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Sample records for ameixeira prunus salicina

  1. Efeito do ácido indolbutírico no enraizamento de estacas de ramos de plantas de ameixeira (Prunus salicina, Lindl. Effect of indolbutyric acid on the rooting of plum branch cuttings (Prunus sofrena, Lindl.

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    E. Kersten

    1993-05-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho foi realizado com o objetivo de avaliar o efeito de quatro concentrações de ácido indolbutírico (IBA, no enraizamento de estacas de ramos de ameixeira (Prunus salicina, Lindl., coletadas de plantas tratadas com bórax e sulfato de zinco e controle, executado em quatro épocas. Os experimentos foram conduzidos em viveiros, sob condição de nebulização artificial intermitente. Os resultados obtidos mostram a influência de cultivar, época e concentração de IBA, não sendo verificado efeito de bórax ou sulfato de zinco na percentagem de estacas enraizadas.The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of four concentrations of indolbutyric acid on the rooting of plum branch cuttings (Prunus salicina, Lindl. collected from plants treated with borax and zinc sulfate, in four periods. The experiments were conducted in a nursery with intermitent artificial mist conditions. The results showed a positive effect of cultivars, periods and IBA concentrations, and there was no effect of either borax or zinc sulfate on rooting of branch cuttings.

  2. Efeito do substrato e da época de coleta dos ramos no enraizamento de estacas de ameixeira (Prunus salicina Lindl. Effect of substrate and time of cutting collection on rooting of cuttings of plum (Prunus salicina Lindl.

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    Leonardo Ferreira Dutra

    1996-12-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho foi realizado em casa de vegetação do Departamento de Fitotecnia da Faculdade de Agronomia Eliseu Maciel, Universidade Federal de Pelotas, com o objetivo de verificar o efeito de diversos substratos no enraizamento de estacas de ameixeira em diferentes épocas de coleta dos ramos. Foram utilizadas estacas medianas da cultivar Frontier, com comprimento de 15cm e um par de folhas, coletadas nos meses de novembro de 1993, janeiro e março de 1994, obtidas em um pomar comercial com 8 anos de idade. Todas as estacas utilizadas foram tratadas com ácido indolbutirico na concentração de 3000ppm, introduziu-se em torno delem da base das estacas em ácido indolbutirico, na forma de pó e colocou-se em tubetes, acondicionados em bandejas de isopor, contendo diferentes substratos: areia média lavada; vermiculila de grânulos médios; cinza de casca de arroz e serragem de eucalipto, utilizados isolados e em misturas (1: 1v/v. O período de permanência das estacas na casa de vegetação foi de 60 dias. Observou-se maiores índices de enraizamento na coleta dos ramos realizadas em janeiro e março, e que o substrato areia + serragem proporcionou os maiores percentuais de estacas enraizadas com 68,22% e 65,99% nos meses de janeiro e março.This work was carried out in a greenhouse with intermittent mist out at the plant Science Department, Eliseu Maciel Agronomy College of Federal University of Pelotas (Brazil, aiming to evaluate the effect of different substratos and time of cutting on rooting of pium cuttings. Mild cuttings with 15cm length andapair of ieaves of Frontier cultivar were coilected from a commercial orchard eight years old in November 1993, January and March 1994. All cuttings were treated with indolbutiric acid (IBA at 3000ppm concentration introducing about 1.0cm of their basal end in IBA powder and placed in tubes on isopor trays containing different substratos: washed mild sand: vermiculite of medium grains; rice husk ash

  3. Caracterização molecular dos alelos-S de incompatibilidade gametofítica em Prunus salicina Lindl. Molecular identification of S-alleles of gametophytic incompatibility in Prunus salicina Lindl.

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    Monalize Salete Mota

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Pomares comerciais de ameixeira-japonesa devem conter pelo menos duas cultivares para obter boa fertilização, devido à presença do sistema de incompatibilidade gametofítica, que inibe a autofecundação da grande maioria das cultivares. No presente trabalho, buscou-se identificar e caracterizar molecularmente os alelos-S de 11 cultivares de ameixeira-japonesa (Prunus salicina Lindl. e verificar a compatibilidade entre os genótipos avaliados. As cultivares Santa Rosa, Santa Rita, Reubennel, Pluma 7, América, Rosa Mineira, Amarelinha, The First, Gulfblaze (Clone São Paulo, Gulfblaze (Clone Guaiba e Harry Pickstone foram analisadas por meio de Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase (PCR com três pares de iniciadores específicos para alelos-S. As condições da PCR utilizadas, bem como as combinações de iniciadores, permitiram a identificação de alelos-S nas cultivares de P. salicina estudadas, bem como a indicação dos polinizadores mais compatíveis com algumas das principais cultivares utilizadas na produção de frutas. O sequenciamento de alguns dos alelos-S amplificados revelou elevada similaridade com sequências de nucleotídeos já identificados em outros trabalhos com Prunus spp.. Entretanto, a obtenção de sequências completas de maior número de alelos-S faz-se necessária para o estabelecimento de uma relação de identidade precisa entre os mesmos.Commercial plum orchards must contain at least two cultivars, in order to ensure good fruit set and thus high economic yields, because its carries the gametophytic incompatibility system, that inhibits the selfing in a great number of cultivares. The aim of this work was to identify by PCR (Polymerase Chain Reaction the S-alleles related to gametophytic incompatibility in eleven Prunus salicina (Lindl. cultivars. The Santa Rosa, Santa Rita, Reubennel, Pluma 7, América, Rosa Mineira, Amarelinha, The First, Gulfblaze (Clone São Paulo, Gulfblaze (Clone Guaíba e Harry Pickstone

  4. Identification of volatile compounds in thinning discards from plum trees (Prunus salicina Lindl. cultivar Harry Pickstone

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    Rossana Podestá

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Plum (Prunus salicina Lindl. cv. Harry Pickstone, a China indigenous fruit, is widely produced and consumed in countries such as Japan and Brazil. The practice of thinning is common in horticulture and the fruits removed are discarded as waste. Like the great majority of vegetables, these thinning discards also contain essential oils which have not been investigated until the present time. The extraction of the plum thinning discards volatile oil, through the hydrodistillation method, produced a yield of 0.06% (m/m and a total of 21 components were identified, with 11 of them being responsible for 72,9% of the total oil composition. The major compounds determined through GC and GC-MS were Z-α-bisabolene (13.7%, n-hexadecanoic acid (12.7%, phytol (12.7%, and β-caryophyllene (10.4%.

  5. Microencapsulation of plum (Prunus salicina Lindl. phenolics by spray drying technology and storage stability

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    Yibin LI

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract To improve the stability of the phenolic extracts from plum fruit (Prunus salicina Lindl., the microencapsulation conditions of spray drying were optimized by the response surface method. The Box-Behnken experimental results indicated the optimal conditions involved an inlet air temperature of 142.8 °C, a core material content of 23.7% and a feed solids content of 11.7%. The maximum microencapsulating efficiency was 87.7% at optimal conditions. Further, the physicochemical properties of the microcapsule powders were improved overall due to the addition of the coating agents. There were no statistically significant differences in phenolic content of the obtained microcapsules for the first 40 days of storage at 25 °C in dark condition (p > 0.05, and the retention rate of total phenol remained above 85% after 60 days. Microcapsules can be potentially developed as a source of natural pigment or functional food based on the advantages of rich phenolic compounds and red color.

  6. Identification of Candidate Anthocyanin-related Genes by Transcriptomic Analysis of ‘Furongli’ Plum (Prunus salicina Lindl. During Fruit Ripening Using RNA-Seq

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    Zhizhen Fang

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Anthocyanins are important pigments and are responsible for red coloration in plums. However, little is known about the molecular mechanisms underlying anthocyanin accumulation in plum fruits. In this study, the RNA-seq technique was used to analyze the transcriptomic changes during fruit ripening in the red-fleshed plum (Prunus salicina Lindl. cultivar ‘Furongli’. Over 161 million high-quality reads were assembled into 52,093 unigenes and 49.4% of these were annotated using public databases. Of these, 25,681 unigenes had significant hits to the sequences in the NCBI Nr database, 17,203 unigenes showed significant similarity to known proteins in the Swiss-Prot database and 5,816 and 8,585 unigenes had significant similarity to existing sequences in the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes and the Cluster of Orthologous Groups databases, respectively. A total of 3,548 unigenes were differentially expressed during fruit ripening and 119 of these were annotated as involved in ‘biosynthesis of other secondary metabolites’. Biological pathway analysis and gene ontology term enrichment analysis revealed that 13 differentially expressed genes are involved in anthocyanin biosynthesis. Furthermore, transcription factors such as MYB and bHLH, which may control anthocyanin biosynthesis, were identified through coexpression analysis of transcription factors and structural genes. Real-time qPCR analysis of candidate genes showed good correlation with the transcriptome data. These results contribute to our understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying anthocyanin biosynthesis in plum flesh. The transcriptomic data generated in this study provide a basis for further studies of fruit ripening in plum.

  7. Comportamento de duas cultivares de pessegueiro com interenxerto da ameixeira 'Januária' Behavior of two peach cultivars with 'Januária' as a Japanese plum interstock

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    JOÃO ALEXIO SCARPARE FILHO

    2000-04-01

    Full Text Available Os efeitos da utilização de interenxerto (filtro da ameixeira 'Januária' (Prunus salicina L. foram verificados em duas cultivares de pessegueiro (Prunus persica L., Tropical e Ouromel-2. O porta-enxerto básico utilizado foi o pessegueiro 'Okinawa'. Foram avaliadas duas safras, respectivamente, na 4ª e 5ª folha de plantas enxertadas e estabelecidas no campo em 1994. O uso do enxerto intermediário diminuiu o vigor das plantas -- perímetro e área da secção do tronco, perímetro das pernadas e comprimento dos entrenós -- e aumentou o peso do fruto e a produção por planta, em comparação com as copas-controle enxertadas diretamente no 'Okinawa'. A eficiência produtiva, o índice de fertilidade, o florescimento e a frutificação efetiva foram incrementados com o uso do filtro. A interenxertia com ameixeira 'Januária' apresenta adequadas características de compatibilidade com o pessegueiro, como forma de compactar as copas e aumentar a produtividade e o tamanho do fruto.The effects of interstock with 'Januária' Japanese plum (Prunus salicina L. were verified in the performance of peach (Prunus persica L. cultivars Tropical and Ouromel-2. The basic rootstock used was 'Okinawa' peach. Two crops were evaluated at fourth and fifth leaves of plants established in 1994. The interstock caused decrease of the vigour of the plants -- perimeter and cross-sectional area of the trunk, perimeter of the primary branches and length of the internodes -- and increased fruit weight and production per plant, in comparison to the plant control without interstock budded on 'Okinawa'. Yield efficiency, fertility index, flowering and fruit set were increased with 'Januária' interstock. This interstock process presents an adequate characteristic of compatibility for the peach tree, as a form of compacting the plants, increasing the productivity and the fruit size.

  8. Seasonal changes and content of sodium in main organs of European plum trees (Prunus domestica L., fruit size and yield as affected by rootstocks on acidic soilMudanças sazonais no teor de sódio dos órgãos, tamanho do fruto e produção da ameixeira européia (Prunus domestica L. em função de porta-enxertos em solo ácido

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    Nebojsa Milosevic

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, the seasonal changes of Na content of shoots, flower buds and flowers, and fruit weight and yield of two European plum cultivars (‘Cacanska Lepotica’ and ‘Cacanska Najbolja’ budded on Myrobalan (Prunus cerasifera Ehrh. and Stanley rootstocks were analyzed after 6-8 years of planting on acidic sandy-loam soil. The Na content of the shoots and flower buds of each rootstock/cultivar combination varied during season, and the highest content in above organs was observed in May and August, respectively. The effect of rootstocks on the examined parameters was variable due to the strong rootstock/cultivar/year interaction observed. The shoots and flower buds of cultivars budded on Stanley and Myrobalan rootstocks gave the highest and lowest Na content, respectively, whereas the highest Na content in flowers registered in ‘Cacanska Lepotica’ on Myrobalan. The content of Na in the plum organs suggests the following trends: 1-year old shoots > 2-year-old shoots > flower buds > flowers. There were no statistically significant correlations among plum organs with respect to Na content. The Principal Component Analysis showed that Stanley rootstock had a higher Na accumulation and distribution capacity than Myrobalan rootstock in plum trees. Finally, content of Na in the main organs of plum trees and acidic soil have not a negative effect on fruit weight and yield of plum cultivars, since these properties were respectable. Neste estudo, foram analisadas as mudanças sazonais do teor de Na nos ramos, botões florais e flores, bem como no peso dos frutos e na produtividade de duas cultivares de ameixeiras européias (‘Cacanska lepotica’ e ‘Cacanska najbolja’ enxertadas sobre os porta-enxertos Myrobalan (Prunus cerasifera Ehch. e Stanley, aos 6-8 anos após o plantio em solo ácido areno-argiloso. O conteúdo de Na nos ramos e nos botões florais para cada combinação de copa/porta-enxerto teve a variação durante a

  9. Incidência e severidade do "furo de bala" em folhas da ameixeira sob doses de nitrogênio e potássio Incidence and severity of 'shot hole' in plum´s leaves related into nitrogen and potassium doses

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    Inês Tutida

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available A produção integrada (PI vem suprir uma demanda crescente de frutos de qualidade, garantir segurança alimentar, produção com qualidade ambiental e rastreabilidade. Na visão da PI, as práticas da adubação e do controle de doenças estão intimamente relacionadas; no entanto, tem sido negligenciadas e pouco estudadas, principalmente para a doença "furo de bala" (Wilsonomyces carpophilus em folhas de ameixeira (Prunus salicina. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a incidência e severidade dessa doença em doses combinadas de adubação com N e K em dois ciclos de cultivo comercial de ameixeira cv "Reubennel", no município de Araucária (PR. Foram utilizadas cinco doses de N (40, 80, 120, 160 e 200kg ha-1ano-1 e duas de K (55 e 110kg ha-1ano-1. Realizaram-se sete avaliações para incidência e severidade a cada 20 dias, no período de novembro/2004 a março/2005 e em data única em outubro/2005. Os dados da primeira safra foram integralizados no tempo, constituindo a área abaixo da curva de progresso da doença (AACPD da incidência e severidade, e os dados foram analisados estatisticamente pela teoria dos modelos lineares generalizados para dados longitudinais. A doença foi mais severa no segundo ano de avaliação, sendo observado o máximo de 0,70 e 2,25 para o primeiro e o segundo ano, respectivamente. A incidência e a severidade de "furo de bala" em folhas de ameixeira são superiores nas doses de 160 e 200kg ha-1ano-1 de nitrogênio. O potássio não interfere na incidência e severidade da doença devido ao seu elevado teor encontrado no solo e na planta.Integrated Production (IP can provide the growing demand for quality fruit, food safety, environmental protection, and product traceability. In IP, fertilization practices and disease control are viewed as being closely related. However, this linkage has been mostly ignored and few studies are available concerning the 'shot hole' phytopathogen (Wilsonomyces carpophilus in

  10. ENRAIZAMENTO DE MINIESTACAS DE AMEIXEIRA

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    TONIETTO ADILSON

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Com este trabalho, objetivou-se maximizar o rendimento do número de estacas enraizadas por ramo. Foram utilizados ramos do ano de duas cultivares de ameixeira (Reubennel e Pluma 7 eliminando-se a porção apical de cada ramo, com diâmetro inferior a 2 mm. As miniestacas foram obtidas fazendo-se um corte em bisel distante no mínimo 0,5 cm acima da gema e outro junto à gema subseqüente. Em seguida, foram mergulhadas em uma solução de ácido indolbutírico (AIB 2000 mg.L¹, por cinco segundos, e utilizou-se, como testemunha, uma solução composta de água destilada misturada ao mesmo volume de álcool utilizado para diluir o AIB. As miniestacas foram colocadas para enraizar em bandejas de isopor contendo, como substrato, uma mistura de cinza de casca de arroz e vermiculita (2:1 v/v, obedecendo-se à seqüência em que foram retiradas dos ramos. Parte das estacas permaneceram em substrato coberto com plástico transparente com espessura de 20 micras e parte em substrato descoberto. O delineamento experimental foi completamente casualizado, em esquema fatorial 2x2x2 (cultivares, soluções, plástico, com quatro repetições, utilizando-se de 15 miniestacas por parcela. Após 39 dias, foram avaliados o enraizamento (%, o comprimento e o número de raízes. A cultivar Pluma 7 apresenta maior potencial de enraizamento e maior sensibilidade ao AIB. Estacas de gema única possuem capacidade de formar raízes. Toda a extensão do ramo, de cultivares de ameixeiras que respondam ao ácido indolbutírico, pode ser utilizada como estaca na formação de mudas. O plástico reduz o enraizamento de estacas. O AIB aumenta o enraizamento, o número e o comprimento de raízes dos cultivares estudadas.

  11. ENRAIZAMENTO DE MINIESTACAS DE AMEIXEIRA

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    TONIETTO ADILSON

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Com este trabalho, objetivou-se maximizar o rendimento do número de estacas enraizadas por ramo. Foram utilizados ramos do ano de duas cultivares de ameixeira (Reubennel e Pluma 7 eliminando-se a porção apical de cada ramo, com diâmetro inferior a 2 mm. As miniestacas foram obtidas fazendo-se um corte em bisel distante no mínimo 0,5 cm acima da gema e outro junto à gema subseqüente. Em seguida, foram mergulhadas em uma solução de ácido indolbutírico (AIB 2000 mg.L¹, por cinco segundos, e utilizou-se, como testemunha, uma solução composta de água destilada misturada ao mesmo volume de álcool utilizado para diluir o AIB. As miniestacas foram colocadas para enraizar em bandejas de isopor contendo, como substrato, uma mistura de cinza de casca de arroz e vermiculita (2:1 v/v, obedecendo-se à seqüência em que foram retiradas dos ramos. Parte das estacas permaneceram em substrato coberto com plástico transparente com espessura de 20 micra e parte em substrato descoberto. O delineamento experimental foi completamente casualizado, em esquema fatorial 2x2x2 (cultivares, soluções, plástico, com quatro repetições, utilizando-se de 15 miniestacas por parcela. Após 39 dias, foram avaliados o enraizamento (%, o comprimento e o número de raízes. A cultivar Pluma 7 apresenta maior potencial de enraizamento e maior sensibilidade ao AIB. Estacas de gema única possuem capacidade de formar raízes. Toda a extensão do ramo, de cultivares de ameixeiras que respondam ao ácido indolbutírico, pode ser utilizada como estaca na formação de mudas. O plástico reduz o enraizamento de estacas. O AIB aumenta o enraizamento, o número e o comprimento de raízes dos cultivares estudadas.

  12. Storage of 'Laetitia' plums ( Prunus salicina ) under controlled ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Upon removal from the cold storage chamber and after four days in ambient conditions (20±2°C/60±5% RH), the fruit were assessed in terms of: respiration and ethylene production rates; flesh firmness; texture; titrable acidity; red color index and hue angle (ho) of the skin; incidence of fruit cracking and internal breakdown ...

  13. CLONING AND SEQUENCING OF PGIP FROM ‘JIN SERIES’ ALMOND (PRUNUS DULCIS

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    Yuhu Han

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Specific primers synthesized according to conservative regions of polygalacturonase inhibiting protein (PGIP gene were used to amplify Prunus Dulcis genomic DNA by polymerase-chain reaction (PCR. Six bands (pgip1, pgip2, pgip3, pgip4, pgip5 and pgip6 of genes were obtained and cloned into PBS-T vector. According to the length of bands, 717bp, 864bp, 796bp were A1 (pgip1, pgip2, pgip3, A2 (pgip4, A4 (pgip5, pgip6, respectively. DNA sequences showed that the fragments taken together were the gene encoding PGIP. A2 and A3 contained two exons interrupted by one intron, which has GT-AG sequence. Its DNA and amino acid sequences were highly homologies to those from Prunus Persica; Prunus Salicina; Prunus Americana; Prunus Mume, respectively. A conserved lencinerial fragment exists in the derived protein sequence.

  14. Enraizamento de estacas lenhosas de ameixeiras tratadas com ácido indolbutírico

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    Mindêllo Neto Ubirajara Ribeiro

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Considerando o grande interesse pela ameixeira no mercado de frutas, existe a necessidade de buscar técnicas mais eficientes na produção de mudas de qualidade e com maior uniformidade. Buscou-se, neste trabalho, verificar o potencial de enraizamento de estacas lenhosas de 12 cultivares de ameixeira (América, Amarelinha, Letícia, Pluma 7, Reubennel, Rosa Mineira, Santa Rita, Santa Rosa, Simka, The First, Wade e XV de novembro tratadas com ácido indolbutírico (AIB, em concentrações de 0, 1000 e 3000mg L-1, em imersão rápida por 5 segundos na sua parte basal. O estudo foi desenvolvido de junho a setembro de 2004, na EMBRAPA Transferência de Tecnologia, localizada no município de Canoinhas, SC. Estacas lenhosas foram coletadas de plantas matrizes de dois anos, situadas em casa-de-vegetação e padronizadas com um comprimento médio de 12cm e diâmetro de 6mm, sendo acondicionadas em bandejas de poliestireno expandido com 72 células de 0,000015m3, contendo vermiculita como substrato e mantidas em casa de vegetação sem nebulização intermitente por 97 dias. O delineamento experimental foi o inteiramente casualizado com quatro repetições e 12 estacas por parcela. As maiores porcentagens de enraizamento (acima de 70% foram obtidas nas estacas das cultivares XV de Novembro, Rosa Mineira e Santa Rita. A aplicação de 1000mg L-1 AIB, foi melhor no enraizamento de estacas de ameixeira proporcionando maior número de raízes por estaca e maior comprimento das raízes.

  15. Basic RNases of wild almond (Prunus webbii): cloning and characterization of six new S-RNase and one "non-S RNase" genes.

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    Banović, Bojana; Surbanovski, Nada; Konstantinović, Miroslav; Maksimović, Vesna

    2009-03-01

    In order to investigate the S-RNase allele structure of a Prunus webbii population from the Montenegrin region of the Balkans, we analyzed 10 Prunus webbii accessions. We detected 10 different S-RNase allelic variants and obtained the nucleotide sequences for six S-RNases. The BLAST analysis showed that these six sequences were new Prunus webbii S-RNase alleles. It also revealed that one of sequenced alleles, S(9)-RNase, coded for an amino acid sequence identical to that for Prunus dulcis S(14)-RNase, except for a single conservative amino acid replacement in the signal peptide region. Another, S(3)-RNase, was shown to differ by only three amino acid residues from Prunus salicina Se-RNase. The allele S(7)-RNase was found to be inactive by stylar protein isoelectric focusing followed by RNase-specific staining, but the reason for the inactivity was not at the coding sequence level. Further, in five of the 10 analyzed accessions, we detected the presence of one active basic RNase (marked PW(1)) that did not amplify with S-RNase-specific DNA primers. However, it was amplified with primers designed from the PA1 RNase nucleotide sequence (basic "non-S RNase" of Prunus avium) and the obtained sequence showed high homology (80%) with the PA1 allele. Although homologs of PA1 "non-S RNases" have been reported in four other Prunus species, this is the first recorded homolog in Prunus webbii. The evolutionary implications of the data are discussed.

  16. Multiplicação in vitro da ameixeira 'Santa Rosa': efeito da citocinina BAP

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    Rogalski Marcelo

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available A ameixeira 'Santa Rosa' apresenta alta produtividade, ótimo sabor e aparência dos frutos para a comercialização. No entanto, por ser altamente suscetível à escaldadura das folhas (Xylella fastidiosa Wells, esta variedade apresenta problemas de cultivo no sul do Brasil. As técnicas de cultura in vitro permitem propagar e rapidamente espécies de interesse, além de permitir a limpeza de patógenos e a produção de matrizes com qualidade genética e sanitária comprovada. Porém, o uso prático da propagação in vitro requer a otimização das condições de cultura para cada espécie e/ou variedade. Dentre os fatores que mais influenciam a micropropagação, estão as citocininas, com destaque para o BAP. O objetivo principal deste trabalho foi avaliar o potencial de multiplicação in vitro da ameixeira 'Santa Rosa' sob diferentes concentrações de BAP. Após três subculturas em meio MA1, segmentos nodais com 0,5-1,0 cm foram submetidos a diferentes concentrações de BAP (0,5; 1,0; 2,0 e 3,0 mg.L-1. Os resultados mostraram que não ocorreram diferenças significativas no número de brotos para as diferentes concentrações de BAP testadas. No entanto, o maior número de brotos por explante (3,6 obteve-se na concentração de 2,0 mg.L-1 e a maior altura média dos brotos foi obtido na concentração de 0,5 mg.L-1 de BAP. Concentrações maiores que a 0,5 mg.L-1 de BAP inibiram o crescimento dos brotos. A micropropagação da ameixeira 'Santa Rosa' a partir de ápices caulinares e gemas laterais em meio de cultura MA1 mostrou-se eficaz.

  17. Dinâmica populacional da mariposa oriental em pomares de pessegueiro e ameixeira

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    Hickel Eduardo Rodrigues

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar a dinâmica populacional da mariposa oriental [Grapholita molesta (Busk] em pomares de pessegueiro e ameixeira. Os adultos foram monitorados em dois pomares de pessegueiro e um de ameixeira por cinco anos. Séries temporais equivalentes de temperaturas máximas e mínimas foram correlacionadas aos dados de flutuação populacional para se aferir a correspondência entre a ocorrência da praga e as flutuações de temperatura. A análise de Fourier das séries temporais das armadilhas de coleta de mariposas revelou dinâmicas cíclicas, com período principal médio de 53,91 semanas. Um período menor médio, de 7,45 semanas, também ficou evidente e se aproxima do tempo médio de geração do inseto. A análise do espectro de potência das séries temporais, com e sem periodicidade, revelou que a dinâmica populacional de G. molesta possui um componente regular, caracterizado pelos períodos observados, e outro componente irregular, reminiscente de ruído 1/f, caracterizado pelas variações de amplitude, aparentemente irregulares, na ocorrência do inseto. A combinação desses dois componentes ocasiona um processo com domínio de baixas freqüências, próprio das dinâmicas periódicas ruidosas. Os ciclos de aparecimento da praga ocorrem em fase com os ciclos de flutuação de temperaturas máximas e mínimas.

  18. Qualidade de ameixas (Primus salicina, Lindl. 'Reubennel' após armazenamento refrigerado Quality of plums (Prunus salicina, Lindl 'Reubennel' after cold storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.A. Kluge

    1995-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do trabalho foi verificar a qualidade de ameixas 'Reubemier após 30 e 40 dias de armazenagem a 0°C e 90-95% UR e 1, 2 e 3 dias de comercialização simulada em temperatura ambiente (25-26°C. As perdas de peso das frutas até os 30 dias de armazenamento e durante a comercialização foram de 0,57% e 2,0%, respectivamente, enquanto que, até os 40 dias e durante posterior comercialização, as perdas alcançaram 1,87% e 7,0%, respectivamente. As podridões aumentaram durante a comercialização simulada, principalmente após 40 dias de armazenamento. A firmeza de polpa e a acidez total titulável (ATT tiveram maiores decréscimos após 40 dias de armazenamento refrigerado. Poucas modificações ocorreram no teor de sólidos solúveis totais (SST. Em virtude da alta incidência de podridões, desidratação e sobrematuração após 40 dias de armazenamento, recomenda-se armazenar esta cultivar até 30 dias, com comercialização até 2 dias.The purpose of this research was to verily the quality of 'Reubennel' plums after two periods of cold storage: 30 and 40 days at 0°C and 90-95% RH and thereafter submitted to 1, 2 and 3 days of simulated marketing, at room temperature (25-26°C. The weight loss at 30 days of cold storage and marketing were 0,57% and 2,0%, respectively. At 40 days the weigth loss reached 1,87% in cold storage and 7,0% in marketing. The decay increased during marketing, principally after 40 days of cold storage. The firmness and total titratable acidity had greater decrease after 40 days and there was no significant variation in total soluble solids during all cold storage and simulated marketing. Because of the high decay, weight loss and fruit overripening verified at 40 days, 30 days of cold storage and 2 days of marketing, are recommended for this cultivar.

  19. Self-compatible peach (Prunus persica) has mutant versions of the S haplotypes found in self-incompatible Prunus species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Ryutaro; Watari, Akiko; Hanada, Toshio; Habu, Tsuyoshi; Yaegaki, Hideaki; Yamaguchi, Masami; Yamane, Hisayo

    2007-01-01

    This study demonstrates that self-compatible (SC) peach has mutant versions of S haplotypes that are present in self-incompatible (SI) Prunus species. All three peach S haplotypes, S (1), S (2), and S (2m), found in this study encode mutated pollen determinants, SFB, while only S (2m) has a mutation that affects the function of the pistil determinant S-RNase. A cysteine residue in the C5 domain of the S (2m)-RNase is substituted by a tyrosine residue, thereby reducing RNase stability. The peach SFB mutations are similar to the SFB mutations found in SC haplotypes of sweet cherry (P. avium) and Japanese apricot (P. mume). SFB (1) of the S (1) haplotype, a mutant version of almond (P. dulcis) S (k) haplotype, encodes truncated SFB due to a 155 bp insertion. SFB (2) of the S (2) and S (2m) haplotypes, both of which are mutant versions of the S (a) haplotype in Japanese plum (P. salicina), encodes a truncated SFB due to a 5 bp insertion. Thus, regardless of the functionality of the pistil determinant, all three peach S haplotypes are SC haplotypes. Our finding that peach has mutant versions of S haplotypes that function in almond and Japanese plum, which are phylogenetically close and remote species, respectively, to peach in the subfamily Prunoideae of the Roasaceae, provides insight into the SC/SI evolution in Prunus. We discuss the significance of SC pollen part mutation in peach with special reference to possible differences in the SI mechanisms between Prunus and Solanaceae.

  20. Desenvolvimento e fitossanidade de ameixeiras tratadas com silício em sistema orgânico

    OpenAIRE

    Ferreira, Silvana Girotto Martins; Botelho, Renato Vasconcelos; Faria, Cacilda Márcia Duarte Rios; Mateus, Milena Aparecida Ferrari; Zaluski, Welton Luiz

    2013-01-01

    O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito do silício (Si) aplicado via pulverização foliar em ameixeiras cv. Pluma 7, para o controle da bacteriose (Xanthomonas arborícola pv. pruni), mariposa oriental (Grapholita molesta) e pulgão-verde (Myzus persicae), bem como no desenvolvimento das plantas, em sistema orgânico de produção. Para o ensaio, foi utilizado o produto comercial AgriSil® (98% de SiO2). O experimento foi conduzido em Guarapuava-PR, durante dois ciclos consecutivos (2010/2011...

  1. De novo transcriptome assembly of ‘Angeleno’ and ‘Lamoon’ Japanese plum cultivars (Prunus salicina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Máximo González

    2016-09-01

    De novo transcriptome assembly was performed using CLC Genome Workbench software and a total of 54,584 unique contigs were generated, with an N50 of 1343 base pair (bp and a mean length of 829 bp. This work contributed with a specific Japanese plum skin transcriptome, providing two libraries of contrasting fruit skin color phenotype (yellow and red and increasing substantially the GB of raw data available until now for this specie.

  2. Prunus dulcis, Batch

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2010-06-07

    Jun 7, 2010 ... almond (Prunus dulcis, Batch) genotypes as revealed by PCR analysis. Yavar Sharafi1*, Jafar Hajilou1, Seyed AbolGhasem Mohammadi2, Mohammad Reza Dadpour1 and Sadollah Eskandari3. 1Department of Horticulture, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Tabriz, Tabriz, 5166614766, Iran.

  3. Polar extracts from (Tunisian Acacia salicina Lindl. Study of the antimicrobial and antigenotoxic activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boubaker Jihed

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Methanolic, aqueous and Total Oligomer Flavonoids (TOF-enriched extracts obtained from the leaves of Acacia salicina 'Lindl.' were investigated for antibacterial, antimutagenic and antioxidant activities. Methods The antimicrobial activity was tested on the Gram positive and Gram negative reference bacterial strains. The Mutagenic and antimutagenic activities against direct acting mutagens, methylmethane sulfonate (MMS and 4-nitro-o-phenylenediamine (NOPD, and indirect acting mutagens, 2-aminoanthracene (2-AA and benzo[a]pyrene (B(aP were performed with S. typhimurium TA102 and TA98 assay systems. In addition, the enzymatic and nonenzymatic methods were employed to evaluate the anti-oxidative effects of the tested extracts. Results A significant effect against the Gram positive and Gram negative reference bacterial strains was observed with all the extracts. The mutagenic and antimutagenic studies revealed that all the extracts decreased the mutagenicity induced by B(aP (7.5 μg/plate, 2-AA (5 μg/plate, MMS (1.3 mg/plate and NOPD (10 μg/plate. Likewise, all the extracts showed an important free radical scavenging activity towards the superoxide anion generated by the xanthine/xanthine oxidase assay system, as well as high Trolox Equivalent Antioxidant Capacity (TEAC, against the 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid diammonium salt (ABTS+• radical. TOF-enriched extract exhibited the highest protective effect against free radicals, direct acting-mutagen and metabolically activated S9-dependent mutagens. Conclusions The present study indicates that the extracts from A. salicina leaves are a significant source of compounds with the antimutagenic and antioxidant activities, and this may be useful for developing potential chemopreventive substances.

  4. Growth Characteristics of Ectomycorrhizal Seedlings of Quercus glauca, Quercus salicina, Quercus myrsinaefolia, and Castanopsis cuspidata Planted in Calcareous Soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masazumi Kayama

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available To verify the acclimation capacity of evergreen Fagaceae species on calcareous soil, we compared ecophysiological traits between Quercus glauca Thunb., Q. salicina Blume, Q. myrsinaefolia Blume, and Castanopsis cuspidata (Thunb. Schottky as typical woody species from southwestern Japan. We also examined the inoculation effects of the ectomycorrhizal (ECM fungi Astraeus hygrometricus and Scleroderma citrinum, and planted seedlings in calcareous soil collected from a limestone quarry. We measured growth, ectomycorrhizal colonization, photosynthetic rate, and concentrations of nutrients in plant organs for A. hygrometricus-inoculated, S. citrinum-inoculated, and non-ECM seedlings. Six months after planting on calcareous soil, seedlings of the three Quercus species inoculated with A. hygrometricus were larger than non-ECM seedlings, especially Q. salicina, which showed the greatest increase in dry mass. The dry mass of C. cuspidata seedlings was inferior to that of the three Quercus species. In the nutrient-uptake analysis, phosphorus, manganese, and iron uptakes were suppressed in calcareous soil for each Fagaceae species. However, seedlings of Fagaceae species that showed better growth had increased concentrations of phosphorus in roots. We concluded that seedlings of Q. salicina and Q. glauca inoculated with A. hygrometricus were best suited to calcareous soil and were considered as useful species for the reforestation in limestone quarries.

  5. Volatile compounds of Nectandra salicina (lauraceae from Costa Rica and their cytotoxic activity on cell lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José F. Cicció

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The chemical composition of the volatiles of Nectandra salicina growing wild in Costa Rica was determined by capillary GC/FID and GC/MS. Thirty-seven and forty-two compounds were identified in the leaf and branch oils respectively corresponding to about 92.6 and 86.2% of the total amount of the oils. The major components of the leaf oil were: atractylone (14.6%, viridiflorene (10.1%, α-pinene (9.4%, β-caryophyllene (7.2%, α-humulene (7.0%, δ-cadinene (6.1%, β-pinene (6.0% and germacrene D (5.8%. The major components of the branch oil were: atractylone (21.1%, germacrene D (10.7%, viridiflorene (7.9% and 7-epi-α-selinene (5.0%. When the oils were tested on different cell lines, all the LD50 values were higher than 150 µg/mL, with values very similar for the leaf and branch oils. Low toxicity could be explained by antagonistic effects among the main compounds present in the oils.

  6. A molecular phylogeny of selected species of genus Prunus L ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The results for the internal transcribed spacer (ITS)- 9 and ITS- 6 primers confirm the work done by early phylogenetists with additions of new species from Pakistan including Prunus bokhariensis, Prunus dulcis (Mill.) D.A. Webb. (Syn. Prunus amygdalus) and Prunus cornuta (Wall. ex. Royle) Steudel. These are indigenous ...

  7. A molecular phylogeny of selected species of genus Prunus L ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-08-02

    Aug 2, 2010 ... the work done by early phylogenetists with additions of new species from Pakistan including Prunus bokhariensis, Prunus dulcis (Mill.) D.A. Webb. (Syn. Prunus amygdalus) and Prunus cornuta (Wall. ex. Royle) Steudel. These are indigenous to Pakistan. In the ITS strict consensus results for example, the.

  8. A molecular phylogeny of selected species of Genus Prunus L ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A molecular phylogeny of selected species of Genus Prunus L. (Rosaceae) from Pakistan using the TRN-L & TRN-F spacer DNA. ... D.A. Webb. (Syn. Prunus amygdalus) and Prunus cornuta (Wall. ex. Royle) Steudel. which are indigenous to Pakistan. Key Words: Prunus, chloroplast, TRN-L, TRN-F, Pakistan.

  9. Characterization of New Isolates of Apricot vein clearing-associated virus and of a New Prunus-Infecting Virus: Evidence for Recombination as a Driving Force in Betaflexiviridae Evolution.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armelle Marais

    Full Text Available Double stranded RNAs from Prunus samples gathered from various surveys were analyzed by a deep-sequencing approach. Contig annotations revealed the presence of a potential new viral species in an Azerbaijani almond tree (Prunus amygdalus and its genome sequence was completed. Its genomic organization is similar to that of the recently described Apricot vein clearing associated virus (AVCaV for which two new isolates were also characterized, in a similar fashion, from two Japanese plums (Prunus salicina from a French germplasm collection. The amino acid identity values between the four proteins encoded by the genome of the new virus have identity levels with those of AVCaV which fall clearly outside the species demarcation criteria. The new virus should therefore be considered as a new species for which the name of Caucasus prunus virus (CPrV has been proposed. Phylogenetic relationships and nucleotide comparisons suggested that together with AVCaV, CPrV could define a new genus (proposed name: Prunevirus in the family Betaflexiviridae. A molecular test targeting both members of the new genus was developed, allowing the detection of additional AVCaV isolates, and therefore extending the known geographical distribution and the host range of AVCaV. Moreover, the phylogenetic trees reconstructed with the amino acid sequences of replicase, movement and coat proteins of representative Betaflexiviridae members suggest that Citrus leaf blotch virus (CLBV, type member of the genus Citrivirus may have evolved from a recombination event involving a Prunevirus, further highlighting the importance of recombination as a driving force in Betaflexiviridae evolution. The sequences reported in the present manuscript have been deposited in the GenBank database under accession numbers KM507061-KM504070.

  10. Enhancing the polyphenol content of a red-fleshed Japanese plum (Prunus salicina Lindl.) nectar by incorporating a polyphenol-rich extract from the skins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Beer, Dalene; Steyn, Naomi; Joubert, Elizabeth; Muller, Nina

    2012-10-01

    Plum skins are a waste product generated during production of plum juice or pulp. Polyphenols, shown to have various health-promoting properties, can be recovered from this waste product. Red-fleshed plum nectar formulations containing plum skin extract in varying amounts were characterised in terms of intensity of sensory attributes, consumer acceptability, colour, polyphenol content and antioxidant activity. Commercial beverages containing red fruits were used as benchmarks. The polyphenolic profile of the plum skin extract was similar to that of the pulp, including anthocyanins, flavonols, flavan-3-ols and a phenolic acid. Addition of the extract to plum nectar, which enhanced the colour, polyphenol content and antioxidant capacity, was limited by its negative sensory impact. The formulations were deemed acceptable by consumers, although a decrease in positive sensory attributes (plum flavour, plum aroma and sweetness) and an increase in negative sensory attributes (plant-like flavour, plant-like aroma, acidity and astringency) were observed with increasing skin extract content. The formulations compared favourably with commercial beverages in terms of colour total polyphenol content and antioxidant activity. Plum skins were successfully used to enhance the functional status of plum nectar. Use of a functional ingredient from plum skins is, therefore, a feasible value-addition strategy. Copyright © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  11. Genetic diversity in breonadia salicina based on intra-species sequence variation of chloroplast dna spacer sequence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qurainy, F.A.; Gaafar, A.R.Z.

    2014-01-01

    Assessment and knowledge of the genetic diversity and variation within and between populations of rare and endangered plants is very important for effective conservation. Intergenic spacer sequences variation of psbA-trnH locus of chloroplast genome was assessed within Breonadia salicina (Rubiaceae), a critically endangered and endemic plant species to South western part of Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. The obtained sequence data from 19 individuals in three populations revealed nine haplotypes. The aligned sequences obtained from the overall Saudi accessions extended to 355 bp, revealing nine haplotypes. A high level of haplotype diversity (Hd = 0.842) and low level of nucleotide diversity (Pi = 0.0058) were detected. Consistently, both hierarchical analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) and constructed neighbor-joining tree indicated null genetic differentiation among populations. This level of differentiation between populations or between regions in psbA-trnH sequences may be due to effects of the abundance of ancestral haplotype sharing and the presence of private haplotypes fixed for each population. Furthermore, the results revealed almost the same level of genetic diversity in comparison with Yemeni accessions, in which Saudi accessions were sharing three haplotypes from the four haplotypes found in Yemeni accessions. (author)

  12. Chlorophyll catabolism in Prunus serrulata autumnal leaves

    OpenAIRE

    Đapić Nina

    2012-01-01

    Chlorophyll catabolism in Prunus serrulata autumnal leaves was investigated. The amount of chlorophyll catabolites accumulated within the same plant species varies with the time of the leaf collection, seasonal climate and developmental stage of the plant. The chlorophyll catabolites found in P. serrulata autumnal leaves presented the tendency of the organism to decrease the level of photodynamically active chlorophyll before the programmed cell death. In the methanol extract several ch...

  13. Early growth performances of various seed sources of black (Prunus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Early growth performances of various seed sources of black (Prunus serotina Erhr.) and wild cherry ( Prunus avium L.) seedlings on low and high elevation sites in ... Unlike the LES results, a collection of BC (Michigan 1 and Ukraine) and WC SSs (Dirgine, Germany, and Tefen) displayed the best seedling growth over five ...

  14. A fruit quality gene map of Prunus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bliss Fredrick A

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prunus fruit development, growth, ripening, and senescence includes major biochemical and sensory changes in texture, color, and flavor. The genetic dissection of these complex processes has important applications in crop improvement, to facilitate maximizing and maintaining stone fruit quality from production and processing through to marketing and consumption. Here we present an integrated fruit quality gene map of Prunus containing 133 genes putatively involved in the determination of fruit texture, pigmentation, flavor, and chilling injury resistance. Results A genetic linkage map of 211 markers was constructed for an intraspecific peach (Prunus persica progeny population, Pop-DG, derived from a canning peach cultivar 'Dr. Davis' and a fresh market cultivar 'Georgia Belle'. The Pop-DG map covered 818 cM of the peach genome and included three morphological markers, 11 ripening candidate genes, 13 cold-responsive genes, 21 novel EST-SSRs from the ChillPeach database, 58 previously reported SSRs, 40 RAFs, 23 SRAPs, 14 IMAs, and 28 accessory markers from candidate gene amplification. The Pop-DG map was co-linear with the Prunus reference T × E map, with 39 SSR markers in common to align the maps. A further 158 markers were bin-mapped to the reference map: 59 ripening candidate genes, 50 cold-responsive genes, and 50 novel EST-SSRs from ChillPeach, with deduced locations in Pop-DG via comparative mapping. Several candidate genes and EST-SSRs co-located with previously reported major trait loci and quantitative trait loci for chilling injury symptoms in Pop-DG. Conclusion The candidate gene approach combined with bin-mapping and availability of a community-recognized reference genetic map provides an efficient means of locating genes of interest in a target genome. We highlight the co-localization of fruit quality candidate genes with previously reported fruit quality QTLs. The fruit quality gene map developed here is a

  15. Prunus hybrids rootstocks for flat peach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pilar Legua

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Peach (Prunus persica L. is the most important stone fruit tree grown in Spain and is the second most important fruit crop in Europe. The influence of eight Prunus rootstocks (GF-677, Krymsk® 86, PADAC 97-36, PADAC 99-05, PADAC 9912-03, PADAC 0024-01, PAC 0021-01 and PAC 0022-01 on vigor, yield and fruit quality traits of 'UFO 3' flat peach cultivar was studied. The highest trunk cross sectional area was exhibited by GF-677 and the lowest by PADAC 99-05, while intermediate values were found on the other rootstocks. The highest yield efficiency was found on PADAC 99-05, PAC 0021-01, PAC 0022-01 and PADAC 0024-01 and the lowest was shown on Krymsk® 86. The fruit quality parameters measured were color, fruit and stone weights, equatorial diameter, pulp thickness, pulp yield, firmness, pH, soluble solids content and titratable acidity. 'UFO 3' grafted on GF-677 resulted in the largest fruit weight, while the smallest was on PADAC 99-05. Fruits of 'UFO 3' showed a tendency to have higher firmness, higher red colored skin and RI when grafted on PADAC 99-05.

  16. Crystal Macropattern Development in Prunus serotina (Rosaceae, Prunoideae) Leaves

    OpenAIRE

    LERSTEN, NELS R.; HORNER, HARRY T.

    2006-01-01

    • Background and Aims Prunus, subgenus Padus, exhibits two completely different calcium oxalate crystal macropatterns in mature leaves. Foliar macropattern development has been described previously in P. virginiana, representing one version. Prunus serotina, in the group exhibiting the second macropattern, is described here. The goal was to describe developmental details for comparison with P. virginiana, and to extend the sparse current knowledge of crystal macropatterns.

  17. Amelioration of testosterone induced benign prostatic hyperplasia by Prunus species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jena, Ashish Kumar; Vasisht, Karan; Sharma, Neetika; Kaur, Ramdeep; Dhingra, Mamta Sachdeva; Karan, Maninder

    2016-08-22

    Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is a common urological disorder of men. The ethnomedicinal use of an African plant Prunus africana (Hook.f.) Kalkman (Pygeum) in treating men's problems made it a popular remedy all over the globe for the treatment of BPH and related disorders. However, rampant collections made from the wild in Africa have pushed the plant to Appendix II of CITES demanding conservation of the species. In the present study, the aim was to unearth the protective effect of bark of different species of Prunus against BPH. The five selected Indian plants of family Rosaceae viz. Prunus amygdalus Stokes, Prunus armeniaca L., Prunus cerasoides Buch.-Ham. ex D. Don, Prunus domestica L. and Prunus persica (L.) Batsch were evaluated against P. africana (Hook.f.) Kalkman for a suitable comparison of efficacy as antiBPH agents. The antiBPH activity was evaluated in testosterone (2mg/kg/day, s.c, 21 days) induced BPH in Wistar rats. The parameters studied were body weights; histopathological examination, immunohistochemistry (PCNA) and biochemical estimations of the prostate; supported by prostatic index, testicular index, creatinine, testosterone levels; antioxidant and anti-inflammatory evaluation. The study also included chemical profiling using three markers (β-sitosterol, docosyl ferulate and ursolic acid) and estimation of β-sitosterol content through GC. The Prunus species showed the presence of all the three markers in their TLC fingerprint profile and maximum amount of β-sitosterol by GC was observed in P. domestica. Interestingly, all the species exhibited significant amelioration in testosterone induced parameters with P. domestica showing the most encouraging effect as indicated from histopathological examination, immunohistochemistry and biochemical studies. The Prunus species further showed remarkable anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activity signifying their role in interfering with various possible factors involved in BPH. These findings are

  18. Molecular characterization of Spanish Prunus avium plus trees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Fernandez-Cruz

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim of the study: The Breeding Program of wild cherry (Prunus avium developed by Lourizán Forest Research Center (NW Spain, aims for the creation of the Main Breeding Population, that is formed by a large number of plus trees and for obtaining an Elite Population generated from controlled crosses of a number of plus trees selected by, at least, one trait of economic importance. The aim of this study was to genotype 131 accessions of Prunus avium plus trees, included in the breeding program.Area of study: The Prunus avium plus trees are located in the North, Northwest and Central Spain.Material and Methods: The Prunus avium plus trees were genotyped with nine microsatellites. Several genetic parameters were calculated. Genetic data were analyzed with STRUCTURE and the genetic distance between the plus trees were calculated.Main results: A total of 122 multilocus genotypes were detected. Several accessions with the same genotype were identified, which could be due to clonality or to labelling errors. The nine microsatellites are useful for identifying individuals because the combined probability of identity was low (PI = 5.19X10-9. Bayesian methods detected two genetic clusters in the sampled plus trees.Research highlights: The unique genotypes identified in this work are suitable for being included in the elite breeding population for economic traits.Keywords: Prunus avium; breeding program; microsatellite; genetic distance.

  19. Gene flow in Prunus species in the context of novel trait risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cici, S Zahra H; Van Acker, Rene C

    2010-01-01

    Prunus species are important commercial fruit (plums, apricot, peach and cherries), nut (almond) and ornamental trees cultivated broadly worldwide. This review compiles information from available literature on Prunus species in regard to gene flow and hybridization within this complex of species. The review serves as a resource for environmental risk assessment related to pollen mediated gene flow and the release of transgenic Prunus. It reveals that Prunus species, especially plums and cherries show high potential for transgene flow. A range of characteristics including; genetic diversity, genetic bridging capacity, inter- and intra-specific genetic compatibility, self sterility (in most species), high frequency of open pollination, insect assisted pollination, perennial nature, complex phenotypic architecture (canopy height, heterogeneous crown, number of flowers produced in an individual plant), tendency to escape from cultivation, and the existence of ornamental and road side Prunus species suggest that there is a tremendous and complicated ability for pollen mediated gene movement among Prunus species. Ploidy differences among Prunus species do not necessarily provide genetic segregation. The characteristics of Prunu s species highlight the complexity of maintaining coexistence between GM and non-GM Prunus if there were commercial production of GM Prunus species. The results of this review suggest that the commercialization of one GM Prunus species can create coexistence issues for commercial non-GM Prunus production. Despite advances in molecular markers and genetic analysis in agroecology, there remains limited information on the ecological diversity, metapopulation nature, population dynamics, and direct measures of gene flow among different subgenera represented in the Prunus genus. Robust environmental impact, biosafety and coexistence assessments for GM Prunus species will require better understanding of the mechanisms of gene flow and hybridization

  20. Optimization of microwave roasting of almond (Prunus dulcis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Microwave (MW) almond roasting was investigated as an alternative to hot air (HA) roasting. Nonpareil almonds (Prunus dulcis) were roasted at 140°C in a convection oven for different times to achieve light, medium, and dark roasting levels. Several instrumental measurements were taken, establishin...

  1. A molecular phylogeny of selected species of Genus Prunus L ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    2011-05-30

    May 30, 2011 ... The genus Prunus L. is an important plant for fruit production and it includes plums, apricots, cherries, almonds and peaches that are sources of food for the local people. The family Rosaceae is not yet published in Flora of Pakistan and there is a lot of taxonomic work that is yet to be done for the proper.

  2. Novel Phaeoacremonium species associated with necrotic wood of Prunus trees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Damm, U.; Mostert, L.; Crous, P.W.; Fourie, P.H.

    2008-01-01

    The genus Phaeoacremonium is associated with opportunistic human infections, as well as stunted growth and die-back of various woody hosts, especially grapevines. In this study, Phaeoacremonium species were isolated from necrotic woody tissue of Prunus spp. (plum, peach, nectarine and apricot) from

  3. Cryopreservation of in vitro -grown shoot tips of apricot ( Prunus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In vitro grown apricot (Prunus armeniaca L.) cv. El-Hamawey shoot tips were successfully cryopreserved using an encapsulation-dehydration procedure. Shoot tips were encapsulated in calcium-alginate beads before preculture on woody plant (WP) medium supplemented with different sucrose concentrations; 0.1, 0.3, 0.5, ...

  4. Slaat Xanthomonas dit jaar weer toe in Prunus laurocerasus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doorn, van J.; Dalfsen, van P.; Pham, K.T.K.

    2012-01-01

    Een diagnostische test moet duidelijk maken of er sprake is van Xanthomonas in Prunus laurocerasus. De bacterieziekte is namelijk makkelijk te verwarren met andere ziekten. Onderzoek, gefinancierd door het Productschap Tuinbouw, richt zich op het toetsen van moerplanten voordat hier van gestekt gaat

  5. Molecular characterization of the plum collection [Prunus domestica ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Eight Random Amplified Microsatellite markers (RAMs) were used to characterize the genetic diversity found in 14 Prunus materials belonging to the deciduous collection of the Pedagogical and Technological University of Colombia. A total of 121 bands were generated: they range from nine for the GT primer to 26 for the ...

  6. Vasorelaxant effect of Prunus yedoensis bark

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Kyungjin

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prunus yedoensis Matsum. is used as traditional medicine—‘Yaeng-Pi’ or ‘Hua-Pi’—in Japan and Korea. However, no studies have examined the pharmacological activities of the P. yedoensis bark. Only the antioxidant and antiviral activities of P. yedoensis fruit and the anti-hyperglycaemic effect of P. yedoensis leaf have been investigated. While studying the antihypertensive effects of several medicinal plants, we found that a methanol extract of P. yedoensis bark (MEPY had distinct vasorelaxant effects on rat aortic rings. Methods The aortic rings were removed from Sprague–Dawley rats and suspended in organ chambers containing 10 ml Krebs-Henseleit solution. The aortic rings were placed between 2 tungsten stirrups and connected to an isometric force transducer. Changes in tension were recorded via isometric transducers connected to a data acquisition system. Results MEPY relaxed the contraction induced by phenylephrine (PE both in endothelium-intact and endothelium-denuded aortic rings concentration dependently. However, the vasorelaxant effects of MEPY on endothelium-denuded aortic rings were lower than endothelium-intact aortic rings. The vasorelaxant effects of MEPY on endothelium-intact aortic rings were reduced by pre-treatment with l-NAME, methylene blue, or ODQ. However, pre-treatment with indomethacin, atropine, glibenclamide, tetraethylammonium, or 4-aminopyridine had no affection. In addition, MEPY inhibited the contraction induced by extracellular Ca2+ in endothelium-denuded rat thoracic aorta rings pre-contracted by PE (1 μM or KCl (60 mM in Ca2+-free solution. Conclusions Our results suggest that MEPY exerts its vasorelaxant effects via the activation of NO formation by means of l-Arg and NO-cGMP pathways and via the blockage of extracellular Ca2+ channels.

  7. Procyanidins in fruit from Sour cherry (Prunus cerasus) differ strongly in chainlength from those in Laurel cherry (Prunus lauracerasus) and Cornelian cherry (Cornus mas)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Capanoglu, E.; Boyacioglu, D.; Vos, de R.C.H.; Hall, R.D.; Beekwilder, M.J.

    2011-01-01

    Sour cherry (Prunus cerasus), Laurel cherry (Prunus lauracerasus), and Cornelian cherry (Cornus mas) fruits are widely used in Turkey, both as food and as traditional medicines. The phytochemical composition and antioxidant capacities of these three cherry types were compared. Fruit flesh was

  8. Enraizamento in vitro de porta-enxertos de Prunus In vitro rooting of Prunus rootstocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Rogalski

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available Na micropropagação de Prunus sp., o enraizamento tem sido considerado uma fase crítica, pois determina a sobrevivência das plantas durante a aclimatização. Dentre os fatores importantes ao enraizamento in vitro, destacam-se o genótipo e as auxinas por serem determinantes na indução e na formação de raízes. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito de diferentes concentrações de IBA no enraizamento in vitro dos porta-enxertos de espécies do gênero Prunus: cultivares Capdeboscq e GF677, e seleções VP411 e VP417. Para o enraizamento in vitro, brotos com 2-3cm de comprimento foram introduzidos em meio de Lepoivre suplementado com 0,1; 0,5; 1,0 e 2,0 mg.L-1 IBA. Observou-se que o porta-enxerto 'Capdeboscq' apresentou maior taxa de enraizamento e maior número de raízes in vitro, sendo superior aos demais genótipos quanto a estas características. O nível de 1,0 mg.L-1 de IBA esteve associado à maior taxa média de enraizamento (100%, 64% e 64,0%, respectivamente para os porta-enxertos 'Capdeboscq', 'GF677' e VP411. O nível de 2,0 mg.L-1 de IBA foi superior para a seleção VP417 com taxa de 64% de enraizamento. Para os porta-enxertos 'Capdeboscq' e 'GF677', o número máximo de raízes foi de 9,6 e 5,2 raízes por broto, respectivamente, em resposta ao nível de 2,0 mg.L-1 de IBA, enquanto as seleções VP411 e VP417 apresentaram o maior número de raízes (3,6 e 3,9, respectivamente em resposta ao nível de 1,0 mg.L-1 de IBA.In Prunus sp. micropropagation of rooting is considered a critical stage, since it determines the plant survival during the acclimatization. Among important factors associated with rooting, the genotype and the auxins are considered important in the induction and formation of roots. The objective of the present work was to evaluate the effect of different IBA on the in vitro rooting of Prunus rootstocks Capdeboscq and GF677, and the selections VP411 and VP417. For the in vitro rooting stage, shoots of

  9. CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE MORPHOLOGY OF POLLEN FROM SOME VARIETIES OF MALUS DOMESTICA, PYRUS COMMUNIS, PRUNUS DOMESTICA, PRUNUS PERSICA AND PRUNUS ARMENIACA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicoleta IANOVICI

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to compare Rosaceae genotypes from for their pollen viability and morphology. The pollen of some varieties of Malus domestica, Pyrus communis, Prunus domestica, Prunus persica and Prunus armeniaca was identified. Pollen from mature anthers was collected. Pollen grains of all genera of Rosaceae surveyed occur as radially symmetric isopolar monads. The main aspect studied were the shape of pollen in the polar view (polar perimeter and polar area of pollen. Shape of pollen is triangular-obtuse-convex in polar view. The pollen class is trizonocolpate-obtus-triangular while the sculpturing of exine surface is striate. The number of colpi is three while the spines are absent. Apart from fully developed pollen grains, also much smaller, not completely developed pollen were found in the samples of the examined species. The viability of the pollen was determined on 1% 2,3,5-triphenyl tetrazolium chloride (TTC. Viable, semi-viable and dead pollen numbers and their percentages were determined. This stain test may be used to determine pollen viability in these species to provide only a rough estimate of viability. The results presented here are important for improving our understanding of Rosaceae reproduction biology. Knowledge of reproduction biology, particularly pollen viability and quality, is critical for the newly-developed cultivars.

  10. [Optimization for supercritical CO2 extraction with response surface methodology of Prunus armeniaca oil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Fei-Fei; Wu, Yan; Ge, Fa-Huan

    2012-03-01

    To optimize the extraction conditions of Prunus armeniaca oil by Supercritical CO2 extraction and identify its components by GC-MS. Optimized of SFE-CO extraction by response surface methodology and used GC-MS to analysis Prunus armeniaca oil compounds. Established the model of an equation for the extraction rate of Prunus armeniaca oil by supercritical CO2 extraction, and the optimal parameters for the supercritical CO2 extraction determined by the equation were: the extraction pressure was 27 MPa, temperature was 39 degrees C, the extraction rate of Prunus armeniaca oil was 44.5%. 16 main compounds of Prunus armeniaca oil extracted by supercritical CO2 were identified by GC-MS, unsaturated fatty acids were 92.6%. This process is simple, and can be used for the extraction of Prunus armeniaca oil.

  11. Comparative anticancer and antimicrobial activity of aerial parts of Acacia salicina, Acacia laeta, Acacia hamulosa and Acacia tortilis grown in Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed F. Alajmi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The standardized ethanol extract (EE of aerial parts of four Acacia species [A. salicina (ASEE, A. laeta (ALEE, A. hamulosa (AHEE, and A. tortilis (ATEE] were examined in order to compare their cytotoxic and antimicrobial activities. All the extracts were standardized by UPLC- PDA method using rutin as standard compound. The extracts ALEE, AHEE and ATEE were found to contain rutin along with several other phytoconstituents while rutin was absent in ASEE. All the extracts showed varying level of antimicrobial activity with zone of inhibition ranged from 11 to 21 mm against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Candida albicans. The ALEE and ATEE showed relatively high antimicrobial potency (MIC = 0.2 to 1.6 mg mL−1 in comparison to other extracts. All the extracts were found to reduce the biofilm of P. aeruginosa PAO1 strain significantly in comparison to the untreated control. The cytotoxic property of ASEE, ALEE, AHEE, ATEE were evaluated against HepG2 (Liver, HEK-293 (Kidney, MCF-7 (Breast and MDA-MB 231 (Breast cancer cells. Of these, ALEE, AHEE and ATEE exhibited moderate cytotoxic property against human liver carcinoma cells (HepG2; IC50 = 46.2, 39.2 and 42.3 μg mL−1, respectively and breast cancer cell lines (MCF-7; IC50 = 57.2, 55.3 and 65.7 μg mL−1, respectively. The ATEE and ALEE showed moderate cytotoxicity against HEK-293 (kidney cells with IC50 = 49.1 and 53.5 μg mL−1, respectively. Since, Acacia species (A. laeta and A. hamulosa contains numerous polyphenols which might prove to be highly cytotoxic and antimicrobial agents, we suggest that these species can be further subjected to the isolation of more cytotoxic and antimicrobial compounds.

  12. Susceptibility, Oviposition Preference, and Biology of Grapholita molesta (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) in Prunus Spp. Rootstock Genotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardi, D; Lazzari, J C; Andreazza, F; Mayer, N A; Botton, M; Nava, D E

    2017-08-01

    Studying the susceptibility of peach trees to Grapholita molesta (Busck) is one of the major steps in the development of pest-resistant peach varieties. This work evaluated the susceptibility of 55 genotypes of the "Prunus Rootstock Collection" ("Coleção Porta-enxerto de Prunus") of Embrapa Temperate Climate (Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil) to the natural infestation of G. molesta, assessed the oviposition preference of G. molesta in choice and no-choice bioassays, and estimated the biological parameters and the fertility life table on different Prunus spp. genotypes in the laboratory. Genotypes Prunus kansuensis (Rehder), I-67-52-9, and I-67-52-4 were the most susceptible to G. molesta infestation in the field (>60% of branches infested), while 'Sharpe' (Prunus angustifolia x Prunus spp.) and Prunus sellowii (Koehne) were the least infested (0% of branches infested). In choice and no-choice bioassays, G. molesta preferred to oviposit on P. kansuensis when compared with Sharpe. The Sharpe genotype also showed an antibiosis effect, resulting in negative effects on the fertility life table parameters when compared with the genotypes P. kansuensis and 'Capdeboscq.' The results found in the present study can provide information to initiate a long-term breeding program moving desired G. molesta resistance traits from the rootstock into the Prunus spp. cultivars. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Utilização de diferentes recipientes na propagação da ameixeira através de estacas Utilization of diferents containers in propagation of plum cuttings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JOSÉ ERNANI SCHWENGBER

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available O experimento foi desenvolvido em estufa com nebulização intermitente, objetivando comparar quatro tipos de recipientes no enraizamento de estacas de ameixeira. Foram utilizados ramos do ano das cultivares Frontier e Reubennel, dos quais foram retiradas estacas da porção mediana, com aproximadamente 12cm de comprimento, um par de folhas secionadas pela metade e duas incisões laterais na base. Posteriormente, as mesmas tiveram sua base tratada por imersão rápida durante 5 segundos em solução de ácido indolbutírico (AIB, a 2000mg.L-1 e acondicionadas nos seguintes recipientes: tubetes, bandejas de isopor (128 células, sacos plásticos grandes (14 x 20cm e sacos plásticos pequenos (10 x 17cm, contendo vermiculita como substrato. O delineamento experimental adotado foi o inteiramente casualizado, com 3 repetições e 12 estacas por repetição. Após 70 dias, não foi observada diferença no percentual de enraizamento entre as cultivares. A bandeja proporcionou o menor enraizamento entre os recipientes, não havendo diferença entre os demais. O maior número de raízes foi obtido com a cultivar Frontier. O maior peso da matéria seca das raízes foi obtido com a cultivar Frontier em saco grandes. Maiores comprimentos de raízes foram obtidos nos maiores recipientes. O tubete proporciona maior economia e menor movimentação de substrato, sem reduzir o enraizamento.An experiment was carried out in the greenhouse with intermitent mist to compare four types of countainers in the rooting of plum cuttings. The cuttings were taken from growing stems of cultivars Frontier and Reubennel, having 12cm length, on which one was left two half leaves and it was made two laterals lesions in the base. The cuttings base were treated by immersion in a solution of indolebutyric acid (IBA of 2000mg.L-1 concentration, for five seconds. Subsequently, the cuttings were distributed in different containers: plastics tubets, styrofoam trays (128 cells

  14. Antioxidative and antiviral properties of flowering cherry fruits (Prunus serrulata L. var. spontanea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yook, Hong-Sun; Kim, Kyoung-Hee; Park, Jung-Eun; Shin, Hyun-Jin

    2010-01-01

    The phenolic compounds of many fruits have been known to be efficient cellular protective antioxidants. In this study, antioxidative and antiviral properties of flowering cherry cultivars (Prunus yedoensis, Prunus sargentii, Prunus lannesiana, and Prunus cerasus) in Korea were investigated. The antioxidant property was assayed for specific activities including 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) hydroxy radical scavenging activity, reducing power capacity, and superoxide dismutase (SOD) like activity. In addition, antiviral activity was determined by inhibition studies on the infection cycle of porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV), measured as minimum concentration of cherry extracts that inhibited 50% of cytopathic effect (CPE) on PEDV. Our results show that the four varieties of cherries contain substantially high antioxidants and antiviral activities. In particular, P. cerasus contains higher antioxidants and antiviral activities as well as polyphenolic content than other varieties. Our data indicate that Korean native cherry cultivars could be beneficial supplements of dietary antioxidants and natural antiviral agents.

  15. Extraction and characterization of montmorency (Prunus cerasus L.) sour cherry pit oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montmorency sour cherry (Prunus cerasus L.) pit oil was extracted and characterized by various methods including: gas chromatography (GC), liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (LC-MS), nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), differential scanning calorime...

  16. Seasonal Changes Affect Root Prunasin Concentration in Prunus serotina and Override Species Interactions between P. serotina and Quercus petraea

    OpenAIRE

    Robakowski, Piotr; Bielinis, Ernest; Stachowiak, Jerzy; Mejza, Iwona; Bu?aj, Bartosz

    2016-01-01

    The allocation of resources to chemical defense can decrease plant growth and photosynthesis. Prunasin is a cyanogenic glycoside known for its role in defense against herbivores and other plants. In the present study, fluctuations of prunasin concentrations in roots of Prunus serotina seedlings were hypothesized to be: (1) dependent on light, air temperature, and humidity; (2) affected by competition between Prunus serotina and Quercus petraea seedlings, with mulching with Prunus serotina lea...

  17. Genome-Wide Analysis Characterization and Evolution of SBP Genes in Fragaria vesca, Pyrus bretschneideri, Prunus persica and Prunus mume

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Abdullah

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The SQUAMOSA promoter binding protein (SBP-box proteins are plant-specific transcriptional factors in plants. SBP TFs are known to play important functions in a diverse development process and also related in the process of evolutionary novelties. SBP gene family has been characterized in several plant species, but little is known about molecular evolution, functional divergence and comprehensive study of SBP gene family in Rosacea. We carried out genome-wide investigations and identified 14, 32, 17, and 17 SBP genes from four Rosacea species (Fragaria vesca, Pyrus bretschneideri, Prunus persica and Prunus mume, respectively. According to phylogenetic analysis arranged the SBP protein sequences in seven groups. Localization of SBP genes presented an uneven distribution on corresponding chromosomes of Rosacea species. Our analyses designated that the SBP genes duplication events (segmental and tandem and divergence. In addition, due to highly conserved structure pattern of SBP genes, recommended that highly conserved region of microsyneteny in the Rosacea species. Type I and II functional divergence was detected among various amino acids in SBP proteins, while there was no positive selection according to substitutional model analysis using PMAL software. These results recommended that the purifying selection might be leading force during the evolution process and dominate conservation of SBP genes in Rosacea species according to environmental selection pressure analysis. Our results will provide basic understanding and foundation for future research insights on the evolution of the SBP genes in Rosacea.

  18. Accelerated solvent extraction of carotenoids from: Tunisian Kaki (Diospyros kaki L.), peach (Prunus persica L.) and apricot (Prunus armeniaca L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaghdoudi, Khalil; Pontvianne, Steve; Framboisier, Xavier; Achard, Mathilde; Kudaibergenova, Rabiga; Ayadi-Trabelsi, Malika; Kalthoum-Cherif, Jamila; Vanderesse, Régis; Frochot, Céline; Guiavarc'h, Yann

    2015-10-01

    Extraction of carotenoids from biological matrices and quantifications remains a difficult task. Accelerated solvent extraction was used as an efficient extraction process for carotenoids extraction from three fruits cultivated in Tunisia: kaki (Diospyros kaki L.), peach (Prunus persica L.) and apricot (Prunus armeniaca L.). Based on a design of experiment (DoE) approach, and using a binary solvent consisting of methanol and tetrahydrofuran, we could identify the best extraction conditions as being 40°C, 20:80 (v:v) methanol/tetrahydrofuran and 5 min of extraction time. Surprisingly and likely due to the high extraction pressure used (103 bars), these conditions appeared to be the best ones both for extracting xanthophylls such as lutein, zeaxanthin or β-cryptoxanthin and carotenes such as β-carotene, which present quite different polarities. Twelve surface responses were generated for lutein, zeaxanthin, β-cryptoxanthin and β-carotene in kaki, peach and apricot. Further LC-MS analysis allowed comparisons in carotenoids profiles between the fruits. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase in cherry (Prunus avium L.) fruit during development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Robert P; Battistelli, Alberto; Moscatello, Stefano; Chen, Zhi-Hui; Leegood, Richard C; Famiani, Franco

    2011-11-01

    In this study the abundance and location of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) was determined in the flesh and skin of the sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.) cultivar Durone Nero II during development. PEPCK was not present in young fruit but appeared in both tissues as the fruit increased in size. In these there was no net dissimilation of malic acid, which accounts for the bulk of their organic acid contents when PEPCK was present. To assist in understanding the function of PEPCK, the abundance of a number of other enzymes was determined. These enzymes were aspartate aminotransferase (AspAT), glutamine synthetase (GS), phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC), pyruvate, orthophosphate dikinase (PPDK), and ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (rubisco). A potential role for PEPCK in the regulation of pH and the utilization of malate in gluconeogenesis in the flesh and skin of cherries is presented.

  20. Control experiment against an invasiveweed, the black cherry (Prunus serotina)

    OpenAIRE

    Nemes, V.; Molnar, M.

    2014-01-01

    Приводятся экспериментальные данные искоренения инвазивного вида Prunus serotina. На 20 опытных участках были использованы 8 видов гербицидов и их соединений. Обработка Prunus serotina проводилась путем полива, нанесения и опрыскивания гербицидами. Эксперимент показал более эффективное применение нанесения...

  1. Six-year performance of 14 Prunus rootstocks at 11 sites in the 2001 NC-140 peach trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fourteen Prunus rootstock cultivars and selections budded with either ‘Redtop’, ‘Redhaven’ or ‘Cresthaven’ peach [Prunus persica (L.) Batsch] were planted at 11 locations in North America in 2001 in a randomized block design with a tree spacing of 5 by 6 m and 8 replicates. This test planting was a...

  2. Self-incompatibility of Prunus tenella and evidence that reproductively isolated species of Prunus have different SFB alleles coupled with an identical S-RNase allele.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surbanovski, Nada; Tobutt, Kenneth R; Konstantinović, Miroslav; Maksimović, Vesna; Sargent, Daniel J; Stevanović, Vladimir; Bosković, Radovan I

    2007-05-01

    Many species of Prunus display an S-RNase-based gametophytic self-incompatibility (SI), controlled by a single highly polymorphic multigene complex termed the S-locus. This comprises tightly linked stylar- and pollen-expressed genes that determine the specificity of the SI response. We investigated SI of Prunus tenella, a wild species found in small, isolated populations on the Balkan peninsula, initially by pollination experiments and identifying stylar-expressed RNase alleles. Nine P. tenella S-RNase alleles (S(1)-S(9)) were cloned; their sequence analysis showed a very high ratio of non-synonymous to synonymous nucleotide substitutions (K(a)/K(s)) and revealed that S-RNase alleles of P. tenella, unlike those of Prunus dulcis, show positive selection in all regions except the conserved regions and that between C2 and RHV. Remarkably, S(8)-RNase, was found to be identical to S(1)-RNase from Prunus avium, a species that does not interbreed with P. tenella and, except for just one amino acid, to S(11) of P. dulcis. However, the corresponding introns and S-RNase-SFB intergenic regions showed considerable differences. Moreover, protein sequences of the pollen-expressed SFB alleles were not identical, harbouring 12 amino-acid replacements between those of P. tenella SFB(8) and P. avium SFB(1). Implications of this finding for hypotheses about the evolution of new S-specificities are discussed.

  3. Analysis of Agromorphological Descriptors to Differentiate between Duke Cherry (Prunus x gondouinii (Poit. & TurpinRehd. and Its Progenitors: Sweet Cherry (Prunus avium L. and Sour Cherry (Prunus cerasus L. Análisis de Descriptores Agromorfológicos para Diferenciar entre Cerezo Duke (Prunus x gondouinii (Poit. & Turpin Rehd. y sus Progenitores: Cerezo (Prunus avium L. y Guindo (Prunus cerasus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Pérez

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The rapid identification of the hybrids between sweet cherry (Prunus avium L. and sour cherry (Prunus cerasus L. is not easy. In order to resolve this problem, 18 Spanish sweet, sour and duke cherry cultivars were surveyed and characterized using 43 agromorphological descriptors evaluated in flowers, leaves, dormant 1-yr-old shoots, fruits, and trees during 2005 and 2006. Based on quantitative parameters, ANOVA and stepwise discriminant analysis (SDA were carried out. For qualitative descriptors, statistical comparisons were done by means of the chi-square (χ2 test. As result of the study, two quantitative (titratable acidity and number of lenticels and six qualitative descriptors (shape of the central and lateral lobes in the internal bracts of the flower fascicles, leaf shape and margin, pubescence in the veins of the lower side of the leaf, and type of sulci of the seed coat were identified as differential parameters in P. avium, P. cerasus and P. x gondouinii(Poit. & Turpin Rehd. Also, another four qualitative descriptors (petal coloration at the end of blooming, leaf stipule type, and seed shape and viability were found to be useful for easy differentiation between sour and duke cherry. None of these parameters has been employed previously to discriminate among sweet, sour and duke cherry.Los híbridos de cerezo (Prunus avium L. y guindo (Prunus cerasus L. no son fáciles de identificar. Para resolver este problema, 18 cultivares de cerezo, guindo y sus híbridos fueron prospectados y caracterizados agromorfológicamente mediante el estudio de 43 descriptores evaluados en flores, hojas, frutos, ramas de 1 año y árbol durante los años 2005 y 2006. En base a los resultados obtenidos del estudio de los diferentes parámetros cuantitativos se realizaron un ANDEVA y un análisis discriminante escalonado (SDA. Los descriptores cualitativos fueron analizados mediante el test de Chi-cuadrado (χ². Como resultado del estudio se identificaron

  4. Synteny conservation between the Prunus genome and both the present and ancestral Arabidopsis genomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhebentyayeva Tatyana

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Due to the lack of availability of large genomic sequences for peach or other Prunus species, the degree of synteny conservation between the Prunus species and Arabidopsis has not been systematically assessed. Using the recently available peach EST sequences that are anchored to Prunus genetic maps and to peach physical map, we analyzed the extent of conserved synteny between the Prunus and the Arabidopsis genomes. The reconstructed pseudo-ancestral Arabidopsis genome, existed prior to the proposed recent polyploidy event, was also utilized in our analysis to further elucidate the evolutionary relationship. Results We analyzed the synteny conservation between the Prunus and the Arabidopsis genomes by comparing 475 peach ESTs that are anchored to Prunus genetic maps and their Arabidopsis homologs detected by sequence similarity. Microsyntenic regions were detected between all five Arabidopsis chromosomes and seven of the eight linkage groups of the Prunus reference map. An additional 1097 peach ESTs that are anchored to 431 BAC contigs of the peach physical map and their Arabidopsis homologs were also analyzed. Microsyntenic regions were detected in 77 BAC contigs. The syntenic regions from both data sets were short and contained only a couple of conserved gene pairs. The synteny between peach and Arabidopsis was fragmentary; all the Prunus linkage groups containing syntenic regions matched to more than two different Arabidopsis chromosomes, and most BAC contigs with multiple conserved syntenic regions corresponded to multiple Arabidopsis chromosomes. Using the same peach EST datasets and their Arabidopsis homologs, we also detected conserved syntenic regions in the pseudo-ancestral Arabidopsis genome. In many cases, the gene order and content of peach regions was more conserved in the ancestral genome than in the present Arabidopsis region. Statistical significance of each syntenic group was calculated using simulated

  5. Molecular mechanisms regulating flowering time in sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ionescu, Irina Alexandra

    as a result of hydrogen cyanamide treatment: the jasmonate pathway, the hydrogen cyanide pathway and the cytokinin pathway. We further analyzed the levels of cyanogenic glucosides and their derivatives during endodormancy and its release in sweet cherry and almond (Prunus dulcis (Mill.) D. A. Webb). Prunasin...... example is the agrochemical hydrogen cyanamide, which besides its successful application in agriculture constitutes an excellent experimental system to research controlled endodormancy release. In this project, we treated dormant sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.) flower buds with hydrogen cyanamide...

  6. SSR allelic variation in almond (Prunus dulcis Mill.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Hua; Sui, Yi; Chang, Feng-Qi; Xu, Yong; Ma, Rong-Cai

    2006-01-01

    Sixteen SSR markers including eight EST-SSR and eight genomic SSRs were used for genetic diversity analysis of 23 Chinese and 15 international almond cultivars. EST- and genomic SSR markers previously reported in species of Prunus, mainly peach, proved to be useful for almond genetic analysis. DNA sequences of 117 alleles of six of the 16 SSR loci were analysed to reveal sequence variation among the 38 almond accessions. For the four SSR loci with AG/CT repeats, no insertions or deletions were observed in the flanking regions of the 98 alleles sequenced. Allelic size variation of these loci resulted exclusively from differences in the structures of repeat motifs, which involved interruptions or occurrences of new motif repeats in addition to varying number of AG/CT repeats. Some alleles had a high number of uninterrupted repeat motifs, indicating that SSR mutational patterns differ among alleles at a given SSR locus within the almond species. Allelic homoplasy was observed in the SSR loci because of base substitutions, interruptions or compound repeat motifs. Substitutions in the repeat regions were found at two SSR loci, suggesting that point mutations operate on SSRs and hinder the further SSR expansion by introducing repeat interruptions to stabilize SSR loci. Furthermore, it was shown that some potential point mutations in the flanking regions are linked with new SSR repeat motif variation in almond and peach.

  7. Effects of cadmium on lipids of almond seedlings (Prunus dulcis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elloumi, Nada; Zouari, Mohamed; Chaari, Leila; Jomni, Chiraz; Marzouk, Brahim; Ben Abdallah, Ferjani

    2014-12-01

    Cadmium uptake and distribution, as well as its effects on lipid composition was investigated in almond seedlings (Prunus dulcis) grown in culture solution supplied with two concentrations of Cd (50 and 150 μM). The accumulation of Cd increased with external metal concentrations, and was considerably higher in roots than in leaves. Fourteen days after Cd treatment, the membrane lipids were extracted and separated on silica-gel thin layer chromatography (TLC). Fatty acid methyl esters were analyzed by FID-GC on a capillary column. Our results showed that Cd stress decreased the quantities of all lipids classes (phospholipids, galactolipids and neutral lipids). Galactolipid, phospholipid and neutral lipid concentrations decreased more in roots than in leaves by Cd-treatment. In almost all lipid classes the proportion of palmitic acid (16:0), linoleic (18: 2) and that of linolenic (18: 3) acid decreased, suggesting that heavy metal treatment induced an alteration in the fatty acid synthesis processes. In conclusion, our results show that the changes found in total fatty acids, in the quantities of all lipids classes, and in the in the profiles of individual polar lipids suggest that membrane structure and function might be altered by Cd stress.

  8. Proteome analysis of the almond kernel (Prunus dulcis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shugang; Geng, Fang; Wang, Ping; Lu, Jiankang; Ma, Meihu

    2016-08-01

    Almond (Prunus dulcis) is a popular tree nut worldwide and offers many benefits to human health. However, the importance of almond kernel proteins in the nutrition and function in human health requires further evaluation. The present study presents a systematic evaluation of the proteins in the almond kernel using proteomic analysis. The nutrient and amino acid content in almond kernels from Xinjiang is similar to that of American varieties; however, Xinjiang varieties have a higher protein content. Two-dimensional electrophoresis analysis demonstrated a wide distribution of molecular weights and isoelectric points of almond kernel proteins. A total of 434 proteins were identified by LC-MS/MS, and most were proteins that were experimentally confirmed for the first time. Gene ontology (GO) analysis of the 434 proteins indicated that proteins involved in primary biological processes including metabolic processes (67.5%), cellular processes (54.1%), and single-organism processes (43.4%), the main molecular function of almond kernel proteins are in catalytic activity (48.0%), binding (45.4%) and structural molecule activity (11.9%), and proteins are primarily distributed in cell (59.9%), organelle (44.9%), and membrane (22.8%). Almond kernel is a source of a wide variety of proteins. This study provides important information contributing to the screening and identification of almond proteins, the understanding of almond protein function, and the development of almond protein products. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  9. Screening of solvent dependent antibacterial activity of Prunus domestica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaqeen, Zahra; Naqvi, Naim-ul-Hasan; Sohail, Tehmina; Rehman, Zakir-ur; Fatima, Nudrat; Imran, Hina; Rehman, Atiqur

    2013-03-01

    Fruit of Prunus domestica was extracted in ethanol. The ethanol extract was further extracted with two solvents ethyl acetate and chloroform. The crude ethanol extract and two fractions (ethyl acetate and chloroform) were screened for their antibacterial activity using the agar well diffusion method .They were tested against nine bacteria; five Gram positive bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcuc intermedius, Bacillus cereus, Bacillus pumilus) and four Gram negative bacteria (Eschrichia coli, Proteus mirabilis Shigella flexneri, Salmonella typhi and Klebsiela pneumoniae). The susceptibility of microorganisms to all three fractions was compared with each other and with standard antibiotic (Ampicillin) Among all fractions ethyl acetate exhibited highest antibacterial activity (average zone of inhibition 34.57mm ± 1.3) while ethyl alcohol exhibited least antibacterial activity (average zone of inhibition 17.42mm ± 3.3). Minimum inhibitory concentration of ethanol, ethyl acetate and chloroform fractions was found in the range of 78 μ g/ml to 2500 μ gl/ml against gram positive and gram negative bacteria.

  10. Can Prunus serotina be genetically engineered for reproductive sterility and insect pest resistance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ying Wang; Paula M. Pijut

    2014-01-01

    Black cherry (Prunus serotina) is a valuable hardwood timber species, and its value highly depends on the wood quality which is often threatened by insect pests. Transgenic black cherry plants that are more resistant to cambial-mining insects may reduce the occurrence of gummosis and have great economic benefits to landowners and the forest products...

  11. Cryopreservation of in vitro-grown shoot tips of apricot (Prunus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    akpobome

    2013-03-20

    Mar 20, 2013 ... In vitro grown apricot (Prunus armeniaca L.) cv. El-Hamawey shoot tips were successfully cryopreserved using an encapsulation-dehydration procedure. Shoot tips were encapsulated in calcium-alginate beads before preculture on woody plant (WP) medium supplemented with different sucrose ...

  12. Kirsipuu (Prunus avium) : [luuletused] / R. W. Stedingh ; tlk. ja saatesõna: Jüri Talvet

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Stedingh, R. W.

    2003-01-01

    Sisu: Kirsipuu (Prunus avium) ; Rubus spectabilis ; Rododendron (Rhododendron macrophyllum) ; Lysuchitum americanum ; Tulp (Tulipa gesneriana) ; Kanada hani (Branta canadensis) ; Metsorava pärastlõuna (Sciurus carolinensis) ; Ohakalind (Spinus tristis) ; Shakespeare'i mälestusmärk (kogust "Stanley pargi süit")

  13. In situ volatiles from a single cultivar of Prunus dulcis and their relationship to navel orangeworm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nonpareil almonds, Prunus dulcis, account for the largest percentage of almond varieties grown in the Central and San Joaquin valleys of California. Several studies have investigated the various non-volatile and volatile components of various plant parts; however, the volatile organic compound (VOC)...

  14. Looking into flowering time in almond (Prunus dulcis (Mill) D. A. Webb): the candidate gene approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, C; Garcia-Mas, J; Sánchez, A M; Arús, P; Oliveira, M M

    2005-03-01

    Blooming time is one of the most important agronomic traits in almond. Biochemical and molecular events underlying flowering regulation must be understood before methods to stimulate late flowering can be developed. Attempts to elucidate the genetic control of this process have led to the identification of a major gene (Lb) and quantitative trait loci (QTLs) linked to observed phenotypic differences, but although this gene and these QTLs have been placed on the Prunus reference genetic map, their sequences and specific functions remain unknown. The aim of our investigation was to associate these loci with known genes using a candidate gene approach. Two almond cDNAs and eight Prunus expressed sequence tags were selected as candidate genes (CGs) since their sequences were highly identical to those of flowering regulatory genes characterized in other species. The CGs were amplified from both parental lines of the mapping population using specific primers. Sequence comparison revealed DNA polymorphisms between the parental lines, mainly of the single nucleotide type. Polymorphisms were used to develop co-dominant cleaved amplified polymorphic sequence markers or length polymorphisms based on insertion/deletion events for mapping the candidate genes on the Prunus reference map. Ten candidate genes were assigned to six linkage groups in the Prunus genome. The positions of two of these were compatible with the regions where two QTLs for blooming time were detected. One additional candidate was localized close to the position of the Evergrowing gene, which determines a non-deciduous behaviour in peach.

  15. Growth and fruit bearing of the sweet cherry (Prunus avium L

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Radunic

    2011-06-06

    Jun 6, 2011 ... Modern intensive production of sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.) tends to planting of high quality cultivars on the dwarfing rootstocks in high density orchards. The most productive training system is used, providing an ideal condition for undisturbed growth and yield. The main objective of this study.

  16. A synonymic revision of the Prunus-infesting aphid genus Hyalopterus Koch 1854 (Hemiptera: Aphididae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The three species of Hyalopterus Koch cause economic damage to various stone fruit trees of the genus Prunus L., H. pruni (Geoffroy), H. amygdali (Blanchard), and H. persikonus Miller et al. Although the third species was established recently, it has been suggested that one of the twelve older synon...

  17. Coniochaeta (Lecythophora), Collophora gen. nov and Phaeomoniella species associated with wood necroses of Prunus trees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Damm, U.; Fourie, P.H.; Crous, P.W.

    2010-01-01

    Species of the genus Coniochaeta (anamorph: Lecythophora) are known as pathogens of woody hosts, but can also cause opportunistic human infections. Several fungi with conidial stages resembling Lecythophora were isolated from necrotic wood samples of Prunus trees in South Africa. In order to reveal

  18. Coniochaeta (Lecythophora), Collophora gen. nov. and Phaeomoniella species associated with wood necroses of Prunus trees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Damm, U.; Fourie, P.H.; Crous, P.W.

    2010-01-01

    Species of the genus Coniochaeta (anamorph: Lecythophora) are known as pathogens of woody hosts, but can also cause opportunistic human infections. Several fungi with conidial stages resembling Lecythophora were isolated from necrotic wood samples of Prunus trees in South Africa. In order to reveal

  19. Coniochaeta (Lecythophora), Collophora gen. nov. And Phaeomoniella species associated with wood necroses of Prunus trees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Damm, U.; Fourie, P.H.; Crous, P.W.

    2010-01-01

    Species of the genus Coniochaeta (anamorph: Lecythophora) are known as pathogens of woody hosts, but can also cause opportunistic human infections. Several fungi with conidial stages resembling Lecythophora were isolated from necrotic wood samples of Prunus trees in South Africa. In order to reveal

  20. Isolation and characterization of a TERMINAL FLOWER 1 homolog from Prunus serotina Ehrh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ying Wang; Paula M. Pijut

    2013-01-01

    Flowering control is one of the several strategies for gene containment of transgenic plants. TERMINAL FLOWER 1 (TFL1) is known to be involved in the transcriptional repression of genes for inflorescence development. Two TFL1 transcripts with different 3' UTR were cloned from black cherry (Prunus serotina...

  1. Soil feedback and pathogen activity in Prunus serotina throughout its native range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurt O. Reinhart; Alejandro Royo; Wim H. Van der Putten; Keith Clay

    2005-01-01

    1 Oomycete soil pathogens are known to have a negative effect on Prunus serotina seedling establishment and to promote tree diversity in a deciduous forest in Indiana, USA. Here, we investigate whether negative feedbacks operate widely in its native range in eastern USA. 2 In laboratory experiments, soil sterilization was used to test the...

  2. Agrobacterium-medicated transformation of mature Prunus serotina (black cherry) and regeneration of trangenic shoots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiaomei Liu; Paula Pijut

    2010-01-01

    A protocol for Agrobacterium-mediated transformation was developed for in vitro leaf explants of an elite, mature Prunus serotina tree. Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain EHA105 harboring an RNAi plasmid with the black cherry AGAMOUS (AG) gene was used. Bacteria were induced...

  3. Tractor-mounted, GPS-based spot fumigation system manages Prunus replant disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Our research goal was to use recent advances in global positioning system (GPS) and computer technology to apply just the right amount of fumigant where it is most needed (i.e., in a small target treatment zone in and around each tree replanting site) to control Prunus replant disease (PRD). We deve...

  4. Cloning and characterization of prunus serotina AGAMOUS, a putative flower homeotic gene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiaomei Liu; Joseph Anderson; Paula Pijut

    2010-01-01

    Members of the AGAMOUS subfamily of MADS-box transcription factors play an important role in regulating the development of reproductive organs in flowering plants. To help understand the mechanism of floral development in black cherry (Prunus serotina), PsAG (a putative flower homeotic identity gene) was isolated...

  5. Pegamento e crescimento inicial de enxertos do pessegueiro 'Aurora-1' em clones de umezeiro (Prunus mume Sieb. et Zucc. e 'Okinawa' [Prunus persica (L. Batsch] propagados por estacas herbáceas Tissue union and initial growth of 'Aurora-1' peach buds on mume clones (Prunus mume Sieb. et Zucc. and 'Okinawa' [Prunus persica (L. Batsch] propagated by herbaceous cuttings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Newton Alex Mayer

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo teve por objetivo avaliar o pegamento e o crescimento inicial de enxertos do pessegueiro 'Aurora-1' em clones de umezeiro (Prunus mume Sieb. et Zucc. e 'Okinawa' [Prunus persica (L. Batsch] propagados por estacas herbáceas. Realizaram-se dois experimentos, adotando-se a enxertia de borbulhia por escudo (março e borbulhia por escudo modificada (julho. Com os resultados obtidos, pode-se concluir que é viável a realização da enxertia do 'Aurora-1' nos Clones 05; 10 e 15 de umezeiro e no 'Okinawa', tanto em março quanto em julho, com as metodologias utilizadas. O 'Okinawa' induz crescimento mais rápido ao enxerto, de forma que o ponto máximo do comprimento é atingido em tempo menor.This study aimed to evaluate the tissue union and initial growth of 'Aurora-1' peach buds on mume clones (Prunus mume Sieb. et Zucc. and 'Okinawa' [Prunus persica (L. Batsch] propagated by herbaceous cuttings. Two experiments were carried out, being adopted the chip budding (March and chip budding modified (July. The results showed that accomplishment of 'Aurora-1' peach bud on mume Clones 05, 10 and 15 and 'Okinawa' is viable, in both periods, with the methodologies used. The 'Okinawa' induces faster growth to the bud and the maximum length point is reached in a short time.

  6. Molecular characterization of peach [Prunus persica (L.) Batsch] germplasm in the United States using microsatellite markers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peach [Prunus persica (L.) Batsch] is an important medicinal fruit with immense health benefits and antioxidant activity. In this study, microsatellite markers were used as DNA fingerprinting tools for the identification and characterization of peach germplasm in the United States. Eleven microsatel...

  7. Changes in sour cherry (Prunus cerasus L.) antioxidants during nectar processing and in vitro gastrointestinal digestion.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toydemir, G.; Capanoglu, E.; Kamiloglu, S.; Boyacioglu, D.; Vos, de C.H.; Hall, R.D.; Beekwilder, M.J.

    2013-01-01

    Sour cherry (Prunus cerasus L.) is rich in polyphenols, and like its processed products, is especially rich in anthocyanins. We have applied HPLC, spectrophotometric and on-line antioxidant detection methods to follow the fate of cherry antioxidants during an entire multi-step industrial-scale

  8. Industrial processing effects on phenolic compounds in sour cherry (Prunus cerasus L.) fruit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toydemir, G.; Capanoglu, E.; Gomez-Roldan, M.V.; Vos, de R.C.H.; Boyacioglu, D.; Hall, R.D.; Beekwilder, M.J.

    2013-01-01

    The processed juice (or nectar) of the sour cherry, Prunus cerasus L., is widely consumed in the Balkan region and Turkey. Sour cherry is known to be rich in polyphenolic compounds, such as anthocyanins and procyanidins. In this work, the effects of processing of sour cherry fruit to nectar on

  9. Identification of bloom date QTLs and haplotype analysis in tetraploid sour cherry (Prunus cerasus)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cai, Lichun; Stegmeir, Travis; Sebolt, Audrey; Zheng, Chaozhi; Bink, Marco C.A.M.; Iezzoni, Amy

    2018-01-01

    Bloom date is an important production trait in sour cherry (Prunus cerasus L.) as the risk of crop loss to floral freeze injury increases with early bloom time. Knowledge of the major loci controlling bloom date would enable breeders to design crosses and select seedlings with late bloom date. As

  10. Sour Cherry (Prunus cerasus L.) Anthocyanins: effects of juice processing on phenolic compounds and bioavailability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toydemir, G.; Boyacioglu, D.; Beekwilder, M.J.; Vos, de R.C.H.; Hall, R.D.; Capanoglu, E.

    2014-01-01

    Sour cherry (Prunus cerasus L.), has gained growing interest in recent years due to the envisaged health benefits associated with a regular intake of anthocyanins and related polyphenolic compounds. Turkish sour cherries are widely consumed as processed products and are renowned for their high juice

  11. Physicochemical characterisation of four cherry species (Prunus spp.) grown in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Jinping; Jiang, Qing; Lin, Juanying; Li, Xian; Sun, Chongde; Chen, Kunsong

    2015-04-15

    The physicochemical characteristics of four cherry species (Prunus avium, Prunus cerasus, Prunus pseudocerasus and Prunus tomentosa) were evaluated. Inter-species variability was greater than intra-species differences. Glucose and fructose were the main sugars, and malic acid was the main organic acid in all species. Combining HPLC-DAD and LC-ESI-MS/MS technologies, total 25 phenolic components were preliminarily identified. P. avium was characterised by high fruit weight, edible proportion, sugar content and low acid content, which made it suitable for fresh eating. P. cerasus was high in acid content and anthocyanins content, making it a good processing species. P. pseudocerasus had rich flavonols varieties and high proportion of hydrocinnamic acids. P. tomentosa was characterised by high total phenolics content (especially flavonols and tannins) and antioxidant activity, indicating a great developmental potential as a health fruit. The results of the present study might provide theoretical guidance for the further development and utilisation of cherries. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. The anti-viral effect of Acacia mellifera, Melia azedarach and Prunus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aqueous extracts from the stem barks of Prunus africana(Hook.f.) Kalkm, Acacia mellifera (Vahl.) Benth. and Melia azedarach L. were evaluated for in vivo antiviral activity in Balb/C mice following a cutaneous wild type strain 7401H herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) infection. A significant therapeutic effect was observed ...

  13. Soil feedback and pathogen activity in Prunus serotina throughout its native range

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reinhart, K.O.; Royo, A.A.; Putten, van der W.H.; Clay, K.

    2005-01-01

    1 Oomycete soil pathogens are known to have a negative effect on Prunus serotina seedling establishment and to promote tree diversity in a deciduous forest in Indiana, USA. Here, we investigate whether negative feedbacks operate widely in its native range in eastern USA. 2 In laboratory experiments,

  14. Performance of Prunus rootstocks in the 2001 NC-140 peach trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fourteen Prunus rootstock cultivars and selections budded with either ‘Redtop’, ‘Redhaven’ or ‘Cresthaven’ peach were planted at 11 locations in North America in 2001 in a randomized block design with a tree spacing of 5 by 6 m and 8 replicates. These rootstocks included three peach seedling rootst...

  15. Transformation of somatic embryos of Prunus incisa ‘February Pink’ with a visible reporter gene

    Science.gov (United States)

    An Agrobacterium-mediated transformation system was developed for the ornamental cherry species Prunus incisa. This system uses both an antibiotic resistance gene (NPTII) and a visible selectable marker, the green fluorescent protein (GFP), to select plants. Cells from leaf and root explants were tr...

  16. The Issues of Apricot (Prunus Armeniaca L. Micropropagation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina Kudělková

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of four modified mediums for apricot multiplication was observed in this study. A total number of 1864 single nodes of 20 Prunus armeniaca L.varieties were established. Explants surface was disinfected with 0.2 % mercuric chloride for 5 minutes. MS (1962 medium with 0.5 mg.l−1 BA, 0.01 mg.l−1 NAA and 0.5 mg.l−1 GA3 was used as a medium for primary culture. ‘Velkopavlovická’, ‘Bergeron’, genotype 1128 and genotype LE 2927 Š9 were successfully transferred to aseptic conditions and multiplied. Modified MS medium (1962, DKW/Juglans medium, Quoirin, Lepoivre (1977 medium and Marino et al. (1991 medium were used for multiplication. Modified MS medium and modified DKW/Juglans medium were not suitable for apricot multiplication at all and explants did not grow. The best results were observed in the case of Quoirin, Lepoivre (1977 medium with 0.4 mg.l−1 BA and 0.01 mg.l−1 NAA. Young plants multiplied well, were fresh and vital and no damage was observed. The highest number of new shoots was observed in the case of Marino et al. (1991 medium. The average growth of new shoots after the last passaging was 600 %, rate 7.33 (Velkopavlovická; 566 %, rate 7.0 (Bergeron; 475 %, rate 6.25 (1128 and 483 %, rate 6.33 (LE 2927 Š9. However, new shoots in clusters were too dense and stunted and this medium is not recommended for apricot multiplication.

  17. Aclimatização de porta-enxertos de Prunus sp. micropropagados Acclimatization of micropropagated Prunus sp. rootstocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Rogalski

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available A fase de aclimatização é considerada limitante para a maior parte das plantas micropropagadas pelas altas taxas de perdas que podem acarretar. A cultura in vitro tem determinado, para algumas espécies, a alteração de características morfológicas, anatômicas e fisiológicas que dificultam a sua aclimatização. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a sobrevivência de plantas dos porta-enxertos de Prunus Capdeboscq e GF677, e das seleções VP411 e VP417 durante o processo de aclimatização. Brotos com 2-3 cm foram inoculados em meio de cultura Lepoivre, suplementado com 0,1; 0,5; 1,0 e 2,0 mg.L-1 de AIB. Após 15 dias as plantas foram transferidas para bandejas alveoladas contendo substrato comercial Plantmax ®, cobertas com uma lâmina de vidro transparente e mantidas em sala de aclimatização, com temperatura de 27±1ºC, fotoperíodo de 16 horas, intensidade luminosa de 60mmol.m-2.s-1 e posteriormente em câmara de nebulização intermitente. A percentagem de sobrevivência das plantas foi afetada significativamente pela concentração de AIB, pelo genótipo e pela interação concentração de AIB x genótipo. As maiores taxas de sobrevivência foram de 92% para o porta-enxerto Capdeboscq na concentração de 1,0 mg.L-1 de AIB; 80% para a seleção VP417 com 0,5 mg.L-1; 84% para a seleção VP411 e 64% para o porta-enxerto GF677, ambos com 0,1 mg.L-1 de AIB. A formação de calos na base dos explantes afetou negativamente a sobrevivência das plantas.Acclimatization is a phase of micropropagation associated with frequent losses in plant survival. The in vitro culture conditions may determine in some species, the formation of plants with altered morphology, anatomy and physiology that affect their acclimatization. The objective of the present work was to evaluate the rate of plant survival during acclimatization of the Prunus rootstocks Capdeboscq and GF677, and the selections VP411 and VP417. Shoots of 2-3 cm long were

  18. Composition and antioxidant properties of fresh and frozen stored blackthorn fruits (Prunus spinosa L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Elżbieta Sikora; Małgorzata I. Bieniek; Barbara Borczak

    2013-01-01

      Aim. Blackthorn (Prunus spinosa L.) is quite widespread bush occurring in Poland. Its fruits are easily available food products. The aim of this study was to investigate the basal chemical composition, especially antioxidant compounds in fresh and frozen stored blackthorn fruits. Material  and methods. Research material consisted of blackthorn fruits collected from the wild grown bushes, near Łącko. In the wash-out, dried and stone-loss fruits, the content of dry matter, protein, ...

  19. Nutraceutical Value of Black Cherry Prunus serotina Ehrh. Fruits: Antioxidant and Antihypertensive Properties

    OpenAIRE

    Francisco J. Luna-Vázquez; César Ibarra-Alvarado; Alejandra Rojas-Molina; Juana I. Rojas-Molina; Elhadi M. Yahia; Dulce M. Rivera-Pastrana; Adriana Rojas-Molina; Ángel Miguel Zavala-Sánchez

    2013-01-01

    In Mexico black cherry (Prunus serotina Ehrh.) fruits are consumed fresh, dried or prepared in jam. Considering the evidence that has linked intake of fruits and vegetables rich in polyphenols to cardiovascular risk reduction, the aim of this study was to characterize the phenolic profile of black cherry fruits and to determine their antioxidant, vasorelaxant and antihypertensive effects. The proximate composition and mineral contents of these fruits were also assessed. Black cherry fruits po...

  20. Occurrence of black cherry (Prunus serotina Ehrh.) in the State Forests in Poland

    OpenAIRE

    Bijak, Szymon; Czajkowski, Maciej; Ludwisiak, Łukasz

    2014-01-01

    Among the invasive tree species identified in Polish forests, black cherry (Prunus serotina Ehrh.) appears to pose the greatest threat. The objective of this study was i), to determine the abundance of this species in the forests managed by the State Forests National Forest Holding (PGLLP) and ii), to characterise the ecological conditions that it is found in. The source data was obtained from the State Forests Information System (SILP) database. In Polish forests, black cherry mostly occurs ...

  1. Convergent evolution at the gametophytic self-incompatibility system in Malus and Prunus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Aguiar

    Full Text Available S-RNase-based gametophytic self-incompatibility (GSI has evolved once before the split of the Asteridae and Rosidae. This conclusion is based on the phylogenetic history of the S-RNase that determines pistil specificity. In Rosaceae, molecular characterizations of Prunus species, and species from the tribe Pyreae (i.e., Malus, Pyrus, Sorbus revealed different numbers of genes determining S-pollen specificity. In Prunus only one pistil and pollen gene determine GSI, while in Pyreae there is one pistil but multiple pollen genes, implying different specificity recognition mechanisms. It is thus conceivable that within Rosaceae the genes involved in GSI in the two lineages are not orthologous but possibly paralogous. To address this hypothesis we characterised the S-RNase lineage and S-pollen lineage genes present in the genomes of five Rosaceae species from three genera: M. × domestica (apple, self-incompatible (SI; tribe Pyreae, P. persica (peach, self-compatible (SC; Amygdaleae, P. mume (mei, SI; Amygdaleae, Fragaria vesca (strawberry, SC; Potentilleae, and F. nipponica (mori-ichigo, SI; Potentilleae. Phylogenetic analyses revealed that the Malus and Prunus S-RNase and S-pollen genes belong to distinct gene lineages, and that only Prunus S-RNase and SFB-lineage genes are present in Fragaria. Thus, S-RNase based GSI system of Malus evolved independently from the ancestral system of Rosaceae. Using expression patterns based on RNA-seq data, the ancestral S-RNase lineage gene is inferred to be expressed in pistils only, while the ancestral S-pollen lineage gene is inferred to be expressed in tissues other than pollen.

  2. Convergent evolution at the gametophytic self-incompatibility system in Malus and Prunus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguiar, Bruno; Vieira, Jorge; Cunha, Ana E; Fonseca, Nuno A; Iezzoni, Amy; van Nocker, Steve; Vieira, Cristina P

    2015-01-01

    S-RNase-based gametophytic self-incompatibility (GSI) has evolved once before the split of the Asteridae and Rosidae. This conclusion is based on the phylogenetic history of the S-RNase that determines pistil specificity. In Rosaceae, molecular characterizations of Prunus species, and species from the tribe Pyreae (i.e., Malus, Pyrus, Sorbus) revealed different numbers of genes determining S-pollen specificity. In Prunus only one pistil and pollen gene determine GSI, while in Pyreae there is one pistil but multiple pollen genes, implying different specificity recognition mechanisms. It is thus conceivable that within Rosaceae the genes involved in GSI in the two lineages are not orthologous but possibly paralogous. To address this hypothesis we characterised the S-RNase lineage and S-pollen lineage genes present in the genomes of five Rosaceae species from three genera: M. × domestica (apple, self-incompatible (SI); tribe Pyreae), P. persica (peach, self-compatible (SC); Amygdaleae), P. mume (mei, SI; Amygdaleae), Fragaria vesca (strawberry, SC; Potentilleae), and F. nipponica (mori-ichigo, SI; Potentilleae). Phylogenetic analyses revealed that the Malus and Prunus S-RNase and S-pollen genes belong to distinct gene lineages, and that only Prunus S-RNase and SFB-lineage genes are present in Fragaria. Thus, S-RNase based GSI system of Malus evolved independently from the ancestral system of Rosaceae. Using expression patterns based on RNA-seq data, the ancestral S-RNase lineage gene is inferred to be expressed in pistils only, while the ancestral S-pollen lineage gene is inferred to be expressed in tissues other than pollen.

  3. Characterization of sour (Prunus cerasus L. and sweet cherry (Prunus avium L. varieties with five isozyme systems Caracterização de variedades de ginjeira (Prunus cerasus L. e cerejeira (Prunus avium L. em cinco sistemas isoenzimáticos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Remedios Morales Corts

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Extracts from young leaves of nine sweet cherry (Prunus avium L. and eight sour cherry (Prunus cerasus L. varieties, located in the germplasm collection of the 'Direção Regional de Agricultura da Beira Interior' (Fundão, Portugal, were analysed for five isozyme systems in order to characterise these varieties and detect problems of synonymies and homonymies that frequently present. The sweet and sour cherry varieties analyzed showed low isoenzymatic polymorphism, being PGM and PGI the systems with the highest discrimination power. These systems presented seven and five different zymogrames, respectively. IDH showed four patterns. SKDH and 6-PGD grouped the varieties only into two patterns. The evident and discriminant restrictions of this type of analysis had got results that have only been a complement for agronomical and morphological characterization.Nove extratos de folhas com desenvolvimento encompleto foram obtidos de 9 variedades de cerejeira (Prunus avium L. e 8 de ginjeira (Prunus cerasus L., localizados no campo de germoplasma da "Direcção Regional de Agricultura da Beira Interior" (Fundão, Portugal. Esses extratos foram analisados para 5 sistemas isoenzimáticos a fim de caracterizar essas variedades e simultaneamente detectar sinonímias e homonímias, freqüentes neste tipo de estudos. As variedades de cerejeira e ginjeira analisadas mostraram baixo polimorfismo isoenzimático, sendo que os sistemas PGM e PGI mostraram maior poder de discriminação. Estes sistemas apresentaram 7 e 5 zimogramas diferentes, respectivamente. IDH mostrou 4 padrões. SKDH e 6-PGD agruparam as variedades em 2 padrões. Os evidentes limites discriminatórios desse tipo de análise serviram somente de complemento para a caracterização agronômica e morfológica.

  4. Anatomy and cell wall polysaccharides of almond (Prunus dulcis D. A. Webb) seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dourado, Fernando; Barros, António; Mota, Manuel; Coimbra, Manuel A; Gama, Francisco M

    2004-03-10

    The anatomy of Prunus dulcis was analyzed by applying several differential staining techniques and light microscopy. Prunus dulcis seed has a thin and structurally complex seed coat, with lignified cellulosic tissue. The embryo has two voluminous cotyledons. Cotyledon cells have a high number of protein and lipid bodies, some of which have phytin. The provascular tissue, located in the cotyledons, is oriented in small bundles perpendicular to the transverse embryonic axis. Prunus dulcis cell wall material is very rich in arabinose (45 mol %). Glucose (23%), uronic acids (12%), and xylose (12%) are also major sugar components. The polymers obtained from the imidazole and Na(2)CO(3) extracts contain mainly pectic substances rich in arabinose, but the sugar content of these extracts was very low. The majority of the pectic substances (also rich in arabinose) was recovered with the KOH extracts. These extracts, with high sugar content, yielded also xyloglucans and acidic xylans. The 4 M KOH + H(3)BO(3) extracts yielded polysaccharides rich in uronic acids and xylose and very rich in arabinose, accounting for 27% of the cell wall material.

  5. [Analysis of total proteins in the seed of almond (Prunus dulcis) by two-dimensional electrophoresis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dong-dong; He, Shao-heng

    2004-07-01

    To analyse the total proteins in the seeds of almond (Prunus dulcis), one of the popular ingestent allergens in China, by two-dimensional electrophoresis. The total proteins of the seeds were extracted by trichloracetic acid (TCA) method, and then separated by isoelectric focusing as first dimension and SDS-PAGE as the second dimension. The spots of proteins were visualized by staining with Coomassie Brilliant Blue R-250. After analysis with software (ImageMaster 2D), 188 different proteins were detected. The isoelectric points (pI) for approximately 28% of total proteins were between 4.5-5.5, and the relative molecular mass (M(r)) of approximately 62% total proteins were between (20-25)x10(3). This was the first high-resolution, two-dimensional protein map of the seed of almond (Prunus dulcis) in China. Our finding has laid a solid foundation for further identification, characterization, gene cloning and standardization of allergenic proteins in the seed of almond (Prunus dulcis).

  6. Effects of fertilization and rootstock on nutrient status and fruit set in sour cherry Prunus cerasus 'Stevnsbaer'

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, N. L.; Toldam-Andersen, Torben; Dencker, Ivar Blücher

    2007-01-01

    was ashed and analysed using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Fruit set percentage was recorded on spurs and extension shoots in 2002. The nutrient analyses showed that control trees on Prunus avium had a higher concentration of leaf potassium compared with control trees on 'Colt'. Leaf....... Prunus avium had the highest percentage of fruit set on both spurs and extension shoots....

  7. Endogenous hormones response to cytokinins with regard to organogenesis in explants of peach (Prunus persica L. Batsch) cultivars and rootstocks (P. persica × Prunus dulcis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Jiménez, Margarita; Cantero-Navarro, Elena; Pérez-Alfocea, Francisco; Cos-Terrer, José

    2014-11-01

    Organogenesis in peach (Prunus persica L. Batsch) and peach rootstocks (P. persica × Prunus dulcis) has been achieved and the action of the regeneration medium on 7 phytohormones, zeatin (Z), zeatin riboside (ZR), indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), abscisic acid (ABA), ethylene precursor 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC), salicylic acid (SA), and jasmonic acid (JA), has been studied using High performance liquid chromatography - mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS). Three scion peach cultivars, 'UFO-3', 'Flariba' and 'Alice Bigi', and the peach × almond rootstocks 'Garnem' and 'GF677' were cultured in two different media, Murashige and Skoog supplemented with plant growth regulators (PGRs) (regeneration medium) and without PGRs (control medium), in order to study the effects of the media and/or genotypes in the endogenous hormones content and their role in organogenesis. The highest regeneration rate was obtained with the peach × almond rootstocks and showed a lower content of Z, IAA, ABA, ACC and JA. Only Z, ZR and IAA were affected by the action of the culture media. This study shows which hormones are external PGRs-dependent and what is the weight of the genotype and hormones in peach organogenesis that provide an avenue to manipulate in vitro organogenesis in peach. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  8. A Rapid and Efficient Method for Purifying High Quality Total RNA from Peaches (Prunus persica for Functional Genomics Analyses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LEE MEISEL

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Prunus persica has been proposed as a genomic model for deciduous trees and the Rosaceae family. Optimized protocols for RNA isolation are necessary to further advance studies in this model species such that functional genomics analyses may be performed. Here we present an optimized protocol to rapidly and efficiently purify high quality total RNA from peach fruits (Prunus persica. Isolating high-quality RNA from fruit tissue is often difficult due to large quantities of polysaccharides and polyphenolic compounds that accumulate in this tissue and co-purify with the RNA. Here we demonstrate that a modified version of the method used to isolate RNA from pine trees and the woody plant Cinnamomun tenuipilum is ideal for isolating high quality RNA from the fruits of Prunus persica. This RNA may be used for many functional genomic based experiments such as RT-PCR and the construction of large-insert cDNA libraries.

  9. Synteny conservation between two distantly-related Rosaceae genomes: Prunus (the stone fruits and Fragaria (the strawberry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sargent Daniel J

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Rosaceae encompass a large number of economically-important diploid and polyploid fruit and ornamental species in many different genera. The basic chromosome numbers of these genera are x = 7, 8 and 9 and all have compact and relatively similar genome sizes. Comparative mapping between distantly-related genera has been performed to a limited extent in the Rosaceae including a comparison between Malus (subfamily Maloideae and Prunus (subfamily Prunoideae; however no data has been published to date comparing Malus or Prunus to a member of the subfamily Rosoideae. In this paper we compare the genome of Fragaria, a member of the Rosoideae, to Prunus, a member of the Prunoideae. Results The diploid genomes of Prunus (2n = 2x = 16 and Fragaria (2n = 2x = 14 were compared through the mapping of 71 anchor markers – 40 restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs, 29 indels or single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs derived from expressed sequence tags (ESTs and two simple-sequence repeats (SSRs – on the reference maps of both genera. These markers provided good coverage of the Prunus (78% and Fragaria (78% genomes, with maximum gaps and average densities of 22 cM and 7.3 cM/marker in Prunus and 32 cM and 8.0 cM/marker in Fragaria. Conclusion Our results indicate a clear pattern of synteny, with most markers of each chromosome of one of these species mapping to one or two chromosomes of the other. A large number of rearrangements (36, most of which produced by inversions (27 and the rest (9 by translocations or fission/fusion events could also be inferred. We have provided the first framework for the comparison of the position of genes or DNA sequences of these two economically valuable and yet distantly-related genera of the Rosaceae.

  10. Comparison of ELISA and RT-PCR for the detection of Prunus necrotic ring spot virus and prune dwarf virus in almond (Prunus dulcis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mekuria, Genet; Ramesh, Sunita A; Alberts, Evita; Bertozzi, Terry; Wirthensohn, Michelle; Collins, Graham; Sedgley, Margaret

    2003-12-01

    A technique based on the reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) has been developed to detect the presence of Prunus necrotic ringspot virus (PNRSV) and prune dwarf virus (PDV) simultaneously in almond. This paper presents the results of a 3-year study comparing both enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and RT-PCR for the detection of PNRSV and PDV using 175 almond leaf samples. Multiplex RT-PCR was found to be more sensitive than ELISA, especially when followed by nested PCR for the detection of PDV. The RT-PCR technique has the added advantage that plant material can be tested at any time throughout the growing season.

  11. Genetic and molecular characterization of three novel S-haplotypes in sour cherry (Prunus cerasus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsukamoto, Tatsuya; Potter, Daniel; Tao, Ryutaro; Vieira, Cristina P; Vieira, Jorge; Iezzoni, Amy F

    2008-01-01

    Tetraploid sour cherry (Prunus cerasus L.) exhibits gametophytic self-incompatibility (GSI) whereby the specificity of self-pollen rejection is controlled by alleles of the stylar and pollen specificity genes, S-RNase and SFB (S haplotype-specific F-box protein gene), respectively. As sour cherry selections can be either self-compatible (SC) or self-incompatible (SI), polyploidy per se does not result in SC. Instead the genotype-dependent loss of SI in sour cherry is due to the accumulation of non-functional S-haplotypes. The presence of two or more non-functional S-haplotypes within sour cherry 2x pollen renders that pollen SC. Two new S-haplotypes from sour cherry, S(33) and S(34), that are presumed to be contributed by the P. fruticosa species parent, the complete S-RNase and SFB sequences of a third S-haplotype, S(35), plus the presence of two previously identified sweet cherry S-haplotypes, S(14) and S(16) are described here. Genetic segregation data demonstrated that the S(16)-, S(33)-, S(34)-, and S(35)-haplotypes present in sour cherry are fully functional. This result is consistent with our previous finding that 'hetero-allelic' pollen is incompatible in sour cherry. Phylogenetic analyses of the SFB and S-RNase sequences from available Prunus species reveal that the relationships among S-haplotypes show no correspondence to known organismal relationships at any taxonomic level within Prunus, indicating that polymorphisms at the S-locus have been maintained throughout the evolution of the genus. Furthermore, the phylogenetic relationships among SFB sequences are generally incongruent with those among S-RNase sequences for the same S-haplotypes. Hypotheses compatible with these results are discussed.

  12. Melatonin enhances root regeneration, photosynthetic pigments, biomass, total carbohydrates and proline content in the cherry rootstock PHL-C (Prunus avium × Prunus cerasus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarropoulou, Virginia; Dimassi-Theriou, Kortessa; Therios, Ioannis; Koukourikou-Petridou, Magdalene

    2012-12-01

    The present study, investigates the effects of melatonin (0, 0.05, 0.1, 0.5, 1, 5 and 10 μM) on the morphogenic and biochemical responses in the cherry rootstock PHL-C (Prunus avium L. × Prunus cerasus L.), from shoot tip explants. The incorporation of melatonin (0-10 μM) in the Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium, greatly influenced rooting either positively or negatively. Melatonin, irrespective of its concentration, had a negative effect concerning the number of roots. However, application of 0.5 μM melatonin significantly increased the root length; while 1 μM melatonin increased the root length by 2.5 times, and the fresh weight of the roots by 4 times, in comparison to the control. Although 0.05 μM melatonin increased rooting by 11.11%, 5 μM melatonin had a significant reduction on the number, the fresh weight of roots, and the rooting percentage. Melatonin concentration of 0.1 μM resulted in the greatest chlorophyll (a + b) content, and 5-10 μM reduced the chlorophyll concentration by 2 times, compared to the control. The high melatonin concentrations (5 and 10 μM), increased the levels of proline and carbohydrates in leaves by 3-4 times. In the roots, 0.5 μM of melatonin concentration increased the carbohydrate levels by 1.5 times, while 0.05, 0.1 and 1 μM melatonin concentration significantly reduced the proline content. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  13. Análisis fitoquímico de frutos de Prunus persica cv Vesuvio

    OpenAIRE

    Muñoz Benito, Álvaro

    2014-01-01

    Los compuestos fenólicos desempeñan un papel importante en la calidad de los alimentos y contribuyen al aroma y sabor de la fruta. Además, han mostrado una importante actividad fisiológica en seres humanos como antioxidantes y agentes contra el cáncer. En este trabajo se ha iniciado el estudio fitoouirnico del fruto de Prunus oersice cv Vesuvio. una variedad de melocotón típica de la región de Campania, en el sur de Italia. Para ello la piel del melocotón deshidratada se somete...

  14. Alternaria cerasidanica sp nov., isolated in Denmark from drupes of Prunus avium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roberts, R. G.; Reymond, S. T.; Andersen, Birgitte

    2010-01-01

    The ex-type strain of Alternaria cerasidanica was isolated in 2001 from an immature, asymptomatic drupe of Prunus avium collected at a commercial cherry orchard near Skaelskor, Denmark. Cultural morphology, sporulation pattern and cluster analyses of combined RAPD, RAMS (microsatellite), and AFLP...... fingerprints of A. cerasidanica and 167 strains of Alternaria spp. support the placement of A. cerasidanica within the A. infectoria species-group sensu Simmons and its segregation from other members of this group. A. cerasidanica is currently monotypic and known only from preharvest sweet cherry fruit...

  15. Reação de clones de umezeiro (Prunus mume Sieb. et Zucc. e cultivares de pessegueiro [Prunus persica (L. Batsch] ao nematóide anelado Mesocriconema xenoplax (Nemata: Criconematidae Reaction of mume clones (Prunus mume Sieb. et Zucc. and peach tree cultivars [Prunus persica (L. Batsch] to ring nematode Mesocriconema xenoplax (Nemata: Criconematidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Newton Alex Mayer

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de avaliar a reação de clones de umezeiro (Prunus mume Sieb. et Zucc. e cultivares de pessegueiro [Prunus persica (L. Batsch] ao nematóide anelado Mesocriconema xenoplax (Raski Loof & de Grise, realizou-se o presente estudo em casa de vegetação do Departamento de Fitossanidade da FCAV/UNESP, Câmpus de Jaboticabal-SP. As plantas foram mantidas em vasos de cerâmica com 6 litros de capacidade, contendo uma mistura de solo e areia (1:1, v/v, previamente autoclavada a 121°C e 1kgf.cm-2 por 2 horas. Cada planta foi inoculada com 10mL de uma suspensão de 200 M. xenoplax por mL. Com os resultados obtidos, após 105 dias da inoculação, pode-se concluir que os Clones 05; 10 e 15 de umezeiro e as cultivares Okinawa e Aurora-1 de pessegueiro são suscetíveis a M. xenoplax. A cultivar Aurora-1 apresentou maior Fator de Reprodução (93,06.With the objective of evaluating the reaction of mume clones (Prunus mume Sieb. et Zucc. and peach tree cultivars [Prunus persica (L. Batsch] to ring nematode Mesocriconema xenoplax (Raski Loof & de Grise, was conducted the present study at a greenhouse, belonging to the Phytosanity Department of Faculdade de Ciências Agrárias e Veterinárias (FCAV/UNESP, Jaboticabal Campus, São Paulo State, Brazil. The plants were maintained in ceramic boxes with 6 liters of capacity, contends a soil-sand mixture (1:1, v/v, previously autoclaved at 121°C and 1kgf.cm-2 for 2 hours. Each plant was inoculated with a 10mL suspension of 200 M. xenoplax/mL. With the results, after 105 days of inoculation, was verified that mume Clones 05, 10 and 15 and 'Okinawa' and 'Aurora-1' peach tree cultivars are susceptible to M. xenoplax. The cultivar 'Aurora-1' presented larger reproduction factor (93,06.

  16. Botryosphaeriaceae as potential pathogens of prunus species in South Africa, with descriptions of Diplodia africana and Lasiodiplodia plurivora sp. nov

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Damm, Ulrike; Crous, Pedro W; Fourie, Paul H

    2008-01-01

    Botryosphaeriaceae are common dieback and canker pathogens of woody host plants, including stone fruit trees. In the present study the diversity of members of the Botryosphaeriaceae isolated from symptomatic wood of Prunus species (plum, peach, nectarine and apricot) was determined in stone

  17. Compared leaf anatomy and water relations of commercial and traditional Prunus dulcis (Mill.) cultivars under rain-fed conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oliveira, I.; Meyer, A.; Afonso, S.

    2018-01-01

    Leaf anatomy and water relations of seven almond (Prunus dulcis Mill.) cultivars, traditional (Bonita, Casanova, Parada, Pegarinhos and Verdeal) and commercial (Ferragnès and Glorieta), grown under rain-fed conditions, were studied. The performed measurements included thickness of leaf tissues...

  18. A fissitunicate ascus mechanism in the Calosphaeriaceae, and novel species of Jattaea and Calosphaeria on Prunus wood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Damm, U.; Crous, P.W.; Fourie, P.H.

    2008-01-01

    During a survey of Prunus wood from South Africa, isolations were made of three presumably Calosphaerialean fungi that formed hyphomycetous, phialidic anamorphs in culture. In order to reveal the phylogenetic relationship of these fungi, they were characterised on a morphological and molecular (LSU

  19. Botryosphaeriaceae as potential pathogens of Prunus species in South Africa, with descriptions of Diplodia africana and Lasiodiplodia plurivora sp. nov.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Damm, U.; Crous, P.W.; Fourie, P.H.

    2007-01-01

    Botryosphaeriaceae are common dieback and canker pathogens of woody host plants, including stone fruit trees. In the present study the diversity of members of the Botryosphaeriaceae isolated from symptomatic wood of Prunus species (plum, peach, nectarine and apricot) was determined in stone

  20. Bacterial wetwood detection in Fagus grandifolia and Prunus serotina sapwood using a conducting polymer electronic-nose device

    Science.gov (United States)

    A.D. Wilson

    2014-01-01

    New electronic gas-detection methods were developed and tested for the diagnosis of bacterial wetwood disease in Fagus grandifolia (American beech) and Prunus serotina (black cherry) using a Conducting Polymer (CP)-type electronic nose (e-nose), the Aromascan A32S, based on detection of headspace...

  1. Leaf age affects the responses of foliar injury and gas exchange to tropospheric ozone in Prunus serotina seedlings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jianwei Zhang; Marcus Schaub; Jonathan A. Ferdinand; John M. Skelly; Kim C. Steiner; James E. Savage

    2010-01-01

    We investigated the effect of leaf age on the response of net photosynthesis (A), stomatal conductance (gwv), foliar injury, and leaf nitrogen concentration (NL) to tropospheric ozone (O3) on Prunus serotina seedlings grown in open-plots (AA) and open-top...

  2. Prokinetic Activity of Prunus persica (L. Batsch Flowers Extract and Its Possible Mechanism of Action in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Han

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The peach tree, Prunus persica (L. Batsch, is widely cultivated in China, and its flowers have been used for centuries in traditional Chinese medicine to treat gut motility disorders. But few studies have explored the pharmacological effect of Prunus persica (L. Batsch flowers on gastrointestinal motility. In this study, the activities of different extracts from Prunus persica (L. Batsch flowers on the smooth muscle contractions were evaluated using isolated colon model, and the ethyl acetate extract (EAE showed the strongest effects in vitro. EAE (10−8–10−5 g/mL caused a concentration-dependent stimulatory effect in rat colonic tissue. Additionally, ketotifen (100 µM, cimetidine (10 µM, and pyrilamine (1 µM produced a significant inhibition of contractions caused by EAE. Furthermore, immunofluorescence and toluidine blue staining revealed increased numbers of mast cells in the EAE group, and EAE increased histamine release from the colonic tissues. These data indicate that EAE has significant prokinetic activity and acts by a mechanism that mainly involves mast cell degranulation. Our study provides a pharmacological basis for the use of an extract of Prunus persica (L. Batsch flowers in the treatment of gut motility disorders.

  3. Novel Rosaceae plant elicitor peptides as sustainable tools to control Xanthomonas arboricola pv. pruni in Prunus spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, Cristina; Nadal, Anna; Montesinos, Emilio; Pla, Maria

    2018-02-01

    Fruit crops are regarded as important health promoters and constitute a major part of global agricultural production, and Rosaceae species are of high economic impact. Their culture is threatened by bacterial diseases, whose control is based on preventative treatments using compounds of limited efficacy and negative environmental impact. One of the most economically relevant examples is the pathogen Xanthomonas arboricola pv. pruni (Xap) affecting Prunus spp. The plant immune response against pathogens can be triggered and amplified by plant elicitor peptides (Peps), perceived by specific receptors (PEPRs). Although they have been described in various angiosperms, scarce information is available on Rosaceae species. Here, we identified the Pep precursor (PROPEP), Pep and PEPR orthologues of 10 Rosaceae species and confirmed the presence of the Pep/PEPR system in this family. We showed the perception and elicitor activity of Rosaceae Peps using the Prunus-Xap pathosystem as proof-of-concept. Treatment with nanomolar doses of Peps induced the corresponding PROPEP and a set of defence-related genes in Prunus leaves, and enhanced resistance against Xap. Peps from the same species had the highest efficiencies. Rosaceae Peps could potentially be used to develop natural, targeted and environmentally friendly strategies to enhance the resistance of Prunus species against biotic attackers. © 2017 BSPP AND JOHN WILEY & SONS LTD.

  4. Evaluation of the virus and viroid infection status of flowering cherry (Prunus yedoensis) collections in Korea and the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    The virus and viroid infection status of flowering cherry trees (Prunus yedoensis) in prominent ornamental collections in Korea (Seoul, Jinhae, Jeju) and the U.S. (Washington, D.C.) was investigated. A total of 344 trees were tested by conventional RT-PCR for 13 viruses and 2 viroids. Eight viruses ...

  5. Seed washing, exogenous application of gibberellic acid, and cold stratification enhance the germination of sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.) seed

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Javanmard, T.; Zamani, Z.; Keshavarz Afshar, R.; Hashemi, M.; Struik, P.C.

    2014-01-01

    Seed germination in sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.) is a slow and lengthy process which has delayed breeding efforts. In this study, seed from ripe fruit of the sweet cherry cultivar ‘Lambert’ were collected and, after removing the endocarp, various dormancy-breaking treatments such as seed washing,

  6. Radiation induced cerebellum impairments in Swiss albino mice and its modulation by dietary Prunus domestica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, Garima; Sisodia, Rashmi

    2012-01-01

    To study the biochemical, quantitative histopathological and behavioural changes after 5 Gy whole body irradiation and its modulation by supplementation of Prunus domestica extract (PDE) for 15 consecutive days on male Swiss albino. For this study healthy mice from an inbred colony were divided into five groups: (i) Control; (ii) PDE treated - mice in this group were orally supplemented with PDE (400 mg/kg body weight (bw)/day) once daily for 15 consecutive days; (iii) Irradiated-mice were whole body exposed to 5 Gy irradiated; (iv) PDE + irradiated-mice in this group were orally supplemented PDE for 15 days (once a day) prior to irradiation; and (v) irradiated+PDE -mice in this group were administered PDE orally for 15 days (once a day) consequently after irradiation. Marked radiation induced changes in the amount of cerebellar lipid peroxidation (LPO), glutathione (GSH), protein, superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase and histopathological changes (molecular layer, granular layer and purkinje cell numbers) could be significantly ameliorated supplementation of PDE prior/post irradiation. Radiation induced deficits in learning and memory were also significantly ameliorated. PDE was found to have strong radical scavenging activity in 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and also showed in vitro radioprotective activity. The result of present study showed that prior/post-supplementation of Prunus domestica has radioprotective potential as well as neuroprotective properties against the radiation. (author)

  7. Unusual behavior of growing pollen tubes in the ovary of plum culture (Prunus domestica L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đorđević Milena

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Unusual behavior of growing pollen tubes in different combinations of pollination was observed in the ovary of the plum (Prunus domestica L. cv 'Čačanska Lepotica'. It primarily refers to several issues, i.e. the curling up of pollen tubes within the micropyle, the growth of two pollen tubes into the nucellus of an ovule, the occurrence of a bundle above the nucellar cap and fluorescence of the part of the embryo sac containing the egg apparatus. Upon the growth of pollen tubes into the nucellus of the ovule, subsequently penetrating pollen tubes form a bundle either above the micropyle entrance or above the nucellus. Branching and bending of pollen tubes by 180o upon their growth into the micropyle was also observed.

  8. Purification, identification and preliminary crystallographic studies of Pru du amandin, an allergenic protein from Prunus dulcis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaur, Vineet; Sethi, Dhruv K; Salunke, Dinakar M

    2008-01-01

    Food allergies appear to be one of the foremost causes of hypersensitivity reactions. Nut allergies account for most food allergies and are often permanent. The 360 kDa hexameric protein Pru du amandin, a known allergen, was purified from almonds (Prunus dulcis) by ammonium sulfate fractionation and ion-exchange chromatography. The protein was identified by a BLAST homology search against the nonredundant sequence database. Pru du amandin belongs to the 11S legumin family of seed storage proteins characterized by the presence of a cupin motif. Crystals were obtained by the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method. The crystals belong to space group P4(1) (or P4(3)), with unit-cell parameters a = b = 150.7, c = 164.9 A.

  9. Purification, identification and preliminary crystallographic studies of Pru du amandin, an allergenic protein from Prunus dulcis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaur, Vineet; Sethi, Dhruv K.; Salunke, Dinakar M., E-mail: dinakar@nii.res.in [National Institute of Immunology, Aruna Asaf Ali Marg, New Delhi 110 067 (India)

    2008-01-01

    The purification, identification, crystallization and preliminary crystallographic studies of an allergy-related protein, Pru du amandin, from P. dulcis nuts are reported. Food allergies appear to be one of the foremost causes of hypersensitivity reactions. Nut allergies account for most food allergies and are often permanent. The 360 kDa hexameric protein Pru du amandin, a known allergen, was purified from almonds (Prunus dulcis) by ammonium sulfate fractionation and ion-exchange chromatography. The protein was identified by a BLAST homology search against the nonredundant sequence database. Pru du amandin belongs to the 11S legumin family of seed storage proteins characterized by the presence of a cupin motif. Crystals were obtained by the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method. The crystals belong to space group P4{sub 1} (or P4{sub 3}), with unit-cell parameters a = b = 150.7, c = 164.9 Å.

  10. Effect of Temperature and Moisture on the Development of Concealed Damage in Raw Almonds (Prunus dulcis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogel-Castillo, Cristian; Zuskov, David; Chan, Bronte Lee; Lee, Jihyun; Huang, Guangwei; Mitchell, Alyson E

    2015-09-23

    Concealed damage (CD) is a brown discoloration of nutmeat that appears only after kernels are treated with moderate heat (e.g., roasting). Identifying factors that promote CD in almonds is of significant interest to the nut industry. Herein, the effect of temperature (35 and 45 °C) and moisture (Prunus dulcis var. Nonpareil) was studied using HS-SPME-GC/MS. A CIE LCh colorimetric method was developed to identify raw almonds with CD. A significant increase in CD was demonstrated in almonds exposed to moisture (8% kernel moisture content) at 45 °C as compared to 35 °C. Elevated levels of volatiles related to lipid peroxidation and amino acid degradation were observed in almonds with CD. These results suggest that postharvest moisture exposure resulting in an internal kernel moisture ≥ 8% is a key factor in the development of CD in raw almonds and that CD is accelerated by temperature.

  11. Purification, identification and preliminary crystallographic studies of Pru du amandin, an allergenic protein from Prunus dulcis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaur, Vineet; Sethi, Dhruv K.; Salunke, Dinakar M.

    2007-01-01

    The purification, identification, crystallization and preliminary crystallographic studies of an allergy-related protein, Pru du amandin, from P. dulcis nuts are reported. Food allergies appear to be one of the foremost causes of hypersensitivity reactions. Nut allergies account for most food allergies and are often permanent. The 360 kDa hexameric protein Pru du amandin, a known allergen, was purified from almonds (Prunus dulcis) by ammonium sulfate fractionation and ion-exchange chromatography. The protein was identified by a BLAST homology search against the nonredundant sequence database. Pru du amandin belongs to the 11S legumin family of seed storage proteins characterized by the presence of a cupin motif. Crystals were obtained by the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method. The crystals belong to space group P4 1 (or P4 3 ), with unit-cell parameters a = b = 150.7, c = 164.9 Å

  12. Reaction of Prunus Rootstocks to Meloidogyne incognita and M. arenaria in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marull, J; Pinochet, J; Verdejo-Lucas, S; Soler, A

    1991-10-01

    Prunus rootstocks were evaluated for their reaction to Meloidogyne incognita and M. arenaria. Most rootstocks were peach-almond hybrids of Spanish origin. In one experiment three selections of Garfi x Nemared (G x N) and Hansen-5 were highly resistant to M. incognita, but four other rootstocks were susceptible showing high galling indices and population increases. In two experiments with M. arenaria, the hybrid selections G x N nos. 1 and 9 were immune, GF-305 and Hansen-5 were resistant, but nine other rootstocks expressed various degrees of susceptibility. All Spanish rootstocks were susceptible to both Meloidogyne species except for the three G x N selections. The root-knot nematode resistant peach Nemared used as a male parent with Garfi was found to transmit a high degree of resistance to M. incognita and immunity to M. arenaria. Progenies of P. davidiana (Ga x D no. 3), a known source of resistance to root-knot nematodes, were susceptible.

  13. Phenolic compounds, antioxidant and antimicrobial properties of the wild cherry (Prunus avium L. stem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ademović Zahida

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the total phenolic content, evaluate antioxidant propertie and antimicrobial potential, and identify phenolic compounds in alcoholic and aqueous extracts of the wild cherry (Prunus avium L. stems collected in Bosnia and Herzegovina. Alcoholic extracts had higher contents of phenolic and flavonoid components, as well as the antioxidant and ferric reducing antioxidant capacity in comparison to aqueous extracts. All extracts were characterized by HPLC analysis. Furthermore, for the first time, the antimicrobial properties of wild cherry stem extracts were evaluated. Quercetin and (+-catechin were the main compounds identified in the alcoholic extract, followed by chlorogenic acid and rutin. Quercetin was also the major component detected in aqueous extracts. Besides, alcoholic extract showed better antibacterial properties against Staphylococcus aureus as a representative gram-positive bacteria than infusion, whereas none of the samples showed antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli and fungus Candida albicans.

  14. GENETIC DIVERSITY OF SOME IRANIAN SWEET CHERRY (PRUNUS AVIUM) CULTIVARS USING MICROSATELLITE MARKERS AND MORPHOLOGICAL TRAITS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farsad, A; Esna-Ashari, M

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to characterize 23 important Iranian sweet cherry (Prunus avium) cultivars collected from different provinces of Iran and 1 foreign cultivar, which was used as control, considered for breeding programs by using 21 microsatellite markers and 27 morphological traits. In sweet cherry (Prunus avium) accessions, leaf, fruit, and stone morphological characters were evaluated during two consecutive years. The study revealed a high variability in the set of evaluated sweet cherry accessions. The majority of important correlations were determined among variables representing fruit and leaf size and variables related to color. Cluster analysis distinguished sweet cherry accessions into two distinct groups. Principal component analysis (PCA) of qualitative and quantitative morphological parameters explained over 86.59% of total variability in the first seven axes. In PCA, leaf traits such as leaf length and width, and fruit traits such as length, width, and weight, and fruit flesh and juice color were predominant in the first two components, indicating that they were useful for the assessment of sweet cherry germplasm characterization. Out of 21 SSR markers, 16 were polymorphic, producing 177 alleles that varied from 4 to 16 alleles (9.35 on average) with a mean heterozygosity value of 0.82 that produced successful amplifications and revealed DNA polymorphisms. Allele size varied from 95 to 290 bp. Cluster analyses showed that the studied sweet cherry genotypes were classified intofive main groups based mainly on their species characteristics and SSR data. In general, our results did not show a clear structuring of genetic variability within the Iranian diffusion area of sweet cherry, so it was not possible to draw any indications on regions of provenance delimitation. The results of this study contribute to a better understanding of sweet cherry genetic variations in Iran, thus making for more efficient programs aimed at preserving biodiversity and

  15. Light as a regulator of structural and chemical leaf defenses against insects in two Prunus species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mąderek, Ewa; Zadworny, Marcin; Mucha, Joanna; Karolewski, Piotr

    2017-11-01

    Light is a key factor influencing competition between species, and the mechanisms by which trees overcome insect outbreaks can be associated with alternation of the leaves structure, which then prevent or promotes their susceptibility to herbivores. It was predicted that leaf tissue anatomy would likely be different in sun and shade leaves, with a gradual decline of leaves resistance coupled with reduction of accessible light. We quantified anatomical patterns and the distribution of defence compounds (phenols, total tannins, catechol tannins) within heavily grazed leaves of Prunus padus, native in Europe and Prunus serotina, an invasive to Central Europe. Both species were strongly attacked by folivorous insects when shrubs grew in the shade. In the sun, however only P. padus leaves were grazed, but P. serotina leaves were almost unaffected. We identified that anatomical characteristics are not linked to different P. padus and P. serotina leaf vulnerability to insects. Furthermore, the staining of defence compounds of P. serotina leaves grown in full sun revealed that the palisade mesophyll cells had a higher content of phenolic compounds and catechol tannins. Thus, our results indicate that a specific distribution of defence compounds, but not the anatomical relationships between palisade and spongy mesophyll, may be beneficial for P. serotina growth outside its natural range. The identified pattern of defence compounds distribution is linked to a lower susceptibility of P. serotina leaves to herbivores, and is associated with its invasiveness. This likely reflects that P. serotina is a stronger competitor than P. padus, especially at high sunlit sites i.e. gaps in the forest.

  16. Pomological and technological characteristics of collected selections of cherry plum Prunus cerasifera Erhr.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miletić Rade

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available A plantation collection containing 32 genotypes selected from spontaneous populations of cherry plum Prunus cerasifera Erhr. was set up in the region of the Eastern Serbian town of Svrljig. The fruit trees budded from Prunus cerasifera seedlings and were planted at 5x4 m spacing on a mild slope of south-western aspect. This study shows the most important characteristics of the 19 selections in the collection, and the average results recorded in the 2000-2003 period. The most significant characteristics of the trees, their productivity, and fruit and stone characteristics are presented. The average coarseness of fruits, i.e. their length, width and thickness, measured 25.0x 24.4x25.0 mm, while stone coarseness was 14.4x10.3x3.6 mm. The average fruit weight was 12.1 g (24.3-4.8 g, and stone weight 0.85 g (2.2-0.3 g. Depending on fruit and stone weight, the mesocarp content was 93% (96.3-90.3%. Taking into consideration the possibility of fruit exploitation for the production of biologically high-quality food, the mesocarp chemical composition was thoroughly examined. The fruits were found to have increased contents of total acids, achieving an average of 3.09% (3.44-2.60%, which was the initial objective of this selection. Total solids content was 13.5% (16.2-10.3%, total soluble solids 12.5% (14.5-9.5% and total sugars 6.00% (11.45-3.14%. Considering these characteristics, the selections that were singled out deserve more attention in terms of preserving their biodiversity, forming a gene bank and commercial cultivation.

  17. Genome Re-sequencing of Diverse Sweet Cherry (Prunus avium) Individuals Reveals a Modifier Gene Mutation Conferring Pollen-part Self-compatibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ono, Kentaro; Akagi, Takashi; Morimoto, Takuya; Wünsch, Ana; Tao, Ryutaro

    2018-04-04

    The S-RNase-based gametophytic self-incompatibility (GSI) reproduction barrier is important for maintaining genetic diversity in species of the families Solanaceae, Plantaginaceae, and Rosaceae. Among the plant taxa with S-RNase-based GSI, Prunus species in the family Rosaceae exhibit Prunus-specific self-incompatibility (SI). Although pistil S and pollen S determinants have been identified, the mechanism underlying SI remains uncharacterized in Prunus species. A putative pollen-part modifier was identified in this study. Disruption of this modifier supposedly confers self-compatibility (SC) to sweet cherry (Prunus avium) 'Cristobalina'. To identify the modifier, genome re-sequencing experiments were completed involving sweet cherry individuals from 18 cultivars and 43 individuals in two segregating populations. Cataloging of subsequences (35-bp kmers) from the obtained genomic reads, while referring to the mRNA-sequencing data, enabled the identification of a candidate gene [M locus-encoded GST (MGST)]. Additionally, the insertion of a transposon-like sequence in the putative MGST promoter region in 'Cristobalina' down-regulated MGST expression levels, likely leading to the SC of this cultivar. Phylogenetic, evolutionary, and gene expression analyses revealed that MGST may have undergone lineage-specific evolution, and the encoded protein may function differently from the corresponding proteins encoded by GST orthologs in other species, including members of the subfamily Maloideae (Rosaceae). Thus, MGST may be important for Prunus-specific SI. The identification of this novel modifier will expand our understanding of the Prunus-specific GSI system. We herein discuss the possible functions of MGST in the Prunus-specific GSI system.

  18. Analysis of expressed sequence tags from Prunus mume flower and fruit and development of simple sequence repeat markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gao Zhihong

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Expressed Sequence Tag (EST has been a cost-effective tool in molecular biology and represents an abundant valuable resource for genome annotation, gene expression, and comparative genomics in plants. Results In this study, we constructed a cDNA library of Prunus mume flower and fruit, sequenced 10,123 clones of the library, and obtained 8,656 expressed sequence tag (EST sequences with high quality. The ESTs were assembled into 4,473 unigenes composed of 1,492 contigs and 2,981 singletons and that have been deposited in NCBI (accession IDs: GW868575 - GW873047, among which 1,294 unique ESTs were with known or putative functions. Furthermore, we found 1,233 putative simple sequence repeats (SSRs in the P. mume unigene dataset. We randomly tested 42 pairs of PCR primers flanking potential SSRs, and 14 pairs were identified as true-to-type SSR loci and could amplify polymorphic bands from 20 individual plants of P. mume. We further used the 14 EST-SSR primer pairs to test the transferability on peach and plum. The result showed that nearly 89% of the primer pairs produced target PCR bands in the two species. A high level of marker polymorphism was observed in the plum species (65% and low in the peach (46%, and the clustering analysis of the three species indicated that these SSR markers were useful in the evaluation of genetic relationships and diversity between and within the Prunus species. Conclusions We have constructed the first cDNA library of P. mume flower and fruit, and our data provide sets of molecular biology resources for P. mume and other Prunus species. These resources will be useful for further study such as genome annotation, new gene discovery, gene functional analysis, molecular breeding, evolution and comparative genomics between Prunus species.

  19. Determination of cyanogenic compound amygdalin and prunasin in almond kernels (prunus dulcis l) by using liquid chromatography

    OpenAIRE

    Arrázola, Guillermo; Grané, Nuria; Dicenta, Federico

    2013-01-01

    In the present work we applied a technics to determine and also permit quantification for separating the cyanogenic components that could be present in the mature almond seed (Prunus dulcis). Among the methods selected the chromatography of liquids of high resolution (HPLC), that permit the quantification of the glycosides for the separation process of lyophilization where there is less  surface there is more contact to sublimation with the degreased samples, looking at the obtain results and...

  20. Post-storage cell wall metabolism in two sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.) cultivars displaying different postharvest performance

    OpenAIRE

    Belge, Burcu; Comabella, Eva; Graell i Sarle, Jordi; Lara Ayala, Isabel

    2015-01-01

    The biochemical processes underlying firmness loss of sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.) fruit are poorly understood.Studies on cell wall metabolism of sweet cherry have been generally undertaken during on-tree development or at harvest maturity, while published reports on postharvest changes are scarce and fragmentary. In this work, cell wall modifications after storage at 0 ºC were studied in two cherry cultivars ('Celeste' and 'Somerset') displaying different postharvest potential. Firmness wa...

  1. African Journal of Biotechnology - Vol 13, No 32 (2014)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Storage of 'Laetitia' plums (Prunus salicina) under controlled atmosphere conditions · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. CA Steffens, CVT do Amarante, E de Oliveira Alves, A Brackmann, TR Correa, BP Espindola ...

  2. The content of mineral elements on whole blood and hair in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2012-02-14

    Feb 14, 2012 ... M. sifanicus. Cornus bretschneideri, Lonicera chrysabtha, Cerasus tomentosa,. Lonicera ferdinandii, Crataegus kansuensis, Acer tetramerum var. betulifolium, Prunus salicina, Corylus mandshurica and Tamarix ramosissima) were collected; 1000 g from each plant, weighted, dried in the shade ground and ...

  3. Impact of Compost Application during 5 Years on Crop Production, Soil Microbial Activity, Carbon Fraction, and Humification Process

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jindo, K.; Chocano, C.; Melgares de Aguilar, J.; González, D.; Hernandez, T.; García, C.

    2016-01-01

    Compost amendment is considered as a practical tool to increase the soil organic matter (SOM), which contributes to agricultural sustainability. The objective of the present work was to evaluate the impacts of organic soil management over 5 years on orchard prune production (Prunus salicina),

  4. Identification of putative candidate genes involved in cuticle formation in Prunus avium (sweet cherry) fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkio, Merianne; Jonas, Uwe; Sprink, Thorben; van Nocker, Steven; Knoche, Moritz

    2012-07-01

    The cuticular membrane (CM) of Prunus avium (sweet cherry) and other fleshy fruit is under stress. Previous research indicates that the resultant strain promotes microscopic cuticular cracking. Microcracks impair the function of the CM as a barrier against pathogens and uncontrolled water loss/uptake. Stress and strain result from a cessation of CM deposition during early development, while the fruit surface continues to expand. The cessation of CM deposition, in turn, may be related to an early downregulation of CM-related genes. The aims of this study were to identify genes potentially involved in CM formation in sweet cherry fruit and to quantify their expression levels. Fruit growth and CM deposition were quantified weekly from anthesis to maturity and rates of CM deposition were calculated. Sequences of genes expressed in the sweet cherry fruit skin (exocarp) were generated using high-throughput sequencing of cDNA and de novo assembly and analysed using bioinformatics tools. Relative mRNA levels of selected genes were quantified in the exocarp and fruit flesh (mesocarp) weekly using reverse transcriptase-quantitative real-time PCR and compared with the calculated CM deposition rate over time. The rate of CM deposition peaked at 93 (±5) μg per fruit d(-1) about 19 d after anthesis. Based on sequence analyses, 18 genes were selected as potentially involved in CM formation. Selected sweet cherry genes shared up to 100 and 98 % similarity with the respective Prunus persica (peach) and Arabidopsis thaliana genes. Expression of 13 putative CM-related genes was restricted to the exocarp and correlated positively with the CM deposition rate. The results support the view that the cessation of CM deposition during early sweet cherry fruit development is accounted for by a downregulation of genes involved in CM deposition. Genes that merit further investigation include PaWINA, PaWINB, PaLipase, PaLTPG1, PaATT1, PaLCR, PaGPAT4/8, PaLACS2, PaLACS1 and PaCER1.

  5. Allelic diversity of S-RNase at the self-incompatibility locus in natural flowering cherry populations (Prunus lannesiana var. speciosa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, S; Mukai, Y

    2004-03-01

    In the Rosaceae family, which includes Prunus, gametophytic self-incompatibility (GSI) is controlled by a single multiallelic locus (S-locus), and the S-locus product expressed in the pistils is a glycoprotein with ribonuclease activity (S-RNase). Two populations of flowering cherry (Prunus lannesiana var. speciosa), located on Hachijo Island in Japan's Izu Islands, were sampled, and S-allele diversity was surveyed based on the sequence polymorphism of S-RNase. A total of seven S-alleles were cloned and sequenced. The S-RNases of flowering cherry showed high homology to those of Prunus cultivars (P. avium and P. dulcis). In the phylogenetic tree, the S-RNases of flowering cherry and other Prunus cultivars formed a distinct group, but they did not form species-specific subgroups. The nucleotide substitution pattern in S-RNases of flowering cherry showed no excess of nonsynonymous substitutions relative to synonymous substitutions. However, the S-RNases of flowering cherry had a higher Ka/Ks ratio than those of other Prunus cultivars, and a subtle heterogeneity in the nucleotide substitution rates was observed among the Prunus species. The S-genotype of each individual was determined by Southern blotting of restriction enzyme-digested genomic DNA, using cDNA for S-RNase as a probe. A total of 22 S-alleles were identified. All individuals examined were heterozygous, as expected under GSI. The allele frequencies were, contrary to the expectation under GSI, significantly unequal. The two populations studied showed a high degree of overlap, with 18 shared alleles. However, the allele frequencies differed considerably between the two populations.

  6. Nutraceutical Value of Black Cherry Prunus serotina Ehrh. Fruits: Antioxidant and Antihypertensive Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco J. Luna-Vázquez

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In Mexico black cherry (Prunus serotina Ehrh. fruits are consumed fresh, dried or prepared in jam. Considering the evidence that has linked intake of fruits and vegetables rich in polyphenols to cardiovascular risk reduction, the aim of this study was to characterize the phenolic profile of black cherry fruits and to determine their antioxidant, vasorelaxant and antihypertensive effects. The proximate composition and mineral contents of these fruits were also assessed. Black cherry fruits possess a high content of phenolic compounds and display a significant antioxidant capacity. High-performance liquid chromatography/mass spectrometric analysis indicated that hyperoside, anthocyanins and chlorogenic acid were the main phenolic compounds found in these fruits. The black cherry aqueous extract elicited a concentration-dependent relaxation of aortic rings and induced a significant reduction on systolic blood pressure in L-NAME induced hypertensive rats after four weeks of treatment. Proximate analysis showed that black cherry fruits have high sugar, protein, and potassium contents. The results derived from this study indicate that black cherry fruits contain phenolic compounds which elicit significant antioxidant and antihypertensive effects. These findings suggest that these fruits might be considered as functional foods useful for the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular diseases.

  7. Phenolic Composition and Antioxidant Properties of Different Peach [Prunus persica (L.) Batsch] Cultivars in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xiaoyong; Zhang, Wenna; Yin, Xueren; Su, Mingshen; Sun, Chongde; Li, Xian; Chen, Kunsong

    2015-01-01

    China is an important centre of diversity for Prunus persica. In the present study, 17 Chinese peach cultivars were evaluated for phenolic content and antioxidant activity. Neochlorogenic acid (NCHA), chlorogenic acid (CHA), procyanidin B1 (B1), catechin (CAT), cyanidin-3-O-glucoside (C3G), quercetin-3-O-galactoside (Q3GAL), quercetin-3-O-glucoside (Q3GLU), quercetin-3-O-rutinoside (Q3R), and kaempferol-3-O-rutinoside (K3R) were identified and quantified. CHA and CAT were the predominant components in both the peel and pulp of this fruit. In general, peel extracts showed higher antioxidant activities than the pulp counterparts, consistent with the observed higher phenolic content. The melting peach cultivar “Xinyu” showed the highest antioxidant potency composite (APC) index. The principal component analysis (PCA) of peel phenolics showed a clear distinction between the melting peach and nectarine. Overall, peach cultivars rich in hydroxycinnamates and flavan-3-ols showed relatively higher antioxidant activities and might be excellent sources of phytochemicals and natural antioxidants. PMID:25775157

  8. Polyphenolic composition and antioxidant activity of the under-utilised Prunus mahaleb L. fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blando, Federica; Albano, Clara; Liu, Yazheng; Nicoletti, Isabella; Corradini, Danilo; Tommasi, Noemi; Gerardi, Carmela; Mita, Giovanni; Kitts, David D

    2016-06-01

    The identification of novel plant-based functional foods or nutraceutical ingredients that possess bioactive properties with antioxidant function has recently become important to the food, nutraceutical and cosmetic industries. This study evaluates the polyphenolic composition, identifies bioactive compounds and assays the total antioxidant capacity of Prunus mahaleb L. fruits collected from different populations and sampling years in the countryside around Bari (Apulia Region, Italy). We identified nine polyphenolic compounds including major anthocyanins, coumaric acid derivatives and flavonols from P. mahaleb fruits. The anthocyanin content (in some populations > 5 g kg(-1) fresh weight; FW) in the fruit was comparable to that reported for so-called superfruits such as bilberries, chokeberries and blackcurrants. Coumaric acid derivatives comprised a large portion of the total polyphenolic content in the P. mahaleb fruits. Antioxidant activities, assessed using ORAC and TEAC assays, measured up to 150 and 45 mmol Trolox equivalents kg(-1) FW, respectively. Therefore antioxidant capacity of P. mahaleb fruits is relatively high and comparable to that of superfruit varieties that are often used in commercial nutraceutical products. Our findings suggest that mahaleb fruit (currently not consumed fresh or used in other ways) could serve as a source of bioactive compounds and therefore find interest from the functional food and nutraceutical industries, as a natural food colorant and antioxidant ingredient in the formulation of functional foods. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  9. Nutraceutical value of black cherry Prunus serotina Ehrh. fruits: antioxidant and antihypertensive properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luna-Vázquez, Francisco J; Ibarra-Alvarado, César; Rojas-Molina, Alejandra; Rojas-Molina, Juana I; Yahia, Elhadi M; Rivera-Pastrana, Dulce M; Rojas-Molina, Adriana; Zavala-Sánchez, Miguel Ángel

    2013-11-25

    In Mexico black cherry (Prunus serotina Ehrh.) fruits are consumed fresh, dried or prepared in jam. Considering the evidence that has linked intake of fruits and vegetables rich in polyphenols to cardiovascular risk reduction, the aim of this study was to characterize the phenolic profile of black cherry fruits and to determine their antioxidant, vasorelaxant and antihypertensive effects. The proximate composition and mineral contents of these fruits were also assessed. Black cherry fruits possess a high content of phenolic compounds and display a significant antioxidant capacity. High-performance liquid chromatography/mass spectrometric analysis indicated that hyperoside, anthocyanins and chlorogenic acid were the main phenolic compounds found in these fruits. The black cherry aqueous extract elicited a concentration-dependent relaxation of aortic rings and induced a significant reduction on systolic blood pressure in L-NAME induced hypertensive rats after four weeks of treatment. Proximate analysis showed that black cherry fruits have high sugar, protein, and potassium contents. The results derived from this study indicate that black cherry fruits contain phenolic compounds which elicit significant antioxidant and antihypertensive effects. These findings suggest that these fruits might be considered as functional foods useful for the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular diseases.

  10. Antioxidant Defenses in Plants with Attention to Prunus and Citrus spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Racchi, Milvia Luisa

    2013-01-01

    This short review briefly introduces the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) as by-products of oxidation/reduction (redox) reactions, and the ways in which the antioxidant defense machinery is involved directly or indirectly in ROS scavenging. Major antioxidants, both enzymatic and non enzymatic, that protect higher plant cells from oxidative stress damage are described. Biochemical and molecular features of the antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and ascorbate peroxidase (APX) are discussed because they play crucial roles in scavenging ROS in the different cell compartments and in response to stress conditions. Among the non enzymatic defenses, particular attention is paid to ascorbic acid, glutathione, flavonoids, carotenoids, and tocopherols. The operation of ROS scavenging systems during the seasonal cycle and specific developmental events, such as fruit ripening and senescence, are discussed in relation to the intense ROS formation during these processes that impact fruit quality. Particular attention is paid to Prunus and Citrus species because of the nutritional and antioxidant properties contained in these commonly consumed fruits. PMID:26784469

  11. Antiproliferative terpenoids from almond hulls (Prunus dulcis): identification and structure-activity relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amico, Vincenzo; Barresi, Vincenza; Condorelli, Daniele; Spatafora, Carmela; Tringali, Corrado

    2006-02-08

    Bioassay-guided fractionation of the EtOAc crude extract from Sicilian almond hulls, a waste material from Prunus dulcis crop, allowed identification of 10 constituents, isolated as pure compounds (1-5, 7, and 10) or unseparable mixtures (5 + 6 and 8 + 9). All compounds were subjected to spectroscopic analysis and 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide bioassay on MCF-7 human breast cancer cells. In addition to the main components oleanolic (1), ursolic (2), and betulinic (3) acids, the 2-hydroxy analogues alphitolic (4), corosolic (5), and maslinic (6) acids, as well as the related aldehydes, namely, betulinic (7), oleanolic (8), and ursolic (9), were identified. From a more polar fraction, the beta-sitosterol 3-O-glucoside (10) was also identified. A sample of commercially available betulin (11) was also included in bioassays as further support to a structure-activity relationship study. Betulinic acid showed antiproliferative activity toward MCF-7 cells (GI50 = 0.27 microM), higher than the anticancer drug 5-fluorouracil.

  12. Characterisation of stilbenes in California almonds (Prunus dulcis) by UHPLC-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Liyang; Bolling, Bradley W

    2014-04-01

    Stilbene polyphenols are present in some fruits and nuts, but their abundance in many foods, such as almonds, is unknown. Therefore, we characterised stilbenes from Nonpareil, Butte and Carmel almond (Prunus dulcis) varieties from California. UHPLC-MS conditions were optimised to resolve cis- and trans-resveratrol, d4-resveratrol, dienestrol, hexestrol, oxyresveratrol, piceatannol, pterostilbene, and resveratrol-3-β-glucoside (polydatin). Stilbenes were isolated from ethanolic almond extracts by solid-phase extraction and identified with UHPLC-MS by comparison of retention times, mass spectra, in-source CID spectra, and enzymatic hydrolysis to authentic standards. Polydatin was identified in almond extracts, with 7.19-8.52 μg/100 g almond. Piceatannol+oxyresveratrol was tentatively identified in almond blanch water, at 0.19-2.55 μg/100 g almond. Polydatin was concentrated in almond skins, which contained 95.6-97.5% of the total almond content. Therefore, almonds contain the stilbene class of polyphenols in addition to the previously identified proanthocyanidin, hydrolysable tannin, flavonoid, and phenolic acid classes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Enantioselective Synthesis of Various Cyanohydrins Using Covalently Immobilized Preparations of Hydroxynitrile Lyase from Prunus dulcis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alagöz, Dilek; Tükel, S Seyhan; Yildirim, Deniz

    2015-11-01

    The carrier-based and carrier-free (cross-linked enzyme aggregate) covalent immobilizations of Prunus dulcis hydroxynitrile lyase were investigated. The immobilized preparations were tested for enantioselective carbon-carbon bond formation activity in the biphasic medium. Of the tested preparations, only cross-linked enzyme aggregate of P. dulcis hydroxynitrile lyase (PdHNL-CLEA) achieved the synthesis of (R)-mandelonitrile with 93% yield and 99% enantiopurity. PdHNL-CLEA was also used in the synthesis of various (R)-cyanohydrins from corresponding aldehydes/ketones and hydrocyanic acid. When 4-methoxybenzaldehyde, 4-methyl benzaldehyde, and 4-hydroxybenzaldehyde were used as substrates, the yield-enantiomeric excess of corresponding (R)-cyanohydrins were obtained as 95-95, 85-79, and 2-25%, respectively, after 96 h at pH 4.0 and 5 °C. For acetophenone, 4-fluoroacetophenone, 4-chloroacetophenone, 4-bromoacetophenone, and 4-iodoacetophenone, the yield-enantiomeric excess of corresponding (R)-cyanohydrins were 1-99, 20-84, 11-95, 5-99, and 3-24%, respectively at the same conditions. The results demonstrate PdHNL-CLEA can be effectively used in the synthesis of (R)-mandelonitrile.

  14. Recent advancements to study flowering time in almond and other Prunus species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Pérez, Raquel; Del Cueto, Jorge; Dicenta, Federico; Martínez-Gómez, Pedro

    2014-01-01

    Flowering time is an important agronomic trait in almond since it is decisive to avoid the late frosts that affect production in early flowering cultivars. Evaluation of this complex trait is a long process because of the prolonged juvenile period of trees and the influence of environmental conditions affecting gene expression year by year. Consequently, flowering time has to be studied for several years to have statistical significant results. This trait is the result of the interaction between chilling and heat requirements. Flowering time is a polygenic trait with high heritability, although a major gene Late blooming (Lb) was described in "Tardy Nonpareil." Molecular studies at DNA level confirmed this polygenic nature identifying several genome regions (Quantitative Trait Loci, QTL) involved. Studies about regulation of gene expression are scarcer although several transcription factors have been described as responsible for flowering time. From the metabolomic point of view, the integrated analysis of the mechanisms of accumulation of cyanogenic glucosides and flowering regulation through transcription factors open new possibilities in the analysis of this complex trait in almond and in other Prunus species (apricot, cherry, peach, plum). New opportunities are arising from the integration of recent advancements including phenotypic, genetic, genomic, transcriptomic, and metabolomics studies from the beginning of dormancy until flowering.

  15. Pollination Requirements of Almond (Prunus dulcis): Combining Laboratory and Field Experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henselek, Yuki; Eilers, Elisabeth J; Kremen, Claire; Hendrix, Stephen D; Klein, Alexandra-Maria

    2018-03-08

    Almond (Prunus dulcis (Mill.) D. A. Webb; Rosales: Rosaceae) is a cash crop with an estimated global value of over seven billion U.S. dollars annually and commercial varieties are highly dependent on insect pollination. Therefore, the understanding of basic pollination requirements of the main varieties including pollination efficiency of honey bees (Apis mellifera, Linnaeus, Hymenoptera: Apidae) and wild pollinators is essential for almond production. We first conducted two lab experiments to examine the threshold number of pollen grains needed for successful pollination and to determine if varietal identity or diversity promotes fruit set and weight. Further, we examined stigma and ovules of flowers visited by Apis and non-Apis pollinators in the field to study the proportion of almond to non-almond pollen grains deposited, visitation time per flower visit, and tube set. Results indicate that the threshold for successful fertilization is around 60 pollen grains, but pollen can be from any compatible variety as neither pollen varietal identity nor diversity enhanced fruit set or weight. Andrena cerasifolii Cockerell (Hymenoptera: Andrenidae) was a more effective pollinator on a per single visit basis than Apis and syrphid flies. Nevertheless, Apis was more efficient than A. cerasifolii and syrphid flies as they spent less time on a flower during a single visit. Hence, planting with two compatible varieties and managing for both Apis and non-Apis pollinators is likely to be an optimal strategy for farmers to secure high and stable pollination success.

  16. Investigation on the pollen morphology of traditional cultivars of Prunus species in Sicily

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Geraci

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available In this study pollen grains of 13 cultivars and 3 rootstocks belonging to 5 species (P. armeniaca, P. domestica, P. dulcis, P. persica, P. avium of the genus Prunus collected from North-East Sicily were examined for the micromorphological characterization through the scanning electron microscopy (SEM. The length of polar axis (P and the equatorial diameter (E of grain, P/E ratio, the length of colpi (C, diameter of perforations (DP and the number of perforations in 25 μm2 (PN, the width of muri (WM, the distance between muri (DM and their number in 25 μm2 (MN, the width of grooves (WG were measured and their variation was compared among studied taxa. Moreover multivariate statistical analysis was carried out to distinguish morphometric information from measured parameters. All pollen grains are trizonocolpate, isopolar, medium-large sized and their shape varies from prolate to perprolate. Regarding outline pollen grains are subtriangular in polar view and elliptic in equatorial view. Exine sculpturing is striate with perforations on grain surface. The arrangement of ridges appears roughly parallel but too sloped (sometimes curved compared to polar axis, or branched and oriented in different directions, or perfectly parallel or more irregular with bifurcated ridges often sinuous. The analyses showed a great variability (particularly in P. domestica cultivars related in some cases to the diversity in the morphological features of the leaves and the fruits of the investigated entities.

  17. Almond (Prunus dulcis (Mill.) D.A. Webb) skins as a potential source of bioactive polyphenols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monagas, Maria; Garrido, Ignacio; Lebrón-Aguilar, Rosa; Bartolome, Begoña; Gómez-Cordovés, Carmen

    2007-10-17

    An exhaustive study of the phenolic composition of almond ( Prunus dulcis (Mill.) D.A. Webb) skins was carried out in order to evaluate their potential application as a functional food ingredient. Using the HPLC-DAD/ESI-MS technique, a total of 33 compounds corresponding to flavanols, flavonols, dihydroflavonols and flavanones, and other nonflavonoid compounds were identified. Peaks corresponding to another 23 structure-related compounds were also detected. MALDI-TOF MS was applied to characterize almond skin proanthocyanidins, revealing the existence of a series of A- and B-type procyanidins and propelargonidins up to heptamers, and A- and B-type prodelphinidins up to hexamers. Flavanols and flavonol glycosides were the most abundant phenolic compounds in almond skins, representing up to 38-57% and 14-35% of the total quantified phenolics, respectively. Due to their antioxidant properties, measured as oxygen-radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) at 0.398-0.500 mmol Trolox/g, almond skins can be considered as a value-added byproduct for elaborating dietary antioxidant ingredients.

  18. Synthesis of disaccharides using β-glucosidases from Aspergillus niger, A. awamori and Prunus dulcis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Ayla Sant'Ana; Molina, Javier Freddy; Teixeira, Ricardo Sposina Sobral; Valdivieso Gelves, Luis G; Bon, Elba P S; Ferreira-Leitão, Viridiana S

    2017-11-01

    Glucose conversion into disaccharides was performed with β-glucosidases from Prunus dulcis (β-Pd), Aspergillus niger (β-An) and A. awamori (β-Aa), in reactions containing initial glucose of 700 and 900 g l -1 . The reactions' time courses were followed regarding glucose and product concentrations. In all cases, there was a predominant formation of gentiobiose over cellobiose and also of oligosaccharides with a higher molecular mass. For reactions containing 700 g glucose l -1 , the final substrate conversions were 33, 38, and 23.5% for β-An, β-Aa, and β-Pd, respectively. The use of β-An yielded 103 g gentiobiose l -1 (15.5% yield), which is the highest reported for a fungal β-glucosidase. The increase in glucose concentration to 900 g l -1 resulted in a significant increase in disaccharide synthesis by β-Pd, reaching 128 g gentiobiose l -1 (15% yield), while for β-An and β-Aa, there was a shift toward the synthesis of higher oligosaccharides. β-Pd and the fungal β-An and β-Aa β-glucosidases present quite dissimilar kinetics and selective properties regarding the synthesis of disaccharides; while β-Pd showed the highest productivity for gentiobiose synthesis, β-An presented the highest specificity.

  19. Antioxidant Defenses in Plants with Attention to Prunus and Citrus spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milvia Luisa Racchi

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This short review briefly introduces the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS as by-products of oxidation/reduction (redox reactions, and the ways in which the antioxidant defense machinery is involved directly or indirectly in ROS scavenging. Major antioxidants, both enzymatic and non enzymatic, that protect higher plant cells from oxidative stress damage are described. Biochemical and molecular features of the antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT, and ascorbate peroxidase (APX are discussed because they play crucial roles in scavenging ROS in the different cell compartments and in response to stress conditions. Among the non enzymatic defenses, particular attention is paid to ascorbic acid, glutathione, flavonoids, carotenoids, and tocopherols. The operation of ROS scavenging systems during the seasonal cycle and specific developmental events, such as fruit ripening and senescence, are discussed in relation to the intense ROS formation during these processes that impact fruit quality. Particular attention is paid to Prunus and Citrus species because of the nutritional and antioxidant properties contained in these commonly consumed fruits.

  20. Aroma peculiarities of apricot (Armeniaca vulgaris Lam. and cherry-plum (Prunus cerasifera Ehrh. flowers

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    В. М. Горіна

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available In the component composition of volatile solutions determining fragrance of the flowers in apricot and cherry-plum varieties and Prunus brigantiaca Vill. x Armeniaca vulgaris Lam. hybrids there are 36 highest hydrocarbons and benzaldehyde that prevail. There are fewer amounts of the solutions which scare bees (benzaldehyde in the fragrance of cherry-plum varieties as compared to the flowers of apricot and hybrids. At the same time, the content of tricosane, pentacosane, docosane, heneycosane, eicosane, nonadecan that probably attract bees is higher in the cherry-plum flowers than in the fragrance of apricot and hybrid flowers. The average three years yield of cherry-plum plants (Nikitska Zhovta 10,7 and Salgirskaya Rumjanaya 28,5 t/ ha is higher than for apricot (Recolte de Schatene 0,3; Rodnik 2,9; Ananasniy Tsurupinsky 7,4 t/ha and hybrids (8110 – 5,2; 8098 – 6,4 t/ha that could be explained with better pollination of flowers and better fruit formation. Prevailing components of flower aroma of these plants    and their possible link with yield of the objects in questions have been analyzed.

  1. Pattern recognition of peach cultivars (Prunus persica L.) from their volatile components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montero-Prado, Pablo; Bentayeb, Karim; Nerín, Cristina

    2013-05-01

    The volatile compounds of four peach cultivars (Prunus persica L.) were studied: Sudanell, San Lorenzo, Miraflores and Calanda (two clones, Calante and Jesca). 17-23 Samples of each cultivar with the same maturity level were analyzed, measuring color, firmness, and soluble solids content. The pulp was crushed and mixed with water prior to HS-SPME analysis, and GC-MS was used to determine the volatile compounds. Sixty-five compounds were identified using spectral library matching, Kovat's indices and, when available, pure standards. The main components were lactones and C6 compounds. From the distribution of these compounds, Principal Component Analysis led to the clustering of the samples according to their different cultivars. Finally, Canonical Component Analysis was used to create a classification function that identifies the origin of an unknown sample from its volatile composition. The results obtained will help to avoid fraud and protect the European Designation of Origin 'Melocotón de Calanda'. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. SEP-class genes in Prunus mume and their likely role in floral organ development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yuzhen; Xu, Zongda; Yong, Xue; Ahmad, Sagheer; Yang, Weiru; Cheng, Tangren; Wang, Jia; Zhang, Qixiang

    2017-01-13

    Flower phylogenetics and genetically controlled development have been revolutionised during the last two decades. However, some of these evolutionary aspects are still debatable. MADS-box genes are known to play essential role in specifying the floral organogenesis and differentiation in numerous model plants like Petunia hybrida, Arabidopsis thaliana and Antirrhinum majus. SEPALLATA (SEP) genes, belonging to the MADS-box gene family, are members of the ABCDE and quartet models of floral organ development and play a vital role in flower development. However, few studies of the genes in Prunus mume have yet been conducted. In this study, we cloned four PmSEPs and investigated their phylogenetic relationship with other species. Expression pattern analyses and yeast two-hybrid assays of these four genes indicated their involvement in the floral organogenesis with PmSEP4 specifically related to specification of the prolificated flowers in P. mume. It was observed that the flower meristem was specified by PmSEP1 and PmSEP4, the sepal by PmSEP1 and PmSEP4, petals by PmSEP2 and PmSEP3, stamens by PmSEP2 and PmSEP3 and pistils by PmSEP2 and PmSEP3. With the above in mind, flower development in P. mume might be due to an expression of SEP genes. Our findings can provide a foundation for further investigations of the transcriptional factors governing flower development, their molecular mechanisms and genetic basis.

  3. Durability of Prunus africana: Evidence of Biocidal and Lipophilic Properties Responsible for Natural Durability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mburu, F. Muisu F.; Gerardin, P.

    2007-01-01

    Analysis of the prunus africana sapwood and heartwood extracts was studied with the aim of understanding the reasons for it's natural durability. Soxhlet extraction of wood powder using different solvents was done. The extracts were tested against the fungi coriolus versicolor, Poria placenta and Aureobasidium pullulans at concentrations of 50, 100, 500 and 1000 ppm. Soxhlet extraction of wood blocks using the same solvents was also carried out and the wood blocks finally tested against fungi and termites. The results showed high exhibition rate against fungi at low extract concentrations. Extracted wood blocks showed low resistance against termites while the un-extracted ones were resistant. Analysis of the products present in hexane, dichloromethane, acetone, toluene/ethanol and water extracts by HPLC indicates presence of phenols and lipophilic compounds, which could be associated with the preceding results. Inhibition against fungi increased with extract concentration and decreased with time. In some instances at high concentration, fungal growth started after the control Petri-dish was fully colonized. Inspite of the fungal and termiticidal properties of certain products contained in the extracts, these properties do not entirely explain the reasons for the high durability. Chemical synthesis with formulations based on the natural components present in the extracts of such durable wood could be interesting as potential additives in fungicides and insecticides. Such formulations based on natural compounds could environmentally friendly

  4. Sobrevivencia del duraznillo (Prunus annularis en plantación forestal y en sistemas agroforestales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Monge

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Se estudió la sobrevivencia inicial (30 meses del duraznillo (Prunus annularis en plantación forestal y en sistema agroforestal en la zona de vida Bosque muy Húmedo Montano Bajo, en Costa Rica. Se evaluó 5 tratamientos, en 2 lotes con 2 repeticiones en cada lote, en parcelas de 25 árboles (722 ha-1. Los sistemas de producción evaluados fueron: plantación forestal, con manejo de eliminación de malezas cada 4 meses (PF-4 y cada 2 meses (PF-2, y sistemas agroforestales duraznillo-naranjilla (Solanum quitoense, duraznillo-menta (Satureja viminea y duraznillo-maíz (Zea mays. La sobrevivencia a los 30 meses osciló entre 56 y 81% siendo menor en plantación forestal (PF-4. La sobrevivencia mostrada por el duraznillo se consideró intermedia con respecto a otras especies establecidas en sitios con la misma zona de vida.

  5. Cytotoxic and Apoptotic Activities of Prunus spinosa Trigno Ecotype Extract on Human Cancer Cells

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    Stefania Meschini

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to demonstrate that a natural compound, not-toxic to normal cells, has cytotoxic and sensitizing effects on carcinoma cells, with the final goal of combining it with chemotherapeutic drugs to reduce the overall dose. Prunus spinosa Trigno ecotype (PsT drupe extract with a nutraceutical activator complex (NAC made of amino acids, vitamins and mineral salt blends, has shown in vitro anticancer activity. The cytotoxic effect of (PsT + NAC® has been evaluated on human cancer cells, with an initial screening with colorectal, uterine cervical, and bronchoalveolar cells, and a subsequent focus on colon carcinoma cells HCT116 and SW480. The viability reduction of HCT116 and SW480 after treatment with (PsT 10 mg/mL + NAC® was about 40% (p < 0.05, compared to control cells. The cell’s survival reduction was ineffective when the drug vehicle (NAC was replaced with a phosphate buffer saline (PBS or physiological solution (PS. The flow cytometry evaluation of cancer cells’ mitochondrial membrane potential showed an increase of 20% depolarized mitochondria. Cell cycle analysis showed a sub G1 (Gap 1 phase peak appearance (HCT116: 35.1%; SW480: 11.6%, indicating apoptotic cell death induction that was confirmed by Annexin V assay (HCT116: 86%; SW480: 96%. Normal cells were not altered by (PsT + NAC® treatments.

  6. In Vitro Pollen Viability and Pollen Germination in Cherry Laurel (Prunus laurocerasus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melekber Sulusoglu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Pollen quality is important for growers and breeders. This study was carried out to determine in vitro pollen viability and pollen germination in seven genotypes of cherry laurel (Prunus laurocerasus L.. Two pollen viability tests, TTC (2,3,5-triphenyl tetrazolium chloride and IKI (iodine potassium iodide, were used. Pollen traits of genotypes were studied using an in vitro medium containing 0%, 5%, 10%, 15%, and 20% sucrose to determine the best sucrose concentrations for germination. In the second step, the germinated pollen was counted 1, 4, 6, 10, 12, 24, and 48 hours later until there was no further germination. The viability rates were different according to genotypes and tests used. The IKI and TTC staining tests and pollen germination had low correlation (r2 = 0.0614 and r2 = 0.0015, resp.. Painted pollen rate was higher and pollen was well-stained with IKI test and pollen viability estimated with TTC staining test was better than that estimated with the IKI staining test. 15% sucrose gave the best germination rates in most of the genotypes. Pollen germination rates were recorded periodically from one hour to 48 hours in 15% sucrose and the results showed that pollen germination rates increased after 6 hours of being placed in culture media.

  7. In vitro pollen viability and pollen germination in cherry laurel (Prunus laurocerasus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulusoglu, Melekber; Cavusoglu, Aysun

    2014-01-01

    Pollen quality is important for growers and breeders. This study was carried out to determine in vitro pollen viability and pollen germination in seven genotypes of cherry laurel (Prunus laurocerasus L.). Two pollen viability tests, TTC (2,3,5-triphenyl tetrazolium chloride) and IKI (iodine potassium iodide), were used. Pollen traits of genotypes were studied using an in vitro medium containing 0%, 5%, 10%, 15%, and 20% sucrose to determine the best sucrose concentrations for germination. In the second step, the germinated pollen was counted 1, 4, 6, 10, 12, 24, and 48 hours later until there was no further germination. The viability rates were different according to genotypes and tests used. The IKI and TTC staining tests and pollen germination had low correlation (r(2) = 0.0614 and r(2) = 0.0015, resp.). Painted pollen rate was higher and pollen was well-stained with IKI test and pollen viability estimated with TTC staining test was better than that estimated with the IKI staining test. 15% sucrose gave the best germination rates in most of the genotypes. Pollen germination rates were recorded periodically from one hour to 48 hours in 15% sucrose and the results showed that pollen germination rates increased after 6 hours of being placed in culture media.

  8. Purification and biochemical characteristics of pectinesterase from Malatya apricot (Prunus armeniaca L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozler, Aynur; Karakuş, Emine; Pekyardimci, Sule

    2008-01-01

    Pectinesterase (PE) in Malatya apricot pulp (Prunus armeniaca L.) was extracted and purified through (NH(4))(2)SO(4) precipitation, dialysis, and DEAE-Sephadex gel filtration chromatography. The samples obtained from the dialysis procedure, named partially purified enzyme, were used for characterization of the apricot pectinesterase. The effect of various factors such as pH, temperature, heat, and storage stability on the partially purified apricot PE enzyme was investigated. Optimum pH value was 9.0 for PE with 1% pectin in 0.1 N NaCl (w/v). The optimum temperature for apricot PE was found to be 60 degrees C on standard analysis conditions. Heat inactivation studies showed a decrease in enzymatic activity at temperatures above 70 degrees C. Km and V(max) values were 0.77 mM and 1.75 micromol min(-1) mg(-1) for apricot PE. Five inhibitors were tested in the study; the most effective inhibitor was found to be sodium carbonate (100% inhibition). The order of inhibitory effectiveness was: Na(2)CO(3), iodine, lauril sulphate, AgNO(3), EDTA. Thermal inactivation data indicated that apparent activation energy with pectin substrate was 2.96 kcal mol(-1) for the enzyme. Ascorbic acid, CaCl(2), and KCl showed activatory effect on the apricot PE enzyme.

  9. Prunus Rootstock Evaluation to Root-knot and Lesion Nematodes in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinochet, J; Aglès, M; Dalmau, E; Fernández, C; Felipe, A

    1996-12-01

    Two screening and one resistance verification trial involving 20 Prunus rootstocks were conducted under greenhouse conditions against Meloidogyne spp. and Pratylenchus vulnus. Most of the rootstocks were experimental genotypes or new commercial peach and plums of Spanish and French origin. Nearly all are interspecific hybrid rootstocks. In the first trial, the rootstocks Bruce, Cadaman, Mirac, G x N No. 15, Cachirulo x (G x N No. 9), and P. myra x peach were immune or resistant to a mixture of seven isolates of M. incognita. In the second screening trial, the hybrid plum P 2588 was a poor host to a mixture of four isolates of P. vulnus. The remaining seven rootstocks were good hosts to the root-lesion nematode. In the resistance verification trial GF-31, G x N No. 15, Torinel, AD- l 01, Monpol, Nemaguard, and Cadaman maintained a high level of resistance when tested against a mixture of 17 isolates comprising M. incognita, M. javanica, M. arenaria, M. hapla, and M. hispanica. Barrier peach suffered a partial loss of resistance not detected in previous tests.

  10. High concentrations of anthocyanins in genuine cherry-juice of old local Austrian Prunus avium varieties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schüller, Elisabeth; Halbwirth, Heidi; Mikulic-Petkovsek, Maja; Slatnar, Ana; Veberic, Robert; Forneck, Astrid; Stich, Karl; Spornberger, Andreas

    2015-04-15

    Antioxidant activity and polyphenols were quantified in vapour-extracted juice of nine Austrian, partially endemic varieties of sweet cherry (Prunus avium): cv. 'Spätbraune von Purbach', cv. 'Early Rivers', cv. 'Joiser Einsiedekirsche', cv. 'Große Schwarze Knorpelkirsche' and four unidentified local varieties. Additionally the effect of storage was evaluated for six of the varieties. A variety showing the highest antioxidant capacity (9.64 μmol Trolox equivalents per mL), total polyphenols (2747 mg/L) and total cyanidins (1085 mg/L) was suitable for mechanical harvest and its juice did not show any losses of antioxidant capacity and total anthocyanin concentration during storage. The juice of cv. 'Große Schwarze Knorpelkirsche' had also high concentrations of total anthocyanins (873 mg/L), but showed substantial losses through storage. The local Austrian sweet cherry varieties from the Pannonian climate zone are particularly suitable for the production of processed products like cherry juice with high content of anthocyanins and polyphenols. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. The genome sequence of sweet cherry (Prunus avium) for use in genomics-assisted breeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirasawa, Kenta; Isuzugawa, Kanji; Ikenaga, Mitsunobu; Saito, Yutaro; Yamamoto, Toshiya; Hirakawa, Hideki; Isobe, Sachiko

    2017-10-01

    We determined the genome sequence of sweet cherry (Prunus avium) using next-generation sequencing technology. The total length of the assembled sequences was 272.4 Mb, consisting of 10,148 scaffold sequences with an N50 length of 219.6 kb. The sequences covered 77.8% of the 352.9 Mb sweet cherry genome, as estimated by k-mer analysis, and included >96.0% of the core eukaryotic genes. We predicted 43,349 complete and partial protein-encoding genes. A high-density consensus map with 2,382 loci was constructed using double-digest restriction site-associated DNA sequencing. Comparing the genetic maps of sweet cherry and peach revealed high synteny between the two genomes; thus the scaffolds were integrated into pseudomolecules using map- and synteny-based strategies. Whole-genome resequencing of six modern cultivars found 1,016,866 SNPs and 162,402 insertions/deletions, out of which 0.7% were deleterious. The sequence variants, as well as simple sequence repeats, can be used as DNA markers. The genomic information helps us to identify agronomically important genes and will accelerate genetic studies and breeding programs for sweet cherries. Further information on the genomic sequences and DNA markers is available in DBcherry (http://cherry.kazusa.or.jp (8 May 2017, date last accessed)). © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Kazusa DNA Research Institute.

  12. Phenolic compounds in cherry ( Prunus avium ) heartwood with a view to their use in cooperage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanz, Miriam; Cadahía, Estrella; Esteruelas, Enrique; Muñoz, Angel Ma; Fernández De Simón, Brígida; Hernández, Teresa; Estrella, Isabel

    2010-04-28

    The phenolic and tannic composition of heartwood extracts from Prunus avium , commonly known as cherry tree, before and after toasting in cooperage were studied using HPLC-DAD and HPLC-DAD/ESI-MS. Nonflavonoid (16 compounds) and flavonoid (27 compounds) polyphenols were identified, 12 of them in only a tentative way. The nonflavonoids found were lignin constituents, and their pattern is different compared to oak, since they include compounds such as protocatechuic acid and aldehyde, p-coumaric acid, methyl vanillate, methyl syringate, and benzoic acid, but not ellagic acid, and only a small quantity of gallic acid. In seasoned wood we found a great variety of flavonoid compounds which have not been found in oak wood for cooperage, mainly, in addition to the flavan-3-ols (+)-catechin, a B-type procyanidin dimer, and a B-type procyanidin trimer, the flavanones naringenin, isosakuranetin, and eriodictyol and the flavanonols aromadendrin and taxifolin. Seasoned and toasted cherry wood showed different ratios of flavonoid to nonflavonoid compounds, since toasting results in the degradation of flavonoids, and the formation of nonflavonoids from lignin degradation. On the other hand, the absence of hydrolyzable tannins in cherry wood, which are very important in oak wood, is another particular characteristic of this wood that should be taken into account when considering its use in cooperage.

  13. Prunus avium: nuclear DNA study in wild populations and sweet cherry cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guarino, Carmine; Santoro, Simona; De Simone, Luciana; Cipriani, Guido

    2009-04-01

    The PCR-SSR technique was used to detect nuclear DNA diversity in five wild populations of Prunus avium from deciduous forests in Italy, Slovenia, and Croatia and 87 sweet cherry accessions from different geographical areas that have been maintained in the sweet cherry collection in Italy. This sweet cherry collection includes local accessions from the Campania Region as well as accessions from different countries. Twenty-eight microsatellites, previously developed in this species, generated polymorphic amplification products. Between 2 and 14 alleles were revealed for the polymorphic loci studied, with the expected heterozygosity ranging from 0.045 to 0.831. The total probability of identity was 56.94 x 10-18. A model-based Bayesian clustering analysis identified nine distinct gene pools in cultivated P. avium. The probability that wild populations were assigned to cultivated gene pools indicated that three gene pools accounted for the genomic origin of 53% of P. avium sampled. A dendrogram was generated using UPGMA (unweighted pair group method with arithmetic averages) based on Nei genetic distance analysis. This dendrogram classified most of the genotypes into one major group with an additional group of five accessions. The results indicate that this set of SSRs is highly informative, and they are discussed in terms of the implications for sweet cherry characterization.

  14. Phenolic compounds profile and antioxidant properties of six sweet cherry (Prunus avium) cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martini, Serena; Conte, Angela; Tagliazucchi, Davide

    2017-07-01

    Sweet cherry (Prunus avium) fruits are a nutritionally important food rich in dietary phenolic compounds. The aim of this study was to investigate the phenolic profile and chemometric discrimination of fruits from six cherry cultivars using a quantitative metabolomics approach, which combine non-targeted mass spectrometry and chemometric analysis. The assessment of the phenolic fingerprint of cherries allowed the tentative identification of 86 compounds. A total of 40 chlorogenic acids were identified in cherry fruit, which pointed out hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives as the main class of phenolics by number of compounds. Among the compounds detected, 40 have been reported for the first time in sweet cherry fruit. Hydroxycinnamic acids are also the quantitatively most represented class of phenolic compounds in the cherry cultivars with the exception of Lapins and Durone della Marca where the most representative class of phenolic compounds were anthocyanins and flavan-3-ols, respectively. This non-targeted approach allowed the tentative identification of the cultivar-compound relationships of these six cherry cultivars. Both anthocyanins and colorless phenolic compounds profile appeared to be cultivar-dependent. In detail, anthocyanins and flavonols patterns have the potential to be used for the determination of a varietal assignment of cherries. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Characteristics and immune-enhancing activity of pectic polysaccharides from sweet cherry (Prunus avium).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Jinping; Tang, Dandan; Wang, Yue; Li, Xian; Hong, Li; Sun, Chongde

    2018-07-15

    Two water soluble polysaccharides components PAPS-1 and PAPS-2 with homogeneously distributed molecular weight were obtained from Prunus avium. PAPS-1 and PAPS-2 contained GalA: Ara: Gal: Rha: GluA: Glu in 49.38: 32.39: 10.68: 4.66: 1.94: 0.48 and 77.18: 14.91: 3.39: 3.46: 0.93: 0.19 M ratios respectively, as well as trace amount of mannose and fucose. Infrared spectroscopy (IR), nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and methylation analysis indicated that both fractions were type I rhamnogalacturonan (RG-I) pectic polysaccharides with glycan side chains constituted mainly of arabinose with minor amount of galactose. Galacturonic acid methylation and sugar acetylation was found in both PAPS-1 and PAPS-2. Both PAPS-1 and PAPS-2 significantly induced the NO release from RAW264.7 cells and the expression of several immune-related molecular (TNFα, IL6, IL10, GCSF, iNOS, COX-2) was induced in RAW264.7 cells. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Screening of Natural Organic Volatiles from Prunus mahaleb L. Honey: Coumarin and Vomifoliol as Nonspecific Biomarkers

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    Mladenka Malenica Staver

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME; PDMS/DVB fibre and ultrasonic solvent extraction (USE; solvent A: pentane and diethyl ether (1:2 v/v, solvent B: dichloromethane followed by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry (GC, GC-MS were used for the analysis of Prunus mahaleb L. honey samples. Screening was focused toward chemical composition of natural organic volatiles to determine if it is useful as a method of determining honey-sourcing. A total of 34 compounds were identified in the headspace and 49 in the extracts that included terpenes, norisoprenoids and benzene derivatives, followed by minor percentages of aliphatic compounds and furan derivatives. High vomifoliol percentages (10.7%–24.2% in both extracts (dominant in solvent B and coumarin (0.3%–2.4% from the extracts (more abundant in solvent A and headspace (0.9%–1.8% were considered characteristic for P. mahaleb honey and highlighted as potential nonspecific biomarkers of the honey’s botanical origin. In addition, comparison with P. mahaleb flowers, leaves, bark and wood volatiles from our previous research revealed common compounds among norisoprenoids and benzene derivatives.

  17. Selection of autochthonous sour cherry (Prunus cerasus L. genotypes in Feketić region

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    Radičević Sanja

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Autochthonous genotypes of fruit species are very important source of genetic variability and valuable material for breeding work. Fruit Research Institute-Čačak has a long tradition of studying autochthonous genotypes of temperate fruits sporadically spread and preserved in some localities in Serbia. Over 2005-2006, the following properties of nine autochthonous sour cherry genotypes grown in Feketic region were investigated: flowering and ripening time, pomological properties, biochemical composition of fruits and field resistance to causal agents of cherry diseases - cherry leaf spot (Blumeriella jaapii (Rehm. v. Arx., shot-hole (Clasterosporium carpophilum (Lév. Aderh. and brown rot (Monilinia laxa /Ader et Ruhl./ Honey ex Whetz.. The genotypes were tested for the presence of Prune dwarf virus and Prunus necrotic ring spot virus. In majority of genotypes fruits were large, with exceptional organoleptical properties, whereas ripening time was in the first ten or twenty days of June. The highest fruit weight was observed in F-1 genotype (8.1 g. The highest soluble solids and total sugars content were found in F- 4 genotype (17.60% and 14.25%, respectively. As for field resistance to causal agents of diseases and good pomo-technological properties, F-1, F-2, F-3, F-7 and F-8 genotypes were singled out. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR31064

  18. Screening of natural organic volatiles from Prunus mahaleb L. honey: coumarin and vomifoliol as nonspecific biomarkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jerković, Igor; Marijanović, Zvonimir; Staver, Mladenka Malenica

    2011-03-16

    Headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME; PDMS/DVB fibre) and ultrasonic solvent extraction (USE; solvent A: pentane and diethyl ether (1:2 v/v), solvent B: dichloromethane) followed by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry (GC, GC-MS) were used for the analysis of Prunus mahaleb L. honey samples. Screening was focused toward chemical composition of natural organic volatiles to determine if it is useful as a method of determining honey-sourcing. A total of 34 compounds were identified in the headspace and 49 in the extracts that included terpenes, norisoprenoids and benzene derivatives, followed by minor percentages of aliphatic compounds and furan derivatives. High vomifoliol percentages (10.7%-24.2%) in both extracts (dominant in solvent B) and coumarin (0.3%-2.4%) from the extracts (more abundant in solvent A) and headspace (0.9%-1.8%) were considered characteristic for P. mahaleb honey and highlighted as potential nonspecific biomarkers of the honey's botanical origin. In addition, comparison with P. mahaleb flowers, leaves, bark and wood volatiles from our previous research revealed common compounds among norisoprenoids and benzene derivatives.

  19. Recent advancements to study flowering time in almond and other Prunus species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel eSánchez-Pérez

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Flowering time is an important agronomic trait in almond since it is decisive to avoid the late frosts that affect production in early flowering cultivars. Evaluation of this complex trait is a long process because of the prolonged juvenile period of trees and the influence of environmental conditions affecting gene expression year by year. Consequently, flowering time has to be studied for several years to have statistical significant results. This trait is the result of the interaction between chilling and heat requirements. Flowering time is a polygenic trait with high heritability, although a major gene Late blooming (Lb was described in ‘Tardy Nonpareil’. Molecular studies at DNA level confirmed this polygenic nature identifying several genome regions (Quantitative Trait Loci, QTL involved. Studies about regulation of gene expression are scarcer although several transcription factors have been described as responsible for flowering time. From the metabolomic point of view, the integrated analysis of the mechanisms of accumulation of cyanogenic glucosides and flowering regulation through transcription factors open new possibilities in the analysis of this complex trait in almond and in other Prunus species (apricot, cherry, peach, plum. New opportunities are arising from the integration of recent advancements including phenotypic, genetic, genomic, transcriptomic and metabolomics studies from the beginning of dormancy until flowering

  20. Antimicrobial Activity of the Phenolic Compounds of Prunus mume against Enterobacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitani, Takahiko; Ota, Kana; Inaba, Nobuya; Kishida, Kunihiro; Koyama, Hajime A

    2018-01-01

    Mume fruit, the Japanese apricot (Prunus mume SIEB. et ZUCC.), is popular in Japan and is mostly consumed in the pickled form called umeboshi. This fruit is known to have anti-microbial properties, but the principal constituents responsible for the antimicrobial properties have not yet been elucidated. We investigated the antimicrobial activities of the phenolic compounds in P. mume against enterobacteria. In this study, growth inhibitory activities were measured as an index of the antibacterial activities. The phenolic compounds were prepared from a byproduct of umeboshi called umesu or umezu (often translated as "mume vinegar"). Umesu or umezu phenolics (UP) contain approximately 20% phenolic compounds with p-coumaric acid as a standard and do not contain citric acid. We observed the inhibitory effects of UP against the growth of some enterobacteria, at a relatively high concentration (1250-5000 µg/mL). Alkali hydrolysates of UP (AHUP) exhibited similar antibacterial activities, but at much lower concentrations of 37.5-300 µg/mL. Since AHUP comprises hydroxycinnamic acids such as caffeic acid, p-coumaric acid, and ferulic acid, the antibacterial activities of each of these acids were examined. Our study shows that the phenolic compounds in P. mume other than citric acid contribute to its antimicrobial activity against enterobacteria in the digestive tract.

  1. Caracterização de três genótipos de umezeiro (Prunus mume Sieb. et Zucc. por marcadores RAPD Characterization of three mume genotypes (Prunus mume Sieb. et Zucc. by RAPD markers

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    Newton Alex Mayer

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Um projeto de pesquisa visando à utilização de clones de umezeiro (Prunus mume Sieb. et Zucc. como porta-enxertos para pessegueiro [Prunus persica (L. Batsch] está sendo conduzido na FCAV/UNESP, Câmpus de Jaboticabal-SP, com promissoras perspectivas de sucesso. Três genótipos de umezeiro foram selecionados de acordo com características agronômicas desejáveis para esta finalidade. A distinção dos três genótipos entre si, baseada exclusivamente em características morfológicas, apresenta limitações. Dessa forma, o objetivo do presente trabalho foi identificar marcadores RAPD capazes de diferenciar e caracterizar os Clones 05, 15 e a cv. Rigitano (Clone 10 de umezeiro, utilizando-se das cultivares Aurora-1 e Okinawa de pessegueiro como outgroup. Dos 220 primers testados, foram selecionados 42, que amplificaram todos os cinco genótipos. Verificou-se que os marcadores RAPD permitiram a distinção entre o Clone 05, o Clone 15 e a cv. Rigitano de umezeiro, demonstrando a existência de variabilidade genética entre os mesmos. Dentre os três genótipos de umezeiro estudados, constatou-se que a similaridade genética é maior entre o Clone 05 e o Clone 15.A research project with the objective do develop mume clones (Prunus mume Sieb. et Zucc., to be used as rootstocks for peach tree [Prunus persica (L. Batsch] is been carried out at the Faculdade de Ciências Agrárias e Veterinárias (FCAV/UNESP, Jaboticabal Campus, São Paulo State, Brazil. These project showed promising perspectives of success, with three clones that were selected according to their characteristics for peach rootstock. But the distinction of the three clones among them, based only in morphologic characteristics, has presented limitations. The objective of the present research was to identify RAPD markers able to characterize and differentiate the 05 and 15 Clones and Rigitano mume cultivar, using Aurora-1 and Okinawa peach tree as outgroup. Among the 220 tested

  2. Using Perls Staining to Trace the Iron Uptake Pathway in Leaves of a Prunus Rootstock Treated with Iron Foliar Fertilizers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rios, Juan J; Carrasco-Gil, Sandra; Abadía, Anunciación; Abadía, Javier

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to trace the Fe uptake pathway in leaves of Prunus rootstock (GF 677; Prunus dulcis × Prunus persica) plants treated with foliar Fe compounds using the Perls blue method, which detects labile Fe pools. Young expanded leaves of Fe-deficient plants grown in nutrient solution were treated with Fe-compounds using a brush. Iron compounds used were the ferrous salt FeSO4, the ferric salts Fe2(SO4)3 and FeCl3, and the chelate Fe(III)-EDTA, all of them at concentrations of 9 mM Fe. Leaf Fe concentration increases were measured at 30, 60, 90 min, and 24 h, and 70 μm-thick leaf transversal sections were obtained with a vibrating microtome and stained with Perls blue. In vitro results show that the Perls blue method is a good tool to trace the Fe uptake pathway in leaves when using Fe salts, but is not sensitive enough when using synthetic Fe(III)-chelates such as Fe(III)-EDTA and Fe(III)-IDHA. Foliar Fe fertilization increased leaf Fe concentrations with all Fe compounds used, with inorganic Fe salts causing larger leaf Fe concentration increases than Fe(III)-EDTA. Results show that Perls blue stain appeared within 30 min in the stomatal areas, indicating that Fe applied as inorganic salts was taken up rapidly via stomata. In the case of using FeSO4 a progression of the stain was seen with time toward vascular areas in the leaf blade and the central vein, whereas in the case of Fe(III) salts the stain mainly remained in the stomatal areas. Perls stain was never observed in the mesophyll areas, possibly due to the low concentration of labile Fe pools.

  3. Fatty Acid Content and Some Chemical Properties of Selected Almond (Prunus amygdalus Batsch.) Genotypes in Isparta Province

    OpenAIRE

    YILDIRIM, Adnan N.; KOYUNCU, Fatma; TEKİNTAŞ, Ekmel; AKINCI-YILDIRIM, Fatma

    2008-01-01

    This study was carried out to determine some chemical properties and fatty acid content of selected almond (Prunus amygdalus Batsch.) genotypes in Isparta province. In the study, total oil content, protein content, ash content, humidity, palmitic acid content, palmitoleic acid content, stearic acid content, oleic acid content, and linoleic acid content of the selected genotypes were ranged from 44.25 (ISP 298) to 54.68 % (ISP 66), 21.23 (ISP 66) to 35.2%, 7 (ISP 298) 2.75 (ISP 66) to 3.81% (I...

  4. Physicochemical characteristics, antioxidant activity, organic acid and sugar contents of 12 sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.) cultivars grown in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayaloglu, Ali Adnan; Demir, Nurullah

    2015-03-01

    Physical characteristics, antioxidant activity and chemical constituents of 12 cultivars (Prunus avium L.) of sweet cherry (Belge, Bing, Dalbasti, Durona di Cesena, Lambert, Merton Late, Starks Gold, Summit, Sweetheart, Van, Vista, and 0-900 Ziraat) were investigated. Significant differences (P cherries. Four different sugars were observed in the samples and their concentrations ordered as glucose > fructose > sucrose > xylose. Sugar alcohol in the cherries was represented by sorbitol (more than 90%) and its concentration varied between 13.93 and 27.12 g/kg. As a result significant differences were observed among the physical properties and chemical constituents of the cherry cultivars. © 2015 Institute of Food Technologists®

  5. Morphology, development, and transplant potential of Prunus avium and Cornus sanguinea seedlings growing under different LED lights

    OpenAIRE

    BANTIS, Filippos; RADOGLOU, KALLIOPI

    2017-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to investigate the impact of light-emitting diodes (LEDs) on the morphological and developmental characteristics of wild cherry (Prunus avium) and common dogwood (Cornus sanguinea). The LEDs used were L20AP67 (moderate blue, red and far-red, high green), AP673L (moderate blue, high red), G2 (low blue, high red and far-red), AP67 (moderate blue, red and far-red), and NS1 (high blue and green, low red, high red:far-red, 1% ultraviolet). Fluorescent ligh...

  6. Wintercuring of Prunus dulcis cv ‘Butte,’ P. webbii and their interspecific hybrid in response to Xylella fastidiosa infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clonal replicates of Prunus dulcis cv ‘Butte,’ P. webbii and their interspecific hybrid P 63-61 were inoculated with Xylella fastidiosa strain M23 and evaluated for Almond Leaf Scorch Disease and subsequent wintercuring of infections during three growing seasons. Initial inoculations established gr...

  7. Mining microsatellites in the peach genome: development of new long-core SSR markers for genetic analyses in five Prunus species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dettori, Maria Teresa; Micali, Sabrina; Giovinazzi, Jessica; Scalabrin, Simone; Verde, Ignazio; Cipriani, Guido

    2015-01-01

    A wide inventory of molecular markers is nowadays available for individual fingerprinting. Microsatellites, or simple sequence repeats (SSRs), play a relevant role due to their relatively ease of use, their abundance in the plant genomes, and their co-dominant nature, together with the availability of primer sequences in many important agricultural crops. Microsatellites with long-core motifs are more easily scored and were adopted long ago in human genetics but they were developed only in few crops, and Prunus species are not among them. In the present work the peach whole-genome sequence was used to select 216 SSRs containing long-core motifs with tri-, tetra- and penta-nucleotide repeats. Microsatellite primer pairs were designed and tested for polymorphism in the five diploid Prunus species of economic relevance (almond, apricot, Japanese plum, peach and sweet cherry). A set of 26 microsatellite markers covering all the eight chromosomes, was also selected and used in the molecular characterization, population genetics and structure analyses of a representative sample of the five diploid Prunus species, assessing their transportability and effectiveness. The combined probability of identity between two random individuals for the whole set of 26 SSRs was quite low, ranging from 2.30 × 10(-7) in peach to 9.48 × 10(-10) in almond, confirming the usefulness of the proposed set for fingerprinting analyses in Prunus species.

  8. An in situ, seasonal study of volatiles from a single cultivar of Prunus dulcis, and their relationship to navel orangeworm moth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nonpareil almonds, Prunus dulcis, account for the largest percentage of almond varieties grown in the Central and San Joaquin valleys of California. Several studies have investigated the various non-volatile and volatile components of various plant parts; however, the volatile organic compound (VOC)...

  9. Two psammophilic noctuids (Lepidoptera) newly associated with beach plum Prunus maritima: The Dune Noctuid (Sympistis riparia) and Coastal Heathland Cutworm (Abagrotis nefascia) in Northeastern North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beach Plum Prunus maritima Marshall 1785 not Wangenh. 1787 (Rosaceae) represents both a new crop under development and an under-acknowledged host plant for several Lepidoptera rthat have undergone declines in the Northeastern USA. The Coastal Heathland Cutworm Abagrotis nefascia (Smith) and the Dune...

  10. Ectopic expression of class 1 KNOX genes induce and adventitious shoot regeneration and alter growth and development of tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L) and European plum (Prunus domestica L)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Transgenic plants of tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L) and plum (Prunus domestica L) were produced by transforming with apple class 1 KNOX genes (MdKN1 and MdKN2) or corn KN1 gene. Transgenic tobacco plants were regenerated in vitro from transformed leaf discs cultured in a tissue medium lacking cytoki...

  11. Degradation of cyanogenic glycosides of bitter apricot seeds (Prunus armeniaca) by endogenous and added enzymes as affected by heat treatments and particle size.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tuncel, G.; Nout, M.J.R.; Brimer, L.

    1998-01-01

    Bitter apricot (Prunus armeniaca) seeds (kernels) are by-products of the apricot processing industry. They contain approximately 50-150 μMol/g (dry weight basis) of potentially toxic cyanogenic glycosides, mainly amygdalin and prunasin. The present paper deals with the degradation of these

  12. Genome wide identification of chilling responsive microRNAs in Prunus persica

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    Barakat Abdelali

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background MicroRNAs (miRNAs are small RNAs (sRNAs approximately 21 nucleotides in length that negatively control gene expression by cleaving or inhibiting the translation of target gene transcripts. Within this context, miRNAs and siRNAs are coming to the forefront as molecular mediators of gene regulation in plant responses to annual temperature cycling and cold stress. For this reason, we chose to identify and characterize the conserved and non-conserved miRNA component of peach (Prunus persica (L. Batsch focusing our efforts on both the recently released whole genome sequence of peach and sRNA transcriptome sequences from two tissues representing non-dormant leaves and dormant leaf buds. Conserved and non-conserved miRNAs, and their targets were identified. These sRNA resources were used to identify cold-responsive miRNAs whose gene targets co-localize with previously described QTLs for chilling requirement (CR. Results Analysis of 21 million peach sRNA reads allowed us to identify 157 and 230 conserved and non-conserved miRNA sequences. Among the non-conserved miRNAs, we identified 205 that seem to be specific to peach. Comparative genome analysis between peach and Arabidopsis showed that conserved miRNA families, with the exception of miR5021, are similar in size. Sixteen of these conserved miRNA families are deeply rooted in land plant phylogeny as they are present in mosses and/or lycophytes. Within the other conserved miRNA families, five families (miR1446, miR473, miR479, miR3629, and miR3627 were reported only in tree species (Populustrichocarpa, Citrus trifolia, and Prunus persica. Expression analysis identified several up-regulated or down-regulated miRNAs in winter buds versus young leaves. A search of the peach proteome allowed the prediction of target genes for most of the conserved miRNAs and a large fraction of non-conserved miRNAs. A fraction of predicted targets in peach have not been previously reported in other

  13. Dual role of imidazole as activator/inhibitor of sweet almond (Prunus dulcis) β-glucosidase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caramia, Sara; Gatius, Angela Gala Morena; Dal Piaz, Fabrizio; Gaja, Denis; Hochkoeppler, Alejandro

    2017-07-01

    The activity of Prunus dulcis (sweet almond) β-glucosidase at the expense of p -nitrophenyl-β-d-glucopyranoside at pH 6 was determined, both under steady-state and pre-steady-state conditions. Using crude enzyme preparations, competitive inhibition by 1-5 mM imidazole was observed under both kinetic conditions tested. However, when imidazole was added to reaction mixtures at 0.125-0.250 mM, we detected a significant enzyme activation. To further inspect this effect exerted by imidazole, β-glucosidase was purified to homogeneity. Two enzyme isoforms were isolated, i.e. a full-length monomer, and a dimer containing a full-length and a truncated subunit. Dimeric β-glucosidase was found to perform much better than the monomeric enzyme, independently of the kinetic conditions used to assay enzyme activity. In addition, the sensitivity towards imidazole was found to differ between the two isoforms. While monomeric enzyme was indeed found to be relatively insensitive to imidazole, dimeric β-glucosidase was observed to be significantly activated by 0.125-0.250 mM imidazole under pre-steady-state conditions. Further, steady-state assays revealed that the addition of 0.125 mM imidazole to reaction mixtures increases the K m of dimeric enzyme from 2.3 to 6.7 mM. The activation of β-glucosidase dimer by imidazole is proposed to be exerted via a conformational transition poising the enzyme towards proficient catalysis.

  14. Molecular cloning, identification, and chromosomal localization of two MADS box genes in peach (Prunus persica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lin; Xu, Yong; Ma, Rongcai

    2008-06-01

    MADS box proteins play an important role in floral development. To find genes involved in the floral transition of Prunus species, cDNAs for two MADS box genes, PpMADS1 and PpMADS10, were cloned using degenerate primers and 5'- and 3'-RACE based on the sequence database of P. persica and P. dulcis. The full length of PpMADS1 cDNA is 1,071 bp containing an open reading frame (ORF) of 717 bp and coding for a polypeptide of 238 amino acid residues. The full length of PpMADS10 cDNA is 937 bp containing an ORF of 633 bp and coding for a polypeptide of 210 amino acid residues. Sequence comparison revealed that PpMADS1 and PpMADS10 were highly homologous to genes AP1 and PI in Arabidopsis, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that PpMADS1 belongs to the euAP1 clade of class A, and PpMADS10 is a member of GLO/PI clade of class B. RT-PCR analysis showed that PpMADS1 was expressed in sepal, petal, carpel, and fruit, which was slightly different from the expression pattern of AP1; PpMADS10 was expressed in petal and stamen, which shared the same expression pattern as PI. Using selective mapping strategy, PpMADS1 was assigned onto the Bin1:50 on the G1 linkage group between the markers MCO44 and TSA2, and PpMADS10 onto the Bin1:73 on the same linkage group between the markers Lap-1 and FGA8. Our results provided the basis for further dissection of the two MADS box gene function.

  15. Dual role of imidazole as activator/inhibitor of sweet almond (Prunus dulcis β-glucosidase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Caramia

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The activity of Prunus dulcis (sweet almond β-glucosidase at the expense of p-nitrophenyl-β-d-glucopyranoside at pH 6 was determined, both under steady-state and pre-steady-state conditions. Using crude enzyme preparations, competitive inhibition by 1–5 mM imidazole was observed under both kinetic conditions tested. However, when imidazole was added to reaction mixtures at 0.125–0.250 mM, we detected a significant enzyme activation. To further inspect this effect exerted by imidazole, β-glucosidase was purified to homogeneity. Two enzyme isoforms were isolated, i.e. a full-length monomer, and a dimer containing a full-length and a truncated subunit. Dimeric β-glucosidase was found to perform much better than the monomeric enzyme, independently of the kinetic conditions used to assay enzyme activity. In addition, the sensitivity towards imidazole was found to differ between the two isoforms. While monomeric enzyme was indeed found to be relatively insensitive to imidazole, dimeric β-glucosidase was observed to be significantly activated by 0.125–0.250 mM imidazole under pre-steady-state conditions. Further, steady-state assays revealed that the addition of 0.125 mM imidazole to reaction mixtures increases the Km of dimeric enzyme from 2.3 to 6.7 mM. The activation of β-glucosidase dimer by imidazole is proposed to be exerted via a conformational transition poising the enzyme towards proficient catalysis.

  16. Initial and final fruit set in some plum (Prunus domestica L. hybrids under different pollination types

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    Glišić Ivana

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents results of two-year study (2009-2010 of initial and final fruit set in promising plum (Prunus domestica L. hybrids developed at Fruit Research Institute - Čačak, under different pollination conditions. The following hybrids were studied: 38/62/70 (‘Hall’ x ‘California Blue’, 32/21/87 (‘Stanley’ x ‘Scoldus’, IV/63/81 (‘Large Sugar Prune’ x ‘Scoldus’, 22/17/87 (‘Čačanska Najbolja’ x ‘Zh'lta Butilcovidna’, 29/29/87 (‘Stanley’ x ‘Scoldus’ and 34/41/87 (‘Valjevka’ x ‘Čačanska Lepotica’. Each of the hybrids was studied both under self- pollination and open pollination. In vitro pollen germination was also performed as well as characteristics of flowering phenophase and flowering abundance. Generally, the results suggest lower flowering abundance in the second year of the study. Pollen germination ranged from averagely 25.31% (29/29/87 to 40.01% (38/62/70. With averagely 31.59% final fruit set under self-pollination and 29.38% under open pollination variants, respectively, hybrid 34/41/87 gave the best results. The lowest performance was observed in hybrid 32/21/87 with 1.61% and 7.69% final fruit set under self- and open pollination variants, respectively. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR-31064

  17. Is cut-stump and girdling an efficient method of black cherry Prunus serotina Ehrh. eradication?

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    Otręba Anna

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Efforts to prevent the invasion of black cherry Prunus serotina Ehrh. have a long history in Western Europe. However, effective methods of eliminating it that do not bear negative side effects for ecosystems have not yet been developed. Mechanical methods are the first choice in environmentally sensitive areas. In this study, we aimed to find answers to the questions: does the application of cutting at a height of 1 m from the ground limit the sprouting capacities of black cherry? And, is stem girdling an effective method of eliminating black cherry? The study was carried out in the Kampinos National Park, on two mixed pine forest plots with undergrowth of black cherry. Three mechanical methods of elimination were applied: cut-stump at the base, cutting at a height of 1 m above the ground and girdling of the stem at a height of ca 1 m above the ground. In both locations, 225 trees were treated, at three different dates corresponding with three different phenological phases of black cherry development. The evaluation of effectiveness of treatments was based on the sprouting capacity of the tree afterwards, which included: the number of generated sprouts, the length of three longest sprouts, dry mass of sprouts, and the assessment of tree survival rate. It was discovered that girdling is a significantly more effective method of control than ground-level cut-stump or cutting at a height of 1 m above the ground in the conditions of central Poland. However, in the season of treatment, even though recurring sprouts were removed, only a part of the girdled trees died (24% to 54%. There is a slight difference between the sprouting response of cutting at a height of 1 m above the ground (4% to 24% of dead trees and the basal cut-stump method (0% of dead trees.

  18. Physiological responses and differential gene expression in Prunus rootstocks under iron deficiency conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalo, María José; Moreno, María Ángeles; Gogorcena, Yolanda

    2011-06-15

    Two Prunus rootstocks, the Myrobalan plum P 2175 and the interspecific peach-almond hybrid, Felinem, were studied to characterize their biochemical and molecular responses induced under iron-Deficient conditions. Plants of both genotypes were submitted to different treatments using a hydroponic system that permitted removal of Fe from the nutrient solution. Control plants were grown in 90 μM Fe (III)-EDTA, Deficient plants were grown in an iron free solution, and plants submitted to an Inductor treatment were resupplied with 180 μM Fe (III)-EDTA over 1 and 2 days after a period of 4 or 15 days of growth on an iron-free solution. Felinem increased the activity of the iron chelate reductase (FC-R) in the Inductor treatment after 4 days of iron deprivation. In contrast, P 2175 did not show any response after at least 15 days without iron. The induction of the FC-R activity in this genotype was coincident in time with the medium acidification. These results suggest two different mechanisms of iron chlorosis tolerance in both Strategy I genotypes. Felinem would use the iron reduction as the main mechanism to capture the iron from the soil, and in P 2175, the mechanism of response would be slower and start with the acidification of the medium synchronized with the gradual loss of chlorophyll in leaves. To better understand the control of these responses at the molecular level, the differential expression of PFRO2, PIRT1 and PAHA2 genes involved in the reductase activity, the iron transport in roots, and the proton release, respectively, were analyzed. The expression of these genes, estimated by quantitative real-time PCR, was different between genotypes and among treatments. The results were in agreement with the physiological responses observed. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  19. Epicuticular wax on cherry laurel (Prunus laurocerasus) leaves does not constitute the cuticular transpiration barrier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeisler, Viktoria; Schreiber, Lukas

    2016-01-01

    Epicuticular wax of cherry laurel does not contribute to the formation of the cuticular transpiration barrier, which must be established by intracuticular wax. Barrier properties of cuticles are established by cuticular wax deposited on the outer surface of the cuticle (epicuticular wax) and in the cutin polymer (intracuticular wax). It is still an open question to what extent epi- and/or intracuticular waxes contribute to the formation of the transpiration barrier. Epicuticular wax was mechanically removed from the surfaces of isolated cuticles and intact leaf disks of cherry laurel (Prunus laurocerasus L.) by stripping with different polymers (collodion, cellulose acetate and gum arabic). Scanning electron microscopy showed that two consecutive treatments with all three polymers were sufficient to completely remove epicuticular wax since wax platelets disappeared and cuticle surfaces appeared smooth. Waxes in consecutive polymer strips and wax remaining in the cuticle after treatment with the polymers were determined by gas chromatography. This confirmed that two treatments of the polymers were sufficient for selectively removing epicuticular wax. Water permeability of isolated cuticles and cuticles covering intact leaf disks was measured using (3)H-labelled water before and after selectively removing epicuticular wax. Cellulose acetate and its solvent acetone led to a significant increase of cuticular permeability, indicating that the organic solvent acetone affected the cuticular transpiration barrier. However, permeability did not change after two subsequent treatments with collodion and gum arabic or after treatment with the corresponding solvents (diethyl ether:ethanol or water). Thus, in the case of P. laurocerasus the epicuticular wax does not significantly contribute to the formation of the cuticular transpiration barrier, which evidently must be established by the intracuticular wax.

  20. Genome-Wide Identification, Characterization and Expression Analysis of the TCP Gene Family in Prunus mume.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yuzhen; Xu, Zongda; Zhao, Kai; Yang, Weiru; Cheng, Tangren; Wang, Jia; Zhang, Qixiang

    2016-01-01

    TCP proteins, belonging to a plant-specific transcription factors family, are known to have great functions in plant development, especially flower and leaf development. However, there is little information about this gene family in Prunus mume, which is widely cultivated in China as an ornamental and fruit tree. Here a genome-wide analysis of TCP genes was performed to explore their evolution in P. mume. Nineteen PmTCPs were identified and three of them contained putative miR319 target sites. Phylogenetic and comprehensive bioinformatics analyses of these genes revealed that different types of TCP genes had undergone different evolutionary processes and the genes in the same clade had similar chromosomal location, gene structure, and conserved domains. Expression analysis of these PmTCPs indicated that there were diverse expression patterns among different clades. Most TCP genes were predominantly expressed in flower, leaf, and stem, and showed high expression levels in the different stages of flower bud differentiation, especially in petal formation stage and gametophyte development. Genes in TCP-P subfamily had main roles in both flower development and gametophyte development. The CIN genes in double petal cultivars might have key roles in the formation of petal, while they were correlated with gametophyte development in the single petal cultivar. The CYC/TB1 type genes were highly detected in the formation of petal and pistil. The less-complex flower types of P. mume might result from the fact that there were only two CYC type genes present in P. mume and a lack of CYC2 genes to control the identity of flower types. These results lay the foundation for further study on the functions of TCP genes during flower development.

  1. Mechanical stimuli regulate the allocation of biomass in trees: demonstration with young Prunus avium trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coutand, Catherine; Dupraz, Christian; Jaouen, Gaëlle; Ploquin, Stéphane; Adam, Boris

    2008-06-01

    Plastic tree-shelters are increasingly used to protect tree seedlings against browsing animals and herbicide drifts. The biomass allocation in young seedlings of deciduous trees is highly disturbed by common plastic tree-shelters, resulting in poor root systems and reduced diameter growth of the trunk. The shelters have been improved by creating chimney-effect ventilation with holes drilled at the bottom, resulting in stimulated trunk diameter growth, but the root deficit has remained unchanged. An experiment was set up to elucidate the mechanisms behind the poor root growth of sheltered Prunus avium trees. Tree seedlings were grown either in natural windy conditions or in tree-shelters. Mechanical wind stimuli were suppressed in ten unsheltered trees by staking. Mechanical stimuli (bending) of the stem were applied in ten sheltered trees using an original mechanical device. Sheltered trees suffered from poor root growth, but sheltered bent trees largely recovered, showing that mechano-sensing is an important mechanism governing C allocation and the shoot-root balance. The use of a few artificial mechanical stimuli increased the biomass allocation towards the roots, as did natural wind sway. It was demonstrated that there was an acclimation of plants to the imposed strain. This study suggests that if mechanical stimuli are used to control plant growth, they should be applied at low frequency in order to be most effective. The impact on the functional equilibrium hypothesis that is used in many tree growth models is discussed. The consequence of the lack of mechanical stimuli should be incorporated in tree growth models when applied to environments protected from the wind (e.g. greenhouses, dense forests).

  2. Differential response to root-knot nematodes in prunus species and correlative genetic implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esmenjaud, D; Minot, J C; Voisin, R; Pinochet, J; Simard, M H; Salesses, G

    1997-09-01

    Responses of 17 Prunus rootstocks or accessions (11 from the subgenus Amygdalus and 6 from the subgenus Prunophora) were evaluated against 11 isolates of Meloidogyne spp. including one M. arenaria, four M. incognita, four M. javanica, one M. hispanica, and an unclassified population from Florida. Characterization of plant response to root-knot nematodes was based on a gall index rating. Numbers of females and juveniles plus eggs in the roots were determined for 10 of the rootstocks evaluated against one M. arenaria, one M. incognita, one M. javanica, and the Florida isolate. These 10 rootstocks plus Nemaguard and Nemared were retested by growing three different rootstock genotypes together in containers of soil infested individually with each of the above four isolates. Garfi and Garrigues almonds, GF.305 and Rutgers Red Leaf peaches, and the peach-almond GF.677 were susceptible to all isolates. Differences in resistance were detected among the other rootstocks of the subgenus Amygdalus. The peach-almond GF.557 and Summergrand peach were resistant to M. arenaria and M. incognita but susceptible to M. javanica and the Florida isolate. Nemaguard, Nemared, and its two hybrids G x N no. 15 and G x N no. 22 were resistant to all but the Florida isolate. In the subgenus Prunophora, Myrobalan plums P.1079, P.2175, P.2980, and P.2984; Marianna plum 29C; and P. insititia plum AD.101 were resistant to all isolates. Thus, two different genetic systems of RKN resistance were found in the subgenus Amygdalus: one system acting against M. arenaria and M. incognita, and another system also acting against M. javanica. Prunophora rootstocks bear a complete genetic system for resistance also acting against the Florida isolate. The hypotheses on the relationships between these systems and the corresponding putative genes of resistance are presented.

  3. Gene Expression Analysis of Plum pox virus (Sharka Susceptibility/Resistance in Apricot (Prunus armeniaca L..

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    Manuel Rubio

    Full Text Available RNA-Seq has proven to be a very powerful tool in the analysis of the Plum pox virus (PPV, sharka disease/Prunus interaction. This technique is an important complementary tool to other means of studying genomics. In this work an analysis of gene expression of resistance/susceptibility to PPV in apricot is performed. RNA-Seq has been applied to analyse the gene expression changes induced by PPV infection in leaves from two full-sib apricot genotypes, "Rojo Pasión" and "Z506-7", resistant and susceptible to PPV, respectively. Transcriptomic analyses revealed the existence of more than 2,000 genes related to the pathogen response and resistance to PPV in apricot. These results showed that the response to infection by the virus in the susceptible genotype is associated with an induction of genes involved in pathogen resistance such as the allene oxide synthase, S-adenosylmethionine synthetase 2 and the major MLP-like protein 423. Over-expression of the Dicer protein 2a may indicate the suppression of a gene silencing mechanism of the plant by PPV HCPro and P1 PPV proteins. On the other hand, there were 164 genes involved in resistance mechanisms that have been identified in apricot, 49 of which are located in the PPVres region (scaffold 1 positions from 8,050,804 to 8,244,925, which is responsible for PPV resistance in apricot. Among these genes in apricot there are several MATH domain-containing genes, although other genes inside (Pleiotropic drug resistance 9 gene or outside (CAP, Cysteine-rich secretory proteins, Antigen 5 and Pathogenesis-related 1 protein; and LEA, Late embryogenesis abundant protein PPVres region could also be involved in the resistance.

  4. Development of novel techniques to extract phenolic compounds from Romanian cultivars of Prunus domestica L. and their biological properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mocan, Andrei; Diuzheva, Alina; Carradori, Simone; Andruch, Vasil; Massafra, Chiara; Moldovan, Cadmiel; Sisea, Cristian; Petzer, Jacobus P; Petzer, Anél; Zara, Susi; Marconi, Guya Diletta; Zengin, Gokhan; Crișan, Gianina; Locatelli, Marcello

    2018-04-21

    In the present work, fourteen cultivars of Prunus domestica were analysed to investigate their phenolic pattern with the purpose of using the leaves as potential resources of bioactive compounds in the pharmaceutical and food industry. Microwave-assisted extraction (MAE), dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction and sugaring-out liquid-liquid extraction techniques were optimized in order to obtain an exhaustive multi-component panel of phenolic compounds. The best phenolic-enriched recovery was achieved using MAE in water:methanol (30:70), and this procedure was further applied for quantitative analysis of phenolic compounds in real samples. In order to prove the safeness of these extracts, the biological potential of the Prunus cultivars was tested by several in vitro antioxidant and enzyme inhibitory assays. Moreover, their cytotoxicity was evaluated on human gingival fibroblasts (HGFs), and in most of the cases the treatment with different concentrations of extracts didn't show cytotoxicity up to 500 μg/mL. Only 'Carpatin' and 'Minerva' cultivars, at 250 and 500 μg/mL, reduced partially cell viability of HGFs population. Noteworthy, Centenar cultivar was the most active for the α-glucosidase inhibition (6.77 mmolACAE/g extract), whereas Ialomița cultivar showed the best antityrosinase activity (23.07 mgKAE/g extract). Overall, leaves of P. domestica represent a rich alternative source of bioactive compounds. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  5. Evaluation of multiple approaches to identify genome-wide polymorphisms in closely related genotypes of sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.

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    Seanna Hewitt

    Full Text Available Identification of genetic polymorphisms and subsequent development of molecular markers is important for marker assisted breeding of superior cultivars of economically important species. Sweet cherry (Prunus avium L. is an economically important non-climacteric tree fruit crop in the Rosaceae family and has undergone a genetic bottleneck due to breeding, resulting in limited genetic diversity in the germplasm that is utilized for breeding new cultivars. Therefore, it is critical to recognize the best platforms for identifying genome-wide polymorphisms that can help identify, and consequently preserve, the diversity in a genetically constrained species. For the identification of polymorphisms in five closely related genotypes of sweet cherry, a gel-based approach (TRAP, reduced representation sequencing (TRAPseq, a 6k cherry SNParray, and whole genome sequencing (WGS approaches were evaluated in the identification of genome-wide polymorphisms in sweet cherry cultivars. All platforms facilitated detection of polymorphisms among the genotypes with variable efficiency. In assessing multiple SNP detection platforms, this study has demonstrated that a combination of appropriate approaches is necessary for efficient polymorphism identification, especially between closely related cultivars of a species. The information generated in this study provides a valuable resource for future genetic and genomic studies in sweet cherry, and the insights gained from the evaluation of multiple approaches can be utilized for other closely related species with limited genetic diversity in the breeding germplasm. Keywords: Polymorphisms, Prunus avium, Next-generation sequencing, Target region amplification polymorphism (TRAP, Genetic diversity, SNParray, Reduced representation sequencing, Whole genome sequencing (WGS

  6. Inheritance of Hetero-Diploid Pollen S-Haplotype in Self-Compatible Tetraploid Chinese Cherry (Prunus pseudocerasus Lindl)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Chao; Liu, Qing-Zhong; Yang, Ya-Nan; Zhang, Shu-Jun; Khan, Muhammad Awais; Wu, Jun; Zhang, Shao-Ling

    2013-01-01

    The breakdown of self-incompatibility, which could result from the accumulation of non-functional S-haplotypes or competitive interaction between two different functional S-haplotypes, has been studied extensively at the molecular level in tetraploid Rosaceae species. In this study, two tetraploid Chinese cherry (Prunus pseudocerasus) cultivars and one diploid sweet cherry (Prunus avium) cultivar were used to investigate the ploidy of pollen grains and inheritance of pollen-S alleles. Genetic analysis of the S-genotypes of two intercross-pollinated progenies showed that the pollen grains derived from Chinese cherry cultivars were hetero-diploid, and that the two S-haplotypes were made up of every combination of two of the four possible S-haplotypes. Moreover, the distributions of single S-haplotypes expressed in self- and intercross-pollinated progenies were in disequilibrium. The number of individuals of the two different S-haplotypes was unequal in two self-pollinated and two intercross-pollinated progenies. Notably, the number of individuals containing two different S-haplotypes (S1- and S5-, S5- and S8-, S1- and S4-haplotype) was larger than that of other individuals in the two self-pollinated progenies, indicating that some of these hetero-diploid pollen grains may have the capability to inactivate stylar S-RNase inside the pollen tube and grow better into the ovaries. PMID:23596519

  7. Inheritance of hetero-diploid pollen S-haplotype in self-compatible tetraploid Chinese cherry (Prunus pseudocerasus Lindl.

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    Chao Gu

    Full Text Available The breakdown of self-incompatibility, which could result from the accumulation of non-functional S-haplotypes or competitive interaction between two different functional S-haplotypes, has been studied extensively at the molecular level in tetraploid Rosaceae species. In this study, two tetraploid Chinese cherry (Prunus pseudocerasus cultivars and one diploid sweet cherry (Prunus avium cultivar were used to investigate the ploidy of pollen grains and inheritance of pollen-S alleles. Genetic analysis of the S-genotypes of two intercross-pollinated progenies showed that the pollen grains derived from Chinese cherry cultivars were hetero-diploid, and that the two S-haplotypes were made up of every combination of two of the four possible S-haplotypes. Moreover, the distributions of single S-haplotypes expressed in self- and intercross-pollinated progenies were in disequilibrium. The number of individuals of the two different S-haplotypes was unequal in two self-pollinated and two intercross-pollinated progenies. Notably, the number of individuals containing two different S-haplotypes (S1- and S5-, S5- and S8-, S1- and S4-haplotype was larger than that of other individuals in the two self-pollinated progenies, indicating that some of these hetero-diploid pollen grains may have the capability to inactivate stylar S-RNase inside the pollen tube and grow better into the ovaries.

  8. Endophytic bacteria in plant tissue culture: differences between easy- and difficult-to-propagate Prunus avium genotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quambusch, Mona; Pirttilä, Anna Maria; Tejesvi, Mysore V; Winkelmann, Traud; Bartsch, Melanie

    2014-05-01

    The endophytic bacterial communities of six Prunus avium L. genotypes differing in their growth patterns during in vitro propagation were identified by culture-dependent and culture-independent methods. Five morphologically distinct isolates from tissue culture material were identified by 16S rDNA sequence analysis. To detect and analyze the uncultivable fraction of endophytic bacteria, a clone library was established from the amplified 16S rDNA of total plant extract. Bacterial diversity within the clone libraries was analyzed by amplified ribosomal rDNA restriction analysis and by sequencing a clone for each identified operational taxonomic unit. The most abundant bacterial group was Mycobacterium sp., which was identified in the clone libraries of all analyzed Prunus genotypes. Other dominant bacterial genera identified in the easy-to-propagate genotypes were Rhodopseudomonas sp. and Microbacterium sp. Thus, the community structures in the easy- and difficult-to-propagate cherry genotypes differed significantly. The bacterial genera, which were previously reported to have plant growth-promoting effects, were detected only in genotypes with high propagation success, indicating a possible positive impact of these bacteria on in vitro propagation of P. avium, which was proven in an inoculation experiment. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved.

  9. Invasion by the Alien Tree Prunus serotina Alters Ecosystem Functions in a Temperate Deciduous Forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aerts, Raf; Ewald, Michael; Nicolas, Manuel; Piat, Jérôme; Skowronek, Sandra; Lenoir, Jonathan; Hattab, Tarek; Garzón-López, Carol X.; Feilhauer, Hannes; Schmidtlein, Sebastian; Rocchini, Duccio; Decocq, Guillaume; Somers, Ben; Van De Kerchove, Ruben; Denef, Karolien; Honnay, Olivier

    2017-01-01

    Alien invasive species can affect large areas, often with wide-ranging impacts on ecosystem structure, function, and services. Prunus serotina is a widespread invader of European temperate forests, where it tends to form homogeneous stands and limits recruitment of indigenous trees. We hypotesized that invasion by P. serotina would be reflected in the nutrient contents of the native species' leaves and in the respiration of invaded plots as efficient resource uptake and changes in nutrient cycling by P. serotina probably underly its aggressive invasiveness. We combined data from 48 field plots in the forest of Compiègne, France, and data from an experiment using 96 microcosms derived from those field plots. We used general linear models to separate effects of invasion by P. serotina on heterotrophic soil and litter respiration rates and on canopy foliar nutrient content from effects of soil chemical properties, litter quantity, litter species composition, and tree species composition. In invaded stands, average respiration rates were 5.6% higher for soil (without litter) and 32% higher for soil and litter combined. Compared to indigenous tree species, P. serotina exhibited higher foliar N (+24.0%), foliar P (+50.7%), and lower foliar C:N (−22.4%) and N:P (−10.1%) ratios. P. serotina affected foliar nutrient contents of co-occuring indigenous tree species leading to decreased foliar N (−8.7 %) and increased C:N ratio (+9.5%) in Fagus sylvatica, decreased foliar N:P ratio in Carpinus betulus (−13.5%) and F. sylvatica (−11.8%), and increased foliar P in Pinus sylvestris (+12.3%) in invaded vs. uninvaded stands. Our results suggest that P. serotina is changing nitrogen, phosphorus, and carbon cycles to its own advantage, hereby increasing carbon turnover via labile litter, affecting the relative nutrient contents in the overstory leaves, and potentially altering the photosynthetic capacity of the long-lived indigenous broadleaved species. Uncontrolled

  10. Mites fluctuation population on peach tree (Prunus persica (L. Batsch and in associated plants

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    Carla Rosana Eichelberger

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Despite the importance of peach (Prunus persica (L. Batsch in Rio Grande do Sul, little is known about mites fluctuation population considered important to this crop. The objective of this study was to know the population diversity and fluctuation of mite species associated with Premier and Eldorado varieties in Roca Sales and Venâncio Aires counties, Rio Grande do Sul. The study was conducted from July 2008 to June 2009 when 15 plants were randomly chosen in each area. The plants were divided in quadrants and from each one a branch was chosen from which three leaves were removed: one collected in the apical region, another in the medium and the other in the basal region, totalizing 180 leaves/area. Five of the most abundant associated plants were collected monthly in enough amounts for the screening under the stereoscopic microscope during an hour. A total of 1,124 mites were found belonging to 14 families and 28 species. Tetranychus ludeni Zacher, 1913, Panonychus ulmi (Koch, 1836 and Mononychellus planki (McGregor, 1950 were the most abundant phytophagous mites, whereas Typhlodromalus aripo Deleon, 1967 and Phytoseiulus macropilis (Banks, 1904 the most common predatory mites. The period of one hour under stereoscopic microscope was enough to get a representative sample. In both places evaluated the ecologic indices were low, but little higherin Premier (H' 0.56; EqJ: 0.43 when compared to Eldorado (H' 0.53; EqJ 0.40. In Premier constant species were not observed and accessory only Brevipalpus phoenicis (Geijskes, 1939, T. ludeni and T. aripo. Higher abundance was observed in December and January and bigger amount in April. Already in Eldorado, T. ludeni and P. ulmi were constants. Greater abundance was observed in November and December, whereas grater richness in December and January. In both orchards were not found mites in buds. Tetranychus ludeni is the most abundant phytophagous mites with outbreak population in November, December and

  11. Transcriptional Responses in root and leaf of Prunus persica Under Drought Stress Using RNA Sequencing

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    Najla Ksouri

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Prunus persica L. Batch, or peach, is one of the most important crops and it is widely established in irrigated arid and semi-arid regions. However, due to variations in the climate and the increased aridity, drought has become a major constraint, causing crop losses worldwide. The use of drought-tolerant rootstocks in modern fruit production appears to be a useful method of alleviating water deficit problems. However, the transcriptomic variation and the major molecular mechanisms that underlie the adaptation of drought-tolerant rootstocks to water shortage remain unclear. Hence, in this study, high-throughput sequencing (RNA-seq was performed to assess the transcriptomic changes and the key genes involved in the response to drought in root tissues (GF677 rootstock and leaf tissues (graft, var. Catherina subjected to 16 days of drought stress. In total, 12 RNA libraries were constructed and sequenced. This generated a total of 315M raw reads from both tissues, which allowed the assembly of 22,079 and 17,854 genes associated with the root and leaf tissues, respectively. Subsets of 500 differentially expressed genes (DEGs in roots and 236 in leaves were identified and functionally annotated with 56 gene ontology (GO terms and 99 metabolic pathways, which were mostly associated with aminobenzoate degradation and phenylpropanoid biosynthesis. The GO analysis highlighted the biological functions that were exclusive to the root tissue, such as locomotion, hormone metabolic process, and detection of stimulus, indicating the stress-buffering role of the GF677 rootstock. Furthermore, the complex regulatory network involved in the drought response was revealed, involving proteins that are associated with signaling transduction, transcription and hormone regulation, redox homeostasis, and frontline barriers. We identified two poorly characterized genes in P. persica: growth-regulating factor 5 (GRF5, which may be involved in cellular expansion, and AtHB12

  12. Transcriptional Responses in Root and Leaf of Prunus persica under Drought Stress Using RNA Sequencing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ksouri, Najla; Jiménez, Sergio; Wells, Christina E.; Contreras-Moreira, Bruno; Gogorcena, Yolanda

    2016-01-01

    Prunus persica L. Batsch, or peach, is one of the most important crops and it is widely established in irrigated arid and semi-arid regions. However, due to variations in the climate and the increased aridity, drought has become a major constraint, causing crop losses worldwide. The use of drought-tolerant rootstocks in modern fruit production appears to be a useful method of alleviating water deficit problems. However, the transcriptomic variation and the major molecular mechanisms that underlie the adaptation of drought-tolerant rootstocks to water shortage remain unclear. Hence, in this study, high-throughput sequencing (RNA-seq) was performed to assess the transcriptomic changes and the key genes involved in the response to drought in root tissues (GF677 rootstock) and leaf tissues (graft, var. Catherina) subjected to 16 days of drought stress. In total, 12 RNA libraries were constructed and sequenced. This generated a total of 315 M raw reads from both tissues, which allowed the assembly of 22,079 and 17,854 genes associated with the root and leaf tissues, respectively. Subsets of 500 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in roots and 236 in leaves were identified and functionally annotated with 56 gene ontology (GO) terms and 99 metabolic pathways, which were mostly associated with aminobenzoate degradation and phenylpropanoid biosynthesis. The GO analysis highlighted the biological functions that were exclusive to the root tissue, such as “locomotion,” “hormone metabolic process,” and “detection of stimulus,” indicating the stress-buffering role of the GF677 rootstock. Furthermore, the complex regulatory network involved in the drought response was revealed, involving proteins that are associated with signaling transduction, transcription and hormone regulation, redox homeostasis, and frontline barriers. We identified two poorly characterized genes in P. persica: growth-regulating factor 5 (GRF5), which may be involved in cellular expansion, and

  13. Estabelecimento e multiplicação in vitro de porta-enxertos de Prunus

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    Silva Aparecido Lima da

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available A qualidade genética e sanitária das mudas é de fundamental importância para o sucesso da fruticultura moderna. Para o pessegueiro, a micropropagação vem permitindo a produção clonal massal de plantas, com matrizes e mudas de qualidade genética-sanitária comprovada. O presente trabalho objetivou avaliar a taxa de sobrevivência de explantes no estabelecimento in vitro, bem como avaliar o potencial de multiplicação in vitro de porta-enxertos de Prunus. Explantes constituídos por ápices caulinares e gemas laterais dos porta-enxertos Capdeboscq e GF677 e da seleção VP411 foram estabelecidos e multiplicados in vitro em meio de cultura de Lepoivre suplementado com BAP (0,5 mg.L-1. A taxa média de sobrevivência para os porta-enxertos foi 62,9% para ápices caulinares e 58,8% para gemas laterais. Ápices caulinares e gemas laterais apresentaram 14,8% e 29,8% de contaminação, respectivamente. O genótipo afetou significativamente as taxas de multiplicação in vitro. Quanto ao número de brotos por explantes, o porta-enxerto Capdeboscq e a seleção VP411 foram superiores ao porta-enxerto GF677, resultando em 14,7; 16,0 e 10,5 brotos, respectivamente. Para a altura média dos brotos, os porta-enxertos Capdeboscq e GF677 foram superiores à seleção VP411 com 9,3; 8,9 e 7,8 mm, respectivamente. O porta-enxerto Capdeboscq foi superior ao porta-enxerto GF677 e à seleção VP411 na variável número de brotos >20 mm com 2,0; 1,3 e 1,0 brotos, respectivamente.

  14. Analysis of intra-host genetic diversity of Prunus necrotic ringspot virus (PNRSV using amplicon next generation sequencing.

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    Wycliff M Kinoti

    Full Text Available PCR amplicon next generation sequencing (NGS analysis offers a broadly applicable and targeted approach to detect populations of both high- or low-frequency virus variants in one or more plant samples. In this study, amplicon NGS was used to explore the diversity of the tripartite genome virus, Prunus necrotic ringspot virus (PNRSV from 53 PNRSV-infected trees using amplicons from conserved gene regions of each of PNRSV RNA1, RNA2 and RNA3. Sequencing of the amplicons from 53 PNRSV-infected trees revealed differing levels of polymorphism across the three different components of the PNRSV genome with a total number of 5040, 2083 and 5486 sequence variants observed for RNA1, RNA2 and RNA3 respectively. The RNA2 had the lowest diversity of sequences compared to RNA1 and RNA3, reflecting the lack of flexibility tolerated by the replicase gene that is encoded by this RNA component. Distinct PNRSV phylo-groups, consisting of closely related clusters of sequence variants, were observed in each of PNRSV RNA1, RNA2 and RNA3. Most plant samples had a single phylo-group for each RNA component. Haplotype network analysis showed that smaller clusters of PNRSV sequence variants were genetically connected to the largest sequence variant cluster within a phylo-group of each RNA component. Some plant samples had sequence variants occurring in multiple PNRSV phylo-groups in at least one of each RNA and these phylo-groups formed distinct clades that represent PNRSV genetic strains. Variants within the same phylo-group of each Prunus plant sample had ≥97% similarity and phylo-groups within a Prunus plant sample and between samples had less ≤97% similarity. Based on the analysis of diversity, a definition of a PNRSV genetic strain was proposed. The proposed definition was applied to determine the number of PNRSV genetic strains in each of the plant samples and the complexity in defining genetic strains in multipartite genome viruses was explored.

  15. Antioxidant Activity and Phenolic Content of Sweet Cherries (Prunus Avium L. from West and South-West of Romania

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    Sofia Popescu

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available A diet rich in fruits and vegetables is associated with a lower incidence of degenerative diseases (such as cardiovascular disease and certain types of cancers. Currently, most research is focused on the content of polyphenols and antioxidant compounds found in fruit and vegetable. Sweet cherries (Prunus avium L. contain a significant amount of polyphenols and several antioxidants that possess many biological activities such as anticancer, antioxidant and anti-inflammation properties. In present study were investigated the quantification of total polyphenols and antioxidant capacity in fruits of a number of selected sweet cherry genotypes. Although sweet cherry fruits are a significant source of different phenolic compounds, antioxidant activity of sweet cherries is not related only with the total phenolic content.  

  16. Adsorption Properties of Low-Cost Biomaterial Derived from Prunus amygdalus L. for Dye Removal from Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deniz, Fatih

    2013-01-01

    The capability of Prunus amygdalus L. (almond) shell for dye removal from aqueous solutions was investigated and methyl orange was used as a model compound. The effects of operational parameters including pH, ionic strength, adsorbent concentration and mesh size, dye concentration, contact time, and temperature on the removal of dye were evaluated. The adsorption kinetics conformed to the pseudo-second-order kinetic model. The equilibrium data pointed out excellent fit to the Langmuir isotherm model with maximum monolayer adsorption capacity of 41.34 mg g−1 at 293 K. Thermodynamic analysis proved a spontaneous, favorable, and exothermic process. It can be concluded that almond shell might be a potential low-cost adsorbent for methyl orange removal from aqueous media. PMID:23935442

  17. Adsorption Properties of Low-Cost Biomaterial Derived from Prunus amygdalus L. for Dye Removal from Water

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    Fatih Deniz

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The capability of Prunus amygdalus L. (almond shell for dye removal from aqueous solutions was investigated and methyl orange was used as a model compound. The effects of operational parameters including pH, ionic strength, adsorbent concentration and mesh size, dye concentration, contact time, and temperature on the removal of dye were evaluated. The adsorption kinetics conformed to the pseudo-second-order kinetic model. The equilibrium data pointed out excellent fit to the Langmuir isotherm model with maximum monolayer adsorption capacity of 41.34 mg g−1 at 293 K. Thermodynamic analysis proved a spontaneous, favorable, and exothermic process. It can be concluded that almond shell might be a potential low-cost adsorbent for methyl orange removal from aqueous media.

  18. Adsorption properties of low-cost biomaterial derived from Prunus amygdalus L. for dye removal from water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deniz, Fatih

    2013-01-01

    The capability of Prunus amygdalus L. (almond) shell for dye removal from aqueous solutions was investigated and methyl orange was used as a model compound. The effects of operational parameters including pH, ionic strength, adsorbent concentration and mesh size, dye concentration, contact time, and temperature on the removal of dye were evaluated. The adsorption kinetics conformed to the pseudo-second-order kinetic model. The equilibrium data pointed out excellent fit to the Langmuir isotherm model with maximum monolayer adsorption capacity of 41.34 mg g(-1) at 293 K. Thermodynamic analysis proved a spontaneous, favorable, and exothermic process. It can be concluded that almond shell might be a potential low-cost adsorbent for methyl orange removal from aqueous media.

  19. Efficient removal of Acid Green 25 dye from wastewater using activated Prunus Dulcis as biosorbent: Batch and column studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Suyog N; Gogate, Parag R

    2018-03-15

    Biosorbent synthesized from dead leaves of Prunus Dulcis with chemical activation during the synthesis was applied for the removal of Acid Green 25 dye from wastewater. The obtained biosorbent was characterized using Brunauer-Emmett-Teller analysis, Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy measurements. It was demonstrated that alkali treatment during the synthesis significantly increased surface area of biosorbent from 67.205 to 426.346 m 2 /g. The effect of various operating parameters on dye removal was investigated in batch operation and optimum values of parameters were established as pH of 2, 14 g/L as the dose of natural biosorbent and 6 g/L as the dose of alkali treated biosorbent. Relative error values were determined to check fitting of obtained data to the different kinetic and isotherm models. It was established that pseudo-second order kinetic model and Langmuir isotherm fitted suitably to the obtained batch experimental data. Maximum biosorption capacity values were estimated as 22.68 and 50.79 mg/g for natural biosorbent and for alkali activated Prunus Dulcis, respectively. Adsorption was observed as endothermic and activation energy of 6.22 kJ/mol confirmed physical type of adsorption. Column experiments were also conducted to probe the effectiveness of biosorbent for practical applications in continuous operation. Breakthrough parameters were established by studying the effect of biosorbent height, flow rate of dye solution and initial dye concentration on the extent of dye removal. The maximum biosorption capacity under optimized conditions in the column operation was estimated as 28.57 mg/g. Thomas and Yoon-Nelson models were found to be suitably fitted to obtained column data. Reusability study carried out in batch and continuous column operations confirmed that synthesized biosorbent can be used repeatedly for dye removal from wastewater. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. De novo transcriptome assembly and comparative analysis of differentially expressed genes in Prunus dulcis Mill. in response to freezing stress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadegh Mousavi

    Full Text Available Almond (Prunus dulcis Mill., one of the most important nut crops, requires chilling during winter to develop fruiting buds. However, early spring chilling and late spring frost may damage the reproductive tissues leading to reduction in the rate of productivity. Despite the importance of transcriptional changes and regulation, little is known about the almond's transcriptome under the cold stress conditions. In the current research, we used RNA-seq technique to study the response of the reproductive tissues of almond (anther and ovary to frost stress. RNA sequencing resulted in more than 20 million reads from anther and ovary tissues of almond, individually. About 40,000 contigs were assembled and annotated de novo in each tissue. Profile of gene expression in ovary showed significant alterations in 5,112 genes, whereas in anther 6,926 genes were affected by freezing stress. Around two thousands of these genes were common altered genes in both ovary and anther libraries. Gene ontology indicated the involvement of differentially expressed (DE genes, responding to freezing stress, in metabolic and cellular processes. qRT-PCR analysis verified the expression pattern of eight genes randomly selected from the DE genes. In conclusion, the almond gene index assembled in this study and the reported DE genes can provide great insights on responses of almond and other Prunus species to abiotic stresses. The obtained results from current research would add to the limited available information on almond and Rosaceae. Besides, the findings would be very useful for comparative studies as the number of DE genes reported here is much higher than that of any previous reports in this plant.

  1. De novo transcriptome assembly and comparative analysis of differentially expressed genes in Prunus dulcis Mill. in response to freezing stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mousavi, Sadegh; Alisoltani, Arghavan; Shiran, Behrouz; Fallahi, Hossein; Ebrahimie, Esameil; Imani, Ali; Houshmand, Saadollah

    2014-01-01

    Almond (Prunus dulcis Mill.), one of the most important nut crops, requires chilling during winter to develop fruiting buds. However, early spring chilling and late spring frost may damage the reproductive tissues leading to reduction in the rate of productivity. Despite the importance of transcriptional changes and regulation, little is known about the almond's transcriptome under the cold stress conditions. In the current research, we used RNA-seq technique to study the response of the reproductive tissues of almond (anther and ovary) to frost stress. RNA sequencing resulted in more than 20 million reads from anther and ovary tissues of almond, individually. About 40,000 contigs were assembled and annotated de novo in each tissue. Profile of gene expression in ovary showed significant alterations in 5,112 genes, whereas in anther 6,926 genes were affected by freezing stress. Around two thousands of these genes were common altered genes in both ovary and anther libraries. Gene ontology indicated the involvement of differentially expressed (DE) genes, responding to freezing stress, in metabolic and cellular processes. qRT-PCR analysis verified the expression pattern of eight genes randomly selected from the DE genes. In conclusion, the almond gene index assembled in this study and the reported DE genes can provide great insights on responses of almond and other Prunus species to abiotic stresses. The obtained results from current research would add to the limited available information on almond and Rosaceae. Besides, the findings would be very useful for comparative studies as the number of DE genes reported here is much higher than that of any previous reports in this plant.

  2. Green synthesis of nitrogen-doped graphitic carbon sheets with use of Prunus persica for supercapacitor applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atchudan, Raji, E-mail: atchudanr@yu.ac.kr [School of Chemical Engineering, Yeungnam University, Gyeongsan 38541 (Korea, Republic of); Edison, Thomas Nesakumar Jebakumar Immanuel [School of Chemical Engineering, Yeungnam University, Gyeongsan 38541 (Korea, Republic of); Perumal, Suguna [Department of Applied Chemistry, Kyungpook National University, Daegu 41566 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Yong Rok, E-mail: yrlee@yu.ac.kr [School of Chemical Engineering, Yeungnam University, Gyeongsan 38541 (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-01-30

    Highlights: • N-GCSs was synthesized from the unripe Prunus persica by direct hydrothermal method. • The resulting N-GCSs-2 exhibit an excellent graphitization with 9.33% of nitrogen. • N-GCSs-2 provide high C{sub s} of 176 F g{sup −1} at current density of 0.1 A g{sup −1} in 1 M H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}. • N-GCSs-2 have high capacitance retention and 20% capacity growth after 2000 cycles. • First time, N-GCSs resulted from peach via green route for flexible supercapacitors. - Abstract: Nitrogen-doped graphitic carbon sheets (N-GCSs) were prepared from the extract of unripe Prunus persica fruit by a direct hydrothermal method. The synthesized N-GCSs were examined by high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), nitrogen adsorption-desorption isotherms, X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. HRTEM showed that the synthesized carbon sheets were graphitic with lattice fringes and an inter-layer distance of 0.36 nm. Doping with the nitrogen moiety present over the synthesized GCSs was confirmed by XPS, FT-IR spectroscopy, and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy elemental mapping. The fruit extract associated with hydrothermal-carbonization method is economical and eco-friendly with a single step process. The resulting carbon sheets could be modified and are promising candidates for nano-electronic applications, including supercapacitors. The synthesized N-GCSs-2 provided a high specific capacitance of 176 F g{sup −1} at a current density of 0.1 A g{sup −1}. This electrode material has excellent cyclic stability, even after 2000 cycles of charge-discharge at a current density of 0.5 A g{sup −1}.

  3. An assessment of Osmia rufa (syn. bicornis) as a pollinator of the sour cherry (Prunus cerasus) cv. Stevnsbaer in eastern Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansted, Lise; Grout, Brian William Wilson; Toldam-Andersen, Torben Bo

    2014-01-01

    The sour cherry (Prunus cerasus) cv. Stevnsbaer is self-fertile but it is recommended that bees are placed in the orchards during flowering. The solitary bee Osmia rufa can be managed, and has previously been suggested as an alternative pollinator to Apis mellifera, so consequently, this study...... suggest that the use of O. rufa as an alternative pollinator to A. mellifera in this instance is not realistic....

  4. Synthesis of Iron Nanoparticles using Extracts of Native Fruits of Ecuador, as Capuli (Prunus serotina) and Mortiño (Vaccinium floribundum)

    OpenAIRE

    Arroyo Rodríguez, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    This study describes an eco-friendly synthesis for the production of zero-valent iron nanoparticles (nZVIs). Extracts of capulí (Prunus serotina) and mortiño (Vaccinium floribundum) were used as reducing and stabilizer agents. Freshly prepared nanoparticles were characterized with Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS), Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), X-ray Diffraction (XRD) and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrometry (FTIR). Zerovalent iron nanoparticles with mortiño extract (V. ...

  5. Power, policy and the Prunus africana bark trade, 1972-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, A; Anoncho, V F; Sunderland, T

    2016-02-03

    After almost 50 years of international trade in wild harvested medicinal bark from Africa and Madagascar, the example of Prunus africana holds several lessons for both policy and practice in the fields of forestry, conservation and rural development. Due to recent CITES restrictions on P. africana exports from Burundi, Kenya and Madagascar, coupled with the lifting of the 2007 European Union (EU) ban in 2011, Cameroon's share of the global P. africana bark trade has risen from an average of 38% between 1995 and 2004, to 72.6% (658.6 metric tons) in 2012. Cameroon is therefore at the center of this international policy arena. This paper draws upon several approaches, combining knowledge in working with P. africana over a 30-year period with a thorough literature review and updated trade data with "ground-truthing" in the field in 2013 and 2014. This enabled the construction of a good perspective on trade volumes (1991-2012), bark prices (and value-chain data) and the gaps between research reports and practice. Two approaches provided excellent lenses for a deeper understanding of policy failure and the "knowing-doing gap" in the P. africana case. A similar approach to Médard's (1992) analyses of power, politics and African development was taken and secondly, studies of commodity chains that assess the power relations that coalesce around different commodities (Ribot, 1998; Ribot and Peluso, 2003). Despite the need to conserve genetically and chemically diverse P. africana, wild populations are vulnerable, even in several "protected areas" in Burundi, Cameroon, the Democratic Republic of Congo and in the forest reserves of Madagascar. Secondly, hopes of decentralized governance of this forest product are misplaced due to elite capture, market monopolies and subsidized management regimes. At the current European price, for P. africana bark (US$6 per kg) for example, the 2012 bark quota (658.675t) from Cameroon alone was worth over US$3.9 million, with the majority of

  6. Effects of processing techniques on oxidative stability of Prunus pedunculatus seed oil; Efectos de las técnicas de procesamiento sobre la estabilidad oxidativa del aceite de semilla de Prunus pedunculatus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yan, J.; Guo, M.M.; Shen, Y. H.; Wang, Y.Y.; Luan, X.; Li, C.

    2017-07-01

    This paper investigated the effects of Prunus pedunculatus (P. pedunculatus) seed pre-treatment, including microwaving (M), roasting (R), steaming (S) and roasting plus steaming (RS) on crude oil quality in terms of yield, color change, fatty acid composition, and oxidative stability. The results showed an increase in monounsaturated fatty acid content and oxidative stability of the oils obtained from different processing treatments compared to the oil obtained from raw seeds (RW) without processing. The oils, obtained from pretreated seeds, had higher conjugated diene (CD) and 2-thiobarbituric acid (2-TBA) values, compared to that obtained from RW when stored in a Schaal oven at 65 °C for 168 h. However, polyphenol and tocopherol contents decreased in all oil samples, processed or unprocessed. The effect of pre-treating the seeds was more prominent in the oil sample obtained through the RS technique, and showed higher oxidative stability than the other processed oils and the oil from RW. [Spanish] Se investigó los efectos del pretratamiento de las semillas de Prunus pedunculatus, incluyendo microondas (M), tostado (R), cocción al vapor (S) y torrefacción más vapor (RS), sobre la calidad del aceite crudo, el rendimiento, cambio de color, composición en ácidos grasos y estabilidad oxidativa. Los resultados mostraron un aumento en el contenido de ácidos grasos monoinsaturados y en la estabilidad oxidativa de los aceites obtenidos con diferentes tratamientos de procesamiento en comparación con el aceite obtenido a partir de semillas crudas (RW) sin procesamiento. Los aceites obtenidos a partir de semillas pretratadas presentaron mayores valores de dienos conjugados (CD) y de ácido 2-tiobarbitúrico (2-TBA), comparado con el obtenido de RW cuando se almacenaron en horno a 65 °C durante 168 h. Sin embargo, el contenido de polifenoles y tocoferoles disminuyó en todas las muestras de aceites, procesadas o no procesadas. El efecto del pretratamiento de las

  7. UTILIZACION DE ISOENZIMAS DE EXTRACTOS DE HOJAS EN LA CARACTERIZACION DE CULTIVARES DE DURAZNERO (Prunus persica (L Batsch THE USE OF ISOZYME LEAF EXTRACTS IN THE CHARACTERIZATION OF PEACH CULTIVARS (Prunus persica L Batsch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HECTOR ABEL ALTUBE

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available La caracterización de cultivares de duraznero (Prunus persica (L Batsch se hace por medio de la descripción de caracteres agronómicos y morfológicos codificados por organizaciones internacionales, los cuales están fuertemente influenciados por el ambiente. Se han buscado métodos alternativos de caracterización y las isoenzimas han sido utilizadas por su independencia de las condiciones del ambiente, además de identificar individuos en etapas tempranas de su desarrollo. El objetivo del presente estudio es caracterizar cultivares de duraznero mediante el análisis isoenzimático de catecol oxidasas, fosfatasas ácidas, esterazas y peroxidazos en extractos de hojas. Los cultivares de duraznero analizados presentaron bajo polimorfismo isoenzimático, las esterazas caracterizaron diez cultivares, las catecol oxidasas un cultivar agrupándose el resto en cinco modelos, las fosfatasas ácidas caracterizaron dos cultivares agrupándose los otros en siete modelos y las peroxidazos formaron tres grupos. Ello puede explicarse ya que el duraznero es una especie autofértil y presenta una base genética muy reducida. Los evidentes límites discriminatorios de este tipo de análisis hacen que su aporte sea sólo complementario a los métodos de los caracteres agronómicos y morfológicos.Characterization of peach cultivars (Prunus persica (L Batsh was made by description of agronomical and morphological characters codified from international organizations, which are strongly affected by environmental conditions. Alternative methods of characterization have been searched, and isoenzymes have been used as independent of environmental conditions in addition to identify some individuals in early stages of development. The goal of this study is the peach cultivars characterization by isoenzymatic analysis of catecol oxidases, acid phosphatases, esterases and peroxidases within the leaf extracts. The peach cultivars analyzed have showed low isoenzymatic

  8. The effect of the time of budding of mahaleb cherry (Prunus mahaleb L. seedlings on the quality of maiden trees of sour cherry (Prunus cerasus L. 'Łutówka'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Baryła

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted at the Felin Experi- mental Farm, belonging to the University of Life Sciences in Lublin, during the period 2005–2008. The experimental material consisted of maiden trees of sour cherry 'Łutówka' budded on seedlings of mahaleb cherry (Prunus mahaleb L. of unknown origin. The experiment evaluated the effect of four budding times: 15 July, 1 August, 15 August, and 1 September, on the quality of cherry trees in a nursery. The mean for the three years showed that budding time did not have a significant effect on the quality of cherry trees in the nursery. It was observed that the budding of mahaleb cherry performed on the two August dates (1st and 15th had a more beneficial effect on the growth and branching of trees than the budding done on 15 July and 1 September. The quality of maiden cherry trees 'Łutówka' in the nursery was primarily dependent on weather conditions in a given growing season, which is evidenced by the significant differences between production cycles, high variation in the quantitative results in individual years, and the absence of significant differences in the mean for 2006–2008.

  9. Leaf age affects the responses of foliar injury and gas exchange to tropospheric ozone in Prunus serotina seedlings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Jianwei, E-mail: jianweizhang@fs.fed.u [Environmental Resources Research Institute, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); School of Forest Resources, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Schaub, Marcus; Ferdinand, Jonathan A. [Environmental Resources Research Institute, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Skelly, John M. [Department of Plant Pathology, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Steiner, Kim C. [School of Forest Resources, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Savage, James E. [Department of Plant Pathology, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States)

    2010-08-15

    We investigated the effect of leaf age on the response of net photosynthesis (A), stomatal conductance (g{sub wv}), foliar injury, and leaf nitrogen concentration (N{sub L}) to tropospheric ozone (O{sub 3}) on Prunus serotina seedlings grown in open-plots (AA) and open-top chambers, supplied with either carbon-filtered or non-filtered air. We found significant variation in A, g{sub wv}, foliar injury, and N{sub L} (P < 0.05) among O{sub 3} treatments. Seedlings in AA showed the highest A and g{sub wv} due to relatively low vapor pressure deficit (VPD). Older leaves showed significantly lower A, g{sub wv}, N{sub L}, and higher foliar injury (P < 0.001) than younger leaves. Leaf age affected the response of A, g{sub wv}, and foliar injury to O{sub 3}. Both VPD and N{sub L} had a strong influence on leaf gas exchange. Foliar O{sub 3}-induced injury appeared when cumulative O{sub 3} uptake reached 8-12 mmol m{sup -2}, depending on soil water availability. The mechanistic assessment of O{sub 3}-induced injury is a valuable approach for a biologically relevant O{sub 3} risk assessment for forest trees. - Ozone effects on symptom development and leaf gas exchange interacted with leaf age and N-content on black cherry seedlings.

  10. Chemical characterization and thermal properties of kernel oils from Tunisian peach and nectarine varieties of Prunus persica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Chamli

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available A comparative study was conducted to determine the fatty acids, triacylglycerol compositions and thermal properties of Tunisian kernel oils from the Prunus persica varieties, peach and nectarine, grown in two areas of Tunisia, Gabes and Morneg. Qualitatively, the fatty acids composition and triacylglycerol species were identical for all samples. Oleic acid (67.7-75.0% was the main fatty acid, followed by linoleic (15.7-22.1% and palmitic (5.6-6.3% acids. The major triacylglycerol species were triolein, OOO (38.4-50.5%, followed by OOL (18.2-23.2%, POO (8.3-9.7% and OLL (6.3-10.1%. The thermal profiles were highly influenced by the high content of triolein due to the importance of oleic acid in these oils. Moreover, the fatty acids distribution in TAG external positions was determined as corresponding to an α asymmetry coefficient that was between 0.10 and 0.12, indicating a high asymmetry in the distribution of saturated fatty acids in the position sn-1 and sn-3 in the TAG species of all samples.

  11. Towards further understanding on the antioxidative activities of Prunus persica fruit: A comparative study with four different fractions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhingra, Naveen; Sharma, Rajesh; Kar, Anand

    2014-11-01

    In the present study we have evaluated the antioxidant activities of different fractions (hexane, ethyl acetate, n-butanol and aqueous fractions) of Prunus persica fruit. For extraction simple warring blender method was employed and total phenolic and flavonoid contents were correlated with different antioxidant activities (total antioxidant, 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), H2O2 scavenging, superoxide radical scavenging, iron chelating and their reducing power properties). Different in vitro antioxidant studies showed that ethyl acetate and n-butanol fractions had the maximum activities that were well correlated with total phenolic and flavonoid contents. Maximum yield (25.14 ± 2.2%) was obtained in its aqueous fraction. Both ethyl acetate and n-butanol fractions showed significant inhibitory effects on different antioxidant activities. A significantly high correlation coefficient existed between total antioxidant activities and with total phenolic as well as total flavonoid contents. It appears that ethyl acetate and n-butanol fractions of P. persica may serve as new potential sources of natural antioxidants and could be of therapeutic use in treating several diseases.

  12. 1-Methylcyclopropene affects the antioxidant system of apricots (Prunus armeniaca L. cv. Búlida) during storage at low temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egea, Isabel; Flores, Francisco B; Martínez-Madrid, Maria C; Romojaro, Felix; Sánchez-Bel, Paloma

    2010-03-15

    Apricots (Prunus armeniaca cv. Búlida) were treated with 1 μL L⁻¹ [corrected] 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) immediately after harvest and stored in air at 2 degrees C for 21 days. Antioxidant levels (ascorbic acid and carotenoids), enzymatic antioxidant activities (superoxide dismutase (SOD) and unspecific peroxidase (POX)) and total antioxidant capacity (trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC)) were determined. The level of oxidative stress was also established by measuring ion leakage during storage. The changes in the antioxidant potential of apricots were related to the capacity of 1-MCP to increase their commercial life. 1-MCP-treated fruits exhibited higher SOD activity, whereas POX activity was significantly higher only after 21 days at 2 degrees C. Treated fruits also exhibited better retention of ascorbate and carotenoids and higher TEAC during storage. In accordance with these observations, lower ion leakage values were detected in 1-MCP-treated apricots. Taken together, these results suggest that 1-MCP conferred a greater resistance to oxidative stress. This, along with the reduction in ethylene production, could contribute to the increase in commercial life and nutritional value observed in 1-MCP-treated apricots.

  13. Purification, structure and immunobiological activity of an arabinan-rich pectic polysaccharide from the cell walls of Prunus dulcis seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dourado, Fernando; Madureira, Pedro; Carvalho, Vera; Coelho, Ricardo; Coimbra, Manuel A; Vilanova, Manuel; Mota, Manuel; Gama, Francisco M

    2004-10-20

    The structure and bioactivity of a polysaccharide extracted and purified from a 4M KOH + H3BO3 solution from Prunus dulcis seed cell wall material was studied. Anion-exchange chromatography of the crude extract yielded two sugar-rich fractions: one neutral (A), the other acidic (E). These fractions contain a very similar monosaccharide composition: 5:2:1 for arabinose, uronic acids and xylose, respectively, rhamnose and galactose being present in smaller amounts. As estimated by size-exclusion chromatography, the acidic fraction had an apparent molecular mass of 762 kDa. Methylation analysis (from the crude and fractions A and E), suggests that the polysaccharide is an arabinan-rich pectin. In all cases, the polysaccharides bear the same type of structural Ara moieties with highly branched arabinan-rich pectic polysaccharides. The average relative proportions of the arabinosyl linkages is 3:2:1:1 for T-Araf:(1-->5)-Araf:(1-->3,5)-Araf:(1-->2,3,5)-Araf. The crude polysaccharide extract and fractions A and E induced a murine lymphocyte stimulatory effect, as evaluated by the in vitro and in vivo expression of lymphocyte activation markers and spleen mononuclear cells culture proliferation. The lymphocyte stimulatory effect was stronger on B- than on T-cells. No evidence of cytotoxic effects induced by the polysaccharide fractions was found.

  14. Assessing the Crop-Water Status in Almond (Prunus dulcis Mill. Trees via Thermal Imaging Camera Connected to Smartphone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iván Francisco García-Tejero

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Different tools are being implemented in order to improve the water management in agricultural irrigated areas of semiarid environments. Thermography has been progressively introduced as a promising technique for irrigation scheduling and the assessing of crop-water status, especially when deficit irrigation is being implemented. However, an important limitation is related to the cost of the actual cameras, this being a severe limitation to its practical usage by farmers and technicians. This work evaluates the potential and the robustness of a thermal imaging camera that is connected to smartphone (Flir One recently developed by Flir Systems Inc. as a first step to assess the crop water status. The trial was developed in mature almond (Prunus dulcis Mill. trees that are subjected to different irrigation treatments. Thermal information obtained by the Flir One camera was deal with the thermal information obtained with a conventional Thermal Camera (Flir SC660 with a high resolution, and subsequently, confronted with other related plant physiological parameters (leaf water potential, Ψleaf, and stomatal conductance, gs. Thermal imaging camera connected to smartphone provided useful information in estimating the crop-water status in almond trees, being a potential promising tool to accelerate the monitoring process and thereby enhance water-stress management of almond orchards.

  15. Sweet almond (Prunus amygdalus “dulcis” seeds as a potential feedstock for Nigerian Biodiesel Automotive Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solomon Giwa

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This work presents sweet almond (Prunus amygdalus “dulcis” seed oil (SASO as a non-conventional feedstock for the preparation of biodiesel in Nigeria, rather than the traditional oils of palm, groundnut and palm kernel. SASO was extracted via the solvent method, pretreated to reduce the acid value, and transesterified using methanol (solvent and sodium hydroxide (catalyst. The oil content and acid value of SASO were 51.45 ± 3.92% and 1.07 mg KOH/g, respectively. The fatty acid composition of SASO reveals the predominance of oleic acid (69.7%, linoleic acid (18.2% and palmitic acid (9.3%. Specific fuel properties of sweet almond oil methyl esters (SAOME were determined using standard test methods and were found to satisfy both EN 14214 and ASTM D6751 biodiesel standards; the cold flow properties were particularly outstanding (cloud point; -3ºC and pour point; -9ºC. SASO appears to offer great promise as a potential feedstock for biodiesel production in Nigeria.

  16. Chemical composition and functional properties of gum exudates from the trunk of the almond tree (Prunus dulcis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahfoudhi, N; Chouaibi, M; Donsì, F; Ferrari, G; Hamdi, S

    2012-06-01

    The physicochemical components and functional properties of the gum exudates from the trunk of the almond tree (Prunus dulcis) have been investigated, along with the emulsification and foaming properties. The gum exudates are composed on dry weight basis by 2.45% of proteins, 0.85% of fats and 92.36% of carbohydrates. The latter consist of arabinose, xylitol, galactose and uronic acid (46.8 : 10.9 : 35.5 : 6.0 mass ratio) with traces of rhamnose, mannose and glucose. Moreover, gum exudates are rich in minerals, such as sodium, potassium, magnesium, calcium and iron. The emulsifying capacity was studied for a 20% w/w olive oil in water emulsion as a function of gum concentration (from 3% to 12% w/w in the aqueous phase) as well as pH levels (from 3.0 to 10.0). The most stable and homogeneous emulsion was prepared with an 8% w/w aqueous almond gum solution at a pH between 5.0 and 8.0. In particular, for the same formulation, the emulsion processed by high pressure homogenization (5 passes at 200 MPa) resulted to be extremely stable under accelerated ageing, exhibiting no significant change in droplet size distribution for 14 days at 55 °C. All the tested systems exhibited an extremely low foaming capacity.

  17. In situ seasonal study of the volatile production of almonds (Prunus dulcis) var. 'Nonpareil' and relationship to navel orangeworm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, John J; Merrill, Glory B; Higbee, Bradley S; Light, Douglas M; Gee, Wai S

    2009-05-13

    Nonpareil almonds, Prunus dulcis , account for the largest percentage of almond varieties grown in the Central Valley of California. Several studies have investigated the various nonvolatile and volatile components of various plant parts; however, the volatile organic compound (VOC) emission of almonds from a single cultivar has not been studied over the course of a growing season. This aspect is particularly relevant to research concerning the navel orangeworm (NOW), a major insect pest of almonds and other tree nuts. Despite the continued presence of NOW, the identification of particular VOCs and their relationship to NOW have not been addressed. The VOC emission of Nonpareil almonds was collected in situ over the course of a growing season by solid-phase microextraction (SPME). The VOCs (Z)-hex-3-enyl acetate, (Z)-hex-3-enyl butyrate, undecan-2-ol, beta-bourbonene, and tetradecane were present for the majority of the days investigated. Several VOCs exhibited positive electroantennographic signals from male and/or female NOW moths.

  18. Assessing the Crop-Water Status in Almond (Prunus dulcis Mill.) Trees via Thermal Imaging Camera Connected to Smartphone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Tejero, Iván Francisco; Ortega-Arévalo, Carlos José; Iglesias-Contreras, Manuel; Moreno, José Manuel; Souza, Luciene; Tavira, Simón Cuadros; Durán-Zuazo, Víctor Hugo

    2018-03-31

    Different tools are being implemented in order to improve the water management in agricultural irrigated areas of semiarid environments. Thermography has been progressively introduced as a promising technique for irrigation scheduling and the assessing of crop-water status, especially when deficit irrigation is being implemented. However, an important limitation is related to the cost of the actual cameras, this being a severe limitation to its practical usage by farmers and technicians. This work evaluates the potential and the robustness of a thermal imaging camera that is connected to smartphone (Flir One) recently developed by Flir Systems Inc. as a first step to assess the crop water status. The trial was developed in mature almond ( Prunus dulcis Mill.) trees that are subjected to different irrigation treatments. Thermal information obtained by the Flir One camera was deal with the thermal information obtained with a conventional Thermal Camera (Flir SC660) with a high resolution, and subsequently, confronted with other related plant physiological parameters (leaf water potential, Ψ leaf , and stomatal conductance, g s ). Thermal imaging camera connected to smartphone provided useful information in estimating the crop-water status in almond trees, being a potential promising tool to accelerate the monitoring process and thereby enhance water-stress management of almond orchards.

  19. The Anti-Inflammatory Effect of Prunus yedoensis Bark Extract on Adipose Tissue in Diet-Induced Obese Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hee Kang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic, low-grade inflammatory responses occur in obese adipose tissue and play a crucial role in the development of insulin resistance. Macrophages exposed to high glucose upregulate the expression of SRA, a macrophage-specific scavenger receptor. The present study investigated whether Prunus yedoensis (PY bark extract affects the inflammatory response and scavenger receptor gene expression observed in a diet-induced obesity model in vivo. Oral administration of PY extract significantly reduced fasting blood glucose levels without a change in body weight in mice fed a high fat diet for 17 weeks. PY extract significantly suppressed expression of inflammatory and macrophage genes such as tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-6, and F4/80 in epididymal adipose tissue. Among scavenger receptor genes, SRA expression was significantly reduced. The inhibitory responses of PY extract and its fractions were determined through evaluation of scavenger receptor expression in THP-1 cells. PY extract and its ethyl acetate fraction decreased the levels of SRA mRNA and phospho-ERK1/2 during monocyte differentiation. Our data indicate that the anti-inflammatory effects of PY extract and its downregulation of SRA seem to account for its hypoglycemic effects.

  20. Prunus domestica pathogenesis-related protein-5 activates the defense response pathway and enhances the resistance to fungal infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-kereamy, Ashraf; El-sharkawy, Islam; Ramamoorthy, Rengasamy; Taheri, Ali; Errampalli, Deena; Kumar, Prakash; Jayasankar, Subramanian

    2011-03-23

    Pathogenesis-related protein-5 (PR-5) has been implicated in plant disease resistance and its antifungal activity has been demonstrated in some fruit species. However, their roles, especially their interactions with the other defense responses in plant cells, are still not fully understood. In this study, we have cloned and characterized a new PR-5 cDNA named PdPR5-1 from the European plum (Prunus domestica). Expression of PdPR5-1 was studied in different cultivars varying in resistance to the brown rot disease caused by the necrotrophic fungus Monilinia fructicola. In addition transgenic Arabidopsis, ectopically expressing PdPR5-1 was used to study its role in other plant defense responses after fungal infection. We show that the resistant cultivars exhibited much higher levels of transcripts than the susceptible cultivars during fruit ripening. However, significant rise in the transcript levels after infection with M. fructicola was observed in the susceptible cultivars too. Transgenic Arabidopsis plants exhibited more resistance to Alternaria brassicicola. Further, there was a significant increase in the transcripts of genes involved in the phenylpropanoid biosynthesis pathway such as phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) and phytoalexin (camalexin) pathway leading to an increase in camalexin content after fungal infection. Our results show that PdPR5-1 gene, in addition to its anti-fungal properties, has a possible role in activating other defense pathways, including phytoalexin production.

  1. Prunus domestica pathogenesis-related protein-5 activates the defense response pathway and enhances the resistance to fungal infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashraf El-kereamy

    Full Text Available Pathogenesis-related protein-5 (PR-5 has been implicated in plant disease resistance and its antifungal activity has been demonstrated in some fruit species. However, their roles, especially their interactions with the other defense responses in plant cells, are still not fully understood. In this study, we have cloned and characterized a new PR-5 cDNA named PdPR5-1 from the European plum (Prunus domestica. Expression of PdPR5-1 was studied in different cultivars varying in resistance to the brown rot disease caused by the necrotrophic fungus Monilinia fructicola. In addition transgenic Arabidopsis, ectopically expressing PdPR5-1 was used to study its role in other plant defense responses after fungal infection. We show that the resistant cultivars exhibited much higher levels of transcripts than the susceptible cultivars during fruit ripening. However, significant rise in the transcript levels after infection with M. fructicola was observed in the susceptible cultivars too. Transgenic Arabidopsis plants exhibited more resistance to Alternaria brassicicola. Further, there was a significant increase in the transcripts of genes involved in the phenylpropanoid biosynthesis pathway such as phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL and phytoalexin (camalexin pathway leading to an increase in camalexin content after fungal infection. Our results show that PdPR5-1 gene, in addition to its anti-fungal properties, has a possible role in activating other defense pathways, including phytoalexin production.

  2. Factors affecting branch wound occlusion and associated decay following pruning – a case study with wild cherry (Prunus avium L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Sheppard

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Pruning wild cherry (Prunus avium L. is a common silvicultural practice carried out to produce valuable timber at a veneer wood quality. Sub-optimal pruning treatments can permit un-occluded pruning wounds to develop devaluing decay. The aim of this study is to determine relevant branch, tree and pruning characteristics affecting the occlusion process of pruning wounds. Important factors influencing occlusion time for an optimised pruning treatment for valuable timber production utilising wild cherry are derived. 85 artificially pruned branches originating from ten wild cherry trees were retrospectively analysed. Branch stub length, branch diameter and radial stem increment during occlusion were found to be significant predictors for occlusion time. From the results it could be concluded that for the long term success of artificial pruning of wild cherry it is crucial to (i keep branch stubs short (while avoiding damage to the branch collar, (ii to enable the tree to maintain significant radial growth after pruning, (iii to avoid large pruning wounds (>2.5 cm by removing steeply angled and fast growing branches at an early stage.

  3. Discovery and Annotation of Plant Endogenous Target Mimicry Sequences from Public Transcriptome Libraries: A Case Study of Prunus persica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karakülah, Gökhan

    2017-06-28

    Novel transcript discovery through RNA sequencing has substantially improved our understanding of the transcriptome dynamics of biological systems. Endogenous target mimicry (eTM) transcripts, a novel class of regulatory molecules, bind to their target microRNAs (miRNAs) by base pairing and block their biological activity. The objective of this study was to provide a computational analysis framework for the prediction of putative eTM sequences in plants, and as an example, to discover previously un-annotated eTMs in Prunus persica (peach) transcriptome. Therefore, two public peach transcriptome libraries downloaded from Sequence Read Archive (SRA) and a previously published set of long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) were investigated with multi-step analysis pipeline, and 44 putative eTMs were found. Additionally, an eTM-miRNA-mRNA regulatory network module associated with peach fruit organ development was built via integration of the miRNA target information and predicted eTM-miRNA interactions. My findings suggest that one of the most widely expressed miRNA families among diverse plant species, miR156, might be potentially sponged by seven putative eTMs. Besides, the study indicates eTMs potentially play roles in the regulation of development processes in peach fruit via targeting specific miRNAs. In conclusion, by following the step-by step instructions provided in this study, novel eTMs can be identified and annotated effectively in public plant transcriptome libraries.

  4. Green synthesis of nitrogen-doped graphitic carbon sheets with use of Prunus persica for supercapacitor applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atchudan, Raji; Edison, Thomas Nesakumar Jebakumar Immanuel; Perumal, Suguna; Lee, Yong Rok

    2017-01-01

    Nitrogen-doped graphitic carbon sheets (N-GCSs) were prepared from the extract of unripe Prunus persica fruit by a direct hydrothermal method. The synthesized N-GCSs were examined by high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), nitrogen adsorption-desorption isotherms, X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. HRTEM showed that the synthesized carbon sheets were graphitic with lattice fringes and an inter-layer distance of 0.36 nm. Doping with the nitrogen moiety present over the synthesized GCSs was confirmed by XPS, FT-IR spectroscopy, and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy elemental mapping. The fruit extract associated with hydrothermal-carbonization method is economical and eco-friendly with a single step process. The resulting carbon sheets could be modified and are promising candidates for nano-electronic applications, including supercapacitors. The synthesized N-GCSs-2 provided a high specific capacitance of 176 F g-1 at a current density of 0.1 A g-1. This electrode material has excellent cyclic stability, even after 2000 cycles of charge-discharge at a current density of 0.5 A g-1.

  5. Novel insights for permeant lead structures through in vitro skin diffusion assays of Prunus lusitanica L., the Portugal Laurel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Maria do Céu; Duarte, Patrícia; Neng, Nuno R.; Nogueira, José M. F.; Costa, Filomena; Rosado, Catarina

    2015-01-01

    As a contribution for the generation of libraries in which a natural product (NP) is used as the guiding structure, this work sought to investigate molecular features of triterpenes as deliver leads to cross the stratum corneum at a significant rate. Seeking a bioguided investigation of the dermocosmetic lead-like potential of triterpenes in Prunus lusitanica L., various extracts were obtained by two different methods (Soxhlet extractor and Accelerated Solvent Extraction-ASE) and analyzed by GC-MS and NMR. In vitro assays were conducted to quantify the friedelin 1 and crude plant extract permeation through a membrane of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS), as well as their skin penetration enhancement capacity using two model molecules, caffeine 19 and ibuprofen 20. Friedelin 1 was identified as the major component (16-77%, GC) with isolated yield of 51% w/w (94%, GC) from Soxhlet residue (1.7% p/p) of the dried aerial parts of the plant harvested when in early flowering stage. Friedelin 1 promoted the penetration of the lipophilic molecule 20, however, it did not influence the permeation of the hydrophilic permeant 20. On the other hand, the crude extract acted as a retardant of the penetration of both substances. Molecular characteristics for the applicability of P. lusitanica L. in the development of dermocosmetics, as well as a new potential use for friedelin 1 in particular, are demonstrated. Probable mechanisms for chemical penetration enhancement using triterpenes as models for transdermal administration are herein discussed.

  6. Leaf age affects the responses of foliar injury and gas exchange to tropospheric ozone in Prunus serotina seedlings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Jianwei; Schaub, Marcus; Ferdinand, Jonathan A.; Skelly, John M.; Steiner, Kim C.; Savage, James E.

    2010-01-01

    We investigated the effect of leaf age on the response of net photosynthesis (A), stomatal conductance (g wv ), foliar injury, and leaf nitrogen concentration (N L ) to tropospheric ozone (O 3 ) on Prunus serotina seedlings grown in open-plots (AA) and open-top chambers, supplied with either carbon-filtered or non-filtered air. We found significant variation in A, g wv , foliar injury, and N L (P 3 treatments. Seedlings in AA showed the highest A and g wv due to relatively low vapor pressure deficit (VPD). Older leaves showed significantly lower A, g wv , N L , and higher foliar injury (P wv , and foliar injury to O 3 . Both VPD and N L had a strong influence on leaf gas exchange. Foliar O 3 -induced injury appeared when cumulative O 3 uptake reached 8-12 mmol m -2 , depending on soil water availability. The mechanistic assessment of O 3 -induced injury is a valuable approach for a biologically relevant O 3 risk assessment for forest trees. - Ozone effects on symptom development and leaf gas exchange interacted with leaf age and N-content on black cherry seedlings.

  7. Preclinical renal chemo-protective potential of Prunus amygdalus Batsch seed coat via alteration of multiple molecular pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Preeti; Bhatt, Prakash Chandra; Rahman, Mahfoozur; Patel, Dinesh Kumar; Anwar, Firoz; Al-Abbasi, Fahad; Verma, Amita; Kumar, Vikas

    2018-02-01

    Prunus amygdalus Batsch (almond) is a classical nutritive traditional Indian medicine. Along with nutritive with anti-oxidant properties, it is, clinically, used in the treatment of various diseases with underlying anti-oxidant mechanism. This study is an effort to scrutinise the renal protective effect of P. amygdalus Batsch or green almond (GA) seed coat extract and its underlying mechanism in animal model of Ferric nitrilotriacetate (Fe-NTA) induced renal cell carcinoma (RCC). RCC was induced in Swiss Albino Wistar rats by intraperitoneal injection of Fe-NTA. The rats were then treated with ethanolic extract of GA (25, 50 and 100 mg/kg per oral) for 22 weeks. Efficacy of GA administration was evaluated by change in biochemical, renal, macroscopical and histopathological parameters and alterations. Additionally, interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and inflammatory mediator including prostaglandin E2 (PGE 2 ), nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) were also observed to explore the possible mechanisms. The oral administration of GA significantly (p Bowman capsules and inflammatory cells. Hence, it can be concluded that GA possesses observable chemo-protective action and effect on Fe-NTA induced RCC via dual inhibition mechanism one by inhibiting free radical generation and second by inhibiting inflammation.

  8. Rangewide determinants of population performance in Prunus lusitanica: Lessons for the contemporary conservation of a Tertiary relict tree

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardo, Adara; Cáceres, Yonatan; Pulido, Fernando

    2018-01-01

    Relict species are an extremely important part of biodiversity and as such studies on the factors that allow their current persistence are required. The aim of this study was to assess the determinants of the distribution and range-wide population performance of the Tertiary relict tree Prunus lusitanica L. This threatened species is confined to Iberia, Northern Morocco and Macaronesia with a fragmented and scattered distribution. Using ecological niche modelling, we calculated the level of range filling across the range and tested its relationship with human impact. We then assessed the relative importance of climatic suitability as obtained through niche modelling, topographic factors and contemporary human impact on range-wide population performance. Results showed that the species occupies only 2.4% of the overall area predicted to be climatically suitable for its presence and the level of range filling varied across regions. A weak negative relationship among range filling and human impact was found. Overall climatic suitability was the strongest predictor of population performance. However, it showed high variability across regions: the effect was positive in Iberia whereas negative but not significant in Macaronesia and Morocco. Human impact showed a significant negative effect and finally topographic factors such as altitude had a minor negative effect. Our results highlight that both climate and human impact play a major role in the current limited range filling and performance of the species. Management plans to minimize anthropogenic disturbances together with reforestation measures are urgently needed in order to conserve this unique species.

  9. Host Suitability of Eight Prunus spp. and One Pyrus communis Rootstocks to Pratylenchus vulnus, P. neglectus, and P. thornei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinochet, J; Verdejo-Lucas, S; Marull, J

    1991-10-01

    The effects of Pratylenchus vulnus on rootstocks of eight commonly used Prunus spp. and one Pyrus communis were evaluated under greenhouse conditions during a 15-month period. In a first experiment, two almonds (Moncayo and Garrigues), one peach (GF-305), and two peach-almond hybrids (GF-677 and Adafuel) inoculated with 2,000 nematodes per plant proved to be good hosts of P. vulnus. Highest (P < 0.05) numbers of nematodes per gram of fresh root weight were recovered from Adafuel and GF-677. Root weights were higher in uninoculated compared to inoculated plants of all rootstocks, whereas top weights of uninoculated Garrigues, GF-305, and GF-677 differed (P < 0.05) from those of inoculated plants. In a second experiment, three plum (Marianna 2624, Myrobalan 605, and San Julian 655-2) and one pear (OHF-333) rootstocks were also found to be good hosts of P. vulnus, although significantly fewer nematodes were recovered from Myrohalan 605 roots than from the other three materials. Inoculated OHF-333 and San Julian 655-2 differed (P < 0.05) in root weights over uninoculated plants. Only inoculated San Julian 655-2 showed differences in top weights over uninoculated treatments. Rootstocks were poor or non-hosts for P. neglectus and P. thornei.

  10. The evaluation of extraction techniques for Tetranychus urticae (Acari: Tetranychidae) from apple (Malus domestica) and cherry (Prunus avium) leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Adrian L; Ullah, Roshan; Fountain, Michelle T

    2017-08-01

    Tetranychus urticae is a widespread polyphagous mite, found on a variety of fruit crops. Tetranychus urticae feeds on the underside of the leaves perforating plant cells and sucking the cell contents. Foliar damage and excess webbing produced by T. urticae can reduce fruit yield. Assessments of T. urticae populations while small provide reliable and accurate ways of targeting control strategies and recording their efficacy against T. urticae. The aim of this study was to evaluate four methods for extracting low levels of T. urticae from leaf samples, representative of developing infestations. These methods were compared to directly counting of mites on leaves under a dissecting microscope. These methods were ethanol washing, a modified paraffin/ethanol meniscus technique, Tullgren funnel extraction and the Henderson and McBurnie mite brushing machine with consideration to: accuracy, precision and simplicity. In addition, two physically different leaf morphologies were compared; Prunus leaves which are glabrous with Malus leaves which are setaceous. Ethanol extraction consistently yielded the highest numbers of mites and was the most rapid method for recovering T. urticae from leaf samples, irrespective of leaf structure. In addition the samples could be processed and stored before final counting. The advantages and disadvantages of each method are discussed in detail.

  11. Preharvest application of oxalic acid increased fruit size, bioactive compounds, and antioxidant capacity in sweet cherry cultivars (Prunus avium L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Esplá, Alejandra; Zapata, Pedro Javier; Valero, Daniel; García-Viguera, Cristina; Castillo, Salvador; Serrano, María

    2014-04-16

    Trees of 'Sweet Heart' and 'Sweet Late' sweet cherry cultivars (Prunus avium L.) were treated with oxalic acid (OA) at 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0 mM at 98, 112, and 126 days after full blossom. Results showed that all treatments increased fruit size at harvest, manifested by higher fruit volume and weight in cherries from treated trees than from controls, the higher effect being found with 2.0 mM OA (18 and 30% higher weight for 'Sweet Heart' and 'Sweet Late', respectively). Other quality parameters, such as color and firmness, were also increased by OA treatments, although no significant differences were found in total soluble solids or total acidity, showing that OA treatments did not affect the on-tree ripening process of sweet cherry. However, the increases in total anthocyanins, total phenolics, and antioxidant activity associated with the ripening process were higher in treated than in control cherries, leading to fruit with high bioactive compounds and antioxidant potential at commercial harvest (≅45% more anthocyanins and ≅20% more total phenolics). In addition, individual anthocyanins, flavonols, and chlorogenic acid derivatives were also increased by OA treatment. Thus, OA preharvest treatments could be an efficient and natural way to increase the quality and functional properties of sweet cherries.

  12. Post-storage cell wall metabolism in two sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.) cultivars displaying different postharvest performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belge, Burcu; Comabella, Eva; Graell, Jordi; Lara, Isabel

    2015-09-01

    The biochemical processes underlying firmness loss of sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.) fruit are poorly understood. Studies on cell wall metabolism of sweet cherry have been generally undertaken during on-tree development or at harvest maturity, while published reports on postharvest changes are scarce and fragmentary. In this work, cell wall modifications after storage at 0 ℃ were studied in two cherry cultivars ('Celeste' and 'Somerset') displaying different postharvest potential. Firmness was largely determined by the yields of the Na2CO3- and KOH-soluble fractions, enriched in covalently-bound pectins and in matrix glycans, respectively, and correlated well with ascorbic acid contents. The yields of these two cell wall fractions were correlated inversely with pectinmethylesterase and endo-1,4-β-d-glucanase activities, indicating a relevant role of these two enzymes in postharvest firmness changes in sweet cherry. The amount of solubilised cell wall materials was closely associated to the contents of dehydroascorbic acid, suggesting the possible involvement of oxidative mechanisms in cell wall disassembly. These data may help understanding the evolution of fruit quality during the marketing period, and give hints for the design of suitable management strategies to preserve key attributes. © The Author(s) 2014.

  13. Phytotoxicity of GF-120 NF Naturalyte fruit fly bait carrier on sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.) foliage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLury, Naomi C; Thistlewood, Howard; Routledge, Richard

    2009-01-01

    Six sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.) cultivars were tested with GF-120 with spinosad (0.2 g L(-1) spinosad bait) or without it (blank bait) to understand leaf phytotoxicity observed in the field. Spinosad bait and blank bait did not differ significantly with respect to damage observed. Leaf damage was found almost exclusively at the abaxial (lower) surfaces with the doses (0, 17, 20, 25 or 40%) and cultivars tested. The effects of the blank bait on abaxial surfaces increased from 24 to 168 h, and with dose, in terms of the proportion of droplets (0.00, 0.42, 0.52, 0.75 or 0.94) and area (0.0, 18.7, 23.5, 40.5 or 91.6 mm) burned. In addition, chlorophyll was reduced with increasing dose on abaxial surfaces (SPAD = 44.6, 36.1, 34.1, 31.0, 21.5), but not on adaxial (upper) surfaces (SPAD = 44.6, 44.2, 44.0, 44.8, 44.4). The chlorophyll level in undamaged leaves (adaxial surfaces) differed by cultivar. Cherry leaves were less damaged by a 20% bait application in June (0.26) than in July (0.46) and August (0.50). Incidental insect leaf feeding at bait locations occurred at a low rate and was highest on abaxial bait surfaces. Applying GF-120 to the adaxial leaf surface, or at doses of

  14. Physiological and foliar injury responses of Prunus serotina, Fraxinus americana, and Acer rubrum seedlings to varying soil moisture and ozone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaub, M.; Skelly, J.M.; Steiner, K.C.; Davis, D.D.; Pennypacker, S.P.; Zhang, J.; Ferdinand, J.A.; Savage, J.E.; Stevenson, R.E.

    2003-01-01

    High soil water availability favors ozone uptake, increases foliar injury, and exacerbates the negative ozone effect on gas exchange of seedlings of deciduous tree species. - Sixteen black cherry (Prunus serotina, Ehrh.), 10 white ash (Fraxinus americana, L.) and 10 red maple (Acer rubrum, L.) 1-year old seedlings were planted per plot in 1997 on a former nursery bed within 12 open-top chambers and six open plots. Seedlings were exposed to three different ozone scenarios (ambient air: 100% O 3 ; non-filtered air: 98% ambient O 3 ; charcoal-filtered air: 50% ambient O 3 ) within each of two different water regimes (nine plots irrigated, nine plots non-irrigated) during three growing seasons. During the 1998 and 1999 growing season, leaf gas exchange, plant water relations, and foliar injury were measured. Climatic data, ambient- and chamber-ozone-concentrations were monitored. We found that seedlings grown under irrigated conditions had similar (in 1998) but significantly higher gas exchange rates (in 1999) than seedlings grown within non-irrigated plots among similar ozone exposures. Cherry and ash had similar ozone uptake but cherry developed more ozone-induced injury (<34% affected leaf area, LAA) than ash (<5% LAA), while maple rarely showed foliar injury, indicating the species differed in ozone sensitivity. Significantly more severe injury on seedlings grown under irrigated conditions than seedlings grown under non-irrigated conditions demonstrated that soil moisture altered seedling responses to ambient ozone exposures

  15. Genetic diversity and relatedness of sweet cherry (prunus avium L.) cultivars based on single nucleotide polymorphic markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez I Marti, Angel; Athanson, Blessing; Koepke, Tyson; Font I Forcada, Carolina; Dhingra, Amit; Oraguzie, Nnadozie

    2012-01-01

    Most previous studies on genetic fingerprinting and cultivar relatedness in sweet cherry were based on isoenzyme, RAPD, and simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers. This study was carried out to assess the utility of single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers generated from 3' untranslated regions (UTR) for genetic fingerprinting in sweet cherry. A total of 114 sweet cherry germplasm representing advanced selections, commercial cultivars, and old cultivars imported from different parts of the world were screened with seven SSR markers developed from other Prunus species and with 40 SNPs obtained from 3' UTR sequences of Rainier and Bing sweet cherry cultivars. Both types of marker study had 99 accessions in common. The SSR data was used to validate the SNP results. Results showed that the average number of alleles per locus, mean observed heterozygosity, expected heterozygosity, and polymorphic information content values were higher in SSRs than in SNPs although both set of markers were similar in their grouping of the sweet cherry accessions as shown in the dendrogram. SNPs were able to distinguish sport mutants from their wild type germplasm. For example, "Stella" was separated from "Compact Stella." This demonstrates the greater power of SNPs for discriminating mutants from their original parents than SSRs. In addition, SNP markers confirmed parentage and also determined relationships of the accessions in a manner consistent with their pedigree relationships. We would recommend the use of 3' UTR SNPs for genetic fingerprinting, parentage verification, gene mapping, and study of genetic diversity in sweet cherry.

  16. Characterization and mapping of non-S gametophytic self-compatibility in sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cachi, A M; Wünsch, A

    2011-03-01

    Self-incompatibility in Prunus (Rosaceae) species, such as sweet cherry, is controlled by a multiallelic locus (S), in which two tightly linked genes, S-RNase and SFB (S haplotype-specific F-box), determine the specificity of the pollen and the style. Fertilization in these species occurs only if the S-specificities expressed in the pollen and the pistils are different. However, modifier genes have been proposed to be necessary for a full manifestation of the self-incompatibility response. 'Cristobalina' is a spontaneous self-compatible sweet cherry cultivar that originated in Eastern Spain. Previous studies with this genotype suggested that pollen modifier gene(s), not linked to the S-locus, may be the cause of self-incompatibility breakdown. In this work, an F(1) population from 'Cristobalina' that segregates for this trait was used to identify molecular markers linked to self-compatibility by bulked segregant analysis. One simple sequence repeat (SSR) locus (EMPaS02) was found to be linked to self-compatibility in this population at 3.2 cM. Two additional populations derived from 'Cristobalina' were used to confirm the linkage of this marker to self-compatibility. Since EMPaS02 has been mapped to the sweet cherry linkage group 3, other markers located on the same linkage group were analysed in these populations to confirm the location of the self-compatibility locus.

  17. Genetic variability of wild cherry (Prunus avium L.) seed stands in Slovenia as revealed by nuclear microsatellite loci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarni, Kristjan; De Cuyper, Bart; Brus, Robert

    2012-01-01

    Microsatellite markers were used to describe the genetic variability of four seed stands of wild cherry (Prunus avium L.). One hundred and thirty one individuals were genotyped at ten nuclear microsatellite loci. Total genetic diversity was high (H(E) = 0.704), while differences between stands were small but significant (F(ST) = 0.053, G'(ST) = 0.234). There was a significant amount of clonal reproduction in one stand, with only 11 genotypes identified among 36 trees. One stand showed a significant excess (F(IS) = -0.044) of heterozygosity, and one showed a deficit (F(IS) = 0.044). Our results demonstrate the importance of taking into account the biological and genetic characteristics of species in forest management, especially when determining a new seed stand. The small genetic differences found between seed stands indicate that a large number of stands are not required. However, they should be carefully selected and should possess adequate genetic variability to ensure low relatedness between seed trees.

  18. Fruit quality and bioactive compounds relevant to human health of sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.) cultivars grown in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballistreri, Gabriele; Continella, Alberto; Gentile, Alessandra; Amenta, Margherita; Fabroni, Simona; Rapisarda, Paolo

    2013-10-15

    The fruit quality characteristics, phenolic compounds and antioxidant capacities of 24 sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.) cultivars grown on the mountainsides of the Etna volcano (Sicily, Italy) were evaluated. High-performance liquid chromatographic methods were used to identify and quantify sugars, organic acids and phenolics. A total of seven phenolic compounds were characterised as hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives (neochlorogenic acid, p-coumaroylquinic acid and chlorogenic acid) and anthocyanins (cyanidin 3-glucoside, cyanidin 3-rutinoside, pelargonidin 3-rutinoside and peonidin 3-rutinoside). The total anthocyanin content ranged from 6.21 to 94.20mg cyanidin 3-glucoside equivalents/100g fresh weight (FW), while the total phenol content ranged from 84.96 to 162.21mg gallic acid equivalents/100g FW. The oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) assay indicated that fruit of all genotypes possessed considerable antioxidant activity. The high level of phenolic compounds and antioxidant capacity of some sweet cherry fruits implied that they might be sources of bioactive compounds that are relevant to human health. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Profile of lipophilic antioxidants in the by-products recovered from six cultivars of sour cherry (Prunus cerasus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radenkovs, Vitalijs; Feldmane, Daina

    2017-11-01

    The content of tocochromanols and carotenoids in kernels recovered from fruit pits of six sour cherry (Prunus cerasus L.) cultivars was studied. The highest concentration was noted for γ-T (23.50-52.76 mg/100 g dry weight basis (dw)). Considerably, lower amounts compared to γ-T were detected for α-T, δ-T and α-T3 (5.74-13.33, 2.74-4.54 and 0.30-1.16 mg/100 g dw, respectively). The β-T and γ-T3 were quantified only in minor levels. The total amount of tocochromanols was in the range 41.69-63.48 mg/100 g dw. The levels of total carotenoids ranged between 0.17 and 0.39 mg/100 dw. The concentration of tocochromanols and carotenoids in kernels of different sour cherries is cultivar-dependent. A significant correlation (r = 0.985, p cherry.

  20. Electricity pylons may be potential foci for the invasion of black cherry Prunus serotina in intensive farmland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurek, Przemysław; Sparks, Tim H.; Tryjanowski, Piotr

    2015-01-01

    Electricity pylons are used by birds for nesting platforms, song posts, roosting, perching and therefore as defecation sites. Consequently we predict that pylons may facilitate the dispersal of endozoochorous plants, such as black cherry Prunus serotina, an invasive species in Europe producing fruits that are often eaten by birds. To test the influence of electricity pylons on the abundance of P. serotina in farmland in western Poland we surveyed 124 areas under pylons and 124 paired control plots within fields under power lines. P. serotina occurred under 81.5% of the investigated pylons but only in 2.4% of the control plots. The vast majority of P. serotina plants occurred under pylons (99.9% of 5820 individuals) of which only 0.7% (42 individuals), found under 12 pylons, were fruiting. The few plants in control plots were all seedlings. The density of plants was related to landscape variables; the occurrence of P. serotina was higher when pylons were situated within arable crops, had a lower level of herb cover and were closer to human settlements. These results suggest that one approach to protect semi natural or even anthropogenic landscapes from exotic and invasive species is by encouraging permanent land use involving some form of annual disturbance, such as hay cutting or ploughing.

  1. Chemical Composition and Antioxidant Activities of Five Samples of Prunus mume Umezu from Different Factories in South and East China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi-Yi Chen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigated chemical composition and antioxidant activities of umezu, pickling liquid of Prunus mume, from different factories in South and East China. The organic acid and phenolic acid profiles were also analyzed. Results showed that umezu was rich in organic acids and extremely sour as P. mume fruit in addition to its high NaCl level (≥20%. Total acid in umezu was more than 43.78 g/L in which main organic acids were citric acid and malic acid. Umezu contained more than 250.54 mg GAE/L total phenolic in which dominant phenolic acids were hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives. Umezu exhibited powerful antioxidant activities in ORAC, ABTS, DPPH, and FRAP assays. Reducing sugar, phenolic compounds, and antioxidant activities of umezu were affected by sample origins and fruit cultivars. Given its rich flavor components and high antioxidant activity, umezu could serve as a new dietary supplement or a natural preservative in food industry.

  2. Chemical constituents and ovicidal effects of mahlab, Prunus mahaleb L. kernels oil on cotton leafworm, Spodoptera littoralis (Boisd. eggs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mead Hala M.

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The carried out investigations evaluated ovicidal activity of mahlab, Prunus mahaleb L. kernel oil against cotton leafworm, Spodoptera littoralis (Boisd.. The chemical constituents of the fixed oil of mahlab were analyzed using gas-liquid chromatography (GLC. Timnodonic (33.07%, oleic (28.71% and linoleic (24.35% were the basic fatty acids, while the major hydrocarbon and sterol were found to be heneicosane (62.57% and β-sitosterol (10.57%. The LC50 values for the one-day-old egg masses were found to be more susceptible than 3-day-old ones. Moreover, the leaf dip technique occurred to be more efficient than spraying technique. The results also showed abnormalities in the external morphology of egg shell, chorion surface, shell imprints and aeropyles of S. littoralis eggs treated with mahlab and KZ oils as compared to a control by using scanning electron microscope. Generally, the tested oils significantly reduced the activities of transaminase enzymes (AST and ALT, acid and alkaline phosphatases and total soluble protein except mahlab oil on acid phosphatase as compared to a control. Additionally, the oils of both mahlab and KZ oil affected some biological aspects such as incubation period, larval duration, larval mortality and pupal weight comparing to a control.

  3. SEEDLINGS GROWTH OF Prunus brasiliensis (Cham. & Schltdl. D. Dietr. IN SEWAGE SLUDGE-BASED COMPOST AND MINERAL FERTILIZER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurício Bergamini Scheer

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5902/198050987555The increasing amount of solid waste generates the need for its use. An opportunity is the use of sewage sludge to attend the demand for alternative inputs in the agricultural and forestry practices. The aim of this study was to evaluate the performance of Prunus brasiliensis (Cham. & Schltdl. D. Dietr. (pessegueiro – bravo grown on substrates prepared from aerobic sewage sludge composted with ground tree pruning and with different levels of a granulated fertilizer, and to compare its performance with those grown on commercial substrate, which is widely used in forest nurseries. The experiment was conducted in a shadehouse (from July/08 to Oct/08 and in an outdoor growing area (from Nov/08 to Feb/09 at Sanitation Company of Paraná State, located in Araucária, southern Brazil. Three different substrates were used: commercial substrate, consisting of composted pine bark and vermiculite, and 3:1 (v:v and 2:1 (v:v composted substrate based on crushed tree pruning and sewage sludge. The following variables were measured: seedling height, diameter and biomass of leaves and branches. The results showed higher growth rates of seedlings grown on substrates containing sewage sludge than on those grown on commercial substrate. Both composts with sewage sludge, using the two levels of fertilization (2,7 and 4 g dm-3, present similar results for the majority of the variables tested.

  4. Ozone uptake (flux) as it relates to ozone-induced foliar symptoms of Prunus serotina and Populus maximowizii x trichocarpa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orendovici-Best, T.; Skelly, J.M.; Davis, D.D.; Ferdinand, J.A.; Savage, J.E.; Stevenson, R.E.

    2008-01-01

    Field studies were conducted during 2003 and 2004 from early June to the end of August, at 20 sites of lower or higher elevation within north-central Pennsylvania, using seedlings of black cherry (Prunus serotina, Ehrh.) and ramets of hybrid poplar (Populus maximowizii x trichocarpa). A linear model was developed to estimate the influence of local environmental conditions on stomatal conductance. The most significant factors explaining stomatal variance were tree species, air temperature, leaf vapor pressure deficit, elevation, and time of day. Overall, environmental factors explained less than 35% of the variation in stomatal conductance. Ozone did not affect gas exchange rates in either poplar or cherry. Ozone-induced foliar injury was positively correlated with cumulative ozone exposures, expressed as SUM40. Overall, the amount of foliar injury was better correlated to a flux-based approach rather than to an exposure-based approach. More severe foliar injuries were observed on plants growing at higher elevations. - Within heterogeneous environments, ozone flux does not completely explain the variation observed in ozone-induced visible injury

  5. Prunus cerasifera Ehrh. fabricated ZnO nano falcates and its photocatalytic and dose dependent in vitro bio-activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaffri Shaan Bibi

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Zinc oxide nano falcates of sickle shape have been synthesized from Prunus cerasifera pomological extract as a reducing cum stabilizing agent via novel, biomimetic and non-toxic route. Zinc oxide nano falcates were analyzed via ultraviolet spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared analysis, X-ray powder diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy. Highly stable zinc oxide nano falcates synthesized at 200°C and 400°C calcination temperatures expressed intense UV-vis peak at 398 nm. Phenolic and amino groups were revealed by FTIR in pomological extract. Wurtzite crystalline structure of zinc oxide nano falcates was confirmed by XRD with average crystal size of 4.93 nm. SEM sizes ranged between 72.11-120 nm and 56.57-107.70 nm, respectively and shown higher polydispersity levels for two calcination temperatures. Augmented photocatalytic degradation of methyl red and bromophenol blue under direct solar irradiance shown pseudo first order kinetics (R2= 0.99 and 0.96. Furthermore, biomedical and agriculturally important pathogenic strains i.e., Xanthomanas axonopodis pv. citri and Pseudomonas syringae, Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus fumigatus, Aspergillus terreus, Penicillium chrysogenum, Fusarium solani and Lasiodiplodia theobromae were remarkably inhibited. Enhanced photocatalytic and antimicrobial activity reveals zinc oxide nano falcates promising prospects in nano bioremediation of polluted water and conversion into green nano pesticides.

  6. Overexpression of the Prunus sogdiana NBS-LRR Subgroup Gene PsoRPM2 Promotes Resistance to the Root-Knot Nematode Meloidogyne incognita in Tobacco

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xiang; Xiao, Kun; Cui, Haiyang; Hu, Jianfang

    2017-01-01

    Root-knot nematodes (RKNs), particularly Meloidogyne incognita, are the most devastating soil-borne pathogens that significantly affect the production of Prunus spp. fruit. RKN infection is difficult to control and consequently causes massive yield losses each year. However, several germplasms of wild Prunus spp. have been shown to display resistance to M. incognita. Consequently, both the isolation of novel plant resistance (R) genes and the characterization of their resistance mechanisms are important strategies for future disease control. R proteins require the co-chaperone protein HSP90-SGT1-RAR1 to achieve correct folding, maturation, and stabilization. Here, we used homologous cloning to isolate the R gene PsoRPM2 from the RKN-resistant species Prunus sogdiana. PsoRPM2 was found to encode a TIR-NB-LRR-type protein and react with significantly elevated PsoRPM2 expression levels in response to RKN infection. Transient expression assays indicated PsoRPM2 to be located in both the cytoplasm and the nucleus. Four transgenic tobacco lines that heterologously expressed PsoRPM2 showed enhanced resistance to M. incognita. Yeast two-hybrid analysis and bimolecular fluorescence complementation analysis demonstrated that both PsoRAR1 and PsoRPM2 interacted with PsoHSP90-1 and PsoSGT1, but not with one another. These results indicate that the observed PsoRPM2-mediated RKN resistance requires both PsoHSP90-1 and PsoSGT1, further suggesting that PsoRAR1 plays a functionally redundant role in the HSP90-SGT1-RAR1 co-chaperone. PMID:29163405

  7. Overexpression of the Prunus sogdiana NBS-LRR Subgroup Gene PsoRPM2 Promotes Resistance to the Root-Knot Nematode Meloidogyne incognita in Tobacco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang Zhu

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Root-knot nematodes (RKNs, particularly Meloidogyne incognita, are the most devastating soil-borne pathogens that significantly affect the production of Prunus spp. fruit. RKN infection is difficult to control and consequently causes massive yield losses each year. However, several germplasms of wild Prunus spp. have been shown to display resistance to M. incognita. Consequently, both the isolation of novel plant resistance (R genes and the characterization of their resistance mechanisms are important strategies for future disease control. R proteins require the co-chaperone protein HSP90-SGT1-RAR1 to achieve correct folding, maturation, and stabilization. Here, we used homologous cloning to isolate the R gene PsoRPM2 from the RKN-resistant species Prunus sogdiana. PsoRPM2 was found to encode a TIR-NB-LRR-type protein and react with significantly elevated PsoRPM2 expression levels in response to RKN infection. Transient expression assays indicated PsoRPM2 to be located in both the cytoplasm and the nucleus. Four transgenic tobacco lines that heterologously expressed PsoRPM2 showed enhanced resistance to M. incognita. Yeast two-hybrid analysis and bimolecular fluorescence complementation analysis demonstrated that both PsoRAR1 and PsoRPM2 interacted with PsoHSP90-1 and PsoSGT1, but not with one another. These results indicate that the observed PsoRPM2-mediated RKN resistance requires both PsoHSP90-1 and PsoSGT1, further suggesting that PsoRAR1 plays a functionally redundant role in the HSP90-SGT1-RAR1 co-chaperone.

  8. Evaluación productiva, económica y social del agua de riego de durazno (Prunus persica L. Batsch) en Zacatecas (México)

    OpenAIRE

    José Luis Ríos-Flores; Miriam Torres-Moreno; José Ruiz-Torres; Marco Antonio Torres-Moreno; Jesús Enrique Cantú-Brito

    2015-01-01

    La escasez de agua limita la agricultura, por lo que su uso debe ser más eficiente en la producción de alimentos. El objetivo de este trabajo fue determinar la productividad económica, física y social del agua del cultivo de durazno (Prunus persica L. Batsch), en la región del Distrito de Desarrollo Rural 183 —correspondiente a Fresnillo, Zacatecas— para el ciclo 2012; se desarrollaron modelos matemáticos para estimar la productividad y eficiencia del agua. En Zacatecas se cosecharon 817 ha d...

  9. Resistance to Plum Pox Virus (PPV) in apricot (Prunus armeniaca L.) is associated with down-regulation of two MATHd genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuriaga, Elena; Romero, Carlos; Blanca, Jose Miguel; Badenes, Maria Luisa

    2018-01-27

    Plum pox virus (PPV), causing Sharka disease, is one of the main limiting factors for Prunus production worldwide. In apricot (Prunus armeniaca L.) the major PPV resistance locus (PPVres), comprising ~ 196 kb, has been mapped to the upper part of linkage group 1. Within the PPVres, 68 genomic variants linked in coupling to PPV resistance were identified within 23 predicted transcripts according to peach genome annotation. Taking into account the predicted functions inferred from sequence homology, some members of a cluster of meprin and TRAF-C homology domain (MATHd)-containing genes were pointed as PPV resistance candidate genes. Here, we have characterized the global apricot transcriptome response to PPV-D infection identifying six PPVres locus genes (ParP-1 to ParP-6) differentially expressed in resistant/susceptible cultivars. Two of them (ParP-3 and ParP-4), that encode MATHd proteins, appear clearly down-regulated in resistant cultivars, as confirmed by qRT-PCR. Concurrently, variant calling was performed using whole-genome sequencing data of 24 apricot cultivars (10 PPV-resistant and 14 PPV-susceptible) and 2 wild relatives (PPV-susceptible). ParP-3 and ParP-4, named as Prunus armeniaca PPVres MATHd-containing genes (ParPMC), are the only 2 genes having allelic variants linked in coupling to PPV resistance. ParPMC1 has 1 nsSNP, while ParPMC2 has 15 variants, including a 5-bp deletion within the second exon that produces a frameshift mutation. ParPMC1 and ParPMC2 are adjacent and highly homologous (87.5% identity) suggesting they are paralogs originated from a tandem duplication. Cultivars carrying the ParPMC2 resistant (mutated) allele show lack of expression in both ParPMC2 and especially ParPMC1. Accordingly, we hypothesize that ParPMC2 is a pseudogene that mediates down-regulation of its functional paralog ParPMC1 by silencing. As a whole, results strongly support ParPMC1 and/or ParPMC2 as host susceptibility genes required for PPV infection which

  10. DETERMINACIÓN DE COMPUESTOS CIANOGÉNICOS AMIGDALINA Y PRUNASINA EN SEMILLAS DE ALMENDRAS (PRUNUS DULCIS L) UTILIZANDO CROMATOGRAFÍA LIQUIDA DE ALTA RESOLUCIÓN

    OpenAIRE

    Guillermo Arrázola; Nuria Grané; María L Martin; Federico Dicenta

    2013-01-01

    El objetivo del presente trabajo fue aplicar un técnica para determinar y cuantificar por separado los compuestos cianogénicos que pueden estar presentes en la semilla de almendra madura (Prunus dulcis). Entre los métodos encontrados, se seleccionó la cromatografía de líquidos de alta resolución (HPLC), que permite la cuantificación de los glucósidos cianogénicos amigdalina y prunasina por separado, adecuando diferentes procedimientos de extracción como el tamaño de partículas que influye en ...

  11. Physico-chemical characteristics of seed oils extracted from different apricot (Prunus armeniaca L.) varieties from Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    Alkharfy, K. M.; Ashraf, M.; Anwar, F.; Manzoor, M.

    2012-01-01

    The fruit seed oils from four varieties of apricot (Prunus armeniaca L.), namely, Halmas, Nari, Travet and Charmagzi were analyzed for different physico-chemical characteristics. The oil yield from the apricot seeds (kernels) ranged from 32.23-42.51%, while the protein, fiber and ash contents ranged from 13.21-20.90%, 5.13-9.81% and 2.11-3.89%, respectively. The extracted oils had an average iodine value (g of I/100 g of oil) of 96.4-106.3; density at 24 °C, 0.87-0.93 mg/mL; refractive index ...

  12. Prunus domestica, Prunus persica and Prunus avium extracts ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Nowadays antioxidants from plants origin are considered as a promising source of biologically active substances; as synthetic agents are ... suitable for preparing new antioxidant emulsions loaded with pleasant fruity extracts which remain economical, effective and completely safe for human skin therefore, ...

  13. Análisis de los compuestos volátiles de la ciruela amarilla (Prunus domestica L. ssp. domestica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yineth Ruiz

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available El aroma de las frutas se debe a los constituyentes volátiles presentes que, aunque se encuentran en muy bajas concentraciones, contribuyen al aroma global en grados muy diversos. Se hace necesario usar técnicas de aislamiento y concentración que garanticen el análisis de una composición química semejante a la de la fruta. Este trabajo tuvo como objetivo el análisis de los compuestos volátiles de la ciruela amarilla (Prunus domestica L. ssp.domestica por el método de evaporación del aroma asistida por solvente (SAFE. Este método utiliza un equipo de destilación conectado a una bomba de alto vacío que ofrece la posibilidad de aislar rápidamente compuestos volátiles sin daño térmico en diferentes matrices alimentarias. La separación e identificación de los compuestos volátiles se realizó por cromatografía de gases-espectrometría de masas (GC-MS. Se identificaron 47 compuestos (6,55 mg/kg de pulpa de fruta, entre ellos 14 alcoholes, 8 aldehídos, 7 ésteres, 5 cetonas, 4 ácidos carboxílicos, 4 hidrocarburos aromáticos, 3 lactonas, un compuesto azufrado y una hidroxicetona; 16 de ellos se informan por primera vez. El acetato de etilo (2,88 mg/kg, etanol (1 mg/kg y ácido octanoico (0,78 mg/kg fueron los constituyentes volátiles mayoritarios de esta variedad de ciruela.

  14. Análisis de los compuestos volátiles de la ciruela amarilla (Prunus domestica L. ssp. domestica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yineth Ruiz

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available El aroma de las frutas se debe a los constituyentes volátiles presentes que, aunque se encuentran en muy bajas concentraciones, contribuyen al aroma global en grados muy diversos. Se hace necesario usar técnicas de aislamiento y concentración que garanticen el análisis de una composición química semejante a la de la fruta. Este trabajo tuvo como objetivo el análisis de los compuestos volátiles de la ciruela amarilla (Prunus domestica L. ssp. domestica por el método de evaporación del aroma asistida por solvente (SAFE. Este método utiliza un equipo de destilación conectado a una bomba de alto vacío que ofrece la posibilidad de aislar rápidamente compuestos volátiles sin daño térmico en diferentes matrices alimentarias. La separación e identificación de los compuestos volátiles se realizó por cromatografía de gases-espectrometría de masas (GC-MS. Se identificaron 47 compuestos (6,55 mg/kg de pulpa de fruta, entre ellos 14 alcoholes, 8 aldehídos, 7 ésteres, 5 cetonas, 4 ácidos carboxílicos, 4 hidrocarburos aromáticos, 3 lactonas, un compuesto azufrado y una hidroxicetona; 16 de ellos se informan por primera vez. El acetato de etilo (2,88 mg/kg, etanol (1 mg/kg y ácido octanoico (0,78 mg/kg fueron los constituyentes volátiles mayoritarios de esta variedad de ciruela.

  15. Evaluation of different doses of gamma radiation on physicochemical characteristics of peach Prunus persica (cv. Chimarrita) minimally processed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Ana Claudia S.; Silva, Lucia C.A.S.; Perecin, Thalita Neme; Arthur, Valter; Harder, Marcia N.C. [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Radiobiologia e Ambiente], e-mail: acsoliveira@usp.br, e-mail: arthur@cena.usp.br; Mansi, Debora N.; Canniatti-Brazaca, Solange G. [Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz (ESALQ/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Agroindustria, Alimentos e Nutricao

    2009-07-01

    The objective was to evaluate the effect of different doses of gamma radiation on the physico-chemical characteristics of peach Prunus persica (cv. Chimarrita) minimally processed, to increase the useful life of the fruit. The peaches were purchased at Ceasa of Campinas/SP and taken to the Laboratory of Radiobiology and Environment of CENA/USP (Piracicaba/SP), which were washed in tap water, peeled and cut into four pieces. The pieces of peach were dipped in sodium hypochlorite solution of 15 mL/L for 4 minutes and dry in a plastic support. Then it were placed in plastic containers (polypropylene). Subsequently, they were irradiated in a Cobalt-60 source, type Gammacell-220 (dose rate of 0,543 kGy/hour) with doses of: 0 (control), 1.0 and 2.0 kGy and stored at a temperature of 8 deg C. The experimental was developed entirely at random with 3 replicates for each treatment. For the statistic analysis was using the Tuckey test at 5% level of probability. Subsequently, analysis was carried out: color factors (l, a, b), pH, soluble solids (deg Brix), acidity and vitamin C. The tests were performed at 1, 3 and 6 days after irradiation. According to the results concluded that the analysis of color and acidity there was no significant difference between treatments, however, for the soluble solids (deg Brix), vitamin C and texture significant difference showing a decrease proportional to increasing doses of radiation and storage time. But the pH increased in relation to dose and during the analysis. (author)

  16. Differences in proleptic and epicormic shoot structures in relation to water deficit and growth rate in almond trees (Prunus dulcis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negrón, Claudia; Contador, Loreto; Lampinen, Bruce D; Metcalf, Samuel G; Guédon, Yann; Costes, Evelyne; DeJong, Theodore M

    2014-02-01

    Shoot characteristics differ depending on the meristem tissue that they originate from and environmental conditions during their development. This study focused on the effects of plant water status on axillary meristem fate and flowering patterns along proleptic and epicormic shoots, as well as on shoot growth rates on 'Nonpareil' almond trees (Prunus dulcis). The aims were (1) to characterize the structural differences between proleptic and epicormic shoots, (2) to determine whether water deficits modify shoot structures differently depending on shoot type, and (3) to determine whether shoot structures are related to shoot growth rates. A hidden semi-Markov model of the axillary meristem fate and number of flower buds per node was built for two shoot types growing on trees exposed to three plant water status treatments. The models segmented observed shoots into successive homogeneous zones, which were compared between treatments. Shoot growth rates were calculated from shoot extension measurements made during the growing season. Proleptic shoots had seven successive homogeneous zones while epicormic shoots had five zones. Shoot structures were associated with changes in growth rate over the season. Water deficit (1) affected the occurrence and lengths of the first zones of proleptic shoots, but only the occurrence of the third zone was reduced in epicormic shoots; (2) had a minor effect on zone flowering patterns and did not modify shoot or zone composition of axillary meristem fates; and (3) reduced growth rates, although patterns over the season were similar among treatments. Two meristem types, with different latency durations, produced shoots with different growth rates and distinct structures. Differences between shoot type structure responses to water deficit appeared to reflect their ontogenetic characteristics and/or resource availability for their development. Tree water deficit appeared to stimulate a more rapid progression through ontogenetic states.

  17. Response of Nitrogen and Potassium Fertigation to “Waris” Almond (Prunus dulcis) under Northwestern Himalayan Region of India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, N.

    2014-01-01

    A field experiment was conducted on almond (Prunus dulcis) to study the effect of N&K fertigation on growth, yields and leaf nutrient status over two seasons (2011 and 2012) in Srinagar, Jammu and Kashmir, India. There were six treatments, namely, T1—100% recommended dose of fertilizers as soil application, T2—100% RDF through fertigations, T3—75% RDF through fertigation, T4—75% RDF through fertigation (split application), T5—50% RDF through fertigation and T6—50% RDF through fertigation (split application) with three replications under randomized block design. The results indicated that the maximum tree height (3.21 m and 3.56 m), nut weight (2.73 g and 1.94 g), nut yield (2.41 kg/tree and 5.98 kg/tree; 2.67 t/ha and 6.64 t/ha), and leaf nutrient content (2.34 and 2.38% N; 0.14 and 0.17% P; 1.37 and 1.41% K) were recorded in T4 treatment, whereas the highest TCSA of main trunk, primary, secondary, and tertiary branches (72.67 and 90.28 cm2; 16.75 and 24.26 cm2; 3.83 and 7.49 cm2; 0.47 and 1.23 cm2), canopy volume (7.15 and 8.11 m3), and fruit number (990 and 3083/tree) were recorded in T2 in almond variety Waris. PMID:24587708

  18. The RNase PD2 gene of almond (Prunus dulcis) represents an evolutionarily distinct class of S-like RNase genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, R C; Oliveira, M M

    2000-07-01

    A cDNA for an S-like RNase (RNase PD2) has been isolated from a pistil cDNA library of Prunus dulcis cv. Ferragnés. The cDNA encodes an acidic protein of 226 amino acid residues with a molecular weight of 25 kDa. A potential N-glycosylation site is present at the N-terminus in RNase PD2. A signal peptide of 23 amino acid residues and a transmembrane domain are predicted. The two active-site histidines present in enzymes of the T2/S RNase superfamily were detected in RNase PD2. Its amino acid sequence shows 71.2% similarity to RNSI of Arabidopsis and RNase T2 of chickpea, respectively. Northern blotting and RT-PCR analyses indicate that PD2 is expressed predominantly in petals, pistils of open flowers and leaves of the almond tree. Analyses of shoots cultured in vitro suggested that the expression of RNase PD2 is associated with phosphate starvation. Southern analysis detected two sequences related to RNase PD2 in the P. dulcis genome. RFLP analysis showed that S-like RNase genes are polymorphic in different almond cultivars. The PD2 gene sequence was amplified by PCR and two introns were shown to interrupt the coding region. Based on sequence analysis, we have defined three classes of S-like RNase genes, with the PD2 RNase gene representing a distinct class. The significance of the structural divergence of S-like RNase genes is further discussed.

  19. Response of nitrogen and potassium fertigation to "Waris" almond (Prunus dulcis) under northwestern Himalayan Region of India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Dinesh; Ahmed, N

    2014-01-01

    A field experiment was conducted on almond (Prunus dulcis) to study the effect of N&K fertigation on growth, yields and leaf nutrient status over two seasons (2011 and 2012) in Srinagar, Jammu and Kashmir, India. There were six treatments, namely, T1--100% recommended dose of fertilizers as soil application, T2--100% RDF through fertigations, T3--75% RDF through fertigation, T4--75% RDF through fertigation (split application), T5--50% RDF through fertigation and T6--50% RDF through fertigation (split application) with three replications under randomized block design. The results indicated that the maximum tree height (3.21 m and 3.56 m), nut weight (2.73 g and 1.94 g), nut yield (2.41 kg/tree and 5.98 kg/tree; 2.67 t/ha and 6.64 t/ha), and leaf nutrient content (2.34 and 2.38% N; 0.14 and 0.17% P; 1.37 and 1.41% K) were recorded in T4 treatment, whereas the highest TCSA of main trunk, primary, secondary, and tertiary branches (72.67 and 90.28 cm(2); 16.75 and 24.26 cm(2); 3.83 and 7.49 cm(2); 0.47 and 1.23 cm(2)), canopy volume (7.15 and 8.11 m(3)), and fruit number (990 and 3083/tree) were recorded in T2 in almond variety Waris.

  20. Response of Nitrogen and Potassium Fertigation to “Waris” Almond (Prunus dulcis under Northwestern Himalayan Region of India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinesh Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A field experiment was conducted on almond (Prunus dulcis to study the effect of N&K fertigation on growth, yields and leaf nutrient status over two seasons (2011 and 2012 in Srinagar, Jammu and Kashmir, India. There were six treatments, namely, T1—100% recommended dose of fertilizers as soil application, T2—100% RDF through fertigations, T3—75% RDF through fertigation, T4—75% RDF through fertigation (split application, T5—50% RDF through fertigation and T6—50% RDF through fertigation (split application with three replications under randomized block design. The results indicated that the maximum tree height (3.21 m and 3.56 m, nut weight (2.73 g and 1.94 g, nut yield (2.41 kg/tree and 5.98 kg/tree; 2.67 t/ha and 6.64 t/ha, and leaf nutrient content (2.34 and 2.38% N; 0.14 and 0.17% P; 1.37 and 1.41% K were recorded in T4 treatment, whereas the highest TCSA of main trunk, primary, secondary, and tertiary branches (72.67 and 90.28 cm2; 16.75 and 24.26 cm2; 3.83 and 7.49 cm2; 0.47 and 1.23 cm2, canopy volume (7.15 and 8.11 m3, and fruit number (990 and 3083/tree were recorded in T2 in almond variety Waris.

  1. cDNA Cloning, expression and characterization of an allergenic 60s ribosomal protein of almond (prunus dulcis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abolhassani, Mohsen; Roux, Kenneth H

    2009-06-01

    Tree nuts, including almond (prunus dulcis) are a source of food allergens often associated with life-threatening allergic reactions in susceptible individuals. Although the proteins in almonds have been biochemically characterized, relatively little has been reported regarding the identity of the allergens involved in almond sensitivity. The present study was undertaken to identify the allergens of the almond by cDNA library approach. cDNA library of almond seeds was constructed in Uni-Zap XR lamda vector and expressed in E. coli XL-1 blue. Plaques were immunoscreened with pooled sera of allergic patients. The cDNA clone reacting significantly with specific IgE antibodies was selected and subcloned and subsequently expressed in E. coli. The amino acids deducted from PCR product of clone showed homology to 60s acidic ribosomal protein of almond. The expressed protein was 11,450 Dalton without leader sequence. Immunoreactivity of the recombinant 60s ribosomal protein (r60sRP) was evaluated with dot blot analysis using pooled and individual sera of allergic patients. The data showed that r60sRP and almond extract (as positive control) possess the ability to bind the IgE antibodies. The results showed that expressed protein is an almond allergen.Whether this r60sRP represents a major allergen of almond needs to be further studied which requires a large number of sera from the almond atopic patients and also need to determine the IgE-reactive frequencies of each individual allergen.

  2. The Small-RNA Profiles of Almond (Prunus dulcis Mill. Reproductive Tissues in Response to Cold Stress.

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    Marzieh Karimi

    Full Text Available Spring frost is an important environmental stress that threatens the production of Prunus trees. However, little information is available regarding molecular response of these plants to the frost stress. Using high throughput sequencing, this study was conducted to identify differentially expressed miRNAs, both the conserved and the non-conserved ones, in the reproductive tissues of almond tolerant H genotype under cold stress. Analysis of 50 to 58 million raw reads led to identification of 174 unique conserved and 59 novel microRNAs (miRNAs. Differential expression pattern analysis showed that 50 miRNA families were expressed differentially in one or both of almond reproductive tissues (anther and ovary. Out of these 50 miRNA families, 12 and 15 displayed up-regulation and down-regulation, respectively. The distribution of conserved miRNA families indicated that miR482f harbor the highest number of members. Confirmation of miRNAs expression patterns by quantitative real- time PCR (qPCR was performed in cold tolerant (H genotype alongside a sensitive variety (Sh12 genotype. Our analysis revealed differential expression for 9 miRNAs in anther and 3 miRNAs in ovary between these two varieties. Target prediction of miRNAs followed by differential expression analysis resulted in identification of 83 target genes, mostly transcription factors. This study comprehensively catalogued expressed miRNAs under different temperatures in two reproductive tissues (anther and ovary. Results of current study and the previous RNA-seq study, which was conducted in the same tissues by our group, provide a unique opportunity to understand the molecular basis of responses of almond to cold stress. The results can also enhance the possibility for gene manipulation to develop cold tolerant plants.

  3. Development of an integrated pretreatment fractionation process for fermentable sugars and lignin: Application to almond (Prunus dulcis) shell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gong, Dachun; Holtman, Kevin M.; Franqui-Espiet, Diana; Orts, William J.; Zhao, Ruming

    2011-01-01

    An environmentally friendly pretreatment process was developed to fractionate cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin from almond (Prunus dulcis) shells, consisting of hot water pretreatment (HWP) coupled with organic solvent (organosolv) pretreatment of water/ethanol (OWEP). This integrated pretreatment process proved more effective on the basis of yield of fermentable sugar and lignin separation compared with HWP alone, dilute acid pretreatment (DAP), ammonia pretreatment (AP), lime pretreatment LP, organosolv water/ethanol pretreatment (OWEP), and organosolv water/acetone pretreatment (OWAP). In the coupled hot water-organosolv process, hemicellulose sugars were recovered in the first residual liquid while varying amounts of cellulose was retained in the residual solid. The lignin fraction was obtained by simply adjusting the pH from the second liquid. The optimal two-stage process consisted of first HWP stage at 195 o C for 30 min, resulting in w glucose = 95.4% glucose recovery yield and w xylose = 92.2% xylose removal. The second organosolv OWEP stage was operated at 195 o C for 20 min, in ethanol in water mixtures of ethanol = 50% and resulted in nearly w glucose = 100% glucose recovery yield, w xylose = 90% xylose and w lignin = 61% lignin removal. After enzymatic hydrolysis, glucose yield was up to w glucose = 95%, compared to 61% yield from untreated almond. Images obtained via scanning electron microscopy (SEM) highlighted the differences in almond structure from the varying pretreatment methods during biomass fractionation. -- Highlights: → Almond shells are an under-utilized agriculture byproduct available in the world. → Almond shells are particularly attractive as bioenergy feedstock. → We have developed a new fractionation process for the almond shell. → The new process combined the HWP with OWEP. → The fractionation process has potential in the utilization of almond shell.

  4. The Small-RNA Profiles of Almond (Prunus dulcis Mill.) Reproductive Tissues in Response to Cold Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimi, Marzieh; Ghazanfari, Farahnaz; Fadaei, Adeleh; Ahmadi, Laleh; Shiran, Behrouz; Rabei, Mohammad; Fallahi, Hossein

    2016-01-01

    Spring frost is an important environmental stress that threatens the production of Prunus trees. However, little information is available regarding molecular response of these plants to the frost stress. Using high throughput sequencing, this study was conducted to identify differentially expressed miRNAs, both the conserved and the non-conserved ones, in the reproductive tissues of almond tolerant H genotype under cold stress. Analysis of 50 to 58 million raw reads led to identification of 174 unique conserved and 59 novel microRNAs (miRNAs). Differential expression pattern analysis showed that 50 miRNA families were expressed differentially in one or both of almond reproductive tissues (anther and ovary). Out of these 50 miRNA families, 12 and 15 displayed up-regulation and down-regulation, respectively. The distribution of conserved miRNA families indicated that miR482f harbor the highest number of members. Confirmation of miRNAs expression patterns by quantitative real- time PCR (qPCR) was performed in cold tolerant (H genotype) alongside a sensitive variety (Sh12 genotype). Our analysis revealed differential expression for 9 miRNAs in anther and 3 miRNAs in ovary between these two varieties. Target prediction of miRNAs followed by differential expression analysis resulted in identification of 83 target genes, mostly transcription factors. This study comprehensively catalogued expressed miRNAs under different temperatures in two reproductive tissues (anther and ovary). Results of current study and the previous RNA-seq study, which was conducted in the same tissues by our group, provide a unique opportunity to understand the molecular basis of responses of almond to cold stress. The results can also enhance the possibility for gene manipulation to develop cold tolerant plants.

  5. Effect of Pulsed Electric Fields on the Flavour Profile of Red-Fleshed Sweet Cherries (Prunus avium var. Stella

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristine Ann Gualberto Sotelo

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to study the effect of pulsed electric fields (PEF on the flavour profile of red-fleshed sweet cherries (Prunus avium variety Stella. The cherry samples were treated at a constant pulse frequency of 100 Hz, a constant pulse width of 20 μs, different electric field strengths between 0.3 and 2.5 kV/cm and specific energy ranging from 31 to 55 kJ/kg. Volatile compounds of samples were analysed using an automated headspace solid phase microextraction (HS–SPME method coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC–MS. A total of 33 volatile compounds were identified with benzaldehyde, hexanal, (E-2-hexenal, (Z-2-hexen-1-ol, and benzyl alcohol being the predominant volatiles in different PEF-treated samples. Aldehydes namely butanal, octanal, 2-octenal, and nonanal, and (Z-2-hexen-1-ol increased significantly 24 h after PEF treatment at electric field strengths of more than 1.0 kV/cm. Samples incubated for 24 h after PEF treatment (S3 generated higher concentrations of volatiles than samples immediately after PEF treatments (S2. Quantitative results revealed that more flavour volatiles were released and associated with S3 samples after 24 h storage and S2 samples immediately after PEF both with the highest electric field intensities. Interestingly, this study found that the PEF treatments at the applied electric field strength and energy did not result in releasing/producing undesirable flavour compounds.

  6. In-vitro free radical scavenging activity of biosynthesized gold and silver nanoparticles using Prunus armeniaca (apricot) fruit extract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dauthal, Preeti; Mukhopadhyay, Mausumi

    2013-01-01

    In-vitro free radical scavenging activity of biosynthesized gold (Au-NPs) and silver (Ag-NPs) nanoparticles was investigated in the present study. Natural precursor Prunus armeniaca (apricot) fruit extract was used as a reducing agent for the nanoparticle synthesis. The free radical scavenging activity of the nanoparticles were observed by modified 1,1'-diphynyl-2-picrylhydrazyl, DPPH and 2,2'-azinobis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid), ABTS assay. The synthesized nanoparticles were characterized by UV-Visible spectroscopy, dynamic light scattering, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), energy dispersive spectroscopy, and fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). Appearance of optical absorption peak at 537 nm (2.20 keV) and 435 nm (3 keV) within 0.08 and 0.5 h of reaction time was confirmed the presence of metallic Au and Ag nanoclusters, respectively. Nearly spherical nanoparticles with majority of particle below 20 nm (TEM) for both Au-NPs and Ag-NPs were synthesized. XRD pattern confirmed the existence of pure nanocrystalline Au-NPs while few additional peaks in the vicinity of fcc silver-speculated crystallization of metalloproteins of fruit extract on the surface of the Ag-NPs and vice versa. FTIR spectra was supported the role of amino acids of protein/enzymes of fruit extract for synthesis and stabilization of nanoparticles. Dose-dependent scavenging activity was observed for Au-NPs and Ag-NPs in both DPPH and ABTS in-vitro assay. 50 % scavenging activity for DPPH were 11.27 and 16.18 mg and for ABTS 3.40 and 7.12 mg with Au-NPs and Ag-NPs, respectively.

  7. Comprehensive Cloning of Prunus mume Dormancy Associated MADS-Box Genes and Their Response in Flower Bud Development and Dormancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Zhao

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Dormancy Associated MADS-box genes are SVP/MADs-box members and supposed to play crucial roles in plant dormancy of perennial species. In Prunus mume, PmDAM6 has been previously identified to induce plant dormancy. In the current study, six PmDAMs were cloned in P. mume and functionally analyzed in yeast and tobacco to detect the roles of the genes paralogous to PmDAM6. The expression patterns together with sequence similarities indicate that PmDAMs are divided into two sub-clades within SVP group. Moreover, PmDAMs are verified to take part in the development of different plant organs, specifically the flower buds, in some intricate patterns. Furthermore, the PmDAM proteins are found to have special functions by forming corresponding protein complex during the development of flower bud and induction of dormancy. In particular, when PmDAM1 dominating in flower bud in the warm months, the protein complexes are consisted of PmDAM1 itself or with PmDAM2. With the decrease temperatures in the following months, PmDAM6 was found to be highly expressed and gradually changed the complex structure to PmDAM6-protein complex due to strong binding tendencies with PmDAM1 and PmDAM3. Finally, the homodimers of PmDAM6 prevailed to induce the dormancy. The results obtained in the current study highlight the functions of PmDAMs in the tissue development and dormancy, which provide available suggestions for further explorations of protein-complex functions in association with bud growth and dormancy.

  8. Conservation priorities for Prunus africana defined with the aid of spatial analysis of genetic data and climatic variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinceti, Barbara; Loo, Judy; Gaisberger, Hannes; van Zonneveld, Maarten J; Schueler, Silvio; Konrad, Heino; Kadu, Caroline A C; Geburek, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Conservation priorities for Prunus africana, a tree species found across Afromontane regions, which is of great commercial interest internationally and of local value for rural communities, were defined with the aid of spatial analyses applied to a set of georeferenced molecular marker data (chloroplast and nuclear microsatellites) from 32 populations in 9 African countries. Two approaches for the selection of priority populations for conservation were used, differing in the way they optimize representation of intra-specific diversity of P. africana across a minimum number of populations. The first method (S1) was aimed at maximizing genetic diversity of the conservation units and their distinctiveness with regard to climatic conditions, the second method (S2) at optimizing representativeness of the genetic diversity found throughout the species' range. Populations in East African countries (especially Kenya and Tanzania) were found to be of great conservation value, as suggested by previous findings. These populations are complemented by those in Madagascar and Cameroon. The combination of the two methods for prioritization led to the identification of a set of 6 priority populations. The potential distribution of P. africana was then modeled based on a dataset of 1,500 georeferenced observations. This enabled an assessment of whether the priority populations identified are exposed to threats from agricultural expansion and climate change, and whether they are located within the boundaries of protected areas. The range of the species has been affected by past climate change and the modeled distribution of P. africana indicates that the species is likely to be negatively affected in future, with an expected decrease in distribution by 2050. Based on these insights, further research at the regional and national scale is recommended, in order to strengthen P. africana conservation efforts.

  9. Conservation priorities for Prunus africana defined with the aid of spatial analysis of genetic data and climatic variables.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Vinceti

    Full Text Available Conservation priorities for Prunus africana, a tree species found across Afromontane regions, which is of great commercial interest internationally and of local value for rural communities, were defined with the aid of spatial analyses applied to a set of georeferenced molecular marker data (chloroplast and nuclear microsatellites from 32 populations in 9 African countries. Two approaches for the selection of priority populations for conservation were used, differing in the way they optimize representation of intra-specific diversity of P. africana across a minimum number of populations. The first method (S1 was aimed at maximizing genetic diversity of the conservation units and their distinctiveness with regard to climatic conditions, the second method (S2 at optimizing representativeness of the genetic diversity found throughout the species' range. Populations in East African countries (especially Kenya and Tanzania were found to be of great conservation value, as suggested by previous findings. These populations are complemented by those in Madagascar and Cameroon. The combination of the two methods for prioritization led to the identification of a set of 6 priority populations. The potential distribution of P. africana was then modeled based on a dataset of 1,500 georeferenced observations. This enabled an assessment of whether the priority populations identified are exposed to threats from agricultural expansion and climate change, and whether they are located within the boundaries of protected areas. The range of the species has been affected by past climate change and the modeled distribution of P. africana indicates that the species is likely to be negatively affected in future, with an expected decrease in distribution by 2050. Based on these insights, further research at the regional and national scale is recommended, in order to strengthen P. africana conservation efforts.

  10. Genetic diversity and population structure of Prunus mira (Koehne from the Tibet plateau in China and recommended conservation strategies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenquan Bao

    Full Text Available Prunus mira Koehne, an important economic fruit crop with high breeding and medicinal values, and an ancestral species of many cultivated peach species, has recently been declared an endangered species. However, basic information about genetic diversity, population structure, and morphological variation is still limited for this species. In this study, we sampled 420 P. mira individuals from 21 wild populations in the Tibet plateau to conduct a comprehensive analysis of genetic and morphological characteristics. The results of molecular analyses based on simple sequence repeat (SSR markers indicated moderate genetic diversity and inbreeding (A = 3.8, Ae = 2.5, He = 0.52, Ho = 0.44, I = 0.95, FIS = 0.17 within P. mira populations. STRUCTURE, GENELAND, and phylogenetic analyses assigned the 21 populations to three genetic clusters that were moderately correlated with geographic altitudes, and this may have resulted from significantly different climatic and environmental factors at different altitudinal ranges. Significant isolation-by-distance was detected across the entire distribution of P. mira populations, but geographic altitude might have more significant effects on genetic structure than geographic distance in partial small-scale areas. Furthermore, clear genetic structure, high genetic differentiation, and restricted gene flow were detected between pairwise populations from different geographic groups, indicating that geographic barriers and genetic drift have significant effects on P. mira populations. Analyses of molecular variance based on the SSR markers indicated high variation (83.7% and 81.7%, whereas morphological analyses revealed low variation (1.30%-36.17% within the populations. Large and heavy fruits were better adapted than light fruits and nutlets to poor climate and environmental conditions at high altitudes. Based on the results of molecular and morphological analyses, we classified the area into three conservation units

  11. Proanthocyanidin monomers and cyanidin 3-O-glucoside accumulation in blood-flesh peach (Prunus persica (L. Batsch fruit

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    Yan Juan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available To better understand the characteristics and mechanisms of proanthocyanidin monomers and anthocyanin synthesis in blood-flesh peach (Prunus persica (L. Batsch, the accumulation of catechin, epicatechin and cyanidin 3-O-glucoside was determined, and the expression patterns of structural genes associated with biosynthesis of those compounds were investigated in the blood-flesh peach fruit of cultivar “Dahongpao” during fruit development. Our results show that catechin concentration remained low and comparatively stable throughout fruit development. The concentration of epicatechin remained low at the early stages of fruit development and rapidly accumulated during ripening. Cyanidin 3-O-glucoside was not detected in theearly stages. Epicatechin started to rapidly accumulate during the ripening period, reaching a maximum at the mature stage. The expressions of the early and common genes, phenylalanine ammonia-lyase and chalcone isomerase, were less associated with proanthocyanidin monomers and cyanidin 3-O-glucoside accumulation. The expression of other flavonoid ‘early’ biosynthetic genes, including chalcone synthase (CHS, flavanone 3-hydroxylase, dihydroflavonol 4-reductase (DFR and leucoanthocyanidin dioxygenase (LDOX, were partly associated with proanthocyanidin monomers and cyanidin 3-O-glucoside levels, with expression quantities peaking synchronously at the mature stage. Leucoanthocyanidin reductase and anthocyanidin reductase, which were the key genes for proanthocyanidin monomer synthesis, correlated during fruit development with catechin and epicatechin accumulation respectively; UDP-glucose: flavonoid 3-O-glucosyltransferase (UGFT, the key gene for anthocyanin synthesis, was correlated with cyanidin 3-O-glucoside levels. The synchronous accumulation of epicatechin and cyanidin 3-O-glucoside in blood-flesh peach could not be explained by the current theory of competitive distribution mechanism of common substrate.

  12. In-vitro free radical scavenging activity of biosynthesized gold and silver nanoparticles using Prunus armeniaca (apricot) fruit extract

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dauthal, Preeti; Mukhopadhyay, Mausumi, E-mail: mausumi_mukhopadhyay@yahoo.com [S.V. National Institute of Technology, Department of Chemical Engineering (India)

    2013-01-15

    In-vitro free radical scavenging activity of biosynthesized gold (Au-NPs) and silver (Ag-NPs) nanoparticles was investigated in the present study. Natural precursor Prunus armeniaca (apricot) fruit extract was used as a reducing agent for the nanoparticle synthesis. The free radical scavenging activity of the nanoparticles were observed by modified 1,1 Prime -diphynyl-2-picrylhydrazyl, DPPH and 2,2 Prime -azinobis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid), ABTS assay. The synthesized nanoparticles were characterized by UV-Visible spectroscopy, dynamic light scattering, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), energy dispersive spectroscopy, and fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). Appearance of optical absorption peak at 537 nm (2.20 keV) and 435 nm (3 keV) within 0.08 and 0.5 h of reaction time was confirmed the presence of metallic Au and Ag nanoclusters, respectively. Nearly spherical nanoparticles with majority of particle below 20 nm (TEM) for both Au-NPs and Ag-NPs were synthesized. XRD pattern confirmed the existence of pure nanocrystalline Au-NPs while few additional peaks in the vicinity of fcc silver-speculated crystallization of metalloproteins of fruit extract on the surface of the Ag-NPs and vice versa. FTIR spectra was supported the role of amino acids of protein/enzymes of fruit extract for synthesis and stabilization of nanoparticles. Dose-dependent scavenging activity was observed for Au-NPs and Ag-NPs in both DPPH and ABTS in-vitro assay. 50 % scavenging activity for DPPH were 11.27 and 16.18 mg and for ABTS 3.40 and 7.12 mg with Au-NPs and Ag-NPs, respectively.

  13. Simultaneous quantification by HPLC of the phenolic compounds for the crude drug of Prunus serotina subsp. capuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivero-Cruz, Blanca

    2014-08-01

    Prunus serotina Ehrenb. subsp. capuli (Cav.) McVaugh (Rosaceae), commonly known as "capulin", is a native North American tree, commercialized and used in folk medicine for the treatment of the hypertension, gastrointestinal illnesses, and cough. This work developed a suitable HPLC method for quantifying the major active constituents of the infusion of P. serotina, the most important preparation consumed by populations around the world. The analytical method was performed using a Fortis-RP column (150 mm × 4.6 mm; film thickness 5 µm). The mobile phase consisted of an isocratic acetate buffer solution (pH 2.7; A) and methanol (B) (65:35 v/v) at a flow rate of 1.0 mL min(-1). The proposed method was applied to the quantification of 1-3 in several samples of the leaves of P. serotina. The results indicated that amounts of 1-3 in the samples analyzed are uniform, and greater amounts of chlorogenic acid (2; 479.9 ± 33.6 µg g(-1), dry matter) along with hyperoside (1; 185.7 ± 55.3 µg g(-1), dry matter) were present. On the other hand, benzaldehyde (3; 118.2 ± 12.1 µg g(-1) dry matter) was found to be in lower concentration. A simple, sensitive, precise, and reproducible HPLC method for the simultaneous quantification of 1-3 in P. serotina was developed and validated. This is the first report on the quantification of 1-3 as active principles, and compound 1 was selected as a marker of P. serotina, which could be useful to guarantee the quality of the crude drug and herbal products.

  14. Paternal-specific S-allele transmission in sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.): the potential for sexual selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedhly, A; Wünsch, A; Kartal, Ö; Herrero, M; Hormaza, J I

    2016-03-01

    Homomorphic self-incompatibility is a well-studied example of a physiological process that is thought to increase population diversity and reduce the expression of inbreeding depression. Whereas theoretical models predict the presence of a large number of S-haplotypes with equal frequencies at equilibrium, unequal allele frequencies have been repeatedly reported and attributed to sampling effects, population structure, demographic perturbation, sheltered deleterious mutations or selection pressure on linked genes. However, it is unclear to what extent unequal segregations are the results of gametophytic or sexual selection. Although these two forces are difficult to disentangle, testing S-alleles in the offspring of controlled crosses provides an opportunity to separate these two phenomena. In this work, segregation and transmission of S-alleles have been characterized in progenies of mixed donors and fully compatible pollinations under field conditions in Prunus avium. Seed set patterns and pollen performance have also been characterized. The results reveal paternal-specific distorted transmission of S-alleles in most of the crosses. Interestingly, S-allele segregation within any given paternal or maternal S-locus was random. Observations on pollen germination, pollen tube growth rate, pollen tube cohort size, seed set dynamics and transmission patterns strongly suggest post-pollination, prezygotic sexual selection, with male-male competition as the most likely mechanism. According to these results, post-pollination sexual selection takes precedence over frequency-dependent selection in explaining unequal S-haplotype frequencies. © 2015 European Society For Evolutionary Biology. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2015 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  15. Effects of habitat and season on removal and hoarding of seeds of wild apricot (Prunus armeniaca) by small rodents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji-Qi, Lu; Zhi-Bin, Zhang

    2004-12-01

    The wild apricot (Prunus armeniaca) is widely distributed in the Donglingshan Mountains of Mentougou District of Beijing, China, where its seeds may be an important food resource for rodents. Predation, removal and hoarding of seeds by rodents will inevitably affect the spatio-temporal pattern of seed fate of wild apricot in this area. By marking and releasing tagged seeds of wild apricot, we investigated seeds survival, scatter-hoarding, cache size and seedling establishment, and the preference of micro-habitats used by rodents to store seeds. The results showed that: (1) rodents in this area hoarded food intensively in autumn, as well as in spring and summer. (2) There were significant effects of habitat and season on removal rate of tagged seeds at releasing plots. In both two types of habitats, Low and High shrub, tagged seeds were removed most rapidly by rodents in autumn, at intermediate rates in spring and least rapidly in summer. (3) During three seasons, mean dispersal distance of scatter-hoarded seeds in Low shrub habitat was greater than that in High shrub. Most removed seeds were buried within 21.0 m of the releasing plots. (4) In both two types of habitats, Low and High shrub, rodents tended to carry seeds to US (Under shrub) and SE (Shrub edge) microhabitats for scatter-hoarding or predation. (5) Among the caches made by rodents, most caches contained only one seed, but up to three seeds were observed; caches of 2-3 seeds were common in autumn. (6) By comparing dental marks, we determined that large field mice (Apodemus peninsulae) and David's rock squirrels (Sciurotamias davidianus) contributed to removal and predation of released tagged seeds. However, only the large field mice exerted a pivotal and positive role on the burial of dispersed seeds. (7) Establishment of three seedlings originated from seeds buried by rodents was documented in High shrub habitat.

  16. Physico-chemical characteristics of seed oils extracted from different apricot (Prunus armeniaca L.) varieties from Pakistan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manzoor, M.; Anwar, F.; Ashraf, M.; Alkharfy, K. M.

    2012-11-01

    The fruit seed oils from four varieties of apricot (Prunus armeniaca L.), namely, Halmas, Nari, Travet and Charmagzi were analyzed for different physico-chemical characteristics. The oil yield from the apricot seeds (kernels) ranged from 32.23-42.51%, while the protein, fiber and ash contents ranged from 13.21-20.90%, 5.13-9.81% and 2.11-3.89%, respectively. The extracted oils had an average iodine value (g of I/100 g of oil) of 96.4-106.3; density at 24 degree centigrade 0.87-0.93 mg/mL; refractive index (40 degree centigrade), 1.4655-1.4790; saponification value, 189.1-199.4 mg of KOH/g oil; unsaponifiable matter, 0.59-0.88%; free fatty acid (mg of KOH/g oil), 0.41-1.28; and color (1-inch cell), 1.31-2.96R 1 14.8-29.8Y. With regard to the oxidation state, the tested oils showed values for specific extinction at 232 and 268 nm, 2.30-3.42 and 0.82-1.04, respectively, while the peroxide value was 1.0-2.32 meq O{sub 2}/kg and, p-anisidine was 1.22-1.90. The major fatty acid found in the oils was oleic acid (62.34-80.97%) followed by linoleic (13.13-30.33%), palmitic (3.35-5.93%), linolenic (0.73-1.03%) and stearic (1.10-1.68%) acids. The contents of {alpha}-, {gamma}-, and {delta}-, tocopherols in the oils ranged from 14.8-40.4, 330.8-520.8 and 28.5-60.2 mg/kg, respectively. The results of our present investigation revealed that apricot seed is a potential source of oil which can be used both for edible and oleo chemical applications. (Author) 55 refs.

  17. Changes in the Polyphenolic Profile, Carotenoids and Antioxidant Potential of Apricot (Prunus armeniaca L. Leaves during Maturation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alam Zeb

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Apricot (Prunus armeniaca L. leaves were studied to assess the potential of apricot leaves for future studies and their applications in nutraceutical and bioactive functional ingredients. The changes in the phenolic profile, carotenoids, pigments and antioxidant potential were studied at four maturation stages. Polyphenols and carotenoids were studied using reversed-phase HPLC-DAD. Pigments, total phenolic contents and radical scavenging activity were also measured. Results revealed twelve phenolic compounds in the apricot leaves. The major phenolic compounds were 3-O-caffeoylquinic acid (14.6–49.6 mg/g, 4-O-caffeoylquinic acid (0.56–7.5 mg/g, 5-O-caffeoylquinic acid (5.6–25.7 mg/g and quercetin-3-O-glucosides (8.6–19.9 mg/g, while others include caffeic acid and derivatives of coumaric acid and kaempferol. Significant changes were observed in polyphenolic compounds during maturation. Lutein (56.7–65.7 µg/g, neoxanthin (0.66–4.79 µg/g, 5,6-epoxy-α-carotene (5.89–7.9 µg/g, and β-carotene (12.3–26.9 µg/g were the major carotenoids. There were significant variations in the carotenoids, pigment contents, total phenolic contents and radical scavenging activity during maturation. In conclusion, significant variation occurred in the polyphenolic profile, carotenoids contents and antioxidant potential of apricot leaves under the studied conditions.

  18. Préparation et caractérisation d'un charbon actif à partir de la coquille d'amande (Prunus amygdalus amère

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trachi, M.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Preparation and characterization of activated coal from bitter almond shells (Prunus amygdalus. Description of the subject. The present study concerns the preparation of activated coal (AC from bitter almond (Prunus amygdalus shells (BASh, a fruit that grows spontaneously in the Setif region (northeast Algeria. Obtaining and characterizing activated coal was the valorization method adopted here. Objectives. The aim of this study was to elucidate the feasibility of the chemical activation of BASh in order to obtain two types of activated coal (AC. Method. The two ACs were obtained from BASh by acid (CAa and basic (CAb activation. The final products were investigated for their different physicochemical characteristics: angle of repose, ash, differential screening calorimetry, etc. In the case of CAa, the modeling of the adsorption kinetic of methylene blue (MB, as well as of adsorption isotherms, was also performed. Results. The activation mode seemed to affect unequally the different physicochemical characteristics of both the obtained coals. On the other hand, the adsorption kinetics of the MB by CAa was correctly described by the pseudo-2nd-order model (R² = 0.999. Concerning the modeling of the adsorption isotherm, of the three models tested, the Freundlich model appeared to be the most appropriate to fit the experimental data (R2 = 0.898, mean relative error (MRE = 38.638 and root mean square error (RMSE = 1.039. In addition, the activated shell showed an interesting capacity for MB adsorption, estimated at 99.05%.

  19. In silico and experimental evaluation of DNA-based detection methods for the ability to discriminate almond from other Prunus spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brežná, Barbara; Šmíd, Jiří; Costa, Joana; Radvanszky, Jan; Mafra, Isabel; Kuchta, Tomáš

    2015-04-01

    Ten published DNA-based analytical methods aiming at detecting material of almond (Prunus dulcis) were in silico evaluated for potential cross-reactivity with other stone fruits (Prunus spp.), including peach, apricot, plum, cherry, sour cherry and Sargent cherry. For most assays, the analysis of nucleotide databases suggested none or insufficient discrimination of at least some stone fruits. On the other hand, the assay targeting non-specific lipid transfer protein (Röder et al., 2011, Anal Chim Acta 685:74-83) was sufficiently discriminative, judging from nucleotide alignments. Empirical evaluation was performed for three of the published methods, one modification of a commercial kit (SureFood allergen almond) and one attempted novel method targeting thaumatin-like protein gene. Samples of leaves and kernels were used in the experiments. The empirical results were favourable for the method from Röder et al. (2011) and a modification of SureFood allergen almond kit, both showing cross-reactivity <10(-3) compared to the model almond. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Effet de la pectolyase Y-23 et de la cellulase Onozuka RS sur le rendement en protoplastes viables de Prunus cerasus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehri-Kamoun R.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Effect of pectolyase Y-23 and cellulase Onozuka RS on the yield of viable protoplasts of Prunus cerasus L. ""Montmorency"". To isolate leaf mesophyll, leaf and root callus protoplasts of Prunus cerasus L. ""Montmorency"", we have determined the optimum enzymatic mixtures to be used, and characterized the specific activity of these enzymes. The analysis of the specific activities of enzymes allows to compare the different cellulases and pectinases used to obtain protoplasts in relation with the tissue sources. This analysis concerned the FPase (degradation of filter paper and CMCase activities for cellulases Onozuka RS and R-10, and the PME (pectinmethylesterase, PL (pectate lyase and PG (polygalacturonase activities for the pectinases Macerozyme R-10 and Pectolyase Y-23. The results show that the digestion of leaf mesophyll tissues need cellulase Onozuka RS and Pectolyase Y-23 while callus protoplasts of the same material, can be isolated with cellulase Onozuka R-10 and Macerozyme R-10. The enzymes cellulase Onozuka RS and Pectolyase Y-23 (as pectinase improved significantly the yield and the viability of leaf mesophyll protoplasts compared to cellulase Onozuka R-10 and Macerozyme R-10. These results were correlated to the specific activities of the enzymes. Significant differences between the 2 pectinases are observed for PME, PL and PG activities and between the 2 cellulases for CMCase activity. From callus, the maximum amount of viable protoplasts was obtained with cellulase Onozuka R-10 (low CMCase activity and Macerozyme R-10 (low PG activity.

  1. Over-expression of the PaAP1 gene from sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.) causes early flowering in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jing; Zhang, Xiaoming; Yan, Guohua; Zhou, Yu; Zhang, Kaichun

    2013-02-15

    A homologue of SQUAMOSA/APETALA1, designated PaAP1, was isolated from Prunus avium by reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR). The full length of PaAP1 cDNA is 753 bp, and it codes for a polypeptide of 250 amino acid residues. Sequence comparison revealed that PaAP1 belongs to the MADS-box gene family. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that PaAP1 shared the highest identity with SQUA/AP1 homologues from Prunus serrulata. Real-time fluorescence quantitative PCR analysis showed that PaAP1 was expressed at high levels in petal, sepal, style, and flower buds, which was slightly different from the expression pattern of AP1 of Arabidopsis thaliana. To characterize the functions of PaAP1, we assessed Arabidopsis transformed with 35S::PaAP1. A total of 8 transgenic T(1) lines with an early flowering phenotype were obtained, and a 3:1 segregation ratio of flowering time was observed in the T(2) generation of 4 lines. This study provides the first functional analysis of an SQUA/AP1 homolog from P. avium and suggests that PaAP1 is potentially useful for shortening the juvenile period in sweet cherry. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  2. Enraizamento de estacas herbáceas de quatro clones de umezeiro (Prunus mume Sieb. et Zucc. durante o inverno ameno, em Jaboticabal-SP Rooting of herbaceous cuttings of four mume clones (Prunus mume Sieb. et Zucc. during soft winter, in Jaboticabal, São Paulo state, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Newton Alex Mayer

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Estudos realizados no Brasil com o umezeiro (Prunus mume Sieb. et Zucc. relatam promissoras perspectivas de utilização desta espécie como porta-enxerto para pessegueiro e nectarineira, em função de sua rusticidade, adaptação ao inverno brando, compatibilidade com Prunus persica, redução do vigor das plantas e melhoria da qualidade dos frutos. Entretanto, em função da propagação por sementes, tem sido observadas diferenças de vigor entre as plantas, resultando em pomares muito heterogêneos. Assim, o presente estudo teve por objetivo estudar o enraizamento de estacas herbáceas de quatro clones de umezeiro (Clones 02, 05, 10 e 15 durante o inverno ameno, em Jaboticabal-SP. O experimento foi conduzido entre os meses de junho e agosto, sendo avaliado aos 70 dias após a estaquia. Pelos resultados obtidos, foi possível concluir que é viável a propagação dos clones estudados por enraizamento de estacas herbáceas durante o inverno. Foram observadas diferenças entre os clones quanto à porcentagem de enraizamento, porcentagem de estacas com calo, número e comprimento das raízes. No conjunto das variáveis analisadas, os melhores resultados foram obtidos com os Clones 10 e 15.Studies developed in Brazil with the mume (Prunus mume Sieb. et Zucc. have shown promising perspectives of using this species as rootstock for peach and nectarine trees, in function of its rusticity, adaptation to soft winter, compatibility with Prunus persica, plant vigor reduction and improvement of the fruit quality. However, due to seed propagation, vigor differences have been observed among plants, resulting in very heterogeneous orchards. Thus, the present study had the objective of studying the rooting of herbaceous cuttings of four mume clones (Clones 02, 05, 10 and 15 in intermittent mist during the soft winter, in Jaboticabal, São Paulo State, Brazil. The experiment was carried out between June and August, being evaluated 70 days after the cutting

  3. Efficient synthesis of highly fluorescent nitrogen-doped carbon dots for cell imaging using unripe fruit extract of Prunus mume

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atchudan, Raji; Edison, Thomas Nesakumar Jebakumar Immanuel; Sethuraman, Mathur Gopalakrishnan; Lee, Yong Rok

    2016-01-01

    Graphical abstract: The green synthesis of highly fluorescent N-CDs was achieved using the extract of unripe P. mume fruit as a carbon precursor by a one-pot simple hydrothermal-carbonization method. The resulting N-CDs were used as a staining agent for the fluorescence imaging of MDA-MB-231 cells. Display Omitted - Highlights: • The green synthesis of highly fluorescent N-CDs using the extract of unripe P. mume. • The N-CDs were synthesized by one-pot hydrothermal-carbonization method. • This method of synthesis is a simple, cost effective and eco-friendly route. • N-CDs will be a good alternative for fluorescent dyes and SQDs for bio-applications. - Abstract: Highly fluorescent nitrogen-doped carbon dots (N-CDs) were synthesized using the extract of unripe Prunus mume (P. mume) fruit by a simple one step hydrothermal-carbonization method. The N-CDs were synthesized at different pH ranges, 2.3, 5, 7, and 9. The pH of the P. mume extract was adjusted using an aqueous ammonia solution (25%). The optical properties of N-CDs were examined by UV–vis and fluorescence spectroscopy. The N-CDs synthesized at pH 9 emitted high fluorescence intensity compared to other obtained N-CDs. The N-CDs synthesized at pH 9 was further characterized by high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and Fourier transform-infra red (FT-IR) spectroscopy. HR-TEM showed that the average size of the synthesized N-CDs was approximately 9 nm and the interlayer distance was 0.21 nm, which was validated by XRD. The graphitic nature of the synthesized N-CDs were confirmed by Raman spectroscopy. XPS and FT-IR spectroscopy confirmed the doping of the nitrogen moiety over the synthesized CDs. The synthesized nitrogen doped CDs (N-CDs) were low toxicity and were used as a staining probe for fluorescence cell imaging.

  4. Efficient synthesis of highly fluorescent nitrogen-doped carbon dots for cell imaging using unripe fruit extract of Prunus mume

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atchudan, Raji; Edison, Thomas Nesakumar Jebakumar Immanuel [School of Chemical Engineering, Yeungnam University, Gyeongsan 38541 (Korea, Republic of); Sethuraman, Mathur Gopalakrishnan, E-mail: mgsethu@gmail.com [Department of Chemistry, Gandhigram Rural Institute-Deemed University, Gandhigram 624 302, Tamilnadu (India); Lee, Yong Rok, E-mail: yrlee@yu.ac.kr [School of Chemical Engineering, Yeungnam University, Gyeongsan 38541 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-30

    Graphical abstract: The green synthesis of highly fluorescent N-CDs was achieved using the extract of unripe P. mume fruit as a carbon precursor by a one-pot simple hydrothermal-carbonization method. The resulting N-CDs were used as a staining agent for the fluorescence imaging of MDA-MB-231 cells. Display Omitted - Highlights: • The green synthesis of highly fluorescent N-CDs using the extract of unripe P. mume. • The N-CDs were synthesized by one-pot hydrothermal-carbonization method. • This method of synthesis is a simple, cost effective and eco-friendly route. • N-CDs will be a good alternative for fluorescent dyes and SQDs for bio-applications. - Abstract: Highly fluorescent nitrogen-doped carbon dots (N-CDs) were synthesized using the extract of unripe Prunus mume (P. mume) fruit by a simple one step hydrothermal-carbonization method. The N-CDs were synthesized at different pH ranges, 2.3, 5, 7, and 9. The pH of the P. mume extract was adjusted using an aqueous ammonia solution (25%). The optical properties of N-CDs were examined by UV–vis and fluorescence spectroscopy. The N-CDs synthesized at pH 9 emitted high fluorescence intensity compared to other obtained N-CDs. The N-CDs synthesized at pH 9 was further characterized by high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and Fourier transform-infra red (FT-IR) spectroscopy. HR-TEM showed that the average size of the synthesized N-CDs was approximately 9 nm and the interlayer distance was 0.21 nm, which was validated by XRD. The graphitic nature of the synthesized N-CDs were confirmed by Raman spectroscopy. XPS and FT-IR spectroscopy confirmed the doping of the nitrogen moiety over the synthesized CDs. The synthesized nitrogen doped CDs (N-CDs) were low toxicity and were used as a staining probe for fluorescence cell imaging.

  5. Mites fluctuation population on peach tree (Prunus persica (L. Batsch and in associated plants Flutuação populacional de ácaros na cultura do pessegueiro (Prunus persica (L. Batsch e em plantas associadas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Rosana Eichelberger

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Despite the importance of peach (Prunus persica (L. Batsch in Rio Grande do Sul, little is known about mites fluctuation population considered important to this crop. The objective of this study was to know the population diversity and fluctuation of mite species associated with Premier and Eldorado varieties in Roca Sales and Venâncio Aires counties, Rio Grande do Sul. The study was conducted from July 2008 to June 2009 when 15 plants were randomly chosen in each area. The plants were divided in quadrants and from each one a branch was chosen from which three leaves were removed: one collected in the apical region, another in the medium and the other in the basal region, totalizing 180 leaves/area. Five of the most abundant associated plants were collected monthly in enough amounts for the screening under the stereoscopic microscope during an hour. A total of 1,124 mites were found belonging to 14 families and 28 species. Tetranychus ludeni Zacher, 1913, Panonychus ulmi (Koch, 1836 and Mononychellus planki (McGregor, 1950 were the most abundant phytophagous mites, whereas Typhlodromalus aripo Deleon, 1967 and Phytoseiulus macropilis (Banks, 1904 the most common predatory mites. The period of one hour under stereoscopic microscope was enough to get a representative sample. In both places evaluated the ecologic indices were low, but little higherin Premier (H' 0.56; EqJ: 0.43 when compared to Eldorado (H' 0.53; EqJ 0.40. In Premier constant species were not observed and accessory only Brevipalpus phoenicis (Geijskes, 1939, T. ludeni and T. aripo. Higher abundance was observed in December and January and bigger amount in April. Already in Eldorado, T. ludeni and P. ulmi were constants. Greater abundance was observed in November and December, whereas grater richness in December and January. In both orchards were not found mites in buds. Tetranychus ludeni is the most abundant phytophagous mites with outbreak population in November, December and

  6. Physico-chemical characteristics of seed oils extracted from different apricot (Prunus armeniaca L. varieties from Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alkharfy, K. M.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The fruit seed oils from four varieties of apricot (Prunus armeniaca L., namely, Halmas, Nari, Travet and Charmagzi were analyzed for different physico-chemical characteristics. The oil yield from the apricot seeds (kernels ranged from 32.23-42.51%, while the protein, fiber and ash contents ranged from 13.21-20.90%, 5.13-9.81% and 2.11-3.89%, respectively. The extracted oils had an average iodine value (g of I/100 g of oil of 96.4-106.3; density at 24 °C, 0.87-0.93 mg/mL; refractive index (40 °C, 1.4655-1.4790; saponification value, 189.1-199.4 mg of KOH/g oil; unsaponifiable matter, 0.59-0.88%; free fatty acid (mg of KOH/g oil, 0.41-1.28; and color (1-inch cell, 1.31-2.96R 1 14.8-29.8Y. With regard to the oxidation state, the tested oils showed values for specific extinction at 232 and 268 nm, 2.30-3.42 and 0.82-1.04, respectively, while the peroxide value was 1.0-2.32 meq O2/kg and, p-anisidine was 1.22-1.90. The major fatty acid found in the oils was oleic acid (62.34-80.97% followed by linoleic (13.13-30.33%, palmitic (3.35-5.93%, linolenic (0.73-1.03% and stearic (1.10-1.68% acids. The contents of α-, γ-, and δ-, tocopherols in the oils ranged from 14.8-40.4, 330.8-520.8 and 28.5-60.2 mg/kg, respectively. The results of our present investigation revealed that apricot seed is a potential source of oil which can be used both for edible and oleochemical applications.Se han analizado las características físico-químicas de aceites de semillas de frutos de cuatro variedades diferentes de albaricoque, Halmas, Nari, Travet y Charmagzi (Prunus armeniaca L.. La producción de aceites de las semillas de albaricoque (hueso osciló entre 32,23-42,51%, mientras que las proteínas, fibra y cenizas dieron valores de 13,21-20,90%, 5,13-9,81% y 2,11-3,89%, respectivamente. Los aceites extraídos presentaron valores promedio de índice de yodo, de 96,4-106,3 (g de I/100 g de aceite; densidades a 24 °C de 0,87-0,93 mg/mL, índices de refracción (40

  7. Isparta bölgesinde selekte edilen badem (prunus amygdalus batsch.) genotiplerinin bazı kimyasal özellikleri ve yağ asitleri kompozisyonları1

    OpenAIRE

    Yıldırım, Adnan; Koyuncu, Fatma; Tekintaş, Ekmel; Yıldırım, Fatma Akıncı

    2008-01-01

    Bu arastırmada, Isparta yöresinde selekte edilen 14 badem (Prunus amygdalus Batsch.) genotipinin bazı kimyasal özellikleri ve yag asitleri kompozisyonunu belirlemek amacıyla yürütülmüstür. Arastırmada, genotiplerin toplam yag oranı % 44.25 ile (ISP 298) - 55.68 (ISP 129); protein oranı % 21.23 (ISP 66) - 35.27 (ISP 298); kül oranı % 2.75 (ISP 66) - 3.81 (ISP 129); nem oranı % 3.41 (ISP 127) - 4.52 (ISP 59); palmitik asit oranı % 6.18 (ISP 241) - 8.33 (ISP 127); palmitoleik asit or...

  8. Fast and robust discrimination of almonds (Prunus amygdalus) with respect to their bitterness by using near infrared and partial least squares-discriminant analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borràs, Eva; Amigo, José Manuel; van den Berg, Frans; Boqué, Ricard; Busto, Olga

    2014-06-15

    In this study, near-infrared spectroscopy (NIR) coupled to chemometrics is used to develop a fast, simple, non-destructive and robust method for discriminating sweet and bitter almonds (Prunus amygdalus) by the in situ measurement of the kernel surface without any sample pre-treatment. Principal component analysis (PCA) and partial least-squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) models were built to discriminate both types of almonds, obtaining high levels of sensitivity and specificity for both classes, with more than 95% of the samples correctly classified and discriminated. Moreover, the almonds were also analysed by Raman spectroscopy, the reference technique for this type of analysis, to validate and confirm the results obtained by NIR. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Agrobacterium rhizogenes-mediated transformation of Prunus as an alternative for gene functional analysis in hairy-roots and composite plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosselut, Nathalie; Van Ghelder, Cyril; Claverie, Michel; Voisin, Roger; Onesto, Jean-Paul; Rosso, Marie-Noëlle; Esmenjaud, Daniel

    2011-07-01

    Resistant rootstocks offer an alternative to pesticides for the control of soil pests. In Prunus spp., resistance loci to root-knot nematodes (RKN) have been mapped and a transformation method is needed to validate candidate genes. Our efforts have focused on the generation of transformed hairy-roots and composite plants appropriate for nematode infection assays. An efficient and reliable method using the A4R strain of Agrobacterium rhizogenes for the transformation of Prunus roots with an Egfp reporter gene is given. The rooting efficiency, depending on the genotypes, was maximal for the interspecific hybrid 253 (Myrobalan plum × almond-peach), susceptible to RKN, that was retained for subsequent studies. From the agro-inoculated cuttings, 72% produced roots, mainly at the basal section of the stem. Transformed roots were screened by microscope detection of Egfp fluorescence and molecular analyses of the integration of the transgene. The absence of residual agrobacteria in the plants was checked by the non-amplification of the chromosomal gene chvH. Egfp was expressed visually in 76% of the rooted plants. Isolated hairy roots in Petri dishes and composite plants (transformed roots and non-transformed aerial part) in soil containers were inoculated with the RKN Meloidogyne incognita. In both cases, root transformation did not affect the ability of the nematodes to develop in the root tissues. Our results showed that isolated hairy-roots can be used to validate candidate genes and the conditions in which composite plants offer a complementary system for studying the function of root genes in physiological conditions of whole plants are discussed.

  10. Plant size and abiotic factors determine the intra-specific variation in the multi-stemmed architecture of Prunus lusitanica in the Northeast limit of its global distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Muñoz Costa

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim of study: The present work provides novel insights on factors (either intrinsic or extrinsic that trigger sprouting in woody species living at range margins. We aim to explain the inter-individual variability in the multi-stemmed architecture of Prunus lusitanica L., an Iberian evergreen relict tree related to the Tertiary flora.Area of study: Northeastern Mediterranean mountains of the Iberian Peninsula, the Northeast limit of the global distribution of the species.Material and Methods: We gathered data on two modes of vegetative reproduction, basal and layering sprouts, in 288 clumps of Prunus lusitanica from four populations. We modeled and analyzed the effect of environmental factors (topography, canopy cover, soil moisture and disturbances and plant size (diameter at breast height on sprouting by means of Generalized Linear Model and other statistical approaches.Main results: Plant size arises as the principal factor to explain the variability of the numbers of both types of sprouts yet it is not a trigger factor. Natural and anthropogenic disturbances promote basal and layering shoots, while tree canopy is mainly relevant for basal shoots, and slope and soil moisture are significant factors for layering shoots.Research highlights: The multi-stemmed architecture of P. lusitanica at the Northeastern limit of its worldwide distribution is triggered by local environmental factors and disturbances. Each external factor shows different levels of influence on the variability and type of vegetative reproduction yet the intensity of the response is driven by the size of the largest trunk of each clump.Key words: vegetative reproduction; sprouting; disturbances; woody plants; relict tree; subtropical; Iberian Peninsula.

  11. Development of an Efficient Real-Time Quantitative PCR Protocol for Detection of Xanthomonas arboricola pv. pruni in Prunus Species ▿ †

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palacio-Bielsa, Ana; Cubero, Jaime; Cambra, Miguel A.; Collados, Raquel; Berruete, Isabel M.; López, María M.

    2011-01-01

    Xanthomonas arboricola pv. pruni, the causal agent of bacterial spot disease of stone fruit, is considered a quarantine organism by the European Union and the European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization (EPPO). The bacterium can undergo an epiphytic phase and/or be latent and can be transmitted by plant material, but currently, only visual inspections are used to certify plants as being X. arboricola pv. pruni free. A novel and highly sensitive real-time TaqMan PCR detection protocol was designed based on a sequence of a gene for a putative protein related to an ABC transporter ATP-binding system in X. arboricola pv. pruni. Pathogen detection can be completed within a few hours with a sensitivity of 102 CFU ml−1, thus surpassing the sensitivity of the existing conventional PCR. Specificity was assessed for X. arboricola pv. pruni strains from different origins as well as for closely related Xanthomonas species, non-Xanthomonas species, saprophytic bacteria, and healthy Prunus samples. The efficiency of the developed protocol was evaluated with field samples of 14 Prunus species and rootstocks. For symptomatic leaf samples, the protocol was very efficient even when washed tissues of the leaves were directly amplified without any previous DNA extraction. For samples of 117 asymptomatic leaves and 285 buds, the protocol was more efficient after a simple DNA extraction, and X. arboricola pv. pruni was detected in 9.4% and 9.1% of the 402 samples analyzed, respectively, demonstrating its frequent epiphytic or endophytic phase. This newly developed real-time PCR protocol can be used as a quantitative assay, offers a reliable and sensitive test for X. arboricola pv. pruni, and is suitable as a screening test for symptomatic as well as asymptomatic plant material. PMID:21037298

  12. (Prunus armeniaca L.) genotypes

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-03-20

    Mar 20, 2009 ... Table 2. Leaf stomatal frequency, stomata size and stomatal conductance of apricot genotypes. Stomatal conductance (mmol m-2 s-1). Apricot genotype. Stomata frequency. (number/mm2). Stomata size. (μm). 2006. 2007. Orange Red. 349.0 a. 71.6 abc. 192 a-d. 176 bc. Palstein. 311.7 ab. 76.6 abc.

  13. Evaluation of apricot (Prunus armeniaca L.) seed kernel as a potential feedstock for the production of liquid bio-fuels and activated carbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fadhil, Abdelrahman B.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Apricot (Prunus armeniaca L.) is presented as a source for biodiesel, bio-oil and activated carbon. • Methylic and ethylic esters of apricot seed kernel oil conformed to ASTM (D6751) standards. • High yield (43.66% w/w) of bio-oil was produced by pyrolysis of de-oiled seed kernel. • High quality of activated carbon was obtained from the biochar. - Abstract: Production of liquid bio-fuels (biodiesel and bio-oil) as well as activated carbon from one non-edible feedstock, apricot (Prunus armeniaca L.) seed kernel was the main objective of the present research work. The oil was extracted from apricot seed kernel with a yield of 49.44% w/w of kernels. Potassium hydroxide-catalyzed transesterification of apricot (Prunus armeniaca L.) seed kernel oil with methanol and ethanol was then applied to produce methylic and ethylic, respectively. Properties of the obtained biodiesels were evaluated and found conformed to ASTM D 6751 limits. The apricot de-oiled seed kernel was pyrolyzed in a semi-batch reactor for bio-oil production. The effect of the pyrolysis temperatures (350, 400, 450, 500, 550 and 600 °C), pyrolysis time (30, 60, 90, 120 and 150 min) and feed particles size (0.25, 0.40, 0.59 and 0.84 mm) on the bio-oil yield was investigated. The maximum production of bio-oil (43.66% w/w) was achieved at a pyrolysis temperature of 450 °C, 60 min pyrolysis time and a feed particles size of 0.25 mm. The bio-oil obtained under the optimal conditions was characterized by the elemental analysis, FTIR spectroscopy and column chromatography. The FTIR analysis of the produced bio-fuel indicated that it composes mainly of alkanes, alkenes, ketones, carboxylic acids and amines. Properties of the resulting bio-oil were analyzed in terms of calorific value, density, flash point, pH, acid value, pour point and refractive index. The properties were close to those of petroleum fractions and comparable to those of other bio-oils published in literature. Referring to

  14. The evaluation of the growth and nutrition conditions of the garden nursery material Prunus and Thuja according to the use of various cultivating substrates and systems of fertilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomáš Meisl

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The influence of different peat-based cultivating substrates and the system of fertilization on the nutrition conditions and growth characteristics of garden nursery material Prunus kurilensis ‘Brillant’ and Thuja occidentalis ‘Smaragd’ were observed during a three-year experiment. Three kinds of substrates were tested: peat + pumice (pemza proportioned 8:2, fermented bark + peat + clay proportioned 4:4:2, fermented bark + peat + clay proportioned 4:4:2. Two fertilizers were used: granular controlled-release fertilizer – Osmocote, and watersoluble with irrigation – Kristalon.A higher content of macroelements was observed in the leaves of Prunus. The only exception was potassium, the quantity of which was demonstrably higher in the assimilative organs of Thuja. On the contrary, Thuja had a higher content of trace elements except for copper and iron. The highest contents of nitrogen, potassium, and iron were statistically proved in leaves of woods grown in the substrate of peat and pumice due to its higher sorption capability. A better nutrition conditions in almost all nutrients were observed at plants where the gradually effective Osmocote was applied. The exceptions were calcium, molybdenum and iron, the content of which was, on the contrary, higher where Kristalon with irrigation were used. Physical characteristics of the growing substrates that contained bark were significantly worse at the end of the experiment. This was even intensified by clay. The substrate containing peat and pumice were less stable. The best growth was observed in woods grown in the substrate of peat and pumice, ie where peat was not substituted by bark, and, at the same time, expanded clay was used instead of classic clay. Higher values of growth characteristics were demonstratively observed after the Osmocote fertilizer was applied.The results of the experiment reveal that pumice should be recommended, pemza with a high sorption capability and the

  15. DNA methylation and small interference RNAs participate in the regulation of MADS-box genes involved in dormancy in sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothkegel, Karin; Sánchez, Evelyn; Montes, Christian; Greve, Macarena; Tapia, Sebastián; Bravo, Soraya; Prieto, Humberto; Almeida, Andréa Miyasaka

    2017-12-01

    Epigenetic modifications can yield information about connections between genotype, phenotype variation and environmental conditions. Bud dormancy release in temperate perennial fruit trees depends on internal and environmental signals such as cold accumulation and photoperiod. Previous investigations have noted the participation of epigenetic mechanisms in the control of this physiological process. We examined whether epigenetic modifications were modulated in MADS-box genes, potential candidates for the regulation of bud dormancy and flowering in sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.). We identified and cloned two MADS-box genes homologous to the already-characterized dormancy regulators DORMANCY-ASSOCIATED MADS-box (DAM3 and DAM5) from Prunus persica (L.) Batsch. Bisulfite sequencing of the identified genes (PavMADS1 and PavMADS2), Methylated DNA Immunoprecipitation and small RNA deep sequencing were performed to analyze the presence of DNA methylations that could be guided by non-coding RNAs in the floral buds exposed to differential chilling hours. The results obtained reveal an increase in the level of DNA methylation and abundance of matching small interference RNAs (siRNAs) in the promoter of PavMADS1 when the chilling requirement is complete. For the first intron and 5' UTR of PavMADS1, de novo DNA methylation could be associated with the increase in the abundance of 24-nt siRNA matching the promoter area. Also, in the second large intron of PavMADS1, maintenance DNA methylation in all cytosine contexts is associated with the presence of homologous siRNAs in that zone. For PavMADS2, only maintenance methylation was present in the CG context, and no matching siRNAs were detected. Silencing of PavMADS1 and PavMADS2 coincided with an increase in Flowering Locus T expression during dormancy. In conclusion, DNA methylations and siRNAs appear to be involved in the silencing of PavMADS1 during cold accumulation and dormancy release in sweet cherry. © The Author 2017

  16. Efeito do comprimento de estacas herbáceas de dois clones de umezeiro (Prunus mume Sieb & Zucc. no enraizamento adventício Effect of the length of herbaceous cuttings of two clones of japanese apricot (Prunus mume Sieb & Zucc. in adventicious rooting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NEWTON ALEX MAYER

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available O umezeiro (Prunus mumeSieb & Zucc. é uma rosácea de folhas caducas, nativa da China, cujos frutos e flores são muito apreciados pelos povos orientais. No Brasil, alguns estudos foram realizados visando a sua utilização como porta-enxerto para pessegueiro e nectarineira, dadas as suas características de adaptação, rusticidade, redução do porte da planta e compatibilidade com algumas cultivares de Prunus persica. O presente estudo foi conduzido em câmara de nebulização sob ripado, pertencente ao Departamento de Produção Vegetal da FCAV/UNESP, Câmpus de Jaboticabal-SP. Objetivou-se verificar a influência de quatro comprimentos de estacas herbáceas no enraizamento de dois clones de umezeiro. O material vegetal, identificado como Clone 10 e Clone 15, foi oriundo do Programa de Melhoramento Genético do Instituto Agronômico de Campinas-SP. O experimento foi constituido de fatorial 2 x 4, em blocos casualizados, sendo o fator clone em 2 níveis (Clone 10 e Clone 15 e o fator comprimento de estaca em 4 níveis (12; 15; 18 e 25cm. Pelos resultados observados, verificou-se diferença entre os clones somente na porcentagem de estacas brotadas e número de raízes por estaca. O comprimento da estaca influenciou na porcentagem de enraizamento e na mortalidade das estacas, sendo que estacas maiores tenderam a apresentar maiores porcentagens de enraizamento e menores de mortalidade. As estacas com 12cm, embora apresentando menor número de raízes por estaca, são recomendadas por permitirem a obtenção de um maior número de estacas por planta-matriz. Houve efeito significativo da interação entre os fatores para número e comprimento de raízes.The japanese apricot (Prunus mume Sieb & Zucc. is a Rosaceae of falling leaves, native of China, whose fruits and flowers are quite appreciated by the oriental people. In Brazil, some studies were accomplished seeking its use as rootstock for peach and nectarine trees, due its adaptation

  17. EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA); Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of health claims related to dried plums of „prune‟ cultivars (Prunus domestica L.) and maintenance of normal bowel function (ID 1164, further assessment) pursuant to Article 13(1) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    ’ cultivars (Prunus domestica L.) and maintenance of normal bowel function. The food that is the subject of the claim, prunes (dried plums of ‘prune’ cultivars (Prunus domestica L.)) is sufficiently characterised. The claimed effect, maintenance of normal bowel function, is a beneficial physiological effect......, but not on other measures of bowel function, that another study with considerable limitations did not show an effect of dried plums on bowel function when compared to dried apple, and that there is good evidence for plausible mechanisms by which some components of prunes may contribute to the claimed effect...

  18. Purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray characterization of prunin-1, a major component of the almond (Prunus dulcis) allergen amandin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albillos, Silvia M; Jin, Tengchuan; Howard, Andrew; Zhang, Yuzhu; Kothary, Mahendra H; Fu, Tong-Jen

    2008-07-09

    The 11S globulins from plant seeds account for a number of major food allergens. Because of the interest in the structural basis underlying the allergenicity of food allergens, we sought to crystallize the main 11S seed storage protein from almond ( Prunus dulcis). Prunin-1 (Pru1) was purified from defatted almond flour by water extraction, cryoprecipitation, followed by sequential anion exchange, hydrophobic interaction, and size exclusion chromatography. Single crystals of Pru1 were obtained in a screening with a crystal screen kit, using the hanging-drop vapor diffusion method. Diffraction quality crystals were grown after optimization. The Pru1 crystals diffracted to at least 3.0 A and belong to the tetragonal space group P4(1)22, with unit cell parameters of a = b = 150.912 A, c = 165.248 A. Self-rotation functions and molecular replacement calculations showed that there are three molecules in the asymmetry unit with water content of 51.41%. The three Pru1 protomers are related by a noncrystallographic 3-fold axis and they form a doughnut-shaped trimer. Two prunin trimers form a homohexamer. Elucidation of prunin structure will allow further characterization of the allergenic features of the 11S protein allergens at the molecular level.

  19. Effects of roasting temperature and duration on fatty acid composition, phenolic composition, Maillard reaction degree and antioxidant attribute of almond (Prunus dulcis) kernel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jau-Tien; Liu, Shih-Chun; Hu, Chao-Chin; Shyu, Yung-Shin; Hsu, Chia-Ying; Yang, Deng-Jye

    2016-01-01

    Roasting treatment increased levels of unsaturated fatty acids (linoleic, oleic and elaidic acids) as well as saturated fatty acids (palmitic and stearic acids) in almond (Prunus dulcis) kernel oils with temperature (150 or 180 °C) and duration (5, 10 or 20 min). Nonetheless, higher temperature (200 °C) and longer duration (10 or 20 min) roasting might result in breakdown of fatty acids especially for unsaturated fatty acids. Phenolic components (total phenols, flavonoids, condensed tannins and phenolic acids) of almond kernels substantially lost in the initial phase; afterward these components gradually increased with roasting temperature and duration. Similar results also observed for their antioxidant activities (scavenging DPPH and ABTS(+) radicals and ferric reducing power). The changes of phenolic acid and flavonoid compositions were also determined by HPLC. Maillard reaction products (estimated with non-enzymatic browning index) also increased with roasting temperature and duration; they might also contribute to enhancing the antioxidant attributes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Purification, Crystallization and Preliminary X-ray Characterization of Prunin-1, a Major Component of the Almond (Prunus dulcis) Allergen Amandin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albillos, Silvia M.; Jin, Tengchuan; Howard, Andrew; Zhang, Yuzhu; Kothary, Mahendra H.; Fu, Tong-Jen (IIT); (US-FDA)

    2008-08-04

    The 11S globulins from plant seeds account for a number of major food allergens. Because of the interest in the structural basis underlying the allergenicity of food allergens, we sought to crystallize the main 11S seed storage protein from almond (Prunus dulcis). Prunin-1 (Pru1) was purified from defatted almond flour by water extraction, cryoprecipitation, followed by sequential anion exchange, hydrophobic interaction, and size exclusion chromatography. Single crystals of Pru1 were obtained in a screening with a crystal screen kit, using the hanging-drop vapor diffusion method. Diffraction quality crystals were grown after optimization. The Pru1 crystals diffracted to at least 3.0 {angstrom} and belong to the tetragonal space group P4{sub 1}22, with unit cell parameters of a = b = 150.912 {angstrom}, c = 165.248 {angstrom}. Self-rotation functions and molecular replacement calculations showed that there are three molecules in the asymmetry unit with water content of 51.41%. The three Pru1 protomers are related by a noncrystallographic 3-fold axis and they form a doughnut-shaped trimer. Two prunin trimers form a homohexamer. Elucidation of prunin structure will allow further characterization of the allergenic features of the 11S protein allergens at the molecular level.

  1. Effects of planting density and bearing-branch composition on the yield of sweet cherry [Prunus avium] grown by hedge-row training

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomita, A.; Shinya, K.; Watanabe, K.; Inomata, M.

    2008-01-01

    To improve the yield of sweet cherries (Prunus avium L.) grown by hedge-row training, the following two methods were compared: increased numbers of spurs and bouquet spurs to improve the spur composition and narrowed row intervals to increase planting density. To develop spurs and bouquet spurs, 30 cm long branches were positioned at 30 cm intervals on lateral branches in addition to the conventional spur development from 5 cm current shoots. Although this measure decreased the number of bouquet spurs, it increased the total number of spurs including the conventional short spurs to improve the yield to 1,024 kg/10a from 557 kg/10a using conventional hedge-row training. However, this method decreased solar radiation in the tree crowns thereby lowering fruit quality. In contrast, increasing planting density from 3-m intervals to 2- or 1.5-m intervals did not affect fruit quality. Moreover, in contrast to a yield of 588 kg/10a when row intervals were 3 m, the row intervals narrowed to 2 m and 1.5 m improved the yield to 881 kg/10a and 1,101 kg/10a, respectively. The above results show that decreasing row intervals is an effective method for increasing the yield of sweet cherries grown by hedge-row training without lowering fruit quality

  2. Firmness prediction in Prunus persica 'Calrico' peaches by visible/short-wave near infrared spectroscopy and acoustic measurements using optimised linear and non-linear chemometric models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafuente, Victoria; Herrera, Luis J; Pérez, María del Mar; Val, Jesús; Negueruela, Ignacio

    2015-08-15

    In this work, near infrared spectroscopy (NIR) and an acoustic measure (AWETA) (two non-destructive methods) were applied in Prunus persica fruit 'Calrico' (n = 260) to predict Magness-Taylor (MT) firmness. Separate and combined use of these measures was evaluated and compared using partial least squares (PLS) and least squares support vector machine (LS-SVM) regression methods. Also, a mutual-information-based variable selection method, seeking to find the most significant variables to produce optimal accuracy of the regression models, was applied to a joint set of variables (NIR wavelengths and AWETA measure). The newly proposed combined NIR-AWETA model gave good values of the determination coefficient (R(2)) for PLS and LS-SVM methods (0.77 and 0.78, respectively), improving the reliability of MT firmness prediction in comparison with separate NIR and AWETA predictions. The three variables selected by the variable selection method (AWETA measure plus NIR wavelengths 675 and 697 nm) achieved R(2) values 0.76 and 0.77, PLS and LS-SVM. These results indicated that the proposed mutual-information-based variable selection algorithm was a powerful tool for the selection of the most relevant variables. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  3. A review on the complexity of insect-plant interactions under varying levels of resources and host resistance: the case of Myzus persicae-Prunus persica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verdugo, JA.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Insect-plant interactions are affected directly or indirectly by stress factors. The effect of environmental resource availability on insect-plant interactions is here reviewed. Subsequently, the analysis focuses on aphid-host plant interactions, particularly in the system composed by the green peach aphid Myzus persicae and its primary host plant Prunus persica. Literature. Plant defenses arise in two ways: resistance and tolerance, both are affected by abiotic factors. The information gathered from studies (n = 29 on plant-aphid interactions addressing the reduction in water availability on plant resistance, showed that in 41,4% of the studies, drought stress elicits lower resistance, while 34.5%, 20.1% and 3.4%, showed higher, no change and conditional effects on plant resistance, respectively. Conclusions. Water stress elicits mixed effects on plant resistance to aphids. However, the literature review also suggests that cultural practices play a role in the fate of the peach-aphid interactions, whereas the development of predictive models aimed to assist crop-pest management systems still requires more basic information. Aphid responses to plant defenses under stressed conditions are still largely unexplored.

  4. Epigenetic Variance, Performing Cooperative Structure with Genetics, Is Associated with Leaf Shape Traits in Widely Distributed Populations of Ornamental Tree Prunus mume

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaifeng Ma

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Increasing evidence shows that epigenetics plays an important role in phenotypic variance. However, little is known about epigenetic variation in the important ornamental tree Prunus mume. We used amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP and methylation-sensitive amplified polymorphism (MSAP techniques, and association analysis and sequencing to investigate epigenetic variation and its relationships with genetic variance, environment factors, and traits. By performing leaf sampling, the relative total methylation level (29.80% was detected in 96 accessions of P. mume. And the relative hemi-methylation level (15.77% was higher than the relative full methylation level (14.03%. The epigenetic diversity (I∗ = 0.575, h∗ = 0.393 was higher than the genetic diversity (I = 0.484, h = 0.319. The cultivated population displayed greater epigenetic diversity than the wild populations in both southwest and southeast China. We found that epigenetic variance and genetic variance, and environmental factors performed cooperative structures, respectively. In particular, leaf length, width and area were positively correlated with relative full methylation level and total methylation level, indicating that the DNA methylation level played a role in trait variation. In total, 203 AFLP and 423 MSAP associated markers were detected and 68 of them were sequenced. Homologous analysis and functional prediction suggested that the candidate marker-linked genes were essential for leaf morphology development and metabolism, implying that these markers play critical roles in the establishment of leaf length, width, area, and ratio of length to width.

  5. Study of the volatile compounds from plum (Prunus domestica L. cv. Horvin and estimation of their contribution to the fruit aroma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Antonio Pino

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Simultaneous Distillation-Extraction (SDE and headspace-solid phase microextraction (HS-SPME combined with GC-FID and GC-MS were used to analyze volatile compounds from plum (Prunus domestica L. cv. Horvin and to estimate the most odor-active compounds by application of the Odor Activity Values (OAV. The analyses led to the identification of 148 components, including 58 esters, 23 terpenoids, 14 aldehydes, 11 alcohols, 10 ketones, 9 alkanes, 7 acids, 4 lactones, 3 phenols, and other 9 compounds of different structures. According to the results of SDE-GC-MS, SPME-GC-MS and OAV, ethyl 2-methylbutanoate, hexyl acetate, (E-2-nonenal, ethyl butanoate, (E-2-decenal, ethyl hexanoate, nonanal, decanal, (E-β-ionone, Γ-dodecalactone, (Z-3-hexenyl acetate, pentyl acetate, linalool, Γ-decalactone, butyl acetate, limonene, propyl acetate, Δ-decalactone, diethyl sulfide, (E-2-hexenyl acetate, ethyl heptanoate, (Z-3-hexenol, (Z-3-hexenyl hexanoate, eugenol, (E-2-hexenal, ethyl pentanoate, hexyl 2-methylbutanoate, isopentyl hexanoate, 1-hexanol, Γ-nonalactone, myrcene, octyl acetate, phenylacetaldehyde, 1-butanol, isobutyl acetate, (E-2-heptenal, octadecanal, and nerol are characteristic odor active compounds in fresh plums since they showed concentrations far above their odor thresholds.

  6. Use of Genetic Diversity of the Genus Prunus L. in Selection of Clonal Rootstocks for Stone Fruit Crops and Features of Their Reproduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eremin Gennadiy V.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available On the basis of diversity of wild types of the genus Prunus L. (P. cerasifera, P. armeniaca, P. persica, P. fruticosa, P. lannesiana, P. maackii, P. tomentosa, P. pumila, and P. incana in the collection of the Krymsk Experiment Breeding Station, highly adaptive, medium or weak vigour clonal rootstocks for stone fruit crops with good compatibility with grafted cultivars were selected: for plum, apricot and peach - Kuban 86, VVA-1, Evrika 99, Zarevo (Glow, Alab 1, Speaker, Best, VSV-1; and for sweet cherries and sour cherries - L-2, LC-52, VSL-1, VSL-2, and RVL-9. Part of the rootstocks were tested and successfully used in different parts of Russia and some near and far countries. The applied integration of tissue culture in vitro in the selection process at the station considerably promoted the rapid introduction of new rootstocks into world production. Technologies were developed for microclonal reproduction, and green and woody cuttings. The revealed light rooting of woody cuttings of stocks Kuban 86, Evrika 99, Zarevo, Best, VSL-1, RVL-9 (50-80% allowed to develop technology for growing of young plants on these rootstocks directly in the first field of the nursery.

  7. Free radical scavenging capacity and antioxidant activity of methanolic and ethanolic extracts of plum (Prunus domestica L. in both fresh and dried samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amin Morabbi Najafabad

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Consumption of fruits, such as plums and prunes, is useful in treating blood circulation disorder, measles, digestive disorder, and prevention of cancer, diabetes, and obesity. The paper presents a description of antioxidant and antiradical capacity of plum (Prunus domestica L. in both fresh and dried samples. Materials and Methods: Samples were mixed with methanol and ethanol (as solvents and were extracted on magnetic shaker, separately. The experiments were carried out to measure the Total Phenolic Content (TPC, Total Flavonoid Content (TFC, Total Antioxidant Capacity (TAC, Reducing Power Assay (RPA, Chain Breaking Activity (CBA, and quantity of Malondialdehyde (MDA, 2,2-Diphenyl-1-Picrylhydrazyl (DPPH,Nitric Oxide (NO,Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 and superoxide(O2- radicals inhibition. Results: The results showed that the highest values for the TPC, TFC,TAC, RPA, CBA, DPPH, and NO were related to ethanolic extractsof dried sample which showed statistically significant differences (p2O2 and O2-were related to ethanolic extracts of fresh sample. The correlations data were analyzed among all parameters and the TPC and TFC had a significant correlation (r2=0.977. Moreover, it was found that methanol was more successful in extraction procedure than ethanol (p

  8. Effects of New Dietary Fiber from Japanese Apricot (Prunus mume Sieb. et Zucc. on Gut Function and Intestinal Microflora in Adult Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nobuki Gato

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Much attention has been focused recently on functional foods. Ume, the Japanese name for the apricot of Prunus mume Sieb. et Zucc., is an example of a Japanese traditional functional food. There are, however, few reports on the effects of fiber from this fruit on bowel function. With this objective, we prepared ume fiber to test the hypothesis that it can change gut function and intestinal flora in mice. Mice were fed an ume fiber (UF or cellulose (CF diet (control for 40 days. The fecal weight, fecal lipids, plasma lipids and cecal composition of the microflora were analyzed. The amount of feces was significantly greater in the UF group than in the CF group (p < 0.01. The fecal lipids content (% DW of the feces sampled on the final days of the experiment were significantly greater in the UF group than in the CF group (p < 0.01. Plasma non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA concentrations tended to be lower in the UF compared to the CF group (p = 0.058. Occupation ratios of Bacteroides and Clostridium cluster IV were significantly greater in the cecal flora of the UF group. Our results suggest that ume fiber possesses the fecal lipid excretion effects and feces bulking effects.

  9. Subcellular concentrations of sugar alcohols and sugars in relation to phloem translocation in Plantago major, Plantago maritima, Prunus persica, and Apium graveolens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadwodnik, Jan; Lohaus, Gertrud

    2008-04-01

    Sugar and sugar alcohol concentrations were analyzed in subcellular compartments of mesophyll cells, in the apoplast, and in the phloem sap of leaves of Plantago major (common plantain), Plantago maritima (sea plantain), Prunus persica (peach) and Apium graveolens (celery). In addition to sucrose, common plantain, sea plantain, and peach also translocated substantial amounts of sorbitol, whereas celery translocated mannitol as well. Sucrose was always present in vacuole and cytosol of mesophyll cells, whereas sorbitol and mannitol were found in vacuole, stroma, and cytosol in all cases except for sea plantain. The concentration of sorbitol, mannitol and sucrose in phloem sap was 2- to 40-fold higher than that in the cytosol of mesophyll cells. Apoplastic carbohydrate concentrations in all species tested were in the low millimolar range versus high millimolar concentrations in symplastic compartments. Therefore, the concentration ratios between the apoplast and the phloem were very strong, ranging between 20- to 100-fold for sorbitol and mannitol, and between 200- and 2000-fold for sucrose. The woody species, peach, showed the smallest concentration ratios between the cytosol of mesophyll cells and the phloem as well as between the apoplast and the phloem, suggesting a mixture of apoplastic and symplastic phloem loading, in contrast to the herbal plant species (common plantain, sea plantain, celery) which likely exhibit an active loading mode for sorbitol and mannitol as well as sucrose from the apoplast into the phloem.

  10. Effects of different products of peach (Prunus persica L. Batsch) from a variety developed in southern Brazil on oxidative stress and inflammatory parameters in vitro and ex vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasparotto, Juciano; Somensi, Nauana; Bortolin, Rafael Calixto; Moresco, Karla Suzana; Girardi, Carolina Saibro; Klafke, Karina; Rabelo, Thallita Kelly; Morrone, Maurilio Da Silva; Vizzotto, Márcia; Raseira, Maria do Carmo Bassols; Moreira, José Claudio Fonseca; Gelain, Daniel Pens

    2014-01-01

    Antioxidant, anti-glycation and anti-inflammatory activities of fresh and conserved peach fruits (Prunus persica L. Batsch) were compared. Fresh peach pulps, peels, preserve peach pulps and the preserve syrup were prepared at equal concentrations. Rat liver, kidney and brain cortex tissue slices were pre-incubated with peach samples, subjected to oxidative stress with FeSO4 and hydrogen peroxide. Fresh peach pulps and peel conferred higher protection against cytotoxicity and oxidative stress than preserve peach pulps in most tissues. Release of tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-1β was also significantly decreased by Fresh peach pulps and peel, followed by preserve peach pulps. Total phenolic determination and HPLC analysis of carotenoids showed that the content of secondary metabolites in Fresh peach pulps and peel is significantly higher than in preserve peach pulps, while the syrup had only small or trace amounts of these compounds. Fresh peach pulps and Peel demonstrated high antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects preventing against induced damage. PMID:25320458

  11. CRESCIMENTO DE MUDAS DE Prunus brasiliensis (Cham. & Schltdl. D. Dietr. EM SUBSTRATOS À BASE DE LODO DE ESGOTO COMPOSTADO E FERTILIZANTE MINERAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurício Bergamini Scheer

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The increasing amount of solid waste generates the need for its use. An opportunity is the use of sewage sludge to attend the demand for alternative inputs in the agricultural and forestry practices. The aim of thisstudy was to evaluate the performance of Prunus brasiliensis (Cham. & Schltdl. D. Dietr. (pessegueiro - bravo grown on substrates prepared from aerobic sewage sludge composted with ground tree pruningand with different levels of a granulated fertilizer, and to compare its performance with those grown on commercial substrate, which is widely used in forest nurseries. The experiment was conducted in a shadehouse (from July/08 to Oct/08 and in an outdoor growing area (from Nov/08 to Feb/09 at Water and Sanitation Company of Paraná, located in Araucária, southern Brazil. Three different substrates were used: commercial substrate, consisting of composted pine bark and vermiculite, and 3:1 (v:v and 2:1 (v:v composted substrate based on crushed tree pruning and sewage sludge. The following variables were measured: seedling height, diameter and dry biomass of leaves and branches. The results showed higher growth rates of seedlings grown on substrates containing sewage sludge than on those grown on commercial substrate. Both composts with sewage sludge, using the two levels of fertilization (2.7 and 4 g dm-3, present similar results for the majority of the variables tested.

  12. Transcriptional dynamics of the developing sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.) fruit: sequencing, annotation and expression profiling of exocarp-associated genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkio, Merianne; Jonas, Uwe; Declercq, Myriam; Van Nocker, Steven; Knoche, Moritz

    2014-01-01

    The exocarp, or skin, of fleshy fruit is a specialized tissue that protects the fruit, attracts seed dispersing fruit eaters, and has large economical relevance for fruit quality. Development of the exocarp involves regulated activities of many genes. This research analyzed global gene expression in the exocarp of developing sweet cherry (Prunus avium L., 'Regina'), a fruit crop species with little public genomic resources. A catalog of transcript models (contigs) representing expressed genes was constructed from de novo assembled short complementary DNA (cDNA) sequences generated from developing fruit between flowering and maturity at 14 time points. Expression levels in each sample were estimated for 34 695 contigs from numbers of reads mapping to each contig. Contigs were annotated functionally based on BLAST, gene ontology and InterProScan analyses. Coregulated genes were detected using partitional clustering of expression patterns. The results are discussed with emphasis on genes putatively involved in cuticle deposition, cell wall metabolism and sugar transport. The high temporal resolution of the expression patterns presented here reveals finely tuned developmental specialization of individual members of gene families. Moreover, the de novo assembled sweet cherry fruit transcriptome with 7760 full-length protein coding sequences and over 20 000 other, annotated cDNA sequences together with their developmental expression patterns is expected to accelerate molecular research on this important tree fruit crop.

  13. Role of Nitric Oxide and Hydrogen Sulfide in the Vasodilator Effect of Ursolic Acid and Uvaol from Black Cherry Prunus serotina Fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luna-Vázquez, Francisco J; Ibarra-Alvarado, César; Rojas-Molina, Alejandra; Romo-Mancillas, Antonio; López-Vallejo, Fabián H; Solís-Gutiérrez, Mariana; Rojas-Molina, Juana I; Rivero-Cruz, Fausto

    2016-01-12

    The present research aimed to isolate the non-polar secondary metabolites that produce the vasodilator effects induced by the dichloromethane extract of Prunus serotina (P. serotina) fruits and to determine whether the NO/cGMP and the H2S/KATP channel pathways are involved in their mechanism of action. A bioactivity-directed fractionation of the dichloromethane extract of P. serotina fruits led to the isolation of ursolic acid and uvaol as the main non-polar vasodilator compounds. These compounds showed significant relaxant effect on rat aortic rings in an endothelium- and concentration-dependent manner, which was inhibited by NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME), DL-propargylglycine (PAG) and glibenclamide (Gli). Additionally, both triterpenes increased NO and H2S production in aortic tissue. Molecular docking studies showed that ursolic acid and uvaol are able to bind to endothelial NOS and CSE with high affinity for residues that form the oligomeric interface of both enzymes. These results suggest that the vasodilator effect produced by ursolic acid and uvaol contained in P. serotina fruits, involves activation of the NO/cGMP and H2S/KATP channel pathways, possibly through direct activation of NOS and CSE.

  14. The effect of rootstocks on the efficiency of a nursery of sweet cherry (Prunus avium L. trees cv. ‘Regina’

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Baryła

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available During the period 2006–2009 in Lublin, a study was conducted to determine the effect of five rootstocks: ‘Colt’, ‘F12/1’, sweet cherry (Prunus avium L., ‘GiSelA 5’, and ‘Piast’, on bud take in the cultivar ‘Regina’, the quality of budded trees and the efficiency of a sweet cherry tree nursery. The highest percentage of bud take in cherry trees cv. ‘Regina’ and the best efficiency of the sweet cherry tree nursery were obtained for the rootstocks ‘Piast’ and ‘Colt’. In two years during the three-year study period, the rootstock was found to significantly affect the efficiency of the sweet cherry tree nursery. When grafted on the rootstocks ‘Colt’ and ‘Piast’, a significantly higher percentage of trees met the requirements of the Polish Standard PN-R-67010 than on the clonal rootstock ‘GiSelA 5’. Under the tested conditions, the quality of maiden sweet cherry trees cv. ‘Regina’ grafted on the dwarfing rootstock ‘GiSelA 5’ was lowest.

  15. Effects of invasive European bird cherry (Prunus padus) on leaf litter processing by aquatic invertebrate shredder communities in urban Alaskan streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roon, David A.; Wipfli, Mark S.; Wurtz, Tricia L.

    2014-01-01

    European bird cherry (Prunus padus) (EBC) is an invasive ornamental tree that is spreading rapidly in riparian forests of urban Alaska. To determine how the spread of EBC affects leaf litter processing by aquatic invertebrate shredders, we conducted complementary leaf pack experiments in two streams located in Anchorage, Alaska. The first experiment contrasted invasive EBC with three native tree species—thin-leaf alder (Alnus tenuifolia), paper birch (Betula neoalaskana), and black cottonwood (Populus trichocarpa)—in one reach of Chester Creek; finding that EBC leaf litter broke down significantly faster than birch and cottonwood, but at a similar rate to alder. The second experiment contrasted EBC with alder in four reaches of Campbell and Chester creeks; finding that while EBC leaf litter broke down significantly faster than alder in Chester Creek, EBC broke down at a similar rate to alder in Campbell Creek. Although EBC sometimes supported fewer shredders by both count and mass, shredder communities did not differ significantly between EBC and native plants. Collectively, these data suggest that invasive EBC is not currently exhibiting strong negative impacts on leaf litter processing in these streams, but could if it continues to spread and further displaces native species over time.

  16. Effects of new dietary fiber from Japanese Apricot (Prunus mume Sieb. et Zucc.) on gut function and intestinal microflora in adult mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamura, Motoi; Ohnishi, Yuriko; Kotani, Tatsuya; Gato, Nobuki

    2011-01-01

    Much attention has been focused recently on functional foods. Ume, the Japanese name for the apricot of Prunus mume Sieb. et Zucc., is an example of a Japanese traditional functional food. There are, however, few reports on the effects of fiber from this fruit on bowel function. With this objective, we prepared ume fiber to test the hypothesis that it can change gut function and intestinal flora in mice. Mice were fed an ume fiber (UF) or cellulose (CF) diet (control) for 40 days. The fecal weight, fecal lipids, plasma lipids and cecal composition of the microflora were analyzed. The amount of feces was significantly greater in the UF group than in the CF group (p < 0.01). The fecal lipids content (% DW) of the feces sampled on the final day of the experiment were significantly greater in the UF group than in the CF group (p < 0.01). Plasma non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) concentrations tended to be lower in the UF compared to the CF group (p = 0.058). Occupation ratios of Bacteroides and Clostridium cluster IV were significantly greater in the cecal flora of the UF group. Our results suggest that ume fiber possesses the fecal lipid excretion effects and feces bulking effects.

  17. Low-cost and eco-friendly green synthesis of silver nanoparticles using Prunus japonica (Rosaceae) leaf extract and their antibacterial, antioxidant properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saravanakumar, Arthanari; Peng, Mei Mei; Ganesh, Mani; Jayaprakash, Jayabalan; Mohankumar, Murugan; Jang, Hyun Tae

    2017-09-01

    Low cost and eco-friendly green synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) from silver nitrate (AgNO 3 ) using Prunus japonica leaves extract as reducing agent by a simple method at room temperature. The biosynthesized nanoparticles (NPs) were characterized by UV-Vis, tunneling electron microscopy (HR-TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) coupled with X-ray energy dispersive spectrophotometer (EDAX), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). In UV-Vis spectroscopy results, the λ max was observed at 441 nm. The AgNPs synthesized were spherical, hexagonal, and irregular in shapes. The EDAX and XRD spectrum confirmed the presence of silver ions and crystalline nature of synthesized AgNPs. FTIR showed the functional groups such as C = O, N-H and C-N groups involved in the reduction of Ag +  to Ag. 2, 2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging assay was performed and it showed the percentage inhibition in concentration-dependent manner. The synthesized AgNPs showed antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli, Proteus vulgaris, Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus cereus to different extents and the higher activity was observed in Proteus vulgaris.

  18. Mutational analysis of the RNA-binding domain of the Prunus necrotic ringspot virus (PNRSV) movement protein reveals its requirement for cell-to-cell movement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carmen Herranz, Ma; Sanchez-Navarro, Jesus-Angel; Sauri, Ana; Mingarro, Ismael; Pallas, Vicente

    2005-01-01

    The movement protein (MP) of Prunus necrotic ringspot virus (PNRSV) is required for cell-to-cell movement. MP subcellular localization studies using a GFP fusion protein revealed highly punctate structures between neighboring cells, believed to represent plasmodesmata. Deletion of the RNA-binding domain (RBD) of PNRSV MP abolishes the cell-to-cell movement. A mutational analysis on this RBD was performed in order to identify in vivo the features that govern viral transport. Loss of positive charges prevented the cell-to-cell movement even though all mutants showed a similar accumulation level in protoplasts to those observed with the wild-type (wt) MP. Synthetic peptides representing the mutants and wild-type RBDs were used to study RNA-binding affinities by EMSA assays being approximately 20-fold lower in the mutants. Circular dichroism analyses revealed that the secondary structure of the peptides was not significantly affected by mutations. The involvement of the affinity changes between the viral RNA and the MP in the viral cell-to-cell movement is discussed

  19. Effect of Salicylic Acid on Alleviating of Electrolyte Leakage and Flower Organ Damage in Apricot (Prunus armeniaca L. cv. ‘Shahroudi’

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    Morteza ALIREZAIE NOGHONDAR

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important limiting factors in spread of apricot in Iran is late spring frost, which damages flower bud and decrease total yield of crop. It has been found that salicylic acid (SA plays a beneficial role during plant response to chilling and freezing stresses. To evaluate the effects of salicylic acid on alleviating of cold stress, the flower buds (FBs of Prunus armeniaca L. cv. ‘Shahroudi’ were sprayed at pink cluster stage with SA at 4 levels (0, 0.5, 1 and 2 mM and were then exposed to artificial cold stress (4 h at -4°C or without cold stress (+ 25. Experimental attributes including electrolyte leakage of FBs and percentage of damage (PD of pistil, anthers and petals to temperature treatments were determined. The results showed that at -4°C the lowest and highest PD and EL of FBs were observed in application of 0.5 and 0 mM SA, respectively. The highest and lowest PD of flower organ and EL were obtained in application of 0 and 2 mM SA, respectively at +25°C. Based on the results of this experiment, SA alleviates the negative effect of cold stress on electrolyte leakage and flower organ damages in apricot cv. ‘Shahroudi’, depending on the concentrations of SA used.

  20. Graft incompatibility in plants: Metabolic changes during formation and establishment of the rootstock/scion union with emphasis on Prunus species

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    Felipe Gainza

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Commercial fruit trees are usually formed by the combination of a rootstock and a scion to broaden the adaptability of scion cultivars to soil and climatic conditions, facilitate agricultural management, and/or increase productivity. In the different cultivated species of the genus Prunus, rootstocks having a wide range of uses are scarce, because of rootstock/ scion graft incompatibilities that prevent the establishment of a strong and lasting functional union. Graft incompatibility is a problem in cherry, almond, and apricot than in peach or plum. In general, closely related cultivars and species tend to be compatible, but taxonomically distant plants often manifest incompatibility. This review will focus on the knowledge currently available on the metabolic response during the formation and establishment of the stock/scion graft union in order to help the effort for identify future metabolic markers to be used in breeding programs. The physiological, metabolic and molecular mechanisms that cause incompatibility remain unclear and several hypotheses have been proposed to explain it, mostly based on herbaceous species. Few studies are available to explain incompatibility in woody plants. Various phenolic compounds are known to affect cell division, development and differentiation at the graft union. Flavonol (catechins and proanthocyanidins concentrations increase shortly after grafting and, as a result of the stress induced during the healing response, vacuolar membrane disruption occurs resulting in the escape of phenols from the vacuole into the cytoplasmic matrix, causing dysfunctions in the growth of certain tissues (xylem and phloem, interference with the synthesis of lignin or inducing hormonal imbalances. All these abnormalities result in mechanical weakening of the union, which may manifest during the first year after grafting (translocated incompatibility or may appear several years later (localized incompatibility, leading to major

  1. Physiological and foliar symptom response in the crowns of Prunus serotina, Fraxinus americana and Acer rubrum canopy trees to ambient ozone under forest conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaub, M.; Skelly, J.M.; Zhang, J.W.; Ferdinand, J.A.; Savage, J.E.; Stevenson, R.E.; Davis, D.D.; Steiner, K.C.

    2005-01-01

    The crowns of five canopy dominant black cherry (Prunus serotina Ehrh.), five white ash (Fraxinus americana L.), and six red maple (Acer rubrum L.) trees on naturally differing environmental conditions were accessed with scaffold towers within a mixed hardwood forest stand in central Pennsylvania. Ambient ozone concentrations, meteorological parameters, leaf gas exchange and leaf water potential were measured at the sites during the growing seasons of 1998 and 1999. Visible ozone-induced foliar injury was assessed on leaves within the upper and lower crown branches of each tree. Ambient ozone exposures were sufficient to induce typical symptoms on cherry (0-5% total affected leaf area, LAA), whereas foliar injury was not observed on ash or maple. There was a positive correlation between increasing cumulative ozone uptake (U) and increasing percent of LAA for cherry grown under drier site conditions. The lower crown leaves of cherry showed more severe foliar injury than the upper crown leaves. No significant differences in predawn leaf water potential (ψ L ) were detected for all three species indicating no differing soil moisture conditions across the sites. Significant variation in stomatal conductance for water vapor (g wv ) was found among species, soil moisture, time of day and sample date. When comparing cumulative ozone uptake and decreased photosynthetic activity (P n ), red maple was the only species to show higher gas exchange under mesic vs. drier soil conditions (P wv and P n demonstrate the strong influence of heterogeneous environmental conditions within forest canopies. - Within the heterogeneous environment of a mature forest, many factors in addition to soil moisture play a significant role in determining exposure/response relationships to ozone

  2. Light energy partitioning, photosynthetic efficiency and biomass allocation in invasive Prunus serotina and native Quercus petraea in relation to light environment, competition and allelopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robakowski, Piotr; Bielinis, Ernest; Sendall, Kerrie

    2018-02-07

    This study addressed whether competition under different light environments was reflected by changes in leaf absorbed light energy partitioning, photosynthetic efficiency, relative growth rate and biomass allocation in invasive and native competitors. Additionally, a potential allelopathic effect of mulching with invasive Prunus serotina leaves on native Quercus petraea growth and photosynthesis was tested. The effect of light environment on leaf absorbed light energy partitioning and photosynthetic characteristics was more pronounced than the effects of interspecific competition and allelopathy. The quantum yield of PSII of invasive P. serotina increased in the presence of a competitor, indicating a higher plasticity in energy partitioning for the invasive over the native Q. petraea, giving it a competitive advantage. The most striking difference between the two study species was the higher crown-level net CO 2 assimilation rates (A crown ) of P. serotina compared with Q. petraea. At the juvenile life stage, higher relative growth rate and higher biomass allocation to foliage allowed P. serotina to absorb and use light energy for photosynthesis more efficiently than Q. petraea. Species-specific strategies of growth, biomass allocation, light energy partitioning and photosynthetic efficiency varied with the light environment and gave an advantage to the invader over its native competitor in competition for light. However, higher biomass allocation to roots in Q. petraea allows for greater belowground competition for water and nutrients as compared to P. serotina. This niche differentiation may compensate for the lower aboveground competitiveness of the native species and explain its ability to co-occur with the invasive competitor in natural forest settings.

  3. Elaboración de néctar de durazno (Prunus persica L., endulzado con sucralosa como aprovechamiento de pérdidas poscosecha

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    Darío Alberto Pinto Medina

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available En el durazno (Prunus persica L, así como en la mayoría de los frutos climatéricos, la calidad y el tiempo de vida útil comercial son afectados por los inadecuados manejos durante la cosecha, transporte y empaque, evidenciados por una serie de daños y defectos que el consumidor rechaza a la hora de adquirir el producto en fresco y que representan cuantiosas pérdidas al final del proceso de mercadeo, esta investigación se basó principalmente en el aprovechamiento de las pérdidas en durazno en el eslabón de la poscosecha, agroindustrializando la materia prima; se realizaron pruebas sensoriales para determinar la variedad más aceptada de tres probadas: Rubidoux, Dorado y Rubidoux-Dorado, no se evidenciaron diferencias significativas entre las muestras. Para darle valor agregado al producto, se fabricó néctar de la variedad Rubidoux endulzado con sucralosa, se realizaron análisis fisicoquímicos, microbiológicos y bromatológicos siguiendo la normatividad vigente. Se encontró que la sucralosa contribuyó a disminuir considerablemente el aporte calórico en el néctar elaborado, pasando de 48 Kcal/100g a 38,69 Kcal/100g. Se concluye que el costo de producción unitario para envase de 350ml ($ 1.054 resulta favorable, puesto que la rentabilidad puede superar el 40%, para un precio de venta de $1.476, generando un producto competitivo en el mercado, dada la calidad y el valor agregado como alimento funcional

  4. DETERMINACIÓN DE COMPUESTOS CIANOGÉNICOS AMIGDALINA Y PRUNASINA EN SEMILLAS DE ALMENDRAS (PRUNUS DULCIS L UTILIZANDO CROMATOGRAFÍA LIQUIDA DE ALTA RESOLUCIÓN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo Arrázola

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del presente trabajo fue aplicar un técnica para determinar y cuantificar por separado los compuestos cianogénicos que pueden estar presentes en la semilla de almendra madura (Prunus dulcis. Entre los métodos encontrados, se seleccionó la cromatografía de líquidos de alta resolución (HPLC, que permite la cuantificación de los glucósidos cianogénicos amigdalina y prunasina por separado, adecuando diferentes procedimientos de extracción como el tamaño de partículas que influye en el proceso de liofilización, donde a menor superficie mayor área de contacto para la sublimación. Se ensayaron  muestras sin grasa y con grasa, utilizando los resultados con muestras con grasa, dados los resultados obtenidos. Se utilizó metanol 100% como extractante de los glucósidos cianogénicos, resultando una concentración de amigdalina máxima a partir un tiempo de extracción de 12 h y como fase móvil acetonitrilo/agua (20:80, se obtiene amigdalina, con una concentración de 9,8 mg/100g de muestra seca. Los cromatogramas obtenidos presentan tiempos de retención (Tr, Amigdalina: 3,4 min y Prunasina, 5,7 min, dos picos con excelente resolución, por lo tanto las condiciones anteriores se pueden utilizar para la identificación y  cuantificación de amigdalina y prunasina.

  5. Crosslinked enzyme aggregates of hydroxynitrile lyase partially purified from Prunus dulcis seeds and its application for the synthesis of enantiopure cyanohydrins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yildirim, Deniz; Tükel, S Seyhan; Alagöz, Dilek

    2014-01-01

    Hydroxynitrile lyases are powerful catalysts in the synthesis of enantiopure cyanohydrins which are key synthons in the preparations of a variety of important chemicals. The response surface methodology including three-factor and three-level Box-Behnken design was applied to optimize immobilization of hydroxynitrile lyase purified partially from Prunus dulcis seeds as crosslinked enzyme aggregates (PdHNL-CLEAs). The quadratic model was developed for predicting the response and its adequacy was validated with the analysis of variance test. The optimized immobilization parameters were initial glutaraldehyde concentration, ammonium sulfate saturation concentration, and crosslinking time, and the response was relative activity of PdHNL-CLEA. The optimal conditions were determined as initial glutaraldehyde concentration of 25% w/v, ammonium sulfate saturation concentration of 43% w/v, and crosslinking time of 18 h. The preparations of PdHNL-CLEA were examined for the synthesis of (R)-mandelonitrile, (R)-2-chloromandelonitrile, (R)-3,4-dihydroxymandelonitrile, (R)-2-hydroxy-4-phenyl butyronitrile, (R)-4-bromomandelonitrile, (R)-4-fluoromandelonitrile, and (R)-4-nitromandelonitrile from their corresponding aldehydes and hydrocyanic acid. After 96-h reaction time, the yield-enantiomeric excess values (%) were 100-99, 100-21, 100-99, 83-91, 100-99, 100-72, and 100-14%, respectively, for (R)-mandelonitrile, (R)-2-chloromandelonitrile, (R)-3,4-dihydroxymandelonitrile, (R)-2-hydroxy-4-phenyl butyronitrile, (R)-4-bromomandelonitrile, (R)-4-fluoromandelonitrile, and (R)-4-nitromandelonitrile. The results show that PdHNL-CLEA offers a promising potential for the preparation of enantiopure (R)-mandelonitrile, (R)-3,4-dihydroxymandelonitrile, (R)-2-hydroxy-4-phenyl butyronitrile, and (R)-4-bromomandelonitrile with a high yield and enantiopurity. © 2014 American Institute of Chemical Engineers.

  6. Evaluation of the chemical and nutritional characteristics of almonds (Prunus dulcis (Mill). D.A. Webb) as influenced by harvest time and cultivar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Summo, Carmine; Palasciano, Marino; De Angelis, Davide; Paradiso, Vito M; Caponio, Francesco; Pasqualone, Antonella

    2018-04-30

    Several authors studied the effect of harvest time on chemical and nutritional composition of almonds, but the results are partly conflicting, probably due to differences in the cultivars considered and to different agronomic and climatic conditions in the growing areas. In this paper the influence of harvest time and cultivar on the chemical and nutritional composition of almonds (Prunus dulcis (Mill). D.A. Webb) was evaluated. Ten cultivars were considered, grown in the same orchard and subjected to the same agronomical regime. Almonds were collected at two different harvest times: i) when the fruits were unripe, but already edible, and showed green and moist hull, and ii) when the fruits were ripe, with dry brown hull. The analyses of proximate composition, fatty acid profile, total phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity were carried out. Lipid content increased (p<0.001) during ripening, while both protein and carbohydrate content decreased (p<0.01). Fatty acid composition showed a not univocal behavior during ripening and was highly influenced by cultivar. Total phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity varied among cultivars but increased during ripening with the exception of Marcona cv. Genco and Francolì cvs were found to be phenolic-rich cultivars. Harvest time and cultivars significantly influenced the chemical and nutritional composition of almonds. Genotype strongly influenced fatty acid composition and total phenolic compounds. The changes of bioactive compounds and antioxidant activity suggest that the synthesis of antioxidants occur also in the last stage of ripening. Unripe almonds, a valuable niche product, showed interesting nutritional value. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  7. Novel R2R3-MYB transcription factors from Prunus americana regulate differential patterns of anthocyanin accumulation in tobacco and citrus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dasgupta, Kasturi; Thilmony, Roger; Stover, Ed; Oliveira, Maria Luiza; Thomson, James

    2017-04-03

    The level of anthocyanins in plants vary widely among cultivars, developmental stages and environmental stimuli. Previous studies have reported that the expression of various MYBs regulate anthocyanin pigmentation during growth and development. Here we examine the activity of 3 novel R2R3-MYB transcription factor (TF) genes, PamMybA.1, PamMybA.3 and PamMybA.5 from Prunus americana. The anthocyanin accumulation patterns mediated by CaMV double35S promoter (db35Sp) controlled expression of the TFs in transgenic tobacco were compared with citrus-MoroMybA, Arabidopsis-AtMybA1 and grapevine-VvMybA1 transgenics during their entire growth cycles. The db35Sp-PamMybA.1 and db35Sp-PamMybA.5 constructs induced high levels of anthocyanin accumulation in both transformed tobacco calli and the regenerated plants. The red/purple color pigmentation induced in the PamMybA.1 and PamMybA.5 lines was not uniformly distributed, but appeared as patches in the leaves, whereas the flowers showed intense uniform pigmentation similar to the VvMybA1 expressing lines. MoroMybA and AtMybA1 showed more uniform pink coloration in both vegetative and reproductive tissues. Plant morphology, anthocyanin content, seed viability, and transgene inheritance were examined for the PamMybA.5 transgenic plants and compared with the controls. We conclude that these TFs alone are sufficient for activating anthocyanin production in plants and may be used as visible reporter genes for plant transformation. Evaluating these TFs in a heterologous crop species such as citrus further validated that these genes can be useful for the metabolic engineering of anthocyanin production and cultivar enhancement.

  8. Complete Plastid Genome Sequences of Three Rosids (Castanea, Prunus, Theobroma): Evidence for At Least Two Independent Transfers of rpl22 to the Nucleus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, Robert K.; Saski, Christopher; Lee, Seung-Bum; Hansen, Anne K.; Daniell, Henry

    2011-01-01

    Functional gene transfer from the plastid to the nucleus is rare among land plants despite evidence that DNA transfer to the nucleus is relatively frequent. During the course of sequencing plastid genomes from representative species from three rosid genera (Castanea, Prunus, Theobroma) and ongoing projects focusing on the Fagaceae and Passifloraceae, we identified putative losses of rpl22 in these two angiosperm families. We further characterized rpl22 from three species of Passiflora and one species of Quercus and identified sequences that likely represent pseudogenes. In Castanea and Quercus, both members of the Fagaceae, we identified a nuclear copy of rpl22, which consisted of two exons separated by an intron. Exon 1 encodes a transit peptide that likely targets the protein product back to the plastid and exon 2 encodes rpl22. We performed phylogenetic analyses of 97 taxa, including 93 angiosperms and four gymnosperm outgroups using alignments of 81 plastid genes to examine the phylogenetic distribution of rpl22 loss and transfer to the nucleus. Our results indicate that within rosids there have been independent transfers of rpl22 to the nucleus in Fabaceae and Fagaceae and a putative third transfer in Passiflora. The high level of sequence divergence between the transit peptides in Fabaceae and Fagaceae strongly suggest that these represent independent transfers. Furthermore, Blast searches did not identify the “donor” genes of the transit peptides, suggesting a de novo origin. We also performed phylogenetic analyses of rpl22 for 87 angiosperms and four gymnosperms, including nuclear-encoded copies for five species of Fabaceae and Fagaceae. The resulting trees indicated that the transfer of rpl22 to the nucleus does not predate the origin of angiosperms as suggested in an earlier study. Using previously published angiosperm divergence time estimates, we suggest that these transfers occurred approximately 56–58, 34–37, and 26–27 Ma for the Fabaceae

  9. Comprehensive Cloning ofPrunus mumeDormancy Associated MADS-Box Genes and Their Response in Flower Bud Development and Dormancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Kai; Zhou, Yuzhen; Ahmad, Sagheer; Xu, Zongda; Li, Yushu; Yang, Weiru; Cheng, Tangren; Wang, Jia; Zhang, Qixiang

    2018-01-01

    Dormancy Associated MADS-box genes are SVP/MADs-box members and supposed to play crucial roles in plant dormancy of perennial species. In Prunus mume , PmDAM6 has been previously identified to induce plant dormancy. In the current study, six PmDAMs were cloned in P. mume and functionally analyzed in yeast and tobacco to detect the roles of the genes paralogous to PmDAM6 . The expression patterns together with sequence similarities indicate that PmDAMs are divided into two sub-clades within SVP group. Moreover, PmDAMs are verified to take part in the development of different plant organs, specifically the flower buds, in some intricate patterns. Furthermore, the PmDAM proteins are found to have special functions by forming corresponding protein complex during the development of flower bud and induction of dormancy. In particular, when PmDAM1 dominating in flower bud in the warm months, the protein complexes are consisted of PmDAM1 itself or with PmDAM2. With the decrease temperatures in the following months, PmDAM6 was found to be highly expressed and gradually changed the complex structure to PmDAM6-protein complex due to strong binding tendencies with PmDAM1 and PmDAM3. Finally, the homodimers of PmDAM6 prevailed to induce the dormancy. The results obtained in the current study highlight the functions of PmDAMs in the tissue development and dormancy, which provide available suggestions for further explorations of protein-complex functions in association with bud growth and dormancy.

  10. Evaluation of ozone injury on foliage of black cherry (Prunus serotina) and tall milkweed (Asclepias exaltata) in Great Smoky Mountains National Park.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chappelka, A; Renfro, J; Somers, G; Nash, B

    1997-01-01

    The incidence and severity of visible foliar ozone injury on black cherry (Prunus serotina) seedlings and saplings and tall milkweed (Asclepias exaltata) plants in Great Smoky Mountains National Park (GRSM) were determined by surveys along selected trails conducted during late summer 1992. The incidence (% injured plants) of ozone injury on black cherry was 47% and the percent injured leaves/injured plant and average leaf area injured were 43 and 6%, respectively. Maximum severity (avg. leaf area of the most severely injured leaf) was 12%. Black cherry seedlings and saplings exhibiting ozone injury were taller than non-injured plants. When insect feeding was present, it occurred 96% of the time on plants with ozone injury. Significantly more injury (p=0.007) on black cherry (% injured leaves/injured black cherry) occurred in the NW section of GRSM compared with the other Park sections. Regression analyses showed no relationships in ozone injury with respect to aspect, slope or elevation. Tall milkweed was evaluated twice during August for ozone injury. The incidence (% injured plants) of ozone injury was 74 and 79% for the first and second survey, respectively. The percentage of injured leaves per plant from the first to second survey was 63 to 79%, respectively. Tall milkweeds showing ozone injury were taller than the non-injured plants. The percentage of insect-damaged plants was 50% among plants without ozone injury and 60% among ozone-injured plants. Non-injured tall milkweed had fewer flowers and/or pods than the injured plants. Mean leaf area injured increased over time, and mean maximum leaf area injured increased from 8 to 11% during the same period. Regression analyses showed no differences in ozone injury regarding aspect, slope or elevation. Our findings indicate that ozone injury is widespread throughout the Park on sensitive vegetation.

  11. Antimicrobial activity and probable mechanisms of action of medicinal plants of Kenya: Withania somnifera, Warbugia ugandensis, Prunus africana and Plectrunthus barbatus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter G Mwitari

    Full Text Available Withania somnifera, Warbugia ugandensis, Prunus africana and Plectrunthus barbatus are used traditionally in Kenya for treatment of microbial infections and cancer. Information on their use is available, but scientific data on their bioactivity, safety and mechanisms of action is still scanty. A study was conducted on the effect of organic extracts of these plants on both bacterial and fungal strains, and their mechanisms of action. Extracts were evaluated through the disc diffusion assay. Bacteria and yeast test strains were cultured on Mueller-Hinton agar and on Sabouraud dextrose agar for the filamentous fungi. A 0.5 McFarland standard suspension was prepared. Sterile paper discs 6 mm in diameter impregnated with 10 µl of the test extract (100 mg/ml were aseptically placed onto the surface of the inoculated media. Chloramphenicol (30 µg and fluconazole (25 µg were used as standards. Discs impregnated with dissolution medium were used as controls. Activity of the extracts was expressed according to zone of inhibition diameter. MIC was determined at 0.78-100 mg/ml. Safety studies were carried using Cell Counting Kit 8 cell proliferation assay protocol. To evaluate extracts mechanisms of action, IEC-6 cells and RT-PCR technique was employed in vitro to evaluate Interleukin 7 cytokine. Investigated plants extracts have both bactericidal and fungicidal activity. W. ugandensis is cytotoxic at IC50200 µg/ml. Fractions from W. ugandensis and W. somnifera too demonstrated antimicrobial activity. Mechanisms of action can largely be attributed to cytotoxicity, Gene silencing and immunopotentiation. Use of medicinal plants in traditional medicine has been justified and possible mechanisms of action demonstrated. Studies to isolate and characterize the bioactive constituents continue.

  12. Effect of Prunus armeniaca seed extract on health, survivability, antioxidant, blood biochemical and immune status of broiler chickens at high altitude cold desert

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahil Kalia

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Extreme climatic conditions and hypobaric hypoxia at high altitude hinders the growth and productivity of chickens. The present study was carried out to examine the effect of aqueous extract of Prunus armeniaca seeds on health, survivability, antioxidants, plasma biochemical parameters, and immune status of broiler chickens at high altitude. Phytochemical analysis of extract revealed the presence of high phenolics, flavonoids, and carotenoids contents. Before the in vivo study, in vitro efficacy evaluation indicated a significant protective effect of the extract in chicken peripheral blood lymphocytes. For in vivo study, experimental groups include control (fed the basal diet, and treatment T1, T2, T3, T4, T5, and T6 which received an aqueous extract of P. armeniaca in drinking water at concentrations of 100, 150, 200, 300, 400, and 800 mg/kg body weight of chicken respectively, along with basal diet for 42 days. Body weight was significantly increased in all treatment groups as compared to control group and the highest body weight was recorded in T3 group. Higher profit was gained in treatment groups due to lesser mortality in chickens. Moreover, chicken in the treatment groups had significantly higher total antioxidant capacity, free radical scavenging activity, interleukin-2, total protein, albumin, globulin level and lower malondialdehyde, interleukin-6, glucose, cholesterol, triglyceride, ALT and AST level as compared to control group. Results suggest that, P. armeniaca extract at 200 mg/kg body weight of chicken, exhibited the beneficial effect on growth performance and survivability rate of broilers and therefore, could be useful as phytogenic feed additive for broiler chickens at high altitude cold desert.

  13. Comparative transcriptome analysis of genes involved in anthocyanin biosynthesis in the red and yellow fruits of sweet cherry (Prunus avium L..

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hairong Wei

    Full Text Available Fruit color is one of the most important economic traits of the sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.. The red coloration of sweet cherry fruit is mainly attributed to anthocyanins. However, limited information is available regarding the molecular mechanisms underlying anthocyanin biosynthesis and its regulation in sweet cherry.In this study, a reference transcriptome of P. avium L. was sequenced and annotated to identify the transcriptional determinants of fruit color. Normalized cDNA libraries from red and yellow fruits were sequenced using the next-generation Illumina/Solexa sequencing platform and de novo assembly. Over 66 million high-quality reads were assembled into 43,128 unigenes using a combined assembly strategy. Then a total of 22,452 unigenes were compared to public databases using homology searches, and 20,095 of these unigenes were annotated in the Nr protein database. Furthermore, transcriptome differences between the four stages of fruit ripening were analyzed using Illumina digital gene expression (DGE profiling. Biological pathway analysis revealed that 72 unigenes were involved in anthocyanin biosynthesis. The expression patterns of unigenes encoding phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL, 4-coumarate-CoA ligase (4CL, chalcone synthase (CHS, chalcone isomerase (CHI, flavanone 3-hydroxylase (F3H, flavanone 3'-hydroxylase (F3'H, dihydroflavonol 4-reductase (DFR, anthocyanidin synthase (ANS and UDP glucose: flavonol 3-O-glucosyltransferase (UFGT during fruit ripening differed between red and yellow fruit. In addition, we identified some transcription factor families (such as MYB, bHLH and WD40 that may control anthocyanin biosynthesis. We confirmed the altered expression levels of eighteen unigenes that encode anthocyanin biosynthetic enzymes and transcription factors using quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR.The obtained sweet cherry transcriptome and DGE profiling data provide comprehensive gene expression information that lends insights

  14. Comparative transcriptome analysis of genes involved in anthocyanin biosynthesis in the red and yellow fruits of sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Hairong; Chen, Xin; Zong, Xiaojuan; Shu, Huairui; Gao, Dongsheng; Liu, Qingzhong

    2015-01-01

    Fruit color is one of the most important economic traits of the sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.). The red coloration of sweet cherry fruit is mainly attributed to anthocyanins. However, limited information is available regarding the molecular mechanisms underlying anthocyanin biosynthesis and its regulation in sweet cherry. In this study, a reference transcriptome of P. avium L. was sequenced and annotated to identify the transcriptional determinants of fruit color. Normalized cDNA libraries from red and yellow fruits were sequenced using the next-generation Illumina/Solexa sequencing platform and de novo assembly. Over 66 million high-quality reads were assembled into 43,128 unigenes using a combined assembly strategy. Then a total of 22,452 unigenes were compared to public databases using homology searches, and 20,095 of these unigenes were annotated in the Nr protein database. Furthermore, transcriptome differences between the four stages of fruit ripening were analyzed using Illumina digital gene expression (DGE) profiling. Biological pathway analysis revealed that 72 unigenes were involved in anthocyanin biosynthesis. The expression patterns of unigenes encoding phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL), 4-coumarate-CoA ligase (4CL), chalcone synthase (CHS), chalcone isomerase (CHI), flavanone 3-hydroxylase (F3H), flavanone 3'-hydroxylase (F3'H), dihydroflavonol 4-reductase (DFR), anthocyanidin synthase (ANS) and UDP glucose: flavonol 3-O-glucosyltransferase (UFGT) during fruit ripening differed between red and yellow fruit. In addition, we identified some transcription factor families (such as MYB, bHLH and WD40) that may control anthocyanin biosynthesis. We confirmed the altered expression levels of eighteen unigenes that encode anthocyanin biosynthetic enzymes and transcription factors using quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR). The obtained sweet cherry transcriptome and DGE profiling data provide comprehensive gene expression information that lends insights into

  15. A role for PacMYBA in ABA-regulated anthocyanin biosynthesis in red-colored sweet cherry cv. Hong Deng (Prunus avium L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Xinjie; Zhao, Kai; Liu, Linlin; Zhang, Kaichun; Yuan, Huazhao; Liao, Xiong; Wang, Qi; Guo, Xinwei; Li, Fang; Li, Tianhong

    2014-05-01

    The MYB transcription factors and plant hormone ABA have been suggested to play a role in fruit anthocyanin biosynthesis, but supporting genetic evidence has been lacking in sweet cherry. The present study describes the first functional characterization of an R2R3-MYB transcription factor, PacMYBA, from red-colored sweet cherry cv. Hong Deng (Prunus avium L.). Transient promoter assays demonstrated that PacMYBA physically interacted with several anthocyanin-related basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factors to activate the promoters of PacDFR, PacANS and PacUFGT, which are thought to be involved in anthocyanin biosynthesis. Furthermore, the immature seeds of transgenic Arabidopsis plants overexpressing PacMYBA exhibited ectopic pigmentation. Silencing of PacMYBA, using a Tobacco rattle virus (TRV)-induced gene silencing technique, resulted in sweet cherry fruit that lacked red pigment. ABA treatment significantly induced anthocyanin accumulation, while treatment with the ABA biosynthesis inhibitor nordihydroguaiaretic acid (NDGA) blocked anthocyanin production. PacMYBA expression peaked after 2 h of pre-incubation in ABA and was 15.2-fold higher than that of sweet cherries treated with NDGA. The colorless phenotype was also observed in the fruits silenced in PacNCED1, which encodes a key enzyme in the ABA biosynthesis pathway. The endogenous ABA content as well as the transcript levels of six structural genes and PacMYBA in PacNCED1-RNAi (RNA interference) fruit were significantly lower than in the TRV vector control fruit. These results suggest that PacMYBA plays an important role in ABA-regulated anthocyanin biosynthesis and ABA is a signal molecule that promotes red-colored sweet cherry fruit accumulating anthocyanin.

  16. Purification and chemical characterisation of a cell wall-associated β-galactosidase from mature sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.) fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerardi, Carmela; Blando, Federica; Santino, Angelo

    2012-12-01

    Using four different chromatographic steps, β-galactosidase was purified from the ripe fruit of sweet cherry to apparent electrophoretic homogeneity with approximately 131-fold purification. The Prunus avium β-galactosidase showed an apparent molecular mass of about 100 kDa and consisted of four different active polypeptides with pIs of about 7.9, 7.4, 6.9 and 6.4 as estimated by native IEF and β-galactosidase-activity staining. The active polypeptides were individually excised from the gel and subjected to SDS-PAGE. Each of the four native enzymes showing β-galactosidase activity was composed of two polypeptides with an estimated mass of 54 and 33 kDa. Both of these polypeptides were subjected to N-terminal amino acid sequence analysis. The 54 kDa polypeptide of sweet cherry β-galactosidase showed a 43% identity with the 44 kDa subunit of persimmon and apple β-galactosidases and the 48 kDa subunit of carambola galactosidase I. The sweet cherry β-galactosidase exhibited a strict specificity towards p-nitrophenyl β-D-galactopyranoside, a pH optimum of 4.0 and K(m) and V(max) values of 0.42 mM and 4.12 mmol min(-1) mg(-1) of protein respectively with this substrate. The enzyme was also active towards complex glycans. Taken together the results of this study prompted a role for this class of enzymes on sweet cherry fruit ripening and softening. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  17. The sweet cherry (Prunus avium) FLOWERING LOCUS T gene is expressed during floral bud determination and can promote flowering in a winter-annual Arabidopsis accession.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yarur, Antonia; Soto, Esteban; León, Gabriel; Almeida, Andrea Miyasaka

    2016-12-01

    FT gene is expressed in leaves and buds and is involved in floral meristem determination and bud development in sweet cherry. In woody fruit perennial trees, floral determination, dormancy and bloom, depends on perception of different environmental and endogenous cues which converge to a systemic signaling gene known as FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT). In long-day flowering plants, FT is expressed in the leaves on long days. The protein travels through the phloem to the shoot apical meristem, where it induces flower determination. In perennial plants, meristem determination and flowering are separated by a dormancy period. Meristem determination takes place in summer, but flowering occurs only after a dormancy period and cold accumulation during winter. The roles of FT are not completely clear in meristem determination, dormancy release, and flowering in perennial plants. We cloned FT from sweet cherry (Prunus avium) and analyzed its expression pattern in leaves and floral buds during spring and summer. Phylogenetic analysis shows high identity of the FT cloned sequence with orthologous genes from other Rosaceae species. Our results show that FT is expressed in both leaves and floral buds and increases when the daylight reached 12 h. The peak in FT expression was coincident with floral meristem identity genes expression and morphological changes typical of floral meristem determination. The Edi-0 Arabidopsis ecotype, which requires vernalization to flower, was transformed with a construct for overexpression of PavFT. These transgenic plants showed an early-flowering phenotype without cold treatment. Our results suggest that FT is involved in floral meristem determination and bud development in sweet cherry. Moreover, we show that FT is expressed in both leaves and floral buds in this species, in contrast to annual plants.

  18. Ethanol extract of Prunus mume fruit attenuates hydrogen peroxide-induced oxidative stress and apoptosis involving Nrf2/HO-1 activation in C2C12 myoblasts

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    Ji Sook Kang

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The fruit of the Prunus mume (Siebold Siebold & Zucc., Rosaceae (Korean name: Maesil has long been used as a health food or valuable medicinal material in traditional herb medicine in Southeast Asian countries. In this study, we determined the potential therapeutic efficacy of the ethanol extract of P. mume fruits (EEPM against H2O2-induced oxidative stress and apoptosis in the murine skeletal muscle myoblast cell line C2C12, and sought to understand the associated molecular mechanisms. The results indicated that exposure of C2C12 cells to H2O2 caused a reduction in cell viability by increasing the generation of intracellular reactive oxygen species and by disrupting mitochondrial membrane permeability, leading to DNA damage and apoptosis. However, pretreatment of the cells with EEPM before H2O2 exposure effectively attenuated these changes, suggesting that EEPM prevented H2O2-induced mitochondria-dependent apoptosis. Furthermore, the increased ex-pression and phosphorylation of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2 and up-regulation of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1, a phase II antioxidant enzyme, were detected in EEPM-treated C2C12 cells. We also found that zinc protoporphyrin IX, an HO-1 inhibitor, attenuated the protective effects of EEPM against H2O2-induced reactive oxygen species accumulation and cytotoxicity. Therefore, these results indicate that the activation of the Nrf2/HO-1 pathway might be involved in the protection of EEPM against H2O2-induced cellular oxidative damage. In conclusion, these results show that EEPM contributes to the prevention of oxidative damage and could be used as a nutritional agent for oxidative stress-related diseases.

  19. Carotenoids, Tocopherols and Antioxidant Activity of Lipophilic Extracts from Sea Buckthorn Berries (Hippophae rhamnoides, Apricot Pulp and Apricot Kernel (Prunus armeniaca

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    Elena Andreea Pop

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available A healthy human diet requires the daily consumption of fruits and vegetables rich in bioactive compounds. Sea buckthorn berries (Hippophae rhamnoides L. and apricot fruits (Prunus armeniaca L. are cultivated and appreciated in Romania both as fresh fruits and as derived products. Characterized by a complex chemical composition, sea buckthorn is rich in unsaturated lipids, carotenoids and tocopherols. Except for β-carotene content, less is known about other lipophilic compounds in apricot fruits. The aim of this paper was to separate and quantify the individual carotenoids, tocopherols and tocotrienols in sea buckthorn, apricot pulp and kernels and also to determine the antioxidant activity of the lipophilic extracts using the TEAC  method.  Chemical characterization of lipophilic extract was performed by HPLC with PDA and fluorescence detection. The total carotenoid content was 17.19±1.4 mg/100g F.W. in sea buckthorn; 3.51±0.25 mg/100g F.W. in apricot fruits and 0.58±0.04 mg/100 g F.W. in apricot kernels. The major carotenoids in sea buckthorn were β-carotene, zeaxanthin and β-cryptoxanthin esters. Apricots fruits are rich in β-carotene and its geometric isomers while in kernels we could properly identified only lycopene. The α-tocopherol concentration was higher in sea buckthorn (46 mg/kg than in apricot fruits (1.09 mg/kg while apricot kernel contain large amounts of γ-tocopherol (111 mg/kg. Sea buckthorn fruits showed the highest antioxidant capacity, correlated with a high content of both tocopherols and carotenoids.

  20. Antimicrobial Activity and Probable Mechanisms of Action of Medicinal Plants of Kenya: Withania somnifera, Warbugia ugandensis, Prunus africana and Plectrunthus barbatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mwitari, Peter G.; Ayeka, Peter A.; Ondicho, Joyce; Matu, Esther N.; Bii, Christine C.

    2013-01-01

    Withania somnifera, Warbugia ugandensis, Prunus africana and Plectrunthus barbatus are used traditionally in Kenya for treatment of microbial infections and cancer. Information on their use is available, but scientific data on their bioactivity, safety and mechanisms of action is still scanty. A study was conducted on the effect of organic extracts of these plants on both bacterial and fungal strains, and their mechanisms of action. Extracts were evaluated through the disc diffusion assay. Bacteria and yeast test strains were cultured on Mueller-Hinton agar and on Sabouraud dextrose agar for the filamentous fungi. A 0.5 McFarland standard suspension was prepared. Sterile paper discs 6 mm in diameter impregnated with 10 µl of the test extract (100 mg/ml) were aseptically placed onto the surface of the inoculated media. Chloramphenicol (30 µg) and fluconazole (25 µg) were used as standards. Discs impregnated with dissolution medium were used as controls. Activity of the extracts was expressed according to zone of inhibition diameter. MIC was determined at 0.78–100 mg/ml. Safety studies were carried using Cell Counting Kit 8 cell proliferation assay protocol. To evaluate extracts mechanisms of action, IEC-6 cells and RT-PCR technique was employed in vitro to evaluate Interleukin 7 cytokine. Investigated plants extracts have both bactericidal and fungicidal activity. W. ugandensis is cytotoxic at IC50somnifera has the best antimicrobial (1.5625 mg/ml), immunopotentiation (2 times IL 7 mRNA expression) and safety level (IC50>200 µg/ml). Fractions from W. ugandensis and W. somnifera too demonstrated antimicrobial activity. Mechanisms of action can largely be attributed to cytotoxicity, Gene silencing and immunopotentiation. Use of medicinal plants in traditional medicine has been justified and possible mechanisms of action demonstrated. Studies to isolate and characterize the bioactive constituents continue. PMID:23785437

  1. DETERMINATION OF A MATHEMATICAL MODEL TO ESTIMATE THE AREA AND DRY WEIGHT OF THE LEAF LIMBO OF Prunus persica CV. Jarillo DETERMINACIÓN DE UN MODELO MATEMÁTICO PARA LA ESTIMACIÓN DEL ÁREA FOLIAR Y PESO SECO DEL LIMBO DE Prunus persica CV. Jarillo

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    Enrique Quevedo García

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. A study was conducted to determine the variables that estimated the leaf limbo area and the leaf limbo dry weight of peach Prunus persica (L. Batsch cv. Jarillo. Fifty leaves, aged 2.5 months, were selected and measured: leaf limbo length and width, petiole length, leaf length, petiole diameter, leaf limbo fresh weight, petiole fresh weight, leaf fresh weight, leaf limbo dry weight, petiole dry weight, leaf dry weight, length/width limbo, petiole length/limbo length and leaf limbo area. The results allowed to obtain regression equations for estimating the leaf area and the limbo dry weight. Using the lineal models LA = b1 + b2 (LLL x LLW and LA= b1+ b2LLL + b3LLW a leaf area equation was determined. Alternative models to calculate limbo dry weight were evaluated LLDW = -b1+ b2 LLFW and LLDW= - b1 + b2LLL + b3PL. The best equations found with an R2 of 0.99 were LA = 1.572 + 0.65169(LLL x LLW, LA=-23.106+2.8064LLW + 3.6761LLL and LLDW = -0.002+0.401(LLFW.Resumen. Se realizó un estudio para determinar las variables que estimaran el área del limbo foliar y el peso seco del limbo de durazno Prunus persica (L. Batsch cv. Jarillo. Se seleccionaron cincuenta hojas con 2,5 meses de edad, fueron medidos: ancho del limbo, longitud del limbo, longitud del peciolo, longitud hoja, diámetro peciolo, peso fresco del limbo, peso fresco del peciolo, peso fresco de la hoja, peso seco del limbo, peso seco peciolo, peso seco de la hoja, longitud /ancho limbo, longitud del peciolo/longitud del limbo, área foliar del limbo. Los resultados alcanzados permitieron obtener ecuaciones de regresión para estimar el área foliar del limbo y el peso seco del limbo. Se halló una ecuación para la determinación del área foliar del limbo con los modelos lineales LA = b1 + b2 (LLL x LLW y LA= b1 + b2LLL + b3LLW. También se evaluaron modelos alternativas para calcular el peso seco del limbo, LLDW = -b1+ b2LLFW y LLDW= - b1 + b2LLL + b3PL. Las mejores ecuaciones

  2. Chemical characterization and thermal properties of kernel oils from Tunisian peach and nectarine varieties of Prunus persica; Caracterización química y propiedades térmicas de los aceites de semillas de variedades tunecinas de melocotón y nectarina de Prunus pérsica

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    Chamli, D.; Bootello, M.A.; Bouali, I.; Jouhri, S.; Boukhchina, S.; Martínez-Force, S.

    2017-07-01

    A comparative study was conducted to determine the fatty acids, triacylglycerol compositions and thermal properties of Tunisian kernel oils from the Prunus persica varieties, peach and nectarine, grown in two areas of Tunisia, Gabes and Morneg. Qualitatively, the fatty acids composition and triacylglycerol species were identical for all samples. Oleic acid (67.7-75.0%) was the main fatty acid, followed by linoleic (15.7-22.1%) and palmitic (5.6-6.3%) acids. The major triacylglycerol species were triolein, OOO (38.4-50.5%), followed by OOL (18.2-23.2%), POO (8.3-9.7%) and OLL (6.3-10.1%). The thermal profiles were highly influenced by the high content of triolein due to the importance of oleic acid in these oils. Moreover, the fatty acids distribution in TAG external positions was determined as corresponding to an α asymmetry coefficient that was between 0.10 and 0.12, indicating a high asymmetry in the distribution of saturated fatty acids in the position sn-1 and sn-3 in the TAG species of all samples. [Spanish] Se ha realizado un estudio comparativo de aceites tunecinos obtenidos a partir de las semillas de variedades de Prunus persica, melocotón y nectarina, cultivadas en dos zonas de Túnez, Gabes y Morneg. Cualitativamente, la composición de ácidos grasos y de especies de triglicéridos fueron idénticas para todas las muestras. El ácido oleico (67,7-75,0%) fue el ácido graso principal, seguido del linoleico (15,7-22,1%) y el palmítico (5,6-6,3%). Las especies principales de triacilglicéridos fueron la trioleina, OOO (38,4-50,5%), seguida de OOL (18,2-23,2%), POO (8,3-9,7%) y OLL (6,3-10,1%). Los perfiles térmicos fueron muy influidos por el alto contenido de trioleina debido a la importancia del ácido oleico en estos aceites. Por otra parte, se determinó la distribución de ácidos grasos en las posiciones externas de los TAG correspondiendo a un coeficiente de asimetría α entre 0,10 y 0,12, lo que indica una alta asimetría en la distribuci

  3. Controle da infestação natural de ceratitis capitata (Wied., 1824 (Diptera, Tephritidae em pêssegos(Prunus persica através das radiações gama Control of naturally infested peaches (Prunus persica by mediterranean fruit fly (Ceratitis capitata through the use of gamma radiation

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    V. Arthur

    1993-12-01

    Full Text Available Determinou-se a dose desinfestante de radiações gama para pêssegos, Prunus persica, infestados com larvas da mosca do Mediterrâneo, Ceratitis capitata. Utilizaram-se frutas de procedência conhecida no campo fazendo-se uma amostragem prévia, constatando-se que cada fruta continha em média nove larvas do último ínstar da mosca praga. As frutas foram irradiadas em uma fonte de Cobalto-60 com as seguintes doses de radiação gama: 0 (test., 25, 50, 100, 200, 400, 600, 800, 1000 e 1200 Gy, sob uma taxa de 58 Gy por minuto. Após a irradiação as frutas foram colocadas em câmaras climatizadas com a temperatura variando entre 23 e 27°C e a umidade relativa variando entre 65 e 75%. Aguardou-se que as larvas deixassem as frutas e se transformassem em pupas e adultos. A dose letal para larvas, pelos resultados obtidos no experimento, concluiu-se ser de 600 Gy. A dose letal para pupas provenientes de larvas irradiadas dentro das frutas foi de 50 Gy, impedindo totalmente a emergência de adultos.Determination of the dose of gamma radiation to disinfest peaches, Prunus pérsica infested with larvae of Ceratitis capitata (Wied., 1824 was made. Fruits were collected in the field, each one holding about nine larvae of the last instar of the fruit-fly. The fruits were irradiated with Cobalt-60 gamma radiation source at the following doses: 0 (control, 25, 50, 100, 200, 400, 600, 800, 1000 and 1200 Gy; at a dose rate of 58 Gy per minute. After irradiation the fruits were kept in a climatic chamber with the temperature adjusted between 23 and 27°C, and relative humidity between 65 and 75 percent, until the larvae left the fruits and were transformed into pupae and adults. It was concluded that the lethal dose of gamma radiation for larvae at the last instar, in naturally infested peaches, was 600 Gy and the dose of 50 Gy inhibited completely the emergency of adults.

  4. Caracterización con RAMs de la colección de durazno (Prunus persica L. Batsch existente en la Universidad Pedagógica y Tecnológica de Colombia

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    Ana Cruz Morillo Coronado

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Utilizando ocho cebadores Microsatélites Amplificados al Azar (RAMs fue evaluada la diversidad genética de 31 materiales de Prunus de la colección de caducifolios existente en la Universidad Pedagógica y Tecnológica de Colombia. Se generaron un total de 121 amplicones con pesos moleculares entre 260 y 1000 Kb. Con un coeficiente de similitud de 0.75, se formaron tres grupos, de acuerdo principalmente con las características del fruto, encontrando en el grupo 2 las variedades de importancia económica. El número de loci polimórficos varió entre 5 y 16 para los cebadores GT y CCA, respectivamente. El valor promedio de heterocigosidad fue de 0.22, más bajo que los encontrados en otros estudios de diversidad genética en el género Prunus; por tanto, se deben buscar estrategias para incrementar la variabilidad genética de la colección como la introducción de nuevos materiales o híbridos interespecíficos. La técnica RAMs es útil para evaluar la diversidad genética en especies caducifolias.

  5. Characterization of a new (R)-hydroxynitrile lyase from the Japanese apricot Prunus mume and cDNA cloning and secretory expression of one of the isozymes in Pichia pastoris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuta, Yasuhisa; Nanda, Samik; Kato, Yasuo; Yurimoto, Hiroya; Sakai, Yasuyoshi; Komeda, Hidenobu; Asano, Yasuhisa

    2011-01-01

    PmHNL, a hydroxynitrile lyase from Japanese apricot ume (Prunus mume) seed was purified to homogeneity by ammonium sulfate fractionation and chromatographic steps. The purified enzyme was a monomer with molecular mass of 58 kDa. It was a flavoprotein similar to other hydroxynitrile lyases of the Rosaceae family. It was active over a broad temperature, and pH range. The N-terminal amino acid sequence (20 amino acids) was identical with that of the enzyme from almond (Prunus dulcis). Based on the N-terminal sequence of the purified enzyme and the conserved amino acid sequences of the enzymes from Pr. dulcis, inverse PCR method was used for cloning of a putative PmHNL (PmHNL2) gene from a Pr. mume seedling. Then the cDNA for the enzyme was cloned. The deduced amino acid sequence was found to be highly similar (95%) to that of an enzyme from Pr. serotina, isozyme 2. The recombinant Pichia pastoris transformed with the PmHNL2 gene secreted an active enzyme in glycosylated form.

  6. Variance, genetic control and spatial phenotypic plasticity of morphological and phenological traits in Prunus spinosa and its large fruited forms (P. x fruticans

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    Kristine Vander Mijnsbrugge

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Prunus spinosa is a highly esteemed shrub in forest and landscape plantings. Shrubs with larger organs occur often and are considered either as large fruited forms of P. spinosa or as P. x fruticans, involving a hybridization process with the ancient cultivated P. insititia (crop-to-wild gene flow. As climate change may augment hybridization processes in the future, a hybrid origin is important to detect. In addition, studying crop-to-wild gene flow can give insights in putative consequences for the wild populations. We studied the P. spinosa – P. x fruticans group, focusing on morphology and phenology in three experimental plantations. Two plantings harbored cuttings of P. spinosa (clone plantations. A third plantation comprised of a half-sib offspring from a population with both P. spinosa and P. x fruticans (family plantation. Several results point to a hybridization process as the origin of P. x fruticans. The clone plantation revealed endocarp traits to be more genetically controlled than fruit size, while this was the opposite in the family plantation, suggesting the control of fruit size being derived from the putative P. insititia parent. Bud burst, flower opening and leaf fall were genetically controlled in the clone plantation, whereas in the family plantation intrafamily variability was remarkably large for the bud burst and leaf fall, but not for the flower opening. This suggests there is a reduced genetic control for the first two phenophases, possibly caused by historic hybridization events. Pubescence on the long shoot leaves in the family plantation deviated from the short shoot leaves on the same plants and from long and short shoot leaves in the clone plantation, suggesting again a P. insititia origin. Finally, we quantified spatial phenotypic plasticity, indicating how P. spinosa may react in a changing environment. In contrast to the bud burst and leaf fall, flower opening did not demonstrate plasticity. The fruit size was

  7. The early spring N uptake of young peach trees (Prunus persica) is affected by past and current fertilizations and levels of C and N stores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Marie-Odile; Vercambre, Gilles; Gomez, Laurent; Pagès, Loïc

    2014-01-01

    In deciduous trees, shoot development in early spring is assumed to be achieved mainly at the expense of nitrogen (N) stores. Indeed, the possible compensation for poor autumn N storage by early spring N uptake has been little studied. We therefore determined the dynamics of spring N uptake in relation to spring N supply, carbon and N storage and shoot development. Young peach trees (Prunus persica L. Batsch, cv. 'GF305') were raised outdoors in a hydroponic set-up during the spring and summer, with an excessive N supply. During the autumn, half of the trees were then N limited. The following spring, the N supply remained either high or low, or changed from high to low or low to high. Between 6 March and 13 May, N uptake was measured automatically on an hourly basis, while shoot growth was monitored once a week. These in situ measurements were completed by three destructive harvests to assess organ composition in N and total non-structural carbohydrates (TNC). Until the end of April, N uptake was dependent on the autumn N treatment, being higher in trees that had been N limited in the autumn. Total non-structural carbohydrate mobilization was also higher in those trees that had lost at least 17 g TNC by 24 April, while TNC levels in non-limited trees remained stable or even rose. Shoot development, estimated by the number of elongated axes and leaves per axis, was also slightly delayed by an N limitation in autumn. After 24 April, N uptake rates increased notably under all treatments and was determined by the spring N supply. In trees receiving a high N supply in the spring, the uptake rates also displayed marked short-term variations. That reduced the differences between treatments and by 13 May no differences could be evidenced between the trees in terms of organ biomass and TNC and N contents, whatever the treatment. We concluded that in the early spring, N uptake may compensate for a deficit of N storage insofar as large quantities of TNC can be mobilized for

  8. Evaluación productiva, económica y social del agua de riego de durazno (Prunus persica L. Batsch en Zacatecas (México

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    José Luis Ríos-Flores

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available La escasez de agua limita la agricultura, por lo que su uso debe ser más eficiente en la producción de alimentos. El objetivo de este trabajo fue determinar la productividad económica, física y social del agua del cultivo de durazno (Prunus persica L. Batsch, en la región del Distrito de Desarrollo Rural 183 —correspondiente a Fresnillo, Zacatecas— para el ciclo 2012; se desarrollaron modelos matemáticos para estimar la productividad y eficiencia del agua. En Zacatecas se cosecharon 817 ha de durazno; mismas que produjeron 3,954.1 t; con un valor de $32.79 millones de pesos, utilizando un total de 8.17 Mm3 en todo el estado; mientras que en el DDR183-Fresnillo (compuesto por los municipios Fresnillo y Valparaíso se emplearon 3.39 Mm3. La determinación de la huella hídrica azul mostró que, por cada kg de durazno se emplearon 2,066 L en Zacatecas, 2,000 L en Fresnillo, y 1,851 L en Valparaíso. En cuanto al ingreso por metro cúbico, se determinó que en Zacatecas se obtuvo un ingreso de $4.01 m-3, $4.38 m-3 en Fresnillo y $4.83 m-3 en Valparaíso. Mientras, la productividad laboral en Zacatecas fue 97.53 h t-1, en Fresnillo 94.40 h t-1, y en Valparaíso 87.35 h t-1. El trabajador adscrito a la producción de durazno en Zacatecas generó $97.53 h-1, en Fresnillo $94.40 h-1, y $87.35 h-1 en Valparaíso. La producción de durazno en Valparaíso resultó altamente eficiente y productiva, lo que se tradujo en una menor huella hídrica; ello promueve la sustentabilidad del recurso agua en esa región.

  9. Phytochemical uptake following human consumption of Montmorency tart cherry (L. Prunus cerasus) and influence of phenolic acids on vascular smooth muscle cells in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keane, Karen M; Bell, Phillip G; Lodge, John K; Constantinou, Costas L; Jenkinson, Sarah E; Bass, Rosemary; Howatson, Glyn

    2016-06-01

    To investigate the phytochemical uptake following human consumption of Montmorency tart cherry (L. Prunus cerasus) and influence of selected phenolic acids on vascular smooth muscle cells in vitro. In a randomised, double-blinded, crossover design, 12 healthy males consumed either 30 or 60 mL of Montmorency tart cherry concentrate. Following analysis of the juice composition, venous blood samples were taken before and 1, 2, 3, 5 and 8 h post-consumption of the beverage. In addition to examining some aspects of the concentrate contents, plasma concentrations of protocatechuic acid (PCA), vanillic acid (VA) and chlorogenic (CHL) acid were analysed by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with diode array for quantitation and mass spectrometry detection (LCMS) for qualitative purposes. Vascular smooth muscle cell migration and proliferation were also assessed in vitro. Both the 30 and 60 mL doses of Montmorency cherry concentrate contained high amounts of total phenolics (71.37 ± 0.11; 142.73 ± 0.22 mg/L) and total anthocyanins (62.47 ± 0.31; 31.24 ± 0.16 mg/L), as well as large quantities of CHL (0.205 ± 0.24; 0.410 ± 0.48 mg/L) and VA (0.253 ± 0.84; 0.506 ± 1.68 mg/L). HPLC/LCMS identified two dihydroxybenzoic acids (PCA and VA) in plasma following MC concentrate consumption. Both compounds were most abundant 1-2 h post-initial ingestion with traces detectable at 8 h post-ingestion. Cell migration was significantly influenced by the combination of PCA and VA, but not in isolation. There was no effect of the compounds on cell proliferation. These data show new information that phenolic compounds thought to exert vasoactive properties are bioavailable in vivo following MC consumption and subsequently can influence cell behaviour. These data may be useful for the design and interpretation of intervention studies investigating the health effects of Montmorency cherries.

  10. Measurement of antioxidant activity and antioxidant compounds under versatile extraction conditions: I. the immuno-biochemical antioxidant properties of sweet cherry (Prunus avium) extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanbali, Lama B; Ghadieh, Rana M; Hasan, Hiba A; K Nakhal, Yasmine; Haddad, John J

    2013-01-01

    Previously, we have meticulously examined the efficacy of the measurable antimicrobial activity of sweet cherry (Prunus avium) extracts on a wide spectrum of gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria, in addition to the fungus, Candida albicans, a priori. In order to further understand the biochemical constituents and antioxidant activities of a variety of extracts of sweet cherries, antioxidant compounds of immunological significance, including L-ascorbic acid (vitamin C), phenols, flavonoids, and anthocyanins, and the total antioxidant (free radical scavenging) activity were simultaneously measured under varying and versatile extraction conditions (mild heating [5, 10 and 20 min.], and brief microwave exposure [1, 2 and 5 min.]) for a variety of extracts: i) whole juice extracts (WJE), ii) methanol-extracted juice (MEJ), iii) ddH2O-extracted pomace (dPOM), and iv) methanol-extracted pomace (mPOM). The antioxidant activity under the versatile extraction conditions adopted in this study was conspicuously reduced, such that the % inhibition against 2,2- diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) followed an inverse, negative correlational trendline. Moreover, ascorbic acid content was not affected with mild to prolonged heating or microwave exposure, except tangibly with dPOM and mPOM. The total phenols content assessed showed no significant variations, as compared with control extracts. In a manner similar to ascorbic acid, total flavonoids were mildly reduced under varying conditions, an effect mimicked to a certain extent with anthocyanins. Assessment of extraction means as compared with WJE revealed sharp decrease in the antioxidant activity for dPOM and mPOM, significant increase in L-ascorbic acid, total phenol, and flavonoid contents for MEJ, dPOM, and mPOM, and mild decrease in anthocyanin contents for dPOM and mPOM. These results confirm the measurable antioxidant activities and contents of P. avium extracts under versatile conditions of mild exposure, an effect

  11. Study of the volatile compounds from plum (Prunus domestica L. cv. Horvin and estimation of their contribution to the fruit aroma Estudo de compostos voláteis de ameixa (Prunus domestica L. cv. Horvin e estimativa da sua contribuição ao aroma

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    Jorge Antonio Pino

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Simultaneous Distillation-Extraction (SDE and headspace-solid phase microextraction (HS-SPME combined with GC-FID and GC-MS were used to analyze volatile compounds from plum (Prunus domestica L. cv. Horvin and to estimate the most odor-active compounds by application of the Odor Activity Values (OAV. The analyses led to the identification of 148 components, including 58 esters, 23 terpenoids, 14 aldehydes, 11 alcohols, 10 ketones, 9 alkanes, 7 acids, 4 lactones, 3 phenols, and other 9 compounds of different structures. According to the results of SDE-GC-MS, SPME-GC-MS and OAV, ethyl 2-methylbutanoate, hexyl acetate, (E-2-nonenal, ethyl butanoate, (E-2-decenal, ethyl hexanoate, nonanal, decanal, (E-β-ionone, Γ-dodecalactone, (Z-3-hexenyl acetate, pentyl acetate, linalool, Γ-decalactone, butyl acetate, limonene, propyl acetate, Δ-decalactone, diethyl sulfide, (E-2-hexenyl acetate, ethyl heptanoate, (Z-3-hexenol, (Z-3-hexenyl hexanoate, eugenol, (E-2-hexenal, ethyl pentanoate, hexyl 2-methylbutanoate, isopentyl hexanoate, 1-hexanol, Γ-nonalactone, myrcene, octyl acetate, phenylacetaldehyde, 1-butanol, isobutyl acetate, (E-2-heptenal, octadecanal, and nerol are characteristic odor active compounds in fresh plums since they showed concentrations far above their odor thresholds.As técnicas de extração-destilação simultâneas (SDE e de headspace-microextração em fase sólida (HS-SPME combinadas com GC-FID e GC-MS foram usadas para analisar compostos voláteis da ameixa (Prunus domestica L. cv. Horvin e para estimar os compostos de aroma mais ativos, pela aplicação de valores de atividade olfativa (OAV, considerando os compostos voláteis presentes no headspace da fruta. As análises levaram à identificação de 148 componentes, incluindo 58 ésteres, 23 terpenoides, 14 aldeídos, 11 álcoois, 10 cetonas, 9 alcanos, 7 ácidos, 4 lactonas, 3 fenóis e 9 outros compostos de diferentes estruturas. De acordo om os resultados de SDE

  12. Flutuação populacional e previsão de gerações de Grapholita molesta (Busck, 1916 (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae em pessegueiro, Prunus persica (Linnaeus Batsch = Populational fluctuation and generation prediction of Grapholita molesta (Busck, 1916 (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae in peach, Prunus persica (Linnaeus Batsch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Jorge Cividanes

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available A mariposa-oriental, Grapholita molesta (Busck, 1916, encontra-se distribuída em quase todas as partes do mundo, constituindo importante praga do pessegueiro, Prunus persica (Linnaeus Batsch. Este estudo foi desenvolvido em pomar comercial de pessegueiro localizado em Taiúva, São Paulo, durante os anos 1997 a 2003, visando obter a flutuação populacional de adultos de G. molesta relacionando-a com fatores meteorológicos. O estudo também visou determinar uma data biofix adequada para prever a ocorrência de gerações da praga por meio de um modelo de graus-dia. A amostragem da mariposa-oriental e de insetos predadores foi efetuada com armadilha plástica com suco de pêssego e armadilha adesiva amarela, respectivamente. A influência de fatores físicos e biológicos foi avaliada por análise de correlação linear simples. Os maiores picos populacionais de G. molesta ocorreram nos meses de maio, julho e outubro. As correlações obtidas sugerem que a baixa umidade ambiental pode ter sido fator de mortalidade para G. molesta. O elevado número de pulverizações de inseticida pode ter causado impacto negativo sobre inimigos naturais contribuindo para a elevada densidade do inseto-praga no período de 1998 a 1999. A data de constatação dapresença de gemas vegetativas e de flor diferenciadas no pessegueiro mostrou-se adequada para se iniciar a contagem de graus-dia para prever gerações de G. molesta. Esses resultados devem ajudar aimplementação de programas para prever picos populacionais de adultos de G. molesta visando à aplicação de inseticidas. Recomenda-se a validação do modelo de graus-dia em outras localidades para comprovar os resultados obtidos.The oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta (Busck, 1916, is spread around the world and is considered an important pest on peach, Prunus persica (Linnaeus Batsch. This work was carried out at a commercial peach orchard located in Taiúva, State of São Paulo, Brazil, from 1997 to

  13. [Predation and removal of rodents on the seeds with different size and pericarp traits].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Li-biao; Yan, Xing-fu; Wang, Jian-li; Zhou, Yun-feng

    2013-08-01

    A field survey was conducted in the Quercus wutaishanica shrubs in Liupan Mountains of Ningxia, Northwest China to study the predation and removal of rodents on the seeds of Q. wutaishanica, Prunus salicina and Pinus armandii, aimed to explore the effects of seed size and pericarp traits on the predation and removal behaviors of rodents. The in situ seed predation rates of smaller Q. wutaishanica seeds and P. armandii seeds were significantly higher than those of larger Q. wutaishanica seeds and P. salicina seeds. The P. salicina seeds with hard and thick pericarp (endocarp) had the highest predation rate and hoarding rate after the removal by rodents. The movement distance of larger Q. wutaishanica seeds during predation events was the longest (3.10 m), and the seed hoarding distance of this species (6.48 m) was significantly longer than that of the three other types of seeds. Over 80% of sites were used as the predation sites by rodents for the seeds, except that the P. salicina seeds contained only a single seed and the cache sites contained a single seed accounted for over 90% for all types of seeds. Few predation and cache sites containing over two seeds were detected. Higher proportion of P. armandii seeds were predated in microhabitats except at the base of shrubs and in the holes after removal by rodent, while the seeds of other three types were predated mainly at the base of shrubs and in the holes after removal by rodents. The seed hoarding patterns after removal by rodents were primarily determined by pericarp traits, and higher proportion of soil burial that the rodents hoarded seeds with hard pericarp (endocarp) was detected.

  14. A multi-target therapeutic potential of Prunus domestica gum stabilized nanoparticles exhibited prospective anticancer, antibacterial, urease-inhibition, anti-inflammatory and analgesic properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Nazar Ul; Amin, Raza; Shahid, Muhammad; Amin, Muhammad; Zaib, Sumera; Iqbal, Jamshed

    2017-05-23

    Phytotherapeutics exhibit diverse pharmacological effects that are based on the combined action of a mixture of phytoconstituents. In this study, Prunus domestica gum-loaded, stabilized gold and silver nanoparticles (Au/Ag-NPs) were evaluated for their prospective anticancer, antibacterial, urease-inhibition, anti-inflammatory, and analgesic properties. Au/Ag-NPs were biosynthesized and characterized with UV-Vis, FTIR, SEM, EDX, and XRD techniques. The effect of gum and metal ion concentration, reaction temperature, and time on the synthetic stability of nanoparticles was studied along with their post-synthetic stability against varying pH and salt concentrations, long-term storage and extremes of temperature. Nanoparticles were tested for anticancer (HeLa cervical cancer cells), antibacterial (Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa), urease inhibition (jack-bean urease), anti-inflammatory (carrageenan-induced paw edema), and antinociceptive (abdominal constriction response) activities. The nanoparticles were mostly spherical with an average particle size between 7 and 30 nm (Au-NPs) and 5-30 nm (Ag-NPs). Au/Ag-NPs maintained their colloidal stability and nanoscale characteristics against variations in physicochemical factors. Au/Ag-NPs have potent anticancer potential (IC 50  = 2.14 ± 0.15 μg/mL and 3.45 ± 0.23 μg/mL). Au/Ag-NPs selectively suppressed the growth of S. aureus (10.5 ± 0.6 mm, 19.7 ± 0.4 mm), E. coli (10 ± 0.4 mm, 14.4 ± 0.7 mm), and P. aeruginosa (8.2 ± 0.3 mm, 13.1 ± 0.2 mm), as well as showed preferential inhibition against jack-bean urease (19.2 ± 0.86%, 21.5 ± 1.17%). At doses of 40 and 80 mg/kg, Au-NPs significantly ameliorated the increase in paw edema during the 1st h (P < 0.05, P < 0.01) and 2-5 h (P < 0.001) of carrageenan-induced inflammation compared to the 200 and 400 mg/kg doses of P. domestica gum (P < 0.05, P < 0.001). At similar doses, Au-NPs also

  15. Effect of Salinity Stress on Concentrations of Nutrition Elements in Almond (Prunus Dulcis 'Shokofeh', 'Sahand' Cultivars and '13-40' Genotype Budded on GF677 Rootstock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Momenpour

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Almond (Prunus amygdalus B. is one of the most important crops consumed as a dry fruit and it is mainly adaptable to arid and semi-arid regions mostly suffering from salinity stress (8. Soils with dry humidity regime are dominant in Iran and in the world at large and mostly include regions with more evaporation than precipitation. This in turn leads to increased salinity of the soil (9 and 10. Based on available reports, roughly 12.5% of land areas in Iran are saline, which overwhelmingly contain sodium, while more than 800 million hectares of land area on the earth (6% of overall global land area are affected by salinity (9 and 10. Therefore, compound of rootstock and scion may be used as one of the influence factors in sensitivity or tolerance to salinity of planted fruit trees including almonds (8 and 11. In recent years, for various reasons including the uniformity of trees, instead of sexual rootstock, vegetative rootstock is used. Rootstock GF677 an inter-specific hybrid (Almond Peach is propagated asexually as clone (8. It has been reported that rootstock GF677 is tolerant to salinity while rootstock nemagard (P. persica X P. davidiana is sensitive to salinity (16. It has been reported that rootstock GF677 tolerated salinity (5.5 ds/m, (19 or 5.2 ds/m (17 and 14.However, as plant species and different cultivars within the same plant species vary considerably in their tolerance to salinity (10, properly selecting plants and/or cultivars that can be grown well under adverse conditions, created in the root zone by salinization, is the most efficient and environmentally friendly agricultural practice for a more permanent solution of the problem of salinity (10. Despite the presence of information on the effect of salinity on concentration of nutrition elements of almond cultivars leaves and roots, tolerantscion/rootstock combinationshave not been introduced for this plant. Therefore, the aim of the present study is to

  16. Pectin of Prunus domestica L. alters sulfated structure of cell-surface heparan sulfate in differentiated Caco-2 cells through stimulation of heparan sulfate 6-O-endosulfatase-2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishida, Mitsutaka; Murata, Kazuma; Kanamaru, Yoshihiro; Yabe, Tomio

    2014-01-01

    Although previous reports have suggested that pectin induces morphological changes of the small intestine in vivo, the molecular mechanisms have not been elucidated. As heparan sulfate plays important roles in development of the small intestine, to verify the involvement of heparan sulfate (HS) in the pectin-induced morphological changes of the small intestine, the effects of pectin from Prunus domestica L. on cell-surface HS were investigated using differentiated Caco-2 cells. Disaccharide compositional analysis revealed that sulfated structures of HS were markedly changed by pectin administration. Real-time RT-PCR showed that pectin upregulated human HS 6-O-endosulfatase-2 (HSulf-2) expression and markedly inhibited HSulf-1 expression. Furthermore, inhibition analysis suggested that pretreatment with fibronectin III1C fragment, RGD peptide, and ERK1/2 inhibitor suppressed pectin-induced HSulf-2 expression. These observations indicate that pectin induced the expression of HSulf-2 through the interaction with fibronectin, α5β1 integrin, and ERK1/2, thereby regulating the sulfated structure of HS on differentiated Caco-2 cells.

  17. Comparative effect of Prunus persica L. BATSCH-water extract and tacrine (9-amino-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroacridine hydrochloride) on concentration of extracellular acetylcholine in the rat hippocampus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yeon-Kye; Koo, Byung-Soo; Gong, Dae-Jong; Lee, Young-Choon; Ko, Jeong-Heon; Kim, Cheorl-Ho

    2003-08-01

    Prunus persica L. BATSCH seed-water extract (PPE) has been used in the treatment of the degenerative disorders, such as hypermenorrhea and dysmenorrhea, in Taiwan, China, Japan and Korea. In this study, the effects of oral administration of PPE on the extracellular acetylcholine concentration in the hippocampus of rats were evaluated, and compared to that of tacrine (9-amino-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroacridine hydrochloride), a well-known and centrally acting acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitor, which had been developed for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease. We measured the inhibition of brain AChE. PPE at 2.5g/kg and tacrine at 5mg/kg showed significant effects for more than 6h. At these doses, the maximum increases were observed at about 1.5h after administration of PPE, and at about 2h with tacrine, and were 454 and 412% of the pre-level, respectively. The results suggest that oral administration of PPE and tacrine increases acetylcholine concentration in the synaptic cleft of the hippocampus mostly through AChE inhibition, and that PPE has a potent and long-lasting effect on the central cholinergic system.

  18. The contribution of stored malate and citrate to the substrate requirements of metabolism of ripening peach (Prunus persica L. Batsch) flesh is negligible. Implications for the occurrence of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase and gluconeogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Famiani, Franco; Farinelli, Daniela; Moscatello, Stefano; Battistelli, Alberto; Leegood, Richard C; Walker, Robert P

    2016-04-01

    The first aim of this study was to determine the contribution of stored malate and citrate to the substrate requirements of metabolism in the ripening flesh of the peach (Prunus persica L. Batsch) cultivar Adriatica. In the flesh, stored malate accumulated before ripening could contribute little or nothing to the net substrate requirements of metabolism. This was because there was synthesis and not dissimilation of malate throughout ripening. Stored citrate could potentially contribute a very small amount (about 5.8%) of the substrate required by metabolism when the whole ripening period was considered, and a maximum of about 7.5% over the latter part of ripening. The second aim of this study was to investigate why phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) an enzyme utilised in gluconeogenesis from malate and citrate is present in peach flesh. The occurrence and localisation of enzymes utilised in the metabolism of malate, citrate and amino acids were determined in peach flesh throughout its development. Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (essential for the synthesis of malate and citrate) was present in the same cells and at the same time as PEPCK and NADP-malic enzyme (both utilised in the dissimilation of malate and citrate). A hypothesis is presented to explain the presence of these enzymes and to account for the likely occurrence of gluconeogenesis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  19. The effects of foliar fertilization with iron sulfate in chlorotic leaves are limited to the treated area. A study with peach trees (Prunus persica L. Batsch) grown in the field and sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) grown in hydroponics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Jendoubi, Hamdi; Vázquez, Saúl; Calatayud, Angeles; Vavpetič, Primož; Vogel-Mikuš, Katarina; Pelicon, Primož; Abadía, Javier; Abadía, Anunciación; Morales, Fermín

    2014-01-01

    Crop Fe deficiency is a worldwide problem. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of foliar Fe applications in two species grown in different environments: peach (Prunus persica L. Batsch) trees grown in the field and sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L. cv. "Orbis") grown in hydroponics. The distal half of Fe-deficient, chlorotic leaves was treated with Fe sulfate by dipping and using a brush in peach trees and sugar beet plants, respectively. The re-greening of the distal (Fe-treated) and basal (untreated) leaf areas was monitored, and the nutrient and photosynthetic pigment composition of the two areas were also determined. Leaves were also studied using chlorophyll fluorescence imaging, low temperature-scanning electron microscopy microanalysis, scanning transmission ion microscopy-particle induced X-ray emission and Perls Fe staining. The distal, Fe-treated leaf parts of both species showed a significant increase in Fe concentrations (across the whole leaf volume) and marked re-greening, with significant increases in the concentrations of all photosynthetic pigments, as well as decreases in de-epoxidation of xanthophyll cycle carotenoids and increases in photochemical efficiency. In the basal, untreated leaf parts, Fe concentrations increased slightly, but little re-greening occurred. No changes in the concentrations of other nutrients were found. Foliar Fe fertilization was effective in re-greening treated leaf areas both in peach trees and sugar beet plants. Results indicate that the effects of foliar Fe-sulfate fertilization in Fe-deficient, chlorotic leaves were minor outside the leaf surface treated, indicating that Fe mobility within the leaf is a major constraint for full fertilizer effectiveness in crops where Fe-deficiency is established and leaf chlorosis occurs.

  20. The effects of foliar fertilization with iron sulfate in chlorotic leaves are limited to the treated area. A study with peach trees (Prunus persica L. Batsch grown in the field and sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L. grown in hydroponics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamdi eEl-Jendoubi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Crop Fe deficiency is a worldwide problem. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of foliar Fe applications in two species grown in different environments: peach (Prunus persica L. Batsch trees grown in the field and sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L. cv. ‘Orbis’ grown in hydroponics. The distal half of Fe-deficient, chlorotic leaves was treated with Fe sulfate by dipping and using a brush in peach trees and sugar beet plants, respectively. The re-greening of the distal (Fe-treated and basal (untreated leaf areas was monitored, and the nutrient and photosynthetic pigment composition of the two areas were also determined. Leaves were also studied using chlorophyll fluorescence imaging, low temperature-scanning electron microscopy microanalysis, scanning transmission ion microscopy-particle induced X-ray emission and Perls Fe staining. The distal, Fe-treated leaf parts of both species showed a significant increase in Fe concentrations (across the whole leaf volume and marked re-greening, with significant increases in the concentrations of all photosynthetic pigments, as well as decreases in de-epoxidation of xanthophyll cycle carotenoids and increases in photochemical efficiency. In the basal, untreated leaf parts, Fe concentrations increased slightly, but little re-greening occurred. No changes in the concentrations of other nutrients were found. Foliar Fe fertilization was effective in re-greening treated leaf areas both in peach trees and sugar beet plants. Results indicate that the effects of foliar Fe-sulfate fertilization in Fe-deficient, chlorotic leaves were minor outside the leaf surface treated, indicating that Fe mobility within the leaf is a major constraint for full fertilizer effectiveness in crops where Fe-deficiency is established and leaf chlorosis occurs.

  1. Mutational epitope analysis of Pru av 1 and Api g 1, the major allergens of cherry (Prunus avium) and celery (Apium graveolens): correlating IgE reactivity with three-dimensional structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neudecker, Philipp; Lehmann, Katrin; Nerkamp, Jörg; Haase, Tanja; Wangorsch, Andrea; Fötisch, Kay; Hoffmann, Silke; Rösch, Paul; Vieths, Stefan; Scheurer, Stephan

    2003-11-15

    Birch pollinosis is often accompanied by adverse reactions to food due to pollen-allergen specific IgE cross-reacting with homologous food allergens. The tertiary structure of Pru av 1, the major cherry (Prunus avium) allergen, for example, is nearly identical with Bet v 1, the major birch (Betula verrucosa) pollen allergen. In order to define cross-reactive IgE epitopes, we generated and analysed mutants of Pru av 1 and Api g 1.0101, the major celery (Apium graveolens) allergen, by immunoblotting, EAST (enzyme allergosorbent test), CD and NMR spectroscopy. The mutation of Glu45 to Trp45 in the P-loop region, a known IgE epitope of Bet v 1, significantly reduced IgE binding to Pru av 1 in a subgroup of cherry-allergic patients. The backbone conformation of Pru av 1 wild-type is conserved in the three-dimensional structure of Pru av 1 Trp45, demonstrating that the side chain of Glu45 is involved in a cross-reactive IgE epitope. Accordingly, for a subgroup of celery-allergic patients, IgE binding to the homologous celery allergen Api g 1.0101 was enhanced by the mutation of Lys44 to Glu. The almost complete loss of IgE reactivity to the Pru av 1 Pro112 mutant is due to disruption of its tertiary structure. Neither the mutation Ala112 nor deletion of the C-terminal residues 155-159 influenced IgE binding to Pru av 1. In conclusion, the structure of the P-loop partially explains the cross-reactivity pattern, and modulation of IgE-binding by site-directed mutagenesis is a promising approach to develop hypo-allergenic variants for patient-tailored specific immunotherapy.

  2. Sensitive and specific detection of potentially allergenic almond (Prunus dulcis) in complex food matrices by Taqman(®) real-time polymerase chain reaction in comparison to commercially available protein-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Röder, Martin; Vieths, Stefan; Holzhauser, Thomas

    2011-01-24

    Currently, causative immunotherapies are lacking in food allergy. The only option to prevent allergic reactions in susceptible individuals is to strictly avoid the offending food. Thus, reliable labelling of allergenic constituents is of major importance, but can only be achieved if appropriate specific and sensitive detection techniques for foods with allergenic potential are available. Almond is an allergenic food that requires mandatory labelling on prepackaged foods and belongs to the genus Prunus. Species of this genus are phylogenetically closely related. We observed commercially available almond specific ELISA being highly cross-reactive with other foods of the Prunoideae family, resulting in a false-positive detection of up to 500,000 mg kg(-1) almond. Previously published PCR methods were reported to be cross-reactive with false positive results >1200 mg kg(-1). We describe the development of a novel almond specific real-time PCR, based on mutated mismatch primers and sequence specific Taqman(®) probe detection, in comparison with two quantitative commercially available ELISA. PCR sensitivity was investigated with chocolate, chocolate coating and cookies spiked between 5 and 100,000 mg kg(-1) almond. In all matrices almond was reproducibly detected by real-time PCR at the lowest spike level of 5 mg kg(-1). Further, between 100 and 100,000 mg kg(-1) spiked almond, the method featured good correlation between quantified copy numbers and the amount of spiked almond. Within this range a similar relation between detectable signal and amount of almond was observed for both PCR and ELISA. In contrast to ELISA the Taqman(®) real-time PCR method was highly specific in 59 food items with negligible cross-reactivity for a very limited number of Prunoideae foods. The real-time PCR analysis of 24 retail samples was in concordance with ELISA results: 21% (n=5) contained undeclared almond. This is the first completely disclosed real-time PCR method for a specific and

  3. Sensitive and specific detection of potentially allergenic almond (Prunus dulcis) in complex food matrices by Taqman real-time polymerase chain reaction in comparison to commercially available protein-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roeder, Martin; Vieths, Stefan; Holzhauser, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Currently, causative immunotherapies are lacking in food allergy. The only option to prevent allergic reactions in susceptible individuals is to strictly avoid the offending food. Thus, reliable labelling of allergenic constituents is of major importance, but can only be achieved if appropriate specific and sensitive detection techniques for foods with allergenic potential are available. Almond is an allergenic food that requires mandatory labelling on prepackaged foods and belongs to the genus Prunus. Species of this genus are phylogenetically closely related. We observed commercially available almond specific ELISA being highly cross-reactive with other foods of the Prunoideae family, resulting in a false-positive detection of up to 500,000 mg kg -1 almond. Previously published PCR methods were reported to be cross-reactive with false positive results >1200 mg kg -1 . We describe the development of a novel almond specific real-time PCR, based on mutated mismatch primers and sequence specific Taqman probe detection, in comparison with two quantitative commercially available ELISA. PCR sensitivity was investigated with chocolate, chocolate coating and cookies spiked between 5 and 100,000 mg kg -1 almond. In all matrices almond was reproducibly detected by real-time PCR at the lowest spike level of 5 mg kg -1 . Further, between 100 and 100,000 mg kg -1 spiked almond, the method featured good correlation between quantified copy numbers and the amount of spiked almond. Within this range a similar relation between detectable signal and amount of almond was observed for both PCR and ELISA. In contrast to ELISA the Taqman real-time PCR method was highly specific in 59 food items with negligible cross-reactivity for a very limited number of Prunoideae foods. The real-time PCR analysis of 24 retail samples was in concordance with ELISA results: 21% (n = 5) contained undeclared almond. This is the first completely disclosed real-time PCR method for a specific and

  4. Sensitive and specific detection of potentially allergenic almond (Prunus dulcis) in complex food matrices by Taqman real-time polymerase chain reaction in comparison to commercially available protein-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roeder, Martin; Vieths, Stefan [Division of Allergology, Paul-Ehrlich-Institut, Paul-Ehrlich-Strasse 51-59, 63225 Langen (Germany); Holzhauser, Thomas, E-mail: holth@pei.de [Division of Allergology, Paul-Ehrlich-Institut, Paul-Ehrlich-Strasse 51-59, 63225 Langen (Germany)

    2011-01-24

    Currently, causative immunotherapies are lacking in food allergy. The only option to prevent allergic reactions in susceptible individuals is to strictly avoid the offending food. Thus, reliable labelling of allergenic constituents is of major importance, but can only be achieved if appropriate specific and sensitive detection techniques for foods with allergenic potential are available. Almond is an allergenic food that requires mandatory labelling on prepackaged foods and belongs to the genus Prunus. Species of this genus are phylogenetically closely related. We observed commercially available almond specific ELISA being highly cross-reactive with other foods of the Prunoideae family, resulting in a false-positive detection of up to 500,000 mg kg{sup -1} almond. Previously published PCR methods were reported to be cross-reactive with false positive results >1200 mg kg{sup -1}. We describe the development of a novel almond specific real-time PCR, based on mutated mismatch primers and sequence specific Taqman probe detection, in comparison with two quantitative commercially available ELISA. PCR sensitivity was investigated with chocolate, chocolate coating and cookies spiked between 5 and 100,000 mg kg{sup -1} almond. In all matrices almond was reproducibly detected by real-time PCR at the lowest spike level of 5 mg kg{sup -1}. Further, between 100 and 100,000 mg kg{sup -1} spiked almond, the method featured good correlation between quantified copy numbers and the amount of spiked almond. Within this range a similar relation between detectable signal and amount of almond was observed for both PCR and ELISA. In contrast to ELISA the Taqman real-time PCR method was highly specific in 59 food items with negligible cross-reactivity for a very limited number of Prunoideae foods. The real-time PCR analysis of 24 retail samples was in concordance with ELISA results: 21% (n = 5) contained undeclared almond. This is the first completely disclosed real-time PCR method for a

  5. Almond (Prunus dulcis L.) protein quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahrens, Susan; Venkatachalam, Mahesh; Mistry, Anahita M; Lapsley, Karen; Sathe, Shridhar K

    2005-09-01

    Three marketing varieties of almonds; Carmel, Mission, and Nonpareil; were analyzed for proximate composition and protein nutritive quality. Moisture, lipids, protein, ash, sugars, and tannins ranges were 3.05-4.33%, 43.37-47.50%, 20.68-23.30%, 3.74-4.56%, 5.35-7.45%, and 0.12-0.18%, respectively. No detectable hemagglutinating and trypsin inhibitory activities were present in Carmel, Mission, and Nonpareil almonds. Amino acid analyses indicated the sulfur amino acids (methionine + cysteine), lysine, and threonine to be the first, second, and third limiting amino acids in almonds when compared to the recommended amino acid pattern for children 2-5-year old. However, compared to the recommended amino acid pattern for adults, sulfur amino acids were the only limiting amino acids in almonds tested. True Protein Digestibility (% TPD) values for Carmel, Mission, and Nonpareil were 88.55 +/- 1.26, 92.25 +/- 1.05, and 82.62 +/- 1.47, respectively. Protein Digestibility Corrected Amino Acid Scoring (PDCAAS) values suggested almond proteins to be of poor nutritional quality.

  6. and wild cherry (Prunus avium L.)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2011-02-28

    Feb 28, 2011 ... Yayla. PA. Zonguldak RFD Turkey. Kızılcakese Village (Toptasi), Zonguldak, TURKEY. 389. SE. Germany. PA. NFV Germany. Mittelgebirge (Polle), Germany; N 51,9290 E 9,3890 260. GD. Michigan-1U.S.A.. PS. Sheffield's Seed Co., Inc. U.S.A. NA. NA. NA. Michigan-2 U.S.A.. PS. Lawyer Nursery Inc. U.S.A..

  7. Determination of heavy metals in apricot (Prunus armeniaca and almond (Prunus amygdalus oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Issa Mohammadpourfard

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background and purpose: Determination of heavy metals in oils is necessary to establish quality standards on a country level. This study aimed to determine of heavy metal contents (Cr, Ni, As, Cd, Hg, Pb, Sb, Sn, Sr, Al in 12 seed oil samples in Iran by inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES. Materials and Methods: The concentrations of heavy metal were determined by wet acid digestion methods with nitric acid (65% and 4 ml peroxide hydrogenate on same samples using ICP-OES. Results: Results showed that the average of most important toxic metals detected in apricot oil samples was as follows 721.72 μg/kg for Al 15 μg/kg for Cd, 18 μg/kg for Pb, 14 μg/kg for As and <1 μg/kg for Hg. Furthermore, The average of heavy metals detected in almond oil samples were as follows 1019.73 μg/kg for Al, 10 μg/kg for Cd, 21 μg/kg for Pb and 11 μg/kg for As and <1 μg/kg for Hg. Also in the studied samples, Al was the highest concentrations among all metals. Conclusion: Most of the samples of oils were found to be contaminated with notable amounts of toxic metals which could be a threat to oil quality and human health.

  8. Polyphenol patterns to trace sweet (Prunus avium) and tart (Prunus cerasus) varieties in cherry jam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picariello, Gianluca; Ferranti, Pasquale; De Cunzo, Fausta; Sacco, Ermelinda; Volpe, Maria Grazia

    2017-07-01

    The aim of this work was to assess whether the characteristic polyphenol traits of cherry biotypes persisted in thermally processed cherry products, such as jam. Thus, the RP-HPLC-diode array detector profiles of both colorless polyphenols and anthocyanins from three cherry varieties (two sweet and one tart cherry) were compared with those of low-sugar jam sourced from the same cultivars . Individual components were characterized by mass spectrometry. The total phenolic and total anthocyanin content as well as the radical scavenging potential (residual 75-91, 88-91 and 73-75%, respectively) were only slightly reduced by deep thermal treatments. Apart from the interconversion among the isomers of chlorogenic acid, the profile of both colorless polyphenols and anthocyanins substantially survived the jam manufacturing under conventional temperature-time regimen (80 °C, 1 h). The species- and cultivar -specific polyphenol molecular asset, especially the anthocyanin pattern, has potential to be monitored for traceability purpose, aimed to the varietal assessment of cherry biotypes used for producing jam.

  9. Environ: E00442 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available E00442 Prunus humilis, Prunus japonica seed Crude drug ... Prunus humilis [TAX:434060], Prunus jap...onica [TAX:97319] ... Rosaceae (rose family) Prunus humilis, Prunus japonica mature seed (dried) ...

  10. Resistência de porta-enxertos para pessegueiro e ameixeira aos nematóides causadores de galhas (Meloidogyne spp. Resistance of rootstock for peach tree and plum to root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Carlos Fachinello

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho foi realizado com o objetivo de comparar o comportamento de cinco diferentes porta-enxertos para frutas de caroço em frente a duas espécies de nematóides do gênero Meloidogyne (Meloidogyne javanica e Meloidogyne incognita. O cultivar GF 677 foi obtido a partir do cultivo in vitro e os demais porta-enxertos a partir de sementes. Aos dois meses, as plântulas foram repicadas e inoculadas com uma mistura de Meloidogyne javanica e M. incognita aos 30, 60 e 70 dias após o plantio em canteiros incorporando-se 0,2kg de solo altamente infestado com os nematóides ao redor de cada planta. Ao final do experimento, avaliaram-se o desenvolvimento das plantas e o grau de infecção de cada cultivar. O grau de resistência dos cultivares foi estimado a partir do índice de galhas, obtido através de uma escala de grau ou nota, a qual varia de 0 a 5, em função do número de galhas ou ootecas. Os resultados obtidos demonstraram que o cultivar Okinawa não apresentou galhas no sistema radicular e na análise de crescimento foi superior aos demais cultivares. Os cultivares R-15-2 e Aldrighi foram considerados resistentes aos fitonematóides por apresentarem pequeno número de galhas no sistema radicular. Já o cultivar GF 677 apresentou maior número de galhas no sistema radicular, chegando a 126 galhas/g de raiz.The work was carried out with the objective of comparing the response of five different stone fruit rootstocks to two nematode species (Meloidogyne javanica and Meloidogyne incognita. The cultivar GF677, which was obtained from in vitro cultivation and the others rootstocks, were obtained from seedlings. Two month old plants were transplanted and inoculated with a mixture of both nematode species at 30, 60, 70 days after planting, by incorporating 0.2kg of highly infested soil around each cultivar. The development of the roststocks were evaluated at the end of the experiment. Number of galls, ranging from 0 to 5 was used to score the level of resistance of each cultivar. The results showed that cultivar Okinawa did not present any root galls and also had a superior growth than the other cultivars. The cultivars R-15-2 and Aldrighi presented small numbers of galls in the roots, they were considered resistant to nematodes. On the other hand, the cultivar GF677 presented the largest number of galls in the roots, achieving 126 galls/g of root.

  11. Relationship between endogenous hormonal content and somatic organogenesis in callus of peach (Prunus persica L. Batsch) cultivars and Prunus persica×Prunus dulcis rootstocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Jiménez, Margarita; Cantero-Navarro, Elena; Pérez-Alfocea, Francisco; Le-Disquet, Isabel; Guivarc'h, Anne; Cos-Terrer, José

    2014-05-01

    The relationship between endogenous hormones content and the induction of somatic peach plant was studied. To induce multiple shoots from callus derived from the base of stem explants of the scion cultivars 'UFO-3', 'Flariba' and 'Alice Bigi', and the peach×almond rootstocks 'Garnem' and 'GF677', propagated plants were cultured on Murashige and Skoog salts augmented with 0.1mgL(-1) of indolebutyric acid, 1mgL(-1) of 6-benzylaminopurine and 3% sucrose. The highest regeneration rate was obtained with the peach×almond rootstocks. Endogenous levels of abscisic acid (ABA), indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), zeatin (Z), zeatin riboside (ZR), ethylene precursor 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC), salicylic acid (SA), and jasmonic acid (JA) were analyzed in the organogenic callus. Lower levels of several hormones, namely Z, ZR, ABA, and ACC were found in the peach×almond rootstock compared to peach cultivars, while IAA and SA presented inconclusive returns. These results suggest that the difference in somatic organogenesis capacity observed in peach and peach×almond hybrids is markedly affected by the endogenous hormonal content of the studied genotypes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  12. CO2 effects on the waterlogging response of 'Gisela 5' and 'Gisela 6' (Prunus cerasusxPrunus canescens) sweet cherry (Prunus avium) rootstocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Jiménez, Margarita; Hernández-Munuera, María; Piñero, M Carmen; López-Ortega, Gregorio; Del Amor, Francisco M

    2017-06-01

    Climate change is submitting countries of the Mediterranean arc to periods of drought alternating with heavy rain and waterlogging. Eventual floods along with the rising CO 2 in the atmosphere present an unpredictable scenario that affects crop survival. The effect of both stresses combined has been studied in sweet cherry plants. 'Gisela 5' and 'Gisela 6' were evaluated as rootstocks of the sweet cherry cultivar 'Burlat'. Plants were placed in a controlled-climate chamber for 7days, then they were submitted to waterlogging for another 7days and the response to this stress and the subsequent recovery were studied (7 more days). The experiment was carried out at 400μmolmol -1 CO 2 (ambient CO 2 ) and 800μmolmol -1 CO 2 , at 26°C, and plant water status and growth, net CO 2 assimilation, transpiration, stomatal conductance, water potential, chlorophyll fluorescence, relative water content, anions content, proline, lipid peroxidation, soluble sugars, and starch were measured. Differences in the response and in its intensity were detected in both rootstocks. Some parameters - such as photosynthesis, soluble sugars, starch, TBARS, and NO 3 - - varied depending on the CO 2 conditions and the waterlogging effect. Elevated CO 2 was able to increase photosynthesis and thereby help plants to overcome waterlogging. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  13. Application of dietary fiber method AOAC 2011.25 in fruit and comparison with AOAC 991.43 method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobaruela, Eric de C; Santos, Aline de O; Almeida-Muradian, Ligia B de; Araujo, Elias da S; Lajolo, Franco M; Menezes, Elizabete W

    2018-01-01

    AOAC 2011.25 method enables the quantification of most of the dietary fiber (DF) components according to the definition proposed by Codex Alimentarius. This study aimed to compare the DF content in fruits analyzed by the AOAC 2011.25 and AOAC 991.43 methods. Plums (Prunus salicina), atemoyas (Annona x atemoya), jackfruits (Artocarpus heterophyllus), and mature coconuts (Cocos nucifera) from different Brazilian regions (3 lots/fruit) were analyzed for DF, resistant starch, and fructans contents. The AOAC 2011.25 method was evaluated for precision, accuracy, and linearity in different food matrices and carbohydrate standards. The DF contents of plums, atemoyas, and jackfruits obtained by AOAC 2011.25 was higher than those obtained by AOAC 991.43 due to the presence of fructans. The DF content of mature coconuts obtained by the same methods did not present a significant difference. The AOAC 2011.25 method is recommended for fruits with considerable fructans content because it achieves more accurate values. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Comparative tree growth, penology and fruit yield of several Japanese plum cultivars in two newly established orchards, organic and conventionally managed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arroyo, F. T.; Jimenez-Bocanegra, J. A.; Garcia-Galavis, P. A.; Santamaria, C.; Camacho, M.; Castejon, M.; Perez-Romero, L. F.; Daza, A.

    2013-05-01

    The growth, penology and fruit yield of 14 Japanese plum cultivars (Prunus salicina Lindl) were studied in two newly established experimental orchards under organic and conventional management. The experiment was conducted during 2005-2011 in the province of Seville (SW Spain), an important region of Japanese plum culture. Trunk cross-section areas (TCSA), flowering, yield and tree defoliation before winter dormancy were analysed over several years. After one year, TCSA were larger in the organically managed orchard (OMO) for most of the cultivars, in the next two years they were equal, and from the fourth year, several cultivars showed significantly larger TCSA in the conventionally managed orchard (CMO). Flowering in the conventional orchard started from 2 to 6 days before and lasted for 3 to 5 days more than in the OMO. Several cultivars produced significantly more fruit in the CMO, being the average fruit yield in the organic orchard about 72% of the conventionally managed orchard. Autumn defoliation was significantly advanced in the organic orchard, especially in cultivars highly susceptible to rust (Tranzschelia pruni spinosae), a disease not adequately controlled in the organic orchard. (Author) 35 refs.

  15. Occurrence of Zaprionus indianus (Diptera: Drosophilidae in Agudo, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauricio Batistella Pasini

    2012-03-01

    Resumo. Este trabalho faz menção ao primeiro registro de Zaprionus indianus Gupta (Diptera: Drosophilidae encontrado na zona rural do município de Agudo, no estado do Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil. Os adultos da mosca foram encontrados primeiramente em frutos de ameixa (Prunus salicina Lindl posteriormente em figos maduros (Ficus carica L. em dois pomares. No primeiro pomar cerca de 80% dos figos coletados apresentaram ataque de Z. indianus e, no segundo pomar 50% dos figos da cv. “Pingo de mel” e 80% da variedade “Roxo de Valinhos” foram infestados. No período correspondente a emergência dos adultos, coletou-se um total de 1364 indivíduos. Os figos da cv “Roxo de Valinhos” apresentaram maior emergência de adultos. Além de estar presente em restos culturais de figo, Z. indianus foi visualizada sobrevoando restos culturais de Syagrus romanzoffiana (Cham., Cucumis melo L., Citrullus vulgaris Schrad. e Vitis vinifera L., associada a outros drosofilídeos. Ressalta-se que medidas de monitoramento e controle da praga deverão ser adotadas no município para garantir figos de alta qualidade e sadios.

  16. Assessment of the diversity and dynamics of Plum pox virus and aphid populations in transgenic European plums under Mediterranean conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capote, Nieves; Pérez-Panadés, Jordi; Monzó, César; Carbonell, Emilio; Urbaneja, Alberto; Scorza, Ralph; Ravelonandro, Michel; Cambra, Mariano

    2008-06-01

    The molecular variability of Plum pox virus (PPV) populations was compared in transgenic European plums (Prunus domestica L.) carrying the coat protein (CP) gene of PPV and non-transgenic plums in an experimental orchard in Valencia, Spain. A major objective of this study was to detect recombination between PPV CP transgene transcripts and infecting PPV RNA. Additionally, we assessed the number and species of PPV aphid vectors that visited transgenic and non-transgenic plum trees. Test trees consisted of five different P. domestica transgenic lines, i.e. the PPV-resistant C5 'HoneySweet' line and the PPV-susceptible C4, C6, PT6 and PT23 lines, and non-transgenic P. domestica and P. salicina Lind trees. No significant difference in the genetic diversity of PPV populations infecting transgenic and conventional plums was detected, in particular no recombinant between transgene transcripts and incoming viral RNA was found at detectable levels. Also, no significant difference was detected in aphid populations, including viruliferous individuals, that visited transgenic and conventional plums. Our data indicate that PPV-CP transgenic European plums exposed to natural PPV infection over an 8 year period caused limited, if any, risk beyond the cultivation of conventional plums under Mediterranean conditions in terms of the emergence of recombinant PPV and diversity of PPV and aphid populations.

  17. Effect of Hydroxypropyl Methylcellulose-Beeswax Composite Edible Coatings Formulated with or without Antifungal Agents on Physicochemical Properties of Plums during Cold Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sule Gunaydin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The influence of hydroxypropyl methylcellulose- (HPMC- beeswax (BW composite edible coatings formulated with or without food additives with antifungal properties on physicochemical and sensory properties of plums (Prunus salicina cv. “Friar” stored for 11 and 22 d at 1°C followed by a shelf life period of 5 d at 20°C was evaluated. Food preservatives selected from previous research included potassium sorbate (PS, sodium methyl paraben (SMP, and sodium ethyl paraben (SEP. Emulsions had 7% of total solid content and were prepared with glycerol and stearic acid as plasticizer and emulsifier, respectively. All the coatings reduced plum weight and firmness loss and coated fruit showed higher titratable acidity, soluble solids content, and hue angle values at the end of the storage period. In addition, physiological disorders such as flesh browning and bleeding were reduced in coated samples compared to uncoated controls. Paraben-based coatings were the most effective in controlling weight loss and the SMP-based coating was the most effective in maintaining plum firmness. Respiration rate, sensory flavor, off-flavors, and fruit appearance were not adversely affected by the application of antifungal coatings. Overall, these results demonstrated the potential of selected edible coatings containing antifungal food additives to extend the postharvest life of plums, although further studies should focus on improving some properties of the coatings to enhance gas barrier properties and further increase storability.

  18. Highly efficient transformation protocol for plum (Prunus domestica L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    A high-throughput transformation system for plum has been developed using hypocotyl slices excised from zygotic embryos as the source of explants. The hypocotyl slices are infected in an Agrobacterium tumefaciens suspension and then co-cultivated for 3 days in shoot regeneration three-quarter MS ba...

  19. Stigma development and receptivity in almond (Prunus dulcis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Weiguang; Law, S Edward; McCoy, Dennis; Wetzstein, Hazel Y

    2006-01-01

    Fertilization is essential in almond production, and pollination can be limiting in production areas. This study investigated stigma receptivity under defined developmental stages to clarify the relationship between stigma morphology, pollen germination, tube growth and fruit set. Light and scanning electron microscopy were employed to examine stigma development at seven stages of flower development ranging from buds that were swollen to flowers in which petals were abscising. Flowers at different stages were hand pollinated and pollen germination and tube growth assessed. Artificial pollinations in the field were conducted to determine the effect of flower age on fruit set. Later stages of flower development exhibited greater stigma receptivity, i.e. higher percentages of pollen germination and more extensive tube growth occurred in older (those opened to the flat petal stage or exhibiting petal fall) than younger flowers. Enhanced stigma receptivity was associated with elongation of stigmatic papillae and increased amounts of stigmatic exudate that inundated papillae at later developmental stages. Field pollinations indicated that the stigma was still receptive and nut set was maintained in older flowers. Stigma receptivity in almond does not become optimal until flowers are past the fully open stage. The stigma is still receptive and fruit set is maintained in flowers even at the stage when petals are abscising. Strategies to enhance pollination and crop yield, including the timing and placement of honey bees, should consider the effectiveness of developmentally advanced flowers.

  20. Rootstock breeding in Prunus species: Ongoing efforts and new challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Gainza

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The current global agricultural challenges imply the need to generate new technologies and farming systems. In this context, rootstocks are an essential component in modern agriculture. Most currently used are those clonally propagated and there are several ongoing efforts to develop this type of plant material. Despite this tendency, lesser number of rootstock breeding programs exists in comparison to the large number of breeding programs for scion cultivars. In the case of rootstocks, traits evaluated in new selection lines are quite different: From the agronomic standpoint vigor is a key issue in order to establish high-density orchards. Other important agronomic traits include compatibility with a wide spectrum of cultivars from different species, good tolerance to root hypoxia, water use efficiency, aptitude to extract or exclude certain soil nutrients, and tolerance to soil or water salinity. Biotic stresses are also important: Resistance/tolerance to pests and diseases, such as nematodes, soil-borne fungi, crown gall, bacterial canker, and several virus, viroids, and phytoplasms. In this sense, the creation of new rootstocks at Centro de Estudios Avanzados en Fruticultura (CEAF offers an alternative to stone fruit crop, particularly in Chile, where just a few alternatives are commercially available, and there are site-specific problems. The implementation of molecular markers in order to give support to the phenotypic evaluation of plant breeding has great potential assisting the selection of new genotypes of rootstocks. Marker-Assisted Selection (MAS can shorten the time required to obtain new cultivars and can make the process more cost-effective than selection based exclusively on phenotype, but more basic research is needed to well understood the molecular and physiological mechanisms behind the studied trait.

  1. Radiation induced mutations in sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saamin, S.

    1989-01-01

    Full text: Shoot apices of cv. ''Napoleon'' and ''Bing'' were irradiated. The overall mutation rate in M 1 V 2 was ca. 7%, including reduced growth. The use of buds 11-30 on M 1 V 1 shoots is recommended for the efficient recovery of mutants. (author)

  2. Evaluation of salt tolerance in almond [Prunus dulcis (L.) Batsch ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2012-07-12

    GF677') and the. Iranian almond cultivar 'Sahand' were subjected to four different salinity levels (1.5, 3, 6 and 9 dSm-1) to determine the effects of salt level on growth parameters and chemical compositions. The results.

  3. Detecting local establishment strategies of wild cherry (Prunus avium L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregorius Hans-Rolf

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Backround P. avium, a pioneer tree species that colonizes early forest successional stages, is assumed to require an effective strategy allowing stably repeatable rounds of local establishment, dispersal and local extinction. Consequently, the early replacement of cherry by climax tree species makes the establishment of several local generations very unlikely, especially in central European continuous cover forests. This has to be seen in connection with the mixed reproduction system involving asexual reproduction as a complementary adaptational strategy. Tests of the local establishment of wild cherry must therefore consider the possibility of first generation establishment via seedling recruitment potentially followed by an asexual generation (root suckering. Successful establishment can therefore be determined only among adult individuals with the option of detecting vegetative reproduction at these stages. To test the implied suggestion about local establishment strategies of wild cherry, nuclear microsatellites were used to analyse patterns of asexual propagation among adult stages that have been subjected to one of two major types of forest management. These management types, the historical "coppice with standards system" (CWS and the "high forest system" (HFS, can be reasonably assumed to have affected the reproduction system of P. avium. Results Clear differences were found in the reproduction pattern between two stands representing the two forest management types: 1 Clonal propagation is observed in both management systems, but with a distinctly higher frequency in the CWS. Hence, sexual recruitment as a first local generation is followed by a second asexual generation in both, whereas in the CWS there is evidence for an additional clonal generation. 2 The estimation of amounts of clonal reproduction critically depends on the assumptions about multilocus gene associations. This is revealed by the application of newly developed methods of quantifying gene associations. 3 Haplotype diversities are higher in the CWS and found to be associated with a large degree of heterozygosity for the second largest clonal group. 4 Seed set was sparse over the last eight years of observation in the CWS stand. Conclusion This study provides useful guidelines for more comprehensive investigations, particularly on the interrelationships between degrees of cloning and capacity of sexual reproduction, amounts of multilocus gene associations, effects of heterozygosity on cloning success, and sustainability of different forest management types.

  4. Genetic diversity among selected genotypes of almond Prunus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    rohit

    2012-10-16

    Oct 16, 2012 ... introductions, as well as indigenous selections (Table 1). Genomic. DNA was isolated from freshly collected leaves following modified. CTAB method (Doyle and Doyle, 1987, 1990). Phenolics and tannins were removed by repeated purification of DNA following phenol and chloroform treatment. Also during ...

  5. Genetic diversity among selected genotypes of almond Prunus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Average polymorphic information content (PIC) value of 16 selected primers was 0.684 and maximum and minimum PIC value was 0.8687 and 0.2551 for primers S073 and S081, respectively. Cophenetic correlation was found to be 0.89. RAPD data on genetic diversity matched classification of studied genotypes based on ...

  6. Noncovalent immobilization of Pectinesterase (Prunus armeniaca L.) onto bentonite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karakuş, Emine; Ozler, Aynur; Pekyardimci, Sule

    2008-01-01

    In this work, pectinesterase isolated from Malatya apricot was immobilized onto acid-treated bentonite surface by simple adsorption at pH 9.0. The properties of free and immobilized enzyme were defined. The effect of various factors such as pH, temperature, heat, and storage stability on immobilized enzyme were investigated. Optimum pH and temperature were determined to be 9.0 and 50 degrees C, respectively. Kinetic parameters of the immobilized enzyme (Km and Vmax values) were also determined as 0.51 mM of the Km and 14.6 micromol min(-1) mg(-1) of the Vmax. No drastic change was observed in the Km value after immobilization. The Vmax value of immobilized enzyme was 8.4-fold bigger than those of free enzyme. Thermal and storage stability experiments were carried out. The patterns of heat stability indicated that the immobilization process tends to stabilize the enzyme. The properties of the immobilized enzyme were compared to those of the free enzyme.

  7. Effects of root pruning in sour cherry (Prunus cersus) "Stevnsbaer"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toldam-Andersen, Torben; Jensen, Nauja Lisa; Dencker, Ivar Blücher

    2007-01-01

    Major problems with excessive growth, reduced light conditions, poor flower bud development and low yields have developed in many orchards with the sour cherry 'Stevnsbaer'. To investigate the possibility of handling the problems by root pruning, a project was initiated in 2003. Three orchards...... and 2004 are reported and the prospects for improved growth control in sour cherry by root pruning are discussed....

  8. Rooting and acclimatization of the Japanese plum tree, cv. América

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana de Magalhães Bandeira

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Rooting and acclimatization are limiting steps in plant micropropagation, especially in woody plant species. This study aimed to evaluate the IAA and IBA effect on the in vitro rooting and acclimatization of micropropagated shoots of Japanese plum (Prunus salicina Lindl. cv. América. Shoots from 3 to 4 cm long were inoculated in MS medium with half salt and vitamin concentrations (MS/2 added with IAA and IBA (0, 0.25, 0.5, 0.75 and 1 mg L-1. After a 20-day period in in vitro cultivation, the shoots were evaluated, and then transferred to a greenhouse, and evaluated after 30 days. At the end of the in vitro cultivation period, no significant interactions were observed for number of roots per shoot and rooting percentage, but a significant effect was recorded for auxin type only, for which shoots grown in media added with IBA showed high values - 0.87 and 41.95%, respectively. A linear increase response from 1.45 to 5.75 cm was verified for root length of shoots cultivated in IBA medium; however, no significant effect was observed, and a 0.86 cm average root length per shoot grown in medium added with IAA was found. After 30 days of acclimatization period, the largest survival percentage was obtained from shoots cultivated in medium with 1 mg L-1 of IBA and IAA (88% and 92%, respectively. Although, IBA provided the highest in vitro rooting, most of the surviving shoots were those originated in IAA-added medium, probably because IBA promoted longer fibrous roots, less appropriate for transplant and soil fixation, as they are easily damaged. It was concluded that in vitro rooting with the addition of the highest IAA concentration (1 mg L-1 provided the greatest plant survival during the acclimatization period of the Japanese plum cv. América.

  9. Identification and Characterization of Botrytis Blossom Blight of Japanese Plums Caused by Botrytis cinerea and B. prunorum sp. nov. in Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrada, Enrique E; Latorre, Bernardo A; Zoffoli, Juan P; Castillo, Antonio

    2016-02-01

    Blossom blight is a destructive disease of plums (Prunus salicina) when humid and temperate weather conditions occur in Chile. Disease incidence ranging from 4 to 53% has been observed. Symptoms include light brown petal necrosis, starting as light brown mottles or V-shaped necrosis at the margins of the petals, progressing to the stamen and pistils. In this study, the etiology of blossom blight of plums was determined. High- and low-sporulating isolates of Botrytis were obtained consistently from blighted blossoms and apparently healthy flowers of plums. Based on colony morphology, conidial production and molecular phylogenetic analysis, these high- and low-sporulating isolates were identified as B. cinerea and B. prunorum sp. nov., respectively. Phylogenetic analysis of the genes glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (G3PDH), heat-shock protein 60 (HSP60), and DNA-dependent RNA polymerase subunit II (RPB2) grouped B. prunorum isolates in a single cluster, distantly from B. cinerea and other Botrytis species. The phylogenetic analysis of necrosis and ethylene-inducing protein (NEP1 and NEP2) genes corroborated these results. Analysis of the internal transcribed spacer region and large-subunit (26S) ribosomal DNA and detection of Boty and Flipper transposable elements, were not useful to differentiate between these Botrytis species. Both species were pathogenic on plum flowers and the fruit of plums, apples, and kiwifruits. However, B. prunorum was less virulent than B. cinerea. These pathogens were re-isolated from inoculated and diseased tissues; thus, Koch's postulates were fulfilled, confirming its role in blossom blight of plums. B. cinerea was predominant, suggesting that B. prunorum may play a secondary role in the epidemiology of blossom blight in plums in Chile. This study clearly demonstrated that the etiology of blossom blight of plums is caused by B. cinerea and B. prunorum, which constitute a species complex living in sympatry on plums and possibly

  10. ARMAZENAMENTO DE PÊSSEGOS (Prunus persica L., CULTIVAR CHIRIPÁ, EM ATMOSFERA CONTROLADA STORAGE OF CHIRIPA PEACH (Prunus persica L. IN CONTROLLED ATMOSPHERE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cesar Valmor Rombaldi

    2002-02-01

    Full Text Available Uma das principais alterações durante o armazenamento refrigerado de pêssegos é a ocorrência de lanosidade. No presente trabalho, foi estudado o efeito da atmosfera controlada sobre a conservação de pêssegos da cultivar Chiripá e, em particular, no controle de lanosidade. Os pêssegos foram colhidos com valores médios de firmeza de polpa (FP de 50N, 7cmo.L-1 de acidez total titulável (ATT, 13,8ºBrix de sólidos solúveis totais (SST e coloração de fundo verde-esbranquiçada. As frutas foram armazenadas em dois sistemas: 1 ar refrigerado (AR a 0ºC± 0,5ºC e 90± 5% de umidade relativa (UR; 2 atmosfera controlada (AC a 0ºC± 0,5ºC e 95± 2%UR, 1,5KPa de O2 e 5KPa de CO2. Na instalação do experimento, aos 30 dias e aos 45 dias, coletaram-se amostras para avaliações de FP, SST, ATT, ocorrência de lanosidade e de escurecimento interno, e análise sensorial. Estas análises foram realizadas 24 horas e 72 horas após a retirada das frutas das câmaras frias, em cujo período foram mantidas a 20ºC± 2ºC. A AC foi eficiente no controle de lanosidade, mantendo os pêssegos da cv. Chiripá em condições de comercialização por, no mínimo, 45 dias. Em AR este período foi inferior a 30 dias e ocorreram perdas significativas na qualidade das frutas.The woolly breakdown is one of the major disorders during cold storage of "Chiripá" peaches. In the present work the effects of controlled atmosphere (CA on peaches storability were studied, particularly in the control of woolliness. The peaches were harvested with 50N of pulp firmness (PF, 7cmo .L-1of total titratable acidity (TTA, 13,8ºBrix of total soluble solids (TSS and green-white ground color. Peaches were stored in two systems: 1 refrigerated air storage (RA at 0ºC± 0,5ºC and 90± 5% of relative humidity (RU or 2 controlled atmosphere (CA at 0ºC± 0,5ºC, 95± 2% of RU, 1,5KPa of O2 and 5kPa de CO2. At the installation of the experiment, 30 days after and 45 days after, samples were collected to evaluate PF, TTA, TSS, woolly breakdown, browning and for organoleptic analysis. These evaluations were done 24 and 72 hours after sampling. The results showed that CA is capable of reducing efficiently the woolliness and maintaining fruit quality for 45 days of storage. In RA this period was less than 30 days with significative losses in the quality.

  11. Multiplicação in vitro do porta-enxerto de Prunus spp. 'Carelli' In vitro multiplication of Prunus spp. rootstocks 'Carelli'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo de Tarso Teixeira

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available No Brasil, a falta de porta-enxertos para as Prunáceas, principalmente de origem clonal, tem incentivado a seleção de novas variedades e o uso de técnicas de cultura in vitro para a propagação. Neste sentido, o objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o potencial de multiplicação in vitro do porta-enxerto 'Carelli' sob efeito de diferentes concentrações da citocinina 6-benzilaminopurina (BAP. Segmentos nodais com 0,5 cm de comprimento foram inoculados em meio de cultura de Lepoivre, suplementado com 0,0; 0,5; 1,0; 2,0 e 4,0 mg.L-1 BAP. Estes segmentos nodais são oriundos de plântulas preestabelecidas in vitro, após duas subculturas em meio de cultura de Lepoivre, suplementado com 0,5 mg.L-1 de BAP. As avaliações para número de brotos por explante e altura média das brotações foram realizadas após 21 dias de cultura in vitro. Os resultados mostraram que os tratamentos com BAP não apresentaram diferenças significativas entre si. A taxa média de multiplicação foi de 3,3 a 3,4 brotos por explante. O tratamento sem adição de BAP não apresentou a formação de brotações axilares, mas resultou em brotos com maior altura média (16,2 mm. O uso de BAP afetou significativamente a altura das brotações, e o acréscimo nas suas concentrações reduziu o comprimento das mesmas. Concentrações de BAP superiores a 1,0 mg.L-1de BAP reduziram o comprimento das brotações e promoveram hiperidricidade. O uso de 0,5 mg.L-1 de BAP promoveu a formação de 3,3 brotos por explante com 11,0 mm de altura média, em condições adequadas para o enraizamento.In Brazil the lack of well adapted rootstocks in the Peach industry, mainly of clonal origin, forces the selection of new varieties and the use of tissue culture techniques for the mass clonal propagation. In the present work it was evaluated the in vitro multiplication potential of "Carelli" rootstock in response to different levels of BA. Nodal segments (0.5 cm length were inoculated in test tubes containing 20 ml of Lepoivre culture medium supplemented with 0.0; 0.5; 1.0; 2.0 and 4.0 mg.L-1 BA. This nodal segments were originated from in vitro pre-established plants after two subcultures in Lepoivre culture medium supplemented with 0.5 mg.L-1 BA. Evaluations done after 21 days in culture showed that the different levels of BA resulted in values statistically similar for the multiplication rate and length of regenerated shoots. The values for multiplication rate ranged from 3.3 to 3.4 shoots/explant. The treatment control did not result in multiple shoots but showed shoots with the highest lengh (16.2 mm. BA significativelly affected the length of shoots and the increase in its levels reduced the shoot lengh. BA levels higher than 1.0 mg.L-1 reduced the shoot length and promoted vitrification. BA in the level of 0.5 mg.L-1 resulted in the induction of 3.3 shoots/explant with means values of 11.0 mm in length in adequate conditions for rooting.

  12. 76 FR 69693 - Tolerance Crop Grouping Program III

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-09

    ... following 12 commodities: Almond, Prunus dulcis; Beechnut, Fagus spp.; Brazil nut, Bertholletia excelsa... nut-tree (Ricinodendron heudelotii (Baill.) Heckel) Almond (Prunus dulcis (Mill.) D.A. Webb) Beechnut... following 11 commodities: Apricot, Prunus armeniaca; Cherry, sweet, Prunus avium; Cherry, tart, Prunus...

  13. Taxonomy Icon Data: peach [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available g Prunus_persica_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Prunus+persica&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonom...y_icon/icon.cgi?i=Prunus+persica&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Prunus...+persica&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Prunus+persica&t=NS ...

  14. Advances in the genetic improvement of Prunus domestica utilizing genetic engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plum producers world-wide are facing multiple challenges including climate change, reductions in available labor, the need for reduced chemical inputs, the spread of native and exotic pests and pathogens, and consumer demands for improved fruit quality and health benefits. Meeting these challenges ...

  15. Growth and yield of the sweet cherry ( Prunus avium L.) as affected ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Three different training systems (Spanish bush, Spindle bush and "V") were compared. The smaller vegetative growth, expressed as trunk crosssectional area (TCSA) was recorded in Spanish bush (34.68 cm2) when compared to Spindle bush (40.11 cm2) and "V" (40.82 cm2). The largest cumulative yield per hectare was ...

  16. Foliar response of black cherry (Prunus serotina) clones to ambient ozone exposure in central Pennsylvania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, J C; Skelly, J M; Steiner, K C; Zhang, J W; Savage, J E

    1999-06-01

    During late summer of 1996 and 1997 we examined ozone-induced foliar injury in a plantation of 111 black cherry trees (ramets) comprising 15 clones originating from wild ortets growing in the Allegheny National Forest, Pennsylvania, and the Monongahela National Forest, West Virginia. The experimental plantation was a clonal seed orchard in Centre County, Pennsylvania, started in 1971 using ortet buds grafted onto seedling rootstocks of mixed origin. Clones differed significantly in severity of foliar injury symptoms (F=31.83, p50% leaf area affected than other clones during both years. In contrast, clone R-14, which is from the same area in northcentral Pennsylvania as R-12, exhibited significantly less injury (LAAclonal injury was significantly correlated between both years of assessment (r=0.92, p<0.001). Within tree crowns, foliage in lower and inner crown positions was significantly more injured than foliage in upper and exterior crown positions. There was no evidence of geographically based population differences in sensitivity to foliar O(3) injury. On the contrary, results demonstrate that wild genotypes of proximal geographic origin may differ greatly in sensitivity.

  17. Red cherries (Prunus avium var. Stella) processed by pulsed electric field - Physical, chemical and microbiological analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sotelo, Kristine A G; Hamid, Nazimah; Oey, Indrawati; Pook, Chris; Gutierrez-Maddox, Noemi; Ma, Qianli; Ying Leong, Sze; Lu, Jun

    2018-02-01

    This study examined, for the first time, the effect of mild or moderate intensity pulsed electric field (PEF) processing on cherries, in particular changes in physicochemical properties, release of anthocyanins and polyphenols, and the potential growth of lactic acid bacteria. Cherry samples were treated at a constant pulse frequency of 100Hz and a constant pulse width of 20μs with different electric field strengths between 0.3 and 2.5kV/cm. Titratable acidity and total soluble solids values of most PEF samples stored for 24h significantly decreased compared to other samples. Stored samples also had increased cyanidin glucoside content. However, concentration of rutin, 4-hydroxybenzoic acid and isorhamnetin rutinoside significantly decreased in samples stored for 24h. In conclusion, sweet cherries were only influenced by storage after PEF processing. PEF processing did not affect the growth of probiotic bacteria. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Some bioactive compounds and antioxidant activities of the bitter almond kernel (prunus dulcis var. amara)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keser, S.; Yilmaz, O.

    2014-01-01

    in this study, it was determined antioxidant activities and phenolic, flavonoid, phytosterol, lipid soluble vitamin and fatty acid contents of bitter almond kernel extract (bae). antioxidant activities of bae was investigated by dppho, abtso+, oho radical scavenging, metal chelating activity and determination of lipid peroxidation levels (tbars). bae was scavenged 83.49% of the abts radical, 68.34% of the hydroxyl radical, and 68.65% of the dpph radical. this extract was shown 49.36% of the metal chelating activity myricetin (1831.52 mu g/g), kaempferol (104.52 mu g/g), naringenin (2.51 mu g/g), vanillic acid (91.70 mu g/g), caffeic acid (85.92 mu g/g), ferulic acid (27.11 mu g/g) rosmarinic acid (0.95 mu g/g), hydroxycinnamic acid (1.35 mu g/g), delta-tocopherol (4.95 mg/kg), mu-tocopherol (104.15 mg/kg), vitamin k (42.25 mg/kg), beta-sitosterol (366.95 mg/kg) and stigmasterol (242.65 mg/kg) were determined in the bae. the major fatty acids were oleic acid (70.61%) and linoleic acid (20.68%) in the bae. these results indicate that bitter almond can be a good natural source of fatty acids, lipid soluble vitamins, phytosterols, flavonoid, phenolic compounds. (author)

  19. Fatty acid composition and anticancer activity in colon carcinoma cell lines of Prunus dulcis seed oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mericli, Filiz; Becer, Eda; Kabadayı, Hilal; Hanoglu, Azmi; Yigit Hanoglu, Duygu; Ozkum Yavuz, Dudu; Ozek, Temel; Vatansever, Seda

    2017-12-01

    Almond oil is used in traditional and complementary therapies for its numerous health benefits due to high unsaturated fatty acids content. This study investigated the composition and in vitro anticancer activity of almond oil from Northern Cyprus and compared with almond oil from Turkey. Almond oil from Northern Cyprus was obtained by supercritical CO 2 extraction and analyzed by GC-MS. Almond oil of Turkey was provided from Turkish pharmacies. Different concentrations of almond oils were incubated for 24 and 48 h with Colo-320 and Colo-741 cells. Cell growth and cytotoxicity were measured by MTT assays. Anticancer and antiprolifetarive activities of almond oils were investigated by immunocytochemistry using antibodies directed against to BMP-2, β-catenin, Ki-67, LGR-5 and Jagged 1. Oleic acid (77.8%; 75.3%), linoleic acid (13.5%; 15.8%), palmitic acid (7.4%; 6.3%), were determined as the major compounds of almond oil from Northern Cyprus and Turkey, respectively. In the MTT assay, both almond oils were found to be active against Colo-320 and Colo-741 cells with 1:1 dilution for both 24 h and 48 h. As a result of immunohistochemical staining, while both almond oils exhibited significant antiproliferative and anticancer activity, these activities were more similar in Colo-320 cells which were treated with Northern Cyprus almond oil. Almond oil from Northern Cyprus and Turkey may have anticancer and antiproliferative effects on colon cancer cells through molecular signalling pathways and, thus, they could be potential novel therapeutic agents.

  20. Characterization of ellagitannins, gallotannins, and bound proanthocyanidins from California almond (Prunus dulcis) varieties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Liyang; Roto, Anna V; Bolling, Bradley W

    2012-12-12

    Extractable and bound proanthocyanidins and hydrolyzable tannins were characterized in Nonpareil, Carmel, and Butte almond varieties from California, with n = 3 samples/variety. Bound proanthocyanidins were recovered from extracted defatted almond residue by hydrolysis with 4 N sodium hydroxide and represented 3-21% of the total proanthocyanidin content among varieties. The bound proanthocyanidins were recovered primarily as monomers and dimers. In contrast, acid hydrolysis of extracted almond residue did not yield bound proanthocyanidins. Hydrolyzable tannins were characterized in aqueous acetone extracts of defatted almond using two-dimensional TLC and further quantitated by HPLC following acid hydrolysis. Almond hydrolyzable tannin content was 54.7 ± 2.3 mg ellagic acid and 27.4 ± 7.3 mg gallic acid per 100 g almond among varieties. The tannin contents of Nonpareil, Carmel, and Butte almond varieties were not significantly different. Thus, bound proanthocyanidins and hydrolyzable tannins significantly contribute to almond polyphenol content.

  1. Crystal Structure of Prunin-1, a Major Component of the Almond (Prunus dulcis) Allergen Amandin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jin, Tengchuan; Albillos, Silvia M.; Guo, Feng; Howard, Andrew; Fu, Tong-Jen; Kothary, Mahendra H.; Zhang, Yu-Zhu; (IIT); (US-FDA); (IT)

    2010-10-28

    Seed storage proteins are accumulated during seed development and act as a reserve of nutrition for seed germination and young sprout growth. Plant seeds play an important role in human nutrition by providing a relatively inexpensive source of protein. However, many plant foods contain allergenic proteins, and the number of people suffering from food allergies has increased rapidly in recent years. The 11S globulins are the most widespread seed storage proteins, present in monocotyledonous and dicotyledonous seeds as well as in gymnosperms (conifers) and other spermatophytes. This family of proteins accounts for a number of known major food allergens. They are of interest to both the public and industry due to food safety concerns. Because of the interests in the structural basis of the allergenicity of food allergens, we sought to determine the crystal structure of Pru1, the major component of the 11 S storage protein from almonds. The structure was refined to 2.4 {angstrom}, and the R/Rfree for the final refined structure is 17.2/22.9. Pru1 is a hexamer made of two trimers. Most of the back-to-back trimer-trimer association was contributed by monomer-monomer interactions. An {alpha} helix (helix 6) at the C-terminal end of the acidic domain of one of the interacting monomers lies at the cleft of the two protomers. The residues in this helix correspond to a flexible region in the peanut allergen Ara h 3 that encompasses a previously defined linear IgE epitope.

  2. Influence of deficit irrigation strategies on fatty acid and tocopherol concentration of almond (Prunus dulcis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Ying; Taylor, Cathy; Sommer, Karl; Wilkinson, Kerry; Wirthensohn, Michelle

    2015-04-15

    The effects of deficit irrigation on almond fatty acid and tocopherol levels were studied in a field trial. Mature almond trees were subjected to three levels of deficit irrigation (85%, 70% and 55% of potential crop evapotranspiration (ETo), as well as control (100% ETo) and over-irrigation (120% ETo) treatments. Two deficit irrigation strategies were employed: regulated deficit irrigation (RDI) and sustained deficit irrigation (SDI). Moderate deficit irrigation (85% RDI and 85% SDI) had no detrimental impact on almond kernel lipid content, but severe and extreme deficiencies (70% and 55%) influenced lipid content. Unsaturated fatty acid (USFA) and saturated fatty acid (SFA) contents fluctuated under these treatments, the oleic/linoleic ratio increased under moderate water deficiency, but decreased under severe and extreme water deficiency. Almond tocopherols concentration was relatively stable under deficit irrigation. The variation between years indicated climate has an effect on almond fruit development. In conclusion it is feasible to irrigate almond trees using less water than the normal requirement, without significant loss of kernel quality. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Disruption of endosperm development: an inbreeding effect in almond (Prunus dulcis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega, Encarnación; Martínez-García, Pedro J; Dicenta, Federico; Egea, José

    2010-06-01

    A homozygous self-compatible almond, originated from self-fertilization of a self-compatible genotype and producing a reasonable yield following open pollination, exhibited a very high fruit drop rate when self-pollinated. To investigate whether fruit dropping in this individual is related to an abnormal development of the embryo sac following self-fertilization, histological sections of ovaries from self and cross-pollinated flowers were observed by light microscopy. Additionally, the presence of pollen tubes in the ovary and fruit set were determined for both types of pollination. Despite pollen tubes reached the ovary after both pollinations, differences in embryo sac and endosperm development after fertilization were found. Thus, while for cross-fertilized ovules a pro-embryo and an endosperm with abundant nuclei were generally observed, most self-fertilized ovules remained in a previous developmental stage in which the embryo sac was not elongated and endosperm nuclei were absent. Although 30 days after pollination fruit set was similar for both pollination types, at 60 days it was significantly reduced for self-pollination. These results provide evidence that the high fruit drop in this genotype is the consequence of a disrupted development of the endosperm, what could be an expression of its high level of inbreeding.

  4. Biochemical characterization of amandin, the major storage protein in almond (Prunus dulcis L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sathe, Shridhar K; Wolf, Walter J; Roux, Kenneth H; Teuber, Suzanne S; Venkatachalam, Mahesh; Sze-Tao, Kar Wai Clara

    2002-07-17

    The almond major storage protein, amandin, was prepared by column chromatography (amandin-1), cryoprecipitation (amandin-2), and isoelectric precipitation (amandin-3) methods. Amandin is a legumin type protein characterized by a sedimentation value of 14S. Amandin is composed of two major types of polypeptides with estimated molecular weights of 42-46 and 20-22 kDa linked via disulfide bonds. Several additional minor polypeptides were also present in amandin. Amandin is a storage protein with an estimated molecular weight of 427,300 +/- 47,600 Da (n = 7) and a Stokes radius of 65.88 +/- 3.21 A (n = 7). Amandin is not a glycoprotein. Amandin-1, amandin-2, and amandin-3 are antigenically related and have similar biochemical properties. Amandin-3 is more negatively charged than either amandin-1 or amandin-2. Methionine is the first essential limiting amino acid in amandin followed by lysine and threonine.

  5. Crystal structure of prunin-1, a major component of the almond (Prunus dulcis) allergen amandin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Tengchuan; Albillos, Silvia M; Guo, Feng; Howard, Andrew; Fu, Tong-Jen; Kothary, Mahendra H; Zhang, Yu-Zhu

    2009-09-23

    Seed storage proteins are accumulated during seed development and act as a reserve of nutrition for seed germination and young sprout growth. Plant seeds play an important role in human nutrition by providing a relatively inexpensive source of protein. However, many plant foods contain allergenic proteins, and the number of people suffering from food allergies has increased rapidly in recent years. The 11S globulins are the most widespread seed storage proteins, present in monocotyledonous and dicotyledonous seeds as well as in gymnosperms (conifers) and other spermatophytes. This family of proteins accounts for a number of known major food allergens. They are of interest to both the public and industry due to food safety concerns. Because of the interests in the structural basis of the allergenicity of food allergens, we sought to determine the crystal structure of Pru1, the major component of the 11 S storage protein from almonds. The structure was refined to 2.4 A, and the R/Rfree for the final refined structure is 17.2/22.9. Pru1 is a hexamer made of two trimers. Most of the back-to-back trimer-trimer association was contributed by monomer-monomer interactions. An alpha helix (helix 6) at the C-terminal end of the acidic domain of one of the interacting monomers lies at the cleft of the two protomers. The residues in this helix correspond to a flexible region in the peanut allergen Ara h 3 that encompasses a previously defined linear IgE epitope.

  6. A murine monoclonal antibody based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for almond (Prunus dulcis L.) detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Mengna; Venkatachalam, Mahesh; Liu, Changqi; Zhang, Ying; Roux, Kenneth H; Sathe, Shridhar K

    2013-11-13

    A sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) using anti-almond soluble protein rabbit polyclonal antibodies as capture antibodies and murine monoclonal antibody 4C10 as the detection antibodies was developed. The assay is specific and sensitive (3-200 ng almond protein/mL) for almond detection. The standardized assay is accurate (<15% CV) and reproducible (intra- and inter assay variability <15% CV). The assay did not register any cross-reactivity with the tested food matrices, suggesting the assay to be almond amandin specific. The assay could detect the presence of declared almond in the tested matched commercial samples. Further, the assay reliably detected the presence of almonds in the laboratory prepared food samples spiked with almond flour.

  7. Phytochemical compounds and antioxidant activities of the almond kernel (prunus dulcis mill.) from turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keser, S.; Demir, E.; Yilmaz, O.

    2014-01-01

    Almond belong to Rosaceae family and it is a rich source of nutrients because of phytochemicals including phenolic compounds, phytosterols, flavonoids, phenolic acids, vitamins and fatty acids. In this study, we determined antioxidant activities and phenolic, flavonoid, phytosterol, lipid soluble vitamin and fatty acid contents of almond kernel extract. Antioxidant activities of almond extract was investigated by DPPH, ABTS •+ , OH radical scavenging, metal chelating activity and determination of lipid peroxidation levels (TBARS). Almond extract scavenged 89.50% of the ABTS radical, 66.77% of the hydroxyl radical, and 87.30% of the DPPH radical. This extract was shown 72.05% of the metal chelating activity. Kaempferol (223.54 μg/g), naringenin (5.01 micro g/g), vanillic acid (110.89 micro g/g), caffeic acid (65.72 micro g/g) and ferulic acid (16.49 micro g/g) were determined in the almond extract. The major fatty acids were oleic acid (76.23%) and linoleic acid (15.43%) in almond extract. d-tocopherol (3.05 mg/kg), a-tocopherol (104.40 mg/kg), and vitamin K (38.25 mg/kg) were determined in the almond extract. These results indicate that almond extract is a good natural source of fatty acids, lipid soluble vitamins, phytosterols, flavonoid, phenolic compounds. In addition, these findings are important for the nutrition sciences, because fatty acids, lipid soluble vitamins, phytosterols, flavonoid, phenolic compounds and antiradical properties, in particular, seem to have considerable effect on health. (author)

  8. Relationships between spur- and orchard-level fruit bearing in almond (Prunus dulcis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tombesi, Sergio; Lampinen, Bruce D; Metcalf, Samuel; DeJong, Theodore M

    2011-12-01

    Almond is often considered to be a moderately alternate-bearing species but historical yield data typically do not exhibit clear patterns of alternate bearing at the orchard level, while research has indicated that spurs (the main fruit bearing unit in almond trees) rarely produce fruit in two subsequent years. The objective of the present work was to analyze the bearing behavior of almond trees at both the orchard level and the individual spur level over multiple years to explain this apparent paradox. The 10-year yield patterns of three almond cultivars grown at three different sites within California were analyzed for tendencies of alternate bearing at the orchard level. At the individual spur level, data on spur viability, and number of flowers and fruits per spur were collected on 2400 individually tagged spurs that were observed over 6 years to characterize bearing at that level. At the orchard level one cultivar (Nonpareil) did exhibit a tendency for alternate bearing at one site (Kern) but other cultivars and sites did not. The orchard and the individual trees in which the spur population study was conducted showed tendencies for alternate bearing but the spur population did not. Only a relatively small percentage of the total tagged spur population bore fruit in any given year and therefore while individual fruiting spurs exhibited a high level of non-bearing after fruiting the previous year the spurs that did produce fruit in any year generally did not constitute enough of the total spur population to exhibit alternate bearing at the whole population level. Our results suggest that annual bearing fluctuations in almond are probably mainly due to year-to-year variations of parameters affecting fruit set and that high rates of fruit set in a given year may involve a larger-than-normal percentage of a spur population in fruit bearing. This would limit the size of the spur population available for flowering in the subsequent year and could cause alternate year bearing. However, from historical records, this would appear to be the exception rather than a normal circumstance. Therefore, almond should not be considered to be a strictly alternate-bearing species.

  9. Effects of roasting, blanching, autoclaving, and microwave heating on antigenicity of almond (Prunus dulcis L.) proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkatachalam, M; Teuber, S S; Roux, K H; Sathe, S K

    2002-06-05

    Whole, unprocessed Nonpareil almonds were subjected to a variety of heat processing methods that included roasting (280, 300, and 320 degrees F for 20 and 30 min each; and 335 and 350 degrees F for 8, 10, and 12 min each), autoclaving (121 degrees C, 15 psi, for 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, and 30 min), blanching (100 degrees C for 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, and 10 min), and microwave heating (1, 2, and 3 min). Proteins were extracted from defatted almond flour in borate saline buffer, and immunoreactivity of the soluble proteins (normalized to 1 mg protein/mL for all samples) was determined using enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Antigenic stability of the almond major protein (amandin) in the heat-processed samples was determined by competitive inhibition ELISA using rabbit polyclonal antibodies raised against amandin. Processed samples were also assessed for heat stability of total antigenic proteins by sandwich ELISA using goat and rabbit polyclonal antibodies raised against unprocessed Nonpareil almond total protein extract. ELISA assays and Western blotting experiments that used both rabbit polyclonal antibodies and human IgE from pooled sera indicated antigenic stability of almond proteins when compared with that of the unprocessed counterpart.

  10. Cloning and characterization of profilin (Pru du 4), a cross-reactive almond (Prunus dulcis) allergen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tawde, Pallavi; Venkatesh, Yeldur P; Wang, Fang; Teuber, Suzanne S; Sathe, Shridhar K; Roux, Kenneth H

    2006-10-01

    The identity of allergenic almond proteins is incomplete. Our objective was to characterize patient IgE reactivity to a recombinant and corresponding native almond allergen. An almond cDNA library was screened with sera from patients with allergy for IgE binding proteins. Two reactive clones were sequenced, and 1 was expressed. The expressed recombinant allergen and its native counterpart (purified from unprocessed almond flour) were assayed by 1-dimensional and 2-dimensional gel electrophoresis, dot blot, and ELISA, and screened for cross-reactivity with grass profilin. The 2 selected clones encoded profilin (designated Pru du 4) sequences that differed by 2 silent mutations. By dot-blot analyses, 6 of 18 patient sera (33%) reacted with the recombinant Pru du 4 protein, and 8 of 18 (44%) reacted with the native form. ELISA results were similar. Almond and ryegrass profilins were mutually inhibitable. Two-dimensional immunoblotting revealed the presence of more than 1 native almond profilin isoform. The strength of reactivity of some patients' serum IgE differed markedly between assays and between native and recombinant profilins. Almond nut profilin is an IgE-binding food protein that is cross-reactive with grass pollen profilin and is susceptible to denaturation, resulting in variable reactivity between assay types and between patients. Serum IgE of nearly half of the tested patients with almond allergy reacts with almond nut profilin. Because most patients also had pollinosis, the well-known cross-reactivity between pollen and food profilins could account for this pattern of reactivity.

  11. Antioxidant potential of chestnut (Castanea sativa L.) and almond (Prunus dulcis L.) by-products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barreira, J C M; Ferreira, I C F R; Oliveira, M B P P; Pereira, J A

    2010-06-01

    The antioxidant properties of almond green husks (Cvs. Duro Italiano, Ferraduel, Ferranhês, Ferrastar and Orelha de Mula), chestnut skins and chestnut leaves (Cvs. Aveleira, Boa Ventura, Judia and Longal) were evaluated through several chemical and biochemical assays in order to provide a novel strategy to stimulate the application of waste products as new suppliers of useful bioactive compounds, namely antioxidants. All the assayed by-products revealed good antioxidant properties, with very low EC(50) values (lower than 380 μg/mL), particularly for lipid peroxidation inhibition (lower than 140 μg/mL). The total phenols and flavonoids contents were also determined. The correlation between these bioactive compounds and DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) radical scavenging activity, reducing power, inhibition of β-carotene bleaching and inhibition of lipid peroxidation in pig brain tissue through formation of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, was also obtained. Although, all the assayed by-products proved to have a high potential of application in new antioxidants formulations, chestnut skins and leaves demonstrated better results.

  12. Antioxidant constituents of almond [Prunus dulcis (Mill.) D.A. Webb] hulls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeoka, Gary R; Dao, Lan T

    2003-01-15

    Almond hulls (Nonpareil variety) were extracted with methanol and analyzed by reversed phase HPLC with diode array detection. The extract contained 5-O-caffeoylquinic acid (chlorogenic acid), 4-O-caffeoylquinic acid (cryptochlorogenic acid), and 3-O-caffeoylquinic acid (neochlorogenic acid) in the ratio 79.5:14.8:5.7. The chlorogenic acid concentration of almond hulls was 42.52 +/- 4.50 mg/100 g of fresh weight (n = 4; moisture content = 11.39%). Extracts were tested for their ability to inhibit the oxidation of methyl linoleate at 40 degrees C. At an equivalent concentration (10 microg/1 g of methyl linoleate) almond hull extracts had higher antioxidant activity than alpha-tocopherol. At higher concentrations (50 microg/1 g of methyl linoleate) almond hull extracts showed increased antioxidant activity that was similar to chlorogenic acid and morin [2-(2,4-dihydroxyphenyl)-3,5,7-trihydroxy-4H-1-benzopyran-4-one] standards (at the same concentrations). These data indicate that almond hulls are a potential source of these dietary antioxidants. The sterols (3beta,22E)-stigmasta-5,22-dien-3-ol (stigmasterol) and (3beta)-stigmast-5-en-3-ol (beta-sitosterol) (18.9 mg and 16.0 mg/100 g of almond hull, respectively) were identified by GC-MS of the silylated almond hull extract.

  13. Effects of processing and storage on almond (Prunus dulcis L.) amandin immunoreactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Mengna; Liu, Changqi; Roux, Kenneth H; Gradziel, Thomas M; Sathe, Shridhar K

    2017-10-01

    A murine monoclonal antibody (mAb)-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used to assess amandin immunoreactivity in processed and long-term stored almonds. The results demonstrated that amandin immunoreactivity is stable in variously processed almond seeds. Using the ELISA, amandin immunoreactivity could be detected in commercial whole raw and processed (blanched, sliced, dry roasted, and indicated combinations thereof) almond seeds stored for eleven years and eight months, defatted almond seed flours from several almond varieties/hybrids and their borate saline buffer-solubilized protein extracts stored for ten years and seven months, and several almond varieties grown in different California counties (full fat flours and their defatted flour counterparts). Roasting Nonpareil whole full fat almond seeds, full fat flour, and defatted flour at 170°C for 20min each with 2, 5, 10, and 20% w/w corn syrup or sucrose did not prevent amandin detection by ELISA. Similarly, amandin detection in select food matrices spiked with Nonpareil almond protein extract was not inhibited. In conclusion, amandin is a stable target protein for almond detection under the tested processing and storage conditions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Influence of storage on volatile profiles in roasted almonds (Prunus dulcis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jihyun; Xiao, Lu; Zhang, Gong; Ebeler, Susan E; Mitchell, Alyson E

    2014-11-19

    Hexanal, peroxide value, and lipid hydroperoxides are common indicators of lipid oxidation in food products. However, these markers are not always reliable as levels are dynamic and often can be detected only after significant oxidation has occurred. Changes in the volatile composition of light- and dark-roast almonds were evaluated during storage over 24 weeks at 25 or 35 °C using headspace solid phase microextraction (HS-SPME) gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Several volatile changes were identified in association with early oxidation events in roasted almonds. Hexenal decreased significantly during the first 6 weeks of storage and did not increase above initial levels until 20-24 weeks of storage depending upon the degree of roast. In contrast, levels of 1-heptanol and 1-octanol increased at 16-20 weeks, depending upon the degree of roast, and no initial losses were observed. Seventeen new compounds, absent in raw and freshly roasted almonds but detectable after 6 weeks of storage, were identified. Of these, 2-octanone, 2-nonanone, 3-octen-2-one, 2-decanone, (E)-2-decenal, 2,4-nonadienal, pentyl oxirane, and especially acetic acid increased significantly (that is, >10 ng/g). The degree of roasting did not correlate with the levels of these compounds. Significant decreases in roasting-related aroma volatiles such as 2-methylbutanal, 3-methylbutanal, furfural, 2-phenylacetaldehyde, 2,3-butanedione, 2-methylpyrazine, and 1-methylthio-2-propanol were observed by 4 weeks of storage independent of the degree of roast or storage conditions.

  15. Expression, purification, and characterization of almond (Prunus dulcis) allergen Pru du 4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yuzhu; Du, Wen-Xian; Fregevu, Cécile; Kothary, Mahendra H; Harden, Leslie; McHugh, Tara H

    2014-12-31

    Biochemical characterizations of food allergens are required for understanding the allergenicity of food allergens. Such studies require a relatively large amount of highly purified allergens. The level of Pru du 4 in almond is low, and its expression in a soluble form in Escherichia coli required an expression tag. An MBP tag was used to enhance its expression and solubility. Sumo was used for the first time as a peptidase recognition site. The expression tag was removed with a sumo protease, and the resulting wild-type Pru du 4 was purified chromatographically. The stability of the allergen was investigated with chemical denaturation. The Gibbs free energy of Pru du 4 folding-unfolding transition was determined to be 5.4 ± 0.7 kcal/mol.

  16. Discrimination of almonds (Prunus dulcis) geographical origin by minerals and fatty acids profiling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amorello, Diana; Orecchio, Santino; Pace, Andrea; Barreca, Salvatore

    2016-09-01

    Twenty-one almond samples from three different geographical origins (Sicily, Spain and California) were investigated by determining minerals and fatty acids compositions. Data were used to discriminate by chemometry almond origin by linear discriminant analysis. With respect to previous PCA profiling studies, this work provides a simpler analytical protocol for the identification of almonds geographical origin. Classification by using mineral contents data only was correct in 77% of the samples, while, by using fatty acid profiles, the percentages of samples correctly classified reached 82%. The coupling of mineral contents and fatty acid profiles lead to an increased efficiency of the classification with 87% of samples correctly classified.

  17. Endophytic fungi from plums (Prunus domestica) and their antifungal activity against Monilinia fructicola

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plant endophytic microorganisms may play an important role in plant evolution, development, and resistance to biotic and abiotic stresses. However, the use of these microorganisms to benefit agriculture is in its infancy. We isolated endophytic fungi from plum leaves, identified them using ITS1 an...

  18. contents of sweet cherry ( Prunus avium L. ) type grown in Konya ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this research, several physico-chemical properties and mineral contents of one earliest (May 19) sweet cherry type grown in Konya region were determined. The results in terms of chemical properties were total soluble solids, 18.33 mg/100 g; pH, 3.86; color, S41P50E41; texture, 0.25 kg/cm2; and juice yield, 66.28%.

  19. Postharvest Chemical, Sensorial and Physical-Mechanical Properties of Wild Apricot (Prunus armeniaca L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evica MRATINIĆ

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Some chemical, sensorial and physical-mechanical properties of 19 apricot genotypes and Hungarian Best (control such as moisture content, soluble solids content, titratable acidity ratio and their ratio, fruit and stone mass, flesh/stone ratio, fruit dimensions (length, width, thickness, arithmetic and geometric mean diameter, sphericity, surface area and aspect ratio were determined. Their application is also discussed. The highest moisture content and stone mass observed in X-1/1/04 and X-1/2/04, soluble solids content in ZO-1/03, titratable acidity in ZL-2/03, SS/TA ratio in ZL-1/03, and fruit mass and flesh/stone ratio in DL-1/1/04 genotype. The most number of genotypes have orange and deep orange skin and flesh colour, respectively, whereas sweet kernel taste was predominant in most genotypes. Regarding physical-mechanical properties, the superior fruit dimensions (length, width, thickness, arithmetic and geometric mean diameter and surface area observed in DL-1/1/04 genotype, whereas the highest sphericity and surface area observed in X-1/1/04 and X-1/2/04 genotypes. Also, the series of genotypes evaluated have better chemical, sensorial and physical-mechanical properties than Hungarian Best (control. Finally, information about these properties is very important for understanding the behaviour of the product during the postharvest operations.

  20. Postharvest Chemical, Sensorial and Physical-Mechanical Properties of Wild Apricot (Prunus armeniaca L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Evica MRATINIĆ; Bojan POPOVSKI; Tomo MILOŠEVIĆ; Melpomena POPOVSKA

    2011-01-01

    Some chemical, sensorial and physical-mechanical properties of 19 apricot genotypes and Hungarian Best (control) such as moisture content, soluble solids content, titratable acidity ratio and their ratio, fruit and stone mass, flesh/stone ratio, fruit dimensions (length, width, thickness), arithmetic and geometric mean diameter, sphericity, surface area and aspect ratio were determined. Their application is also discussed. The highest moisture content and stone mass observed in X-1/1/04 and X...

  1. Evaluation of Antioxidant Compounds and Total Sugar Content in a Nectarine [Prunus persica (L. Batsch] Progeny

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yolanda Gogorcena

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Epidemiological studies suggest that consumption of fruit rich in phenolic compounds is associated with health-protective effects due to their antioxidant properties. For these reasons quality evaluation has become an important issue in fruit industry and in breeding programs. Phytochemical traits such as total phenolics, flavonoids, anthocyanins, L-ascorbic acid, sugar content and relative antioxidant capacity (RAC were analyzed over four years in flesh fruit of an F1 population “Venus” × “Big Top” nectarines. Other traits such as harvesting date, yield, fruit weight, firmness, soluble solids concentration (SSC, pH, titratable acidity (TA and ripening index (RI were also determined in the progeny. Results showed high variability among genotypes for all analyzed traits. Total phenolics and flavonoids showed significant positive correlations with RAC implying that both are important antioxidant bioactive compounds in peaches. We found genotypes with enhanced antioxidant capacity and a better performance than progenitors, and in consequence the best marketability.

  2. Hybridization success is largely limited to homoploid Prunus hybrids: a multidisciplinary approach

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Macková, L.; Vít, Petr; Ďurišová, Ľ.; Eliáš, P. Jr.; Urfus, T.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 303, č. 4 (2017), s. 481-495 ISSN 0378-2697 Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : absolute genome size * interspecific hybridization * embryology Subject RIV: EF - Botanics OBOR OECD: Plant sciences, botany Impact factor: 1.239, year: 2016

  3. Gum in apricot (Prunus armeniaca L. shoots induced by methyl jasmonate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marian Saniewski

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available It has been well known that some fungal pathogens (Monilia laxa, M. fructigena, Cytospora cincta, larvae of Grapholita molesta and plant hormone - ethylene, induce gummosis in apricot shoots. Methyl jasmonate (JA-Me was also found to induce gummosis in apricot shoots as well as biotic and abiotic factors mentioned above. In order to know the mode of action of JA-Me on gum induction and/or formation, chemical composition of polysaccharides (after hydrolysis in gums of apricot shoots induced by JA-Me compared with those by ethephon and their mixture, and naturally occurring ones was studied, resulted in the succesful identification of monosaccharides, and the similarity of a composition consisting of xylose, arabinose and galactose at molar ratio 1:10:14, respectively. These results suggest that beside different inducers of gum in apricot the mechanism of polysaccharides biosynthesis of gums is the same or similar. The physiological role for JA-Me on gum induction and/or formation in apricot shoots, and other species are also discussed.

  4. Mass of Prunus africana stem barks on Tchabal mbabo and Tchabal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GREG

    2013-05-10

    May 10, 2013 ... The best equation which links the volume (Vb) of fresh barks to the diameter .... range State prior to export, certifying that export is not .... the following equation: Vb = (πh/2)*(e x (Da + Du) – 2e²). Relation linking the volume of the stem bark and its mass = cubic mass. The cubic mass of an entity is the ratio of ...

  5. Alternative methods to control postharvest decay caused by Penicillium expansum in plums (Prunus domestica L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molinu, M G; Pani, G; Venditti, T; Dore, A; Ladu, G; D'Hallewin, G

    2012-01-01

    In the latest years, investigation on postharvest treatments has been increasingly addressed to preserve human health and environment safeguard. Several preservative compounds, physical treatments and biological control agents to restrain postharvest pathogens on horticultural products have been widely studied. Among them potassium sorbate (KS) has been generally recognized as safe for use in foods and personal care products. It acts as microbial growth inhibitor and fungistatic agent in foods, including vegetable and fruit products. The efficacy of KS, used alone or combined with heat treatments or biocontrol agents, has been demonstrated in Citrus and stone fruits. Here we report the results of 3 experiments aimed at controlling Penicillium expansum Link decay with the use of KS on a yellow ('Shiro') and a red ('Sanguigna di Bosa II', from the Sardinian germplasm) plum cultivar. An integrated approach, combining ultrasounds (US) as a physical mean and KS solutions at different concentrations, has been employed. In the first experiment, 360 fruits were wounded twice and divided into 6 sets (6 x 60), three of which were inoculated with an isolate of P. expansum (20 microl of a 10(5) cfu x mL(-1)). Then, 180 fruit (half inoculated) were treated by pipetting into each wound 20 microl of a KS solution containing 0, 1.5 or 3% (w/v), respectively. In exp. 2, all fruit (number) was wounded and inoculated, and after 24 h treated by immersion (1 min) into solutions containing 0, 1.5 or 3% (w/v) of SK, with or without the use of US. In exp. 3, wounded fruits were treated by immersion or sonication like in exp. 2, while inoculation took place after 24 h. Then, plums were kept at 25 degrees C and 75-80% RH and the infection degree was monitored after 3 and 6 days. In both cultivars, the 1.5% KS solution significantly reduced the natural infection, while the 3% KS solution resulted effective only on the red one. Moreover, the 1.5% solution was effective in controlling decay of artificially inoculated fruit, achieving a 56% reduction compared to control. Similar results were attained in exp. 2 and 3, where the combination of salt and sonication improved the efficacy, likely by increasing the salt diffusion into the wounds.

  6. Field responses of Prunus serotina and Asclepias syriaca to ozone around southern Lake Michigan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bennett, J.P.; Jepsen, E.A.; Roth, J.A.

    2006-01-01

    Higher ozone concentrations east of southern Lake Michigan compared to west of the lake were used to test hypotheses about injury and growth effects on two plant species. We measured approximately 1000 black cherry trees and over 3000 milkweed stems from 1999 to 2001 for this purpose. Black cherry branch elongation and milkweed growth and pod formation were significantly higher west of Lake Michigan while ozone injury was greater east of Lake Michigan. Using classification and regression tree (CART) analyses we determined that departures from normal precipitation, soil nitrogen and ozone exposure/peak hourly concentrations were the most important variables affecting cherry branch elongation, and milkweed stem height and pod formation. The effects of ozone were not consistently comparable with the effects of soil nutrients, weather, insect or disease injury, and depended on species. Ozone SUM06 exposures greater than 13 ppm-h decreased cherry branch elongation 18%; peak 1-h exposures greater than 93 ppb reduced milkweed stem height 13%; and peak 1-h concentrations greater than 98 ppb reduced pod formation 11% in milkweed. - Decreased cherry branch elongation, milkweed stem height and pod production, and foliar injury on both species occurred at sites around southern Lake Michigan at ozone exposures of 13 SUM06 ppm-h and 93-98 ppb peak hourly

  7. Field responses of Prunus serotina and Asclepias syriaca to ozone around southern Lake Michigan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bennett, J.P. [U.S. Geological Survey and Institute for Environmental Studies, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706 (United States)]. E-mail: jpbennet@wisc.edu; Jepsen, E.A. [Bureau of Air Management, Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources, Madison, WI 53707 (United States); Roth, J.A. [Bureau of Air Management, Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources, Madison, WI 53707 (United States)

    2006-07-15

    Higher ozone concentrations east of southern Lake Michigan compared to west of the lake were used to test hypotheses about injury and growth effects on two plant species. We measured approximately 1000 black cherry trees and over 3000 milkweed stems from 1999 to 2001 for this purpose. Black cherry branch elongation and milkweed growth and pod formation were significantly higher west of Lake Michigan while ozone injury was greater east of Lake Michigan. Using classification and regression tree (CART) analyses we determined that departures from normal precipitation, soil nitrogen and ozone exposure/peak hourly concentrations were the most important variables affecting cherry branch elongation, and milkweed stem height and pod formation. The effects of ozone were not consistently comparable with the effects of soil nutrients, weather, insect or disease injury, and depended on species. Ozone SUM06 exposures greater than 13 ppm-h decreased cherry branch elongation 18%; peak 1-h exposures greater than 93 ppb reduced milkweed stem height 13%; and peak 1-h concentrations greater than 98 ppb reduced pod formation 11% in milkweed. - Decreased cherry branch elongation, milkweed stem height and pod production, and foliar injury on both species occurred at sites around southern Lake Michigan at ozone exposures of 13 SUM06 ppm-h and 93-98 ppb peak hourly.

  8. Irradiation damage and recovery in shoot apices of sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saamin, S.; Thompson, M.M.

    1990-01-01

    Full text: Dormant scions of 'Bing' were exposed to fractionated 6kR gamma rays and then grafted. Irradiated and unirradiated main buds were sampled at 3 day intervals for one month. Buds were fixed in FAA, longitudinally sectioned, and stained with hematoxylin. Both random and localised cell damage was observed in irradiated apices. There was evidence of radiosensitivity gradient in the shoot apex. Recovery from irradiation damage was via flank meristem, central meristem, or leaf primordia and axillary meristems. (author)

  9. Supercritical fluid extraction of peach (Prunus persica) almond oil: process yield and extract composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mezzomo, Natália; Mileo, Bruna R; Friedrich, Maria T; Martínez, Julian; Ferreira, Sandra R S

    2010-07-01

    Peach kernels are industrial residues from the peach processing, contain oil with important therapeutic properties and attractive nutritional aspects because of the high concentration of oleic and linoleic acids. The extraction method used to obtain natural compounds from raw matter is critical for product quality definition. Thus, the aim of this work was to compare peach almond extraction yields obtained by different procedures: soxhlet extractions (Sox) with different solvents; hydrodistillation (HD); ethanolic maceration (Mac) followed by fractionation with various solvents, and supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) at 30, 40 and 50 degrees C and at 100, 200 and 300bar, performed with pure CO(2) and with a co-solvent. The extracts were evaluated with respect to fatty acid composition (FAC), fractionated chemical profile (FCP) and total phenolic content (TPC). The Sox total yields were generally higher than those obtained by SFE. The crossover pressure for SFE was between 260 and 280bar. The FAC results show oleic and linoleic acids as main components, especially for Sox and SFE extracts. The FCP for samples obtained by Sox and Mac indicated the presence of benzaldehyde and benzyl alcohol, components responsible for almond flavor and with important industrial uses, whereas the SFE extracts present a high content of a possible flavonoid. The higher TPC values were obtained by Sox and Mac with ethanol. In general, the maximum pressure in SFE produced the highest yield, TPC and oleic acid content. The use of ethanol at 5% as co-solvent in SFE did not result in a significant effect on any evaluated parameter. The production of peach almond oil through all techniques is substantially adequate and SFE presented advantages, with respect to the quality of the extracts due to the high oleic acid content, as presented by some Sox samples. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Prunus rootstocks influence stem water potential, C/N ratio and shoot ash content in peach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Many peach rootstocks have been released in recent years with limited information about their physiological effects on scion vigor and productivity. In this study, two trials were established with ‘Redhaven’ on 9 (planted 2006) and 18 (planted 2009) rootstock cultivars at the Musser Fruit Research ...

  11. Examining self-compatibility in plum (Prunus domestica L. by fluorescence microscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolić Dragan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Self-compatibility in 18 European plum cultivars was examined using the method of fluorescence microscopy. According to selfcompatibility, cultivars were divided into two groups: self-compatible and self-incompatible. In self-compatible cultivars the number of pistils, where pollen tubes reached the base of the style varied from 32.00% (Anna Späth to 91.18% (Wangenheims Frühzwetsche. Mean number of pollen tubes at the base of style in these cultivars ranged from 0.52 to 3.97. Cultivars were considered self-incompatible if pollen tubes stopped their growth in the style along with forming characteristic swellings at their tips. Of the studied cultivars, 13 were found to be self-compatible: Wangenheims Frühzwetsche, Cacanska Lepotica, Valjevka, California Blue, Cacanska Rodna, Italian Prune, Stanley, Požegaca, Herman, Bluefre, Jelica, Ruth Gerstetter and Anna Späth, while 5 were found to be self-incompatible: Cacanska Rana, Zimmers Frühzwetsche, Cacanska Najbolja, Pacific and President.

  12. Nootropic and hypophagic effects following long term intake of almonds (Prunus amygdalus) in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haider, S; Batool, Z; Haleem, D J

    2012-01-01

    Over a period of time researchers have become more interested in finding out the potential of various foods to maintain the general health and to treat diseases. Almonds are a very good source of many nutrients which may help to sharpen the memory and to reduce cardiovascular risk factors. The present study was conducted to evaluate the nootropic effects of almonds. Effect of oral intake of almond was also monitored on food intake and plasma cholesterol levels. Rats were given almond paste orally with the help of feeding tube for 28 days. Memory function in rats was assessed by Elevated Plus Maze (EPM) and Radial Arm Maze (RAM). Brain tryptophan, 5-HT and 5-HIAA were estimated at the end of the treatment by HPLC-EC method. A significant improvement in learning and memory of almond treated rats compared to controls was observed. Almond treated rats also exhibited a significant decrease in food intake and plasma cholesterol levels while the change in growth rate (in terms of percentage) remained comparable between the two groups. Analysis of brain tryptophan (TRP) monoamines exhibited enhanced TRP levels and serotonergic turnover in rat brain following oral intake of almonds. The findings show that almonds possess significant hypophagic and nootropic effects. Results are discussed in context of enhanced 5-HT metabolism following almond administration.

  13. Evaluation of Antioxidant Compounds and Total Sugar Content in a Nectarine [Prunus persica (L.) Batsch] Progeny

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abidi, Walid; Jiménez, Sergio; Moreno, María Ángeles; Gogorcena, Yolanda

    2011-01-01

    Epidemiological studies suggest that consumption of fruit rich in phenolic compounds is associated with health-protective effects due to their antioxidant properties. For these reasons quality evaluation has become an important issue in fruit industry and in breeding programs. Phytochemical traits such as total phenolics, flavonoids, anthocyanins, L-ascorbic acid, sugar content and relative antioxidant capacity (RAC) were analyzed over four years in flesh fruit of an F1 population “Venus” × “Big Top” nectarines. Other traits such as harvesting date, yield, fruit weight, firmness, soluble solids concentration (SSC), pH, titratable acidity (TA) and ripening index (RI) were also determined in the progeny. Results showed high variability among genotypes for all analyzed traits. Total phenolics and flavonoids showed significant positive correlations with RAC implying that both are important antioxidant bioactive compounds in peaches. We found genotypes with enhanced antioxidant capacity and a better performance than progenitors, and in consequence the best marketability. PMID:22072927

  14. Mass of Prunus africana stem barks on Tchabal mbabo and Tchabal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Samples of bark were collected in order to establish the relationship between the volume of the bark and its mass (measure mass per cubic metre). A total of 105 pygeum trees were sampled, including 50 trees in Gang Daba considered as an un-exploited production site and 55 trees in Mbabo referred to an exploited ...

  15. European bird cherry (Prunus padus L.) - a biodiverse wild plant for horticulture

    OpenAIRE

    Uusitalo, Marja

    2004-01-01

    European bird cherry, as a varietive, tolerant and ornamental wild species, is able to contribute to the biodiversity of rural and urban ecosystems in Nordic countries. Therefore field studies to select the best origins for landscape horticulture are recommended. The analyses of the leaf chemical profiles of different varieties would further enlighten the taxonomy and the insect resistance (parasite-assisted or stress-mediated) of this valuable woody species.

  16. Chemical composition of oils from wild almond (Prunus scoparia and wild pistachio (Pistacia atlantica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jafari Mohammadi, S. A.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the fatty acids, sterols and triacylglycerol compositions as well as the amount of tocopherols, total phenols and pigments wild almond and cold pressed wild pistachio oils. Triacylglycerols, tocopherols and pigments were analyzed with HPLC, fatty acids and sterols with gas chromatography, and total phenols photometrically. The main fatty acids in both samples were oleic, linoleic and palmitic acids. The most predominant TAG species are SLL + PLO (21.83% in wild pistachio oil and OOO (47.27% in wild almond oil. Pheophytin a was the major pigment in wild pistachio oil. There were no pigments detected in wild almond oil. Total phenols were 57.6 mg kg-1 oil for wild pistachio and 45.3 mg kg-1 oil for wild almond oil.El objetivo de este estudio fue determinar la composición en ácidos grasos, esteroles, triglicéridos, así como tocoferoles, fenoles totales y pigmentos de aceites de almendras y pistachos silvestres prensados en frío. Triglicéridos (TAG, tocoferoles y pigmentos se analizaron mediante HPLC, los ácidos grasos y esteroles mediante cromatografía de gases, y los fenoles totales espectrofotométricamente. Los principales ácidos grasos de ambas especies fueron los ácidos oleico, linoleico y palmítico. Las especies de TAG predominantes son SLL + OLP (21,83% en el pistacho silvestre y OOO (47,27% en almendras silvestre. Feofitina a es un pigmento importante en los aceites de pistacho silvestre. No se detectó pigmentos en los aceites de almendras silvestres. Los fenoles totales fueron 57,6 mg kg-1 y 45,3 mg kg-1 en los aceites de pistacho silvestre y de almendra silvestre respectivamente.

  17. Comparison of covalent and noncovalent immobilization of Malatya apricot pectinesterase (Prunus armeniaca L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karakuş, Emine; Pekyardımcı, Sule

    2012-02-01

    Pectinesterase isolated from Malatya apricot pulp was noncovalently and covalently immobilized onto bentonite and glutaraldehyde-containing amino group functionalized porous glass beads surface at pH 8.0 and pH 9.0, respectively. The effect of various parameters such as pH, temperature, activation energy, heat and storage stability on immobilized enzyme were investigated. The optimum temperature of covalently and noncovalently immobilized PE was 50°C. This value was 60°C for free PE. Although optimum pH of covalently-immobilized PE was 8.0, this parameter was 9.0 for free and covalently-immobilized PE. The noncovalently immobilized enzyme exhibited better thermostability than the free and covalently immobilized PE.

  18. Effect of ripeness and postharvest storage on the phenolic profiles of cherries (Prunus avium L.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goncalves, B.; Landbo, Anne-Katrine Regel; Knudsen, D.

    2004-01-01

    temperature) and 1-2 degreesC (cool temperature). Neochlorogenic and p-coumaroylquinic acids were the main hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives, but chlorogenic acid was also identified in all cultivars. The 3-glucoside and 3-rutinoside of cyanidin were the major anthocyanins. Peonidin and pelargonidin 3...... [227 mg/100 g of fresh weight (fw)] and cv. Van the lowest (124 mg/100 g of fw). Phenolic acid contents generally decreased with storage at 1-2 degreesC and increased with storage at 15+/-5 degreesC. Anthocyanin levels increased at both storage temperatures. In cv. Van the anthocyanins increased up...

  19. Metabolism of the seed and endocarp of cherry (Prunus avium L.) during development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Robert P; Battistelli, Alberto; Moscatello, Stefano; Chen, Zhi-Hui; Leegood, Richard C; Famiani, Franco

    2011-08-01

    In this study some aspects of organic and amino acid metabolism in cherry endocarp and seed were investigated during their development. The abundance and location of a number of enzymes involved in these processes were investigated. These enzymes were aspartate aminotransferase (AspAT; EC:2.6.1.1), glutamine synthetase (GS; EC:6.3.1.2), phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC; EC:4.1.1.31), phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK; EC:4.1.1.49), and ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco; EC:4.1.1.39). There was a transient and massive accumulation of vegetative storage proteins in the endocarp. These proteins were remobilised as the endocarp lignified and at the same time that proteins were accumulated in the seed. This raised the possibility that a proportion of imported amino acids were temporarily stored in the endocarp as protein, and that these were later utilised by the seed when it started to accumulate storage proteins. Rubisco was present in the embryo and integuments of the seed although no chlorophyll was present. This is the first time that Rubisco has been detected in non-green seeds. The maximum abundance of Rubisco in the seed coincided with the deposition of seed storage proteins. A possible function for Rubisco in cherry seed is discussed. PEPCK was located in the integuments and appeared when seed storage proteins were being accumulated. In the integuments and embryo AspAT, GS, PEPC and Rubisco also appeared, or greatly increased in abundance, when seed storage proteins were being deposited. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  20. Mapping of Candidate Genes Involved in Bud Dormancy and Flowering Time in Sweet Cherry (Prunus avium).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castède, Sophie; Campoy, José Antonio; Le Dantec, Loïck; Quero-García, José; Barreneche, Teresa; Wenden, Bénédicte; Dirlewanger, Elisabeth

    2015-01-01

    The timing of flowering in perennial plants is crucial for their survival in temperate climates and is regulated by the duration of bud dormancy. Bud dormancy release and bud break depend on the perception of cumulative chilling during endodormancy and heat during the bud development. The objectives of this work were to identify candidate genes involved in dormancy and flowering processes in sweet cherry, their mapping in two mapping progenies 'Regina' × 'Garnet' and 'Regina' × 'Lapins', and to select those candidate genes which co-localized with quantitative trait loci (QTLs) associated with temperature requirements for bud dormancy release and flowering. Based on available data on flowering processes in various species, a list of 79 candidate genes was established. The peach and sweet cherry orthologs were identified and primers were designed to amplify sweet cherry candidate gene fragments. Based on the amplified sequences of the three parents of the mapping progenies, SNPs segregations in the progenies were identified. Thirty five candidate genes were genetically mapped in at least one of the two progenies and all were in silico mapped. Co-localization between candidate genes and QTLs associated with temperature requirements and flowering date were identified for the first time in sweet cherry. The allelic composition of the candidate genes located in the major QTL for heat requirements and flowering date located on linkage group 4 have a significant effect on these two traits indicating their potential use for breeding programs in sweet cherry to select new varieties adapted to putative future climatic conditions.

  1. Free and glycosidically bound aroma compounds in cherry (Prunus avium L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Ya-Qin; He, Fei; Zhu, Bao-Qing; Lan, Yi-Bin; Pan, Qiu-Hong; Li, Chun-You; Reeves, Malcolm J; Wang, Jun

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports the occurrence of both free and glycosidically bound aroma compounds in three sweet cherry cultivars ('Hongdeng', 'Hongyan' and 'Rainier'), with 97 compounds being identified in the three cultivars. The major free volatile compounds found were hexanal, (E)-2-hexenal, (E)-2-hexen-1-ol, benzyl alcohol and benzaldehyde. The major bound volatile compounds found were benzyl alcohol, geraniol, 2-phenylethanol. Also 4-vinylphenol was found in cherry fruit for the first time, and has a relatively high concentration of the glycosidically-bound form in 'Rainier'. Odour activity values (OAVs) were determined for both free and bound volatiles, with 18 compounds having an OAV above 1. The highest OAVs for three cultivars were (E)-β-ionone, hexanal, decanal and (E)-2-hexenal with the highest being over 800 for (E)-β-ionone in 'Honyang'. From these results, it was concluded that the aroma compounds present were similar in all three cultivars, but there was significant variation found in their levels and hence contribution to the aroma of these cultivars. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Screening ornamental cherry (Prunus) taxa for resistance to infection by Blumeriella jaapii

    Science.gov (United States)

    The genus Cercis L. (redbud; Fabaceae: Caesalpinoideae: Cercideae) is a morphologically and biogeographically diverse group with seven to thirteen species or subspecies that occur in North America, Europe, and Asia. Redbuds are a significant crop for the American nursery industry, valued primarily f...

  3. Optimized extraction of anthocyanins from Reid Fruits' Prunus avium 'Lapins' cherries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackhall, Melanie L; Berry, Rachael; Davies, Noel W; Walls, Justin T

    2018-08-01

    The influence of process parameters on the extraction of anthocyanins from the edible portion of fresh, sweet cherry were investigated. The optimal extraction time and temperature were determined as 90 min and 37 °C, respectively. A solvent/solid ratio of 10 mL/g using 100% acidified solvent resulted in the greatest anthocyanin yield. No significant difference was observed between the use of methanol or ethanol as the extraction solvent. Ultra Performance Liquid Chromatography-MS analysis of the extract identified four anthocyanins, with cyanidin-3-rutinoside and peonidin-3-rutinoside accounting for over 95% of the anthocyanin content, while cyanidin-3-glucoside and pelargonidin-3-rutinoside accounted for the remaining 5%. 244 mg/100 g fresh weight total anthocyanins were determined in the fresh cherries using the optimal extraction conditions. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Assessment of sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.) genotypes for response to bacterial canker disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Integration of alleles for resistance into new cultivars requires information on the sources of resistance in the germplasm. This study was designed to compare: the efficacy of three inoculation methods (carborundum, mid-rib and shoot), the correlation between the susceptibility of fruit versus leaf...

  5. Complete nucleotide sequence of a virus associated with rusty mottle disease of sweet cherry (Prunus avium).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villamor, D V; Druffel, K L; Eastwell, K C

    2013-08-01

    Cherry rusty mottle is a disease of sweet cherries first described in 1940 in western North America. Because of the graft-transmissible nature of the disease, a viral nature of the disease was assumed. Here, the complete genomic nucleotide sequences of virus isolates from two trees expressing cherry rusty mottle disease symptoms are characterized; the virus is designated cherry rusty mottle associated virus (CRMaV). The biological and molecular characteristics of this virus in comparison to those of cherry necrotic rusty mottle virus (CNRMV) and cherry green ring mottle virus (CGRMV) are described. CRMaV was subsequently detected in additional sweet cherry trees expressing symptoms of cherry rusty mottle disease.

  6. SOUR CHERRY (Prunus cerasus L. GENETIC VARIABILITY AND PHOTOSYNTHETIC EFFICIENCY DURING DROUGHT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marija Viljevac

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Sour cherry is an important fruit in Croatian orchards. Cultivar Oblačinska is predominant in existing orchards with noted intracultivar phenotypic heterogeneity. In this study, the genetic variability of 22 genotypes of cvs. Oblačinska, Maraska and Cigančica, as well as standard cvs. Kelleris 14, Kelleris 16, Kereška, Rexelle and Heimann conserved were investigated. Two types of molecular markers were used: microsatellite markers (SSR in order to identify intercultivar, and AFLP in order to identify intracultivar variabilities. A set of 12 SSR markers revealed small genetic distance between cvs. Maraska and Oblačinska while cv. Cigančica is affined to cv. Oblačinska. Furthermore, cvs. Oblačinska, Cigančica and Maraska were characterized compared to standard ones. AFLP markers didn`t confirm significant intracultivar variability of cv. Oblačinska although the variability has been approved at the morphological, chemical and pomological level. Significant corelation between SSR and AFLP markers was found. Identification of sour cherry cultivars tolerant to drought will enable the sustainability of fruit production with respect to the climate change in the future. For this purpose, the tolerance of seven sour cherry genotypes (cvs. Kelleris 16, Maraska, Cigančica and Oblačinska represented by 4 genotypes: OS, 18, D6 and BOR to drought conditions was tested in order to isolate genotypes with the desired properties. In the greenhouse experiment, cherry plants were exposed to drought stress. The leaf relative water content, OJIP test parameters which specify efficiency of the photosynthetic system based on measurements of chlorophyll a fluorescence, and concentrations of photo-synthetic pigments during the experiment were measured as markers of drought tolerance. Photosynthetic performance index (PIABS comprises three key events in the reaction centre of photosystem II affecting the photosynthetic activity: the absorption of energy, trapping excitons and the conversion of excitation energy due to charge separation that drives electron transport. Water deficiency generally caused certain decrease of PIABS, leaf relative water content, and photosynthetic pigments content depending on genotype. Accordingly, cv. Oblačinska, including all investigated genotypes with particular respect to OS, was proved to be the most tolerant one to drought stress compared to the cvs. Maraska, Cigančica and Kelleris 16.

  7. Effect of tart cherry juice (Prunus cerasus) on melatonin levels and enhanced sleep quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howatson, Glyn; Bell, Phillip G; Tallent, Jamie; Middleton, Benita; McHugh, Malachy P; Ellis, Jason

    2012-12-01

    Tart Montmorency cherries have been reported to contain high levels of phytochemicals including melatonin, a molecule critical in regulating the sleep-wake cycle in humans. The aim of our investigation was to ascertain whether ingestion of a tart cherry juice concentrate would increase the urinary melatonin levels in healthy adults and improve sleep quality. In a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover design, 20 volunteers consumed either a placebo or tart cherry juice concentrate for 7 days. Measures of sleep quality recorded by actigraphy and subjective sleep questionnaires were completed. Sequential urine samples over 48 h were collected and urinary 6-sulfatoxymelatonin (major metabolite of melatonin) determined; cosinor analysis was used to determine melatonin circadian rhythm (mesor, acrophase and amplitude). In addition, total urinary melatonin content was determined over the sampled period. Trial differences were determined using a repeated measures ANOVA. Total melatonin content was significantly elevated (P sleep time and sleep efficiency total (P melatonin circardian rhythm, there was a trend to a higher mesor and amplitude. These data suggest that consumption of a tart cherry juice concentrate provides an increase in exogenous melatonin that is beneficial in improving sleep duration and quality in healthy men and women and might be of benefit in managing disturbed sleep.

  8. Variability and molecular typing of the woody-tree infecting prunus necrotic ringspot ilavirus

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vašková, Dana; Petrzik, Karel; Karešová, R.

    2000-01-01

    Roč. 145, - (2000), s. 699-709 ISSN 0304-8608 R&D Projects: GA MZe(CZ) EP0960006062; GA AV ČR KSK2052601 Grant - others:NAZV(CZ) EP0960006062 Program:EP Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 1.705, year: 2000

  9. Effect of light in the micropropagation of clones series I.S. - Prunus spp. rootstocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Rossi, A.; Rufato, L.; Fiaschi, G.; Morini, S.; Loreti, F.

    2004-01-01

    The principal problem in the micropropagation of clones from the I.S. Series is the difficulty of internodes elongation. This series of clones was developed in the “Dipartimento de Coltivazione e Difesa delle Specie Legnose G. Scaramuzzi” which belongs to the “Università Degli Studi di Pisa”. The objective of the research was to improve the proliferate and elongation response of the clones explants from the series I.S. 5/18, 5/23 and 5/14 with the application of different light quality, quantity and intensity. Thys, vegetative apices with at least 1 cm of length were used. These explants were submitted to 5 treatments: 1) control (fluorescent light Philips TLD 18W/33), 2) incandescent light, 3) reduction of light intensity (30% less than the control), 4) photoperiod of 16/8 hours and 5) red light. The experimental design used was completely randomized, with 15 replications per treatment. The results were submitted to a comparison of means through the Duncan Test. Sixty days after the on set of the experiment, the average number of developed budding, the length of the internodes, the degree of vitrification and the green color intensity of the explants were evaluated. The treatment using incandescent light has increased the length on the internodes to the clone I.S. 5/18, and also has reduced the vitrification and the intensity of green color on the 3 clones. The red light has reduced the proliferation rate of the clones from the I. S. series. (author) [pt

  10. Prunus africana (Hook. f.) Kalkman: the overexploitation of a medicinal plant species and its legal context

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bodeker, G.; van 't Klooster, C.; Weisbord, E.

    2014-01-01

    The linkage between herbal medicines and the sustainability of medical plants from which they are manufactured is increasingly being understood and receiving attention through international accords and trade labeling systems. However, little attention is paid to the fair trade aspects of this

  11. Characterization of peeled and unpeeled almond (Prunus amygdalus) flour after electron beam processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lanza, C.M.; Mazzaglia, A.; Paladino, R.; Auditore, L.; Barnà, R.C.; Loria, D.; Trifirò, A.; Trimarchi, M.; Bellia, G.

    2013-01-01

    Flours of unpeeled and peeled almond seeds have been irradiated with ionising radiation at 1.5 kGy dose by means of 5 MeV energy electron beam. The effects of ionising radiation have been studied concerning microbiological parameters, such as total mesophilic counts, mould, yeast, enterobacters, coliform bacteria, as well as physicochemical parameters, free fatty acid, peroxide number, humidity, activity water, aflatoxin, pesticides, and sensory evaluation of attributes regarding only appearance, olfactory and rheological aspects in accordance with the prescription of Italian laws about the consumption of irradiated food. The results, compared with non-irradiated samples from the same supply, show a sharp decrease of pathogen loads while no significant variations of physicochemical parameters and sensory descriptors have been noticed. These results indicate that irradiation at 1.5 kGy dose, lower than values usually reported in literature, seems to be still a suitable sanitation treatment to extend the shelf-life of this kind of foodstuff while maintaining its nutritional, safe and sensory characteristics. - Highlights: ► Examine physical chemical and sensory changes on irradiated almond. ► Increase the information on irradiation treatment at low doses. ► Contribute to broaden the use of this technology in the food

  12. Wild food plants used by the Tibetans of Gongba Valley (Zhouqu county, Gansu, China)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background The ethnobotany of Tibetans is a seriously under-studied topic. The aim of the study was to investigate knowledge and use of wild food plants in a valley inhabited by Tibetans in the Gannan Tibetan Autonomous Region. Methods The field research was carried out in a wooded mountain valley in 9 neighbouring villages the Zhouqu (Brugchu) county, and comprised 17 interviews with single informants and 14 group interviews, involving 122 people altogether. Results We recorded the use of 81 species of vascular plants from 41 families. Fruits formed the largest category, with 42 species, larger than the wild greens category, with 36 species. We also recorded the culinary use of 5 species of edible flowers, 7 species with underground edible organs and 5 taxa of fungi. On average, 16.2 edible taxa were listed per interview (median – 16). Green vegetables formed the largest category of wild foods (mean – 8.7 species, median – 9 species), but fruits were listed nearly as frequently (mean – 6.9, median – 6). Other categories were rarely mentioned: flowers (mean – 0.2, median – 0), underground edible parts (mean – 0.3, median – 0) and mushrooms (mean – 1.5, – median 1). Wild vegetables are usually boiled and/or fried and served as side-dishes (cai). They are often lacto-fermented. Wild fruits are mainly collected by children and eaten raw, they are not stored for further use. The most widely used wild vegetables are: Eleuterococcus spp., Pteridium aquilinum, Helwingia japonica, Aralia chinensis, Allium victorialis, Pteridium aquilinum, Ixeris chinensis, Thlaspi arvense and Chenopodium album. The culinary use of Caltha palustris as a green vegetable is very interesting. In its raw state, marsh marigold is a toxic plant, due to the presence of protoanemonin. In this area it is dried or lactofermented before use. The most commonly eaten fruits are: Pyrus xerophila, Prunus salicina, Berchemia sinica, Rubus spp. and Eleagnus umbellata. Conclusions The

  13. Wild food plants used by the Tibetans of Gongba Valley (Zhouqu county, Gansu, China).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Yongxiang; Luczaj, Lukasz; Kang, Jin; Wang, Fu; Hou, Jiaojiao; Guo, Quanping

    2014-02-06

    The ethnobotany of Tibetans is a seriously under-studied topic. The aim of the study was to investigate knowledge and use of wild food plants in a valley inhabited by Tibetans in the Gannan Tibetan Autonomous Region. The field research was carried out in a wooded mountain valley in 9 neighbouring villages the Zhouqu (Brugchu) county, and comprised 17 interviews with single informants and 14 group interviews, involving 122 people altogether. We recorded the use of 81 species of vascular plants from 41 families. Fruits formed the largest category, with 42 species, larger than the wild greens category, with 36 species. We also recorded the culinary use of 5 species of edible flowers, 7 species with underground edible organs and 5 taxa of fungi. On average, 16.2 edible taxa were listed per interview (median - 16). Green vegetables formed the largest category of wild foods (mean - 8.7 species, median - 9 species), but fruits were listed nearly as frequently (mean - 6.9, median - 6). Other categories were rarely mentioned: flowers (mean - 0.2, median - 0), underground edible parts (mean - 0.3, median - 0) and mushrooms (mean - 1.5, - median 1).Wild vegetables are usually boiled and/or fried and served as side-dishes (cai). They are often lacto-fermented. Wild fruits are mainly collected by children and eaten raw, they are not stored for further use. The most widely used wild vegetables are: Eleuterococcus spp., Pteridium aquilinum, Helwingia japonica, Aralia chinensis, Allium victorialis, Pteridium aquilinum, Ixeris chinensis, Thlaspi arvense and Chenopodium album. The culinary use of Caltha palustris as a green vegetable is very interesting. In its raw state, marsh marigold is a toxic plant, due to the presence of protoanemonin. In this area it is dried or lactofermented before use. The most commonly eaten fruits are: Pyrus xerophila, Prunus salicina, Berchemia sinica, Rubus spp. and Eleagnus umbellata. The number of wild taxa eaten in the studied valley is relatively

  14. Plant and environment interactions: Growth and yield response of commercial bearing-age {open_quote}Casselman{close_quote} plum trees to various ozone partial pressures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Retzlaff, W.A.; Williams, L.E. [Univ. of California, Parlier, CA (United States); DeJong, T.M. [Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States)

    1997-05-01

    Nursery stock of plum (Prunus salicina Lindel., cv. Casselman) was planted 1 Apr. 1988 in an experimental orchard at the Univ. of California Kearney Agricultural Center near Fresno, CA. Trees in this study were enclosed in open-top fumigation chambers on 1 May 1989, and exposed to three atmospheric ozone partial pressures (charcoal filtered air, ambient air, and ambient air + ozone) during the 1989 through 1992 growing seasons (typically 1 Apr. - 1 Nov.). A nonchamber treatment plot was used to assess chamber effects on tree performance. This study details the results of the exposures during the initial commercial bearing period (1991 through 1993) in this orchard. The mean 12-h (0800-2000 h Pacific Daylight Time [PDT]) ozone partial pressures during the experimental periods in the charcoal filtered, ambient, ambient + ozone, and nonchamber treatments averaged 0.031, 0.048, 0.091, and 0.056 {mu}Pa Pa{sup {minus}1} in 1991 and 1992, respectively. Fruit number per tree decreased as atmospheric ozone partial pressure increased from the charcoal filtered to ambient + ozone treatment, significantly affecting yield. Yield of plum trees averaged 23.6, 19.8, 13.7, and 17.9 kg tree{sup {minus}1} in 1991 and 1992 in the charcoal filtered, ambient, ambient + ozone, and nonchamber treatments, respectively. Only one out of the five original treatment plots was exposed to ozone treatments during the 1993 growing season. Yield of plum trees in this single replicate in 1993 was reduced by increased atmospheric ozone partial pressure. Yield of plum trees in the four remaining unexposed treatment plots in 1993 was 16.7, 17.9, and 16.0 kg tree{sup {minus}1} in the previous charcoal filtered, ambient, and ambient + ozone treatments respectively. The similarity in yield of the post-chamber treatments indicates that a change in air quality in the current growing season can affect yield of Casselman plum trees. 26 refs., 6 figs., 4 tabs.

  15. Exceso de agua en el suelo: efecto sobre la calidad del fruto del duraznero prunus persica (L. batsch Excess water in the soil: effect on fruit quality of peach prunus persica (l. batsch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirta G. González

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available El duraznero es un cultivo perenne que requiere para su crecimiento un suelo sin limitaciones, en base a ello el objetivo de este trabajo fue estudiar los cambios químicos producidos en el suelo en condiciones de anegamiento, desde floración hasta fructificación, relacionándolo a la calidad y cantidad de la fruta. Se trabajó con un suelo Argiudol de características vérticas, con un destacado horizonte Bt que posee 35-38% de arcilla. Se realizaron dos tratamientos: control, sin anegamiento (C y con anegamiento (T. En el tratamiento (C, la disponibilidad hídrica de los mismos estuvo sujeta a las condiciones climáticas que se presentaron durante el ensayo, incluyendo la realización de riego complementario permitiendo en todo momento que el suelo se mantenga en condiciones óptimas de humedad. Los resultados del ensayo estuvieron relacionados a los cambios en las características químicas del suelo, planta y fruto. Los suelos anegados tuvieron, contenidos de fósforo y potasio deficientes que repercutió en un menor rendimiento (peso del fruto fresco y seco. Los análisis químicos en planta siguieron la misma tendencia en relación a los contenidos de nitrógeno total, fósforo y potasio que disminuyeron sustancialmente como así también el contenido de materia seca. Estas variables determinaron la disminución de la calidad de fruta en relación a su firmeza y tamaño.Peach is a perennial culture that requires for its growth soils without limitations, on the basis of it the objective of this work was to study the chemical changes produced in soils on flooding conditions, from flowering to fruit production, relating it to the quality and amount of the fruit. The experiment was a done at an Argiudoll soil of vertic characteristics, with an outstanding Bt horizon that has 35- 38% of clay. Two treatments were made: control, without flooding (c and with flooding (T. In the treatment (C, the hydric availability was subject to the climatic conditions that happened during the test, including the accomplishment of complementary irrigation allowing at any moment soil to stay in optimal conditions of moisture. The results of the test were related to changes in soil chemical characteristics. Flooded soils had, deficient levels of phosphorus and potassium that resulted in a smaller yield (Fresh and dry weight of fruit. Chemical analyses in plant followed the same tendency in relation to the contents of total nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium that diminished substantially as the content of dry matter, that was reflected in the diminution of the quality of fruit in relation to its firmness and size.

  16. Influência do ácido indolbutírico e ethefon no enraizamento de estacas de pessegueiro (Prunus persica (L. Batsch Influence of indolebutyric acid and ethephon on rooting of cuttings of peach (Prunus persica (L. Batsch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adilson Tonietto

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho foi conduzido no Departamento de Fitotecnia da Faculdade de Agronomia Eliseu Maciel, Universidade Federal de Pelotas, em estufa com nebulização intermitente, com o objetivo de verificar o efeito do ácido indolbutírico(AIB e ethefon (ácido 2-cloroetil fosfônico no enraizamento de estacas de ramos de pessegueiro. Utilizou-se estacas medianas retiradas de ramos de plantas com seis anos de idade, da cultivar Diamante, com comprimento de 15cm. Efetuou-se duas lesões laterais na base das estacas que foram tratadas com ácido indolbutírico nas concentrações 0; 1000; 2000 e 3000ppm, na forma líquida e, ethefon nas concentrações de 0; 50; 100 e 150ppm. Após a imersão de 5 segundos, acondicionou-se as estacas em sacos de polietileno contendo como substrato a mistura de areia+cinza (2:1 v/v. Pelos resultados obtidos concluiu-se que o ácido indolbutírico aumentou o percentual de estacas realizadas até a concentração de 1752ppm. e o número de raízes até a concentração de 1791ppm. O ethefon não apresentou resultados significativos na forma e concentração utilizadas.This work was conducted at the Plant Science Departament Eliseu Maciel Agronomy College of Federal University of Pelotas, in greenhouse with intermitent mist, aiming to evaluate the effect of indolebutyric acid and ethephon (2-chloroetyl phosphonic acid on peach hranch cutting rooting. Median cuttings with 15cm length removed from Diamante cultivar branch were used. Two lateral lesions were made on cutting basis and they were treated with indolebutyric acid in liquid at 0; 1000; 2000; and 3000ppm concentrations and ethefon at 0; 50; 100 and 150ppm concentrations. The immersion time was five seconds and the cuttings were packed in polietylene sacks containing a mixture of sand and rice husk ash substrate (2:1 v/v. Results showed that the indolebutyric acid increased the rooted cuttings percentage up to 1752ppm concentration and the number of roots until 1791ppm concentration. The ethephon did not show significant variation for the form and concentrations used.

  17. 'HoneySweet' (C5), the first genetically engineered Plum pox virus-resistant plum (Prunus domestica L.) cultivar

    Science.gov (United States)

    ‘HoneySweet’ plum was released by the U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, to provide U.S. growers and P. domestica plum breeders with a high fruit quality plum cultivar resistant to Plum pox virus (PPV). ‘HoneySweet’ was developed through genetic engineering utilizing the...

  18. Screening Quality Evaluation Factors of Freeze-Dried Peach (Prunus Persica L. Batsch Powders from Different Ripening Time Cultivars

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    Chun-ju Liu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The quality evaluation of processed products is complex. To simplify the quality evaluation process and improve the efficiency, fourteen evaluation factors of freeze-dried powders of seventeen cultivars of peach at different ripening times were analyzed. The most important evaluation indicators and criteria were obtained by analysis of variance (ANOVA, correlation analysis (CA, principal component analysis (PCA, system cluster analysis (SCA, and analytic hierarchy process (AHP. Results showed that the peach powders had the significant differences in quality (P<0.05, and some processing factors were related with some physicochemical and nutritional factors. Five principle components were extracted by PCA and the cumulative contribution achieved was 84.46%. Through the score plot of the first two principal components, a clear differentiation among ripening times was found and three distinct groups were separated according to ripening time. Five characteristic factors were obtained as titratable acid, browning index, hemicellulose, hygroscopicity, and vitamin C by SCA. Their weights of 0.1249, 0.3007, 0.0514, 0.4916, and 0.0315 were obtained by AHP, respectively. The peach cultivars were divided into four evaluation grades by the comprehensive quality score.

  19. Evaluation of sour cherry (Prunus cerasus L.) fruits for their polyphenol content, antioxidant properties, and nutritional components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojdyło, Aneta; Nowicka, Paulina; Laskowski, Piotr; Oszmiański, Jan

    2014-12-24

    Nutritional compounds (phenolic compounds, L-ascorbic acid), antioxidant activities, and physicochemical characteristics (fruit weight, dry matter, soluble solids, pH, acidity, total and reducing sugars) of 33 different sour cherry cultivars were studied. Polyphenols were identified by LC-PDA-QTOF/MS and quantified by UPLC-PDA-FL. A total of 41 polyphenolic compounds found were identified and presented as 14 flavan-3-ols, 11 anthocyanins, 5 hydroxycinnamic acids, 10 flavonols, and 1 flavon. The content of total polyphenols (TPs) ranged from 2982.51 ('Wisok' cultivar) to 1539.43 mg/100 g dry weight ('Erdi Nagygyϋmϋscu'cultivar). Flavan-3-ols, the major class of sour cherry polyphenols, represented ∼ 40% of the TP compounds, whereas anthocyanins and hydroxycinnamic acids amounted for about 25% each. The content of l-ascorbic acid did not exceed 22.18 mg/100 g fresh matter. Some polish sour cherry cultivars (especially 'Agat', 'Ametyst', 'Wider', 'Winer', and 'Wisok') may be selected to promote the growth of cultivars with strong nutritional and phytochemical beneficial effects on human health.

  20. Chemical characterisation and bioactive properties of Prunus avium L.: the widely studied fruits and the unexplored stems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastos, Claudete; Barros, Lillian; Dueñas, Montserrat; Calhelha, Ricardo C; Queiroz, Maria João R P; Santos-Buelga, Celestino; Ferreira, Isabel C F R

    2015-04-15

    The aim of this study was to characterise sweet cherry regarding nutritional composition of the fruits, and individual phytochemicals and bioactive properties of fruits and stems. The chromatographic profiles in sugars, organic acids, fatty acids, tocopherols and phenolic compounds were established. All the preparations (extracts, infusions and decoctions) obtained using stems revealed higher antioxidant potential than the fruits extract, which is certainly related with its higher phenolic compounds (phenolic acids and flavonoids) concentration. The fruits extract was the only one showing antitumor potential, revealing selectivity against HCT-15 (colon carcinoma) (GI50∼74 μg/mL). This could be related with anthocyanins that were only found in fruits and not in stems. None of the preparations have shown hepatotoxicity against normal primary cells. Overall, this study reports innovative results regarding chemical and bioactive properties of sweet cherry stems, and confirmed the nutritional and antioxidant characteristics of their fruits. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. EXTRACCIÓN Y CARACTERIZACIÓN DEL ACEITE CRUDO DE LA ALMENDRA DE DURAZNO Prunus pérsica

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    Peggy Londoño

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Se extrajo y purificó el aceite de la almendra de durazno con el propósito de recomendar su utilización desde el punto de vista químico y tecnológico. La purificación comprende el desgomado, la neutralización, en la cual se pone en contacto el aceite con solución de soda cáustica a 12,14 y 16º Bé. Seguidamente el blanqueado, donde el aceite neutralizado se trata con tierras blanqueantes en diferentes proporciones. El blanqueado se obtiene utilizando un porcentaje de tierra de 1,5 % el menor índice de peroxido – 2,03 meq O 2 kg -1 – y una acidez de 0,08 % como ácido oleico. Los ácidos grasos mayoritarios encontrados fueron oleico 77,9 % y linoleico 15,5 %. El aceite refinado es más estable que el aceite crudo y se puede recomendar su uso en la elaboración de diversos productos químicos previo a una evaluación toxicológica exhaustiva

  2. Parámetros de calidad durante la cosecha de durazno (Prunus persica L. Batsch cv. “Rubidoux”

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    Lisney Alessandra Bastidas Parrado

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available El durazno es una fruta de importancia agrícola como parte de los cultivos caducifolios producidos en Colombia; su calidad y aceptacion comercial, asi como el momento de la cosecha, estan definidos en funcion de sus características fisicoquimicas. Esta investigacion tuvo como propósito caracterizar algunos parametros de calidad de durazno variedad Rubidoux durante el periodo de cosecha, a partir de la seleccion hecha por operarios en campo, de acuerdo al color de la piel como indicador de madurez. Durante seis semanas de la cosecha se evaluaron muestras de frutos, considerando aspectos como peso fresco, contenido de solidos solubles (oBrix, categoria comercial de acuerdo al diametro ecuatorial y color del fruto. Se registro un peso fresco promedio de 130,7 g por fruto, con un contenido de solidos solubles promedio de 11,8 oBrix, parametro que incremento progresivamente de la semana uno a la cinco. La clasificacion visual por el color de la piel permitio definir siete categorias, tres predominaron durante la cosecha (pinton, pinton-maduro y maduro, estos se correspondieron con el contenido de solidos solubles; es asi como el analisis de varianza mostro diferencias estadisticas entre oBrix y el color de piel. Durante el periodo evaluado, se cosecharon con mayor frecuencia duraznos pintones y frutos con diametro entre 60 mm a 70 mm.

  3. Structural stability of Amandin, a major allergen from almond (Prunus dulcis), and its acidic and basic polypeptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albillos, Silvia M; Menhart, Nicholas; Fu, Tong-Jen

    2009-06-10

    Information relating to the resistance of food allergens to thermal and/or chemical denaturation is critical if a reduction in protein allergenicity is to be achieved through food-processing means. This study examined the changes in the secondary structure of an almond allergen, amandin, and its acidic and basic polypeptides as a result of thermal and chemical denaturation. Amandin ( approximately 370 kDa) was purified by cryoprecipitation followed by gel filtration chromatography and subjected to thermal (13-96 degrees C) and chemical (urea and dithiothreitol) treatments. Changes in the secondary structure of the protein were followed using circular dichroism spectroscopy. The secondary structure of the hexameric amandin did not undergo remarkable changes at temperatures up to 90 degrees C, although protein aggregation was observed. In the presence of a reducing agent, irreversible denaturation occurred with the following experimental values: T(m) = 72.53 degrees C (transition temperature), DeltaH = 87.40 kcal/mol (unfolding enthalpy), and C(p) = 2.48 kcal/(mol degrees C) (heat capacity). The concentration of urea needed to achieve 50% denaturation was 2.59 M, and the Gibbs free energy of chemical denaturation was calculated to be DeltaG = 3.82 kcal/mol. The basic and acidic polypeptides of amandin had lower thermal stabilities than the multimeric protein.

  4. Sugars profiles of different chestnut (Castanea sativa Mill.) and almond (Prunus dulcis) cultivars by HPLC-RI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barreira, João C M; Pereira, José Alberto; Oliveira, M Beatriz P P; Ferreira, Isabel C F R

    2010-03-01

    Sugar profiles of different almond and chestnut cultivars were obtained by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), by means of a refractive index (RI) detector. A solid-liquid extraction procedure was used in defatted and dried samples. The chromatographic separation was achieved using a Eurospher 100-5 NH(2) column using an isocratic elution with acetonitrile/water (70:30, v/v) at a flow rate of 1.0 ml/min. All the compounds were separated in 16 min. The method was optimized and proved to be reproducible and accurate. Generally, more than 95% of sugars were identified for both matrixes. Sugars profiles were quite homogeneous for almond cultivars; sucrose was the main sugar (11.46 +/- 0.14 in Marcona to 22.23 +/- 0.59 in Ferragnes g/100 g of dried weight), followed by raffinose (0.71 +/- 0.05 in Ferraduel to 2.11 +/- 0.29 in Duro Italiano), glucose (0.42 +/- 0.12 in Pegarinhos two seeded to 1.47 +/- 0.19 in Ferragnes) and fructose (0.11 +/- 0.02 in Pegarinhos two seeded to 0.59 +/- 0.05 in Gloriette). Commercial cultivars proved to have higher sucrose contents, except in the case of Marcona. Nevertheless, chestnut cultivars revealed a high heterogeneity. Sucrose was the main sugar in Aveleira (22.05 +/- 1.48), Judia (23.30 +/- 0.83) and Longal (9.56 +/- 0.91), while glucose was slightly prevalent in Boa Ventura (6.63 +/- 0.49). The observed variance could serve for inter-cultivar discrimination.

  5. Metabolomics study of human urinary metabolome modifications after intake of almond (Prunus dulcis (Mill.) D.A. Webb) skin polyphenols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llorach, Rafael; Garrido, Ignacio; Monagas, Maria; Urpi-Sarda, Mireia; Tulipani, Sara; Bartolome, Begona; Andres-Lacueva, Cristina

    2010-11-05

    Almond, as a part of the nut family, is an important source of biological compounds, and specifically, almond skins have been considered an important source of polyphenols, including flavan-3-ols and flavonols. Polyphenol metabolism may produce several classes of metabolites that could often be more biologically active than their dietary precursor and could also become a robust new biomarker of almond polyphenol intake. In order to study urinary metabolome modifications during the 24 h after a single dose of almond skin extract, 24 volunteers (n = 24), who followed a polyphenol-free diet for 48 h before and during the study, ingested a dietary supplement of almond skin phenolic compounds (n = 12) or a placebo (n = 12). Urine samples were collected before ((-2)-0 h) and after (0-2 h, 2-6 h, 6-10 h, and 10-24 h) the intake and were analyzed by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-q-TOF) and multivariate statistical analysis (principal component analysis (PCA) and orthogonal projection to latent structures (OPLS)). Putative identification of relevant biomarkers revealed a total of 34 metabolites associated with the single dose of almond extract, including host and, in particular, microbiota metabolites. As far as we know, this is the first time that conjugates of hydroxyphenylvaleric, hydroxyphenylpropionic, and hydroxyphenylacetic acids have been identified in human samples after the consumption of flavan-3-ols through a metabolomic approach. The results showed that this non-targeted approach could provide new intake biomarkers, contributing to the development of the food metabolome as an important part of the human urinary metabolome.

  6. Ultrasound-assisted extraction and preliminary purification of proanthocyanidins and chlorogenic acid from almond (Prunus dulcis) skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xue; Zhou, Xin-Yu; Qiang, Qian-Qian; Zhang, Zhi-Qi

    2014-07-01

    An aqueous solution of polyethylene glycol (PEG) as a green solvent was employed for the first time to develop the ultrasound-assisted extraction of proanthocyanidins (PA) and chlorogenic acid (CA) from almond skin. The optimized extraction parameters were determined based on response surface methodology, and corresponded to an ultrasound power of 120 W, a liquid-to-solid ratio of 20:1 (mL/g), and a PEG concentration of 50% (v/v). Under these optimized conditions, the extraction yields of PAs and CA from almond skin were 32.68 ± 0.22 and 16.01 ± 0.19 mg/g, respectively. Compared with organic solvent extraction, PEG solution extraction produced higher yields. Different macroporous resins were compared for their performance in purifying PAs and CA from almond skin extract. Static adsorption/desorption experimental results demonstrated that AB-8 resin exhibits excellent purification performance at pH 4. Under the optimized dynamic adsorption/desorption conditions on the AB-8 column, the total recovery of purification for PAs and CA was 80.67%. The total content of PAs and CA in the preliminarily purified extract was 89.17% (with respective contents of 60.90 and 28.27%). © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. HS-SPME GC/MS characterization of volatiles in raw and dry-roasted almonds (Prunus dulcis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Lu; Lee, Jihyun; Zhang, Gong; Ebeler, Susan E; Wickramasinghe, Niramani; Seiber, James; Mitchell, Alyson E

    2014-05-15

    A robust HS-SPME and GC/MS method was developed for analyzing the composition of volatiles in raw and dry-roasted almonds. Almonds were analyzed directly as ground almonds extracted at room temperature. In total, 58 volatiles were identified in raw and roasted almonds. Straight chain aldehydes and alcohols demonstrated significant but minimal increases, while the levels of branch-chain aldehydes, alcohols, heterocyclic and sulfur containing compounds increased significantly (500-fold) in response to roasting (p<0.05). Benzaldehyde decreased from 2934.6±272.5 ng/g (raw almonds) to 315.8±70.0 ng/g (averaged across the roasting treatments evaluated i.e. 28, 33 and 38 min at 138 °C) after roasting. Pyrazines were detected in only the roasted almonds, with the exception of 2,5-dimethylpyrazine, which was also found in raw almonds. The concentration of most alcohols increased in the roasted samples with the exception of 2-methyl-1-propanol, 3-methyl-1-butanol and 2-phenylethyl alcohol, which decreased 68%, 80%, and 86%, respectively. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Acrylamide formation in almonds (Prunus dulcis): influences of roasting time and temperature, precursors, varietal selection, and storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Gong; Huang, Guangwei; Xiao, Lu; Seiber, James; Mitchell, Alyson E

    2011-08-10

    Acrylamide is a probable human carcinogen that is found in many roasted and baked foods. This paper describes two sensitive and reliable LC-(ESI)MS/MS methods for the analysis of (1) acrylamide and (2) common acrylamide precursors (i.e., glucose, fructose, asparagine, and glutamine) in raw and roasted almonds. These methods were used to evaluate the impact of roasting temperatures (between 129 and 182 °C) and times on acrylamide formation. Controlling the roasting temperature at or below 146 °C resulted in acrylamide levels below 200 ppb at all roasting times evaluated. Six varieties of almonds collected in various regions of California over two harvest years and roasted at 138 °C for 22 min had acrylamide levels ranging from 117 ± 5 μg/kg (Sonora) to 221 ± 95 μg/kg (Butte) with an average of 187 ± 71 μg/kg. A weak correlation between asparagine content in raw almonds and acrylamide formation was observed (R(2) = 0.6787). No statistical relationship was found between acrylamide formation and almond variety, orchard region, or harvest year. Stability studies on roasted almonds indicated that acrylamide levels decreased by 12.9-68.5% (average of 50.2%) after 3 days of storage at 60 °C. Short-term elevated temperature storage may be another approach for mitigating acrylamide levels in roasted almonds.

  9. The classification of almonds (Prunus dulcis) by country and variety using UHPLC-HRMS-based untargeted metabolomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil Solsona, R; Boix, C; Ibáñez, M; Sancho, J V

    2018-03-01

    The aim of this study was to use an untargeted UHPLC-HRMS-based metabolomics approach allowing discrimination between almonds based on their origin and variety. Samples were homogenised, extracted with ACN:H 2 O (80:20) containing 0.1% HCOOH and injected in a UHPLC-QTOF instrument in both positive and negative ionisation modes. Principal component analysis (PCA) was performed to ensure the absence of outliers. Partial least squares - discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) was employed to create and validate the models for country (with five different compounds) and variety (with 20 features), showing more than 95% accuracy. Additional samples were injected and the model was evaluated with blind samples, with more than 95% of samples being correctly classified using both models. MS/MS experiments were carried out to tentatively elucidate the highlighted marker compounds (pyranosides, peptides or amino acids, among others). This study has shown the potential of high-resolution mass spectrometry to perform and validate classification models, also providing information concerning the identification of the unexpected biomarkers which showed the highest discriminant power.

  10. Use of Near-Infrared Spectroscopy and Chemometrics for the Nondestructive Identification of Concealed Damage in Raw Almonds (Prunus dulcis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogel-Castillo, Cristian; Boulton, Roger; Opastpongkarn, Arunwong; Huang, Guangwei; Mitchell, Alyson E

    2016-07-27

    Concealed damage (CD) is defined as a brown discoloration of the kernel interior (nutmeat) that appears only after moderate to high heat treatment (e.g., blanching, drying, roasting, etc.). Raw almonds with CD have no visible defects before heat treatment. Currently, there are no screening methods available for detecting CD in raw almonds. Herein, the feasibility of using near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy between 1125 and 2153 nm for the detection of CD in almonds is demonstrated. Almond kernels with CD have less NIR absorbance in the region related with oil, protein, and carbohydrates. With the use of partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) and selection of specific wavelengths, three classification models were developed. The calibration models have false-positive and false-negative error rates ranging between 12.4 and 16.1% and between 10.6 and 17.2%, respectively. The percent error rates ranged between 8.2 and 9.2%. Second-derivative preprocessing of the selected wavelength resulted in the most robust predictive model.

  11. Rheological and interfacial properties at the equilibrium of almond gum tree exudate (Prunus dulcis) in comparison with gum arabic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahfoudhi, Nesrine; Sessa, Mariarenata; Ferrari, Giovanna; Hamdi, Salem; Donsi, Francesco

    2016-06-01

    Almond gum contains an arabinogalactan-type polysaccharide, which plays an important role in defining its interfacial and rheological properties. In this study, rheological and interfacial properties of almond gum and gum arabic aqueous dispersions were comparatively investigated. The interfacial tension of almond gum and gum arabic aqueous dispersions was measured using the pendant drop method in hexadecane. The asymptotic interfacial tension values for almond gum were significantly lower than the corresponding values measured for gum arabic, especially at high concentration. Rheological properties were characterized by steady and oscillatory tests using a coaxial geometry. Almond gum flow curves exhibited a shear thinning non-Newtonian behavior with a tendency to a Newtonian plateau at low shear rate, while gum arabic flow curves exhibited such behavior only at high shear rate. The influence of temperature (5-50  ℃) on the flow curves was studied at 4% (m/m) gum concentration and the Newtonian viscosities at infinite and at zero shear rate, for gum arabic and almond gum, respectively, were accurately fitted by an Arrhenius-type equation. The dynamic properties of the two gum dispersions were also studied. Both gum dispersions exhibited viscoelastic properties, with the viscous component being predominant in a wider range of concentrations for almond gum, while for gum arabic the elastic component being higher than the elastic one especially at higher concentrations.The rheological and interfacial tension properties of almond gum suggest that it may represent a possible substitute of gum arabic in different food applications. © The Author(s) 2015.

  12. Quantification of amygdalin in nonbitter, semibitter, and bitter almonds (Prunus dulcis) by UHPLC-(ESI)QqQ MS/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jihyun; Zhang, Gong; Wood, Elizabeth; Rogel Castillo, Cristian; Mitchell, Alyson E

    2013-08-14

    Amygdalin is a cynaogenic diglucoside responsible for the bitterness of almonds. Almonds display three flavor phenotypes, nonbitter, semibitter, and bitter. Herein, the amygdalin content of 20 varieties of nonbitter, semibitter, and bitter almonds from four primary growing regions of California was determined using solid-phase extraction and ultrahigh-pressure liquid chromatography electrospray triple-quadrupole mass spectrometry (UHPLC-(ESI)QqQ MS/MS). The detection limit for this method is ≤ 0.1 ng/mL (3 times the signal-to-noise ratio) and the LOQ is 0.33 ng/mL (10 times the signal-to-noise ratio), allowing for the reliable quantitation of trace levels of amygdalin in nonbitter almonds (0.13 mg/kg almond). Results indicate that amygdalin concentrations for the three flavor phenotypes were significantly different (p < 0.001). The mean concentrations of amygdalin in nonbitter, semibitter, and bitter almonds are 63.13 ± 57.54, 992.24 ± 513.04, and 40060.34 ± 7855.26 mg/kg, respectively. Levels of amygdalin ranged from 2.16 to 157.44 mg/kg in nonbitter, from 523.50 to 1772.75 mg/kg in semibitter, and from 33006.60 to 53998.30 mg/kg in bitter almonds. These results suggest that phenotype classification may be achieved on the basis of amygdalin levels. Growing region had a statistically significant effect on the amygdalin concentration in commercial varieties (p < 0.05).

  13. Quality characteristics and microbiological safety evaluation of oils extracted from gamma irradiated almond (Prunus dulcis Mill. seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahid, S. A.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The physicochemical attributes and microbial decontamination of oils extracted from gamma-irradiated almond (Mission and Price varieties seeds, to the absorbed doses of 2-10 kGy, have been evaluated. Gamma irradiation exerted no considerable effect on the proximate seed composition. The physicochemical properties such as density and refractive index of the oils, extracted from gammairradieted seeds, were almost unaffected; the iodine value decreased while saponification value, unsaponifiable matter and free fatty acids increased. The oxidative status and tocopherol content of almond oils were negatively affected while the fatty acid profile slightly changed due to irradiation stress. Interestingly, these effects on the oil quality attributes were more pronounced at higher irradiation doses (> 6 kGy. Besides, microbial contamination was completely eliminated in the oils irradiated to an absorbed dose of 6.0 kGy. It could be concluded from the present findings that irradiation has a considerably positive or negative effect on some attributes of the almond oil. Therefore, an appropriate magnitude of gamma irradiation should be exercised to treat almond seeds in order to retain maximum nutritive benefits.Se ha evaluado las caracteristicas fisico-químicas y la descontaminación microbiana de aceites extraídos de semillas de almendras (variedades Misión y Price gamma-irradiadas a dosis absorbidas de 2-10 kGy. La radiación gamma no ejerce ningún efecto considerable en la composición próximal de las semillas. Las características fisico-químicas tales como la densidad y el índice de refracción de los aceites, extraídos a partir de semillas gamma-irradiadas, permanecieron casi sin afectar; el índice de yodo disminuye mientras que el valor de saponificación, la materia insaponificable y los ácidos grasos libres aumentan. El estado oxidativo y el contenido de tocoferoles de los aceites de almendra se vieron afectados negativamente, mientras que el perfil de ácidos grasos se modifica ligeramente debido al estrés de la radiación. Curiosamente, los efectos sobre los atributos de calidad del aceite fueron más pronunciados a dosis de radiación más altas (> 6 kGy. Además, la contaminación microbiana se eliminó por completo en los aceites irradiados a una dosis absorbida de 6,0 kGy. Se puede concluir a partir de los presentes hallazgos que la radiación tiene un efecto positivo o negativo considerable en algunos atributos de la aceite de almendras. Por lo tanto, se debe aplicar una magnitud apropiada de radiación gamma para el tratamiento de semillas de almendra con el fin de retener los máximos beneficios nutritivos.

  14. Quality characteristics and microbiological safety evaluation of oils extracted from gamma irradiated almond (Prunus dulcis Mill.) seeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhatti, I. A.; Iqbal, M.; Anwar, F.; Shanid, S. A.; Shahid, M.

    2013-01-01

    The physicochemical attributes and microbial decontamination of oils extracted from gamma-irradiated almond (Mission and Price varieties) seeds, to the absorbed doses of 2-10 kGy, have been evaluated. Gamma irradiation exerted no considerable effect on the proximate seed composition. The physicochemical properties such as density and refractive index of the oils, extracted from gammairradieted seeds, were almost unaffected; the iodine value decreased while saponification value, unsaponifiable matter and free fatty acids increased. The oxidative status and tocopherol content of almond oils were negatively affected while the fatty acid profile slightly changed due to irradiation stress. Interestingly, these effects on the oil quality attributes were more pronounced at higher irradiation doses (> 6 kGy). Besides, microbial contamination was completely eliminated in the oils irradiated to an absorbed dose of 6.0 kGy. It could be concluded from the present findings that irradiation has a considerably positive or negative effect on some attributes of the almond oil. Therefore, an appropriate magnitude of gamma irradiation should be exercised to treat almond seeds in order to retain maximum nutritive benefits. (Author) 52 refs.

  15. Supervised chemical pattern recognition in almond ( Prunus dulcis ) Portuguese PDO cultivars: PCA- and LDA-based triennial study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barreira, João C M; Casal, Susana; Ferreira, Isabel C F R; Peres, António M; Pereira, José Alberto; Oliveira, M Beatriz P P

    2012-09-26

    Almonds harvested in three years in Trás-os-Montes (Portugal) were characterized to find differences among Protected Designation of Origin (PDO) Amêndoa Douro and commercial non-PDO cultivars. Nutritional parameters, fiber (neutral and acid detergent fibers, acid detergent lignin, and cellulose), fatty acids, triacylglycerols (TAG), and tocopherols were evaluated. Fat was the major component, followed by carbohydrates, protein, and moisture. Fatty acids were mostly detected as monounsaturated and polyunsaturated forms, with relevance of oleic and linoleic acids. Accordingly, 1,2,3-trioleoylglycerol and 1,2-dioleoyl-3-linoleoylglycerol were the major TAG. α-Tocopherol was the leading tocopherol. To verify statistical differences among PDO and non-PDO cultivars independent of the harvest year, data were analyzed through an analysis of variance, a principal component analysis, and a linear discriminant analysis (LDA). These differences identified classification parameters, providing an important tool for authenticity purposes. The best results were achieved with TAG analysis coupled with LDA, which proved its effectiveness to discriminate almond cultivars.

  16. Almond (Prunus dulcis (Mill.) D.A. Webb) polyphenols: from chemical characterization to targeted analysis of phenolic metabolites in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartolomé, Begoña; Monagas, María; Garrido, Ignacio; Gómez-Cordovés, Carmen; Martín-Alvarez, Pedro J; Lebrón-Aguilar, Rosa; Urpí-Sardà, Mireia; Llorach, Rafael; Andrés-Lacueva, Cristina

    2010-09-01

    In this paper, a survey of our studies on almond polyphenols including their chemical characterization and further bioavailability in humans is reported. Combination of analytical techniques (LC-DAD/fluorescence, LC/ESI-MS and MALDI-TOF-MS) allowed us, for the first time, the identification of A- and B-type procyanidin, propelargonidin and prodelphinidin polymers in almond skins. Glucuronide, O-methyl glucuronide, sulfate and O-methyl sulfate derivatives of (epi)catechin, as well as the glucuronide conjugates of naringenin and isorhamnetin, and sulfate conjugates of isorhamnetin, together with conjugates of hydroxyphenylvalerolactones were detected in plasma and urine samples after the intake of almond skin polyphenols. In addition, numerous microbial-derived metabolites, including hydroxyphenylpropionic, hydroxyphenylacetic, hydroxycinnamic, hydroxybenzoic and hydroxyhippuric acids were also identified. Depending of the type of metabolite, maximum urinary excretion was attained at different time in comparison to the control group in the course of the 24-h period of urine excretion, allowing us to establish the onset of microbial metabolism. 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Effect of roasting conditions on color and volatile profile including HMF level in sweet almonds (Prunus dulcis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agila, Amal; Barringer, Sheryl

    2012-04-01

    Microwave, oven, and oil roasting of almonds were used to promote almond flavor and color formation. Raw pasteurized almonds were roasted in a microwave for 1 to 3 min, in an oven at 177 °C for 5, 10, 15, and 20 min; and at 135 and 163 °C for 20 min, and in oil at 135, 163, and 177 °C for 5 min and 177 °C for 10 min. Volatile compounds were quantified in the headspace of ground almonds, both raw and roasted, by selected ion flow tube mass spectrometry. Strong correlations were found between L value, chroma, and 5-(hydroxy methyl)-2- furfural; and were independent of roasting method. Raw almonds had lower concentrations of most volatiles than roasted almonds. Conditions that produced color equivalent to commercial samples were 2 min in the microwave, 5 min at 177 °C in the oven, and 5 min at 135 °C in oil. Microwave heating produced higher levels of most volatiles than oven and oil roasting at commercial color. Sensory evaluation indicated that microwave-roasted almonds had the strongest aroma and were the most preferred. Oil-roasted almonds showed significantly lower levels of volatiles than other methods, likely due to loss of these volatiles into the oil. Alcohols such as benzyl alcohols and strecker aldehydes including benzaldehyde and methional were at higher concentrations than other volatiles in roasted almonds. The oxidation of lipids to form alkanals such as nonanal and degradation of sugars to form furan type compounds was also observed. The Maillard reaction contributed to the formation of more of the total volatiles in almonds than the lipid oxidation reaction. The level of 5-(hydroxy methyl)-2- furfural (HMF), color, volatile profile, and sensory perception can be used to develop the best roasting method, time, and temperature for almonds. The rate of color development and the production of volatiles differ under different roasting conditions. Based on the color, volatile, and sensory assessments of the 3 almonds, the use of microwave technology as a process for roasting almonds reduces processing time and leads to an almond product with better flavor than oven or oil roasting. © 2012 Institute of Food Technologists®

  18. Determination of advanced glycation endproducts by LC-MS/MS in raw and roasted almonds (Prunus dulcis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Gong; Huang, Guangwei; Xiao, Lu; Mitchell, Alyson E

    2011-11-23

    A sensitive and reliable LC-(ESI)MS/MS method was developed and validated for the simultaneous analysis of five common advanced glycation endproducts (AGEs) after enzymatic digestion in raw and roasted almonds. AGEs included carboxymethyl-lysine (CML), carboxyethyl-lysine (CEL), pyralline (Pyr), argpyrimidine (Arg-p), and pentosidine (Pento-s). This method allows accurate quantitation of free and AGE-protein adducts of target AGEs. Results indicate that CML and CEL are found in both raw and roasted almonds. Pyr was identified for the first time in roasted almonds and accounted for 64.4% of free plus bound measured AGEs. Arg-p and Pento-s were below the limit of detection in all almond samples tested. Free AGEs accounted for 1.3-26.8% of free plus bound measured AGEs, indicating that protein-bound forms predominate. The roasting process significantly increased CML, CEL, and Pyr formation, but no significant correlation was observed between these AGEs and roasting temperature.

  19. Production of in vivo biotinylated scFv specific to almond (Prunus dulcis) proteins by recombinant Pichia pastoris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Cruz, Silvia; Alcocer, Marcos; Madrid, Raquel; García, Aina; Martín, Rosario; González, Isabel; García, Teresa

    2016-06-10

    The methylotropic yeast Pichia pastoris has demonstrated its suitability for large-scale production of recombinant proteins. As an eukaryotic organism P. pastoris presents a series of advantages at expression and processing of heterologous proteins when compared with Escherichia coli. In this work, P. pastoris has been used to express a scFv from a human synthetic library previously shown to bind almond proteins. In order to facilitate purification and post processing manipulations, the scFv was engineered with a C-terminal tag and biotinylated in vivo. After purification, biotinylated scFv were bound to avidin conjugated with HRP producing a multimeric scFv. The multimeric scFv showed to maintain their ability to recognize almond protein when assayed in ELISA, reaching a LOD of 470mgkg(-1). This study describes an easy method to produce large quantities of in vivo biotinylated scFv in P. pastoris. By substituting the enzyme or fluorochromes linked to avidin, it will be possible to generate a diverse number of multimeric scFv as probes to suit different analytical platforms in the detection of almond in food products. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Quality characteristics and microbiological safety evaluation of oils extracted from gamma irradiated almond (Prunus dulcis Mill.) seeds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhatti, I. A.; Iqbal, M.; Anwar, F.; Shanid, S. A.; Shahid, M.

    2013-05-01

    The physicochemical attributes and microbial decontamination of oils extracted from gamma-irradiated almond (Mission and Price varieties) seeds, to the absorbed doses of 2-10 kGy, have been evaluated. Gamma irradiation exerted no considerable effect on the proximate seed composition. The physicochemical properties such as density and refractive index of the oils, extracted from gammairradieted seeds, were almost unaffected; the iodine value decreased while saponification value, unsaponifiable matter and free fatty acids increased. The oxidative status and tocopherol content of almond oils were negatively affected while the fatty acid profile slightly changed due to irradiation stress. Interestingly, these effects on the oil quality attributes were more pronounced at higher irradiation doses (> 6 kGy). Besides, microbial contamination was completely eliminated in the oils irradiated to an absorbed dose of 6.0 kGy. It could be concluded from the present findings that irradiation has a considerably positive or negative effect on some attributes of the almond oil. Therefore, an appropriate magnitude of gamma irradiation should be exercised to treat almond seeds in order to retain maximum nutritive benefits. (Author) 52 refs.