(1) lines with an early flowering phenotype were obtained, and a 3:1 segregation ratio of flowering time was observed in the T(2) generation of 4 lines. This study provides the first functional analysis of an SQUA/AP1 homolog from P. avium and suggests that PaAP1 is potentially useful for shortening the juvenile period in sweet cherry. PMID:23206932

  20. Mites fluctuation population on peach tree (Prunus persica (L. Batsch and in associated plants Flutuação populacional de ácaros na cultura do pessegueiro (Prunus persica (L. Batsch e em plantas associadas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Rosana Eichelberger

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Despite the importance of peach (Prunus persica (L. Batsch in Rio Grande do Sul, little is known about mites fluctuation population considered important to this crop. The objective of this study was to know the population diversity and fluctuation of mite species associated with Premier and Eldorado varieties in Roca Sales and Venâncio Aires counties, Rio Grande do Sul. The study was conducted from July 2008 to June 2009 when 15 plants were randomly chosen in each area. The plants were divided in quadrants and from each one a branch was chosen from which three leaves were removed: one collected in the apical region, another in the medium and the other in the basal region, totalizing 180 leaves/area. Five of the most abundant associated plants were collected monthly in enough amounts for the screening under the stereoscopic microscope during an hour. A total of 1,124 mites were found belonging to 14 families and 28 species. Tetranychus ludeni Zacher, 1913, Panonychus ulmi (Koch, 1836 and Mononychellus planki (McGregor, 1950 were the most abundant phytophagous mites, whereas Typhlodromalus aripo Deleon, 1967 and Phytoseiulus macropilis (Banks, 1904 the most common predatory mites. The period of one hour under stereoscopic microscope was enough to get a representative sample. In both places evaluated the ecologic indices were low, but little higherin Premier (H' 0.56; EqJ: 0.43 when compared to Eldorado (H' 0.53; EqJ 0.40. In Premier constant species were not observed and accessory only Brevipalpus phoenicis (Geijskes, 1939, T. ludeni and T. aripo. Higher abundance was observed in December and January and bigger amount in April. Already in Eldorado, T. ludeni and P. ulmi were constants. Greater abundance was observed in November and December, whereas grater richness in December and January. In both orchards were not found mites in buds. Tetranychus ludeni is the most abundant phytophagous mites with outbreak population in November, December and

  1. Enraizamento de estacas herbáceas de quatro clones de umezeiro (Prunus mume Sieb. et Zucc. durante o inverno ameno, em Jaboticabal-SP Rooting of herbaceous cuttings of four mume clones (Prunus mume Sieb. et Zucc. during soft winter, in Jaboticabal, São Paulo state, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Newton Alex Mayer

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Estudos realizados no Brasil com o umezeiro (Prunus mume Sieb. et Zucc. relatam promissoras perspectivas de utilização desta espécie como porta-enxerto para pessegueiro e nectarineira, em função de sua rusticidade, adaptação ao inverno brando, compatibilidade com Prunus persica, redução do vigor das plantas e melhoria da qualidade dos frutos. Entretanto, em função da propagação por sementes, tem sido observadas diferenças de vigor entre as plantas, resultando em pomares muito heterogêneos. Assim, o presente estudo teve por objetivo estudar o enraizamento de estacas herbáceas de quatro clones de umezeiro (Clones 02, 05, 10 e 15 durante o inverno ameno, em Jaboticabal-SP. O experimento foi conduzido entre os meses de junho e agosto, sendo avaliado aos 70 dias após a estaquia. Pelos resultados obtidos, foi possível concluir que é viável a propagação dos clones estudados por enraizamento de estacas herbáceas durante o inverno. Foram observadas diferenças entre os clones quanto à porcentagem de enraizamento, porcentagem de estacas com calo, número e comprimento das raízes. No conjunto das variáveis analisadas, os melhores resultados foram obtidos com os Clones 10 e 15.Studies developed in Brazil with the mume (Prunus mume Sieb. et Zucc. have shown promising perspectives of using this species as rootstock for peach and nectarine trees, in function of its rusticity, adaptation to soft winter, compatibility with Prunus persica, plant vigor reduction and improvement of the fruit quality. However, due to seed propagation, vigor differences have been observed among plants, resulting in very heterogeneous orchards. Thus, the present study had the objective of studying the rooting of herbaceous cuttings of four mume clones (Clones 02, 05, 10 and 15 in intermittent mist during the soft winter, in Jaboticabal, São Paulo State, Brazil. The experiment was carried out between June and August, being evaluated 70 days after the cutting

  2. 梅花 CBF 转录因子的克隆及表达%Cloning and Expression of CBF Transcription Factor from Prunus mume

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张杰; 张启翔; 杨炜茹

    2012-01-01

    根据GenBank中与梅花同属的桃、甜樱桃等已发表CBFs转录因子序列设计简并引物,采用PCR和RTPCR方法,从梅花基因组DNA和cDNA中克隆CBF转录因子片段.结果表明,两种途径获得的CBF基因序列一致,基因全长821 bp,编码238个氨基酸,其氨基酸序列具有典型的CBF蛋白特征,包含保守的AP2/EREB DNA 结合结构域及CBF家族蛋白特征短多肽序列(PKK/RPAGRxKFxETRHP和DSAWR).氨基酸相似性分析结果表明,该基因与欧洲甜樱桃、矮扁桃等CBF转录因子相似性较高.相对荧光定量PCR结果显示,4℃低温胁迫下,其表达量符合CBF转录因子表达特点,随着胁迫时间的增长表达量呈上升趋势,8h时达峰值,说明该基因在低温胁迫下上调表达.%Primers were designed according to the CBF transcription factors of Peach (Prunus persica), Sweet cherry (Prunus avium) et al from GenBank. Fragments of CBF gene were isolated from Prunus mume by PCR and RT-PCR, The CBF gene was 821 bp long, encoding a putative protein of 238 amino acids;The amino acids sequence owns the characteristics of the CBF protein,which contains an AP2/EREB DNA-binding domain and two special short amino acids sequences;Similarity analysis showed that the nu-cleotide were highly similarity to that of P. avium, P. tenella et al. Relative real-time PCR experiment showed the expression of PmCBFl was coincidence with the expression characteristics of the CBF gene after exposed to 4℃. The expression of PmCBFl increased at beginning and achieved the highest after 8 hour,indicating PmCBFl was induced under low temperature stress.

  3. Physico-chemical characteristics of seed oils extracted from different apricot (Prunus armeniaca L. varieties from Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alkharfy, K. M.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The fruit seed oils from four varieties of apricot (Prunus armeniaca L., namely, Halmas, Nari, Travet and Charmagzi were analyzed for different physico-chemical characteristics. The oil yield from the apricot seeds (kernels ranged from 32.23-42.51%, while the protein, fiber and ash contents ranged from 13.21-20.90%, 5.13-9.81% and 2.11-3.89%, respectively. The extracted oils had an average iodine value (g of I/100 g of oil of 96.4-106.3; density at 24 °C, 0.87-0.93 mg/mL; refractive index (40 °C, 1.4655-1.4790; saponification value, 189.1-199.4 mg of KOH/g oil; unsaponifiable matter, 0.59-0.88%; free fatty acid (mg of KOH/g oil, 0.41-1.28; and color (1-inch cell, 1.31-2.96R 1 14.8-29.8Y. With regard to the oxidation state, the tested oils showed values for specific extinction at 232 and 268 nm, 2.30-3.42 and 0.82-1.04, respectively, while the peroxide value was 1.0-2.32 meq O2/kg and, p-anisidine was 1.22-1.90. The major fatty acid found in the oils was oleic acid (62.34-80.97% followed by linoleic (13.13-30.33%, palmitic (3.35-5.93%, linolenic (0.73-1.03% and stearic (1.10-1.68% acids. The contents of α-, γ-, and δ-, tocopherols in the oils ranged from 14.8-40.4, 330.8-520.8 and 28.5-60.2 mg/kg, respectively. The results of our present investigation revealed that apricot seed is a potential source of oil which can be used both for edible and oleochemical applications.Se han analizado las características físico-químicas de aceites de semillas de frutos de cuatro variedades diferentes de albaricoque, Halmas, Nari, Travet y Charmagzi (Prunus armeniaca L.. La producción de aceites de las semillas de albaricoque (hueso osciló entre 32,23-42,51%, mientras que las proteínas, fibra y cenizas dieron valores de 13,21-20,90%, 5,13-9,81% y 2,11-3,89%, respectivamente. Los aceites extraídos presentaron valores promedio de índice de yodo, de 96,4-106,3 (g de I/100 g de aceite; densidades a 24 °C de 0,87-0,93 mg/mL, índices de refracción (40

  4. 诱导樱桃试管苗生根的研究%Adventitious root induction of cherry(Prunus cerasus × p· avium ) in vitro

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙清荣; 孙洪雁

    2000-01-01

    Propagation on vitro with cherry(Prunus cerasus × P. avium )hybrid "S2" showed that culture in dark marked ly affected rooting, IBA and sucrose had smaller effect on rooting.%以甜樱桃和酸樱桃杂种"S2"的试管苗为试材,研究了IBA、蔗糖及暗培养时间对不定根产生的影响。结果表明,暗培养对不定根产生有显著影响,IBA和蔗糖的影响作用较小,获得高生根率的最优组合为1/2 MS+IBA 0.1m/gL+蔗糖3%培养基、暗培养7天。

  5. Investigating the transport dynamics of anthocyanins from unprocessed fruit and processed fruit juice from sour cherry (Prunus cerasus L.) across intestinal epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toydemir, Gamze; Boyacioglu, Dilek; Capanoglu, Esra; van der Meer, Ingrid M; Tomassen, Monic M M; Hall, Robert D; Mes, Jurriaan J; Beekwilder, Jules

    2013-11-27

    Anthocyanins can contribute to human health through preventing a variety of diseases. The uptake of these compounds from food and the parameters determining uptake efficiency within the human body are still poorly understood. Here we have employed a Caco-2 cell based system to investigate the transport of key antioxidant food components from sour cherry (Prunus cerasus L.) across the intestinal epithelial barrier. Anthocyanins and (-)-epicatechin were supplied in three contrasting matrices: fruit, processed fruit cherry juice, and polyphenolic fractions obtained by solid-phase extraction. Results show that both compound types behave differently. Fruit or juice matrices display comparable transport across the epithelial cell layer. The juice supplements sucrose and citric acid, which are regularly added to processed foods, have a positive effect on stability and transport. Polyphenolic fractions display a lower transport efficiency, relative to that of the fruit or juice, indicating the importance of food matrix components for intestinal absorption of polyphenols. PMID:24191680

  6. Air pollutants from hydrocarbons and derivatives in micropropagation laboratories: toxicity symptoms on tissue culture of the cherry rootstock Colt (Prunus avium x P. pseudocerasus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Righetti, B

    1990-11-01

    Several air pollutants in research and micropropagation laboratories originate from the combustion of hydrocarbons and their derivatives. The combustion products of some natural gases (propane-butane, propane, methane) and ethanol were analyzed, and the atmosphere composition was investigated inside the laminar flow box, inside the room where transplanting is performed and inside the culture vessels after transplanting. Large quantities of ethylene and other biologically active compounds are produced when hydrocarbons are partially oxidized or unevenly combusted and when ethanol is used for sterilization of dissecting instruments during transplanting operations. Air pollutants' effects have been tested on Prunus Colt shoot cultures; the toxicity symptoms observed suggest the elimination of gas combustion and alcohols during transplanting operations. PMID:24227058

  7. An assessment of Osmia rufa (syn. bicornis) as a pollinator of the sour cherry (Prunus cerasus) cv. Stevnsbaer in eastern Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansted, Lise; Grout, Brian William Wilson; Toldam-Andersen, Torben Bo;

    2014-01-01

    The sour cherry (Prunus cerasus) cv. Stevnsbaer is self-fertile but it is recommended that bees are placed in the orchards during flowering. The solitary bee Osmia rufa can be managed, and has previously been suggested as an alternative pollinator to Apis mellifera, so consequently, this study....... The remaining 8 pollen types were from entomophilous plants. Based on the results it is estimated that a mean of 220,000 O. rufa cocoons would be needed per hectare if the species were to be an effective, supplementary pollinator of P. cerasus cv. Stevnsbaer. Practical, economic and environmental considerations...... suggest that the use of O. rufa as an alternative pollinator to A. mellifera in this instance is not realistic....

  8. Molecular and genetic analyses of four nonfunctional S haplotype variants derived from a common ancestral S haplotype identified in sour cherry (Prunus cerasus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsukamoto, Tatsuya; Hauck, Nathanael R; Tao, Ryutaro; Jiang, Ning; Iezzoni, Amy F

    2010-02-01

    Tetraploid sour cherry (Prunus cerasus) has an S-RNase-based gametophytic self-incompatibility (GSI) system; however, individuals can be either self-incompatible (SI) or self-compatible (SC). Unlike the situation in the Solanaceae, where self-compatibility accompanying polyploidization is often due to the compatibility of heteroallelic pollen, the genotype-dependent loss of SI in sour cherry is due to the compatibility of pollen containing two nonfunctional S haplotypes. Sour cherry individuals with the S(4)S(6)S(36a)S(36b) genotype are predicted to be SC, as only pollen containing both nonfunctional S(36a) and S(36b) haplotypes would be SC. However, we previously found that individuals of this genotype were SI. Here we describe four nonfunctional S(36) variants. Our molecular analyses identified a mutation that would confer loss of stylar S function for one of the variants, and two alterations that might cause loss of pollen S function for all four variants. Genetic crosses showed that individuals possessing two nonfunctional S(36) haplotypes and two functional S haplotypes have reduced self-fertilization due to a very low frequency of transmission of the one pollen type that would be SC. Our finding that the underlying mechanism limiting successful transmission of genetically compatible gametes does not involve GSI is consistent with our previous genetic model for Prunus in which heteroallelic pollen is incompatible. This provides a unique case in which breakdown of SI does not occur despite the potential to generate SC pollen genotypes. PMID:19917768

  9. Plant size and abiotic factors determine the intra-specific variation in the multi-stemmed architecture of Prunus lusitanica in the Northeast limit of its global distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Muñoz Costa

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim of study: The present work provides novel insights on factors (either intrinsic or extrinsic that trigger sprouting in woody species living at range margins. We aim to explain the inter-individual variability in the multi-stemmed architecture of Prunus lusitanica L., an Iberian evergreen relict tree related to the Tertiary flora.Area of study: Northeastern Mediterranean mountains of the Iberian Peninsula, the Northeast limit of the global distribution of the species.Material and Methods: We gathered data on two modes of vegetative reproduction, basal and layering sprouts, in 288 clumps of Prunus lusitanica from four populations. We modeled and analyzed the effect of environmental factors (topography, canopy cover, soil moisture and disturbances and plant size (diameter at breast height on sprouting by means of Generalized Linear Model and other statistical approaches.Main results: Plant size arises as the principal factor to explain the variability of the numbers of both types of sprouts yet it is not a trigger factor. Natural and anthropogenic disturbances promote basal and layering shoots, while tree canopy is mainly relevant for basal shoots, and slope and soil moisture are significant factors for layering shoots.Research highlights: The multi-stemmed architecture of P. lusitanica at the Northeastern limit of its worldwide distribution is triggered by local environmental factors and disturbances. Each external factor shows different levels of influence on the variability and type of vegetative reproduction yet the intensity of the response is driven by the size of the largest trunk of each clump.Key words: vegetative reproduction; sprouting; disturbances; woody plants; relict tree; subtropical; Iberian Peninsula.

  10. Antimicrobial activity and probable mechanisms of action of medicinal plants of Kenya: Withania somnifera, Warbugia ugandensis, Prunus africana and Plectrunthus barbatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mwitari, Peter G; Ayeka, Peter A; Ondicho, Joyce; Matu, Esther N; Bii, Christine C

    2013-01-01

    Withania somnifera, Warbugia ugandensis, Prunus africana and Plectrunthus barbatus are used traditionally in Kenya for treatment of microbial infections and cancer. Information on their use is available, but scientific data on their bioactivity, safety and mechanisms of action is still scanty. A study was conducted on the effect of organic extracts of these plants on both bacterial and fungal strains, and their mechanisms of action. Extracts were evaluated through the disc diffusion assay. Bacteria and yeast test strains were cultured on Mueller-Hinton agar and on Sabouraud dextrose agar for the filamentous fungi. A 0.5 McFarland standard suspension was prepared. Sterile paper discs 6 mm in diameter impregnated with 10 µl of the test extract (100 mg/ml) were aseptically placed onto the surface of the inoculated media. Chloramphenicol (30 µg) and fluconazole (25 µg) were used as standards. Discs impregnated with dissolution medium were used as controls. Activity of the extracts was expressed according to zone of inhibition diameter. MIC was determined at 0.78-100 mg/ml. Safety studies were carried using Cell Counting Kit 8 cell proliferation assay protocol. To evaluate extracts mechanisms of action, IEC-6 cells and RT-PCR technique was employed in vitro to evaluate Interleukin 7 cytokine. Investigated plants extracts have both bactericidal and fungicidal activity. W. ugandensis is cytotoxic at IC50Prunus africana shuts down expression of IL 7 mRNA at 50 µg/ml. W. somnifera has the best antimicrobial (1.5625 mg/ml), immunopotentiation (2 times IL 7 mRNA expression) and safety level (IC50>200 µg/ml). Fractions from W. ugandensis and W. somnifera too demonstrated antimicrobial activity. Mechanisms of action can largely be attributed to cytotoxicity, Gene silencing and immunopotentiation. Use of medicinal plants in traditional medicine has been justified and possible mechanisms of action demonstrated. Studies to isolate and characterize the bioactive constituents

  11. Safety and efficacy of a novel Prunus domestica extract (Sitoprin, CR002) on testosterone-induced benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) in male Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swaroop, Anand; Bagchi, Manashi; Kumar, Pawan; Preuss, Harry G; Bagchi, Debasis

    2015-01-01

    The efficacy of a novel Prunus domestica bark extract (Sitoprin, CR002) was investigated on testosterone propionate (TP)-induced benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) in male Wistar rats. BPH was induced by daily subcutaneous administration of TP (3.0 mg/kg) over a period of 15 days (interim sacrifice group) and for an additional 21 days (terminal sacrifice group). We evaluated the dose-dependent efficacy (0, 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg body weight/day) of CR002 and a control group against BPH, and compared with a reference standard Prunus africana extract (CR001). Extensive clinical examinations were carried out on days 1, 7, 14, 21, 28 and 35 of treatment period to determine the onset, duration and severity of clinical signs. Clinical pathology, hematology, biochemistry and histopathology were performed on days 15 and 35, prior to necropsy. Animals were fasted overnight prior to blood collection. Prostate glands and tissues were examined. On day 36, histopathology of ventral prostrate of control rats demonstrates single layer of columnar mucin secreting epithelial cells along with a lumen occupied with eosinophilic secretion. In contrast, CR002 and CR001 groups (100 and 200 mg/kg/day) exhibited no hyperplasia and proliferation of epithelial cells. Prostate histopathology of these treated groups was comparable with control rats. The hyperplasia and hypertrophy of prostrate was reduced to single-layered cell indicating the efficacy of CR002 and CR001. Overall, results demonstrate that CR002 exhibits therapeutic efficacy/activity in TP-induced BPH in rats, which is comparable to CR001.

  12. Expression characteristics of the flower colors of Prunus mume'Nanjing Hongxu'and Prunus mume'Nanjing Hong'%梅花'南京红须'、'南京红'花色的呈现特征

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵昶灵; 郭维明; 陈俊愉

    2005-01-01

    The flower colors of Prunus mume'Nanjing Hongxu'and P.mume'Nanjing Hong'exist mainly temporal changes caused by different flower developing stages,reflecting that the flower colors are under the control of flower development. The flower colors of these two cultivars are all the strongest in Alabastrum period,thin in some sort in Initial flower period,thicken appreciably in Profuse flower period and thin furthest in Final flower period even if the petals senesce as soon as they begin to splay. At different flower developing stage,the chroma differences of petal colors of different layers are:outer layer>middle layer>inner layer,namely,the concrete collocating site of petal in the corolla decides the specific color chroma of this petal. But the change trends of the petal colors of different layers are not completely similar. In the mean time,the content changes of total flavonoids of the outer layers of two cultivars are positively correlated with the petal color changes of outer layers. On the other hand,the flower color difference induced by the inserting site of the flower in canopy is not remarkable at all,showing that the spatial variations of the flower colors are very petit. This paper could be a reference or a premise for the exploration on the flower color mechanism of red Mei flowers and the flower-selecting in the cDNA cloning of the key enzyme genes determining the biosynthesis of anthocyanins in Mei flower.%梅花'南京红须'、'南京红'的花色主要存在着花发育阶段导致的时间变化,反映其花色受花发育控制.二者的花色都在蕾期最浓艳,在初花期略淡,在盛花期又稍浓,在末花期最淡,尽管花瓣在花开放时便开始衰老;在整个花发育时期,同一朵花不同层次花瓣的颜色浓淡均为:外层花瓣>中层花瓣>内层花瓣,即花瓣在花冠中的具体排列位置决定着该片花瓣的特定颜色深浅;但不同层次花瓣颜色的变化趋势不完全一致.同时,两个品种外

  13. Multiplicação in vitro e alongamento das brotações micropropagadas do porta-enxerto 'Tsukuba 1'(Prunus persica L. In vitro multiplication and elongation of the micropropagation shoots of the roostock of 'Tsukuba 1' (Prunus persica L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizete Beatriz Radmann

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se avaliar o efeito da fonte e concentração de citocinina e da composição dos sais presentes no meio de cultivo, na multiplicação in vitro do porta-enxerto 'Tsukuba 1' (Prunus persica L.. Explantes cultivados em meio QL/MS com 2,0 mg L-1 de BAP apresentaram maior formação de brotações e crescimento destas. Porém, é necessária a transferência dos explantes para o meio de cultura com redução na concentração de BAP (0,5 mg L-1 para as brotações adquirirem tamanho adequado para a fase de enraizamento.The objective was to assess the font and concentration's effect of cytokinin and salt composition, present in the medium of cultivation, on in vitro multiplication of the rootstock 'Tsukuba 1' (Prunus persica L.. Explants cultivated in QL/MS medium enriched with 2.0 mg/L of BAP showed more shoot formation and growth. However, it is necessary to transfer the explants to culture medium with reduced BAP concentration (0.5 mg/L, so that shoots may obtain the properly size for the rooting phase.

  14. Recognition of a wide-range of S-RNases by S locus F-box like 2, a general-inhibitor candidate in the Prunus-specific S-RNase-based self-incompatibility system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Daiki; Tao, Ryutaro

    2016-07-01

    Many species in the Rosaceae, the Solanaceae, and the Plantaginaceae exhibit S-RNase-based gametophytic self-incompatibility (GSI). This system comprises S-ribonucleases (S-RNases) as the pistil S determinant and a single or multiple F-box proteins as the pollen S determinants. In Prunus, pollen specificity is determined by a single S haplotype-specific F-box protein (SFB). The results of several studies suggested that SFB exerts cognate S-RNase cytotoxicity, and a hypothetical general inhibitor (GI) is assumed to detoxify S-RNases in non-specific manner unless it is affected by SFB. Although the identity of the GI is unknown, phylogenetic and evolutionary analyses have indicated that S locus F-box like 1-3 (or S locus F-box with low allelic sequence polymorphism 1-3; SLFL1-3), which are encoded by a region of the Prunus genome linked to the S locus, are good GI candidates. Here, we examined the biochemical characteristics of SLFL1-3 to determine whether they have appropriate GI characteristics. Pull-down assays and quantitative expression analyses indicated that Prunus avium SLFL1-3 mainly formed a canonical SCF complex with PavSSK1 and PavCul1A. Binding assays with PavS(1,3,4,6)-RNases showed that PavSLFL1, PavSLFL2, and PavSLFL3 bound to PavS(3)-RNase, all PavS-RNases tested, and none of the PavS-RNases tested, respectively. Together, these results suggested that SLFL2 has the appropriate characteristics to be the GI in sweet cherry pollen, while SLFL1 may redundantly work with SLFL2 to detoxify all S-RNases. We discuss the possible roles of SLFL1-3 as the GI in the Prunus-specific S-RNase-based GSI mechanism. PMID:27071402

  15. Recognition of a wide-range of S-RNases by S locus F-box like 2, a general-inhibitor candidate in the Prunus-specific S-RNase-based self-incompatibility system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Daiki; Tao, Ryutaro

    2016-07-01

    Many species in the Rosaceae, the Solanaceae, and the Plantaginaceae exhibit S-RNase-based gametophytic self-incompatibility (GSI). This system comprises S-ribonucleases (S-RNases) as the pistil S determinant and a single or multiple F-box proteins as the pollen S determinants. In Prunus, pollen specificity is determined by a single S haplotype-specific F-box protein (SFB). The results of several studies suggested that SFB exerts cognate S-RNase cytotoxicity, and a hypothetical general inhibitor (GI) is assumed to detoxify S-RNases in non-specific manner unless it is affected by SFB. Although the identity of the GI is unknown, phylogenetic and evolutionary analyses have indicated that S locus F-box like 1-3 (or S locus F-box with low allelic sequence polymorphism 1-3; SLFL1-3), which are encoded by a region of the Prunus genome linked to the S locus, are good GI candidates. Here, we examined the biochemical characteristics of SLFL1-3 to determine whether they have appropriate GI characteristics. Pull-down assays and quantitative expression analyses indicated that Prunus avium SLFL1-3 mainly formed a canonical SCF complex with PavSSK1 and PavCul1A. Binding assays with PavS(1,3,4,6)-RNases showed that PavSLFL1, PavSLFL2, and PavSLFL3 bound to PavS(3)-RNase, all PavS-RNases tested, and none of the PavS-RNases tested, respectively. Together, these results suggested that SLFL2 has the appropriate characteristics to be the GI in sweet cherry pollen, while SLFL1 may redundantly work with SLFL2 to detoxify all S-RNases. We discuss the possible roles of SLFL1-3 as the GI in the Prunus-specific S-RNase-based GSI mechanism.

  16. 微波辅助提取樱桃李中果胶的工艺研究%Research on the Use of the Microwave Assisted Extraction for the Extraction of Pectin from Prunus cerasifera

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王伟; 张婷; 赵晶晶; 马雨婷

    2011-01-01

    Wild Prunus cerasifera fruit pectin is a natural carbohydrate polymer.Because of its gelation and emulsion stability,it is widely used in food,cosmetics,pharmaceutical and other industries.The pectin was extracted by microwave from the object Prunus cerasifera.By microwave radiation,the proper conditions of extracting pectin from Prunus cerasifera were as follows the ratio of solvent to solute was 25 g/mL and extracted 3 min with microwave radiation under 650 W at pH2.%野生樱桃李果实中的果胶是一种天然高分子碳水化合物,由于其具有胶凝化和乳化稳定等特点,被广泛应用于食品、化妆品、医药等工业领域。以樱桃李为研究对象,采用微波辅助方法提取樱桃李中的果胶。通过单因素试验和正交试验,确定了微波辅助提取樱桃李中果胶的最佳工艺为:料液比1︰25(g/mL),微波功率650 W,微波提取时间3 min,pH2。

  17. Isolation of S-locus F-box alleles in Prunus avium and their application in a novel method to determine self-incompatibility genotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughan, S P; Russell, K; Sargent, D J; Tobutt, K R

    2006-03-01

    This study characterises a series of 12 S-locus haplotype-specific F-box protein genes (SFB) in cherry (Prunus avium) that are likely candidates for the pollen component of gametophytic self-incompatibility in this species. Primers were designed to amplify 12 SFB alleles,including the introns present in the 50 untranslated region;sequences representing the S-alleles S1, S2, S3, S4, S40, S5,S6, S7, S10, S12, S13 and S16 were cloned and characterized. [The nucleotide sequences reported in this paper have been submitted to the EMBL/GenBank database under the following accession numbers: PaSFB1(AY805048), PaSFB2 (AY805049), PaSFB3 (AY805057),PaSFB4 (AY649872), PaSFB40 (AY649873), PaSFB5(AY805050), PaSFB6 (AY805051), PaSFB7 (AY805052),PaSFB10 (AY805053), PaSFB12 (AY805054), PaSFB13(AY805055), PaSFB16 (AY805056).] Though the coding regions of six of these alleles have been reported previously,the intron sequence has previously been reported only for S6. Analysis of the introns revealed sequence and length polymorphisms. A novel, PCR-based method to genotype cultivars and wild accessions was developed which combines fluorescently labelled primers amplifying the intron of SFB with similar primers for the first intron of S-RNase alleles. Intron length polymorphisms were then ascertained using a semi-automated sequencer. The convenience and reliability of this method for the determination of the self-incompatibility (SI) genotype was demonstrated both in sweet cherry cultivars representing alleles S1 to S16 and in individuals from a wild population encompassing S-alleles S17 to S22. This method will greatly expedite SI characterisation in sweet cherry and also facilitate large-scale studies of self-incompatibility in wild cherry and other Prunus populations.

  18. Efeito do comprimento de estacas herbáceas de dois clones de umezeiro (Prunus mume Sieb & Zucc. no enraizamento adventício Effect of the length of herbaceous cuttings of two clones of japanese apricot (Prunus mume Sieb & Zucc. in adventicious rooting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NEWTON ALEX MAYER

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available O umezeiro (Prunus mumeSieb & Zucc. é uma rosácea de folhas caducas, nativa da China, cujos frutos e flores são muito apreciados pelos povos orientais. No Brasil, alguns estudos foram realizados visando a sua utilização como porta-enxerto para pessegueiro e nectarineira, dadas as suas características de adaptação, rusticidade, redução do porte da planta e compatibilidade com algumas cultivares de Prunus persica. O presente estudo foi conduzido em câmara de nebulização sob ripado, pertencente ao Departamento de Produção Vegetal da FCAV/UNESP, Câmpus de Jaboticabal-SP. Objetivou-se verificar a influência de quatro comprimentos de estacas herbáceas no enraizamento de dois clones de umezeiro. O material vegetal, identificado como Clone 10 e Clone 15, foi oriundo do Programa de Melhoramento Genético do Instituto Agronômico de Campinas-SP. O experimento foi constituido de fatorial 2 x 4, em blocos casualizados, sendo o fator clone em 2 níveis (Clone 10 e Clone 15 e o fator comprimento de estaca em 4 níveis (12; 15; 18 e 25cm. Pelos resultados observados, verificou-se diferença entre os clones somente na porcentagem de estacas brotadas e número de raízes por estaca. O comprimento da estaca influenciou na porcentagem de enraizamento e na mortalidade das estacas, sendo que estacas maiores tenderam a apresentar maiores porcentagens de enraizamento e menores de mortalidade. As estacas com 12cm, embora apresentando menor número de raízes por estaca, são recomendadas por permitirem a obtenção de um maior número de estacas por planta-matriz. Houve efeito significativo da interação entre os fatores para número e comprimento de raízes.The japanese apricot (Prunus mume Sieb & Zucc. is a Rosaceae of falling leaves, native of China, whose fruits and flowers are quite appreciated by the oriental people. In Brazil, some studies were accomplished seeking its use as rootstock for peach and nectarine trees, due its adaptation

  19. Pectic polysaccharides of the fresh plum Prunus domestica L. isolated with a simulated gastric fluid and their anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popov, Sergey V; Ovodova, Raisa G; Golovchenko, Victoria V; Khramova, Daria S; Markov, Pavel A; Smirnov, Vasily V; Shashkov, Alexandre S; Ovodov, Yury S

    2014-01-15

    A pectic polysaccharide, designated as PD, was extracted from fresh plums (Prunus domestica L.) with a simulated gastric fluid. Galacturonan, which was partially substituted with methyl and O-acetyl ester groups, and rhamnogalacturonan were the main constituents of the linear regions of the sugar chains of PD. The ramified region contained mainly 1,4-linked β-d-galactopyranose residues and, to a lesser extent, 1,5-linked α-l-arabinofuranose residues. The separation of PD, by DEAE-cellulose column chromatography, yielded two pectic fractions: PD-1 and PD-2, eluted with 0.1 and 0.2 M NaCl, respectively. Enzymatic digestion of PD with 1,4-α-d-polygalacturonase yielded the fraction PD-E. The parent pectin PD and the PD-1 fraction were found to diminish the adhesion of peritoneal leukocytes at the concentrations of 0.05-1.0mg/ml. However, the PD-E fraction failed to have an effect on cell adhesion at the concentrations of 0.05-0.1mg/ml. PD, PD-1 and PD-E were found to inhibit the production of superoxide anion radicals by reducing xanthine oxidase activity by 38%, 97% and 47%, respectively. Therefore, the PD-1 fraction appeared to be an active fragment of pectic macromolecule isolated from fresh plum with a simulated gastric fluid.

  20. Free radical scavenging capacity and antioxidant activity of methanolic and ethanolic extracts of plum (Prunus domestica L. in both fresh and dried samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amin Morabbi Najafabad

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Consumption of fruits, such as plums and prunes, is useful in treating blood circulation disorder, measles, digestive disorder, and prevention of cancer, diabetes, and obesity. The paper presents a description of antioxidant and antiradical capacity of plum (Prunus domestica L. in both fresh and dried samples. Materials and Methods: Samples were mixed with methanol and ethanol (as solvents and were extracted on magnetic shaker, separately. The experiments were carried out to measure the Total Phenolic Content (TPC, Total Flavonoid Content (TFC, Total Antioxidant Capacity (TAC, Reducing Power Assay (RPA, Chain Breaking Activity (CBA, and quantity of Malondialdehyde (MDA, 2,2-Diphenyl-1-Picrylhydrazyl (DPPH,Nitric Oxide (NO,Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 and superoxide(O2- radicals inhibition. Results: The results showed that the highest values for the TPC, TFC,TAC, RPA, CBA, DPPH, and NO were related to ethanolic extractsof dried sample which showed statistically significant differences (p2O2 and O2-were related to ethanolic extracts of fresh sample. The correlations data were analyzed among all parameters and the TPC and TFC had a significant correlation (r2=0.977. Moreover, it was found that methanol was more successful in extraction procedure than ethanol (p

  1. Changes of Colors in Prunus mume during Smoking Processing%青梅烟熏过程中的色泽变化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁超; 李汴生

    2012-01-01

    本文研究了烟熏处理对青梅非酶褐变的影响,以新鲜青梅为研究对象,分析了青梅在烟熏过程中褐变指数、色泽、还原糖、总糖、氨基酸以及5-羟甲基糠醛(5-HMF)的变化情况.结果表明,随着烟熏时间的延长,褐变度、色差值和5-HMF的含量逐渐增加,还原糖、总糖和氨基酸含量逐渐减少.%Non-enzymatic browning in Prunus mume due to smoking process was investigated. Browning index, colorimetric parameters, content in reducing sugar, total sugar, amino acids and hydroxymethylfurfural (5-HMF) were measured to estimate the extent of nonenzymatic browning in the smoking process. The results showed that browning index, color difference and 5-HMF content gradually increased with the smoking time, while the content of reducing sugar, total sugar and amino acids decreased.

  2. Cloning and characterization of cDNAs encoding S-RNases from almond (Prunus dulcis): primary structural features and sequence diversity of the S-RNases in Rosaceae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ushijima, K; Sassa, H; Tao, R; Yamane, H; Dandekar, A M; Gradziel, T M; Hirano, H

    1998-11-01

    cDNAs encoding three S-RNases of almond (Prunus dulcis), which belongs to the family Rosaceae, were cloned and sequenced. The comparison of amino acid sequences between the S-RNases of almond and those of other rosaceous species showed that the amino acid sequences of the rosaceous S-RNases are highly divergent, and intra-subfamilial similarities are higher than inter-subfamilial similarities. Twelve amino acid sequences of the rosaceous S-RNases were aligned to characterize their primary structural features. In spite of their high level of diversification, the rosaceous S-RNases were found to have five conserved regions, C1, C2, C3, C5, and RC4 which is Rosaceae-specific conserved region. Many variable sites fall into one region, named RHV. RHV is located at a similar position to that of the hypervariable region a (HVa) of the solanaceous S-RNases, and is assumed to be involved in recognizing S-specificity of pollen. On the other hand, the region corresponding to another solanaceous hypervariable region (HVb) was not variable in the rosaceous S-RNases. In the phylogenetic tree of the T2/S type RNase, the rosaceous S-RNase fall into two subfamily-specific groups (Amygdaloideae and Maloideae). The results of sequence comparisons and phylogenetic analysis imply that the present S-RNases of Rosaceae have diverged again relatively recently, after the divergence of subfamilies. PMID:9862480

  3. Wild Edible Fruit of Prunus nepalensis Ser. (Steud), a Potential Source of Antioxidants, Ameliorates Iron Overload-Induced Hepatotoxicity and Liver Fibrosis in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhuri, Dipankar; Ghate, Nikhil Baban; Panja, Sourav; Das, Abhishek; Mandal, Nripendranath

    2015-01-01

    The antioxidant and restoration potentials of hepatic injury by Prunus nepalensis Ser. (Steud), a wild fruit plant from the Northeastern region of India, were investigated. The fruit extract (PNME) exhibited excellent antioxidant and reducing properties and also scavenged the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical (IC50 = 30.92 ± 0.40 μg/ml). PNME demonstrated promising scavenging potency, as assessed by the scavenging of different reactive oxygen and nitrogen species. Moreover, the extract revealed an exceptional iron chelation capacity with an IC50 of 25.64 ± 0.60 μg/ml. The extract induced significant improvement of hepatic injury and liver fibrosis against iron overload induced hepatotoxicity in mice in a dose-dependent manner, and this effect was supported by different histopathological studies. The phytochemical constitutions and their identification by HPLC confirmed the presence of purpurin, tannic acid, methyl gallate, reserpine, gallic acid, ascorbic acid, catechin and rutin. The identified compounds were investigated for their individual radical scavenging and iron chelation activity; some compounds exhibited excellent radical scavenging and iron chelation properties, but most were toxic towards normal cells (WI-38). On the other hand, crude PNME was found to be completely nontoxic to normal cells, suggesting its feasibility as a safe oral drug. The above study suggests that different phytochemicals in PNME contributed to its free radical scavenging and iron chelation activity; however, further studies are required to determine the pathway in which PNME acts to treat iron-overload diseases.

  4. Wild almond (Prunus scoparia L.) as potential oilseed resource for the future: Studies on the variability of its oil content and composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorkheh, Karim; Kiani, Soghra; Sofo, Adriano

    2016-12-01

    Wild almond genetic resources have still not received considerable attention for oil chemical compositions and uses. The aim of this study was to assess the levels of variation in oil content and fatty acid composition in forty Iranian accessions of Prunus scoparia L. (Spach) to identify genotypes with desirable traits in terms of oil quantity, quality and industrial utilization. Oil parameters and indices were measured, and fatty acid methyl ester analysis was carried out by gas liquid chromatography. Oleic and linoleic fatty acids showed high variability among accessions, ranging from 232.4 to 359.6g/kg oil and from 190.7 to 348.8g/kg oil, respectively. Total unsaturated fatty acid fraction was higher than total saturated fatty acid. The ranges of saponification number (199.2-202.1), iodine value (104.8-125.7kg I2/kg) and cetane number (43.8-48.8), confirmed that the oils have industrial potentialities. Results could contribute to select wild almond genotypes as genetic sources for oil production.

  5. Effects of new dietary fiber from Japanese Apricot (Prunus mume Sieb. et Zucc.) on gut function and intestinal microflora in adult mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamura, Motoi; Ohnishi, Yuriko; Kotani, Tatsuya; Gato, Nobuki

    2011-01-01

    Much attention has been focused recently on functional foods. Ume, the Japanese name for the apricot of Prunus mume Sieb. et Zucc., is an example of a Japanese traditional functional food. There are, however, few reports on the effects of fiber from this fruit on bowel function. With this objective, we prepared ume fiber to test the hypothesis that it can change gut function and intestinal flora in mice. Mice were fed an ume fiber (UF) or cellulose (CF) diet (control) for 40 days. The fecal weight, fecal lipids, plasma lipids and cecal composition of the microflora were analyzed. The amount of feces was significantly greater in the UF group than in the CF group (p < 0.01). The fecal lipids content (% DW) of the feces sampled on the final day of the experiment were significantly greater in the UF group than in the CF group (p < 0.01). Plasma non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) concentrations tended to be lower in the UF compared to the CF group (p = 0.058). Occupation ratios of Bacteroides and Clostridium cluster IV were significantly greater in the cecal flora of the UF group. Our results suggest that ume fiber possesses the fecal lipid excretion effects and feces bulking effects. PMID:21731428

  6. Role of Nitric Oxide and Hydrogen Sulfide in the Vasodilator Effect of Ursolic Acid and Uvaol from Black Cherry Prunus serotina Fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco J. Luna-Vázquez

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The present research aimed to isolate the non-polar secondary metabolites that produce the vasodilator effects induced by the dichloromethane extract of Prunus serotina (P. serotina fruits and to determine whether the NO/cGMP and the H2S/KATP channel pathways are involved in their mechanism of action. A bioactivity-directed fractionation of the dichloromethane extract of P. serotina fruits led to the isolation of ursolic acid and uvaol as the main non-polar vasodilator compounds. These compounds showed significant relaxant effect on rat aortic rings in an endothelium- and concentration-dependent manner, which was inhibited by NG-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester (l-NAME, dl-propargylglycine (PAG and glibenclamide (Gli. Additionally, both triterpenes increased NO and H2S production in aortic tissue. Molecular docking studies showed that ursolic acid and uvaol are able to bind to endothelial NOS and CSE with high affinity for residues that form the oligomeric interface of both enzymes. These results suggest that the vasodilator effect produced by ursolic acid and uvaol contained in P. serotina fruits, involves activation of the NO/cGMP and H2S/KATP channel pathways, possibly through direct activation of NOS and CSE.

  7. Effects of invasive European bird cherry (Prunus padus) on leaf litter processing by aquatic invertebrate shredder communities in urban Alaskan streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roon, David A.; Wipfli, Mark S.; Wurtz, Tricia L.

    2014-01-01

    European bird cherry (Prunus padus) (EBC) is an invasive ornamental tree that is spreading rapidly in riparian forests of urban Alaska. To determine how the spread of EBC affects leaf litter processing by aquatic invertebrate shredders, we conducted complementary leaf pack experiments in two streams located in Anchorage, Alaska. The first experiment contrasted invasive EBC with three native tree species—thin-leaf alder (Alnus tenuifolia), paper birch (Betula neoalaskana), and black cottonwood (Populus trichocarpa)—in one reach of Chester Creek; finding that EBC leaf litter broke down significantly faster than birch and cottonwood, but at a similar rate to alder. The second experiment contrasted EBC with alder in four reaches of Campbell and Chester creeks; finding that while EBC leaf litter broke down significantly faster than alder in Chester Creek, EBC broke down at a similar rate to alder in Campbell Creek. Although EBC sometimes supported fewer shredders by both count and mass, shredder communities did not differ significantly between EBC and native plants. Collectively, these data suggest that invasive EBC is not currently exhibiting strong negative impacts on leaf litter processing in these streams, but could if it continues to spread and further displaces native species over time.

  8. Effects of planting density and bearing-branch composition on the yield of sweet cherry [Prunus avium] grown by hedge-row training

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To improve the yield of sweet cherries (Prunus avium L.) grown by hedge-row training, the following two methods were compared: increased numbers of spurs and bouquet spurs to improve the spur composition and narrowed row intervals to increase planting density. To develop spurs and bouquet spurs, 30 cm long branches were positioned at 30 cm intervals on lateral branches in addition to the conventional spur development from 5 cm current shoots. Although this measure decreased the number of bouquet spurs, it increased the total number of spurs including the conventional short spurs to improve the yield to 1,024 kg/10a from 557 kg/10a using conventional hedge-row training. However, this method decreased solar radiation in the tree crowns thereby lowering fruit quality. In contrast, increasing planting density from 3-m intervals to 2- or 1.5-m intervals did not affect fruit quality. Moreover, in contrast to a yield of 588 kg/10a when row intervals were 3 m, the row intervals narrowed to 2 m and 1.5 m improved the yield to 881 kg/10a and 1,101 kg/10a, respectively. The above results show that decreasing row intervals is an effective method for increasing the yield of sweet cherries grown by hedge-row training without lowering fruit quality

  9. Separation and Purification of Procyanidins from Prunus cerasus%酸樱桃中原花青素的分离与纯化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张卓睿; 孙广仁

    2012-01-01

    The method for separation and purification of procyanidins from Primus cerasus by NKA macroporous resin was studied. According to single factor tests, the optimum concentration and flow rate for adsorption should be 7 mg/L and 1 mL/min, respectively; while for desorption, the eluent should be 95% enthol at a speed of 1.0 mL/min. HPLC/ESI-MS analysis showed that the purified procyanidins was comprised with two main monomers, procyanidin-3- glucoside and (-)-epi-gallocatechin gallate.%以NKA树脂为吸附剂,对酸樱桃(Prunus cerasus)中原花青素的分离纯化进行了研究.通过单因素试验分析确定了原花青素分离纯化的最佳工艺条件为,上样浓度7 mg/L,上样流速1.0 mL/min,用体积分数为95%的乙醇溶液作为洗脱剂,以1.0 mL/min流速进行洗脱.经树脂纯化后的原花青素通过HPLC/ESI-MS分析确定其主要含两种组分,分别为原花青素-3-葡萄糖苷和(-)-表儿茶素没食子酸酯.

  10. Technology of Extracting Procyanidins from Prunus cerasus%酸樱桃果实中原花青素提取工艺的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘艳秋; 孟庆繁; 高文韬

    2014-01-01

    研究了酸樱桃(Prunus cerasus)果实中原花青素的提取方法和提取的工艺条件,考察了提取溶剂、提取温度、提取时间、料液比等因素对原花青素提取率的影响.结果表明,酸樱桃果实中原花青素的最佳提取工艺条件为70%乙醇、提取温度60℃、提取时间3.0 h、料液比1∶4、浸泡时间8h;并对提取液进行了纯化,经过用乙酸乙酯萃取,浓缩离心后用3∶1石油醚萃取后再用2∶1乙酸乙酯萃取,得到初步原花青素产品,得率为0.38%.

  11. 乌皮樱桃脱毒及快速繁育技术研究%Doff Virus and Rapid Proagation of Prunus pseudo cerasus L.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢永红; 陈学年; 吕斌; 刁树平; 丁志祥; 代正林

    2003-01-01

    以乌皮樱桃(Prunus.pseudocerasus L.)的休眠枝为材料在添加不同浓度细胞分裂素及生长素的MS基本培养基上进行了芽诱导、茎尖脱毒、增殖培养、生根成苗及炼苗移栽实验.筛选出较为理想的诱导、增殖、生根培养基配方和培养条件.在本研究中乌皮樱桃的芽诱导率为98.5%,通过热处理和生长点培养,可脱除常见的坏死锈斑驳病毒(Cherry necrotic rusty mottle)和坏死环斑病毒(Cherry chorotic nec-rotic ring spot).脱毒芽的增殖倍数为7~12,继代周期30~35d,壮苗率为90%,生根率高达98%,移栽成活率高于95%.与常规嫁接苗比较,脱毒组培苗的长势强,根系发达,生长期长,苗木整齐健壮.

  12. Evaluation of the glycoside hydrolase activity of a Brettanomyces strain on glycosides from sour cherry (Prunus cerasus L.) used in the production of special fruit beers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daenen, Luk; Sterckx, Femke; Delvaux, Freddy R; Verachtert, Hubert; Derdelinckx, Guy

    2008-11-01

    The glycoside hydrolase activity of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Brettanomyces custersii was examined on sour cherry (Prunus cerasus L.) glycosides with bound volatile compounds. Refermentations by the beta-glucosidase-negative S. cerevisiae strains LD25 and LD40 of sour cherry juice-supplemented beer demonstrated only a moderate increase of volatiles. In contrast, the beta-glucosidase-positive B. custersii strain LD72 showed a more pronounced activity towards glycosides with aliphatic alcohols, aromatic compounds and terpenoid alcohols. Important contributors to sour cherry aroma such as benzaldehyde, linalool and eugenol were released during refermentation as shown by analytical tools. A gradually increasing release was observed during refermentations by B. custersii when whole sour cherries, sour cherry pulp or juice were supplemented in the beer. Refermentations with whole sour cherries and with sour cherry stones demonstrated an increased formation of benzyl compounds. Thus, amygdalin was partially hydrolysed, and a large part of the benzaldehyde formed was mainly reduced to benzyl alcohol and some further esterified to benzyl acetate. These findings demonstrate the importance and interesting role of certain Brettanomyces species in the production of fruit lambic beers such as 'Kriek'. PMID:18673394

  13. Changes in fruit sugar concentrations in response to assimilate supply, metabolism and dilution: a modeling approach applied to peach fruit (Prunus persica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Génard, M; Lescourret, F; Gomez, L; Habib, R

    2003-04-01

    The influence of assimilate supply, metabolism and dilution on sugar concentrations in the mesocarp of peach (Prunus persica (L.) Batsch) fruit during the main stage of fruit enlargement was analyzed with the SUGAR model of Génard and Souty (1996). The model predicts the partitioning of carbon into sucrose, sorbitol, glucose and fructose in the mesocarp of peach fruit. Based on measured data and the model, we determined values for the relative rates of sugar transformation. These rates were constant, varied with time or varied with relative fruit growth rate, depending on the type of sugar. Equations were derived to describe these rates and incorporated into the SUGAR model. The model simulated the effects of changing assimilate supply and fruit volume on sugar concentrations. The set of equations for the SUGAR model was rewritten to include the three components influencing sugar concentrations: assimilate supply, metabolism and dilution. The sugar types differed in sensitivity to these components. Sucrose was highly sensitive to changes in assimilate supply and to the dilution effect; it was not subject to intense metabolic transformation. Sorbitol was the most important carbohydrate in fruit metabolism, which explains why the sorbitol concentration was always low despite the strong positive effect of assimilate supply. The reducing sugars constituted a transitory storage pool and their concentrations were closely related to metabolism.

  14. Size and Weight of Sweet Cherry (Prunus avium L. ‘Regina’ Fruit Treated with 3,5,6-TPA and GA3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvija Zeman

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The effect of 10 ppm 3,5,6-TPA (3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridyloxyocetic acid, 20 ppm GA3 and their combination on size and weight of cherry fruit (Prunus avium L. ‘Regina’ were studied. 3,5,6-TPA was applied 25 days after full bloom and GA 3 during stage of fruit color change from green to straw-yellow. Fruit height, width, thickness and weight were measured. Width, thickness and weight of control fruit were the smallest.Fruit from 3,5,6-TPA - treated trees did not show significant difference in comparison to control. However, fruit from GA 3 – treated trees had significantly improved all characteristics in comparison to control fruits. Weight of fruit from trees treated with combination of 3,5,6-TPA and GA 3 was 14% higher than control fruit and 2.8% higher than fruit from GA 3 - treated trees, but there was no significant difference comparing to fruit from trees treated with GA 3 alone. These results are preliminary results after a one-year study and more research should be done to examine the possible influence of other factors, such as ecological factors, before final management recommendations could be made.

  15. Impact of Cultivar on Profile and Concentration of Lipophilic Bioactive Compounds in Kernel Oils Recovered from Sweet Cherry (Prunus avium L.) by-Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Górnaś, Paweł; Rudzińska, Magdalena; Raczyk, Marianna; Mišina, Inga; Segliņa, Dalija

    2016-06-01

    Lipophilic bioactive compounds in oils recovered from the kernels of seven sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.) cultivars, harvested at single location in 2013, were studied. Oil yield in sweet cherry ranged between 30.3-40.3 % (w/w) dw. The main fatty acids were oleic acid (39.62-49.92 %), linoleic acid (31.13-38.81 %), α-eleostearic acid (7.23-10.73 %) and palmitic acid (5.59-7.10 %), all four represented approximately 95 % of the total detected fatty acids. The ranges of total tocochromanols and sterols were between 83.1-111.1 and 233.6-419.4 mg/100 g of oil, respectively. Regardless of the cultivar, the γ-tocopherol and β-sitosterol were the main lipophilic minor bioactive compounds. The content of the carotenoids and squalene were between 0.38-0.62 and 60.9-127.7 mg/100 g of oil, respectively. Three significant correlations were found between oil yield and total contents of sterols (r = -0.852), tocochromanols (r = -0.880) and carotenoids (r = -0.698) in sweet cherry kernel oils. The oil yield, as well as the content of lipophilic bioactive compounds in oil was significantly affected by the cultivar. PMID:26984340

  16. 甜樱桃组培苗的生根研究%Research on tissue culture rooting of Prunus avium L

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁小环; 彭向永; 李青; 张开春

    2004-01-01

    研究了基本培养基(1/2 WPM,1/2 F14,1/2 MS)、培养方式(液体培养、根部黑暗、两步生根法)和生长素浓度对甜樱桃(Prunus avium L.)品系"6-7"组培苗生根的作用效果.结果表明,1/2 F14为最适基本培养基;液体培养对组培苗的生根有很大的促进作用,根部黑暗条件培养次之,两步生根法作用不明显;生长素质量浓度配比以IBA 1.0 mg/L+NAA 1.0 mg/L效果最好,生根率可达89.7%.据此认为,要提高组培生根困难的木本植物的有效生根率,以岩棉为支撑物的液体培养是一项有效措施.

  17. Size and Weight of Sweet Cherry (Prunus avium L. ‘Regina’ Fruit Treated with 3,5,6-TPA and GA3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvija Zeman

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The effect of 10 ppm 3,5,6-TPA (3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridyloxyocetic acid, 20 ppm GA 3 and their combination on size and weight of cherry fruit (Prunus avium L. ‘Regina’ were studied. 3,5,6-TPA was applied 25 days after full bloom and GA 3 during stage of fruit color change from green to straw-yellow. Fruit height, width, thickness and weight were measured. Width, thickness and weight of control fruit were the smallest. Fruit from 3,5,6-TPA - treated trees did not show significant difference in comparison to control. However, fruit from GA 3 – treated trees had significantly improved all characteristics in comparison to control fruits. Weight of fruit from trees treated with combination of 3,5,6-TPA and GA 3 was 14% higher than control fruit and 2.8% higher than fruit from GA 3 - treated trees, but there was no significant difference comparing to fruit from trees treated with GA 3 alone. These results are preliminary results after a one-year study and more research should be done to examine the possible influence of other factors, such as ecological factors, before final management recommendations could be made.

  18. 晚熟甜樱桃新品种‘彩霞’%A New Late Ripening Prunus avium Cultivar Caixia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张晓明; 张开春; 闫国华; 周宇; 王晶

    2012-01-01

    Caixia, a new late ripening cultivar ofPrunus avium L. was selected. 'Caixia' is a medium to large-sized, firm, crisp, attractive, good-flavor red cherry. Its average fruit weight is 6.23 g, and the biggest one is 9.04 g. The soluble solids content is 17.05%. It ripens in late June in Beijing area, nearly 15 days later than'Van' (ripens in mid-June in Beijing). The tree is moderately vigorous. No special susceptibility to common pests, diseases and stress injuries. It has good adaptability to chilling and freezing damages.%‘彩霞’为晚熟甜樱桃新品种。平均单果质量6.23g,最大9.04g,可食率93%,可溶性固形物含量17.05%。果肉黄色,质地脆,汁多,风味酸甜可口。6月下旬成熟,是目前适宜北京地区种植的晚熟樱桃品种之一。

  19. Transcriptional dynamics of the developing sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.) fruit: sequencing, annotation and expression profiling of exocarp-associated genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkio, Merianne; Jonas, Uwe; Declercq, Myriam; Van Nocker, Steven; Knoche, Moritz

    2014-01-01

    The exocarp, or skin, of fleshy fruit is a specialized tissue that protects the fruit, attracts seed dispersing fruit eaters, and has large economical relevance for fruit quality. Development of the exocarp involves regulated activities of many genes. This research analyzed global gene expression in the exocarp of developing sweet cherry (Prunus avium L., 'Regina'), a fruit crop species with little public genomic resources. A catalog of transcript models (contigs) representing expressed genes was constructed from de novo assembled short complementary DNA (cDNA) sequences generated from developing fruit between flowering and maturity at 14 time points. Expression levels in each sample were estimated for 34 695 contigs from numbers of reads mapping to each contig. Contigs were annotated functionally based on BLAST, gene ontology and InterProScan analyses. Coregulated genes were detected using partitional clustering of expression patterns. The results are discussed with emphasis on genes putatively involved in cuticle deposition, cell wall metabolism and sugar transport. The high temporal resolution of the expression patterns presented here reveals finely tuned developmental specialization of individual members of gene families. Moreover, the de novo assembled sweet cherry fruit transcriptome with 7760 full-length protein coding sequences and over 20 000 other, annotated cDNA sequences together with their developmental expression patterns is expected to accelerate molecular research on this important tree fruit crop. PMID:26504533

  20. Genetic determinism of phenological traits highly affected by climate change in Prunus avium: flowering date dissected into chilling and heat requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castède, Sophie; Campoy, José Antonio; García, José Quero; Le Dantec, Loïck; Lafargue, Maria; Barreneche, Teresa; Wenden, Bénédicte; Dirlewanger, Elisabeth

    2014-04-01

    The present study investigated the genetic determinism of flowering date (FD), dissected into chilling (CR) and heat (HR) requirements. Elucidation of the genetic determinism of flowering traits is crucial to anticipate the increasing of ecological misalignment of adaptative traits with novel climate conditions in most temperate-fruit species. CR and HR were evaluated over 3 yr and FD over 5 yr in an intraspecific sweet cherry (Prunus avium) F1 progeny, and FD over 6 yr in a different F1 progeny. One quantitative trait locus (QTL) with major effect and high stability between years of evaluation was detected for CR and FD in the same region of linkage group (LG) 4. For HR, no stable QTL was detected. Candidate genes underlying the major QTL on LG4 were investigated and key genes were identified for CR and FD. Phenotypic dissection of FD and year repetitions allowed us to identify CR as the high heritable component of FD and a high genotype × environment interaction for HR. QTLs for CR reported in this study are the first described in this species. Our results provide a foundation for the identification of genes involved in CR and FD in sweet cherry which could be used to develop ideotypes adapted to future climatic conditions. PMID:24417538

  1. Techniques for Protected Cultivation of Dwarfed Sweet Cherry (Prunus avium) in Warm Area%南方矮化甜樱桃设施栽培技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    洪莉; 陈令会; 曹锦萍; 卢秀友

    2016-01-01

    Basing on cultivation practices of sweet cherry (Prunus avium) grafted on dwarf stocks Gisela 5 and Gisela 6 in Zhejiang Province for several years, its growth habit and phenological period were studied. Then a set of techniques suitable for the protected cultivation of dwarf sweet cherry in warm area was concluded as folows: farm facilities, variety choice, plantation and tree pruning, pest control and prevention, and other ifeld management measures.%通过引进以“吉塞拉5号”和“吉塞拉6号”为砧木的甜樱桃嫁接苗,经过观察其在南方地区设施栽培条件下的生长习性、物候期等,在园地和设施、品种选择、定植和树形培养、花果期管理、采后管理、越冬管理、灾害防控和病虫害防治方面总结出了一套适合南方地区矮化甜樱桃设施栽培的技术。

  2. Prunus mume and Lithospermum erythrorhizon Extracts Synergistically Prevent Visceral Adiposity by Improving Energy Metabolism through Potentiating Hypothalamic Leptin and Insulin Signalling in Ovariectomized Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Byoung-Seob; Kim, Da Sol; Kang, Suna; Ryuk, Jin Ah; Park, Sunmin

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the antiobesity and hypoglycemic properties of Prunus mume Sieb. et Zucc (PMA; Japanese apricot) and Lithospermum erythrorhizon Sieb. et Zucc (LES; gromwell) extracts in ovariectomized (OVX) rats that impaired energy and glucose homeostasis. OVX rats consumed either 5% dextrose, 5% PMA extract, 5% LES extract, or 2.5% PMA+2.5% LES extract in the high fat diet. After 8 weeks of treatment, PMA+LES prevented weight gain and visceral fat accumulation in OVX rats by lowering daily food intake and increasing energy expenditure and fat oxidation. PMA+LES prevented the attenuation of leptin and insulin signaling by increasing the expression of leptin receptor in the hypothalamus in OVX rats. PMA+LES significantly reversed the decrease of energy expenditure in OVX rats by increasing expression of UCP-1 in the brown adipose tissues and UCP-2 and UCP-3 in the quadriceps muscles. PMA+LES also increased CPT-1 expression and decreased FAS, ACC, and SREBP-1c in the liver and quadriceps muscles to result in reducing triglyceride accumulation. PMA+LES improved insulin sensitivity in OVX rats. In conclusion, PMA+LES synergistically prevented the impairment of energy, lipid, and glucose metabolism by OVX through potentiating hypothalamic leptin and insulin signaling. PMA+LES may be a useful intervention for alleviating the symptoms of menopause in women. PMID:24319483

  3. Prunus mume and Lithospermum erythrorhizon Extracts Synergistically Prevent Visceral Adiposity by Improving Energy Metabolism through Potentiating Hypothalamic Leptin and Insulin Signalling in Ovariectomized Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byoung-Seob Ko

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the antiobesity and hypoglycemic properties of Prunus mume Sieb. et Zucc (PMA; Japanese apricot and Lithospermum erythrorhizon Sieb. et Zucc (LES; gromwell extracts in ovariectomized (OVX rats that impaired energy and glucose homeostasis. OVX rats consumed either 5% dextrose, 5% PMA extract, 5% LES extract, or 2.5% PMA+2.5% LES extract in the high fat diet. After 8 weeks of treatment, PMA+LES prevented weight gain and visceral fat accumulation in OVX rats by lowering daily food intake and increasing energy expenditure and fat oxidation. PMA+LES prevented the attenuation of leptin and insulin signaling by increasing the expression of leptin receptor in the hypothalamus in OVX rats. PMA+LES significantly reversed the decrease of energy expenditure in OVX rats by increasing expression of UCP-1 in the brown adipose tissues and UCP-2 and UCP-3 in the quadriceps muscles. PMA+LES also increased CPT-1 expression and decreased FAS, ACC, and SREBP-1c in the liver and quadriceps muscles to result in reducing triglyceride accumulation. PMA+LES improved insulin sensitivity in OVX rats. In conclusion, PMA+LES synergistically prevented the impairment of energy, lipid, and glucose metabolism by OVX through potentiating hypothalamic leptin and insulin signaling. PMA+LES may be a useful intervention for alleviating the symptoms of menopause in women.

  4. The effect of rootstocks on the efficiency of a nursery of sweet cherry (Prunus avium L. trees cv. ‘Regina’

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Baryła

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available During the period 2006–2009 in Lublin, a study was conducted to determine the effect of five rootstocks: ‘Colt’, ‘F12/1’, sweet cherry (Prunus avium L., ‘GiSelA 5’, and ‘Piast’, on bud take in the cultivar ‘Regina’, the quality of budded trees and the efficiency of a sweet cherry tree nursery. The highest percentage of bud take in cherry trees cv. ‘Regina’ and the best efficiency of the sweet cherry tree nursery were obtained for the rootstocks ‘Piast’ and ‘Colt’. In two years during the three-year study period, the rootstock was found to significantly affect the efficiency of the sweet cherry tree nursery. When grafted on the rootstocks ‘Colt’ and ‘Piast’, a significantly higher percentage of trees met the requirements of the Polish Standard PN-R-67010 than on the clonal rootstock ‘GiSelA 5’. Under the tested conditions, the quality of maiden sweet cherry trees cv. ‘Regina’ grafted on the dwarfing rootstock ‘GiSelA 5’ was lowest.

  5. Role of Nitric Oxide and Hydrogen Sulfide in the Vasodilator Effect of Ursolic Acid and Uvaol from Black Cherry Prunus serotina Fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luna-Vázquez, Francisco J; Ibarra-Alvarado, César; Rojas-Molina, Alejandra; Romo-Mancillas, Antonio; López-Vallejo, Fabián H; Solís-Gutiérrez, Mariana; Rojas-Molina, Juana I; Rivero-Cruz, Fausto

    2016-01-12

    The present research aimed to isolate the non-polar secondary metabolites that produce the vasodilator effects induced by the dichloromethane extract of Prunus serotina (P. serotina) fruits and to determine whether the NO/cGMP and the H2S/KATP channel pathways are involved in their mechanism of action. A bioactivity-directed fractionation of the dichloromethane extract of P. serotina fruits led to the isolation of ursolic acid and uvaol as the main non-polar vasodilator compounds. These compounds showed significant relaxant effect on rat aortic rings in an endothelium- and concentration-dependent manner, which was inhibited by NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME), DL-propargylglycine (PAG) and glibenclamide (Gli). Additionally, both triterpenes increased NO and H2S production in aortic tissue. Molecular docking studies showed that ursolic acid and uvaol are able to bind to endothelial NOS and CSE with high affinity for residues that form the oligomeric interface of both enzymes. These results suggest that the vasodilator effect produced by ursolic acid and uvaol contained in P. serotina fruits, involves activation of the NO/cGMP and H2S/KATP channel pathways, possibly through direct activation of NOS and CSE.

  6. Seed-borne Botryosphaeria spp. from native Prunus and Podocarpus trees in Ethiopia, with a description of the anamorph Diplodia rosulata sp. nov.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gure, Abdella; Slippers, Bernard; Stenlid, Jan

    2005-09-01

    Botryosphaeria spp. from seeds of the native afromontane forest tree species, Podocarpus falcatus and Prunus africana, in Ethiopia have been identified. This is achieved by combining anamorph morphological characters and ITS sequence data. From a relatively small sample, four Botryosphaeria spp. were encountered. Two of the species from P. falcatus and the one from P. africana have not been previously described. The two species from P. falcatus were represented by only one isolate each and are not named here. The morphology of their Diplodia and Dothiorella anamorphs is, however, characterised. The anamorph of the other Botryosphaeria sp. from P. africana is described here as Diplodia rosulata sp. nov. Furthermore, B. parva is identified from P. falcatus based on ITS phylogeny. This species is also an important pathogen of various commercially important tree species in Ethiopia and elsewhere. This study highlights the ability of Botryosphaeria spp. to infect seeds and the possibility that they might be distributed in this way. The study also contributes to recent attempts to stabilize the taxonomy of Botryosphaeria anamorphs, especially regarding Diplodia, which is currently in taxonomic disarray.

  7. Wild almond (Prunus scoparia L.) as potential oilseed resource for the future: Studies on the variability of its oil content and composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorkheh, Karim; Kiani, Soghra; Sofo, Adriano

    2016-12-01

    Wild almond genetic resources have still not received considerable attention for oil chemical compositions and uses. The aim of this study was to assess the levels of variation in oil content and fatty acid composition in forty Iranian accessions of Prunus scoparia L. (Spach) to identify genotypes with desirable traits in terms of oil quantity, quality and industrial utilization. Oil parameters and indices were measured, and fatty acid methyl ester analysis was carried out by gas liquid chromatography. Oleic and linoleic fatty acids showed high variability among accessions, ranging from 232.4 to 359.6g/kg oil and from 190.7 to 348.8g/kg oil, respectively. Total unsaturated fatty acid fraction was higher than total saturated fatty acid. The ranges of saponification number (199.2-202.1), iodine value (104.8-125.7kg I2/kg) and cetane number (43.8-48.8), confirmed that the oils have industrial potentialities. Results could contribute to select wild almond genotypes as genetic sources for oil production. PMID:27374506

  8. Study of the volatile compounds from plum (Prunus domestica L. cv. Horvin and estimation of their contribution to the fruit aroma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Antonio Pino

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Simultaneous Distillation-Extraction (SDE and headspace-solid phase microextraction (HS-SPME combined with GC-FID and GC-MS were used to analyze volatile compounds from plum (Prunus domestica L. cv. Horvin and to estimate the most odor-active compounds by application of the Odor Activity Values (OAV. The analyses led to the identification of 148 components, including 58 esters, 23 terpenoids, 14 aldehydes, 11 alcohols, 10 ketones, 9 alkanes, 7 acids, 4 lactones, 3 phenols, and other 9 compounds of different structures. According to the results of SDE-GC-MS, SPME-GC-MS and OAV, ethyl 2-methylbutanoate, hexyl acetate, (E-2-nonenal, ethyl butanoate, (E-2-decenal, ethyl hexanoate, nonanal, decanal, (E-β-ionone, Γ-dodecalactone, (Z-3-hexenyl acetate, pentyl acetate, linalool, Γ-decalactone, butyl acetate, limonene, propyl acetate, Δ-decalactone, diethyl sulfide, (E-2-hexenyl acetate, ethyl heptanoate, (Z-3-hexenol, (Z-3-hexenyl hexanoate, eugenol, (E-2-hexenal, ethyl pentanoate, hexyl 2-methylbutanoate, isopentyl hexanoate, 1-hexanol, Γ-nonalactone, myrcene, octyl acetate, phenylacetaldehyde, 1-butanol, isobutyl acetate, (E-2-heptenal, octadecanal, and nerol are characteristic odor active compounds in fresh plums since they showed concentrations far above their odor thresholds.

  9. Effects of New Dietary Fiber from Japanese Apricot (Prunus mume Sieb. et Zucc. on Gut Function and Intestinal Microflora in Adult Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nobuki Gato

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Much attention has been focused recently on functional foods. Ume, the Japanese name for the apricot of Prunus mume Sieb. et Zucc., is an example of a Japanese traditional functional food. There are, however, few reports on the effects of fiber from this fruit on bowel function. With this objective, we prepared ume fiber to test the hypothesis that it can change gut function and intestinal flora in mice. Mice were fed an ume fiber (UF or cellulose (CF diet (control for 40 days. The fecal weight, fecal lipids, plasma lipids and cecal composition of the microflora were analyzed. The amount of feces was significantly greater in the UF group than in the CF group (p < 0.01. The fecal lipids content (% DW of the feces sampled on the final days of the experiment were significantly greater in the UF group than in the CF group (p < 0.01. Plasma non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA concentrations tended to be lower in the UF compared to the CF group (p = 0.058. Occupation ratios of Bacteroides and Clostridium cluster IV were significantly greater in the cecal flora of the UF group. Our results suggest that ume fiber possesses the fecal lipid excretion effects and feces bulking effects.

  10. Effect of Salicylic Acid on Alleviating of Electrolyte Leakage and Flower Organ Damage in Apricot (Prunus armeniaca L. cv. ‘Shahroudi’

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    Morteza ALIREZAIE NOGHONDAR

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important limiting factors in spread of apricot in Iran is late spring frost, which damages flower bud and decrease total yield of crop. It has been found that salicylic acid (SA plays a beneficial role during plant response to chilling and freezing stresses. To evaluate the effects of salicylic acid on alleviating of cold stress, the flower buds (FBs of Prunus armeniaca L. cv. ‘Shahroudi’ were sprayed at pink cluster stage with SA at 4 levels (0, 0.5, 1 and 2 mM and were then exposed to artificial cold stress (4 h at -4°C or without cold stress (+ 25. Experimental attributes including electrolyte leakage of FBs and percentage of damage (PD of pistil, anthers and petals to temperature treatments were determined. The results showed that at -4°C the lowest and highest PD and EL of FBs were observed in application of 0.5 and 0 mM SA, respectively. The highest and lowest PD of flower organ and EL were obtained in application of 0 and 2 mM SA, respectively at +25°C. Based on the results of this experiment, SA alleviates the negative effect of cold stress on electrolyte leakage and flower organ damages in apricot cv. ‘Shahroudi’, depending on the concentrations of SA used.

  11. Pharmacological Effects of Benzyl Glucoside and Chlorogenic Acid from Prunus mume Fruit%李属科水果中苯甲基糖苷和氯基因酸的药理研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    伊奈郊二

    2010-01-01

    @@ The fruit of Prunus mume SIEB.et ZUCC.(Rosaceae)has been traditionally used as medicinal food in Japan.In the course of our search on the pharmacologically active constituents of P.nune fruit, we found that the ethanol extract of P.nume showed a remarkable antihypertensive effect.Benzyl glucoside (BG)and chlogenic acid (CA)were isolated from the extract as active components.At this time, I wish to report on antihypertensive effects,antinociceptive effects and antistressive effects of BG and CA.1-3)

  12. eFeasibility of Japanese Prunus pyedoensis superior species introduction for planting and propagation%引进日本樱花优良品种栽培及繁育的可行性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于占江; 安殿军; 游建刚; 宋增柱; 李淑玲; 邹威

    2002-01-01

    @@ 日本樱花 (Prunus pyedoensis)属蔷薇科 (Rosaceae)李属植物.该树种为乔木,其树枝洒脱开展,枝叶繁茂,花期 10天左右.有白花、粉红花、红花、多色花等,是日本人民的国花.其花期虽短,但她的美在于盛开时的热烈,更在于它怒放后纷纷飘落花瓣时那种清高、纯洁和果断的壮烈场面.

  13. A simple model to predict the probability of a peach (Prunus persicae) tree bud to develop as a long or short shoot as a consequence of winter pruning intensity and previous year growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bevacqua, Daniele; Génard, Michel; Lescourret, Françoise

    2012-01-01

    In many woody plants, shoots emerging from buds can develop as short or long shoots. The probability of a bud to develop as a long or short shoot relies upon genetic, environmental and management factors and controlling it is an important issue in commercial orchard. We use peach (Prunus persicae) trees, subjected to different winter pruning levels and monitored for two years, to develop and calibrate a model linking the probability of a bud to develop as a long shoot to winter pruning intensity and previous year vegetative growth. Eventually we show how our model can be used to adjust pruning intensity to obtain a desired proportion of long and short shoots.

  14. Criterios de selección y de evaluación de nuevas obtenciones autocompatibles en un programa de mejora genética del almendro (Prunus amygdalus Batsch)

    OpenAIRE

    Kodad, Ossama

    2006-01-01

    Se han estudiado distintos aspectos morfológicos, fisiológicos, productivos y cualitativos en una población de selecciones auto-compatibles de almendro (Prunus amygdalus Batsch) del programa de mejora genética del CITA de Aragón. La evaluación de los caracteres morfológicos permitió ratificar la variabilidad genética y ambiental sobre su expresión, permitiendo considerar la morfología del árbol como un objetivo alcanzable en un programa de mejora. La densidad floral y la capaci...

  15. Determinación de los compuestos cianogénicos amigdalina y prunasina en semillas de almendras (Prunus dulcis L.) mediante cromatografía líquida de alta resolución

    OpenAIRE

    Arrázola Paternina, Guillermo; Grané Teruel, Nuria; Martín Carratalá, María Luisa; Dicenta López-Higuera, Federico

    2013-01-01

    Este trabajo presenta una metodología de análisis para determinar y cuantificar los compuestos cianogénicos amigdalina y prunasina presentes en la semilla de almendra madura (Prunus dulcis). Se evaluaron distintos sistemas extractantes (agua, metanol (100%), metanol:agua (80:20), metanol:agua (50:50), acetonitrilo:agua (20:80) y extracción Soxhlet con metanol al 100 %) para la extracción de los glucósidos cianogénicos amigdalina y prunasina de muestras liofilizadas previamente. Para detectar ...

  16. Ectopic expression of class 1 KNOX genes induce adventitious shoot regeneration and alter growth and development of tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L) and European plum (Prunus domestica L).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, C; Liu, Zongrang; Scorza, Ralph

    2011-04-01

    Transgenic plants of tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L) and European plum (Prunus domestica L) were produced by transforming with the apple class 1 KNOX genes (MdKN1 and MdKN2) or corn KNOX1 gene. Transgenic tobacco plants were regenerated in vitro from transformed leaf discs cultured in a medium lacking cytokinin. Ectopic expression of KNOX genes retarded shoot growth by suppressing elongation of internodes in transgenic tobacco plants. Expression of each of the three KNOX1 genes induced malformation and extensive lobbing in tobacco leaves. In situ regeneration of adventitious shoots was observed from leaves and roots of transgenic tobacco plants expressing each of the three KNOX genes. In vitro culture of leaf explants and internode sections excised from in vitro grown MdKN1 expressing tobacco shoots regenerated adventitious shoots on MS (Murashige and Skoog 1962) basal medium in the absence of exogenous cytokinin. Transgenic plum plants that expressed the MdKN2 or corn KNOX1 gene grew normally but MdKN1 caused a significant reduction in plant height, leaf shape and size and produced malformed curly leaves. A high frequency of adventitious shoot regeneration (96%) was observed in cultures of leaf explants excised from corn KNOX1-expressing transgenic plum shoots. In contrast to KNOX1-expressing tobacco, leaf and internode explants of corn KNOX1-expressing plum required synthetic cytokinin (thidiazuron) in the culture medium to induce adventitious shoot regeneration. The induction of high-frequency regeneration of adventitious shoots in vitro from leaves and stem internodal sections of plum through the ectopic expression of a KNOX1 gene is the first such report for a woody perennial fruit trees.

  17. Wild Edible Fruit of Prunus nepalensis Ser. (Steud, a Potential Source of Antioxidants, Ameliorates Iron Overload-Induced Hepatotoxicity and Liver Fibrosis in Mice.

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    Dipankar Chaudhuri

    Full Text Available The antioxidant and restoration potentials of hepatic injury by Prunus nepalensis Ser. (Steud, a wild fruit plant from the Northeastern region of India, were investigated. The fruit extract (PNME exhibited excellent antioxidant and reducing properties and also scavenged the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH radical (IC50 = 30.92 ± 0.40 μg/ml. PNME demonstrated promising scavenging potency, as assessed by the scavenging of different reactive oxygen and nitrogen species. Moreover, the extract revealed an exceptional iron chelation capacity with an IC50 of 25.64 ± 0.60 μg/ml. The extract induced significant improvement of hepatic injury and liver fibrosis against iron overload induced hepatotoxicity in mice in a dose-dependent manner, and this effect was supported by different histopathological studies. The phytochemical constitutions and their identification by HPLC confirmed the presence of purpurin, tannic acid, methyl gallate, reserpine, gallic acid, ascorbic acid, catechin and rutin. The identified compounds were investigated for their individual radical scavenging and iron chelation activity; some compounds exhibited excellent radical scavenging and iron chelation properties, but most were toxic towards normal cells (WI-38. On the other hand, crude PNME was found to be completely nontoxic to normal cells, suggesting its feasibility as a safe oral drug. The above study suggests that different phytochemicals in PNME contributed to its free radical scavenging and iron chelation activity; however, further studies are required to determine the pathway in which PNME acts to treat iron-overload diseases.

  18. Cloning and Sequence Analysis of PGIP gene and cDNA from Prunus persica%桃PGIP基因及cDNA的克隆及序列分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谌悦; 张军科; 熊帅

    2009-01-01

    通过PCR扩增了桃的PGIP基因及cDNA序列,并进行了序列之间的比对及分析.结果表明,桃的PGIP基因全长1 092 bp,而其cDNA序列只有1 045 bp,PGIP基因中含有一段长147 bp的内含子,且内含子符合GT-AG规律.这与其他核果类植物的PGIP基因构成基本相同.其基因序列与GenBank中已登录的3个桃以及其他核果的序列比对,其同源性达92%~99%;与苹果、梨和大桉的同源性分别为85%、84%和84%.%PGIP gene and cDNA were cloned from Prunus persica and the sequences were compared and analyzed. The result showed that the length of PGIP gene was 1 092 bp, while the length of cDNA was only 1 045 bp. The PGIP gene contained 147 bp length intron, and according to GT-AG law, which basically the same with PGIP gene of other stone fruit plants. its gene sequence and logged 3 peaches in GenBank and other stone fruit were compared the homology can reached to 92%-99% . The homology rates of PGIPs ,compared peach with Malus, Pyrus and Eucalyptus , were 85%, 84% and 84% respectively.

  19. Recent advances in the cryopreservation of shoot-derived germplasm of economically important fruit trees of Actinidia, Diospyros, Malus, Olea, Prunus, Pyrus and Vitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benelli, Carla; De Carlo, Anna; Engelmann, Florent

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the advances made over the last decade in cryopreservation of economically important vegetatively propagated fruit trees. Cryopreservation protocols have been established using both dormant buds sampled on field-grown plants and shoot tips sampled on in vitro plantlets. In the case of dormant buds, scions are partially dehydrated by storage at -5 °C, and then cooled slowly to -30 °C using low cooling rates (c.a. 1 °C/h) before immersion in liquid nitrogen. After slow rewarming and rehydration of samples, regrowth takes place either through grafting of buds on rootstocks or excision of apices and inoculation in vitro. In the case of shoot tips of in vitro plantlets, the cryopreservation techniques employed are the following: controlled rate cooling procedures involving slow prefreezing followed by immersion in liquid nitrogen or vitrification-based procedures including encapsulation-dehydration, vitrification, encapsulation-vitrification and droplet-vitrification. The current status of cryopreservation for a series of fruit tree species including Actinidia, Diospyros, Malus, Olea, Prunus, Pyrus and Vitis is presented. Routine application of cryopreservation for long-term germplasm storage in genebanks is currently limited to apple and pear, for which large cryopreserved collections have been established at NCGRP, Fort Collins (USA), using dormant buds and in vitro shoot tips, respectively. However, there are a growing number of examples of pilot scale testing experiments under way for different species in various countries. Progress in the further development and application of cryopreservation techniques will be made through a better understanding of the mechanisms involved in the induction of tolerance to dehydration and cryopreservation in frozen explants.

  20. Impact of packaging material and storage conditions on polyphenol stability, colour and sensory characteristics of freeze-dried sour cherry (prunus cerasus var. Marasca).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zorić, Zoran; Pedisić, Sandra; Kovačević, Danijela Bursać; Ježek, Damir; Dragović-Uzelac, Verica

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of packaging materials and storage conditions on polyphenols stability, colour and sensory characteristics of freeze-dried sour cherry (Prunus cerasus var. Marasca). Freeze-dried sour cherries were packed in high barrier metalized polypropylene and aluminium packaging (PET/PPmet/PE and PET/Al/PE) for up to 12 months at 4, 20 and 37 °C. Characterisation of polyphenol compounds was done by HPLC UV/Vis PDA and in all samples individual anthocyanins (ANTs), flavonol-glycosides (FGs) and hydroxycinnamic acids (HCAs) were determined. Polyphenol content was not markedly affected by freeze-drying and decreases were amounted 1.5-5 %. Furthermore, obtained results indicated that minimal loss of polyphenol content in freeze dried sour cherries were achieved at 4 °C and 3 months of storage. Regardless of the type of packaging materials, samples stored at lower temperature during 12 months, retained the higher content of FGs (quercetin-3-glucoside, kaempferol-3-glucoside, kaempferol-3-rutinoside) and HCAs (neochlorogenic, chlorogenic, p-coumaric, caffeic and ferulic acid) than ANTs (cyanidin-3-glucosylrutinoside, cyanidin-3-rutinoside, cyanidin-3-glucoside, cyanidin-3-sophoroside). The same trend was confirmed with kinetic parameters, also. Sour cherry products packed in both type of laminate and stored at lower temperature retained characteristic dark red colour and sensory properties. This study showed that freeze-dried cherry products have pleasant sensory and very good nutritional properties, and storage in both type of laminates at 4 and 20 °C up to 6 months ensured good product quality. PMID:27162405

  1. Transformation of Montmorency sour cherry (Prunus cerasus L.) and Gisela 6 (P. cerasus x P. canescens) cherry rootstock mediated by Agrobacterium tumefaciens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Guo-Qing; Sink, K C

    2006-03-01

    Sour cherry (Prunus cerasus L.) scion cv. Montmorency and rootstock cv. Gisela 6 (P. cerasus x P. canescens) were transformed using Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain EHA105:pBISN1 carrying the neomycin phosphotransferase gene (nptII) and an intron interrupted ss-glucuronidase (GUS) reporter gene (gusA). Whole leaf explants were co-cultivated with A. tumefaciens, and selection and regeneration of transformed cells and shoots of both cultivars was carried out for 12 weeks on selection medium containing 50 mg l(-1) kanamycin (Km) and 250 mg l(-1) timentin. These media were [Quoirin and Lepoivre (Acta Hortic 78:437-442, 1977)] supplemented with 0.5 mg l(-1) benzylaminopurine (BA) + 0.05 mg l(-1) indole-3-butyric acid (IBA), and woody plant medium [Lloyd and McCown (Proc Int Plant Prop Soc 30:421-427, 1980)] containing 2.0 mg l(-1) BA + 1.0 mg l(-1) IBA for cv. Montmorency and cv. Gisela 6, respectively. Seven out of 226 (3.1%) explants of cv. Montmorency and five out of 152 (3.9%) explants of cv. Gisela 6 produced 30/39 GUS- and PCR-positive shoots from the cut midribs via an intermediate callus. Southern analysis of the GUS- and PCR-positive transformants confirmed stable integration of the transgenes with 1-3 copy numbers in the genomes of seven lines of cv. Montmorency and five of cv. Gisela 6. The selected transformants have a normal phenotype in vitro. PMID:16369768

  2. Comparative transcriptome analysis of genes involved in anthocyanin biosynthesis in the red and yellow fruits of sweet cherry (Prunus avium L..

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hairong Wei

    Full Text Available Fruit color is one of the most important economic traits of the sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.. The red coloration of sweet cherry fruit is mainly attributed to anthocyanins. However, limited information is available regarding the molecular mechanisms underlying anthocyanin biosynthesis and its regulation in sweet cherry.In this study, a reference transcriptome of P. avium L. was sequenced and annotated to identify the transcriptional determinants of fruit color. Normalized cDNA libraries from red and yellow fruits were sequenced using the next-generation Illumina/Solexa sequencing platform and de novo assembly. Over 66 million high-quality reads were assembled into 43,128 unigenes using a combined assembly strategy. Then a total of 22,452 unigenes were compared to public databases using homology searches, and 20,095 of these unigenes were annotated in the Nr protein database. Furthermore, transcriptome differences between the four stages of fruit ripening were analyzed using Illumina digital gene expression (DGE profiling. Biological pathway analysis revealed that 72 unigenes were involved in anthocyanin biosynthesis. The expression patterns of unigenes encoding phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL, 4-coumarate-CoA ligase (4CL, chalcone synthase (CHS, chalcone isomerase (CHI, flavanone 3-hydroxylase (F3H, flavanone 3'-hydroxylase (F3'H, dihydroflavonol 4-reductase (DFR, anthocyanidin synthase (ANS and UDP glucose: flavonol 3-O-glucosyltransferase (UFGT during fruit ripening differed between red and yellow fruit. In addition, we identified some transcription factor families (such as MYB, bHLH and WD40 that may control anthocyanin biosynthesis. We confirmed the altered expression levels of eighteen unigenes that encode anthocyanin biosynthetic enzymes and transcription factors using quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR.The obtained sweet cherry transcriptome and DGE profiling data provide comprehensive gene expression information that lends insights

  3. A role for PacMYBA in ABA-regulated anthocyanin biosynthesis in red-colored sweet cherry cv. Hong Deng (Prunus avium L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Xinjie; Zhao, Kai; Liu, Linlin; Zhang, Kaichun; Yuan, Huazhao; Liao, Xiong; Wang, Qi; Guo, Xinwei; Li, Fang; Li, Tianhong

    2014-05-01

    The MYB transcription factors and plant hormone ABA have been suggested to play a role in fruit anthocyanin biosynthesis, but supporting genetic evidence has been lacking in sweet cherry. The present study describes the first functional characterization of an R2R3-MYB transcription factor, PacMYBA, from red-colored sweet cherry cv. Hong Deng (Prunus avium L.). Transient promoter assays demonstrated that PacMYBA physically interacted with several anthocyanin-related basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factors to activate the promoters of PacDFR, PacANS and PacUFGT, which are thought to be involved in anthocyanin biosynthesis. Furthermore, the immature seeds of transgenic Arabidopsis plants overexpressing PacMYBA exhibited ectopic pigmentation. Silencing of PacMYBA, using a Tobacco rattle virus (TRV)-induced gene silencing technique, resulted in sweet cherry fruit that lacked red pigment. ABA treatment significantly induced anthocyanin accumulation, while treatment with the ABA biosynthesis inhibitor nordihydroguaiaretic acid (NDGA) blocked anthocyanin production. PacMYBA expression peaked after 2 h of pre-incubation in ABA and was 15.2-fold higher than that of sweet cherries treated with NDGA. The colorless phenotype was also observed in the fruits silenced in PacNCED1, which encodes a key enzyme in the ABA biosynthesis pathway. The endogenous ABA content as well as the transcript levels of six structural genes and PacMYBA in PacNCED1-RNAi (RNA interference) fruit were significantly lower than in the TRV vector control fruit. These results suggest that PacMYBA plays an important role in ABA-regulated anthocyanin biosynthesis and ABA is a signal molecule that promotes red-colored sweet cherry fruit accumulating anthocyanin. PMID:24443499

  4. Purification and chemical characterisation of a cell wall-associated β-galactosidase from mature sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.) fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerardi, Carmela; Blando, Federica; Santino, Angelo

    2012-12-01

    Using four different chromatographic steps, β-galactosidase was purified from the ripe fruit of sweet cherry to apparent electrophoretic homogeneity with approximately 131-fold purification. The Prunus avium β-galactosidase showed an apparent molecular mass of about 100 kDa and consisted of four different active polypeptides with pIs of about 7.9, 7.4, 6.9 and 6.4 as estimated by native IEF and β-galactosidase-activity staining. The active polypeptides were individually excised from the gel and subjected to SDS-PAGE. Each of the four native enzymes showing β-galactosidase activity was composed of two polypeptides with an estimated mass of 54 and 33 kDa. Both of these polypeptides were subjected to N-terminal amino acid sequence analysis. The 54 kDa polypeptide of sweet cherry β-galactosidase showed a 43% identity with the 44 kDa subunit of persimmon and apple β-galactosidases and the 48 kDa subunit of carambola galactosidase I. The sweet cherry β-galactosidase exhibited a strict specificity towards p-nitrophenyl β-D-galactopyranoside, a pH optimum of 4.0 and K(m) and V(max) values of 0.42 mM and 4.12 mmol min(-1) mg(-1) of protein respectively with this substrate. The enzyme was also active towards complex glycans. Taken together the results of this study prompted a role for this class of enzymes on sweet cherry fruit ripening and softening. PMID:23121861

  5. High-level genetic diversity and complex population structure of Siberian apricot (Prunus sibirica L. in China as revealed by nuclear SSR markers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhe Wang

    Full Text Available Siberian apricot (Prunus sibirica L., an ecologically and economically important tree species with a high degree of tolerance to a variety of extreme environmental conditions, is widely distributed across the mountains of northeastern and northern China, eastern and southeastern regions of Mongolia, Eastern Siberia, and the Maritime Territory of Russia. However, few studies have examined the genetic diversity and population structure of this species. Using 31 nuclear microsatellites, we investigated the level of genetic diversity and population structure of Siberian apricot sampled from 22 populations across China. The number of alleles per locus ranged from 5 to 33, with an average of 19.323 alleles. The observed heterozygosity and expected heterozygosity ranged from 0.037 to 0.874 and 0.040 to 0.924 with average values of 0.639 and 0.774, respectively. A STRUCTURE-based analysis clustered all of the populations into four genetic clusters. Significant genetic differentiation was observed between all population pairs. A hierarchical analysis of molecular variance attributed about 94% of the variation to within populations. No significant difference was detected between the wild and semi-wild groups, indicating that recent cultivation practices have had little impact on the genetic diversity of Siberian apricot. The Mantel test showed that the genetic distance among the populations was not significantly correlated with geographic distance (r = 0.4651, p = 0.9940. Our study represents the most comprehensive investigation of the genetic diversity and population structure of Siberian apricot in China to date, and it provides valuable information for the collection of genetic resources for the breeding of Siberian apricot and related species.

  6. Carotenoids, Tocopherols and Antioxidant Activity of Lipophilic Extracts from Sea Buckthorn Berries (Hippophae rhamnoides, Apricot Pulp and Apricot Kernel (Prunus armeniaca

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Andreea Pop

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available A healthy human diet requires the daily consumption of fruits and vegetables rich in bioactive compounds. Sea buckthorn berries (Hippophae rhamnoides L. and apricot fruits (Prunus armeniaca L. are cultivated and appreciated in Romania both as fresh fruits and as derived products. Characterized by a complex chemical composition, sea buckthorn is rich in unsaturated lipids, carotenoids and tocopherols. Except for β-carotene content, less is known about other lipophilic compounds in apricot fruits. The aim of this paper was to separate and quantify the individual carotenoids, tocopherols and tocotrienols in sea buckthorn, apricot pulp and kernels and also to determine the antioxidant activity of the lipophilic extracts using the TEAC  method.  Chemical characterization of lipophilic extract was performed by HPLC with PDA and fluorescence detection. The total carotenoid content was 17.19±1.4 mg/100g F.W. in sea buckthorn; 3.51±0.25 mg/100g F.W. in apricot fruits and 0.58±0.04 mg/100 g F.W. in apricot kernels. The major carotenoids in sea buckthorn were β-carotene, zeaxanthin and β-cryptoxanthin esters. Apricots fruits are rich in β-carotene and its geometric isomers while in kernels we could properly identified only lycopene. The α-tocopherol concentration was higher in sea buckthorn (46 mg/kg than in apricot fruits (1.09 mg/kg while apricot kernel contain large amounts of γ-tocopherol (111 mg/kg. Sea buckthorn fruits showed the highest antioxidant capacity, correlated with a high content of both tocopherols and carotenoids.

  7. 极早熟甜樱桃新品种‘早丹’%A New Extremely Early Ripening Prunus avium Cultivar 'Zaodan'

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闫国华; 张开春; 张晓明; 周宇; 王晶

    2012-01-01

    'Zaodan', a new extremely early ripening cultivar of Prunus avium L., is derived from mutations of cultivar 'Xesphye' . It is a medium to large-sized red skin cherry with juicy red flesh, its average fruit weight is 6.2 g, and the biggest one is 8.3 g. Its good-flavor is due to medium acidity and high sweetness, average soluble solids content is 16.6%. It matures in mid-May in Beijing area, 3 - 6 days earlier than 'Burlat' . It is very suitable for protected cultivations because of its low-chilling requirement and extremely early ripening. The tree is moderately vigorous. No special susceptibility to common pests, diseases and stress injuries, with good adaptability to chilling and freezing damages.%‘早丹’为极早熟甜樱桃新品种。平均单果质量6.2g,最大果质量8.3g。果肉红色,汁多,可溶性固形物16.6%,风味酸甜可口。在北京地区果实发育期30~35d,5月中旬成熟,比‘伯兰特’早成熟3~6d。需冷量低,适宜温室及南方地区栽培。早果丰产性好,树体和花芽抗寒力均较强,无特殊的敏感性病虫害和逆境伤害。

  8. Multiplicação in vitro de porta-enxertos do gênero Prunus sob baixas concentrações e diferentes tipos de auxinas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silveira Carlos Augusto Posser

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Experimentos testando o tipo de auxina (AIB, AIA e ANA e concentração (0; 0,01; 0,1 e 1,0 mM foram realizados para cada um dos quatro porta-enxertos utilizados (G x N22, Mr.S 2/5, Marianna e Mirabolano. Cada porta-enxerto constituiu-se num experimento, uma vez que, apesar de ser o mesmo meio básico, MS fraction three-quarters, com exceção de Marianna, onde o meio foi o MS, as concentrações da citocinina BAP foram diferentes. A cada meio, foram adicionados os tipos e as concentrações das auxinas a serem testadas. Os porta-enxertos apresentaram comportamentos distintos quanto ao tipo e concentração das auxinas. O AIB e o AIA foram superiores ao ANA nas variáveis analisadas. Na fase de multiplicação, o 'Mirabolano' não respondeu a concentrações de auxinas de até 1,0 mM. O 'G x N22' apresentou as melhores respostas na concentração de 0,01 miM de AIB ou AIA. O porta-enxerto Marianna respondeu positivamente a concentrações de auxinas entre 0,01 e 1,0 miM. O ANA não proporciona bons resultados na multiplicação in vitro de porta-enxertos do gênero Prunus, sendo muitas vezes superado pela testemunha.

  9. Antimicrobial activity and probable mechanisms of action of medicinal plants of Kenya: Withania somnifera, Warbugia ugandensis, Prunus africana and Plectrunthus barbatus.

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    Peter G Mwitari

    Full Text Available Withania somnifera, Warbugia ugandensis, Prunus africana and Plectrunthus barbatus are used traditionally in Kenya for treatment of microbial infections and cancer. Information on their use is available, but scientific data on their bioactivity, safety and mechanisms of action is still scanty. A study was conducted on the effect of organic extracts of these plants on both bacterial and fungal strains, and their mechanisms of action. Extracts were evaluated through the disc diffusion assay. Bacteria and yeast test strains were cultured on Mueller-Hinton agar and on Sabouraud dextrose agar for the filamentous fungi. A 0.5 McFarland standard suspension was prepared. Sterile paper discs 6 mm in diameter impregnated with 10 µl of the test extract (100 mg/ml were aseptically placed onto the surface of the inoculated media. Chloramphenicol (30 µg and fluconazole (25 µg were used as standards. Discs impregnated with dissolution medium were used as controls. Activity of the extracts was expressed according to zone of inhibition diameter. MIC was determined at 0.78-100 mg/ml. Safety studies were carried using Cell Counting Kit 8 cell proliferation assay protocol. To evaluate extracts mechanisms of action, IEC-6 cells and RT-PCR technique was employed in vitro to evaluate Interleukin 7 cytokine. Investigated plants extracts have both bactericidal and fungicidal activity. W. ugandensis is cytotoxic at IC50200 µg/ml. Fractions from W. ugandensis and W. somnifera too demonstrated antimicrobial activity. Mechanisms of action can largely be attributed to cytotoxicity, Gene silencing and immunopotentiation. Use of medicinal plants in traditional medicine has been justified and possible mechanisms of action demonstrated. Studies to isolate and characterize the bioactive constituents continue.

  10. Improvement of Root System Architecture in Peach (Prunus persica Seedlings by Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi, Related to Allocation of Glucose/Sucrose to Root

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    Qiang-Sheng WU

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Root system architecture (RSA is used to describe the spatial configuration of a root system in the soil, which substantially determines the capacity of a plant to take up nutrients and water. The present study was to assess if arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF, Glomus mosseae, G. versiforme, and Paraglomus occultum would alter RSA of peach (Prunus persica L. Batsch seedlings, and the alteration due to mycorrhization was related to allocation of glucose/sucrose to root (Aglucose/sucrose. Inoculation with G. mosseae and G. versiforme significantly increased leaf, stem, root and total fresh weights, compared with non-AMF treatment. Mycorrhizal alterations of RSA in peach plants were dependent on AMF species, because only G. mosseae and G. versiforme but not P. occultum markedly increased root length, root projected area, root surface area and root volume. For the distribution of root length classes, AMF mainly increased 0-1 and 3-4 cm root length classes, which is AMF species dependent. Inoculated seedlings with Glomus species recorded significantly higher root sucrose and leaf and root glucose concentrations and lower root sucrose concentrations than un-inoculated control. Compared with the non-AMF treatment, G. mosseae and G. versiforme generally increased the Aglucose and Asucrose, but P. occultum significantly decreased the Aglucose and Asucrose. Asucrose or Aglucose was significantly positive correlated with root length, root projected area and root surface area. The results suggest that AMF modified variables of RSA in peach, which is AMF species dependent and related to Aglucose and Asucrose.

  11. Variation in Minerals, Phenolics and Antioxidant Activity of Peel and Pulp of Different Varieties of Peach (Prunus persica L. Fruit from Pakistan

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    Muhammad Ashraf

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Peach (Prunus persica L., being a potential source of bioactive compounds, has been demonstrated to have medicinal benefits. In this study variation of minerals and antioxidant characteristics (total phenolic contents, total flavonoid contents, reducing power, inhibition of peroxidation using linoleic acid system and DPPH free radical scavenging activity between peel and pulp parts of different peach varieties, namely Golden, Shireen, and Shahpasand were investigated. The peel and pulp extracts, derived from the varieties analyzed, exhibited an appreciable amount of total phenolics (TP and total flavonoids (TF, ranging from 1,209.3–1,354.5, 711.7–881.3 mg GAE/100 g and 599.7–785.5, 301.3–499.7 mg CE/100 g on a dry weight basis, respectively. Reducing power of peel and pulp extracts (12.5 mg/mL concentration ranged from 2.57–2.77 and 1.54–1.99.The inhibition of linoleic acid peroxidation and DPPH scavenging activity of the extracts varied from 70.8–80.9% and 66.8–76.5% in peels, and 51.9–60.1% and 43.4–49.1% in pulps. The mineral analysis revealed that the content of K was highest in both parts of the peach fruit followed by Mg, Ca, Fe, Mn and Zn. The results of our present study indicate that peach peel had significantly higher levels of minerals, antioxidant capacity and phenolics than those of the pulp, suggesting the intake of unpeeled peach as a potential source of high-value components. The peach peel can be a useful as a viable source of natural antioxidants for functional foods and nutraceutical applications.

  12. Physiological and foliar symptom response in the crowns of Prunus serotina, Fraxinus americana and Acer rubrum canopy trees to ambient ozone under forest conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The crowns of five canopy dominant black cherry (Prunus serotina Ehrh.), five white ash (Fraxinus americana L.), and six red maple (Acer rubrum L.) trees on naturally differing environmental conditions were accessed with scaffold towers within a mixed hardwood forest stand in central Pennsylvania. Ambient ozone concentrations, meteorological parameters, leaf gas exchange and leaf water potential were measured at the sites during the growing seasons of 1998 and 1999. Visible ozone-induced foliar injury was assessed on leaves within the upper and lower crown branches of each tree. Ambient ozone exposures were sufficient to induce typical symptoms on cherry (0-5% total affected leaf area, LAA), whereas foliar injury was not observed on ash or maple. There was a positive correlation between increasing cumulative ozone uptake (U) and increasing percent of LAA for cherry grown under drier site conditions. The lower crown leaves of cherry showed more severe foliar injury than the upper crown leaves. No significant differences in predawn leaf water potential (ψL) were detected for all three species indicating no differing soil moisture conditions across the sites. Significant variation in stomatal conductance for water vapor (gwv) was found among species, soil moisture, time of day and sample date. When comparing cumulative ozone uptake and decreased photosynthetic activity (Pn), red maple was the only species to show higher gas exchange under mesic vs. drier soil conditions (P wv and Pn demonstrate the strong influence of heterogeneous environmental conditions within forest canopies. - Within the heterogeneous environment of a mature forest, many factors in addition to soil moisture play a significant role in determining exposure/response relationships to ozone

  13. Cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenases in the mesocarp of ripening fruit of Prunus persica genotypes with different flesh characteristics: changes in activity and protein and transcript levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabotti, Damiano; Negrini, Noemi; Morgutti, Silvia; Nocito, Fabio F; Cocucci, Maurizio

    2015-07-01

    Development of fruit flesh texture quality traits may involve the metabolism of phenolic compounds. This study presents molecular and biochemical results on the possible role played by cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase (CAD; EC 1.1.1.195) during ripening [S3, S4 I (pre-climacteric) and S4 III (climacteric) stages] of peach [Prunus persica (L.) Batsch] fruit with different flesh firmness [non-melting flesh (NMF) 'Oro A'/melting flesh (MF) 'Springcrest' and 'Sanguinella'] and color (blood-flesh Sanguinella). A total of 24 putative full-length PRUPE_CAD genes were identified (in silico analysis) in the peach genome. The most abundant CAD isoforms, encoded by genes located on scaffolds 8 and 6, were probed by specifically developed anti-PRUPE_CAD sc8 and by anti-FaCAD (PRUPE_CAD sc6) polyclonal antibodies, respectively. PRUPE_CAD sc8 proteins (SDS-PAGE and native-PAGE/western blot) appeared responsible for the CAD activity (in vitro/in-gel assays) that increased with ripening (parallel to PRUPE_ACO1 transcripts accumulation and ethylene evolution) only in the mesocarp of Oro A and blood-flesh Sanguinella. Accumulation of PRUPE_CAD sc8 transcripts (semi-quantitative RT-PCR) occurred in all three cultivars, but in Oro A and Springcrest it was not always accompanied by that of the related proteins, suggesting possible post-transcriptional regulation. Flesh firmness, as well as levels of lignin, total phenolics and, where present (Sanguinella), anthocyanins, declined with ripening, suggesting that, at least in the studied peach cultivars, CAD activity is related to neither lignification nor differences in flesh firmness (NMF/MF). Further studies are necessary to clarify whether the high levels of CAD activity/expression in Sanguinella play a role in determining the characteristics of this blood-flesh fruit. PMID:25534876

  14. Controle da infestação natural de ceratitis capitata (Wied., 1824 (Diptera, Tephritidae em pêssegos(Prunus persica através das radiações gama Control of naturally infested peaches (Prunus persica by mediterranean fruit fly (Ceratitis capitata through the use of gamma radiation

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    V. Arthur

    1993-12-01

    Full Text Available Determinou-se a dose desinfestante de radiações gama para pêssegos, Prunus persica, infestados com larvas da mosca do Mediterrâneo, Ceratitis capitata. Utilizaram-se frutas de procedência conhecida no campo fazendo-se uma amostragem prévia, constatando-se que cada fruta continha em média nove larvas do último ínstar da mosca praga. As frutas foram irradiadas em uma fonte de Cobalto-60 com as seguintes doses de radiação gama: 0 (test., 25, 50, 100, 200, 400, 600, 800, 1000 e 1200 Gy, sob uma taxa de 58 Gy por minuto. Após a irradiação as frutas foram colocadas em câmaras climatizadas com a temperatura variando entre 23 e 27°C e a umidade relativa variando entre 65 e 75%. Aguardou-se que as larvas deixassem as frutas e se transformassem em pupas e adultos. A dose letal para larvas, pelos resultados obtidos no experimento, concluiu-se ser de 600 Gy. A dose letal para pupas provenientes de larvas irradiadas dentro das frutas foi de 50 Gy, impedindo totalmente a emergência de adultos.Determination of the dose of gamma radiation to disinfest peaches, Prunus pérsica infested with larvae of Ceratitis capitata (Wied., 1824 was made. Fruits were collected in the field, each one holding about nine larvae of the last instar of the fruit-fly. The fruits were irradiated with Cobalt-60 gamma radiation source at the following doses: 0 (control, 25, 50, 100, 200, 400, 600, 800, 1000 and 1200 Gy; at a dose rate of 58 Gy per minute. After irradiation the fruits were kept in a climatic chamber with the temperature adjusted between 23 and 27°C, and relative humidity between 65 and 75 percent, until the larvae left the fruits and were transformed into pupae and adults. It was concluded that the lethal dose of gamma radiation for larvae at the last instar, in naturally infested peaches, was 600 Gy and the dose of 50 Gy inhibited completely the emergency of adults.

  15. Caracterización con RAMs de la colección de durazno (Prunus persica L. Batsch existente en la Universidad Pedagógica y Tecnológica de Colombia

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    Ana Cruz Morillo Coronado

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Utilizando ocho cebadores Microsatélites Amplificados al Azar (RAMs fue evaluada la diversidad genética de 31 materiales de Prunus de la colección de caducifolios existente en la Universidad Pedagógica y Tecnológica de Colombia. Se generaron un total de 121 amplicones con pesos moleculares entre 260 y 1000 Kb. Con un coeficiente de similitud de 0.75, se formaron tres grupos, de acuerdo principalmente con las características del fruto, encontrando en el grupo 2 las variedades de importancia económica. El número de loci polimórficos varió entre 5 y 16 para los cebadores GT y CCA, respectivamente. El valor promedio de heterocigosidad fue de 0.22, más bajo que los encontrados en otros estudios de diversidad genética en el género Prunus; por tanto, se deben buscar estrategias para incrementar la variabilidad genética de la colección como la introducción de nuevos materiales o híbridos interespecíficos. La técnica RAMs es útil para evaluar la diversidad genética en especies caducifolias.

  16. Self-incompatibility (S) locus region of the mutated S6-haplotype of sour cherry (Prunus cerasus) contains a functional pollen S allele and a non-functional pistil S allele.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamane, Hisayo; Ikeda, Kazuo; Hauck, Nathanael R; Iezzoni, Amy F; Tao, Ryutaro

    2003-11-01

    This study characterizes the S6m-haplotype, a mutated S6-haplotype with an altered HindIII cut site, of sour cherry (Prunus cerasus). Inheritance and pollination studies of S-haplotypes from reciprocal crosses between 'Erdi Botermo' (EB; S4S6mSa) and 'Rheinische Schattenmorelle' (RS; S6SaSbSc) revealed that the S6m-haplotype conferred unilateral incompatibility with a non-functional pistil component and a functional pollen component. Expression analyses of S6-RNase and SFB6, a candidate gene for pollen-S, in the S6m-haplotype showed that SFB6 was transcribed in EB pollen, but S6-RNase was not transcribed in EB styles. These results were consistent with data from the inheritance and pollination studies. Inverse PCR for the flanking regions of S6-RNase in the S6- and S6m-haplotypes revealed an approximately 2600 bp insertion present at approximately 800 bp upstream of the S6-RNase in the S6m-haplotype, which is responsible for the alternation of the HindIII cut site and a possible cause of inhibition of the transcription of S6-RNase. SFB6 was present downstream of S6-RNase in both the S6- and S6m-haplotypes and expressed in the same way, supporting the idea that SFB is a good candidate for pollen-S in Prunus. PMID:14512382

  17. Preliminary study on polymorphism of ACO gene in six varieties of sweet cherry ( Prunus avium )%6个甜樱桃品种ACO基因多态性的检测

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王廿; 张开春; 王晶; 张晓明; 闫国华

    2012-01-01

    乙烯在植物果实成熟过程中起着重要的作用,ACC合酶(1-aminocyclop ropane-1-carboxylic acid synthase,ACS)和ACC氧化酶(1-aminocyclop ropane-1-carboxylic acid oxidase,ACO)是植物乙烯生物合成途径的限速酶。通过DNA序列分析,以不同果实成熟期的6个甜樱桃品种(Prunus avium L.)为材料,检测ACO基因的多态性。获得甜樱桃ACO基因约1kh,与桃(Ppersica)ACO基因(GenBank登录号:AF532976)序列的同源性达96%,其预测的氨基酸序列与桃、梅(Pmume)、美洲李(Parmeniaca)和欧洲李(Pdomestica)等ACO的氨基酸序列同源性超过95%。该片段包括4个外显子和4个内含子,内含子符合GT—AT规律。用DNAMAN进行多序列比对分别在内含子2和内含子4内发现2个多态性简单重复序列(AT)n。内含子2有3种片段:即(AT)6、(AT)7和(AT)8;内含子4有2种片段,即(AT)5和(AT)6,组合后共得到4种ACO单倍型。研究在甜樱桃ACO基因座上发现2个SSR标记,为进一步研究4CD基因多态性与果实成熟期相关性奠定基础。%Ethylene plays an important role in ripening of plants. ACC synthease ( 1-aminocyclop ropane- 1-carboxylic acid synthase, ACS) and ACC oxidase (1-aminocyclop ropane-1-carboxylic acid oxidase, ACO) are rate-limiting enzymes in ethylene biosynthesis in plants. DNA sequence analysis was applied to detect the polymorphism of A CO gene in 6 sweet cherry varieties (Prunus avium L.) of different maturity time. The DNA sequences of partial A CO gene about 1 kb were obtained from sweet cherry (P. avium). The identity of these DNA sequences was 96% with A CO of peach (P. persica). The identity of predicted amino acid sequences was 95% with the amino acid sequence of ACO in P. persica, Prunus mume, Prunus armeniaca, and Prunus domestica. These fragments contained four extrons and four introns which has GT-AG sequence. Two SSR markers

  18. The Effect of a Strain of Penicillium on Lead (Pb) Toxicity of Prunus persica L.%青霉菌对桃树铅胁迫的缓解效应

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李奕松; 杜立栋; 梁为; 王有年

    2011-01-01

    A strain of Penicillium(Penicillium Inordinate Arenicola sp.) with the function of concentrating lead(Ph) from soil was employed to explored the possibility that by using it to decrease the effect of Pb toxicity on the two peach trees(Prunus persica L.Batsch and Prunus persica L.Batsch cv.Okubao) grew on soil with different lead contents.The results indicated that the amount of Pb accumulated whatever in the shoots, roots and leaves of both the peach trees grew on soil inoculated with the Penicillium fungi was lower than the control which did not inoculate the Penicillium fungi, the distribution rates of Pb in the shoots and leaves was also lower than control, and plant height ,the contents of chlorophyll, the activity of superoxide dismutase(SOD) and nitrate reductase(NR) of plants grew on the soil treated with Penicillium fungi was higher than that grew on the control soil, the membrane permeability of the cell was lower in treated plants than in control, but with the increasing Pb concentration in the soil, alleviation effect of Penicillium fungi on Pb toxicity was decreased progressively.The impact of Pb stress on the two peaches and alleviation effect of Penicillium fungi on Pb toxicity were different between Prunus persica L.Batsch and Prunus persica L.Batsch cv.Okubao.%为了解青霉菌对植物吸收重金属元素铅的影响,把从土壤里分离到的具有铅富集能力的青霉菌(Penicillium InordinateArenicola sp.)接种到铅污染不同程度的土壤里,采用盆栽的方法观察这个菌株对毛桃(Prunus persica L.Batsch)和大久保桃(Prunuspersica L.Batsch cv.Okubao)铅胁迫的缓解效应.结果表明:(1)在接种青霉菌的土壤里生长的毛桃和大久保桃的根、茎、叶中铅累积量均比未接种青霉菌的低,茎叶中铅的分配率比未接种青霉菌的低;(2)接种青霉菌相对增加桃苗株高、叶绿素含量、硝酸还原酶及超氧化物歧化酶活性,降低叶片的细胞膜透性;随着土壤中铅胁

  19. Evaluación productiva, económica y social del agua de riego de durazno (Prunus persica L. Batsch en Zacatecas (México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luis Ríos-Flores

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available La escasez de agua limita la agricultura, por lo que su uso debe ser más eficiente en la producción de alimentos. El objetivo de este trabajo fue determinar la productividad económica, física y social del agua del cultivo de durazno (Prunus persica L. Batsch, en la región del Distrito de Desarrollo Rural 183 —correspondiente a Fresnillo, Zacatecas— para el ciclo 2012; se desarrollaron modelos matemáticos para estimar la productividad y eficiencia del agua. En Zacatecas se cosecharon 817 ha de durazno; mismas que produjeron 3,954.1 t; con un valor de $32.79 millones de pesos, utilizando un total de 8.17 Mm3 en todo el estado; mientras que en el DDR183-Fresnillo (compuesto por los municipios Fresnillo y Valparaíso se emplearon 3.39 Mm3. La determinación de la huella hídrica azul mostró que, por cada kg de durazno se emplearon 2,066 L en Zacatecas, 2,000 L en Fresnillo, y 1,851 L en Valparaíso. En cuanto al ingreso por metro cúbico, se determinó que en Zacatecas se obtuvo un ingreso de $4.01 m-3, $4.38 m-3 en Fresnillo y $4.83 m-3 en Valparaíso. Mientras, la productividad laboral en Zacatecas fue 97.53 h t-1, en Fresnillo 94.40 h t-1, y en Valparaíso 87.35 h t-1. El trabajador adscrito a la producción de durazno en Zacatecas generó $97.53 h-1, en Fresnillo $94.40 h-1, y $87.35 h-1 en Valparaíso. La producción de durazno en Valparaíso resultó altamente eficiente y productiva, lo que se tradujo en una menor huella hídrica; ello promueve la sustentabilidad del recurso agua en esa región.

  20. Stage- and tissue-expression of genes involved in the biosynthesis and signalling of ethylene in reproductive organs of damson plum (Prunus domestica L. subsp. insititia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Otero, C I; de la Torre, F; Iglesias, R; Rodríguez-Gacio, M C; Matilla, A J

    2007-01-01

    In this work, four cDNA clones (Pd-ACS1,AJ890088; Pd-ETR1 and Pd-ERS1, AJ890092, AJ890091; and Pd-CTR1, AJ890089) encoding an ACC-synthase, two putative ethylene (ET) receptors, and a putative MAPKKK, respectively, were isolated and phylogenetically characterized in Prunus domestica L. subsp. insititia. Their expression was studied by real-time PCR during flower (closed, open and senescent) and fruit (early green, late green, maturation and ripening) development of damson plum, which is climateric. While two peaks of ET production were quantified at early green and ripening stages in whole fruits, the seed was not able to produce it during maturation and ripening stages. All studied genes were differentially expressed during flower and fruit development. In general, the level of transcripts of Pd-ACS1 was higher in fruits than in flowers. However, it was noteworthy that: (1) Pd-ACS1 expression was hardly detected in closed flowers and at low levels during early green stage; and fruit development provoked a notable differential expression in seeds, and pericarp; (2) the results of Pd-ACS1 expression during fruit development suggest a preponderant role of this gene from late green stage onward. The stamen was the only floral organ in which expression of both Pd-ETR1 and Pd-ERS1 receptor genes was not significantly altered during development; however, their expression decreased concomitantly with development of pistil (only floral organ to register a net ET production when fertilized) and during first days of ovary development (the highest ET production during all fruit development). Contrary to Pd-ERS1, the level of Pd-ETR1 mRNA was temporally quite similar in the seed. With regard Pd-ETR1, even its expression was very scarce during maturation of mesocarp, was stimulated during ripening. In the epicarp, Pd-ERS1 and Pd-ETR1 were low expressed during pit hardening increasing onward and decreasing during ripening. Pd-CTR1 expression was in the seed

  1. Identification of Known and Novel microRNAs and Their Targets in Peach (Prunus persica) Fruit by High-Throughput Sequencing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a group of non-coding RNAs that have functions in post-transcriptional gene regulation in plants. Although the most important economic component of peach trees (Prunus persica) is the fruit, not much is known about miRNAs in this organ. In this study, miRNAs and their targets were identified and characterized from libraries of small RNAs of peach fruit through Solexa based-sequencing and bioinformatics approaches. A total of 557 known peach miRNAs belonging to 34 miRNA families were identified, and some of these miRNAs were found to be highly conserved in at least four other plant species. Using the most current criteria for miRNA annotation, 275 putative novel miRNAs were predicted, and the sequencing frequencies of these novel miRNAs were less than those of the conserved miRNAs. In total, 3959 and 1614 target genes for 349 known and 193 novel miRNAs, respectively, were predicted with the criteria that a single target gene can be targeted by different miRNAs and that a single miRNA can also have a large number of target genes. Three targets were even found to be targeted by 13 novel miRNAs that contained the same complete miRNA sequence at different locations and had different scaffolds. The proteins predicted to be targeted by the miRNAs identified in this study encompass a wide range of transcription factors and are involved in many biological processes and pathways, including development, metabolism, stress responses and signal transduction. A total of 115 and 101 target genes were identified to be cleaved by 60 known miRNAs and 27 novel miRNAs through degradome sequencing, respectively. These miRNAs induce cleavage of their targets precisely at the position between nucleotides 10 and 11 of the miRNA sequences from the 5’ to the 3’ end. Thirty conserved miRNAs and 19 novel miRNAs exhibited differential expression profiles in the peach, and the expression patterns of some miRNAs appeared to be tissue- or developmental stage

  2. Measurement of antioxidant activity and antioxidant compounds under versatile extraction conditions: II. The immuno-biochemical antioxidant properties of black sour cherry (Prunus cerasus) extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddad, John J; Ghadieh, Rana M; Hasan, Hiba A; Nakhal, Yasmine K; Hanbali, Lama B

    2013-01-01

    Retrospectively, we have measured the antioxidant activity and a variety of antioxidant compounds under versatile extraction conditions of sweet cherry (Prunus avium) extracts. Further in this study, in order to understand the biochemical constituents and antioxidant activities of a variety of extracts of black sour cherries (P. cerasus), a related species, antioxidant compounds, including L-ascorbic acid (vitamin C), phenols, flavonoids, and anthocyanins, and the total antioxidant activity were simultaneously measured under varying extraction conditions (mild heating and brief microwave exposure) for: i) whole juice extracts (WJE), ii) methanol-extracted juice (MEJ), iii) ddH2O-extracted pomace (dPOM), and iv) methanol-extracted pomace (mPOM). The antioxidant activity for WJE was substantially increased with mild and prolonged exposure to either heating or microwave, such that the % inhibition against 2,2-diphenyl-1-bspicrylhydrazyl (DPPH) followed a positive correlation (heating, 5-20 min.; microwave, 1-2 min.), insignificant with MEJ and dPOM, whereas with mPOM there was sharp downregulation. L-Ascorbic acid content was not affected with mild to prolonged heating or microwave exposure (WEJ and mPOM), except a mild increase with MEJ and dPOM. Similarly, total phenols assessed showed no significant variations, as compared with control extracts, except a mild decrease with exposure for mPOM. In a manner similar to L-ascorbic acid, total flavonoid content was increased under varying conditions for WEJ and MEJ, and slightly decreased for dPOM and mPOM. On the other hand, anthocyanins showed differential variations with exposure (up- and downregulation). Assessment of extraction means as compared with WJE revealed sharp increase in the antioxidant activity for MEJ, dPOM and mPOM, significant increase in L-ascorbic acid, total phenol, and flavonoid contents for MEJ, dPOM and mPOM, and mild decrease in anthocyanin contents for MEJ, dPOM, and mPOM. These results

  3. Measurement of antioxidant activity and antioxidant compounds under versatile extraction conditions: I. the immuno-biochemical antioxidant properties of sweet cherry (Prunus avium) extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanbali, Lama B; Ghadieh, Rana M; Hasan, Hiba A; K Nakhal, Yasmine; Haddad, John J

    2013-01-01

    Previously, we have meticulously examined the efficacy of the measurable antimicrobial activity of sweet cherry (Prunus avium) extracts on a wide spectrum of gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria, in addition to the fungus, Candida albicans, a priori. In order to further understand the biochemical constituents and antioxidant activities of a variety of extracts of sweet cherries, antioxidant compounds of immunological significance, including L-ascorbic acid (vitamin C), phenols, flavonoids, and anthocyanins, and the total antioxidant (free radical scavenging) activity were simultaneously measured under varying and versatile extraction conditions (mild heating [5, 10 and 20 min.], and brief microwave exposure [1, 2 and 5 min.]) for a variety of extracts: i) whole juice extracts (WJE), ii) methanol-extracted juice (MEJ), iii) ddH2O-extracted pomace (dPOM), and iv) methanol-extracted pomace (mPOM). The antioxidant activity under the versatile extraction conditions adopted in this study was conspicuously reduced, such that the % inhibition against 2,2- diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) followed an inverse, negative correlational trendline. Moreover, ascorbic acid content was not affected with mild to prolonged heating or microwave exposure, except tangibly with dPOM and mPOM. The total phenols content assessed showed no significant variations, as compared with control extracts. In a manner similar to ascorbic acid, total flavonoids were mildly reduced under varying conditions, an effect mimicked to a certain extent with anthocyanins. Assessment of extraction means as compared with WJE revealed sharp decrease in the antioxidant activity for dPOM and mPOM, significant increase in L-ascorbic acid, total phenol, and flavonoid contents for MEJ, dPOM, and mPOM, and mild decrease in anthocyanin contents for dPOM and mPOM. These results confirm the measurable antioxidant activities and contents of P. avium extracts under versatile conditions of mild exposure, an effect

  4. 上海地区栽培甜樱桃光合特性研究%Study on Photosynthetic Characteristics of Prunus avium L. in Shanghai

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李勃; 蔚玉红; 刘庆忠

    2010-01-01

    [目的]研究上海地区栽培甜樱桃(Prunus avium L.)的光合特性.[方法]对上海地区栽植的拉宾斯、先锋、萨米脱和布鲁克斯4个甜樱桃品种的光合特性进行研究.[结果]布鲁克斯和萨米脱的叶绿素含量高于拉宾斯和先锋,但4个甜樱桃品种叶片中叶绿素含量与光合速率(Pn)不存在正相关关系.拉宾斯和先锋的气孔密度明显大于布鲁克斯和萨米脱,气孔纵径和横径却较相对小.4个甜樱桃品种的饱和光强都在800 μmol/(m2·s)附近,拉宾斯的光饱和光合速率最高,为11.7 μmol/(m2·s),光合能力最强.布鲁克斯存在一定程度的光抑制现象,与其他品种相比,表现出了一定的阴生植物的倾向,能较充分地利用弱光,而且利用低浓度CO2的能力仅次于拉宾斯,比较适合在光照较差的设施内或者南方地区栽培.[结论]该研究可为上海等长江以南地区甜樱桃的引种和优质高效栽培提供理论支持.

  5. 欧洲甜樱桃研究进展及开发利用前景%Research Progress of Prunus avium and the Development Prospects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    兰士波

    2012-01-01

    在汲取国内外相关研究成果及学术观点的基础上,详细阐述了欧洲甜樱桃的生物学和生态学特性、起源及地理分布,探讨了果实所含营养成分及其营养和医疗保健价值;分析了存量资源的保存现状、优良品种及砧木选育的研究进展;指出了资源开发利用过程中存在的不足,展望了欧洲甜樱桃系列产品综合开发和创新利用的广阔前景。旨在实现欧洲甜樱桃无公害、标准化栽培及资源的可持续利用,为推动功能性饮品、保健品及药品的产业化发展,提供理论依据和科技支撑。%This paper expounded systematically the biological and ecological characteristics of Prunus avium L.,and its the origin and geographic distribution on the basis of generalized the research production and science paper of P.avium at home and abroad in the recently years.We discussed the nutrition ingredient of P.avium and its nutrition and health function,analyzed the status quo of germplasm resources conservation,utilization and estimate,and the progress of variety breeding study.We pointed out the insufficiencies in exploitation and utilization,and expected the bright future for the development of series production of P.avium The aim was to carry out nuisanceless,standardization planting and sustainable utilization of P.avium resources,provided theory warranty and support of science and technology for promoted the industrialization development of functionality beverage,health products and material medica of P.avium.

  6. Identification of Known and Novel microRNAs and Their Targets in Peach (Prunus persica) Fruit by High-Throughput Sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chunhua; Zhang, Binbin; Ma, Ruijuan; Yu, Mingliang; Guo, Shaolei; Guo, Lei; Korir, Nicholas Kibet

    2016-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a group of non-coding RNAs that have functions in post-transcriptional gene regulation in plants. Although the most important economic component of peach trees (Prunus persica) is the fruit, not much is known about miRNAs in this organ. In this study, miRNAs and their targets were identified and characterized from libraries of small RNAs of peach fruit through Solexa based-sequencing and bioinformatics approaches. A total of 557 known peach miRNAs belonging to 34 miRNA families were identified, and some of these miRNAs were found to be highly conserved in at least four other plant species. Using the most current criteria for miRNA annotation, 275 putative novel miRNAs were predicted, and the sequencing frequencies of these novel miRNAs were less than those of the conserved miRNAs. In total, 3959 and 1614 target genes for 349 known and 193 novel miRNAs, respectively, were predicted with the criteria that a single target gene can be targeted by different miRNAs and that a single miRNA can also have a large number of target genes. Three targets were even found to be targeted by 13 novel miRNAs that contained the same complete miRNA sequence at different locations and had different scaffolds. The proteins predicted to be targeted by the miRNAs identified in this study encompass a wide range of transcription factors and are involved in many biological processes and pathways, including development, metabolism, stress responses and signal transduction. A total of 115 and 101 target genes were identified to be cleaved by 60 known miRNAs and 27 novel miRNAs through degradome sequencing, respectively. These miRNAs induce cleavage of their targets precisely at the position between nucleotides 10 and 11 of the miRNA sequences from the 5' to the 3' end. Thirty conserved miRNAs and 19 novel miRNAs exhibited differential expression profiles in the peach, and the expression patterns of some miRNAs appeared to be tissue- or developmental stage-specific. The

  7. Phenotypic diversity of urban landscape plant Prunus yunnanensis%都市园林植物云南樱花的表型多样性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董文婧; 张雪; 申仕康; 吴富勤; 杨冠松; 和树庄; 王跃华

    2016-01-01

    云南樱花( Prunus yunnannensis)为蔷薇科( Rosaceae)多年生落叶乔木,是中国西南地区特有的重要园林观赏植物,其在昆明园林绿化中具有较高的应用价值。以昆明地区的云南樱花为研究对象,研究了6个栽培居群120个单株的16个表型性状的多样性,分析了16个表型性状的相关性和广义遗传力,并对6个栽培居群进行了聚类分析,旨在探明其在资源应用过程中的表型变异程度及变异规律,为今后优良性状选育与种质推广提供科学依据。结果表明:云南樱花在居群间及居群内均存在丰富的表型多样性,除雌蕊长以外,其它15个表型性状在各居群之间均存在显著性差异,其中各性状的平均变异幅度为7.73%~94.04%,在居群内的变异幅度为20.74%~28.22%,各性状居群内的变异明显小于居群间,16个表型性状的广义遗传力介于0.54~0.97之间,其中叶长的广义遗传力最大,而雌蕊长的广义遗传力最小。对云南樱花16个形态指标的相关性分析表明,大部分形态指标之间均存在显著的相关性。利用居群间欧氏距离进行的UPGMA聚类分析结果表明,云南樱花6个栽培居群可以聚为2类。%Investigation of intraspecific phenotypic diversity is critical for the understanding of evolutionary and ecologi-cal processes, and may provide insights for uncovering the roles of natural selection, genetic diversity and variation that contribute to species’ variety breeding and resource exploitation and utilization. Prunus yunnannensis is a perennial de-ciduous plant in the family Rosaceae. It is an endemic germplasm resource with high ornamental value in Southwestern, China. The species has been widely implicated as an ornamental plant in city landscaping in Kunming, Yunnan Province. In order to reveal the variation degree and variation patterns of the phenotype in P. yunnannensis during re-source application and provide scientific evidence for

  8. LA RELACIÓN HOJA: FRUTO AFECTA LA PRODUCCIÓN, EL CRECIMIENTO Y LA CALIDAD DEL FRUTO EN DURAZNERO (Prunus persica L. Batsch, cv. ‘Rubidoux’ LEAF TO FRUIT RATIO AFFECTS YIELD, FRUIT GROWTH AND FRUIT QUALITY OF PEACH (Prunus persica L. Batsch, cv. ‘Rubidoux’

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fánor Casierra-Posada

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available El raleo de frutos es un práctica agrícola común en los árboles de melocotón con miras a una cosecha moderada a abundante. Sin embargo, a pesar de las muchas ventajas del raleo, demostradas a lo largo de años de experiencia en la zona templada, esta práctica es a menudo una de las operaciones conducidas de manera ineficiente en el cultivo del duraznero. Árboles de duraznero (Prunus persica L. Batsch cv. ‘Rubidoux’ se ralearon manualmente con el objeto de mejorar la calidad comercial del fruto. Se evaluaron los cambios en el crecimiento del fruto, los sólidos solubles totales, la relación pulpa: semilla, la producción, la calidad del fruto y el diámetro de la fruta, durante una temporada de crecimiento de los frutos según el efecto de la relación hoja: fruto (10; 20; 30; 40 y 50 hojas por fruto, en Guasca - Cundinamarca - Colombia. El raleo se realizó 85 días después de plena floración. Los árboles del tratamiento control no se ralearon. Se observaron diferencias en las curvas de crecimiento del fruto, en el promedio de fruto cosechado, en el peso fresco de los frutos y en su calidad comercial. El contenido de sólidos solubles totales en los frutos y la relación pulpa:semilla aumentaron con el raleo. Al momento de la cosecha, la producción se redujo en los árboles raleados, pero se mejoró la cantidad del fruto comercial. Los tratamientos con 40 y 50 hojas por fruto tuvieron la mayor proporción de frutos de mejor calidad en comparación con los árboles control.Fruit thinning is a standard practice on peach trees carrying a moderate to heavy crop. However, in spite of the many benefits from thinning demostrated through long years of experience in the temperate zone, fruit thinning is too often one of the most unefficiently conducted operations in peach growing. With a view to improve marketable yield and fruit quality, trees of peach (Prunus persica L. Batsch cv. ‘Rubidoux’ were subjected to hand thinning. Changes

  9. Flutuação populacional e previsão de gerações de Grapholita molesta (Busck, 1916 (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae em pessegueiro, Prunus persica (Linnaeus Batsch = Populational fluctuation and generation prediction of Grapholita molesta (Busck, 1916 (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae in peach, Prunus persica (Linnaeus Batsch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Jorge Cividanes

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available A mariposa-oriental, Grapholita molesta (Busck, 1916, encontra-se distribuída em quase todas as partes do mundo, constituindo importante praga do pessegueiro, Prunus persica (Linnaeus Batsch. Este estudo foi desenvolvido em pomar comercial de pessegueiro localizado em Taiúva, São Paulo, durante os anos 1997 a 2003, visando obter a flutuação populacional de adultos de G. molesta relacionando-a com fatores meteorológicos. O estudo também visou determinar uma data biofix adequada para prever a ocorrência de gerações da praga por meio de um modelo de graus-dia. A amostragem da mariposa-oriental e de insetos predadores foi efetuada com armadilha plástica com suco de pêssego e armadilha adesiva amarela, respectivamente. A influência de fatores físicos e biológicos foi avaliada por análise de correlação linear simples. Os maiores picos populacionais de G. molesta ocorreram nos meses de maio, julho e outubro. As correlações obtidas sugerem que a baixa umidade ambiental pode ter sido fator de mortalidade para G. molesta. O elevado número de pulverizações de inseticida pode ter causado impacto negativo sobre inimigos naturais contribuindo para a elevada densidade do inseto-praga no período de 1998 a 1999. A data de constatação dapresença de gemas vegetativas e de flor diferenciadas no pessegueiro mostrou-se adequada para se iniciar a contagem de graus-dia para prever gerações de G. molesta. Esses resultados devem ajudar aimplementação de programas para prever picos populacionais de adultos de G. molesta visando à aplicação de inseticidas. Recomenda-se a validação do modelo de graus-dia em outras localidades para comprovar os resultados obtidos.The oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta (Busck, 1916, is spread around the world and is considered an important pest on peach, Prunus persica (Linnaeus Batsch. This work was carried out at a commercial peach orchard located in Taiúva, State of São Paulo, Brazil, from 1997 to

  10. Study of the volatile compounds from plum (Prunus domestica L. cv. Horvin and estimation of their contribution to the fruit aroma Estudo de compostos voláteis de ameixa (Prunus domestica L. cv. Horvin e estimativa da sua contribuição ao aroma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Antonio Pino

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Simultaneous Distillation-Extraction (SDE and headspace-solid phase microextraction (HS-SPME combined with GC-FID and GC-MS were used to analyze volatile compounds from plum (Prunus domestica L. cv. Horvin and to estimate the most odor-active compounds by application of the Odor Activity Values (OAV. The analyses led to the identification of 148 components, including 58 esters, 23 terpenoids, 14 aldehydes, 11 alcohols, 10 ketones, 9 alkanes, 7 acids, 4 lactones, 3 phenols, and other 9 compounds of different structures. According to the results of SDE-GC-MS, SPME-GC-MS and OAV, ethyl 2-methylbutanoate, hexyl acetate, (E-2-nonenal, ethyl butanoate, (E-2-decenal, ethyl hexanoate, nonanal, decanal, (E-β-ionone, Γ-dodecalactone, (Z-3-hexenyl acetate, pentyl acetate, linalool, Γ-decalactone, butyl acetate, limonene, propyl acetate, Δ-decalactone, diethyl sulfide, (E-2-hexenyl acetate, ethyl heptanoate, (Z-3-hexenol, (Z-3-hexenyl hexanoate, eugenol, (E-2-hexenal, ethyl pentanoate, hexyl 2-methylbutanoate, isopentyl hexanoate, 1-hexanol, Γ-nonalactone, myrcene, octyl acetate, phenylacetaldehyde, 1-butanol, isobutyl acetate, (E-2-heptenal, octadecanal, and nerol are characteristic odor active compounds in fresh plums since they showed concentrations far above their odor thresholds.As técnicas de extração-destilação simultâneas (SDE e de headspace-microextração em fase sólida (HS-SPME combinadas com GC-FID e GC-MS foram usadas para analisar compostos voláteis da ameixa (Prunus domestica L. cv. Horvin e para estimar os compostos de aroma mais ativos, pela aplicação de valores de atividade olfativa (OAV, considerando os compostos voláteis presentes no headspace da fruta. As análises levaram à identificação de 148 componentes, incluindo 58 ésteres, 23 terpenoides, 14 aldeídos, 11 álcoois, 10 cetonas, 9 alcanos, 7 ácidos, 4 lactonas, 3 fenóis e 9 outros compostos de diferentes estruturas. De acordo om os resultados de SDE

  11. MULTIPLICAÇÃO IN VITRO DE PORTA-ENXERTOS DO GÊNERO PRUNUS SOB DIFERENTES CONCENTRAÇÕES DE BAP EM DOIS MEIOS DE CULTURA IN VITRO MULTIPLICATION OF PRUNUS ROOTSTOCKS IN DIFFERENT BAP CONCENTRATIONS IN TWO CULTURE MEDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CARLOS AUGUSTO POSSER SILVEIRA

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivo determinar a melhor concentração de BAP (6-benzilaminopurina e meio de cultura para a multiplicação in vitro de porta-enxertos de Prunus sp., recentemente introduzidos no Brasil. Os porta-enxertos G x N22, GF 677, Mr.S 2/5, Marianna e Mirabolano foram testados em dois meios de cultura, meio MS e meio MS ¾ (reduzido em 25% dos sais do meio inteiro, combinados com quatro concentrações da citocinina BAP: 0,1; 0,3; 0,5 e 0,7 mg.L-1. Observou-se que os genótipos apresentaram comportamentos diferentes entre si em relação às concentrações de BAP e aos meios. Concluiu-se que, para os porta-enxertos G x N22 e Mr.S 2/5, o melhor meio de multiplicação é o MS ¾ com BAP na concentração de 0,7 mg.L-1; para o porta-enxerto Marianna, o meio MS com BAP na concentração de 0,7 mg.L-1; para o porta-enxerto Mirabolano, o meio MS ¾ com BAP na concentração de 0,5 mg.L-1, sendo que, para este porta-enxerto, o BAP exerce efeito negativo sobre o tamanho das brotações, independentemente do tipo de meio. Já para o porta-enxerto G x N22, este efeito se fez notar apenas no meio MS. O porta-enxerto GF 677 não apresentou bons resultados na propagação in vitro.The purpose of this work was to determine the best BAP concentration and culture media for the in vitro multiplication of Prunus rootstocks starting from nodal segments. The rootstocks G x N22, GF 677, Mr.S 2/5, Marianna and Mirabolano were tested in two culture media (MS and MS ¾ combined with four BAP concentrations (0.1; 0.3; 0.5 and 0.7 mg.L-1. It was observed that the genotypes had different performance as the two media and BAP concentrations are concerned. BAP provided better results in the MS ¾ for the rootstocks G x N22 and Mr.S 2/5. For 'Marianna', the best results were found in the MS at 0.7 mg.L-1 BAP. 'Mirabolano', showed better results in the MS ¾ at 0.5 mg.L-1 BAP and in the two tested media, the shoot length decreased with the increase for

  12. Atividade da peroxidase durante o período hibernal de plantas de pessegueiro (Prunus persica (L. Batsch. cv. jubileu com e sem sintomas da morte precoce Peroxidase activity during the rest period of peach trees (Prunus persica (L. Batsch cv. jubileu in plants with and without symptoms ofpeach-tree-short-life (PTSL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anderson Carlos Marafon

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available A morte precoce do pessegueiro (Prunus persica (L. Batsch é uma síndrome caracterizada por um colapso da planta durante a floração ou no início da brotação, após drástica redução da temperatura. O objetivo do presente trabalho foi determinar a atividade da peroxidase (UE min-1 g-1 MF durante o período hibernal, em gemas e ramos de plantas de pessegueiro cv. Jubileu, com e sem sintomas de morte precoce. Foram conduzidos dois experimentos separadamente, um para cada tipo de tecido, em dois pomares próximos, ambos com quatro anos de implantação, situados na região colonial de Pelotas - RS, nas localidades de Santa Helena e Cascata. As amostras foram constituídas por dois tipos de tecidos (gemas e ramos e foram coletadas em quatro datas (11-06, 11-07, 29-07 e 05-08 durante o inverno de 2003. As determinações da atividade da peroxidase nos tecidos foram realizadas no Laboratório de Fisiologia Vegetal da Embrapa Clima Temperado. As plantas com sintomas de morte precoce apresentaram, durante a dormência, maior atividade da peroxidase nos dois tipos de tecidos, quando comparadas com as plantas sem sintomas da síndrome. Provavelmente, o desencadeamento da síndrome provoca alterações na dormência das plantas afetadas, que resultam na antecipação da retomada do crescimento das gemas e na exposição dos tecidos recém-formados aos danos causados pelas baixas temperaturas. Os níveis populacionais donematoide-anelado (Mesocriconema xenoplax e dos nematoides do gênero Helicotylenchus sp. foram superiores nas amostras de solo coletadas na rizosfera das plantas com sintomas de morte precoce do que os verificados nas amostras coletadas das plantas sem sintomas da síndrome, resultando também na maior atividade da peroxidase em ambos os tecidos (gemas e ramos, durante o período hibernal das plantas afetadas.Peach Tree Short Life (PTSL is a syndrome characterized by a collapse of the peach trees (Prunus persica (L. Batsch during the

  13. A Simple Model to Predict the Probability of a Peach (Prunus persicae) Tree Bud to Develop as a Long or Short Shoot as a Consequence of Winter Pruning Intensity and Previous Year Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bevacqua, Daniele; Génard, Michel; Lescourret, Françoise

    2012-01-01

    In many woody plants, shoots emerging from buds can develop as short or long shoots. The probability of a bud to develop as a long or short shoot relies upon genetic, environmental and management factors and controlling it is an important issue in commercial orchard. We use peach (Prunus persicae) trees, subjected to different winter pruning levels and monitored for two years, to develop and calibrate a model linking the probability of a bud to develop as a long shoot to winter pruning intensity and previous year vegetative growth. Eventually we show how our model can be used to adjust pruning intensity to obtain a desired proportion of long and short shoots. PMID:23300609

  14. Effects of Low Temperature Stress on Some Cold Resistance Indexes of Four Kinds of Root Stock Prunus%低温胁迫对李属4种砧木几个抗寒指标的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏向辉; 秦伟; 刘立强; 陈锋; 周龙

    2012-01-01

    以李属天山樱桃、毛樱桃、榆叶梅和野生樱桃李的休眠枝条为试材,采用人工冷冻降温的方法,设置温度梯度分别为-18,-21,-24,-27,-30,-33,-36,-39,-42℃,以-15℃为对照(CK),测定不同低温胁迫下休眠枝条的电解质渗出率、萌芽率、脯氨酸含量和丙二醛含量,利用Logistic方程对电解质渗出率变化曲线进行拟合,计算半致死温度,并用主成分分析法对4项指标进行分析.结果表明,低温胁迫下4种果树休眠枝条的电解质渗出率都随温度下降而上升,半致死温度为-25.3~-40.1℃,恢复生长法与半致死温度的结果基本一致,游离脯氨酸含量和抗寒性相关性明显,而丙二醛含量不十分吻合.4种李属砧木抗寒性大小依次为天山樱桃>榆叶梅>毛樱桃>野生樱桃李.%In this paper,the dormant branches of Cerasus tianschanica , Cerasus tomentosa ,Prunus triloba and Prunus divaricate were used as test materials, the penertrating rate of electrolyte, the germination rate,the proline content and the MDA content four cold resistance indexes under different low-temperatures treatment CK(-15℃),-18℃,-21℃,-24℃,-27℃,-30℃,-33℃,-36℃,-39℃ and —42℃ were determined by using artificial freezing temperature. The semi-lethal temperature(LT50) was obtained on the basis of conductivity and Logistic equation and the indexes of four cold resistances were a-nalysised by pricinpal component. The results showed that the penertrating rate of electrolyte were increased with temperature decreased, the semi-lethal temperature ranged from -25. 3℃ to —40. 1℃, this corresponded well with LT50 result. The free Pro content changed significantly with the cold resistance but the MDA content had no relationship with the cold resistance. The abilities of cold resistance was listed as Cerasus tianschanica>Prunus triloba>Cerasus tomentosa>Prunus divaricata.

  15. A simple model to predict the probability of a peach (Prunus persicae tree bud to develop as a long or short shoot as a consequence of winter pruning intensity and previous year growth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Bevacqua

    Full Text Available In many woody plants, shoots emerging from buds can develop as short or long shoots. The probability of a bud to develop as a long or short shoot relies upon genetic, environmental and management factors and controlling it is an important issue in commercial orchard. We use peach (Prunus persicae trees, subjected to different winter pruning levels and monitored for two years, to develop and calibrate a model linking the probability of a bud to develop as a long shoot to winter pruning intensity and previous year vegetative growth. Eventually we show how our model can be used to adjust pruning intensity to obtain a desired proportion of long and short shoots.

  16. 甜樱桃果实MAP试验和不同部位呼吸强度变化规律研究%MAP Experiment and Variation of Respiratory Intensity of Different Parts of Fruit in Prunus avium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王志华; 王文辉; 佟伟; 张志云; 贾晓辉; 姜云斌

    2009-01-01

    @@ 甜樱桃(Prunus avium L.)又名大樱桃,果实色泽艳丽、风味鲜美,成熟时正值夏季高温季节,易失水、褐变、腐烂,风味品质下降较快,耐贮性差,常温下只能放3~5 d,极大地限制了樱桃的异地销售,而且成熟期集中,造成旺季吃不完、淡季吃不着.自发气调包装(简称MAP)作为一种投资小,使用方便的贮藏技术,广泛应用于果蔬贮运保鲜中.

  17. 网上虚拟博物馆中梅花的表现手法和技术实现%Presenting Way of Prunus Mume and Key Technology in Building the Virtual Museum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张洋; 黄心渊

    2011-01-01

    Primus mume-China's first flower of International Registration Authority, which represents a great spirit of Chinese people, and plays a significant role in the traditional Chinese garden. Its visualization is not only necessary and meaningful, but also challenging. Through analyzing the way of presenting it in the VR garden along with the exhibition design of Prunus mume in the different scenes, the essay briefly demonstrates the process of constructing the VR museum, proposes an innovative method of combining VR technology based on Virtools with the digital modeling of virtual plants, and finally achieves the rich planting of the Prunus mume VR garden.%梅花作为我国首个取得国际登录权的花卉,它傲骨的精神体现了中华民族的气节,它在园林中必不可少的地位更凸显了它对中华文化的深远影响.梅花的可视化研究不仅十分必要,而且富有挑战性.通过分析网上梅花虚拟博物馆中针对梅花近景、中景以及远景三种不用景别展示梅花的方法,对网上虚拟博物馆整体技术流程进行了简要阐述,对基于Virtools的虚拟现实技术与虚拟植物的建模技术的结合应用提出了新方法,从而实现了梅花虚拟博物馆中丰富的植物配置.

  18. Characteristic Variance Analysis on Morphology of Branches-leaves and Fruit Sense-organ of Prunus domestica L.Resources in Xinj iang%新疆欧洲李资源枝叶形态及果实感官特征差异分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙琪; 廖康; 耿文娟; 贾杨; 赵世荣; 彭晓莉

    2015-01-01

    In order to explore the difference of genetic diversity and genetic relationship between several types of Prunus domestica L.resources in Xinjiang,48 indicators on morphology of branches‐leaves and sense‐organ fruit of 30 Prunus domestica L.individuals from 5 types were observed and measured.The tested individuals all showed varying degrees of diversity on each indicator.Among them the variable coeffi‐cient of single fruit weight was the highest,reached 69.82%.The first 11 principal components from cumu‐lative contribution reached 90.632%.The 11 principal components were named factor of fruit weight,factor of leaves size,factor of No.1 leaves shape,factor of No.1 fruit shape and lenticell,factor of internal quality and so on.In cluster analysis,wild Prunus domestica L.,Jiashi Smoked Plum and part of Tacheng Smoked Plum were classified into another one group.However,abroad Prunus domestica L.varieties,Tacheng Binzi and the another part of Tacheng Smoked Plum were classified into a group.The branches‐leaves morpholo‐gy and fruit sense‐organ characters of Prunus domestica L.germplasm resources in Xinj iang had a certain diverse overall,among which there were the richest indicator diversity of fruit sense‐organ characters.In the respect of branches‐leaves morphology and fruit sense‐organ characters,wild Prunus domestica L.and lo‐cal smoked plum were simillar with each other.So abroad Prunus domestica L.varieties and Prunus dom‐estica L.resources in Tacheng were closer to each other.%为探索几类新疆欧洲李种质资源的遗传多样性及亲缘关系差异,对5个类型共30个欧洲李单株的48项枝叶形态及果实感官指标进行观察测定.结果表明,供试单株在各项指标上均展现出不同程度的多样性,其中以单果重的变异系数最高,达到69.82%.提取前11个累计贡献率达90.632%的主成分,依次命名为果实重量因子、叶片大小因子、叶片形状因子1

  19. 桃树修剪分枝模式的模拟%Modeling the Branching Patterns of Peach Tree Branches (Prunus persica) After Being Pruned

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏宁; 李保国; 邓西民; 郭焱

    2004-01-01

    在不同修剪手法下,对栽培桃树(Prunuspersica(L.)Batsch)不同母枝上的分枝模式进行了比较研究.从分枝模式来看:修剪后的母枝基本由3个不同的区域组成,基部是不萌发的潜伏芽形成的未分枝区域;中部是延迟分枝和多次分枝组成的分枝区域(主要的枝条类型有短枝、长枝和多次枝);顶部是被剪除的部分.我们通过隐式半马尔可夫模型来模拟这一分枝模式,主要是定量描述1次枝和多次枝在母枝上的数量及其分布状况.在上述模型中,未分枝区、延迟分枝区和多次分枝区称为瞬时态,被剪除的部分称为吸收态.模拟的结果与观察的结果进行对比后发现,两者具有很好的一致性.这说明隐式半马尔可夫模型是模拟植物分枝过程的一种有效方法,尽管隐式半马尔可夫链模型只是一个描述性的模型,但仍能对其所描述的生物现象进行解释,在预测修剪手法对母枝分枝模式影响方面比传统的方法具有明显的优势.本研究结果是建立三维虚拟桃树树冠分枝结构的基础.%The shoot branching patterns of the two-year-old branches of peach trees (Prunus parsica (L.) Batsch cv. Elberta) were compared with different pruning measures. The branches were divided into a basal non-branching zone, a proleptic branching zone, a sylleptic branching zone and the part removed. We used the hidden semi-Markov model to capture the branching patterns. The final results showed that theoretical probability distributions of diverse lateral shoots of the parent branches calculated on the basis of the parameters of the hidden semi-Markov chain model were in good agreement with probabilities extracted from the observed data. This paper described the quantitative effects of pruning on branching architecture of a parent branch, taking into account of branch morphology. Results suggest that the hidden semi-Markov model could be used as an effective tool to describe the

  20. 福建(木奈)产业发展现状及前景%The Status Survey of Nane Industry in Fujian Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜翠翠; 孙文鹏; 叶新福; 方智振; 周丹蓉; 潘少霖

    2015-01-01

    (木奈)(Prunus salicina Lindli.var cordata J.Y.Zhang et al.)属蔷薇科(Rosaceae),李属(Prunus),是原产福建的名、特、优水果之一,果桃形李实,酸甜适度,风味极佳,是南方的1种重要落叶果树.本文分析了福建省(木奈)产业发展现状趋势,包括各市(木奈)种植区域、面积和产量等,阐述了(木奈)产业发展的具体优势,明确了福建省(木奈)生产现状,为福建省今后发展种植(木奈)提供参考价值.

  1. 郁李仁(R)-醇腈酶高效催化乙酰基三甲基硅烷与丙酮氰醇不对称转氰%Highly Efficient Asymmetric Transcyanation of Acetyltrimethylsilane with Acetone Cyanohydrin Catalyzed by (R)-Oxynitrilase from Prunus Japonica Seed Meal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄舜荣; 吴虹; 宗敏华

    2005-01-01

    Highly efficient asymmetric transcyanation of acetyltrimethylsilane with acetone cyanohydrin in an aqueous/organic biphasic system catalyzed with (R)-oxynitrilase from defatted Prunus Japonica seed meal for the preparation of optically active (R)-2-trimethylsilyl-2-hydroxyl- propionitrile was successfully carried out for the first time. For better understanding of the reaction, various influential variables were examined with respect to the initial reaction rate, the substrate conversion and the product enantiomeric excess (e.e.). Diisopropyl ether was found to be the best organic phase for this reaction among all the organic solvents tested. The optimal concentrations of Prunus Japonica seed meal powder, acetyltrimethylsilane and acetone cyanohydrin, volume ratio of aqueous phase 13% (by volume), 5.0 and 30℃, respectively, while the initial reaction rate, the substrate conversion and the product enantiomeric excess were 1.34mmol. L-1.h-1, 99.0% and 99.0%, respectively. The comparative study demonstrated that silicon atom in substrate showed great effect on the reaction and acetyltrimethylsilane was a much better substrate for (R)-hydroxynitrile lyase from Prunus Japonica seed than its carbon analogue 3,3-dimethyl-2-butanone.

  2. Association between Chloroplast and Mitochondrial DNA sequences in Chinese Prunus genotypes (Prunus persica, Prunus domestica, and Prunus avium)

    OpenAIRE

    Pervaiz, Tariq; Sun, Xin; Zhang, Yanyi; Tao, Ran; Zhang, Junhuan; Fang, Jinggui

    2015-01-01

    Background The nuclear DNA is conventionally used to assess the diversity and relatedness among different species, but variations at the DNA genome level has also been used to study the relationship among different organisms. In most species, mitochondrial and chloroplast genomes are inherited maternally; therefore it is anticipated that organelle DNA remains completely associated. Many research studies were conducted simultaneously on organelle genome. The objectives of this study was to ana...

  3. Characteristics of Reproductive Biology of Prunus domesticaxarmeniaca ‘ Fengweimeigui'%杏李新品种‘风味玫瑰’生殖特性的初步研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    雷莉莉; 莫文娟; 李芳东; 傅建敏; 杨绍彬

    2013-01-01

    In order to investigate the mechanism of low fruit set of Prunus domesticaxarmeniaca 'Fengweimeigui', the characteristics of reproductive biology was analyzed via floral organogenesis of fixed plants, pollen viability and stigma receptivity, pollen-ovule ratio and artificial pollination test. The result showed: (l)the flower of Prunus domesticaxarmeniaca 'Fengweimeigui' had two types,the length of stigmas was longer than the filaments of stamens, and the stigmas atrophied was very short. (2)Pollen vitality lasted for three days, and stigma receptivity lasted for five days. The most common floral visitors were bees; (3)Pollen-ovule ratio was 605.7±50.3. (4)The fruit set rate of manual cross pollination was as high as 30.19%, and was obviously higher than that of self-pollination only 7.8%, which was obviously lower than the manual cross pollination. As a result, the mating system was out-crossing with partial self-compatibility which needs pollinators. The results indicated that low efficiency of pollination was important factors leading to natural low fruit set.%为了探究‘风味玫瑰’自然结果率偏低的原因,运用花部形态、花粉活力及柱头可授性测定、花粉-胚珠比(P/O)以及人工授粉试验相结合的方法,对‘风味玫瑰’生殖特性进行了初步研究.研究表明:(1)‘风味玫瑰’的花有两种类型,一种花柱高于雄蕊,另一种花柱萎缩,很短;(2)花粉活力持续3d,柱头可授性持续5d,主要访花昆虫为蜂类;(3)平均单花花粉量/单花胚珠数(P/O)值为(605.7±25.1);(4)人工异花授粉坐果率最高可达30.19%,自花授粉坐果率为7.8%,明显比异花授粉坐果率低,表明‘风味玫瑰’交配系统类型是兼性异交、需要传粉者.研究结果认为,传粉效率低是其自然结果率低的重要原因.

  4. Cloning and Expression Analysis of MADS box Gene in Sweet Cherry(Prunus avium)%甜樱桃MADS box基因的克隆与表达分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林苗苗; 赵长竹; 姜建福; 顾红; 陈锦永; 方金豹

    2011-01-01

    A MADS box gene was isolated from the floral bud of sweet cherry(Prunus avium L.'Lapins')by using RT-PCR and RACE approaches,the gene was named PaMADS3(The accession number in GenBank:HQ229605).The full length cDNA of PaMADS3 is 1 095 bp,with an ORF of 723 bp encoding 240 putative amino acid residues.Sequence analysis indicated that PaMADS3 shared highly homology with Arabidopsis SEP gene.Tissue specific analysis showed that PaMADS3 expressed in petal,stamen,and carpel.Real-time RT-PCR revealed that when the shoots were treated with 15℃ and 25℃,respectively,the expression of PaMADS3 was increased in carpel under the temperature of 25℃.%以甜樱桃'拉宾斯'(Prunus avium L.'Lapins')为试材,采用RT-PCR结合RACE技术,克隆获得1个与花发育相关的MADS box基因,命名为PaMADS3,其在GenBank中的登录号为HQ229605。PaMADS3基因全长1095bp,包含1个723bp的开放阅读框,推断其编码240个氨基酸。序列分析表明:PaMADS3蛋白与拟南芥中的SEP蛋白高度同源。组织特异性表达显示PaMADS3基因在花瓣、雄蕊、心皮中表达。实时定量RT-PCR分析表明,花芽露绿期的离体枝条经过15和25℃处理后,其雌蕊中PaMADS3基因在25℃的表达量高于在15℃的表达量。

  5. Effects of different fertilizer matrices on seedling growth of Prunus zippenliana var.puberi f olia%不同基质对柔毛大叶桂樱幼苗生长的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹基武; 杨玉洁; 张冬林; 刘春林; 曾翔; 龚利彬

    2011-01-01

    采用泥炭土、有机肥料、废棉籽壳和纯黄土4种育苗基质对柔毛大叶桂樱幼苗进行基质试验,测定幼苗的苗高、地径、生物量等指标,并对结果进行统计分析.分析结果表明:不同的基质配方差异显著,4种不同基质条件下柔毛大叶桂樱生长量变化趋势基本保持一致,但对苗高、地径和生物量的生长影响不同,对于苗高和地径来说,有机肥料最好,废棉籽壳次之;对于叶片数来说,以泥炭土最好,有机肥料次之.叶面积以废棉籽壳最好,有机肥料次之.而纯黄土并不适宜作为纯质的育苗基质.在一年的生长期内,地径生长要先于苗高生长.%Container growing media is hard to be found in China and the potential for marketing growing media for nursery crops is tremendous. To evaluate the effect of media on plant growth, Prunus zippenliana var. Puberifolia seedlings had been grown with loess (control) and loess mixed with peatmoss, cotton shells, and compost manure at 1 : 1 ratio (by volume). Both seedling's height and diameter under compost manure and cotton shells amended media grew faster than that of peatmoss + loess and straight loess. At the end of the first growing season (2009) , no significant difference was found among the amended media. At the beginning of the 2nd growing season, the seedling growth was much faster than the first growing season under compost manure and cotton shells a-mended loess. These results indicate that loess should not be used as container media. Loess amended with peatmoss, compost manure, and cotton shells did not help the seedling growth of Prunus zippenliana var. Puberifolia in the first growing season, but had significantly affected at the 2nd year. Further studies should focus on other components of soil-less media and produce feasible container growing media for the rapid developing Chinese container production market.

  6. 酸樱桃组织培养及快速繁殖技术研究%On the Technology of Tissue Culture and Rapid Propagation of Prunus cerasus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐晓杰; 孟庆繁; 杨振国; 高文韬

    2004-01-01

    以芽苞、茎尖和茎段为外植体,在MS培养基中加入不同浓度的6-苄基腺嘌呤(6-BA)、萘乙酸(NAA)、吲哚丁酸(IBA),对酸樱桃(Prunus Cerasus)进行了组织培养快速繁殖技术的研究.结果表明:以MS+6-BA2.0mg/L+IBA0.1mg/L为酸樱桃最适宜增殖培养基,增殖率为4~5倍.壮苗培养基为不加激素MS培养基.适合诱导生根的培养基为1/2MS+IBA1.0mg/L,生根率为93%.以蛭石+珍珠岩体积比1∶2为培养基的组培苗移栽成活率最高,达到86%以上.

  7. Single amino acid changes in the 6K1-CI region can promote the alternative adaptation of Prunus- and Nicotiana-propagated Plum pox virus C isolates to either host.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvo, María; Malinowski, Tadeusz; García, Juan Antonio

    2014-02-01

    Plum pox virus (PPV) C is one of the less common PPV strains and specifically infects cherry trees in nature. Making use of two PPV-C isolates that display different pathogenicity features, i.e., SwCMp, which had been adapted to Nicotiana species, and BY101, which had been isolated from cherry rootstock L2 (Prunus lannesiana) and propagated only in cherry species, we have generated two infective full-length cDNA clones in order to determine which viral factors are involved in the adaptation to each host. According to our results, the C-P3(PIPO)/6K1/N-CI (cylindrical inclusion) region contains overlapping but not coincident viral determinants involved in symptoms development, local viral amplification, and systemic movement capacity. Amino acid changes in this region promoting the adaptation to N. benthamiana or P. avium have trade-off effects in the alternative host. In both cases, adaptation can be achieved through single amino acid changes in the NIapro protease recognition motif between 6K1 and CI or in nearby sequences. Thus, we hypothesize that the potyvirus polyprotein processing could depend on specific host factors and the adaptation of PPV-C isolates to particular hosts relies on a fine regulation of the proteolytic cleavage of the 6K1-CI junction. PMID:24200075

  8. 甜樱桃李矮缩病毒(PDV) RT-PCR检测方法的优化与应用%Optimization and application of Prunus dwarf virus (PDV) detection by RT-PCR in sweet cherry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王文文; 刘庆忠; 宗晓娟; 陈立伟; 王甲威; 魏海蓉; 徐丽; 严雪瑞

    2012-01-01

    以甜樱桃(Prunus avium L.)品种红灯的叶片为材料,提取总RNA,选用随机六聚体引物进行反转录合成cDNA,根据李矮缩病毒外壳蛋白基因设计2对特异引物,分别从感病样品中扩增出与预期片段大小相符的目的片段.通过对RT-PCR反应体系中引物、模板浓度和退火温度的优化,改进了现有的李矮缩病毒的RT-PCR检测方法,并成功用于山东泰安地区甜樱桃果园的病毒调查.另外,还可以扩增18 sRNA,实现对李矮缩病毒外壳蛋白基因表达的相对定量分析.

  9. Messa a punto di un metodo per l'individuazione di β-1,3- glucanasi e chitinasi attraverso Native PAGE su estratti di piante di Prunus avium L. inoculate con Phytophthora spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna De Rogatis

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Tecnique to detect on ß-1,3- glucanase and chitinasi by native PAGE, in Prunus avium (L.clones inoculated with Phytophthora spp. ß-1,3-glucanase and chitinase activities have been detected by native PAGE (poliacrylamide gel electrophoresis on leaf extracts of wild cherry (P. avium inoculated with different species of Phytophthora spp.. These pathogens are aggressive in wild cherry and they can cause wiltings and death of the plant. These two PR (pathogen-related proteins are normally produced by plants as first resistance strategy towards pathogens. The PR activities are involved in ifal cell wall degradation and growth. Usually, the techniques to detect them are based on colorimetric assay performed with the total protein extracts or in the poliacrylamide gels, through expensive procedures. In this work a direct colorimetric detection on a Carboximetil (cm-Curdlan RBB (Remazol Brilliant Blu and Glycol Chitosan substrate, is used to reveal ß-1,3-glucanase and chitinasi respectively. This protocol resulted to be very sensible in detecting the two proteins, very simply, reliable and cheap.

  10. Application gives the spectrometria Moessbauer to the study chemical structural he/she gives the iron sulphate used monohidratado as payment in parcel he/she gives peaches (Prunus Persica) in Cartaya (Huelva) it leaves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the present work, a study of chemical-structural properties of the mono hydrous iron sulphate (FeSO4.1H2O) with a 15% approximately of free sulphuric acid, used like improvement of soil is carried out. This work is the first of a series, where the experiences of the use of this product in parcels (where peaches (Prunus persica) are cultivated) in the zone of Cartaya (Huelva, Spain) are undertaken. The characterisation of soil from the parcel before application of this product is carried out in order to analyse and compare with the final results by using the methods of the Moessbauer spectroscopy. High contents of Fe, S, and Zn at the studied product are observed . This elements are very important for plants. The knowledge of the main chemical-structural properties of this product, used like improvement of soil, will permit the study of their influence to) on the soil properly, b) on the foliate levels of the peach leaves and c) on the foodstuff fruit

  11. Ethanol extract of the Prunus mume fruits stimulates glucose uptake by regulating PPAR-γ in C2C12 myotubes and ameliorates glucose intolerance and fat accumulation in mice fed a high-fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Eun Ju; Hur, Haeng Jeon; Sung, Mi Jeong; Park, Jae Ho; Yang, Hye Jeong; Kim, Myung Sunny; Kwon, Dae Young; Hwang, Jin-Taek

    2013-12-15

    In this study, we performed in vitro and in vivo studies to examine whether a 70% ethanol extract of Prunus mume fruits (EMS) exhibits anti-diabetic effects. Treatment with EMS increased glucose uptake in C2C12 myotubes, and also increased PPAR-γ activity or PPAR-γ mRNA expression. To confirm these in vitro results, we next conducted an animal experiment. A high-fat diet significantly increased the body weight, fat accumulation, and glucose levels in mice. Under the same conditions, 5% EMS attenuated the high-fat diet-induced increase in body weight and fat accumulation and improved the impaired fasting glucose level and glucose tolerance. High performance liquid chromatography analysis demonstrated that EMS contained chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid, rutin, luteolin-7-glucoside, naringin, apigenin-7-glucoside, and hesperidin. Taken together, these findings suggest that EMS exerts an anti-diabetic effect both in vitro and in vivo, which is mediated, at least in part, by the activation of PPAR-γ. PMID:23993593

  12. 甜樱桃黄酮醇合酶基因的克隆及其表达分析%Cloning and expression analysis of PacFLS in sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    柳爱玲; 沈欣杰; 刘芸; 袁华招; 张晓明; 李天红

    2013-01-01

    The flavonol synthase gene is an important gene involved in the flavonoid biosynthesis pathway. A full-length cDNA sequence of FLS gene, PaFLS (GenBank accessionn number:JQ289290), was cloned from the young leaves of Prunus avium L. by using RT-PCR and RACE method. The full-length cDNA of PaFLS was 1 077 bp with an open reading frame of 1 014 bp, which encoded a putative protein of 337 amino acids with a molecular weight of about 38 kDa and an isoelectric point of 5.58. GenBank conserved domain search and function analysis revealed that PaFLS belonged to the 2-oxoglutarate iron-dependent oxygenase (2OG-Fell_Oxy) family. Sequence analysis showed that the homologies of FLS protein from P. avium with Malus domestica, Pyrus communis and Fragaria ananassa were 99% ,97% and 77% , respectively. The prokaryotic expression system of pGEX-4T-1 /PaFLS was constructed and transformed into E.coli BL21. The protein expression was induced by 0.5 mmol/L IPTG. A 65 kDa fusion protein was detected by SDS-PAGE. The expression levels of PaFLS in different tissues of plants were analyzed by quantitative real-time PCR. Higher level of transcription was observed in the flowers than that in the fruits, pholems and leaves, which might be associated with pollinator attraction and pollen germination.%为了解黄酮醇合酶在甜樱桃类黄酮生物合成途径中的作用,根据其他物种已知的FLS cDNA保守序列设计简并引物,采用RT-PCR和RACE的技术,从甜樱桃(Prunus avium.L)嫩叶中扩增获得FLS cDNA全长,命名为PaFLS(GenBank登录号:JQ289290).该基因cDNA全长为1 077 bp,开放阅读框为1 014 bp,编码337个氨基酸,分子质量为38 ku,等电点pI为5.58.生物信息学分析表明PaFLS属于依赖2-酮戊二酸的双加氧酶家族(2OG-FeII_Oxy),该基因所编码的氨基酸序列与苹果、梨和草莓的同源性分别为99%、97%和77%.将该基因重组到表达载体pGEX4T-1中进行原核表达,电泳检测到一条约为65 ku

  13. Comparison with Freezing Resistance of Flower Organs Five Prunus sibirica Fine Lones%5种山杏优良无性系花器官抗冻性比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘明国; 于洋; 董胜君; 吴月亮; 丁士富

    2012-01-01

    The flower organs of 5 Prunus sibirica fine clones, including "Sweet almond"(No.16),"self-compatibility" (No.22), "high yield" (No.28),"freezing resistance" (No.41) and "late flowering" (No.94), were used as experimental material, and the research of freezing resistance adopted the method of low -temperature stress tests. The browning percentage and the relative electrical conductivity of flower organs of fVunns sibirica increased gradually as temperature decreased, which showed a S-shape curve, and the change of physiological index conformed to the morphological index. To obtain LT50 values, Logistic equations between the relative electrical conductivity and temperature were fitted. LT50 of petal was between -3.903℃ and -4.664t,LTso of androecium was between -3.166℃ and -3.660℃, LT50 of gynoecium was between -2.916℃ and -3.254℃. When the temperature was near lethal temperature, low temperature lasting time had significant influence on the relative electrical conductivity of Dower organs. Otherwise, the time had no significant effect on the relative electrical conductivity of flower organs.So LT% is the major index for judging the freezing resistance of the flower organs, petal > androecium > gynoecium. According to the freezing resistance of gynoecium and the relative electrical conductivity, the freezing resistance of Prunus sibirica fine clones florescence was as follows, No.41> No.94> No.28> No.22>No. 16, which were in general accord in the order of the freezing resistance of the fine basing on clones browning percentage.%以甜仁(16号)、自交亲和(22号)、丰产(28号)、抗冻(41号)和晚花(94号)5种山杏优良无性系花器官为研究对象,采用低温胁迫处理的方法研究其抗冻性.结果表明:山杏花器官的褐变率和相对电导率均随温度的降低而渐增,总体上呈S形曲线,生理指标和形态指标相吻合.利用Logistic方程对相对电导率随温度的变化曲线进行了拟合,求出 LT50

  14. Enzymatic hydrolysis of apricot (Prunus armeniaca L.) kernel protein by Alcalase and its antioxidative activity%杏仁蛋白Alcalase水解工艺及其体外抗氧化活性的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王丽媛; 仇农学; 刘宁

    2009-01-01

    Apricot (Prunus armeniaca L.) kernel protein was hydrolyzed with Alcalase protease for its more comprehensive use. To estimate the hydrolysis effects, the degree of hydrolysis (DH) were investigated. On the basis of single factor tests, the optimal hydrolysis conditions were determined by orthogonal experiments by investigating the DH and DPPH radical-scavenging activity. The results indicated that the optimal conditions of preparing the apricot kernel protein hydrolysates with strong antioxidant capacity were as follows: pH 8.0, temperature 55 ℃, ratio of enzyme concentration to substrate concentration 4%, substrate concentration 5%. Under such conditions, the DH was 21.02% and the DPPH radical-scavenging activity of the hydrolysate was 66.13%.%为深入开发利用杏仁蛋白资源,采用Alcalase蛋白酶水解杏仁蛋白,以水解度为指标对酶解过程进行研究,在单因素试验基础上以水解度和DPPH自由基清除率为指标进行酶解正交试验.结果表明制备抗氧化能力较强的杏仁蛋白水解物的最佳条件为:pH 8.0,温度55 ℃,酶底比4%,底物浓度5%.在此条件下进行水解试验,水解度为21.02%,水解物对DPPH自由基的清除率为66.13%.

  15. Melatonin promotes adventitious root regeneration in in vitro shoot tip explants of the commercial sweet cherry rootstocks CAB-6P (Prunus cerasus L.), Gisela 6 (P. cerasus × P. canescens), and MxM 60 (P. avium × P. mahaleb).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarropoulou, Virginia N; Therios, Ioannis N; Dimassi-Theriou, Kortessa N

    2012-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to test the effects of melatonin (N-acetyl-5-methoxytryptamine), a natural compound of edible plants on the rooting of certain commercial sweet cherry rootstocks. Shoot tip explants from previous in vitro cultures of the cherry rootstocks CAB-6P (Prunus cerasus L.), Gisela 6 (P. cerasus × P. canescens), and M × M 60 (P. avium × P. mahaleb) were included in the experiment. The effect of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) alone or in combination with melatonin was tested concerning their rooting potential. Seven concentrations of melatonin (0, 0.05, 0.1, 0.5, 1, 5, and 10 μM) alone or in combination with 5.71 μM of IAA or 4.92 μM of IBA were tested. For each rootstock, 21 treatments were included. The explants were grown in glass tubes containing 10 mL of substrate. The parameters measured include rooting percentage, number of roots per rooted explant, root length, and callus formation. The data presented in this study show that melatonin has a rooting promoting effect at a low concentration but a growth inhibitory effect at high concentrations. In the absence of auxin, 1 μM melatonin had auxinic response concerning the number and length of roots, but 10 μM melatonin was inhibitory to rooting in all the tested rootstocks. The final conclusion of this experiment is that exogenously applied melatonin acted as a rooting promoter and its action was similar to that of IAA. PMID:21749439

  16. The effects of foliar fertilization with iron sulfate in chlorotic leaves are limited to the treated area. A study with peach trees (Prunus persica L. Batsch) grown in the field and sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) grown in hydroponics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Jendoubi, Hamdi; Vázquez, Saúl; Calatayud, Angeles; Vavpetič, Primož; Vogel-Mikuš, Katarina; Pelicon, Primož; Abadía, Javier; Abadía, Anunciación; Morales, Fermín

    2014-01-01

    Crop Fe deficiency is a worldwide problem. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of foliar Fe applications in two species grown in different environments: peach (Prunus persica L. Batsch) trees grown in the field and sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L. cv. "Orbis") grown in hydroponics. The distal half of Fe-deficient, chlorotic leaves was treated with Fe sulfate by dipping and using a brush in peach trees and sugar beet plants, respectively. The re-greening of the distal (Fe-treated) and basal (untreated) leaf areas was monitored, and the nutrient and photosynthetic pigment composition of the two areas were also determined. Leaves were also studied using chlorophyll fluorescence imaging, low temperature-scanning electron microscopy microanalysis, scanning transmission ion microscopy-particle induced X-ray emission and Perls Fe staining. The distal, Fe-treated leaf parts of both species showed a significant increase in Fe concentrations (across the whole leaf volume) and marked re-greening, with significant increases in the concentrations of all photosynthetic pigments, as well as decreases in de-epoxidation of xanthophyll cycle carotenoids and increases in photochemical efficiency. In the basal, untreated leaf parts, Fe concentrations increased slightly, but little re-greening occurred. No changes in the concentrations of other nutrients were found. Foliar Fe fertilization was effective in re-greening treated leaf areas both in peach trees and sugar beet plants. Results indicate that the effects of foliar Fe-sulfate fertilization in Fe-deficient, chlorotic leaves were minor outside the leaf surface treated, indicating that Fe mobility within the leaf is a major constraint for full fertilizer effectiveness in crops where Fe-deficiency is established and leaf chlorosis occurs.

  17. The effects of foliar fertilization with iron sulfate in chlorotic leaves are limited to the treated area. A study with peach trees (Prunus persica L. Batsch grown in the field and sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L. grown in hydroponics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamdi eEl-Jendoubi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Crop Fe deficiency is a worldwide problem. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of foliar Fe applications in two species grown in different environments: peach (Prunus persica L. Batsch trees grown in the field and sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L. cv. ‘Orbis’ grown in hydroponics. The distal half of Fe-deficient, chlorotic leaves was treated with Fe sulfate by dipping and using a brush in peach trees and sugar beet plants, respectively. The re-greening of the distal (Fe-treated and basal (untreated leaf areas was monitored, and the nutrient and photosynthetic pigment composition of the two areas were also determined. Leaves were also studied using chlorophyll fluorescence imaging, low temperature-scanning electron microscopy microanalysis, scanning transmission ion microscopy-particle induced X-ray emission and Perls Fe staining. The distal, Fe-treated leaf parts of both species showed a significant increase in Fe concentrations (across the whole leaf volume and marked re-greening, with significant increases in the concentrations of all photosynthetic pigments, as well as decreases in de-epoxidation of xanthophyll cycle carotenoids and increases in photochemical efficiency. In the basal, untreated leaf parts, Fe concentrations increased slightly, but little re-greening occurred. No changes in the concentrations of other nutrients were found. Foliar Fe fertilization was effective in re-greening treated leaf areas both in peach trees and sugar beet plants. Results indicate that the effects of foliar Fe-sulfate fertilization in Fe-deficient, chlorotic leaves were minor outside the leaf surface treated, indicating that Fe mobility within the leaf is a major constraint for full fertilizer effectiveness in crops where Fe-deficiency is established and leaf chlorosis occurs.

  18. HIGH INFECTION PRESSURE OF ESFY PHYTOPLASMA THREATENS THE CULTIVATION OF STONE FRUIT SPECIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara AMBROŽIČ TURK

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Stone fruit species are affected by severe disease caused by European stone fruit yellows phytoplasma (ESFY; ‘Candidatus Phytoplasma prunorum’. ESFY phytoplasma is transmitted to the host plants of Prunus spp. by the vector Cacopsylla pruni. The disease is graft-transmissible as well. The occurence of ESFY phytoplasma was monitored from 2004 to 2006 in a mother plant orchard of stone fruit species planted with virus free material in 2001 in the Primorska region of Slovenia. The total of 158 samples of mother plants were analysed in this period. The symptomatic and asymptomatic trees were analysed using molecular methods (PCR or nested-PCR. Among 15.7 % of sampled apricot trees (Prunus armeniaca in the orchard, ESFY phytoplasma was detected in 70.0 % of samples. In the case of Japanese plum (Prunus salicina samples were taken from one third of all Japanese plum trees and the presence of ESFY phytoplasma was confi rmed in all samples. In the European plum trees (Prunus domestica the incidence of phytoplasma was determined in 51.0 % of sampled trees, where the plants in most cases did not show symptoms. ESFY phytoplasma was also detected in peaches and nectarines (Prunus persica in 13.0 % of sampled trees while no detection of the phytoplasma was confi rmed in the samples of cherry trees (Prunus avium. With the survey performed in a mother plant orchard it was observed that especially young trees did not show typical symptoms and the infection was latent. In the year 2005, ESFY phytoplasma was detected in all tested samples of the vector Cacopsylla pruni captured in the vicinity of the mother plant orchard.

  19. Cloning and Function Identification of PrseSHP Gene from Prunus lannesiana (Rosaceae)%日本晚樱PrseSHP基因的克隆与功能分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘志雄; 李来运; 李凤兰

    2015-01-01

    采用同源克隆方法结合RACE技术,从日本晚樱(Prunus lannesiana)品种‘大岛樱’中克隆到花发育调控相关的PrseSHP基因(GenBank登录号为GU362645).PrseSHP基因序列全长1 223 bp,包含1个长741 bp的完整开放阅读框,编码246个氨基酸和1个终止密码子.分子系统发生分析表明,PrseSHP属MADS-box转录因子的PLE/SHP进化系,并与蔷薇科植物的SHP同源蛋白聚于同一进化分支;蛋白序列比对显示,该转录因子拥有M、I、K和C共4个结构域,且其C末端结构域中包含高度保守的AG Ⅰ和Ⅱ基序.基因表达分析表明,PrseSHP基因主要在‘大岛樱’的花瓣、雄蕊、雌蕊和幼果等器官中表达,在花萼中仅能检测到微弱的转录信号,在幼叶中不表达,与其他植物SHP同源基因的表达模式有一定的差别.功能分析显示,转PrseSHP基因拟南芥植株明显比野生型拟南芥弱小,转基因拟南芥在6~8片莲座叶后即抽薹开花,时间较野生型拟南芥(14~17片莲座叶后抽薹开花)明显提前,证明异位表达的PrseSHP基因能促进拟南芥早花,其在花发育过程中可能参与调控植物开花.

  20. Sensitive and specific detection of potentially allergenic almond (Prunus dulcis) in complex food matrices by Taqman real-time polymerase chain reaction in comparison to commercially available protein-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roeder, Martin; Vieths, Stefan [Division of Allergology, Paul-Ehrlich-Institut, Paul-Ehrlich-Strasse 51-59, 63225 Langen (Germany); Holzhauser, Thomas, E-mail: holth@pei.de [Division of Allergology, Paul-Ehrlich-Institut, Paul-Ehrlich-Strasse 51-59, 63225 Langen (Germany)

    2011-01-24

    Currently, causative immunotherapies are lacking in food allergy. The only option to prevent allergic reactions in susceptible individuals is to strictly avoid the offending food. Thus, reliable labelling of allergenic constituents is of major importance, but can only be achieved if appropriate specific and sensitive detection techniques for foods with allergenic potential are available. Almond is an allergenic food that requires mandatory labelling on prepackaged foods and belongs to the genus Prunus. Species of this genus are phylogenetically closely related. We observed commercially available almond specific ELISA being highly cross-reactive with other foods of the Prunoideae family, resulting in a false-positive detection of up to 500,000 mg kg{sup -1} almond. Previously published PCR methods were reported to be cross-reactive with false positive results >1200 mg kg{sup -1}. We describe the development of a novel almond specific real-time PCR, based on mutated mismatch primers and sequence specific Taqman probe detection, in comparison with two quantitative commercially available ELISA. PCR sensitivity was investigated with chocolate, chocolate coating and cookies spiked between 5 and 100,000 mg kg{sup -1} almond. In all matrices almond was reproducibly detected by real-time PCR at the lowest spike level of 5 mg kg{sup -1}. Further, between 100 and 100,000 mg kg{sup -1} spiked almond, the method featured good correlation between quantified copy numbers and the amount of spiked almond. Within this range a similar relation between detectable signal and amount of almond was observed for both PCR and ELISA. In contrast to ELISA the Taqman real-time PCR method was highly specific in 59 food items with negligible cross-reactivity for a very limited number of Prunoideae foods. The real-time PCR analysis of 24 retail samples was in concordance with ELISA results: 21% (n = 5) contained undeclared almond. This is the first completely disclosed real-time PCR method for a

  1. Optimization of Fermentation Process for Prunus mira Koehne Wine at Natural Temperature by Response Surface Methodology%自然温度下光核桃果酒主发酵工艺优化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟政昌; 王婷; 高根升; 付宽; 方江平

    2012-01-01

    In this study, response surface methodology was used to optimize the fermentation at natural temperature of Prunus mira Koehne fruits grown in Linzhi, Tibetan for producing fruit wine. Based on one-factor-at-a-time experiments, a central composite design was used to establish a mathematical model describing the effects of sugar content of fruit juice, yeast inoculum size and pH on alcohol content of fruit wine for response surface analysis. The results showed that the optimal fermentation conditions were 18.84% sugar concentration in fruit juice, 0.76%0 yeast inocuium, and initial fermentation pH 3.96. Under these conditions, the alcoholicity of the wine obtained was 11.33% (V/V). The fruit wine obtained after post-fermentation and ageing displayed a golden yellow color, a strong, sweet, mellow and harmonious taste, and an aromatic smell.%在自然温度条件下,以西藏林芝地区光核桃为原料,采用响应面法优化光核桃果酒发酵工艺条件,在单因素试验基础上,选取果汁糖度、酵母接种量和pH值为影响因素,以光核桃果酒的酒精体积分数为响应值,应用Box-Behnken中心组合试验设计建立数学模型,进行响应面分析。结果表明:光核桃酒最佳发酵工艺条件为:足够成熟的鲜光核桃果压榨取汁,调整初始含糖量为18.84%、pH3.96、酵母接种量0.76‰,该条件下所得光核桃果酒的酒精体积分数11.33%。经后发酵和陈酿后,果酒酒色金黄,酒味醇厚甘爽,气味醇香,果香突出,酒体协调。

  2. 樱桃叶片气孔导度动态模拟研究%Study on Dynamic Simulation of Stomatal Conductance( Gs ) of Cherry(Prunus avium L.' Hongdeng' ) Leaf

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高照全; 赵晨霞; 冯社章; 程建军

    2012-01-01

    [ Objective] The aim was to simulate the dynamic change law of cherry leaf s Gs under different weather by Gs model. [ Method] The experiment was conducted in a ' Hongdeng' cherry orchard. The parameters of the model were tested by the data observed in upper canopy from 2008 to 2011 during the growing seasons. [ Result] The diurnal course of Gs showed a double-peak curve on sunny days. And it reached the first peak of 240 mmol/(m2 · S) at mid-morning about 08:00 and the second at mid-afternoon about 16:00. The decline of Gs at noon was caused by lower RH and ψt. During a whole day (12 h) , average Gs was about 154. 36 mmol/( m2 · S) on sunny day. [ Conclusion] The study provides a scientific basis for using Gs model to simulate Gs of fruit tree leaf under different weather.%[目的]利用气孔导度(Gs)模型模拟红灯樱桃(Prunus avium L.‘Hongdeng’)叶片G,在不同气象条件下的动态变化规律.[方法]于2008~2011年在红灯樱桃园中,利用树冠上层叶片气体交换数据拟合相应参数.[结果]在晴天,樱桃上层叶片Gs呈双峰曲线,最大峰值出现在08:00左右,约240 mmol/( m2·s);第2峰值在16:00,气孔的“午休”现象主要与中午较低的RH和ψ1有关.晴天时,一天当中Gs的平均值为154.36 mmol/( m2·s).[结论]该研究为采用Gs模型来模拟不同气象条件下果树叶片G1提供了科学依据.

  3. 叶面喷施沼液对温室油桃光合特性的影响%Effect of biogas slurry spraying on leaf photosynthetic characteristics of nectarine(Prunus persica var.nectarina) in solar greenhouse

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵秀梅; 王晨冰; 李宽莹; 陈佰鸿; 王发林

    2011-01-01

    以温室栽培4 a生艳光油桃为试材,研究了喷施沼液对油桃光合特性的影响。喷施沼液后,油桃叶片叶绿素(a+b)、叶绿素a、叶绿素b含量、光饱和时的光合速率(Pn)均升高,喷施75%沼液的处理与对照相比叶绿素(a+b)、叶绿素a、叶绿素b含量、光饱和时的光合速率(Pn)分别升高9%、20.3%、50%、8.7%;光合作用的光补偿点(LCP)和表观量子产额(AQY)变化不大;CO2补偿点(CCP)降低,喷施75%沼液与对照相比降低5%;而CO2饱和点(CSP)、CO2饱和时的光合速率(Amax)以及羧化效率(CE%Taking nectarine(Prunus persica var.nectarina) Yanguang of a four-year protected cultivation as experimental material,effects of biogas slurry spraying on nectarine photosynthetic characteristics was studied in this paper.The results showed that compared with the control,light saturated photosynthetic rate(Pn) and the content of chlorophyll(a+b),chlorophyll a,chlorophyll b of the trees sprayed with 75% biogas slurry were increased by 9%,20.3%,50% and 8.7% respectively.Changes in light compensation point(LCP) and apparent quantum yield(AQY) was insignificant.CO2 compensation point(CCP) was decreased by 5% while CO2 saturation point(CSP),CO2 saturated photosynthetic rate(Amax) and carboxylation efficiency(CE) increased by 21%,12% and 57% respectively.The curves of net photosynthesis rate were double-peak curve.Diurnally accumulated photosynthetic products of functional leaves were increased by 35% when spraying 75% biogas slurry compared with the control.Water utilization rate(WUR),stomata conductance(Gs) and transpiration rate(Tr) were also increased by spraying,resulting from a decrease of stomata limitation and a delay of photosynthetic depression in noon.

  4. Isolation and Analysis of PGIP Gene and Its Promoter in Peach [Prunus persica (L.) Batch]%桃PGIP基因及其启动子的克隆与分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王秀云; 张计育; 高志红; 章镇; 俞明亮; 张妤艳

    2011-01-01

    Gummosis is one of the major fungi diseases occurred on peach tree. In order to study the role of PCIP gene playing on peach resistance to gummosis and other fungi diseases, we isolated and analysed the PGIP gene and its promoter from leaves of ‘ Nanjing Baisha ’ , a peach cultivar resisting gummosis. The cloning and sequencing results showed that the cDNA sequence (GenBank accession number: HQ453972) and the DNA sequence with an up-stream fragment of 453 bp length (GenBank accession number: HQ453974) from PGIP gene initiator codon of Prunus persica PGIP gene was amplified. The PGIP gene was named PpPGIP2. Sequence analysis showed that the cDNA sequence had complete open reading frame without intron, and was 93% -98% identical with the sequences of PGIP genes in Prunus and 96% identical with the genomic DNA of P. persica. The encoded amino acid sequence was a typical lecucine-repeated sequence and the predicted signal peptide was formed by 24 residues from 1 to 24. Besides family, genus and species, the clustering figure of PGIP genes showd that some diversities exsit in PGIP gene homology between peach species. Three disease resistant elements GT1CONSENSUS, SEBFCONSSTPR1OA and WBOXATNPR1 were identified from PGIP promoter, which also has some hormone regulating and stress responsive elements. This study would contribute to further research on the regulation of expression and functional analysis of P. persica PGIP gene.%桃流胶病是一种严重危害桃树的真菌性病害,为研究PGIP基因在桃抗流胶病及抗其它真菌性病害中的作用,本研究以桃抗流胶病品种‘南京白沙'叶片为材料,对其PGIP基因及启动子序列进行克隆与分析.克隆测序获得了‘南京白沙'桃PGIP基因cDNA序列(GenBank登录号:HQ453972)和PGIP基因组DNA序列以及起始密码子上游453 bp的启动子序列(GenBank登录号:HQ453974),并将该PGIP基因命名为PpPGIP2.‘南京白沙'桃PpPGIP2序列分析显示,该DNA序列具

  5. 木本植物缺铁性黄化病研究进展%Research progress of yellow leaf disease of woody plant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐万泰; 郭伟红; 秦飞; 马占元; 周素侠

    2011-01-01

    The iron-deficiency yellow of woody plant in our country have covered Ginkgo biloba,Malus pumila,Pyrus bretschneideri,Prunus persica,Vitis vinifera.,Prunus armeniaca,Prunus salicina,Citrus reticulata,Actinidia chinensis,Cinnamomum camphora),Magnolia denudate,Gardenia jasminoides,Areca catechu,Populus tomentosa,Ziziphus jujube,Morus alba and so on.The research on yellow leaf disease of woody plant is mainly concentrated on the performance symptoms,the pathogenesis,controlling techniques and so on.This article reviewed the main achievements of researches on iron-deficiency yellow of woody plant,and the forecast the research prospect.%我国木本植物缺铁性黄化病的研究主要集中于银杏、苹果、梨、桃、葡萄、杏、李、桔、猕猴桃、香樟、白玉兰、栀子、槟榔、毛白杨、枣树、桑树等,研究内容包括表现症状、发病机理、防治技术等。该文综述了木本植物缺铁性黄化病研究的主要成果,并对研究前景进行了展望。

  6. Effect of host plants on developmental time and life table parameters of Carposina sasakii (Lepidoptera: Carposinidae) under laboratory conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Xihong; Li, Dingxu; Li, Zheng; Zalom, Frank G; Gao, Lingwang; Shen, Zuorui

    2012-04-01

    Studies were designed to examine the effects of host plants (apricot, Prunus armeniaca L.; plum, Prunus salicina L.; peach, Prunus persica L.; jujube, Zizyphus jujuba Will.; apple, Malus domestica Mill.; and pear, Pyrus sorotina Will) on the development and life table parameters of the peach fruit moth, Carposina sasakii Matsumura (Lepidoptera: Carposinidae) under laboratory conditions. Peach fruit moth developed faster (12.48 d) and had the highest preimaginal survival rate (50.54%) on plum compared with the other host plants. Adult longevity was significantly longer on jujube for both female and male moths. Adult females from larvae reared on jujube and peach laid significantly greater numbers of eggs (214.50 and 197.94 eggs per female, respectively) compared with those reared on the other four host plants. Life-table parameters were calculated for each host plant and compared by jackknife procedures. The intrinsic rate of natural increase (r(m)) was significantly greatest on plum (0.1294 eggs per female per d), followed by jujube and apricot (0.1201 and 0.1128 eggs per female per d), respectively. Implications of the various measures of population performance are discussed.

  7. 福建产业发展现状及前景

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜翠翠[1; 孙文鹏[2; 叶新福[1; 方智振[1; 周丹蓉[1; 潘少霖[1

    2015-01-01

    Prunus salicina Lindli.var cordata J.Y.Zhang et al.)属蔷薇科(Rosaceae),李属(Prunus),是原产福建的名、特、优水果之一,果桃形李实,酸甜适度,风味极佳,是南方的1种重要落叶果树。本文分析了福建省产业发展现状趋势,包括各市种植区域、面积和产量等,阐述了产业发展的具体优势,明确了福建省生产现状,为福建省今后发展种植提供参考价值。

  8. Effect of Phytohormone Proportion on the In Vitro Cultured Leaf Regeneration System of Prunus avium L%外源激素配比对樱桃叶片再生体系的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    侯思宇; 孙朝霞; 王玉国

    2011-01-01

    Prunus a vium L mass production is low limited by cutting propagation, so establishment of the rapid propagation system by cherry tissue culture plays a key role in solving this problem. The effect of three plant hormone proportions (BA, TDZ and IBA) on the in vitro cultured leaf regeneration system was investigated with orthogonal test design. The callus and shoots ratio of leaves was analyzed by intuitive, variance and effect analysis, and the soluble protein content of leaf callus were tested. The result showed that BA concentration variation had a remarkable effect on the callus and shoots ratio of leaves. TDZ and IBA had no effect on the ratio. Among the three plant hormones, the effect of callus rating was BA>IBA>TDZ; and the effect of shoots rating was BA>TDZ>IBA. The best culture medium of inducible leaf regeneration was combination 13 medium: MS+ BA 2. O mg · L-1 +TDZ 2. O mg · L-1 + IBA 2. O mg ·L-1. The soluble protein content of inducible leaf regeneration was 21. 17 g · L-1 in the combination 13 medium. This research succeeded in constructing leaf regeneration and screening the best plant hormone proportions (combination 13). That proportion was favorable for advancing protein metabolism and improving nutritional substances in cells.%为解决樱桃大规模生产实践中扦插繁殖系数低的限制,建立樱桃组织培养快繁体系,基于正交实验设计研究3种外源激素配比(BA、TDZ和IBA)对樱桃叶片离体再生过程中出愈率、出芽率及组合愈伤组织中可溶性蛋白含量的影响.结果表明:BA 2.0 mg·L-1对樱桃叶片出愈率和出芽率有显著影响.TDZ和IBA对樱桃叶片再生体系建立影响不显著.不同激素之间对叶片出愈率的作用效应大小为:BA>IB>>TDZ:不同激素之间对叶片出芽率的作用效应大小为:BA>TDZ>IBA.诱导叶片高频再生体系最适培养基为组合13:MS+BA 2.0 mg.L-1+TDZ 1.0 mg ·L-1+IBA 0·7 mg,L-,其诱导叶片愈伤组

  9. Cloning of Malic Enzyme Gene From Prunus armeniaca and its Bioinfor-matics Analysis%山杏苹果酸酶基因的克隆与生物信息学分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    章文乐; 蔡兼; 钮俊; 蒲婧懿; 朱梦媛; 胡惠雯; 张志翔; 林善枝

    2013-01-01

      三羧酸转运体系(柠檬酸,苹果酸和丙酮酸)可为脂肪酸生物合成提供原料乙酰辅酶A与还原力NADPH;而苹果酸酶可催化苹果酸发生氧化脱羧而产生NADPH,是调控脂肪酸代谢的重要酶。山杏种子脂肪酸含量丰富、产油率高,是研究植物油脂代谢的良好材料。本研究以山杏为试材,采用RACE克隆和电子拼接相结合的方法,首次从山杏种子中克隆得到苹果酸酶基因(命名为 SaME, GenBank上登记号为JX262381),该基因的cDNA编码区全长1923 bp、编码640个氨基酸,预测其编码蛋白分子量为70.15 kD、等电点为6.38;同时,运用生物信息学方法对SaME基因编码蛋白的理化特性、结构域和亚细胞定位等方面进行预测分析,结果显示,该蛋白定位在细胞的质体膜上,具有苹果酸酶活性,属于NADP-ME超家族。本文对山杏SaME基因的克隆与分析,为进一步探究苹果酸酶对油脂代谢的调控机制奠定了基础。%  The tricarboxylic acid transport system is composed of citrate, malate and pyruvate, and its main physi-ological function is to provide the raw materials acetyl-CoA and the reducing power NADPH necessary for the biosynthesis of fatty acids. Malic enzyme, by which malate is converted to pyruvate via the tricarboxylic acid trans-port system with the production of NADPH, is the main regulated enzyme of the fatty acid biosynthesis in the plants. Prunus armeniaca is a kind of oil woody plant with high oil content and present a high rate of oil production in the seeds. It is an ideal material to study the mechanism of plant lipid metabolism. In this paper, a gene encoding malic enzyme, named as SaME (JX262381), was cloned from P. armeniaca by RACE and electronic splicing tech niques. This full-length cDNA contained an open reading frame of 1 923 bp in length, encoding a polypeptide of 640 amino acid residues with a molecular mass of 70.15 kD and a pI of 6.38. And

  10. Cloning and Expression Analysis of PaGAI gene of DELLA Protein from Prunus avium%甜樱桃DELLA蛋白基因PaGAI的克隆与表达分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟翡; 沈欣杰; 刘芳; 袁华招; 刘兰英; 李天红

    2012-01-01

    利用RT-PCR和RACE技术从甜樱桃(PrunusaviumL.)嫩叶中克隆了赤霉素信号转导途径中的关键负调控因子DELLA蛋白基因cDNA全序列,将其命名为PaGAI。该基因cDNA全长2310bp,开放阅读框ORF为1788bp,推测其编码一个含有595个氨基酸残基的多肽链,蛋白质分子量约64kD。生物信息学分析结果表明,PaGAI编码蛋白具有DELLA蛋白保守结构域,其N端存在两个非常保守的酸性结构域DELLA和VHYNP作为信号感知区域,C端有VHIID、RVER和SAW结构域作为阻遏区域。PaGAI与其它植物的DELLA蛋白具有较高的同源性,其中与苹果MdRGL2b蛋白同源性最高,达到84%。构建pGEX.4T-1/PaGAI原核表达体系,并转化EcoliBL21,经0.5mmol.L^-1IPTG诱导蛋白表达,SDS.PAGE检测获得了分子质量为91kD的融合蛋白,半定量RT-PCR分析表明,PaGAI在花、果实、叶片、韧皮部中普遍表达,在花与韧皮部中的表达远远强于在果实与叶片中的表达。%DELLA protein is a key negative regulation factor of gibberellins (GAs)signal transduction pathway. A whole cDNA sequence of DELLA protein gene, named PaGAI, was cloned from Prunus avium L. tender leaves using RTPCR and RACEPCR. The cDNA of PaGAI had a length of 2 310 bp and contain an openingreading frame (ORF) of 1 788 bp, which was supposed to encode a 595 aminoacid residues polypeptide of 64 kD. Bioinformatics analysis showed that the protein encoded by PaGAI had a conservative structural domain of DELLA protein. It had two strict Conservative amino acid domains DELLA and VHYNP in the N terminal and three repression regions ofVHVID, RVER and SAW in the Cterminal. PaGAI, with high homologous with the DELLA proteins in some other plants, and showed the highest homology of 84% with Malus domestica. The prokaryotic expression system of pGEX4T1/PaGAI was constructed and transformated into E. coli BL21, and the protein expression was induced by 0.5 mmol

  11. 新疆濒危野生樱桃李的种群结构与动态%Population structure and its dynamics of wild Prunus divaricata in Xinjiang, Northwest China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘影; 张相锋; 赵玉; 甘宇平

    2013-01-01

    为了解野生樱桃李种群结构和种群生态现状,采用“空间序列代替时间变化”的方法,对新疆天然分布区内的野生樱桃李不同种群的径级结构、冠幅结构及株高结构进行了分析,运用静态生命表描述了野生樱桃李种群年龄结构的动态变化规律.结果表明,樱桃李天然种群的株高和冠幅结构呈现为一定的衰退趋势,冠幅在总体呈现为近乎对数型的衰减趋势;种群的径级结构趋于稳定型,但种群结构表现出较强的波动性,种群衰退风险较高;同时,不同样地种群因所处微环境等的差异,在径级、株高和冠幅结构上表现出一定差异.野生樱桃李种群的存活曲线接近于B1型(台阶型),说明幼龄的死亡率较高,且不同生活史时期的死亡率差异较大.新疆的野生樱桃李天然种群表现出一定的不稳定性,亟待补充低龄级的个体,并减少对成年树的砍伐破坏,从而为种群的保育和恢复提供保障.%In order to understand the structure of the wild population and analyze its current survival situation,an investigation was conducted in the natural distribution region of Prunus divaricata population.Adopting space as a substitute for time,a comparative analysis was made on the age-class,height-class,and crown width-class of the population,and the dynamics of the age structure of the population was described according to the static life table.The results showed that the structure of the crown width-class and height-class showed a certain degree of decline,and there was an overall logarithmic decline in crown width-class.Due to the effects of different micro-environments among the plots,the population structure had definite difference.The survival curve fitted the B1 type (step-type curve),indicating that the seedlings had a high mortality rate,and there were significant differences in the death rate at different life stages.The natural population of wild P.divaricata in Xijiang

  12. 红叶李叶化学成分及其体外抗氧化活性研究%Chemical Constituents Extracted from Leaves of Prunus cerasifera Ehrh. cv. Atropurpurea Jacg. and Their Antioxidant Activities in vitro

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卫强; 纪小影; 龙先顺; 李前荣; 尹浩

    2015-01-01

    研究红叶李叶的化学成分和抗氧化活性。以硅胶、葡聚糖凝胶LH-20、高效制备液相色谱等分离红叶李叶乙醇提取物,根据光谱数据结合理化性质鉴定17个化合物,分别为β-谷甾醇(1)、豆甾醇(2)、胡萝卜苷(3)、羽扇豆醇(4)、熊果酸(5)、阿江榄仁酸(6)、Niga-ichigoside F1(7)、芹菜素(8)、山奈酚(9)、山柰酚-3-O-β-D-葡萄糖苷(10)、槲皮素(11)、槲皮素4′-O-β-D-葡萄糖苷(12)、金丝桃苷(13)、木犀草素(14)、木犀草素-4′-O-β-D-葡萄糖苷(15)、芦丁(16)、没食子酸(17)。所有化合物均为首次从红叶李叶中分离得到。以DPPH自由基清除能力检测所得化合物的抗氧化能力,结果显示,化合物11,14和17表现出显著的自由基清除能力, IC50分别为32.18、34.65和34.12 mmol/L,活性强于Vc(IC50为55.22 mmol/L)。%Ethanol extracts from the leaves of Prunus cerasifera Ehrh. cv. Atropurpurea Jacg. were separated and purified by column chromatography over silica gel, Sephadex LH-20 and preparative HPLC. Their structures were identified by spectral methods including 1 H, 13C NMR. Seventeen compounds were isolated and identified as β-sitosterol ( 1 ) , stigmasterol ( 2 ) , daucosterol (3), lupeol (4), ursolic acid (5), arjunolic acid (6), Niga-ichigoside F1 (7), apigenin (8), kaempferol (9), kaempferol-3-O-β-D-glucoside (10), quercetin (11), quercetin-4′-O-β-D- glucoside (12), hyperin (13), luteolin (14), luteolin-4′-O-β-D-glucoside (15), rutin (16), gallic acid (17). All compounds were isolated from the leaf for the first time. Compounds 11, 14 and 17 showed stronger antioxidant activities by DPPH scavenging activity with IC50 inhibition rates of 32. 18, 34. 65 and 34. 12 mmol/L, respectively, compared with the Vc IC50 inhibition rate of 55. 22 mmol/L.

  13. Rheological evaluation of Prunus mume pulp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernesto Quast

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The rheological behaviour of mume pulp at 6, 7, 8 and 9 °Brix was investigated using a rotational viscometer at temperatures ranging from 15 to 75 °C. The rheological models of Herschel-Bulkley and Ostwald-Waele (Power Law were fitted to obtain the rheological parameters of the mume pulp. The product was described as time non-dependent and presented a viscosity of 1.9 Pa.s at 15 °C and 1.1°Pa.s at 65 and 75 °C for the 9 °Brix pulp. The pulp showed non-Newtonian behaviour and the Herschel-Bulkley model was used to describe this behaviour. The activation energy ranged from 6.6-10.6 kJ.mol-1 and the consistency index from 18.0-22.9 Pa.s n for the 9 °Brix pulp and 8.3-12.2 Pa.s n for the 8 °Brix pulp at temperatures varying from 15 to 75 °C. The models presented high correlation values for all the rheological data obtained in the present work.

  14. 配合施肥对长白山欧李果实 Ga、Fe、Zn积累及产量、品质的影响1)%E ffects of Formula Fertilization on Ca, Fe, Zn Accum ulation, Yield, and Quality of Prunus humili(Bge) Sok

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘显臣; 建德锋; 张鹏霞; 徐霞; 陈丽

    2015-01-01

    We used five-year old “02-12-19” fine lines of Prunus humili to study the effects of N, P, and K formula fertiliza-tion on Ca, Fe, and Zn accumulation, yield, and quality of Prunus humili.The different N, P, K formula fertilization had the effects on Ca, Fe, Zn accumulation in Prunus humili fruits.The Ca accumulation in fruits in the treatment of 1.0∶0.6∶1.0 of N ∶P ∶K was the highest , followed by 1.0∶0.2∶1.0, 1.0 ∶0.4 ∶10., 1.0 ∶0.8 ∶1.0.The Fe accumulations in fruits in four treatments of single organic fertilizers and 1.0∶0.2∶1.0, 1.0∶0.4∶1.0, 1.0∶0.6∶1.0of N ∶P ∶K pro-portion were higher , the Zn accumulation in fruits in two treatments of single organic fertilizers and 1.0∶0.2∶1.0 of N, P , K were higher; In yield increasing aspects , the two treatments of 1.0∶0.2∶1.0 and 1.0∶04.∶1 .0 of N ∶P ∶K pro-portion were better, followed by 1.0∶0.6∶1.0 of N ∶P ∶K proportion.In edible quality aspects, two treatments of single organic fertilizers and 1.0∶0.6 ∶1.0, 1.0 ∶0.8 ∶1.0 of N ∶P ∶K proportion were better .Therefore, considering the effects of formula fertilization on Ca, Fe, Zn accumulation, yield and quality of Prunus humili, 1.0∶0.6∶1.0 of N ∶P ∶K proportion was the best .%为探明N、P、K配合施肥对长白山欧李( Prunus humili( Bge) Sok)果实中Ca 、Fe、Zn元素积累及产量、品质的影响,以5年生长白山欧李的优良品系“02-12-19”为试材,进行了N、P、K配合施肥试验。结果表明:不同N、P、K质量分数配合比例对长白山欧李果实中Ca、Fe、Zn元素的积累均具有一定的影响,其中果实中Ca的积累以质量分数w(N)∶w(P )∶w(K)=1.0∶0.6∶10.的最高,w (N)∶w(P)∶w(K)=1.0∶0.2∶1.0、w(N)∶w (P)∶w(K)=1.0∶0.4∶1.0、w(N)∶w(P)∶w(K)=1.0∶0.8∶1.0三个处理次之;果实中Fe的积累以单一

  15. Molecular characterization and expression analyses of an anthocyanin synthase gene from Magnolia sprengeri Pamp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Shou-Guo; Li, Shan-Ju; Kang, Yong-Xiang; Liu, Jian-Jun

    2015-01-01

    Anthocyanin synthase (ANS), which catalyzes the conversion of colorless leucoanthocyanins into colored anthocyanins, is a key enzyme in the anthocyanin biosynthetic pathway. It plays important roles in plant development and defense. An ANS gene designated as MsANS was cloned from Magnolia sprengeri using rapid amplification of complementary DNA (cDNA) ends technology. The full-length MsANS is 1171-bp long and contains a 1080-bp open reading frame encoding a 360 amino acid polypeptide. In a sequence alignment analysis, the deduced MsANS protein showed high identity to ANS proteins from other plants: Prunus salicina var. cordata (74 % identity), Ampelopsis grossedentata (74 % identity), Pyrus communis (73 % identity), and Prunus avium (73 % identity). A structural analysis showed that MsANS belongs to 2-oxoglutarate (2OG)- and ferrous iron-dependent oxygenase family because it contains three binding sites for 2OG. Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction analyses showed that the transcript level of MsANS was 26-fold higher in red petals than in white petals. The accumulation of anthocyanins in petals of white, pink, and red M. sprengeri flowers was analyzed by HPLC. The main anthocyanin was cyanidin-3-o-glucoside chloride, and the red petals contained the highest concentration of this pigment. PMID:25315387

  16. Drug: D04712 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D04712 Drug Quercus salicina extract (JAN); Urocalun (TN) Same as: E00020 Therapeut...5 Urogenital and anal organ agents 259 Miscellaneous 2590 Miscellaneous D04712 Quercus salicina extract (JAN) PubChem: 17398148 ...

  17. Mass fraction and compositional change of calcium forms in wild Prunus humilis fruits during the post-harvest storage period%欧李果实采后不同形态钙的质量分数及组成变化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马建军; 张立彬; 杜彬; 于凤鸣; 任艳军

    2012-01-01

    To provide basic data for studying and evaluating calcium in Prunus humilis, mass fraction and compositional changes of different calcium forms in wild P. humilis seedling types (large fruit and small fruit) and grafted types (top-grafting and low-grafting) were studied by sequential extraction with H20, 1 mol-L"1 NaCl, 20 g'kg"' acetic acid (HAC), and 50 g'kg"1 HC1 during the post-harvest storage process at room temperature. Results showed that in the harvest period the percent extraction of different calcium forms was 98.2%- 99.3% with 70% of the total calcium form being water-soluble calcium and calcium pectate. Calcium pectate content in large fruits was significantly higher (P < 0.01) than in small fruits. Also, water-soluble calcium, calcium phosphate, and calcium oxalate in small fruits were significantly higher than in large fruits (P < 0.01) with the total calcium content in small fruits significantly higher than in large fruits (P < 0.05). Compared to wild seedling types, the extraction ratio of water-soluble calcium for grafted types increased and the extraction ratio of calcium pectate decreased. After post-harvest storage, the composition ratio of water-soluble calcium increased, whereas the ratio of calcium pectate and calcium oxalate decreased; also phosphate calcium and ratios of other forms of calcium did not change. [Ch, 4 fig. 1 tab. 17 ref.]%以野生欧李Prunus humilis为试材,采用不同浸提剂(水,1 mol·L-1氯化钠,20 g·kg-1乙酸,50 g·kg-1盐酸)逐级提取方法,研究了欧李实生类型(大果型和小果型)和嫁接类型(高位嫁接和低位嫁接)果实采后常温储藏过程中不同形态钙的质量分数及组成比率的变化,为欧李钙素研究和质量评价提供基础资料.结果表明:采收期果实中不同形态钙的提取率为98.24%~99.32%,且以水溶钙和果胶钙形态组成为主,约占总钙量的70%左右;大果型果实中果胶钙质量分数显著高于小果型果实(P<0.01),

  18. Effects of Cutting Back Pruning Degree on Distribution and Utilization of 13C and 15N for Prunus avium ‘Hongdeng’%短截修剪程度对‘红灯’甜樱桃13C和15N分配利用的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    付莹; 姜远茂; 张世忠; 雷庆国; 汤先状

    2015-01-01

    以2年生‘红灯’(Prunus avium L.‘Hongdeng’)/东北山樱(Cerasus sachalinensis Kom.)为试材,研究了不同短截程度对13C和15N分配和利用的影响.结果表明,新梢生长期,短截处理修剪促进了碳水化合物向根系分配,极重度短截处理使叶片和新梢中13C分配率分别减少了29.15%和7.3%,粗根和细根中13C分配率增加了46.65%和48.43%.随着时间的推移,短截处理的叶片和新梢的13C分配率均显著高于对照,多年生枝干的13C分配率随短截程度的增加而减小,根系的13C分配率以中短截最低,极重度短截最高.各处理15N利用率从高到底依次为中度短截>对照>极重度短截,在新梢停长期差别最大,3个处理15N利用率分别为6.91%、5.54%和3.60%;多年生枝干15N分配率随短截程度的增加而减小,短截处理叶片和新梢的15N分配率随短截程度的增加而增加.

  19. 甜樱桃果实果肉Ca2+质量浓度变化规律及其与裂果的关系%Change of Ca2+ concentration in sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.)fruit and its relationship with fruit cracking

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张阁; 朱国英; 刘成连; 原永兵; 李志军; 王永章

    2008-01-01

    通过对拉宾斯(Lapins),滨库(Bing)和红丰(Hongfeng)3个抗裂性不同的甜樱桃(Prunus avium L.)品种进行果实发育期外源补钙处理,研究了甜樱桃果实整个发育过程中果肉Ca2+质量浓度变化规律,及其对甜樱桃裂果的影响.结果表明,1)拉宾斯果实在成熟后期果肉Ca2+质量浓度呈稳定的上升趋势,而滨库和红丰在果实成熟期果肉Ca2+质量浓度则呈下降趋势.2)外源补钙处理可明显提高果实中的钙含量,所有处理的果实在整个发育过程中果肉Ca2+质量浓度都明显高于对照,其中拉宾斯比对照高12%、比滨库高13%、比红丰高40%.3)在裂果试验中,高抗裂品种拉宾斯对于外源补钙不敏感,叶面补钙处理后裂果率由7%降为4%;而抗裂性较差的滨库和红丰则非常敏感,裂果率滨库由49%降为28%、红丰由92%降为60%,证明果肉Ca2+质量浓度的提高可明显降低果实裂果率.

  20. 外源GA3和PP333对甜樱桃新梢生长及赤霉素代谢关键基因表达的影响%Effects of GA3 And PP333 on Shoot Growth and Gene Expression of Gibberellins Metabolism in Prunus Avium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘芳; 袁华招; 沈欣杰; 廖雄; 李天红

    2013-01-01

    本研究以9年生甜樱桃红灯(Prunus avium L.‘Hongdeng’)为试材,于新梢生长期进行100mg·L-1赤霉素(GA3)、300 mg·L-1多效唑(PP333)叶面喷施处理.试验结果表明GA3可明显促进新梢生长,新梢生长量长达15.04cm,为对照的2倍,而PP333则显著抑制了新梢的生长.GA3处理可使其内源GA3含量发生明显变化,在处理后14d更高达对照的2.2倍,之后迅速下降,而PP333处理后内源GA3含量呈持续下降趋势.实时荧光定量PCR结果表明GA3处理能够抑制GA20-ox、GA3-ox2种合成关键酶基因的转录,而PP333处理则使GA20-ox、GA3-ox转录水平在后期明显升高.同时赤霉素代谢关键酶GA2-ox转录水平在不同处理中均表现出与赤霉素含量类似的变化规律.说明在甜樱桃内源赤霉素含量与合成代谢酶转录水平间,反馈调节机制可能发挥着重要作用.该研究结果将为生产中采用基因工程手段控制营养生长,实现矮化密植提供理论参考.

  1. A Two-dimensional Electrophoresis Protocol to study Protein Discrepancies in Mesocarp and Putamen during prunus persica Fruit Development%桃果实硬核后期中果皮与内果皮中蛋白质组表达的双向电泳分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨爱珍; 王一鸣; 花宝光; 刘悦萍; 王有年

    2010-01-01

    为了探究桃果实发育过程后期中、内果皮不同的代谢进程,以"大久保"桃(Prunus persica L.cv.Okubao)盛花后56天的果实为试材,TCA/丙酮沉淀法提取蛋白质,采用固相pH梯度(immobilized pH gradients,IPG)双向电泳系统分离蛋白质,凝胶银染显色后用图像分析软件比较分析差异表达的蛋白点,初步了解中果皮和内果皮蛋白质组表达的差异点.采用pH 5~8 IPG胶条进行等电聚焦得到的双向电泳图谱在中果皮与内果皮中检测到蛋白质点的数量分别为(1273±101)和(1292±115)个,所有匹配的蛋白点中有65个在中果皮与内果皮的图谱中均存在,其中30个为内果皮相对于中果皮2倍(P<0.05)上调的点,35个为内果皮相对于中果皮2倍(P<0.05)下调的点.有10个蛋白点仅在中果皮表达,18个蛋白点只在内果皮表达而中果皮未显示.表明桃果实发育硬核期中果皮与内果皮的蛋白质组存在一定差异,这些差异可能会为进一步解释中果皮与内果皮在代谢的方向上不同而提供理论依据.

  2. 40 CFR 180.41 - Crop group tables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... cherry; peach; and plum or fresh prune (Prunus domestica, Prunus spp.) (ii) Commodities. The following is... (Prunus persica) Peach (Prunus persica) Plum (Prunus domestica, Prunus spp.) Plum, Chickasaw (Prunus.... armeniaca×P. domestica) Prune (fresh) (Prunus domestica, Prunus spp.) (14) Crop Group 13. Berries Group....

  3. Genetic diversity of different eco-geographical populations in endangered plant Prunus mongolica by ISSR Markers%濒危植物蒙古扁桃不同地理种群遗传多样性的 ISSR 分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张杰; 王佳; 李浩宇; 张慧荣; 王迎春

    2012-01-01

    采用 ISSR 分子标记对蒙古扁桃(Prunus mongolica)6个自然种群的遗传多样性进行了分析.12条ISSR引物共扩增出200条带,其中199条具多态性,多态位点比率为99.5%.在种群水平上多态位点百分率平均为55.3%.Nei's基因多样性、Shannon's信息指数在种群水平上分别为0.3241和0.4875,在物种水平上分别为0.3105和0.4722.根据基因分化系数,测得基因流值Nm为0.8266.UPGMA聚类分析结果表明:乌海千里沟种群和东升庙那仁乌拉种群遗传一致度最大,遗传关系最近.ISSR检测结果表明,包头萨拉齐种群的遗传多样性最丰富,在制定原位种质保护计划时,应优先保护包头萨拉齐周边地区的蒙古扁桃.%Prunus mongolica ( Rosaceae subfamily Prunoideae) is a perennial desert xeric shrub native to the Mongolian Plateau. It is an ancient relict plant that mainly grows in extreme environments, such as on low mountains and hills, on stony slopes, and in dry beds in the desert and desert steppe regions. P. mongolica has distinct xeromorphic adaptations, such as hard shoot spines at the ends of the branchlets. P. mongolica is an important woody oil crop with a high oil content in the seed kernel, and oil extracted from the seed kernel can be eaten. In addition, because of its long flowering period (a single flower can last eight days, and a community flowers for 50 days) , flamboyant flowers, and extreme tolerance to harsh conditions, P. mongolica can be used as garden plant in the northwest of China. Zhao Yizhi proposed that P. mongolica is an Alax desert species that is mainly distributed in the Alax desert regions of the Mongolian Plateau, although scattered populations can be found in the southwest regions of the eastern Gobi Desert. Because the shrubs are limited by environmental conditions, P. mongolica cannot form large desert populations; it is only found scattered in the mountains and gullies. Such habitat fragmentation may influence the genetic

  4. 挥发性香气物质和乙烯生产在"湖景蜜露"桃果实发育过程中的变化%Changes in Aroma Volatile Compounds and Ethylene Production During "Hujingmilu" Peach (Prunus persica L.) Fruit Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张晓萌; 贾惠娟

    2005-01-01

    Changes in ethylene production rate, respiration rate, and aroma volatile composition was determined from the immature to mature stage in "Hujingmilu"peach (Prunus presica) fruit. Flesh firmness, fruit size,ground color of skin, and total soluble solids (TSS),titratable acidity (TA) in juice were analyzed, and ACC,ACC synthase and ACC oxidase activities were measured. With the increase of fruit maturity, fruit size, L* value, and TSS and major reducing sugar contents increased, whereas fruit firmness, skin hue angle (h°), and juice TA and organic acid contents decreased. In immature fruits, a C6-aldehydes (trans2-hexenal) and C6-alcohols (cis-3-hexenol) were the major components, corresponding to the low ethylene production and high respiration rates. With increasing of fruit maturity, the C6-C12 lactonic compounds, particularly γ- and δ-lactones became the dominant volatile constituents, which increased significantly at the climacteric stage. These facts suggest that ethylene production may be involved in the regulation of lactones production in maturing peach fruit. The activity of ACC synthase in the mesocarp declined during the climacteric rise of ethylene. ACC level and ACC oxidase activity in mesocarp were consistent with the onset of ethylene production in fruit.Major aroma volatiles are thought to form in conjunction with the initiation of climacteric rises in respiration and ethylene production. Detection of changes in aroma volatile compound synthesis rate in peach may be useful as index of maturity reflecting the current physiological stage of peach fruit development.%以"湖景蜜露"水蜜桃(Prunus persica L.)为试材,检测了果实从未成熟到成熟发育过程中乙烯生成、呼吸速率及挥发性香气性物质的变化;同时对果实大小、果皮色泽、果肉硬度、可溶性固形物、可滴定酸进行了测定;对与果实乙烯产生密切相关的1-氨基环丙烷-1-羧酸(ACC)含量、ACC合成酶活性、ACC氧化酶活

  5. Relationship between endogenous hormonal content and somatic organogenesis in callus of peach (Prunus persica L. Batsch) cultivars and Prunus persica×Prunus dulcis rootstocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Jiménez, Margarita; Cantero-Navarro, Elena; Pérez-Alfocea, Francisco; Le-Disquet, Isabel; Guivarc'h, Anne; Cos-Terrer, José

    2014-05-01

    The relationship between endogenous hormones content and the induction of somatic peach plant was studied. To induce multiple shoots from callus derived from the base of stem explants of the scion cultivars 'UFO-3', 'Flariba' and 'Alice Bigi', and the peach×almond rootstocks 'Garnem' and 'GF677', propagated plants were cultured on Murashige and Skoog salts augmented with 0.1mgL(-1) of indolebutyric acid, 1mgL(-1) of 6-benzylaminopurine and 3% sucrose. The highest regeneration rate was obtained with the peach×almond rootstocks. Endogenous levels of abscisic acid (ABA), indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), zeatin (Z), zeatin riboside (ZR), ethylene precursor 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC), salicylic acid (SA), and jasmonic acid (JA) were analyzed in the organogenic callus. Lower levels of several hormones, namely Z, ZR, ABA, and ACC were found in the peach×almond rootstock compared to peach cultivars, while IAA and SA presented inconclusive returns. These results suggest that the difference in somatic organogenesis capacity observed in peach and peach×almond hybrids is markedly affected by the endogenous hormonal content of the studied genotypes. PMID:24709154

  6. Relationship between endogenous hormonal content and somatic organogenesis in callus of peach (Prunus persica L. Batsch) cultivars and Prunus persica×Prunus dulcis rootstocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Jiménez, Margarita; Cantero-Navarro, Elena; Pérez-Alfocea, Francisco; Le-Disquet, Isabel; Guivarc'h, Anne; Cos-Terrer, José

    2014-05-01

    The relationship between endogenous hormones content and the induction of somatic peach plant was studied. To induce multiple shoots from callus derived from the base of stem explants of the scion cultivars 'UFO-3', 'Flariba' and 'Alice Bigi', and the peach×almond rootstocks 'Garnem' and 'GF677', propagated plants were cultured on Murashige and Skoog salts augmented with 0.1mgL(-1) of indolebutyric acid, 1mgL(-1) of 6-benzylaminopurine and 3% sucrose. The highest regeneration rate was obtained with the peach×almond rootstocks. Endogenous levels of abscisic acid (ABA), indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), zeatin (Z), zeatin riboside (ZR), ethylene precursor 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC), salicylic acid (SA), and jasmonic acid (JA) were analyzed in the organogenic callus. Lower levels of several hormones, namely Z, ZR, ABA, and ACC were found in the peach×almond rootstock compared to peach cultivars, while IAA and SA presented inconclusive returns. These results suggest that the difference in somatic organogenesis capacity observed in peach and peach×almond hybrids is markedly affected by the endogenous hormonal content of the studied genotypes.

  7. Resistência de porta-enxertos para pessegueiro e ameixeira aos nematóides causadores de galhas (Meloidogyne spp. Resistance of rootstock for peach tree and plum to root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Carlos Fachinello

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho foi realizado com o objetivo de comparar o comportamento de cinco diferentes porta-enxertos para frutas de caroço em frente a duas espécies de nematóides do gênero Meloidogyne (Meloidogyne javanica e Meloidogyne incognita. O cultivar GF 677 foi obtido a partir do cultivo in vitro e os demais porta-enxertos a partir de sementes. Aos dois meses, as plântulas foram repicadas e inoculadas com uma mistura de Meloidogyne javanica e M. incognita aos 30, 60 e 70 dias após o plantio em canteiros incorporando-se 0,2kg de solo altamente infestado com os nematóides ao redor de cada planta. Ao final do experimento, avaliaram-se o desenvolvimento das plantas e o grau de infecção de cada cultivar. O grau de resistência dos cultivares foi estimado a partir do índice de galhas, obtido através de uma escala de grau ou nota, a qual varia de 0 a 5, em função do número de galhas ou ootecas. Os resultados obtidos demonstraram que o cultivar Okinawa não apresentou galhas no sistema radicular e na análise de crescimento foi superior aos demais cultivares. Os cultivares R-15-2 e Aldrighi foram considerados resistentes aos fitonematóides por apresentarem pequeno número de galhas no sistema radicular. Já o cultivar GF 677 apresentou maior número de galhas no sistema radicular, chegando a 126 galhas/g de raiz.The work was carried out with the objective of comparing the response of five different stone fruit rootstocks to two nematode species (Meloidogyne javanica and Meloidogyne incognita. The cultivar GF677, which was obtained from in vitro cultivation and the others rootstocks, were obtained from seedlings. Two month old plants were transplanted and inoculated with a mixture of both nematode species at 30, 60, 70 days after planting, by incorporating 0.2kg of highly infested soil around each cultivar. The development of the roststocks were evaluated at the end of the experiment. Number of galls, ranging from 0 to 5 was used to score the level of resistance of each cultivar. The results showed that cultivar Okinawa did not present any root galls and also had a superior growth than the other cultivars. The cultivars R-15-2 and Aldrighi presented small numbers of galls in the roots, they were considered resistant to nematodes. On the other hand, the cultivar GF677 presented the largest number of galls in the roots, achieving 126 galls/g of root.

  8. Cloning and sequence analysis of CP gene of Prunus necrotic ringspot virus from almond plants in Xinjiang%李属坏死环斑病毒(PNRSV)新疆巴旦木分离物外壳蛋白基因(CP)片断的克隆与序列分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    殷智婷; 韩剑; 周国辉; 张祥林; 罗明; 潘亚南

    2012-01-01

    【目的】为了查明新疆巴旦木果树病原病毒的种类,为病毒的分子检测提供基础。【方法】采用双抗体夹心酶联免疫吸附法(DAS—ELISA),从巴旦木果树叶片中检测到李属坏死环斑病毒(PNRSV)。以阳性样品的总RNA为模板进行PNRSV外壳蛋白基因(CP)RT—PCR扩增,对预期430bp大小的4个扩增产物进行克隆、测序和序列分析。【结果】结果表明,PNRSV新疆巴旦木分离物cJP基因的核苷酸和氨基酸序列与世界各地已报道的分离物具有较高的同源性,分别为80.0%-97.2%和80.1%-94.1%,其中与阿根廷分离物AY217的同源性最高:而与同属03亚组的苹果花叶病毒(ApMV)同源性较低,仅为52.9%~55.4%和45.6%-48.6%。新疆PNRSV各分离物之间C尸基因高度同源。序列比对与系统发生树的分析显示,PNRSV新疆巴旦木分离物的株系属于Group I组。【结论】确定了PNRSV为侵染新疆巴旦木果树的病原病毒。这是PNRSV在新疆发现的首次报道。%[Objective]The objective of the study is to identify the virus infecting almond trees in Xinjiang Province,and provide a foundation for developing molecular detection of the viral diseases. [Method]The samples showing typical symptoms of virus-like diseases were screened by Double-Antibody Sandwich Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assays (DAS-ELISA), and eight were tested positive for Prunus necrotic ringspot virus (PNRSV). Using universal primers for viral coat protein gene (CP) of PNRSV, RT-PCR were performed with the total RNA as templates extracted from the detected positive samples. Four amplified cDNA fragments with expected amplified sizes of 430 bp were cloned and sequenced. [Result]The similarity analysis of the nucleotide sequences and deduced amino acid of CP gene showed highly identity between of PNRSV-Xinjiang isolates and that from several different countries, sharing identities of

  9. Cloning and Expression Analysis of PpNST1 and PpSND1 Genes from Prunus persica L.%桃PpNST1和PpSND1转录因子基因的克隆与表达分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡昊; 刘勇; 刘悦萍; 邬瑞杰; 花宝光; 王有年

    2012-01-01

    In order to investigate the relationship between NAC domain transcription factors and developmental lignification of peach endocarp,two NAC domain transcription factor genes PpNSTl and PpSNDl were isolated from peach (Prunus persica L. 'Okubo') endocarp by homologous cloning. Sequence analysis indicated that both PpNSTl and PpSNDl were 1 188 bp,encoding 396 amino acids. The predicted proteins of them contained one NAC domain in N terminus and two featured domains (LP-box and WQ-box) in C terminus. Phylogenetic analysis results revealed that PpNSTl and PpSNDl were closely related to secondary cell wall formation- and lignification-related NAC domain transcription factors in Malus domestica,Vitis vinifera,Populus trichocarpa and Arabidopsis thaliana. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis showed that the expression patterns of PpNSTl and PpSNDl were dramatically up-regulated during the lignification of peach endocarp,and their transcript expression levels were more abundant in endocarp than in mesocarp. Moreover,the expression analysis of the putative downstream targets of PpNSTl and PpSNDl suggested that they might play important role in endocarp developmental lignification.%为了解NAC类转录因子与桃果实内果皮发育木质化的关系,本文以桃内果皮为试材,采用同源基因克隆法获得了两个NAC类转录因子的全长编码区,分别命名为PpNS TI和PpSND1.序列分析表明2个基因编码区全长均为1 188bp,可编码396个氨基酸,其预测蛋白均包含1个NAC结构域和2个特征结构域(LP-box和WQ-box).氨基酸序列系统进化分析显示PpNSTI和PpSNDI与苹果、葡萄、毛果杨和拟南芥等参与调控次生细胞壁形成和木质化的NST/SND1类转录因子具有较高同源性.荧光实时定量PCR分析表明,PpNST1和PpSND1的表达水平随内果皮的木质化程度加强而不断升高,分别于盛花期后59和52 d达到最高表达量,且它们在内果皮中的表达水平远高于中果皮.对PpNST1

  10. Highly efficient transformation protocol for plum (Prunus domestica L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petri, César; Scorza, Ralph; Srinivasan, Chinnathambi

    2012-01-01

    A high-throughput transformation system for plum has been developed using hypocotyl slices excised from zygotic embryos as the source of explants. The hypocotyl slices are infected in an Agrobacterium tumefaciens suspension and then cocultivated for 3 days in shoot regeneration ¾ MS basal medium supplemented with 9 μM 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid. Transgenic shoots are regenerated in a medium containing 7.5 μM thidiazuron and elongated in a medium containing 3 μM benzyladenine in the presence of 80 mg/L kanamycin in both media. Transformed shoots are rooted in ½ MS basal medium supplemented with 5 μM NAA and 40 mg/L kanamycin. The transgenic plants are acclimatized in a growth chamber and transferred to a temperature-controlled greenhouse. This protocol has allowed transformation efficiencies up to 42% and enabled the production of self-rooted transgenic plum plants within 6 months of transformation.

  11. Prunus laurocerasus : Lorbeerkirsche, Kirschlorbeer (Rosaceae), Giftpflanze des Jahres 2013

    OpenAIRE

    Hetzel, Ingo

    2014-01-01

    Bei der Lorbeerkirsche handelt es sich um eine giftige Pflanze, deren toxische Wirkung durchaus nicht zu unterschätzen ist. Das Pflanzenporträt der Lorbeerkirsche dazu beitragen, die Art richtig ansprechen zu können, um mögliche Vergiftungen zu vermeiden. Darüber hinaus wird im Folgenden darüber informiert, welche positive Wirkung das beliebte Hecken- und Sichtschutzgehölz hat, wo die Art ursprünglich wächst und dass sie mittlerweile in milden Gebieten in Deutschland auch außerhalb der Gärten...

  12. IN VITRO PERFECTED PROPAGATION BIOTECHNOLOGY OF PRUNUS SERRULATA SPECIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Duţă

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The results of this study are original because in vivo rooting of microshoots is not reported in both national and international scientific literature for this species. In vivo rooting capacity of 'Kanzan' cherry microshoots was studied according to nutrient substrate, microshoots height and rooting stimulant. From the interaction of the three factors (A×B×C, the 18 experimental variants have revealed that the best in vivo rooting capacity (84% was when 2.5 to 4.5 cm height microshoots were planted in peat mixed with perlite (1:1 and treated with Radistim.

  13. Rootstock breeding in Prunus species: Ongoing efforts and new challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Gainza

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The current global agricultural challenges imply the need to generate new technologies and farming systems. In this context, rootstocks are an essential component in modern agriculture. Most currently used are those clonally propagated and there are several ongoing efforts to develop this type of plant material. Despite this tendency, lesser number of rootstock breeding programs exists in comparison to the large number of breeding programs for scion cultivars. In the case of rootstocks, traits evaluated in new selection lines are quite different: From the agronomic standpoint vigor is a key issue in order to establish high-density orchards. Other important agronomic traits include compatibility with a wide spectrum of cultivars from different species, good tolerance to root hypoxia, water use efficiency, aptitude to extract or exclude certain soil nutrients, and tolerance to soil or water salinity. Biotic stresses are also important: Resistance/tolerance to pests and diseases, such as nematodes, soil-borne fungi, crown gall, bacterial canker, and several virus, viroids, and phytoplasms. In this sense, the creation of new rootstocks at Centro de Estudios Avanzados en Fruticultura (CEAF offers an alternative to stone fruit crop, particularly in Chile, where just a few alternatives are commercially available, and there are site-specific problems. The implementation of molecular markers in order to give support to the phenotypic evaluation of plant breeding has great potential assisting the selection of new genotypes of rootstocks. Marker-Assisted Selection (MAS can shorten the time required to obtain new cultivars and can make the process more cost-effective than selection based exclusively on phenotype, but more basic research is needed to well understood the molecular and physiological mechanisms behind the studied trait.

  14. PHYLLODY (FLOWER ABNORMALITY) IN SWEET CHERRY (PRUNUS AVIUM L.)

    OpenAIRE

    H. Engin and Z. Gokbayrak*

    2010-01-01

    This report deals with a case of phyllody, flower abnormality which is described as leaf-like development of the floralorgans. In most extreme form, the organ involved is replaced by a foliage-type leaf. Any floral organ, even the ovule,may become leafy in form or color.

  15. Detecting local establishment strategies of wild cherry (Prunus avium L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregorius Hans-Rolf

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Backround P. avium, a pioneer tree species that colonizes early forest successional stages, is assumed to require an effective strategy allowing stably repeatable rounds of local establishment, dispersal and local extinction. Consequently, the early replacement of cherry by climax tree species makes the establishment of several local generations very unlikely, especially in central European continuous cover forests. This has to be seen in connection with the mixed reproduction system involving asexual reproduction as a complementary adaptational strategy. Tests of the local establishment of wild cherry must therefore consider the possibility of first generation establishment via seedling recruitment potentially followed by an asexual generation (root suckering. Successful establishment can therefore be determined only among adult individuals with the option of detecting vegetative reproduction at these stages. To test the implied suggestion about local establishment strategies of wild cherry, nuclear microsatellites were used to analyse patterns of asexual propagation among adult stages that have been subjected to one of two major types of forest management. These management types, the historical "coppice with standards system" (CWS and the "high forest system" (HFS, can be reasonably assumed to have affected the reproduction system of P. avium. Results Clear differences were found in the reproduction pattern between two stands representing the two forest management types: 1 Clonal propagation is observed in both management systems, but with a distinctly higher frequency in the CWS. Hence, sexual recruitment as a first local generation is followed by a second asexual generation in both, whereas in the CWS there is evidence for an additional clonal generation. 2 The estimation of amounts of clonal reproduction critically depends on the assumptions about multilocus gene associations. This is revealed by the application of newly developed methods of quantifying gene associations. 3 Haplotype diversities are higher in the CWS and found to be associated with a large degree of heterozygosity for the second largest clonal group. 4 Seed set was sparse over the last eight years of observation in the CWS stand. Conclusion This study provides useful guidelines for more comprehensive investigations, particularly on the interrelationships between degrees of cloning and capacity of sexual reproduction, amounts of multilocus gene associations, effects of heterozygosity on cloning success, and sustainability of different forest management types.

  16. Kvaliteta plodova trešanja (Prunus avium L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Tomislav JEMRIĆ

    1996-01-01

    Na kvalitetu plodova utječu sljedeći čimbenici: sorta, podloga, ekološki uvjeti (klima i tlo), agrotehnika pomotehika, primjena regulatora rasta, napad bolesti i štetočinja, način berbe i skla-dištenje. Postoji i čitav niz čimbenika koji se teško mogu kontrolirati, a odražavaju utjecaj na kvalitetu plodova trešanja. Različitim pomo i agrotehničkim zahvatima kvalitetu možemo poboljšati, ali i pogoršati, pa o tome treba strogo voditi računa. Proizvodnju trešanja uvijek treba smjestiti u klimats...

  17. Estratificado de huesos de cerezo (Prunus avium Linn.)

    OpenAIRE

    Herrero Catalina, Joaquín

    1980-01-01

    [EN] Stones from three cherry cultivars were germinated following different stratification methods. Differences in percentage germination among varieties (from 57% to 82%) were greater than among stratification treatments (from 63% to 77%). Lath house stratification from september to germination, cold stratification (3-5 ºC) during four months, and warm stratification (20ºC) during a fortnight followed by cold stratification (3-5ºC) during three and a half months, gave similar percenta...

  18. 蔷薇科中5种多毛小蠹寄主植物的挥发物成分研究%Volatile Constituents of Five Rosaceous Host Plants of Scolytus seulensis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任龙; 许志春; 田呈明

    2013-01-01

    [Objective]Scolytus seulensis is an important boring insect and a major threat to five kinds of Rosaceae trees; Amygdalus communi,Prunus salicina, Malus pumila,Amygdalus persica, Prunus armeniaca. We here tried to identify and analyze the volatiles from five kinds of Rosaceae trees in order to provide information for finding the behavioral chemicals for this bark beetle. [ Method ] The volatiles from five important host plant trees were analyzed by using ATD - GC - MS. The relative levels of each chemical component were determined by applying normalization methods. [Result] In total, 18 different compounds were identified in the Amygdalus communis, 12 were present in Prunus salicina, 17 in Malus pumila, 22 in Amygdalus persica, 24 in Prunus armeniaca. They fall into five categories; alkenes, aldehydes, alcohols, ketones and esters. The major volatile components of these five plants were alkenes. Importantly, 9 of the volatile components were common to all five plants. They were 3 - Methylbutyraldehyde, Hexanal, Heptaldehyde, alpha - pinene, Benzaldehyde, methyl - heptenone, Octylaldehyde, Nonylaldehyde, Decenol. [Conclusion] Volatiles of each tree species is different in type and content, but volatiles of the five kinds of plants have a common characteristic, they all have highest concentrations of aldehydes. These substances may constitute a specific chemical fingerprint of the Rosaceae trees.%[目的]系统研究多毛小蠹5种蔷薇科寄主:巴旦杏树、李树、苹果树、桃树以及杏树等5种果树的挥发性物质,为多毛小蠹植物源引诱剂的开发提供依据.[方法]采用动态顶空和气相色谱-质谱联用技术,对5种寄主植物的挥发性物质进行采集,检测和分析.[结果]5种植物分别鉴定出83种挥发性物质,主要有醛类、烯类、醇类、酮类、酯类等,各树种的挥发物中醛类物质最为丰富.5种植物共有的化合物有9种,分别为异戊醛、己醛、庚醛、苯甲醛、辛醛、壬醛

  19. Carbohydrate-free peach (Prunus persica and plum (Prunus domestica juice affects fecal microbial ecology in an obese animal model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuliana D Noratto

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Growing evidence shows the potential of nutritional interventions to treat obesity but most investigations have utilized non-digestible carbohydrates only. Peach and plum contain high amounts of polyphenols, compounds with demonstrated anti-obesity effects. The underlying process of successfully treating obesity using polyphenols may involve an alteration of the intestinal microbiota. However, this phenomenon is not well understood. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Obese Zucker rats were assigned to three groups (peach, plum, and control, n = 10 each, wild-type group was named lean (n = 10. Carbohydrates in the fruit juices were eliminated using enzymatic hydrolysis. Fecal samples were obtained after 11 weeks of fruit or control juice administration. Real-time PCR and 454-pyrosequencing were used to evaluate changes in fecal microbiota. Over 1,500 different Operational Taxonomic Units at 97% similarity were detected in all rats. Several bacterial groups (e.g. Lactobacillus and members of Ruminococcacea were found to be more abundant in the peach but especially in the plum group (plum juice contained 3 times more total polyphenolics compared to peach juice. Principal coordinate analysis based on Unifrac-based unweighted distance matrices revealed a distinct separation between the microbiota of control and treatment groups. These changes in fecal microbiota occurred simultaneously with differences in fecal short-chain acids concentrations between the control and treatment groups as well as a significant decrease in body weight in the plum group. CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests that consumption of carbohydrate-free peach and plum juice has the potential to modify fecal microbial ecology in an obese animal model. The separate contribution of polyphenols and non-polyphenols compounds (vitamins and minerals to the observed changes is unknown.

  20. Carbohydrate-Free Peach (Prunus persica) and Plum (Prunus domestica) Juice Affects Fecal Microbial Ecology in an Obese Animal Model

    OpenAIRE

    Noratto, Giuliana D.; Jose F Garcia-Mazcorro; Melissa Markel; Hercia S Martino; Yasushi Minamoto; Steiner, Jörg M.; David Byrne; Suchodolski, Jan S; Mertens-Talcott, Susanne U.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Growing evidence shows the potential of nutritional interventions to treat obesity but most investigations have utilized non-digestible carbohydrates only. Peach and plum contain high amounts of polyphenols, compounds with demonstrated anti-obesity effects. The underlying process of successfully treating obesity using polyphenols may involve an alteration of the intestinal microbiota. However, this phenomenon is not well understood. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Obese Zucker rat...