WorldWideScience

Sample records for amchitka island alaska

  1. Amchitka Island, Alaska, special sampling project 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office

    2000-06-28

    This 1997 special sampling project represents a special radiobiological sampling effort to augment the 1996 Long-Term Hydrological Monitoring Program (LTHMP) for Amchitka Island in Alaska. Lying in the western portion of the Aleutian Islands arc, near the International Date Line, Amchitka Island is one of the southernmost islands of the Rat Island Chain. Between 1965 and 1971, the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission conducted three underground nuclear tests on Amchitka Island. In 1996, Greenpeace collected biota samples and speculated that several long-lived, man-made radionuclides detected (i.e., americium-241, plutonium-239 and -240, beryllium-7, and cesium-137) leaked into the surface environment from underground cavities created during the testing. The nuclides of interest are detected at extremely low concentrations throughout the environment. The objectives of this special sampling project were to scientifically refute the Greenpeace conclusions that the underground cavities were leaking contaminants to the surface. This was achieved by first confirming the presence of these radionuclides in the Amchitka Island surface environment and, second, if the radionuclides were present, determining if the source is the underground cavity or worldwide fallout. This special sampling and analysis determined that the only nonfallout-related radionuclide detected was a low level of tritium from the Long Shot test, which had been previously documented. The tritium contamination is monitored and continues a decreasing trend due to radioactive decay and dilution.

  2. The higher fungi of Amchitka and Adak Islands, Alaska

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Fruiting body collections of higher fungi, basidiomycetes and ascomycetes, were made during a twelve day field study on two of Alaska's Aleutian Islands, Amchitka...

  3. Marine mammal observations, Amchitka Island, Alaska

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Three marine mammals were regularly observed at Amchitka Island: sea otters (Enhydra lutris), Steller's sea lions (Eumetopias jubata), and harbor seals (Phoca...

  4. Amchitka Island, Alaska, Biological Monitoring Report 2011 Sampling Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2013-09-01

    The Long-Term Surveillance and Maintenance (LTS&M) Plan for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Legacy Management (LM) Amchitka Island sites describes how LM plans to conduct its mission to protect human health and the environment at the three nuclear test sites located on Amchitka Island, Alaska. Amchitka Island, near the western end of the Aleutian Islands, is approximately 1,340 miles west-southwest of Anchorage, Alaska. Amchitka is part of the Aleutian Island Unit of the Alaska Maritime National Wildlife Refuge, which is administered by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS). Since World War II, Amchitka has been used by multiple U.S. government agencies for various military and research activities. From 1943 to 1950, it was used as a forward air base for the U.S. Armed Forces. During the middle 1960s and early 1970s, the U.S. Department of Defense (DOD) and the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) used a portion of the island as a site for underground nuclear tests. During the late 1980s and early 1990s, the U.S. Navy constructed and operated a radar station on the island. Three underground nuclear tests were conducted on Amchitka Island. DOD, in conjunction with AEC, conducted the first nuclear test (named Long Shot) in 1965 to provide data that would improve the United States' capability of detecting underground nuclear explosions. The second nuclear test (Milrow) was a weapons-related test conducted by AEC in 1969 as a means to study the feasibility of detonating a much larger device. Cannikin, the third nuclear test on Amchitka, was a weapons-related test detonated on November 6, 1971. With the exception of small concentrations of tritium detected in surface water shortly after the Long Shot test, radioactive fission products from the tests remain in the subsurface at each test location As a continuation of the environmental monitoring that has taken place on Amchitka Island since before 1965, LM in the summer of 2011 collected biological

  5. Alternatives Analysis Amchitka Island Mud Pit Cap Repair, Amchitka, Alaska January 2016

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Darr, Paul S. [US Department of Energy, Washington, DC (United States). Office of Legacy Management

    2016-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Legacy Management (LM) manages the Nevada Offsites program, which includes a series of reclaimed drilling mud impoundments on Amchitka Island, Alaska (Figure 1). Navarro Research and Engineering, Inc. is the Legacy Management Support contractor (the Contractor) for LM. The Contractor has procured Tetra Tech, Inc. to provide engineering support to the Amchitka mud pit reclamation project. The mud pit caps were damaged during a 7.9-magnitude earthquake that occurred in 2014. The goals of the current project are to investigate conditions at the mud pit impoundments, identify feasible alternatives for repair of the cover systems and the contents, and estimate relative costs of repair alternatives. This report presents descriptions of the sites and past investigations, existing conditions, summaries of various repair/mitigation alternatives, and direct, unburdened, order-of-magnitude (-15% to +50%) associated costs.

  6. Incidental observations on the birds of Amchitka Island, Alaska 9 September to 18 September, 1987

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Fish and Wildlife Service Volunteer Biologist Kevin Reyer and SCA biologist William Penning visited Amchitka Island, Alaska from 9 September to 18 September 1987...

  7. Arctic and Aleutian terns, Amchitka Island, Alaska

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Baird (1980) has recently reported on the ecology of Arctic terns (Sterna paradisaea) and Aleutian terns (Sterna aleutica) from 4 areas of mainland Alaska. However,...

  8. The plant ecology of Amchitka Island, Alaska: Quarterly report

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This quarterly report summarizes the findings of a study on the plant ecology of Amchitka Island. Observations of topographic forms, microclimate relations,...

  9. Propagation of Aleutian Canada geese on Amchitka Island, Alaska, 1980

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The methods of propagation on Amchitka Island were changed from past years in that artificial incubation and rearing were abandoned in favor of more natural goose...

  10. Human Health and Ecological Risk Assessment Work Plan Mud Pit Release Sites, Amchitka Island, Alaska

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DOE/NV

    2001-03-12

    This Work Plan describes the approach that will be used to conduct human health and ecological risk assessments for Amchitka Island, Alaska, which was utilized as an underground nuclear test site between 1965 and 1971. During this period, the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission (now the U.S. Department of Energy) conducted two nuclear tests (known as Long Shot and Milrow) and assisted the U.S. Department of Defense with a third test (known as Cannikin). Amchitka Island is approximately 42 miles long and located 1,340 miles west-southwest of Anchorage, Alaska, in the western end of the Aleutian Island archipelago in a group of islands known as the Rat Islands. Historically including deep drilling operations required large volumes of drilling mud, a considerable amount of which was left on the island in exposed mud pits after testing was completed. Therefore, there is a need for drilling mud pit remediation and risk assessment of historical mud pit releases. The scope of this work plan is to document the environmental objectives and the proposed technical site investigation strategies that will be utilized for the site characterization of the constituents in soil, surface water, and sediment at these former testing sites. Its goal is the collection of data in sufficient quantity and quality to determine current site conditions, support a risk assessment for the site surfaces, and evaluate what further remedial action is required to achieve permanent closure of these three sites that will protect both human health and the environment. Suspected compounds of potential ecological concern for investigative analysis at these sites include diesel-range organics, polyaromatic hydrocarbons, polychlorinated biphenyls, volatile organic compounds, and chromium. The results of these characterizations and risk assessments will be used to evaluate corrective action alternatives to include no further action, the implementation of institutional controls, capping on site, or off-sit e

  11. Aleutian Canada goose transplant from Buldir Island to Amchitka Island, Aleutian Islands, Alaska, summer 1987

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — A total of 136 geese were captured on Buldir. Four died in the transplant efforts. One bird died during transport and three died on Amchitka. The birds that died...

  12. Inter-decadal patterns of population and dietary change in sea otters at Amchitka Island, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watt, J.; Siniff, D.B.; Estes, J.A.

    2000-01-01

    After having been hunted to near-extinction in the Pacific maritime fur trade, the sea otter population at Amchitka Island, Alaska increased from very low numbers in the early 1900s to near equilibrium density by the 1940s. The population persisted at or near equilibrium through the 1980s, but declined sharply in the 1990s in apparent response to increased killer whale predation. Sea otter diet and foraging behavior were studied at Amchitka from August 1992 to March 1994 and the data compared with similar information obtained during several earlier periods. In contrast with dietary patterns in the 1960s and 1970s, when the sea otter population was at or near equilibrium density and kelp-forest fishes were the dietary mainstay, these fishes were rarely eaten in the 1990s. Benthic invertebrates, particularly sea urchins, dominated the otter's diet from early summer to midwinter, then decreased in importance during late winter and spring when numerous Pacific smooth lumpsuckers (a large and easily captured oceanic fish) were eaten. The occurrence of spawning lumpsuckers in coastal waters apparently is episodic on a scale of years to decades. The otters' recent dietary shift away from kelp-forest fishes is probably a response to the increased availability of lumpsuckers and sea urchins (both high-preference prey). Additionally, increased urchin densities have reduced kelp beds, thus further reducing the availability of kelp-forest fishes. Our findings suggest that dietary patterns reflect changes in population status and show how an ecosystem normally under top-down control and limited by coastal zone processes can be significantly perturbed by exogenous events.

  13. Scientific research, stakeholders, and policy: continuing dialogue during research on radionuclides on Amchitka Island, Alaska.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burger, Joanna; Gochfeld, Michael; Powers, Charles W; Kosson, David S; Halverson, John; Siekaniec, Gregory; Morkill, Anne; Patrick, Robert; Duffy, Lawrence K; Barnes, David

    2007-10-01

    It is increasingly clear that a wide range of stakeholders should be included in the problem formulation phase of research aimed at solving environmental problems; indeed the inclusion of stakeholders at this stage has been formalized as an integral part of ecological risk assessment. In this paper, we advocate the additional inclusion of stakeholders in the refinement of research methods and protocols and in the execution of the research, rather than just at the final communication and reporting phase. We use a large study of potential radionuclide levels in marine biota around Amchitka Island as a case study. Amchitka Island, in the Aleutian Island Chain of Alaska, was the site of three underground nuclear tests (1965-1971). The overall objective of the biological component of the study was to collect a range of marine biota for radionuclide analysis that could provide data for assessing current food safety and provide a baseline for developing a plan to monitor human and ecosystem health in perpetuity. Stakeholders, including regulators (State of Alaska), resource trustees (US Fish and Wildlife Service, State of Alaska), representatives of the Aleut and Pribilof Island communities, the Department of Energy (DOE), and others, were essential for plan development. While these stakeholders were included in the initial problem formulation and approved science plan, we also included them in the refinement of protocols, selection of bioindicators, selection of a reference site, choice of methods of collection, and in the execution of the study itself. Meetings with stakeholders resulted in adding (or deleting) bioindicator species and tissues, prioritizing target species, refining sampling methods, and recruiting collection personnel. Some species were added because they were important subsistence foods for the Aleuts, and others were added because they were ecological equivalents to replace species deleted because of low population numbers. Two major refinements that

  14. Plutonium concentration and (240)Pu/(239)Pu atom ratio in biota collected from Amchitka Island, Alaska: recent measurements using ICP-SFMS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bu, Kaixuan; Cizdziel, James V; Dasher, Douglas

    2013-10-01

    Three underground nuclear tests, including the Unites States' largest, were conducted on Amchitka Island, Alaska. Monitoring of the radiological environment around the island is challenging because of its remote location. In 2008, the Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Legacy Management (LM) became responsible for the long term maintenance and surveillance of the Amchitka site. The first DOE LM environmental survey occurred in 2011 and is part of a cycle of activities that will occur every 5 years. The University of Alaska Fairbanks, a participant in the 2011 study, provided the lichen (Cladonia spp.), freshwater moss (Fontinalis neomexicanus), kelp (Eualaria fistulosa) and horse mussel (Modiolus modiolus) samples from Amchitka Island and Adak Island (a control site). These samples were analyzed for (239)Pu and (240)Pu concentration and (240)Pu/(239)Pu atom ratio using inductively coupled plasma sector field mass spectrometry (ICP-SFMS). Plutonium concentrations and (240)Pu/(239)Pu atom ratios were generally consistent with previous terrestrial and marine studies in the region. The ((239)+)(240)Pu levels (mBq kg(-1), dry weight) ranged from 3.79 to 57.1 for lichen, 167-700 for kelp, 27.9-148 for horse mussel, and 560-573 for moss. Lichen from Adak Island had higher Pu concentrations than Amchitka Island, the difference was likely the result of the higher precipitation at Adak compared to Amchitka. The (240)Pu/(239)Pu atom ratios were significantly higher in marine samples compared to terrestrial and freshwater samples (t-test, p Pu occurred into the North Pacific Ocean, likely from the Marshall Island high yield nuclear tests, but other potential sources, such as the Kamchatka Peninsula Rybachiy Naval Base and Amchitka Island underground nuclear test site cannot be ruled out.

  15. Record of Decision for Amchitka Surface Closure, Alaska

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2008-08-01

    This Record of Decision has been prepared to document the remedial actions taken on Amchitka Island to stabilize contaminants associated with drilling mud pits generated as a result of nuclear testing operations conducted on the island. This document has been prepared in accordance with the recommended outline in the Alaska Department of Environmental Conservation guidance on decision documentation under the Site Cleanup Rules (18 AAC 75.325-18 AAC 75.390) (ADEC 1999). It also describes the decision-making process used to establish the remedial action plans and defines the associated human health and ecological risks for the remediation.

  16. Remedial Action Work Plan Amchitka Island Mud Pit Closures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DOE/NV

    2001-04-05

    This remedial action work plan presents the project organization and construction procedures developed for the performance of the remedial actions at U.S. Department of Energy (DOE's) sites on Amchitka Island, Alaska. During the late1960s and early 1970s, the U.S. Department of Defense and the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission (the predecessor agency to DOE) used Amchitka Island as a site for underground nuclear tests. A total of nine sites on the Island were considered for nuclear testing; however, tests were only conducted at three sites (i.e., Long Shot in 1965, Milrow in 1969, and Cannikin in 1971). In addition to these three sites, large diameter emplacement holes were drilled in two other locations (Sites D and F) and an exploratory hole was in a third location (Site E). It was estimated that approximately 195 acres were disturbed by drilling or preparation for drilling in conjunction with these activities. The disturbed areas include access roads, spoil-disposal areas, mud pits which have impacted the environment, and an underground storage tank at the hot mix plant which was used to support asphalt-paving operations on the island. The remedial action objective for Amchitka Island is to eliminate human and ecological exposure to contaminants by capping drilling mud pits, removing the tank contents, and closing the tank in place. The remedial actions will meet State of Alaska regulations, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service refuge management goals, address stakeholder concerns, and address the cultural beliefs and practices of the native people. The U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office will conduct work on Amchitka Island under the authority of the Comprehensive Emergency Response, Compensation, and Liability Act. Field activities are scheduled to take place May through September 2001. The results of these activities will be presented in a subsequent Closure Report.

  17. An assessment of the reported leakage of anthropogenic radionuclides from the underground nuclear test sites at Amchitka Island, Alaska, USA to the surface environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dasher, Douglas E-mail: ddasher@envircon.state.ak.us; Hanson, Wayne; Read, Stan; Faller, Scott; Farmer, Dennis; Efurd, Wes; Kelley, John; Patrick, Robert

    2002-07-01

    Three underground nuclear tests representing approximately 15-16% of the total effective energy released during the United States underground nuclear testing program from 1951 to 1992 were conducted at Amchitka Island, Alaska. In 1996, Greenpeace reported that leakage of radionuclides, {sup 241}Am and {sup 239+240}Pu, from these underground tests to the terrestrial and freshwater environments had been detected. In response to this report, a federal, state, tribal and non-governmental team conducted a terrestrial and freshwater radiological sampling program in 1997. Additional radiological sampling was conducted in 1998. An assessment of the reported leakage to the freshwater environment was evaluated by assessing {sup 3} H values in surface waters and {sup 240}Pu/{sup 239}Pu ratios in various sample media. Tritium values ranged from 0.41 Bq/l{+-}0.11 two sigma to 0.74 Bq/l{+-}0.126 two sigma at the surface water sites sampled, including the reported leakage sites. Only at the Long Shot test site, where leakage of radioactive gases to the near-surface occurred in 1965, were higher {sup 3}H levels of 5.8 Bq/l{+-}0.19 two sigma still observed in 1997, in mud pit no. 3. The mean {sup 240}Pu/{sup 239}Pu for all of the Amchitka samples was 0.1991{+-}0.0149 one standard deviation, with values ranging from 0.1824{+-}1.43% one sigma to 0.2431{+-}6.56% one sigma. The measured {sup 3}H levels and {sup 240}Pu/{sup 239}Pu ratios in freshwater moss and sediments at Amchitka provide no evidence of leakage occurring at the sites reported by Buske and Miller (1998 Nuclear-Weapons-Free America and Alaska Community Action on Toxics, Anchorage, Ak, p. 38) and Miller and Buske (1996 Nuclear Flashback: The Return to Anchitka, p. 35). It was noted that the marine sample; {sup 240}Pu/{sup 239}Pu ratios are statistically different than the global fallout ratios presented by Krey et al. (1976) and Kelley, Bond, and Beasley (1999). The additional non-fallout component {sup 240}Pu/{sup 239}Pu

  18. Amchitka Island Environmental Analysis at Idaho National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gracy Elias; W. F. Bauer; J.G. Eisenmenger; C.C. Jensen; B.K. Schuetz; T. C. Sorensen; B.M. White; A. L. Freeman; M. E. McIlwain

    2005-08-01

    The Idaho National Laboratory (INL) provided support to Consortium for Risk Evaluation with Stakeholder Participation (CRESP) in their activities which is supported by the Department of Energy (DOE) to assess the impact of past nuclear testing at Amchitka Island on the ecosystemof the island and surrounding ocean. INL participated in this project in three phases, Phase 1, Phase 2 and Phase 3.

  19. Amchitka beach surveys, 1978-1980

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Surveys of 16 beaches on Amchitka Island began 28 October 1978 as part of Alaska Beached Bird Survey. The purpose of the surveys is to provide baseline data on...

  20. Sea otter investigation, Amchitka Island, 1954, and proposed plan of research for sea otters

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report describes a sea otter investigation on Amchitka Island during 1954 and a proposed plan of research for sea otters. The report covers capturing wild sea...

  1. Preliminary report on the avian ecology of Amchitka Islands, June 1967

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The avifauna of Amchitka Island was surveyed during June, 1967, in order to: form a basis for predicting the nature and magnitude of effects on the bird population...

  2. Long-Term Surveillance and Maintenance Plan for the U.S. Department of Energy Amchitka, Alaska, Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2008-09-01

    This Long-Term Surveillance and Maintenance Plan describes how the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) intends to fulfill its mission to maintain protection of human health and the environment at the Amchitka, Alaska, Site1. Three underground nuclear tests were conducted on Amchitka Island. The U.S. Department of Defense, in conjunction with the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission (AEC), conducted the first nuclear test (Long Shot) to provide data that would improve the United States' capability of detecting underground nuclear explosions. The second nuclear test (Milrow) was a weapons-related test conducted by AEC as a means to study the feasibility of detonating a much larger device. The final nuclear test (Cannikin), the largest United States underground test, was a weapons-related test. Surface disturbances associated with these tests have been remediated. However, radioactivity remains deep below the surface, contained in and around the test cavities, for which no feasible remediation technology has been identified. In 2006, the groundwater model (Hassan et al. 2002) was updated using 2005 data collected by the Consortium for Risk Evaluation with Stakeholder Participation. Model simulation results indicate there is no breakthrough or seepage of radionuclides into the marine environment within 2,000 years. The Amchitka conceptual model is reasonable; the flow and transport simulation is based on the best available information and data. The simulation results are a quantitative prediction supported by the best available science and technology. This Long-Term Surveillance and Maintenance Plan is an additional step intended for the protection of human health and the environment. This plan may be modified from time to time in the future consistent with the mission to protect human health

  3. The plant ecology of Amchita Island, Alaska: Report on a research contract between the Department of Botany, the University of Tennessee and Battelle Memorial Institute, Columbus Laboratories for the period 1 August 1967 through 30 June 1968

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Department of Botany of The University of Tennessee is conducting a study of the plant ecology of Amchitka Island, Alaska, as a subcontractor for Battelle...

  4. Modeling Groundwater Flow and Transport of Radionuclides at Amchitka Island's Underground Nuclear Tests: Milrow, Long Shot, and Cannikin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmed Hassan; Karl Pohlmann; Jenny Chapman

    2002-11-19

    Since 1963, all United States nuclear tests have been conducted underground. A consequence of this testing has been the deposition of large amounts of radioactive material in the subsurface, sometimes in direct contact with groundwater. The majority of this testing occurred on the Nevada Test Site (NTS), but a limited number of experiments were conducted in other locations. One of these locations, Amchitka Island, Alaska is the subject of this report. Three underground nuclear tests were conducted on Amchitka Island. Long Shot was an 80-kiloton-yield test conducted at a depth of 700 meters (m) on October 29, 1965 (DOE, 2000). Milrow had an announced yield of about 1,000 kilotons, and was detonated at a depth of 1,220 m on October 2, 1969. Cannikin had an announced yield less than 5,000 kilotons, and was conducted at a depth of 1,790 m on November 6, 1971. The purpose of this work is to provide a portion of the information needed to conduct a human-health risk assessment of the potential hazard posed by the three underground nuclear tests on Amchitka Island. Specifically, the focus of this work is the subsurface transport portion, including the release of radionuclides from the underground cavities and their movement through the groundwater system to the point where they seep out of the ocean floor and into the marine environment. This requires a conceptual model of groundwater flow on the island using geologic, hydrologic, and chemical information, a numerical model for groundwater flow, a conceptual model of contaminant release and transport properties from the nuclear test cavities, and a numerical model for contaminant transport. Needed for the risk assessment are estimates of the quantity of radionuclides (in terms of mass flux) from the underground tests on Amchitka that could discharge to the ocean, the time of possible discharge, and the location in terms of distance from shoreline. The radionuclide data presented here are all reported in terms of normalized

  5. Modeling Groundwater Flow and Transport of Radionuclides at Amchitka Island's Underground Nuclear Tests: Milrow, Long Shot, and Cannikin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmed Hassan; Karl Pohlmann; Jenny Chapman

    2002-11-19

    Since 1963, all United States nuclear tests have been conducted underground. A consequence of this testing has been the deposition of large amounts of radioactive material in the subsurface, sometimes in direct contact with groundwater. The majority of this testing occurred on the Nevada Test Site (NTS), but a limited number of experiments were conducted in other locations. One of these locations, Amchitka Island, Alaska is the subject of this report. Three underground nuclear tests were conducted on Amchitka Island. Long Shot was an 80-kiloton-yield test conducted at a depth of 700 meters (m) on October 29, 1965 (DOE, 2000). Milrow had an announced yield of about 1,000 kilotons, and was detonated at a depth of 1,220 m on October 2, 1969. Cannikin had an announced yield less than 5,000 kilotons, and was conducted at a depth of 1,790 m on November 6, 1971. The purpose of this work is to provide a portion of the information needed to conduct a human-health risk assessment of the potential hazard posed by the three underground nuclear tests on Amchitka Island. Specifically, the focus of this work is the subsurface transport portion, including the release of radionuclides from the underground cavities and their movement through the groundwater system to the point where they seep out of the ocean floor and into the marine environment. This requires a conceptual model of groundwater flow on the island using geologic, hydrologic, and chemical information, a numerical model for groundwater flow, a conceptual model of contaminant release and transport properties from the nuclear test cavities, and a numerical model for contaminant transport. Needed for the risk assessment are estimates of the quantity of radionuclides (in terms of mass flux) from the underground tests on Amchitka that could discharge to the ocean, the time of possible discharge, and the location in terms of distance from shoreline. The radionuclide data presented here are all reported in terms of normalized

  6. Sea otter studies on Amchitka Island 27 July to 5 October 1955 including studies on captive otters in Seattle

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — During our stay on Amchitka we had three primary objectives: 1. To study otters in their natural environment with the purpose of learning more about feeding habits,...

  7. Aleutian Canada goose transplant from Buldir Island to Amchitka Islands, Alaska, summer 1985

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — A total of 136 geese were captured on Buldir. Of this number, 11 died in capture or transplant process. The birds that died represented an eight percent mortality...

  8. Subsurface Completion Report for Amchitka Underground Nuclear Test Sites: Long Shot, Milrow, and Cannikin, Rev. No.: 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Echelard, Tim

    2006-09-01

    Three underground nuclear tests were conducted on Amchitka Island, Alaska, in 1965, 1969, and 1971. The effects of the Long Shot, Milrow, and Cannikin tests on the environment were extensively investigated during and following the detonations, and the area continues to be monitored today. This report is intended to document the basis for the Amchitka Underground Nuclear Test Sites: Long Shot, Milrow, and Cannikin (hereafter referred to as ''Amchitka Site'') subsurface completion recommendation of No Further Remedial Action Planned with Long-Term Surveillance and Maintenance, and define the long-term surveillance and maintenance strategy for the subsurface. A number of factors were considered in evaluating and selecting this recommendation for the Amchitka Site. Historical studies and monitoring data, ongoing monitoring data, the results of groundwater modeling, and the results of an independent stakeholder-guided scientific investigation were also considered in deciding the completion action. Water sampling during and following the testing showed no indication that radionuclides were released to the near surface, or marine environment with the exception of tritium, krypton-85, and iodine-131 found in the immediate vicinity of Long Shot surface ground zero. One year after Long Shot, only tritium was detectable (Merritt and Fuller, 1977). These tritium levels, which were routinely monitored and have continued to decline since the test, are above background levels but well below the current safe drinking water standard. There are currently no feasible means to contain or remove radionuclides in or around the test cavities beneath the sites. Surface remediation was conducted in 2001. Eleven drilling mud pits associated with the Long Shot, Milrow and Cannikin sites were remediated. Ten pits were remediated by stabilizing the contaminants and constructing an impermeable cap over each pit. One pit was remediated by removing all of the contaminated mud

  9. Reindeer and seabird survey of Hagemeister Island, Alaska

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report describes the survey effort on Hagemeister Island in the Alaska Maritime NWR. Hagemeister Island is the second largest Bering Sea Island. Reindeer, red...

  10. Northern fur seal pup weights, Pribilof Islands, Alaska, 1957-present

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This database contains northern fur seal pup mass and length data by date, island, rookery and sex on the Pribilof Islands, Alaska, collected between 1957-2012. Mass...

  11. Bryophytes from Simeonof Island in the Shumagin Islands, southwestern Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schofield, W.B.; Talbot, S. S.; Talbot, S.L.

    2004-01-01

    Simeonof Island is located south of the Alaska Peninsula in the hyperoceanic sector of the middle boreal subzone. We examined the bryoflora of Simeonof Island to determine species composition in an area where no previous collections had been reported. This field study was conducted in sites selected to represent the spectrum of environmental variation within Simeonof Island. Data were analyzed using published reports to compare bryophyte distribution patterns at three levels, the Northern Hemisphere, North America, and Alaska. A total of 271 bryophytes were identified: 202 mosses and 69 liverworts. The annotated list of species for Simeonof Island expands the known range for many species and fills distribution gaps within Hulte??n's Western Pacific Coast district. Maps and notes on the distribution of 14 significant distribution records are presented. Compared with bryophyte distribution in the Northern Hemisphere, the bryoflora of Simeonof Island primarily includes taxa of boreal (55%), temperate (20%), arctic (10%), and cosmopolitan (8%) distribution; 6% of the moss flora are western North America endemics. A description of the bryophytes present in the vegetation and habitat types is provided as is a quantitative analysis of the most frequently occurring bryophytes in crowberry heath.

  12. Geologic map of Saint Lawrence Island, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patton, William W.; Wilson, Frederic H.; Taylor, Theresa A.

    2011-01-01

    Saint Lawrence Island is located in the northern Bering Sea, 190 km southwest of the tip of the Seward Peninsula, Alaska, and 75 km southeast of the Chukotsk Peninsula, Russia (see index map, map sheet). It lies on a broad, shallow-water continental shelf that extends from western Alaska to northeastern Russia. The island is situated on a northwest-trending structural uplift exposing rocks as old as Paleozoic above sea level. The submerged shelf between the Seward Peninsula and Saint Lawrence Island is covered mainly with Cenozoic deposits (Dundo and Egiazarov, 1982). Northeast of the island, the shelf is underlain by a large structural depression, the Norton Basin, which contains as much as 6.5 km of Cenozoic strata (Grim and McManus, 1970; Fisher and others, 1982). Sparse test-well data indicate that the Cenozoic strata are underlain by Paleozoic and Proterozoic rocks, similar to those exposed on the Seward Peninsula (Turner and others, 1983). Saint Lawrence Island is 160 km long in an east-west direction and from 15 km to 55 km wide in a north-south direction. The east end of the island consists largely of a wave-cut platform, which has been elevated as much as 30 m above sea level. Isolated upland areas composed largely of granitic plutons rise as much as 550 m above the wave-cut platform. The central part of the island is dominated by the Kookooligit Mountains, a large Quaternary shield volcano that extends over an area of 850 km2 and rises to an elevation of 630 m. The west end of the island is composed of the Poovoot Range, a group of barren, rubble-covered hills as high as 450 m that extend from Boxer Bay on the southwest coast to Taphook Mountain on the north coast. The Poovoot Range is flanked on the southeast by the Putgut Plateau, a nearly flat, lake-dotted plain that stands 30?60 m above sea level. The west end of the island is marked by uplands underlain by the Sevuokuk pluton (unit Kg), a long narrow granite body that extends from Gambell on the

  13. Amchitka Radiobiological Program progress report, January 1979-December 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thornberg, L.D.; Sibley, T.H.; Nakatani, R.E.

    1980-07-01

    The objective of the Amchitka Radiobiological Program for the period 1970-1979 was to determine the extent of radionuclide contamination from world-wide atmospheric fallout and from the detonation of three underground nuclear blasts on Amchitka Island. The objective is achieved, by the collection and radiological analyses of biological and environmental samples and by background radiation measurements. Leakage of radionuclides from the underground sites of the Amchitka nuclear detonations would be suspected if the contamination was significntly greater than would be expected from world fallout. An account of the program from July 1970 to December 1978 has been given in nine previous reports from the Laboratory of Radiation Ecology to the Nevada Operations Office of the US Department of Energy. This report is an account of the program for calendar year 1979. The results of analyses of the samples collected in 1979 lead to the same conclusions as in previous years; i.e., there is no evidence that the radionuclide contamination at Amchitka Island is greater than would be expected from world fallout except for a slight contamination of the Long Shot Mud Pits with tritium.

  14. St. Lazaria Island Alaska Maritime NWR military contaminants investigations

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — St. Lazaria Island, part of the Alaska Maritime National Wildlife Refuge, has over 540,000 burrow nesting Leach's and fork-tailed storm-petrels (Oceanodroma...

  15. Ecology of Aleutian Canada geese at Buldir Island, Alaska

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The only known breeding population of the endangered Aleutian Canada goose (Branta canadensis leucopareia) was studied from 1974 to 1977 at Buldir Island, Alaska....

  16. Status and management of muskox on Nunivak Island, Alaska

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report is on the status and management of muskox on Nunivak Island, Alaska during 1970. An analysis of the status and management of muskox is summarized,...

  17. Vegetation of eastern Unalaska Island, Aleutian Islands, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talbot, Stephen S.; Schofield, Wilfred B.; Talbot, Sandra L.; Daniëls, Fred J. A.

    2010-01-01

    Plant communities of Unalaska Island in the eastern Aleutian Islands of western Alaska, and their relationship to environmental variables, were studied using a combined Braun-Blanquet and multivariate approach. Seventy relevés represented the range of structural and compositional variation in the matrix of vegetation and landform zonation. Eleven major community types were distinguished within six physiognomic–ecological groups: I. Dry coastal meadows: Honckenya peploides beach meadow, Leymus mollis dune meadow. II. Mesic meadows: Athyrium filix-femina – Aconitum maximum meadow, Athyrium filix-femina – Calamagrostis nutkaensis meadow, Erigeron peregrinus – Thelypteris quelpaertensis meadow. III. Wet snowbed meadow: Carex nigricans snowbed meadow. IV. Heath: Linnaea borealis – Empetrum nigrum heath, Phyllodoce aleutica heath, Vaccinium uliginosum – Thamnolia vermicularis fellfield. V. Mire: Carex pluriflora – Plantago macrocarpa mire. VI. Deciduous shrub thicket: Salix barclayi – Athyrium filix-femina thicket. These were interpreted as a complex gradient primarily influenced by soil moisture, elevation, and pH. Phytogeographical and syntaxonomical analysis of the plant communities indicated that the dry coastal meadows, most of the heaths, and the mire vegetation belonged, respectively, to the widespread classes Honckenyo–Elymetea, Loiseleurio–Vaccinietea, and Scheuchzerio–Caricetea, characterized by their circumpolar and widespread species. Amphi-Beringian species were likely diagnostic of amphi-Beringian syntaxa, many of these yet to be described.

  18. Lichens from Simeonof Wilderness, Shumagin Island, Southwestern Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talbot, Stephen S.; Talbot, Sandra L.; Thomson, J.W.; Daniels, F.J.A.; Schofield, W.B.

    2002-01-01

    One hundred eighty-eight taxa of lichens are reported from Simeonof Island in the Shumagin Islands of southwestern Alaska. Wide-ranging arctic-alpine and boreal species dominate the lichens; a coastal element is moderately represented, while amphi-Beringian species form a minor element. The lichen component of Empetrum nigrum dwarf shrub heath, the dominant vegetation type, was analyzed to identify the most frequently occurring lichens within this community.

  19. 1981 rock ptarmigan census, Adak Island, Alaska

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Most of the Aleutian Islands support populations of rock ptarmigan (Lagopus mutus), where their abundance is believed to be greatly influenced by the abundance of...

  20. Geologic map of Mount Gareloi, Gareloi Island, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coombs, Michelle L.; McGimsey, Robert G.; Browne, Brandon L.

    2012-01-01

    Gareloi Island (lat 51.7° N., long 178.8° W.) is located in the Delarof Islands group of the Aleutian Islands, approximately 2,000 km west-southwest of Anchorage and 150 km west of Adak, the westernmost town in Alaska. This small (~8- x 10-km diam), uninhabited island is constructed exclusively of eruptive products from Mount Gareloi volcano, a Pleistocene and Holocene, steep-sided, composite stratocone that rises 1,573 m (5,161 ft) above sea level (asl). Mount Gareloi has been one of the most active Aleutian volcanoes since its discovery by the Bering expedition in the 1740s, though, because of its remote location, detailed observations of eruptive activity have been scant.

  1. Postglacial vegetation history of Mitkof Island, Alexander Archipelago, southeastern Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ager, Thomas A.; Carrara, Paul E.; Smith, Jane L.; Anne, Victoria; Johnson, Joni

    2010-03-01

    An AMS radiocarbon-dated pollen record from a peat deposit on Mitkof Island, southeastern Alaska provides a vegetation history spanning ˜12,900 cal yr BP to the present. Late Wisconsin glaciers covered the entire island; deglaciation occurred > 15,400 cal yr BP. The earliest known vegetation to develop on the island (˜12,900 cal yr BP) was pine woodland ( Pinus contorta) with alder ( Alnus), sedges (Cyperaceae) and ferns (Polypodiaceae type). By ˜12,240 cal yr BP, Sitka spruce ( Picea sitchensis) began to colonize the island while pine woodland declined. By ˜11,200 cal yr BP, mountain hemlock ( Tsuga mertensiana) began to spread across the island. Sitka spruce-mountain hemlock forests dominated the lowland landscapes of the island until ˜10,180 cal yr BP, when western hemlock ( Tsuga heterophylla) began to colonize, and soon became the dominant tree species. Rising percentages of pine, sedge, and sphagnum after ˜7100 cal yr BP may reflect an expansion of peat bog habitats as regional climate began to shift to cooler, wetter conditions. A decline in alders at that time suggests that coastal forests had spread into the island's uplands, replacing large areas of alder thickets. Cedars ( Chamaecyparis nootkatensis, Thuja plicata) appeared on Mitkof Island during the late Holocene.

  2. Postglacial vegetation history of Mitkof Island, Alexander Archipelago, southeastern Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ager, T.A.; Carrara, P.E.; Smith, Jody L.; Anne, V.; Johnson, J.

    2010-01-01

    An AMS radiocarbon-dated pollen record from a peat deposit on Mitkof Island, southeastern Alaska provides a vegetation history spanning ???12,900??cal yr BP to the present. Late Wisconsin glaciers covered the entire island; deglaciation occurred > 15,400??cal yr BP. The earliest known vegetation to develop on the island (???12,900??cal yr BP) was pine woodland (Pinus contorta) with alder (Alnus), sedges (Cyperaceae) and ferns (Polypodiaceae type). By ???12,240??cal yr BP, Sitka spruce (Picea sitchensis) began to colonize the island while pine woodland declined. By ???11,200??cal yr BP, mountain hemlock (Tsuga mertensiana) began to spread across the island. Sitka spruce-mountain hemlock forests dominated the lowland landscapes of the island until ???10,180??cal yr BP, when western hemlock (Tsuga heterophylla) began to colonize, and soon became the dominant tree species. Rising percentages of pine, sedge, and sphagnum after ???7100??cal yr BP may reflect an expansion of peat bog habitats as regional climate began to shift to cooler, wetter conditions. A decline in alders at that time suggests that coastal forests had spread into the island's uplands, replacing large areas of alder thickets. Cedars (Chamaecyparis nootkatensis, Thuja plicata) appeared on Mitkof Island during the late Holocene.

  3. Capturing, banding and transplanting of Aleutian Canada Geese, Buldir and Agattu Islands, Alaska, 1983

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report describes capturing, banding, and transplanting the Aleutian Canada Good on selected nesting islands in the Aleutian Island Unit of the Alaska Maritime...

  4. Breeding and feeding ecology of pigeon guillemots (Cepphus columba) at Naked Island, Alaska

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report covers the breeding and feeding ecology of the pigeon guillemot at Naked Island, Alaska, as well as surveys of the Naked Island complex. Methods...

  5. Potential emigration of Siberian cattle germplasm on Chirikof Island, Alaska

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    M. D. MACNEIL; L. J. ALEXANDER; J. KANTANEN; I. A. AMMOSOV; Z. I. IVANOVA; R. G. POPOV; M. OZEROV; A. MILLBROOKE; M. A. CRONIN

    2017-03-01

    Feral cattle residing in Chirikof Island, Alaska, are relatively distinct from breeds used in commercial production in North America. However, preliminary evidence suggested that they exhibit substantial genetic relationship with cattle fromYakutian region of Siberia. Thus, our objective was to further elucidate quantify the origins, admixture and divergence of the Chirikof Island cattle relative to cattle from Siberia and USA. Subject animals were genotyped at 15 microsatellite loci.Compared with Turano–Mongolian and North American cattle, Chirikof Island cattle had similar variation, with slightly less observed heterozygosity, fewer alleles per locus and a positive fixation index. Analysis of the genetic distances revealed two primary clusters; one that contained the North American breeds and the Kazakh White head, and a second that contained the Yakutian and Kalmyk breeds, and the Chirikof population. Thus, it is suggested that Chirikof Island cattle may be a composite of British breeds emanating from North America and Turano–Mongolian cattle. A potential founder effect, consistent withhistorical records of the Russian–American period, may contribute to the adaptation of the Chirikof Island cattle to their harsh high-latitude environment. Further study of adaptive mechanisms manifest by these cattle is warranted.

  6. Aleutian Islands Unit : Alaska Maritime National Wildlife Refuge : Annual narrative report : Calendar year 1980

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Aleutian Islands Unit of Alaska Maritime NWR and Bogoslof NWR outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1980 calendar year. The report...

  7. Summer bird use of a barrier island near Prudhoe Bay, Alaska

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The number and distribution of birds near a barrier island west of Prudhoe Bay, Alaska, were recorded during the summer of 1972. Eiders fed and rested in the open...

  8. Survey of waterfowl populations and habitat on Nelson Island, Alaska: Progress report

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report is a progress report on the survey of waterfowl populations and habitat on Nelson Island in Alaska. Aerial surveys and ground surveys are covered....

  9. Reproductive ecology of seabirds at Middleton Island, Alaska, 15-24 June 1983: Trip report

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Middleton Island harbors the largest colony of Pelagic Cormorants and Black-legged Kittiwakes in the Gulf of Alaska. Goals of the study were to assess the current...

  10. Distribution and abundance of breeding seabirds in Chiniak and southern Marmot Bays, Kodiak Island, Alaska, 1975

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — A census survey of breeding seabirds was conducted by boat and airplane in Chiniak and southern Marmot Bays, Kodiak Island, Alaska, from 15 June to 14 August 1975. A...

  11. Spectacled eider (Somateria fischeri) nest records Kashunuk River and Kigigak Island, Alaska, 1991-2004

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Data set containing nest records for Spectacled Eiders near the Kashunuk River and on Kigigak Island, within the Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta, Alaska. Nests were visited...

  12. Mercury, arsenic, cadmium, chromium lead, and selenium in feathers of pigeon guillemots (Cepphus columba) from Prince William Sound and the Aleutian Islands of Alaska

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burger, Joanna [Division of Life Sciences, Rutgers University, 604 Allison Road, Piscataway, New Jersey 08854-8082 (United States); Consortium for Risk Evaluation with Stakeholder Participation (CRESP), Piscataway, New Jersey 08854 (United States); Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences Institute (EOHSI), Piscataway, New Jersey 08854 (United States)], E-mail: burger@biology.rutgers.edu; Gochfeld, Michael [Consortium for Risk Evaluation with Stakeholder Participation (CRESP), Piscataway, New Jersey 08854 (United States); Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences Institute (EOHSI), Piscataway, New Jersey 08854 (United States); Environmental and Occupational Medicine, UMDNJ-Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, Piscataway, New Jersey 08854 (United States); Sullivan, Kelsey [U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, 1011 East Tudor Road, Anchorage, Alaska 99503 (United States); P.O. Box 801, Bethel, Maine, 04217 (United States); Irons, David [U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, 1011 East Tudor Road, Anchorage, Alaska 99503 (United States)

    2007-11-15

    Arsenic, cadmium, chromium, lead, manganese, mercury and selenium were analyzed in the feathers of pigeon guillemots (Cepphus columba) from breeding colonies in Prince William Sound and in the Aleutian Islands (Amchitka, Kiska) to test the null hypothesis that there were no differences in metal levels as a function of location, gender, or whether the birds were from oiled or unoiled areas in Prince William Sound. Birds from locations with oil from the Exxon Valdez Oil Spill in the environment had higher levels of cadmium and lead than those from unoiled places in Prince William Sound, but otherwise there were no differences in metal levels in feathers. The feathers of pigeon guillemots from Prince William Sound had significantly higher levels of cadmium and manganese, but significantly lower levels of mercury than those from Amchitka or Kiska in the Aleutians. Amchitka had the lowest levels of chromium, and Kiska had the highest levels of selenium. There were few gender-related differences, although females had higher levels of mercury and selenium in their feathers than did males. The levels of most metals are below the known effects levels, except for mercury and selenium, which are high enough to potentially pose a risk to pigeon guillemots and to their predators.

  13. Aleutian Canada goose transplant from Buldir Island to Agattu Island, Aleutian Islands, Alaska, summer 1984

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Geese were captured on Buldir Island by searching the upper and lower edge of the lowland tall plant association where tall plants offer cover and short plants offer...

  14. Volcano hazards and potential risks on St. Paul Island, Pribilof Islands, Bering Sea, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feeley, T. C.; Winer, G. S.

    2009-05-01

    Volcano hazards and potential risks on St. Paul Island, Alaska, are assessed on the basis of the recent volcanic history of the island. The long-term frequency of volcanic eruptions is estimated using a count of 40 identifiable vents considered to represent separate eruptions. Assuming regular temporal spacing of these events during the period 360,000 to 3230 y.b.p., the estimated mean recurrence time is 0.11 × 10 - 3 eruption/year and the eruptive interval is approximately 8900 years. Volcano hazards on St. Paul are associated exclusively with the eruption of low viscosity alkali basaltic magma. The most important are lava flows, tephra fallout, and base surges. Other hazards include volcanic gases, seismicity and ground deformation associated with dike intrusion beneath rift zones, and explosive lava-water interactions along coastal regions and water-saturated ground. The general characteristics of past volcanism on St. Paul indicate that the most likely styles of future eruptions will be (1) Hawaiian-style eruptions with fire fountains and pahoehoe lava flows issuing from one of two polygenetic shield volcanoes on the island; (2) Strombolian-style, scoria cone-building eruptions with associated tephra fallout and eruption of short pahoehoe lava flows; and (3) explosive Surtseyan-style, phreatomagmatic eruptions initiating at some point along St. Paul's insular shelf. Given the relatively restricted range in volcanic phenomena on St. Paul, the most significant question regarding volcano hazard and risk assessment is whether future eruptions will be confined to the same region on the island as the most recent activity. If future activity follows the recent past, resulting volcano hazards will most likely be located at inland areas sufficiently far from habitation that they will pose little threat to life or property. An important caveat, however, is that St. Paul is constructed almost entirely from the products of volcanic eruptions with vents located all over

  15. Sea otter studies, field trip to Amchitka Island, March-April 1963: Preliminary summary report of information obtained and activities of BSFW and Alaska Department of Game personnel

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Specimens collected for all sea otters taken by the ADF&G were pelage samples, stomachs, female reproductive tracts, bacula, and testes with epididymis and vas...

  16. Kodiak brown bear population on Kodiak Island, Alaska

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Methods and estimates of the Brown bear population on Kodiak Island. The total number of Kodiak Brown Bears on Kodiak Island has been estimated to be 1669. Three...

  17. Further ecological and shoreline stability reconnaissance surveys of Back Island, Behm Canal, Southeast Alaska

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Young, J.S.; Strand, J.A.; Ecker, R.M.

    1987-09-01

    A diver reconnaissance of the intertidal and subtidal zones of Back Island was performed to catalog potentially vulnerable shellfish, other invertebrates, and marine plant resources occurring at three proposed alternate pier sites on the west side of Back Island. Additionally, a limited survey of terrestrial vegetation was conducted in the vicinity of one of the proposed alternate pier sites to describe the littoral community and to list the dominant plant species found there. Finally, a reconnaissance survey of the shoreline of Back Island was conducted to evaluate potential changes in shoreline stability resulting from construction of onshore portions of the Southeast Alaska Acoustic Measurement Facility (SEAFAC).

  18. Reconnaissance of intertidal and subtidal zones of Back Island, Behm Canal, Southeast Alaska

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strand, J.A.; Young, J.S.

    1986-09-01

    A diver reconnaissance of the intertidal and subtidal zones of Back Island, Southeast Alaska, was performed May 20-22, 1986. The specific objectives were to catalog potentially vulnerable shellfish, other invertebrates, and plant resources, and to identify potential herring spawning sites. This effort was designed to supplement the existing ecological data base for Back Island that would be used during the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) documentation process. A NEPA document will be prepared that describes the site environment and assesses impacts from the proposed construction and operation of the Southeast Alaska Acoustic Measurement Facility (SEAFAC). Nine diver transects were established around Back Island. Particular attention was devoted to proposed locations for the pier and float facilities and range-operations and shore-power cable run-ups.

  19. Screening Risk Assessment for Possible Radionuclides in the Amchitka Marine Environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NNSA/NV

    2002-10-31

    As part of its environmental stewardship program the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is reevaluating three sites where underground nuclear tests were conducted in the deep subsurface of Amchitka Island, Alaska. The tests (i.e., Long Shot, Milrow, and Cannikin) were conducted in 1965, 1969, and 1971, respectively. Extensive investigations were conducted on these tests and their effect on the environment. Evaluations at the time of testing indicated limited release of radionuclides and absence of risk related to the testing; however, these are being reevaluated under the current DOE environmental stewardship program. A screening risk assessment of potential radionuclide release into the marine environment is an important part of this reevaluation. The risk assessment is one of three interrelated activities: a groundwater model and this screening risk assessment, both of which guide the decisions in the third activity, the site closure plan. Thus, the overall objective of the work is to understand, and subsequently manage, any risk to humans and the environment through a closure and long-term stewardship plan. The objective of this screening risk assessment is to predict whether possible releases of radionuclides at the ocean floor would represent potential risks to Native Alaskans by consumption of marine subsistence species. In addition, risks were predicted for consumers of commercial catches of marine organisms. These risks were calculated beginning with estimates of possible radionuclide release at the seafloor (from a groundwater modeling study), into the seawater, through possible uptake by marine organisms, and finally possible consumption by humans. The risk assessment model has 11 elements, progressing from potential release at the seafloor through water and food chains to human intake. Data for each of these elements were systematically found and synthesized from many sources, and represent the best available knowledge. Whenever precise data were lacking

  20. Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) Atlas: Aleutian Islands, Alaska, maps and geographic information systems data (NODC Accession 0014927)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set comprises the Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) maps for the Aleutian Islands, Alaska. ESI data characterize coastal environments and wildlife by...

  1. Aerial survey of sea otters and other marine mammals Alaska Peninsula and Aleutian Islands, 19 April to 9 May 1965

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — An aerial survey, 19 April to 9 May 1965 yielded information on marine animals and birds in the Aleutian Islands and limited areas along the Alaska Peninsula. In...

  2. Migration studies and stock structure of dolly varden in the Chiniak Bay area of Kodiak Island, Alaska: Draft

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — From 1984 through 1989 a total of 31,374 Dolly Varden (Salvelinus malma) in the Chiniak Bay area of Kodiak Island, Alaska were tagged with numbered anchor tags....

  3. An assessment of waterbird populations wintering in Port Frederick, Chichagof Island, Alaska, 19-23 February 1982: Boat surveys

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Information is presented on the waterbird population of Port Frederick, Chichagof Island, Alaska, as revealed by small boat surveys during February 1982. The...

  4. Reproductive ecology of seabirds at Middleton Island, Alaska, summer 1984

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report details field work completed on Middleton Island during the summer of 1984 along with some comparisons between data obtained in 1984 and previous years....

  5. Seabirds of the Wooded Islands, Alaska: Annual report

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Wooded Islands and the surrounding waters are threatened with oil pollution in the near future. Outer Continental Shelf oil and gas exploration has already begun in...

  6. Reproductive ecology of seabirds at Middleton Island, Alaska, summer 1983

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report details field work completed on Middleton Island during the summer of 1983. These data are part of an ongoing study and interpretations of them may well...

  7. A new population of Aleutian shield fern (Polystichum aleuticum C. Christens.) on Adak Island, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talbot, Sandra L.; Talbot, Stephen S.

    2002-01-01

    We report and describe a new population of the endangered Aleutian shield fern (Polystichum aleuticum C. Christens.) discovered on Mount Reed, Adak Island, Alaska. The new population is located at a lower elevation than the other known populations, placing the species' known elevational range between 338 m and 525 m. The discovery of this population is significant because it increases the total number of known populations and individuals for the species.

  8. Four new species of Haplosclerida (Porifera, Demospongiae) from the Aleutian Islands, Alaska.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehnert, Helmut; Stone, Robert P

    2013-01-01

    Four new species of Haplosclerida are described from the Aleutian Islands, Alaska: Callyspongia mucosa n.sp., Cladocroce infundibulum n. sp., Cladocroce attu n. sp. and Cladocroce kiska n. sp. The new species are described and compared to congeners of the region. This is the northernmost record of the genus Callyspongia and the first record of the subgenus Callyspongia from the North Pacific Ocean. To accommodate Cladocroce kiska in its genus the definition has to be broadened to allow sigmas.

  9. Sustaining Sanak Island, Alaska: A Cultural Land Trust

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herbert D. G. Maschner

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Sanak Island is the easternmost of the Aleutian Islands and was inhabited by the Aleut (Unangan peoples for nearly 7000 years. The past few centuries of Sanak Island life for its Aleut residents can be summarized from ethnohistoric documents and extensive interviews with former residents as shifting local-global economic patterns beginning with the sea otter fur trade, followed by cod and salmon fishing, fox farming, and cattle ranching through waves of Russian, American, and Scandinavian authority and/or influence. As the industries changed and the island absorbed new peoples with new goals, Aleut identity and practices also changed as part of these shifting economic and social environments. Sanak Island was abandoned in the 1970s and although uninhabited today, Sanak Island is managed as an important land trust for the island’s descendants that serves local peoples as a marine-scape rich in resources for Aleut subsistence harvesting and as a local heritage site where people draw on the diverse historical influences and legacies. Further, this move from an industrial heritage to contemporary local subsistence economies facilitated by a commercial fishing industry is a unique reversal of development in the region with broad implications for community sustainability among indigenous communities. We find that by being place-focused, rather than place-based, community sustainability can be maintained even in the context of relocation and the loss of traditional villages. This will likely become more common as indigenous peoples adapt to globalization and the forces of global change.

  10. 77 FR 44216 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Crab...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-27

    ... Alaska; Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Crab Rationalization Cost Recovery Program AGENCY: National... recovery under the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Crab Rationalization Program. This action is intended to provide holders of crab allocations with the fee percentage for the 2012/2013 crab fishing year....

  11. 76 FR 43658 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Crab...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-21

    ... Alaska; Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Crab Rationalization Cost Recovery Program AGENCY: National... under the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Crab Rationalization Program. This action is intended to provide holders of crab allocations with the fee percentage for the 2011/2012 crab fishing year so...

  12. 75 FR 43147 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Crab...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-23

    ... Alaska; Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Crab Rationalization Cost Recovery Program AGENCY: National... under the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Crab Rationalization Program. This action is intended to provide holders of crab allocations with the fee percentage for the 2010/2011 crab fishing year so...

  13. 78 FR 46577 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Crab...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-01

    ... Alaska; Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Crab Rationalization Cost Recovery Program AGENCY: National... under the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Crab Rationalization Program. This action is intended to provide holders of crab allocations with the fee percentage for the 2013/2014 crab fishing year so...

  14. 76 FR 55276 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Octopus in the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-07

    ... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Octopus in the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries...; closure. SUMMARY: NMFS is prohibiting retention of octopus in the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands (BSAI). This action is necessary because the 2011 total allowable catch of octopus in the BSAI has been...

  15. Introduced arctic fox eradication at Rat Island, Aleutian Islands, Alaska, summer 1984

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Mechanical means similar to those employed on Amata Island during the summer of 1983 were used to attempt eradication of fox on Rat Island. These labor intensive...

  16. Uplift and subsidence reveal a nonpersistent megathrust rupture boundary (Sitkinak Island, Alaska)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briggs, Richard W.; Engelhart, Simon E.; Nelson, Alan R.; Dura, Tina; Kemp, Andrew C.; Haeussler, Peter J.; Corbett, D. Reide; Angster, Stephen J.; Bradley, Lee-Ann

    2014-01-01

    We report stratigraphic evidence of land-level change and tsunami inundation along the Alaska-Aleutian megathrust during prehistoric and historical earthquakes west of Kodiak Island. On Sitkinak Island, cores and tidal outcrops fringing a lagoon reveal five sharp lithologic contacts that record coseismic land-level change. Radiocarbon dates, 137Cs profiles, CT scans, and microfossil assemblages are consistent with rapid uplift ca. 290-0, 520-300, and 1050-790 cal yr BP, and subsidence in AD 1964 and ca. 640-510 cal yr BP. Radiocarbon, 137Cs, and 210Pb ages bracketing a sand bed traced 1.5 km inland and evidence for sudden uplift are consistent with Russian accounts of an earthquake and tsunami in AD 1788. The mixed uplift and subsidence record suggests that Sitkinak Island sits above a non-persistent boundary near the southwestern limit of the AD 1964 Mw 9.2 megathrust rupture.

  17. Environmental Assessment of the Kodiak Launch Complex, Kodiak Island, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-05-01

    navigational aid tower and support buildings, and recreation (hunting, birdwatching , fishing, fossil collecting, whale-watching). Principal proposed KLC...envisioned market expansion. A consequence of not increasing U.S. infrastructure capacity could be loss of business to foreign competitors; therefore... birdwatching , fishing, fossil collecting, whale-watching). The state-owned, uninhabited Ugak Island is located approximately 5.3 kilometers (3.3

  18. Timing and causes of mid-Holocene mammoth extinction on St. Paul Island, Alaska.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Russell W; Belmecheri, Soumaya; Choy, Kyungcheol; Culleton, Brendan J; Davies, Lauren J; Froese, Duane; Heintzman, Peter D; Hritz, Carrie; Kapp, Joshua D; Newsom, Lee A; Rawcliffe, Ruth; Saulnier-Talbot, Émilie; Shapiro, Beth; Wang, Yue; Williams, John W; Wooller, Matthew J

    2016-08-16

    Relict woolly mammoth (Mammuthus primigenius) populations survived on several small Beringian islands for thousands of years after mainland populations went extinct. Here we present multiproxy paleoenvironmental records to investigate the timing, causes, and consequences of mammoth disappearance from St. Paul Island, Alaska. Five independent indicators of extinction show that mammoths survived on St. Paul until 5,600 ± 100 y ago. Vegetation composition remained stable during the extinction window, and there is no evidence of human presence on the island before 1787 CE, suggesting that these factors were not extinction drivers. Instead, the extinction coincided with declining freshwater resources and drier climates between 7,850 and 5,600 y ago, as inferred from sedimentary magnetic susceptibility, oxygen isotopes, and diatom and cladoceran assemblages in a sediment core from a freshwater lake on the island, and stable nitrogen isotopes from mammoth remains. Contrary to other extinction models for the St. Paul mammoth population, this evidence indicates that this mammoth population died out because of the synergistic effects of shrinking island area and freshwater scarcity caused by rising sea levels and regional climate change. Degradation of water quality by intensified mammoth activity around the lake likely exacerbated the situation. The St. Paul mammoth demise is now one of the best-dated prehistoric extinctions, highlighting freshwater limitation as an overlooked extinction driver and underscoring the vulnerability of small island populations to environmental change, even in the absence of human influence.

  19. Genetic differentiation of the Kittlitz's Murrelet Brachyramphus brevirostris in the Aleutian Islands and Gulf of Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birt, T.P.; Mackinnon, D.; Piatt, J.F.; Friesen, V.L.

    2011-01-01

    Information about the distribution of genetic variation within and among local populations of the Kittlitz's Murrelet Brachyramphus brevirostris is needed for effective conservation of this rare and declining species. We compared variation in a 429 base pair fragment of the mitochondrial control region and 11 microsatellite loci among 53 Kittlitz's Murrelets from three sites in the western Aleutian Islands (Attu Island) and Gulf of Alaska (Glacier Bay and Kachemak Bay). We found that birds in these two regions differ genetically in three assessments: (1) global and pairwise indices of genetic differentiation were significantly greater than zero, (2) mitochondrial haplotypes differed by a minimum of nine substitutions, and (3) molecular assignments indicated little gene flow between regions. The data suggest that birds in these regions have been genetically isolated for an extended period. We conclude that Kittlitz's Murrelets from Attu Island and from the Gulf of Alaska represent separate evolutionarily significant units, and should be treated as such for conservation. Genetic data for Kittlitz's Murrelets from the remainder of the breeding range are urgently needed.

  20. Aleutian Canada goose survey at Alaid and Nizki Islands, Near Island Group, Aleutian Islands, Alaska, spring 1984

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Arctic foxes, introduced to Alaid and Nizki islands in 1911, 1920 and 1935, were removed from the two islands in 1975 and 1976 by means of shooting and trapping...

  1. Aleutian Canada geese banding at Chagulak Island, Aleutian Islands, Alaska, summer 1984

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This project captured and banded twenty Aleutian Canada geese on Chagulak Island to help determine their wintering grounds and capture two additional birds for...

  2. Initial arctic fox eradication program on Amukta Island, Aleutian Islands, Alaska 1983

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The recent discovery of a second wild breeding population of the endangered Aleutian Canada goose (Branta canadensis leucopareia) on Chagulak Island suggested the...

  3. Bird and mammal observations at Nizki and Alaid Islands, Aleutian Islands, Alaska, spring and summer 1990

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Nizki and Alaid islands (Fig. 1) were selected as a study area in 1975 to document the response of native bird populations after removal of introduced arctic foxes...

  4. Sources of organochlorine contaminants and mercury in seabirds from the Aleutian archipelago of Alaska: Inferences from spatial and trophic variation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricca, Mark A.; Miles, A. Keith; Anthony, Robert G.

    2008-01-01

    Persistent organochlorine compounds and mercury (Hg) have been detected in numerous coastal organisms of the Aleutian archipelago of Alaska, yet sources of these contaminants are unclear. We collected glaucous-winged gulls, northern fulmars, and tufted puffins along a natural longitudinal gradient across the western and central Aleutian Islands (Buldir, Kiska, Amchitka, Adak), and an additional 8 seabird species representing different foraging and migratory guilds from Buldir Island to evaluate: 1) point source input from former military installations, 2) westward increases in contaminant concentrations suggestive of distant source input, and 3) effects of trophic status (δ15N) and carbon source (δ13C) on contaminant accumulation. Concentrations of Σ polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and most chlorinated pesticides in glaucous-winged gulls consistently exhibited a ‘U’-shaped pattern of high levels at Buldir and the east side of Adak and low levels at Kiska and Amchitka. In contrast, concentrations of Σ PCBs and chlorinated pesticides in northern fulmars and tufted puffins did not differ among islands. Hg concentrations increased westward in glaucous-winged gulls and were highest in northern fulmars from Buldir. Among species collected only at Buldir, Hg was notably elevated in pelagic cormorants, and relatively high Σ PCBs were detected in black-legged kittiwakes. Concentrations of Σ PCBs, dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (p,p′ DDE), and Hg were positively correlated with δ15N across all seabird species, indicating biomagnification across trophic levels. The east side of Adak Island (a former military installation) was a likely point source of Σ PCBs and p,p′ DDE, particularly in glaucous-winged gulls. In contrast, elevated levels of these contaminants and Hg, along with PCB congener and chlorinated pesticide compositional patterns detected at Buldir Island indicated exposure from distant sources influenced by a combination of atmospheric

  5. 78 FR 59908 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Management...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-30

    ... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Management Area; Amendment 99 AGENCY: National... more efficient vessels that are able to meet modern vessel safety standards. This action is intended to... review and comment. NMFS manages the U.S. groundfish fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ)...

  6. 76 FR 47155 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Crab...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-04

    ... Alaska; Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Crab Rationalization Program; Public Meeting AGENCY: National... crab fisheries managed under the BSAI Crab Rationalization program. The CIE, operated by Northern Taiga... products. The BSAI Crab Economic Data Report (EDR) program administered by NMFS began collecting...

  7. 76 FR 17088 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Crab...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-28

    ... published on March 2, 2005 (70 FR 10174), and are located at 50 CFR part 680. Regulations implementing the... 2011 and 2012 harvest specifications (75 FR 76352, December 8, 2010), NMFS will publish the final... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Crab Rationalization Program AGENCY:...

  8. 75 FR 7205 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Crab...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-18

    ... final rule implementing the Crab Rationalization Program (Program) was published on March 2, 2005 (70 FR... fishery would be caused in the time it would take to follow standard rulemaking procedures (62 FR 44421... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Crab Rationalization Program; Emergency...

  9. Feasibility of Tidal and Ocean Current Energy in False Pass, Aleutian Islands, Alaska final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wright, Bruce Albert [Aleutian Pribilof Islands Association, Inc., Anchorage, AK (United States)

    2014-05-07

    The Aleutian Pribilof Islands Association was awarded a U.S. Department of Energy Tribal Energy Program grant (DE-EE0005624) for the Feasibility of Tidal and Ocean Current Energy in False Pass, Aleutian Islands, Alaska (Project). The goal of the Project was to perform a feasibility study to determine if a tidal energy project would be a viable means to generate electricity and heat to meet long-term fossil fuel use reduction goals, specifically to produce at least 30% of the electrical and heating needs of the tribally-owned buildings in False Pass. The Project Team included the Aleut Region organizations comprised of the Aleutian Pribilof Island Association (APIA), and Aleutian Pribilof Island Community Development Association (APICDA); the University of Alaska Anchorage, ORPC Alaska a wholly-owned subsidiary of Ocean Renewable Power Company (ORPC), City of False Pass, Benthic GeoScience, and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). The following Project objectives were completed: collected existing bathymetric, tidal, and ocean current data to develop a basic model of current circulation at False Pass, measured current velocities at two sites for a full lunar cycle to establish the viability of the current resource, collected data on transmission infrastructure, electrical loads, and electrical generation at False Pass, performed economic analysis based on current costs of energy and amount of energy anticipated from and costs associated with the tidal energy project conceptual design and scoped environmental issues. Utilizing circulation modeling, the Project Team identified two target sites with strong potential for robust tidal energy resources in Isanotski Strait and another nearer the City of False Pass. In addition, the Project Team completed a survey of the electrical infrastructure, which identified likely sites of interconnection and clarified required transmission distances from the tidal energy resources. Based on resource and electrical data

  10. Paleogene geology and chronology of southwestern Umnak Island, Aleutian Islands, Alaska ( USA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLean, H.; Hein, J.R.

    1984-01-01

    A slightly deformed marine sedimentary sequence reflecting volcanic arc sedimentation from late Eocene to early Oligocene is intruded by hypabyssal quartz diorite sills and small plutons with apparent ages of about 30 Ma, ie, middle Oligocene. Chemical data from igneous rocks exhibit calc-alkaline and tholeiitic volcanic arc differentiation trends. The fossil ages and radiometric dates from SW Umnak Island are similar to those reported from other central and E Aleutian islands, and indicate uniformity in the chronology and tectonic development of the archipelago during the Paleogene. Paleomagnetic data suggest possible northward movement but remain equivocal and more work is indicated. -after Authors

  11. Killer whale surveys conducted in the Aleutian Islands, Bering Sea, and western and central Gulf of Alaska by Alaska Fisheries Science Center, National Marine Mammal Laboratory from 2001-07-01 to 2010-07-12 (NCEI Accession 0137766)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset is a compilation of line-transect data collected on surveys in the Aleutian Islands, Bering Sea, and western and central Gulf of Alaska, 2001 - 2010....

  12. Tsunami recurrence in the eastern Alaska-Aleutian arc: A Holocene stratigraphic record from Chirikof Island, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Alan R.; Briggs, Richard; Dura, Tina; Engelhart, Simon E.; Gelfenbaum, Guy; Bradley, Lee-Ann; Forman, S.L.; Vane, Christopher H.; Kelley, K.A.

    2015-01-01

    cannot estimate source earthquake locations or magnitudes for most tsunami-deposited beds. We infer that no more than 3 of the 23 possible tsunamis beds at both sites were deposited following upper plate faulting or submarine landslides independent of megathrust earthquakes. If so, the Semidi segment of the Alaska-Aleutian megathrust near Chirikof Island probably sent high tsunamis southward every 180–270 yr for at least the past 3500 yr.                   

  13. Aleutian Canada goose survey at Agattu Island, Aleutian Islands, Alaska, spring 1984

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Between 26 May and 24 June 1984 two personnel were stationed at the base camp cabin in Aga Cove along the eastern shore of Agattu Island. Working from the base camp,...

  14. The Suckling Hills Fault, Kayak Island Zone, and accretion of the Yakutat microplate, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, James B.; Worthington, Lindsay L.; Pavlis, Terry L.; Bruhn, Ronald L.; Gulick, Sean P.

    2011-12-01

    The Suckling Hills and Kayak Island are isolated mountain blocks located along strike from each other within the foreland of the St. Elias orogen in southern Alaska. These blocks preserve an erosional surface that was deformed by slip on northwest-dipping reverse faults in the Pleistocene. We suggest that the Suckling Hills Fault and Kayak Island Zone form a segmented fault network that links with the Bering Glacier structure to the north. This fault network separates the central Yakataga fold and thrust belt from complex, multiply deformed structures in the western syntaxis. Ongoing accretion of the Yakutat microplate to North America results in translation of structures of the fold and thrust belt into the western syntaxis. The composite Suckling Hills Fault, Kayak Island Zone, and Bering Glacier structure may have formed because the older structures of the fold and thrust belt were unfavorably oriented within the western syntaxis region. This pattern of deformation provides a template for understanding the complex deformation within the core of the western syntaxis and predicts refolding and straightening of the western syntaxis margin with continued accretion. This study provides an analog for structural overprinting and changing deformation patterns through time in orogenic corners.

  15. New species of sponges (Porifera, Demospongiae) from the Aleutian Islands and Gulf of Alaska.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehnert, Helmut; Stone, Robert P

    2015-10-27

    Ten new species of demosponges, assigned to the orders Poecilosclerida, Axinellida and Dictyoceratida, discovered in the Gulf of Alaska and along the Aleutian Island Archipelago are described and compared to relevant congeners. Poecilosclerida include Cornulum globosum n. sp., Megaciella lobata n. sp., M. triangulata n. sp., Artemisina clavata n. sp., A. flabellata n. sp., Coelosphaera (Histodermion) kigushimkada n. sp., Stelodoryx mucosa n. sp. and S. siphofuscus n. sp. Axinellida is represented by Raspailia (Hymeraphiopsis) fruticosa n. sp. and Dictyoceratida is represented by Dysidea kenkriegeri n. sp. The genus Cornulum is modified to allow for smooth tylotes. We report several noteworthy biogeographical observations. We describe only the third species within the subgenus Histodermion and the first from the Indo-Pacific Region. Additionally, the subgenus Hymerhaphiopsis was previously represented by only a single species from Antarctica. We also report the first record of a dictyoceratid species from Alaska. The new collections further highlight the richness of the sponge fauna from the region, particularly for the Poecilosclerida.

  16. Refraction studies between Icy Bay and Kayak Island, eastern Gulf of Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayer, K.C.; Mattick, R.E.; Bruns, T.R.; Plafker, George

    1978-01-01

    Results of five seismic refraction lines shot by the U.S. Geological Survey in the Gulf of Alaska between Icy Bay and Kayak Island indicate the following: (1) The Continental Shelf is underlain by as much as 11 km of sedimentary rock of probable Tertiary age where refraction velocities range from 1.2 to 5.5 kilometers per second; (2) a section approximately 5 km thick, which has velocities of 4.1-5.5 km/s and which could represent the Orca Group (lower Tertiary), is present in the western part of the study area but not in the eastern part; and (3) consistent basement velocities of approximately 7.0 km/s could indicate oceanic crust underlying the continental margin.

  17. Gap winds and their effects on regional oceanography Part II: Kodiak Island, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladd, Carol; Cheng, Wei; Salo, Sigrid

    2016-10-01

    Frequent gap winds, defined here as offshore-directed flow channeled through mountain gaps, have been observed near Kodiak Island in the Gulf of Alaska (GOA). Gap winds from the Iliamna Lake gap were investigated using QuikSCAT wind data. The influence of these wind events on the regional ocean was examined using satellite and in situ data combined with Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS) model runs. Gap winds influence the entire shelf width (> 200 km) northeast of Kodiak Island and extend an additional ~150 km off-shelf. Due to strong gradients in the along-shelf direction, they can result in vertical velocities in the ocean of over 20 m d-1 due to Ekman pumping. The wind events also disrupt flow of the Alaska Coastal Current (ACC), resulting in decreased flow down Shelikof Strait and increased velocities on the outer shelf. This disruption of the ACC has implications for freshwater transport into the Bering Sea. The oceanographic response to gap winds may influence the survival of larval fishes as Arrowtooth Flounder recruitment is negatively correlated with the interannual frequency of gap-wind events, and Pacific Cod recruitment is positively correlated. The frequency of offshore directed winds exhibits a strong seasonal cycle averaging ~7 days per month during winter and ~2 days per month during summer. Interannual variability is correlated with the Pacific North America Index and shows a linear trend, increasing by 1.35 days per year. An accompanying paper discusses part I of our study (Ladd and Cheng, 2016) focusing on gap-wind events flowing out of Cross Sound in the eastern GOA.

  18. AFSC/NMML: Killer whale surveys in the Aleutian Islands, Bering Sea, and western and central Gulf of Alaska, 2001 - 2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset is a compilation of line-transect data collected on surveys in the Aleutian Islands, Bering Sea, and western and central Gulf of Alaska, 2001 - 2010....

  19. Brucella placentitis and seroprevalence in northern fur seals (Callorhinus ursinus) of the Pribilof Islands, Alaska.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Colleen G; Tiller, Rebekah; Mathis, Demetrius; Stoddard, Robyn; Kersh, Gilbert J; Dickerson, Bobette; Gelatt, Tom

    2014-05-01

    Brucella species infect a wide range of hosts with a broad spectrum of clinical manifestations. In mammals, one of the most significant consequences of Brucella infection is reproductive failure. There is evidence of Brucella exposure in many species of marine mammals, but the outcome of infection is often challenging to determine. The eastern Pacific stock of northern fur seals (NFSs, Callorhinus ursinus) has declined significantly, spawning research into potential causes for this trend, including investigation into reproductive health. The objective of the current study was to determine if NFSs on St. Paul Island, Alaska have evidence of Brucella exposure or infection. Archived DNA extracted from placentas (n = 119) and serum (n = 40) samples were available for testing by insertion sequence (IS) 711 polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and the Brucella microagglutination test (BMAT), respectively. As well, placental tissue was available for histologic examination. Six (5%) placentas were positive by PCR, and a single animal had severe placentitis. Multilocus variable number tandem repeat analysis profiles were highly clustered and closely related to other Brucella pinnipedialis isolates. A single animal was positive on BMAT, and 12 animals had titers within the borderline range; 1 borderline animal was positive by PCR on serum. The findings suggest that NFSs on the Pribilof Islands are exposed to Brucella and that the organism has the ability to cause severe placental disease. Given the population trend of the NFS, and the zoonotic nature of this pathogen, further investigation into the epidemiology of this disease is recommended.

  20. Glaucous-winged gull nesting on Amchitka Island

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The glaucous-winged gull (Larus glaucescens) is the most common gull in the north Pacific (Bent 1921, Murie 1959). It is also one of the most abundant permanent...

  1. Alaska High School Students Integrate Forest Ecology, Glacial Landscape Dynamics, and Human Maritime History in a Field Mapping Course at Cape Decision Lighthouse, Kuiu Island, Southeast Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connor, C. L.; Carstensen, R.; Domke, L.; Donohoe, S.; Clark, A.; Cordero, D.; Otsea, C.; Hakala, M.; Parks, R.; Lanwermeyer, S.; Discover Design Research (Ddr)

    2010-12-01

    Alaskan 10th and 11th graders earned college credit at Cape Decision Lighthouse as part of a 12-day, summer field research experience. Students and faculty flew to the southern tip of Kuiu Island located 388 km south of Juneau. Kuiu is the largest uninhabited island in southeastern Alaska. This field-based, introduction-to-research course was designed to engage students in the sciences and give them skills in technology, engineering, and mathematics. Two faculty, a forest naturalist and a geologist, introduced the students to the use of hand held GPS receivers, GIS map making, field note-taking and documentary photography, increment borer use, and soil studies techniques. Daily surveys across the region, provided onsite opportunities for the faculty to introduce the high schoolers to the many dimensions of forest ecology and plant succession. Students collected tree cores using increment borers to determine “release dates” providing clues to past wind disturbance. They discovered the influence of landscape change on the forest by digging soil pits and through guided interpretation of bedrock outcrops. The students learned about glacially influenced hydrology in forested wetlands during peat bog hikes. They developed an eye for geomorphic features along coastal traverses, which helped them to understand the influences of uplift through faulting and isostatic rebound in this tectonically active and once glaciated area. They surveyed forest patches to distinguish between regions of declining yellow-cedar from wind-disturbed spruce forests. The students encountered large volumes of primarily plastic marine debris, now stratified by density and wave energy, throughout the southern Kuiu intertidal zone. They traced pre-European Alaska Native subsistence use of the area, 19th and 20th century Alaska Territorial Maritime history, and learned about the 21st century radio tracking of over 10,000 commercial vessels by the Marine Exchange of Alaska from its many stations

  2. Simulation of Beach Hydraulics for Smith Island, Prince William Sound, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, B.; Boufadel, M. C.; Bobo, A. M.

    2009-12-01

    We investigated beach hydraulics in a gravel beach on Smith Island, Prince William Sound, Alaska that was previously polluted with the Exxon Valdez oil spill in 1989. The beach contains Heavy Oil Residue (HOR) in the lower intertidal zone. The slope of the beach decreases in the seaward direction. Measurements of water pressure and salinity were analyzed and simulated using the model SUTRA (Saturated-Unsaturated Groundwater Flow and Solute Transport Model). The results indicated that the beach consists of two layers with contrasting hydraulic properties: an upper layer with a high hydraulic conductivity, on the order of a few centimeter per second and a lower layer whose hydraulic conductivity is around three orders of magnitude lower. The lingering of oil in the lower intertidal zone is probably due to the decrease in slope in that region, which resulted in small flow in that region that brings nutrients and oxygen to the oil. Thus, it is likely that the oil has not degraded due to stochiometric limitation rather than kinetic limitation.

  3. 2008 Volcanic activity in Alaska, Kamchatka, and the Kurile Islands: Summary of events and response of the Alaska Volcano Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neal, Christina A.; McGimsey, Robert G.; Dixon, James P.; Cameron, Cheryl E.; Nuzhdaev, Anton A.; Chibisova, Marina

    2011-01-01

    The Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO) responded to eruptions, possible eruptions, and volcanic unrest or suspected unrest at seven separate volcanic centers in Alaska during 2008. Significant explosive eruptions at Okmok and Kasatochi Volcanoes in July and August dominated Observatory operations in the summer and autumn. AVO maintained 24-hour staffing at the Anchorage facility from July 12 through August 28. Minor eruptive activity continued at Veniaminof and Cleveland Volcanoes. Observed volcanic unrest at Cook Inlet's Redoubt Volcano presaged a significant eruption in the spring of 2009. AVO staff also participated in hazard communication regarding eruptions or unrest at nine volcanoes in Russia as part of a collaborative role in the Kamchatka and Sakhalin Volcanic Eruption Response Teams.

  4. Climate program "stone soup": Assessing climate change vulnerabilities in the Aleutian and Bering Sea Islands of Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Littell, J. S.; Poe, A.; van Pelt, T.

    2015-12-01

    Climate change is already affecting the Bering Sea and Aleutian Island region of Alaska. Past and present marine research across a broad spectrum of disciplines is shedding light on what sectors of the ecosystem and the human dimension will be most impacted. In a grassroots approach to extend existing research efforts, leveraging recently completed downscaled climate projections for the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands region, we convened a team of 30 researchers-- with expertise ranging from anthropology to zooplankton to marine mammals-- to assess climate projections in the context of their expertise. This Aleutian-Bering Climate Vulnerability Assessment (ABCVA) began with researchers working in five teams to evaluate the vulnerabilities of key species and ecosystem services relative to projected changes in climate. Each team identified initial vulnerabilities for their focal species or services, and made recommendations for further research and information needs that would help managers and communities better understand the implications of the changing climate in this region. Those draft recommendations were shared during two focused, public sessions held within two hub communities for the Bering and Aleutian region: Unalaska and St. Paul. Qualitative insights about local concerns and observations relative to climate change were collected during these sessions, to be compared to the recommendations being made by the ABCVA team of researchers. Finally, we used a Structured Decision Making process to prioritize the recommendations of participating scientists, and integrate the insights shared during our community sessions. This work brought together residents, stakeholders, scientists, and natural resource managers to collaboratively identify priorities for addressing current and expected future impacts of climate change. Recommendations from this project will be incorporated into future research efforts of the Aleutian and Bering Sea Islands Landscape Conservation

  5. New glass sponges (Porifera: Hexactinellida) from deep waters of the central Aleutian Islands, Alaska.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiswig, Henry M; Stone, Robert P

    2013-01-01

    Hexactinellida from deep-water communities of the central Aleutian Islands, Alaska, are described. They were mostly collected by the remotely operated vehicle 'Jason II' from 494–2311 m depths during a 2004 RV 'Roger Revelle' expedition, but one shallow-water species collected with a shrimp trawl from 155 m in the same area is included. The excellent condition of the ROV-collected specimens enabled valuable redescription of some species previously known only from badly damaged specimens. New taxa include one new genus and eight new species in five families. Farreidae consist of two new species, Farrea aleutiana and F. aspondyla. Euretidae consists of only Pinulasma fistulosum n. gen., n. sp. Tretodictyidae include only Tretodictyum amchitkensis n. sp. Euplectellidae consists of only the widespread species Regadrella okinoseana Ijima, reported here over 3,700 km from its closest previously known occurrence. The most diverse family, Rossellidae, consists of Aulosaccus ijimai (Schulze), Aulosaccus schulzei Ijima, Bathydorus sp. (young stage not determinable to species), Caulophacus (Caulophacus) adakensis n. sp., Acanthascus koltuni n. sp., Staurocalyptus psilosus n. sp., Staurocalyptus tylotus n. sp. and Rhabdocalyptus mirabilis Schulze. We present argument for reinstatement of the abolished rossellid subfamily Acanthascinae and return of the subgenera  Staurocalyptus Ijima and Rhabdocalyptus Schulze to their previous generic status. These fauna provides important complexity to the hard substrate communities that likely serve as nursery areas for the young stages of commercially important fish and crab species, refuge from predation for both young and adult stages, and also as a focal source of prey for juvenile and adult stages of those same species.

  6. Chronic hydrocarbon exposure of harlequin ducks in areas affected by the Selendang Ayu oil spill at Unalaska Island, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flint, Paul L.; Schamber, J.L.; Trust, K.A.; Miles, A.K.; Henderson, J.D.; Wilson, B.W.

    2012-01-01

    We evaluated chronic exposure of harlequin ducks (Histrionicus histrionicus) to hydrocarbons associated with the 2004 M/V Selendang Ayu oil spill at Unalaska Island, Alaska. We measured levels of hepatic 7-ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase activity (EROD) in liver biopsy samples as an indicator of hydrocarbon exposure in three oiled bays and one reference bay in 2005, 2006, and 2008. Median EROD activity in ducks from oiled bays was significantly higher than in the reference bay in seven of nine pairwise comparisons. These results indicated that harlequin ducks were exposed to lingering hydrocarbons more than three years after the spill.

  7. Verification and Uncertainty Reduction of Amchitka Underground Nuclear Testing Models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmed Hassan; Jenny Chapman

    2006-02-01

    The modeling of Amchitka underground nuclear tests conducted in 2002 is verified and uncertainty in model input parameters, as well as predictions, has been reduced using newly collected data obtained by the summer 2004 field expedition of CRESP. Newly collected data that pertain to the groundwater model include magnetotelluric (MT) surveys conducted on the island to determine the subsurface salinity and porosity structure of the subsurface, and bathymetric surveys to determine the bathymetric maps of the areas offshore from the Long Shot and Cannikin Sites. Analysis and interpretation of the MT data yielded information on the location of the transition zone, and porosity profiles showing porosity values decaying with depth. These new data sets are used to verify the original model in terms of model parameters, model structure, and model output verification. In addition, by using the new data along with the existing data (chemistry and head data), the uncertainty in model input and output is decreased by conditioning on all the available data. A Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) approach is adapted for developing new input parameter distributions conditioned on prior knowledge and new data. The MCMC approach is a form of Bayesian conditioning that is constructed in such a way that it produces samples of the model parameters that eventually converge to a stationary posterior distribution. The Bayesian MCMC approach enhances probabilistic assessment. Instead of simply propagating uncertainty forward from input parameters into model predictions (i.e., traditional Monte Carlo approach), MCMC propagates uncertainty backward from data onto parameters, and then forward from parameters into predictions. Comparisons between new data and the original model, and conditioning on all available data using MCMC method, yield the following results and conclusions: (1) Model structure is verified at Long Shot and Cannikin where the high-resolution bathymetric data collected by CRESP

  8. The recent marine sedimentary record of Baranof Island, Southeast Alaska - implications for paleoclimate reconstructions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Addison, J. A.; Finney, B. P.; Jaeger, J. M.; Stoner, J. S.; Norris, R. D.; Hangsterfer, A.

    2011-12-01

    Modern and paleoclimate studies suggest a correlation between Pacific decadal climate variability and marine ecosystem productivity, but are generally limited by either short periods of observation or low temporal resolution. Long, annually resolved paleoclimate time-series data are thus critical for assessing this correlation and understanding the full range of Pacific climate variability and its impacts. Baranof Island is located in the Alexander Archipelago of Southeast Alaska, and contains many temperate ice-free fjords with shallow sills that enhance organic matter preservation by restricting oxygenation of bottom waters. Multicore samples EW0408-32MC and 43MC were recovered from two fjords on Baranof Island, and analyzed to determine how recent sedimentation patterns relate to the instrument record as a first step towards reconstructing high-latitude Pacific climate at annual timescales. A combination of radiometric 137Cs and excess 210Pb geochronometry, 3D computerized tomography (CT), and high-resolution Avaatech scanning XRF geochemical analyses were used to investigate this relationship. Scanning XRF data were collected every 2 mm on core 32MC, while 43MC was measured at 0.2 mm intervals. Core 32MC is composed of a diffusely laminated to bioturbated clay with a maximum apparent steady-state sedimentation rate of ~5±1 mm/yr, while core 43MC is a strongly laminated diatom ooze with a maximum apparent sedimentation rate of ~6±0.5 mm/yr. Using conservative estimates of accumulation to assess basal ages of the cores yields approximately ~AD 1930 for 32MC, and ~AD 1900 for 43MC. Scanning XRF centered natural log-ratio transformed [clr] element intensities indicate 32MC is controlled by a balance between detrital (Al, Si, K, Ti, Fe, and Ca) and biogenic components (S and Br), and isolated peaks in clr Ca data correspond with CT-visible shell debris. Core 43MC is more complex, with both XRF and CT scans indicating four distinct lithologies: (i) millimeter

  9. Sea otter survey, Cordova, Alaska - 1987 (Orca Inlet to Egg Island Channel)

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Until recently, sea otters had been absent or at low levels in the vicinity of human populations in Alaska. This situation has changed. As sea otters have expanded...

  10. 1984 Pacific walrus harvest, health, and welfare study at Little Diomede Island, Alaska: Progress report

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report is a progress update on the Pacific walrus harvest study that has been conducted in Diomede, Alaska in previous years. Study methods and results are...

  11. Summer Diet, Feeding Site Selection, and Forage Resources of Mountain Goats on Kodiak Island, Alaska

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report discusses managing mountain goat populations and their habitats on Kodiak Island. Introduced mountain goats (Oreamnus americanus) on Kodiak Island...

  12. Irruptive dynamics of introduced caribou on Adak Island, Alaska: an evaluation of Riney-Caughley model predictions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricca, Mark A.; Van Vuren, Dirk H.; Weckerly, Floyd W.; Williams, Jeffrey C.; Miles, A. Keith

    2014-01-01

    Large mammalian herbivores introduced to islands without predators are predicted to undergo irruptive population and spatial dynamics, but only a few well-documented case studies support this paradigm. We used the Riney-Caughley model as a framework to test predictions of irruptive population growth and spatial expansion of caribou (Rangifer tarandus granti) introduced to Adak Island in the Aleutian archipelago of Alaska in 1958 and 1959. We utilized a time series of spatially explicit counts conducted on this population intermittently over a 54-year period. Population size increased from 23 released animals to approximately 2900 animals in 2012. Population dynamics were characterized by two distinct periods of irruptive growth separated by a long time period of relative stability, and the catalyst for the initial irruption was more likely related to annual variation in hunting pressure than weather conditions. An unexpected pattern resembling logistic population growth occurred between the peak of the second irruption in 2005 and the next survey conducted seven years later in 2012. Model simulations indicated that an increase in reported harvest alone could not explain the deceleration in population growth, yet high levels of unreported harvest combined with increasing density-dependent feedbacks on fecundity and survival were the most plausible explanation for the observed population trend. No studies of introduced island Rangifer have measured a time series of spatial use to the extent described in this study. Spatial use patterns during the post-calving season strongly supported Riney-Caughley model predictions, whereby high-density core areas expanded outwardly as population size increased. During the calving season, caribou displayed marked site fidelity across the full range of population densities despite availability of other suitable habitats for calving. Finally, dispersal and reproduction on neighboring Kagalaska Island represented a new dispersal front

  13. Temperature and salinity profile data from NOAA Ship Rainier and its launches collected in the vicinity of the Shumagin Islands, Alaska, 2006-06 to 2006-08 (NCEI Accession 0002826)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile data were collected using CTD casts from NOAA Ship RAINIER in the vicinity of Shumagin Islands in Alaska from 27 June 2006 to 25 August 2006....

  14. Temperature and salinity profile data from CTD casts from NOAA Ship RAINIER west of Sitka Island, Alaska, from 2008-05-18 to 2008-06-18 (NCEI Accession 0043263)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Physical oceanographic data were collected from NOAA Ship RAINIER west of Sitka Island, Alaska, from 18 May 2008 to 18 June 2008. Data were collected from CTD casts...

  15. Aleutian Islands Unit, Alaska Maritime National Wildlife Refuge, 13 July to 22 July 1987: Trip report

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The majority of the seabirds on the refuge use Puffin Island. Table 2 indicates the species composition and number of seabirds censused on 13 August from 1200 -...

  16. Capturing, banding, and transplanting of Aleutian Canada geese, Buldir and Agattu Islands, Alaska, 1982

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The objective of this study was to capture 100 Aleutian Canada geese and transplant to Agattu Island to continue efforts to re-establish a nesting population on...

  17. Little late Holocene strain accumulation and release on the Aleutian megathrust below the Shumagin Islands, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witter, Robert C.; Briggs, Richard W.; Engelhart, Simon E.; Gelfenbaum, Guy; Koehler, Richard D.; Barnhart, William D.

    2014-04-01

    Can a predominantly creeping segment of a subduction zone generate a great (M > 8) earthquake? Despite Russian accounts of strong shaking and high tsunamis in 1788, geodetic observations above the Aleutian megathrust indicate creeping subduction across the Shumagin Islands segment, a well-known seismic gap. Seeking evidence for prehistoric great earthquakes, we investigated Simeonof Island, the archipelago's easternmost island, and found no evidence for uplifted marine terraces or subsided shorelines. Instead, we found freshwater peat blanketing lowlands, and organic-rich silt and tephra draping higher glacially smoothed bedrock. Basal peat ages place glacier retreat prior to 10.4 ka and imply slowly rising (tsunamis probably deposited thin, discontinuous deposits in coastal sites. If rupture of the megathrust beneath Simeonof Island produced great earthquakes in the late Holocene, then coseismic uplift or subsidence was too small (≤0.3 m) to perturb the onshore geologic record.

  18. Field observations on Unimak Island, Alaska, 11-25 August 1975: Field report

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the observations of a two week reconnaissance of Unimak Island from 11 August-25 August, 1975. The primary objectives were to do a preliminary...

  19. AK - Contaminant burdens in storm-petrels nesting on St. Lazaria Island, Alaska Maritime NWR

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Sampling of storm-petrel eggs from St. Lazaria Island in 1992 and 1999, suggested that some birds may be accumulating polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) at...

  20. Alaska Maritime National Wildlife Refuge, Unimak Island Wilderness Character Monitoring Back-end Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This is the back-end data file for the Unimak Island Wilderness Character Monitoring Application. User interface and lookup databases are required for use (see...

  1. Late Glacial-Holocene Pollen-Based Vegetation History from Pass Lake, Prince of Wales Island, Southeastern Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ager, Thomas A.; Rosenbaum, Joseph G.

    2009-01-01

    A radiocarbon-dated history of vegetation development since late Wisconsin deglaciation has been reconstructed from pollen evidence preserved in a sediment core from Pass Lake on Prince of Wales Island, southeastern Alaska. The shallow lake is in the south-central part of the island and occupies a low pass that was filled by glacial ice of local origin during the late Wisconsin glaciation. The oldest pollen assemblages indicate that pine woodland (Pinus contorta) had developed in the area by ~13,715 cal yr B.P. An abrupt decline in the pine population, coinciding with expansion of alder (Alnus) and ferns (mostly Polypodiaceae) began ~12,875 yr B.P., and may have been a response to colder, drier climates during the Younger Dryas climatic interval. Mountain hemlock (Tsuga mertensiana) began to colonize central Prince of Wales Island by ~11,920 yr B.P. and was soon followed by Sitka spruce (Picea sitchensis). Pollen of western hemlock (Tsuga heterophylla) began to appear in Pass Lake sediments soon after 11,200 yr B.P. The abundance of western hemlock pollen in the Pass Lake core during most of the Holocene appears to be the result of wind transport from trees growing at lower altitudes on the island. The late Holocene pollen record from Pass Lake is incomplete because of one or more unconformities, but the available record suggests that a vegetation change occurred during the late Holocene. Increases in pollen percentages of pine, cedar (probably yellow cedar, Chamaecyparis nootkatensis), and heaths (Ericales) suggest an expansion of muskeg vegetation occurred in the area during the late Holocene. This vegetation change may be related to the onset of cooler, wetter climates that began as early as ~3,774 yr B.P. in the region. This vegetation history provides the first radiocarbon-dated Late Glacial-Holocene terrestrial paleoecological framework for Prince of Wales Island. An analysis of magnetic properties of core sediments from Pass Lake suggests that unconformities

  2. Levels of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs and three organochlorine pesticides in fish from the Aleutian Islands of Alaska.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Hardell

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Persistent organic pollutants (POPs, including polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs and chlorinated pesticides, have been shown to have many adverse human health effects. These contaminants therefore may pose a risk to Alaska Natives that follow a traditional diet high in marine mammals and fish, in which POPs bioaccumulate. METHODS AND FINDINGS: This study examined the levels of PCBs and three pesticides [p, p'-DDE, mirex, and hexachlorobenzene (HCB] in muscle tissue from nine fish species from several locations around the Aleutian Islands of Alaska. The highest median PCB level was found in rock sole (Lepidopsetta bilineata, 285 ppb, wet weight, while the lowest level was found in rock greenling (Hexagrammos lagocephalus, 104 ppb, wet weight. Lipid adjusted PCB values were also calculated and significant interspecies differences were found. Again, rock sole had the highest level (68,536 ppb, lipid weight. Concerning the PCB congener patterns, the more highly chlorinated congeners were most common as would be expected due to their greater persistence. Among the pesticides, p, p'-DDE generally dominated, and the highest level was found in sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka, 6.9 ppb, wet weight. The methodology developed by U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA was used to calculate risk-based consumption limits for the analyzed fish species. For cancer health endpoints for PCBs, all species would trigger strict advisories of between two and six meals per year, depending upon species. For noncancer effects by PCBs, advisories of between seven and twenty-two meals per year were triggered. None of the pesticides triggered consumption limits. CONCLUSION: The fish analyzed, mainly from Adak, contain significant concentrations of POPs, in particular PCBs, which raises the question whether these fish are safe to eat, particularly for sensitive populations. However when assessing any risk of the traditional diet, one must also consider the

  3. Focused rock uplift above the subduction décollement at Montague and Hinchinbrook Islands, Prince William Sound, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Kelly M; Armstrong, Phillip A; Arkle Jeanette C,; Haeussler, Peter J.

    2014-01-01

    Megathrust splay fault systems in accretionary prisms have been identified as conduits for long-term plate motion and significant coseismic slip during subduction earthquakes. These fault systems are important because of their role in generating tsunamis, but rarely are emergent above sea level where their long-term (million year) history can be studied. We present 32 apatite (U-Th)/He (AHe) and 27 apatite fission-track (AFT) ages from rocks along an emergent megathrust splay fault system in the Prince William Sound region of Alaska above the shallowly subducting Yakutat microplate. The data show focused exhumation along the Patton Bay megathrust splay fault system since 3–2 Ma. Most AHe ages are younger than 5 Ma; some are as young as 1.1 Ma. AHe ages are youngest at the southwest end of Montague Island, where maximum fault displacement occurred on the Hanning Bay and Patton Bay faults and the highest shoreline uplift occurred during the 1964 earthquake. AFT ages range from ca. 20 to 5 Ma. Age changes across the Montague Strait fault, north of Montague Island, suggest that this fault may be a major structural boundary that acts as backstop to deformation and may be the westward mechanical continuation of the Bagley fault system backstop in the Saint Elias orogen. The regional pattern of ages and corresponding cooling and exhumation rates indicate that the Montague and Hinchinbrook Island splay faults, though separated by only a few kilometers, accommodate kilometer-scale exhumation above a shallowly subducting plate at million year time scales. This long-term pattern of exhumation also reflects short-term seismogenic uplift patterns formed during the 1964 earthquake. The increase in rock uplift and exhumation rate ca. 3–2 Ma is coincident with increased glacial erosion that, in combination with the fault-bounded, narrow width of the islands, has limited topographic development. Increased exhumation starting ca. 3–2 Ma is interpreted to be due to rock uplift

  4. Community-based participatory research projects and policy engagement to protect environmental health on St Lawrence Island, Alaska

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pamela K. Miller

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Objectives . This article synthesizes discussion of collaborative research results, interventions and policy engagement for St Lawrence Island (SLI, Alaska, during the years 2000–2012. Methods . As part of on-going community-based participatory research (CBPR studies on SLI, 5 discrete exposure-assessment projects were conducted: (a a biomonitoring study of human blood serum; (b–d 3 investigations of levels of contaminants in environmental media at an abandoned military site at Northeast Cape – using sediment cores and plants, semi-permeable membrane devices and blackfish, respectively; and (e a study of traditional foods. Results . Blood serum in residents of SLI showed elevated levels of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs with higher levels among those exposed to the military site at Northeast Cape, an important traditional subsistence-use area. Environmental studies at the military site demonstrated that the site is a continuing source of PCBs to a major watershed, and that clean-up operations at the military site generated PCB-contaminated dust on plants in the region. Important traditional foods eaten by the people of SLI showed elevated concentrations of PCBs, which are primarily derived from the long-range transport of persistent pollutants that are transported by atmospheric and marine currents from more southerly latitudes to the north. Interventions . An important task for all CBPR projects is to conduct intervention strategies as needed in response to research results. Because of the findings of the CBPR projects on SLI, the CBPR team and the people of the Island are actively engaging in interventions to ensure cleanup of the formerly used military sites; reform chemicals policy on a national level; and eliminate persistent pollutants internationally. The goal is to make the Island and other northern/Arctic communities safe for themselves and future generations. Conclusions . As part of the CBPR projects conducted from 2000 to 2012

  5. Geology, geochemistry, and genesis of the Greens Creek massive sulfide deposit, Admiralty Island, southeastern Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Cliff D.; Johnson, Craig A.

    2010-01-01

    In 1996, a memorandum of understanding was signed by representatives of the U.S. Geological Survey and Kennecott Greens Creek Mining Company to initiate a cooperative applied research project focused on the Greens Creek massive sulfide deposit in southeastern Alaska. The goals of the project were consistent with the mandate of the U.S. Geological Survey Mineral Resources Program to maintain a leading role in national mineral deposits research and with the need of Kennecott Greens Creek Mining Company to further development of the Greens Creek deposit and similar deposits in Alaska and elsewhere. The memorandum enumerated four main research priorities: (1) characterization of protoliths for the wall rocks, and elucidation of their alteration histories, (2) determination of the ore mineralogy and paragenesis, including metal residences and metal zonation within the deposit, (3) determination of the ages of events important to ore formation using both geochronology and paleontology, and (4) development of computer models that would allow the deposit and its host rocks to be examined in detail in three dimensions. The work was carried out by numerous scientists of diverse expertise over a period of several years. The written results, which are contained in this Professional Paper, are presented by 21 authors: 13 from the U.S. Geological Survey, 4 from Kennecott Greens Creek Mining Company, 2 from academia, and 2 from consultants. The Greens Creek deposit (global resource of 24.2 million tons at an average grade of 13.9 percent zinc, 5.1 percent lead, 0.15 troy ounce per ton gold, and 19.2 troy ounces per ton silver at zero cutoff) formed in latest Triassic time during a brief period of rifting of the Alexander terrane. The deposit exhibits a range of syngenetic, diagenetic, and epigenetic features that are typical of volcanogenic (VMS), sedimentary exhalative (SEDEX), and Mississippi Valley-type (MVT) genetic models. In the earliest stages of rifting, formation of

  6. Auklet (Charadriiformes: Alcidae, Aethia spp.) chick meals from the Aleutian Islands, Alaska, have a very low incidence of plastic marine debris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bond, Alexander L; Jones, Ian L; Williams, Jeffrey C; Byrd, G Vernon

    2010-08-01

    The ingestion of plastic marine debris is a chronic problem for some of the world's seabird species, contributing to reduced chick survival, population declines, and deposition of contaminants via absorption in birds' gastrointestinal tract. We analysed the frequency of ingested plastic in chick meals delivered by adults in four species of auklet - Crested (Aethia cristatella), Least (A. pusilla), Parakeet (A. psittacula), and Whiskered (A. pygmaea) - from three breeding colonies in the Aleutian Islands, Alaska, USA over a 14-year period from 1993 to 2006. Among 2541 chick meals, we found plastic in only one - from a Whiskered Auklet on Buldir Island in 1993. While adult Parakeet Auklets have a high frequency of plastic ingestion (over 90%), no chick meals contained plastic. Unlike other seabirds, the planktivorous auklets do not appear to offload plastic to their chicks, and we conclude that auklet chicks are probably at a low risk of contamination from plastic debris.

  7. Geologic effects of the March 1964 earthquake and associated seismic sea waves on Kodiak and nearby islands, Alaska: Chapter D in The Alaska earthquake, March 27, 1964: regional effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plafker, George; Kachadoorian, Reuben

    1966-01-01

    Kodiak Island and the nearby islands constitute a mountainous landmass with an aggregate area of 4,900 square miles that lies at the western border of the Gulf of Alaska and from 20 to 40 miles off the Alaskan mainland. Igneous and metamorphic rocks underlie most of the area except for a narrow belt of moderately to poorly indurated rocks bordering the Gulf of Alaska coast and local accumulations of unconsolidated alluvial and marine deposits along the streams and coast. The area is relatively undeveloped and is sparsely inhabited. About 4,800 of the 5,700 permanent residents in the area live in the city of Kodiak or at the Kodiak Naval Station. The great earthquake, which occurred on March 27, 1964, at 5:36 p.m. Alaska standard time (March 28,1964, 0336 Greenwich mean time), and had a Richter magnitude of 8.4-8.5, was the most severe earthquake felt on Kodiak Island and its nearby islands in modern times. Although the epicenter lies in Prince William Sound 250 miles northeast of Kodiak—the principal city of the area—the areal distribution of the thousands of aftershocks that followed it, the local tectonic deformation, and the estimated source area of the subsequent seismic sea wave, all suggest that the Kodiak group of islands lay immediately adjacent to, and northwest of, the focal region from which the elastic seismic energy was radiated. The duration of strong ground motion in the area was estimated at 2½ minutes. Locally, the tremors were preceded by sounds audible to the human ear and were reportedly accompanied in several places by visible ground waves. Intensity and felt duration of the shocks during the main earthquake and aftershock sequence varied markedly within the area and were strongly influenced by the local geologic environment. Estimated Mercalli intensities in most areas underlain by unconsolidated Quaternary deposits ranged from VIII to as high as IX. In contrast, intensities in areas of upper Tertiary rock ranged from VII to VIII, and in

  8. Specification of Tectonic Tsunami Sources Along the Eastern Aleutian Island Arc and Alaska Peninsula for Inundation Mapping and Hazard Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suleimani, E.; Nicolsky, D.; Freymueller, J. T.; Koehler, R.

    2013-12-01

    The Alaska Earthquake Information Center conducts tsunami inundation mapping for coastal communities in Alaska along several segments of the Aleutian Megathrust, each having a unique seismic history and tsunami generation potential. Accurate identification and characterization of potential tsunami sources is a critical component of our project. As demonstrated by the 2011 Tohoku-oki tsunami, correct estimation of the maximum size event for a given segment of the subduction zone is particularly important. In that event, unexpectedly large slip occurred approximately updip of the epicenter of the main shock, based on seafloor GPS and seafloor pressure gage observations, generating a much larger tsunami than anticipated. This emphasizes the importance of the detailed knowledge of the region-specific subduction processes, and using the most up-to-date geophysical data and research models that define the magnitude range of possible future tsunami events. Our study area extends from the eastern half of the 1957 rupture zone to Kodiak Island, covering the 1946 and 1938 rupture areas, the Shumagin gap, and the western part of the 1964 rupture area. We propose a strategy for generating worst-case credible tsunami scenarios for locations that have a short or nonexistent paleoseismic/paleotsunami record, and in some cases lack modern seismic and GPS data. The potential tsunami scenarios are built based on a discretized plate interface model fit to the Slab 1.0 model geometry. We employ estimates of slip deficit along the Aleutian Megathrust from GPS campaign surveys, the Slab 1.0 interface surface, empirical magnitude-slip relationships, and a numerical code that distributes slip among the subfault elements, calculates coseismic deformations and solves the shallow water equations of tsunami propagation and runup. We define hypothetical asperities along the megathrust and in down-dip direction, and perform a set of sensitivity model runs to identify coseismic deformation

  9. 76 FR 80782 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands; Proposed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-27

    ... Regional Administrator, Sustainable Fisheries Division, Alaska Region, NMFS, Attn: Ellen Sebastian. You may... wish to comment on from the resulting list and click on the ``Submit a Comment'' icon on the right of..., American Fisheries Act allocations, Amendment 80 allocations, and Community Development Quota (CDQ)...

  10. Post compound 1080 wildlife surveys, Kiska Island, Aleutian Islands, Alaska, 25 March-30 March 1987 (in support of EPA experimental use permit 6704-EUP-28)

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — To survey the target and non-target mammal and bird species of Kiska Island and monitor the effect of the Compound 1080 treatment on the respective species. The...

  11. A Stratigraphic, Granulometric, and Textural Comparison of recent pyroclastic density current deposits exposed at West Island and Burr Point, Augustine Volcano, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rath, C. A.; Browne, B. L.

    2011-12-01

    Augustine Volcano (Alaska) is the most active volcano in the eastern Aleutian Islands, with 6 violent eruptions over the past 200 years and at least 12 catastrophic debris-avalanche deposits over the past ~2,000 years. The frequency and destructive nature of these eruptions combined with the proximity of Augustine Volcano to commercial ports and populated areas represents a significant hazard to the Cook Inlet region of Alaska. The focus of this study examines the relationship between debris-avalanche events and the subsequent emplacement of pyroclastic density currents by comparing the stratigraphic, granulometric, and petrographic characteristics of pyroclastic deposits emplaced following the 1883 A.D. Burr Point debris-avalanche and those emplaced following the ~370 14C yr B.P. West Island debris-avalanche. Data from this study combines grain size and componentry analysis of pyroclastic deposits with density, textural, and compositional analysis of juvenile clasts contained in the pyroclastic deposits. The 1883 A.D. Burr Point pyroclastic unit immediately overlies the 1883 debris avalanche deposit and underlies the 1912 Katmai ash. It ranges in thickness from 4 to 48 cm and consists of fine to medium sand-sized particles and coarser fragments of andesite. In places, this unit is normally graded and exhibits cross-bedding. Many of these samples are fines-enriched, with sorting coefficients ranging from -0.1 to 1.9 and median grain size ranging from 0.1 to 2.4 mm. The ~370 14C yr B.P. West Island pyroclastic unit is sandwiched between the underlying West Island debris-avalanche deposit and the overlying 1912 Katmai Ash deposit, and at times a fine-grained gray ash originating from the 1883 eruption. West Island pyroclastic deposit is sand to coarse-sand-sized and either normally graded or massive with sorting coefficients ranging from 0.9 to 2.8 and median grain sizes ranging from 0.4 to 2.6 mm. Some samples display a bimodal distribution of grain sizes, while

  12. The status of ledge-nesting seabirds at monitoring sites in the Aleutian Islands, Alaska in summer 1989

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Seabird monitoring in the Aleutian Islands durin9 summer 1989 focused on a guild of ledge-nesting species including northern fulmar (Fulmarus glacialis), cormorants...

  13. An evaluation of productivity and mortality factors influencing geese at south Nelson Island, Alaska: A report of results from 1984

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report documents a field investigation of goose productivity in 1984 conducted on Nelson Island on the Yukon Delta National Wildlife Refuge. The procedures used...

  14. Population trends and productivity of fulmars, cormorants, kittiwakes and murres in the Pribilof Islands, Alaska in 1985

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The amount of potentially disturbing activity in the vicinity of the Pribilof Islands and the legal mandates concerning protection of the seabird colonies there...

  15. 75 FR 56485 - Groundfish Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Bering Sea/Aleutian Islands Crab...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-16

    ... for Bering Sea/Aleutian Islands King and Tanner Crabs (FMP). The FMP was prepared by the North Pacific... recordkeeping requirements. Dated: September 13, 2010. Eric C. Schwaab, Assistant Administrator for...

  16. 75 FR 48298 - Groundfish Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Bering Sea/Aleutian Islands Crab...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-10

    ... fisheries under the Fishery Management Plan for Bering Sea/Aleutian Islands King and Tanner Crabs (FMP). The...: August 4, 2010. Eric C. Schwaab, Assistant Administrator for Fisheries, National Marine Fisheries...

  17. Northern fur seal pup production, adult male counts and harvest data for the Pribilof Islands, Alaska 1909 to Present

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This database contains information on pup production estimates, adult male counts and harvests (commercial and subsistence) for the Pribilof Islands of St. Paul and...

  18. Reproductive ecology of seabirds at Middleton Island, Alaska (with notes on other species), 12-17 August 1981: Trip report

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The objectives of the second visit to Middleton Island during the 1981 breeding season were threefold. First, we wanted to obtain data on hatching and fledging...

  19. 78 FR 75321 - Migratory Bird Subsistence Harvest in Alaska; Harvest Regulations for Migratory Birds in Alaska...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-11

    ... Beluga River, Beluga Lake, and the Triumvirate Glacier. (2) Closure: June 1-July 31. (l) Southeast Alaska... islands and adjacent shoreline of western Prince of Wales Island from Point Baker to Cape Chacon, but...

  20. Evidence for shallow megathrust slip across the Unalaska seismic gap during the great 1957 Andreanof Islands earthquake, eastern Aleutian Islands, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolsky, D. J.; Freymueller, J. T.; Witter, R. C.; Suleimani, E. N.; Koehler, R. D.

    2016-10-01

    We reassess the slip distribution of the 1957 Andreanof Islands earthquake in the eastern part of the aftershock zone where published slip models infer little or no slip. Eyewitness reports, tide gauge data, and geological evidence for 9-23 m tsunami runups imply seafloor deformation offshore Unalaska Island in 1957, in contrast with previous studies that labeled the area a seismic gap. Here we simulate tsunami dynamics for a suite of deformation models that vary in depth and amount of megathrust slip. Tsunami simulations show that a shallow (5-15 km deep) rupture with 20 m of slip most closely reproduces the 1957 Dutch Harbor marigram and nearby >18 m runup at Sedanka Island marked by stranded drift logs. Slip models >20 km deep predict waves that arrive too soon. Our results imply that shallow slip on the megathrust in 1957 extended east into an area that presently creeps.

  1. Evidence for shallow megathrust slip across the Unalaska seismic gap during the great 1957 Andreanof Islands earthquake, eastern Aleutian Islands, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolsky, D. J.; Freymueller, J.T.; Witter, R.C.; Suleimani, E. N.; Koehler, R.D.

    2016-01-01

    We reassess the slip distribution of the 1957 Andreanof Islands earthquake in the eastern part of the aftershock zone where published slip models infer little or no slip. Eyewitness reports, tide gauge data, and geological evidence for 9–23 m tsunami runups imply seafloor deformation offshore Unalaska Island in 1957, in contrast with previous studies that labeled the area a seismic gap. Here, we simulate tsunami dynamics for a suite of deformation models that vary in depth and amount of megathrust slip. Tsunami simulations show that a shallow (5–15 km deep) rupture with ~20 m of slip most closely reproduces the 1957 Dutch Harbor marigram and nearby >18 m runup at Sedanka Island marked by stranded drift logs. Models that place slip >20 km predict waves that arrive too soon. Our results imply that shallow slip on the megathrust in 1957 extended east into an area that presently creeps.

  2. Modeling connectivity of walleye pollock in the Gulf of Alaska: Are there any linkages to the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parada, Carolina; Hinckley, Sarah; Horne, John; Mazur, Michael; Hermann, Albert; Curchister, Enrique

    2016-10-01

    We investigated the connectivity of walleye pollock in the Gulf of Alaska (GOA) and linkages to the Bering Sea (BS) and Aleutian Island (AL) regions. We used a spatially-explicit Individual-based model (IBM) coupled to 6 years of a hydrodynamic model that simulates the early life history of walleye pollock in the GOA (eggs to age-0 juveniles). The processes modeled included growth, movement, mortality, feeding and the bioenergetics component for larvae and juveniles. Simulations were set to release particles on the 1st of the month (February to May) in fourteen historical spawning areas in the GOA up to the 1st of September each year. Model results reproduced the link between the Shelikof Strait spawning area and the Shumagin nursery region for March and April spawners, besides other Potential Nursery Areas (PNAs) found in the GOA. A prominent finding of this study was the appearance of the BS as important PNAs for several GOA spawning grounds, which is supported by a consistent flow into the BS through Unimak Pass. The simulations showed the highest density of simulated surviving pollock in the western Bering Sea (WBS) region with the lowest coefficients of variation of the whole domain. Three spawning sectors were defined, which aggregate multiple spawning areas in the eastern (EGOA), central (CGOA) and western Gulf of Alaska (WGOA). A connectivity matrix showed strong retention within the CGOA (25.9%) and EGOA (23.8%), but not in the WGOA (7.2%). Within the GOA, the highest connectivity is observed from EGOA to CGOA (57.8%) followed by the connection from CGOA to WGOA (24.3%). Overall, one of the most prominent connections was from WGOA to WBS (62.8%), followed by a connection from CGOA to WBS (29.2%). In addition, scenarios of shifting spawning locations and nursery sectors of GOA, BS and AL are explored and implications for walleye pollock stock structure hypotheses are discussed.

  3. AFSC/RACE/GAP/Palsson: Gulf of Alaska and Aleutian Islands Biennial Bottom Trawl Survey estimates of catch per unit effort, biomass, population at length, and associated tables

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The GOA/AI Bottom Trawl Estimate database contains abundance estimates for the Alaska Biennial Bottom Trawl Surveys conducted in the Gulf of Alaska and the Aleutian...

  4. A Quantitative Ecological Risk Assessment of the Toxicological Risks from Exxon Valdez Subsurface Oil Residues to Sea Otters at Northern Knight Island, Prince William Sound, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harwell, Mark A.; Gentile, John H.; Johnson, Charles B.; Garshelis, David L.; Parker, Keith R.

    2010-01-01

    A comprehensive, quantitative risk assessment is presented of the toxicological risks from buried Exxon Valdez subsurface oil residues (SSOR) to a subpopulation of sea otters (Enhydra lutris) at Northern Knight Island (NKI) in Prince William Sound, Alaska, as it has been asserted that this subpopulation of sea otters may be experiencing adverse effects from the SSOR. The central questions in this study are: could the risk to NKI sea otters from exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in SSOR, as characterized in 2001–2003, result in individual health effects, and, if so, could that exposure cause subpopulation-level effects? We follow the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) risk paradigm by: (a) identifying potential routes of exposure to PAHs from SSOR; (b) developing a quantitative simulation model of exposures using the best available scientific information; (c) developing scenarios based on calculated probabilities of sea otter exposures to SSOR; (d) simulating exposures for 500,000 modeled sea otters and extracting the 99.9% quantile most highly exposed individuals; and (e) comparing projected exposures to chronic toxicity reference values. Results indicate that, even under conservative assumptions in the model, maximum-exposed sea otters would not receive a dose of PAHs sufficient to cause any health effects; consequently, no plausible toxicological risk exists from SSOR to the sea otter subpopulation at NKI. PMID:20862194

  5. Petrogenesis of basaltic volcanic rocks from the Pribilof Islands, Alaska, by melting of metasomatically enriched depleted lithosphere, crystallization differentiation, and magma mixing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, J.M.; Feeley, T.C.; Deraps, M.R.

    2009-01-01

    The Pribilof Islands, Alaska, are located in the Bering Sea in a continental intraplate setting. In this study we examine the petrology and geochemistry of volcanic rocks from St. Paul (0??54-0??003 Ma) and St. George (2??8-1??4 Ma) Islands, the two largest Pribilof Islands. Rocks from St. George can be divided into three groups: group 1 is a high-MgO, low-SiO. 2 suite composed primarily of basanites; group 2 is a high-MgO, high-SiO 2 suite consisting predominantly of alkali basalts; group 3 is an intermediate- to low-MgO suite that includes plagioclase-phyric subalkali basalts and hawaiites. Major and trace element geochemistry suggests that groups 1 and 2 formed by small-degree partial melting of amphibole-bearing to amphibole-free garnet peridotite. Group 1 rocks were the earliest melts produced from the most hydrous parts of the mantle, as they show the strongest geochemical signature of amphibole in their source. The suite of rocks from St. Paul ranges from 14??4 to 4??2 wt % MgO at relatively constant SiO 2 contents (43??1-47??3 wt %). The most primitive St. Paul rocks are modeled as mixtures between magmas with compositions similar to groups 1 and 2 from St. George Island, which subsequently fractionated olivine, clinopyroxene, and spinel to form more evolved rocks. Plagioclase-phyric group 3 rocks from St. George are modeled as mixtures between an evolved melt similar to the evolved magmas on St. Paul and a fractionated group 2 end-member from St. George. Mantle potential temperatures estimated for primitive basanites and alkali basalts are ???1400??C and are similar to those of mid-ocean ridge basalts (MORB). Similarly, 87Sr/. 86Sr and 143Nd/. 144Nd values for all rocks are MORB-like, in the range of 0??702704-0??703035 and 0??513026-0??513109, respectively. 208Pb/. 204Pb vs 206Pb/. 204Pb values lie near the MORB end-member but show a linear trend towards HIMU (high time-integrated 238U/. 204Pb). Despite isotopic similarities to MORB, many of the major and

  6. Alaska Landscape Conservation Cooperative Boundaries, Feb 2013 update.

    Data.gov (United States)

    Arctic Landscape Conservation Cooperative — This dataset depicts the terrestrial boundaries of the Landscape Conservation Cooperatives (LCC) within Alaska. Those LCCs are: Aleutian and Bering Sea Islands,...

  7. Monitoring the natural attenuation of petroleum in ground water at the former naval complex, Operable Unit A, Adak Island, Alaska, May and June 2003

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinicola, R.S.; Simonds, F.W.; Defawe, Rose

    2005-01-01

    During May and June 2003, the U.S. Geological Survey installed monitoring wells and collected data to characterize the effectiveness of natural attenuation processes for remediating petroleum-contaminated ground water at Operable Unit A of the former Naval complex on Adak Island, Alaska. In addition, the evidence for petroleum biodegradation in ground water was evaluated at selected petroleum sites, plans for future natural attenuation monitoring were suggested for the selected petroleum sites, and the natural attenuation monitoring strategy for the Downtown area of Adak Island was reviewed and refinements were suggested. U.S. Geological Survey personnel measured water levels and collected ground-water samples from about 100 temporary boreholes and 50 monitoring wells. Most samples were analyzed on-site for concentrations of selected petroleum compounds and natural attenuation parameters such as dissolved oxygen, ferrous iron, and carbon dioxide. The U.S. Geological Survey evaluated the data on-site, selected new monitoring well locations, and installed, developed, and sampled 10 monitoring wells. The review and suggestions for the natural attenuation monitoring strategy focused on how to better achieve monitoring objectives specified in the Record of Decision for Adak Island petroleum sites. To achieve the monitoring objective of verifying that natural attenuation is occurring, the monitoring plans for each monitored natural attenuation site need to include sampling of at least one strategically placed well at the downgradient margin of the contaminant plume margin, preferably where contaminant concentrations are detectable but less than the cleanup level. Collection of natural attenuation parameter data and sampling background wells is no longer needed to achieve the monitoring objective of demonstrating the occurrence of natural attenuation. To achieve the objective of monitoring locations where chemical concentrations exceed specified cleanup levels, at least

  8. Dynamic deformation of Seguam Island, Alaska, 1992--2008, from multi-interferogram InSAR processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chang-Wook; Lu, Zhong; Won, Joong-Sun; Jung, Hyung-Sup; Dzurisin, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    We generated a time-series of ERS-1/2 and ENVISAT interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) images to study ground surface deformation at Seguam Island from 1992 to 2008. We used the small baseline subset (SBAS) technique to reduce artifacts associated with baseline uncertainties and atmospheric delay anomalies, and processed images from two adjacent tracks to validate our results. Seguam Island comprises the remnants of two late Quaternary calderas, one in the western caldera of the island and one in the eastern part of the island. The western caldera subsided at a constant rate of ~ 1.6 cm/yr throughout the study period, while the eastern caldera experienced alternating periods of subsidence and uplift: ~ 5 cm/year uplift during January 1993–October 1993 (stage 1), ~ 1.6 cm/year subsidence during October 1993–November 1998 (stage 2), ~ 2.0 cm/year uplift during November 1998–September 2000 (stage 3), ~ 1.4 cm/year subsidence during September 2000–November 2005 (stage 4), and ~ 0.8 cm/year uplift during November 2005– July 2007 (stage 5). Source modeling indicates a deflationary source less than 2 km below sea level (BSL) beneath the western caldera and two sources beneath the eastern caldera: an inflationary source 2.5–6.0 km BSL and a deflationary source less than 2 km BSL. We suggest that uplift of the eastern caldera is driven by episodic intrusions of basaltic magma into a poroelastic reservoir 2.5–6.0 km BSL beneath the caldera. Cooling and degassing of the reservoir between intrusions results in steady subsidence of the overlying surface. Although we found no evidence of magma intrusion beneath the western caldera during the study period, it is the site (Pyre Peak) of all historical eruptions on the island and therefore cooling and degassing of intrusions presumably contributes to subsidence there as well. Another likely subsidence mechanism in the western caldera is thermoelastic contraction of lava flows emplaced near Pyre Peak during

  9. Patterns of faunal extinction and paleoclimatic change from mid-Holocene mammoth and polar bear remains, Pribilof Islands, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veltre, Douglas W.; Yesner, David R.; Crossen, Kristine J.; Graham, Russell W.; Coltrain, Joan B.

    2008-07-01

    Qagnaxˆ Cave, a lava tube cave on St. Paul Island in the Pribilofs, has recently produced a mid-Holocene vertebrate faunal assemblage including woolly mammoth, polar bear, caribou, and Arctic fox. Several dates on the mammoth remains converge on 5700 14C yr BP. These dates, ~ 2300 yr younger than mammoth dates previously published from the Pribilof Islands, make these the youngest remains of proboscideans, and of non-extinct Quaternary megafauna, recovered from North America. Persistence of mammoths on the Pribilofs is most parsimoniously explained by the isolation of the Pribilofs and the lack of human presence in pre-Russian contact times, but an additional factor may have been the local existence of high-quality forage in the form of grasses enriched by nutrients derived from local Holocene tephras. This interpretation is reinforced by stable carbon and nitrogen isotope values obtained from the mammoth remains. The endpoint of mammoth survival in the Pribilofs is unknown, but maybe coterminous with the arrival of polar bears whose remains in the cave date to the Neoglacial cold period of ~ 4500 to 3500 14C yr BP. The polar bear record corroborates a widespread cooling of the Bering Sea region at that time.

  10. A community engagement process identifies environmental priorities to prevent early childhood obesity: the Children's Healthy Living (CHL) program for remote underserved populations in the US Affiliated Pacific Islands, Hawaii and Alaska.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fialkowski, Marie Kainoa; DeBaryshe, Barbara; Bersamin, Andrea; Nigg, Claudio; Leon Guerrero, Rachael; Rojas, Gena; Areta, Aufa'i Apulu Ropeti; Vargo, Agnes; Belyeu-Camacho, Tayna; Castro, Rose; Luick, Bret; Novotny, Rachel

    2014-12-01

    Underserved minority populations in the US Affiliated Pacific Islands (USAPI), Hawaii, and Alaska display disproportionate rates of childhood obesity. The region's unique circumstance should be taken into account when designing obesity prevention interventions. The purpose of this paper is to (a), describe the community engagement process (CEP) used by the Children's Healthy Living (CHL) Program for remote underserved minority populations in the USAPI, Hawaii, and Alaska (b) report community-identified priorities for an environmental intervention addressing early childhood (ages 2-8 years) obesity, and (c) share lessons learned in the CEP. Four communities in each of five CHL jurisdictions (Alaska, American Samoa, Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands, Guam, Hawai'i) were selected to participate in the community-randomized matched-pair trial. Over 900 community members including parents, teachers, and community leaders participated in the CEP over a 14 month period. The CEP was used to identify environmental intervention priorities to address six behavioral outcomes: increasing fruit/vegetable consumption, water intake, physical activity and sleep; and decreasing screen time and intake of sugar sweetened beverages. Community members were engaged through Local Advisory Committees, key informant interviews and participatory community meetings. Community-identified priorities centered on policy development; role modeling; enhancing access to healthy food, clean water, and physical activity venues; and healthy living education. Through the CEP, CHL identified culturally appropriate priorities for intervention that were also consistent with the literature on effective obesity prevention practices. Results of the CEP will guide the CHL intervention design and implementation. The CHL CEP may serve as a model for other underserved minority island populations.

  11. The ecology of Echinococcus multilocularis (Cestoda: Taeniidae) on St. Lawrence Island, Alaska. II. Helminth populations in the definitive host.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rausch, R L; Fay, F H; Williamson, F S

    1990-01-01

    The helminths of 1,579 arctic foxes from St. Lawrence Island were investigated by standard methods. The foxes, obtained mainly during the winter from fur trappers, harbored 22 species of helminths. Four of those were trematodes, viz., Maritrema afanassjewi Belopol'skaia, 1952, Orthosplanchnus pygmaeus Iurakhno, 1967, Plagiorchis elegans (Rudolphi, 1802) and Alaria marcianae (LaRue, 1917), each of which occurred in a single host. Two species of cestodes, Diphyllobothrium dendriticum (Nitzsch, 1824) and Mesocestoides kirbyi Chandler, 1940, were uncommon (in 2.7 and 1.3% of the foxes, respectively). Taenia polyacantha Leuckart, 1856 and Echinococcus multilocularis Leuckart, 1863 were present in about 80% of the foxes, and Taenia crassiceps (Zeder, 1800) in less than 10%. The specimens of Taenia spp. from the autumn-winter sample were usually destrobilate. In about 2% of the foxes, acanthocephalans of six species occurred. Four of those, of the genus Corynosoma Lühe, 1904, were common in marine mammals of the region; a fifth, Corynosoma clavatum Goss, 1940, has been reported previously only from marine birds of the Southern Hemisphere; and the sixth, Polymorphus cf. minutus (Goeze, 1782), has been found widely in waterfowl of the Northern Hemisphere. Of the nematodes, Sobolophyme baturini Petrov, 1930, Cylicospirura felineus (Chandler, 1925), and Physaloptera sp. were rare (with each in only one to three foxes). Trichinella nativa Boev et Britov, 1972 and Crenosoma vulpis (Dujardin, 1844) were uncommon (1.5 and 4%, respectively). The nematodes most often present were Toxascaris leonina (von Linstow, 1902) (89%) and Uncinaria stenocephala (Railliet, 1884) (40%). Several of the rare to uncommon helminths probably were transported to the island by foxes immigrating from the adjacent continents via the pack ice.

  12. Identifying active structures in the Kayak Island and Pamplona Zones: Implications for offshore tectonics of the Yakutat Microplate, Gulf of Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worthington, Lindsay L.; Gulick, Sean P. S.; Pavlis, Terry L.

    Within the northern Gulf of Alaska, the Yakutat (YAK) microplate obliquely collides with and subducts beneath the North American (NA) continent at near-Pacific plate velocities. We investigate the extent that thin-skinned deformation on offshore structures located within the western portion of the unsubducted YAK block accommodates YAK-NA convergence. We compare faulting and folding observed on high-resolution and basin-scale multichannel seismic (MCS) reflection data with earthquake locations and surface ruptures observed on high-resolution bathymetric data. Holocene sediments overlying the Kayak Island fault zone (KIZ), previously interpreted as a region of active contraction, are relatively flat-lying, suggesting that active convergence within the KIZ is waning. Seismic reflection profiles east of KIZ show up to ˜200 m of undisturbed sediments overlying older folds in the Bering Trough, indicating that this area has been tectonically inactive since at least the last ˜1.3 Ma. Farther east, MCS profiles image active deformation in surface sediments along the eastern edge of the Pamplona zone (PZ) fold-and-thrust belt, that are collocated with a concentration of earthquake events that continues southwest to Khitrov Ridge and onshore through Icy Bay. These observations suggest that during the late Quaternary offshore shallow deformation style changed from distributed across the western Yakutat block to localized at the eastern edge of the PZ with extrusion of sediments southwest through the Khitrov Ridge area to the Aleutian Trench. This shallow deformation is interpreted as deformation of an accretionary complex above a shallow decollement.

  13. Klawock Lagoon, Alaska Benthic Habitats 2011 Geoform

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Klawock River on Alaska's Prince of Wales Island drains a 29,061 acre watershed with 132 miles of streambed habitat supporting seven salmon and trout species....

  14. Klawock Lagoon, Alaska Benthic Habitats 2011 Geodatabase

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Klawock River on Alaska's Prince of Wales Island drains a 29,061 acre watershed with 132 miles of streambed habitat supporting seven salmon and trout species....

  15. Klawock Lagoon, Alaska Benthic Habitats 2011 Substrate

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Klawock River on Alaska's Prince of Wales Island drains a 29,061 acre watershed with 132 miles of streambed habitat supporting seven salmon and trout species....

  16. Klawock Lagoon, Alaska Benthic Habitats 2011 Biotic

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Klawock River on Alaska's Prince of Wales Island drains a 29,061 acre watershed with 132 miles of streambed habitat supporting seven salmon and trout species....

  17. Organic matter quantity and source affects microbial community structure and function following volcanic eruption on Kasatochi Island, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeglin, Lydia H.; Wang, Bronwen; Waythomas, Christopher F.; Rainey, Frederick; Talbot, Sandra

    2016-01-01

    In August 2008, Kasatochi volcano erupted and buried a small island in pyroclastic deposits and fine ash; since then, microbes, plants and birds have begun to re-colonize the initially sterile surface. Five years post-eruption, bacterial 16S rRNA gene and fungal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) copy numbers and extracellular enzyme activity (EEA) potentials were one to two orders of magnitude greater in pyroclastic materials with organic matter (OM) inputs relative to those without, despite minimal accumulation of OM (activities, and had microbial population sizes approaching those in reference soils. In contrast, the strongest factor determining bacterial community composition was the dominance of plants versus birds as OM input vectors. Although soil pH ranged from 3.9 to 7.0, and %C ranged 100×, differentiation between plant- and bird-associated microbial communities suggested that cell dispersal or nutrient availability are more likely drivers of assembly than pH or OM content. This study exemplifies the complex relationship between microbial cell dispersal, soil geochemistry, and microbial structure and function; and illustrates the potential for soil microbiota to be resilient to disturbance.

  18. Effects of the earthquake of March 27, 1964, on the communities of Kodiak and nearby islands: Chapter F in The Alaska earthquake, March 27, 1964: effects on communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kachadoorian, Reuben; Plafker, George

    1967-01-01

    The great earthquake (Richter magnitude of 8.4–8.5) that struck south-central Alaska at 5:36 p.m., Alaska standard time, on March 27, 1964 (03:36, March 28, Greenwich mean time), was felt in every community on Kodiak Island and the nearby islands. It was the most severe earthquake to strike this part of Alaska in modern time, and took the lives of 18 persons in the area by drowning; this includes two in Kodiak and three at Kaguyak. Property damage and loss of income to the communities is estimated at more than $45 million. The largest community, Kodiak, had the greatest loss from the earthquake. Damage was caused chiefly by 5.6 feet of tectonic subsidence and a train of 10 seismic sea waves that inundated the low-lying areas of the town. The seismic sea waves destroyed all but one of the docking facilities and more than 215 structures; many other structures were severely damaged. The waves struck the town during the evening hours of March 27 and early morning hours of March 28. They moved from the southwest and northeast: and reached their maximum height of 20–30 feet above mean lower low water at Shahafka Cove between 11:00 and 11:45 p.m., March 27. The violently destructive seismic sea waves not only severely damaged homes, shops, and naval-station structures but also temporarily crippled the fishing industry in Kodiak by destroying the processing plants and most of the fishing vessels. The waves scoured out 10 feet of sediments in the channel between Kodiak Island and Near Island and exposed bedrock. This bedrock presented a major post-earthquake construction problem because no sediments remained into which piles could be driven for foundations of waterfront facilities. Because of tectonic subsidence, high tides now flood Mission and Potatopatch Lakes which, before the earthquake, had not been subject to tidal action. The subsidence also accelerated erosion of the unconsolidated sediments along the shoreline in the city of Kodiak. Seismic shaking lasted 4

  19. Geologic framework of the Alaska Peninsula, southwest Alaska, and the Alaska Peninsula terrane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Frederic H.; Detterman, Robert L.; DuBois, Gregory D.

    2015-01-01

    The Alaska Peninsula is composed of the late Paleozoic to Quaternary sedimentary, igneous, and minor metamorphic rocks that record the history of a number of magmatic arcs. These magmatic arcs include an unnamed Late Triassic(?) and Early Jurassic island arc, the early Cenozoic Meshik arc, and the late Cenozoic Aleutian arc. Also found on the Alaska Peninsula is one of the most complete nonmetamorphosed, fossiliferous, marine Jurassic sedimentary sections known. As much as 8,500 m of section of Mesozoic sedimentary rocks record the growth and erosion of the Early Jurassic island arc.

  20. 91st Congress : 1st Session : S. 3014 [Hart Mountain NAR, Alaska Maritime NWR, Three Arch Rocks NWR, Oregon Islands NWR, Bitter Lake NWR, Malheur NWR

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document is a bill meant to designate certain lands in the Hart Mountain National Antelope Refuge, Alaska Maritime National Wildlife Refuge, Three Arch Rocks...

  1. Alaska Maritime National Wildlife Refuge : Annual narrative report : Calendar year 1985

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Alaska Maritime NWR (including the Alaska Peninsula Unit, the Aleutian Islands Unit, the Bering Sea Unit, the Chukchi Sea Unit, and...

  2. Alaska Maritime National Wildlife Refuge : Annual narrative report : Calendar year 1987

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Alaska Maritime NWR (including the Alaska Peninsula Unit, the Aleutian Islands Unit, the Bering Sea Unit, the Chukchi Sea Unit, and...

  3. Alaska Maritime National Wildlife Refuge : Annual narrative report : Calendar year 1984

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Alaska Maritime NWR (including the Alaska Peninsula Unit, the Aleutian Islands Unit, the Bering Sea Unit, the Chukchi Sea Unit, and...

  4. Geophysical interpretation of U, Th, and rare earth element mineralization of the Bokan Mountain peralkaline granite complex, Prince of Wales Island, southeast Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCafferty, Anne E.; Stoeser, Douglas B.; Van Gosen, Bradley S.

    2014-01-01

    A prospectivity map for rare earth element (REE) mineralization at the Bokan Mountain peralkaline granite complex, Prince of Wales Island, southeastern Alaska, was calculated from high-resolution airborne gamma-ray data. The map displays areas with similar radioelement concentrations as those over the Dotson REE-vein-dike system, which is characterized by moderately high %K, eU, and eTh (%K, percent potassium; eU, equivalent parts per million uranium; and eTh, equivalent parts per million thorium). Gamma-ray concentrations of rocks that share a similar range as those over the Dotson zone are inferred to locate high concentrations of REE-bearing minerals. An approximately 1300-m-long prospective tract corresponds to shallowly exposed locations of the Dotson zone. Prospective areas of REE mineralization also occur in continuous swaths along the outer edge of the pluton, over known but undeveloped REE occurrences, and within discrete regions in the older Paleozoic country rocks. Detailed mineralogical examinations of samples from the Dotson zone provide a means to understand the possible causes of the airborne Th and U anomalies and their relation to REE minerals. Thorium is sited primarily in thorite. Uranium also occurs in thorite and in a complex suite of ±Ti±Nb±Y oxide minerals, which include fergusonite, polycrase, and aeschynite. These oxides, along with Y-silicates, are the chief heavy REE (HREE)-bearing minerals. Hence, the eU anomalies, in particular, may indicate other occurrences of similar HREE-enrichment. Uranium and Th chemistry along the Dotson zone showed elevated U and total REEs east of the Camp Creek fault, which suggested the potential for increased HREEs based on their association with U-oxide minerals. A uranium prospectivity map, based on signatures present over the Ross-Adams mine area, was characterized by extremely high radioelement values. Known uranium deposits were identified in the U-prospectivity map, but the largest tract occurs

  5. Counts of Alaska Steller sea lion adult and juvenile (non-pup) conducted on rookeries and haul-outs in Alaska Aleutian Islands, Bering Sea, and others from 1904-01-01 to 2015-07-18 (NCEI Accession 0128190)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset contains counts of adult and juvenile (non-pup) Steller sea lions on rookeries and haul-outs in Alaska made between 1904 and 2015. Non-pup counts have...

  6. Use of Distance Sampling to Estimate Sitka Black-tailed Deer Abundances in Non-forested Habitats of Kodiak Island, Alaska

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Maximizing Sitka black-tailed deer (Odocoileus hemionus sitkensis) harvestopportunities on Kodiak Island, and minimizing deer impacts on native flora andfauna, are...

  7. An evaluation of productivity and mortality factors influencing goose populations: A status report of the 1984 waterfowl monitoring effort at Kigigak Island, Alaska

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the results of an arctic nesting goose study conducted on Kigigak Island as part of a Refuge-wide waterfowl monitoring program. The goals of...

  8. Spectacled Eider (Somateria fischeri) Capture, Banding, and Mark-Resight Records; Kigigak Island, Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta, Alaska, 1992-2004

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Data set containing body morphometric measurement and location data for captured Spectacled Eiders, and resight data for marked Spectacled Eiders on Kigigak Island,...

  9. Testing air quality monitoring methods in the Alaska Maritime National Wildlife Refuge's Tuxedni Wilderness Area (Chisik Island): Pilot project report [Draft

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This project facilitated a partnership between USFWS efforts to document the botanical resources of Chisik Island and establish an analytical chemistry baseline in...

  10. Glaciers of North America - Glaciers of Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molnia, Bruce F.

    2008-01-01

    Glaciers cover about 75,000 km2 of Alaska, about 5 percent of the State. The glaciers are situated on 11 mountain ranges, 1 large island, an island chain, and 1 archipelago and range in elevation from more than 6,000 m to below sea level. Alaska's glaciers extend geographically from the far southeast at lat 55 deg 19'N., long 130 deg 05'W., about 100 kilometers east of Ketchikan, to the far southwest at Kiska Island at lat 52 deg 05'N., long 177 deg 35'E., in the Aleutian Islands, and as far north as lat 69 deg 20'N., long 143 deg 45'W., in the Brooks Range. During the 'Little Ice Age', Alaska's glaciers expanded significantly. The total area and volume of glaciers in Alaska continue to decrease, as they have been doing since the 18th century. Of the 153 1:250,000-scale topographic maps that cover the State of Alaska, 63 sheets show glaciers. Although the number of extant glaciers has never been systematically counted and is thus unknown, the total probably is greater than 100,000. Only about 600 glaciers (about 1 percent) have been officially named by the U.S. Board on Geographic Names (BGN). There are about 60 active and former tidewater glaciers in Alaska. Within the glacierized mountain ranges of southeastern Alaska and western Canada, 205 glaciers (75 percent in Alaska) have a history of surging. In the same region, at least 53 present and 7 former large ice-dammed lakes have produced jokulhlaups (glacier-outburst floods). Ice-capped volcanoes on mainland Alaska and in the Aleutian Islands have a potential for jokulhlaups caused by subglacier volcanic and geothermal activity. Because of the size of the area covered by glaciers and the lack of large-scale maps of the glacierized areas, satellite imagery and other satellite remote-sensing data are the only practical means of monitoring regional changes in the area and volume of Alaska's glaciers in response to short- and long-term changes in the maritime and continental climates of the State. A review of the

  11. Arctic ice islands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sackinger, W.M.; Jeffries, M.O.; Lu, M.C.; Li, F.C.

    1988-01-01

    The development of offshore oil and gas resources in the Arctic waters of Alaska requires offshore structures which successfully resist the lateral forces due to moving, drifting ice. Ice islands are floating, a tabular icebergs, up to 60 meters thick, of solid ice throughout their thickness. The ice islands are thus regarded as the strongest ice features in the Arctic; fixed offshore structures which can directly withstand the impact of ice islands are possible but in some locations may be so expensive as to make oilfield development uneconomic. The resolution of the ice island problem requires two research steps: (1) calculation of the probability of interaction between an ice island and an offshore structure in a given region; and (2) if the probability if sufficiently large, then the study of possible interactions between ice island and structure, to discover mitigative measures to deal with the moving ice island. The ice island research conducted during the 1983-1988 interval, which is summarized in this report, was concerned with the first step. Monte Carlo simulations of ice island generation and movement suggest that ice island lifetimes range from 0 to 70 years, and that 85% of the lifetimes are less then 35 years. The simulation shows a mean value of 18 ice islands present at any time in the Arctic Ocean, with a 90% probability of less than 30 ice islands. At this time, approximately 34 ice islands are known, from observations, to exist in the Arctic Ocean, not including the 10-meter thick class of ice islands. Return interval plots from the simulation show that coastal zones of the Beaufort and Chukchi Seas, already leased for oil development, have ice island recurrences of 10 to 100 years. This implies that the ice island hazard must be considered thoroughly, and appropriate safety measures adopted, when offshore oil production plans are formulated for the Alaskan Arctic offshore. 132 refs., 161 figs., 17 tabs.

  12. Alaska Open-file Report 144 Assessment of Thermal Springs Sites Aleutian Arc, Atka Island to Becherof Lake -- Preliminary Results and Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Motyka, R.J.; Moorman, M.A.; Liss, S.A.

    1981-12-01

    Twenty of more than 30 thermal spring areas reported to exist in the Aleutian arc extending from Atka Island to Becherof Lake were investigated during July and August, 1980. Thermal activity of three of these sites had diminished substantially or no longer existed. At least seven more sites where thermal-spring activity is probable or certain were not visited because of their remoteness or because of time constraints. The existence of several other reported thermal spring sites could not be verified; these sites are considered questionable. On the basis of geothermometry, subsurface reservoir temperatures in excess of 150 C are estimated for 10 of the thermal spring sites investigated. These sites all occur in or near regions of Recent volcanism. Five of the sites are characterized by fumaroles and steaming ground, indicating the presence of at least a shallow vapor-dominated zone. Two, the Makushin Valley and Glacier Valley thermal areas, occur on the flanks of active Mukushin Volcano located on Unalaska Island, and may be connected to a common source of heat. Gas geothermometry suggests that the reservoir feeding the Kliuchef thermal field, located on the flanks of Kliuchef volcano of northeast Atka Island, may be as high as 239 C.

  13. Testing the nutritional-limitation, predator-avoidance, and storm-avoidance hypotheses for restricted sea otter habitat use in the Aleutian Islands, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Nathan L.; Konar, Brenda; Tinker, M. Tim

    2015-01-01

    Sea otters (Enhydra lutris) inhabiting the Aleutian Islands have stabilized at low abundance levels following a decline and currently exhibit restricted habitat-utilization patterns. Possible explanations for restricted habitat use by sea otters can be classified into two fundamentally different processes, bottom-up and top-down forcing. Bottom-up hypotheses argue that changes in the availability or nutritional quality of prey resources have led to the selective use of habitats that support the highest quality prey. In contrast, top-down hypotheses argue that increases in predation pressure from killer whales have led to the selective use of habitats that provide the most effective refuge from killer whale predation. A third hypothesis suggests that current restricted habitat use is based on a need for protection from storms. We tested all three hypotheses for restricted habitat use by comparing currently used and historically used sea otter foraging locations for: (1) prey availability and quality, (2) structural habitat complexity, and (3) exposure to prevailing storms. Our findings suggest that current use is based on physical habitat complexity and not on prey availability, prey quality, or protection from storms, providing further evidence for killer whale predation as a cause for restricted sea otter habitat use in the Aleutian Islands.

  14. Determination of semi-diurnal ocean tide loading constituents using GPS in Alaska

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khan, Shfaqat Abbas; Tscherning, C.C.

    2001-01-01

    , K-2, M-2 and N-2). For this purpose a test is carried out using two GPS stations in Alaska. One station, Chi3, is located on an island in the Gulf of Alaska, while the second station, Fair, is located far away from the coastal areas. Processing hourly GPS solutions for the baseline between Fair...

  15. Tissue concentrations of elemental and organochlorine compounds in sea otters in Alaska

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Sea otters (Enhydra lutris) are found in coastal waters of Alaska from the southeast part of the state through the Aleutian Islands. Sea otters and their principle...

  16. Alaska Maritime National Wildlife Refuge : Annual narrative report : Calendar year 1981

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Alaska Maritime NWR (including the Aleutian Island Unit) outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1981 calendar year. The report...

  17. 1983 walrus harvest, health, and welfare study at Savoonga, Alaska: Progress report

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Between April 14th and June 5th, the FWS monitored the spring harvest of walruses taken by Native hunters of Savoonga on St. Lawrence Island, Alaska. The effort was...

  18. Alaska Radiometric Ages

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Alaska Radiometric Age file is a database of radiometric ages of rocks or minerals sampled from Alaska. The data was collected from professional publications...

  19. Seabird investigations on Middleton Island during the summer 1976 with notes on the other island avifauna : Draft report

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The results of seabird investigations on Middleton Island, Alaska, during the summer of 1976 are reported here. The purpose of this study was to gather baseline...

  20. Bryophytes from Tuxedni Wilderness area, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schofield, W.B.; Talbot, S. S.; Talbot, S.L.

    2002-01-01

    The bryoflora of two small maritime islands, Chisik and Duck Island (2,302 ha), comprising Tuxedni Wilderness in western lower Cook Inlet, Alaska, was examined to determine species composition in an area where no previous collections had been reported. The field study was conducted from sites selected to represent the totality of environmental variation within Tuxedni Wilderness. Data were analyzed using published reports to compare the bryophyte distribution patterns at three levels, the Northern Hemisphere, North America, and Alaska. A total of 286 bryophytes were identified: 230 mosses and 56 liverworts. Bryum miniatum, Dichodontium olympicum, and Orthotrichum pollens are new to Alaska. The annotated list of species for Tuxedni Wilderness expands the known range for many species and fills distribution gaps within Hulte??n's Central Pacific Coast district. Compared with bryophyte distribution in the Northern Hemisphere, the bryoflora of Tuxedni Wilderness primarily includes taxa of boreal (61%), montane (13%), temperate (11%), arctic-alpine (7%), cosmopolitan (7%), distribution; 4% of the total moss flora are North America endemics. A brief summary of the botanical exploration of the general area is provided, as is a description of the bryophytes present in the vegetation and habitat types of Chisik and Duck Islands.

  1. Os and S isotope studies of ultramafic rocks in the Duke Island Complex, Alaska: variable degrees of crustal contamination of magmas in an arc setting and implications for Ni-Cu-PGE sulfide mineralization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stifter, Eric C.; Ripley, Edward M.; Li, Chusi

    2016-10-01

    The Duke Island Complex is one of the several "Ural-Alaskan" intrusions of Cretaceous age that occur along the coast of SE Alaska. Significant quantities of magmatic Ni-Cu-PGE sulfide mineralization are locally found in the complex, primarily within olivine clinopyroxenites. Sulfide mineralization is Ni-poor, consistent with petrologic evidence which indicates that sulfide saturation was reached after extensive olivine crystallization. Olivine clinopyroxenites were intruded by magmas that produced sulfide-poor, adcumulate dunites. As part of a study to investigate the potential for Ni-rich sulfide mineralization in association with the dunites, a Re-Os and S isotope study of the dunites, as well as sulfide mineralization in the olivine clinopyroxenites, was initiated. Importantly, recent drilling in the complex identified the presence of sulfidic and carbonaceous country rocks that may have been involved in the contamination of magmas and generation of sulfide mineralization. γOs (110 Ma) values of two sulfidic country rocks are 1022 and 2011. δ34S values of the country rocks range from -2.6 to -16.1 ‰. 187Os/188Os ratios of sulfide minerals in the mineralization hosted by olivine clinopyroxenites are variable and high, with γOs (110 Ma) values between 151 and 2059. Extensive interaction with Re-rich sedimentary country rocks is indicated. In contrast, γOs (110 Ma) values of the dunites are significantly lower, ranging between 2 and 16. 187Os/188Os ratios increase with decreasing Os concentration. This inverse relation is similar to that shown by ultramafic rocks from several arc settings, as well as altered abyssal dunites and peridotites. The relation may be indicative of magma derivation from a sub-arc mantle that had experienced metasomatism via slab-derived fluids. Alternatively, the relation may be indicative of minor contamination of magma by crustal rocks with low Os concentrations but high 187Os/188Os ratios. A third alternative is that the low Os

  2. 76 FR 11978 - Proposed Amendment of Federal Airways; Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-04

    ... Federal airways in Alaska. Due to construction of wind turbines on Fire Island, AK, the Anchorage VOR is... after the closing date for comments. A report summarizing each substantive public contact with FAA... technical regulations for which frequent and routine amendments are necessary to keep them...

  3. Long-term observations of Alaska Coastal Current in the northern Gulf of Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stabeno, Phyllis J.; Bell, Shaun; Cheng, Wei; Danielson, Seth; Kachel, Nancy B.; Mordy, Calvin W.

    2016-10-01

    The Alaska Coastal Current is a continuous, well-defined system extending for ~1700 km along the coast of Alaska from Seward, Alaska to Samalga Pass in the Aleutian Islands. The currents in this region are examined using data collected at >20 mooring sites and from >400 satellite-tracked drifters. While not continuous, the mooring data span a 30 year period (1984-2014). Using current meter data collected at a dozen mooring sites spread over four lines (Seward, Gore Point, Kennedy and Stevenson Entrances, and the exit to Shelikof Strait) total transport was calculated. Transport was significantly correlated with alongshore winds, although the correlation at the Seward Line was weak. The largest mean transport in the Alaska Coastal Current occurred at Gore Point (1.4×106 m3 s-1 in winter and 0.6×106 m3 s-1 in summer), with the transport at the exit to Shelikof Strait (1.3×106 m3 s-1 in winter and 0.6×106 m3 s-1 in summer) only slightly less. The transport was modified at the Seward Line in late summer and fall by frontal undulations associated with strong river discharge that enters onto the shelf at that time of year. The interaction of the Alaska Coastal Current and tidal currents with shallow banks in the vicinity of Kodiak Archipeligo and in Kennedy-Stevenson Entrance results in mixing and prolonged primary production throughout the summer.

  4. 78 FR 57097 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Sharks in the Bering Sea and Aleutian...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-17

    ... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Sharks in the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Management Area AGENCY: National...: Temporary rule; closure. SUMMARY: NMFS is prohibiting retention of sharks in the Bering Sea and Aleutian... sharks in the BSAI has been reached. DATES: Effective 1200 hrs, Alaska local time (A.l.t.), September...

  5. 76 FR 59924 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Sharks in the Bering Sea and Aleutian...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-28

    ... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Sharks in the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Management Area AGENCY: National...: Temporary rule; closure. SUMMARY: NMFS is prohibiting retention of sharks in the Bering Sea and Aleutian... sharks in the BSAI has been reached. DATES: Effective 1200 hrs, Alaska local time (A.l.t.), September...

  6. AFSC/RACE/EcoFOCI: 2011 Gulf of Alaska IERP Cruise TN263/1TT11

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A total of 105 stations were occupied. There were two sample grids (southeast Alaska and Yakutat Bay) and two transects in the vicinity of Kayak Island. At each...

  7. 76 FR 21705 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Catch Accounting in the Longline Catcher...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-18

    ... Alaska; Catch Accounting in the Longline Catcher/Processor Pacific Cod Fishery AGENCY: National Marine... Islands to support different catch accounting methods for Pacific cod catch. NMFS is considering...

  8. Ocean Observing System Demonstrated in Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoch, G. Carl; Chao, Yi

    2010-05-01

    To demonstrate the utility of an ocean observing and forecasting system with diverse practical applications—such as search and rescue, oil spill response (perhaps relevent to the current Gulf of Mexico oil spill), fisheries, and risk management—a unique field experiment was conducted in Prince William Sound, Alaska, in July and August 2009. The objective was to quantitatively evaluate the performance of numerical models developed for the sound with an array of fixed and mobile observation platforms (Figure 1). Prince William Sound was chosen for the demonstration because of historical efforts to monitor ocean circulation following the 1989 oil spill from the Exxon Valdez tanker. The sound, a highly crenulated embayment of about 10,000 square kilometers at approximately 60°N latitude along the northern coast of the Gulf of Alaska, includes about 6900 kilometers of shoreline, numerous islands and fjords, and an extensive system of tidewater glaciers descending from the highest coastal mountain range in North America. Hinchinbrook Entrance and Montague Strait are the two main deep water connections with the Gulf of Alaska. The economic base of communities in the region is almost entirely resource-dependent. For example, Cordova's economy is based on commercial fishing and Valdez's economy is supported primarily by the trans-Alaska oil pipeline terminal.

  9. Alaska geothermal bibliography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liss, S.A.; Motyka, R.J.; Nye, C.J. (comps.)

    1987-05-01

    The Alaska geothermal bibliography lists all publications, through 1986, that discuss any facet of geothermal energy in Alaska. In addition, selected publications about geology, geophysics, hydrology, volcanology, etc., which discuss areas where geothermal resources are located are included, though the geothermal resource itself may not be mentioned. The bibliography contains 748 entries.

  10. The Best of Alaska

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑钧

    2011-01-01

    Nothing awakes Alaska like a whale exploding out of the water or an eagle (鹰) pulling a silver fish from the river. Combine these images with high mountains, brilliant icebergs and wonderful meals and you really do have the best of Alaska!

  11. Renewable Energy in Alaska

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2013-03-01

    This report examines the opportunities, challenges, and costs associated with renewable energy implementation in Alaska and provides strategies that position Alaska's accumulating knowledge in renewable energy development for export to the rapidly growing energy/electric markets of the developing world.

  12. Alaska Problem Resource Manual: Alaska Future Problem Solving Program. Alaska Problem 1985-86.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorsuch, Marjorie, Ed.

    "Alaska's Image in the Lower 48," is the theme selected by a Blue Ribbon panel of state and national leaders who felt that it was important for students to explore the relationship between Alaska's outside image and the effect of that image on the federal programs/policies that impact Alaska. An overview of Alaska is presented first in…

  13. Survival and natality rate observations of California sea lions at San Miguel Island, California conducted by Alaska Fisheries Science Center, National Marine Mammal Laboratory from 1987-09-20 to 2014-09-25 (NCEI Accession 0145167)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The dataset contains initial capture and marking data for California sea lion (Zalophus californianus) pups at San Miguel Island, California and subsequent...

  14. Temperature and salinity profile data from CTD casts from NOAA Ship RAINIER west of Prince of Wales Island, Alaska, from 2008-05-16 to 2008-06-16 (NCEI Accession 0043264)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Physical oceanographic data were collected from NOAA Ship RAINIER west of Prince of Wales Island from 16 May 2008 to 16 June 2008. Data were collected from CTD...

  15. Lead shot poisoning of a Pacific loon in Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, H.M.; Oyen, J.L.; Sileo, L.

    2004-01-01

    Lead poisoning, associated with ingestion of spent lead shot, was diagnosed in an adult female Pacific loon (Gavia pacifica) observed with partial paralysis on 13 June 2002 and found dead on 16 June 2002 on Kigigak Island, Yukon Delta National Wildlife Refuge, western Alaska, USA. A necropsy revealed three pellets of ingested lead shot in the loona??s gizzard and a lead liver concentration of 31 ppm wet weight, which was consistent with metallic lead poisoning. This is the first report of lead poisoning in a Pacific loon and is the only account of lead toxicosis associated with ingestion of lead shot in any loon species breeding in Alaska.

  16. Libraries in Alaska: MedlinePlus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: https://medlineplus.gov/libraries/alaska.html Libraries in Alaska To use the sharing features on ... JavaScript. Anchorage University of Alaska Anchorage Alaska Medical Library 3211 Providence Drive Anchorage, AK 99508-8176 907- ...

  17. Digital Shaded-Relief Image of Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riehle, J.R.; Fleming, Michael D.; Molnia, B.F.; Dover, J.H.; Kelley, J.S.; Miller, M.L.; Nokleberg, W.J.; Plafker, George; Till, A.B.

    1997-01-01

    Introduction One of the most spectacular physiographic images of the conterminous United States, and the first to have been produced digitally, is that by Thelin and Pike (USGS I-2206, 1991). The image is remarkable for its crispness of detail and for the natural appearance of the artificial land surface. Our goal has been to produce a shaded-relief image of Alaska that has the same look and feel as the Thelin and Pike image. The Alaskan image could have been produced at the same scale as its lower 48 counterpart (1:3,500,000). But by insetting the Aleutian Islands into the Gulf of Alaska, we were able to print the Alaska map at a larger scale (1:2,500,000) and about the same physical size as the Thelin and Pike image. Benefits of the 1:2,500,000 scale are (1) greater resolution of topographic features and (2) ease of reference to the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) (1987) Alaska Map E and the statewide geologic map (Beikman, 1980), which are both 1:2,500,000 scale. Manually drawn, shaded-relief images of Alaska's land surface have long been available (for example, Department of the Interior, 1909; Raisz, 1948). The topography depicted on these early maps is mainly schematic. Maps showing topographic contours were first available for the entire State in 1953 (USGS, 1:250,000) (J.H. Wittmann, USGS, written commun., 1996). The Alaska Map E was initially released in 1954 in both planimetric (revised in 1973 and 1987) and shaded-relief versions (revised in 1973, 1987, and 1996); topography depicted on the shaded-relief version is based on the 1:250,000-scale USGS topographic maps. Alaska Map E was later modified to include hypsometric tinting by Raven Maps and Images (1989, revised 1993) as copyrighted versions. Other shaded-relief images were produced for The National Geographic Magazine (LaGorce, 1956; 1:3,000,000) or drawn by Harrison (1970; 1:7,500,000) for The National Atlas of the United States. Recently, the State of Alaska digitally produced a shaded-relief image

  18. Alaska geology revealed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Frederic H.; Labay, Keith A.

    2016-11-09

    This map shows the generalized geology of Alaska, which helps us to understand where potential mineral deposits and energy resources might be found, define ecosystems, and ultimately, teach us about the earth history of the State. Rock units are grouped in very broad categories on the basis of age and general rock type. A much more detailed and fully referenced presentation of the geology of Alaska is available in the Geologic Map of Alaska (http://dx.doi.org/10.3133/sim3340). This product represents the simplification of thousands of individual rock units into just 39 broad groups. Even with this generalization, the sheer complexity of Alaskan geology remains evident.

  19. AFSC/REFM: Pacific cod genetics in the Aleutian Islands 2004-2007

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Landscape genetics of Pacific cod Gadus macrocephalus within the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands (BSAI) management area of Alaska was examined in samples from nine...

  20. Aleutian Islands Coastal Resources Inventory and Environmental Sensitivity Maps: M_MAMPT (Marine Mammal Points)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains biological resource data for seals and sea lions in the Aleutian Islands, Alaska. Points in this data set represent locations of haulout and...

  1. Aleutian Islands Coastal Resources Inventory and Environmental Sensitivity Maps: INVERT (Invertebrate Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains biological resource data for crabs and bivalves in the Aleutian Islands, Alaska. Vector polygons in this data set represent locations of...

  2. Aleutian Islands Coastal Resources Inventory and Environmental Sensitivity Maps: HABITATS (Habitat Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains biological resource data for seagrasses in the Aleutian Islands, Alaska. Vector polygons in this data set represent locations of seagrass...

  3. Monitoring of Nesting Spectacled Eiders on Kigigak Island, Yukon Delta NWR, 2011

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Nesting spectacled eiders were monitored for the 20th consecutive year on Kigigak Island, Alaska in 2011. Clutch size, hatch date, and final nest status were...

  4. Aleutian Islands Coastal Resources Inventory and Environmental Sensitivity Maps: M_MAMMAL (Marine Mammal Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains biological resource data for sea otters and walrus in the Aleutian Islands, Alaska. Vector polygons in this data set represent locations of...

  5. Aleutian Islands Coastal Resources Inventory and Environmental Sensitivity Maps: BIRDS (Bird Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains biological resource data for alcids, shorebirds, waterfowl, diving birds, pelagic birds, gulls and terns in the Aleutian Islands, Alaska....

  6. Aleutian Islands Coastal Resources Inventory and Environmental Sensitivity Maps: FISH (Fish Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains biological resource data for estuarine, benthic, and pelagic fish in the Aleutian Islands, Alaska. Vector polygons in this data set represent...

  7. Aleutian Islands Coastal Resources Inventory and Environmental Sensitivity Maps: NESTS (Nest Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains biological resource data for alcids, shorebirds, waterfowl, diving birds, pelagic birds, gulls and terns in the Aleutian Islands, Alaska....

  8. Bibliography on Alaska estuaries

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This bibliography was compiled to assist in working up “profiles” for the estuaries in Alaska. The purpose of the profiles is to list in a narrative form the...

  9. Alaska waterfowl production, 1964

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the Waterfowl Production and Habitat Survey for Alaska during 1964. The primary purpose of the survey is to provide information on duck...

  10. Volcanic ash plume identification using polarization lidar: Augustine eruption, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sassen, Kenneth; Zhu, Jiang; Webley, Peter W.; Dean, K.; Cobb, Patrick

    2007-01-01

    During mid January to early February 2006, a series of explosive eruptions occurred at the Augustine volcanic island off the southern coast of Alaska. By early February a plume of volcanic ash was transported northward into the interior of Alaska. Satellite imagery and Puff volcanic ash transport model predictions confirm that the aerosol plume passed over a polarization lidar (0.694 mm wavelength) site at the Arctic Facility for Atmospheric Remote Sensing at the University of Alaska Fairbanks. For the first time, lidar linear depolarization ratios of 0.10 – 0.15 were measured in a fresh tropospheric volcanic plume, demonstrating that the nonspherical glass and mineral particles typical of volcanic eruptions generate strong laser depolarization. Thus, polarization lidars can identify the volcanic ash plumes that pose a threat to jet air traffic from the ground, aircraft, or potentially from Earth orbit.

  11. 76 FR 17360 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Octopus in the Bering Sea and Aleutian...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-29

    ... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Octopus in the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Management Area AGENCY: National...-specified reserve to the initial total allowable catch of octopus in the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands... CFR part 679. The 2011 initial total allowable catch (ITAC) of octopus in the BSAI was ]...

  12. 76 FR 53840 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Other Rockfish, Other Flatfish, Sharks, and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-30

    ... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Other Rockfish, Other Flatfish, Sharks, and Skates in the Bering Sea and Aleutian... rockfish, other flatfish, sharks, and skates in the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands management area (BSAI... Aleutian Islands (AI) other rockfish, BSAI other flatfish, BSAI sharks, and BSAI skates was established...

  13. Database for volcanic processes and geology of Augustine Volcano, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntire, Jacqueline; Ramsey, David W.; Thoms, Evan; Waitt, Richard B.; Beget, James E.

    2012-01-01

    Augustine Island (volcano) in lower Cook Inlet, Alaska, has erupted repeatedly in late-Holocene and historical times. Eruptions typically beget high-energy volcanic processes. Most notable are bouldery debris avalanches containing immense angular clasts shed from summit domes. Coarse deposits of these avalanches form much of Augustine's lower flanks. This geologic map at 1:25,000 scale depicts these deposits, these processes.

  14. Phylogeography of brown bears (Ursus arctos) of Alaska and paraphyly within the Ursidae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talbot, S L; Shields, G F

    1996-06-01

    Complete nucleotide sequences of the mitochondrial cytochrome b, tRNA(prolime), and tRNA(threonine) genes were described for 166 brown bears (Ursus arctos) from 10 geographic regions of Alaska to describe natural genetic variation, construct a molecular phylogeny, and evaluate classical taxonomies. DNA sequences of brown bears were compared to homologous sequences of the polar bear (maritimus) and of the sun bear (Helarctos malayanus), which was used as an outgroup. Parsimony and neighbor-joining methods each produced essentially identical phylogenetic trees that suggest two distinct clades of mtDNA for brown bears in Alaska: one composed only of bears that now reside on some of the islands of southeastern Alaska and the other which includes bears from all other regions of Alaska. The very close relationship of the polar bear to brown bears of the islands of southeastern Alaska as previously reported by us and the paraphyletic association of polar bears to brown bears reported by others have been reaffirmed with this much larger data set. A weak correlation is suggested between types of mtDNA and habitat preference by brown bears in Alaska. Our mtDNA data support some, but not all, of the currently designated subspecies of brown bears whose descriptions have been based essentially on morphology.

  15. Venetie, Alaska energy assessment.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jensen, Richard Pearson; Baca, Michael J.; Schenkman, Benjamin L.; Brainard, James Robert

    2013-07-01

    This report summarizes the Energy Assessment performed for Venetie, Alaska using the principals of an Energy Surety Microgrid (ESM) The report covers a brief overview of the principals of ESM, a site characterization of Venetie, a review of the consequence modeling, some preliminary recommendations, and a basic cost analysis.

  16. Seismology Outreach in Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardine, L.; Tape, C.; West, M. E.

    2014-12-01

    Despite residing in a state with 75% of North American earthquakes and three of the top 15 ever recorded, most Alaskans have limited knowledge about the science of earthquakes. To many, earthquakes are just part of everyday life, and to others, they are barely noticed until a large event happens, and often ignored even then. Alaskans are rugged, resilient people with both strong independence and tight community bonds. Rural villages in Alaska, most of which are inaccessible by road, are underrepresented in outreach efforts. Their remote locations and difficulty of access make outreach fiscally challenging. Teacher retention and small student bodies limit exposure to science and hinder student success in college. The arrival of EarthScope's Transportable Array, the 50th anniversary of the Great Alaska Earthquake, targeted projects with large outreach components, and increased community interest in earthquake knowledge have provided opportunities to spread information across Alaska. We have found that performing hands-on demonstrations, identifying seismological relevance toward career opportunities in Alaska (such as natural resource exploration), and engaging residents through place-based experience have increased the public's interest and awareness of our active home.

  17. Current Ethnomusicology in Alaska.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Thomas F.

    The systematic study of Eskimo, Indian, and Aleut musical sound and behavior in Alaska, though conceded to be an important part of white efforts to foster understanding between different cultural groups and to maintain the native cultural heritage, has received little attention from Alaskan educators. Most existing ethnomusical studies lack one or…

  18. Asthma and American Indians/Alaska Natives

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Minority Population Profiles > American Indian/Alaska Native > Asthma Asthma and American Indians/Alaska Natives In 2014, 218, ... Native American adults reported that they currently have asthma. American Indian/Alaska Native children are 30% more ...

  19. Galapagos Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    This true-color image of the Galapagos Islands was acquired on March 12, 2002, by the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), flying aboard NASA's Terra satellite. The Galapagos Islands, which are part of Ecuador, sit in the Pacific Ocean about 1000 km (620 miles) west of South America. As the three craters on the largest island (Isabela Island) suggest, the archipelago was created by volcanic eruptions, which took place millions of years ago. Unlike most remote islands in the Pacific, the Galapagos have gone relatively untouched by humans over the past few millennia. As a result, many unique species have continued to thrive on the islands. Over 95 percent of the islands' reptile species and nearly three quarters of its land bird species cannot be found anywhere else in the world. Two of the more well known are the Galapagos giant tortoise and marine iguanas. The unhindered evolutionary development of the islands' species inspired Charles Darwin to begin The Origin of Species eight years after his visit there. To preserve the unique wildlife on the islands, the Ecuadorian government made the entire archipelago a national park in 1959. Each year roughly 60,000 tourists visit these islands to experience what Darwin did over a century and a half ago. Image courtesy Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team at NASA GSFC

  20. Reevaluation of tsunami formation by debris avalanche at Augustine Volcano, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waythomas, C.F.

    2000-01-01

    Debris avalanches entering the sea at Augustine Volcano, Alaska have been proposed as a mechanism for generating tsunamis. Historical accounts of the 1883 eruption of the volcano describe 6- to 9-meter-high waves that struck the coastline at English Bay (Nanwalek), Alaska about 80 kilometers east of Augustine Island. These accounts are often cited as proof that volcanigenic tsunamis from Augustine Volcano are significant hazards to the coastal zone of lower Cook Inlet. This claim is disputed because deposits of unequivocal tsunami origin are not evident at more than 50 sites along the lower Cook Inlet coastline where they might be preserved. Shallow water (Augustine Island, in the run-out zone for debris avalanches, limits the size of an avalanche-caused wave. If the two most recent debris avalanches, Burr Point (A.D. 1883) and West Island (Augustine Volcano appears minor, unless a very large debris avalanche occurs at high tide.

  1. Steller sea lion satellite telemetry data used to determine at-sea distribution in the western-central Aleutian Islands, 2000-2013

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset was used for an analysis of the at-sea distribution of Steller sea lions in the western-central Aleutian Islands, Alaska. This analysis was prepared to...

  2. Silurian Gastropoda from the Alexander terrane, southeast Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohr, D.M.; Blodgett, R.B.

    2008-01-01

    Gastropods are described from Ludlow-age strata of the Heceta Limestone on Prince of Wales Island, southeast Alaska. They are part of a diverse megabenthic fauna of the Alexander terrane, an accreted terrane of Siberian or Uralian affinities. Heceta Limestone gastropods with Uralian affinities include Kirkospira glacialis, which closely resembles "Pleurotomaria" lindstromi Oehlert of Chernyshev, 1893, Retispira cf. R. volgulica (Chernyshev, 1893), and Medfracaulus turriformis (Chernyshev, 1893). Medfracaulus and similar morphotypes such as Coelocaulus karlae are unknown from rocks that are unquestionably part of the North American continent (Laurentia) during Late Silurian time. Beraunia is previously known only from the Silurian of Bohemia. Pachystrophia has previously been reported only from western North American terranes (Eastern Klamath, York, and Farewell terranes) and Europe. Bathmopterus Kirk, 1928, is resurrected and is only known from the Silurian of southeast Alaska. Newly described taxa include Hecetastoma gehrelsi n. gen. and n. sp. and Baichtalia tongassensis n. gen. and n. sp. ??2008 The Geological Society of America.

  3. The EarthScope Plate Boundary Observatory Alaska Region: Highlights from the 2012 Summer Field Season

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enders, M.; Bierma, R. M.; Boyce, E. S.; Willoughby, H.; Fend, M.; Feaux, K.

    2012-12-01

    UNAVCO has now completed its fourth year of operation and maintenance of the 138 continuous GPS stations, 12 tiltmeters and 31 data communications relays that comprise the Alaska region of the EarthScope Plate Boundary Observatory (PBO). The successful operation of the autonomous GPS and tiltmeter network in Alaska continues to be a challenge, because of logistics, weather, and other difficulties related to working in Alaska. PBO engineers continue to work on network enhancements to make the stations more robust, while improving overall data quality and station uptime to better serve the EarthScope science community. In the summer of 2012, PBO engineers completed maintenance activities in Alaska, which resulted in a 95% operational status for the Alaska network within PBO. PBO engineers completed a total of 87 maintenance visits in the summer of FY2012, including 62 routine maintenance and 25 unscheduled maintenance visits to GPS and data communications stations. We present a number of highlights and accomplishments from the PBO 2012 summer field season in Alaska, for example the deployment of a newly designed methanol fuel cell at AV35, a critical station that serves as the main repeater for the real time network on Unimak Island. In addition, PBO engineers also completed the installation of three Inmarsat BGAN terminals for data telemetry following successful testing at AC60 Shemya. Lastly, PBO engineers completed scheduled battery replacements at most of the PBO stations on Unimak Island, in collaboration with the USGS/Alaska Volcano Observatory. In addition to routine maintenance and planned station improvements to sites in Alaska, numerous critical repairs were made at stations on Unimak Island and elsewhere to ensure that the PBO network continues to function well and continues to meet the requirements stipulated by the NSF. We also present some of the station failures unique to Alaska, which we encountered during the course of the 2012 field season, as well

  4. The Earthscope Plate Boundary Observatory Alaska Region an Overview of Network Operation, Maintenance and Improvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enders, M.; Boyce, E. S.; Bierma, R.; Walker, K.; Feaux, K.

    2011-12-01

    UNAVCO has now completed its third year of operation of the 138 continuous GPS stations, 12 tiltmeters and 31 communications relays that comprise the Alaska Region of the Earthscope Plate Boundary Observatory. Working in Alaska has been challenging due to the extreme environmental conditions encountered and logistics difficulties. Despite these challenges we have been able to complete each summer field season with network operation at 95% or better. Throughout the last three years we have analyzed both our successes and failures to improve the quality of our network and better serve the scientific community. Additionally, we continue to evaluate and deploy new technologies to improve station reliability and add to the data set available from our stations. 2011 was a busy year for the Alaska engineering team and some highlights from last year's maintenance season include the following. This spring we completed testing and deployment of the first Inmarsat BGAN satellite terminal for data telemetry at AC60 Shemya Island. Shemya Island is at the far western end of the Aleutian Islands and is one of the most remote and difficult to access stations in the PBO AK network. Until the installation of the BGAN, this station was offline with no data telemetry for almost one year. Since the installation of the BGAN in early April 2011 dataflow has been uninterrupted. This year we also completed the first deployments of Stardot NetCamSC webcams in the PBO Network. Currently, these are installed and operational at six GPS stations in Alaska, with plans to install several more next season in Alaska. Images from these cameras can be found at the station homepages linked to from the UNAVCO website. In addition to the hard work put in by PBO engineers this year, it is important that we recognize the contributions of our partners. In particular the Alaska Volcano Observatory, the Alaska Earthquake Information Center and others who have provided us with valuable engineering assistance

  5. Southeast Alaskan shelf from southern tip of Baranof Island to Kayak Island: Currents, mixing and chlorophyll-a

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stabeno, P. J.; Bond, N. A.; Kachel, N. B.; Ladd, C.; Mordy, C. W.; Strom, S. L.

    2016-10-01

    During 2011 and 2013, an integrated ecosystem study was undertaken on the Southeast Alaska shelf and slope. As part of that study, a total of 8 moorings were deployed each year along the coast of Baranof and Chichagof Islands, in Cross Sound and at Icy Point. In addition, 18 satellite-tracked drifters were deployed during the two field years. The goals of this manuscript are to describe: the coastal currents in southeastern Alaska; the processes affecting them; and how the physics modify the nutrients and primary production in the region. Mixing in Cross Sound is an important source of nutrients for the shelf north of the sound, resulting in prolonged production during summer. While the Alaska Coastal Current is not a continuous feature along the entire Gulf of Alaska coast, it does exist from southern tip of Baranof Island to Cross Sound, and again northwest of Yakutat. The narrowness of this shelf coupled with the meanders and eddies in the Alaska Current result in large amounts of on-shelf flow of slope water and off-shelf flow of coastal water. While local currents and summer winds were similar in 2011 and 2013, 2011 was characterized by low chlorophyll-a concentrations throughout the spring-summer, while chlorophyll concentrations in 2013 were typical. The cause of this difference remains unclear, but bottom-up processes likely contributed to the low chlorophyll-a concentrations in 2011.

  6. Island Armor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    A new law has been enacted to protect China’s islands from destruction After three rounds of deliberations that began in June 2009, the National People’s Congress (NPC) Standing Committee endorsed the Law of Sea

  7. Assessment of clinical pathology and pathogen exposure in sea otters (Enhydra lutris) bordering the threatened population in Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, T.; Gill, V.A.; Tuomi, Pamela A.; Monson, D.; Burdin, A.; Conrad, P.A.; Dunn, J.L.; Field, C.; Johnson, Chad; Jessup, David A.; Bodkin, J.; Doroff, A.M.

    2011-01-01

    Northern sea otter (Enhydra lutris kenyoni) abundance has decreased dramatically over portions of southwest Alaska, USA, since the mid-1980s, and this stock is currently listed as threatened under the Endangered Species Act. In contrast, adjacent populations in south central Alaska, USA, and Russia have been stable to increasing during the same period. Sea otters bordering the area classified in the recent decline were live-captured during 2004–2006 at Bering Island, Russia, and the Kodiak Archipelago, Alaska, USA, to evaluate differences in general health and current exposure status to marine and terrestrial pathogens. Although body condition was lower in animals captured at Bering Island, Russia, than it was at Kodiak, USA, clinical pathology values did not reveal differences in general health between the two regions. Low prevalences of antibodies (>5%) were found in Kodiak, USA, and on Bering Island, Russia, to Toxoplasma gondii, Sarcocystis neurona, and Leptospira interrogans. Exposure to phocine herpesvirus-1 was found in both Kodiak, USA (15.2%), and Bering Island, Russia (2.3%). Antibodies to Brucella spp. were found in 28% of the otters tested on Bering Island, Russia, compared with only 2.7% of the samples from Kodiak, USA. Prevalence of exposure to Phocine distemper virus (PDV) was 41% in Kodiak, USA, but 0% on Bering Island, Russia. Archived sera from southwest and south-central Alaska dating back to 1989 were negative for PDV, indicating exposure occurred in sea otters in Kodiak, USA, in recent years. Because PDV can be highly pathogenic in naïve and susceptible marine mammal populations, tissues should be examined to explore the contribution of this virus to otter deaths. Our results reveal an increase in exposure to pathogens in sea otters in Kodiak, Alaska, USA, since the 1990s.

  8. On the climate and climate change of Sitka, Southeast Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendler, Gerd; Galloway, Kevin; Stuefer, Martin

    2016-10-01

    Sitka, located in southeastern coastal Alaska, is the only meteorological station in Alaska and northern coastal British Columbia, with a long climatological record, going back to the first half of the nineteenth century. Sitka was the capital of Alaska, when it was part of the Russian Empire, to which Alaska belonged until 1867, when the American government purchased it. In 1827, the Russian established an observatory on Baranof Island, Sitka Harbor, which made 17-hourly observations, later extended to 19 and thereafter to all hours of the day. When analyzing the data, the 12-day time difference between the Russian (Julian) calendar, at which the observations were made, and ours (Gregorian) has to be considered. The climate of Sitka is maritime, with relative warm winter temperatures—there is no month with a mean temperature below freezing—and moderately warm summer temperatures with 4 months above the 10 °C level and plentiful precipitation all-year long. It is the warmest zone of Alaska. Even though there is a substantial break in observations in the late nineteenth century, these are the only observation, which started so early in the nineteenth century. Systematic US-based observations commenced much later normally in connection with the gold rush, whaling in Northern Alaska, and the fur trade, predominantly along the Yukon River. During the 186 years of observations from 1827 to 2013, the best linear fit gave a temperature increase of 1.56 °C for the whole period or 0.86 °C per century, somewhat lower than expected for the relatively high latitudes. The increase was nonlinear, with several multi-decadal variations. However, when comparing the first normal (1831-1860) to the last normal (1981-2010) and assuming a linear trend, a higher value of 1.06 °C per century was calculated. The discrepancy might be explained by nonlinearity and the fact that during the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, observations were sporadic. Furthermore, the

  9. ALASKA1964_OBS - Alaska 1964 Tsunami Observations at Seaside, Oregon

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set is a point shapefile representing observations of inundation and water levels from the Alaska 1964 event obtained by Tom Horning (1997). The geospatial...

  10. 2005 Alaska Division of Geological & Geophysical Surveys Lidar: Unalakleet, Alaska

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This report is a summary of a LiDAR data collection over the community of Unalakleet, in the Norton Sound region of Alaska. The original data were collected on...

  11. Nuclear and mitochondrial markers reveal evidence for genetically segregated cryptic speciation in giant Pacific octopuses from Prince William Sound, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toussaint, Rebecca K.; Scheel, David; Sage, G.K.; Talbot, S.L.

    2012-01-01

    Multiple species of large octopus are known from the north Pacific waters around Japan, however only one large species is known in the Gulf of Alaska (the giant Pacific octopus, Enteroctopus dofleini). Current taxonomy of E. dofleini is based on geographic and morphological characteristics, although with advances in genetic technology that is changing. Here, we used two mitochondrial genes (cytochrome b and cytochrome oxidase I), three nuclear genes (rhodopsin, octopine dehydrogenase, and paired-box 6), and 18 microsatellite loci for phylogeographic and phylogenetic analyses of octopuses collected from across southcentral and the eastern Aleutian Islands (Dutch Harbor), Alaska. Our results suggest the presence of a cryptic Enteroctopus species that is allied to, but distinguished from E. dofleini in Prince William Sound, Alaska. Existence of an undescribed and previously unrecognized taxon raises important questions about the taxonomy of octopus in southcentral Alaska waters.

  12. 75 FR 61642 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Modified Nonpelagic Trawl Gear and Habitat...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-06

    ... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Modified Nonpelagic Trawl Gear and Habitat Conservation in the Bering Sea Subarea.... Matthew Island, and to allow for efficient flatfish harvest as the distribution of flatfish in the Bering... economic impact on the flatfish vessel fleet, the industry's participation in the modified gear...

  13. 78 FR 76246 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Several Groundfish Species in the Bering Sea...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-17

    ... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Several Groundfish Species in the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Management Area... the groundfish fishery in the (BSAI) exclusive economic zone according to the Fishery Management Plan... orderly conduct and efficient operation of this fishery, to allow the industry to plan for the...

  14. 76 FR 66655 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod and Octopus in the Bering Sea...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-27

    ... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod and Octopus in the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Management Area... necessary to limit incidental catch of octopus by vessels using pot gear to fish for Pacific cod the BSAI... Act requires that conservation and management measures prevent overfishing. The 2011...

  15. Interior Alaska Bouguer Gravity Anomaly

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A 1 kilometer Complete Bouguer Anomaly gravity grid of interior Alaska. All grid cells within the rectangular data area (from 61 to 66 degrees North latitude and...

  16. Level III Ecoregions of Alaska

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Ecoregions denote areas of general similarity in ecosystems and in the type, quality, and quantity of environmental resources. The ecoregions of Alaska are a...

  17. Predator control problems in Alaska

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One of the important wildlife management activities in Alaska is that of predator control. This simple statement requires some explanation. In the course of these...

  18. Alaska waterfowl production survey, 1968

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the Waterfowl Production and Habitat Survey for Alaska during 1968. The primary purpose of the survey is to provide information on duck...

  19. Interior Alaska Bouguer Gravity Anomaly

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A 1 kilometer Complete Bouguer Anomaly gravity grid of interior Alaska. Only those grid cells within 10 kilometers of a gravity data point have gravity values....

  20. Alaska Geoid Heights (GEOID96)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This 2' x 4' geoid height grid for Alaska is distributed as a GEOID96 model. The computation used 1.1 million terrestrial and marine gravity data held in the...

  1. Kevadel Alaska talves / Tiiu Ehrenpreis

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ehrenpreis, Tiiu

    2007-01-01

    Autori muljeid 22.-25. märtsini Fairbanksis toimunud Alaska Ülikooli ja Ülemaailmse Arktika Uurimise Keskuse (IARC) juhtimisel GLOBE'i programmi uue projekti "Aastaajad ja bioomid" koolitusseminarist

  2. Alaska duck production surveys: 1990

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the duck production survey for Alaska during 1990. The primary purpose of the survey is to provide information on duck production from the...

  3. An Alaska Soil Carbon Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Kristofer; Harden, Jennifer

    2009-05-01

    Database Collaborator's Meeting; Fairbanks, Alaska, 4 March 2009; Soil carbon pools in northern high-latitude regions and their response to climate changes are highly uncertain, and collaboration is required from field scientists and modelers to establish baseline data for carbon cycle studies. The Global Change Program at the U.S. Geological Survey has funded a 2-year effort to establish a soil carbon network and database for Alaska based on collaborations from numerous institutions. To initiate a community effort, a workshop for the development of an Alaska soil carbon database was held at the University of Alaska Fairbanks. The database will be a resource for spatial and biogeochemical models of Alaska ecosystems and will serve as a prototype for a nationwide community project: the National Soil Carbon Network (http://www.soilcarb.net). Studies will benefit from the combination of multiple academic and government data sets. This collaborative effort is expected to identify data gaps and uncertainties more comprehensively. Future applications of information contained in the database will identify specific vulnerabilities of soil carbon in Alaska to climate change, disturbance, and vegetation change.

  4. Inconsistency in precipitation measurements across Alaska and Yukon border

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Scaff

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This study quantifies the inconsistency in gauge precipitation observations across the border of Alaska and Yukon. It analyses the precipitation measurements by the national standard gauges (NWS 8-in gauge and Nipher gauge, and the bias-corrected data to account for wind effect on the gauge catch, wetting loss and trace events. The bias corrections show a significant amount of errors in the gauge records due to the windy and cold environment in the northern areas of Alaska and Yukon. Monthly corrections increase solid precipitation by 135 % in January, 20 % for July at the Barter Island in Alaska, and about 31 % for January and 4 % for July at the Yukon stations. Regression analyses of the monthly precipitation data show a stronger correlation for the warm months (mainly rainfall than for cold month (mainly snowfall between the station pairs, and small changes in the precipitation relationship due to the bias corrections. Double mass curves also indicate changes in the cumulative precipitation over the study periods. This change leads to a smaller and inverted precipitation gradient across the border, representing a significant modification in the precipitation pattern over the northern region. Overall, this study discovers significant inconsistency in the precipitation measurements across the US and Canada border. This discontinuity is greater for snowfall than for rainfall, as gauge snowfall observations have large errors in the windy and cold conditions. This result will certainly impact regional, particularly cross borders, climate and hydrology investigations.

  5. ALASKA1964_RUNUP - Alaska 1964 Tsunami Runup Heights at Seaside, Oregon (alaska1964_runup.shp)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set is a point shapefile representing tsunami inundation runup heights for the Alaska 1964 event based on observations and associated information obtained...

  6. Alaska Athabascan stellar astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannon, Christopher M.

    2014-01-01

    Stellar astronomy is a fundamental component of Alaska Athabascan cultures that facilitates time-reckoning, navigation, weather forecasting, and cosmology. Evidence from the linguistic record suggests that a group of stars corresponding to the Big Dipper is the only widely attested constellation across the Northern Athabascan languages. However, instruction from expert Athabascan consultants shows that the correlation of these names with the Big Dipper is only partial. In Alaska Gwich'in, Ahtna, and Upper Tanana languages the Big Dipper is identified as one part of a much larger circumpolar humanoid constellation that spans more than 133 degrees across the sky. The Big Dipper is identified as a tail, while the other remaining asterisms within the humanoid constellation are named using other body part terms. The concept of a whole-sky humanoid constellation provides a single unifying system for mapping the night sky, and the reliance on body-part metaphors renders the system highly mnemonic. By recognizing one part of the constellation the stargazer is immediately able to identify the remaining parts based on an existing mental map of the human body. The circumpolar position of a whole-sky constellation yields a highly functional system that facilitates both navigation and time-reckoning in the subarctic. Northern Athabascan astronomy is not only much richer than previously described; it also provides evidence for a completely novel and previously undocumented way of conceptualizing the sky---one that is unique to the subarctic and uniquely adapted to northern cultures. The concept of a large humanoid constellation may be widespread across the entire subarctic and have great antiquity. In addition, the use of cognate body part terms describing asterisms within humanoid constellations is similarly found in Navajo, suggesting a common ancestor from which Northern and Southern Athabascan stellar naming strategies derived.

  7. Satellite View of Alaska - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Satellite View of Alaska map layer is a 200-meter-resolution simulated-natural-color image of Alaska. Vegetation is generally green, with darker greens...

  8. Assessment of Alaska reindeer populations and range conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. D. Swanson

    1992-10-01

    Full Text Available Populations of reindeer (Rangifer tarandus have fluctated greatly since their introduction to Alaska in 1891. In the 1930s, reported numbers exceeded 600 000. Presently, 38 000 reindeer graze 6.2 million ha of rangeland and woodland in Western Alaska (from 66°54'N to 52°07'N latitude. Condition of winter range producing fruticose lichens (Cladina rangiferina, Cladina arbuscula, Cladina stellaris, Cetraria cucullata, Cetraria islandica is of major concern. Monitoring programs have been established for vegetation, fire, reindeer and wildlife. Reindeer have overgrazed lichen resources on some Bering Sea Islands. Wildfires have had the greatest impact on lichen range depletion on the mainland. Overgrazing has been a problem in localized areas. Moose (Alces alces and muskox (Ovibos moschatus rarely contribute to major lichen depletion. 60-80% of the mainland and 5-30% of most island winter lichen ranges are presently estimated to be in good to excellent ecological condition. Procedures for assessing condition of the lichen ranges are being further refined.

  9. Siberian Origins of Neoproterozoic to Upper Triassic Rocks of Arctic Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clough, J. G.; Blodgett, R. B.

    2007-12-01

    found in the Canadian Arctic Islands Richly diverse Upper Triassic fauna (halobiid and monotid bivalves, brachiopods) are present in the both the Shublik Formation and Otuk Group. These show closer affinities with NE Siberia rather than to western or northern North America, suggesting close spatial relationships between Siberia and Arctic Alaska at least until Late Triassic time. Sedimentary provenance studies in eastern Brooks Range Precambrian rocks indicate age ranges that are dissimilar to Proterozoic detrital-zircon ages from clastic rocks of the northern Canadian Cordillera and Canadian Arctic Islands where a detrital source within the Grenville orogen is indicated. Paleocurrent directions for the Neoproterozoic Katakturuk Dolomite in the northeast Brooks Range and similar-age units in the adjacent Victoria Island and Amundsen Basin are in approximately 100 degree opposition for a counterclockwise rotational- restored Arctic Alaska. Upper Devonian clastics of northern Alaska are in 180 degree opposition to coeval units in the Canadian Arctic Islands when the Arctic Alaska plate is restored in the rotational model. Therefore, based on paleobiogeography, sediment provenance, stratigraphy and sedimentology, tectonic models for the opening of the Canada Basin must take into account that Triassic and older rocks in Arctic Alaska have Siberian origins or were deposited proximal to Siberia.

  10. H11147H: NOS Hydrographic Survey , Shumagin Islands, Alaska

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) has the statutory mandate to collect hydrographic data in support of nautical chart compilation for safe...

  11. Alaska Energy Inventory Project: Consolidating Alaska's Energy Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papp, K.; Clough, J.; Swenson, R.; Crimp, P.; Hanson, D.; Parker, P.

    2007-12-01

    Alaska has considerable energy resources distributed throughout the state including conventional oil, gas, and coal, and unconventional coalbed and shalebed methane, gas hydrates, geothermal, wind, hydro, and biomass. While much of the known large oil and gas resources are concentrated on the North Slope and in the Cook Inlet regions, the other potential sources of energy are dispersed across a varied landscape from frozen tundra to coastal settings. Despite the presence of these potential energy sources, rural Alaska is mostly dependent upon diesel fuel for both electrical power generation and space heating needs. At considerable cost, large quantities of diesel fuel are transported to more than 150 roadless communities by barge or airplane and stored in large bulk fuel tank farms for winter months when electricity and heat are at peak demands. Recent increases in the price of oil have severely impacted the price of energy throughout Alaska, and especially hard hit are rural communities and remote mines that are off the road system and isolated from integrated electrical power grids. Even though the state has significant conventional gas resources in restricted areas, few communities are located near enough to these resources to directly use natural gas to meet their energy needs. To address this problem, the Alaska Energy Inventory project will (1) inventory and compile all available Alaska energy resource data suitable for electrical power generation and space heating needs including natural gas, coal, coalbed and shalebed methane, gas hydrates, geothermal, wind, hydro, and biomass and (2) identify locations or regions where the most economic energy resource or combination of energy resources can be developed to meet local needs. This data will be accessible through a user-friendly web-based interactive map, based on the Alaska Department of Natural Resources, Land Records Information Section's (LRIS) Alaska Mapper, Google Earth, and Terrago Technologies' Geo

  12. Tularemia in Alaska, 1938 - 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hansen Cristina M

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Tularemia is a serious, potentially life threatening zoonotic disease. The causative agent, Francisella tularensis, is ubiquitous in the Northern hemisphere, including Alaska, where it was first isolated from a rabbit tick (Haemophysalis leporis-palustris in 1938. Since then, F. tularensis has been isolated from wildlife and humans throughout the state. Serologic surveys have found measurable antibodies with prevalence ranging from F. tularensis isolates from Alaska were analyzed using canonical SNPs and a multi-locus variable-number tandem repeats (VNTR analysis (MLVA system. The results show that both F. t. tularensis and F. t. holarctica are present in Alaska and that subtype A.I, the most virulent type, is responsible for most recently reported human clinical cases in the state.

  13. Alaska volcanoes guidebook for teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adleman, Jennifer N.

    2011-01-01

    Alaska’s volcanoes, like its abundant glaciers, charismatic wildlife, and wild expanses inspire and ignite scientific curiosity and generate an ever-growing source of questions for students in Alaska and throughout the world. Alaska is home to more than 140 volcanoes, which have been active over the last 2 million years. About 90 of these volcanoes have been active within the last 10,000 years and more than 50 of these have been active since about 1700. The volcanoes in Alaska make up well over three-quarters of volcanoes in the United States that have erupted in the last 200 years. In fact, Alaska’s volcanoes erupt so frequently that it is almost guaranteed that an Alaskan will experience a volcanic eruption in his or her lifetime, and it is likely they will experience more than one. It is hard to imagine a better place for students to explore active volcanism and to understand volcanic hazards, phenomena, and global impacts. Previously developed teachers’ guidebooks with an emphasis on the volcanoes in Hawaii Volcanoes National Park (Mattox, 1994) and Mount Rainier National Park in the Cascade Range (Driedger and others, 2005) provide place-based resources and activities for use in other volcanic regions in the United States. Along the lines of this tradition, this guidebook serves to provide locally relevant and useful resources and activities for the exploration of numerous and truly unique volcanic landscapes in Alaska. This guidebook provides supplemental teaching materials to be used by Alaskan students who will be inspired to become educated and prepared for inevitable future volcanic activity in Alaska. The lessons and activities in this guidebook are meant to supplement and enhance existing science content already being taught in grade levels 6–12. Correlations with Alaska State Science Standards and Grade Level Expectations adopted by the Alaska State Department of Education and Early Development (2006) for grades six through eleven are listed at

  14. Relocations of Earthquakes (1899 1917) in South-Central Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doser, Diane I.

    2006-08-01

    I have relocated 18 earthquakes occurring in the south-central Alaska region between 1899 and 1917 using a bootstrap relocation technique. Locations of events within the Yakutat region suggest that the 1899 sequence began on 4 September with a MS = 7.9 event within the area of the Pamplona fault zone/western Transition fault zone, rupturing the western portion of the North American/Pacific plate interface. A MS = 7.4 event on 10 September appears to have ruptured the offshore portion of the plate interface to the east of the 4 September event. This was followed by a MS = 8.0 event that likely ruptured the onshore and down-dip portion of the plate interface. A MS = 7.0 event in 1908 may have ruptured a small portion of the plate interface between the 4 September and 10 September events. Events occurring between 1911 and 1916 in the Prince William Sound region appear to be slab events occurring in similar locations to more recent seismicity. Within the Kodiak region the 1900 earthquake of MS = 7.7 has a location consistent with the rupture of the Kodiak asperity which also ruptured during the 1964 great Alaska earthquake. Other large magnitude Kodiak events appear to be associated with regions of recent seismicity, including the Karluk Lake area of southwestern Kodiak Island and the Albatross Basin located offshore southeast of Kodiak Island. Space-time seismicity patterns since 1899 indicate that magnitude 6 to7 events have occurred with regularity in the Kodiak Island region; that there has been a lack of magnitude ≥ 6 events in the Prince William Sound region since 1964, and that the Yakutat region has remained notably quiescent at the magnitude ≥ 6 level.

  15. H11438: NOS Hydrographic Survey , Southwestern Alaska Peninsula-Pavlof Islands, Alaska, 2005-08-12

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) has the statutory mandate to collect hydrographic data in support of nautical chart compilation for safe...

  16. Dental caries in rural Alaska Native children--Alaska, 2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-23

    In April 2008, the Arctic Investigations Program (AIP) of CDC was informed by the Alaska Department of Health and Social Services (DHSS) of a large number of Alaska Native (AN) children living in a remote region of Alaska who required full mouth dental rehabilitations (FMDRs), including extractions and/or restorations of multiple carious teeth performed under general anesthesia. In this remote region, approximately 400 FMDRs were performed in AN children aged Dental caries can cause pain, which can affect children's normal growth and development. AIP and Alaska DHSS conducted an investigation of dental caries and associated risk factors among children in the remote region. A convenience sample of children aged 4-15 years in five villages (two with fluoridated water and three without) was examined to estimate dental caries prevalence and severity. Risk factor information was obtained by interviewing parents. Among children aged 4-5 years and 12-15 years who were evaluated, 87% and 91%, respectively, had dental caries, compared with 35% and 51% of U.S. children in those age groups. Among children from the Alaska villages, those aged 4-5 years had a mean of 7.3 dental caries, and those aged 12-15 years had a mean of 5.0, compared with 1.6 and 1.8 dental caries in same-aged U.S. children. Of the multiple factors assessed, lack of water fluoridation and soda pop consumption were significantly associated with dental caries severity. Collaborations between tribal, state, and federal agencies to provide effective preventive interventions, such as water fluoridation of villages with suitable water systems and provision of fluoride varnishes, should be encouraged.

  17. Alaska Dental Health Aide Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Shoffstall-Cone

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Background. In 1999, An Oral Health Survey of American Indian and Alaska Native (AI/AN Dental Patients found that 79% of 2- to 5-year-olds had a history of tooth decay. The Alaska Native Tribal Health Consortium in collaboration with Alaska’s Tribal Health Organizations (THO developed a new and diverse dental workforce model to address AI/AN oral health disparities. Objectives. This paper describes the workforce model and some experience to date of the Dental Health Aide (DHA Initiative that was introduced under the federally sanctioned Community Health Aide Program in Alaska. These new dental team members work with THO dentists and hygienists to provide education, prevention and basic restorative services in a culturally appropriate manner. Results. The DHA Initiative introduced 4 new dental provider types to Alaska: the Primary Dental Health Aide, the Expanded Function Dental Health Aide, the Dental Health Aide Hygienist and the Dental Health Aide Therapist. The scope of practice between the 4 different DHA providers varies vastly along with the required training and education requirements. DHAs are certified, not licensed, providers. Recertification occurs every 2 years and requires the completion of 24 hours of continuing education and continual competency evaluation. Conclusions. Dental Health Aides provide evidence-based prevention programs and dental care that improve access to oral health care and help address well-documented oral health disparities.

  18. Alaska's indigenous muskoxen: a history

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter C. Lent

    1998-03-01

    Full Text Available Muskoxen (Ovibos moschatus were widespread in northern and interior Alaska in the late Pleistocene but were never a dominant component of large mammal faunas. After the end of the Pleistocene they were even less common. Most skeletal finds have come from the Arctic Coastal Plain and the foothills of the Brooks Range. Archaeological evidence, mainly from the Point Barrow area, suggests that humans sporadically hunted small numbers of muskoxen over about 1500 years from early Birnirk culture to nineteenth century Thule culture. Skeletal remains found near Kivalina represent the most southerly Holocene record for muskoxen in Alaska. Claims that muskoxen survived into the early nineteenth century farther south in the Selawik - Buckland River region are not substantiated. Remains of muskox found by Beechey's party in Eschscholtz Bay in 1826 were almost certainly of Pleistocene age, not recent. Neither the introduction of firearms nor overwintering whalers played a significant role in the extinction of Alaska's muskoxen. Inuit hunters apparently killed the last muskoxen in northwestern Alaska in the late 1850s. Several accounts suggest that remnant herds survived in the eastern Brooks Range into the 1890s. However, there is no physical evidence or independent confirmation of these reports. Oral traditions regarding muskoxen survived among the Nunamiut and the Chandalar Kutchin. With human help, muskoxen have successfully recolonized their former range from the Seward Peninsula north, across the Arctic Slope and east into the northern Yukon Territory.

  19. Alaska Coal Geology, Resources, and Coalbed Methane Potential

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Estimated Alaska coal resources are largely in Cretaceous and Tertiary rocks distributed in three major provinces. Northern Alaska-Slope, Central Alaska-Nenana, and...

  20. Beautiful hainan island

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪伦

    2002-01-01

    Hainan Island is the second largest island in China. It is situated on the Nanhai Sea(South China Sea) and faces Guangdong Province across Qiongzhou Strait (海峡).Hainan Province was established (建立)in 1988. It consists of Hainan Island, Xisha Islands, Zhongsha Islands, Nansha Islands and the vast sea areas around them.Its total area is 340,000 km2.

  1. 76 FR 303 - Alaska: Adequacy of Alaska's Municipal Solid Waste Landfill Permit Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-04

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Parts 239 and 258 Alaska: Adequacy of Alaska's Municipal Solid Waste Landfill Permit... proposes to approve Alaska's modification of its approved Municipal Solid Waste Landfill (MSWLF) permit... Domenic Calabro, Office of Air, Waste, and Toxics, U.S. EPA, Region 10, 1200 Sixth Avenue, Suite...

  2. 76 FR 270 - Alaska: Adequacy of Alaska Municipal Solid Waste Landfill Permit Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-04

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Parts 239 and 258 Alaska: Adequacy of Alaska Municipal Solid Waste Landfill Permit Program... modification to Alaska's approved Municipal Solid Waste Landfill (MSWLF) permit program. The approved... 40 CFR 258.4. III. Statutory and Executive Order Reviews This action approves State solid...

  3. 76 FR 7788 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone off Alaska; Western Alaska Community Development Quota...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-11

    ... Economic Zone off Alaska; Western Alaska Community Development Quota Program; Recordkeeping and Reporting... fisheries of the exclusive economic zone off Alaska. The proposed revisions would add a requirement that the... scale inspections. This proposed action is necessary to update and clarify regulations and is...

  4. Fisheries Education in Alaska. Conference Report. Alaska Sea Grant Report 82-4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smoker, William W., Ed.

    This conference was an attempt to have the fishing industry join the state of Alaska in building fisheries education programs. Topics addressed in papers presented at the conference include: (1) fisheries as a part of life in Alaska, addressing participation of Alaska natives in commercial fisheries and national efforts; (2) the international…

  5. Serologic survey of Toxoplasma gondii in grizzly bears (Ursus arctos) and black bears (Ursus americanus), from Alaska, 1988 to 1991.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chomel, B B; Zarnke, R L; Kasten, R W; Kass, P H; Mendes, E

    1995-10-01

    We tested 644 serum samples from 480 grizzly bears and 40 black bears from Alaska (USA), collected between 1988 and 1991, for Toxoplasma gondii antibodies, using a commercially available latex agglutination test (LAT). A titer > or = 64 was considered positive. Serum antibody prevalence for T. gondii in grizzly bears (Ursus arctos) was 18% (87 of 480). Prevalence ranged from 9% (seven of 77) on Kodiak Island to 28% (15 of 54) in northern Alaska. Prevalence was directly correlated to age. No grizzly bears grizzly bears captured north of the Arctic Circle. Antibody prevalence in black bears (Ursus americanus) from Interior Alaska was 15% (six of 40), similar to the prevalence in grizzly bears from the same area (13%; five of 40).

  6. Alaska's renewable energy potential.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2009-02-01

    This paper delivers a brief survey of renewable energy technologies applicable to Alaska's climate, latitude, geography, and geology. We first identify Alaska's natural renewable energy resources and which renewable energy technologies would be most productive. e survey the current state of renewable energy technologies and research efforts within the U.S. and, where appropriate, internationally. We also present information on the current state of Alaska's renewable energy assets, incentives, and commercial enterprises. Finally, we escribe places where research efforts at Sandia National Laboratories could assist the state of Alaska with its renewable energy technology investment efforts.

  7. Northern Alaska Landscape/Permafrost GIS Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    Arctic Landscape Conservation Cooperative — This data set represents an updated Ecological Subsection Map for Northern Alaska. This update includes permafrost mapping to include the following new layers:...

  8. Gene flow between insular, coastal and interior populations of brown bears in Alaska.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paetkau, D; Shields, G F; Strobeck, C

    1998-10-01

    The brown bears of coastal Alaska have been recently regarded as comprising from one to three distinct genetic groups. We sampled brown bears from each of the regions for which hypotheses of genetic uniqueness have been made, including the bears of the Kodiak Archipelago and the bears of Admiralty, Baranof and Chichagof (ABC) Islands in southeast Alaska. These samples were analysed with a suite of nuclear microsatellite markers. The 'big brown bears' of coastal Alaska were found to be part of the continuous continental distribution of brown bears, and not genetically isolated from the physically smaller 'grizzly bears' of the interior. By contrast, Kodiak brown bears appear to have experienced little or no genetic exchange with continental populations in recent generations. The bears of the ABC Islands, which have previously been shown to undergo little or no female-mediated gene flow with mainland populations, were found not to be genetically isolated from mainland bears. The data from the four insular populations indicate that female and male dispersal can be reduced or eliminated by water barriers of 2-4 km and 7 km in width, respectively.

  9. Subducting plate geology in three great earthquake ruptures of the western Alaska margin, Kodiak to Unimak

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Huene, Roland; Miller, John J.; Weinrebe, Wilhelm

    2012-01-01

    Three destructive earthquakes along the Alaska subduction zone sourced transoceanic tsunamis during the past 70 years. Since it is reasoned that past rupture areas might again source tsunamis in the future, we studied potential asperities and barriers in the subduction zone by examining Quaternary Gulf of Alaska plate history, geophysical data, and morphology. We relate the aftershock areas to subducting lower plate relief and dissimilar materials in the seismogenic zone in the 1964 Kodiak and adjacent 1938 Semidi Islands earthquake segments. In the 1946 Unimak earthquake segment, the exposed lower plate seafloor lacks major relief that might organize great earthquake rupture. However, the upper plate contains a deep transverse-trending basin and basement ridges associated with the Eocene continental Alaska convergent margin transition to the Aleutian island arc. These upper plate features are sufficiently large to have affected rupture propagation. In addition, massive slope failure in the Unimak area may explain the local 42-m-high 1946 tsunami runup. Although Quaternary geologic and tectonic processes included accretion to form a frontal prism, the study of seismic images, samples, and continental slope physiography shows a previous history of tectonic erosion. Implied asperities and barriers in the seismogenic zone could organize future great earthquake rupture.

  10. 1964 Great Alaska Earthquake: a photographic tour of Anchorage, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thoms, Evan E.; Haeussler, Peter J.; Anderson, Rebecca D.; McGimsey, Robert G.

    2014-01-01

    On March 27, 1964, at 5:36 p.m., a magnitude 9.2 earthquake, the largest recorded earthquake in U.S. history, struck southcentral Alaska (fig. 1). The Great Alaska Earthquake (also known as the Good Friday Earthquake) occurred at a pivotal time in the history of earth science, and helped lead to the acceptance of plate tectonic theory (Cox, 1973; Brocher and others, 2014). All large subduction zone earthquakes are understood through insights learned from the 1964 event, and observations and interpretations of the earthquake have influenced the design of infrastructure and seismic monitoring systems now in place. The earthquake caused extensive damage across the State, and triggered local tsunamis that devastated the Alaskan towns of Whittier, Valdez, and Seward. In Anchorage, the main cause of damage was ground shaking, which lasted approximately 4.5 minutes. Many buildings could not withstand this motion and were damaged or collapsed even though their foundations remained intact. More significantly, ground shaking triggered a number of landslides along coastal and drainage valley bluffs underlain by the Bootlegger Cove Formation, a composite of facies containing variably mixed gravel, sand, silt, and clay which were deposited over much of upper Cook Inlet during the Late Pleistocene (Ulery and others, 1983). Cyclic (or strain) softening of the more sensitive clay facies caused overlying blocks of soil to slide sideways along surfaces dipping by only a few degrees. This guide is the document version of an interactive web map that was created as part of the commemoration events for the 50th anniversary of the 1964 Great Alaska Earthquake. It is accessible at the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Alaska Science Center website: http://alaska.usgs.gov/announcements/news/1964Earthquake/. The website features a map display with suggested tour stops in Anchorage, historical photographs taken shortly after the earthquake, repeat photography of selected sites, scanned documents

  11. Re-thinking the Distant Tsunami Hazard to Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preller, C. C.; Petty, E. A.; Knight, W. R.; Curtis, J. C.; Albanese, S. P.

    2012-12-01

    The science of tsunami has created as many questions as it has answers for vulnerable areas like those in Alaska's coastal communities. How a tsunami might inundate is determined by a variety of event-unique factors that are difficult to accurately prepare for; near shore dynamics and local bathymetry guarantee a distinctive experience at every locality. The island of St. Paul, located in the middle of the Bering Sea, measured a significant tsunami during the Japanese event in 2011. Believing that the Aleutian Chain would minimize tsunami energy into the Bering Sea, this was an eye-opening observation. Real science gives us real answers. The only way to accurately understand the effect of a tsunami is to have a tsunami; a completely unpredictable event without a season. Over the last few years, there have been several large events. Assessing impacts from the Chilean tsunami of 2010 and the Japanese tsunami of 2011, as well as other events such as Samoa and Haiti, has offered a fine-tuning to tsunami understanding and modeling. Using observed amplitudes, tsunami history, oral stories, and improved static modeling techniques, the ability to access threat by community is becoming possible. Communities previously ranked on broad generalizations are now assessed more specifically with data and modeling, providing new insights to their threat ranking. The critical though complex task of preparedness for Alaska, the state with the most coast-line and the least road system, is expensive and difficult. Translating the potential effects to emergency managers is a vague undertaking depending on the possible scenarios considered. Our understanding, with fine tuning, is proving to be essential in our approach. The reanalysis of the distance tsunami threat determined by updated tsunami science gives local officials the opportunity to improve community preparedness and allow communities to allocate scarce resources wisely.; Japanese Tsunami measured at Saint Paul Island showing

  12. Aleutian Canada goose population and nest surveys at Agattu Island, Aleutian Islands, Alaska, spring 1985

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — From 6 to 26 June, six biologists made 231 observations of geese. Of this number, 43 were banded, 74 unbanded, and 114 undiscernible. From these observations it is...

  13. Bird and mammal observations at Alaid and Nizki Islands, Aleutian Islands, Alaska, spring and summer 1976

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report provides detailed annotated accounts of 80 species of birds (including 24 confirmed or probable breeders and 56 migrants or visitants) and 5 species of...

  14. Introduced arctic fox eradication effort at Kasotochi Island, Aleutian Islands, Alaska, summer 1984

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Because of the significant past and present wildlife values, small size, close proximity to Adak and general workability, a high priority was assigned to Kasatochi...

  15. H08391: NOS Hydrographic Survey , Cap Island to Brockman Island, Alaska, 1957-09-16

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) has the statutory mandate to collect hydrographic data in support of nautical chart compilation for safe...

  16. 77 FR 16314 - Alaska Disaster #AK-00024

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-20

    ... ADMINISTRATION Alaska Disaster AK-00024 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a notice of an Administrative declaration of a disaster for the State of Alaska dated 03/13/2012... INFORMATION CONTACT: A. Escobar, Office of Disaster Assistance, U.S. Small Business Administration, 409...

  17. 78 FR 39822 - Alaska Disaster #AK-00028

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-02

    ... ADMINISTRATION Alaska Disaster AK-00028 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice SUMMARY: This is a Notice of the Presidential declaration of a major disaster for the State of Alaska (FEMA-4122-DR... INFORMATION CONTACT: A. Escobar, Office of Disaster Assistance, U.S. Small Business Administration, 409...

  18. A Revision of the Stylasteridae (Cnidaria, Hydrozoa, Filifera from Alaska and Adjacent Waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Cairns

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The stylasterid fauna of Alaska is revised, consisting of the description or redescription and illustration of 21 species, one additional subspecies, and a geographically adjacent species: Stylaster venustus. Six new species and one new subspecies are described: Errinopora fisheri, E. undulata, E. disticha, E. dichotoma, Stylaster crassiseptum, S. repandus, and Stylaster parageus columbiensis. Four subspecies are raised to species rank: Stylaster leptostylus, S. trachystomus, S. parageus, and Distichopora japonica, and five species and one subspecies were synonymized. A dichotomous key to the Errinopora species and tabular keys to the Errinopora and Alaskan Stylaster species are provided. The focus of the study was on the stylasterids from Alaska, primarily those from the rich Aleutian Islands, but also including records from British Columbia. This is the first revisionary work on this fauna since the seminal report by Fisher in 1938.

  19. Seismicity of the Earth 1900-2013 offshore British Columbia-southeastern Alaska and vicinity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Gavin P.; Smoczyk, Gregory M.; Ooms, Jonathan G.; McNamara, Daniel E.; Furlong, Kevin P.; Benz, Harley M.; Villaseñor, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    The tectonics of the Pacific margin of North America between Vancouver Island and south-central Alaska are dominated by the northwest motion of the Pacific plate with respect to the North America plate at a velocity of approximately 50 mm/yr. In the south of this mapped region, convergence between the northern extent of the Juan de Fuca plate (also known as the Explorer microplate) and North America plate dominate. North from the Explorer, Pacific, and North America plate triple junction, Pacific:North America motion is accommodated along the ~650-km-long Queen Charlotte fault system. Offshore of Haida Gwaii and to the southwest, the obliquity of the Pacific:North America plate motion vector creates a transpressional regime, and a complex mixture of strike-slip and convergent (underthrusting) tectonics. North of the Haida Gwaii islands, plate motion is roughly parallel to the plate boundary, resulting in almost pure dextral strike-slip motion along the Queen Charlotte fault. To the north, the Queen Charlotte fault splits into multiple structures, continuing offshore of southwestern Alaska as the Fairweather fault, and branching east into the Chatham Strait and Denali faults through the interior of Alaska. The plate boundary north and west of the Fairweather fault ultimately continues as the Alaska-Aleutians subduction zone, where Pacific plate lithosphere subducts beneath the North America plate at the Aleutians Trench. The transition is complex, and involves intraplate structures such as the Transition fault. The Pacific margin offshore British Columbia is one of the most active seismic zones in North America and has hosted a number of large earthquakes historically.

  20. Constructing a reference tephrochronology for Augustine Volcano, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, K.; Coombs, M. L.

    2013-12-01

    Augustine Volcano is the most historically active volcano in Alaska's populous Cook Inlet region. Past on-island work on pre-historic tephra deposits mainly focused on using tephra layers as markers to help distinguish among prevalent debris-avalanche deposits on the island (Waitt and Beget, 2009, USGS Prof Paper 1762), or as source material for petrogenetic studies. No comprehensive reference study of tephra fall from Augustine Volcano previously existed. Numerous workers have identified Holocene-age tephra layers in the region surrounding Augustine Island, but without well-characterized reference deposits, correlation back to the source volcano is difficult. The purpose of this detailed tephra study is to provide a record of eruption frequency and magnitude, as well as to elucidate physical and chemical characteristics for use as reference standards for comparison with regionally distributed Augustine tephra layers. Whole rock major- and trace-element geochemistry, deposit componentry, and field context are used to correlate tephra units on the island where deposits are coarse grained. Major-element glass geochemistry was collected for use in correlating to unknown regional tephra. Due to the small size of the volcanic island (9 by 11 km in diameter) and frequent eruptive activity, on-island exposures of tephra deposits older than a couple thousand years are sparse, and the lettered Tephras B, M, C, H, I, and G of Waitt and Beget (2009) range in age from 370-2200 yrs B.P. There are, however, a few exposures on the south side of the volcano, within about 2 km of the vent, where stratigraphic sections that extend back to the late Pleistocene glaciation include coarse pumice-fall deposits. We have linked the letter-named tephras from the coast to these higher exposures on the south side using physical and chemical characteristics of the deposits. In addition, these exposures preserve at least 5 older major post-glacial eruptions of Augustine. These ultra

  1. Hyperspectral surveying for mineral resources in Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokaly, Raymond F.; Graham, Garth E.; Hoefen, Todd M.; Kelley, Karen D.; Johnson, Michaela R.; Hubbard, Bernard E.

    2016-07-07

    Alaska is a major producer of base and precious metals and has a high potential for additional undiscovered mineral resources. However, discovery is hindered by Alaska’s vast size, remoteness, and rugged terrain. New methods are needed to overcome these obstacles in order to fully evaluate Alaska’s geology and mineral resource potential. Hyperspectral surveying is one method that can be used to rapidly acquire data about the distributions of surficial materials, including different types of bedrock and ground cover. In 2014, the U.S. Geological Survey began the Alaska Hyperspectral Project to assess the applicability of this method in Alaska. The primary study area is a remote part of the eastern Alaska Range where porphyry deposits are exposed. In collaboration with the Alaska Division of Geological and Geophysical Surveys, the University of Alaska Fairbanks, and the National Park Service, the U.S. Geological Survey is collecting and analyzing hyperspectral data with the goals of enhancing geologic mapping and developing methods to identify and characterize mineral deposits elsewhere in Alaska.

  2. Shemya Island prehistory

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The 752 artifacts described in this paper are from 5 sites on Shemya Island. Artifactual evidence suggests the island had a small resident population and was...

  3. Classifying Pacific islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunn, Patrick D.; Kumar, Lalit; Eliot, Ian; McLean, Roger F.

    2016-12-01

    An earth-science-based classification of islands within the Pacific Basin resulted from the preparation of a database describing the location, area, and type of 1779 islands, where island type is determined as a function of the prevailing lithology and maximum elevation of each island, with an island defined as a discrete landmass composed of a contiguous land area ≥1 ha (0.01 km2) above mean high-water level. Reefs lacking islands and short-lived (ocean setting as well as the biological attributes of Pacific islands. It may also be used in spatial assessments of second-order phenomena associated with the islands, such as their vulnerability to various disasters, coastal erosion, or ocean pollution as well as human populations, built infrastructure and natural resources.

  4. Researching Pacific island livelihoods:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egelund Christensen, Andreas; Mertz, Ole

    2010-01-01

    Small island literature is vast in focus and aim, and is rooted in many different disciplines. The challenge is to find common grounds for researching small islands conceptually and theoretically. The aim of this article is to comment on how to research small islands, including a discussion on co...... and interdisciplinary in focus and link socio-economic and ecological processes of small island societies at temporal and analytical scales....

  5. Alaska LandCarbon wetland distribution map

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wylie, Bruce K.; Pastick, Neal J.

    2017-01-01

    This product provides regional estimates of specific wetland types (bog and fen) in Alaska. Available wetland types mapped by the National Wetlands Inventory (NWI) program were re-classed into bog, fen, and other. NWI mapping of wetlands was only done for a portion of the area so a decision tree mapping algorithm was then developed to estimate bog, fen, and other across the state of Alaska using remote sensing and GIS spatial data sets as inputs. This data was used and presented in two chapters on the USGS Alaska LandCarbon Report.

  6. The Islands, Barbados

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drieman, R.; Hinborch, M.; Monden, M.; Vendrik, E.A.J.

    2009-01-01

    Master project report. In Barbados the problem arose of lack of space for development on the existing shoreline. Therefore the project "The Islands" has been conceptualized. In front of the west coast of Barbados, a group of artificial islands will be created. On the islands there will be space for

  7. Strain accumulation across the Prince William Sound asperity, Southcentral Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savage, James C.; Svarc, Jerry L.; Lisowski, Michael

    2015-01-01

    The surface velocities predicted by the conventional subduction model are compared to velocities measured in a GPS array (surveyed in 1993, 1995, 1997, 2000, and 2004) spanning the Prince William Sound asperity. The observed velocities in the comparison have been corrected to remove the contributions from postseismic (1964 Alaska earthquake) mantle relaxation. Except at the most seaward monument (located on Middleton Island at the seaward edge of the continental shelf, just 50 km landward of the deformation front in the Aleutian Trench), the corrected velocities qualitatively agree with those predicted by an improved, two-dimensional, back slip, subduction model in which the locked megathrust coincides with the plate interface identified by seismic refraction surveys, and the back slip rate is equal to the plate convergence rate. A better fit to the corrected velocities is furnished by either a back slip rate 20% greater than the plate convergence rate or a 30% shallower megathrust. The shallow megathrust in the latter fit may be an artifact of the uniform half-space Earth model used in the inversion. Backslip at the plate convergence rate on the megathrust mapped by refraction surveys would fit the data as well if the rigidity of the underthrust plate was twice that of the overlying plate, a rigidity contrast higher than expected. The anomalous motion at Middleton Island is attributed to continuous slip at near the plate convergence rate on a postulated, listric fault that splays off the megathrust at depth of about 12 km and outcrops on the continental slope south-southeast of Middleton Island.

  8. Geology of the Johnson River Area Alaska

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The vegetation, topography, and geology of the Johnson River area are representative of the entire eastern interior region of Alaska. This area has a vegetational...

  9. Permafrost Soils Database for Northern Alaska 2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    Arctic Landscape Conservation Cooperative — This database contains soil and permafrost stratigraphy for northern Alaska compiled from numerous project data files and reports. The Access Database has main data...

  10. Seward, Alaska 3 arc-second DEM

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The 3 arc-second Seward Alaska Elevation Grid provides bathymetric data in ASCII raster format of 2.67-second resolution in geographic coordinates. This grid is...

  11. Aerial Gamma-Ray Surveys in Alaska

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Data generated by aerial sensing of radiation emanating from the earth's surface in Alaska provides general estimates of the geographic distribution of Uranium,...

  12. Alaska East-West Deflections (DEFLEC96)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This 2' x 4' surface deflection of the vertical grid for Alaska is the DEFLEC96 model. The computation used about 1.1 millionterrestrial and marine gravity data held...

  13. Fish and wildlife research in Alaska

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Problems, information needs, research facilities, current research, and documents related to long term planning of fish and wildlife research in Alaska. Appendices...

  14. Alaska Yukon : Waterfowl Breeding Population Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Alaska-Yukon was again blessed with a generally widespread, early spring break-up in the interior and on the North Slope with perhaps a more normal spring phenology...

  15. Seward, Alaska 8 arc-second DEM

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The 8-second Seward Alaska Elevation Grid provides bathymetric data in ASCII raster format of 8-second resolution in geographic coordinates. This grid is strictly...

  16. Alaska Federal Oil and Gas Historical Leases

    Data.gov (United States)

    Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Department of the Interior — This data set contains the outlines for historic (i.e., relinquished or inactive) federal oil and gas leases in the Alaska OCS Region through sale 193. They...

  17. Southeast Alaska ESI: SOCECON (Socioeconomic Resource Points)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains human-use resource data for airports, aquaculture sites, boat ramps, marinas, heliports, and log storage areas in Southeast Alaska. Vector...

  18. Alaska Marine Mammal Strandings/Entanglements

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This database represents a summary of information on stranded marine mammals reported to NMFS throughout the State of Alaska in fulfillment of Title IV of the Marine...

  19. Notes on game conditions in Alaska

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document is a report on game conditions in Alaska. This report covers laws that relate to the game animals, as well as physically attributes and ecology of the...

  20. Problems confronting migratory birds in Alaska

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — We describe in this paper problems affecting the well-being of Alaska's migratory birds in the belief that recognition of these problems is a step towards finding...

  1. Central Gulf of Alaska Rockfish Permit Program

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The North Pacific Fishery Management Council adopted the Central Gulf of Alaska Rockfish Program (Rockfish Program) on June 14, 2010, to replace the expiring Pilot...

  2. Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (IFSAR) Alaska

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) National Geospatial Program (NGP) developed the Alaska Mapping Initiative (AMI) to collaborate with the State and other Federal...

  3. Alaska duck production survey - July 1985

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the duck production survey for Alaska during 1985. The primary purpose of the survey is to provide information on duck production from the...

  4. Wild resource use in Northway, Alaska

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report describes contemporary and recent historic use of fish and wildlife resources by residents of Northway, Alaska. Northway today consists primarily of an...

  5. Prince William Sound, Alaska ESI: HYDRO (Hydrology)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set comprises the Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) data for Prince William Sound, Alaska. ESI data characterize estuarine environments and wildlife by...

  6. Continental Shelf Boundary - Alaska NAD83

    Data.gov (United States)

    Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Department of the Interior — This data set contains Continental Shelf Boundaries (CSB) lines in ESRI shapefile format for the BOEM Alaska Region. The CSB defines the seaward limit of federally...

  7. Alaska Steller Sea Lion Pup Count Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This database contains counts of Steller sea lion pups on rookeries in Alaska made between 1961 and 2015. Pup counts are conducted in late June-July. Pups are...

  8. Alaska North-South Deflections (DEFLEC96)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This 2' x 4' surface deflection of the vertical grid for Alaska is the DEFLEC96 model. The computation used about 1.1 million terrestrial and marine gravity data...

  9. Southeast Alaska ESI: MGT (Management Area Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains management area data for National Parks, Wildlife Refuges, and areas designated as Critical Habitat in Southeast Alaska. Vector polygons in...

  10. 2004 Alaska highway invasive plants pilot survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — We investigated the distribution and abundance of non-native invasive plants along a section of the Alaska Highway adjacent to Tetlin National Wildlife Refuge, 20...

  11. Seward, Alaska 1 arc-second DEM

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The 1 arc-second Seward Alaska Elevation Grid provides bathymetric data in ASCII raster format of .89-second resolution in geographic coordinates. This grid is...

  12. Southeast Alaska ESI: FISH (Fish Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains biological resource data for estuarine, benthic, and pelagic fish in Southeast Alaska. Vector polygons in this data set represent locations of...

  13. Southeast Alaska ESI: BIRDS (Bird Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains biological resource data for waterfowl in Southeast Alaska. Vector polygons in this data set represent locations of foraging and rafting...

  14. Southeast Alaska ESI: FISHL (Fish Lines)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains biological resource data for anadromous fish streams in Southeast Alaska. Vector lines in this data set represent locations of fish streams....

  15. Kensington Mine Area Baseline Contaminants Study, Alaska

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Hardrock mining for gold and other metals is proposed for the Kensington Mine, located on Lynn Canal in Southeast Alaska, approximately 45 miles north of Juneau. The...

  16. Avian Habitat Data; Seward Peninsula, Alaska, 2012

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data product contains avian habitat data collected on the Seward Peninsula, Alaska, USA, during 21 May – 10 June 2012. We conducted replicated 10-min surveys at...

  17. North Slope, Alaska ESI: NESTS (Nest Points)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for waterfowl, seabirds, gulls and terns for the North Slope of Alaska. Vector points in this data set...

  18. Prince William Sound, Alaska ESI: INDEX

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set comprises the Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) data for Prince William Sound, Alaska. ESI data characterize estuarine environments and wildlife by...

  19. Cross Cultural Scientific Communication in Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertram, K. B.

    2006-12-01

    An example of cross-cultural education is provided by the Aurora Alive curriculum. Aurora Alive communicates science to Alaska Native students through cross-cultural educational products used in Alaska schools for more than a decade, including (1) a CDROM that provides digital graphics, bilingual (English and Athabascan language) narration-over-text and interactive elements that help students visualize scientific concepts, and (2) Teacher's Manuals containing more than 150 hands-on activities aligned to national science standards, and to Alaska Standards for Culturally Responsive Schools. Created by Native Elders and teachers working together with University Alaska Fairbanks Geophysical Institute scientists, Aurora Alive blends Native "ways of knowing" with current "western" research to teach the physics and math of the aurora.

  20. North Slope, Alaska ESI: FISH (Fish Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for marine, estuarine, anadromous, and freshwater fish species for the North Slope of Alaska. Vector...

  1. North Slope, Alaska ESI: FACILITY (Facility Points)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains data for oil field facilities for the North Slope of Alaska. Vector points in this data set represent oil field facility locations. This data...

  2. Advancing Efforts to Energize Native Alaska (Brochure)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2013-04-01

    This brochure describes key programs and initiatives of the DOE Office of Indian Energy Policy and Programs to advance energy efficiency, renewable energy, and energy infrastructure projects in Alaska Native villages.

  3. Ecological Subsections for Northern Alaska, 2012 update

    Data.gov (United States)

    Arctic Landscape Conservation Cooperative — This data set represents an updated Ecological Subsection Map for Northern Alaska. This 2012 revision focused on completing the incompletely mapped portion of the...

  4. Alaska Steller Sea Lion Food Habits Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains food habits samples, usually scats, collected opportunistically on Steller sea lion rookeries and haulouts in Alaska from 1985 to present....

  5. A conservation program for Alaska's commercial fisheries

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — It is the purpose of this report to show how the present programs of the Alaska Region of the Bureau of Commercial Fisheries relate to problems of the various...

  6. Preliminary integrated geologic map data for Alaska

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — A GIS database of geologic units and structural features in Alaska, with lithology, age, data structure, and format written and arranged just like the other states.

  7. OCS Planning Areas Alaska NAD 83

    Data.gov (United States)

    Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Department of the Interior — This data set contains BOEM Planning Area outlines in ESRI shapefile format for the BOEM Alaska Region. The Submerged Lands Act (SLA) boundary, along with the...

  8. Western Alaska ESI: HABITATS (Habitat Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for submerged aquatic vegetation (SAV) in Western Alaska. Vector polygons in this data set represent...

  9. Southeast Alaska ESI: FISHPT (Fish Points)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains biological resource data for anadromous fish streams in Southeast Alaska. Vector points in this data set represent locations of fish streams....

  10. Alaska gold rush trails study: Preliminary draft

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Preliminary study draft, with maps, of seven gold rush trails in Alaska, to determine suitability for inclusion in the National Scenic Trails system and their...

  11. ANWR and Alaska Peninsula Gravity Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The gravity station data (1252 records) were compiled by the U.S. Geological Survey and the State of Alaska Division of Geological & Geophysical Surveys. This...

  12. Geologic Map of Alaska: geologic units

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This dataset consists of a polygon coverage and associated attribute data derived from the 1980 Geologic Map of Alaska compiled by H.M. Beikman and published by the...

  13. Generalized thermal maturity map of Alaska

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This dataset consists of a polygon coverage and associated attribute data derived from the onshore portion of the 1996 "Generalized Thermal Maturity Map of Alaska"...

  14. Movements and Spatial Use of Odontocetes in the Western Main Hawaiian Islands: Results of a Three-Year Study Off O’ahu and Kaua’i

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-03

    island of O‘ahu for 14 days in October 2010, based out of Ko‘olina Marina . Surveys were undertaken off the island of Kaua‘i for 4 days in February...for genetics 2 http://alaska.usgs.gov/science/ biology /spatial/douglas.html  6 and toxicology...the 14th Biennial Conference on the Biology of Marine Mammals. Vancouver, British Columbia, November-December 2001. Mahaffy, S. D., R. W. Baird, D

  15. Factors to be Considered in Long-Term Monitoring of a Former Nuclear Test Site in a Geophysically Active and Water-rich Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichelberger, J.; Hill, G.; Patrick, M.; Freymueller, J.; Barnes, D.; Kelley, J.; Layer, P.

    2001-12-01

    The US Department of Energy (USDOE) is currently undertaking an ambitious program of environmental remediation of the surface of Amchitka Island in the western Aleutians, where three underground nuclear tests were conducted during 1963-1971. Among these tests was Cannikin, at approximately 5 megatons the largest nuclear device ever exploded underground by the United States and equivalent in seismic energy release to a magnitude 7 earthquake. The blast caused about 1 m of uplift of the Bering Sea coastline in the 3-km-wide fault-bounded block within which it was detonated. The impending final transfer of stewardship of this area to the US Fish and Wildlife Service as part of the Alaska Maritime National Wildlife Refuge raises anew the question of the potential for transport of radionuclides from the shot cavity, located at 1791 m depth in mafic laharic breccias, into the accessible environment. In particular, there is concern about whether such contaminants could become concentrated in the marine food chain that is used for subsistence by Alaskan Natives (and by the broader international community through the North Pacific and Bering Fisheries). Both possible transport pathways in the form of faults and transport medium in the form of abundant water are present. Since the pre-plate tectonics paradigm days of active testing, the scientific community's understanding of the tectonic context of the Aleutian Islands has grown tremendously. Recently, the first direct measurements of motion within the arc have been made. How this new understanding should guide plans for long-term monitoring of the site is an important question. Convergence due to subduction of the North Pacific plate beneath North America ranges from near-normal at the Alaska Peninsula and eastern Aleutian islands to highly oblique in the west. Amchitka itself can be seen as a subaerial portion of a 200-km-long Rat Island arc crest segment. This fragment has torn from the Andreanof Islands to the east at

  16. 75 FR 3888 - Migratory Bird Subsistence Harvest in Alaska; Harvest Regulations for Migratory Birds in Alaska...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-25

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service 50 CFR Part 92 RIN 1018-AW67 Migratory Bird Subsistence Harvest in Alaska; Harvest Regulations for Migratory Birds in Alaska During the 2010 Season AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service... Wildlife Service, are reopening the public comment period on our proposed rule to establish migratory...

  17. Birds observed at Shemya Island, Aleutian Islands

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report covers Shemya Island bird surveys. The reports outline migrant bird activity during August 31 to October 3, 1977. The purpose of the study was to survey...

  18. Paradise Islands? Island States and Environmental Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sverker C. Jagers

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Island states have been shown to outperform continental states on a number of large-scale coordination-related outcomes, such as levels of democracy and institutional quality. The argument developed and tested in this article contends that the same kind of logic may apply to islands’ environmental performance, too. However, the empirical analysis shows mixed results. Among the 105 environmental outcomes that we analyzed, being an island only has a positive impact on 20 of them. For example, island states tend to outcompete continental states with respect to several indicators related to water quality but not in aspects related to biodiversity, protected areas, or environmental regulations. In addition, the causal factors previously suggested to make islands outperform continental states in terms of coordination have weak explanatory power in predicting islands’ environmental performance. We conclude the paper by discussing how these interesting findings can be further explored.

  19. Electrochemical island growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Lian

    The ability to independently dictate the shape and crystal orientation of islands in electrocrystallization remains a significant challenge. The main reason for this is that the complex interplay between the substrate, nucleation, and surface chemistry are not fully understood. Here the kinetics of 3D island growth for copper on ruthenium oxide is studied. The small nucleation overpotential leads to enhanced lateral growth and the formation of hexagonal, disk-shaped islands. The amorphous substrate allows the nuclei to achieve the thermodynamically favorable orientation, i.e. a surface normal. Island growth follows power law kinetics in both lateral and vertical directions. At shorter times, the two growth exponents are equal to 1/2 whereas at longer times lateral growth slows down while vertical growth speeds up. Accordingly, a growth mechanism is proposed, wherein the lateral growth of disk-shaped islands is initiated by attachment of Cu adatoms on the ruthenium oxide surface onto the island periphery while vertical growth is initiated by 2D nucleation on the top terrace and followed by lateral step propagation. These results indicate three criteria for enhanced lateral growth in electrodeposition: (i) a substrate that leads to a small nucleation overpotential, (ii) fast adatom surface diffusion on substrate to promote lateral growth, and (iii) preferential anion adsorption to stabilize the basal plane. The surface roughness evolution, during isolated island growth, island coalescence, and continuous film growth, has also been studied as a function of island shape and island density. It is shown that the surface width wsat(l,t) initially follows anomalous scaling in the isolated island growth regime but exhibits normal scaling during the early stages of continuous film growth. Furthermore, the short length scale roughness is dependent primarily on island shape while the long length scale roughness is dependent on island density. Electrochemical deposition of

  20. Call types of Bigg's killer whales (Orcinus orca) in western Alaska: Using vocal dialects to assess population structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharpe, Deborah Lynn

    Apex predators are important indicators of ecosystem health, but little is known about the population structure of Bigg's killer whales ( Orcinus orca; i.e. 'transient' ecotype) in western Alaska. Currently, all Bigg's killer whales in western Alaska are ascribed to a single broad stock for management under the US Marine Mammal Protection Act. However, recent nuclear microsatellite and mitochondrial DNA analyses indicate that this stock is likely comprised of genetically distinct sub-populations. In accordance with what is known about killer whale vocal dialects in other locations, I sought to evaluate Bigg's killer whale population structure by examining the spatial distribution of group-specific call types in western Alaska. Digital audio recordings were collected from 33 encounters with Bigg's killer whales throughout the Aleutian and Pribilof Islands in the summers of 2001-2007 and 2009-2010. Recorded calls were perceptually classified into discrete types and then quantitatively described using 12 structural and time-frequency measures. Resulting call categories were objectively validated using a random forest approach. A total of 36 call types and subtypes were identified across the entire study area, and regional patterns of call type usage revealed three distinct dialects, each of which corresponding to proposed genetic delineations. I suggest that at least three acoustically and genetically distinct subpopulations are present in western Alaska, and put forth an initial catalog for this area describing the regional vocal repertoires of Bigg's killer whale call types.

  1. USFWS Guide Use Areas within Alaska's National Wildlife Refuges (2014)

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The United States Fish and Wildlife Service, Region 7 (Alaska) has established Guide Use Areas (GUA) within the National Wildlife Refuges in the state of Alaska. The...

  2. 100-Meter Resolution Color Shaded Relief of Alaska - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Color Shaded Relief of Alaska map layer is a 100-meter resolution color-sliced elevation image of Alaska, with relief shading added to accentuate terrain...

  3. Crater Peak (Mt. Spurr), Alaska: Eruptions of 1992

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Alaska has a number of active and potentially active volcanoes. More than one-half of the population of Alaska lives within 300 km of an active volcano. In the last...

  4. Satellite View of Alaska, with Shaded Relief - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Satellite View of Alaska, with Shaded Relief map layer is a 200- meter-resolution simulated-natural-color image of Alaska. Vegetation is generally green, with...

  5. Some aspects of the southeast Alaska commercial fisheries: Special report

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This paper ascertains what the USFWS can do to help stem the downward trend of the southeastern Alaska salmon fishery by: reviewing biological aspects of Alaska...

  6. 100-Meter Resolution Satellite View of Alaska - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Satellite View of Alaska map layer is a 100-meter resolution simulated natural-color image of Alaska. Vegetation is generally green, with forests in darker green...

  7. Color Alaska Shaded Relief ? 200-Meter Resolution - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The color Alaska shaded relief data were derived from National Elevation Dataset (NED) data, and show the terrain of Alaska at a resolution of 200 meters. The NED is...

  8. Grayscale Alaska Shaded Relief ? 200-Meter Resolution - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The grayscale Alaska shaded relief data were derived from National Elevation Dataset (NED) data, and show the terrain of Alaska at a resolution of 200 meters. The...

  9. Alaska Regional Refuge Inventory and Monitoring Strategic Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Alaska Inventory and Monitoring team (I Message-ID: ). Alaska Region I&M Team members: Anna-Marie Benson , Greta Burkart , McCrea Cobb , Carol Damberg ,...

  10. 14 CFR 95.17 - Alaska Mountainous Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... point where the 141°00′ W Meridian intersects the northeast coastline of Alaska; thence westward along the northern coastline of Alaska to the intersection of latitude 69°30′ N; point of beginning ....

  11. American Indian and Alaska Native Heart Disease and Stroke

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... American Indian and Alaska Native Heart Disease and Stroke Fact Sheet Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir ... American Indian and Alaska Native Heart Disease and Stroke Facts Heart Disease is the first and stroke ...

  12. 100-Meter Resolution Grayscale Shaded Relief of Alaska - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Grayscale Shaded Relief of Alaska map layer is a 100-meter resolution grayscale shaded relief image of Alaska, in an Albers Equal-Area Conic projection. Shaded...

  13. Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapin, F. Stuart; Trainor, Sarah F.; Cochran, Patricia; Huntington, Henry; Markon, Carl J.; McCammon, Molly; McGuire, A. David; Serreze, Mark; Melillo, J.M.; Richmond, Terese; Yohe, G.W.

    2014-01-01

    Key Messages Arctic summer sea ice is receding faster than previously projected and is expected to virtually disappear before mid-century. This is altering marine ecosystems and leading to greater ship access, offshore development opportunity, and increased community vulnerability to coastal erosion.

  14. Inter-population movements of steller sea lions in Alaska with implications for population separation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauri A Jemison

    Full Text Available Genetic studies and differing population trends support the separation of Steller sea lions (Eumetopias jubatus into a western distinct population segment (WDPS and an eastern DPS (EDPS with the dividing line between populations at 144° W. Despite little exchange for thousands of years, the gap between the breeding ranges narrowed during the past 15-30 years with the formation of new rookeries near the DPS boundary. We analyzed >22,000 sightings of 4,172 sea lions branded as pups in each DPS from 2000-2010 to estimate probabilities of a sea lion born in one DPS being seen within the range of the other DPS (either 'West' or 'East'. Males from both populations regularly traveled across the DPS boundary; probabilities were highest at ages 2-5 and for males born in Prince William Sound and southern Southeast Alaska. The probability of WDPS females being in the East at age 5 was 0.067 but 0 for EDPS females which rarely traveled to the West. Prince William Sound-born females had high probabilities of being in the East during breeding and non-breeding seasons. We present strong evidence that WDPS females have permanently emigrated to the East, reproducing at two 'mixing zone' rookeries. We documented breeding bulls that traveled >6,500 km round trip from their natal rookery in southern Alaska to the northern Bering Sea and central Aleutian Islands and back within one year. WDPS animals began moving East in the 1990s, following steep population declines in the central Gulf of Alaska. Results of our study, and others documenting high survival and rapid population growth in northern Southeast Alaska suggest that conditions in this mixing zone region have been optimal for sea lions. It is unclear whether eastward movement across the DPS boundary is due to less-optimal conditions in the West or a reflection of favorable conditions in the East.

  15. Field surveying and topographic mapping in Alaska: 1947-83

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foley, Robert C.

    1987-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey's earliest presence in Alaska dates back to 1889. A decade later, topographic mapping became an integral part of the Geological Survey's Alaska program, mostly as reconnaissance-type mapping and special-purpose mapping of specific sites. It was not until after World War II that the Survey's Alaska topographic mapping efforts began to bear fruit.

  16. Tanzania - Mafia Island Airport

    Data.gov (United States)

    Millennium Challenge Corporation — The evaluation design and subsequent data gathering activities will address the following key research questions: a) Has the Mafia Island Airport Upgrade Project...

  17. Late Pleistocene and Holocene tephrostratigraphy of interior Alaska and Yukon: Key beds and chronologies over the past 30,000 years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Lauren J.; Jensen, Britta J. L.; Froese, Duane G.; Wallace, Kristi L.

    2016-08-01

    The Aleutian Arc-Alaska Peninsula and Wrangell volcanic field are the main source areas for tephra deposits found across Alaska and northern Canada, and increasingly, tephra from these eruptions have been found further afield in North America, Greenland, and Europe. However, there have been no broad scale reviews of the Late Pleistocene and Holocene tephrostratigraphy for this region since the 1980s, and this lack of data is hindering progress in identifying these tephra both locally and regionally. To address this gap and the variable quality of associated geochemical and chronological data, we undertake a detailed review of the latest Pleistocene to Holocene tephra found in interior Alaska and Yukon. This paper discusses nineteen tephra that have distributions beyond southwest Alaska and that have the potential to become, or already are, important regional markers. This includes three 'modern' events from the 20th century, ten with limited data availability but potentially broad distributions, and six that are widely reported in interior Alaska and Yukon. Each tephra is assessed in terms of chronology, geochemistry and distribution, with new Bayesian age estimates and geochemical data when possible. This includes new major-element geochemical data for Crater Peak 1992, Redoubt 1989-90, and two andesitic tephra from St Michael Island (Tephra D), as well as revised age estimates for Dawson tephra, Oshetna, Hayes set H, Aniakchak CFE II, and the White River Ashes, northern and eastern lobes.

  18. Earthquake Hazard and Risk in Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black Porto, N.; Nyst, M.

    2014-12-01

    Alaska is one of the most seismically active and tectonically diverse regions in the United States. To examine risk, we have updated the seismic hazard model in Alaska. The current RMS Alaska hazard model is based on the 2007 probabilistic seismic hazard maps for Alaska (Wesson et al., 2007; Boyd et al., 2007). The 2015 RMS model will update several key source parameters, including: extending the earthquake catalog, implementing a new set of crustal faults, updating the subduction zone geometry and reoccurrence rate. First, we extend the earthquake catalog to 2013; decluster the catalog, and compute new background rates. We then create a crustal fault model, based on the Alaska 2012 fault and fold database. This new model increased the number of crustal faults from ten in 2007, to 91 faults in the 2015 model. This includes the addition of: the western Denali, Cook Inlet folds near Anchorage, and thrust faults near Fairbanks. Previously the subduction zone was modeled at a uniform depth. In this update, we model the intraslab as a series of deep stepping events. We also use the best available data, such as Slab 1.0, to update the geometry of the subduction zone. The city of Anchorage represents 80% of the risk exposure in Alaska. In the 2007 model, the hazard in Alaska was dominated by the frequent rate of magnitude 7 to 8 events (Gutenberg-Richter distribution), and large magnitude 8+ events had a low reoccurrence rate (Characteristic) and therefore didn't contribute as highly to the overall risk. We will review these reoccurrence rates, and will present the results and impact to Anchorage. We will compare our hazard update to the 2007 USGS hazard map, and discuss the changes and drivers for these changes. Finally, we will examine the impact model changes have on Alaska earthquake risk. Consider risk metrics include average annual loss, an annualized expected loss level used by insurers to determine the costs of earthquake insurance (and premium levels), and the

  19. Status Review of the Marbled Murrelet (Brachyramphus marmoratus) in Alaska and British Columbia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piatt, J.F.; Kuletz, K.J.; Burger, A.E.; Hatch, Shyla A.; Friesen, V.L.; Birt, T.P.; Arimitsu, M.L.; Drew, G.S.; Harding, A.M.A.; Bixler, K.S.

    2007-01-01

    The Marbled Murrelet (Brachyramphus marmoratus) is a small, diving seabird inhabiting inshore waters of the Northeastern Pacific Ocean. This species feeds on small, schooling fishes and zooplankton, and nests primarily on the moss-covered branches of large, old-growth conifers, and also, in some parts of its range, on the ground. We reviewed existing information on this species to evaluate its current status in the northern part of its range-Alaska (U.S.) and British Columbia (Canada). Within the southern part of its range (Washington, Oregon, and California, U.S.), the Marbled Murrelet was listed as a threatened species under the Endangered Species Act (ESA) in 1993, and the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) needed information on the species throughout its range for ESA deliberations. We compiled published information on the conservation status, population biology, foraging ecology, population genetics, population status and trends, demography, marine and nesting habitat characteristics, threats, and ongoing conservation efforts for Marbled Murrelets in Alaska and British Columbia. We conducted a new genetic study using samples from a segment of the range that had not been included in previous studies (Washington, Oregon) and additional nuclear intron and microsatellite markers. We also analyzed available at-sea survey data from several locations for trend. To understand the reasonableness of the empirical trend data, we developed demographic models incorporating stochasticity to discern what population trends were possible by chance. The genetic studies substantially confirmed previous findings on population structure in the Marbled Murrelet. Our present work finds three populations: (1) one comprising birds in the central and western Aleutian Islands; (2) one comprising birds in central California; and (3) one comprising birds within the center of the range from the eastern Aleutians to northern California. Our knowledge of genetic structure within this

  20. Tsivat Basin conduit system persists through two surges, Bering Piedmont Glacier, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleisher, P.J.; Cadwell, D.H.; Muller, E.H.

    1998-01-01

    The 1993-1995 surge of Bering Glacier, Alaska, occurred in two distinct phases. Phase 1 of the surge began on the eastern sector in July, 1993 and ended in July, 1994 after a powerful outburst of subglacial meltwater into Tsivat Lake basin on the north side of Weeping Peat Island. Within days, jokulhlaup discharge built a 1.5 km2 delta of ice blocks (25-30 m) buried in outwash. By late October 1994, discharge temporarily shifted to a vent on Weeping Peat Island, where a second smaller outburst dissected the island and built two new sandar. During phase 2, which began in spring 1995 and ended within five months, continuous discharge issued from several vents along the ice front on Weeping Peat Island before returining to the Tsivat Basin. Surge related changes include a five- to six-fold increase in meltwater turbidity; the redirection of supercooled water in two ice-contact lakes; and an increase in the rate of glaciolacustrine sedimentation. US Geological Survey aerial photos by Austin Post show large ice blocks in braided channels indicating excessive subglacial discharge in a similar position adjacent to Weeping Peat Island during the 1966-1967 surge. During the subsequent three decades of retreat, the location of ice-marginal, subglacial discharge vents remained aligned on a linear trend that describes the position of a persistent subglacial conduit system. The presence of a major conduit system, possibly stabilized by subglacial bedrock topography, is suggested by: 1) high-level subglacial meltwater venting along the northern side of Weeping Peat Island during the 1966-1967 surge, 2) persistent low-level discharge between surges, and 3) the recurrence of localizing meltwater outbursts associated with both phases of the 1993-1005 surge.

  1. Eolian deposition of glacial flour dust to the Gulf of Alaska during the Holocene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moy, C. M.; Crusius, J.; Nichols, J. E.; Schroth, A. W.; Peteet, D. M.; Giosan, L.; Kenna, T. C.; Eglinton, T. I.

    2012-12-01

    Iron is an important micronutrient that limits the growth of phytoplankton in much of the global ocean. In the Gulf of Alaska (GoA), we have a limited knowledge of the processes that transport iron, and in particular, the role eolian dust plays in delivering iron to the ocean surface. In order to better understand both modern and past mechanisms of dust deposition in the GoA, we combine satellite, meteorological, and geochemical data from peat cores collected on Middleton Island (59.43°N, 146.34°W). Middleton Island is located on the edge of the continental shelf and is well-located to monitor the flux of particulate material into adjacent Fe-limited waters. Widespread dust events have been observed in MODIS satellite imagery emanating from exposed floodplains within the Copper River valley and adjacent glaciated river valleys in southcentral Alaska (AK). These events are most common in the fall when high pressure in the AK interior and low pressure in the central GoA establish a pressure gradient that drives anomalously strong northerly winds that entrain fine-grained glacial sediments exposed along Copper River floodplains. MODIS imagery indicates that dust reaches beyond the continental shelf, and in many instances, dust plumes have been observed passing over Middleton Island (100 km SSW of the Copper River delta). To better constrain dust deposition to the GoA during the Holocene, we collected cores from an extensive peatland on Middleton Island. Loss-on-ignition and profiling XRF data indicate significant variations in inorganic or clastic components within the organic peat matrix during the last 5,300 cal yr BP. Clastic content varies between 2 and 45% and is particularly elevated during the last 1,500 years of the record. Ti variations closely mirrors clastic content, and because these cores were collected near the island's topographic high point, we infer that all inorganic constituents are likely delivered as dust, with potential secondary contributions

  2. St. Vincent Island Tour

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This letter, written by Charles Marks who lived on St. Vincent Island as a child, notes the changes he saw in the island when he visited in 1981. He notes that the...

  3. Marine and Island Ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, Lawrence J.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Describes an ecology course which provides students with an opportunity to observe aquatic and terrestrial life in the Bahamas. States that students learn scientific methodology by measuring physical and chemical aspects of the island habitats. Provides information on the island, course description and objectives, transportation, facilities, and…

  4. Management of Large Predators in Alaska

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boertje, R.D.

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Populations of wolves (Canis lupus, brown bears (Ursus arctos, and black bears (Ursus americanus in Alaska are abundant and highly productive. Their long-term future is secure due to abundant habitat and good wildlife management practices. In many areas of Alaska hunting and trapping regulates wolf numbers and keep them "in balance" with moose populations. However, high predation rates by wolves can severely depress prey populations and then hold them at a very low density many years. This is often referred to as a predator pit. Several moose populations in interior Alaska are in predator pits. In some of these areas, high densities of black and brown bears complicate the situation. Bears generally prey on moose calves for only a few weeks after they are born, but in some areas they kill up to 65% of the calves produced. Moose populations faced with high levels of predation by both wolves and bears will not recover without special management actions to reduce the predation rate. Efforts to regulate predator populations outside of normal hunting and trapping seasons are highly controversial. Many people are very strongly opposed to reducing wolf or bear populations to increase moose populations and provide for a higher harvest by humans. Other people that depend on the moose for food and/or recreation strongly support predator management. It is a clash of values that is generates great controversy in Alaska. We provide a brief history of the controversy over predator management in Alaska and make recommendations on how to manage large predators in Alaska.

  5. 75 FR 8329 - Regulations Governing the Conduct of Open Seasons for Alaska Natural Gas Transportation Projects...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-24

    ... Transportation Projects; Notice of Rescheduled Alaska Natural Gas Transportation Projects Open Season Pre-Filing... for an Alaska Natural Gas Transportation Project. The Workshop is being held at the Commission's... Alaska natural gas transportation projects. TransCanada Alaska Company LLC (TC Alaska) has recently...

  6. 2012 Alaska Division of Geological and Geophysical Surveys (DGGS) Lidar: Whittier, Alaska

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In support of geologic mapping and hazards evaluation in and near Whittier, Alaska, the Division of Geological and Geophysical Surveys (DGGS) acquired, and is making...

  7. ALASKA1964_INUNDATION - Alaska 1964 Estimated Tsunami Inundation Line at Seaside, Oregon

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set is a polyline shapefile representing the tsunami inundation line for the Alaska 1964 event based on observations and associated information obtained by...

  8. Introduction to Special Section: The Trans-Alaska Crustal Transect (TACT) Across Arctic Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plafker, George; Mooney, Walter D.

    1997-01-01

    This special section of the Journal of Geophysical Research addresses the composition and structural evolution of the lithosphere in northern Alaska. Investigations reported in this section were mainly undertaken as part of the Trans-Alaska Crustal Transect (TACT), an integrated geological and geophysical transect of the entire Alaskan lithosphere along a north-south corridor undertaken from 1984 to 1992 (Figure 1). The onshore segment of the transect approximately follows along the route of the trans-Alaskan pipeline; the offshore segment extends across the continental margin in the Gulf of Alaska to the Pacific plate. The TACT line is unique in that it provides a coordinated onshore/offshore geological and geophysical traverse of the North American plate in Alaska from the active convergent Pacific margin to the passive Arctic margin of the continent.

  9. 2012 Alaska Division of Geological and Geophysical Surveys (DGGS) Lidar: Whittier, Alaska

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In support of geologic mapping and hazards evaluation in and near Whittier, Alaska, the Division of Geological and Geophysical Surveys (DGGS) acquired, and is...

  10. Sounds and vibrations in the frozen Beaufort Sea during gravel island construction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, Charles R; Blackwell, Susanna B; McLennan, Miles Wm

    2008-02-01

    Underwater and airborne sounds and ice-borne vibrations were recorded from sea-ice near an artificial gravel island during its initial construction in the Beaufort Sea near Prudhoe Bay, Alaska. Such measurements are needed for characterizing the properties of island construction sounds to assess their possible impacts on wildlife. Recordings were made in February-May 2000 when BP Exploration (Alaska) began constructing Northstar Island about 5 km offshore, at 12 m depth. Activities recorded included ice augering, pumping sea water to flood the ice and build an ice road, a bulldozer plowing snow, a Ditchwitch cutting ice, trucks hauling gravel over an ice road to the island site, a backhoe trenching the sea bottom for a pipeline, and both vibratory and impact sheet pile driving. For all but one sound source (underwater measurements of pumping) the strongest one-third octave band was under 300 Hz. Vibratory and impact pile driving created the strongest sounds. Received levels of sound and vibration, as measured in the strongest one-third octave band for different construction activities, reached median background levels <7.5 km away for underwater sounds, <3 km away for airborne sounds, and <10 km away for in-ice vibrations.

  11. Editorial : islands : objects of representation

    OpenAIRE

    Baldacchino, Godfrey

    2005-01-01

    In this article, Baldacchino tries to define what is an island and what makes an island. Insularity is a diverse experience ranging from the remoteness of Easter Island in the Pacific to the more international and globalized islands of the Western world.

  12. Alaska Terrain Corrected Free Air Anomalies (96)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This 2' x 4' gravity anomaly grid for Alaska is NOT the input data set used in development of the GEOID96 model. This gravity grid models the 1.1 million terrestrial...

  13. 77 FR 33231 - Alaska Native Claims Selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-05

    ... week, to leave a message or question with the BLM. The BLM will reply during normal business hours... Meridian, Alaska T. 8 N., R. 73 W., Secs. 10 and 11. Containing approximately 80 acres. T. 5 N., R. 74 W., Sec. 28. Containing 0.52 acres. Aggregating approximately 80.52 acres. Notice of the decision...

  14. 40 CFR 81.302 - Alaska.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Section 107 Attainment Status Designations § 81.302 Alaska... river. Also, Township 1 South, Range 1 East, Sections 7, 8, and 18 and the portion of Section 19 north... urban area designated Nonattainment Kobuk Election District Nome Election District North Slope...

  15. The reawakening of Alaska's Augustine volcano

    Science.gov (United States)

    Power, John A.; Nye, Christopher J.; Coombs, Michelle L.; Wessels, Rick L.; Cervelli, Peter F.; Dehn, Jon; Wallace, Kristi L.; Freymueller, Jeffrey T.; Doukas, Michael P.

    2006-01-01

    Augustine volcano, in south central Alaska, ended a 20-year period of repose on 11 January 2006 with 13 explosive eruptions in 20 days. Explosive activity shifted to a quieter effusion of lava in early February, forming a new summit lava dome and two short, blocky lava flows by late March (Figure 1).

  16. Indians, Eskimos and Aleuts of Alaska.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bureau of Indian Affairs (Dept. of Interior), Washington, DC.

    Brief descriptions of the historical and cultural background of the Eskimo, Aleut, Athapascan, Tlingit, and Haida Indian groups of Alaska are presented. Further information is given concerning the educational, health, employment, and economic opportunities available to the natives today. A list is included of activities and points of interest in…

  17. 78 FR 39821 - Alaska Disaster #AK-00029

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-02

    ... ADMINISTRATION Alaska Disaster AK-00029 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a Notice of the Presidential declaration of a major disaster for Public Assistance Only for the..., Fort Worth, TX 76155. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: A. Escobar, Office of Disaster Assistance,...

  18. Environmental Assessment for North Warning System (Alaska)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-11-10

    providing coverage farther to the north, and thus cannot fulfill the NWS mission, because of ionospheric interference caused by the aurora borealis (the...fish, including boreal smelt, Arctic cod, cisco, char, whitefish, grayling, fourhorn sculpin, Alaska blackfish, and ninespine stickleback, seasonally

  19. Aleutian Pribilof Islands Wind Energy Feasibility Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruce A. Wright

    2012-03-27

    Under this project, the Aleutian Pribilof Islands Association (APIA) conducted wind feasibility studies for Adak, False Pass, Nikolski, Sand Point and St. George. The DOE funds were also be used to continue APIA's role as project coordinator, to expand the communication network quality between all participants and with other wind interest groups in the state and to provide continued education and training opportunities for regional participants. This DOE project began 09/01/2005. We completed the economic and technical feasibility studies for Adak. These were funded by the Alaska Energy Authority. Both wind and hydro appear to be viable renewable energy options for Adak. In False Pass the wind resource is generally good but the site has high turbulence. This would require special care with turbine selection and operations. False Pass may be more suitable for a tidal project. APIA is funded to complete a False Pass tidal feasibility study in 2012. Nikolski has superb potential for wind power development with Class 7 wind power density, moderate wind shear, bi-directional winds and low turbulence. APIA secured nearly $1M from the United States Department of Agriculture Rural Utilities Service Assistance to Rural Communities with Extremely High Energy Costs to install a 65kW wind turbine. The measured average power density and wind speed at Sand Point measured at 20m (66ft), are 424 W/m2 and 6.7 m/s (14.9 mph) respectively. Two 500kW Vestas turbines were installed and when fully integrated in 2012 are expected to provide a cost effective and clean source of electricity, reduce overall diesel fuel consumption estimated at 130,000 gallons/year and decrease air emissions associated with the consumption of diesel fuel. St. George Island has a Class 7 wind resource, which is superior for wind power development. The current strategy, led by Alaska Energy Authority, is to upgrade the St. George electrical distribution system and power plant. Avian studies in Nikolski

  20. 77 FR 50712 - Information Collection: Southern Alaska Sharing Network and Subsistence Study; Proposed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-22

    ... local sharing networks that structure contemporary subsistence-cash economies using research methods... Bureau of Ocean Energy Management Information Collection: Southern Alaska Sharing Network and Subsistence... in Alaska, ``Southern Alaska Sharing Network and Subsistence Study.'' DATES: Submit written...

  1. Nunivak Island muskox studies

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report covers the Nunivak Island muskox, summarizing the carrying capacity and age and sex ratios. Recommendations are attached for muskox management.

  2. Melville Island, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    Melville Island, just off the coast of Darwin, Northern Territory, Australia (11.5S, 131.0E) is a sparsely inhabited tropical island with heavy woodland concentrations. The widespread and prominant smoke plumes were most likely set to renew pasture under open canopy woodland. Soil erosion is almost non- existant as can be seen by the clear and clean river flow. The offshore sediments are coastal current borne deposits from King Sound to the west.

  3. Serological survey of selected canine viral pathogens and zoonoses in grizzly bears (Ursus arctos horribilis) and black bears (Ursus americanus) from Alaska.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chomel, B B; Kasten, R W; Chappuis, G; Soulier, M; Kikuchi, Y

    1998-12-01

    Between 1988 and 1991, 644 serum samples were collected from 480 grizzly bears (Ursus arctos horribilis) and 40 black bears (Ursus americanus) from Alaska, United States of America, and were tested for selected canine viral infections and zoonoses. Antibody prevalence in grizzly bears was 0% for parvovirus, 8.3% (40/480) for distemper, 14% (68/480) for infectious hepatitis, 16.5% (79/480) for brucellosis, 19% (93/480) for tularaemia and 47% (225/478) for trichinellosis. In black bears, prevalence ranged from 0% for distemper and parvovirus to 27.5% for trichinellosis and 32% for tularaemia. Antibody prevalence for brucellosis (2.5%) and tularaemia (32%) were identical for grizzly bears and black bears from the geographical area of interior Alaska. Links between differences in prevalence and the origin of the grizzly bears were observed. Antibodies to canine distemper virus and infectious hepatitis virus were mainly detected in grizzly bears from Kodiak Island and the Alaskan Peninsula. Brucellosis antibodies were prevalent in grizzly bears from western and northern Alaska, whereas tularaemia antibodies were detected in grizzly bears from interior Alaska and the Arctic. There was a strong gradient for antibodies to Trichinella spp. from southern to northern Alaska. For most diseases, antibody prevalence increased with age. However, for several infections, no antibodies were detected in grizzly bears aged from 0 to 2 years, in contrast to the presence of those infections in black bears. Grizzly bears served as excellent sentinels for surveillance of zoonotic infections in wildlife in Alaska.

  4. 76 FR 68263 - Migratory Bird Subsistence Harvest in Alaska; Harvest Regulations for Migratory Birds in Alaska...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-03

    ... Unit 16(B) south of the Beluga River, Beluga Lake, and the Triumvirate Glacier: (2) Closure: June 1... Hydaburg (Harvest area: small islands and adjacent shoreline of western Prince of Wales Island from...

  5. Geothermal energy in Alaska: site data base and development status

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Markle, D.

    1979-04-01

    The following are presented: the history of geothermal energy in Alaska; a history of Alaska land ownership; legal and institutional barriers; and economics. Development, the socio-economic and physical data concerning geothermal energy are documented by regions. The six regions presented are those of the present Alaska State Planning Activities and those of the Federal Land Use Commission. Site data summaries of the one hundred and four separate geothermal spring locations are presented by these regions. (MHR)

  6. The Structure of Genetic Diversity in Eelgrass (Zostera marina L.) along the North Pacific and Bering Sea Coasts of Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talbot, Sandra; Sage, Kevin; Rearick, Jolene; Fowler, Megan C.; Muñiz-Salazar, Raquel; Baibak, Bethany; Wyllie-Echeverria, Sandy; Cabello-Pasini, Alehandro; Ward, David H.

    2016-01-01

    Eelgrass (Zostera marina) populations occupying coastal waters of Alaska are separated by a peninsula and island archipelago into two Large Marine Ecosystems (LMEs). From populations in both LMEs, we characterize genetic diversity, population structure, and polarity in gene flow using nuclear microsatellite fragment and chloroplast and nuclear sequence data. An inverse relationship between genetic diversity and latitude was observed (heterozygosity: R2 = 0.738, P < 0.001; allelic richness: R2 = 0.327, P = 0.047), as was significant genetic partitioning across most sampling sites (θ = 0.302, P < 0.0001). Variance in allele frequency was significantly partitioned by region only in cases when a population geographically in the Gulf of Alaska LME (Kinzarof Lagoon) was instead included with populations in the Eastern Bering Sea LME (θp = 0.128–0.172; P < 0.003), suggesting gene flow between the two LMEs in this region. Gene flow among locales was rarely symmetrical, with notable exceptions generally following net coastal ocean current direction. Genetic data failed to support recent proposals that multiple Zostera species (i.e. Z. japonica and Z. angustifolia) are codistributed with Z. marina in Alaska. Comparative analyses also failed to support the hypothesis that eelgrass populations in the North Atlantic derived from eelgrass retained in northeastern Pacific Last Glacial Maximum refugia. These data suggest northeastern Pacific populations are derived from populations expanding northward from temperate populations following climate amelioration at the terminus of the last Pleistocene glaciation.

  7. Dragonflies of Polillo Island, Philippines

    OpenAIRE

    Villanueva, Reagan Joseph T.

    2010-01-01

    Polillo is a small group of island (27 islands in total) east of central Luzon (Figure 1). It is made up of four main island viz. Polillo I, Patnanungan I, Jomalig I and Palasan I and several islets. This island group has relatively flat to gentle sloping terrain and the highest point is only 300 m asl (Mt. Maluhod) in Polillo Island (ca 700 km²) which is the largest in the group and the third largest island in greater Luzon biogeographic region.

  8. Paleobiogeographic affinities of emsian (late early devonian) gastropods from farewell terrane (west-central Alaska)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fryda, J.; Blodgett, R.B.

    2008-01-01

    The vast majority of Emsian gastropods from Limestone Mountain, Medfra B-4 quadrangle, west-central Alaska (Farewell terrane) belong to species with lecithotrophic larval strategy. The present data show that there is no significant difference in the paleobiogeo-graphic distribution of Emsian gastropod genera with lecithotrophic and planktotrophic larval strategies. Numerical analysis of the faunal affinities of the Emsian gastropod fauna from the Farewell terrane reveals that this terrane has much stronger faunal connections to regions like Variscan Europe, eastern Australia, and the Alexander terrane of southeast Alaska than to cratonic North America (Laurentia). The Canadian Arctic Islands is the only region of cratonic North America (Laurentia) that shows significant faunal affinities to the Emsian gastropod faunas of the Farewell terrane. The analysis also indicates a close faunal link between the Farewell and Alexander terranes. Published paleontological and geological data suggest that the Farewell and Alexander terranes represents tectonic entities that have been rifted away from the Siberia, Baltica, or the paleo-Pacific margin of Australia. The results of the present numerical analysis are not in conflict with any of these possibilities. However, the principle of spatial continuity of the wandering path prefers Siberia as the most probable "parental" paleocontinent for the derivation of both the Farewell and Alexander terranes. ?? 2008 The Geological Society of America.

  9. Tsunami hazards to U.S. coasts from giant earthquakes in Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Holly F.; von Huene, Roland; Scholl, Dave; Kirby, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    In the aftermath of Japan's devastating 11 March 2011Mw 9.0 Tohoku earthquake and tsunami, scientists are considering whether and how a similar tsunami could be generated along the Alaskan-Aleutian subduction zone (AASZ). A tsunami triggered by an earthquake along the AASZ would cross the Pacific Ocean and cause extensive damage along highly populated U.S. coasts, with ports being particularly vulnerable. For example, a tsunami in 1946 generated by a Mw 8.6 earthquake near Unimak Pass, Alaska (Figure 1a), caused significant damage along the U.S. West Coast, took 150 lives in Hawaii, and inundated shorelines of South Pacific islands and Antarctica [Fryer et al., 2004; Lopez and Okal, 2006]. The 1946 tsunami occurred before modern broadband seismometers were in place, and the mechanisms that created it remain poorly understood.

  10. Fatal paralytic shellfish poisoning in Kittlitz's Murrelet (Brachyramphus brevirostris) nestlings, Alaska, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shearn-Bochsler, Valerie I.; Lance, Ellen W.; Corcoran, Robin; Piatt, John; Bodenstein, Barbara; Frame, Elizabeth; Lawonn, James

    2014-01-01

    Paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) is an acute toxic illness in humans resulting from ingestion of shellfish contaminated with a suite of neurotoxins (saxitoxins) produced by marine dinoflagellates, most commonly in the genus Alexandrium. Poisoning also has been sporadically suspected and, less often, documented in marine wildlife, often in association with an outbreak in humans. Kittlitz's Murrelet (Brachyramphus brevirostris) is a small, rare seabird of the Northern Pacific with a declining population. From 2008 to 2012, as part of a breeding ecology study, multiple Kittlitz's Murrelet nests on Kodiak Island, Alaska, were monitored by remote cameras. During the 2011 and 2012 breeding seasons, nestlings from several sites died during mild weather conditions. Remote camera observations revealed that the nestlings died shortly after consuming sand lance (Ammodytes hexapterus), a fish species known to biomagnify saxitoxin. High levels of saxitoxin were subsequently documented in crop content in 87% of nestling carcasses. Marine bird deaths from PSP may be underreported.

  11. Volcanic Processes and Geology of Augustine Volcano, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waitt, Richard B.; Beget, James E.

    2009-01-01

    Augustine Island (volcano) in lower Cook Inlet, Alaska, has erupted repeatedly in late-Holocene and historical times. Eruptions typically beget high-energy volcanic processes. Most notable are bouldery debris avalanches containing immense angular clasts shed from summit domes. Coarse deposits of these avalanches form much of Augustine's lower flanks. A new geologic map at 1:25,000 scale depicts these deposits, these processes. We correlate deposits by tephra layers calibrated by many radiocarbon dates. Augustine Volcano began erupting on the flank of a small island of Jurassic clastic-sedimentary rock before the late Wisconsin glaciation (late Pleistocene). The oldest known effusions ranged from olivine basalt explosively propelled by steam, to highly explosive magmatic eruptions of dacite or rhyodacite shed as pumice flows. Late Wisconsin piedmont glaciers issuing from the mountainous western mainland surrounded the island while dacitic eruptive debris swept down the south volcano flank. Evidence is scant for eruptions between the late Wisconsin and about 2,200 yr B.P. On a few south-flank inliers, thick stratigraphically low pumiceous pyroclastic-flow and fall deposits probably represent this period from which we have no radiocarbon dates on Augustine Island. Eruptions between about 5,350 and 2,200 yr B.P. we know with certainty by distal tephras. On Shuyak Island 100 km southeast of Augustine, two distal fall ashes of Augustinian chemical provenance (microprobe analysis of glass) date respectively between about 5,330 and 5,020 yr B.P. and between about 3,620 and 3,360 yr B.P. An Augustine ash along Kamishak Creek 70 km southwest of Augustine dates between about 3,850 and 3,660 yr B.P. A probably Augustinian ash lying within peat near Homer dates to about 2,275 yr B.P. From before 2,200 yr B.P. to the present, Augustine eruptive products abundantly mantle the island. During this period, numerous coarse debris avalanches swept beyond Augustine's coast, most

  12. Seal Island and Franklin Island National Wildlife Refuges Trip Report

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This is a summary of visits to both Seal Island National Wildlife Refuge and Franklin Island National Wildlife Refuge on August 14, 15, 16, 1982.

  13. Global Positioning System (GPS) survey of Augustine Volcano, Alaska, August 3-8, 2000: data processing, geodetic coordinates and comparison with prior geodetic surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauk, Benjamin A.; Power, John A.; Lisowski, Mike; Dzurisin, Daniel; Iwatsubo, Eugene Y.; Melbourne, Tim

    2001-01-01

    Between August 3 and 8,2000,the Alaska Volcano Observatory completed a Global Positioning System (GPS) survey at Augustine Volcano, Alaska. Augustine is a frequently active calcalkaline volcano located in the lower portion of Cook Inlet (fig. 1), with reported eruptions in 1812, 1882, 1909?, 1935, 1964, 1976, and 1986 (Miller et al., 1998). Geodetic measurements using electronic and optical surveying techniques (EDM and theodolite) were begun at Augustine Volcano in 1986. In 1988 and 1989, an island-wide trilateration network comprising 19 benchmarks was completed and measured in its entirety (Power and Iwatsubo, 1998). Partial GPS surveys of the Augustine Island geodetic network were completed in 1992 and 1995; however, neither of these surveys included all marks on the island.Additional GPS measurements of benchmarks A5 and A15 (fig. 2) were made during the summers of 1992, 1993, 1994, and 1996. The goals of the 2000 GPS survey were to:1) re-measure all existing benchmarks on Augustine Island using a homogeneous set of GPS equipment operated in a consistent manner, 2) add measurements at benchmarks on the western shore of Cook Inlet at distances of 15 to 25 km, 3) add measurements at an existing benchmark (BURR) on Augustine Island that was not previously surveyed, and 4) add additional marks in areas of the island thought to be actively deforming. The entire survey resulted in collection of GPS data at a total of 24 sites (fig. 1 and 2). In this report we describe the methods of GPS data collection and processing used at Augustine during the 2000 survey. We use this data to calculate coordinates and elevations for all 24 sites surveyed. Data from the 2000 survey is then compared toelectronic and optical measurements made in 1988 and 1989. This report also contains a general description of all marks surveyed in 2000 and photographs of all new marks established during the 2000 survey (Appendix A).

  14. EarthScope's Transportable Array in Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busby, R. W.; Woodward, R.; Hafner, K.

    2013-12-01

    Since 2003, EarthScope has been installing a network of seismometers, known as the Transportable Array-across the continental United States and southern Canada. The station deployments will be completed in the Conterminous US in the fall of 2013. Beginning in October, 2013, and continuing for 5 years, EarthScope's Transportable Array plans to create a grid of seismic sensors in approximately 300 locations In Alaska and Western Canada. The proposed station grid is 85 km, and target locations will supplement or enhance existing seismic stations operating in Alaska. When possible, they will also be co-located with existing GPS stations constructed by the Plate Boundary Observatory. We review the siting plans for stations, the progress towards reconnaissance and permitting, and detail the engineering concept of the stations. In order to be able to determine the required site conditions and descriptions of installation methods to the permitting agencies, the National Science Foundation (NSF) has been supporting exploratory work on seismic station design, sensor emplacement and communication concepts appropriate for the challenging high-latitude environment that is proposed for deployment. IRIS has installed several experimental stations to evaluate different sensor emplacement schemes both in Alaska and the lower-48 U.S. The goal of these tests is to maintain or enhance a station's noise performance while minimizing its footprint and the equipment, materials, and overall expense required for its construction. Motivating this approach are recent developments in posthole broadband seismometer design and the unique conditions for operating in Alaska, where most areas are only accessible by small plane or helicopter, and permafrost underlies much of the region. IRIS has experimented with different portable drills and drilling techniques to create shallow holes (1-5M) in permafrost and rock outcrops. Seasonal changes can affect the performance of seismometers in different

  15. Southwest Alaska Regional Geothermal Energy Projec

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holdmann, Gwen [Univ. of Alaska, Fairbanks, AK (United States)

    2015-04-30

    Drilling and temperature logging campaigns between the late 1970's and early 1980’s measured temperatures at Pilgrim Hot Springs in excess of 90°C. Between 2010 and 2014 the University of Alaska used a variety of methods including geophysical surveys, remote sensing techniques, heat budget modeling, and additional drilling to better understand the resource and estimate the available geothermal energy.

  16. Tracking glaciers with the Alaska seismic network

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, M. E.

    2015-12-01

    More than 40 years ago it was known that calving glaciers in Alaska created unmistakable seismic signals that could be recorded tens and hundreds of kilometers away. Their long monochromatic signals invited studies that foreshadowed the more recent surge in glacier seismology. Beyond a handful of targeted studies, these signals have remained a seismic novelty. No systematic attempt has been made to catalog and track glacier seismicity across the years. Recent advances in understanding glacier sources, combined with the climate significance of tidewater glaciers, have renewed calls for comprehensive tracking of glacier seismicity in coastal Alaska. The Alaska Earthquake Center has included glacier events in its production earthquake catalog for decades. Until recently, these were best thought of as bycatch—accidental finds in the process of tracking earthquakes. Processing improvements a decade ago, combined with network improvements in the past five years, have turned this into a rich data stream capturing hundreds of events per year across 600 km of the coastal mountain range. Though the source of these signals is generally found to be iceberg calving, there are vast differences in behavior between different glacier termini. Some glaciers have strong peaks in activity during the spring, while others peak in the late summer or fall. These patterns are consistent over years pointing to fundamental differences in calving behavior. In several cases, changes in seismic activity correspond to specific process changes observed through other means at particular glacier. These observations demonstrate that the current network is providing a faithful record of the dynamic behavior of several glaciers in coastal Alaska. With this as a starting point, we examine what is possible (and not possible) going forward with dedicated detection schemes.

  17. Alaska North Slope National Energy Strategy initiative: Analysis of five undeveloped fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, C.P.; Allaire, R.B.; Doughty, T.C.; Faulder, D.D.; Irving, J.S.; Jamison, H.C.; White, G.J.

    1993-05-01

    The US Department of Energy was directed in the National Energy Strategy to establish a federal interagency task force to identify specific technical and regulatory barriers to the development of five undeveloped North Slope Alaska fields and make recommendations for their resolution. The five fields are West Sak, Point Thomson, Gwydyr Bay, Seal Island/Northstar, and Sandpiper Island. Analysis of environmental, regulatory, technical, and economic information, and data relating to the development potential of the five fields leads to the following conclusions: Development of the five fields would result in an estimated total of 1,055 million barrels of oil and 4.4 trillion cubic feet of natural gas and total investment of $9.4 billion in 1992 dollars. It appears that all five of the fields will remain economically marginal developments unless there is significant improvement in world oil prices. Costs of regulatory compliance and mitigation, and costs to reduce or maintain environmental impacts at acceptable levels influence project investments and operating costs and must be considered in the development decision making process. The development of three of the fields (West Sak, Point Thomson, and Gwydyr Bay) that are marginally feasible would have an impact on North Slope production over the period from about 2000 to 2014 but cannot replace the decline in Prudhoe Bay Unit production or maintain the operation of the Trans-Alaska Pipeline System (TAPS) beyond about 2014 with the assumption that the TAPS will shut down when production declines to the range of 400 to 200 thousand barrels of oil/day. Recoverable reserves left in the ground in the currently producing fields and soon to be developed fields, Niakuk and Point McIntyre, would range from 1 billion to 500 million barrels of oil corresponding to the time period of 2008 to 2014 based on the TAPS shutdown assumption.

  18. Detectable Aspects Of Alaska, and the Southwests Kokopelli, Indicate That Environmental Monitoring By Native Americans Utilized Several Sensory Modes, and That Their Conservation Held Moral Value Within Their Traditional Culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochs, Michael Ann; Mc Leod, Roger D.

    2004-03-01

    Place-names of Alaska and the Americas, in names like Natick, MA, Matagamon, ME, Matacumbe Key, FL, Tecate Mt, CA, and Tacoma, WA as well as Allapatah, FL, and Issaqua, WA indicate Native Americans all monitored equivalent aspects of the earths EMF. Former coastal and island areas of Native American activity and culture in Alaska show a traditional, historic leader climbed the mountain of one cliff-like island area for weather prediction. We suggest that the ascent onto the mountain and the subsequent significant stay there was for purposes of cultural and religious reverence associated with direct observation of phenomena associated with known weather sequences. Similar cultural awareness of EMF phenomena and weather-making could be related to practices of the MiKmaw/Micmac Indians of the northeast, and the so-called rain-dance of the Hopi of the southwest. *This paper does not necessarily represent the views of the U.S. E.P.A

  19. Bedrock geologic map of the northern Alaska Peninsula area, southwestern Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Frederic H.; Blodgett, Robert B.; Blome, Charles D.; Mohadjer, Solmaz; Preller, Cindi C.; Klimasauskas, Edward P.; Gamble, Bruce M.; Coonrad, Warren L.

    2017-03-03

    The northern Alaska Peninsula is a region of transition from the classic magmatic arc geology of the Alaska Peninsula to a Proterozoic and early Paleozoic carbonate platform and then to the poorly understood, tectonically complex sedimentary basins of southwestern Alaska. Physiographically, the region ranges from the high glaciated mountains of the Alaska-Aleutian Range to the coastal lowlands of Cook Inlet on the east and Bristol Bay on the southwest. The lower Ahklun Mountains and finger lakes on the west side of the map area show strong effects from glaciation. Structurally, a number of major faults cut the map area. Most important of these are the Bruin Bay Fault that parallels the coast of Cook Inlet, the Lake Clark Fault that cuts diagonally northeast to southwest across the eastern part of the map area, and the presently active Holitna Fault to the northwest that cuts surficial deposits.Distinctive rock packages assigned to three provinces are overlain by younger sedimentary rocks and intruded by widely dispersed latest Cretaceous and (or) early Tertiary granitic rocks. Much of the east half of the map area lies in the Alaska-Aleutian Range province; the Jurassic to Tertiary Alaska-Aleutian Range batholith and derivative Jurassic sedimentary rocks form the core of this province, which is intruded and overlain by the Aleutian magmatic arc. The Lime Hills province, the carbonate platform, occurs in the north-central part of the map area. The Paleozoic and Mesozoic Ahklun Mountains province in the western part of the map area includes abundant chert, argillite, and graywacke and lesser limestone, basalt, and tectonic mélange. The Kuskokwim Group, an Upper Cretaceous turbidite sequence, is extensively exposed and bounds all three provinces in the west-central part of the map area.

  20. Small Island Visitor Attractions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haven Allahar

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This article proposes a process framework for developing and managing visitor attractions (VA in small island developing states with Trinidad and Tobago, a two-island state in the Caribbean, as the case study. An extensive literature review was conducted, supported by field observations, individual depth interviews, and small and large focus group meetings. The process framework identified four sets of processes: national policy formulation and legislation; inventory, classification, evaluation, and ranking of VA; general operations management involving project management activities; and site specific activities of development, operations, and maintenance. The value of the framework lies in the fact that no similar framework applicable to small islands was covered in the literature and validation was obtained from a panel of experts and a cross section of tourism stakeholders in Tobago.

  1. Islands of Astronomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Godfrey Baldacchino

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available A global review of islands and their connections with astronomy throughout history up to the contemporary times suggests eight compelling, distinct yet interlocking reasons why islands have been and remain so important to astronomy and astronomers. Islands constitute favourable locations for various types of astronomy-related activities: from tracking satellites and monitoring significant celestial events, to providing exceptional locations to jurisdictions with mandated dark and unpolluted skies. They appeal for their favourable longitude and (especially southern latitude, as well as for their disposition towards the conditions that the scientific community may expect in an ideal world: relatively clear viewing conditions from a secure, self-contained platform that is, however, endowed with connectivity. This article is written as a contribution to the International Year of Astronomy (2009.

  2. Developing Gyrfalcon surveys and monitoring for Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, Mark R.; Schempf, Philip F.; Booms, Travis L.

    2011-01-01

    We developed methods to monitor the status of Gyrfalcons in Alaska. Results of surveys and monitoring will be informative for resource managers and will be useful for studying potential changes in ecological communities of the high latitudes. We estimated that the probability of detecting a Gyrfalcon at an occupied nest site was between 64% and 87% depending on observer experience and aircraft type (fixed-wing or helicopter). The probability of detection is an important factor for estimating occupancy of nesting areas, and occupancy can be used as a metric for monitoring species' status. We conclude that surveys of nesting habitat to monitor occupancy during the breeding season are practical because of the high probability of seeing a Gyrfalcon from aircraft. Aerial surveys are effective for searching sample plots or index areas in the expanse of the Alaskan terrain. Furthermore, several species of cliff-nesting birds can be surveyed concurrently from aircraft. Occupancy estimation also can be applied using data from other field search methods (e.g., from boats) that have proven useful in Alaska. We believe a coordinated broad-scale, inter-agency, collaborative approach is necessary in Alaska. Monitoring can be facilitated by collating and archiving each set of results in a secure universal repository to allow for statewide meta-analysis.

  3. Sustainable Energy Solutions for Rural Alaska

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allen, Riley [Regulatory Assistance Project, Montpelier, VT (United States); Brutkoski, Donna [Regulatory Assistance Project, Montpelier, VT (United States); Farnsworth, David [Regulatory Assistance Project, Montpelier, VT (United States); Larsen, Peter [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2016-04-22

    The state of Alaska recognizes the challenges these rural communities face and provides financial support via the Power Cost Equalization (PCE) program. The PCE subsidizes the electricity prices paid by customers of these high-cost utilities. The PCE program is designed to spread the benefits of Alaska’s natural resources more evenly throughout the state. Yet even with this subsidy, electricity is still much more expensive for these rural customers. And beyond the PCE, other forms of assistance to rural utilities are becoming scarce given the state’s current fiscal environment. Nearly 90 percent of Alaska’s unrestricted budget funds in recent years have been tied to oil royalties—a sector experiencing significant declines in production and oil prices. Consequently, as Alaska looks to tighten budgets, the challenge of lowering rural utility costs, while encouraging self-sufficiency, has become more urgent.This study examines reliability, capital and strategic planning, management, workforce development, governance, financial performance and system efficiency in the various communities visited by the research team. Using those attributes, a tier system was developed to categorize rural Alaska utilities into Leading and Innovating Systems (Tier I), Advanced Diesel Systems (Tier II), Basic Systems (Tier III), and Underperforming Systems (Tier IV). The tier approach is not meant to label specific utilities, but rather to provide a general set of benchmarks and guideposts for improvement.

  4. The geochemical atlas of Alaska, 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Gregory K.; Yager, Douglas B.; Mauk, Jeffrey L.; Granitto, Matthew; Denning, Paul D.; Wang, Bronwen; Werdon, Melanie B.

    2016-06-21

    A rich legacy of geochemical data produced since the early 1960s covers the great expanse of Alaska; careful treatment of such data may provide significant and revealing geochemical maps that may be used for landscape geochemistry, mineral resource exploration, and geoenvironmental investigations over large areas. To maximize the spatial density and extent of data coverage for statewide mapping of element distributions, we compiled and integrated analyses of more than 175,000 sediment and soil samples from three major, separate sources: the U.S. Geological Survey, the National Uranium Resource Evaluation program, and the Alaska Division of Geological & Geophysical Surveys geochemical databases. Various types of heterogeneity and deficiencies in these data presented major challenges to our development of coherently integrated datasets for modeling and mapping of element distributions. Researchers from many different organizations and disparate scientific studies collected samples that were analyzed using highly variable methods throughout a time period of more than 50 years, during which many changes in analytical techniques were developed and applied. Despite these challenges, the U.S. Geological Survey has produced a new systematically integrated compilation of sediment and soil geochemical data with an average sample site density of approximately 1 locality per 10 square kilometers (km2) for the entire State of Alaska, although density varies considerably among different areas. From that compilation, we have modeled and mapped the distributions of 68 elements, thus creating an updated geochemical atlas for the State.

  5. 1957 Aleutian Islands, USA Images

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The magnitude 8.6 (Mw) earthquake occurred south of the Andreanof Islands, in the Aleutian Islands. It generated an 8-meter tsunami that did great damage on Adak...

  6. Gulf Island National Wildlife Refuges

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document provides a brief history and describes physical features of the Gulf Island National Wildlife Refuges. The Gulf Island National Wildlife Refuges...

  7. Sakhalin Island terrain intelligence

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    1943-01-01

    This folio of maps and explanatory tables outlines the principal terrain features of Sakhalin Island. Each map and table is devoted to a specialized set of problems; together they cover the subjects of terrain appreciation, climate, rivers, water supply, construction materials, suitability for roads, suitability for airfields, fuels and other mineral resources, and geology. In most cases, the map of the island is divided into two parts: N. of latitude 50° N., Russian Sakhalin, and south of latitude 50° N., Japanese Sakhalin or Karafuto. These maps and data were compiled by the United States Geological Survey during the period from March to September, 1943.

  8. Archaeoastronomy of Easter Island

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Edmundo

    Astronomer priests or "skywatchers" on Easter Island lived in stone towers that were used as observatories and built stone markers in the periphery that indicated the heliacal rising of certain stars that served to indicate the arrival of marine birds, turtles, the offshore fishing season, and times for planting and harvest. Petroglyphs related to such sites depict outriggers, fishhooks, pelagic fish, and turtles and supposedly represented a star map. In this chapter, we analyze a set of such skywatchers dwellings, and stone markers located upon the North coast of Easter Island that have astronomic orientations, its related petroglyphs, and the relations between these directions with their yearly activities and their ritual calendar.

  9. Long Island Solar Farm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anders, R.

    2013-05-01

    The Long Island Solar Farm (LISF) is a remarkable success story, whereby very different interest groups found a way to capitalize on unusual circumstances to develop a mutually beneficial source of renewable energy. The uniqueness of the circumstances that were necessary to develop the Long Island Solar Farm make it very difficult to replicate. The project is, however, an unparalleled resource for solar energy research, which will greatly inform large-scale PV solar development in the East. Lastly, the LISF is a superb model for the process by which the project developed and the innovation and leadership shown by the different players.

  10. Islanded operation of distribution networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    This report summarises the results of a study assessing the benefits and risks to distribution network of generator islanding and examining the technical, commercial and regulatory changes required to facilitate the operation of islanding. The background to the study is traced, and details are given of a literature review, the technical criteria for operating sections of the network in islanding mode, and the impact of islanding on trading. Case studies and a detailed implementation plan, data acquisition, and commercial incentives are discussed.

  11. Alaska Seismic Network Upgrade and Expansion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandru, J. M.; Hansen, R. A.; Estes, S. A.; Fowler, M.

    2009-12-01

    AEIC (Alaska Earthquake Information Center) has begun the task of upgrading the older regional seismic monitoring sites that have been in place for a number of years. Many of the original sites (some dating to the 1960's) are still single component analog technology. This was a very reasonable and ultra low power reliable system for its day. However with the advanced needs of today's research community, AEIC has begun upgrading to Broadband and Strong Motion Seismometers, 24 bit digitizers and high-speed two-way communications, while still trying to maintain the utmost reliability and maintaining low power consumption. Many sites have been upgraded or will be upgraded from single component to triaxial broad bands and triaxial accerometers. This provided much greater dynamic range over the older antiquated technology. The challenge is compounded by rapidly changing digital technology. Digitizersand data communications based on analog phone lines utilizing 9600 baud modems and RS232 are becoming increasingly difficult to maintain and increasingly expensive compared to current methods that use Ethernet, TCP/IP and UDP connections. Gaining a reliable Internet connection can be as easy as calling up an ISP and having a DSL connection installed or may require installing our own satellite uplink, where other options don't exist. LANs are accomplished with a variety of communications devices such as spread spectrum 900 MHz radios or VHF radios for long troublesome shots. WANs are accomplished with a much wider variety of equipment. Traditional analog phone lines are being used in some instances, however 56K lines are much more desirable. Cellular data links have become a convenient option in semiurban environments where digital cellular coverage is available. Alaska is slightly behind the curve on cellular technology due to its low population density and vast unpopulated areas but has emerged into this new technology in the last few years. Partnerships with organizations

  12. 75 FR 2126 - Regulations Governing the Conduct of Open Seasons for Alaska Natural Gas Transportation Projects...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-14

    ... Gas Transportation Projects; Notice of Alaska Natural Gas Transportation Projects Open Season Pre... season for an Alaska Natural Gas Transportation Project. The Workshop is being hosted by the Alaska... capacity on Alaskan natural gas transportation projects. Both Denali--The Alaska Gas Pipeline LLC and...

  13. Alaska oil and gas: Energy wealth or vanishing opportunity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, C.P.; Doughty, T.C.; Faulder, D.D.; Harrison, W.E.; Irving, J.S.; Jamison, H.C.; White, G.J.

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to systematically identify and review (a) the known and undiscovered reserves and resources of arctic Alaska, (b) the economic factors controlling development, (c) the risks and environmental considerations involved in development, and (d) the impacts of a temporary shutdown of the Alaska North Slope Oil Delivery System (ANSODS). 119 refs., 45 figs., 41 tabs.

  14. Rope culture of the kelp Laminaria groenlandica in Alaska

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellis, R.J.; Calvin, N.I.

    1981-02-01

    This paper is an account of rope culture of the brown seaweed or kelp, Laminaria groenlandica, in Alaska. It describes the placement of the ropes, time of first appearance of young L. groenlandica, size of the plants at various ages, and other life history features applicable to the use of rope for the culture of seaweeds in Alaska. (Refs. 3).

  15. The Alaska Arctic Vegetation Archive (AVA-AK)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Walker, Donald A.; Breen, Amy L.; Druckenmiller, Lisa A.; Wirth, Lisa W.; Fisher, Will; Raynolds, Martha K.; Šibík, Jozef; Walker, Marilyn D.; Hennekens, Stephan; Boggs, Keith; Boucher, Tina; Buchhorn, Marcel; Bültmann, Helga; Cooper, David J.; Daniëls, Fred J.A.; Davidson, Scott J.; Ebersole, James J.; Elmendorf, Sara C.; Epstein, Howard E.; Gould, William A.; Hollister, Robert D.; Iversen, Colleen M.; Jorgenson, M.T.; Kade, Anja; Lee, Michael T.; MacKenzie, William H.; Peet, Robert K.; Peirce, Jana L.; Schickhoff, Udo; Sloan, Victoria L.; Talbot, Stephen S.; Tweedie, Craig E.; Villarreal, Sandra; Webber, Patrick J.; Zona, Donatella

    2016-01-01

    The Alaska Arctic Vegetation Archive (AVA-AK, GIVD-ID: NA-US-014) is a free, publically available database archive of vegetation-plot data from the Arctic tundra region of northern Alaska. The archive currently contains 24 datasets with 3,026 non-overlapping plots. Of these, 74% have geolocation dat

  16. The Ways to Say “Welcome” in Alaska

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    耿让

    2007-01-01

    <正>How many ways can you think of to say"Welcome"?In Alaska there are at least 11 different ways!That’s because there are 11 distinct cultur- al groups of Native Indians who live in Alaska and have their own lan- guages,customs,and hanting and fishing practices.

  17. Children of the Midnight Sun: Young Native Voices of Alaska.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Tricia

    For Native children, growing up in Alaska today means dwelling in a place where traditional customs sometimes mix oddly with modern conveniences. Through their own words, this book explores the lives of eight Alaska Native children, each representing a unique and ancient culture: Eskimo--Yupik and Inupiat; Aleut; and Indian--Athabascan, Tlingit,…

  18. Sharing Ideas. Southeast Alaska Cultures: Teaching Ideas and Resource Information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinckley, Kay, Comp.; Kleinert, Jean, Comp.

    The product of two 1975 workshops held in Southeastern Alaska (Fairbanks and Sitka), this publication presents the following: (1) papers (written by the educators in attendance at the workshops) which address education methods and concepts relevant to the culture of Southeastern Alaska ("Tlingit Sea Lion Parable"; "Using Local…

  19. Economic Education Experiences of Award Winning Alaska Teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Monica, Ed.

    Award-winning economic education projects devised by Alaska teachers included three elementary (K-6) projects and three second level (7-12) ones. Faith Greenough's students (Chinook Elementary School, Anchorage) compared Tlingit traditional and market economies in Alaska, so economics became an integrated part of elementary instruction. Marie…

  20. The Effect of Plate Structure on Intraplate Volcanism, Kodiak-Bowie Seamount Chain, Gulf of Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reece, R. S.; Christeson, G. L.; Gulick, S. S.; Barth, G. A.; Van Avendonk, H. J.

    2012-12-01

    Newly acquired ocean bottom seismometer (OBS) and multi-channel seismic (MCS) data in the vicinity of the Kodiak-Bowie Seamount Chain and Aja Fracture Zone reveal the character and structure of the Pacific Plate, overlying sediment, and seamounts in the Gulf of Alaska. Our data include two marine wide-angle OBS profiles, two coincident MCS profiles, and several nearby MCS profiles, including lines parallel to and crossing the Seamount Chain and Fracture Zone. This new data may help to reveal the character of the Kodiak-Bowie Seamount Chain and associated intraplate volcanism, much of which is concealed by the Surveyor and Baranof sedimentary fan systems. The Kodiak-Bowie Seamount Chain stretches over 1000 km across the Gulf of Alaska, from the Aleutian Trench in the northwest to offshore Queen Charlotte Islands in the southeast. The ages of the seamounts range from 24 Ma at Kodiak Seamount in the northwest to ≥0.7 Ma at Bowie Seamount in the southeast. Although the seamounts are largely age-progressive, some members of the chain are dated significantly out of sequence. Previous studies suggest the possibility that the majority of seamounts in the chain could be products of the Bowie plume. The Gulf-wide Aja Fracture Zone intersects the Kodiak-Bowie Seamount Chain in the central Gulf at the location of the seismic lines. Preliminary tomographic inversions of the seismic data reveal significant changes in crustal thickness across the Aja Fracture Zone, including at least a 3 km step up in the moho from south to north. Additionally, the region north of the Fracture Zone exhibits a 3 km thick low velocity zone in the upper crust, which is double the thickness of the same feature south of the fracture zone. This low velocity zone in the upper crust may be representative of intraplate volcanism associated with the Kodiak-Bowie Chain; several higher velocity perturbations within this zone are coincident with the locations of major seamounts. We will further refine

  1. Climate change impacts on stream carbon export from coastal temperate rainforest ecosystems in Alaska (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hood, E. W.

    2013-12-01

    Coastal temperate rainforests (CTR) in Alaska contain about 10% of the total carbon in the forests of the conterminous United States. CTR ecosystems span a large environmental gradient that ranges from icefields mantling the Coast Mountains to carbon-rich conifer forests along the coastal margin and within the islands of the Alexander Archipelago in the Gulf of Alaska. Riverine dissolved organic carbon (DOC) export from Alaskan CTR ecosystems, which can exceed 2 Tg C yr-1, is large relative to other northern ecosystems as a result of high rates of specific discharge (~2.5 m yr-1) and an abundance of organic soils found in peatlands and forested wetlands. Runoff from glaciers, which are rapidly thinning and retreating, has also been shown to an important contributor to land-to-ocean fluxes of DOC in this region. Downscaled regional climate models suggest that CTR ecosystems in Alaska will become warmer and wetter in coming decades, with uncertain effects on riverine organic matter (OM) export. Changes in watershed OM export are likely to be driven by changes in both hydrology and the availability of OM in terrestrial source pools. However, the impacts of these climate driven changes will vary with watershed landcover across the continuum from icefields to coastal temperate forests. Expected hydrological perturbations include changes in the timing and magnitude of streamflow associated with shifts in: 1) the extent and duration of seasonal snowcover and 2) the mass balance of glaciers and icefields in the Coast Mountains. The availability of OM for export along hydrologic flowpaths will likely be altered by increased soil temperatures and shifts in water table elevations during the summer/fall runoff season. This will be particularly true for organic carbon export from peatlands in which changes in temperature and oxygen availability can strongly impact rates of organic matter decomposition. This talk will explore how climate-driven changes in hydrology and

  2. Pacific Island Pharmacovigilance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McEwen, John; Vestergaard, Lasse S.; Sanburg, Amanda L C

    2016-01-01

    Many Pacific Island countries (PICs) are recipients of funding support from the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria (Global Fund). However, most of these countries cannot be expected to meet Global Fund and World Health Organization (WHO) minimum requirements for a functioning...

  3. Teachers' Potpourri: The Island

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levinson, Steven

    1971-01-01

    The author allows his students to create an imaginary society--the island. While developing the structure of their society, the students are actually practicing speech skills and activities such as problem solving through discussion, persuasive speaking and impromptu speaking. (Author/MS)

  4. Islands in the ice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Tina; Kjær, Kurt H.; Haile, James Seymour

    2012-01-01

    Nunataks are isolated bedrocks protruding through ice sheets. They vary in age, but represent island environments in 'oceans' of ice through which organism dispersals and replacements can be studied over time. The J.A.D. Jensen's Nunataks at the southern Greenland ice sheet are the most isolated ...

  5. Bone island and leprosy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carpintero, P.; Garcia-Frasquet, A. [Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Cordoba University, Medical School, Reina Sofia University Hospital, Cordoba (Spain); Tarradas, E. [Department of Imaging, Cordoba University, Medical School, Cordoba (Spain); Logrono, C. [Department of Dermatology, Reina Sofia University Hospital, Cordoba (Spain); Carrascal, A. [Department of Radiology, Infanta Elena Hospital, Huelva (Spain); Carreto, A. [Department of Radiology, Reina Sofia University Hospital, Cordoba (Spain)

    1998-06-01

    Objective. To determine the incidence of bone islands in leprosy patients. Design. X-rays of feet and hands of patients with Hansen`s disease (leprosy) were reviewed retrospectively. A second group of related age- and sex-matched patients who did not have Hansen`s disease was used for control purposes. Controls had undergone hand or foot X-rays during diagnosis of other pathologies. The patients with Hansen`s disease were compared with the control group, and were also analyzed as subgroups with different types of leprosy. The results were subjected to statistical analysis. Patients. Ninety patients with Hansen`s disease were randomly selected for this study. Patients who had had ulcers on hands or feet were excluded from the study. Results and conclusions. Bone islands were demonstrated in 20 patients with Hansen`s disease; no bone islands were observed in the controls. This was statistically significant (P<0.01). Bone islands were only seen in patients with lepromatous leprosy and borderline types but were not demonstrated in patients with tuberculoid leprosy. There was also a statistically significant relationship for a disease duration of 15 years or more. The cause of this raised incidence of enostosis in leprosy patients is not clear, but there may be a genetic predisposition in patients with leprosy, or it may be a side effect of leprosy, especially the lepromatous form. (orig.) With 4 figs., 2 tabs., 9 refs.

  6. Satellite Sounder Data Assimilation for Improving Alaska Region Weather Forecast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jiang; Stevens, E.; Zavodsky, B. T.; Zhang, X.; Heinrichs, T.; Broderson, D.

    2014-01-01

    Data assimilation has been demonstrated very useful in improving both global and regional numerical weather prediction. Alaska has very coarser surface observation sites. On the other hand, it gets much more satellite overpass than lower 48 states. How to utilize satellite data to improve numerical prediction is one of hot topics among weather forecast community in Alaska. The Geographic Information Network of Alaska (GINA) at University of Alaska is conducting study on satellite data assimilation for WRF model. AIRS/CRIS sounder profile data are used to assimilate the initial condition for the customized regional WRF model (GINA-WRF model). Normalized standard deviation, RMSE, and correlation statistic analysis methods are applied to analyze one case of 48 hours forecasts and one month of 24-hour forecasts in order to evaluate the improvement of regional numerical model from Data assimilation. The final goal of the research is to provide improved real-time short-time forecast for Alaska regions.

  7. 78 FR 73144 - Subsistence Management Program for Public Lands in Alaska; Western Interior Alaska Federal...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-05

    ... Councils, which represent 10 subsistence resource regions in Alaska. The Councils provide a forum for rural... address subsistence issues concerning the region. To participate, call toll free 1-877-638-8165. When... review policies and management plans, and to provide a public forum for subsistence issues. DATES:...

  8. Natality and calf mortality of the Northern Alaska Peninsula and Southern Alaska Peninsula caribou herds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard A. Sellers

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available We studied natality in the Northern Alaska Peninsula (NAP and Southern Alaska Peninsula (SAP caribou (Rangifer tarandus granti herds during 1996-1999, and mortality and weights of calves during 1998 and 1999- Natality was lower in the NAP than the SAP primarily because most 3-year-old females did not produce calves in the NAP Patterns of calf mortality in the NAP and SAP differed from those in Interior Alaska primarily because neonatal (i.e., during the first 2 weeks of life mortality was relatively low, but mortality continued to be significant through August in both herds, and aggregate annual mortality was extreme (86% in the NAP Predators probably killed more neonatal calves in the SAP, primarily because a wolf den (Canis lupus was located on the calving area. Despite the relatively high density of brown bears (Ursus arctos and bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus, these predators killed surprisingly few calves. Golden eagles (Aquila chrysaetos were uncommon on the Alaska Peninsula. At least 2 calves apparently died from pneu¬monia in the range of the NAP but none were suspected to have died from disease in the range of the SAP. Heavy scav¬enging by bald eagles complicated determining cause of death of calves in both the NAP and SAP.

  9. Effects of the earthquake of March 27, 1964, on the Alaska highway system: Chapter C in The Alaska earthquake, March 27, 1964: effects on transportation, communications, and utilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kachadoorian, Reuben

    1968-01-01

    The great earthquake that struck Alaska about 5:36 p.m., Alaska standard time, Friday, March 27, 1964 (03:36:1.3.0, Greenwich mean time, March 28, 1964), severely crippled the highway system in the south-central part of the State. All the major highways and most secondary roads were impaired. Damage totaled more than $46 million, well over $25 million to bridges and nearly $21 million to roadways. Of the 204 bridges in south-central Alaska, 141 were damaged; 92 were severely damaged or destroyed. The earthquake damaged 186 of the 830 miles of roadway in south-central Alaska, 83 miles so severely that replacement or relocation was required. Earthquake damage to the roadways and bridges was chiefly by (1) seismic shaking, (2) compaction of fills as well as the underlying sediments, (3) lateral displacement of the roadway and bridges, (4) fractures, (5) landslides, (6) avalanches, (7) inundation by seismic sea waves, (8) scouring by seismic sea waves, (9) regional tectonic subsidence, causing inundation and erosion by high tides in subsided areas. The intensity of damage was controlled primarily by the geologic environment (including the depth of the water table) upon which the highway structures rested, and secondarily by the engineering characteristics of the structures. Structures on bedrock were only slightly damaged if at all, whereas those on unconsolidated sediments were slightly to severely damaged, or were completely destroyed by seismic shaking. The low-lying areas underlain by saturated sediments, such as the Snow River Crossing and Turnagain Arm sections of the Seward-Anchorage Highway, were the most severely damaged stretches of the highway system in south-central Alaska. At Snow River and Turnagain Arm, the sediments underlying the roadway are fine grained and the water table is shallow. These factors were responsible for the intense damage along this stretch of the highway. All the bridges on the Copper River Highway except for one on bedrock were

  10. Map of Distribution of Bottom Sediments on the Continental Shelf, Gulf of Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Kevin R.; Carlson, Paul R.; Hampton, Monty A.; Marlow, Michael S.; Barnes, Peter W.

    2000-01-01

    floor structures. Sea-floor sediment on shallow banks is eroded by seasonal wave-generated currents. The winnowing action of the large storm waves results in concentrations of gravel over broad segments of the Kodiak shelf. Northeastern Gulf of Alaska -- Tectonic framework studies demonstrate that rocks of distant origin (Yakutat terrane) are currently attached to and moving with the Pacific Plate, as it collides with and is subducted beneath southern Alaska. This collision process has led to pronounced structural deformation of the continental margin and adjacent southern Alaska. Consequences include rapidly rising mountains and high fluvial and glacial sedimentation rates on the adjacent margin and ocean floor. The northeastern Gulf of Alaska shelf also has concentrations of winnowed (lag) gravel on Tarr Bank and on the outer shelf southeast of Yakutat Bay. Between Kayak Island and Yakutat Bay the outer shelf consists of pebbly mud (diamict). This diamict is a product of glacial marine sedimentation during the Pleistocene and is present today as a relict sediment. A prograding wedge of Holocene sediment consisting of nearshore sand grading seaward into clayey silt and silty clay covers the relict pebbly mud to mid-shelf and beyond. Shelf and slope channel systems transport glacially derived sediment across the continental margin into Surveyor Channel, an abyssal fan and channel system that reaches over 1,000 km to the Aleutian Trench.

  11. Landscapes of Santa Rosa Island, Channel Islands National Park, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumann, R. Randall; Minor, Scott A.; Muhs, Daniel R.; Pigati, Jeffery S.

    2014-01-01

    Santa Rosa Island (SRI) is the second-largest of the California Channel Islands. It is one of 4 east–west aligned islands forming the northern Channel Islands chain, and one of the 5 islands in Channel Islands National Park. The landforms, and collections of landforms called landscapes, of Santa Rosa Island have been created by tectonic uplift and faulting, rising and falling sea level, landslides, erosion and deposition, floods, and droughts. Landscape features, and areas delineating groups of related features on Santa Rosa Island, are mapped, classified, and described in this paper. Notable landscapes on the island include beaches, coastal plains formed on marine terraces, sand dunes, and sand sheets. In this study, the inland physiography has been classified into 4 areas based on relief and degree of fluvial dissection. Most of the larger streams on the island occupy broad valleys that have been filled with alluvium and later incised to form steep- to vertical-walled arroyos, or barrancas, leaving a relict floodplain above the present channel. A better understanding of the processes and mechanisms that created these landscapes enhances visitors’ enjoyment of their surroundings and contributes to improving land and resource management strategies in order to optimize and balance the multiple goals of conservation, preservation, restoration, and visitor experience.

  12. Increased prevalence of antibiotic-resistant E. coli in gulls sampled in Southcentral Alaska is associated with urban environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clara Atterby

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Antibiotic-resistant bacteria pose challenges to healthcare delivery systems globally; however, limited information is available regarding the prevalence and spread of such bacteria in the environment. The aim of this study was to compare the prevalence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria in large-bodied gulls (Larus spp. at urban and remote locations in Southcentral Alaska to gain inference into the association between antibiotic resistance in wildlife and anthropogenically influenced habitats. Methods: Escherichia coli was cultured (n=115 isolates from fecal samples of gulls (n=160 collected from a remote location, Middleton Island, and a more urban setting on the Kenai Peninsula. Results: Screening of E. coli from fecal samples collected from glaucous-winged gulls (Larus glaucescens at Middleton Island revealed 8% of isolates were resistant to one or more antibiotics and 2% of the isolates were resistant to three or more antibiotics. In contrast, 55% of E. coli isolates derived from fecal samples collected from large-bodied gulls (i.e. glaucous, herring [Larus argentatus], and potentially hybrid gulls on the Kenai Peninsula were resistant to one or more antibiotics and 22% were resistant to three or more antibiotics. In addition, total of 16% of the gull samples from locations on the Kenai Peninsula harbored extended-spectrum cephalosporin-resistant E. coli isolates (extended-spectrum beta-lactamases [ESBL] and plasmid-encoded AmpC [pAmpC], in contrast to Middleton Island where no ESBL- or pAmpC-producing isolates were detected. Conclusion: Our findings indicate that increased prevalence of antibiotic resistance is associated with urban environments in Southcentral Alaska and presumably influenced by anthropogenic impacts. Further investigation is warranted to assess how migratory birds may maintain and spread antimicrobial-resistant bacteria of relevance to human and animal health.

  13. Long term mass changes and interannual variability in the Canadian Archipelago and Gulf of Alaska from GRACE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harig, C.; Simons, F. J.

    2015-12-01

    The mass transfer from land ice to the oceans is a major contributor to global sea-level rise. The glaciated regions of the Canadian Archipelago and the Gulf of Alaska are the next largest ice mass loss contributors outside of the Greenland and Antarctic ice sheets. Here we estimate the ice mass change of these regions since 2003 using time-variable gravity data from the GRACE mission. We employ an estimation technique based on spherical Slepian localization functions. These Slepian functions form a sparse set of orthogonal basis functions for a specific region and maximize the signal-to-noise levels of the gravity fields, making them excellent candidates to analyze regional data on the sphere.Between 2003 and 2012 Ellesmere Island lost mass (-38 Gt/yr) at an accelerating rate (-8 Gt/yr2), while Baffin Island lost mass at a lower rate (-22 Gt/yr) with very low acceleration. During this time, interannual variations were well described by an average seasonal cycle. Since 2013 ice mass in Ellesmere and Baffin islands, as well as Greenland, have diverged from their long term mass change trends. During the summer of 2013 these areas had the lowest recorded melt since the start of the GRACE mission. Through the end of 2014, the difference between the observed mass and the extrapolated long term trend for Greenland grew to over 500 gigatons. In contrast to the Canadian Archipelago, the Gulf of Alaska region has average seasonal mass variations four times larger per unit area and greater variability from year to year. Recent years of below average mass loss have lowered the average mass loss rate from previous estimates.

  14. Increased prevalence of antibiotic-resistant E. coli in gulls sampled in southcentral Alaska is associated with urban environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atterby, Clara; Ramey, Andrew M.; Gustafsson Hall, Gabriel; Jarhult, Josef; Borjesson, Stefan; Bonnedahl, Jonas

    2016-01-01

    BackgroundAntibiotic-resistant bacteria pose challenges to healthcare delivery systems globally; however, limited information is available regarding the prevalence and spread of such bacteria in the environment. The aim of this study was to compare the prevalence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria in large-bodied gulls (Larus spp.) at urban and remote locations in Southcentral Alaska to gain inference into the association between antibiotic resistance in wildlife and anthropogenically influenced habitats.MethodsEscherichia coli was cultured (n=115 isolates) from fecal samples of gulls (n=160) collected from a remote location, Middleton Island, and a more urban setting on the Kenai Peninsula.ResultsScreening of E. coli from fecal samples collected from glaucous-winged gulls (Larus glaucescens) at Middleton Island revealed 8% of isolates were resistant to one or more antibiotics and 2% of the isolates were resistant to three or more antibiotics. In contrast, 55% of E. coli isolates derived from fecal samples collected from large-bodied gulls (i.e. glaucous, herring [Larus argentatus], and potentially hybrid gulls) on the Kenai Peninsula were resistant to one or more antibiotics and 22% were resistant to three or more antibiotics. In addition, total of 16% of the gull samples from locations on the Kenai Peninsula harbored extended-spectrum cephalosporin-resistant E. coli isolates (extended-spectrum beta-lactamases [ESBL] and plasmid-encoded AmpC [pAmpC]), in contrast to Middleton Island where no ESBL- or pAmpC-producing isolates were detected.ConclusionOur findings indicate that increased prevalence of antibiotic resistance is associated with urban environments in Southcentral Alaska and presumably influenced by anthropogenic impacts. Further investigation is warranted to assess how migratory birds may maintain and spread antimicrobial-resistant bacteria of relevance to human and animal health.

  15. Movements and Spatial Use of Odontocetes in the Western Main Hawaiian Islands: Results of a Three-Year Study Off Oahu and Kauai

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-08

    out of Ko‘olina Marina . Surveys were undertaken off the island of Kaua‘i for 4 days in February 2011 (as part of a survey coordinated by NAVFAC PAC...2 http://alaska.usgs.gov/science/ biology /spatial/douglas.html   5    a larger analysis of...of false killer whales off Maui and Lanai, Hawaii. Page 126 in Abstracts of the 14th Biennial Conference on the Biology of Marine Mammals, Vancouver

  16. Contemporary fault mechanics in southern Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalbas, James L.; Freed, Andrew M.; Ridgway, Kenneth D.

    Thin-shell finite-element models, constrained by a limited set of geologic slip rates, provide a tool for evaluating the organization of contemporary faulting in southeastern Alaska. The primary structural features considered in our analysis are the Denali, Duke River, Totschunda, Fairweather, Queen Charlotte, and Transition faults. The combination of fault configurations and rheological properties that best explains observed geologic slip rates predicts that the Fairweather and Totschunda faults are joined by an inferred southeast-trending strike-slip fault that crosses the St. Elias Mountains. From a regional perspective, this structure, which our models suggest slips at a rate of ˜8 mm/a, transfers shear from the Queen Charlotte fault in southeastern Alaska and British Columbia northward to the Denali fault in central Alaska. This result supports previous hypotheses that the Fairweather-Totschunda connecting fault constitutes a newly established northward extension of the Queen Charlotte-Fairweather transform system and helps accommodate right-lateral motion (˜49 mm/a) of the Pacific plate and Yakutat microplate relative to stable North America. Model results also imply that the Transition fault separating the Yakutat microplate from the Pacific plate is favorably oriented to accommodate significant thrusting (23 mm/a). Rapid dip-slip displacement on the Transition fault does not, however, draw shear off of the Queen Charlotte-Fairweather transform fault system. Our new modeling results suggest that the Totschunda fault, the proposed Fairweather-Totschunda connecting fault, and the Fairweather fault may represent the youngest stage of southwestward migration of the active strike-slip deformation front in the long-term evolution of this convergent margin.

  17. Submarine valleys in the northeastern Gulf of Alaska: Characteristics and probable origin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, P.R.; Bruns, T.R.; Molnia, B.F.; Schwab, W.C.

    1982-01-01

    The continental shelf of the northeastern Gulf of Alaska Between Prince William Sound and Cross Sound is cut by at least eight major valleys. From west to east, these are Hinchinbrook Seavalley, Egg Island Trough, Kayak Trough, Bering Trough, Pamplona Troughs, Yakutat Valley, Alsek Valley and Yakobi Valley. Evidence common to most of these troughs or valleys indicating that the present morphology is due to glacial processes includes: (1) a pre-Holocene subbottom erosional surface incised into the underlying lithified strata of the shelf; (2) U-shaped cross sections, both at the sea floor and at the pre-Holocene erosional surface; (3) concave longitudinal sections, commonly shoaling at the seaward end; (4) till-like sediments collected from the walls or outer shelf adjacent to the troughs; and (5) seismic stratigraphy that can be correlated with bottom samples indicative of glacially derived strata. Depressions with tens of meters of relief are present on the pre-Holocene subbottom erosional surface beneath most of these valleys. These depressions have been partially filled by a seaward-thinning wedge of Holocene glacial flour (clayey silt) that is filling the valleys and blanketing the inner shelf at rates as high as 15 mm/yr (based on 210Pb measurements). Although glaciation played a dominant role in the modern morphology of these sea valleys, structural features, including structurally controlled topographic highs on the shelf (e.g. Tarr Bank, Kayak Island, Pamplona Spur and Fairweather Ground) influenced the flow directions of the glacial lobes. ?? 1982.

  18. Deformation of the Augustine Volcano, Alaska, 1992-2005, measured by ERS and ENVISAT SAR interferometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chang-Wook; Lu, Zhong; Kwoun, Oh-Ig; Won, Joong-Sun

    2008-01-01

    The Augustine Volcano is a conical-shaped, active stratovolcano located on an island of the same name in Cook Inlet, about 290 km southwest of Anchorage, Alaska. Augustine has experienced seven significant explosive eruptions - in 1812, 1883, 1908, 1935, 1963, 1976, 1986, and in January 2006. To measure the ground surface deformation of the Augustine Volcano before the 2006 eruption, we applied satellite radar interferometry using Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) images from three descending and three ascending satellite tracks acquired by European Remote Sensing Satellite (ERS) 1 and 2 and the Environment Satellite (ENVISAT). Multiple interferograms were stacked to reduce artifacts caused by atmospheric conditions, and we used a singular value decomposition method to retrieve the temporal deformation history from several points on the island. Interferograms during 1992 and 2005 show a subsidence of about 1-3 cm/year, caused by the contraction of pyroclastic flow deposits from the 1986 eruption. Subsidence has decreased exponentially with time. Multiple interferograms between 1992 and 2005 show no significant inflation around the volcano before the 2006 eruption. The lack of a pre-eruption deformation signal suggests that the deformation signal from 1992 to August 2005 must have been very small and may have been obscured by atmospheric delay artifacts. 

  19. Improving Sanitation and Health in Rural Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bubenheim, David L.

    2013-01-01

    In rural Alaskan communities personal health is threatened by energy costs and limited access to clean water, wastewater management, and adequate nutrition. Fuel-­-based energy systems are significant factors in determining local accessibility to clean water, sanitation and food. Increasing fuel costs induce a scarcity of access and impact residents' health. The University of Alaska Fairbanks (UAF) School of Natural Resources and Agricultural Sciences (SNRAS), NASA's Ames Research Center, and USDA Agricultural Research Service (ARS) have joined forces to develop high-efficiency, low­-energy consuming techniques for water treatment and food production in rural circumpolar communities. Methods intended for exploration of space and establishment of settlements on the Moon or Mars will ultimately benefit Earth's communities in the circumpolar north. The initial phase of collaboration is completed. Researchers from NASA Ames Research Center and SNRAS, funded by the USDA­-ARS, tested a simple, reliable, low-energy sewage treatment system to recycle wastewater for use in food production and other reuse options in communities. The system extracted up to 70% of the water from sewage and rejected up to 92% of ions in the sewage with no carryover of toxic effects. Biological testing showed that plant growth using recovered water in the nutrient solution was equivalent to that using high-purity distilled water. With successful demonstration that the low energy consuming wastewater treatment system can provide safe water for communities and food production, the team is ready to move forward to a full-scale production testbed. The SNRAS/NASA team (including Alaska students) will design a prototype to match water processing rates and food production to meet rural community sanitation needs and nutritional preferences. This system would be operated in Fairbanks at the University of Alaska through SNRAS. Long­-term performance will be validated and operational needs of the

  20. Tephra-Producing Eruptions of Holocene Age at Akutan Volcano, Alaska; Frequency, Magnitude, and Hazards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waythomas, C. F.; Wallace, K. L.; Schwaiger, H.

    2012-12-01

    Akutan Volcano in the eastern Aleutian Islands of Alaska is one of the most historically active volcanoes in the Aleutian arc (43 eruptions in about the past 250 years). Explosive eruptions pose major hazards to aircraft flying north Pacific air routes and to local infrastructure on Akutan and neighboring Unalaska Island. Air travel, infrastructure, and population in the region have steadily increased during the past several decades, and thus it is important to better understand the frequency, magnitude, and characteristics of tephra-producing eruptions. The most recent eruption was a VEI 2 event on March 8-May 21, 1992 that resulted in minor ash emissions and trace amounts of proximal fallout. Nearly continuous low-level emission of ash and steam is typical of historical eruptions, and most of the historical events have been similar in magnitude to the 1992 event. The most recent major eruption occurred about 1600 yr. B.P. and likely produced the ca. 2-km diameter summit caldera and inundated valleys that head on the volcano with pyroclastic-flow and lahar deposits that are tens of meters thick. The 1600 yr. B.P. eruption covered most of Akutan Island with up to 2.5 m of coarse scoriaceous tephra fall, including deposits 0.5-1 m thick near the City of Akutan. Tephra-fall deposits associated with this eruption exhibit a continuous sequence of black, fine to coarse scoriaceous lapilli overlain by a lithic-rich facies and finally a muddy aggregate-rich facies indicating water involvement during the latter stages of the eruption. Other tephra deposits of Holocene age on Akutan Island include more than a dozen discrete fine to coarse ash beds and 3-6 beds of scoriaceous, coarse lapilli tephra indicating that there have been several additional major eruptions (>VEI 3) of Akutan Volcano during the Holocene. Radiocarbon dates on these events are pending. In addition to tephra falls from Akutan, other fine ash deposits are found on the island that originated from other

  1. Island solution; Inselloesung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bah, Isaac

    2013-06-15

    On the Azores island Graciosa the Berlin-based company Younicos has installed a new electricity system with advanced storage technology, which will make the islanders independent from fossil fuels. With an energy mix of wind power, photovoltaics and biomass the dependence on fossil fuels should be terminated. In the center of the flagship project specifically developed hybrid batteries are used (combination of sodium-sulfur- and lithium-ion batteries) with 2.7 MW of power and a storage capacity of ten megawatts hours. [German] Auf der Azoren-Insel Graciosa installiert das Berliner Unternehmen Younicos ein neues Stromsystem mit modernster Speichertechnologie, das die Bewohner unabhaengig von fossilen Energietraegern machen soll. Mit einem Energiemix aus Windkraft, Photovoltaik und Biomasse soll die Abhaengigkeit von fossilen Brennstoffen beendet werden. Im Zentrum des Vorzeigeprojekts stehen speziell fuer den Inseleinsatz entwickelte Hybridbatterien (Kombination aus Natrium-Schwefel- und Lithium-Ionen-Akkus) mit 2,7 Megawatt Leistung und eine Speicherkapazitaet von zehn Megawattestunden.

  2. Status Review of the Marbled Murrelet (Brachyramphus marmoratus) in Alaska and British Columbia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piatt, J.F.; Kuletz, K.J.; Burger, A.E.; Hatch, Shyla A.; Friesen, V.L.; Birt, T.P.; Arimitsu, M.L.; Drew, G.S.; Harding, A.M.A.; Bixler, K.S.

    2007-01-01

    The Marbled Murrelet (Brachyramphus marmoratus) is a small, diving seabird inhabiting inshore waters of the Northeastern Pacific Ocean. This species feeds on small, schooling fishes and zooplankton, and nests primarily on the moss-covered branches of large, old-growth conifers, and also, in some parts of its range, on the ground. We reviewed existing information on this species to evaluate its current status in the northern part of its range-Alaska (U.S.) and British Columbia (Canada). Within the southern part of its range (Washington, Oregon, and California, U.S.), the Marbled Murrelet was listed as a threatened species under the Endangered Species Act (ESA) in 1993, and the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) needed information on the species throughout its range for ESA deliberations. We compiled published information on the conservation status, population biology, foraging ecology, population genetics, population status and trends, demography, marine and nesting habitat characteristics, threats, and ongoing conservation efforts for Marbled Murrelets in Alaska and British Columbia. We conducted a new genetic study using samples from a segment of the range that had not been included in previous studies (Washington, Oregon) and additional nuclear intron and microsatellite markers. We also analyzed available at-sea survey data from several locations for trend. To understand the reasonableness of the empirical trend data, we developed demographic models incorporating stochasticity to discern what population trends were possible by chance. The genetic studies substantially confirmed previous findings on population structure in the Marbled Murrelet. Our present work finds three populations: (1) one comprising birds in the central and western Aleutian Islands; (2) one comprising birds in central California; and (3) one comprising birds within the center of the range from the eastern Aleutians to northern California. Our knowledge of genetic structure within this

  3. Urban heat island 1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bühler, Oliver; Jensen, Marina Bergen; Petersen, Karen Sejr

    2010-01-01

    Urban Heat Island beskriver det forhold, at temperaturen i byområder er højere end temperaturen i tilgrænsede landområder. Årsagen hertil ligger i den urbane arealanvendelse, hvor en mindre andel af arealerne er dækket af vegetation, og en større andel består af forseglede arealer....

  4. Islands of the Arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overpeck, Jonathan

    2004-02-01

    Few environments on Earth are changing more dramatically than the Arctic. Sea ice retreat and thinning is unprecedented in the period of the satellite record. Surface air temperatures are the warmest in centuries. The biology of Arctic lakes is changing like never before in millennia. Everything is pointing to the meltdown predicted by climate model simulations for the next 100 years. At the same time, the Arctic remains one of the most pristine and beautiful places on Earth. For both those who know the Arctic and those who want to know it, this book is worth its modest price. There is much more to the Arctic than its islands, but there's little doubt that Greenland and the major northern archipelagos can serve as a great introduction to the environment and magnificence of the Arctic. The book uses the islands of the Arctic to give a good introduction to what the Arctic environment is all about. The first chapter sets the stage with an overview of the geography of the Arctic islands, and this is followed by chapters that cover many key aspects of the Arctic: the geology (origins), weather and climate, glaciers, ice sheets, sea ice, permafrost and other frozen ground issues, coasts, rivers, lakes, animals, people, and environmental impacts. The material is pitched at a level well suited for the interested layperson, but the book will also appeal to those who study the science of the Arctic.

  5. [Salmonella pathogenicity islands].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sırıken, Belgin

    2013-01-01

    Salmonella species are facultative intracellular pathogenic bacteria. They can invade macrophages, dendritic and epithelial cells. The responsible virulence genes for invasion, survival, and extraintestinal spread are located in Salmonella pathogenicity islands (SPIs). SPIs are thought to be acquired by horizontal gene transfer. Some of the SPIs are conserved throughout the Salmonella genus, and some of them are specific for certain serovars. There are differences between Salmonella serotypes in terms of adaptation to host cell, virulence factors and the resulting infection according to SPA presence and characteristics. The most important Salmonella virulence gene clusters are located in 12 pathogenicity islands. Virulence genes that are involved in the intestinal phase of infection are located in SPI-1 and SPI-2 and the remaining SPIs are required for intracellular survival, fimbrial expression, magnesium and iron uptake, multiple antibiotic resistance and the development of systemic infections. In addition SPIs, Sigma ss (RpoS) factors and adaptive acid tolerance response (ATR) are the other two important virulence factors. RpoS and ATR found in virulent Salmonella strains help the bacteria to survive under inappropriate conditions such as gastric acidity, bile salts, inadequate oxygen concentration, lack of nutrients, antimicrobial peptides, mucus and natural microbiota and also to live in phagosomes or phagolysosomes. This review article summarizes the data related to pathogenicity islands in Salmonella serotypes and some factors which play role in the regulation of virulence genes.

  6. Financing Opportunities for Renewable Energy Development in Alaska

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ardani, K.; Hillman, D.; Busche, S.

    2013-04-01

    This technical report provides an overview of existing and potential financing structures for renewable energy project development in Alaska with a focus on four primary sources of project funding: government financed or supported (the most commonly used structure in Alaska today), developer equity capital, commercial debt, and third-party tax-equity investment. While privately funded options currently have limited application in Alaska, their implementation is theoretically possible based on successful execution in similar circumstances elsewhere. This report concludes that while tax status is a key consideration in determining appropriate financing structure, there are opportunities for both taxable and tax-exempt entities to participate in renewable energy project development.

  7. MARICULTURE ON CROATIAN ISLANDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordana Šarušić

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available The first attempts of intensive mariculture in Croatia commenced at the very beginning of 1980’s. The mid-eighties brought an expansion of mariculture production, which has been continuously increasing. A few different marine organisms are intensively cultured - both fish and shellfish. Among them commercially most important and highly valued species are sea bass Dicentrarchus labrax and sea bream Sparus aurata. Mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis and oyster Ostrea edulis are the most important shellfish. Fish species such as dentex Dentex dentex, red sea bream Pagrus major and sheepshead bream Puntazzo puntazzo are reared too, but in a rather small quantities. Only recently the rearing, on-growing- of bluefin tuna Thunnus thynnus started in Croatia. The juveniles (70% are reared in a Croatian hatcheries, and 30% has to be imported mainly from Italy and France, due to a higher demand for this kind of culture among the small growers. Croatian part of Adriatic sea possesses a number of geomorfologicaly suitable sites and meteorological conditions which determined the choice - type - of intensive culture. All fish species are reared in a floating cages. The choice of cages i. e. semi off-shore or floating frames, size, rearing volume and design depend on the investors personal preference. The annual turnouf of a market size bass was about 600t and 300t bream in 1996., by 10 island farms which is 70% of total production in Croatia. Including other cultured fish species last year production was up to 1000t, and it™s being estimated to be about 1300t in the following year. The shellfish production on the islands is usually individual attempt of farmers, producing minor quantities mostly in polyculture. This production has bigger potential but it’s limited owing to the EU quality control regulations which do not allow the export, and by domestic market which has drastically decreased due to the collapse of tourism during the recent war. Almost 80

  8. 50 CFR Table I to Part 36 - Summary Listing the National Wildlife Refuges in Alaska as established by the Alaska Lands Act...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Summary Listing the National Wildlife Refuges in Alaska as established by the Alaska Lands Act, Pub. L. 96-487, December 2, 1980 I Table I to... (CONTINUED) THE NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM ALASKA NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGES Pt. 36, Table I Table I...

  9. Characterization of geometry, properties and coupling of the Alaska subduction zone by means of reflection images and traveltime tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuehn, Harold; Nedimović, Mladen; Shillington, Donna; Li, Jiyao; Bécel, Anne; Delescluse, Matthias

    2016-04-01

    In 2011, the Alaska Langseth Experiment to Understand the megaThrust (ALEUT) program acquired a total length of ~3700 km of deep penetrating multi-channel seismic (MCS) reflection lines as well as two coincident 350 km-long profiles of wide-angle ocean bottom seismometer (OBS) refraction data south west of Kodiak Island in the Gulf of Alaska. The investigated region of the Alaska Subduction Zone encompasses segments that have ruptured in megathrust earthquakes in the past, and segments, that are suspected to be less coupled, and therefore have a lower probability for great earthquakes to occur. Kodiak asperity ruptured during the Good Friday earthquake of 1964 (M9.2), Semidi Segment ruptured last time in a great earthquake in 1938 (M8.3), and Shumagin Gap has not been ruptured by a major earthquake for at least 150 years and is considered to slip freely. The coupling degree of imaged section of the plate interface appears to at places vary strongly over a remarkably short distance of just tens of kilometers. We present new seismic reflection images that resulted from analyzing profiles crossing the northeastern half of the study area, from the middle of the Semidi Segment to the southwestern tip of the Kodiak Asperity. We also discuss the methodology used to analyze the collected controlled source seismic data and the results obtained. Processing steps for MCS data include amplitude compensation for spherical spreading, noise removal with the LIFT method, surface consistent amplitude balancing, multiple attenuation with both SRME method and radon transformation, predictive deconvolution and Kirchhoff time migration. The formed reflection images complete the picture on the subducting plate geometry in the study area as a whole and allow us to make an attempt to estimate both the downdip limit of the seismogenic zone and the lateral variations in subduction coupling by means of evaluating the seismic reflection signature of the interplate interface. Reflection images

  10. Impacts of introduced Rangifer on ecosystem processes of maritime tundra on subarctic islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricca, Mark; Miles, A. Keith; Van Vuren, Dirk H.; Eviner, Valerie T.

    2016-01-01

    Introductions of mammalian herbivores to remote islands without predators provide a natural experiment to ask how temporal and spatial variation in herbivory intensity alter feedbacks between plant and soil processes. We investigated ecosystem effects resulting from introductions of Rangifer tarandus (hereafter “Rangifer”) to native mammalian predator- and herbivore-free islands in the Aleutian archipelago of Alaska. We hypothesized that the maritime tundra of these islands would experience either: (1) accelerated ecosystem processes mediated by positive feedbacks between increased graminoid production and rapid nitrogen cycling; or (2) decelerated processes mediated by herbivory that stimulated shrub domination and lowered soil fertility. We measured summer plant and soil properties across three islands representing a chronosequence of elapsed time post-Rangifer introduction (Atka: ~100 yr; Adak: ~50; Kagalaska: ~0), with distinct stages of irruptive population dynamics of Rangifer nested within each island (Atka: irruption, K-overshoot, decline, K-re-equilibration; Adak: irruption, K-overshoot; Kagalaska: initial introduction). We also measured Rangifer spatial use within islands (indexed by pellet group counts) to determine how ecosystem processes responded to spatial variation in herbivory. Vegetation community response to herbivory varied with temporal and spatial scale. When comparing temporal effects using the island chronosequence, increased time since herbivore introduction led to more graminoids and fewer dwarf-shrubs, lichens, and mosses. Slow-growingCladonia lichens that are highly preferred winter forage were decimated on both long-termRangifer-occupied islands. In addition, linear relations between more concentrated Rangifer spatial use and reductions in graminoid and forb biomass within islands added spatial heterogeneity to long-term patterns identified by the chronosequence. These results support, in part, the hypothesis that

  11. 2003 Eruption of Chikurachki Volcano, Paramushir Island, Northern Kuriles, Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, D. J.; Girina, O. A.; Neal, C. A.; Kotenko, L.; Terentiev, N. S.; Izbekov, P.; Belousov, I.; Senyukov, S.; Ovsyannikov, A. A.

    2003-12-01

    Chikurachki Volcano in the northern Kurile Islands erupted for the second time in two years in mid-April 2003. Although the Kamchatka Volcanic Eruptions Response Team (KVERT) received word of a possible eruption from residents of Paramushir Island on April 17, poor weather precluded confirmation of volcanic activity, and the exact start date is uncertain. On April 18, during routine satellite image analysis, the Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO) detected an ash cloud from Chikurachki in GMS data and immediately notified the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), National Weather Service, and other agencies. Subsequent formal alerts were issued through aviation and meteorological channels as outlined in the Alaska Interagency Operating Plan for Volcanic Ash Episodes. Thermal infrared imagery and trajectory models suggested the initial cloud was relatively low-level (below 25,000 ft ASL), however this height was not well constrained. Over the next several months, activity at Chikurachki consisted largely of strombolian bursts producing intermittent ash clouds reaching heights of generally less than 10-13,000 ft. ASL. Ash fall was noted as far as 60 km downwind. The last confirmed eruptive activity was June 16, 2003. During the eruption, AVHRR, MODIS, and GMS satellites captured images of the ash cloud as far as 300 km generally east and southeast of the volcano in the region heavily traveled North Pacific air routes. The propagation of volcanic clouds was monitored using visual and infrared channels and included a routine split-window analysis. Weak thermal anomalies were detected in AVHRR images suggesting minimal effusive activity near the central vent. Over the course of the eruption, aviation and meteorological authorities in Russia, the U.S., and Japan issued official notices regarding the eruption and the position and estimated height of the ash plume. Impacts to aviation were minor due to the low-level and intermittent nature of the eruption. Chikurachki is a

  12. Late colonization of Easter Island.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Terry L; Lipo, Carl P

    2006-03-17

    Easter Island (Rapa Nui) provides a model of human-induced environmental degradation. A reliable chronology is central to understanding the cultural, ecological, and demographic processes involved. Radiocarbon dates for the earliest stratigraphic layers at Anakena, Easter Island, and analysis of previous radiocarbon dates imply that the island was colonized late, about 1200 A.D. Substantial ecological impacts and major cultural investments in monumental architecture and statuary thus began soon after initial settlement.

  13. Timing of ore-related magmatism in the western Alaska Range, southwestern Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Ryan D.; Graham, Garth E.; Anderson, Eric D.; Selby, David

    2014-01-01

    This report presents isotopic age data from mineralized granitic plutons in an area of the Alaska Range located approximately 200 kilometers to the west-northwest of Anchorage in southwestern Alaska. Uranium-lead isotopic data and trace element concentrations of zircons were determined for 12 samples encompassing eight plutonic bodies ranging in age from approximately 76 to 57.4 millions of years ago (Ma). Additionally, a rhenium-osmium age of molybdenite from the Miss Molly molybdenum occurrence is reported (approx. 59 Ma). All of the granitic plutons in this study host gold-, copper-, and (or) molybdenum-rich prospects. These new ages modify previous interpretations regarding the age of magmatic activity and mineralization within the study area. The new ages show that the majority of the gold-quartz vein-hosting plutons examined in this study formed in the Late Cretaceous. Further work is necessary to establish the ages of ore-mineral deposition in these deposits.

  14. 2012 volcanic activity in Alaska: summary of events and response of the Alaska Volcano Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrick, Julie A.; Neal, Christina A.; Cameron, Cheryl E.; Dixon, James P.; McGimsey, Robert G.

    2014-01-01

    The Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO) responded to eruptions, possible eruptions, volcanic unrest, or suspected unrest at 11 volcanic centers in Alaska during 2012. Of the two verified eruptions, one (Cleveland) was clearly magmatic and the other (Kanaga) was most likely a single phreatic explosion. Two other volcanoes had notable seismic swarms that probably were caused by magmatic intrusions (Iliamna and Little Sitkin). For each period of clear volcanic unrest, AVO staff increased monitoring vigilance as needed, reviewed eruptive histories of the volcanoes in question to help evaluate likely outcomes, and shared observations and interpretations with the public. 2012 also was the 100th anniversary of Alaska’s Katmai-Novarupta eruption of 1912, the largest eruption on Earth in the 20th century and one of the most important volcanic eruptions in modern times. AVO marked this occasion with several public events.

  15. 2013 volcanic activity in Alaska: summary of events and response of the Alaska Volcano Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, James P.; Cameron, Cheryl; McGimsey, Robert G.; Neal, Christina A.; Waythomas, Chris

    2015-08-14

    The Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO) responded to eruptions, volcanic unrest or suspected unrest, and seismic events at 18 volcanic centers in Alaska during 2013. Beginning with the 2013 AVO Summary of Events, the annual description of the AVO seismograph network and activity, once a stand-alone publication, is now part of this report. Because of this change, the annual summary now contains an expanded description of seismic activity at Alaskan volcanoes. Eruptions occurred at three volcanic centers in 2013: Pavlof Volcano in May and June, Mount Veniaminof Volcano in June through December, and Cleveland Volcano throughout the year. None of these three eruptive events resulted in 24-hour staffing at AVO facilities in Anchorage or Fairbanks.

  16. Renewable energy islands in Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oestergaard, Iben [ed.

    1998-12-31

    This publication includes a compiled presentation of various aspects concerning the possible transformation of some European islands into renewable energy communities and these projects were presented by a selection of pioneer islands at the first European Seminar on Renewable Energy Islands, held on the Danish island of Samsoee, 29-30 June 1998. This issue has increased in importance with the presentation of the ambitious EU-White Paper: `Energy for the future: Renewable Sources of Energy` which was adopted in 1998. One of the key elements of the strategy for an accelerated implementation of renewable energy is to transform 100 localities within Europe into communities which are to be 100% self-sufficient with renewable energy before 2010. In line with this strategy, the Danish Government appointed the island of Samsoe towards the end of 1997 to be the first `official` Danish, renewable energy island. This is to serve as a demonstration project for other local communities, both in Denmark as well as in the rest Europe. Gothland, Madeira, Canary Islands, Cape Verde, Arki, Crete, Minorca and Orkney Islands were represented. Environmental advantages of wind, solar and wave power for distant island communities were indicated. Serious savings would be achieved by limitation of fossil fuel import and utilization of local resources. (EG)

  17. H11715: NOS Hydrographic Survey , Krenitzin Islands, Alaska, 2007-07-27

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) has the statutory mandate to collect hydrographic data in support of nautical chart compilation for safe...

  18. H08122: NOS Hydrographic Survey , St. Paul Island, Alaska, 1954-09-11

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) has the statutory mandate to collect hydrographic data in support of nautical chart compilation for safe...

  19. H08124: NOS Hydrographic Survey , St. Paul Island, Alaska, 1954-08-27

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) has the statutory mandate to collect hydrographic data in support of nautical chart compilation for safe...

  20. H08064: NOS Hydrographic Survey , South of Barrier Islands, Alaska, 1953-09-17

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) has the statutory mandate to collect hydrographic data in support of nautical chart compilation for safe...

  1. H08102: NOS Hydrographic Survey , South of Barrier Islands, Alaska, 1953-10-07

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) has the statutory mandate to collect hydrographic data in support of nautical chart compilation for safe...

  2. H09947: NOS Hydrographic Survey , Offshore Takli Island to Katmai Bay, Alaska, 1981-08-13

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) has the statutory mandate to collect hydrographic data in support of nautical chart compilation for safe...

  3. Estuarine, intertidal and subtidal wetland habitat types in Klag Bay, Chichagof Island, Alaska

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Six major estuarine intertidal and subtidal wetland habitat types were identified within the inner basin of Klag Bay. These habitat types are mapped in Fig. 3. The...

  4. H08002: NOS Hydrographic Survey , St. Paul Island, Alaska, 1952-09-07

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) has the statutory mandate to collect hydrographic data in support of nautical chart compilation for safe...

  5. H09949: NOS Hydrographic Survey , Offshore Takli Island to Katmai Bay, Alaska, 1981-07-30

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) has the statutory mandate to collect hydrographic data in support of nautical chart compilation for safe...

  6. H12289: NOS Hydrographic Survey , West of Prince of Wales Island, Alaska, 2011-10-16

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) has the statutory mandate to collect hydrographic data in support of nautical chart compilation for safe...

  7. F00128: NOS Hydrographic Survey , Kodiak Island, Alaska, 1954-05-16

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) has the statutory mandate to collect hydrographic data in support of nautical chart compilation for safe...

  8. H09285: NOS Hydrographic Survey , Union Point to Brownson Island, Alaska, 1972-05-24

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) has the statutory mandate to collect hydrographic data in support of nautical chart compilation for safe...

  9. H08325: NOS Hydrographic Survey , North Side Sukkwan Island, Alaska, 1956-08-12

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) has the statutory mandate to collect hydrographic data in support of nautical chart compilation for safe...

  10. H08441: NOS Hydrographic Survey , West of Gravina Island, Alaska, 1958-09-09

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) has the statutory mandate to collect hydrographic data in support of nautical chart compilation for safe...

  11. H09543: NOS Hydrographic Survey , Cape Chiniak to Kiukpalik Island, Alaska, 1975-08-14

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) has the statutory mandate to collect hydrographic data in support of nautical chart compilation for safe...

  12. H11662: NOS Hydrographic Survey , West of Prince of Wales Island, Alaska, 2007-06-23

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) has the statutory mandate to collect hydrographic data in support of nautical chart compilation for safe...

  13. H12030: NOS Hydrographic Survey , West of Prince of Wales Island, Alaska, 2009-06-08

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) has the statutory mandate to collect hydrographic data in support of nautical chart compilation for safe...

  14. H08065A: NOS Hydrographic Survey , South of Barrier Islands, Alaska, 1953-09-05

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) has the statutory mandate to collect hydrographic data in support of nautical chart compilation for safe...

  15. H08861: NOS Hydrographic Survey , Alvin Bay to Conclusion Island, Alaska, 1965-09-08

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) has the statutory mandate to collect hydrographic data in support of nautical chart compilation for safe...

  16. H08816B: NOS Hydrographic Survey , Vicinity of Drake Island, Alaska, 1964-06-22

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) has the statutory mandate to collect hydrographic data in support of nautical chart compilation for safe...

  17. H08076: NOS Hydrographic Survey , Northwest of St. Paul Island, Alaska, 1953-09-14

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) has the statutory mandate to collect hydrographic data in support of nautical chart compilation for safe...

  18. AFSC/RACE/GAP/Orr: Gulf of Alaska and Aleutian Islands groundfish surveys Identification Confidence

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This report includes an identification confidence matrix for all fishes and invertebrates identified from the GOA and AI surveys from 1980 through 2011. The matrix...

  19. H09847: NOS Hydrographic Survey , Point Carolus to Young Island, Alaska, 1979-09-20

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) has the statutory mandate to collect hydrographic data in support of nautical chart compilation for safe...

  20. H11594: NOS Hydrographic Survey , Shumagin Islands, Alaska, 2006-07-28

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) has the statutory mandate to collect hydrographic data in support of nautical chart compilation for safe...

  1. H09075: NOS Hydrographic Survey , Fire Island to Woronzof, Alaska, 1969-07-24

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) has the statutory mandate to collect hydrographic data in support of nautical chart compilation for safe...

  2. H11330: NOS Hydrographic Survey , Shumagin Islands, Alaska, 2004-07-26

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) has the statutory mandate to collect hydrographic data in support of nautical chart compilation for safe...

  3. 2016 NOAA NGS Ortho-rectified Color Mosaic of St. Paul Island, Alaska

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains ortho-rectified mosaic tiles, created as a product from the NOAA Integrated Ocean and Coastal Mapping (IOCM) initiative. The source imagery...

  4. D00143: NOS Hydrographic Survey , West of Prince of Wales Island, Alaska, 2008-09-03

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) has the statutory mandate to collect hydrographic data in support of nautical chart compilation for safe...

  5. H12027: NOS Hydrographic Survey , West of Prince of Wales Island, Alaska, 2009-06-07

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) has the statutory mandate to collect hydrographic data in support of nautical chart compilation for safe...

  6. H11712: NOS Hydrographic Survey , Krenitzin Islands, Alaska, 2007-07-28

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) has the statutory mandate to collect hydrographic data in support of nautical chart compilation for safe...

  7. H08443: NOS Hydrographic Survey , N.W. Coast Heceta Island, Alaska, 1958-06-23

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) has the statutory mandate to collect hydrographic data in support of nautical chart compilation for safe...

  8. AFSC/RACE/SAP/Foy: Effects of ocean acidification on larval Tanner crab: Kodiak Island, Alaska.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — To study the effects of ocean acidification we examined the effects of ocean acidification on the larval stages of the economically important southern Tanner crab,...

  9. H08055: NOS Hydrographic Survey , West Side Tanaga Island, Alaska, 1953-08-13

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) has the statutory mandate to collect hydrographic data in support of nautical chart compilation for safe...

  10. H06680: NOS Hydrographic Survey , Afognak Island, Alaska, 1941-10-01

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) has the statutory mandate to collect hydrographic data in support of nautical chart compilation for safe...

  11. H12028: NOS Hydrographic Survey , West of Prince of Wales Island, Alaska, 2009-06-09

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) has the statutory mandate to collect hydrographic data in support of nautical chart compilation for safe...

  12. H08442: NOS Hydrographic Survey , West of Gravina Island, Alaska, 1958-09-10

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) has the statutory mandate to collect hydrographic data in support of nautical chart compilation for safe...

  13. H08120: NOS Hydrographic Survey , St. Paul Island, Alaska, 1954-06-28

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) has the statutory mandate to collect hydrographic data in support of nautical chart compilation for safe...

  14. H12072: NOS Hydrographic Survey , Shumagin Islands and Vicinity, Alaska, 2009-07-17

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) has the statutory mandate to collect hydrographic data in support of nautical chart compilation for safe...

  15. H08052: NOS Hydrographic Survey , West Side Tanaga Island, Alaska, 1953-07-17

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) has the statutory mandate to collect hydrographic data in support of nautical chart compilation for safe...

  16. H09876: NOS Hydrographic Survey , Bear Island to Millers Landing, Alaska, 1980-08-12

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) has the statutory mandate to collect hydrographic data in support of nautical chart compilation for safe...

  17. H09900: NOS Hydrographic Survey , Bear Island to Millers Landing, Alaska, 1980-08-18

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) has the statutory mandate to collect hydrographic data in support of nautical chart compilation for safe...

  18. H09569: NOS Hydrographic Survey , Bear Island to Millers Landing, Alaska, 1980-08-12

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) has the statutory mandate to collect hydrographic data in support of nautical chart compilation for safe...

  19. H09779: NOS Hydrographic Survey , Redfield Cove to Knight Island, Alaska, 1978-09-02

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) has the statutory mandate to collect hydrographic data in support of nautical chart compilation for safe...

  20. H08437: NOS Hydrographic Survey , Aleutian Islands, Alaska, 1958-07-16

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) has the statutory mandate to collect hydrographic data in support of nautical chart compilation for safe...