WorldWideScience

Sample records for amblyseius largoensis muma

  1. Uzņēmuma informatīvais stends

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    “Uzņēmuma informatīvais stends” ir tīmekļa lietojumprogrammatūra, kas nodrošina uzņēmuma SIA TestDevLab reprezentāciju dažādās izstādēs un prezentācijās, kā, piemēram, universitāšu rīkotās karjeras dienās. “Uzņēmuma informatīvais stends” sniedz iespēju pārvaldīt noteiktu stenda sadaļu saturu, izmantojot TDL Stenda pārvaldības vietni, kā arī nodrošina šī satura attēlošanu TDL Stenda prezentācijas skatos.

  2. Species of the genus Amblyseius Berlese, 1914, from Tamatave, East Madagascar (Acarina: Phytoseiidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blommers, Leo

    1974-01-01

    Seven new species of the genus Amblyseius are described: Amblyseius (Proprioseiopsis) parasundi, A. (A.) tamatavensis, A. (A.) passiflorae, A. (A.) reptans, A. (A.) ivoloinae, A. (A.) ovaloides, A. (A.) aequidens. All species were collected on fruit trees except A. passiflorae. A. parasundi is a the

  3. Effect of foliar application of pyrifluquinazon on Bemisia tabaci (MED whitefly) and Amblyseius swirskii, 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    With the overall goal to integrate the predatory mite Amblyseius swirskii in the management program of MED whitefly, the specific objective of this study was to evaluate pyrifluquinazon, a pyridine insecticide for whitefly control, and assess its compatibility with swirskii mite, and assess its comp...

  4. Phytoseiidae (Acari: Mesostigmata) within citrus orchards in Florida: species distribution, relative and seasonal abundance within trees, associated vines and ground cover plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Childers, Carl C; Denmark, Harold A

    2011-08-01

    Seven citrus orchards on reduced- to no-pesticide spray programs were sampled for predacious mites in the family Phytoseiidae (Acari: Mesostigmata) in central and south central Florida. Inner and outer canopy leaves, open flowers, fruit, twigs, and trunk scrapings were sampled monthly between September 1994 and January 1996. Vines and ground cover plants were sampled monthly between September 1994 and January 1996 in five of these orchards. The two remaining orchards were on full herbicide programs and ground cover plants were absent. Thirty-three species of phytoseiid mites were identified from 35,405 specimens collected within citrus tree canopies within the seven citrus orchards, and 8,779 specimens from vines and ground cover plants within five of the seven orchards. The six most abundant phytoseiid species found within citrus tree canopies were: Euseius mesembrinus (Dean) (20,948), Typhlodromalus peregrinus (Muma) (8,628), Iphiseiodes quadripilis (Banks) (2,632), Typhlodromips dentilis (De Leon) (592), Typhlodromina subtropica Muma and Denmark (519), and Galendromus helveolus (Chant) (315). The six most abundant species found on vines or ground cover plants were: T. peregrinus (6,608), E. mesembrinus (788), T. dentilis (451), I. quadripilis (203), T. subtropica (90), and Proprioseiopsis asetus (Chant) (48). The remaining phytoseiids included: Amblyseius aerialis (Muma), A. herbicolus (Chant), A. largoensis (Chant), A. multidentatus (Chant), A. sp. near multidentatus, A. obtusus (Koch), Chelaseius vicinus (Muma), Euseius hibisci Chant, Galendromus gratus (Chant), Metaseiulus mcgregori (Chant), Neoseiulus mumai (Denmark), N. vagus (Denmark), Phytoscutus sexpilis (Muma), Phytoseiulus macropilis (Banks), Proprioseiopsis detritus (Muma), P. dorsatus (Muma), P. macrosetae (Banks), P. rotundus (Muma), P. solens (De Leon), Typhlodromips deleoni (Muma), T. dillus (De Leon), T. dimidiatus (De Leon), T. mastus Denmark and Muma, T. simplicissimus (De Leon), and T. sp

  5. Uzņēmuma tirgus pozīcijas stiprināšana pasaules datortirgū

    OpenAIRE

    Čodars, Uldis

    2010-01-01

    Bakalaura darba „Uzņēmuma tirgus pozīcijas stiprināšana pasaules datortirgū” mērķis ir izpētīt uzņēmuma iespējas spēcīgas konkurences un ekonomikas recesijas apstākļos uzlabot savu pozīciju pasaules personālo datoru tirgū. Pētījuma pirmajā nodaļā autors no ekonomikas teorijas viedokļa raksturo konkurētspējas būtību un to ietekmējošos faktorus, kā arī konkurences formas, to priekšrocības un trūkumus. Pētījuma otrā nodaļa veltīta uz statistikas datiem balstītam pasaules personālo datoru t...

  6. Projekts: Siltumsūkņu tirdzniecības uzņēmuma izveidošana

    OpenAIRE

    Kulakovs, Aleksandrs

    2009-01-01

    Projekta ideja ir piedāvāt Latvijas tirgū mūsdienīgi aktuālas, ekoloģiski tīras apkures iekārtas, kuras pasaulē iegūst arvien lielāku popularitāti – situmsūkņus. Projekta mērķis ir izstrādāt projekta plānu uzņēmuma dibināšanai, plānot uzņēmuma darbību tā, lai nākotnē varētu paplašināt tā tirgus daļu. Siltumsūknis ir apkures iekārta, ko tāpat kā šķidrā kurināmā, malkas vai gāzes katlus izmanto ēku apkurei un patēriņa ūdens sagatavošanai. SIA „Siltumsūkņu Centrs” piedāvā dažāda veida ...

  7. Uzņēmuma SIA "Taupi" ilgtspējīgas attīstības stratēģijas izstrāde

    OpenAIRE

    Kižlo, Anastasija

    2015-01-01

    Bakalaura darba tēma ir „ Uzņēmuma SIA „TAUPI” ilgtspējīgas attīstības stratēģijas izstrāde”. Veiksmīgas stratēģijas pamatā ir rūpīgi veikta analīze, kuras rezultātā rodas iespēja ātri reaģēt uz notiekošajām ārējās vides pārmaiņām un, izmantojot iekšējo uzņēmuma potenciālu, novērst iespējamos riskus un optimizēt uzņēmuma darbību. Darba mērķis ir izpētīt stratēģiskās vadīšanas procesa lomu uzņēmumā, analizēt uzņēmuma iekšējo un ārējo vidi, izstrādāt stratēģiskos priekšlikumus. Darba gai...

  8. Prey Preference and Life Table of Amblyseius orientalis on Bemisia tabaci and Tetranychus cinnabarinus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoxiao Zhang

    Full Text Available Amblyseius orientalis (Ehara (Acari: Phytoseiidae is a native predatory mite species in China. It used to be considered as a specialist predator of spider mites. However, recent studies show it also preys on other small arthropod pests, such as Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae. Experiments were conducted to investigate (1 prey preference of A. orientalis between Tetranychus cinnabarinus (Boisd. (Acari: Tetranychidae and B. tabaci, and (2 development, consumption and life table parameters of A. orientalis when reared on T. cinnabarinus, B. tabaci or a mix of both prey species. When preying on different stages of T. cinnabarinus, A. orientalis preferred protonymphs, whereas when preying on different stages of B. tabaci, A. orientalis preferred eggs. When these two most preferred stages were provided together (T. cinnabarinus protonymphs and B. tabaci eggs, A. orientalis randomly selected its prey. Amblyseius orientalis was able to complete its life cycle on B. tabaci eggs, T. cinnabarinus protonymphs, or a mix of both prey. However, its developmental duration was 53.9% and 30.0% longer when reared on B. tabaci eggs than on T. cinnabarinus and a mix of both prey, respectively. In addition, it produced only a few eggs and its intrinsic rate of increase was negative when reared on B. tabaci eggs, which indicates that B. tabaci is not sufficient to maintain A. orientalis population. The intrinsic rates of increase were 0.16 and 0.23 when A. orientalis was fed on the prey mix and T. cinnabarinus, respectively. These results suggest that although B. tabaci is a poor food resource for A. orientalis in comparison to T. cinnabarinus, A. orientalis is able to sustain its population on a mix of both prey. This predatory mite may thus be a potential biological control agent of B. tabaci when this pest co-occurs with the alternative minor pest T. cinnabarinus.

  9. The effect of repeated release of the predatory mite Neoseiulus (Amblyseius) cucumeris on arthropod communities in citrus ecosystems

    OpenAIRE

    Jie Ji; Yanxuan Zhang; Xia Chen; Jianzhen Lin; Li Sun

    2012-01-01

    In order to study the effect of repeated release of Neoseiulus (Amblyseius) cucumeris on the species composition and diversity of arthropod community in citrus ecosystems, we established bio-control orchards, natural orchards and chemical control orchards in the Mawei and Jin’an experimental field of Fuzhou, China. Our results indicated that the species richness of bio-control orchards was higher than that of natural or chemical control orchards at both sites. Diversity and evenness indices w...

  10. Uzņēmuma SIA "Intra Serviss" tirdzniecības paplašināšana izmantojot internetu

    OpenAIRE

    Nikolajevs, Artūrs

    2013-01-01

    Diplomdarba tēmas nosaukums ir „Uzņēmuma Intra Serviss tirdzniecības paplašināšana izmantojot internetu”. Uzņēmumi, kas nodarbojas ar preču tirdzniecību arvien biežāk sāk izmantot internetu, lai reklamētu un izplatītu savu produkciju, jo tas sniedz daudz priekšrocību un ļauj ietaupīt līdzekļus. Diplomdarba izpētes daļā tiek analizētas produktu reklamēšanas metodes internetā un internetveikalu darbības principi, ar mērķi praktiskajā daļa izstrādāt uzņēmuma internetveikala projektu. Darba i...

  11. Latvijas tekstilrūpniecības nozares uzņēmuma attīstības perspektīvu analīze

    OpenAIRE

    Peņkova, Marina

    2008-01-01

    Bakalaura darbā tiek analizētas Latvijas Tekstilrūpniecības nozares uzņēmuma attīstības perspektīvas. Pētāmais uzņēmums ir neliels un diezgan jauns, tāpēc šī problēma tam ir īpaši aktuāla. Darbā tiek noteiktas uzņēmuma stiprās un vājās puses, iespējas un draudi ārējā vidē; tiek analizēta Latvijas Tekstilrūpniecības nozare un prognozēta tās turpmākā attīstība; tiek sastādītas prognozes pētāmā uzņēmuma produkcijas realizācijai 2008. gada pirmajam pusgadam. Bakalaura darba apjoms ir 71 lappuses ...

  12. Datorprogrammēšanas uzņēmuma darbības nepārtrauktības vadīšana

    OpenAIRE

    Beļavska, Jūlija

    2014-01-01

    Bakalaura darba „Datorprogrammēšanas uzņēmuma darbības nepārtrauktības vadīšana” problēmas būtība ir noskaidrot iespējamus riskus uzņēmuma saimnieciskai darbībai un izstrādāt iespējamo risku mazināšanas pasākumus. Bakalaura darbā autore analizēja risku klasifikāciju, finanšu risku novērtēšanas metodes, izstrādāja bankrota riska prognozēšanas modeli, kā arī izstrādāja mazināšanas pasākumus uzņēmuma iekšējiem riskiem. Pētījuma mērķis ir analizēt iespējamus finanšu riskus un bankrota ris...

  13. Amblyseius swirskii: what made this predatory mite such a successful biocontrol agent?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvo, F Javier; Knapp, Markus; van Houten, Yvonne M; Hoogerbrugge, Hans; Belda, José E

    2015-04-01

    The predatory mite Amblyseius swirskii quickly became one of the most successful biocontrol agents in protected cultivation after its introduction into the market in 2005 and is now released in more than 50 countries. There are several key factors contributing to this success: (1) it can control several major pests including the western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis, the whiteflies Bemisia tabaci and Trialeurodes vaporariorum and the broad mite, Polyphagotarsonemus latus, simultaneously in vegetables and ornamental crops; (2) it can develop and reproduce feeding on non-prey food sources such as pollen, which allows populations of the predator to build up on plants before the pests are present and to persist in the crop during periods when prey is scarce or absent; and (3) it can be easily reared on factitious prey, which allows economic mass production. However, despite the fact that A. swirskii provides growers with a robust control method, external demands were initially a key factor in promoting the use of this predator, particularly in Spain. In 2006, when exports of fresh vegetables from Spain were stopped due to the presence of pesticide residues, growers were forced to look for alternatives to chemical control. This resulted in the massive adoption of biological control-based integrated pest management programmes based on the use of A. swirskii in sweet pepper. Biological control increased from 5 % in 2005, 1 year before A. swirskii was commercially released, to almost 100 % of a total 6,000 ha of protected sweet pepper in Spain within 3 years. Later, it was demonstrated that A. swirskii was equally effective in other crops and countries, resulting in extensive worldwide use of A. swirskii in greenhouses.

  14. Vitamin A deficiency modifies response of predatory mite Amblyseius potentillae to volatile kairomone of two-spotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dicke, M.; Sabelis, M.W.; Groeneveld, A.

    1986-01-01

    volatile kairomone of the two-spotted spider mite,Tetranychus urticae, elicits a searching response of the phytoseiid predatorAmblyseius potentillae, only when the predator is reared on a carotenoid-free diet. However, after addition of crystalline betta-carotene or vitamin A acetate to the predator

  15. Uzņēmuma dokumentu pārvaldība kā vadības sistēmas komponents

    OpenAIRE

    Prohorenko, Lida

    2015-01-01

    Maģistra darbā „Uzņēmuma dokumentu pārvaldība kā vadības sistēmas komponents” pievērsta uzmanība tam, ka, veidojot elektronisko dokumentu pārvaldības sistēmu, ir jāņem vērā uzņēmuma korporatīvā kultūra, jo tā ir vide, kur tiek ieviesta sistēma, vērtējotdarbinieku paradumus, tādējādi nodrošinot lietotāju un sistēmas mijiedarbību. Risinot problēmsituāciju, tiek sniegts apskats par teorijām, kas ir saistītas ar EDPS izmantošanu un lietotāju apmierinātības noteikšanu, ir analizēti citu autoru...

  16. Projekts: Specializētā olīveļļas vairumtirdzniecības uzņēmuma izveide

    OpenAIRE

    Voitenko, Dainis

    2016-01-01

    Maģistra darbā “Projekts: Specializētā olīveļļas vairumtirdzniecības uzņēmuma izveide” ir izstrādāts biznesa plāns jauna specializēta vairumtirdzniecības uzņēmuma dibināšanai. Projekta ideja ir nodibināt uzņēmumu, izveidojot jaunu zīmolu SIA “Olive Gold”, kura saimnieciskā darbība balstīsies uz ekoloģiski tīrās un cilvēka organismam veselīgās olīveļļas vairumtirdzniecību. Ideja veidot šādu uzņēmumu radās, jo, neskatoties uz to, ka mūsdienu cilvēka uzturu lielā mērā raksturo pārmērīga kaloriju...

  17. Molecular discrimination of phytoseiids associated with the red palm mite Raoiella indica (Acari: Tenuipalpidae) from Mauritius and South Florida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman, Heidi M; Hoy, Marjorie A

    2012-08-01

    Phytoseiid populations imported from Mauritius for evaluation for a classical biological control program in Florida, USA, were morphologically identified as Amblyseius largoensis Muma, a species associated with the red palm mite in south Florida and the Caribbean. Bayesian analysis and sequence divergences of the mitochondrial 12S rRNA and nuclear Elongation factor--I alpha (EF-Iα) genes and Neighbor-Joining analysis of High-fidelity-RAPD-PCR markers were used to discriminate between the south Florida and Mauritius populations. High-fidelity-RAPD-PCR markers in addition to Bayesian and sequence divergence analyses of the 12S rRNA sequences suggest that the Mauritius and south Florida populations are genetically different but whether these are species or population differences is unknown. The degenerate EF-Iα primers used to survey the phytoseiids amplified two different elongation factor sequences with distinct amino acid translations, the putative EF-Iα and an unknown elongation factor. Variability within the 12S gene was used to develop population-specific primers for identifying the Mauritius phytoseiids in the event they are released in south Florida.

  18. Analyses of Numerical Responses and Main Life Parameters for Determining the Suppression of Amblyseius cucumeris on Panonychus citri

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Yan-xuan; LIN Jian-zhen; JI Jie; CHEN Xie; KANG Yu-mei

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, the numeral response and main parameters of experimental population life table were analyzed for determiningthe suppressing ability of Amblyseius cucumeris on Panonychus citri. The result showed that: (1) Under 21-31 ℃ and 1-9 prey densities/leaf fragment condition, the prey consumptions ofA. cucumeris increased with the temperature or prey density; (2) In 1:3 predator-prey ratio treatment, the suppression ofP. citri (Ro=34.0053; T=19.4369; t=3.8204) was rather weak, it was enhanced as the ratio over 5:30, and the populations ofP. citri in these treatments can be fully controlled within 4-5 days; (3) Under 25±1℃, 80-85% RH and 15L: 9D illumination conditions, the net reproductive rate, mean generation duration and the time for population double increase ofP. citri (Ro=34.0053; T=19.4369; t=3.8204) were higher than those ofA. cucumeris (Ro=21.8750; T=16.8943; t=3.7954). While the intrinsic rate of increase and finite rate of increase of the former (rm=0.1814; λ= 1.1989) were lower than those of the latter (rm=0.1826; λ= 1.2004). These results indicated that A. cucumeris is a desirable bio-control agent to suppress P. citri at lower population stage in citrus orchard.

  19. Interaktīva uzņēmuma darba pienākumu ziņošanas lietotne

    OpenAIRE

    Bušs, Konrāds

    2016-01-01

    „Interaktīva uzņēmuma darba pienākumu ziņošanas lietotne” ir mobilā telefona lietotne, kas paredzēta priekš iOS platformas ierīcēm. Sistēmas lietotājiem ir iespēja apskatīt, kuram no kolēģiem ir jāveic kāds ikdienas pienākums. Lietotnē ir integrēta spēle, kas nodrošina lietotājam iespēju aktīvi iesaistītas un vēlāk salīdzināt savu rezultātus ar kolēģiem. Projekts realizēts izmantojot spējās izstrādes metodoloģijas elementus. Programatūras izstrādes pr...

  20. Lapu dārzeņu ražošanas uzņēmuma izveide Rīgā, Berģos

    OpenAIRE

    Dupuža, Sigita

    2016-01-01

    Maģistra darba „Lapu dārzeņu ražošanas uzņēmuma izveide Rīgā, Berģos” mērķis ir nodrošināt Latvijas iedzīvotājus ar Latvijā audzētu svaigu dārzeņu sortimenta dažādību visu gadu. Darba mērķa sasniegšanai autore veica Latvijas dārzeņkopības nozares esošās situācijas izpēti, noteica nozares attīstību ietekmējošās problēmas. Dārzeņiem ir svarīga loma ikdienas ēdienkartē un tie veido lielāko daļu no veselīga uztura elementiem. Pieaug iedzīvotāju vēlme lietot uzturā svaigus sezonas dārzeņus visu ga...

  1. A review of the natural enemies of the red palm mite, Raoiella indica (Acari: Tenuipalpidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrillo, Daniel; Frank, J Howard; Rodrigues, Jose Carlos V; Peña, Jorge E

    2012-08-01

    A review of all the available information about the natural enemies reported in association with the red palm mite, Raoiella indica is presented. Twenty-eight species of predatory arthropods, including mites and insects, have been reported in association with R. indica in Asia, Africa and the Neotropics. In addition, pathogenic fungi associated with R. indica in the Caribbean have been reported. The available literature indicates that each site has a different natural enemy complex with only one predator species, Amblyseius largoensis (Acari: Phytoseiidae), present in all the geographical areas. The phytoseiids, Amblyseius caudatus Berlese, Amblyseius channabasavanni Gupta and A. largoensis, were regarded as important natural enemies of R. indica, and their predatory efficiency was studied in some detail. Among the predatory insects the coccinellids Stethorus keralicus Kapur and Telsimia ephippiger Chapin were reported as major predators of R. indica. The known distribution, abundance and relative importance of each species reported in association with R. indica are discussed.

  2. Occurrence and seasonal prevalence of the coconut mite, Aceria guerreronis (Eriophyidae), and associated arthropods in Oman.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Shanfari, Abdulaziz; Hountondji, Fabien C C; Al-Zawamri, Hamid; Rawas, Hassan; Al-Mashiki, Yussef; de Moraes, Gilberto J; Moore, Dave; Gowen, Simon R

    2013-06-01

    The coconut palm is an important crop in the sub arid coastal plain of Dhofar, Oman, for the high demand for its nut water and its use as ornamental plant. Damage of coconut fruits by the eriophyid mite Aceria guerreronis Keifer was first reported in that region in the late 1980s, but background information about the ecology of the pest in Oman was missing. Four surveys were conducted in different seasons from 2008 to 2009, to assess the distribution and prevalence of the coconut mite and its damage as well as the presence of natural enemies. Infestation by the coconut mite was conspicuous on most (99.7 %) palm trees, with 82.5 % damaged fruits. The average (± SE) density of coconut mites per fruit was 750 ± 56; this level of infestation led to the incidence of over 25 % of surface damage on more than half of the fruits. The mite appeared more abundant at the end of the cold season through the summer. No significant differences were observed between infestation levels on local varieties, hybrids and on dwarf varieties. Neoseiulus paspalivorus (De Leon), Cydnoseius negevi (Swirski & Amitai) and Amblyseius largoensis (Muma) were the predatory mites found under the bracts of over 30 % of the coconut fruits and on 68 % of the coconut trees. Considering all sampling dates and all varieties together, average (± SE) phytoseiid density was 1.4 ± 1.19 per fruit. Other mites found in the same habitat as A. guerreronis included the tarsonemids Steneotarsonemus furcatus De Leon and Nasutitarsonemus omani Lofego & Moraes. The pathogenic fungus Hirsutella thompsonii Fisher was rarely found infecting the coconut mite in Dhofar. Other fungal pathogens, namely Cordyceps sp. and Simplicillium sp., were more prevalent.

  3. Effects of potential food sources on biological and demographic parameters of the predatory mites Kampimodromus aberrans, Typhlodromus pyri and Amblyseius andersoni.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenzon, Mauro; Pozzebon, Alberto; Duso, Carlo

    2012-11-01

    Kampimodromus aberrans, Typhlodromus pyri and Amblyseius andersoni are generalist predatory mites important in controlling tetranychid and eriophyoid mites in European vineyards. They can persist by exploiting various non-prey foods when their main prey is absent or scarce. A comparative analysis of the effects of various prey and non-prey foods on the life history of these predators is lacking. In the laboratory, predatory mites were reared on herbivorous mites (Panonychus ulmi, Eotetranychus carpini and Colomerus vitis), a potential alternative prey (Tydeus caudatus) and two non-prey foods, i.e. the pollen of Typha latifolia and the mycelium of Grape downy mildew (GDM) Plasmopara viticola. Developmental times, survival, sex ratio and fecundity as well as life table parameters were estimated. Kampimodromus aberrans developed faster on E. carpini, C. vitis or pollen than on P. ulmi and laid more eggs on pollen than on prey. Low numbers of this predator developed on GDM infected leaves. Tydeus caudatus was not suitable as prey for any of the three predatory mites. Kampimodromus aberrans showed the highest intrinsic rate of population increase when fed on pollen. Developmental times of T. pyri on prey or pollen were similar but fecundity was higher on pollen than on P. ulmi. Typhlodromus pyri had higher intrinsic rates of population increase on C. vitis and pollen than on P. ulmi; E. carpini showed intermediate values whereas GDM resulted in the lowest r ( m ) values. Development of A. andersoni females was faster on pollen and C. vitis than on P. ulmi and GDM. Fecundity was higher on pollen and mites compared to GDM. Life table parameters of A. andersoni did not differ when predators were fed with prey or pollen while GDM led to a lower r ( m ) value. On a specific diet A. andersoni exhibited faster development and higher fecundity than T. pyri and K. aberrans. These findings improve knowledge on factors affecting the potential of predatory mites in controlling

  4. "Facebook" "patīk" un "dalīties" reklāmas: auditorijas pētījums un uzņēmuma "Drogas" un "Adrenaline Tan" pieredze

    OpenAIRE

    Caune, Signija

    2015-01-01

    Bakalaura darbs “ “Facebook” “patīk” un “dalīties” reklāmas: auditorijas pētījums un uzņēmuma “Drogas” un “Adrenaline Tan” pieredze” sastāv no teorētiskās, metodoloģiskās un empīriskās daļas un pētījumā pierāda, ka lietotāji piedalās konkursos, tikai, lai iegūtu vēlamo balvu. Bakalaura darba teorētisko daļu veido sociālie tīkli, sociālo tīklu lietotāji, sociālo tīklu mārketings, iesaistīšanās, interaktivitāte un motivācija. Darba mērķi ir saprast lietotāju motivāciju piedalīties “Facebo...

  5. Uzņēmuma McDonalds konkurētspējas novērtēšanas un tās uzlabošanas iespējas

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Bakalaura darba tēma – „Uzņēmuma McDonalds konkurētspējas novērtēšana un tās uzlabošanas iespējas”. Bakalaura darba mērķis-pamatojoties uz teorētiskām atziņām par konkurenci un konkurētspēju, izpētīt SIA McDonalds konkurētspēju tirgū un tās pilnveidošanas iespējas balstoties uz Latvijas, Lietuvas un Igaunijas investīciju nozares analīzes datu rezultātiem, izdarīt secinājumus un sniegt priekšlikumus SIA McDonalds konkurētspējas uzlabošanai. Bakalaura darba izstrādes gaitā autore ir izstr...

  6. Sociālā tīkla Facebook.com un mikroemuāra vietnes Twitter.com pielietojums telekomunikāciju uzņēmuma "Bite" sabiedriskajās attiecībās

    OpenAIRE

    Kvedaroviča, Sintija

    2013-01-01

    Bakalaura darba tēma:Sociālā tīkla Facebook.com un mikroemuāra vietnes Twitter.com pielietojums telekomunikāciju uzņēmuma "Bite" sabiedriskajās attiecībās. Darbā tiek apskatīta teorija par sabiedriskajām attiecībām un to nozīmi uzņēmumā, kā arī teorija par sociālajiem tīkliem un to nozīmi un lomu sabiedriskajās attiecībās. Metodoloģiskajā daļā tiek skaidrots, kas ir intervija, aptauja un kontenta analīze. Darba mērķis ir noteikt, kuram no četriem Gruniga un Hanta sabiedrisko attiecību...

  7. 菜豆-二斑叶螨-伪钝绥螨相互关系的研究%Studies on the interactions among Phaseolous vulgaris, Tetranychus urticae and Amblyseius fallacis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙月华; 郅军锐

    2011-01-01

    The relative preferences of Amblyseius fallacis (Garman) for healthy host plants, mechanically injured host plants and host plants infested with the spider mite Tetranychus urticae (Koch) were determined using a Y-tube olfactometer and leaf disc test. The composition and relative contents of the volatiles of healthy, mechanically injured and mite infested Phaseolous vulgaris host plants were analyzed and identified by gas chromatography-mass spectra (GC/MS).The results showed that odors from the leaves plants that had, or were, infested with T. urticae, which included plants with mites and their feces, plants without mites but with their feces and plants without mites or their feces, were significantly more attractive to A. fallacis than either mechanically injured or healthy plants. A. fallacis could be attracted by the odors from mechanically injured plants and healthy plants to which T. urticae feces had been added, but showed a greater preference for odors from mite-infestod plants. The composition and content of volatiles differed significantly between healthy, mechanically injured and mite-infested plants. The volatiles of plants infested with T. urticae had more components than those from mechanically injured or healthy plants, and were of higher molecular weight. Methoxy-phenyloxime, 2,4-di-tert-butylphenol, (E,E)-αt-farnesene, junipene and alkyl comprised the greater proportion of the volatiles collected from all three kinds of plants.%本文利用Y-型嗅觉仪和叶碟法测定了伪钝绥螨Amblyseius fallacis(Garman)对不同处理菜豆植株的选择性,并用气相色谱-质谱联用仪分别对菜豆健康植株、被机械损伤过的菜豆植株和被二斑叶螨Tetranychus urticae(Koch)危害过的植株挥发性物质的成分进行了分析,并对其相对含量进行了比较.结果表明:伪钝绥螨对二斑叶螨为害过的带虫带粪、去虫带粪和去虫去粪3类虫害植株表现出很强的趋性,对机械损伤、添加了二

  8. The interaction of two-spotted spider mites, Tetranychus urticae Koch, with Cry protein production and predation by Amblyseius andersoni (Chant) in Cry1Ac/Cry2Ab cotton and Cry1F maize.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yan-Yan; Tian, Jun-Ce; Shi, Wang-Peng; Dong, Xue-Hui; Romeis, Jörg; Naranjo, Steven E; Hellmich, Richard L; Shelton, Anthony M

    2016-02-01

    Crops producing insecticidal crystal (Cry) proteins from the bacterium, Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt), are an important tool for managing lepidopteran pests on cotton and maize. However, the effects of these Bt crops on non-target organisms, especially natural enemies that provide biological control services, are required to be addressed in an environmental risk assessment. Amblyseius andersoni (Acari: Phytoseiidae) is a cosmopolitan predator of the two-spotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae (Acari: Tetranychidae), a significant pest of cotton and maize. Tri-trophic studies were conducted to assess the potential effects of Cry1Ac/Cry2Ab cotton and Cry1F maize on life history parameters (survival rate, development time, fecundity and egg hatching rate) of A. andersoni. We confirmed that these Bt crops have no effects on the biology of T. urticae and, in turn, that there were no differences in any of the life history parameters of A. andersoni when it fed on T. urticae feeding on Cry1Ac/Cry2Ab or non-Bt cotton and Cry1F or non-Bt maize. Use of a susceptible insect assay demonstrated that T. urticae contained biologically active Cry proteins. Cry proteins concentrations declined greatly as they moved from plants to herbivores to predators and protein concentration did not appear to be related to mite density. Free-choice experiments revealed that A. andersoni had no preference for Cry1Ac/Cry2Ab cotton or Cry1F maize-reared T. urticae compared with those reared on non-Bt cotton or maize. Collectively these results provide strong evidence that these crops can complement other integrated pest management tactics including biological control.

  9. Life Table Parameters and Consumption Rate of Cydnodromus picanus Ragusa, Amblyseius graminis Chant, and Galendromus occidentalis (Nesbitt on Avocado Red Mite Oligonychus yothersi (McGregor (Acari: Phytoseiidae, Tetranychidae Parámetros de Tabla de Vida y Tasa de Consumo de Cydnodromus picanus Ragusa, Amblyseius graminis Chant y Galendromus occidentalis (Nesbitt, sobre la Arañita Roja del Palto Oligonychus yothersi (McGregor (Acari: Phytoseiidae, Tetranychidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tommy Rioja S

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The avocado red mite Oligonychus yothersi (McGregor is the major leaf pest in Chile’s avocado orchards. Itaffects leaf physiology and makes it necessary to seek new natural enemies to interact with low population densities of O. yothersi. The potentiality of three predator mites: Cydnodromus picanus Ragusa, Amblyseius graminis Chant, and Galendromus occidentalis (Nesbitt was evaluated under laboratory conditions (27 ± 1.93ºC, 87 ± 3.61% H.R. and 16:8 (L:D photoperiod on avocado leaf disks Persea americana Mill. var. Hass (Ø = 5 cm by separately feeding eggs, immature, and adult females of O. yothersi, and registering postembryonic development, consumption, as well as life table parameters. The postembryonic development of C. picanus was significantly lower (5.46 days compared to both A. graminis (7.33 days and G. occidentalis (8.69 days which were fed with immature O. yothersi. The life table parameters of C. picanus were net reproductive rate R0 = 25.41, finite rate of increase λ = 1.29, and Mean Generation Time T = 12.46. The Net Intrinsic Rate of Increase (r m was significantly higher for C. picanus (r m = 0.25 in contrast with G. occidentalis (r m = 0.19, while A. graminis showed r m = -0.06 indicating that its population didn’t have descendants. Under laboratory conditions, r m registered by C. picanus is an indicator of its predatory potential to control O. Yothersi. It can be assumed that the pest population reduction pattern could be maintained under field conditions.En Chile la arañita roja del palto Oligonychus yothersi (McGregor es la plaga más importante a nivel foliar en huertos comerciales afectando la fisiología de la hoja, siendo necesario la búsqueda de nuevos enemigos naturales que interactúen a bajas densidades poblacionales de O. yothersi. Se evaluó en condiciones de laboratorio (27±1,93ºC, 87±3,61 % H.R. y un fotoperíodo de 16:8 (L:O sobre discos de hojas de palto Persea americana Mill. var. Hass (Ø = 5

  10. 以甜果螨为食的东方钝绥螨的种群生命表%Life Table of Experimental Population of Amblyseius orientalis Feeding on Carpoglyphus lactis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    盛福敬; 王恩东; 徐学农; 王伯明

    2014-01-01

    As an important specific predator, Amblyseius orientalis (Ehara) shows effective control for mites, while lack of large-scale production of A. orientalis restricts its wide application. In this paper, life table of an experimental population of A. orientalis feeding on Carpoglyphus lactis (Linnaeus) was established for investigation of its development and reproduction under controlled temperature (25 ℃) and humidity (80%) conditions. Results showed that developmental duration of different stages of A. orientalis were 1.77, 0.77, 1.05 and 1.05 d, respectively. The mean generation time (T), intrinsic increase rate (rm), finite increase rate (λ) and the time for double population were 14.07, 0.18, 1.20 and 3.87 d, respectively. Daily fecundity and fecundity of single female were 1.71 and 22.50. These results suggest that C. lactis is a good alternative prey for A. orientalis.%东方钝绥螨是叶螨的重要捕食性天敌,对多种叶螨的防控起着重要的作用。东方钝绥螨一直被认为是叶螨的专食性捕食者,其规模化生产不成功极大地限制了其应用。本试验在(25±1)℃、RH 80%±5%、光周期16L:8D的条件下,以甜果螨为食,东方钝绥螨能够完成发育和繁殖,并以此组建了东方钝绥螨试验种群生命表。试验结果表明,东方钝绥螨以甜果螨为食各发育阶段历期较短,分别为卵期1.77 d,幼螨期0.77 d,前若螨和后若螨期各为1.05 d。25℃时东方钝绥螨的世代平均周期为14.07 d,内禀增长率0.18,周限增长率1.20,种群倍增时间3.87 d。日均产卵量1.71粒/d,总产卵量平均22.50粒/雌。由此得出甜果螨是饲养东方钝绥螨的一种很好的替代猎物。

  11. The effect of repeated release of the predatory mite Neoseiulus (Amblyseius) cucumeris on arthropod communities in citrus ecosystems%多次释放胡瓜新小绥螨对橘园节肢动物群落多样性的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    季洁; 张艳璇; 陈霞; 林坚贞; 孙莉

    2012-01-01

    为了探明长期多次释放胡瓜新小绥螨(Neoseiulus (Amblyseius) cucumeris)是否会对橘园节肢动物群落的生物多样性产生影响,我们在福州马尾和晋安试验区的2个橘园分别设置生防园、自然园和化防园,连续两年每月两次在各处理橘园的树冠和地面杂草中采集并记录节肢动物的种类和数量,结果表明两个试验区的物种丰富度(S)均以生防园最高,且都显著高于相应的化防园和自然园;马尾试验区三种处理的多样性指数(H)和均匀度指数(E)的大小依次为生防园>自然园>化防园,晋安试验区则为自然园>生防园>化防园,表明释放胡瓜新小绥螨防治柑橘害螨,减少农药的使用,能恢复或增加橘园节肢动物群落的生物多样性.此外,释放胡瓜新小绥螨未对橘园原有的捕食螨类群产生影响.%In order to study the effect of repeated release of Neoseiulus {Amblyseius) cucumeris on the species composition and diversity of arthropod community in citrus ecosystems, we established bio-control orchards, natural orchards and chemical control orchards in the Mawei and Jin'an experimental field of Fuzhou, China. Our results indicated that the species richness of bio-control orchards was higher than that of natural or chemical control orchards at both sites. Diversity and evenness indices were higher in bio-control orchards than those of other orchards in the Mawei site, and those of chemical control orchards were the lowest. Among the variously managed orchards in Jin'an, evenness and diversity indices were highest in the natural orchards and lowest in chemical orchards. Our study suggests that citrus ecosystem arthropod diversity can be enhanced by releasing N. cucumeris to fight against the citrus pest mites while reducing the spraying of pesticide.

  12. Effects of Two Species of Spider Mites and Their Different Developmental Stages on the Offspring Sex Ratios of the Predatory Mite Amblyseius pseudolongispinosus (Acari:Phytoseiidae)%两种叶螨及其不同螨态对拟长毛钝绥螨后代性比的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨莹; 姜晓环; 徐学农; 王恩东

    2013-01-01

      在实验室条件下研究了以二种叶螨的不同螨态为猎物对拟长毛钝绥螨后代性比、产卵量及捕食选择性的影响。结果表明:捕食二种叶螨的不同螨态捕食螨的后代都是偏雌的。当供给朱砂叶螨时,捕食全螨态的捕食螨后代雌性比最高,为70.34%,显著高于捕食卵(65.56%)和若螨(63.32%)的,而捕食幼螨的最低,为56.84%;当供给二斑叶螨时,捕食卵和全螨态的捕食螨后代雌性比例分别为68.34%和70.24%,捕食若螨的为64.05%,捕食幼螨的为59.30%,三者间均有显著差异。对同种不同螨态来说,捕食螨最喜食卵,若螨次之,最不喜食幼螨。捕食二种叶螨幼螨的产卵量也最低。试验证实了天敌对猎物的捕食朝着最有利于其生殖的方向这一理论。本文进一步探讨了捕食螨的捕食选择性与后代性比的关系。%The effect of different developmental stages of two spider mite species on the offspring sex ratios, oviposition and prey preference of the predatory mite Amblyseius pseudolongispinosus was studied in the laboratory. The results showed that the offspring sex ratio in A. pseudolongispinosus was always female-biased regardless of its prey species. With Tetranychus cinnabarinus as prey, female ratio in progeny of A. pseudolongispinosus was the highest (70.34%) when offered all developmental stages of the prey together, 65.56%, 63.32%and 56.84% when offered eggs, nymphs and young larvae, respectively. With T. urticae as prey, female ratioin progeny was 68.34%, 70.24%, 64.05%and 59.03%when offered egg, all developmental stages, nymph and larvae, respectively. Among different developmental stages of both spider mites, the predatory mites preferred for egg, followed by nymph, while larva was the least preferred stage. Fecundity of A. pseudolongispinosus feeding on egg, nymph or all developmental stages was significantly higher than that on larva. The relationship between

  13. Phytoseiid mites (Acari) associated with yerba mate in southern Brazil, with description of a new species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Dinarte; Da Silva, Guilherme Liberato; Ferla, Noeli Juarez

    2013-12-11

    Yerba mate is a plant of great socioeconomic importance in southern South America. Little has been published about the phytoseiid mite fauna of yerba mate. This paper presents information about the morphology and distribution of phytoseiid mites collected in yerba mate in the Ilópolis and Putinga counties of Brazil between 2002 and 2004. Four areas with of different forms of cultivation in every county were sampled. A list of the species recorded from that state, and a key for their identification are provided. Sixteen phytoseiid mites species were identified, belonging to 11 genera in the subfamilies Amblyseiinae (13 species) and Typhlodrominae (three species). The most abundant genus was Amblyseius with three species. Phytoscutus sexpilis Muma, 1961 and Typhloseiopsis dorsoreticulatus Lofego, Demite & Feres, 2011 are reported for the first time from Rio Grande do Sul state. This study also includes the description of a new species, Typhlodromips pallinii n. sp.

  14. [Mites (Acari) associated to Myrtaceae in areas of Cerrado in the State of São Paulo with faunistic analysis of families Tarsonemidae and Phytoseiidae].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lofego, Antonio C; de Moraes, Gilberto J

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine and to analyse the diversity of mites on native Myrtaceae of the "Cerrado" vegetation type of the State of São Paulo, with particular attention to the families Phytoseiidae and Tarsonemidae. In the year 2000, mites were collected from Myrtaceae species in three "Cerrado" areas in the State of São Paulo. Samples of leaves, flowers and fruits were taken from three plant of each species in each site. Mites of 49 genera belonging to 14 families were found. Fourteen phytoseiid species of nine genera and 19 tarsonemid species of six genera were collected. The most abundant phytoseiids were Euseius citrifolius Denmark & Muma, Transeius bellottii (Moraes & Mesa) and Amblyseius acalyphus Denmark & Muma. The most abundant tarsonemids were Daidalotarsonemus tesselatus DeLeon, Daidalotarsonemus folisetae Lofego & Ochoa and Metatarsonemus megasolenidii Lofego & Ochoa. The highest indexes of diversity of phytoseiids and tarsonemids were observed in the fall; the lowest indexes were found in the winter for phytoseiids and in the spring for tarsonemids. Taking into consideration the total number of phytoseiids and tarsonemids collected in this work, the corresponding indexes of diversity (Shannon) were similar and close to 2.0. Different predatory mite species prevailed on distinct plant species, indicating the complementariness of the latter as reservoirs of the former.

  15. Effect of soil application of cyantraniliprole on Bemisia tabaci (MED whitefly) and Amblyseius swirskii, 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bemisia tabaci is a polyphagous pest known to feed upon over 900 plant taxa, and is an effective vector of more than 100 plant damaging viruses. Among different biotypes of this cryptic species complex, MEAM1 and MED whitefly are the two most destructive members posing threats of several crops of ec...

  16. Effect of dinotefuran on Bemisia tabaci (MED whitefly) and Amblyseius swirskii, 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bemisia tabaci is a polyphagous pest known to feed upon over 900 plant taxa, and is an effective vector of more than 100 plant damaging viruses. Among different biotypes of this cryptic species complex, MEAM1 and MED whitefly are the two most destructive members posing threats of several crops of ec...

  17. Fitoseídeos (Acari: Phytoseiidae associados a cafezais e fragmentos florestais vizinhos Phytoseiids (Acari: Phytoseiidae associated to coffee plantations and adjacent forest fragments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ester Azevedo Silva

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Existem poucas informações sobre a fauna de ácaros predadores (Phytoseiidae em ambientes naturais brasileiros adjacentes a agroecossistemas cafeeiros (Coffea spp. ou sobre a influência que essa vegetação exerce como reservatório de ácaros predadores. Neste estudo, objetivou-se avaliar a diversidade destes organismos em cafeeiros e fragmentos florestais adjacentes. Coletaram-se amostras das espécies Calyptranthes clusiifolia (Miq. O. Berg (Myrtaceae, Esenbeckia febrifuga (A. St.-Hil. A. Juss. ex Mart. (Rutaceae, Metrodorea stipularis Mart. (Rutaceae e Allophylus semidentatus (Miq. Radlk. (Sapindaceae, em oito fragmentos florestais, de 5 a 51 ha, e cafezais adjacentes, nos meses de junho (final período chuvoso e outubro (final período seco nos anos 2004 e 2005, na região Sul do Estado de Minas Gerais. Ácaros foram extraídos das folhas, utilizando o método de lavagem e, em seguida, montados em lâminas de microscopia em meio de Hoyer, para identificação específica. No total foram identificados 2.348 fitoseídeos, sendo 2.090 nos fragmentos florestais e 258 espécimes nos cafezais adjacentes, pertencentes a 38 espécies. Servindo-se de análise faunística, a espécie Iphiseiodes zuluagai Denmark & Muma, 1972 apresentou os melhores índices no agroecossistema cafeeiro, sendo muito frequente e constante nas épocas estudadas. Nos fragmentos florestais Amblyseius herbicolus Chant, 1959, Iphiseiodes affs. neonobilis Denmark & Muma, 1978, Leonseius regularis DeLeon, 1965 e Euseius alatus DeLeon, 1966 foram dominantes, muito abundantes, muito frequentes e constantes nas épocas estudadas. Podemos concluir que a vegetação nativa abriga ácaros predadores, inimigos naturais de ácaros-praga, que ocorrem na cultura cafeeira, possibilitando o desenvolvimento de programas de manejo ecológico com áreas de vegetação natural e agroecossistemas cafeeiros adjacentes.There is little information about the fauna of predatory mites

  18. Mites in assai palms (Euterpe oleracea Mart. conducted under different cropping systems = Acarofauna em açaizeiro (Euterpe oleracea Mart. conduzido em diferentes sistemas de cultivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Aguiar Rodrigues

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The assai palm (Euterpe oleracea is the most important palm tree of the genus Euterpe known in Brazil, which is grown under monocrop and intercrop systems. Despite its great usefulness, this palm tree is important for supplying two cost-effective food products, the fruit and the palm hearts. Due to its importance, the aim of this study was to carry out a survey of mite fauna present in assai crops in the town of São Luis, in the State of Maranhão, Brazil. Samples were collected monthly from August 2012 to July 2013, in assai groves under two systems of cultivation: monocrop and intercrop. A faunistic analysis was carried out using the ANAFAU software, when the following indices were determined: abundance, frequency, dominance, constancy and diversity. A total of 6,274 mites were found, with 4,748 in the intercrop system and 1,526 in the monocrop system. Among the occurrence of phytophagic mites, the families Tenuipalpidae and Tetranychidae were significant in both crops. For the families of predatory mites, the phytoseiid was considered super-dominant, super-abundant, super-frequent and constant; the species Amblyseius largoensis, Euseius concordis and Iphiseiodes zuluagai were dominant under both cropping systems, but the intercrop displayed greater diversity compared to the monocrop. For population dynamics, larger populations of mites were seen in periods of low rainfall under the two systems studied. = O açaizeiro (Euterpe oleraceae é a mais importante palmeira do gênero Euterpe conhecida no Brasil, que é cultivada em sistemas de cultivo solteiro e consorciado. Apesar da grande utilidade, esta palmeira se destaca no fornecimento de dois produtos alimentares economicamente rentáveis, os frutos e o palmito. Em razão da sua importância, objetivou-se com este trabalho realizar o levantamento da acarofauna presente em cultivos de açaizeiro no município de São Luís - Maranhão. As amostragens foram realizadas mensalmente, no per

  19. Acarofauna da cafeicultura de cerrado em Patrocínio, Minas Gerais Acarofauna of cerrado's coffee crops in Patrocínio, Minas Gerais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheila Spongoski

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available A cultura do cafeeiro (Coffea arabica L. na região de cerrado do Estado de Minas Gerais, mais especificamente no Alto Paranaíba, está se desenvolvendo com muito sucesso. As doenças e pragas vêm causando redução na produtividade e na qualidade do café produzido. Os ácaros fitófagos fazem parte deste problema, pois causam danos econômicos. Sendo assim, este trabalho teve como objetivo o levantamento da acarofauna em cafeeiros daquela região. Foram feitas quatro amostragens de folhas, ramos e frutos, sendo duas no período das águas e duas no período de seca em 2002 e 2003. Foram identificadas três famílias de ácaros fitófagos, quatro de ácaros predadores e quatro de ácaros generalistas. As espécies de ácaros encontradas foram: Brevipalpus phoenicis (Geijskes, 1939 (Tenuipalpidae; Oligonychus sp. (Tetranychidae; Tarsonemus confusus Ewing, 1939, Fungitarsonemus sp., Daidalotarsonemus sp., Phytonemus sp. (Tarsonemidae; Lorrya formosa Cooreman, 1958, Lorrya sp. (Tydeidae; Parapronematus acaciae Baker, 1965 (Iolinidae; Euseius concordis (Chant, 1959, Euseius citrifolius Denmark e Muma, 1970, Amblyseius herbicolus (Chant, 1959 (Phytoseiidae; Asca sp. (Ascidae; Bdella sp. (Bdellidae; Zetzellia sp. (Stigmaeidae, e espécimes da família Acaridae e da subordem Oribatida não identificadas. Trata-se do primeiro relato da ocorrência da espécie T. confusus em cafeeiro. Da família Tarsonemidae foram encontradas três novas espécies, e da família Iolinidae um novo gênero, para posterior descrição.The coffee (Coffea arabica L. growing in Cerrado areas of Patrocínio, State of Minas Gerais, more specifically in the region of Alto Paranaíba, have been expanding with success. Coffee diseases and pests result in reduction of the productivity and quality. Phytophagous mites are among the pests that cause economic damage. Therefore, this work had as objective the study of the mite fauna on coffee plants in those areas. Four surveys were

  20. Biological control of two-spotted spider mites using phytoseiid predators. Part I. Modelling the predator-prey interaction at the individual level

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sabelis, M.W.

    1982-01-01

    The searching behaviour of individual predators of four phytoseiid species ( Phytoseiulus persimilis , Amblyseius p o tentillae , Amblyseius bibens , Metaseiulus occidentalis ) is investigated in relation to the two-spotted spider mite ( Tetranychus urticae ), which infests greenhouse roses. Especia

  1. Multi-species sensing using multi-mode absorption spectroscopy with mid-infrared interband cascade lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Hagan, S.; Northern, J. H.; Gras, B.; Ewart, P.; Kim, C. S.; Kim, M.; Merritt, C. D.; Bewley, W. W.; Canedy, C. L.; Vurgaftman, I.; Meyer, J. R.

    2016-06-01

    The application of an interband cascade laser, ICL, to multi-mode absorption spectroscopy, MUMAS, in the mid-infrared region is reported. Measurements of individual mode linewidths of the ICL, derived from the pressure dependence of lineshapes in MUMAS signatures of single, isolated, lines in the spectrum of HCl, were found to be in the range 10-80 MHz. Multi-line spectra of methane were recorded using spectrally limited bandwidths, of approximate width 27 cm-1, defined by an interference filter, and consist of approximately 80 modes at spectral locations spanning the 100 cm-1 bandwidth of the ICL output. Calibration of the methane pressures derived from MUMAS data using a capacitance manometer provided measurements with an uncertainty of 1.1 %. Multi-species sensing is demonstrated by the simultaneous detection of methane, acetylene and formaldehyde in a gas mixture. Individual partial pressures of the three gases are derived from best fits of model MUMAS signatures to the data with an experimental error of 10 %. Using an ICL, with an inter-mode interval of ~10 GHz, MUMAS spectra were recorded at pressures in the range 1-10 mbar, and, based on the data, a potential minimum detection limit of the order of 100 ppmv is estimated for MUMAS at atmospheric pressure using an inter-mode interval of 80 GHz.

  2. STUDIES ON THE INTERRELATIONSHIP AMONG DLYGONYCHUS UNUNGUIS HOST PLANTS AND AMBLYSEIUS FINLANDICUSⅡ.The effects of volatile on the correlation of host platns-Oligonychus ununguis-Amblyseius finlandicus%针叶小爪螨——寄主植物——芬兰钝绥螨相互关系的研究Ⅱ.挥发性物质在寄主植物——针叶小爪螨——芬兰钝绥螨之间的作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙绪艮; 尹淑艳

    2002-01-01

    用气相色谱-质谱联用仪分析了板栗健康叶片、被针叶小爪螨危害过(除去叶螨)的叶片和被该叶螨危害并带有该叶螨的叶片挥发性物质的成分和相对含量.在受害和未受害叶片中,石竹烯和α-法尼烯均占较大的比例.石竹烯在受害叶中的峰值增高;而α-法尼烯在无叶螨的受害叶中的峰值增高;1-辛烯在未受害叶片中未检测到,但在受害的叶片中则含量均较高,尤其有叶螨的受害叶片较无叶螨的受害叶片1-辛烯的峰值显著增高;苯甲酸乙酯在有叶螨的受害叶片中较其余2种也显著增高;3,7,11-三甲基-1.6.10-十二碳三烯-3-醇以有螨的受害叶中含量最高,无叶螨的受害叶次之,未受害叶含量极微,几乎检测不到;但4-溴-2-戊烯却呈现相反的趋势,在未受害叶中的含量显著高于受害叶.根据生物测试结果做出如下推断:叶片受害后,挥发性物质的种类和含量发生了变化,改变了原来寄主植物气味的化学指纹图,使针叶小爪螨在识别寄主植物时遇到困难,甚至产生了忌避作用而从受害叶转移到未受害叶上.同时这些物质对引诱芬兰钝绥螨起着重要的引诱作用.

  3. Compatibilidad de Eretmocerus mundus Mercet (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae) y Amblyseius swirskii Athias-Henriot (Acari: Phytoseiidae), importantes enemigos naturales de la mosca blanca Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) en cultivos hortícolas, con nuevas barreras físicas selectivas y modernos plaguicidas

    OpenAIRE

    Fernández Gallego, María del Mar

    2016-01-01

    Los programas de Gestión Integrada de Plagas (GIP) promueven el uso de estrategias de control que sean respetuosas con el medio ambiente, sin embargo el uso de insecticidas en los cultivos hortícolas sigue siendo necesario para el control de determinadas plagas, como es el caso de la mosca blanca Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius). Por ello, el objetivo de esta tesis es el estudio de la integración de las tres estrategias de control más empleadas hoy en día para el control de plagas: el control bioló...

  4. The Effect of Cultivars of Ivy Geranium,Amblyseius cucumeris and Pollen on Feeding Damage Rating of Frankliniella occidentalis%天竺葵品种、胡瓜钝绥螨和花粉对西花蓟马为害水平影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郅军锐; 任顺祥

    2006-01-01

    研究了天竺葵品种、释放胡瓜钝绥螨和添加花粉对西花蓟马为害水平的影响.结果表明,是否添加花粉和添加花粉的时间对西花蓟马的为害水平没有影响,而品种对西花蓟马的为害水平有显著影响,并且品种和胡瓜钝绥螨对西花蓟马的为害水平有交互作用,在每一个相同的胡瓜钝绥螨处理下,西花蓟马对品种Sybil Holmes为害水平明显高于Amethyst 96.在不同品种上,胡瓜钝绥螨作用不同,对于品种Sybil Holmes来说,是否释放胡瓜钝绥螨以及不同释放比例对西花蓟马的为害水平没有影响,而对于品种Amethyst 96,在胡瓜钝绥螨与西花蓟马为1∶2高比例释放胡瓜钝绥螨处理下,西花蓟马的为害水平明显低于1∶10低比例释放和没有释放胡瓜钝绥螨的处理.

  5. 39Revista de CIÊNCIAS da EDUCAÇÃOCAIRES, S.; MASETTI, M.Uma pedagogia através do olhar do palhaço no contexto de saúde...UNISAL, Americana, SP, ano XVII no 33 p. 39-57 jul./dez. 2015Uma pedagogia através do olhar do palhaço no contexto de saúde: subsídios para a humanização pediátrica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susana Caires

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the authors present the principles, objectives and basic method-ologies of a pedagogical proposal developed by Doutores da Alegria, a Brazilian association of professional hospital clowns, and having students and health care professionals as target audience. The training and research, conducted in partnership with Universidade do Minho, Portugal, is based in the hospital clown’s philosophy of action, and seeks opportunities amongst the trainees to experience, analyze and discuss the subtleties inherent to the (inter actions and emotions that are present in pediatric care settings and that normally are not explored within their formal education. The experience of each of the trainees is considered as the primary training resource, and the body and af-fects as structuring scenarios for the learning process and knowledge build-ing. Through the lens, emotions and actions of the clown some opportunities are created in order to promote the “encounter” of each of the trainees with themselves and with “the other”, generating contributions for the professional (and personal development of these healthcare agents. This proposal appears also to encompass some potential value in the training of other professionals for whom care, education and human contact are key elements.

  6. New mite species associated with certain plant species from Guam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gadi V.P. Reddy

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Several new mite species have been reported from certain plants from Guam. Most remarkably, the spider mite, Tetranychus marianae (Prostigmata: Tetranychidae and the predatory mite Phytoseius horridus (Mesostigmata: Phytoseiidae (Solanum melongena have been found on eggplant. The noneconomically important species of Brevipalpus californicus(Banks Prostigmata: Tenuipalpidae,Eupodes sp. (Acarina: Eupodidae and predator Cunaxa sp. (Prostigmata: Cunaxidae have been reported on guava (Psidium guajava L.. Also, the non-economically important species Brevipalpus californicus Prostigmata: Tenuipalpidae, Lepidoglyphus destructor (Astigmata: Glycyphagidae and a predator Amblyseius obtusus, species group Amblyseius near lentiginosus (Mesostigmata: Phytoseiidae, have been recorded on cycad (Cycas micronesica.

  7. Kravas pārvadātāja korporatīvās vietnes pilnveidošana

    OpenAIRE

    Plankā, Līga

    2013-01-01

    Diplomdarbs ir pētījums par uzņēmuma SIA „LDz Cargo” korporatīvo intranet vietni Cargo, kas veic informatīvās funkcijas, korporatīvās komunikācijas uzturēšanas funkcijas un palīgfunkcijas uzņēmuma darbiniekiem. Strauji augošās tehnoloģiskās iespējas un dinamiskais uzņēmuma ritms, kā arī augošās lietotāju prasības vietnei pieprasa, lai tā tiktu pastāvīgi uzlabota un pilnveidota. Diplomdarba mērķis ir izstrādāt risinājumus SIA „LDz Cargo” uzņēmuma korporatīvās vietnes funkcionalitātes un pā...

  8. A multilocus molecular phylogeny of the endemic North American camel spider family Eremobatidae (Arachnida: Solifugae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cushing, Paula E; Graham, Matthew R; Prendini, Lorenzo; Brookhart, Jack O

    2015-11-01

    Camel spiders (Solifugae) are a diverse but poorly studied order of arachnids. No robust phylogenetic analysis has ever been carried out for the order or for any family within the Solifugae. We present a molecular phylogenetic analysis of the endemic North American family Eremobatidae Kraepelin, 1899, the first such analysis of a family of Solifugae. We use a multi-locus exemplar approach using DNA sequences from partial nuclear (28S rDNA and Histone H3) and mitochondrial (16S rRNA and Cytochrome c Oxidase I) gene loci for 81 ingroup exemplars representing all genera of Eremobatidae and most species groups within the genera Eremobates Banks, 1900, Eremochelis Roewer, 1934, and Hemerotrecha Banks, 1903. Maximum Likelihood and two Bayesian analyses consistently recovered the monophyly of Eremobatidae, Eremorhax Roewer, 1934 and Eremothera Muma, 1951 along with a group comprising all subfamily Eremobatinae Kraepelin, 1901 exemplars except Horribates bantai Muma, 1989 and a group comprising all Eremocosta Roewer, 1934 exemplars except Eremocosta acuitalpanensis (Vasquez and Gavin, 2000). The subfamily Therobatinae Muma, 1951 and the genera Chanbria Muma, 1951, Hemerotrecha, Eremochelis, and Eremobates were polyphyletic or paraphyletic. Only the banksi group of Hemerotrecha was monophyletic; the other species groups recognized within Eremobates, Eremochelis, and Hemerotrecha were paraphyletic or polyphyletic. We found no support for the monophyly of the subfamily Therobatinae. A time-calibrated phylogeny dated the most recent common ancestor of extant eremobatids to the late Eocene to early Miocene, with a mean estimate in the late Oligocene (32.2 Ma).

  9. 辽宁省钝绥螨属一新种—芦苇钝绥螨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭语词; 刘晓东; 等

    1992-01-01

    对在辽宁省盘山县芦苇上采到的一种捕食芦苇上的附线螨(害螨)的捕食性螨类进行了分类,确定为钝缓螨属一新种,芦苇钝绥螨(Amblyseius phragmites sp.nov.) .

  10. Verified and potential pathogens of predatory mites (Acari: Phytoseiidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schütte, C.; Dicke, M.

    2008-01-01

    Several species of phytoseiid mites (Acari: Phytoseiidae), including species of the genera Amblyseius, Galendromus, Metaseiulus, Neoseiulus, Phytoseiulus and Typhlodromus, are currently reared for biological control of various crop pests and/or as model organisms for the study of predator¿prey inter

  11. Species composition and abundance of solpugids (Arachnida: Solifugae) in ecotopes of the transitional coastal desert of Chile Composición de especies y abundancia de solífugos (Arachnida: Solifugae) en ecotopos del desierto costero transicional de Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel Eugenio Valdivia; Jaime Pizarro-Araya; Raúl Briones; Ojanguren-Affilastro, Andrés A.; Jorge Cepeda-Pizarro

    2011-01-01

    Using pitfall traps, the species composition and abundance of solpugids were studied in several ecotopes of Chile's transitional coastal desert. The study was conducted in the area around Punta de Choros (29°15'S, 71°26'W) and in Los Choros Archipelago (29°32'S, 67°61'W), in 2005 and 2006. Five species were recorded: Procleobis sp.; Sedna pirata Muma, 1971 (Ammotrechidae); Mummucia sp.; Mummucia variegata (Gervais, 1849) (Mummuciidae); and Ammotrechelis goetschi Roewer, 1934 (Daesiidae). Solp...

  12. The impact of pesticides on apple mite communities

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmad, Shakeel

    2013-01-01

    Laboratory, field and semi-field experiments have been carried out on the predatory mites Kampimodromus aberrans, Amblyseius andersoni, Typhlodromus pyri and Phytoseius finitimus in order to optimize biological control strategies against phytophagous mites in apple orchards. The first experiment concerned the augmentative releases of K. aberrans in organic and conventional apple orchards. The most frequent insecticides used in organic orchards were pyrethrins and spinosad, whereas neonicotino...

  13. Archeological Testing Fort Hood: 1994-1995. Volume 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-10-01

    Seed 0 0 0 1 1 indeterminate oak Quercus sp. Wood C 4 0 0 5 pepper vine Ampelopsis sp. Seed 0 0 i 0 I sedge family Cyperaceae Seed 0 1 0 0 I white oak...SP. Mamma’kia (rnd/Ilg) salicacew Antilocapra, american Cyperaceae Maxmrklia (medium) Salicaccae sp. M~uma Cyrtonaias sp. Maramalia (sm/rued...Family Elm Live Oak Wood Type Prickly Pear Willow Group Goosefoot Maple Rose Family Wood Grass Family Mexican Plum Sedge Family Field Name: Plant-Part

  14. Stepping Forward-Guangzhou New Year Rock Festival

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    FOR some 20,000 rock fans, the transition from 2003 to 2004 encompassed music. Evening of Time, China’s first rock festival of the new year, catered to the country’s new youth.Held in Guangzhou from December 31st, 2003 to January 1st, 2004, this 10-hour music festival featured Cui Jian, the father of Chinese rock, Wang Lei, the guru of south China’s rock scene, and 10 or more other bands including Zuoxiao Zuzhou, Muma, the Painful Faith, the Second Hand Roses and the Sound Toy.

  15. A Fundamental Step in IPM on Grapevine: Evaluating the Side Effects of Pesticides on Predatory Mites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Pozzebon

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge on side effects of pesticides on non-target beneficial arthropods is a key point in Integrated Pest Management (IPM. Here we present the results of four experiments conducted in vineyards where the effects of chlorpyrifos, thiamethoxam, indoxacarb, flufenoxuron, and tebufenozide were evaluated on the generalist predatory mites Typhlodromus pyri Scheuten and Amblyseius andersoni (Chant, key biocontrol agents of herbivorous mites on grapevines. Results show that indoxacarb and tebufenozide had a low impact on the predatory mites considered here, while a significant impact was observed for chlorpyrifos, flufenoxuron, and thiamethoxam. The information obtained here should be considered in the design of IPM strategies on grapevine.

  16. Koplietota kalendāra ieviešana uzņēmumā

    OpenAIRE

    Smilga, Signe

    2012-01-01

    Jebkura uzņēmuma veiksmīgas darbības pamatā ir lietderīga laika izmantošana, kuras realizēšanai nepieciešams veikt uzņēmuma darbu plānošanu. Bieži vien uzņēmumos netiek nodrošināta centralizēta datu apmaiņa starp darba devēju un darbinieku un tas rada risku, ka noteiktie uzdevumi netiek veikti kvalitatīvi un noteiktajā laikā. Lai risinātu šādas problēmas, daudzu uzņēmumu vadītāji spiesti meklēt kvalificētus speciālistus šādas darbu plānošanas programmatūras izstrādei vai arī iegādāties kādus ...

  17. Konkurētspējas paaugstināšanas iespējas uzņēmumā SIA "Food Leaders"

    OpenAIRE

    Masterova, Olga

    2012-01-01

    Bakalaura darbs "Konkurētspējas paaugstināšanas iespējas uzņēmumā SIA "Food Leaders". Darba mērķis ir izpētīt uzņēmuma konkurētspēju un izstrādāt priekšlikumus tās attīstīšanai. Darbs sastāv no 3 daļām. Pirmā daļa ir veltīta konkurences un konkurētspējas teorētiskiem aspektiem: konkurences un konkurētspējas definīcijas, konkurētspējīgās priekšrocības radīšanas un attīstīšanas priekšnosacījumi un vērtēšanas metodes. Darba otrajā ir dots detalizēts uzņēmuma apraksts, pētīta nozares ...

  18. Mazumtirdzniecības tīkla "Narvesen" komunikācija sociālajos medijos "twitter" un "facebook"

    OpenAIRE

    Ozoliņš, Kristaps

    2015-01-01

    Bakalaura darbs „Mazumtirdzniecības tīkla “Narvesen” komunikācija sociālajos medijos “twitter” un “facebook” ” sastāv no teorētiskās, metodoloģiskās un empīriskās daļas, un pētījumā pierādās, ka auditorija seko uzņēmuma sociālo mediju kontiem, jo iepriekš ir piedalījušies kādā no piedāvātajiem konkursiem, kā arī tāpēc, lai iegūtu informāciju par jauniem un aktuāliem piedāvājumiem. Iemesli, kāpēc neseko, galvenokārt, ir tādi, ka nepiesaista uzņēmuma komunikācijas veids un piedāvātais saturs. ...

  19. SIA "JDL" uzņēmējdarbība un tās attīstības perspektīvas

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    Bakalaura darba mērķis ir raksturot apzaļumošanas pakalpojumu tirgus situāciju un noteikt uzņēmuma SIA „JLD” darbības pilnveidošanas un attīstības iespējas. Analizējot apzaļumošanas pakalpojumu tirgu, tā dalībniekus un nosakot SIA „JLD” vietu konkurentu vidū, autore nonākusi pie secinājuma, ka ir nepieciešams pircējus aktīvāk informēt par uzņēmuma sniegtajiem pakalpojumiem un popularizēt zīmolu, lai varētu veiksmīgāk darboties konkurences apstākļos. Atslēgas vārdi: apzaļumošana, uzņēmē...

  20. Apgrozāmo līdzekļu uzskaite uzņēmumā SIA „Auto”

    OpenAIRE

    Rusiņa, Ance

    2015-01-01

    Darba temats ir Apgrozāmo līdzekļu uzskaite uzņēmumā SIA „Auto”. Darba mērķis ir izpētīt apgrozāmo līdzekļu uzskaites teorētiskos aspektus un uz tā pamata izanalizēt uzņēmuma SIA „Auto” apgrozāmo līdzekļu uzskaiti, kā arī atklāt nepilnības un trūkumus, un izstrādāt priekšlikumus to novēršanai. Darba rezultātā autore ir izpētījusi uzņēmuma SIA „Auto” apgrozāmo līdzekļu uzskaiti, un secinājusi, kādas ir problēmas un trūkumi apgrozāmo līdzekļu uzskaitē, un izstrādājusi priekšlikumus to uzl...

  1. "Coca─Cola" zīmola virzības stratēģijas un vēstījuma analīze

    OpenAIRE

    Cekuls, Oskars

    2009-01-01

    Darba virsraksts – "Coca─Cola" zīmola virzības stratēģijas un vēstījuma analīze. Darbs kopumā izklāstīts uz 88 lappusēm, tajā iekļauti 2 attēli, 1 tabula. Darbā izmantoti 46 literatūras avoti un pievienoti 7 pielikumi. Bakalaura darba mērķis izpētīt zīmola vispārējos aspektus, kā arī viena konkrēta uzņēmuma “Coca–Cola” virzības stratēģijas un pozicionēšanas pieredzi tirgū un uzņēmuma zīmola komunikāciju ar sabiedrību. Bakalaura darba struktūra sastāv no ievada, 6 nodaļām ar apakšn...

  2. Phytoseiid mites from tropical fruit trees in Bahia State, Brazil (Acari, Phytoseiidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, Izabel Vieira; Sá Argolo, Poliane; Júnior, Manoel Guedes Correa Gondim; de Moraes, Gilberto José; Bittencourt, Maria Aparecida Leão; Oliveira, Anibal Ramadan

    2015-01-01

    The cultivation of tropical fruit trees has grown considerably in the state of Bahia, northeastern Brazil. Some of these have been severely attacked by phytophagous mites, which are usually controlled by the use of chemical pesticides. However, there is today a growing interest for the adoption of less aggressive measures of pest control, as for example the use of predatory mites. Most of the plant-inhabiting predatory mites belong to the family Phytoseiidae. The objective of this paper is to report the phytoseiid species found in an intensive survey conducted on cultivated tropical fruit trees in fifteen localities of the southern coast of Bahia. Measurements of relevant morphological characters are provided for each species, to complement the understanding of the morphological variation of these species. Twenty-nine species of sixteen genera were identified. A key was elaborated to assist in the separation of these species. Fifteen species are reported for the first time in the state, raising to sixty-six the number of species of this family now known from Bahia. Seventy-two percent of the species collected belong to Amblyseiinae, followed by Typhlodrominae (21%) and Phytoseiinae (7%). The most diverse genus was Amblyseius. Amblyseius operculatus De Leon was the most frequent and abundant species. Studies should be conducted to evaluate the possible role of the most common predators as control agents of the phytophagous mites co-occurring with them.

  3. Ácaros predadores associados ao ácaro-da-erinose da lichia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Renan Ferreira Picoli

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi identificar ácaros predadores em plantas de lichia e correlacionar o desenvolvimento populacional dessas espécies com o do ácaro-da-erinose da lichia, Aceria litchii. A pesquisa foi desenvolvida no Município de Casa Branca, SP, com árvores adultas, de 12 anos de idade, da variedade Bengal. Mensalmente, de agosto de 2008 a setembro de 2009, foram coletadas folhas para avaliação dos níveis populacionais de A. litchii e de ácaros predadores. Foram registrados 6.557 indivíduos da família Phytoseiidae. A espécie mais abundante foi Amblyseius compositus (42,6%, seguida por Phytoseius intermedius (31,2%, Euseius concordis (14,1%, Amblyseius herbicolus (8,8% e Iphiseiodes zuluagai (3,3%. O desenvolvimento populacional de A. compositus, E. concordis e I. zuluagai correlacionou-se positivamente com o de Aceria litchii, o que indica relação de predação.

  4. Acaricides and predatory mites against the begonia mite, Polyphagotarsonemus latus (Acari: Tarsonemidae), on Hedera helix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Audenaert, Joachim; Vissers, Marc; Haleydt, Bart; Verhoeven, Ruth; Goossens, Frans; Gobin, Bruno

    2009-01-01

    In recent years, the begonia mite (Polyphagotarsonemus lotus) has become an important threat to different ornamental cultures in warm greenhouses. At present there are no professional plant protection products registered in Belgium for the control of mites of the Tarsonemidae family. In a screening trial, we evaluated the efficacy of a range of different acaricides: abamectin, milbemectin, pyridaben, spirodiclofen. Based on the results of the screening trial several products were selected for a full efficacy trial following EPPO guidelines. The best control results were obtained with two products from the avermectine group: abamectin and milbemectin. As growers currently have to rely solely on the use of natural enemies there is a strong need for practical evaluation of efficacies of the various predatory mite species (Amblyseius swirskii, A. cucumeris, A. andersoni) used in biological mite control. In a series of experiments, we screened the use of different species of predatory mites. The first efficacy trials on heavily infested plants at different rates of dosage and under different circumstances (temperature, dose rate, application technique) were started in May 2008. In these experiments Amblyseius swirskii showed good efficacy. But temperature was the limiting factor: the predatory mite needed a minimal temperature of 18 degrees C to obtain good results. Further research is necessary to search for predatory mites that can be used in winter conditions (lower temperatures, less light).

  5. O CERRADO E A REESTRUTURAÇÃO DO TERRITÓRIO: O CASO DA MICRORREGIÃO DE RONDONÓPOLIS, MT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto de Souza Santos

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available O presente artigo tem por objetivo identificar como as políticas públicas desenharam a organização territorial da Microrregião de Rondonópolis, MT, no interior da acumulação capitalista, a partir da introdução do progresso técnico-científico na agropecuária, que atingiu a dinâmica socioespacial e natural do geossistema. Faz tambémuma discussão teórica a respeito de como se estruturou e se espacializou o processo de modernização agropecuária na microrregião.

  6. Plantas de ocorrência espontânea como substratos alternativos para fitoseídeos (Acari, Phytoseiidae em cultivos de seringueira Hevea brasiliensis Muell. Arg. (Euphorbiaceae Weeds as alternative substrates to phytoseiids (Acari, Phytoseiidae in rubber tree Hevea brasilienis, Muell. Arg. (Euphorbiaceae cultivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Roberto Bellini

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi determinar as espécies de plantas espontâneas em áreas de cultivo de seringueira que poderiam servir com reservatório de ácaros predadores. O trabalho foi conduzido em Olímpia, Estado de São Paulo, Brasil, em dois cultivos de seringueira. A cada três meses, cerca de 1.000 cm³ de folhas de cada uma das cinco espécies de plantas espontâneas dominantes em cada cultivo foi tomada para determinar os fitoseídeos. Como as plantas espontâneas dominantes variaram durante o estudo, um total de 20 espécies foi verificado. Somente Cecropia sp. foi dominante em todo estudo, em ambos os cultivos. Um total de 336 fitoseídeos pertencentes às seguintes espécies foi encontrado: Euseius citrifolius Denmark & Muma, 1970, E. concordis (Chant, 1959, Galendromus annectens (DeLeon, 1958, Iphiseiodes zuluagai Denmark & Muma, 1972, Neoseiulus anonymus (Chant & Baker, 1965 e N. tunus (DeLeon, 1967. E. citrifolius (189 espécimes e N. tunus (138 espécimes foram os mais abundantes. A maior abundância (231espécimes e diversidade (5 espécies foram observadas sobre Cecropia sp. Sobre esta planta foi encontrado o maior número de ácaros por amostra (29 espécimes, seguida por Piper duncum Linnaeus (22, Guarea sp. (18 e Ageratum conyzoides Linnaeus (12. E. citrifolius tem sido determinado como um dos ácaros predadores mais abundantes sobre seringueiras cultivadas na região onde este trabalho foi conduzido. Cecropia sp. parece ser uma das plantas espontâneas mais importantes consideradas como reservatório de E. citrifolius porque está continuamente presente nos cultivos. Estudos complementares poderiam indicar a viabilidade de se manejar esta planta nas áreas de cultivo de seringueira para permitir o controle biológico dos ácaros-praga desta cultura.The objective of this study was to determine weed species of rubber tree cultivation areas that could serve as reservoirs of predatory mites. The work was conducted in Ol

  7. ERP sistēmas ieviešana

    OpenAIRE

    Proskurins, Aleksandrs

    2008-01-01

    Šajā darbā tika apskatīta informācijas sistēmu klasifikācija, uzņēmuma resursu plānošanas sistēmas (ERP) definīcija un tās vieta IS klasifikācijā. Tika apskatīti ERP sistēmu ieviešanas teorētiskie aspekti, izstrādes un pielāgošanas specifika, kā arī tika izanalizēti vairāki ERP sistēmas ieviešanas projekti Latvijas uzņēmumos.

  8. Deep learning for electronic cleansing in dual-energy CT colonography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tachibana, Rie; Näppi, Janne J.; Hironakaa, Toru; Kim, Se Hyung; Yoshida, Hiroyuki

    2016-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a novel deep-learning-based electronic cleansing (EC) method for dual-energy CT colonography (DE-CTC). In this method, an ensemble of deep convolutional neural networks (DCNNs) is used to classify each voxel of DE-CTC image volumes into one of five multi-material (MUMA) classes: luminal air, soft tissue, tagged fecal material, or a partial-volume boundary between air and tagging or that of soft tissue and tagging. Each DCNN acts as a voxel classifier. At each voxel, a region-of-interest (ROI) centered at the voxel is extracted. After mapping the pixels of the ROI to the input layer of a DCNN, a series of convolutional and max-pooling layers is used to extract features with increasing levels of abstraction. The output layer produces the probabilities at which the input voxel belongs to each of the five MUMA classes. To develop an ensemble of DCNNs, we trained multiple DCNNs based on multi-spectral image volumes derived from the DE-CTC images, including material decomposition images and virtual monochromatic images. The outputs of these DCNNs were then combined by means of a meta-classifier for precise classification of the voxels. Finally, the electronically cleansed CTC images were generated by removing regions that were classified as other than soft tissue, followed by colon surface reconstruction. Preliminary results based on 184,320 images sampled from 30 clinical CTC cases showed a higher accuracy in labeling these classes than that of our previous machine-learning methods, indicating that deep-learning-based multi-spectral EC can accurately remove residual fecal materials from CTC images without generating major EC artifacts.

  9. Incidência de ácaros em cafeeiro cv. Catuaí Amarelo Mite fauna on coffee plants cv. Catuaí Amarelo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeferson Luiz de Carvalho Mineiro

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivo estudar a diversidade de ácaros presentes em cafeeiro (Coffea arabica L., no município de Atibaia, Estado de São Paulo. O estudo foi realizado em cafeeiro cultivar Catuaí Amarelo com aproximadamente 15 anos de idade. Foram demarcadas 60 plantas na cultura, das quais se coletaram folhas, ramos e frutos para a avaliação das espécies de ácaros existentes. Vinte e uma espécies de ácaros pertencentes a 14 famílias foram encontradas, sendo a maior diversidade observada nos ramos. As duas principais espécies fitófagas foram Brevipalpus phoenicis (Geijskes (Tenuipalpidae e Oligonychus yothersi (McGregor (Tetranychidae. Dentre os predadores, os ácaros da família Phytoseiidae e Bdellidae foram os mais abundantes. Iphiseiodes zuluagai Denmark & Muma foi o predador mais abundante, tanto em folhas como em ramos. Bdella sp. (Bdellidae foi outra espécie muito abundante observada nos ramos.The objective of this work was to study the diversity of mites found on a coffee (Coffea arabica L. plantation located in Atibaia County, State of Sao Paulo, Brazil. The study was carried out on a near 15 year old plantation of 'Catuaí Amarelo'. From 60 marked coffee plants, leaves, branches and berries were collected to evaluate the species of mites present on the plants. Twenty one species of mites belonging to 14 families were found. The highest diversity was observed on branches. The most abundant phytophagous species were Brevipalpus phoenicis (Geijskes (Tenuipalpidae and Oligonychus yothersi (McGregor (Tetranychidae. Among the predators, the mites of the families Phytoseiidae and Bdellidae were the most abundant. The phytoseiid Iphiseiodes zuluagai Denmark and Muma predominated on leaves as well as on branches. Bdella sp. (Bdellidae was also mostly present on branches.

  10. Phytoseiid mites (Acari: Phytoseiidae) from Patagonia and Tierra del Fuego.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferragut, Francisco; Navia, Denise

    2015-07-28

    Predatory phytoseiid mites have been intensively studied and surveyed in the last decades because of their economic importance as biocontrol agents of agricultural pests. However, many regions of the world remain unexplored and the diversity of the family worldwide is still fragmentary. Up to date no phytoseiid species have been collected in the southernmost part of the Earth down to latitude 45º S. In this study Phytoseiidae were sampled from native vegetation in southern Argentina and Chile in the regions of Patagonia and Tierra del Fuego Island. Thirteen species were collected, five of which were previously described and eight, Chileseius australis n. sp., Neoseiulus mapuche n. sp., Typhlodromips valdivianus n. sp., T. fissuratus n. sp., Amblyseius grandiporus n. sp., A. caliginosus n. sp., Typhlodromus (Anthoseius) anomalos n. sp. and Metaseiulus parabrevicollis n. sp. are proposed as new to science and are described and diagnosed.

  11. Laboratory screening of potential predators of the poultry red mite (Dermanyssus gallinae) and assessment of Hypoaspis miles performance under varying biotic and abiotic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, W; George, D R; Shiel, R S; Sparagano, O A E; Guy, J H

    2012-06-08

    The poultry red mite, Dermanyssus gallinae (De Geer), is the most important ectoparasitic pest of layer hens worldwide and difficult to control through 'conventional' synthetic acaricides. The present study aimed to identify a suitable predator of D. gallinae that could potentially form the basis of biological control in commercial poultry systems. From four selected predatory mite species (Hypoaspis miles (Berlese), Hypoaspis aculeifer (Canestrini), Amblyseius degenerans (Berlese) and Phytoseiulus persimilis (Athias-Henriot)), Hypoaspis mites demonstrated the greatest potential as predators of D. gallinae. Experiments were also conducted to assess the effect of environmental (temperature and dust), physical (presence of harbourages) and biological (presence of alternative prey) factors on the predatory efficacy of H. miles. Predation of D. gallinae per se was observed under all conditions tested, though was found to be temperature-dependent and reduced by the presence of alternative prey.

  12. 温度对加州新小绥螨捕食作用影响及高温耐饥饿能力研究%Effect of Temperature on Predation of Neoseiulus californicus (McGregor) and Starvation Tolerance at High Temperature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    覃贵勇; 李庆

    2013-01-01

    The functional responses of Neoseiulus californicus (McGregor) to Panonychus citri AaGregor at different temperatures and the starvation tolerance at high temperature of N.californicus and other four predatory mites were studied.The result showed that the controlling effect of N.californicus to P.citri AaGregor increased with the experimental temperature range of 20 to 30 ℃,the controlling effect was the strongest at 30 ℃,but when the temperatures was higher than 34 ℃,the controlling effect decreased ; the starvation tolerance at high temperature of N.californicus was higher than that of Amblyseius eharai Amitai et Swirski and Euseius nicholsi,and closed to that of A.pseudolongispinosus and A.makuwa Ehara.%本文研究了在不同温度条件下加州新小绥螨Neoseiulus californicus(McGregor)对柑橘全爪螨Panonychus citri AaGregor的功能反应,以及研究了加州新小绥螨等5种捕食螨的高温耐饥饿能力.结果表明:在20~30℃温度下,随着温度的升高,加州新小绥螨对柑橘全爪螨各螨态的控制能力增强,在30℃时,控制能力最强,而超过30 ℃时,加州新小绥螨的控制能力下降;加州新小绥螨的高温耐饥饿能力显著高于江原钝绥螨Amblyseius eharai Amitai et Swirski和尼氏真绥螨Euseius nicholsi(Ehara et Lee),而与拟长毛钝绥螨A.pseudolongispinosus和真桑钝绥螨A.makuwa Ehara接近.

  13. Species composition and abundance of solpugids (Arachnida: Solifugae in ecotopes of the transitional coastal desert of Chile Composición de especies y abundancia de solífugos (Arachnida: Solifugae en ecotopos del desierto costero transicional de Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Eugenio Valdivia

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Using pitfall traps, the species composition and abundance of solpugids were studied in several ecotopes of Chile's transitional coastal desert. The study was conducted in the area around Punta de Choros (29°15'S, 71°26'W and in Los Choros Archipelago (29°32'S, 67°61'W, in 2005 and 2006. Five species were recorded: Procleobis sp.; Sedna pirata Muma, 1971 (Ammotrechidae; Mummucia sp.; Mummucia variegata (Gervais, 1849 (Mummuciidae; and Ammotrechelis goetschi Roewer, 1934 (Daesiidae. Solpugid abundance was higher on the continent (65% than on the islands (35%. The ANOSIM used to evaluate any difference in species richness between ecotopes revealed no significant differences (R= 0.097, p= 0.13. The similarity dendrogram obtained from the Bray-Curtis matrix indicates that there are 3 groups of ecotopes: steppe, dune, and a miscellaneous group. From the data it is inferred that the diversity and abundance of solpugids in the ecotopes studied may be related to plant structure and to the pedological conditions of the habitat.Mediante trampas de intercepción se estudió la composición específica y la abundancia de solífugos en diversos ecotopos del desierto costero transicional de Chile. El trabajo se llevó a cabo tanto en el sector de Punta de Choros (29°15'S, 71°26'O como en el archipiélago de Los Choros (29°32'S, 67°61'O, durante los años 2005 y 2006. Se registró la presencia de 5 especies: Procleobis sp.; Sedna pirata Muma, 1971 (Ammotrechidae, Mummucia sp.; Mummucia variegata (Gervais, 1849 (Mummuciidae y Ammotrechelis goetschi Roewer, 1934 (Daesiidae. En el sector continental se observó mayor abundancia que en el sector insular (65% y 35%, respectivamente. El ANOSIM aplicado para evaluar la diferencia en la riqueza especifica entre ecotopos, no mostró diferencias significativas (R= 0.097; p= 0.13. El dendrograma de similitud generado a partir de la matriz Bray-Curtis mostró 3 agrupaciones de ecotopos: estepario, dunario y

  14. Sociālo tiklu izmantošana tūrisma uzņēmumos Latvijā.

    OpenAIRE

    Medne, Egija

    2014-01-01

    Bakalaura darba tēma ir „Sociālo tīklu izmantošana tūrisma uzņēmumos Latvijā”. Sociālo tīklu ietekme uz mūsdienu sabiedrības ikdienas dzīvi un biznesa vidi kļūst aizvien lielāka. Darba mērķis bija noskaidrot, cik pilnvērtīgi tūrisma uzņēmumi Latvijā izmanto sociālo tīklu vidi un kādas ir būtiskākās problēmas, ko tie pieļauj savā darbībā un kā tās veiksmīgāk novērst. Atslēgvārdi: tūrisma uzņēmums, sociālo mediju mārketings, sociālie tīkli, uzņēmuma biznesa lapa, sekotāju skaits, divvirzien...

  15. Iedarbīgas komunikācijas principi lietišķajās prezentācijās

    OpenAIRE

    Damberga, Ieva

    2015-01-01

    Efektīvas biznesa prezentācijas var veicināt uzņēmuma izaugsmi. Lai nodrošinātu iedarbīgu komunikāciju prezentācijās, ir jāievēro vairāki principi. Tādēļ pētījumā tiek iekļauta ne tikai teorija, bet arī zināšanas un praktiski piemēri no dzīves. Pētījuma mērķis ir noteikt iedarbīgas komunikācijas principu atbilstību pielietojumā praksē. Pētījumā tiek pētīta teorija un izmantota kvalitatīvās pētniecības metode, kas iekļauj intervijas un vērojumu ar kvantitatīvās pētniecības metodes elementiem. ...

  16. Vadības sistēmas pilnveidošana SIA "Water Ser"

    OpenAIRE

    Strods, Jānis

    2013-01-01

    Maģistra darba tēma ir „Vadības sistēmas pilnveidošana SIA „WATER SER””. Darba pētījuma mērķis ir SIA „WATER SER” uz ilgtermiņa attīstību balstītas vadības sistēmas pilnveidošanas pasākumu definēšana, izstrāde, un ieviešanas plāna prezentēšana. Darba pirmā nodaļa ir veltīta populārāko vadības sistēmu teorētiskajam aprakstam. Otrā nodaļa ir veltīta būvniecības nozares raksturojumam. Darba trešā nodaļa ir veltīta pētāmā uzņēmuma raksturošanai. Ceturtajā nodaļā, balstoties uz veikto datu anal...

  17. PepsiCo un to piedāvāto produktu virzišanai izmantoto mārketinga komunikāciju pilnveidošanas iespējas.

    OpenAIRE

    Bičihina, Justīne

    2016-01-01

    Bakalaura darba „PepsiCo un to piedāvāto produktu virzīšanai izmantoto mārketinga komunikāciju pilnveidošanas iespējas” mērķis ir - pamatojoties uz teorētiskām atziņām un autores veiktā pētījuma rezultātiem, izpētīt uzņēmuma darbību un tā izmantotos mārketinga komunikāciju veidus, ņemot vēra PepsiCo plašo zīmolu produktu skaitu, ko piedāvā uzņēmums, kā arī atklāt nepilnības un sniegt priekšlikumus to novēršanai. Darbs sastāv no teorētiskās daļas, kas ietver mārketinga komunikāciju uzskaiti un...

  18. Pieeja nelielu tīmekļa lietojumu izstrādei – teorija un prakse

    OpenAIRE

    2006-01-01

    Darbā tiek apskatīta izejvielu un iekārtu vairumtirdzniecības uzņēmuma „Unimix” tīmekļa vietnes izstrāde. Tiek analizēta izstrādes gaita un, balstoties uz izdarītajiem secinājumiem, tiek izstrādāta pieeja efektīvai un ātrai nelielu tīmekļa lietojumu izstrādei. Šīs pieejas izstrādes gaitā tiek apskatīts jautājums par piemērotākā dzīves cikla modeļa izvēli, nelielu tīmekļu lietojumu dokumentēšanu, kā arī par izstrādei piemērotāko tehnoloģiju izvēli.

  19. Attīstības stratēģijas pilnveidošana jūras kravu pārvadājumos

    OpenAIRE

    Ļudinovska, N; Vasiļjeva, L

    2009-01-01

    Šī raksta pētāmais objekts ir pasaulē lielākā konteineru pārvadātāj līnija Maersk Line.Šī raksta pētāmais priekšmets ir jūras konteineru pārvadājumi.Maersk Latvija SIA ir šīs līnijas oficiālā pārstāvniecība Latvijā un gadu gaitā ir iekarojusi ievērojamu konteineru pārvadājumu tirgus daļu. Izvēlētā tēma ir aktuāla, jo pēdējo gadu laikā Latvijas tirgū jūtama izteikta konkurence par līdera pozīcijām konteineru kravu pārvadājumu tirgū. Darba ietvaros autores analizē un izvērtē uzņēmuma stiprās ...

  20. Measurements of prompt charm production cross-sections in $pp$ collisions at $\\sqrt{s}$ = 13 TeV

    CERN Document Server

    Aaij, Roel; Adeva, Bernardo; Adinolfi, Marco; Affolder, Anthony; Ajaltouni, Ziad; Akar, Simon; Albrecht, Johannes; Alessio, Federico; Alexander, Michael; Ali, Suvayu; Alkhazov, Georgy; Alvarez Cartelle, Paula; Alves Jr, Antonio Augusto; Amato, Sandra; Amerio, Silvia; Amhis, Yasmine; An, Liupan; Anderlini, Lucio; Anderson, Jonathan; Andreassi, Guido; Andreotti, Mirco; Andrews, Jason; Appleby, Robert; Aquines Gutierrez, Osvaldo; Archilli, Flavio; d'Argent, Philippe; Artamonov, Alexander; Artuso, Marina; Aslanides, Elie; Auriemma, Giulio; Baalouch, Marouen; Bachmann, Sebastian; Back, John; Badalov, Alexey; Baesso, Clarissa; Baldini, Wander; Barlow, Roger; Barschel, Colin; Barsuk, Sergey; Barter, William; Batozskaya, Varvara; Battista, Vincenzo; Bay, Aurelio; Beaucourt, Leo; Beddow, John; Bedeschi, Franco; Bediaga, Ignacio; Bel, Lennaert; Bellee, Violaine; Belloli, Nicoletta; Belyaev, Ivan; Ben-Haim, Eli; Bencivenni, Giovanni; Benson, Sean; Benton, Jack; Berezhnoy, Alexander; Bernet, Roland; Bertolin, Alessandro; Bettler, Marc-Olivier; van Beuzekom, Martinus; Bien, Alexander; Bifani, Simone; Billoir, Pierre; Bird, Thomas; Birnkraut, Alex; Bizzeti, Andrea; Blake, Thomas; Blanc, Frédéric; Blouw, Johan; Blusk, Steven; Bocci, Valerio; Bondar, Alexander; Bondar, Nikolay; Bonivento, Walter; Borghi, Silvia; Borsato, Martino; Bowcock, Themistocles; Bowen, Espen Eie; Bozzi, Concezio; Braun, Svende; Britsch, Markward; Britton, Thomas; Brodzicka, Jolanta; Brook, Nicholas; Buchanan, Emma; Burr, Christopher; Bursche, Albert; Buytaert, Jan; Cadeddu, Sandro; Calabrese, Roberto; Calvi, Marta; Calvo Gomez, Miriam; Campana, Pierluigi; Campora Perez, Daniel; Capriotti, Lorenzo; Carbone, Angelo; Carboni, Giovanni; Cardinale, Roberta; Cardini, Alessandro; Carniti, Paolo; Carson, Laurence; Carvalho Akiba, Kazuyoshi; Casse, Gianluigi; Cassina, Lorenzo; Castillo Garcia, Lucia; Cattaneo, Marco; Cauet, Christophe; Cavallero, Giovanni; Cenci, Riccardo; Charles, Matthew; Charpentier, Philippe; Chefdeville, Maximilien; Chen, Shanzhen; Cheung, Shu-Faye; Chiapolini, Nicola; Chrzaszcz, Marcin; Cid Vidal, Xabier; Ciezarek, Gregory; Clarke, Peter; Clemencic, Marco; Cliff, Harry; Closier, Joel; Coco, Victor; Cogan, Julien; Cogneras, Eric; Cogoni, Violetta; Cojocariu, Lucian; Collazuol, Gianmaria; Collins, Paula; Comerma-Montells, Albert; Contu, Andrea; Cook, Andrew; Coombes, Matthew; Coquereau, Samuel; Corti, Gloria; Corvo, Marco; Couturier, Benjamin; Cowan, Greig; Craik, Daniel Charles; Crocombe, Andrew; Cruz Torres, Melissa Maria; Cunliffe, Samuel; Currie, Robert; D'Ambrosio, Carmelo; Dall'Occo, Elena; Dalseno, Jeremy; David, Pieter; Davis, Adam; De Aguiar Francisco, Oscar; De Bruyn, Kristof; De Capua, Stefano; De Cian, Michel; De Miranda, Jussara; De Paula, Leandro; De Simone, Patrizia; Dean, Cameron Thomas; Decamp, Daniel; Deckenhoff, Mirko; Del Buono, Luigi; Déléage, Nicolas; Demmer, Moritz; Derkach, Denis; Deschamps, Olivier; Dettori, Francesco; Dey, Biplab; Di Canto, Angelo; Di Ruscio, Francesco; Dijkstra, Hans; Donleavy, Stephanie; Dordei, Francesca; Dorigo, Mirco; Dosil Suárez, Alvaro; Dossett, David; Dovbnya, Anatoliy; Dreimanis, Karlis; Dufour, Laurent; Dujany, Giulio; Dupertuis, Frederic; Durante, Paolo; Dzhelyadin, Rustem; Dziurda, Agnieszka; Dzyuba, Alexey; Easo, Sajan; Egede, Ulrik; Egorychev, Victor; Eidelman, Semen; Eisenhardt, Stephan; Eitschberger, Ulrich; Ekelhof, Robert; Eklund, Lars; El Rifai, Ibrahim; Elsasser, Christian; Ely, Scott; Esen, Sevda; Evans, Hannah Mary; Evans, Timothy; Falabella, Antonio; Färber, Christian; Farley, Nathanael; Farry, Stephen; Fay, Robert; Ferguson, Dianne; Fernandez Albor, Victor; Ferrari, Fabio; Ferreira Rodrigues, Fernando; Ferro-Luzzi, Massimiliano; Filippov, Sergey; Fiore, Marco; Fiorini, Massimiliano; Firlej, Miroslaw; Fitzpatrick, Conor; Fiutowski, Tomasz; Fohl, Klaus; Fol, Philip; Fontana, Marianna; Fontanelli, Flavio; Forshaw, Dean Charles; Forty, Roger; Frank, Markus; Frei, Christoph; Frosini, Maddalena; Fu, Jinlin; Furfaro, Emiliano; Gallas Torreira, Abraham; Galli, Domenico; Gallorini, Stefano; Gambetta, Silvia; Gandelman, Miriam; Gandini, Paolo; Gao, Yuanning; García Pardiñas, Julián; Garra Tico, Jordi; Garrido, Lluis; Gascon, David; Gaspar, Clara; Gauld, Rhorry; Gavardi, Laura; Gazzoni, Giulio; Gerick, David; Gersabeck, Evelina; Gersabeck, Marco; Gershon, Timothy; Ghez, Philippe; Gianì, Sebastiana; Gibson, Valerie; Girard, Olivier Göran; Giubega, Lavinia-Helena; Gligorov, V.V.; Göbel, Carla; Golubkov, Dmitry; Golutvin, Andrey; Gomes, Alvaro; Gotti, Claudio; Grabalosa Gándara, Marc; Graciani Diaz, Ricardo; Granado Cardoso, Luis Alberto; Graugés, Eugeni; Graverini, Elena; Graziani, Giacomo; Grecu, Alexandru; Greening, Edward; Gregson, Sam; Griffith, Peter; Grillo, Lucia; Grünberg, Oliver; Gui, Bin; Gushchin, Evgeny; Guz, Yury; Gys, Thierry; Hadavizadeh, Thomas; Hadjivasiliou, Christos; Haefeli, Guido; Haen, Christophe; Haines, Susan; Hall, Samuel; Hamilton, Brian; Han, Xiaoxue; Hansmann-Menzemer, Stephanie; Harnew, Neville; Harnew, Samuel; Harrison, Jonathan; He, Jibo; Head, Timothy; Heijne, Veerle; Hennessy, Karol; Henrard, Pierre; Henry, Louis; van Herwijnen, Eric; Heß, Miriam; Hicheur, Adlène; Hill, Donal; Hoballah, Mostafa; Hombach, Christoph; Hulsbergen, Wouter; Humair, Thibaud; Hussain, Nazim; Hutchcroft, David; Hynds, Daniel; Idzik, Marek; Ilten, Philip; Jacobsson, Richard; Jaeger, Andreas; Jalocha, Pawel; Jans, Eddy; Jawahery, Abolhassan; Jing, Fanfan; John, Malcolm; Johnson, Daniel; Jones, Christopher; Joram, Christian; Jost, Beat; Jurik, Nathan; Kandybei, Sergii; Kanso, Walaa; Karacson, Matthias; Karbach, Moritz; Karodia, Sarah; Kecke, Matthieu; Kelsey, Matthew; Kenyon, Ian; Kenzie, Matthew; Ketel, Tjeerd; Khairullin, Egor; Khanji, Basem; Khurewathanakul, Chitsanu; Klaver, Suzanne; Klimaszewski, Konrad; Kochebina, Olga; Kolpin, Michael; Komarov, Ilya; Koopman, Rose; Koppenburg, Patrick; Kozeiha, Mohamad; Kravchuk, Leonid; Kreplin, Katharina; Kreps, Michal; Krocker, Georg; Krokovny, Pavel; Kruse, Florian; Krzemien, Wojciech; Kucewicz, Wojciech; Kucharczyk, Marcin; Kudryavtsev, Vasily; Kuonen, Axel Kevin; Kurek, Krzysztof; Kvaratskheliya, Tengiz; Lacarrere, Daniel; Lafferty, George; Lai, Adriano; Lambert, Dean; Lanfranchi, Gaia; Langenbruch, Christoph; Langhans, Benedikt; Latham, Thomas; Lazzeroni, Cristina; Le Gac, Renaud; van Leerdam, Jeroen; Lees, Jean-Pierre; Lefèvre, Regis; Leflat, Alexander; Lefrançois, Jacques; Lemos Cid, Edgar; Leroy, Olivier; Lesiak, Tadeusz; Leverington, Blake; Li, Yiming; Likhomanenko, Tatiana; Liles, Myfanwy; Lindner, Rolf; Linn, Christian; Lionetto, Federica; Liu, Bo; Liu, Xuesong; Loh, David; Longstaff, Iain; Lopes, Jose; Lucchesi, Donatella; Lucio Martinez, Miriam; Luo, Haofei; Lupato, Anna; Luppi, Eleonora; Lupton, Oliver; Lusiani, Alberto; Machefert, Frederic; Maciuc, Florin; Maev, Oleg; Maguire, Kevin; Malde, Sneha; Malinin, Alexander; Manca, Giulia; Mancinelli, Giampiero; Manning, Peter Michael; Mapelli, Alessandro; Maratas, Jan; Marchand, Jean François; Marconi, Umberto; Marin Benito, Carla; Marino, Pietro; Marks, Jörg; Martellotti, Giuseppe; Martin, Morgan; Martinelli, Maurizio; Martinez Santos, Diego; Martinez Vidal, Fernando; Martins Tostes, Danielle; Massafferri, André; Matev, Rosen; Mathad, Abhijit; Mathe, Zoltan; Matteuzzi, Clara; Mauri, Andrea; Maurin, Brice; Mazurov, Alexander; McCann, Michael; McCarthy, James; McNab, Andrew; McNulty, Ronan; Meadows, Brian; Meier, Frank; Meissner, Marco; Melnychuk, Dmytro; Merk, Marcel; Michielin, Emanuele; Milanes, Diego Alejandro; Minard, Marie-Noelle; Mitzel, Dominik Stefan; Molina Rodriguez, Josue; Monroy, Ignacio Alberto; Monteil, Stephane; Morandin, Mauro; Morawski, Piotr; Mordà, Alessandro; Morello, Michael Joseph; Moron, Jakub; Morris, Adam Benjamin; Mountain, Raymond; Muheim, Franz; Müller, Dominik; Müller, Janine; Müller, Katharina; Müller, Vanessa; Mussini, Manuel; Muster, Bastien; Naik, Paras; Nakada, Tatsuya; Nandakumar, Raja; Nandi, Anita; Nasteva, Irina; Needham, Matthew; Neri, Nicola; Neubert, Sebastian; Neufeld, Niko; Neuner, Max; Nguyen, Anh Duc; Nguyen, Thi-Dung; Nguyen-Mau, Chung; Niess, Valentin; Niet, Ramon; Nikitin, Nikolay; Nikodem, Thomas; Novoselov, Alexey; O'Hanlon, Daniel Patrick; Oblakowska-Mucha, Agnieszka; Obraztsov, Vladimir; Ogilvy, Stephen; Okhrimenko, Oleksandr; Oldeman, Rudolf; Onderwater, Gerco; Osorio Rodrigues, Bruno; Otalora Goicochea, Juan Martin; Otto, Adam; Owen, Patrick; Oyanguren, Maria Aranzazu; Palano, Antimo; Palombo, Fernando; Palutan, Matteo; Panman, Jacob; Papanestis, Antonios; Pappagallo, Marco; Pappalardo, Luciano; Pappenheimer, Cheryl; Parker, William; Parkes, Christopher; Passaleva, Giovanni; Patel, Girish; Patel, Mitesh; Patrignani, Claudia; Pearce, Alex; Pellegrino, Antonio; Penso, Gianni; Pepe Altarelli, Monica; Perazzini, Stefano; Perret, Pascal; Pescatore, Luca; Petridis, Konstantinos; Petrolini, Alessandro; Petruzzo, Marco; Picatoste Olloqui, Eduardo; Pietrzyk, Boleslaw; Pilař, Tomas; Pinci, Davide; Pistone, Alessandro; Piucci, Alessio; Playfer, Stephen; Plo Casasus, Maximo; Poikela, Tuomas; Polci, Francesco; Poluektov, Anton; Polyakov, Ivan; Polycarpo, Erica; Popov, Alexander; Popov, Dmitry; Popovici, Bogdan; Potterat, Cédric; Price, Eugenia; Price, Joseph David; Prisciandaro, Jessica; Pritchard, Adrian; Prouve, Claire; Pugatch, Valery; Puig Navarro, Albert; Punzi, Giovanni; Qian, Wenbin; Quagliani, Renato; Rachwal, Bartolomiej; Rademacker, Jonas; Rama, Matteo; Rangel, Murilo; Raniuk, Iurii; Rauschmayr, Nathalie; Raven, Gerhard; Redi, Federico; Reichert, Stefanie; Reid, Matthew; dos Reis, Alberto; Ricciardi, Stefania; Richards, Sophie; Rihl, Mariana; Rinnert, Kurt; Rives Molina, Vincente; Robbe, Patrick; Rodrigues, Ana Barbara; Rodrigues, Eduardo; Rodriguez Lopez, Jairo Alexis; Rodriguez Perez, Pablo; Roiser, Stefan; Romanovsky, Vladimir; Romero Vidal, Antonio; Ronayne, John William; Rotondo, Marcello; Rouvinet, Julien; Ruf, Thomas; Ruiz Valls, Pablo; Saborido Silva, Juan Jose; Sagidova, Naylya; Sail, Paul; Saitta, Biagio; Salustino Guimaraes, Valdir; Sanchez Mayordomo, Carlos; Sanmartin Sedes, Brais; Santacesaria, Roberta; Santamarina Rios, Cibran; Santimaria, Marco; Santovetti, Emanuele; Sarti, Alessio; Satriano, Celestina; Satta, Alessia; Saunders, Daniel Martin; Savrina, Darya; Schiller, Manuel; Schindler, Heinrich; Schlupp, Maximilian; Schmelling, Michael; Schmelzer, Timon; Schmidt, Burkhard; Schneider, Olivier; Schopper, Andreas; Schubiger, Maxime; Schune, Marie Helene; Schwemmer, Rainer; Sciascia, Barbara; Sciubba, Adalberto; Semennikov, Alexander; Serra, Nicola; Serrano, Justine; Sestini, Lorenzo; Seyfert, Paul; Shapkin, Mikhail; Shapoval, Illya; Shcheglov, Yury; Shears, Tara; Shekhtman, Lev; Shevchenko, Vladimir; Shires, Alexander; Siddi, Benedetto Gianluca; Silva Coutinho, Rafael; Silva de Oliveira, Luiz Gustavo; Simi, Gabriele; Sirendi, Marek; Skidmore, Nicola; Skwarnicki, Tomasz; Smith, Edmund; Smith, Eluned; Smith, Iwan Thomas; Smith, Jackson; Smith, Mark; Snoek, Hella; Sokoloff, Michael; Soler, Paul; Soomro, Fatima; Souza, Daniel; Souza De Paula, Bruno; Spaan, Bernhard; Spradlin, Patrick; Sridharan, Srikanth; Stagni, Federico; Stahl, Marian; Stahl, Sascha; Stefkova, Slavorima; Steinkamp, Olaf; Stenyakin, Oleg; Stevenson, Scott; Stoica, Sabin; Stone, Sheldon; Storaci, Barbara; Stracka, Simone; Straticiuc, Mihai; Straumann, Ulrich; Sun, Liang; Sutcliffe, William; Swientek, Krzysztof; Swientek, Stefan; Syropoulos, Vasileios; Szczekowski, Marek; Szumlak, Tomasz; T'Jampens, Stephane; Tayduganov, Andrey; Tekampe, Tobias; Teklishyn, Maksym; Tellarini, Giulia; Teubert, Frederic; Thomas, Christopher; Thomas, Eric; van Tilburg, Jeroen; Tisserand, Vincent; Tobin, Mark; Todd, Jacob; Tolk, Siim; Tomassetti, Luca; Tonelli, Diego; Topp-Joergensen, Stig; Torr, Nicholas; Tournefier, Edwige; Tourneur, Stephane; Trabelsi, Karim; Tran, Minh Tâm; Tresch, Marco; Trisovic, Ana; Tsaregorodtsev, Andrei; Tsopelas, Panagiotis; Tuning, Niels; Ukleja, Artur; Ustyuzhanin, Andrey; Uwer, Ulrich; Vacca, Claudia; Vagnoni, Vincenzo; Valenti, Giovanni; Vallier, Alexis; Vazquez Gomez, Ricardo; Vazquez Regueiro, Pablo; Vázquez Sierra, Carlos; Vecchi, Stefania; Velthuis, Jaap; Veltri, Michele; Veneziano, Giovanni; Vesterinen, Mika; Viaud, Benoit; Vieira, Daniel; Vieites Diaz, Maria; Vilasis-Cardona, Xavier; Volkov, Vladimir; Vollhardt, Achim; Volyanskyy, Dmytro; Voong, David; Vorobyev, Alexey; Vorobyev, Vitaly; Voß, Christian; de Vries, Jacco; Waldi, Roland; Wallace, Charlotte; Wallace, Ronan; Walsh, John; Wandernoth, Sebastian; Wang, Jianchun; Ward, David; Watson, Nigel; Websdale, David; Weiden, Andreas; Whitehead, Mark; Wilkinson, Guy; Wilkinson, Michael; Williams, Mark Richard James; Williams, Matthew; Williams, Mike; Williams, Timothy; Wilson, Fergus; Wimberley, Jack; Wishahi, Julian; Wislicki, Wojciech; Witek, Mariusz; Wormser, Guy; Wotton, Stephen; Wyllie, Kenneth; Xie, Yuehong; Xu, Zhirui; Yang, Zhenwei; Yu, Jiesheng; Yuan, Xuhao; Yushchenko, Oleg; Zangoli, Maria; Zavertyaev, Mikhail; Zhang, Liming; Zhang, Yanxi; Zhelezov, Alexey; Zhokhov, Anatoly; Zhong, Liang; Zucchelli, Stefano

    2016-01-01

    Production cross-sections of prompt charm mesons are measured with the first data from $pp$ collisions at the LHC at a centre-of-mass energy of $13\\,\\mathrm{TeV}$. The data sample corresponds to an integrated luminosity of $4.98 \\pm 0.19\\,\\mathrm{pb}^{-1}$ collected by the LHCb experiment. The production cross-sections of $D^{0}$, $D^{+}$, $D_{s}^{+}$, and $D^{*+}$ mesons are measured in bins of charm meson transverse momentum, $p_{\\mathrm{T}}$, and rapidity, $y$, and cover the range $0 < p_{\\mathrm{T}} < 15\\,\\mathrm{GeV}/c$ and $2.0 < y < 4.5$. The inclusive cross-sections for the four mesons, including charge conjugation, within the range of $1 < p_{\\mathrm{T}} < 8\\,\\mathrm{GeV}/c$ are found to be \\begin{align*} \\begin{array}{lcr} \\sigma(pp \\to D^{0} X) &=& 2460 \\pm \\phantom{1}3 \\pm 130\\,\\mu\\mathrm{b} \\\\ \\sigma(pp \\to D^{+} X) &=& 1000 \\pm \\phantom{1}3 \\pm 110\\,\\mu\\mathrm{b} \\\\ \\sigma(pp \\to D_{s}^{+} X) &=& 460 \\pm 13 \\pm 100\\,\\mu\\ma...

  1. CMMI un AGILE metodoloģijas ieviešana uzņēmumā

    OpenAIRE

    Grīnhofs, Artūrs

    2010-01-01

    Darba mērķis ir veikt SIA „HC” un SIA „HC Latvia” uzņēmumu programmatūras izstrādes un sistēmu uzturēšanas procesu analīzi, atspoguļojot un novērtējot visus CMMI (Capability Maturity Model Integration) pārvaldības brieduma līmeņus un spējās metodes. Teorētiskajā daļā ir detalizēti aprakstīti CMMI un spējās pārvaldības principi. Tiek novērtēta savstarpēja procesu modeļu mijiedarbība, veicot arī pielietoto rīku apskatu, aprakstīti saistītie moduļi un funkcionalitāte. Analizējot uzņēmuma procesu...

  2. Preču zīmju datubāzes Eiropas intelektuālā īpašuma aizsardzības nacionālajās institūcijās

    OpenAIRE

    Kurzemniece, Anda

    2006-01-01

    Viens no rūpnieciskā īpašuma veidiem ir preču zīmes. Tās ieņem nozīmīgu lomu katra uzņēmuma darbībā un attīstībā. Katras valsts nacionālā intelektuālā īpašuma institūcija veido valsts preču zīmju reģistru, un mūsdienās lielākajā daļā valstu ir pieejamas preču zīmju datubāzes. Pētījumā tiek aplūkotas Eiropas intelektuālā īpašuma institūciju preču zīmju brīvpieejas datubāzes. Pētījums sastāv no trīs nodaļām. Pirmajā nodaļā tiek aplūkoti preču zīmju viedi, funkcijas, preču zīmju reģistrācija un ...

  3. Biznesa efektivitātes uzlabošanas iespējas uzņēmumā SIA "3K MANAGEMENT"

    OpenAIRE

    Penēze, Aija

    2015-01-01

    Aizvien lielāka nozīmē mūsdienās tiek pievērsta atšķirībai starp uzņēmumu vadīšanu un efektīvu uzņēmumu vadīšanu. Uzņēmēji organizācijas vadīšanā savu uzmanību koncentrē uz to, kā uzņēmums preces un pakalpojumus piedāvā, kāds ir tā tēls, kā tiek organizēta uzņēmuma darbība un kultūra. Uzņēmumi arvien vairāk vērš uzmanību uz uzņēmumu vadīšanu ar pievienoto vērtību, tas ir, efektivitātes uzlabošanu. Aijas Penēzes maģistra darba tēma ir „Biznesa efektivitātes uzlabošanas iespējas uzņēmumā SI...

  4. Sabiedrības ar ierobežotu atbildību “Inter Cars Latvija” saimnieciskās darbības analīze

    OpenAIRE

    Rūsiņa, Liene

    2017-01-01

    Diplomdarba mērķis ir veikt SIA „Inter Cars Latvija” finanšu un saimnieciskās darbības analīzi, novērtēt iegūtos rezultātus, kā arī izstrādāt priekšlikumus uzņēmuma tālākās darbības attīstībai. Diplomdarba pirmajā daļā apkopota informācija par SIA „Inter Cars Latvija”, kā arī tiek raksturota nozare, kurā tas darbojas - automobiļu rezerves daļu un piederumu mazumtirdzniecība. Otrajā daļā tiek veikta SIA „Inter Cars Latvija” finanšu rādītāju analīze un iegūto rādītāju interpretācija. Trešajā da...

  5. Mārketinga komunikācija jauno auto tirgū: „Skandi Motors” piemērs (2006─2007)

    OpenAIRE

    Zarovska, Linda

    2007-01-01

    Bakalaura darba tēma ir Mārketinga komunikācija jauno auto tirgū: „Skandi Motors” piemērs (2006-2007). Darbā tika pētīts un novērtēts SIA „Skandi Motors”- Hyundai automašīnu vadošā dīlera Latvijā - mārketinga komunikācijas process, plānošana, vadīšana un efektivitāte, kas ir nozīmīgi pie aizvien augošās konkurences auto nozarē. Tika izdarīti secinājumi un izveidoti priekšlikumi uzņēmuma mārketinga komunikācijas efektivitātes uzlabošanai, kas sniegtu iespēju noturēt esošās pozīcijas tirgū ...

  6. Google AdWords meklētāja reklāmas efektivitāte starp imārketings klientiem.

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Mārcis Ūdris. Bakalaura darbs "Google AdWords meklētāja reklāmas efektivitāte starp iMārketings klientiem" Darba mērķis ir pamatojoties uz teorijā apskatītajām interneta mārketinga kanālu īpatnībām un to efektivitātes mērīšanas kritērijiem, izpētīt Google AdWords meklētāja reklāmas kampaņu efektivitāti un salīdzināt to ar citiem izmantotajiem kanāliem starp uzņēmuma iMārketings klientiem, atklāt nepilnības un sniegt priekšlikumus to pilnveidošanai. Darba 1. nodaļā ir aprakstīta internet...

  7. Acarofauna associada à vegetação espontânea de vinhedos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Bottini de Moura

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se identificar a acarofauna associada à vegetação espontânea presente em vinhedos de Vitis vinifera (L. var. Cabernet Sauvignon, Merlot e Sémillon e V. labrusca (L. var. Isabel. Amostragens mensais foram realizadas de junho a setembro/2009 e junho a setembro/2010 em Caxias do Sul e de junho/2010 a junho/2011 em Sant'Ana do Livramento, RS, Brasil. Foram registrados 474 ácaros pertencentes a 14 morfoespécies, nove gêneros e cinco famílias (Phytoseiidae, Tarsonemidae, Tenuipalpidae, Tydeidae e Winterschmidtiidae. A maior abundância de ácaros ocorreu em Caxias do Sul, entretanto a maior riqueza de espécies foi registrada em Sant'Ana do Livramento. De acordo com os resultados deste trabalho, a acarofauna presente nos nove vinhedos amostrados foi registrada em sua maioria em Sida rhombifolia L. e caracterizou-se pela ocorrência dominante de Lorryia sp., seguida por Typhlodromalus aripo (Muma, 1967 e Steneotarsonemus sp..

  8. Ocorrência e diversidade de ácaros (Acari, Arachnida associados a Tabebuia roseo-alba (Ridl. Sand (Bignoniaceae, no município de São José do Rio Preto, São Paulo, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feres Reinaldo José Fazzio

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available This study reports the mite fauna associated with Tabebuia roseo-alba, a native and ornamental tree, determining the abundance and seasonal occurrence of species and the diversity of the community. Twenty three species were found belonging to 11 families, 10 of predatory habits and five phytophagous. The food habits of the eight remaining species are not known. Besides the great richness, the diversity was small, as consequence of the dominance of Lorryia formosa Cooreman, 1958 and Aculus sp., the most abundant species. These species occurred in the same microhabitat but with seasonal segregation: L. formosa was the most abundant in the dry season, while Aculus sp. occurred only in the rainy season. In August, when the plant lost its leaves, the following species were found in the apical branch structures: Brevipalpus sp. (aff. phoenicis, Cheletogenes sp., Euseius citrifolius Denmark & Muma, 1970, Lorryia formosa, Pronematus sp., and diapause females of Tenuipalponychus tabebuiae Aguilar, Flechtmann & Ochoa, 1991. In September, with leaves growing again, Aceria sp. was the only species on the plant, and its abundance decreased accentuately in October. The richness and the abundance of the mite fauna were not correlated with the temperature or the precipitation. These data suggest that the plant phenology was more important than the climate in the occurrence of species.

  9. Virgin Grupas un Ričarda Brensona tvitera kontu reģistra analīze

    OpenAIRE

    Zariņa, Laura

    2016-01-01

    Šī darba mērķis ir izpētīt valodas lietojumu Virgin Grupas un Ričarda Brensona tvitera kontos. Šajā pētījumā kā galvenā metode ir izmantota Baibera un Konrādes (2009) reģistra analīze, kas iekļāva situācijas, valodas un funkcionālo analīzi. Darba autore ir analizējusi lietvārdus, darbības vārdus, īpašības vārdus, vietniekvārdus un modālos darbības vārdus abos tvitera kontos, lai saprastu, kā šīs konkrētās lingvistikās iezīmes palīdz uzlabot uzņēmuma tēlu. Rezultāti atklāja, ka abiem tvitera k...

  10. B2B mārketinga komunikācija sociālajos medijos: biznesa inkubatora Creative Andrejsala facebook.com komunikācijas piemēra analīze

    OpenAIRE

    Šverna, Elīna

    2013-01-01

    Bakalaura darba „B2B mārketinga komunikācija sociālajos medijos: biznesa inkubatora Creative Andrejsala facebook.com komunikācijas piemēra analīze” mērķis ir analizēt Creative Andrejsala B2B komunikāciju sociālajā tīklā facebook.com un izvērtēt tās nozīmību uzņēmuma mērķu sasniegšanā. Darba teorētiskajā daļā apskatīta teorija par mārketinga komunikāciju un bizness biznesam (B2B) mārketinga komunikāciju. Darba empīriskajā daļā tiek veiktas gadījuma studijas. Pētījums ietver sekundāro datu a...

  11. Viesnīcas „Hanza Hotel” klientu apmierinātības vērtēšana .

    OpenAIRE

    Seļiščeva, Anna

    2012-01-01

    Maģistra darbā, pielietojot piemērotākās un efektīvākās pētīšanas metodes, tiek novērtēta klientu apmierinātība ar trīszvaigžņu viesnīcas „Hanza Hotel” sniegtajiem pakalpojumiem. Balstoties uz pētījuma rezultātiem, tiek izstrādātas rekomendācijas sniegto pakalpojumu pilnveidošanai un klientu apmierinātības līmeņa paaugstināšanai, lai sekmētu uzņēmuma veiksmīgu attīstību. Maģistra darba pirmā nodaļa tiek raksturota viesnīcu pakalpojumu specifika, kā arī veikta viesnīcu tirgus attīstības an...

  12. Maternal intraguild predation risk affects offspring anti-predator behavior and learning in mites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seiter, Michael; Schausberger, Peter

    2015-10-09

    Predation risk is a strong selective force shaping prey morphology, life history and behavior. Anti-predator behaviors may be innate, learned or both but little is known about the transgenerational behavioral effects of maternally experienced predation risk. We examined intraguild predation (IGP) risk-induced maternal effects on offspring anti-predator behavior, including learning, in the predatory mite Phytoseiulus persimilis. We exposed predatory mite mothers during egg production to presence or absence of the IG predator Amblyseius andersoni and assessed whether maternal stress affects the anti-predator behavior, including larval learning ability, of their offspring as protonymphs. Protonymphs emerging from stressed or unstressed mothers, and having experienced IGP risk as larvae or not, were subjected to choice situations with and without IG predator traces. Predator-experienced protonymphs from stressed mothers were the least active and acted the boldest in site choice towards predator cues. We argue that the attenuated response of the protonymphs to predator traces alone represents optimized risk management because no immediate risk existed. Such behavioral adjustment could reduce the inherent fitness costs of anti-predator behaviors. Overall, our study suggests that P. persimilis mothers experiencing IGP risk may prime their offspring to behave more optimally in IGP environments.

  13. Social familiarity reduces reaction times and enhances survival of group-living predatory mites under the risk of predation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus Andreas Strodl

    Full Text Available Social familiarity, which is based on the ability to recognise familiar conspecific individuals following prior association, may affect all major life activities of group-living animals such as foraging, reproduction and anti-predator behaviours. A scarcely experimentally tested explanation why social familiarity is beneficial for group-living animals is provided by limited attention theory. Limited attention theory postulates that focusing on a given task, such as inspection and assessment of unfamiliar group members, has cognitive and associated physiological and behavioural costs with respect to the attention paid to other tasks, such as anti-predator vigilance and response. Accordingly, we hypothesised that social familiarity enhances the anti-predator success of group-living predatory mites, Phytoseiulus persimilis, confronted with an intraguild predator, the predatory mite Amblyseius andersoni.We videotaped and analysed the response of two P. persimilis larvae, held in familiar or unfamiliar pairs, to attacks by a gravid A. andersoni female, using the behavioural analyses software EthoVision Pro®. Familiar larvae were more frequently close together, reacted more quickly to predator attacks, survived more predator encounters and survived longer than unfamiliar larvae.In line with the predictions of limited attention theory, we suggest that social familiarity improves anti-predator behaviours because it allows prey to shift attention to other tasks rather than group member assessment.

  14. Cellular automata approach for investigation of low power light effects on the dynamics of plant-inhabiting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bandini, S. (Milan Univ. (Italy). Dip. di Scienza dell' Informazione); Casati, R.; Milani, M. (Milan Univ. (Italy). Dip. di Fisica)

    1998-10-01

    The prey-predator competition is a typical problem exhibited by the dynamics of phytophagous and predaceous mite population. Biological parameters of Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae) and Amblyseius californicus McGregor (Acari: Phytoseiidae) are set up in order to establish the fundamental aspects to be embodied into a simulation model. The paper introduces the Lotka-Volterra differential equations as the classical approach to the problem and present the Cellular-Automata (CA) approach as an alternative one. It reports preliminary results which account for a number of interesting features such as: 1) oscillations in time of the population, 2) a link between the populations' initial conditions and the obtained solution, 3) the appearance of spatial structures, and 4) the effect on the population dynamics of parameters which may be linked to photoperiodic and circadian features. Furthermore, it is shown that several sophisticated features affecting populations evolution, such as the egg opening time, the sexual maturation time, the limited lifetime, the limited survival capability of predators in fasting condition and juvenile mortality can be easily included in a CA-based model.

  15. Búsqueda de enemigos naturales nativos de Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande(thysanoptera: thripidae, sobre Dendranthema grandijlorum en el municipio de Piendamo, cauca.

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    Castro V. Ulises

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available En la empresa "Flores del Cauca" en el municipio de Piendamó a 1S00 m.s.n.m. con temperatura promedia de 18° C y HR de SO ± 5%, se hizo una búsqueda de enemigos naturales nativos de F. occidentalis (Thysanóptera: Thripidae sobre eras experimentales de Dendranthema grandiflorum libres de control químico. La búsqueda se extendió a los hospedantes alternos del tisanóptero en áreas aledañas al cultivo. Semanalmente se cosechaban plantas de crisantemo, se llevaban al laboratorio para la recolección de thrips y sus enemigos naturales nativos. En el laboratorio se realizaron bioensayos para probar la acción depredadora de algunos de los enemigos de F. occídentalis que fueron encontrados en crisantemo. Se encontraron los siguientes enemigos naturales nativos: El hemíptero Orius sp. (Anthocoridae. los ácaros Amblyseius herbjcolus. Euseius naindaimei y Thyplodromalus peregrinus (Phytoseiidae, larvas de Chrysopidae; los thrips leptothirs sp. y Haplotrips gowdeyi (Phlaeothripidae, un ácaro de la familia Ascidae; difereflles especies de arañas; larvas de la familia Coccinellidae y adultos de F. occidentalis infectados por hongos no identificados.

  16. The Feeding Rate of Predatory Mites on Life Stages of Bemisia tabaci Mediterranean Species

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    Andrew G. S. Cuthbertson

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The sweetpotato whitefly Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae continues to be a serious threat to crops worldwide. The UK holds Protected Zone status against this pest and, as a result, B. tabaci entering on plant material is subjected to a policy of eradication. There has recently been a shift from Middle East-Asia Minor 1 to the more chemical resistant Mediterranean species entering the UK. Predatory mites (Amblyseius swirskii, Transeius montdorensis and Typhlodromalus limonicus were screened for their impact upon various lifestages of B. tabaci Mediterranean species. Approximately 30% of eggs were fed upon by A. swirskii following a 5 day period. Feeding rates slightly decreased for all mite species when feeding on first instar life-stages (27%, 24%, 16% respectively and significantly decreased when feeding on second instars (8.5%, 8.5%, 8.7% respectively. Combining the two mite species (A. swirskii and T. montdorensis increased mortality of Bemisia eggs to 36%. The potential of incorporating the mites into existing control strategies for B. tabaci is discussed.

  17. Management of apple orchards to conserve generalist phytoseiid mites suppresses two-spotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae (Acari: Tetranychidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funayama, Ken; Komatus, Michiyo; Sonoda, Shoji; Takahashi, Isao; Hara, Kazuko

    2015-01-01

    To improve the success of integrated pest management (IPM) in apple orchards, we investigated whether generalist phytoseiid mites have suppressed the occurrence of Tetranychus urticae. In Akita Prefecture, northern Japan, in 2012 and 2013, two types of experimental plot were compared. Conservation plots had been managed for the conservation of generalist phytoseiid mites by selective chemical spraying without mowing since 2009. Conventional plots were managed by non-selective chemical spraying with regular mowing. The conservation plots had significantly fewer T. urticae adult females per tree in both years. Two species of generalist phytoseiid mites-Typhlodromus vulgaris and Amblyseius tsugawai-were continuously present in the conservation plots, with only a few T. urticae. The conservation plots had significantly more A. tsugawai adult females in the undergrowth in both years, and significantly more T. vulgaris adult females on apple leaves in 2012. Typhlodromus vulgaris was continuously present in the conservation plots but was scarce from late May to early August in the conventional plots. In the presence of T. vulgaris, low numbers of T. urticae did not increase on apple leaves. These results indicate that the generalist phytoseiid mites serve as important biological control agents in IPM in apple orchards.

  18. Influence of mowing on dynamics of native phytoseiid mites and Tetranychus urticae in apple orchards in northern Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funayama, Ken

    2016-09-01

    To support practical integrated pest management in commercial apple orchards, I investigated the influence of mowing on the occurrence of Tetranychus urticae and native phytoseiid mites in apple orchards sprayed with selective insecticides in Akita Prefecture, northern Japan, from 2013 to 2015. The orchards were not mown in 2013, and unmown and mown plots were compared in 2014 and 2015. There were significantly fewer Typhlodromus vulgaris on apple leaves and Amblyseius tsugawai in the undergrowth in mown plots than in unmown plots in both years. Conversely, there were significantly more T. urticae on leaves and undergrowth in mown plots than in unmown plots. The reason for the decreased populations of these phytoseiid mites may be a lack of food (pollen) needed for reproduction on apple trees and in the undergrowth due to mowing. These results indicate that mowing strongly influences generalist phytoseiid mites in apple orchards. Moreover, mowing might increase the density of T. urticae in apple trees because increased nitrogen in the leaves increases fecundity; in addition, drought might promote the increase of mite numbers. Thus, retention of undergrowth suppresses T. urticae in apple orchards.

  19. Acarofauna em cultivo de pinhão-manso e plantas espontâneas associadas

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    Wilton Pires da Cruz

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi identificar ácaros na cultura de pinhão-manso e em espécies de plantas espontâneas associadas. Para isso, foram avaliadas a riqueza e a abundância de ácaros em plantas de pinhão-manso e em 14 espécies de plantas espontâneas associadas. As amostragens foram realizadas por meio de coletas mensais de folhas de plantas de pinhão-manso e de plantas espontâneas, nas entrelinhas do cultivo. Foram encontradas quatro espécies de ácaros predadores - Amblyseius tamatavensis, Paraphytoseius multidentatus, Typhlodromalus aripo e Typhlodromalus clavicus -, com potencial para uso no controle biológico de ácaros-praga na cultura do pinhão-manso, e duas importantes espécies de ácaros fitófagos - Brevipalpus phoenicis e Tarsonemus confusus - desconhecidas como praga da cultura. Entre as plantas espontâneas avaliadas, quatro espécies - Hyptis suaveolens, Peltaea riedelii, Urochloa mutica e Andropogon gayanus - abrigam grande riqueza e abundância de ácaros predadores, enquanto oito destacaram-se pela diversidade de ácaros fitófagos.

  20. An entomopathogenic strain of Beauveria bassiana against Frankliniella occidentalis with no detrimental effect on the predatory mite Neoseiulus barkeri: evidence from laboratory bioassay and scanning electron microscopic observation.

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    Shengyong Wu

    Full Text Available Among 28 isolates of Beauveria bassiana tested for virulence against F. occidentalis in laboratory bioassays, we found strain SZ-26 as the most potent, causing 96% mortality in adults at 1×10(7 mL(-1conidia after 4 days. The effect of the strain SZ-26 on survival, longevity and fecundity of the predatory mite Neoseiulus (Amblyseius barkeri Hughes were studied under laboratory conditions. The bioassay results showed that the corrected mortalities were less than 4 and 8% at 10 days following inoculation of the adult and the larvae of the predator, respectively, with 1×10(7 conidia mL(-1 of SZ-26. Furthermore, no fungal hyphae were found in dead predators. The oviposition and postoviposition durations, longevity, and fecundity displayed no significant differences after inoculation with SZ-26 using first-instar larvae of F. occidentalis as prey in comparison with untreated predator. In contrast, the preoviposition durations were significantly longer. Observations with a scanning electron microscope, revealed that many conidia were attached to the cuticles of F. occidentalis at 2 h after treatment with germ tubes oriented toward cuticle at 24 h, penetration of the insect cuticle at 36 h, and finally, fungal colonization of the whole insect body at 60 h. In contrast, we never observed penetration of the predator's cuticle and conidia were shed gradually from the body, further demonstrating that B. bassiana strain SZ-26 show high toxicity against F. occidentalis but no pathogenicity to predatory mite.

  1. Biological control of thrips pests (Thysanoptera: Thripidae in a commercial greenhouse in Hungary

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    Farkas Péter

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Polyphagous thrips, like western flower thrips Frankliniella occidentalis and onion thrips Thrips tabaci, are major pests in various ornamental and vegetable crops in greenhouses throughout the world. In Hungary, both of these polyphagous thrips species frequently cause severe damage in many greenhouse crops, especially in commercial sweet pepper. Chemical control is not always feasible because of certain ecological characteristics of these thrips species. The commercially available phytoseiid predatory mites like Amblyseius swirskii and anthocorid flower bugs like Orius laevigatus are often used simultaneously for the biological control of severe thrips infestation in sweet pepper cultivation in Hungary. Our observations demonstrated that the polyphagous thrips assemblages were effectively controlled by the combined release of natural enemies, despite the fact that the establishment of O. laevigatus did not seem to be successful in the first year. Overall, the thrips population density remained below the economic threshold in both years. However, the low infestation level of thrips suggests that a single predator release strategy could be applied effectively and still maintain the thrips below the damage threshold in greenhouse sweet pepper.

  2. SELETIVIDADE DE CHLORFENAPYR E FENBUTATIN-OXIDE SOBRE DUAS ESPÉCIES DE ÁCAROS PREDADORES (ACARI: PHYTOSEIIDAE EM CITROS

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    REIS PAULO REBELLES

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Com o uso de bioensaios, verificaram-se os efeitos residual de contato, ovicida e de persistência dos produtos chlorfenapyr e fenbutatin-oxide sobre duas espécies de ácaros predadores, Iphiseiodes zuluagai Denmark & Muma e Euseius alatus DeLeon (Acari: Phytoseiidae, associados ao ácaro da leprose-dos-citros Brevipalpus phoenicis (Geijskes (Acari: Tenuipalpidae. O efeito total sobre os adultos foi estudado por meio do método residual de contato com pulverização em superfície de vidro, conforme metodologia da IOBC. O efeito ovicida foi avaliado por meio de pulverização direta sobre os ovos dos ácaros predadores, também em superfície de vidro. A persistência dos produtos foi avaliada em laboratório, em arenas confeccionadas com folhas de laranjeira pulverizadas no campo, aos 0; 5; 15 e 30 dias após a aplicação. Os resultados obtidos mostraram que chlorfenapyr foi nocivo ao I. zuluagai e E. alatus e o fenbutatin-oxide foi levemente nocivo a E. alatus e inócuo a I. zuluagai. Nenhum dos produtos apresentou efeito ovicida. Fenbutatin-oxide apresentou baixa persistência para ambas as espécies de ácaros predadores, e chlorfenapyr, na dosagem de 31,3 ml, foi de baixa persistência, enquanto, na dosagem de 62,5 ml, foi moderadamente persistente. O fenbutatin-oxide apresentou-se inócuo e levemente nocivo aos ácaros predadores I. zuluagai e E. alatus, respectivamente, e de baixa persistência para ambas as espécies

  3. TESTING SIDE-EFFECTS OF COMMON PESTICIDES ON A. SWIRSKII UNDER GREENHOUSE CIRCUMSTANCES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Audenaert, J; Vissers, M; Gobin, B

    2014-01-01

    If a grower uses predatory mites, and should use chemical compounds, he needs to be very careful in his choice of products. The selected products have to be efficient against the target pest and at the same time compatible with the present beneficial's. Useful tools for such product selection under greenhouse circumstances are side effects lists. These lists are freely available on the websites of producing companies of biological control agents. But not all products (e.g. newly developed ones) have been tested for side effects. Moreover the information already available in these tables is not based on field tests. For this reason, we have developed a protocol for quick screening of side effects of chemical plant protection products under field conditions. For these experiments we have chosen the predatory mite Amblyseius swirskii as test organism, because this is an often used phytoseiid mite, which is very sensitive to pesticides. Hibiscus rosa sinensis is the standard reference plant in our side effects trials because the chosen predatory mite has shown very good control of pests on this plant species. The experimental design consists of eight test objects in 4 replications. Test object 1 is a positive reference (water spray) and test object 2 a negative reference (deltamethrin spray, a product with long residual activity against beneficial organisms). The plot size is 0,68 m2 and each plot contains 32 Hibiscus plants. The greenhouse temperature is set at 20±2°C. The test strategy has the following sequence: introduction of an overdose of Amblyseius swirskii mites 14 days before spraying the pesticides > precount of predatory mites 4 days before application (4DBA) > spray application (A) for the 6 test products and for the 2 references > counting's after application (1, 2, 4, 8 en 12 weeks after application = 1 till 12WAA). The counting's of the number of predatory mites are performed on 20 Hibiscus leaves/plot under a binocular. Because of the absence of any

  4. Supplemental food that supports both predator and pest: a risk for biological control?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leman, Ada; Messelink, Gerben J

    2015-04-01

    Supplemental food sources to support natural enemies in crops are increasingly being tested and used. This is particularly interesting for generalist predators that can reproduce on these food sources. However, a potential risk for pest control could occur when herbivores also benefit from supplemental food sources. In order to optimize biological control, it may be important to select food sources that support predator populations more than herbivore populations. In this study we evaluated the nutritional quality of four types of supplemental food for the generalist predatory mites Amblyseius swirskii Athias-Henriot and Amblydromalus (Typhlodromalus) limonicus (Garman and McGregor), both important thrips predators, and for the herbivore western flower thrips Frankliniella occidentalis Pergande, by assessing oviposition rates. These tests showed that application of corn pollen, cattail pollen or sterilized eggs of Ephestia kuehniella Zeller to chrysanthemum leaves resulted in three times higher oviposition rates of thrips compared to leaves without additional food. None of the tested food sources promoted predatory mites or western flower thrips exclusively. Decapsulated cysts of Artemia franciscana Kellogg were not suitable, whereas cattail pollen was very suitable for both predatory mites and western flower thrips. In addition, we found that the rate of thrips predation by A. swirskii can be reduced by 50 %, when pollen is present. Nevertheless, application of pollen or Ephestia eggs to a chrysanthemum crop still strongly enhanced the biological control of thrips with A. swirskii, both at low and high release densities of predatory mites through the strong numerical response of the predators. Despite these positive results, application in a crop should be approached with caution, as the results may strongly depend on the initial predator-prey ratio, the nutritional quality of the supplemental food source, the species of predatory mites, the distribution of the

  5. Food stress causes sex-specific maternal effects in mites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walzer, Andreas; Schausberger, Peter

    2015-08-01

    Life history theory predicts that females should produce few large eggs under food stress and many small eggs when food is abundant. We tested this prediction in three female-biased size-dimorphic predatory mites feeding on herbivorous spider mite prey: Phytoseiulus persimilis, a specialized spider mite predator; Neoseiulus californicus, a generalist preferring spider mites; Amblyseius andersoni, a broad diet generalist. Irrespective of predator species and offspring sex, most females laid only one small egg under severe food stress. Irrespective of predator species, the number of female but not male eggs decreased with increasing maternal food stress. This sex-specific effect was probably due to the higher production costs of large female than small male eggs. The complexity of the response to the varying availability of spider mite prey correlated with the predators' degree of adaptation to this prey. Most A. andersoni females did not oviposit under severe food stress, whereas N. californicus and P. persimilis did oviposit. Under moderate food stress, only P. persimilis increased its investment per offspring, at the expense of egg number, and produced few large female eggs. When prey was abundant, P. persimilis decreased the female egg sizes at the expense of increased egg numbers, resulting in a sex-specific egg size/number trade-off. Maternal effects manifested only in N. californicus and P. persimilis. Small egg size correlated with the body size of daughters but not sons. Overall, our study provides a key example of sex-specific maternal effects, i.e. food stress during egg production more strongly affects the sex of the large than the small offspring.

  6. Phenotypic plasticity in anti-intraguild predator strategies: mite larvae adjust their behaviours according to vulnerability and predation risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walzer, Andreas; Schausberger, Peter

    2013-05-01

    Interspecific threat-sensitivity allows prey to maximize the net benefit of antipredator strategies by adjusting the type and intensity of their response to the level of predation risk. This is well documented for classical prey-predator interactions but less so for intraguild predation (IGP). We examined threat-sensitivity in antipredator behaviour of larvae in a predatory mite guild sharing spider mites as prey. The guild consisted of the highly vulnerable intraguild (IG) prey and weak IG predator Phytoseiulus persimilis, the moderately vulnerable IG prey and moderate IG predator Neoseiulus californicus and the little vulnerable IG prey and strong IG predator Amblyseius andersoni. We videotaped the behaviour of the IG prey larvae of the three species in presence of either a low- or a high-risk IG predator female or predator absence and analysed time, distance, path shape and interaction parameters of predators and prey. The least vulnerable IG prey A. andersoni was insensitive to differing IGP risks but the moderately vulnerable IG prey N. californicus and the highly vulnerable IG prey P. persimilis responded in a threat-sensitive manner. Predator presence triggered threat-sensitive behavioural changes in one out of ten measured traits in N. californicus larvae but in four traits in P. persimilis larvae. Low-risk IG predator presence induced a typical escape response in P. persimilis larvae, whereas they reduced their activity in the high-risk IG predator presence. We argue that interspecific threat-sensitivity may promote co-existence of IG predators and IG prey and should be common in predator guilds with long co-evolutionary history.

  7. Pest management systems affect composition but not abundance of phytoseiid mites (Acari: Phytoseiidae) in apple orchards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szabó, Árpád; Pénzes, Béla; Sipos, Péter; Hegyi, Tamás; Hajdú, Zsuzsanna; Markó, Viktor

    2014-04-01

    We examined the faunal composition and abundance of phytoseiid mites (Acari: Phytoseiidae) in apple orchards under different pest management systems in Hungary. A total of 30 apple orchards were surveyed, including abandoned and organic orchards and orchards where integrated pest management (IPM) or broad spectrum insecticides (conventional pest management) were applied. A total of 18 phytoseiid species were found in the canopy of apple trees. Species richness was greatest in the organic orchards (mean: 3.3 species/400 leaves) and the least in the conventional orchards (1.4), with IPM (2.1) and abandoned (2.7) orchards showing intermediate values. The phytoseiid community's Rényi diversity displayed a similar pattern. However, the total phytoseiid abundance in the orchards with different pest management systems did not differ, with abundance varying between 1.8 and 2.6 phytoseiids/10 leaves. Amblyseius andersoni, Euseius finlandicus, and Typhlodromus pyri were the three most common species. The relative abundance of A. andersoni increased with the pesticide load of the orchards whereas the relative abundance of E. finlandicus decreased. The abundance of T. pyri did not change in the apple orchards under different pest management strategies; regardless of the type of applied treatment, they only displayed greater abundance in five of the orchards. The remaining 15 phytoseiid species only occurred in small numbers, mostly from the abandoned and organic orchards. We identified a negative correlation between the abundance of T. pyri and the other phytoseiids in the abandoned and organic orchards. However, we did not find any similar link between the abundance of A. andersoni and E. finlandicus.

  8. Múltiple natural enemies do not improve two spotted spider mite and flower western thrips control in strawberry tunnels

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    Gemma Albendín

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Biological control techniques are commonly used in many horticultural crops in Spain, however the application of these techniques to Spanish strawberries are relatively recent. In this study the effectiveness of augmentative biological control techniques to control the two main strawberry (Fragaria xananassa Duchesne pest: the two-spotted spider mite (TSSM, Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae, and the western flower thrips (WFT, Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande (Thysanoptera: Thripidae, through releases of the predatory mites Phytoseiulus persimilis Athias-Henriot, Neoseiulus californicus (McGregor, Amblyseius swirskii Athias-Henriot (Acari: Phytoseiidae, and Orius laevigatus (Fieber (Heteroptera: Anthocoridae were tested. Two-year results on the performance of treatments using combinations of these biocontrol agents are presented. In both years, all treatments resulted in the reduction of TSSM numbers; but no treatment was better than the release of P. persimilis alone (P < 0.05. TSSM suppression varied among crop phases being greater early in the season. None of the treatments reduced significantly WFT numbers (P < 0.05, and the established economic injury level (EIL was surpassed from March to late April in both years. However, EIL was surpassed less times when treatment included O. laevigatus (2009: 20.7%; 2010: 22.7% of samples. No effect of A. swirskii was observed when this mite was released. Results corroborate that biological control techniques for TSSM and WFT are feasible for high-plastic tunnel strawberries. Under the conditions in our study no additive effects were observed, and there was not advantage in the release of multiple natural enemies.

  9. From repulsion to attraction: species- and spatial context-dependent threat sensitive response of the spider mite Tetranychus urticae to predatory mite cues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández Ferrari, M. Celeste; Schausberger, Peter

    2013-06-01

    Prey perceiving predation risk commonly change their behavior to avoid predation. However, antipredator strategies are costly. Therefore, according to the threat-sensitive predator avoidance hypothesis, prey should match the intensity of their antipredator behaviors to the degree of threat, which may depend on the predator species and the spatial context. We assessed threat sensitivity of the two-spotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae, to the cues of three predatory mites, Phytoseiulus persimilis, Neoseiulus californicus, and Amblyseius andersoni, posing different degrees of risk in two spatial contexts. We first conducted a no-choice test measuring oviposition and activity of T. urticae exposed to chemical traces of predators or traces plus predator eggs. Then, we tested the site preference of T. urticae in choice tests, using artificial cages and leaves. In the no-choice test, T. urticae deposited their first egg later in the presence of cues of P. persimilis than of the other two predators and cue absence, indicating interspecific threat-sensitivity. T. urticae laid also fewer eggs in the presence of cues of P. persimilis and A. andersoni than of N. californicus and cue absence. In the artificial cage test, the spider mites preferred the site with predator traces, whereas in the leaf test, they preferentially resided on leaves without traces. We argue that in a nonplant environment, chemical predator traces do not indicate a risk for T. urticae, and instead, these traces function as indirect habitat cues. The spider mites were attracted to these cues because they associated them with the existence of a nearby host plant.

  10. Non-phytoseiid Mesostigmata within citrus orchards in Florida: species distribution, relative and seasonal abundance within trees, associated vines and ground cover plants and additional collection records of mites in citrus orchards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Childers, Carl C; Ueckermann, Eduard A

    2015-03-01

    collection records of Martin Muma prior to 1975, a total of 69 species of Ascidae, Blattisociidae, Laelapidae, Macrochelidae, Melicharidae, Pachylaelapidae and Parasitidae have now been reported from citrus in Florida.

  11. Gene identification and sequence analysis of Wolbachia in several common mites in citrus orchards%几种常见桔园螨类Wolbachia基因检测与序列分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹志文; 陈芬; 余丽萍; 夏斌

    2011-01-01

    Polymerase chain reaction ( PCR) was adopted to examine the wsp, ftsZ, and 16S rDNA of Wolbachia in Amblyseius orientalis, A. eharai, Euseius nicholsi, Neo.seiulus barkeri, Panonychus citri, and Tetranychus harti from the citrus orchards in Nanchang, Jiujiang, and Ganzhou of Jiangxi Province. It was found that only T. harti from the citrus orchards in Nanchang was infected by Wolbachia, with the fragments length of Wolbachia wsp ( Accession No. GQ162482) , ftsZ ( GQ162483) , and 16S rDNA ( GQ162484) being 593, 758, and 896 bp, respectively, while the other five species were uninfected. The Wolbachia in T. harti was very similar to the group Epo in subgroup B, based on the phylogenetic analysis of wsp gene.%应用共生菌沃尔巴克氏体Wolbachia的wsp、ftsZ和16S rDNA基因特异引物,通过PCR扩增法对采自江西省南昌、九江和赣州等3地桔园内的东方钝绥螨、江原钝绥螨、尼氏真绥螨、巴氏新小绥螨、桔全爪螨和酢浆草如叶螨等6种常见螨类进行了检测.结果表明,在采自南昌桔园内的酢浆草如叶螨体内检测到Wolbachia感染,其wsp、ftsZ和16S rDNA基因长度为593、758和896 bp,Genbank登录号依次为GQ162482、GQ162483和GQ162484,而其他5种螨体内均未检测出Wolbachia的感染;同时通过对酢浆草如叶螨体内感染的Wolbachia的wsp基因序列进行系统发育分析,得出其与B大组的Epo组的Wolbachia株十分相近,可能是相近或相同的株.

  12. Long-term alteration of bentonite in the presence of metallic iron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumpulainen, S.; Kiviranta, L. [B and Tech Oy, Helsinki (Finland); Carlsson, T.; Muurinen, A. [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo (Finland); Svensson, D. [Svensk Kaernbraenslehantering AB (SKB), Stockholm (Sweden); Sasamoto, Hiroshi; Yui, Mikatzu [Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) (Japan); Wersin, P.; Rosch, D. [Gruner Ltd, Basel (Switzerland)

    2011-12-15

    , inter alia, reducing conditions, a pH of around eight, and measurable amounts of Mg{sup 2+}, Ca{sup 2+}, and SO{sub 4} {sup 2-}. The bentonite was carefully divided into subsamples, which were studied with XRD, FTIR, SEM, ICP-AES, TEM-EDS, XANES, Moessbauer spectroscopy, and wet-chemical methods. Briefly, bentonite samples containing cast iron cylinders contained higher amounts of iron than the reference samples. The corroded iron was predominantly in the divalent form, and its concentration was highest close to the cylinder and decreased strongly with increasing distance from its surface. The average corrosion rate estimated from Fe profiles in the Fe-reacted samples is about 1.7 {mu}m/a. The results from the Moessbauer spectroscopy analyses suggest that no reduction of the octahedral Fe{sup 3+} in the montmorillonite layers had occurred. The swelling pressure and the hydraulic conductivity were measured in undisturbed subsamples of the MX-80. The iron-bentonite interaction seemed to slightly decrease the swelling pressure, while the hydraulic conductivity was unchanged. The corrosion rate of the Cu vessel surface was estimated from the Cu analysis in the clay to be about 0.035 {mu}m/a. The JAEA samples were analyzed with regard to the conditions in the water and in the bentonite. The water exhibited pH values in the approximate range of 11 to 13, and clearly reducing conditions with Eh values between -260 and -580 mV. XRD and FTIR analyses of the bentonite material, showed that montmorillonite was completely transformed to a non-swelling 7 Aa clay mineral, most likely to the serpentine mineral berthierine, in samples containing 0.3-0.6 M NaCl solutions, with the highest pH values. The transformation was incomplete in samples containing 0.1 M NaHCO{sub 3} solution, and did not occur at all when the solution was either 0.05 M Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4} or distilled water. (orig.)

  13. Mid- to Late-Holocene estuarine infilling processes studied by radiocarbon dates, high resolution seismic and biofacies at Vitoria Bay, Espirito Santo, Southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex C. Bastos

    2010-09-01

    espessura. Os resultados indicam que até aproximadamente 4.000 anos cal. AP, as condições ambientais da Baía de Vitória eram ainda de uma baía aberta, com uma conexão livre e aberta com águas marinhas. Durante os últimos 4.000 anos a baía experimentou uma fase de regressão importante, tornando-se mais restrita em termos de circulação da água do mar e provavelmente aumentando a energia de marés. Três superfícies estratigráficas principais foram reconhecidas, limitando fácies transgressiva, transgressiva/nível de mar alto e regressiva. A morfologia do canal atual representa um diastema de maré, mostrando fácies regressivas truncadas e erodidas. Biofácies de foraminíferos, passando de ambiente marinho para ambiente salobro e de manguezais em planície de maré confirmam a interpretação sismoestratigráfica. A ausência de biofácies de mangue em um dos dois testemunhos é tambémuma indicação de ravinamento de maré atual.