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Sample records for ambipolar organic transistors

  1. Ambipolar organic field effect transistors and inverters with the natural material Tyrian Purple

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Daniel Głowacki

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Ambipolar organic semiconductors enable complementary-like circuits in organic electronics. Here we show promising electron and hole transport properties in the natural pigment Tyrian Purple (6,6’-dibromoindigo. X-ray diffraction of Tyrian Purple films reveals a highly-ordered structure with a single preferential orientation, attributed to intermolecular hydrogen bonding. This material, with a band gap of ∼1.8 eV, demonstrates high hole and electron mobilities of 0.22 cm2/V·s and 0.03 cm2/V·s in transistors, respectively; and air-stable operation. Inverters with gains of 250 in the first and third quadrant show the large potential of Tyrian Purple for the development of integrated organic electronic circuits.

  2. Passivated ambipolar black phosphorus transistors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Dewu; Lee, Daeyeong; Jang, Young Dae; Choi, Min Sup; Nam, Hye Jin; Jung, Duk-Young; Yoo, Won Jong

    2016-07-01

    We report the first air-passivated ambipolar BP transistor formed by applying benzyl viologen, which serves as a surface charge transfer donor for BP flakes. The passivated BP devices exhibit excellent stability under both an ambient atmosphere and vacuum; their transistor performance is maintained semi-permanently. Unlike their intrinsic p-type properties, passivated BP devices present advantageous ambipolar properties with much higher electron mobility up to ∼83 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1) from 2-terminal measurement at 300 K, compared to other reported studies on n-type BP transistors. On the basis of the n-type doping effect that originated from benzyl viologen, we also systematically investigated the BP thickness dependence of our devices on electrical properties, in which we found the best electron transport performance to be attained when an ∼10 nm thick BP flake was used. PMID:27283027

  3. Passivated ambipolar black phosphorus transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Dewu; Lee, Daeyeong; Jang, Young Dae; Choi, Min Sup; Nam, Hye Jin; Jung, Duk-Young; Yoo, Won Jong

    2016-06-01

    We report the first air-passivated ambipolar BP transistor formed by applying benzyl viologen, which serves as a surface charge transfer donor for BP flakes. The passivated BP devices exhibit excellent stability under both an ambient atmosphere and vacuum; their transistor performance is maintained semi-permanently. Unlike their intrinsic p-type properties, passivated BP devices present advantageous ambipolar properties with much higher electron mobility up to ~83 cm2 V-1 s-1 from 2-terminal measurement at 300 K, compared to other reported studies on n-type BP transistors. On the basis of the n-type doping effect that originated from benzyl viologen, we also systematically investigated the BP thickness dependence of our devices on electrical properties, in which we found the best electron transport performance to be attained when an ~10 nm thick BP flake was used.We report the first air-passivated ambipolar BP transistor formed by applying benzyl viologen, which serves as a surface charge transfer donor for BP flakes. The passivated BP devices exhibit excellent stability under both an ambient atmosphere and vacuum; their transistor performance is maintained semi-permanently. Unlike their intrinsic p-type properties, passivated BP devices present advantageous ambipolar properties with much higher electron mobility up to ~83 cm2 V-1 s-1 from 2-terminal measurement at 300 K, compared to other reported studies on n-type BP transistors. On the basis of the n-type doping effect that originated from benzyl viologen, we also systematically investigated the BP thickness dependence of our devices on electrical properties, in which we found the best electron transport performance to be attained when an ~10 nm thick BP flake was used. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Transfer characteristics of BP field effect transistors (BV1-BV4) (Fig. S1 and S2 and Table S1); output characteristics of BP field effect transistors in different directions (Fig. S3

  4. Mechanisms of radiative recombination in ambipolar light-emitting field-effect transistors based on organic polymers and inorganic nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chikalova-Luzina, O. P.; Aleshin, A. N.; Vyatkin, V. M.

    2016-02-01

    Mechanisms of radiative recombination in ambipolar light-emitting field-effect transistors with composite active layers based on the PFO organic polymer and inorganic ZnO nanoparticles are considered. Theoretical analysis of the radiative recombination in the accumulation layer of the structure is performed in the framework of a model permitting one to obtain an analytical description of the process. An expression for the total recombination rate has been obtained and numerical calculations have been carried out. Correspondence between the calculation results and experimental data has been obtained for the integral intensity of electrical luminescence in the composite structure under consideration.

  5. Microcrystallization of a Solution-Processable Organic Semiconductor in Capillaries for High-Performance Ambipolar Field-Effect Transistors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Satoshi; Fujita, Takuma; Ribierre, Jean-Charles; Takaishi, Kazuto; Muto, Tsuyoshi; Adachi, Chihaya; Uchiyama, Masanobu; Aoyama, Tetsuya; Matsumoto, Mutsuyoshi

    2016-07-13

    We report on the use of microcrystallization in capillaries to fabricate patterned crystalline microstructures of the low-bandgap ambipolar quinoidal quaterthiophene derivative (QQT(CN)4) from a chloroform solution. Aligned needle-shaped QQT(CN)4 crystals were formed in thin film microstructures using either open- or closed- capillaries made of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS). Their charge transport properties were evaluated in a bottom-gate top-contact transistor configuration. Hole and electron mobilities were found to be as high as 0.17 and 0.083 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1), respectively, approaching the values previously obtained in individual QQT(CN)4 single crystal microneedles. It was possible to control the size of the needle crystals and the microline arrays by adjusting the structure of the PDMS mold and the concentration of QQT(CN)4 solution. These results demonstrate that the microcrystallization in capillaries technique can be used to simultaneously pattern organic needle single crystals and control the microcrystallization processes. Such a simple and versatile method should be promising for the future development of high-performance organic electronic devices. PMID:27150559

  6. Flexible ambipolar organic field-effect transistors with reverse-offset-printed silver electrodes for a complementary inverter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Junsu; Kim, Minseok; Yeom, Seung-Won; Ha, Hyeon Jun; Song, Hyenggun; Jhon, Young Min; Kim, Yun-Hi; Ju, Byeong-Kwon

    2016-06-01

    We report ambipolar organic field-effect transistors and complementary inverter circuits with reverse-offset-printed (ROP) Ag electrodes fabricated on a flexible substrate. A diketopyrrolopyrrole-based co-polymer (PDPP-TAT) was used as the semiconductor and poly(methyl methacrylate) was used as the gate insulator. Considerable improvement is observed in the n-channel electrical characteristics by inserting a cesium carbonate (Cs2CO3) as the electron-injection/hole-blocking layer at the interface between the semiconductors and the electrodes. The saturation mobility values are 0.35 cm2 V‑1 s‑1 for the p-channel and 0.027 cm2 V‑1 s‑1 for the n-channel. A complementary inverter is demonstrated based on the ROP process, and it is selectively controlled by the insertion of Cs2CO3 onto the n-channel region via thermal evaporation. Moreover, the devices show stable operation during the mechanical bending test using tensile strains ranging from 0.05% to 0.5%. The results confirm that these devices have great potential for use in flexible and inexpensive integrated circuits over a large area.

  7. o-Carborane functionalized pentacenes: synthesis, molecular packing and ambipolar organic thin-film transistors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Jixi; Liu, Danqing; Zhang, Jiahui; Zhang, Jiji; Miao, Qian; Xie, Zuowei

    2015-08-01

    New 6,13-bis[1'-(C≡C)-2'-R-1',2'-C2B10H10]pentacenes (R = H, Me, Et, n-Bu) are synthesized and fully characterized. The results show that the alkyl substituents on the second cage carbon have a significant impact on the molecular packing, and the incorporation of the o-carboranyl moiety into a π conjugated system can lower both LUMO and HOMO energy levels, converting a typical p-type semiconductor into an ambipolar one. PMID:26121634

  8. High-Performance Solution-Deposited Ambipolar Organic Transistors Based on Terrylene Diimides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Chuan; Liu, Zhihong; Lemke, Henrik T.;

    2010-01-01

    The thin film transistor characteristics of a soluble molecular semiconductor, terrylene tetracarboxdiimide (TDI), a homologue of perylene tetracarboxdiimide (PDI), have been investigated. In a bottom-gate device structure with benzocyclobutene gate dielectric, n-type behavior with electron...

  9. Study on copper phthalocyanine and perylene-based ambipolar organic light-emitting field-effect transistors produced using neutral beam deposition method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Dae-Kyu; Oh, Jeong-Do; Shin, Eun-Sol; Seo, Hoon-Seok; Choi, Jong-Ho, E-mail: jhc@korea.ac.kr [Department of Chemistry, Research Institute for Natural Sciences, Korea University, Anam-Dong, Seoul 136-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-04-28

    The neutral cluster beam deposition (NCBD) method has been applied to the production and characterization of ambipolar, heterojunction-based organic light-emitting field-effect transistors (OLEFETs) with a top-contact, multi-digitated, long-channel geometry. Organic thin films of n-type N,N′-ditridecylperylene-3,4,9,10-tetracarboxylic diimide and p-type copper phthalocyanine were successively deposited on the hydroxyl-free polymethyl-methacrylate (PMMA)-coated SiO{sub 2} dielectrics using the NCBD method. Characterization of the morphological and structural properties of the organic active layers was performed using atomic force microscopy and X-ray diffraction. Various device parameters such as hole- and electron-carrier mobilities, threshold voltages, and electroluminescence (EL) were derived from the fits of the observed current-voltage and current-voltage-light emission characteristics of OLEFETs. The OLEFETs demonstrated good field-effect characteristics, well-balanced ambipolarity, and substantial EL under ambient conditions. The device performance, which is strongly correlated with the surface morphology and the structural properties of the organic active layers, is discussed along with the operating conduction mechanism.

  10. Study on copper phthalocyanine and perylene-based ambipolar organic light-emitting field-effect transistors produced using neutral beam deposition method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The neutral cluster beam deposition (NCBD) method has been applied to the production and characterization of ambipolar, heterojunction-based organic light-emitting field-effect transistors (OLEFETs) with a top-contact, multi-digitated, long-channel geometry. Organic thin films of n-type N,N′-ditridecylperylene-3,4,9,10-tetracarboxylic diimide and p-type copper phthalocyanine were successively deposited on the hydroxyl-free polymethyl-methacrylate (PMMA)-coated SiO2 dielectrics using the NCBD method. Characterization of the morphological and structural properties of the organic active layers was performed using atomic force microscopy and X-ray diffraction. Various device parameters such as hole- and electron-carrier mobilities, threshold voltages, and electroluminescence (EL) were derived from the fits of the observed current-voltage and current-voltage-light emission characteristics of OLEFETs. The OLEFETs demonstrated good field-effect characteristics, well-balanced ambipolarity, and substantial EL under ambient conditions. The device performance, which is strongly correlated with the surface morphology and the structural properties of the organic active layers, is discussed along with the operating conduction mechanism

  11. Solid-State Organization and Ambipolar Field-Effect Transistors of Benzothiadiazole-Cyclopentadithiophene Copolymer with Long Branched Alkyl Side Chains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Baumgarten

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The solid-state organization of a benzothiadiazole-cyclopentadithiophene copolymer with long, branched decyl-tetradecyl side chains (CDT-BTZ-C14,10 is investigated. The C14,10 substituents are sterically demanding and increase the π-stacking distance to 0.40 nm from 0.37 nm for the same polymer with linear hexadecyls (C16. Despite the bulkiness, the C14,10 side chains tend to crystallize, leading to a small chain-to-chain distance between lamellae stacks and to a crystal-like microstructure in the thin film. Interestingly, field-effect transistors based on solution processed layers of CDT-BTZ-C14,10 show ambipolar behavior in contrast to CDT-BTZ-C16 with linear side chains, for which hole transport was previously observed. Due to the increased π-stacking distance, the mobilities are only 6 × 10−4 cm²/Vs for electrons and 6 × 10−5 cm²/Vs for holes, while CDT-BTZ-C16 leads to values up to 5.5 cm²/Vs. The ambipolarity is attributed to a lateral shift between stacked backbones provoked by the bulky C14,10 side chains. This reorganization is supposed to change the transfer integrals between the C16 and C14,10 substituted polymers. This work shows that the electronic behavior in devices of one single conjugated polymer (in this case CDT-BTZ can be controlled by the right choice of the substituents to place the backbones in the desired packing.

  12. Ambipolar organic heterojunction transistors based on F16CuPc/CuPc with a MoO3 buffer layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We fabricated heterojunction organic field-effect transistors (OFETs) using copper phthalocyanine (CuPc) and hexadecafluorophtholocyaninatocopper (F16CuPc) as hole transport layer and electron transport layer, respectively. Compared with F16CuPc based OFETs, the electron field-effect mobility in the heterojunction OFETs increased from 3.1 × 10−3 to 8.7 × 10−3 cm2/(V·s), but the p-type behavior was not observed. To enhanced the hole injection, we modified the source–drain electrodes using the MoO3 buffer layer, and the hole injection can be effectively improved. Eventually, the ambipolar transport characteristics of the CuPc/F16CuPc based OFETs with a MoO3 buffer layer were achieved, and the field-effect mobilities of electron and hole were 2.5 × 10−3 and 3.1 × 10−3 cm2/(V·s), respectively. (paper)

  13. F and CF3 substituted solution processable oligo para-phenylenevinylene for ambipolar and hole-transporting organic field effect transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chini, Mrinmoy Kumar; Das, Chayanika; Chatterjee, Shyambo

    2016-07-01

    We have synthesized benzotrifluoromethyl group substituted para-phenylenevinylene oligomer (denoted as PI) and a cooligomer (denoted as PII) by Gilch polymerization route. The ambipolar field-effect transistor (FET) material PI shows hole and electron mobility 1 × 10-4 cm2 V-1 s-1 and 2 × 10-5 cm2 V-1 s-1 respectively. PII shows only hole mobility as high as 0.05 cm2 V-1 s-1 as p-type material. This work highlights the progress of hole-transporting as well as ambipolar material for para-phenylenevinylene derivatives. The results are enlightened on the basis of presence of electronegative substituents and structural modification of the oligomer backbone.

  14. CONDENSED MATTER: ELECTRONIC STRUCTURE, ELECTRICAL, MAGNETIC, AND OPTICAL PROPERTIES: Air-stable ambipolar organic field effect transistors with heterojunction of pentacene and N,N' -bis(4-trifluoromethylben-zyl) perylene-3,4,9,10-tetracarboxylic diimide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jian-Feng; Chang, Wen-Li; Ou, Gu-Ping; Zhang, Fu-Jia

    2009-07-01

    Fabrication of ambipolar organic field-effect transistors (OFETs) is essential for the achievement of an organic complementary logic circuit. Ambipolar transports in OFETs with heterojunction structures are realized. We select pentacene as a P-type material and N,N'-bis(4-trifluoromethylben-zyl)perylene-3,4,9,10-tetracarboxylic diimide (PTCDI-TFB) as a n-type material in the active layer of the OFETs. The field-effect transistor shows highly air-stable ambipolar characteristics with a field-effect hole mobility of 0.18 cm2/(V.s) and field-effect electron mobility of 0.031 cm2/(V.s). Furthermore the mobility only slightly decreases after being exposed to air and remains stable even for exposure to air for more than 60 days. The high electron affinity of PTCDI-TFB and the octadecyltrichlorosilane (OTS) self-assembly monolayer between the SiO2 gate dielectric and the organic active layer result in the observed air-stable characteristics of OFETs with high mobility. The results demonstrate that using the OTS as a modified gate insulator layer and using high electron affinity semiconductor materials are two effective methods to fabricate OFETs with air-stable characteristics and high mobility.

  15. Air-stable ambipolar organic field effect transistors with heterojunction of pentacene and N,N' -bis(4-trifluoromethylben-zyl) perylene-3,4,9,10-tetracarboxylic diimide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fabrication of ambipolar organic field-effect transistors (OFETs) is essential for the achievement of an organic complementary logic circuit. Ambipolar transports in OFETs with heterojunction structures are realized. We select pentacene as a P-type material and N,N'-bis(4-trifluoromethylben-zyl)perylene-3,4,9,10-tetracarboxylic diimide (PTCDI-TFB) as a n-type material in the active layer of the OFETs. The field-effect transistor shows highly air-stable ambipolar characteristics with a field-effect hole mobility of 0.18 cm2/(V.s) and field-effect electron mobility of 0.031 cm2/(V.s). Furthermore the mobility only slightly decreases after being exposed to air and remains stable even for exposure to air for more than 60 days. The high electron affinity of PTCDI-TFB and the octadecyltrichlorosilane (OTS) self-assembly monolayer between the SiO2 gate dielectric and the organic active layer result in the observed air-stable characteristics of OFETs with high mobility. The results demonstrate that using the OTS as a modified gate insulator layer and using high electron affinity semiconductor materials are two effective methods to fabricate OFETs with air-stable characteristics and high mobility. (condensed matter: electronic structure, electrical, magnetic, and optical properties)

  16. Ambipolar transistors based on random networks of WS2 nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugahara, Mitsunari; Kawai, Hideki; Yomogida, Yohei; Maniwa, Yutaka; Okada, Susumu; Yanagi, Kazuhiro

    2016-07-01

    WS2 nanotubes are rolled multiwalled nanotubes made of a layered material, tungsten disulfide. Their fibril structures enable the fabrication of random network films; however, these films are nonconducting, and thus have not been used for electronic applications. Here, we demonstrate that carrier injection into WS2 networks using an electrolyte gating approach could cause these networks to act as semiconducting channels. We clarify the Raman characteristics of WS2 nanotubes under electrolyte gating and confirm the feasibility of the injection of electrons and holes. We reveal ambipolar behaviors of the WS2 nanotube networks in field-effect transistor setups with electrolyte gating.

  17. Sensors: A Highly Sensitive Diketopyrrolopyrrole-Based Ambipolar Transistor for Selective Detection and Discrimination of Xylene Isomers (Adv. Mater. 21/2016).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bin; Huynh, Tan-Phat; Wu, Weiwei; Hayek, Naseem; Do, Thu Trang; Cancilla, John C; Torrecilla, Jose S; Nahid, Masrur Morshed; Colwell, John M; Gazit, Oz M; Puniredd, Sreenivasa Reddy; McNeill, Christopher R; Sonar, Prashant; Haick, Hossam

    2016-06-01

    An ambipolar organic field-effect transistor (OFET) based on poly(diketopyrrolopyrrole-terthiophene) (PDPPHD-T3) is shown by P. Sonar, H. Haick, and co-workers on page 4012 to sensitively detect xylene isomers at low to 40 ppm level in multiple sensing features. Combined with pattern-recognition algorithms, a sole ambipolar FET sensor, rather than arrays of sensors, is able to discriminate highly similar xylene structural isomers from each other. PMID:27246920

  18. Titanyl phthalocyanine ambipolar thin film transistors making use of carbon nanotube electrodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The capability of efficiently injecting charge carriers into organic films and finely tuning their morphology and structure is crucial to improve the performance of organic thin film transistors (OTFTs). In this work, we investigate OTFTs employing carbon nanotubes (CNTs) as the source-drain electrodes and, as the organic semiconductor, thin films of titanyl phthalocyanine (TiOPc) grown by supersonic molecular beam deposition (SuMBD). While CNT electrodes have shown an unprecedented ability to improve charge injection in OTFTs, SuMBD is an effective technique to tune film morphology and structure. Varying the substrate temperature during deposition, we were able to grow both amorphous (low substrate temperature) and polycrystalline (high substrate temperature) films of TiOPc. Regardless of the film morphology and structure, CNT electrodes led to superior charge injection and transport performance with respect to benchmark Au electrodes. Vacuum annealing of polycrystalline TiOPc films with CNT electrodes yielded ambipolar OTFTs. (paper)

  19. Control of Threshold Voltage for Top-Gated Ambipolar Field-Effect Transistor by Gate Buffer Layer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khim, Dongyoon; Shin, Eul-Yong; Xu, Yong; Park, Won-Tae; Jin, Sung-Ho; Noh, Yong-Young

    2016-07-13

    The threshold voltage and onset voltage for p-channel and n-channel regimes of solution-processed ambipolar organic transistors with top-gate/bottom-contact (TG/BC) geometry were effectively tuned by gate buffer layers in between the gate electrode and the dielectric. The work function of a pristine Al gate electrode (-4.1 eV) was modified by cesium carbonate and vanadium oxide to -2.1 and -5.1 eV, respectively, which could control the flat-band voltage, leading to a remarkable shift of transfer curves in both negative and positive gate voltage directions without any side effects. One important feature is that the mobility of transistors is not very sensitive to the gate buffer layer. This method is simple but useful for electronic devices where the threshold voltage should be precisely controlled, such as ambipolar circuits, memory devices, and light-emitting device applications. PMID:27323003

  20. Enhancement of minority carrier injection in ambipolar carbon nanotube transistors using double-gate structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Bongjun; Liang, Kelly; Geier, Michael L.; Hersam, Mark C.; Dodabalapur, Ananth

    2016-07-01

    We show that double-gate ambipolar thin-film transistors can be operated to enhance minority carrier injection. The two gate potentials need to be significantly different for enhanced injection to be observed. This enhancement is highly beneficial in devices such as light-emitting transistors where balanced electron and hole injections lead to optimal performance. With ambipolar single-walled carbon nanotube semiconductors, we demonstrate that higher ambipolar currents are attained at lower source-drain voltages, which is desired for portable electronic applications, by employing double-gate structures. In addition, when the two gates are held at the same potential, the expected advantages of the double-gate transistors such as enhanced on-current are also observed.

  1. Ambipolar Cu- and Fe-phthalocyanine single-crystal field-effect transistors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Boer, R.W.I.; Stassen, A.F.; Craciun, M.F.; Mulder, C.L.; Molinari, A.; Rogge, S.; Morpurgo, A.F.

    2005-01-01

    We report the observation of ambipolar transport in field-effect transistors fabricated on single crystals of copper- and iron-phthalocyanine, using gold as a high work-function metal for the fabrication of source and drain electrodes. In these devices, the room-temperature mobility of holes reaches

  2. Inkjet printed ambipolar transistors and inverters based on carbon nanotube/zinc tin oxide heterostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Bongjun; Jang, Seonpil; Dodabalapur, Ananth, E-mail: ananth.dodabalapur@engr.utexas.edu [Microelectronics Research Center, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas 78758 (United States); Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas 78712 (United States); Geier, Michael L.; Prabhumirashi, Pradyumna L. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois 60208 (United States); Hersam, Mark C. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois 60208 (United States); Department of Chemistry, Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois 60208 (United States); Department of Medicine, Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois 60208 (United States)

    2014-02-10

    We report ambipolar field-effect transistors (FETs) consisting of inkjet printed semiconductor bilayer heterostructures utilizing semiconducting single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) and amorphous zinc tin oxide (ZTO). The bilayer structure allows for electron transport to occur principally in the amorphous oxide layer and hole transport to occur exclusively in the SWCNT layer. This results in balanced electron and hole mobilities exceeding 2 cm{sup 2} V{sup −1} s{sup −1} at low operating voltages (<5 V) in air. We further show that the SWCNT-ZTO hybrid ambipolar FETs can be integrated into functional inverter circuits that display high peak gain (>10). This work provides a pathway for realizing solution processable, inkjet printable, large area electronic devices, and systems based on SWCNT-amorphous oxide heterostructures.

  3. Ambipolar nonvolatile memory based on a quantum-dot transistor with a nanoscale floating gate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Che, Yongli; Zhang, Yating; Cao, Xiaolong; Song, Xiaoxian; Cao, Mingxuan; Dai, Haitao; Yang, Junbo; Zhang, Guizhong; Yao, Jianquan

    2016-07-01

    Using only solution processing methods, we developed ambipolar quantum-dot (QD) transistor floating-gate memory (FGM) that uses Au nanoparticles as a floating gate. Because of the bipolarity of the active channel of PbSe QDs, the memory could easily trap holes or electrons in the floating gate by programming/erasing (P/E) operations, which could shift the threshold voltage both up and down. As a result, the memory exhibited good programmable memory characteristics: a large memory window (ΔVth ˜ 15 V) and a long retention time (>105 s). The magnitude of ΔVth depended on both P/E voltages and the bias voltage (VDS): ΔVth was a cubic function to VP/E and linearly depended on VDS. Therefore, this FGM based on a QD transistor is a promising alternative to its inorganic counterparts owing to its advantages of bipolarity, high mobility, low cost, and large-area production.

  4. Memory operation devices based on light-illumination ambipolar carbon-nanotube thin-film-transistors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aïssa, B., E-mail: aissab@emt.inrs.ca [Qatar Environment and Energy Research Institute (QEERI), Qatar Foundation, P.O. Box 5825, Doha (Qatar); Centre Energie, Matériaux et Télécommunications, INRS, 1650, Boulevard Lionel-Boulet Varennes, Quebec J3X 1S2 (Canada); Nedil, M. [Telebec Wireless Underground Communication Laboratory, UQAT, 675, 1ère Avenue, Val d' Or, Quebec J9P 1Y3 (Canada); Kroeger, J. [NanoIntegris & Raymor Nanotech, Raymor Industries Inc., 3765 La Vérendrye, Boisbriand, Quebec J7H 1R8 (Canada); Haddad, T. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec H3A 0B8 (Canada); Rosei, F. [Centre Energie, Matériaux et Télécommunications, INRS, 1650, Boulevard Lionel-Boulet Varennes, Quebec J3X 1S2 (Canada)

    2015-09-28

    We report the memory operation behavior of a light illumination ambipolar single-walled carbon nanotube thin film field-effect transistors devices. In addition to the high electronic-performance, such an on/off transistor-switching ratio of 10{sup 4} and an on-conductance of 18 μS, these memory devices have shown a high retention time of both hole and electron-trapping modes, reaching 2.8 × 10{sup 4} s at room temperature. The memory characteristics confirm that light illumination and electrical field can act as an independent programming/erasing operation method. This could be a fundamental step toward achieving high performance and stable operating nanoelectronic memory devices.

  5. Memory operation devices based on light-illumination ambipolar carbon-nanotube thin-film-transistors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report the memory operation behavior of a light illumination ambipolar single-walled carbon nanotube thin film field-effect transistors devices. In addition to the high electronic-performance, such an on/off transistor-switching ratio of 104 and an on-conductance of 18 μS, these memory devices have shown a high retention time of both hole and electron-trapping modes, reaching 2.8 × 104 s at room temperature. The memory characteristics confirm that light illumination and electrical field can act as an independent programming/erasing operation method. This could be a fundamental step toward achieving high performance and stable operating nanoelectronic memory devices

  6. Vertical organic transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lüssem, Björn; Günther, Alrun; Fischer, Axel; Kasemann, Daniel; Leo, Karl

    2015-11-01

    Organic switching devices such as field effect transistors (OFETs) are a key element of future flexible electronic devices. So far, however, a commercial breakthrough has not been achieved because these devices usually lack in switching speed (e.g. for logic applications) and current density (e.g. for display pixel driving). The limited performance is caused by a combination of comparatively low charge carrier mobilities and the large channel length caused by the need for low-cost structuring. Vertical Organic Transistors are a novel technology that has the potential to overcome these limitations of OFETs. Vertical Organic Transistors allow to scale the channel length of organic transistors into the 100 nm regime without cost intensive structuring techniques. Several different approaches have been proposed in literature, which show high output currents, low operation voltages, and comparatively high speed even without sub-μm structuring technologies. In this review, these different approaches are compared and recent progress is highlighted.

  7. Few-layer MoSe2 Ambipolar Field-Effect Transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamlagain, Bhim; Chuang, Hsun-Jen; Madusanka Perera, Meeghage; Lin, Ming-Wei; Yan, Jiaqiang; Jeevi Ghimire, Nirmal; Mandrus, David; Zhou, Zhixian

    2012-10-01

    Field-effect transistors were fabricated from few-layer MoSe2 quasi-two dimensional flakes produced by mechanically exfoliating high quality MoSe2 crystals synthesized using a vapor transport method. Electrical transport measurement on back-gated MoSe2 devices shows that they are n-type and their extrinsic mobility is in the range of 0.1 - 10 cm^2 V^1S-1, similar to few-layer MoS2 field-effect transistors. Ambipolar behavior is observed in ionic-liquid-gated MoSe2 devices, with the On/Off current ratio exceeding 10^6 for both electrons and holes. For the electron channel, the extrinsic mobility measured in the ionic-liquid-gate configuration increases by over an order of magnitude, which can be attributed to the reduction of Schottky barrier by the more efficient gating. In addition, the electron mobility increases with decreasing temperature above 250 K, suggesting that the phonon scattering is a significant contributor to the channel resistance. On the other hand, the hole mobility is substantially lower and does not show significant temperature dependence, which is likely due to the higher contact resistance for holes.

  8. Recent progress in photoactive organic field-effect transistors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yutaka Wakayama

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Recent progress in photoactive organic field-effect transistors (OFETs is reviewed. Photoactive OFETs are divided into light-emitting (LE and light-receiving (LR OFETs. In the first part, LE-OFETs are reviewed from the viewpoint of the evolution of device structures. Device performances have improved in the last decade with the evolution of device structures from single-layer unipolar to multi-layer ambipolar transistors. In the second part, various kinds of LR-OFETs are featured. These are categorized according to their functionalities: phototransistors, non-volatile optical memories, and photochromism-based transistors. For both, various device configurations are introduced: thin-film based transistors for practical applications, single-crystalline transistors to investigate fundamental physics, nanowires, multi-layers, and vertical transistors based on new concepts.

  9. Recent progress in photoactive organic field-effect transistors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent progress in photoactive organic field-effect transistors (OFETs) is reviewed. Photoactive OFETs are divided into light-emitting (LE) and light-receiving (LR) OFETs. In the first part, LE-OFETs are reviewed from the viewpoint of the evolution of device structures. Device performances have improved in the last decade with the evolution of device structures from single-layer unipolar to multi-layer ambipolar transistors. In the second part, various kinds of LR-OFETs are featured. These are categorized according to their functionalities: phototransistors, non-volatile optical memories, and photochromism-based transistors. For both, various device configurations are introduced: thin-film based transistors for practical applications, single-crystalline transistors to investigate fundamental physics, nanowires, multi-layers, and vertical transistors based on new concepts. (review)

  10. Vertical organic transistors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Organic switching devices such as field effect transistors (OFETs) are a key element of future flexible electronic devices. So far, however, a commercial breakthrough has not been achieved because these devices usually lack in switching speed (e.g. for logic applications) and current density (e.g. for display pixel driving). The limited performance is caused by a combination of comparatively low charge carrier mobilities and the large channel length caused by the need for low-cost structuring. Vertical Organic Transistors are a novel technology that has the potential to overcome these limitations of OFETs. Vertical Organic Transistors allow to scale the channel length of organic transistors into the 100 nm regime without cost intensive structuring techniques. Several different approaches have been proposed in literature, which show high output currents, low operation voltages, and comparatively high speed even without sub-μm structuring technologies. In this review, these different approaches are compared and recent progress is highlighted. (topical review)

  11. Recent progress in photoactive organic field-effect transistors

    OpenAIRE

    Yutaka Wakayama; Ryoma Hayakawa; Hoon-Seok Seo

    2014-01-01

    Recent progress in photoactive organic field-effect transistors (OFETs) is reviewed. Photoactive OFETs are divided into light-emitting (LE) and light-receiving (LR) OFETs. In the first part, LE-OFETs are reviewed from the viewpoint of the evolution of device structures. Device performances have improved in the last decade with the evolution of device structures from single-layer unipolar to multi-layer ambipolar transistors. In the second part, various kinds of LR-OFETs are featured. These ar...

  12. Single-charge transport in ambipolar silicon nanoscale field-effect transistors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, Filipp; Konstantaras, Georgios; Wiel, Wilfred G. van der; Zwanenburg, Floris A., E-mail: f.a.zwanenburg@utwente.nl [NanoElectronics Group, MESA+ Institute for Nanotechnology, University of Twente, P.O. Box 217, 7500 AE Enschede (Netherlands)

    2015-04-27

    We report single-charge transport in ambipolar nanoscale MOSFETs, electrostatically defined in near-intrinsic silicon. We use the ambipolarity to demonstrate the confinement of either a few electrons or a few holes in exactly the same crystalline environment underneath a gate electrode. We find similar electron and hole quantum dot properties while the mobilities differ quantitatively like in microscale devices. The understanding and control of individual electrons and holes are essential for spin-based quantum information processing.

  13. Multi-color light-emitting transistors composed of organic single crystals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yomogida, Yohei; Sakai, Hayato; Sawabe, Kosuke; Gocho, Shota; Bisri, Satria Zulkarnaen; Nakanotani, Hajime; Adachi, Chihaya; Hasobe, Taku; Iwasa, Yoshihiro; Takenobu, Taishi

    2013-01-01

    We report a novel concept for multi-color light emission from an ambipolar organic single-crystal transistor using natural optical waveguides, the self-absorption effect, Davydov splitting and the unique alignment of the transition dipole moments. We used 9,10-bis(2,2-diphenylvinyl)-anthracene singl

  14. Organic Light-Emitting Transistors

    OpenAIRE

    Karg, Siegfried; Rost-Bietsch, Constance; Riess, Walter; Loi, Maria Antonietta; Murgia, Mauro; Muccini, Michele

    2005-01-01

    A light-emitting OFET with pronounced ambipolar current characteristic has been prepared by co-evaporation of α-quinquethiophene (α-5T) as hole-transport material and ditridecyl-perylene-tetracarboxylic diimide (P13) as electron-transport material. The light intensity is controlled by both the drain-source voltage VDS and the gate voltage VG. Here, we demonstrate the general concept of adjusting electron and hole mobilities by co-evaporation of two different organic semiconductors.

  15. Ambipolar charge carrier transport in organic semiconductor blends of C{sub 60} and CuPc; Ambipolarer Ladungstransport in organischen Halbleiter-Mischschichten bestehend aus C{sub 60} und CuPc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bronner, Markus

    2008-06-20

    In this work ambipolar charge carrier transport is realised in organic field effect transistors using mixtures of p-conductive copper phthalocyanine and n-conductive buckminster fullerene as active layer. These blends are known from research on organic solar cells and can be considered as a model system for ambipolar transport. The field effect mobilities for electrons and holes can be adjusted by the variation of the mixing ratio. Thereby balanced mobilities for both charge carrier types are possible. In this work the variation of mobility, threshold voltage and electronic energy levels with the mixing ratio is discussed. The charge carrier mobilities are strongly reduced upon dilution of the respective conducting phase by the other species. This shows that transport of each carrier species occurs by percolation through the respective phase in the blend. A strong correlation between contact resistance and mobility indicates that carrier injection is diffusion limited. A charge redistribution in the copper phthalocyanine causes a hole accumulation at the organic/organic interface and affects thereby the threshold voltage for holes. The electronic structure was investigated by photoelectron spectroscopy. It was found that there is no chemical reaction between the different materials. The common work function of these blends changes linearly between the work functions of the neat materials. Moreover, a constant ionisation potential for the highest occupied molecular orbitals of the two materials and the core levels is obtained. Furthermore ambipolar inverters using mixed organic semiconductor layers were made and compared to complementary inverters consisting of discrete p- and n-channel transistors. The experimental findings and concomitant simulations demonstrate the need for balanced electron and hole mobilities in order to achieve symmetric inverter characteristics. However, they also reveal the superior performance of true complementary logic inverters towards

  16. Organic integrated circuits for information storage based on ambipolar polymers and charge injection engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ambipolar semiconducting polymers, characterized by both high electron (μe) and hole (μh) mobility, offer the advantage of realizing complex complementary electronic circuits with a single semiconducting layer, deposited by simple coating techniques. However, to achieve complementarity, one of the two conduction paths in transistors has to be suppressed, resulting in unipolar devices. Here, we adopt charge injection engineering through a specific interlayer in order to tune injection into frontier energy orbitals of a high mobility donor-acceptor co-polymer. Starting from field-effect transistors with Au contacts, showing a p-type unbalanced behaviour with μh = 0.29 cm2/V s and μe = 0.001 cm2/V s, through the insertion of a caesium salt interlayer with optimized thickness, we obtain an n-type unbalanced transistor with μe = 0.12 cm2/V s and μh = 8 × 10−4 cm2/V s. We applied this result to the development of the basic pass-transistor logic building blocks such as inverters, with high gain and good noise margin, and transmission-gates. In addition, we developed and characterized information storage circuits like D-Latches and D-Flip-Flops consisting of 16 transistors, demonstrating both their static and dynamic performances and thus the suitability of this technology for more complex circuits such as display addressing logic

  17. Organic integrated circuits for information storage based on ambipolar polymers and charge injection engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dell' Erba, Giorgio; Natali, Dario [Center for Nano Science and Technology PoliMi, Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia, Via Pascoli 70/3, 20133 Milano (Italy); Dipartimento di Elettronica, Informazione e Bioingegneria, Politecnico di Milano, Piazza L. da Vinci 32, 20133 Milano (Italy); Luzio, Alessandro; Caironi, Mario, E-mail: mario.caironi@iit.it, E-mail: yynoh@dongguk.edu [Center for Nano Science and Technology PoliMi, Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia, Via Pascoli 70/3, 20133 Milano (Italy); Kim, Juhwan; Khim, Dongyoon; Kim, Dong-Yu [Heeger Center for Advanced Materials, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology (GIST), 261 Cheomdan-gwagiro, Buk-gu, Gwangju 500-712 (Korea, Republic of); Noh, Yong-Young, E-mail: mario.caironi@iit.it, E-mail: yynoh@dongguk.edu [Department of Energy and Materials Engineering, Dongguk University, 26 Pil-dong, 3-ga, Jung-gu, Seoul 100-715 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-04-14

    Ambipolar semiconducting polymers, characterized by both high electron (μ{sub e}) and hole (μ{sub h}) mobility, offer the advantage of realizing complex complementary electronic circuits with a single semiconducting layer, deposited by simple coating techniques. However, to achieve complementarity, one of the two conduction paths in transistors has to be suppressed, resulting in unipolar devices. Here, we adopt charge injection engineering through a specific interlayer in order to tune injection into frontier energy orbitals of a high mobility donor-acceptor co-polymer. Starting from field-effect transistors with Au contacts, showing a p-type unbalanced behaviour with μ{sub h} = 0.29 cm{sup 2}/V s and μ{sub e} = 0.001 cm{sup 2}/V s, through the insertion of a caesium salt interlayer with optimized thickness, we obtain an n-type unbalanced transistor with μ{sub e} = 0.12 cm{sup 2}/V s and μ{sub h} = 8 × 10{sup −4} cm{sup 2}/V s. We applied this result to the development of the basic pass-transistor logic building blocks such as inverters, with high gain and good noise margin, and transmission-gates. In addition, we developed and characterized information storage circuits like D-Latches and D-Flip-Flops consisting of 16 transistors, demonstrating both their static and dynamic performances and thus the suitability of this technology for more complex circuits such as display addressing logic.

  18. Interface engineering in organic transistors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeong Don Park

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Recent technological advances in organic field-effect transistors (OFETs have triggered intensive research into the molecular and mesoscale structures of organic semiconductor films that determine their charge-transport characteristics. Since the molecular structure and morphology of an organic semiconductor are largely determined by the properties of the interface between the organic film and the insulator, a great deal of research has focused on interface engineering. We review recent progress in interface engineering for the fabrication of high-performance OFETs and, in particular, engineering of the interfaces between semiconductors and insulators. The effects of interfacial characteristics on the molecular and mesoscale structures of π-conjugated molecules and the performance of OFET devices are discussed.

  19. Organic and polymer transistors for electronics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ananth Dodabalapur

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Some of the major application areas for organic and polymeric transistors are reviewed. Organic complementary devices are promising on account of their lower power dissipation and ease of circuit design. The first organic large-scale integrated circuits have been implemented with this circuit approach. Organic transistor backplanes are ideally suited for electronic paper applications and other display schemes. Low-cost and other processing advantages, as well as improving performance, have led to organic-based radio frequency identification tag development. The chemical interaction between various organic and polymer semiconductors can be exploited in chemical and biological sensors based upon organic transistors.

  20. Equivalent ambipolar carrier injection of electrons and holes with Au electrodes in air-stable field effect transistors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carrier injection from Au electrodes to organic thin-film active layers can be greatly improved for both electrons and holes by nano-structural surface control of organic semiconducting thin films using long-chain aliphatic molecules on a SiO2 gate insulator. In this paper, we demonstrate a stark contrast for a 2,5-bis(4-biphenylyl)bithiophene (BP2T) active semiconducting layer grown on a modified SiO2 dielectric gate insulator between two different modifications of tetratetracontane and poly(methyl methacrylate) thin films. Important evidence that the field effect transistor (FET) characteristics are independent of electrode metals with different work functions is given by the observation of a conversion of the metal-semiconductor contact from the Schottky limit to the Bardeen limit. An air-stable light emitting FET with an Au electrode is demonstrated

  1. Quasi-unipolar pentacene films embedded with fullerene for non-volatile organic transistor memories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quasi-unipolar non-volatile organic transistor memory (NOTM) can combine the best characteristics of conventional unipolar and ambipolar NOTMs and, as a result, exhibit improved device performance. Unipolar NOTMs typically exhibit a large signal ratio between the programmed and erased current signals but also require a large voltage to program and erase the memory cells. Meanwhile, an ambipolar NOTM can be programmed and erased at lower voltages, but the resulting signal ratio is small. By embedding a discontinuous n-type fullerene layer within a p-type pentacene film, quasi-unipolar NOTMs are fabricated, of which the signal storage utilizes both electrons and holes while the electrical signal relies on only hole conduction. These devices exhibit superior memory performance relative to both pristine unipolar pentacene devices and ambipolar fullerene/pentacene bilayer devices. The quasi-unipolar NOTM exhibited a larger signal ratio between the programmed and erased states while also reducing the voltage required to program and erase a memory cell. This simple approach should be readily applicable for various combinations of advanced organic semiconductors that have been recently developed and thereby should make a significant impact on organic memory research

  2. Organic semiconductors for organic field-effect transistors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshiro Yamashita

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The advantages of organic field-effect transistors (OFETs, such as low cost, flexibility and large-area fabrication, have recently attracted much attention due to their electronic applications. Practical transistors require high mobility, large on/off ratio, low threshold voltage and high stability. Development of new organic semiconductors is key to achieving these parameters. Recently, organic semiconductors have been synthesized showing comparable mobilities to amorphous-silicon-based FETs. These materials make OFETs more attractive and their applications have been attempted. New organic semiconductors resulting in high-performance FET devices are described here and the relationship between transistor characteristics and chemical structure is discussed.

  3. Organic field-effect transistors

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Wang, Geng; Nešpůrek, Stanislav; Zhivkov, I.; Sworakowski, J.; Yakushi, K.

    Lanškroun : IMAPS, Brno University of Technology, 2004 - (Šikula, J.), s. 169-174 ISBN 80-239-2835-X. [European Microelectronics and Packaging Symposium /3./. Prague (CZ), 16.06.2004-18.06.2004] R&D Projects: GA MŠk ME 558 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4050913 Keywords : field-effect transistor * phthalocyanine * photoinduced field-effect Subject RIV: BG - Nuclear, Atomic and Molecular Physics, Colliders

  4. Advancement in organic nanofiber based transistors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Per Baunegaard With; Kjelstrup-Hansen, Jakob; Tavares, Luciana;

    The focus of this project is to study the light emission from nanofiber based organic light-emitting transistors (OLETs) with the overall aim of developing efficient, nanoscale light sources with different colors integrated on-chip. The research performed here regards the fabrication and characte......The focus of this project is to study the light emission from nanofiber based organic light-emitting transistors (OLETs) with the overall aim of developing efficient, nanoscale light sources with different colors integrated on-chip. The research performed here regards the fabrication and...

  5. Organic field effect transistors containing bistable materials

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sworakowski, J.; Lutsyk, P.; Janus, K.; Kochalska, Anna; Nešpůrek, Stanislav

    Vilnius : Center for Physical Sciences and Technology, 2011. s. 35. ISBN 978-9955-634-36-2. [International Conference "Electronic and Related Properties of Organic Systems" /12./ - ERPOS-12. 11.07.2011-13.07.2011, Vilnius] EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 35859 - BIMORE Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : transistor * switch * bistability Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry

  6. Transistors

    CERN Document Server

    Kendall, E J M

    2013-01-01

    Transistors covers the main thread of transistor development. This book is organized into 2 parts encompassing 19, and starts with an overview of the semi-conductor physics pertinent to the understanding of transistors, as well as features and applications of the point contact devices and junction devices. The subsequent part deals with the modulation of conductance of thin films of conductors by surface charges, the metal-semi conductor, and the semi-conductor triode. These topics are followed by discussions on the nature of the forward current, physical principles in transistor, the hole inj

  7. Electrical Characteristics of Copper Phthalocyanine Thin-Film Transistors with Polyamide-6/Polytetrafluoroethylene Gate Insulator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Shun-Yang; XU Shi-Ai; MA Dong-Ge

    2007-01-01

    Polyamide-6(PA 6)/polytetrafluoroethylene is studied as a potential gate dielectric for flexible organic thin film transistors.The salne method used for the formation of organic semiconductor and gate dielectric films greatly simplifies the fabrication process of devices.The fabricated transistors show good electrical characteristics.Ambipolar behaviour is observed even when the device is operated in air.

  8. Organic transistors for electrophysiology (Presentation Recording)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivnay, Jonathan

    2015-10-01

    Efficient local transduction of biological signals is of critical importance for mapping brain activity and diagnosing pathological conditions. Traditional devices used to record electrophysiological signals are passive electrodes that require (pre)amplification with downstream electronics. Organic electrochemical transistors (OECTs) that utilize conducting polymer films as the channel have shown considerable promise as amplifying transducers due to their stability in aqueous conditions and high transconductance (>3 mS). The materials properties and physics of such transistors, however, remains largely unexplored thus limiting their potential. Here we show that the uptake of ionic charge from an electrolyte into a poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) doped with polystyrene sulfonate (PEDOT:PSS) OECT channel leads to a dependence of the effective capacitance on the entire volume of the film. Subsequently, device transconductance and time response vary with channel thickness, a defining characteristic that differentiates OECTs from field effect transistors, and provides a new degree of freedom for device engineering. Using this understanding we tailor OECTs for a variety of low (1-100 Hz) and high (1-10 kHz) frequency applications, including human electroencephalography, where high transconductance devices impart richer signal content without the need for additional amplification circuitry. We also show that the materials figure of merit OECTs is the product of hole mobility and volumetric capacitance of the channel, leading to design rules for novel high performance materials.

  9. Organic Thin-Film Transistor (OTFT-Based Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Elkington

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Organic thin film transistors have been a popular research topic in recent decades and have found applications from flexible displays to disposable sensors. In this review, we present an overview of some notable articles reporting sensing applications for organic transistors with a focus on the most recent publications. In particular, we concentrate on three main types of organic transistor-based sensors: biosensors, pressure sensors and “e-nose”/vapour sensors.

  10. Organic Field Effect Transistor Based Crosslinked Deoxyribonucleic Acid Gate Dielectric

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deoxyribonucleic Acid (DNA) derived form marine waste products and modified with surfactant demonstrates excellent passive and active optical properties. In this study, we have fabricated organic field-effect transistors with DNA gate. In organic field effect transistors (OFETs) the gate dielectric plays a crucial role - these highly insulating thin film polymer layers are key-components in state of the art organic transistor devices. When replacing the polymer layer by introducing solution-processed thin film modified bio polymer (DNA) as gate insulator, transistor-characteristics are changed towards remanence-like hysteresis behaviours. The hysteresis-loops probed in bio-organic field effect transistors (BiOFETs) derived from DNA and fullerene derivatives form bistable states which can be used for memory devices at low operating voltage regime compared to similar organic thin film transistors using polymers as gate insulator

  11. Fabrication and characterization of advanced Organic Thin Film Transistors

    OpenAIRE

    Scaldaferri, Rossana

    2009-01-01

    The thesis aims to the development of Organic Thin Film Transistors and more complex devices based on organic materials. The experimental work demonstrates the possibility to manufacture transistors and more complex circuits with innovative polymers and technologies, leading to an experimental validation of the possibility to realize all-organic devices.

  12. Towards solution-processed ambipolar hybrid thin-film transistors based on ZnO nanoparticles and P3HT polymer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diallo, Abdou Karim; Gaceur, Meriem; Berton, Nicolas; Margeat, Olivier; Ackermann, Jörg; Videlot-Ackermann, Christine

    2013-06-01

    Solution-processed n-channel oxide semiconductor thin-film transistors (TFTs) were fabricated using zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles. Polycrystalline fused-ZnO nanoparticle films were produced by spin-coating ZnO nanosphere dispersions following by a subsequent heat treatment. The solution-processable semiconductor ink based on ZnO was prepared by dispersing the synthesized ZnO nanospheres in isopropanol mixed with ethanolamine to various concentrations from 20 to 80 mg/mL. Such concentration dependence on morphology and microstructure of thin films was studied on spin-coated ZnO films by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Spin-coated ZnO films involved as active layers in transistor configuration delivered an almost ideal output characteristic (Id-Vd) with an electron mobility up to 3 × 10-2 cm2/V s. As a p-channel semiconductor, a poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) solution-processable ink was deposited by spin-coating on top of closely packed ZnO nanoparticles-based films to form an uniform overlying layer. A hybrid (inorganic-organic) interface was formed by the direct contact between ZnO and P3HT leading to carrier redistribution. Such solution-processed hybrid thin-film transistors delivered in air well balanced electron and hole mobilities as 3.9 × 10-5 and 2 × 10-5 cm2/V s, respectively.

  13. Properties of polymer light-emitting transistors with Ag-nanowire source/drain electrodes fabricated on polymer substrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The properties of polymer light-emitting transistors with Ag-nanowire (AgNW) source/drain electrodes fabricated on a polymer substrate are investigated. Organic field-effect transistors (OFETs) based on poly(9,9-dioctylfluorene-co-benzothiadiazole) (F8BT) with AgNW source/drain electrodes exhibit ambipolar characteristics. For an ambipolar F8BT OFET, yellow-green light emission is observed. The maximum external quantum efficiency is 0.6%. We demonstrate the possibility of producing flexible polymer light-emitting transistors using AgNW electrodes. - Highlights: • Fluorene-type organic field-effect transistors (OFETs) are investigated. • We use Ag-nanowire (AgNW) source/drain electrodes in the OFETs. • These OFETs exhibit ambipolar and light-emitting characteristics. • The maximum external quantum efficiency is 0.6%. • We demonstrate flexible polymer light-emitting transistors using AgNW electrodes

  14. Low voltage and time constant organic synapse-transistor

    OpenAIRE

    Desbief, Simon; Kyndiah, Adrica; Guerin, David; Gentili, Denis; Murgia, Mauro; Lenfant, Stéphane; Alibart, Fabien; Cramer, Tobias; Biscarini, Fabio; Vuillaume, Dominique

    2015-01-01

    We report on an artificial synapse, an organic synapse-transistor (synapstor) working at 1 volt and with a typical response time in the range 100-200 ms. This device (also called NOMFET, Nanoparticle Organic Memory Field Effect Transistor) combines a memory and a transistor effect in a single device. We demonstrate that short-term plasticity (STP), a typical synaptic behavior, is observed when stimulating the device with input spikes of 1 volt. Both significant facilitating and depressing beh...

  15. High Performance Ambipolar Diketopyrrolopyrrole-Thieno[3,2-b]thiophene Copolymer Field-Effect Transistors with Balanced Hole and Electron Mobilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Zhuoying; Lee, Mi Jung; Ashraf, Raja Shahid;

    2012-01-01

    Ambipolar OFETs with balanced hole and electron field-effect mobilities both exceeding 1 cm2 V−1 s−1 are achieved based on a single-solution-processed conjugated polymer, DPPT-TT, upon careful optimization of the device architecture, charge injection, and polymer processing. Such high-performance...

  16. Organic Light-Emitting Diodes Driven by Organic Transistors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡远川; 董桂芳; 王立铎; 梁琰; 邱勇

    2004-01-01

    Organic thin-film field-effect transistors (OTFTs) with pentacene as the semiconductor have been fabricated for driving an organic light-emitting diode (OLED). The driving circuit includes two OTFTs and one storage capacitor. The field-effect mobility of the transistors in the driving circuit is more than 0.3 cm2/Vs, and the on/off ratio is larger than 104. The light-emission area of the OLED is 0. 04mm2 and the brightness is larger than 400cd/m2 when the selected line voltage, data line voltage and drive voltage all are -40 V. The responding characteristics and holding characteristics are also researched when the selected line voltage and the date line voltage are changed.

  17. Progresses in organic field-effect transistors and molecular electronics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wu Weiping; Xu Wei; Hu Wenping; Liu Yunqi; Zhu Daoben

    2006-01-01

    In the past years,organic semiconductors have been extensively investigated as electronic materials for organic field-effect transistors (OFETs).In this review,we briefly summarize the current status of organic field-effect transistors including materials design,device physics,molecular electronics and the applications of carbon nanotubes in molecular electronics.Future prospects and investigations required to improve the OFET performance are also involved.

  18. Wet Organic Field Effect Transistor as DNA sensor

    OpenAIRE

    Chiu, Yu-Jui

    2008-01-01

    Label-free detection of DNA has been successfully demonstrated on field effect transistor (FET) based devices. Since conducting organic materials was discovered and have attracted more and more research efforts by their profound advantages, this work will focus on utilizing an organic field effect transistor (OFET) as DNA sensor. An OFET constructed with a transporting fluidic channel, WetOFET, forms a fluid-polymer (active layer) interface where the probe DNA can be introduced. DNA hybridiza...

  19. Ultra-high gain diffusion-driven organic transistor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torricelli, Fabrizio; Colalongo, Luigi; Raiteri, Daniele; Kovács-Vajna, Zsolt Miklós; Cantatore, Eugenio

    2016-02-01

    Emerging large-area technologies based on organic transistors are enabling the fabrication of low-cost flexible circuits, smart sensors and biomedical devices. High-gain transistors are essential for the development of large-scale circuit integration, high-sensitivity sensors and signal amplification in sensing systems. Unfortunately, organic field-effect transistors show limited gain, usually of the order of tens, because of the large contact resistance and channel-length modulation. Here we show a new organic field-effect transistor architecture with a gain larger than 700. This is the highest gain ever reported for organic field-effect transistors. In the proposed organic field-effect transistor, the charge injection and extraction at the metal-semiconductor contacts are driven by the charge diffusion. The ideal conditions of ohmic contacts with negligible contact resistance and flat current saturation are demonstrated. The approach is general and can be extended to any thin-film technology opening unprecedented opportunities for the development of high-performance flexible electronics.

  20. Performance and processability of organic field effect transistors

    OpenAIRE

    Alt, Milan

    2015-01-01

    The present work addresses challenges with the performance and processability of organic semiconductors for their application in organic field-effect transistors (OFET). The results that are presented in this thesis show that combining advances in chemical material design and interface tailoring with advances in deposition and processing techniques, in order to unfold the potential of organic electronics, is a matter of engineering.

  1. Organic transistors in optical displays and microelectronic applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gelinck, G.H.; Heremans, P.; Nomoto, K.; Anthopoulos, T.D.

    2010-01-01

    Organic thin-film transistors (OTFTs) offer unprecedented opportunities for implementation in a broad range of technological applications spanning from large-volume microelectronics and optical displays to chemical and biological sensors. In this Progress Report, we review the application of organic

  2. Organic thin film transistor integration a hybrid approach

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Flora; Wu, Yiliang; Ong, Beng S

    2013-01-01

    Research on organic electronics (or plastic electronics) is driven by the need to create systems that are lightweight, unbreakable, and mechanically flexible. With the remarkable improvement in the performance of organic semiconductor materials during the past few decades, organic electronics appeal to innovative, practical, and broad-impact applications requiring large-area coverage, mechanical flexibility, low-temperature processing, and low cost. Thus, organic electronics appeal to a broad range of electronic devices and products including transistors, diodes, sensors, solar cells, lighting

  3. Flexible carbon-based ohmic contacts for organic transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandon, Erik (Inventor)

    2007-01-01

    The present invention relates to a system and method of organic thin-film transistors (OTFTs). More specifically, the present invention relates to employing a flexible, conductive particle-polymer composite material for ohmic contacts (i.e. drain and source).

  4. Conductance switching in organic ferroelectric field-effect transistors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Asadi, K.; Blom, P.W.M.; Leeuw, D.M. de

    2011-01-01

    Staggered bottom-contact top-gate organic ferroelectric field-effect transistors are fabricated with poly(vinylidene fluoride-trifluoroethylene) (P(VDF-TrFE)) as ferroelectric gate and poly[bis(4-phenyl)(2,4,6- trimethylphenyl)amine] as semiconductor. Polarization reversal of the ferroelectric gate

  5. Multicolored Nanofiber Based Organic Light-Emitting Transistor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    With Jensen, Per Baunegaard; Kjelstrup-Hansen, Jakob; Tavares, Luciana;

    driven device by combining nanofibers made from two different molecules, parahexaphenylene (p6P) and 5,5´-Di-4-biphenyl-2,2´-bithiophene (PPTTPP), which emits blue and green light, respectively. The organic nanofibers are implemented on a bottom gate/bottom contact field-effect transistor platform using...

  6. π-Conjugated Organic Semiconductors for Field-Effect Transistors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Yun-qi

    2005-01-01

    @@ 1Results and Discussion Organic semiconductors employed as active layers in field-effect transistors (FETs) are of great current interest because such FETs can potentially be fabricated at low cost, over large areas, and on flexible substrates. Such facile fabrication approaches offer a significant advantage over silicon technology in numerous applications.

  7. Fully printed metabolite sensor using organic electrochemical transistor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheiblin, Gaëtan; Aliane, Abdelkader; Coppard, Romain; Owens, Róisín. M.; Mailley, Pascal; Malliaras, George G.

    2015-08-01

    As conducting polymer based devices, organic electrochemical transistors (OECTs) are suited for printing process. The convenience of the screen-printing techniques allowed us to design and fabricate OECTs with a selected design and using different gate material. Depending on the material used, we were able to tune the transistor for different biological application. Ag/AgCl gate provided transistor with good transconductance, and electrochemical sensitivity to pH was provided by polyaniline ink. Finally, we validate the enzymatic sensing of glucose and lactate with a Poly(3,4-ethylene dioxythiophene) doped with poly(styrene sulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) gate often used due to its biocompatible properties. The screen-printing process allowed us to fabricate a large amount of devices in a short period of time, using only commercially available grades of ink, showing by this way the possible transfer to industrial purpose.

  8. Electrolyte-Gated Graphene Ambipolar Frequency Multipliers for Biochemical Sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Wangyang; Feng, Lingyan; Mayer, Dirk; Panaitov, Gregory; Kireev, Dmitry; Offenhäusser, Andreas; Krause, Hans-Joachim

    2016-04-13

    In this Letter, the ambipolar properties of an electrolyte-gated graphene field-effect transistor (GFET) have been explored to fabricate frequency-doubling biochemical sensor devices. By biasing the ambipolar GFETs in a common-source configuration, an input sinusoidal voltage at frequency f applied to the electrolyte gate can be rectified to a sinusoidal wave at frequency 2f at the drain electrode. The extraordinary high carrier mobility of graphene and the strong electrolyte gate coupling provide the graphene ambipolar frequency doubler an unprecedented unity gain, as well as a detection limit of ∼4 pM for 11-mer single strand DNA molecules in 1 mM PBS buffer solution. Combined with an improved drift characteristics and an enhanced low-frequency 1/f noise performance by sampling at doubled frequency, this good detection limit suggests the graphene ambipolar frequency doubler a highly promising biochemical sensing platform. PMID:26928906

  9. Advances in organic field-effect transistors and integrated circuits

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Organic field-effect transistors (OFETs) have received significant research interest because of their promising applications in low cast, lager area, plastic circuits, and tremendous progress has been made in materials, device performance, OFETs based circuits in recent years. In this article we introduce the advances in organic semiconductor materials, OFETs based integrating techniques, and in particular highlight the recent progress. Finally, the prospects and problems of OFETs are discussed.

  10. Organic Field-effect Transistors Based on Tetrathiafulvalene Derivatives

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    1 Restults Tetrathiafulvalene (TTF) and its derivatives have been extensively investigated in the field of organic conductors and superconductors since 1973. Recently, their application in organic field-effect transistors (OFETs) has attracted considerable attention. So far, on the one hand, the fabrication techniques of the TTF-based FETs have been primarily limited to high vacuum evaporation, which is a relatively expensive process. On the other hand, low FET performances, such as the low on/off ratio...

  11. Balanced Ambipolar Poly(diketopyrrolopyrrole-alt-tetrafluorobenzene) Semiconducting Polymers Synthesized via Direct Arylation Polymerization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kai; Wang, Guojie; Wang, Mingfeng

    2015-12-01

    The synthesis of an ambipolar π-conjugated copolymer consisting of alternating diketopyrrolopyrrole and tetrafluorobenzene via direct arylation polymerization (DAP) is reported. Two different combinations of monomers are investigated under various catalytic conditions for DAP. The target polymer obtained under an optimized catalytic condition shows minimal structural defects, a number-average molecular weight of 33.2 kDa, and balanced electron and hole mobility of 1 × 10(-2) cm(2) V(-1) S(-1) in the organic field-effect transistors fabricated and tested under ambient conditions. PMID:26421942

  12. Vertical Organic Field-Effect Transistors for Integrated Optoelectronic Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Hyeonggeun; Dong, Zhipeng; Guo, Jing; Kim, Doyoung; So, Franky

    2016-04-27

    Direct integration of a vertical organic field-effect transistor (VOFET) and an optoelectronic device offers a single stacked, low power optoelectronic VOFET with high aperture ratios. However, a functional optoelectronic VOFET could not be realized because of the difficulty in fabricating transparent source and gate electrodes. Here, we report a VOFET with an on/off ratio up to 10(5) as well as output current saturation by fabricating a transparent gate capacitor consisting of a perforated indium tin oxide (ITO) source electrode, HfO2 gate dielectric, and ITO gate electrode. Effects of the pore size and the pore depth within the porous ITO electrodes on the on/off characteristic of a VOFET are systematically explained in this work. By combining a phosphorescent organic light-emitting diode with an optimized VOFET structure, a vertical organic light-emitting transistor with a luminance on/off ratio of 10(4) can be fabricated. PMID:27082815

  13. Organic field-effect transistors using single crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Organic field-effect transistors using small-molecule organic single crystals are developed to investigate fundamental aspects of organic thin-film transistors that have been widely studied for possible future markets for 'plastic electronics'. In reviewing the physics and chemistry of single-crystal organic field-effect transistors (SC-OFETs), the nature of intrinsic charge dynamics is elucidated for the carriers induced at the single crystal surfaces of molecular semiconductors. Materials for SC-OFETs are first reviewed with descriptions of the fabrication methods and the field-effect characteristics. In particular, a benchmark carrier mobility of 20-40 cm2 Vs-1, achieved with thin platelets of rubrene single crystals, demonstrates the significance of the SC-OFETs and clarifies material limitations for organic devices. In the latter part of this review, we discuss the physics of microscopic charge transport by using SC-OFETs at metal/semiconductor contacts and along semiconductor/insulator interfaces. Most importantly, Hall effect and electron spin resonance (ESR) measurements reveal that interface charge transport in molecular semiconductors is properly described in terms of band transport and localization by charge traps. (topical review)

  14. Organic field-effect transistors using single crystals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatsuo Hasegawa and Jun Takeya

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Organic field-effect transistors using small-molecule organic single crystals are developed to investigate fundamental aspects of organic thin-film transistors that have been widely studied for possible future markets for 'plastic electronics'. In reviewing the physics and chemistry of single-crystal organic field-effect transistors (SC-OFETs, the nature of intrinsic charge dynamics is elucidated for the carriers induced at the single crystal surfaces of molecular semiconductors. Materials for SC-OFETs are first reviewed with descriptions of the fabrication methods and the field-effect characteristics. In particular, a benchmark carrier mobility of 20–40 cm2 Vs−1, achieved with thin platelets of rubrene single crystals, demonstrates the significance of the SC-OFETs and clarifies material limitations for organic devices. In the latter part of this review, we discuss the physics of microscopic charge transport by using SC-OFETs at metal/semiconductor contacts and along semiconductor/insulator interfaces. Most importantly, Hall effect and electron spin resonance (ESR measurements reveal that interface charge transport in molecular semiconductors is properly described in terms of band transport and localization by charge traps.

  15. Organic transistors with high thermal stability for medical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuribara, Kazunori; Wang, He; Uchiyama, Naoya; Fukuda, Kenjiro; Yokota, Tomoyuki; Zschieschang, Ute; Jaye, Cherno; Fischer, Daniel; Klauk, Hagen; Yamamoto, Tatsuya; Takimiya, Kazuo; Ikeda, Masaaki; Kuwabara, Hirokazu; Sekitani, Tsuyoshi; Loo, Yueh-Lin; Someya, Takao

    2012-03-01

    The excellent mechanical flexibility of organic electronic devices is expected to open up a range of new application opportunities in electronics, such as flexible displays, robotic sensors, and biological and medical electronic applications. However, one of the major remaining issues for organic devices is their instability, especially their thermal instability, because low melting temperatures and large thermal expansion coefficients of organic materials cause thermal degradation. Here we demonstrate the fabrication of flexible thin-film transistors with excellent thermal stability and their viability for biomedical sterilization processes. The organic thin-film transistors comprise a high-mobility organic semiconductor, dinaphtho[2,3-b:2‧,3‧-f]thieno[3,2-b]thiophene, and thin gate dielectrics comprising a 2-nm-thick self-assembled monolayer and a 4-nm-thick aluminium oxide layer. The transistors exhibit a mobility of 1.2 cm2 V-1s-1 within a 2 V operation and are stable even after exposure to conditions typically used for medical sterilization.

  16. Orientation selectivity in a multi-gated organic electrochemical transistor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gkoupidenis, Paschalis; Koutsouras, Dimitrios A.; Lonjaret, Thomas; Fairfield, Jessamyn A.; Malliaras, George G.

    2016-06-01

    Neuromorphic devices offer promising computational paradigms that transcend the limitations of conventional technologies. A prominent example, inspired by the workings of the brain, is spatiotemporal information processing. Here we demonstrate orientation selectivity, a spatiotemporal processing function of the visual cortex, using a poly(3,4ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrene sulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) organic electrochemical transistor with multiple gates. Spatially distributed inputs on a gate electrode array are found to correlate with the output of the transistor, leading to the ability to discriminate between different stimuli orientations. The demonstration of spatiotemporal processing in an organic electronic device paves the way for neuromorphic devices with new form factors and a facile interface with biology.

  17. Liquid crystals for organic thin-film transistors

    OpenAIRE

    Iino, Hiroaki; Usui, Takayuki; Hanna, Jun-ichi

    2015-01-01

    Crystalline thin films of organic semiconductors are a good candidate for field effect transistor (FET) materials in printed electronics. However, there are currently two main problems, which are associated with inhomogeneity and poor thermal durability of these films. Here we report that liquid crystalline materials exhibiting a highly ordered liquid crystal phase of smectic E (SmE) can solve both these problems. We design a SmE liquid crystalline material, 2-decyl-7-phenyl-[1]benzothieno[3,...

  18. Organic field effect transistors for flexible electronics

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pfleger, Jiří

    Praha : Katedra inženýrství pevných látek, Fakulta jaderná a fyzikálně inženýrská, ČVUT v Praze, 2014. s. 18. [Student Scientific Conference on Solid State Physics /4./. 23.06.2014-27.06.2014, Nové Hrady] R&D Projects: GA TA ČR TE01020022 Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : organic semiconductors * OFET * organic electronics Subject RIV: CG - Electrochemistry

  19. Enhancement of ambipolar characteristics in single-walled carbon nanotubes using C{sub 60} and fabrication of logic gates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Steve [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Stanford University, Durand Building, 496 Lomita Mall, Stanford, California 94305-4034 (United States); Nam, Ji Hyun [Department of Electrical Engineering, Stanford University, David Packard Building, 350 Serra Mall, Mail Code: 9505, Stanford, California 94305-9505 (United States); Koo, Ja Hoon; Lei, Ting; Bao, Zhenan, E-mail: zbao@stanford.edu [Department of Chemical Engineering, Stanford University, Shriram Center, 443 Via Ortega, Room 307, Stanford, California 94305-4145 (United States)

    2015-03-09

    We demonstrate a technique to convert p-type single-walled carbon nanotube (SWNT) network transistor into ambipolar transistor by thermally evaporating C{sub 60} on top. The addition of C{sub 60} was observed to have two effects in enhancing ambipolar characteristics. First, C{sub 60} served as an encapsulating layer that enhanced the ambipolar characteristics of SWNTs. Second, C{sub 60} itself served as an electron transporting layer that contributed to the n-type conduction. Such a dual effect enables effective conversion of p-type into ambipolar characteristics. We have fabricated inverters using our SWNT/C{sub 60} ambipolar transistors with gain as high as 24, along with adaptive NAND and NOR logic gates.

  20. Inkjet printing of organic transistor devices

    OpenAIRE

    Basiricò, Laura

    2012-01-01

    In the last two decades inkjet printing passed from the field of graphic art and newspaper industry to that of organic and flexible electronics, as a manufacturing tool, becoming a major topic in scientific research. The appeal of this kind of technology is mainly due to its low cost, non-contact and additive approach, which makes it surely the most promising technique over the other technologies of Printed Electronics. The focus of this thesis is the optimization of the printing proces...

  1. AMBIPOLAR DIFFUSION REVISITED

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. C. Adams

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This contribution re-examines the problem of ambipolar di usion as a mechanism for the production and runaway evolution (collapse of centrally condensed molecular cloud cores. The principal calculation applies in the geometric limit of a highly attened core and allows for a semi-analytic treatment of the full problem. In this formulation, the ambipolar di usion regime of evolution for negative times (t 0. This treatment shows that the resulting cores display non-zero, but sub-magnetosonic, inward velocities at the end of the di usion epoch, in agreement with current observations. This work derives an analytic relationship between the dimensionless mass to ux ratio 0 = f0-1 0 of the central regions produced by runaway core condensation and the dimensionless rate of ambipolar di usion e; cores going into collapse typically have values of mass-to- ux ratio 0 = 2. Next we show that ambipolar di usion takes place more quickly in the presence of turbulent uctuations, i.e., the e ective value of the di usion constan E can be enhanced by turbulence. We also study self-similar collapse with the inclusion of nonzero initial inward velocities. Taken together, these ndings show that the resulting theory provides a viable working paradigm for the formation of molecular cloud cores and their subsequent collapse to form stars and planetary systems.

  2. Organic electrochemical transistors based on a dielectrophoretically aligned nanowire array

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Choi WooSeok

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In this study, we synthesized an organic electrochemical transistor (OECT using dielectrophoresis of a carbon nanotube-Nafion (CNT-Nafion suspension. Dielectrophoretically aligned nanowires formed a one-dimensional submicron bundle between triangular electrodes. The CNT-Nafion composite nanowire bundles showed p-type semiconductor characteristics. The drain-source current decreased with increasing gate voltage. The nanowire bundles showed potential as pH sensor because the drain-source current ratio varied linearly according to the gate voltage in pH buffers.

  3. Electrolyte-gated organic synapse transistor interfaced with neurons

    CERN Document Server

    Desbief, Simon; Casalini, Stefano; Guerin, David; Tortorella, Silvia; Barbalinardo, Marianna; Kyndiah, Adrica; Murgia, Mauro; Cramer, Tobias; Biscarini, Fabio; Vuillaume, Dominique

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate an electrolyte-gated hybrid nanoparticle/organic synapstor (synapse-transistor, termed EGOS) that exhibits short-term plasticity as biological synapses. The response of EGOS makes it suitable to be interfaced with neurons: short-term plasticity is observed at spike voltage as low as 50 mV (in a par with the amplitude of action potential in neurons) and with a typical response time in the range of tens milliseconds. Human neuroblastoma stem cells are adhered and differentiated into neurons on top of EGOS. We observe that the presence of the cells does not alter short-term plasticity of the device.

  4. High performance small-molecule organic thin film transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Chung-Chen

    The roadmap of developing microelectronics has a new branch: organic electronics. Organic electronics, which utilizes the electrical properties of organic materials in the active or passive layers, is an emerging technology that has received much attention. In conjunction with today's demands for new materials and devices, many technologies have emerged for developing organic electronics and consolidating applications and markets. An organic thin-film transistor is the essential device in this paradigm in addition to organic photodiodes and organic light emitting diodes. This thesis presents advances made in design and fabrication of organic thin-film transistors (OTFTs) using small-molecule organic semiconductors (pentacene, anthradithiophene, and their derivatives) as the active layer with record device performance. In this work OTFT test structures fabricated on oxidized silicon substrates were utilized to provide a convenient substrate, gate contact, and gate insulator for the processing and characterization of vapor-deposited organic materials and their transistors. By developing a gate dielectric treatment using silane coupling agents the performance and yield of pentacene OTFTs was improved and a field-effect mobility of larger than 2 cm2/V-s was achieved. Such device performance is comparable to a-Si:H TFTs and have the potential for electronic applications. In addition, the first direct photolithographic process for top contacts to pentacene OTFTs on oxidized silicon with an acceptable performance (a field-effect mobility of 0.3 cm2/V-s, an on/off current ratio of 10 7, and a subthreshold slope of 1 V/decade) was developed. The multiple layer photoresist process demonstrated the feasibility of creating source and drain metallic electrodes on vapor-deposited pentacene thin films with a resolution less than 10 mum. Subsequently, solution-processed OTFTs were then investigated and high performance transistors, with field-effect mobilities > 1 cm2/V-s and an

  5. Dynamics of threshold voltage shifts in organic and amorphous silicon field-effect transistors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mathijssen, Simon G. J.; Colle, Michael; Gomes, Henrique; Smits, Edsger C. P.; de Boer, Bert; McCulloch, Iain; Bobbert, Peter A.; de Leeuw, Dago M.; Cölle, Michael

    2007-01-01

    The electrical instability of organic field-effect transistors is investigated. We observe that the threshold-voltage shift (see figure) shows a stretched-exponential time dependence under an applied gate bias. The activation energy of 0.6 eV is common for our and all other organic transistors repor

  6. Synaptic plasticity functions in an organic electrochemical transistor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gkoupidenis, Paschalis; Schaefer, Nathan; Strakosas, Xenofon; Fairfield, Jessamyn A.; Malliaras, George G.

    2015-12-01

    Synaptic plasticity functions play a crucial role in the transmission of neural signals in the brain. Short-term plasticity is required for the transmission, encoding, and filtering of the neural signal, whereas long-term plasticity establishes more permanent changes in neural microcircuitry and thus underlies memory and learning. The realization of bioinspired circuits that can actually mimic signal processing in the brain demands the reproduction of both short- and long-term aspects of synaptic plasticity in a single device. Here, we demonstrate the implementation of neuromorphic functions similar to biological memory, such as short- to long-term memory transition, in non-volatile organic electrochemical transistors (OECTs). Depending on the training of the OECT, the device displays either short- or long-term plasticity, therefore, exhibiting non von Neumann characteristics with merged processing and storing functionalities. These results are a first step towards the implementation of organic-based neuromorphic circuits.

  7. Organic nano-floating-gate transistor memory with metal nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Tho, Luu; Baeg, Kang-Jun; Noh, Yong-Young

    2016-04-01

    Organic non-volatile memory is advanced topics for various soft electronics applications as lightweight, low-cost, flexible, and printable solid-state data storage media. As a key building block, organic field-effect transistors (OFETs) with a nano-floating gate are widely used and promising structures to store digital information stably in a memory cell. Different types of nano-floating-gates and their various synthesis methods have been developed and applied to fabricate nanoparticle-based non-volatile memory devices. In this review, recent advances in the classes of nano-floating-gate OFET memory devices using metal nanoparticles as charge-trapping sites are briefly reviewed. Details of device fabrication, characterization, and operation mechanisms are reported based on recent research activities reported in the literature.

  8. Theoretical study of stability and charge-transport properties of coronene molecule and some of its halogenated derivatives: a path to ambipolar organic-based materials?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sancho-García, J C; Pérez-Jiménez, A J

    2014-10-01

    We have carefully investigated the structural and electronic properties of coronene and some of its fluorinated and chlorinated derivatives, including full periphery substitution, as well as the preferred orientation of the non-covalent dimer structures subsequently formed. We have paid particular attention to a set of methodological details, to first obtain single-molecule magnitudes as accurately as possible, including next the use of modern dispersion-corrected methods to tackle the corresponding non-covalently bound dimers. Generally speaking, this class of compounds is expected to self-assembly in neighboring π-stacks with dimer stabilization energies ranging from -20 to -30 kcal mol(-1) at close distances around 3.0-3.3 Å. Then, in a further step, we have also calculated hole and electron transfer rates of some suitable candidates for ambipolar materials, and corresponding charge mobility values, which are known to critically depend on the supramolecular organization of the samples. For coronene and per-fluorinated coronene, we have found high values for their hopping rates, although slightly smaller for the latter due to an increase (decrease) of the reorganization energies (electronic couplings). PMID:25296829

  9. Theoretical study of stability and charge-transport properties of coronene molecule and some of its halogenated derivatives: A path to ambipolar organic-based materials?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have carefully investigated the structural and electronic properties of coronene and some of its fluorinated and chlorinated derivatives, including full periphery substitution, as well as the preferred orientation of the non-covalent dimer structures subsequently formed. We have paid particular attention to a set of methodological details, to first obtain single-molecule magnitudes as accurately as possible, including next the use of modern dispersion-corrected methods to tackle the corresponding non-covalently bound dimers. Generally speaking, this class of compounds is expected to self-assembly in neighboring π-stacks with dimer stabilization energies ranging from –20 to –30 kcal mol−1 at close distances around 3.0–3.3 Å. Then, in a further step, we have also calculated hole and electron transfer rates of some suitable candidates for ambipolar materials, and corresponding charge mobility values, which are known to critically depend on the supramolecular organization of the samples. For coronene and per-fluorinated coronene, we have found high values for their hopping rates, although slightly smaller for the latter due to an increase (decrease) of the reorganization energies (electronic couplings)

  10. Theoretical study of stability and charge-transport properties of coronene molecule and some of its halogenated derivatives: A path to ambipolar organic-based materials?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sancho-García, J. C., E-mail: jc.sancho@ua.es; Pérez-Jiménez, A. J., E-mail: aj.perez@ua.es [Departamento de Química Física, Universidad de Alicante, E-03080 Alicante (Spain)

    2014-10-07

    We have carefully investigated the structural and electronic properties of coronene and some of its fluorinated and chlorinated derivatives, including full periphery substitution, as well as the preferred orientation of the non-covalent dimer structures subsequently formed. We have paid particular attention to a set of methodological details, to first obtain single-molecule magnitudes as accurately as possible, including next the use of modern dispersion-corrected methods to tackle the corresponding non-covalently bound dimers. Generally speaking, this class of compounds is expected to self-assembly in neighboring π-stacks with dimer stabilization energies ranging from –20 to –30 kcal mol{sup −1} at close distances around 3.0–3.3 Å. Then, in a further step, we have also calculated hole and electron transfer rates of some suitable candidates for ambipolar materials, and corresponding charge mobility values, which are known to critically depend on the supramolecular organization of the samples. For coronene and per-fluorinated coronene, we have found high values for their hopping rates, although slightly smaller for the latter due to an increase (decrease) of the reorganization energies (electronic couplings)

  11. Probing electric fields within organic transistors by nonlinear optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Paulo B.; Motti, Silvia G.; Gomes, Douglas J. C.

    2015-03-01

    Organic field-effect transistors (OFETs) are important building blocks in many organic devices, but further improvements in their performance will require a detailed knowledge of their operation mechanism. Thus mapping the electric fields in OFETs, both in the active organic layer and inside the gate dielectric, will allow a direct comparison with theoretical OFET models and guide advances in device engineering. The nonlinear optical processes of sum-frequency generation (SFG) and second-harmonic generation (SHG) may be used to probe electric fields in OFETs. With a proper choice of pump wavelength, SHG can selectively probe the field component along the OFET channel, inside the organic semiconductor. In contrast, SFG may probe the field within any organic material by selecting a specific molecular vibration and monitoring the field-enhanced SFG signal. Here we investigate OFETs fabricated with a polythiophene derivative (P3HT) on silicon substrates and with the insulating polymer PMMA for the dielectric layer. Both the strength and sign of the electric field in PMMA can be determined, yielding a direct probe of charge accumulation along the OFET channel. An extension of this technique to map the spatial distribution of accumulated charge along the channel will also be discussed. Work funded by FAPESP and CNPq (Brazil).

  12. Preparation of organic thin-film field effect transistor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The organic thin-film field effect transistor was prepared through vacuum deposition by using teflon as di-electric material. Indium-tin-oxide acted as the source and drain electrodes. Copper phthalocyanine and teflon were used as the semiconductor layer and dielectric layer, respectively. The gate electrode was made of Ag. The channel length between the source and drain was 50 μm. After preparing the source and drain electrodes by lithography, the copper phthalocyanine layer, teflon layer and Ag layerwere prepared by vacuum deposition sequentially. The field effect electron mobility of the device reached 1.1×10ˉ6 cm2/(V@s), and the on/off current ratio reached 500.

  13. Passive micromixers and organic electrochemical transistors for biosensor applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanakamedala, Senaka Krishna

    Fluid handling at the microscale has greatly affected different fields such as biomedical, pharmaceutical, biochemical engineering and environmental monitoring due to its reduced reagent consumption, portability, high throughput, lower hardware cost and shorter analysis time compared to large devices. The challenges associated with mixing of fluids in microscale enabled us in designing, simulating, fabricating and characterizing various micromixers on silicon and flexible polyester substrates. The mixing efficiency was evaluated by injecting the fluids through the two inlets and collecting the sample at outlet. The images collected from the microscope were analyzed, and the absorbance of the color product at the outlet was measured to quantify the mixing efficacy. A mixing efficiency of 96% was achieved using a flexible disposable micromixer. The potential for low-cost processing and the device response tuning using chemical doping or synthesis opened doorways to use organic semiconductor devices as transducers in chemical and biological sensor applications. A simple, inexpensive organic electrochemical transistor (OECT) based on conducting polymer poly(3,4- ethyelenedioxythiphene) poly(styrene sulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) was fabricated using a novel one step fabrication method. The developed transistor was used as a biosensor to detect glucose and glutamate. The developed glucose sensor showed a linear response for the glucose levels ranging from 1 muM-10 mM and showed a decent response for the glucose levels similar to those found in human saliva and to detect glutamate released from brain tumor cells. The developed glutamate sensor was used to detect the glutamate released from astrocytes and glioma cells after stimulation, and the results are compared with fluorescent spectrophotometer. The developed sensors employ simple fabrication, operate at low potentials, utilize lower enzyme concentrations, do not employ enzyme immobilization techniques, require only 5 muL of

  14. Printed organic thin-film transistor-based integrated circuits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Organic electronics is moving ahead on its journey towards reality. However, this technology will only be possible when it is able to meet specific criteria including flexibility, transparency, disposability and low cost. Printing is one of the conventional techniques to deposit thin films from solution-based ink. It is used worldwide for visual modes of information, and it is now poised to enter into the manufacturing processes of various consumer electronics. The continuous progress made in the field of functional organic semiconductors has achieved high solubility in common solvents as well as high charge carrier mobility, which offers ample opportunity for organic-based printed integrated circuits. In this paper, we present a comprehensive review of all-printed organic thin-film transistor-based integrated circuits, mainly ring oscillators. First, the necessity of all-printed organic integrated circuits is discussed; we consider how the gap between printed electronics and real applications can be bridged. Next, various materials for printed organic integrated circuits are discussed. The features of these circuits and their suitability for electronics using different printing and coating techniques follow. Interconnection technology is equally important to make this product industrially viable; much attention in this review is placed here. For high-frequency operation, channel length should be sufficiently small; this could be achievable with a combination of surface treatment-assisted printing or laser writing. Registration is also an important issue related to printing; the printed gate should be perfectly aligned with the source and drain to minimize parasitic capacitances. All-printed organic inverters and ring oscillators are discussed here, along with their importance. Finally, future applications of all-printed organic integrated circuits are highlighted. (paper)

  15. Studying the operation characteristics and structure of vertical channel copper-phthalocyanine organic semiconductor transistor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Min; SONG Ming-xin; GUI Tai-long; WANG Xuan; YIN Jing-hua; WANG Dong-xing; ZHAO Hong

    2005-01-01

    The creation of Au/CuPc/Al/CuPc/structure is a perpendicular type electricity found in the channel of organic static induction transistor. In the following we analyze transistor operation characteristics and machine structural relation. The results express that the transistor drives the voltage low and has no-saturation currentvoltage characteristics. Its operation characteristics are dependant on gate bias voltage and the construction of the aluminum electrode.The vertical channel of organic static induction transistor (OSIT) , with structure of Au/CuPc/Al/CuPc/Cu, has been determined. According to the test results, the relation of its operation characteristics and device structure was analyzed. The results show that this transistor has a low driving voltage and unsaturation Ⅰ-Ⅴ characteristics. Its operation characteristics are dependant on gate bias voltage and the structure of the aluminum electrode.

  16. Stabilization of organic thin film transistors by ion implantation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fraboni, B., E-mail: beatrice.fraboni@unibo.it [CNISM and Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Bologna, viale Berti Pichat 6/2, 40127 Bologna (Italy); Cosseddu, P. [Dipartimento di Ingegneria Elettrica ed Elettronica, Universita di Cagliari, piazza d' Armi, 09123 Cagliari, Italy and CNR-INFM S3 via Campi 213/a 41100 Modena (Italy); Wang, Y.Q.; Schulze, R.K. [Los Alamos National Laboratory MS-K771 Los Alamos NM 87545 (United States); Cavallini, A. [CNISM and Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Bologna, viale Berti Pichat 6/2, 40127 Bologna (Italy); Nastasi, M. [Los Alamos National Laboratory MS-K771 Los Alamos NM 87545 (United States); Bonfiglio, A. [Dipartimento di Ingegneria Elettrica ed Elettronica, Universita di Cagliari, piazza d' Armi, 09123 Cagliari, Italy and CNR-INFM S3 via Campi 213/a 41100 Modena (Italy)

    2012-08-01

    We report on the effects of low energy ion implantation (N and Ne) in the reduction and control of the degradation of pentacene organic thin film transistors (OTFTs) due to the exposure to atmosphere (i.e. oxygen and water). We have observed that a controlled damage depth distribution preserves the functionality of the devices, even if ion implantation induces significant molecular structure modifications, in particular a combination of dehydrogenation and carbonification effects. No relevant changes in the pentacene thin film thickness have been observed. The two major transport parameters that characterize OTFT performance are the carrier mobility and the threshold voltage. We have monitored the effectiveness of this process in stabilizing the device by monitoring the carrier mobility and the threshold voltage over a long time (over 2000 h). Finally, we have assessed by depth resolved X-ray Photoemission Spectroscopy analyses that, by selectively implanting with ions that can react with the hydrocarbon matrix (e.g. N{sup +}), it is possible to locally modify the charge distribution within the organic layer.

  17. Fabrication and simulation of organic transistors and functional circuits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, D. Martin, E-mail: d.m.taylor@bangor.ac.uk [School of Electronic Engineering, Bangor University, Dean Street, Bangor, Gwynedd LL57 1UT (United Kingdom); Patchett, Eifion R.; Williams, Aled [School of Electronic Engineering, Bangor University, Dean Street, Bangor, Gwynedd LL57 1UT (United Kingdom); Ding, Ziqian; Assender, Hazel E. [Department of Materials, Oxford University, Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3PH (United Kingdom); Morrison, John J.; Yeates, Stephen G. [School of Chemistry, University of Manchester, Oxford Road, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom)

    2015-07-29

    Highlights: • Development of roll-to-roll fabrication protocol for organic TFTs and circuits. • Bottom-gate polystyrene/DNTT TFTs much better than top-gate TFTs. • High-yield and high mobility with polystyrene-buffered TPGDA. • Fabrication of functional circuits – ring oscillators and logic gates. • New baseline process allows TFT parameter extraction and circuit simulation. - Abstract: We report the development of a vacuum-evaporation route for the roll-to-roll fabrication of functioning organic circuits. A number of key findings and observations are highlighted which influenced the eventual fabrication protocol adopted. Initially, the role of interface roughness in determining carrier mobility in thin film transistors (TFTs) is investigated. Then it is shown that TFT yield is higher for devices fabricated on a flash-evaporated-plasma-polymerised tri(propyleneglycol) diacrylate (TPGDA) gate dielectric than for TFTs based on a spin-coated polystyrene (PS) dielectric. However, a degradation in mobility is observed which is attributed to the highly polar TPGDA surface. It is shown that high mobility, low gate-leakage currents and excellent stability are restored when the surface of TPGDA was buffered with a thin, spin-coated PS film. The resulting baseline process allowed arrays of functional circuits such as ring oscillators, NOR/NAND logic gates and S–R latches to be fabricated with high yield and their performance to be simulated.

  18. Fabrication and simulation of organic transistors and functional circuits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Development of roll-to-roll fabrication protocol for organic TFTs and circuits. • Bottom-gate polystyrene/DNTT TFTs much better than top-gate TFTs. • High-yield and high mobility with polystyrene-buffered TPGDA. • Fabrication of functional circuits – ring oscillators and logic gates. • New baseline process allows TFT parameter extraction and circuit simulation. - Abstract: We report the development of a vacuum-evaporation route for the roll-to-roll fabrication of functioning organic circuits. A number of key findings and observations are highlighted which influenced the eventual fabrication protocol adopted. Initially, the role of interface roughness in determining carrier mobility in thin film transistors (TFTs) is investigated. Then it is shown that TFT yield is higher for devices fabricated on a flash-evaporated-plasma-polymerised tri(propyleneglycol) diacrylate (TPGDA) gate dielectric than for TFTs based on a spin-coated polystyrene (PS) dielectric. However, a degradation in mobility is observed which is attributed to the highly polar TPGDA surface. It is shown that high mobility, low gate-leakage currents and excellent stability are restored when the surface of TPGDA was buffered with a thin, spin-coated PS film. The resulting baseline process allowed arrays of functional circuits such as ring oscillators, NOR/NAND logic gates and S–R latches to be fabricated with high yield and their performance to be simulated

  19. Tailoring Functional Interlayers in Organic Field-Effect Transistor Biosensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magliulo, Maria; Manoli, Kyriaki; Macchia, Eleonora; Palazzo, Gerardo; Torsi, Luisa

    2015-12-01

    This review aims to provide an update on the development involving dielectric/organic semiconductor (OSC) interfaces for the realization of biofunctional organic field-effect transistors (OFETs). Specific focus is given on biointerfaces and recent technological approaches where biological materials serve as interlayers in back-gated OFETs for biosensing applications. Initially, to better understand the effects produced by the presence of biomolecules deposited at the dielectric/OSC interfacial region, the tuning of the dielectric surface properties by means of self-assembled monolayers is discussed. Afterward, emphasis is given to the modification of solid-state dielectric surfaces, in particular inorganic dielectrics, with biological molecules such as peptides and proteins. Special attention is paid on how the presence of an interlayer of biomolecules and bioreceptors underneath the OSC impacts on the charge transport and sensing performance of the device. Moreover, naturally occurring materials, such as carbohydrates and DNA, used directly as bulk gating materials in OFETs are reviewed. The role of metal contact/OSC interface in the overall performance of OFET-based sensors is also discussed. PMID:25429859

  20. High mobility polymer gated organic field effect transistor using zinc phthalocyanine

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    K R Rajesh; V Kannan; M R Kim; Y S Chae; J K Rhee

    2014-02-01

    Organic thin film transistors were fabricated using evaporated zinc phthalocyanine as the active layer. Parylene film prepared by chemical vapour deposition was used as the organic gate insulator. The annealing of the samples was performed at 120°C for 3 h. At room temperature, these transistors exhibit -type conductivity with field-effect mobilities ranging from 0.025–0.037 cm2/Vs and a (on/off) ratio of ∼ 103. The effect of annealing on transistor characteristics is discussed.

  1. Research Update: Electrical monitoring of cysts using organic electrochemical transistors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huerta, M.; Rivnay, J.; Ramuz, M.; Hama, A.; Owens, R. M. [Department of Bioelectronics, Ecole Nationale Supérieure des Mines, CMP-EMSE, MOC, 13541 Gardanne (France)

    2015-03-01

    Organotypic three-dimensional (3D) cell culture models have the potential to act as surrogate tissues in vitro, both for basic research and for drug discovery/toxicology. 3D cultures maintain not only 3D architecture but also cell-cell and cell extracellular matrix interactions, particularly when grown in cysts or spheroids. Characterization of cell cultures grown in 3D formats, however, provides a significant challenge for cell biologists due to the incompatibility of these structures with commonly found optical or electronic monitoring systems. Electronic impedance spectroscopy is a cell culture monitoring technique with great potential; however, it has not been possible to integrate 3D cultures with commercially available systems to date. Cyst-like 3D cultures are particularly challenging due to their small size and difficulty in manipulation. Herein, we demonstrate isolation of cyst-like 3D cultures by capillarity and subsequent integration with the organic electrochemical transistor for monitoring the integrity of these structures. We show not only that this versatile device can be adapted to the cyst format for measuring resistance and, therefore, the quality of the cysts, but also can be used for quantitative monitoring of the effect of toxic compounds on cells in a 3D format. The ability to quantitatively predict effects of drugs on 3D cultures in vitro has large future potential for the fields of drug discovery and toxicology.

  2. Organic electrochemical transistors for cell-based impedance sensing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rivnay, Jonathan, E-mail: rivnay@emse.fr, E-mail: owens@emse.fr; Ramuz, Marc; Hama, Adel; Huerta, Miriam; Owens, Roisin M., E-mail: rivnay@emse.fr, E-mail: owens@emse.fr [Department of Bioelectronics, Ecole des Mines de St. Etienne, 13541 Gardanne (France); Leleux, Pierre [Department of Bioelectronics, Ecole des Mines de St. Etienne, 13541 Gardanne (France); Microvitae Technologies, Pole d' Activite Y. Morandat, 13120 Gardanne (France)

    2015-01-26

    Electrical impedance sensing of biological systems, especially cultured epithelial cell layers, is now a common technique to monitor cell motion, morphology, and cell layer/tissue integrity for high throughput toxicology screening. Existing methods to measure electrical impedance most often rely on a two electrode configuration, where low frequency signals are challenging to obtain for small devices and for tissues with high resistance, due to low current. Organic electrochemical transistors (OECTs) are conducting polymer-based devices, which have been shown to efficiently transduce and amplify low-level ionic fluxes in biological systems into electronic output signals. In this work, we combine OECT-based drain current measurements with simultaneous measurement of more traditional impedance sensing using the gate current to produce complex impedance traces, which show low error at both low and high frequencies. We apply this technique in vitro to a model epithelial tissue layer and show that the data can be fit to an equivalent circuit model yielding trans-epithelial resistance and cell layer capacitance values in agreement with literature. Importantly, the combined measurement allows for low biases across the cell layer, while still maintaining good broadband signal.

  3. Organic electrochemical transistors for cell-based impedance sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivnay, Jonathan; Ramuz, Marc; Leleux, Pierre; Hama, Adel; Huerta, Miriam; Owens, Roisin M.

    2015-01-01

    Electrical impedance sensing of biological systems, especially cultured epithelial cell layers, is now a common technique to monitor cell motion, morphology, and cell layer/tissue integrity for high throughput toxicology screening. Existing methods to measure electrical impedance most often rely on a two electrode configuration, where low frequency signals are challenging to obtain for small devices and for tissues with high resistance, due to low current. Organic electrochemical transistors (OECTs) are conducting polymer-based devices, which have been shown to efficiently transduce and amplify low-level ionic fluxes in biological systems into electronic output signals. In this work, we combine OECT-based drain current measurements with simultaneous measurement of more traditional impedance sensing using the gate current to produce complex impedance traces, which show low error at both low and high frequencies. We apply this technique in vitro to a model epithelial tissue layer and show that the data can be fit to an equivalent circuit model yielding trans-epithelial resistance and cell layer capacitance values in agreement with literature. Importantly, the combined measurement allows for low biases across the cell layer, while still maintaining good broadband signal.

  4. Bioinspired peptide nanostructures for organic field-effect transistors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cipriano, Thiago; Knotts, Grant; Laudari, Amrit; Bianchi, Roberta C; Alves, Wendel A; Guha, Suchismita

    2014-12-10

    Peptide-based nanostructures derived from natural amino acids are superior building blocks for biocompatible devices as they can be used in a bottom-up process without the need for expensive lithography. A dense nanostructured network of l,l-diphenylalanine (FF) was synthesized using the solid-vapor-phase technique. Formation of the nanostructures and structure-phase relationship were investigated by electron microscopy and Raman scattering. Thin films of l,l-diphenylalanine micro/nanostructures (FF-MNSs) were used as the dielectric layer in pentacene-based field-effect transistors (FETs) and metal-insulator-semiconductor diodes both in bottom-gate and in top-gate structures. Bias stress studies show that FF-MNS-based pentacene FETs are more resistant to degradation than pentacene FETs using FF thin film (without any nanostructures) as the dielectric layer when both are subjected to sustained electric fields. Furthermore, it is demonstrated that the FF-MNSs can be functionalized for detection of enzyme-analyte interactions. This work opens up a novel and facile route toward scalable organic electronics using peptide nanostructures as scaffolding and as a platform for biosensing. PMID:25376495

  5. Focused ion beam and field-emission microscopy of metallic filaments in memory devices based on thin films of an ambipolar organic compound consisting of oxadiazole, carbazole, and fluorene units

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, Christopher; Bowen, Leon; Lee, Myung Won; Fisher, Alison L.; Linton, Katherine E.; Bryce, Martin R.; Petty, Michael C.

    2013-01-01

    We report on the mechanism of operation of organic thin film resistive memory architectures based on an ambipolar compound consisting of oxadiazole, carbazole, and fluorene units. Cross-sections of the devices have been imaged by electron microscopy both before and after applying a voltage. The micrographs reveal the growth of filaments, with diameters of 50 nm–100 nm, on the metal cathode. We suggest that these are formed by the drift of aluminium ions from the anode and are responsible for the observed switching and negative differential resistance phenomena in the memory devices.

  6. Temperature Dependence of Field-Effect Mobility in Organic Thin-Film Transistors: Similarity to Inorganic Transistors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okada, Jun; Nagase, Takashi; Kobayashi, Takashi; Naito, Hiroyoshi

    2016-04-01

    Carrier transport in solution-processed organic thin-film transistors (OTFTs) based on dioctylbenzothienobenzothiophene (C8-BTBT) has been investigated in a wide temperature range from 296 to 10 K. The field-effect mobility shows thermally activated behavior whose activation energy becomes smaller with decreasing temperature. The temperature dependence of field-effect mobility found in C8-BTBT is similar to that of others materials: organic semiconducting polymers, amorphous oxide semiconductors and hydrogenated amorphous silicon. These results indicate that hopping transport between isoenergetic localized states becomes dominated in a low temperature regime in these materials. PMID:27451607

  7. Low Field Electronic Behavior and Contact Impedance of Organic Single Crystal Transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bittle, Emily; Basham, James; Jackson, Thomas; Jurchescu, Oana; Gundlach, David

    2015-03-01

    Organic electronic devices are attractive for a range of existing and emerging electronic applications. Most technological demonstrations of organic transistors rely on their large signal response for pixel control or logic. However, considerable application space requires analog circuits, e.g. distributed signal conditioning in sensor arrays. Charge transport and trapping mechanisms differ significantly in organic as compared to inorganic transistors, and as a result commonly used analogies to inorganic band transport theory can break down in response to small signal stimulus and at high frequencies required in some analog circuit applications. Therefore, a detailed investigation of organic transistor behavior at small signals is needed and is critical to developing design models for analog circuit applications. In this study, we look at the small signal AC impedance of small molecule, single crystal transistors to investigate ``ideal'' low field, high frequency electronic behavior. Using a transmission line model to fit the transistor channel coupled with a parallel resistor-capacitor model of the contact impedance, we are able to observe the behavior of the transistor channel and contacts separately at low field and high frequency. We determine the low field mobility of the device independent of contact resistance and show that rapidly changing contact resistance dominates the current flow at low gate voltage in DC current-voltage measurements.

  8. Photoactive self-assembled monolayers for optically switchable organic thin-film transistors

    OpenAIRE

    Salinas, Michael; Halik, Marcus

    2013-01-01

    We investigate the photoconductive and photovoltaic effects in organic thin-film transistors with thin hybrid dielectrics composed of aluminum oxide and self-assembled monolayers (SAMs). By using SAM molecules with an electro-optical functionality tuning of the photoinduced charge transfer at the interface of semiconductor and SAM upon illumination with laser light can be achieved. Control of the threshold voltage by the SAM composition enables the optical operation of the transistors without...

  9. A light-emitting field-effect transistor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The structure and operating characteristics of an ambipolar light-emitting field-effect transistor based on single crystals of the organic semiconductors α-sexithiophene were reported. Electrons and holes are injected from the source and drain electrodes, respectively. Their concentrations are controlled by the applied gate and drain-source voltages. Excitons are generated, leading to radiative recombination. Moreover, above a remarkably low threshold current, coherent light is emitted through amplified spontaneous emission. Hence, this three-terminal device is the basis of a very promising architecture for electrically driven laser action in organic semiconductors. (authors)

  10. Charge transport in disordered organic field-effect transistors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tanase, C; Blom, PWM; Meijer, EJ; de Leeuw, DM; Jabbour, GE; Carter, SA; Kido, J; Lee, ST; Sariciftci, NS

    2002-01-01

    The transport properties of poly(2,5-thienylene vinylene) (PTV) field-effect transistors (FET) have been investigated as a function of temperature under controlled atmosphere. In a disordered semiconductor as PTV the charge carrier mobility, dominated by hopping between localized states, is dependen

  11. Unidirectional coating technology for organic field-effect transistors: materials and methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solution-processed organic field-effect transistors (OFETs) are essential for developing organic electronics. The encouraging development in solution-processed OFETs has attracted research interest because of their potential in low-cost devices with performance comparable to polycrystalline-silicon-based transistors. In recent years, unidirectional coating technology, featuring thin-film coating along only one direction and involving specific materials as well as solution-assisted fabrication methods, has attracted intensive interest. Transistors with organic semiconductor layers, which are deposited via unidirectional coating methods, have achieved high performance. In particular, carrier mobility has been greatly enhanced to values much higher than 10 cm2 V−1 s−1. Such significant improvement is mainly attributed to better control in morphology and molecular packing arrangement of organic thin film. In this review, typical materials that are being used in OFETs are discussed, and demonstrations of unidirectional coating methods are surveyed. (invited review)

  12. Organic-inorganic proximity effect in the magneto-conductance of vertical organic field effect transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khachatryan, B.; Greenman, M.; Devir-Wolfman, A. H.; Tessler, N.; Ehrenfreund, E.

    2016-07-01

    Vertical organic field effect transistors having a patterned source electrode and an a-SiO2 insulation layer show high performance as a switching element with high transfer characteristics. By measuring the low field magneto-conductance under ambient conditions at room temperature, we show here that the proximity of the inorganic a-SiO2 insulation to the organic conducting channel affects considerably the magnetic response. We propose that in n-type devices, electrons in the organic conducting channel and spin bearing charged defects in the inorganic a-SiO2 insulation layer (e.g., O2 = Si+.) form oppositely charged spin pairs whose singlet-triplet spin configurations are mixed through the relatively strong hyperfine field of 29Si. By increasing the contact area between the insulation layer and the conducting channel, the ˜2% magneto-conductance response may be considerably enhanced.

  13. Exciton-polaron quenching in organic thin-film transistors studied by fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Per Baunegaard With; Leißner, Till; Osadnik, Andreas;

    Organic semiconductors show great potential in electronic and optical applications. However, a major challenge is the degradation of the semiconductor materials that cause a reduction in device performance. Here, we present our investigations of Organic Thin Film Transistors (OTFT) based on the...

  14. A flexible organic active matrix circuit fabricated using novel organic thin film transistors and organic light-emitting diodes

    KAUST Repository

    Gutiérrez-Heredia, Gerardo

    2010-10-04

    We present an active matrix circuit fabricated on plastic (polyethylene naphthalene, PEN) and glass substrates using organic thin film transistors and organic capacitors to control organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs). The basic circuit is fabricated using two pentacene-based transistors and a capacitor using a novel aluminum oxide/parylene stack (Al2O3/ parylene) as the dielectric for both the transistor and the capacitor. We report that our circuit can deliver up to 15 μA to each OLED pixel. To achieve 200 cd m-2 of brightness a 10 μA current is needed; therefore, our approach can initially deliver 1.5× the required current to drive a single pixel. In contrast to parylene-only devices, the Al2O 3/parylene stack does not fail after stressing at a field of 1.7 MV cm-1 for >10 000 s, whereas \\'parylene only\\' devices show breakdown at approximately 1000 s. Details of the integration scheme are presented. © 2010 IOP Publishing Ltd.

  15. Ambipolar potential formation in TMX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    TMX experimental data on ambipolar potential control and on the accompanying electrostatic confinement are reported. New results on the radial dependence of the central-cell confining potential are given. Radial and axial particle losses as well as scaling of the central-cell axial confinement are discussed

  16. Organic field-effect transistor nonvolatile memories utilizing sputtered C nanoparticles as nano-floating-gate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Jie; Liu, Chang-Hai; She, Xiao-Jian; Sun, Qi-Jun; Gao, Xu; Wang, Sui-Dong, E-mail: wangsd@suda.edu.cn [Institute of Functional Nano and Soft Materials (FUNSOM), Soochow University, Suzhou, Jiangsu 215123 (China)

    2014-10-20

    High-performance organic field-effect transistor nonvolatile memories have been achieved using sputtered C nanoparticles as the nano-floating-gate. The sputtered C nano-floating-gate is prepared with low-cost material and simple process, forming uniform and discrete charge trapping sites covered by a smooth and complete polystyrene layer. The devices show large memory window, excellent retention capability, and programming/reading/erasing/reading endurance. The sputtered C nano-floating-gate can effectively trap both holes and electrons, and it is demonstrated to be suitable for not only p-type but also n-type organic field-effect transistor nonvolatile memories.

  17. Performance of Organic Field Effect Transistors with Self-Improved Cu/Organic Interfaces

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Zi-Yang; CHENG Xiao-Man; WU Ren-Lei; WANG Zhong-Qiang; YIN Shou-Gen

    2009-01-01

    We fabricate pentacene-based organic field effect transistors (OFETs) with Cu as source and drain (S-D) electrodes.The fabricated devices stored for ten hours under ambient atmospheric conditions exhibit superior performance compared with the as-prepared devices.The field-effect mobility increases from 0.012 to 0.03 cm2 V-1 s-1,and the threshold voltage downshifts from -14 to -9 V.The on/off current ratios are close to the order of 104.The improved performance of the stored devices is attributed to the formation of thin Cu oxide at the Cu electrodes/organic interfaces.These results suggest a simple and available way to optimize device properties and to reduce fabrication cost for OFETs.

  18. A hydrogel capsule as gate dielectric in flexible organic field-effect transistors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A jellified alginate based capsule serves as biocompatible and biodegradable electrolyte system to gate an organic field-effect transistor fabricated on a flexible substrate. Such a system allows operating thiophene based polymer transistors below 0.5 V through an electrical double layer formed across an ion-permeable polymeric electrolyte. Moreover, biological macro-molecules such as glucose-oxidase and streptavidin can enter into the gating capsules that serve also as delivery system. An enzymatic bio-reaction is shown to take place in the capsule and preliminary results on the measurement of the electronic responses promise for low-cost, low-power, flexible electronic bio-sensing applications using capsule-gated organic field-effect transistors

  19. A hydrogel capsule as gate dielectric in flexible organic field-effect transistors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dumitru, L. M.; Manoli, K.; Magliulo, M.; Torsi, L., E-mail: luisa.torsi@uniba.it [Department of Chemistry, University of Bari “Aldo Moro”, Via Orabona 4, Bari I-70126 (Italy); Ligonzo, T. [Department of Physics, University of Bari “Aldo Moro”, Via Orabona 4, Bari I-70126 (Italy); Palazzo, G. [Department of Chemistry, University of Bari “Aldo Moro”, Via Orabona 4, Bari I-70126 (Italy); Center of Colloid and Surface Science—CSGI—Bari Unit, Via Orabona 4, Bari I-70126 (Italy)

    2015-01-01

    A jellified alginate based capsule serves as biocompatible and biodegradable electrolyte system to gate an organic field-effect transistor fabricated on a flexible substrate. Such a system allows operating thiophene based polymer transistors below 0.5 V through an electrical double layer formed across an ion-permeable polymeric electrolyte. Moreover, biological macro-molecules such as glucose-oxidase and streptavidin can enter into the gating capsules that serve also as delivery system. An enzymatic bio-reaction is shown to take place in the capsule and preliminary results on the measurement of the electronic responses promise for low-cost, low-power, flexible electronic bio-sensing applications using capsule-gated organic field-effect transistors.

  20. The Integration and Applications of Organic Thin Film Transistors and Ferroelectric Polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Yu-Jen

    Organic thin film transistors and ferroelectric polymer (polyvinylidene difluoride) sheet material are integrated to form various sensors for stress/strain, acoustic wave, and Infrared (heat) sensing applications. Different from silicon-based transistors, organic thin film transistors can be fabricated and processed in room-temperature and integrated with a variety of substrates. On the other hand, polyvinylidene difluoride (PVDF) exhibits ferroelectric properties that are highly useful for sensor applications. The wide frequency bandwidth (0.001 Hz to 10 GHz), vast dynamic range (100n to 10M psi), and high elastic compliance (up to 3 percent) make PVDF a more suitable candidate over ceramic piezoelectric materials for thin and flexible sensor applications. However, the low Curie temperature may have impeded its integration with silicon technology. Organic thin film transistors, however, do not have the limitation of processing temperature, hence can serve as transimpedance amplifiers to convert the charge signal generated by PVDF into current signal that are more measurable and less affected by any downstream parasitics. Piezoelectric sensors are useful for a range of applications, but passive arrays suffer from crosstalk and signal attenuation which have complicated the development of array-based PVDF sensors. We have used organic field effect transistors, which are compatible with the low Curie temperature of a flexible piezoelectric polymer,PVDF, to monolithically fabricate transimpedance amplifiers directly on the sensor surface and convert the piezoelectric charge signal into a current signal which can be detected even in the presence of parasitic capacitances. The device couples the voltage generated by the PVDF film under strain into the gate of the organic thin film transistors (OFET) using an arrangement that allows the full piezoelectric voltage to couple to the channel, while also increasing the charge retention time. A bipolar detector is created by

  1. Organic nanofibers integrated by transfer technique in field-effect transistor devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tavares, Luciana; Kjelstrup-Hansen, Jakob; Thilsing-Hansen, Kasper;

    2011-01-01

    The electrical properties of self-assembled organic crystalline nanofibers are studied by integrating these on field-effect transistor platforms using both top and bottom contact configurations. In the staggered geometries, where the nanofibers are sandwiched between the gate and the source...

  2. Organic thin film transistors with polymer brush gate dielectrics synthesized by atom transfer radical polymerization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pinto, J.C.; Whiting, G.L.; Khodabakhsh, S.;

    2008-01-01

    Low operating voltage is an important requirement that must be met for industrial adoption of organic field-effect transistors (OFETs). We report here solution fabricated polymer brush gate insulators with good uniformity, low surface roughness and high capacitance. These ultra thin polymer films...

  3. Detection of saliva-range glucose concentrations using organic thin-film transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elkington, D.; Belcher, W. J.; Dastoor, P. C.; Zhou, X. J.

    2014-07-01

    We describe the development of a glucose sensor through direct incorporation of an enzyme (glucose oxidase) into the gate of an organic thin film transistor (OTFT). We show that glucose diffusion is the key determinant of the device response time and present a mechanism of glucose sensing in these devices that involves protonic doping of the transistor channel via enzymatic oxidation of glucose. The integrated OTFT sensor is sensitive across 4 decades of glucose concentration; a range that encompasses both the blood and salivary glucose concentration levels. As such, this work acts as a proof-of-concept for low-cost printed biosensors for salivary glucose.

  4. Study of top and bottom contact resistance in one organic field-effect transistor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Ge; Liu Ming; Wang Hong; Shang Li-Wei; Ji Zhuo-Yu; Liu Xing-Hua; Liu Jiang

    2009-01-01

    This paper reports that the organic field-effect transistors with hybrid contact geometry were fabricated,in whic hthe top electrodes and the bottom electrodes were combined in parallel resistances within one transistor.With the facility of the novel structure,the difference of contact resistance between the top contact geometry and the bottom contact geometry was studied.The hybrid contact devices showed similar characteristics with the top contact configuration devices,which provide helpful evidence on the lower contact resistance of the top contact configuration device.The origin of the different contact resistance between the top contact device and the bottom contact device was discussed.

  5. Detection of saliva-range glucose concentrations using organic thin-film transistors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elkington, D.; Belcher, W. J.; Dastoor, P. C.; Zhou, X. J. [Centre for Organic Electronics, University of Newcastle, Callaghan, New South Wales 2308 (Australia)

    2014-07-28

    We describe the development of a glucose sensor through direct incorporation of an enzyme (glucose oxidase) into the gate of an organic thin film transistor (OTFT). We show that glucose diffusion is the key determinant of the device response time and present a mechanism of glucose sensing in these devices that involves protonic doping of the transistor channel via enzymatic oxidation of glucose. The integrated OTFT sensor is sensitive across 4 decades of glucose concentration; a range that encompasses both the blood and salivary glucose concentration levels. As such, this work acts as a proof-of-concept for low-cost printed biosensors for salivary glucose.

  6. Field-effect transistors based on self-organized molecular nanostripes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cavallini, M.; Stoliare, P.; Moulin, J.-F.;

    2005-01-01

    Charge transport properties in organic semiconductors depend strongly on molecular order. Here we demonstrate field-effect transistors where drain current flows through a precisely defined array of nanostripes made of crystalline and highly ordered molecules. The molecular stripes are fabricated...... across the channel of the transistor by a stamp-assisted deposition of the molecular semiconductors from a solution. As the solvent evaporates, the capillary forces drive the solution to form menisci under the stamp protrusions. The solute precipitates only in the regions where the solution is confined...

  7. Preparation and operation characteristics of organic semiconductor transistor using thin film Al gate and copper phthalocyanine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The organic static induction transistors (OSITs) are fabricated by the method of evaporating and plating in a vacuum with copper phthalocyanine (CuPc) dye, and has a five layered structure of Au/CuPc/AL/CuPc/Au. The experiment reveals that OSITs have obtained a low driving voltage, high current density and high switch speed such as IDs = 1.2 × 10-6A/mm2 , and the degree of 1 000 Hz. The OSITs have excellent operation characteristics of typical static induction transistors.

  8. Metal nanoparticles in organic field-effect transistor: Transition from charge trapping to conduction mechanism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Keanchuan, E-mail: lee.kc@petronas.com.my [Department of Physical Electronics, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 2-12-1 O-okayama, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 152-8552 (Japan); Weis, Martin [Institute of Electronics and Photonics, Slovak University of Technology, Ilkovičova 3, Bratislava 81219 (Slovakia); Chen, Xiangyu; Taguchi, Dai; Manaka, Takaaki [Department of Physical Electronics, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 2-12-1 O-okayama, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 152-8552 (Japan); Iwamoto, Mitsumasa, E-mail: iwamoto@pe.titech.ac.jp [Department of Physical Electronics, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 2-12-1 O-okayama, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 152-8552 (Japan)

    2014-03-03

    Self-assembled monolayers of metal nanoparticles (NPs) are envisioned for various devices and have been investigated for possible applications. However, organic envelope of NPs which is required for self-assembling must be often removed prior further device fabrication. Here, we report on effect of ozonolysis on monolayer of silver NPs (Ag NPs) with size of 8 nm and its impact on Ag NPs utilization in organic field-effect transistor. It was found that Ag NPs covered by organics serve like a traps and removal of insulating organics decreases number of traps and consequently increases Ag NPs monolayer conductivity. - Highlights: • Organic field-effect transistor (OFET) with nanoparticle (NP) film was fabricated • Electrical and optical properties of NP and OFET were studied upon UV irradiation • We report a transition from charge trapping to conduction mechanism of NPs in OFET.

  9. Metal nanoparticles in organic field-effect transistor: Transition from charge trapping to conduction mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Self-assembled monolayers of metal nanoparticles (NPs) are envisioned for various devices and have been investigated for possible applications. However, organic envelope of NPs which is required for self-assembling must be often removed prior further device fabrication. Here, we report on effect of ozonolysis on monolayer of silver NPs (Ag NPs) with size of 8 nm and its impact on Ag NPs utilization in organic field-effect transistor. It was found that Ag NPs covered by organics serve like a traps and removal of insulating organics decreases number of traps and consequently increases Ag NPs monolayer conductivity. - Highlights: • Organic field-effect transistor (OFET) with nanoparticle (NP) film was fabricated • Electrical and optical properties of NP and OFET were studied upon UV irradiation • We report a transition from charge trapping to conduction mechanism of NPs in OFET

  10. Minimizing electrode edge in organic transistors with ultrathin reduced graphene oxide for improving charge injection efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zeyang; Chen, Xiaosong; Zhang, Suna; Wu, Kunjie; Li, Hongwei; Meng, Yancheng; Li, Liqiang

    2016-05-11

    Electrode materials and geometry play a crucial role in the charge injection efficiency in organic transistors. Reduced graphene oxide (RGO) electrodes show good compatibility with an organic semiconductor from the standpoint of energy levels and ordered growth of the organic semiconductor, both of which are favourable for charge injection. However, the wide electrode edge (>10 nm) in commonly-used RGO electrodes is generally detrimental to charge injection. In this study, ultrathin (about 3 nm) RGO electrodes are fabricated via a covalency-based assembly strategy, which has advantages such as robustness against solvents, high conductivity, transparency, and easy scaling-up. More remarkably, the ultrathin electrode fabricated in this study has a narrow edge, which may facilitate the diffusion and assembly of organic semiconductors and thus form a uniform semiconductor film across the electrode/channel junction area. As a result, the minimized electrode edge may significantly improve the charge injection in organic transistors compared with thick electrodes. PMID:27062997

  11. Preparation and characteristics of flexible all-organic thin-film field-effect transistor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIU Yong; HU Yuanchuan; Dong Guifang; WANG Liduo; Xie Junfeng; MA Yaning

    2003-01-01

    All-organic thin-film field-effect transistor was prepared on flexible poly(ethylene-terephthalate) (PET) substrate. Poly(methyl-methacrylate) (PMMA) and pentacene are used as a dielectric layer and a semiconductor layer, respectively. The hole mobility of the transistor can reach 2.10×10-2 cm2/Vs, and the on/off current ratio was larger than 105. The performances of the transistor, when the substrate is cured under different radius, were also measured. It was found that the device performance did not change when the curly direction was vertical to the channel length direction and when the curly direction was parallel to the channel length direction with 3.67 cm curvature radius, the mobility of the device increased by more than 20% and the on/off ratio decreased more than one order.

  12. A water-gated organic thin film transistor as a sensor for water-borne amines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Algarni, Saud A; Althagafi, Talal M; Naim, Abdullah Al; Grell, Martin

    2016-06-01

    The p-type semiconducting polymer Poly(2,5-bis(3-hexadecylthiophen-2-yl)thieno[3,2-b]thiophene) (PBTTT) displays innate sensitivity to water-borne amines. We demonstrate this with the help of water-gated PBTTT thin film transistors (TFTs). When octylamine is added to the gating water, TFTs respond with a significantly reduced saturated drain current. Underlying TFT drift is minimised by initial conditioning, and remaining drift can be accounted for by normalising current response to the current level under purge immediately before exposure. Normalised current response vs. amine concentration is reproducible between different transistors, and can be modelled by a Langmuir surface adsorption isotherm, which suggests physisorption of analyte at the PBTTT surface, rather than bulk penetration. Same PBTTT transistors do not respond to 1- octanol, confirming the specific affinity between amines and thiophene- based organic semiconductors. PMID:27130096

  13. Materials and devices with applications in high-end organic transistors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The development of functional materials typically benefits from an understanding of the microscopic mechanisms by which those materials operate. To accelerate the development of organic semiconductor devices with industrial applications in flexible and printed electronics, it is essential to elucidate the mechanisms of charge transport associated with molecular-scale charge transfer. In this study, we employed Hall effect measurements to differentiate coherent band transport from site-to-site hopping. The results of tests using several different molecular systems as the active semiconductor layers demonstrate that high-mobility charge transport in recently-developed solution-crystallized organic transistors is the result of a band-like mechanism. These materials, which have the potential to be organic transistors exhibiting the highest speeds ever obtained, are significantly different from the conventional lower-mobility organic semiconductors with incoherent hopping-like transport mechanisms which were studied in the previous century. They may be categorized as “high-end” organic semiconductors, characterized by their coherent electronic states and high values of mobility which are close to or greater than 10 cm2/Vs. - Highlights: • Transport in high-mobility solution-crystallized organic transistors is band-like. • High-end organic semiconductors carry coherent electrons with mobility > 10 cm2/Vs. • Hall-effect measurement differentiates coherent band transport from hopping. • We found an anomalous pressure effect in organic semiconductors

  14. Organic thin film field effect transistor made with soluble Al(OH) phthalocyanine

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Janus, K.; Lutsyk, P.; Nešpůrek, Stanislav

    Wroclaw: Oficyna Wydawnicza Politechniki Wroclawskiej, 2008. s. 76. ISBN 978-83-7493-399-5. [International Conference on Electrical and Related Properties of Organic Solids /11./. 13.07.2008-17.07.2008, Piechowice] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KAN401770651 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 35859 - BIMORE Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : organic thin film * phthalocyanine film s * field effect transistor Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering

  15. Top-gate organic depletion and inversion transistors with doped channel and injection contact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Organic field-effect transistors constitute a vibrant research field and open application perspectives in flexible electronics. For a commercial breakthrough, however, significant performance improvements are still needed, e.g., stable and high charge carrier mobility and on-off ratio, tunable threshold voltage, as well as integrability criteria such as n- and p-channel operation and top-gate architecture. Here, we show pentacene-based top-gate organic transistors operated in depletion and inversion regimes, realized by doping source and drain contacts as well as a thin layer of the transistor channel. By varying the doping concentration and the thickness of the doped channel, we control the position of the threshold voltage without degrading on-off ratio or mobility. Capacitance-voltage measurements show that an inversion channel can indeed be formed, e.g., an n-doped channel can be inverted to a p-type inversion channel with highly p-doped contacts. The Cytop polymer dielectric minimizes hysteresis, and the transistors can be biased for prolonged cycles without a shift of threshold voltage, indicating excellent operation stability

  16. Concept of rewritable organic ferroelectric random access memory in two lateral transistors-in-one cell architecture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We propose a concept of rewritable ferroelectric random access memory (RAM) with two lateral organic transistors-in-one cell architecture. Lateral integration of a paraelectric organic field-effect transistor (OFET), being a selection transistor, and a ferroelectric OFET as a memory transistor is realized using a paraelectric depolarizing layer (PDL) which is patterned on a ferroelectric insulator by transfer-printing. For the selection transistor, the key roles of the PDL are to reduce the dipolar strength and the surface roughness of the gate insulator, leading to the low memory on–off ratio and the high switching on–off current ratio. A new driving scheme preventing the crosstalk between adjacent memory cells is also demonstrated for the rewritable operation of the ferroelectric RAM. (paper)

  17. Patterning technology for solution-processed organic crystal field-effect transistors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Organic field-effect transistors (OFETs) are fundamental building blocks for various state-of-the-art electronic devices. Solution-processed organic crystals are appreciable materials for these applications because they facilitate large-scale, low-cost fabrication of devices with high performance. Patterning organic crystal transistors into well-defined geometric features is necessary to develop these crystals into practical semiconductors. This review provides an update on recent development in patterning technology for solution-processed organic crystals and their applications in field-effect transistors. Typical demonstrations are discussed and examined. In particular, our latest research progress on the spin-coating technique from mixture solutions is presented as a promising method to efficiently produce large organic semiconducting crystals on various substrates for high-performance OFETs. This solution-based process also has other excellent advantages, such as phase separation for self-assembled interfaces via one-step spin-coating, self-flattening of rough interfaces, and in situ purification that eliminates the impurity influences. Furthermore, recommendations for future perspectives are presented, and key issues for further development are discussed. (review)

  18. Thermally Stimulated Luminescence and Current in new heterocyclic materials for Organic field transistors and organic light emitting diodes

    OpenAIRE

    Prelipceanu, M.; Prelipceanu, O. S.; Tudose, O. G.; S. Schrader

    2007-01-01

    The present work is focused on theoretical and experimental study of localised levels in organic materials suitable for light-emitting devices and field effect transistors by means of thermal techniques. In our work we focused on low molecular compounds as well as on polymers, especially of two classes of materials: oxadiazoles and quinoxalines. Both organic compounds are well know as electron transport materials in OLEDs.

  19. Light-emitting polymer/carbon nanotube hybrid transistors: below and above the percolation limit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ming; Jakubka, Florian; Gannott, Florentina; Zaumseil, Jana

    2013-09-01

    Hybrids of semiconducting polymers and single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNT) are interesting for organic electronic devices such as solar cells, light-emitting diodes and field-effect transistors (FETs). They are easily produced by selective dispersion of SWNTs in polymer solutions by ultrasonication followed by centrifugation. We demonstrate that nanotubes at concentration levels well below the percolation limit significantly improve charge injection of both holes and electrons into semiconducting polymers in top-gate FETs. This leads to lower contact resistances and reduced threshold voltages, thus the maximum ambipolar currents and visible light emission due to electron-hole recombination are considerably enhanced. The improved injection of holes and electrons allows for a much wider range of accessible polymers for ambipolar and light-emitting transistors. The same conjugated polymers can also be used to enrich specific semiconducting SWNT and to produce high-performance ambipolar nanotube network FETs. These show efficient nearinfrared electroluminescence. Mapping the emission from these networks during a gate voltage sweep allows us to visualize preferential current paths and investigate percolation models for purely semiconducting nanotube networks.

  20. Thiophene-fused tetracene diimide with low band gap and ambipolar behavior

    KAUST Repository

    Ye, Qun

    2011-11-18

    The first tetracene diimide derivative fused with four thiophene rings, TT-TDI, was synthesized by an FeCl3 mediated oxidative cyclodehydrogenation reaction. TT-TDI exhibited a low band gap of 1.52 eV and amphoteric redox behavior. TT-TDI also showed a liquid crystalline property and ambipolar charge transport in thin film field-effect transistors. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

  1. The Integration and Applications of Organic Thin Film Transistors and Ferroelectric Polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Yu-Jen

    Organic thin film transistors and ferroelectric polymer (polyvinylidene difluoride) sheet material are integrated to form various sensors for stress/strain, acoustic wave, and Infrared (heat) sensing applications. Different from silicon-based transistors, organic thin film transistors can be fabricated and processed in room-temperature and integrated with a variety of substrates. On the other hand, polyvinylidene difluoride (PVDF) exhibits ferroelectric properties that are highly useful for sensor applications. The wide frequency bandwidth (0.001 Hz to 10 GHz), vast dynamic range (100n to 10M psi), and high elastic compliance (up to 3 percent) make PVDF a more suitable candidate over ceramic piezoelectric materials for thin and flexible sensor applications. However, the low Curie temperature may have impeded its integration with silicon technology. Organic thin film transistors, however, do not have the limitation of processing temperature, hence can serve as transimpedance amplifiers to convert the charge signal generated by PVDF into current signal that are more measurable and less affected by any downstream parasitics. Piezoelectric sensors are useful for a range of applications, but passive arrays suffer from crosstalk and signal attenuation which have complicated the development of array-based PVDF sensors. We have used organic field effect transistors, which are compatible with the low Curie temperature of a flexible piezoelectric polymer,PVDF, to monolithically fabricate transimpedance amplifiers directly on the sensor surface and convert the piezoelectric charge signal into a current signal which can be detected even in the presence of parasitic capacitances. The device couples the voltage generated by the PVDF film under strain into the gate of the organic thin film transistors (OFET) using an arrangement that allows the full piezoelectric voltage to couple to the channel, while also increasing the charge retention time. A bipolar detector is created by

  2. Diketopyrrolopyrrole-diketopyrrolopyrrole-based conjugated copolymer for high-mobility organic field-effect transistors

    KAUST Repository

    Kanimozhi, Catherine K.

    2012-10-10

    In this communication, we report the synthesis of a novel diketopyrrolopyrrole-diketopyrrolopyrrole (DPP-DPP)-based conjugated copolymer and its application in high-mobility organic field-effect transistors. Copolymerization of DPP with DPP yields a copolymer with exceptional properties such as extended absorption characteristics (up to ∼1100 nm) and field-effect electron mobility values of >1 cm 2 V -1 s -1. The synthesis of this novel DPP-DPP copolymer in combination with the demonstration of transistors with extremely high electron mobility makes this work an important step toward a new family of DPP-DPP copolymers for application in the general area of organic optoelectronics. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

  3. Using white noise to gate organic transistors for dynamic monitoring of cultured cell layers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivnay, Jonathan; Leleux, Pierre; Hama, Adel; Ramuz, Marc; Huerta, Miriam; Malliaras, George G; Owens, Roisin M

    2015-01-01

    Impedance sensing of biological systems allows for monitoring of cell and tissue properties, including cell-substrate attachment, layer confluence, and the "tightness" of an epithelial tissue. These properties are critical for electrical detection of tissue health and viability in applications such as toxicological screening. Organic transistors based on conducting polymers offer a promising route to efficiently transduce ionic currents to attain high quality impedance spectra, but collection of complete impedance spectra can be time consuming (minutes). By applying uniform white noise at the gate of an organic electrochemical transistor (OECT), and measuring the resulting current noise, we are able to dynamically monitor the impedance and thus integrity of cultured epithelial monolayers. We show that noise sourcing can be used to track rapid monolayer disruption due to compounds which interfere with dynamic polymerization events crucial for maintaining cytoskeletal integrity, and to resolve sub-second alterations to the monolayer integrity. PMID:26112429

  4. Direct visualization and modeling of carrier distribution in organic light emitting transistor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mashiko, Yasuhiro; Taguchi, Dai; Manaka, Takaaki [Department of Physical Electronics, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 2-12-1, O-okayama, Meguro-ku, Tokyo, 152-8552 (Japan); Iwamoto, Mitsumasa, E-mail: iwamoto@pe.titech.ac.jp [Department of Physical Electronics, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 2-12-1, O-okayama, Meguro-ku, Tokyo, 152-8552 (Japan); Weis, Martin [Institute of Electronics and Photonics, Slovak University of Technology, Ilkovičova 3, Bratislava 81219 (Slovakia)

    2014-03-03

    By using microscopic electric field induced second harmonic generation (EFISHG) measurement, we studied the carrier distribution in the channel of organic light emitting transistors with an active layer of poly(9,9-di-n-octylfluorene-alt-benzothiadiazole). EFISHG signals were clearly observed in the point where the electroluminescence is generated. Results suggested that the highest enhancement of the electric field is on zero-potential position in the channel, which represents the meeting point of electrons and holes and is an origin of the electroluminescence. The transmission line model analysis of the carrier distribution of the channel supported this conclusion. - Highlights: • Carrier distribution in organic light emitting transistor channel was determined. • Second-harmonic generation images were clearly observed in the emission region. • A transmission line model well accounted for the observed carrier behavior.

  5. Low voltage copper phthalocyanine organic thin film transistors with a polymer layer as the gate insulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Low voltage organic thin film transistors (OTFTs) were created using polymethyl-methacrylate-co g-lyciclyl-methacrylate (PMMA-GMA) as the gate dielectric. The OTFTs performed acceptably at supply voltages of about 10 V. From a densely packed copolymer brush, a leakage current as low as 2 x 10-8 A/cm2 was obtained. From the measured capacitance-insulator frequency characteristics, a dielectric constant in the range 3.9-5.0 was obtained. By controlling the thickness of the gate dielectric, the threshold voltage was reduced from -3.5 to -2.0 V. The copper phthalocyanine (CuPc) based organic thin film transistor could be operated at low voltage and 1.2 x 10-3 cm2/(V·s) mobility. (semiconductor devices)

  6. Performance improvement in pentacene organic thin film transistors by inserting a C60 ultrathin layer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sun Qin-Jun; Xu Zheng; Zhao Su-Ling; Zhang Fu-Jun; Gao Li-Yan

    2011-01-01

    The contact effect on the performances of organic thin film transistors is studied here. A C60 ultrathin layer is inserted between Al source-drain electrode and pentacene to reduce the contact resistance. By a 3 nm C60 modification,the injection harrier is lowered and the contact resistance is reduced. Thus, the field-effect mobility increases from 0.12to 0.52 cm2/(V.s). It means that inserting a C60 ultra thin layer is a good method to improve the organic thin film transistor (OTFT) performance. The output curve is simulated by using a charge drift model. Considering the contact of OTFTs should be carried out.

  7. An ion sensitive organic field-effect transistor incorporating the ionophore valinomycin.

    OpenAIRE

    Ritjareonwattu, S.; Yun, Y.; Pearson, C.; Petty, M.C.

    2012-01-01

    We report on the effect of depositing the ionophore valinomycin onto the polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) gate insulator of an ion-sensitive organic field-effect transistor (ISOFET) based on poly(3-hexylthiophene). The ionophore was deposited onto the PMMA using the Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) technique; thin films based on pure valinomycin and those in which valinomycin was mixed with arachidic acid were investigated. The pH sensitivity of the reference ISOFET could be improved significantly when th...

  8. A Strained Organic Field-Effect-Transistor with a Gate-Tunable Superconducting Channel

    OpenAIRE

    Yamamoto, Hiroshi M.; Nakano, Masaki; Suda, Masayuki; Iwasa, Yoshihiro; Kawasaki, Masashi; Kato, Reizo

    2013-01-01

    In state-of-the-art silicon devices, mobility of the carrier is enhanced by the lattice strain from the back substrate. Such an extra control of device performance is significant in realizing high performance computing and should be valid for electric-field-induced superconducting devices, too. However, so far, the carrier density is the sole parameter for field-induced superconducting interfaces. Here we show an active organic superconducting field-effect-transistor whose lattice is modulate...

  9. Improved sensor selectivity for chemical vapors using organic thin-film transistors

    OpenAIRE

    Royer, James Edward

    2012-01-01

    Organic thin-film transistors (OTFTs) offer unique methods for chemical vapor detection due to multiple device parameters which are influenced by reactive gases. The simplest conventional readout for OTFT sensors is the drain current; however, the drain current is dependent on changes in fundamental device characteristics such as mobility and/or threshold voltage. The chemical properties of the analyte determine whether the mobility or threshold voltage response is dominant for the OTFT. The ...

  10. Printable Biosensors based on Organic Electrochemical Transistors with a Platinized Gate Electrode

    OpenAIRE

    Broman, Eva

    2012-01-01

    There is a great demand for low-cost disposable sensors in a variety of markets, such as the food chainand health care. No assay is performed more than that of glucose and approximately 85 % of the entirebiosensor market accounts for glucose biosensors. Each year, 6 billion glucose assays are performed andthe majority of them are based on electrochemical detection. Organic electrochemical transistors(OECTs) have favorable properties in terms of low operating voltages and have previously been ...

  11. Monolithically integrated, flexible display of polymer-dispersed liquid crystal driven by rubber-stamped organic thin-film transistors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This letter describes the monolithic integration of rubber-stamped thin-film organic transistors with polymer-dispersed liquid crystals (PDLCs) to create a multipixel, flexible display with plastic substrates. We report the electro-optic switching behavior of the PDLCs as driven by the organic transistors, and we show that our displays operate robustly under flexing and have a contrast comparable to that of newsprint. [copyright] 2001 American Institute of Physics

  12. Ion sensors based on novel fiber organic electrochemical transistors for lead ion detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuedan; Zhou, Zhou; Qing, Xing; Zhong, Weibing; Liu, Qiongzhen; Wang, Wenwen; Li, Mufang; Liu, Ke; Wang, Dong

    2016-08-01

    Fiber organic electrochemical transistors (FECTs) based on polypyrrole and nanofibers have been prepared for the first time. FECTs exhibited excellent electrical performances, on/off ratios up to 10(4) and low applied voltages below 2 V. The ion sensitivity behavior of the fiber organic electrochemical transistors was investigated. It exhibited that the transfer curve of FECTs shifted to lower gate voltage with increasing cations concentration, the sensitivity reached to 446 μA/dec in the 10(-5)-10(-2) M Pb(2+) concentration range. The ion selective properties of the FECTs have also been systematically studied for the detection of potassium, calcium, aluminum, and lead ions. The devices with different cations showed great difference in response curves. It was suitable for selectively monitoring Pb(2+) with respect to other cations. The results indicated FECTs were very effective for electrochemical sensing of lead ion, which opened a promising perspective for wearable electronics in healthcare and biological application. Graphical Abstract The schematic diagram of fiber organic electrochemical transistors based on polypyrrole and nanofibers for ion sensing. PMID:27342794

  13. High-Resolution ac Measurements of the Hall Effect in Organic Field-Effect Transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Y.; Yi, H. T.; Podzorov, V.

    2016-03-01

    We describe a high resolving power technique for Hall-effect measurements, efficient in determining Hall mobility and carrier density in organic field-effect transistors and other low-mobility systems. We utilize a small low-frequency ac magnetic field (BrmsHall voltage, with the necessary corrections for Faraday induction. This method significantly enhances the signal-to-noise ratio and eliminates the necessity of using high magnetic fields in Hall-effect studies. With the help of this method, we are able to obtain the Hall mobility and carrier density in organic transistors with a mobility as low as μ ˜0.3 cm2 V-1 s-1 by using a compact desktop apparatus and low magnetic fields. We find a good agreement between Hall-effect and electric-field-effect measurements, indicating that, contrary to the common belief, certain organic semiconductors with mobilities below 1 cm2 V-1 s-1 can still exhibit a fully developed, band-semiconductor-like Hall effect, with the Hall mobility and carrier density matching those obtained in longitudinal transistor measurements. This suggests that, even when μ Hall-effect studies in a wide range of low-mobility materials and devices, where it is typically very difficult to resolve the Hall effect even in very high dc magnetic fields.

  14. Organic single crystals or crystalline micro/nanostructures: Preparation and field-effect transistor applications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Organic single crystals hold great promise for the development of organic semiconductor materials,because they could reveal the intrinsic electronic properties of these materials,providing high-performance electronic devices and probing the structureproperty relationships.This article reviews the preparation methods for organic single crystals or crystalline micro/nanostructures,including vapor phase growth methods and solution-processed methods,and summarizes a few methods employed in the fabrication of field-effect transistors along with dozens of examples concerning both small molecules and polymers with high field-effect performance.

  15. The design and synthesis of fused thiophenes and their applications in organic field-effect transistors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Fused thiophenes refer to oligothienoacenes in which several thiophenes are coupled together via twoor multi-positions and their derivatives. The synthesized organic semiconductors based on fused thiophenes exhibit excellent field effect properties due to their efficient intermolecular S…S interactions and π…π stacking. The performances of organic field-effect transistors (OFETs) depend not only on the materials but also on the devices. Such factors which influence the device performances as device structures, fabrication technologies and interface engineering are extensively investigated based on the fused thiophenes. Searching for new organic semiconductors and improving the device fabrication technologies are two major issues in the development of OFETs.

  16. Controlled deposition or organic semiconductor single crystals and its application in field-effect transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shuhong

    The search for low-cost, large area, flexible devices has led to a remarkable increase in the research and development of organic semiconductors. Single-crystal organic field-effect transistors (OFETs) are ideal device structures for studying fundamental science associated with charge transport in organic materials and have demonstrated high mobility and outstanding electrical characteristics. For example, an exceptionally high carrier mobility of 20 cm2/Vs has been demonstrated for rubrene single crystal field effect transistors. However, it remains a technical challenge to integrate single-crystal devices into practical electronic applications. A key difficulty is that organic single-crystal devices are usually fabricated one device at a time by handpicking a single crystal and placing it onto the device substrate. This makes it impossible to mass-produce at high density with reasonable throughput. Therefore, there is a great need for a high-throughput method for depositing large arrays of organic semiconductor single crystals directly onto device structures. In this dissertation, I develop several approaches towards realizing this goal. The first approach is a solution-processing technique, which relies on solvent wetting and de-wetting on substrates with patterned wettability to selectively direct the deposition or removal of organic crystals. The assembly of different organic crystals over centimeter-squared areas on Au, SiO 2 and flexible plastic substrates is demonstrated. By designing line features on the substrate, alignment of needle-like crystals is also achieved. As a demonstration of the potential application of this approach, arrays of organic single crystal FETs are fabricated by patterning organic single crystals directly onto and between transistor source and drain electrodes. Besides organic single crystals, this self-assembly strategy is also applicable for patterning other objects such as metallic nanowires. In the second technique, organic

  17. An Organic Nanoparticle Transistor Behaving as a Biological Spiking Synapse

    OpenAIRE

    Alibart, F.; Pleutin, S.; Guerin, D.; Novembre, C.; Lenfant, S.; Lmimouni, K.; Gamrat, C.; Vuillaume, D.

    2010-01-01

    Molecule-based devices are envisioned to complement silicon devices by providing new functions or already existing functions at a simpler process level and at a lower cost by virtue of their self-organization capabilities. Moreover, they are not bound to von Neuman architecture and this feature may open the way to other architectural paradigms. Neuromorphic electronics is one of them. Here we demonstrate a device made of molecules and nanoparticles, a nanoparticle organic memory filed-effect ...

  18. Self-Aligned Metal Electrodes in Fully Roll-to-Roll Processed Organic Transistors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marja Vilkman

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We demonstrate the production of organic bottom gate transistors with self-aligned electrodes, using only continuous roll-to-roll (R2R techniques. The self-alignment allows accurate <5 µm layer-to-layer registration, which is usually a challenge in high-speed R2R environments as the standard registration methods are limited to the millimeter range—or, at best, to tens of µm if online cameras and automatic web control are utilized. The improved registration enables minimizing the overlap between the source/drain electrodes and the gate electrode, which is essential for minimizing the parasitic capacitance. The complete process is a combination of several techniques, including evaporation, reverse gravure, flexography, lift-off, UV exposure and development methods—all transferred to a continuous R2R pilot line. Altogether, approximately 80 meters of devices consisting of thousands of transistors were manufactured in a roll-to-roll fashion. Finally, a cost analysis is presented in order to ascertain the main costs and to predict whether the process would be feasible for the industrial production of organic transistors.

  19. Solution-Processed Organic Thin-Film Transistor Array for Active-Matrix Organic Light-Emitting Diode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harada, Chihiro; Hata, Takuya; Chuman, Takashi; Ishizuka, Shinichi; Yoshizawa, Atsushi

    2013-05-01

    We developed a 3-in. organic thin-film transistor (OTFT) array with an ink-jetted organic semiconductor. All layers except electrodes were fabricated by solution processes. The OTFT performed well without hysteresis, and the field-effect mobility in the saturation region was 0.45 cm2 V-1 s-1, the threshold voltage was 3.3 V, and the on/off current ratio was more than 106. We demonstrated a 3-in. active-matrix organic light-emitting diode (AMOLED) display driven by the OTFT array. The display could provide clear moving images. The peak luminance of the display was 170 cd/m2.

  20. Studies on different configurations of cobalt phthalocyanine based flexible organic field effect transistor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, A.; Jha, P.; Samanta, S.; Singh, A.; Debnath, A. K.; Aswal, D. K.; Gupta, S. K.

    2016-05-01

    Organic Field Effect Transistors (OFETs) are being investigated for a number of low-cost, large area applications; particularly those that are compatible with flexible plastic substrates. Development of low temperature processes can make way for OFETs to be integrated on flexible plastic substrates. Here we have made systematic studies on OFETs in different configurations wherein we have chosen Cobalt Phthalocyanine (CoPc) as active material. We have found the best mobility (1.86 × 10-5 cm2/V-s) in Bottom Gate Top Contact configuration. However, threshold voltage (-5V) and On off ratio (62)were found to be better in Top Gate Bottom Contact configuration The electromechanical properties of the Bottom Gate Top Contact transistors were studied by measuring the transfer characteristics of the devices in bend condition and thereby calculating mobility under different radii of bending. No significant change in the mobility of the device was observed under bent conditions.

  1. Solution-processed hybrid organic-inorganic complementary thin-film transistor inverter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheong, Heajeong; Kuribara, Kazunori; Ogura, Shintaro; Fukuda, Nobuko; Yoshida, Manabu; Ushijima, Hirobumi; Uemura, Sei

    2016-04-01

    We investigated hybrid organic-inorganic complementary inverters with a solution-processed indium-gallium-zinc-oxide (IGZO) n-channel thin-film transistor (TFT) and p-channel TFTs using the high-uniformity polymer poly[2,5-bis(alkyl)pyrrolo[3,4-c]pyrrolo-1,4(2H,5H)-dione-alt-5,5-di(thiophene-2-yl)-2,2-(E)-2-(2-(thiophen-2-yl)vinyl)thiophene] (PDVT-10). The IGZO TFT was fabricated at 150 °C for 1 min. It showed a high field-effect mobility of 0.9 cm2·V-1·s-1 and a high on/off current ratio of 107. A hybrid complementary inverter was fabricated by combining IGZO with a PDVT-10 thin-film transistor and its operation was confirmed.

  2. Pentacene organic thin-film transistors on flexible paper and glass substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pentacene-based organic thin-film transistors (OTFTs) were fabricated on several types of flexible substrate: commercial photo paper, ultra-smooth specialty paper and ultra-thin (100 μM) flexible glass. The transistors were fabricated entirely through dry-step processing. The transconductance and field-effect mobility of OTFTs on photo paper reached values of ∼0.52 mS m−1 and ∼0.1 cm2 V −1 s−1, respectively. Preliminary results on the lifetime of OTFTs on photo paper yielded stable transconductance and mobility values over a period of more than 250 h. The comparable characteristics of OTFTs fabricated on widely available, low cost paper and high quality expensive liquid crystal display glass indicate the potential importance of cellulose-based electronic devices. (paper)

  3. Integrated Materials Design of Organic Semiconductors for Field-Effect Transistors

    KAUST Repository

    Mei, Jianguo

    2013-05-08

    The past couple of years have witnessed a remarkable burst in the development of organic field-effect transistors (OFETs), with a number of organic semiconductors surpassing the benchmark mobility of 10 cm2/(V s). In this perspective, we highlight some of the major milestones along the way to provide a historical view of OFET development, introduce the integrated molecular design concepts and process engineering approaches that lead to the current success, and identify the challenges ahead to make OFETs applicable in real applications. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

  4. Tetracene films for light-emitting transistors: chemical and physical effects of the organic dielectric substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santato, Clara; Cicoira, Fabio; Bertolazzi, Simone

    2010-03-01

    Tetracene vacuum-sublimed films have been used to demonstrate the first Organic Light Emitting Field Effect Transistor (OLEFET), in 2003. Because of their planar configuration, OLEFET are excellent systems to study fundamental processes such as charge injection, transport, and light emission in organic semiconductor films. OLEFET are intensively investigated for applications in active matrix full-color displays and, ultimately, lasers. Since the first Tetracene-OLEFET, a number of excellent studies have been reported on vacuum-sublimed as well as solution-processed films of organic semiconductors incorporated into OLEFET. Investigating the role played by the surface substrate chemistry and establishing sound structure-property relationships in organic semiconductor films incorporated into OLEFET structures are the keys to understand and improve the optoelectronic characteristics of OLEFET. Here we present our results on the morphological, structural, light-emission, and charge transport properties in field-effect transistor configuration of vacuum-sublimed tetracene films deposited on chemically and physically different organic dielectric substrates (HMDS- and OTS-treated SiO2, polystyrene, parylene, PMMA).

  5. Thickness dependence of surface morphology and charge carrier mobility in organic field-effect transistors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With the aim of understanding the relationships between organic small molecule field-effect transistors (FETs) and organic conjugated polymer FETs, we investigate the thickness dependence of surface morphology and charge carrier mobility in pentacene and regioregular poly (3-hexylthiophene) (RR-P3HT) field-effect transistors. On the basis of the results of surface morphologies and electrical properties, we presume that the charge carrier mobility is largely related to the morphology of the organic active layer. We observe that the change trends of the surface morphologies (average size and average roughness) of pentacene and RR-P3HT thin films are mutually opposite, as the thickness of the organic layer increases. Further, we demonstrate that the change trends of the field-effect mobilities of pentacene and RR-P3HT FETs are also opposite to each other, as the thickness of the organic layer increases within its limit. (cross-disciplinary physics and related areas of science and technology)

  6. Processing and performance of organic insulators as a gate layer in organic thin film transistors fabricated on polyethylene terephthalate substrate

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Saumen Mandal; Monica Katiyar

    2013-08-01

    Fabrication of organic thin film transistor (OTFT) on flexible substrates is a challenge, because of its low softening temperature, high roughness and flexible nature. Although several organic dielectrics have been used as gate insulator, it is difficult to choose one in absence of a comparative study covering processing of dielectric layer on polyethylene terephthalate (PET), characterization of dielectric property, pentacene film morphology and OTFT characterization. Here, we present the processing and performance of three organic dielectrics, poly(4-vinylphenol) (PVPh), polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) and poly(methylmethacrylate) (PMMA), as a gate layer in pentacene-based organic thin film transistor on PET substrate. We have used thermogravimetric analysis of organic dielectric solution to determine annealing temperature for spin-coated films of these dielectrics. Comparison of the leakage currents for the three dielectrics shows PVA exhibiting lowest leakage (in the voltage range of −30 to +30 V). This is partly because solvent is completely eliminated in the case of PVA as observed by differential thermogravimetric analysis (DTGA). We propose that DTGA can be a useful tool to optimize processing of dielectric layers. From organic thin film transistor point of view, crystal structure, morphology and surface roughness of pentacene film on all the dielectric layers were studied using X-ray diffraction (XRD), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM).We observe pyramidal pentacene on PVPh whereas commonly observed dendritic pentacene on PMMA and PVA surface. Pentacene morphology development is discussed in terms of surface roughness, surface energy and molecular nature of the dielectric layer.

  7. Low dielectric constant-based organic field-effect transistors and metal-insulator-semiconductor capacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ukah, Ndubuisi Benjamin

    This thesis describes a study of PFB and pentacene-based organic field-effect transistors (OFET) and metal-insulator-semiconductor (MIS) capacitors with low dielectric constant (k) poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA), poly(4-vinyl phenol) (PVP) and cross-linked PVP (c-PVP) gate dielectrics. A physical method -- matrix assisted pulsed laser evaporation (MAPLE) -- of fabricating all-polymer field-effect transistors and MIS capacitors that circumvents inherent polymer dissolution and solvent-selectivity problems, is demonstrated. Pentacene-based OFETs incorporating PMMA and PVP gate dielectrics usually have high operating voltages related to the thickness of the dielectric layer. Reduced PMMA layer thickness (≤ 70 nm) was obtained by dissolving the PMMA in propylene carbonate (PC). The resulting pentacene-based transistors exhibited very low operating voltage (below -3 V), minimal hysteresis in their transfer characteristics, and decent electrical performance. Also low voltage (within -2 V) operation using thin (≤ 80 nm) low-k and hydrophilic PVP and c-PVP dielectric layers obtained via dissolution in high dipole moment and high-k solvents -- PC and dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), is demonstrated to be a robust means of achieving improved electrical characteristics and high operational stability in OFETs incorporating PVP and c-PVP dielectrics.

  8. Free-Standing Organic Transistors and Circuits with Sub-Micron Thicknesses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuda, Kenjiro; Sekine, Tomohito; Shiwaku, Rei; Morimoto, Takuya; Kumaki, Daisuke; Tokito, Shizuo

    2016-06-01

    The realization of wearable electronic devices with extremely thin and flexible form factors has been a major technological challenge. While substrates typically limit the thickness of thin-film electronic devices, they are usually necessary for their fabrication and functionality. Here we report on ultra-thin organic transistors and integrated circuits using device components whose substrates that have been removed. The fabricated organic circuits with total device thicknesses down to 350 nm have electrical performance levels close to those fabricated on conventional flexible substrates. Moreover, they exhibit excellent mechanical robustness, whereby their static and dynamic electrical characteristics do not change even under 50% compressive strain. Tests using systematically applied compressive strains reveal that these free-standing organic transistors possess anisotropic mechanical stability, and a strain model for a multilayer stack can be used to describe the strain in this sort of ultra-thin device. These results show the feasibility of ultimate-thin organic electronic devices using free-standing constructions.

  9. All solution processed organic thin film transistor-backplane with printing technology for electrophoretic display

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Myung W.; Song, C.K.

    2012-01-01

    In this study, solution processes were developed for backplane using an organic thin film transistor (OTFT) as a driving device for an electrophoretic display (EPD) panel. The processes covered not only the key device of OTFTs but also interlayer and pixel electrodes. The various materials and printing processes were adopted to achieve the requirements of devices and functioning layers. The performance of OTFT of the backplane was sufficient to drive EPD sheet by producing a mobility of 0.12 cm2/v x sec and on/off current ratio of 10(5).

  10. A better understanding of organic electrochemical transistors for biosensing applications (Presentation Recording)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedlein, Jacob T.; Malliaras, George G.; Shaheen, Sean E.; McLeod, Robert R.

    2015-10-01

    Due to their biocompatibility, high transconductance, and low operating voltages, organic electrochemical transistors (OECTs) are promising platforms for biosensing applications. They have been used for measuring enzymes such as glucose and lactate, detecting disruptions of epithelial cell integrity, and amplifying epileptic voltage signals in rat brains. Accelerating the development of OECTs in this diverse range of potential applications, and those unforeseen, requires continued investigation of the device physics and material properties. In this presentation, we will describe our work to better understand OECT behavior, and we will discuss how this understanding can be used to develop more effective biosensors.

  11. Bilayer Photoresist Insulator for High Performance Organic Thin-Film Transistors on Plastic Films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A novel bilayer photoresist insulator is applied in flexible vanadyl-phthalocyanine (VOPc) organic thin-film transistors (OTFTs). The micron-size patterns of this photoresisit insulator can be directly defined only by photolithography without the etching process. Furthermore, these OTFTs exhibit high field-effect mobility (about 0.8 cm2/Vs) and current on/off ratio (about 106). In particular, they show rather low hysteresis (< 1 V). The results demonstrate that this bilayer photoresist insulator can be applied in large-area electronics and in the facilitation of patterning insulators. (cross-disciplinary physics and related areas of science and technology)

  12. Extended-gate organic field-effect transistor for the detection of histamine in water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minamiki, Tsukuru; Minami, Tsuyoshi; Yokoyama, Daisuke; Fukuda, Kenjiro; Kumaki, Daisuke; Tokito, Shizuo

    2015-04-01

    As part of our ongoing research program to develop health care sensors based on organic field-effect transistor (OFET) devices, we have attempted to detect histamine using an extended-gate OFET. Histamine is found in spoiled or decayed fish, and causes foodborne illness known as scombroid food poisoning. The new OFET device possesses an extended gate functionalized by carboxyalkanethiol that can interact with histamine. As a result, we have succeeded in detecting histamine in water through a shift in OFET threshold voltage. This result indicates the potential utility of the designed OFET devices in food freshness sensing.

  13. On the use of organic transistors in flexible large-area sensor arrays (Presentation Recording)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobb, Brian; Kumar, Abhishek

    2015-10-01

    While much of the OTFT activity has been display-centric there is no doubt that as the OTFT technology matures the number of applications will continue to increase. Using our most recent flexible X-ray detectors we will discuss the prospect and challenges of organic transistors in sensor backplanes. For these application, the current mobility of ~0.1-2 cm2/Vs of OTFTs is currently not a problem. Their low leakage currents give them a distinct advantage over competing technologies, such as amorphous silicon TFT. Yet, challenges remain and these will be discussed.

  14. Demonstration of high current carbon nanotube enabled vertical organic field effect transistors at industrially relevant voltages

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Mitchell

    The display market is presently dominated by the active matrix liquid crystal display (LCD). However, the active matrix organic light emitting diode (AMOLED) display is argued to become the successor to the LCD, and is already beginning its way into the market, mainly in small size displays. But, for AMOLED technology to become comparable in market share to LCD, larger size displays must become available at a competitive price with their LCD counterparts. A major issue preventing low-cost large AMOLED displays is the thin-film transistor (TFT) technology. Unlike the voltage driven LCD, the OLEDs in the AMOLED display are current driven. Because of this, the mature amorphous silicon TFT backplane technology used in the LCD must be upgraded to a material possessing a higher mobility. Polycrystalline silicon and transparent oxide TFT technologies are being considered to fill this need. But these technologies bring with them significant manufacturing complexity and cost concerns. Carbon nanotube enabled vertical organic field effect transistors (CN-VFETs) offer a unique solution to this problem (now known as the AMOLED backplane problem). The CN-VFET allows the use of organic semiconductors to be used for the semiconductor layer. Organics are known for their low-cost large area processing compatibility. Although the mobility of the best organics is only comparable to that of amorphous silicon, the CN-VFET makes up for this by orienting the channel vertically, as opposed to horizontally (like in conventional TFTs). This allows the CN-VFET to achieve sub-micron channel lengths without expensive high resolution patterning. Additionally, because the CN-VFET can be easily converted into a light emitting transistor (called the carbon nanotube enabled vertical organic light emitting transistor---CN-VOLET) by essentially stacking an OLED on top of the CN-VFET, more potential benefits can be realized. These potential benefits include, increased aperture ratio, increased OLED

  15. Efficient and Hysteresis-Free Field Effect Modulation of Ambipolarly Doped Vanadium Dioxide Nanowires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Xingyue; Yang, Yiming; Hou, Yasen; Travaglini, Henry C.; Hellwig, Luke; Hihath, Sahar; van Benthem, Klaus; Lee, Kathleen; Liu, Weifeng; Yu, Dong

    2016-05-01

    The subpicosecond metal-insulator phase transition in vanadium dioxide (VO2 ) has attracted extensive attention with potential applications in ultrafast Mott transistors, which are based on electric-field-induced phase transition. However, the development of VO2 -based transistors lags behind, owing to inefficient and hysteretic gate modulation. Here we report ambipolar doping and strong field effects free of hysteresis in single-crystal VO2 nanowires synthesized via catalyst-free chemical vapor deposition. The ambipolarly doped VO2 nanowires are achieved by controlling the oxygen vacancy density during the synthesis and show strong gate effects because of their relatively low doping level. Both the doping type of the nanowires and the band-bending direction at the metal-insulator domain walls are reversibly switched by electrochemical gating, as revealed by scanning photocurrent microscopy. Furthermore, we eliminate the hysteresis in gate sweep via a hybrid gating method, which combines the merits of liquid-ionic and solid gating. The capability of efficient field effect modulation of ambipolar conduction and band alignment offers opportunities on understanding the phase transition mechanism and enables electronic applications based on VO2 .

  16. Flexible All-organic, All-solution Processed Thin Film Transistor Array with Ultrashort Channel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Wei; Hu, Zhanhao; Liu, Huimin; Lan, Linfeng; Peng, Junbiao; Wang, Jian; Cao, Yong

    2016-01-01

    Shrinking the device dimension has long been the pursuit of the semiconductor industry to increase the device density and operation speed. In the application of thin film transistors (TFTs), all-organic TFT arrays made by all-solution process are desired for low cost and flexible electronics. One of the greatest challenges is how to achieve ultrashort channel through a cost-effective method. In our study, ultrashort-channel devices are demonstrated by direct inkjet printing conducting polymer as source/drain and gate electrodes without any complicated substrate's pre-patterning process. By modifying the substrate's wettability, the conducting polymer's contact line is pinned during drying process which makes the channel length well-controlled. An organic TFT array of 200 devices with 2 μm channel length is fabricated on flexible substrate through all-solution process. The simple and scalable process to fabricate high resolution organic transistor array offers a low cost approach in the development of flexible and wearable electronics. PMID:27378163

  17. The effect of pH and DNA concentration on organic thin-film transistor biosensors

    KAUST Repository

    Khan, Hadayat Ullah

    2012-03-01

    Organic electronics are beginning to attract more interest for biosensor technology as they provide an amenable interface between biology and electronics. Stable biosensor based on electronic detection platform would represent a significant advancement in technology as costs and analysis time would decrease immensely. Organic materials provide a route toward that goal due to their compatibility with electronic applications and biological molecules. In this report, we detail the effects of experimental parameters, such as pH and concentration, toward the selective detection of DNA via surface-bound peptide nucleic acid (PNA) sequences on organic transistor biosensors. The OTFT biosensors are fabricated with thin-films of the organic semiconductor, 5,5′-bis-(7-dodecyl-9H-fluoren-2-yl)-2,2′-bithiophene (DDFTTF), in which they exhibit a stable mobility of 0.2 cm 2 V -1 s -1 in buffer solutions (phosphate-buffer saline, pH 7.4 or sodium acetate, pH 7). Device performance were optimized to minimize the deleterious effects of pH on gate-bias stress such that the sensitivity toward DNA detection can be improved. In titration experiments, the surface-bound PNA probes were saturated with 50 nM of complementary target DNA, which required a 10-fold increase in concentration of single-base mismatched target DNA to achieve a similar surface saturation. The binding constant of DNA on the surface-bound PNA probes was determined from the concentration-dependent response (titration measurements) of our organic transistor biosensors. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. In-situ study of pn-heterojunction interface states in organic thin film transistors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, we have investigated the density of pn-heterojunction interface states by evaluating the threshold voltage shift with in-situ measurement of electrical characteristics of a sandwich fluorinated copper phthalocyanine/pentacene thin film transistor with various thicknesses of pentacene thin films. A threshold voltage (VT) undergoes a significant shift from + 20.6 to + 0.53 V with increasing the thickness of pentacene. When the thickness of pentacene is more than a critical thickness of 15 nm, VT undergoes hardly any shift. On the other hand, the value of mobility is lightly decreased with increasing the thickness of pentacene due to the effect of the bulk current. Thus the VT shift is attributed to the increase of drain current in the sandwich device. In order to explain the VT shift, a model was assumed in the linear region of thin film transistor operation and the VT shift agrees with a tan−1 function of film thickness. The total charge density (Q0) of 1.53 × 10−7 C/cm2 (9.56 × 1011 electrons or holes/cm2) was obtained. Furthermore, the VT shift and Q0 could be adjusted by selecting a p-type semiconductor. - Highlights: • A threshold voltage was in-situ measured in an organic sandwich thin film transistor. • Density of pn-heterojunction interface states by evaluating the threshold voltage shift. • The threshold voltage shift attributes to the increase of drain current. • In order to explain the threshold voltage shift, a model was assumed

  19. Electrostatic Simulation of Charge Trapping in Carbon Nanotube Vertical Organic Field Effect Transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Jennifer; Rinzler, Andrew; Hershfield, Selman

    The carbon nanotube vertical organic field effect transistor is a vertical sequence consisting of a gate electrode, gate dielectric, thin nanotube network source electrode, organic semiconducting channel and finally the drain electrode. The drain current is modulated by the gate voltage which varies a Schottky barrier between source and channel layers. Hysteresis in the current-voltage characteristic has been observed when a electret charge trapping layer is placed between the nanotube source and the gate dielectric. We provide a model for charge injection into a trapping layer placed in contact with the carbon nanotube film and solve self-consistently for the electrostatics and the occupancy of the traps. For a range of applied gate voltages the simulations demonstrate hysteresis of the carbon nanotubes' charge as a result of the electric field produced by the trapped charge. This affects the current by modulating the Schottky barrier. This work was supported by the NSF Grant DMR-1461019.

  20. Pentacene organic ferroelectric transistors with [P(VDF-TrFE)] gate by Langmuir-Blodgett process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yilin; Xie, Dan; Xu, Jianlong; Feng, Tingting; Zang, Yongyuan; Zhang, Cheng; Dai, Ruixuan; Meng, Xiangjian; Ji, Zhuoyu

    2015-09-01

    We report the fabrication and electrical properties of pentacene-based ferroelectric organic field-effect transistors (FeOFETs) with ultrathin poly(vinylidene fluoride trifluoroethylene) [P(VDF-TrFE)] gate insulators. A ultrathin and uniform P(VDF-TrFE) film was successfully deposited by Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) deposition with well-defined ferroelectric microdomains at the interface between P(VDF-TrFE) films and pentacene active layers. The P(VDF-TrFE) films derived by LB deposition significantly enhance the crystallization of the upper pentacene channel films and thus the performance of our FeOFETs. Our FeOFET device achieves a threshold voltage shift of 8.56 V induced by ferroelectric polarization under different voltage sweeping directions and such enhancement indicates a great potential for future organic nonvolatile memory applications.

  1. Flexible Electronics: Integration Processes for Organic and Inorganic Semiconductor-Based Thin-Film Transistors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio F. Vidor

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Flexible and transparent electronics have been studied intensively during the last few decades. The technique establishes the possibility of fabricating innovative products, from flexible displays to radio-frequency identification tags. Typically, large-area polymeric substrates such as polypropylene (PP or polyethylene terephthalate (PET are used, which produces new requirements for the integration processes. A key element for flexible and transparent electronics is the thin-film transistor (TFT, as it is responsible for the driving current in memory cells, digital circuits or organic light-emitting devices (OLEDs. In this paper, we discuss some fundamental concepts of TFT technology. Additionally, we present a comparison between the use of the semiconducting organic small-molecule pentacene and inorganic nanoparticle semiconductors in order to integrate TFTs suitable for flexible electronics. Moreover, a technique for integration with a submicron resolution suitable for glass and foil substrates is presented.

  2. High quality shadow masks for top contact organic field effect transistors using deep reactive ion etching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, we demonstrate the fabrication of top-contact silicon shadow masks for organic field effect transistors (OFETs) using plasma deep reactive ion etching (DRIE). Over 50 parallel and interdigitated finger contact masks of 30 µm thickness have been created on a single silicon wafer, with lengths spanning from 6.5 to 60 µm and channel widths varying from 1000 to 50 000 µm. Unlike all other mask fabrication techniques to date, these shadow masks are inexpensive, reusable, have nanoscopically sharp edges and can be made with precise (nanoscale) control over various sizes and shapes. Because a large number of these masks can be made at the same time, they can act as a platform for researchers studying new organic materials and OFET structures. Top contact OFETs have been successfully fabricated using these masks with performances comparable if not superior to those made with standard lithography.

  3. Percolation of Carbon Nanoparticles in Poly(3-Hexylthiophene Enhancing Carrier Mobility in Organic Thin Film Transistors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang-Hung Lee

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available To improve the field-effect mobility of all-inkjet-printed organic thin film transistors (OTFTs, a composite material consisted of carbon nanoparticles (CNPs and poly(3-hexylthiophene (P3HT was reported by using homemade inkjet-printing system. These all-inkjet-printed composite OTFTs represented superior characteristics compared to the all-inkjet-printed pristine P3HT OTFTs. To investigate the enhancement mechanism of the blended materials, the percolation model was established and experimentally verified to illustrate the enhancement of the electrical properties with different blending concentrations. In addition, experimental results of OTFT contact resistances showed that both contact resistance and channel resistance were halved. At the same time, X-ray diffraction measurements, Fourier transform infrared spectra, ultraviolet-visible light, and photoluminescence spectra were also accomplished to clarify the material blending effects. Therefore, this study demonstrates the potential and guideline of carbon-based nanocomposite materials in all-inkjet-printed organic electronics.

  4. Red light sensitive heterojunction organic field-effect transistors based on neodymium phthalocyanine as photosensitive layer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lv, Wenli; Tang, Yu [Institute of Microelectronics, School of Physical Science and Technology, Lanzhou University, South Tianshui Road 222#, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Yao, Bo [Institute of Microelectronics, School of Physical Science and Technology, Lanzhou University, South Tianshui Road 222#, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Department of Physics, Shaoxing University, Shaoxing 312000 (China); Zhou, Maoqing; Luo, Xiao; Li, Yao; Zhong, Junkang; Sun, Lei [Institute of Microelectronics, School of Physical Science and Technology, Lanzhou University, South Tianshui Road 222#, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Peng, Yingquan, E-mail: yqpeng@lzu.edu.cn [Institute of Microelectronics, School of Physical Science and Technology, Lanzhou University, South Tianshui Road 222#, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Key Laboratory for Magnetism and Magnetic Materials of the Ministry of Education, Lanzhou University, South Tianshui Road 222#, Lanzhou 730000 (China)

    2015-08-31

    Compared with organic photodiodes, photoresponsive organic field-effect transistors (photOFETs) exhibit higher sensitivity and lower noise. The performance of photOFETs based on conventional single layer structure is generally poor due to the low carrier mobility of the active channel materials. We demonstrate a high performance photOFET operating in red light with a structure of C60/neodymium phthalocyanine (NdPc{sub 2}) planar heterojunction. PhotOFETs based on single-layer NdPc{sub 2} and C60/NdPc{sub 2} heterojunction (denoted as NdPc{sub 2}-photOFETs and C60/NdPc{sub 2}-photOFETs, respectively) were fabricated and characterized. It is concluded that the photOFETs with heterojunction structure showed superior performance compared to that of single layer photOFETs. And for red light with a wavelength of 655 nm, C60/NdPc{sub 2}-photOFETs exhibited a large photoresponsivity of ~ 0.8 A/W, which is approximately 62 times larger than that of NdPc{sub 2}-photOFETs under the same conditions. The high performance of C60/NdPc{sub 2}-photOFETs is attributed to its high light absorption coefficient, high exciton dissociation efficiency and high carrier mobility. - Highlights: • The mobility of light-sensitive organic materials is generally low. • We fabricated C60/NdPc{sub 2} photoresponsive organic field-effect transistors (photOFETs). • The performance of C60/NdPc{sub 2} photOFETs is superior than single-layer NdPc{sub 2} photOFETs. • C60/NdPc{sub 2} photOFETs exhibited a large photoresponsivity of ~ 0.8 A/W for red light.

  5. Design of a Photoactive Hybrid Bilayer Dielectric for Flexible Nonvolatile Organic Memory Transistors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hongliang; Cheng, Nongyi; Ma, Wei; Li, Mingliang; Hu, Shuxin; Gu, Lin; Meng, Sheng; Guo, Xuefeng

    2016-01-26

    Organic field-effect transistors (OFETs) featuring a photoactive hybrid bilayer dielectric (PHBD) that comprises a self-assembled monolayer (SAM) of photochromic diarylethenes (DAEs) and an ultrathin solution-processed hafnium oxide layer are described here. We photoengineer the energy levels of DAE SAMs to facilitate the charging and discharging of the interface of the two dielectrics, thus yielding an OFET that functions as a nonvolatile memory device. The transistors use light signals for programming and electrical signals for erasing (≤3 V) to produce a large, reversible threshold-voltage shift with long retention times and good nondestructive signal processing ability. The memory effect can be exercised by more than 10(4) memory cycles. Furthermore, these memory cells have demonstrated the capacity to be arrayed into a photosensor matrix on flexible plastic substrates to detect the spatial distribution of a confined light and then store the analog sensor input as a two-dimensional image with high precision over a long period of time. PMID:26673624

  6. Touch sensors based on planar liquid crystal-gated-organic field-effect transistors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jooyeok Seo

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available We report a tactile touch sensor based on a planar liquid crystal-gated-organic field-effect transistor (LC-g-OFET structure. The LC-g-OFET touch sensors were fabricated by forming the 10 μm thick LC layer (4-cyano-4′-pentylbiphenyl - 5CB on top of the 50 nm thick channel layer (poly(3-hexylthiophene - P3HT that is coated on the in-plane aligned drain/source/gate electrodes (indium-tin oxide - ITO. As an external physical stimulation to examine the tactile touch performance, a weak nitrogen flow (83.3 μl/s was employed to stimulate the LC layer of the touch device. The LC-g-OFET device exhibited p-type transistor characteristics with a hole mobility of 1.5 cm2/Vs, but no sensing current by the nitrogen flow touch was measured at sufficiently high drain (VD and gate (VG voltages. However, a clear sensing current signal was detected at lower voltages, which was quite sensitive to the combination of VD and VG. The best voltage combination was VD = −0.2 V and VG = −1 V for the highest ratio of signal currents to base currents (i.e., signal-to-noise ratio. The change in the LC alignment upon the nitrogen flow touch was assigned as the mechanism for the present LC-g-OFET touch sensors.

  7. Low operating voltage n-channel organic field effect transistor using epoxy based photoresist gate dielectric

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report a systematic study on the dielectric properties of epoxy based positive tone photoresist and its use as a gate dielectric for n-channel organic field effect transistors (OFETs) made with N,N’-Dioctyl-3,4,9,10-perylenedicarboximinde (PTCDI-C8) as the active semiconducting layer. We find that the photoresist has high dielectric constant (k = 12 at 10 kHz) and thus can be used in fabricating low operating voltage OFET devices. Highly smooth gate dielectric surface was obtained using the photoresist with the highest root mean square (rms) roughness of 0.239 nm for the films annealed at 200 °C. Consequently, the semiconducting layer (on photoresist dielectric annealed at 100 °C) also exhibited highly uniform surface with rms roughness of 0.382 nm. The turn-on voltage (VT), inverse subthreshold slope (S) and saturation mobility of electrons (μsat) of the transistor device were estimated to be 4.3 V, 13 V decade−1 and 6 × 10−5 cm2 Vs−1, respectively, when the device was operated in ambient, which is better than some of the earlier reported works under similar experimental conditions. (paper)

  8. Trap density of states in n-channel organic transistors: variable temperature characteristics and band transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have investigated trap density of states (trap DOS) in n-channel organic field-effect transistors based on N,N ’-bis(cyclohexyl)naphthalene diimide (Cy-NDI) and dimethyldicyanoquinonediimine (DMDCNQI). A new method is proposed to extract trap DOS from the Arrhenius plot of the temperature-dependent transconductance. Double exponential trap DOS are observed, in which Cy-NDI has considerable deep states, by contrast, DMDCNQI has substantial tail states. In addition, numerical simulation of the transistor characteristics has been conducted by assuming an exponential trap distribution and the interface approximation. Temperature dependence of transfer characteristics are well reproduced only using several parameters, and the trap DOS obtained from the simulated characteristics are in good agreement with the assumed trap DOS, indicating that our analysis is self-consistent. Although the experimentally obtained Meyer-Neldel temperature is related to the trap distribution width, the simulation satisfies the Meyer-Neldel rule only very phenomenologically. The simulation also reveals that the subthreshold swing is not always a good indicator of the total trap amount, because it also largely depends on the trap distribution width. Finally, band transport is explored from the simulation having a small number of traps. A crossing point of the transfer curves and negative activation energy above a certain gate voltage are observed in the simulated characteristics, where the critical VG above which band transport is realized is determined by the sum of the trapped and free charge states below the conduction band edge

  9. High-mobility solution-processed copper phthalocyanine-based organic field-effect transistors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nandu B Chaure, Andrew N Cammidge, Isabelle Chambrier, Michael J Cook, Markys G Cain, Craig E Murphy, Chandana Pal and Asim K Ray

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Solution-processed films of 1,4,8,11,15,18,22,25-octakis(hexyl copper phthalocyanine (CuPc6 were utilized as an active semiconducting layer in the fabrication of organic field-effect transistors (OFETs in the bottom-gate configurations using chemical vapour deposited silicon dioxide (SiO2 as gate dielectrics. The surface treatment of the gate dielectric with a self-assembled monolayer of octadecyltrichlorosilane (OTS resulted in values of 4×10−2 cm2 V−1 s−1 and 106 for saturation mobility and on/off current ratio, respectively. This improvement was accompanied by a shift in the threshold voltage from 3 V for untreated devices to -2 V for OTS treated devices. The trap density at the interface between the gate dielectric and semiconductor decreased by about one order of magnitude after the surface treatment. The transistors with the OTS treated gate dielectrics were more stable over a 30-day period in air than untreated ones.

  10. Controlled Growth of Ultrathin Film of Organic Semiconductors by Balancing the Competitive Processes in Dip-Coating for Organic Transistors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Kunjie; Li, Hongwei; Li, Liqiang; Zhang, Suna; Chen, Xiaosong; Xu, Zeyang; Zhang, Xi; Hu, Wenping; Chi, Lifeng; Gao, Xike; Meng, Yancheng

    2016-06-28

    Ultrathin film with thickness below 15 nm of organic semiconductors provides excellent platform for some fundamental research and practical applications in the field of organic electronics. However, it is quite challenging to develop a general principle for the growth of uniform and continuous ultrathin film over large area. Dip-coating is a useful technique to prepare diverse structures of organic semiconductors, but the assembly of organic semiconductors in dip-coating is quite complicated, and there are no reports about the core rules for the growth of ultrathin film via dip-coating until now. In this work, we develop a general strategy for the growth of ultrathin film of organic semiconductor via dip-coating, which provides a relatively facile model to analyze the growth behavior. The balance between the three direct factors (nucleation rate, assembly rate, and recession rate) is the key to determine the growth of ultrathin film. Under the direction of this rule, ultrathin films of four organic semiconductors are obtained. The field-effect transistors constructed on the ultrathin film show good field-effect property. This work provides a general principle and systematic guideline to prepare ultrathin film of organic semiconductors via dip-coating, which would be highly meaningful for organic electronics as well as for the assembly of other materials via solution processes. PMID:27267545

  11. Revealing Buried Interfaces to Understand the Origins of Threshold Voltage Shifts in Organic Field-Effect Transistors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mathijssen, Simon G. J.; Spijkman, Mark-Jan; Andringa, Anne-Marije; van Hal, Paul A.; McCulloch, Iain; Kemerink, Martijn; Janssen, Rene A. J.; de Leeuw, Dago M.

    2010-01-01

    The semiconductor of an organic field-effect transistor is stripped with adhesive tape, yielding an exposed gate dielectric, accessible for various characterization techniques. By using scanning Kelvin probe microscopy we reveal that trapped charges after gate bias stress are located at the gate die

  12. Hole transport in organic field-effect transistors with active poly(3-hexylthiophene) layer containing CdSe quantum dots

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bielecka, Urszula; Lutsyk, P.; Nyk, M.; Janus, K.; Samoć, M.; Bartkowiak, W.; Nešpůrek, Stanislav

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 31, č. 2 (2013), s. 288-297. ISSN 2083-1331 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 35859 - BIMORE Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : organic transistor * poly(3-hexylthiophene) * CdSe Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 0.327, year: 2013

  13. Controlling of the surface energy of the gate dielectric in organic field-effect transistors by polymer blend

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gao, Jia; Asadi, Kamal; Xu, Jian Bin; An, Jin

    2009-01-01

    In this letter, we demonstrate that by blending insulating polymers, one can fabricate an insulating layer with controllable surface energy for organic field-effect transistors. As a model system, we used copper phthalocyanine evaporated on layers of polymethyl metacrylate blended with polystyrene w

  14. Band-Like Electron Transport in Organic Transistors and Implication of the Molecular Structure for Performance Optimization

    OpenAIRE

    Minder, Nikolas A.; Ono, Shimpei; Chen, Zhihua; Facchetti, Antonio; Morpurgo, Alberto F.

    2012-01-01

    Single-crystal organic field-effect transistors (OFETs) based on p-channel molecular semiconductors have led to breakthrough carrier mobilities and to the observation of band-like transport. These results represent the limit in our quest for the ultimate OFET performance. However, band-like transport has not been reported for n-channel OFETs and, for p-channel transistors, it is not understood why it occurs only for certain molecular materials. Here we report band-like electron transport for ...

  15. Molecular Design of Semiconducting Polymers for High-Performance Organic Electrochemical Transistors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Christian B; Giovannitti, Alexander; Sbircea, Dan-Tiberiu; Bandiello, Enrico; Niazi, Muhammad R; Hanifi, David A; Sessolo, Michele; Amassian, Aram; Malliaras, George G; Rivnay, Jonathan; McCulloch, Iain

    2016-08-17

    The organic electrochemical transistor (OECT), capable of transducing small ionic fluxes into electronic signals in an aqueous environment, is an ideal device to utilize in bioelectronic applications. Currently, most OECTs are fabricated with commercially available conducting poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT)-based suspensions and are therefore operated in depletion mode. Here, we present a series of semiconducting polymers designed to elucidate important structure-property guidelines required for accumulation mode OECT operation. We discuss key aspects relating to OECT performance such as ion and hole transport, electrochromic properties, operational voltage, and stability. The demonstration of our molecular design strategy is the fabrication of accumulation mode OECTs that clearly outperform state-of-the-art PEDOT-based devices, and show stability under aqueous operation without the need for formulation additives and cross-linkers. PMID:27444189

  16. Fully transparent organic transistors with junction-free metallic network electrodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We utilize highly transparent, junction-free metal network electrodes to fabricate fully transparent organic field effect transistors (OFETs). The patterned transparent Ag networks are developed by polymer crack template with adjustable line width and density. Sheet resistance of the network is 6.8 Ω/sq and optical transparency in the whole visible range is higher than 80%. The bottom contact OFETs with DNTT active layer and parylene-C dielectric insulator show a maximum field-effect mobility of 0.13 cm2/V s (average mobility is 0.12 cm2/V s) and on/off ratio is higher than 107. The current OFETs show great potential for applications in the next generation of transparent and flexible electronics

  17. Effects of P3HT concentration on the performance of organic field effect transistors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG Chun-xia; CHENG Xiao-man; WU Xiao-ming; YANG Xiao-yan; YIN Bin; HUA Yu-lin; WEI Jun; YIN Shou-gen

    2011-01-01

    @@ Top-contact organic field effect transistors (OFETs) based on poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) with different concentrations in chloroform (CHCl3) are fabricated.The output characteristics indicate that the P3HT concentration has significant influence on the OFET devices.The performance of the devices firstly is enhanced with increasing the P3HT concentration, and then decreases.The optimized devices with the P3HT concentration of 2 mg/mL show the best performance.The fieldeffect mobility is up to 1.4 × 10-2 cm2/Vs, the threshold voltage (Vt) is as low as -20 V, and the current on/off ratio (Ion/off) is close to the order of 104.The resu1ts suggest that the P3HT aggregation patterns induced by different concentrations can improve the performance of the OFETs.

  18. High performance organic transistor active-matrix driver developed on paper substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Boyu; Ren, Xiaochen; Wang, Zongrong; Wang, Xinyu; Roberts, Robert C.; Chan, Paddy K. L.

    2014-09-01

    The fabrication of electronic circuits on unconventional substrates largely broadens their application areas. For example, green electronics achieved through utilization of biodegradable or recyclable substrates, can mitigate the solid waste problems that arise at the end of their lifespan. Here, we combine screen-printing, high precision laser drilling and thermal evaporation, to fabricate organic field effect transistor (OFET) active-matrix (AM) arrays onto standard printer paper. The devices show a mobility and on/off ratio as high as 0.56 cm2V-1s-1 and 109 respectively. Small electrode overlap gives rise to a cut-off frequency of 39 kHz, which supports that our AM array is suitable for novel practical applications. We demonstrate an 8 × 8 AM light emitting diode (LED) driver with programmable scanning and information display functions. The AM array structure has excellent potential for scaling up.

  19. Thienoacene-fused pentalenes: Syntheses, structures, physical properties and applications for organic field-effect transistors

    KAUST Repository

    Dai, Gaole

    2014-11-27

    Three soluble and stable thienoacene-fused pentalene derivatives (1-3) with different π-conjugation lengths were synthesized. X-ray crystallographic analysis and density functional theory (DFT) calculations revealed their unique geometric and electronic structures due to the interaction between the aromatic thienoacene units and antiaromatic pentalene moiety. As a result, they all possess a small energy gap and show amphoteric redox behaviour. Time dependent (TD) DFT calculations were used to explain their unique electronic absorption spectra. These new compounds exhibited good thermal stability and ordered packing in solid state and thus their applications in organic field-effect transistors (OFETs) were also investigated. The highest field-effect hole mobility of 0.016, 0.036 and 0.001 cm2 V-1 s-1 was achieved for solution-processed thin films of 1-3, respectively.

  20. Improved Performance by a Double-Insulator Layer in Organic Thin-Film Transistors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Wei; SHI Jia-Wei; GUO Shu-Xu; ZHANG Hong-Mei; QUAN Bao-Fu; MA Dong-Ge

    2006-01-01

    @@ Organic thin film transistors based on pentacene are fabricated by the method of full evaporation. The thickness of insulator film can be controlled accurately, which influences the device operation voltage markedly. Compared to the devices with a single-insulator layer, the electric performance of devices by using a double-insulator as the gate dielectric has good improvement. It is found that the gate leakage current can be reduced over one order of magnitude, and the on-state current can be enhanced over one order of magnitude. The devices with double-insulator layer exhibit field-effect mobility as large as 0.14 cm2/Vs and near the zero threshold voltage.The results demonstrate that using a proper double insulator as the gate dielectrics is an effective method to fabricate OTFTs with high electrical performance.

  1. Hysteresis mechanism and control in pentacene organic field-effect transistors with polymer dielectric

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Huang

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Hysteresis mechanism of pentacene organic field-effect transistors (OFETs with polyvinyl alcohol (PVA and/or polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA dielectrics is studied. Through analyzing the electrical characteristics of OFETs with various PVA/PMMA arrangements, it shows that charge, which is trapped in PVA bulk and at the interface of pentacene/PVA, is one of the origins of hysteresis. The results also show that memory window is proportional to both trap amount in PVA and charge density at the gate/PVA or PVA/pentacene interfaces. Hence, the controllable memory window of around 0 ∼ 10 V can be realized by controlling the thickness and combination of triple-layer polymer dielectrics.

  2. Molecular Design of Semiconducting Polymers for High-Performance Organic Electrochemical Transistors

    KAUST Repository

    Nielsen, Christian B.

    2016-07-22

    The organic electrochemical transistor (OECT), capable of transducing small ionic fluxes into electronic signals in an aqueous envi-ronment, is an ideal device to utilize in bioelectronic applications. Currently, most OECTs are fabricated with commercially availa-ble conducting poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT)-based suspensions and are therefore operated in depletion mode. Here, we present a series of semiconducting polymers designed to elucidate important structure-property guidelines required for accumulation mode OECT operation. We discuss key aspects relating to OECT performance such as ion and hole transport, elec-trochromic properties, operational voltage and stability. The demonstration of our molecular design strategy is the fabrication of accumulation mode OECTs that clearly outperform state-of-the-art PEDOT based devices, and show stability under aqueous oper-ation without the need for formulation additives and cross-linkers.

  3. Effect of curing temperature on nano-silver paste ink for organic thin-film transistors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Minseok; Koo, Jae Bon; Baeg, Kang-Jun; Noh, Yong-Young; Yang, Yong Suk; Jung, Soon-Won; Ju, Byeong-Kwon; You, In-Kyu

    2012-04-01

    Silver (Ag) metal electrode having 20 microm channel length was printed by reverse offset printing (ROP) using nano-silver paste ink for the source/drain of organic thin-film transistors (OTFT). Specific resistance and surface roughness of printed Ag electrodes with increasing curing temperature were investigated, and surface morphology and grain growth mechanism were systematically verified using a scanning electron microscope (SEM) and atomic force microscope (AFM) in order to obtain an optimized ROP Ag electrode. The Ag electrode was applied to fabricate top-gate/bottom-contact poly(3-hexylthiophene) OTFT devices, which showed reproducible OTFT characteristics such as the field-effect mobility, threshold voltage, and an on/off-current ratio of -10(-3) cm2/Vs, 0.36 V, and -10(2), respectively. PMID:22849104

  4. Overview of recent developments in organic thin-film transistor sensor technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bio and chemical sensing represents one of the most attractive applications of organic electronics and of Organic Thin Film Transistors(OTFTs) in particular. The implementation of miniaturized portable systems for the detection of chemical analytes as well as of biological species, is still a challenge for the sensor' community. In this respect OTFTs appear as a new class of sensors able, in principle, to overcome some of the commercial sensors drawbacks. As far as volatile analytes are concerned, commercially available sensing systems, such as metal oxide based chemi-resistors, offer great stability but rather poor selectivity. In spite of the improved selectivity offered by organic chemi-resistors the reliability of such devices is not yet satisfactory proven. On the other hand, complex odors recognition, but also explosives or pathogen bacteria detection are currently being addressed by sensor array systems, called e-noses, that try to mimic the mammalian olfactory system. Even though potentially very effective, this technology has not yet reached the performance level required by the market mostly because miniaturization and cost effective production issues. OTFT sensors can offer the advantage of room temperature operation and deliver high repeatable responses. Beside, they show very good selectivity properties. In fact, they implement organic active layers, which behave as sensing layers as well. This improves OTFTs sensitivity towards different chemical and biological analytes as organic materials can be properly chemically tailored to achieve differential detection and potentially even discrimination of biological species. In addiction to this, OTFTs are also able to offer the unique advantages of multi-parametric response and a gate bias enhanced sensitivity. Recently thin dielectric low-voltage OTFTs have also been demonstrated. Their implementation in low power consumption devices has attracted the attention of the organic electronic community. But such

  5. Solvent-resistant organic transistors and thermally stable organic photovoltaics based on cross-linkable conjugated polymers

    KAUST Repository

    Kim, Hyeongjun

    2012-01-10

    Conjugated polymers, in general, are unstable when exposed to air, solvent, or thermal treatment, and these challenges limit their practical applications. Therefore, it is of great importance to develop new materials or methodologies that can enable organic electronics with air stability, solvent resistance, and thermal stability. Herein, we have developed a simple but powerful approach to achieve solvent-resistant and thermally stable organic electronic devices with a remarkably improved air stability, by introducing an azide cross-linkable group into a conjugated polymer. To demonstrate this concept, we have synthesized polythiophene with azide groups attached to end of the alkyl chain (P3HT-azide). Photo-cross-linking of P3HT-azide copolymers dramatically improves the solvent resistance of the active layer without disrupting the molecular ordering and charge transport. This is the first demonstration of solvent-resistant organic transistors. Furthermore, the bulk-heterojunction organic photovoltaics (BHJ OPVs) containing P3HT-azide copolymers show an average efficiency higher than 3.3% after 40 h annealing at an elevated temperature of 150 °C, which represents one of the most thermally stable OPV devices reported to date. This enhanced stability is due to an in situ compatibilizer that forms at the P3HT/PCBM interface and suppresses macrophase separation. Our approach paves a way toward organic electronics with robust and stable operations. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

  6. Lead iodide perovskite light-emitting field-effect transistor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, Xin Yu; Cortecchia, Daniele; Yin, Jun; Bruno, Annalisa; Soci, Cesare

    2015-06-01

    Despite the widespread use of solution-processable hybrid organic-inorganic perovskites in photovoltaic and light-emitting applications, determination of their intrinsic charge transport parameters has been elusive due to the variability of film preparation and history-dependent device performance. Here we show that screening effects associated to ionic transport can be effectively eliminated by lowering the operating temperature of methylammonium lead iodide perovskite (CH3NH3PbI3) field-effect transistors. Field-effect carrier mobility is found to increase by almost two orders of magnitude below 200 K, consistent with phonon scattering-limited transport. Under balanced ambipolar carrier injection, gate-dependent electroluminescence is also observed from the transistor channel, with spectra revealing the tetragonal to orthorhombic phase transition. This demonstration of CH3NH3PbI3 light-emitting field-effect transistors provides intrinsic transport parameters to guide materials and solar cell optimization, and will drive the development of new electro-optic device concepts, such as gated light-emitting diodes and lasers operating at room temperature.

  7. Touch sensors based on planar liquid crystal-gated-organic field-effect transistors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seo, Jooyeok; Lee, Chulyeon; Han, Hyemi; Lee, Sooyong; Nam, Sungho; Kim, Youngkyoo, E-mail: ykimm@knu.ac.kr [Organic Nanoelectronics Laboratory, Department of Chemical Engineering and Graduate School of Applied Chemical Engineering, Kyungpook National University, Daegu, 702-701 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hwajeong [Organic Nanoelectronics Laboratory, Department of Chemical Engineering and Graduate School of Applied Chemical Engineering, Kyungpook National University, Daegu, 702-701 (Korea, Republic of); Priority Research Center, Research Institute of Advanced Energy Technology, Kyungpook National University, Daegu, 702-701 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Joon-Hyung [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Kyungpook National University, Daegu, 702-701 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Soo-Young; Kang, Inn-Kyu [Department of Polymer Science and Engineering and Graduate School of Applied Chemical Engineering, Kyungpook National University, Daegu, 702-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-09-15

    We report a tactile touch sensor based on a planar liquid crystal-gated-organic field-effect transistor (LC-g-OFET) structure. The LC-g-OFET touch sensors were fabricated by forming the 10 μm thick LC layer (4-cyano-4{sup ′}-pentylbiphenyl - 5CB) on top of the 50 nm thick channel layer (poly(3-hexylthiophene) - P3HT) that is coated on the in-plane aligned drain/source/gate electrodes (indium-tin oxide - ITO). As an external physical stimulation to examine the tactile touch performance, a weak nitrogen flow (83.3 μl/s) was employed to stimulate the LC layer of the touch device. The LC-g-OFET device exhibited p-type transistor characteristics with a hole mobility of 1.5 cm{sup 2}/Vs, but no sensing current by the nitrogen flow touch was measured at sufficiently high drain (V{sub D}) and gate (V{sub G}) voltages. However, a clear sensing current signal was detected at lower voltages, which was quite sensitive to the combination of V{sub D} and V{sub G}. The best voltage combination was V{sub D} = −0.2 V and V{sub G} = −1 V for the highest ratio of signal currents to base currents (i.e., signal-to-noise ratio). The change in the LC alignment upon the nitrogen flow touch was assigned as the mechanism for the present LC-g-OFET touch sensors.

  8. Flexible suspended gate organic thin-film transistors for ultra-sensitive pressure detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zang, Yaping; Zhang, Fengjiao; Huang, Dazhen; Gao, Xike; di, Chong-An; Zhu, Daoben

    2015-03-01

    The utilization of organic devices as pressure-sensing elements in artificial intelligence and healthcare applications represents a fascinating opportunity for the next-generation electronic products. To satisfy the critical requirements of these promising applications, the low-cost construction of large-area ultra-sensitive organic pressure devices with outstanding flexibility is highly desired. Here we present flexible suspended gate organic thin-film transistors (SGOTFTs) as a model platform that enables ultra-sensitive pressure detection. More importantly, the unique device geometry of SGOTFTs allows the fine-tuning of their sensitivity by the suspended gate. An unprecedented sensitivity of 192 kPa-1, a low limit-of-detection pressure of <0.5 Pa and a short response time of 10 ms were successfully realized, allowing the real-time detection of acoustic waves. These excellent sensing properties of SGOTFTs, together with their advantages of facile large-area fabrication and versatility in detecting various pressure signals, make SGOTFTs a powerful strategy for spatial pressure mapping in practical applications.

  9. Sensitivity of the threshold voltage of organic thin-film transistors to light and water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feng, Cong; Marinov, Ognian; Deen, M. Jamal; Selvaganapathy, Ponnambalam Ravi [McMaster University, 1280 Main Street West, Hamilton, Ontario L8S 4K1 (Canada); Wu, Yiliang [Xerox Research Centre, 2660 Speakman Dr., Mississauga, Ontario L5K 2L1 (Canada)

    2015-05-14

    Analyses of extensive experiments with organic thin-film transistors (OTFTs) indicate that the threshold voltage V{sub T} of an OTFT has a temporal differential sensitivity. In particular, V{sub T} changes initially by changing the light illumination intensity or making/removing a contact of water with the organic semiconductor. Keeping the conditions stationary, then the initial shift of V{sub T} diminishes, since the time dependence of V{sub T} gradually recovers the OTFT to the state before applying the change in the environmental conditions. While still causing a differential and time-variant shift of V{sub T}, the deionized water does not have a dramatic impact on OTFTs that use the polymer DKPP-βT (diketopyrrolopyrrole β-unsubstituted quaterthiophene) as the active semiconductor material. Observations for the impact of water are made from experiments with an OTFT that has a microfluidic channel on the top the electrical channel, with the water in the microfluidic channel in direct contact with the electrical channel of the OTFT. This arrangement of electrical and microfluidic channels is a novel structure of the microfluidic OTFT, suitable for sensing applications of liquid analytes by means of organic electronics.

  10. Organic field-effect transistors based on a crosslinkable polymer blend as the semiconducting layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, He; Yoon, Myung-Han; Facchetti, Antonio; Marks, Tobin J.

    2005-10-01

    For fabrication of top-gate polymer-based organic field-effect transistors (OFETs), it is essential that the semiconducting layer remain intact during spin coating of the overlying dielectric layer. This requirement severely limits the applicable solvent and materials combinations. We show here that a crosslinkable polymer blend consisting of a p-type semiconducting polymer {e.g., TFB; poly[9,9-dioctyl-fluorene-co-N-(4-butylphenyl)-diphenylamine]} and an electroactive crosslinkable silyl reagent {e.g., TPDSi2; 4,4'-bis[(p-trichloro-silylpropylphenyl)phenylamino]biphenyl} is effective as the semiconducting layer in a top-gate bottom-contact OFET device. The TFB +TPDSi2 semiconducting blend is prepared by spin-coating in ambient. The crosslinking process occurs during spin-coating in air and is completed by curing at 90 °C, which renders the resulting film insoluble in common organic solvents and allows subsequent deposition of dielectric layers from a wide range of organic solvents. We also show that the presence of TPDSi2 in the semiconductor layer significantly reduces typical TFB-source-drain threshold voltages in bottom-contact devices, likely due to favorable interfacial TPDSi2-gold electrode interactions.

  11. Organic ferroelectric gate field-effect transistor memory using high-mobility rubrene thin film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanashima, Takeshi; Katsura, Yuu; Okuyama, Masanori

    2014-01-01

    An organic ferroelectric gate field-effect transistor (FET) memory has been fabricated using an organic semiconductor of rubrene thin film with a high mobility and a gate insulating layer of poly(vinylidene fluoride-tetrafluoroethylene) [P(VDF-TeFE)] thin film. A rubrene thin-film sheet was grown by physical vapor transport (PVT), and placed onto a spin-coated P(VDF-TeFE) thin-film layer, and Au source and drain electrodes were formed on this rubrene thin film. A hysteresis loop of the drain current-gate voltage (ID-VG) characteristic has been clearly observed in the ferroelectric gate FET, and is caused by the ferroelectricity. The maximum drain current is 1.5 × 10-6 A, which is about two orders of magnitude larger than that of the P(VDF-TeFE) gate FET using a pentacene thin film. Moreover, the mobility of this organic ferroelectric gate FET using rubrene thin film is 0.71 cm2 V-1 s-1, which is 35 times larger than that of the FET with pentacene thin film.

  12. Solution-processible organic-inorganic hybrid bipolar field-effect transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chae, Gil Jo; Kim, Kang Dae; Cho, Shinuk; Walker, Bright; Seo, Jung Hwa

    2016-04-01

    Organic-inorganic hybrid bipolar field-effect transistors (HBFETs) comprising a layer of p-type organic poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) separated from a parallel layer of n-type inorganic zinc oxide (ZnO) were demonstrated by solution processing. In order to achieve balanced hole and electron mobilities, we initially optimized the hole-transporting P3HT channel by the addition of the polar non-solvent acetonitrile (AN) to P3HT solutions in chloroform, which induced a selfassembled nano-fibril morphology and an enhancement of hole mobilities. For the electron channel, a wet-chemically-prepared ZnO layer was optimized by thermal annealing. Unipolar P3HT FET with 5% AN exhibited the highest hole mobility of 7.20 × 10-2 cm2V-1s-1 while the highest electron mobility (3.64 × 10-2 cm2V-1s-1) was observed in unipolar ZnO FETs annealed at 200°C. The organic-inorganic HBFETs consisting of the P3HT layer with 5% AN and ZnO annealed at 200°C exhibited well-balanced hole and electron mobilities of 1.94 × 10-2 cm2V-1s-1 and 1.98 × 10-2 cm2V-1s-1, respectively.

  13. Impact of semiconductor/metal interfaces on contact resistance and operating speed of organic thin film transistors

    KAUST Repository

    Wondmagegn, Wudyalew T.

    2010-09-24

    The contact resistance of field effect transistors based on pentacene and parylene has been investigated by experimental and numerical analysis. The device simulation was performed using finite element two-dimensional drift-diffusion simulation taking into account field-dependent mobility, interface/bulk trap states and fixed charge density at the organic/insulator interface. The width-normalized contact resistance extracted from simulation which included an interface dipole layer between the gold source/drain electrodes and pentacene was 91 kΩcm. However, contact resistance extracted from the simulation, without consideration of interface dipole was 52.4 kΩcm, which is about half of the experimentally extracted 108 kΩcm. This indicates that interface dipoles are critical effects which degrade performances of organic field effect transistors by increasing the contact resistance. Using numerical calculations and circuit simulations, we have predicted a 1 MHz switching frequency for a 1 μm channel length transistor without dipole interface between gold and pentacene. The transistor with dipole interface is predicted, via the same methods, to exhibit an operating frequency of less than 0.5 MHz. © 2010 Springer Science+Business Media LLC.

  14. Fabrication of water-stable organic transistors using crystalline rubrene thin-film and polymer-treated dielectric (Presentation Recording)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jaejoon; Lee, Hyoek Moo; Cho, Sung Oh

    2015-10-01

    For the real application of organic electronics, stable operation of electronic devices in humid or aqueous condition is essential and desirable. However, most of organic semiconductors were very weak to the oxygen or water and especially, cannot be operated well in aqueous condition without an encapsulation. Here, we present water-stable organic thin-film transistors with highly crystallized rubrene and polymer-treated dielectrics. These high water-stability could be achieved by two factors. First, rubrene, a well-known p-type semiconducting material, showed high air and water stability after the crystallization of `abrupt heating'. By the fabrication and aqueous operation of rubrene thin film transistor, we could show the water stability of crystallized thin-film rubrene. Such high environmental stability is attributed to the fact that rubrene has comparatively low HOMO level of -5.4 eV and large bandgap energy of 3.2 eV and that the rubrene thin-film is composed of well-interconnected orthorhombic rubrene crystals. Second, the polymer-treatment of dielectrics can enhance long-term water stability of fabricated rubrene thin-film transistor. By the complete immersion test of transistors, we could characterize the increase of water-stability after the treatment of dielectrics with cross-linked polymer. For this purpose, polystyrene is cross-linked by electron irradiation and the water penetration into semiconductor/dielectric interface was decreased due to the decreased surface energy of polymer dielectric compared to the SiO₂. The fabricated rubrene thin-film transistors showed a field-effect mobility of ~0.5 cm2V-1s-1 and long-term stability under ambient and aqueous conditions. Also, we investigated their potential applications in chemical or bio sensors.

  15. Heterogeneous nucleation promotes carrier transport in solution-processed organic field-effect transistors

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Ruipeng

    2012-09-04

    A new way to investigate and control the growth of solution-cast thin films is presented. The combination of in situ quartz crystal microbalance measurements with dissipation capabilities (QCM-D) and in situ grazing-incidence wide-angle X-ray scattering (GIWAXS) in an environmental chamber provides unique quantitative insights into the time-evolution of the concentration of the solution, the onset of nucleation, and the mode of growth of the organic semiconductor under varied drying conditions. It is demonstrated that careful control over the kinetics of solution drying enhances carrier transport significantly by promoting phase transformation predominantly via heterogeneous nucleation and sustained surface growth of a highly lamellar structure at the solid-liquid interface at the expense of homogeneous nucleation. A new way to investigate and control the growth of drop-cast thin films is presented. The solution-processing of small-molecule thin films of TIPS-pentacene is investigated using time-resolved techniques to reveal the mechanisms of nucleation and growth leading to solid film formation. By tuning the drying speed of the solution, the balance between surface and bulk growth modes is altered, thereby controlling the lamellar formation and tuning the carrier mobility in organic field-effect transistors Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Polysilsesquioxanes for Gate-Insulating Materials of Organic Thin-Film Transistors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimihiro Matsukawa

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Printable organic thin-film transistor (O-TFT is one of the most recognized technical issues nowadays. Our recent progress on the formation of organic-inorganic hybrid thin films consists of polymethylsilsesquioxane (PMSQ, and its applications for the gate-insulating layer of O-TFTs are introduced in this paper. PMSQ synthesized in toluene solution with formic acid catalyst exhibited the electric resistivity of higher than 1014 Ω cm after thermal treatment at 150°C, and the very low concentration of residual silanol groups in PMSQ was confirmed. The PMSQ film contains no mobile ionic impurities, and this is also important property for the practical use for the gate-insulating materials. In the case of top-contact type TFT using poly(3-hexylthiophene (P3HT with PMSQ gate-insulating layer, the device properties were comparable with the TFTs having thermally grown SiO2 gate-insulating layer. The feasibility of PMSQ as a gate-insulating material for O-TFTs, which was fabricated on a flexible plastic substrate, has been demonstrated. Moreover, by the modification of PMSQ, further functionalities, such as surface hydrophobicity, high permittivity that allows low driving voltage, and photocurability that allows photolithography, could be appended to the PMSQ gate-insulating layers.

  17. The influence of a polymeric adhesion layer on gate insulators in organic thin-film-transistors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The electrical characteristics of organic thin-film-transistors (OTFTs) can be improved by inserting an adhesion layer on the gate dielectric prior to the deposition of the organic semiconductor. A polyimide (PI) film was used as polymeric adhesion layer deposited on an inorganic gate insulator such as silicon dioxide (SiO2) or silicon nitride (SiNx), and the adhesion layer was formed by using a vapor deposition polymerization (VDP), instead of a spin-coating process. The molecular ordering of pentacene could be enhanced by using a PI adhesion layer which has a lower surface energy and roughness than SiO2 or SiNx. We also investigated the electrical characteristics of OTFTs for different thickness of the PI adhesion layer. The OTFTs with an adhesion layer attained on on/off ratio of ∼ 106, a threshold voltage of -0.8 ∼ 4 V, and a subthreshold slope of 2.0 ∼ 2.5 V/decade. Especially, a field effect mobility, of about 0.01 cm2/Vs was obtained for bare SiO2 and SiNx, whereas with an adhesion layer, as improved value of 0.1 ∼ 0.4 cm2/Vs was obtained, which depended on the thickness of the PI layer.

  18. Temperature and composition-dependent density of states in organic small-molecule/polymer blend transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Simon; Mottram, Alexander D.; Anthopoulos, Thomas D.

    2016-07-01

    The density of trap states (DOS) in organic p-type transistors based on the small-molecule 2,8-difluoro-5,11-bis(triethylsilylethynyl) anthradithiophene (diF-TES ADT), the polymer poly(triarylamine) and blends thereof are investigated. The DOS in these devices are measured as a function of semiconductor composition and operating temperature. We show that increasing operating temperature causes a broadening of the DOS below 250 K. Characteristic trap depths of ˜15 meV are measured at 100 K, increasing to between 20 and 50 meV at room-temperature, dependent on the semiconductor composition. Semiconductor films with high concentrations of diF-TES ADT exhibit both a greater density of trap states as well as broader DOS distributions when measured at room-temperature. These results shed light on the underlying charge transport mechanisms in organic blend semiconductors and the apparent freezing-out of hole conduction through the polymer and mixed polymer/small molecule phases at temperatures below 225 K.

  19. Sensing of EGTA Mediated Barrier Tissue Disruption with an Organic Transistor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scherrine Tria

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Barrier tissue protects the body against external factors by restricting the passage of molecules. The gastrointestinal epithelium is an example of barrier tissue with the primary purpose of allowing the passage of ions and nutrients, while restricting the passage of pathogens and toxins. It is well known that the loss of barrier function can be instigated by a decrease in extracellular calcium levels, leading to changes in protein conformation and an increase in paracellular transport. In this study, ethylene glycol-bis(beta-aminoethyl ether-N,N,N',N'-tetra acetic acid (EGTA, a calcium chelator, was used to disrupt the gastrointestinal epithelial barrier. The effect of EGTA on barrier tissue was monitored by a novel label-free method based on an organic electrochemical transistor (OECT integrated with living cells and validated against conventional methods for measuring barrier tissue integrity. We demonstrate that the OECT can detect breaches in barrier tissue upon exposure to EGTA with the same sensitivity as existing methods but with increased temporal resolution. Due to the potential of low cost processing techniques and the flexibility in design associated with organic electronics, the OECT has great potential for high-throughput, disposable sensing and diagnostics.

  20. Roll-printed organic thin-film transistor using patterned poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) stamp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, Jeongdai; Yu, Jong-Su; Lee, Taik-Min; Kim, Dong-Soo; Kim, Kwang-Young

    2010-05-01

    The roll-printed gate, source, and drain electrodes of organic thin-film transistors (OTFTs) were fabricated by gravure printing or gravure-offset printing using patterned poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) stamp with various channel lengths and low-resistance silver (Ag) pastes on flexible 150 x 150 mm2 plastic substrates. Bottom-contact roll-printed OTFTs used polyvinylphenol (PVP) as polymeric dielectric and bis(triisopropyl-silylethynyl) pentacene (TIPS-pentacene) as organic semiconductor; they were formed by spin coating or ink-jetting. Depending on the choice of roll-printing method, the printed OTFTs obtained had a field-effect mobility of between 0.08 and 0.1 cm2/Vs, an on/off current ratio of between 10(4) and 10(5), and a subthreshold slope of between 1.96 and 2.32 V/decade. The roll-printing using patterned PDMS stamp and soluble processes made it possible to fabricate a printed OTFT with a channel length of between 12 to 74 microm on a plastic substrate; this was not previously possible using traditional printing techniques. The proposed fabrication process was 20 steps shorted than conventional fabrication techniques. PMID:20359007

  1. High-performance controllable ambipolar infrared phototransistors based on graphene-quantum dot hybrid

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Ran; Wang, Haiyang; Song, Xiaoxian; Jin, Lufan; Dai, Haitao; Wu, Sen; Yao, Jianquan

    2014-01-01

    The field effect transistors (FETs) exhibited ultrahigh responsivity (107 A/W) to infrared light with great improvement of mobility in graphene / PbS quantum dot (QD) hybrid. These reported transistors are either unipolar or depletion mode devices. In this paper, we presented and fabricated conveniently-controlled grapheme / PbS QD hybrid FETs. Through the investigation on electric and optoelectronic properties, the ambipolar FETs (normally OFF) can be switched ON by raising gate voltage (VG) up to 3.7 V and -0.8 V in the first and third quadrants. Near these thresholds (VT) each carrier species shows comparable mobility (~ 300 cm2V-1s-1). Photo-responsivity reach ~ 107 A/W near each threshold and it will linearly increases with (VG-VT). These hybrid FETs become strongly competitive candidates for devices in flexible integrated circuits with low cost, large area, low-energy consumption and high performances.

  2. Evaporation-induced self-organization of inkjet-printed organic semiconductors on surface-modified dielectrics for high-performance organic transistors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Jungah; Lee, Wihyoung; Kwak, Donghoon; Cho, Kilwon

    2009-05-01

    We demonstrate the influence of the surface wettability of a dielectric substrate on the crystalline microstructure and film morphology of an inkjet-printed organic semiconductor, namely 6,13-bis(triisopropylsilylethynyl) pentacene (TIPS_PEN), using various self-assembled monolayers (SAMs). Self-aligned crystals with highly ordered crystalline structure are developed by printing on hydrophilic surfaces with high surface energy. It is found that the pinning of the contact line induces an outward convective flow as the evaporation proceeds, which results in the nucleation of crystals and the self-assembly of TIPS_PEN molecules from the periphery to the central region of the droplet. However, for hydrophobic surfaces with low surface energy, small agglomerates with random orientation of molecules are formed, which is induced by depinning of the contact line. The field-effect transistors fabricated with self-organized crystals printed on hydrophilic surfaces exhibit a high field-effect mobility of 0.15 cm(2) V(-1 )s(-1). These results indicate that the control of both the evaporation behavior and the contact line dynamics in a drying droplet plays an important role in the printing of organic semiconductor films with uniform morphology and desired molecular orientation for the direct-write fabrication of high-performance organic transistors. PMID:19348497

  3. Roll-to-roll compatible organic thin film transistor manufacturing technique by printing, lamination, and laser ablation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present roll-to-roll printing compatible techniques for manufacturing organic thin film transistors using two separately processed foils that are laminated together. The introduction of heat-assisted lamination opens up possibilities for material and processing combinations. The lamination of two separately processed substrates together will allow usage of pre-patterned electrodes on both substrates and materials with non-compatible solvents. Also, the surface microstructure is formed differently when laminating dry films together compared to film formation from liquid phase. Demonstrator transistors, inverters and ring oscillators were produced using lamination techniques. Finally, a roll-to-roll compatible lamination concept is proposed where also the source and drain electrodes are patterned by laser ablation. The demonstrator transistors have shown very good lifetime in air, which is contributed partly to the good material combination and partly to the enhanced interface formation in heat-assisted lamination process. - Highlights: • A roll-to-roll compatible lamination technique for printed electronics is proposed. • Laser ablation allows highly defined metal top and bottom electrodes. • Method opens up processing possibilities for incompatible materials and solvents. • Shearing forces may enhance molecular orientation and packing. • An air stable polymer transistor is demonstrated with a lifetime of years

  4. A large-area, flexible pressure sensor matrix with organic field-effect transistors for artificial skin applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Someya, Takao; Sekitani, Tsuyoshi; Iba, Shingo; Kato, Yusaku; Kawaguchi, Hiroshi; Sakurai, Takayasu

    2004-07-01

    It is now widely accepted that skin sensitivity will be very important for future robots used by humans in daily life for housekeeping and entertainment purposes. Despite this fact, relatively little progress has been made in the field of pressure recognition compared to the areas of sight and voice recognition, mainly because good artificial "electronic skin" with a large area and mechanical flexibility is not yet available. The fabrication of a sensitive skin consisting of thousands of pressure sensors would require a flexible switching matrix that cannot be realized with present silicon-based electronics. Organic field-effect transistors can substitute for such conventional electronics because organic circuits are inherently flexible and potentially ultralow in cost even for a large area. Thus, integration of organic transistors and rubber pressure sensors, both of which can be produced by low-cost processing technology such as large-area printing technology, will provide an ideal solution to realize a practical artificial skin, whose feasibility has been demonstrated in this paper. Pressure images have been taken by flexible active matrix drivers with organic transistors whose mobility reaches as high as 1.4 cm2/V·s. The device is electrically functional even when it is wrapped around a cylindrical bar with a 2-mm radius.

  5. Low-voltage polymer/small-molecule blend organic thin-film transistors and circuits fabricated via spray deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunter, By Simon; Anthopoulos, Thomas D., E-mail: t.anthopoulos@ic.ac.uk [Department of Physics and Centre for Plastic Electronics, Imperial College London, South Kensington SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Ward, Jeremy W.; Jurchescu, Oana D. [Department of Physics, Wake Forest University, Winston-Salem, North Carolina 27109 (United States); Payne, Marcia M.; Anthony, John E. [Department of Chemistry, University of Kentucky, Lexington, Kentucky 40506 (United States)

    2015-06-01

    Organic thin-film electronics have long been considered an enticing candidate in achieving high-throughput manufacturing of low-power ubiquitous electronics. However, to achieve this goal, more work is required to reduce operating voltages and develop suitable mass-manufacture techniques. Here, we demonstrate low-voltage spray-cast organic thin-film transistors based on a semiconductor blend of 2,8-difluoro- 5,11-bis (triethylsilylethynyl) anthradithiophene and poly(triarylamine). Both semiconductor and dielectric films are deposited via successive spray deposition in ambient conditions (air with 40%–60% relative humidity) without any special precautions. Despite the simplicity of the deposition method, p-channel transistors with hole mobilities of >1 cm{sup 2}/Vs are realized at −4 V operation, and unipolar inverters operating at −6 V are demonstrated.

  6. Ambipolar diffusion in smoothed particle magnetohydrodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Wurster, James; Ayliffe, Ben A

    2014-01-01

    In partially ionised plasmas, the magnetic field can become decoupled from the neutral gas and diffuse through it in a process known as ambipolar diffusion. Although ambipolar diffusion has been implemented in several grid codes, we here provide an implementation in smoothed particle magnetohydrodynamics (SPMHD). We use the strong coupling approximation in which the ion density is negligible, allowing a single fluid approach. The equations are derived to conserve energy, and to provide a positive definite contribution to the entropy. We test the implementation in both a simple 1D SPMHD code and the fully 3D code PHANTOM. The wave damping test yields agreement within 0.03-2 per cent of the analytical result, depending on the value of the collisional coupling constant. The oblique C-shocks test yields results that typically agree within 4 per cent of the semi-analytical result. Our algorithm is therefore suitable for exploring the effect ambipolar diffusion has on physical processes, such as the formation of st...

  7. Electronic properties of dioctylterthiophene-based organic thin-film transistors: A Kelvin probe force microscopy study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It appeared in the past decades that semi-conducting organic liquid crystals could be used as the active layer in organic thin film transistors (OTFTs). They can be processed by simple methods such as inkjet printing, which paves the way to applications for cheap plastic electronics such as electronic tags, biosensors, and flexible screens. However, the measured field-effect mobility in these OTFTs is relatively low compared to inorganic devices. Generally, such low field-effect mobility values result from extrinsic effects such as grain boundaries or imperfect interfaces with source and drain electrodes. It has been shown that reducing the number of grain boundaries between the source and drain electrodes improves the field effect mobility. Therefore, it is important to understand the transport mechanisms by studying the local structure and electronic properties of organic thin films within the channel and at the interfaces with source and drain electrodes in order to improve the field-effect mobility in OTFTs. Kelvin probe force microscopy (KPFM) is an ideal tool for that purpose since it allows to simultaneously investigate the local structure and the electrical potential distribution in electronic devices. In this work, the structure and the electrical properties of OTFTs based on dioctylterthiophene (DOTT) were studied. The transistors were fabricated by spin-coating DOTT on the transistor structures with untreated and treated (silanized) channel silicon oxide. The potential profiles across the channel and at the metal-electrode interfaces were measured by KPFM. The effect of surface treatment on the electrical properties, charge trapping phenomenon and hysteresis effects is demonstrated and analyzed. - Highlights: • Kelvin probe force microscopy study of organic thin film transistors. • Cost and time savings by using solution processable molecules as active layers. • Smaller crystals and less charge trapping effects in silanized devices. • Decrement

  8. Organic blend semiconductors and transistors with hole mobility exceeding 10 cm2/Vs (Presentation Recording)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paterson, Alexandra F.; Anthopoulos, Thomas D.

    2015-10-01

    Plastic electronics that can be manufactured using solution-based methods are the subject of great research interest due to their potential for low-cost, large-area electronic applications. The interest in this field has led to considerable research and subsequent advances in device performance. To this end solution-processed organic thin-film transistors (OTFTs) have shown impressive improvements in recent years through the increasing values of charge carrier mobility. Here we report the development of next generation organic blend materials for OTFTs with hole mobilities of 10 cm2/Vs. These high performance devices have been achieved using a novel semiconducting blend system comprising of an amorphous-like conjugated polymer and a high mobility small molecule. The combination of a highly crystalline small molecule with the polymer binder aids the formation of uniform films as well as enables an element of control over the nucleation and growth of the small molecule. The polymer binders investigated belongs to the family of indacenodithiophene-based copolymers which are renowned for their high carrier mobilities regardless of their apparent structural disorder. The addition of the polymer with carefully chosen small molecules is found to further increase the hole mobility of the resulting blend OTFT to over 10 cm2/Vs. These organic devices provide an interesting insight into this rather complex blend system, highlighting the correlation between the morphology developed following solution processing and device performance, as well as exploring the role of each of the two components in the blend in terms of their contribution to charge transport.

  9. Fabrication of an organic field effect transistor using nano imprinting of Ag inks and semiconducting polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, PingAn; Li, Kun; Chen, Weilin; Peng, Li; Chu, Daping; O'Neill, William

    2010-07-01

    A simple and cheap procedure for flexible electronics fabrication was demonstrated by imprinting metallic nanoparticles (NPs) on flexible substrates. Silver NPs with an average diameter of 10 nm were prepared via an improved chemical approach and Ag Np ink was produced in α-terpineol with a concentration up to 15%. Silver micro/nanostructures with a dimension varying from nanometres to microns were produced on a flexible substrate (polyimide) by imprinting the as-prepared silver ink. The fine fluidic properties of an Ag NP/α-terpineol solution and low melting temperatures of silver nanoparticles render a low pressure and low temperature procedure, which is well suited for flexible electronics fabrication. The effects of sintering and mechanical bending on the conductivity of imprinted silver contacts were also investigated. Large area organic field effect transistors (OFET) on flexible substrates were fabricated using an imprinted silver electrode and semiconducting polymer. The OFET with silver electrodes imprinted from our prepared oleic acid stabilized Ag nanoparticle ink show an ideal ohmic contact; therefore, the OFET exhibit high performance (Ion/Ioff ratio: 1 × 103; mobility: 0.071 cm2 V-1 s-1).

  10. Universal diffusion-limited injection and the hook effect in organic thin-film transistors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chuan; Huseynova, Gunel; Xu, Yong; Long, Dang Xuan; Park, Won-Tae; Liu, Xuying; Minari, Takeo; Noh, Yong-Young

    2016-01-01

    The general form of interfacial contact resistance was derived for organic thin-film transistors (OTFTs) covering various injection mechanisms. Devices with a broad range of materials for contacts, semiconductors, and dielectrics were investigated and the charge injections in staggered OTFTs was found to universally follow the proposed form in the diffusion-limited case, which is signified by the mobility-dependent injection at the metal-semiconductor interfaces. Hence, real ohmic contact can hardly ever be achieved in OTFTs with low carrier concentrations and mobility, and the injection mechanisms include thermionic emission, diffusion, and surface recombination. The non-ohmic injection in OTFTs is manifested by the generally observed hook shape of the output conductance as a function of the drain field. The combined theoretical and experimental results show that interfacial contact resistance generally decreases with carrier mobility, and the injection current is probably determined by the surface recombination rate, which can be promoted by bulk-doping, contact modifications with charge injection layers and dopant layers, and dielectric engineering with high-k dielectric materials. PMID:27440253

  11. A hybrid mask mould lithography scheme and its application in nanoscale organic thin film transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Xing; Li, Dawen; Guo, L. Jay

    2006-02-01

    Nanoimprint lithography (NIL) has stimulated great interest in both academic research and industrial development due to its high resolution, high throughput and low cost advantages. Though NIL has been demonstrated to be very successful in replicating nanoscale features, it also has its limitations as a general lithography technique. Its fundamental moulding characteristics (i.e. physically displacing polymer materials) frequently lead to pattern defects when replicating arbitrary patterns, especially patterns with broad size distribution. To solve this problem, we have developed a combined nanoimprint and photolithography technique that uses a hybrid mould to achieve good pattern definitions. In this work, we applied this technique to fabricate finger-shaped nanoelectrodes, and demonstrated nanoscale pentacene organic thin film transistors (OTFTs). Methods of the hybrid mask-mould (HMM) fabrication and results on the device electrical characteristics are provided. With combined advantages of both photolithography and NIL, and the applicability to general nanoscale device and system fabrication, this method can become a valuable choice for low cost mass production of micro- and nanoscale structures, devices and systems.

  12. Liquid electrolyte positioning along the device channel influences the operation of Organic Electro-Chemical Transistors

    KAUST Repository

    D'angelo, Pasquale

    2014-11-01

    In this work, we show the influence of the liquid electrolyte adsorption by porous films made of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)-poly(styrenesulfonate), PEDOT:PSS, on the operation of an Organic Electro-Chemical Transistor with an active channel based on these polymeric films. In particular, the effect of film hydration on device performance is evaluated by studying its electrical response as a function of the spatial position between the electrolyte and the channel electrodes. This is done by depositing a PEDOT:PSS film on a super-hydrophobic surface aimed at controlling the electrolyte confinement next to the electrodes. The device response shows that the confinement of ionic liquids near to the drain electrode results in a worsening of the current modulation. This result has been interpreted in the light of studies dealing with the transport of ions in semiconducting polymers, indicating that the electrolyte adsorption by the polymeric film implies the formation of liquid pathways inside its bulk. These pathways, in particular, affect the device response because they are able to assist the drift of ionic species in the electrolyte towards the drain electrode. The effect of electrolyte adsorption on the device operation is confirmed by means of moving-front measurements, and is related to the reproducibility of the device operation curves by measuring repeatedly its electrical response.

  13. A Disposable paper breathalyzer with an alcohol sensing organic electrochemical transistor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bihar, Eloїse; Deng, Yingxin; Miyake, Takeo; Saadaoui, Mohamed; Malliaras, George G.; Rolandi, Marco

    2016-06-01

    Breathalyzers estimate Blood Alcohol Content (BAC) from the concentration of ethanol in the breath. Breathalyzers are easy to use but are limited either by their high price and by environmental concerns, or by a short lifetime and the need for continuous recalibration. Here, we demonstrate a proof-of-concept disposable breathalyzer using an organic electrochemical transistor (OECT) modified with alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) as the sensor. The OECT is made with the conducting polymer poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS), and is printed on paper. ADH and its cofactor nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+) are immobilized onto the OECT with an electrolyte gel. When the OECT-breathalyzer is exposed to ethanol vapor, the enzymatic reaction of ADH and ethanol transforms NAD+ into NADH, which causes a decrease in the OECT source drain current. In this fashion, the OECT-breathalyzer easily detects ethanol in the breath equivalent to BAC from 0.01% to 0.2%. The use of a printed OECT may contribute to the development of breathalyzers that are disposable, ecofriendly, and integrated with wearable devices for real-time BAC monitoring.

  14. Investigation of protein detection parameters using nanofunctionalized organic field-effect transistors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammock, Mallory L; Knopfmacher, Oren; Naab, Benjamin D; Tok, Jeffrey B-H; Bao, Zhenan

    2013-05-28

    Biodetection using organic field-effect transistors (OFETs) is gaining increasing interest for applications as diverse as food security, environmental monitoring, and medical diagnostics. However, there still lacks a comprehensive, empirical study on the fundamental limits of OFET sensors. In this paper, we present a thorough study of the various parameters affecting biosensing using an OFET decorated with gold nanoparticle (AuNP) binding sites. These parameters include the spacing between receptors, pH of the buffer, and ionic strength of the buffer. To this end, we employed the thrombin protein and its corresponding DNA binding aptamer to form our model detection system. We demonstrate a detection limit of 100 pM for this protein with high selectivity over other proteases in situ. We describe herein a feasible approach for protein detection with OFETs and a thorough investigation of parameters governing biodetection events using OFETs. Our obtained results should provide important guidelines to tailor the sensor's dynamic range to suit other desired OFET-based biodetection applications. PMID:23597051

  15. Bistable organic materials in optoelectrical switches: Two-electrode devices vs. organic field effect transistors

    CERN Document Server

    Sworakowski, Juliusz

    2011-01-01

    The paper presents a short overview of research into properties of organic materials and structures that could be used in optoelectrical switches, i.e., switches in which changes in electrical properties are triggered by light of appropriate wavelengths. In particular, described are the structures acting by virtue of reversible photochemical reactions occurring in photochromic molecular materials.

  16. Effect of light irradiation on the characteristics of organic field-effect transistors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of light irradiation on the characteristics of organic field-effect transistors containing sexithiophene (6-T) and pentacene was examined. Organic phototransistors (OPTs) in which 6-T and pentacene were incorporated were fabricated. Their response behaviors were investigated under conditions of irradiation by either modulated or continuous ultraviolet light with various intensities. Both devices showed two distinguishable responses, i.e., fast and slow responses from photoconductive and photovoltaic effects, respectively. The fast response is mainly the result of the generation of mobile carriers by the absorption of a photon energy higher than the band gap energy of the semiconductor and, subsequently, an increase in conductance via a greater flow of photogenerated mobile carriers into the channel layer. On the other hand, the slow response, which was confirmed by a light induced shift in the threshold voltage (Vth) or the switch-on voltage (VO), is the result of a slow release of accumulated and trapped electrons in the semiconductor-gate dielectric interface. The VO is defined as the flatband voltage of devices. Below the VO, the channel current with the gate voltage is off current, and the channel current increases with the gate voltage above the VO. The speed of release of the accumulated charge was dependent on the type of semiconductor used. Pentacene OPTs showed a particularly long retention time. Even after storage for ten days, the shifted VO (or Vth) for the pentacene OPTs by light irradiation was not restored to the original value of the fresh devices. We conclude that this long sustained Vth shift renders them attractive for use in ''light-addressable nonvolatile memory devices.''

  17. Impact of universal mobility law on polycrystalline organic thin-film transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raja, Munira; Donaghy, David; Myers, Robert; Eccleston, Bill

    2012-10-01

    We have developed novel analytical models for polycrystalline organic thin-film transistor (OTFT) by employing new concepts on the charge carrier injection to polysilicon thin-films. The models, also incorporate the effect of contact resistance associated with the poor ohmic nature of the contacts. The drain current equations of the OTFT, both in the quasi-diffusion and quasi-drift regimes, predict temperature dependencies on essential material and device parameters. Interestingly, under the drift regime, the polycrystalline OTFT model reveals similar power dependencies on the applied voltages, to those of purely disordered model developed by utilizing the universal mobility law (UML). Such similarities are not thought to be coincidental since the effect of gate voltage on surface potential is influenced by the Fermi level pinning in the grain boundary. Nonetheless, the best fits on the data of 6,13-bis(tri-isopropylsilylethynyl) OTFTs are attained with the proposed polycrystalline rather than the disordered model, particularly at low gate voltages where the diffusive component is dominant. Moreover, in order to understand the effect of grain boundaries, we devise a relationship for the dependency of the effective mobility on carrier concentration, assuming a crystalline region to be in direct contact with a disordered region. Interestingly, we find a similar dependency as the UML in purely disordered materials, which further signifies the conduction to be limited by the grain boundaries. Subsequently, an analytical model for the variation of the effective mobility with gate voltage is established. Such models are vital in assisting the development of more accurate designs of the novel organic circuits.

  18. Influence of the carrier density in disordered organics with Gaussian density of states on organic field-effect transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheinert, Susanne; Paasch, Gernot

    2014-01-01

    Transport states in disordered organic semiconductors are widely accepted to be Gaussian distributed with a rather narrow variance (width) of the order of roughly 100-150 meV. This is a result of intensive analysis of experimental data and theoretical work using different model assumptions on hopping transport. For this transport mechanism, the dependencies of the carrier mobility on temperature, carrier density, and field are described by analytical approximations, which can be implemented in advanced device simulation programs. However, also the carrier density itself is determined by the Gaussian density of states (GDOS) and the energy integral over the product of the GDOS and the Fermi distribution function can only be calculated numerically. But meanwhile the published [G. Paasch and S. Scheinert, J. Appl. Phys. 107, 104501 (2010)] analytical approximation for the charge carrier density of organics with GDOS is implemented in the Sentaurus Device simulator. We present here results of detailed numerical simulations of organic field-effect transistors applying this model. It turns out that an important parameter is the distance of the GDOS maximum from the band edge, which is not directly accessible from experiment since the measured DOS shows a much larger band width (the narrow transport GDOS might be the tail). Only for a special case, depending on the variance, the deviations from a non-degenerate inorganic semiconductor are rather small. Furthermore, the results are affected by the properties of the source/drain contacts (Ohmic or Schottky type). Inclusion of both the calculation of the carrier concentration assuming the GDOS and the dependence of the mobility on this concentration shows that the influence of the latter is much larger. Nevertheless, the deviations from simulations for an inorganic semiconductor show that the carrier density for the GDOS should be taken into account in device simulations.

  19. Lithography-free high-resolution inkjet-printed OFET (organic field effect transistor) fabrication on polymer by laser processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Seung Hwan; Pan, Heng; Grigoropoulos, Costas P.; Poulikakos, Dimos

    2007-02-01

    The low temperature fabrication of OFET (organic field effect transistor) on the flexible polymer substrate is presented in this paper. A drop-on-demand (DOD) ink-jetting system was used to print gold nano-particles suspended in Alpha-Terpineol solvent, PVP (poly-4-vinylphenol) in PGMEA (propylene glycol monomethyl ether acetate) solvent, semiconductor polymer (modified polythiophene) in dichlorobenzene (o-DCB) solution to fabricate OFET on flexible polymer substrates. Short pulsed laser ablation enabled finer electrical components to overcome the resolution limitation of inkjet deposition. Continuous Argon ion laser was irradiated locally to evaporate carrier solvent as well as to sinter gold nano-particles. In addition, a new selective ablation of multilayered gold nanoparticle film was demonstrated using the SPLA-DAT (selective pulsed laser ablation by differential ablation threshold) scheme for sintered and non-sintered gold nanoparticles. Finally, selective ablation of multilayered film was used to define narrow channel of a FET (field effect transistor) and semiconductor polymer solution was deposited on top of channel to complete OFET (organic field effect transistor) fabrication.

  20. Novel self-assembled phosphonic acids monolayers applied in N-channel perylene diimide (PDI) organic field effect transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Heng; Huai, Jinyue; Cao, Li; Li, Zhefeng

    2016-08-01

    Phosphoric acid (PA) self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) have been developed for applications in organic field-effect transistors (OFETs). This efficient interface modification is helpful for semiconductor layer to form crystal thin film during vapor deposition. Results show that the PDI-i8C based OFETs with PA SAMs exhibit field-effect mobilities up to 0.014 cm2 V-1 s-1 (with ODPA as SAMs), which is over 500 times higher than the device without SAMs. Also, transistors with Naph6PA as SAMs show up to 1.5 × 10-3 cm2 V-1 s-1. By studying the morphology of semiconductor layer and SAMs surface, it is found that ODPA bilayer structure plays a key role in inducing PDI-i8C to form orderly crystal thin film.

  1. High Performance, Low Operating Voltage n-Type Organic Field Effect Transistor Based on Inorganic-Organic Bilayer Dielectric System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dey, A.; Singh, A.; Kalita, A.; Das, D.; Iyer, P. K.

    2016-04-01

    The performance of organic field-effect transistors (OFETs) fabricated utilizing vacuum deposited n-type conjugated molecule N,N’-Dioctadecyl-1,4,5,8-naphthalenetetracarboxylic diimide (NDIOD2) were investigated using single and bilayer dielectric system over a low-cost glass substrate. Single layer device structure consists of Poly (vinyl alcohol) (PVA) as the dielectric material whereas the bilayer systems contain two different device configuration namely aluminum oxide/Poly (vinyl alcohol) (Al2O3/PVA) and aluminum oxide/Poly (methyl mefhacrylate) (Al2O3/PMMA) in order to reduce the operating voltage and improve the device performance. It was observed that the devices with Al2O3/PMMA bilayer dielectric system and top contact aluminum electrodes exhibit excellent n-channel behaviour under vacuum compared to the other two structures with electron mobility value of 0.32 cm2/Vs, threshold voltages ~1.8 V and current on/off ratio ~104, operating under a very low voltage (6 V). These devices demonstrate highly stable electrical behaviour under multiple scans and low threshold voltage instability in vacuum condition even after 7 days than the Al2O3/PVA device structure. This low operating voltage, high performance OTFT device with bilayer dielectric system is expected to have diverse applications in the next generation of OTFT technologies.

  2. Electrical characterization of graphene oxide and organic dielectric layers based on thin film transistor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • We report the synthesis of graphene oxide nanosheets and electrical characterization of graphene oxide based thin film transistor. • Graphene oxide (GO) nanosheets were prepared by using modified Hummers method. • We used insulator layers which are polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) and polyvinyl phenol (PVP) for graphene oxide based thin flim transistor. - Abstract: We have studied the electrical characteristics of graphene oxide based thin flim transistor with the polymer insulators such as polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) and poly-4-vinylphenol (PVP). Graphene oxide (GO) nanosheets were prepared by using modified Hummers method. The structural properties of GO nanosheets were characterized with Ultraviolet Visible (UV–vis), FT-IR spectroscopy and X-rays diffraction (XRD). Graphene oxide based thin flim transistor (GO-TFT) was prepared by a spin-coating and thermal evaporation technique. The electrical characterization of GO-TFT was analyzed by output and transfer characteristics by using Keithley-4200 semiconductor characterization system (SCS). The graphene oxide based thin flim transistor devices show p-type semiconducting behavior. The mobility, threshold voltage, sub-threshold swing value and Ion/Ioff of GO-TFT were found to be 0.105 cm2 V−1 s−1, −8.7 V, 4.03 V/decade and 10, respectively

  3. Effect of asymmetrical double-pockets and gate-drain underlap on Schottky barrier tunneling FET: Ambipolar conduction vs. high frequency performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaker, Ahmed; Ossaimee, Mahmoud; Zekry, A.

    2016-08-01

    In this paper, a proposed structure based on asymmetrical double pockets SB-TFET with gate-drain underlap is presented. 2D extensive modeling and simulation, using Silvaco TCAD, were carried out to study the effect of both underlap length and pockets' doping on the transistor performance. It was found that the underlap from the drain side suppresses the ambipolar conduction and doesn't enhance the high-frequency characteristics. The enhancement of the high-frequency characteristics could be realized by increasing the doping of the drain pocket over the doping of the source pocket. An optimum choice was found which gives the conditions of minimum ambipolar conduction, maximum ON current and maximum cut-off frequency. These enhancements render the device more competitive as a nanometer transistor.

  4. Multiscale sensing of antibody-antigen interactions by organic transistors and single-molecule force spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casalini, Stefano; Dumitru, Andra C; Leonardi, Francesca; Bortolotti, Carlo A; Herruzo, Elena T; Campana, Alessandra; de Oliveira, Rafael F; Cramer, Tobias; Garcia, Ricardo; Biscarini, Fabio

    2015-05-26

    Antibody-antigen (Ab-Ag) recognition is the primary event at the basis of many biosensing platforms. In label-free biosensors, these events occurring at solid-liquid interfaces are complex and often difficult to control technologically across the smallest length scales down to the molecular scale. Here a molecular-scale technique, such as single-molecule force spectroscopy, is performed across areas of a real electrode functionalized for the immunodetection of an inflammatory cytokine, viz. interleukin-4 (IL4). The statistical analysis of force-distance curves allows us to quantify the probability, the characteristic length scales, the adhesion energy, and the time scales of specific recognition. These results enable us to rationalize the response of an electrolyte-gated organic field-effect transistor (EGOFET) operated as an IL4 immunosensor. Two different strategies for the immobilization of IL4 antibodies on the Au gate electrode have been compared: antibodies are bound to (i) a smooth film of His-tagged protein G (PG)/Au; (ii) a 6-aminohexanethiol (HSC6NH2) self-assembled monolayer on Au through glutaraldehyde. The most sensitive EGOFET (concentration minimum detection level down to 5 nM of IL4) is obtained with the first functionalization strategy. This result is correlated to the highest probability (30%) of specific binding events detected by force spectroscopy on Ab/PG/Au electrodes, compared to 10% probability on electrodes with the second functionalization. Specifically, this demonstrates that Ab/PG/Au yields the largest areal density of oriented antibodies available for recognition. More in general, this work shows that specific recognition events in multiscale biosensors can be assessed, quantified, and optimized by means of a nanoscale technique. PMID:25868724

  5. Behavior of pentacene initial nucleation on various dielectrics and its effect on carrier transport in organic field-effect transistor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Qiong; Yu, Aifang; Wang, Liangmin; Jiang, Chao

    2010-11-01

    The influence of dielectric surface energy on the initial nucleation and the growth of pentacene films as well as the electrical properties of the pentacene-based field-effect transistors are investigated. We have examined a range of organic and inorganic dielectrics with different surface energies, such as polycarbonate/SiO2, polystyrene/SiO2, and PMMA/SiO2 bi-layered dielectrics and also the bare SiO2 dielectric. Atomic force microscopy measurements of sub-monolayer and thick pentacene films indicated that the growth of pentacene film was in Stranski-Kranstanow growth mode on all the dielectrics. However, the initial nucleation density and the size of the first-layered pentacene islands deposited on different dielectrics are drastically influenced by the dielectric surface energy. With the increasing of the surface energy, the nucleation density increased and thus the average size of pentacene islands for the first mono-layer deposition decreased. The performance of fabricated pentacene-based thin film transistors was found to be highly related to nucleation density and the island size of deposited Pentacene film, and it had no relationship to the final particle size of the thick pentacene film. The field effect mobility of the thin film transistor could be achieved as high as 1.38 cm2Ns with on/off ratio over 3 x 10(7) on the PS/SiO2 where the lowest surface energy existed among all the dielectrics. For comparison, the values of mobility and on/off ratio were 0.42 cm2Ns and 1 x 10(6) for thin film transistor deposited directly on bare SiO2 having the highest surface energy. PMID:21137874

  6. Organic/inorganic hybrid synaptic transistors gated by proton conducting methylcellulose films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The idea of building a brain-inspired cognitive system has been around for several decades. Recently, electric-double-layer transistors gated by ion conducting electrolytes were reported as the promising candidates for synaptic electronics and neuromorphic system. In this letter, indium-zinc-oxide transistors gated by proton conducting methylcellulose electrolyte films were experimentally demonstrated with synaptic plasticity including paired-pulse facilitation and spatiotemporal-correlated dynamic logic. More importantly, a model based on proton-related electric-double-layer modulation and stretched-exponential decay function was proposed, and the theoretical results are in good agreement with the experimentally measured synaptic behaviors

  7. Organic/inorganic hybrid synaptic transistors gated by proton conducting methylcellulose films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Chang Jin; Zhu, Li Qiang; Wan, Xiang; Shi, Yi; Wan, Qing

    2016-01-01

    The idea of building a brain-inspired cognitive system has been around for several decades. Recently, electric-double-layer transistors gated by ion conducting electrolytes were reported as the promising candidates for synaptic electronics and neuromorphic system. In this letter, indium-zinc-oxide transistors gated by proton conducting methylcellulose electrolyte films were experimentally demonstrated with synaptic plasticity including paired-pulse facilitation and spatiotemporal-correlated dynamic logic. More importantly, a model based on proton-related electric-double-layer modulation and stretched-exponential decay function was proposed, and the theoretical results are in good agreement with the experimentally measured synaptic behaviors.

  8. Organic/inorganic hybrid synaptic transistors gated by proton conducting methylcellulose films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wan, Chang Jin; Wan, Qing, E-mail: wanqing@nju.edu.cn, E-mail: yshi@nju.edu.cn [School of Electronic Science & Engineering, and Collaborative Innovation Center of Advanced Microstructures, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Ningbo Institute of Material Technology and Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Ningbo 315201 (China); Zhu, Li Qiang [Ningbo Institute of Material Technology and Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Ningbo 315201 (China); Wan, Xiang; Shi, Yi, E-mail: wanqing@nju.edu.cn, E-mail: yshi@nju.edu.cn [School of Electronic Science & Engineering, and Collaborative Innovation Center of Advanced Microstructures, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China)

    2016-01-25

    The idea of building a brain-inspired cognitive system has been around for several decades. Recently, electric-double-layer transistors gated by ion conducting electrolytes were reported as the promising candidates for synaptic electronics and neuromorphic system. In this letter, indium-zinc-oxide transistors gated by proton conducting methylcellulose electrolyte films were experimentally demonstrated with synaptic plasticity including paired-pulse facilitation and spatiotemporal-correlated dynamic logic. More importantly, a model based on proton-related electric-double-layer modulation and stretched-exponential decay function was proposed, and the theoretical results are in good agreement with the experimentally measured synaptic behaviors.

  9. Microcantilevers and organic transistors: two promising classes of label-free biosensing devices which can be integrated in electronic circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotrone, Serafina; Cafagna, Damiana; Cometa, Stefania; De Giglio, Elvira; Magliulo, Maria; Torsi, Luisa; Sabbatini, Luigia

    2012-02-01

    Most of the success of electronic devices fabricated to actively interact with a biological environment relies on the proper choice of materials and efficient engineering of surfaces and interfaces. Organic materials have proved to be among the best candidates for this aim owing to many properties, such as the synthesis tunability, processing, softness and self-assembling ability, which allow them to form surfaces that are compatible with biological tissues. This review reports some research results obtained in the development of devices which exploit organic materials' properties in order to detect biologically significant molecules as well as to trigger/capture signals from the biological environment. Among the many investigated sensing devices, organic field-effect transistors (OFETs), organic electrochemical transistors (OECTs) and microcantilevers (MCLs) have been chosen. The main factors motivating this choice are their label-free detection approach, which is particularly important when addressing complex biological processes, as well as the possibility to integrate them in an electronic circuit. Particular attention is paid to the design and realization of biocompatible surfaces which can be employed in the recognition of pertinent molecules as well as to the research of new materials, both natural and inspired by nature, as a first approach to environmentally friendly electronics. PMID:22189629

  10. Design and Simulation of a 6-Bit Successive-Approximation ADC Using Modeled Organic Thin-Film Transistors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huyen Thanh Pham

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We have demonstrated a method for using proper models of pentacene P-channel and fullerene N-channel thin-film transistors (TFTs in order to design and simulate organic integrated circuits. Initially, the transistors were fabricated, and we measured their main physical and electrical parameters. Then, these organic TFTs (OTFTs were modeled with support of an organic process design kit (OPDK added in Cadence. The key specifications of the modeled elements were extracted from measured data, whereas the fitting ones were elected to replicate experimental curves. The simulating process proves that frequency responses of the TFTs cover all biosignal frequency ranges; hence, it is reasonable to deploy the elements to design integrated circuits used in biomedical applications. Complying with complementary rules, the organic circuits work properly, including logic gates, flip-flops, comparators, and analog-to-digital converters (ADCs as well. The proposed successive-approximation-register (SAR ADC consumes a power of 883.7 µW and achieves an ENOB of 5.05 bits, a SNR of 32.17 dB at a supply voltage of 10 V, and a sampling frequency of about 2 KHz.

  11. Simulation of Phonon-Assisted Band-to Band Tunneling in Carbon Nanotube Field-Effect Transistors

    OpenAIRE

    Koswatta, Siyuranga O.; Lundstrom, Mark S.; Anantram, M. P.; Nikonov, Dmitri E.

    2005-01-01

    Electronic transport in a carbon nanotube (CNT) metal-oxide-semiconductor field effect transistor (MOSFET) is simulated using the non-equilibrium Green's functions method with the account of electron-phonon scattering. For MOSFETs, ambipolar conduction is explained via phonon-assisted band-to-band (Landau-Zener) tunneling. In comparison to the ballistic case, we show that the phonon scattering shifts the onset of ambipolar conduction to more positive gate voltage (thereby increasing the off c...

  12. The Organic Power Transistor: Roll-to-Roll Manufacture, Thermal Behavior, and Power Handling When Driving Printed Electronics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pastorelli, Francesco; Schmidt, Thomas Mikael; Hösel, Markus; Søndergaard, Roar R.; Jørgensen, Mikkel; Krebs, Frederik C

    2016-01-01

    organic semiconductor poly-3-hexylthiophene (P3HT) and the dielectric material polyvinylphenol (PVP) before the gate (G) was applied by either screen printing or evaporation of silver. We explore the footprint and the practically accessible geometry of such devices with a special view toward being able to...... drive large currents while handling the thermal aspects in operation together with other organic printed electronics technologies such as large area organic photovoltaics (OPV)[2] and large area electrochromic displays (EC).[3] We find especially that an elevated operational temperature is beneficial......We present flexible organic power transistors prepared by fast (20mmin1) roll-to-roll (R2R) flexographic printing[1] of the drain (D) and source (S) electrode structures directly on polyester foil. The devices have top gate architecture and were completed by spin coating or slot-die coating of the...

  13. Effects of bias stress on ZnO nanowire field-effect transistors fabricated with organic gate nanodielectrics

    OpenAIRE

    Ju, Sanghyun; Janes, David B.; Lu, Gang; Facchetti, Antonio; Marks, Tobin J.

    2006-01-01

    The effects of bias stress gate stress or drain stress on nanowire field-effect transistor NW-FET stability were investigated as a function of stress bias and stress time. The n-channel NW-FETs used a nanoscopic self-assembled organic gate insulator, and each device contained a single ZnO nanowire. Before stress, the off current is limited by a leakage current in the 1 nA range, which increases as the gate to source bias becomes increasingly negative. The devices also exhibited significan...

  14. Electrical characteristics of 60Co gamma-ray irradiated pentacene-based organic thin film field effect transistors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preliminary studies of the 60Co γ-ray radiation effects on pentacene-based organic thin film transistors (OTFTs) with two kinds of gate insulators have been carried out. Negative threshold voltage shifts of OTFTs with a SiO2 gate insulator are consistent with positive charge trapping, and a rebound effect is observed. Threshold voltage of OTFTs with a polyimide gate insulator continuously decreased with increasing the total dose. When the total dose reached 1200 Gy (Si), the carrier mobility of OTFTs with the SiO2 gate insulator decreased by nearly 80%, while the carrier mobility of OTFTs with the polyimide gate insulator decreased by almost 40%. (author)

  15. Cyanoethyl cellulose-based nanocomposite dielectric for low-voltage, solution-processed organic field-effect transistors (OFETs)

    OpenAIRE

    S. Faraji, E. Danesh, D. J. Tate, M. L. Turner, L. A. Majewski

    2016-01-01

    Low voltage organic field-effect transistors (OFETs) using solution-processed cyanoethyl cellulose (CEC) and CEC-based nanocomposites as the gate dielectric are demonstrated. Barium strontium titanate (BST) nanoparticles are homogeneously dispersed in CEC to form the high-k (18.0 ± 0.2 at 1 kHz) nanocomposite insulator layer. The optimised p-channel DPPTTT OFETs with BST-CEC nanocomposite as the gate dielectric operate with minimal hysteresis, display field-effect mobilities in excess of 1 cm...

  16. Ultra-high mobility transparent organic thin film transistors grown by an off-centre spin-coating method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Yongbo; Giri, Gaurav; Ayzner, Alexander L.; Zoombelt, Arjan P.; Mannsfeld, Stefan C. B.; Chen, Jihua; Nordlund, Dennis; Toney, Michael F.; Huang, Jinsong; Bao, Zhenan

    2014-01-01

    Organic semiconductors with higher carrier mobility and better transparency have been actively pursued for numerous applications, such as flat-panel display backplane and sensor arrays. The carrier mobility is an important figure of merit and is sensitively influenced by the crystallinity and the molecular arrangement in a crystal lattice. Here we describe the growth of a highly aligned meta-stable structure of 2,7-dioctyl[1]benzothieno[3,2-b][1]benzothiophene (C8-BTBT) from a blended solution of C8-BTBT and polystyrene by using a novel off-centre spin-coating method. Combined with a vertical phase separation of the blend, the highly aligned, meta-stable C8-BTBT films provide a significantly increased thin film transistor hole mobility up to 43 cm2 Vs-1 (25 cm2 Vs-1 on average), which is the highest value reported to date for all organic molecules. The resulting transistors show high transparency of >90% over the visible spectrum, indicating their potential for transparent, high-performance organic electronics.

  17. Measurement of ambipolar mobility-lifetime product and its significance for amorphous silicon solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to evaluate correctly the ambipolar diffusion length (Lamb) or the ambipolar drift length (Le) from a steady state photocarrier grating (SSPG) diffusion or drift measurement, the condition of charge quasi-neutrality has to be maintained everywhere in the material (ambipolarity condition). This is shown theoretically, by calculating the experimentally accessible parameter (β) without assuming a priori that the ambipolarity condition holds. The effect of non-ambipolar behavior on the experimental plots, both for diffusion and drift is derived. Thereafter, measured SSPG plots for undoped a-Si:H are given, illustrating both ambipolar and non-ambipolar cases

  18. A solution processable fluorene-benzothiadiazole small molecule for n-type organic field-effect transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutkins, Karyn; Gui, Ke; Aljada, Muhsen; Schwenn, Paul E.; Namdas, Ebinazar B.; Burn, Paul L.; Meredith, Paul

    2011-04-01

    We report an n-type organic semiconductor [2-({7-(9,9-di-n-propyl-9H-fluoren-2-yl}benzo[c][1,2,5]thiadiazol-4-yl)methylene]malononitrile (herein referred to as K12) for use in organic field-effect transistors (OFETs). K12 can be processed by spin-coating from solution or by vacuum deposition, organizing into highly orientated microcrystalline structures at modest (75 °C) annealing temperatures. OFETs with n-octyltrichlorosilane or hexamethyldisilazane monolayers, or poly(propylene-co-1-butene) (PPCB) modified dielectric surfaces were prepared. The mobility, ON/OFF ratio, threshold voltage, and current hysteresis were found to be dependent on the thermal history of the film and surface onto which it was deposited. The highest OFET mobility achieved was 2.4×10-3 cm2/V s, for spin-coated films with a PPCB modified silicon dioxide dielectric.

  19. Significant performance enhancement in AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistor by high-κ organic dielectric

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The electrical properties of AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistor (HEMT) with and without high-κ organic dielectrics are investigated. The maximum drain current IDmax and the maximum transconductance gmmax of the organic dielectric/AlGaN/GaN structure can be enhanced by 74.5%, and 73.7% compared with those of the bare AlGaN/GaN HEMT, respectively. Both the threshold voltage VT and gmmax of the dielectric/AlGaN/GaN HEMT are strongly dielectric-constant-dependent. Our results suggest that it is promising to significantly improve the performance of the AlGaN/GaN HEMT by introducing the high-κ organic dielectric. (condensed matter: electronic structure, electrical, magnetic, and optical properties)

  20. High performance pentacene organic field-effect transistors consisting of biocompatible PMMA/silk fibroin bilayer dielectric

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pentacene organic field-effect transistors (OFETs) based on single- or double-layer biocompatible dielectrics of poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) and/or silk fibroin (SF) are fabricated. Compared with those devices based on single PMMA or SF dielectric or SF/PMMA bilayer dielectric, the OFETs with biocompatible PMMA/SF bilayer dielectric exhibit optimal performance with a high field-effect mobility of 0.21 cm2/Vs and a current on/off ratio of 1.5×104. By investigating the surface morphology of the pentacene active layer through atom force microscopy and analyzing the electrical properties, the performance enhancement is mainly attributed to the crystallization improvement of the pentacene and the smaller interface trap density at the dielectric/organic interface. Meanwhile, a low contact resistance also indicates that a good electrode/organic contact is formed, thereby assisting the performance improvement of the OFET

  1. High mobility organic field-effect transistor based on water-soluble deoxyribonucleic acid via spray coating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Wei; Han, Shijiao; Huang, Wei; Yu, Junsheng

    2015-01-01

    High mobility organic field-effect transistors (OFETs) by inserting water-soluble deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) buffer layer between electrodes and pentacene film through spray coating process were fabricated. Compared with the OFETs incorporated with DNA in the conventional organic solvents of ethanol and methanol: water mixture, the water-soluble DNA based OFET exhibited an over four folds enhancement of field-effect mobility from 0.035 to 0.153 cm2/Vs. By characterizing the surface morphology and the crystalline structure of pentacene active layer through atomic force microscope and X-ray diffraction, it was found that the adoption of water solvent in DNA solution, which played a key role in enhancing the field-effect mobility, was ascribed to both the elimination of the irreversible organic solvent-induced bulk-like phase transition of pentacene film and the diminution of a majority of charge trapping at interfaces in OFETs.

  2. High mobility organic field-effect transistor based on water-soluble deoxyribonucleic acid via spray coating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    High mobility organic field-effect transistors (OFETs) by inserting water-soluble deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) buffer layer between electrodes and pentacene film through spray coating process were fabricated. Compared with the OFETs incorporated with DNA in the conventional organic solvents of ethanol and methanol: water mixture, the water-soluble DNA based OFET exhibited an over four folds enhancement of field-effect mobility from 0.035 to 0.153 cm2/Vs. By characterizing the surface morphology and the crystalline structure of pentacene active layer through atomic force microscope and X-ray diffraction, it was found that the adoption of water solvent in DNA solution, which played a key role in enhancing the field-effect mobility, was ascribed to both the elimination of the irreversible organic solvent-induced bulk-like phase transition of pentacene film and the diminution of a majority of charge trapping at interfaces in OFETs

  3. High mobility organic field-effect transistor based on water-soluble deoxyribonucleic acid via spray coating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shi, Wei; Han, Shijiao; Huang, Wei; Yu, Junsheng, E-mail: jsyu@uestc.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Electronic Thin Films and Integrated Devices, School of Optoelectronic Information, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China (UESTC), Chengdu 610054 (China)

    2015-01-26

    High mobility organic field-effect transistors (OFETs) by inserting water-soluble deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) buffer layer between electrodes and pentacene film through spray coating process were fabricated. Compared with the OFETs incorporated with DNA in the conventional organic solvents of ethanol and methanol: water mixture, the water-soluble DNA based OFET exhibited an over four folds enhancement of field-effect mobility from 0.035 to 0.153 cm{sup 2}/Vs. By characterizing the surface morphology and the crystalline structure of pentacene active layer through atomic force microscope and X-ray diffraction, it was found that the adoption of water solvent in DNA solution, which played a key role in enhancing the field-effect mobility, was ascribed to both the elimination of the irreversible organic solvent-induced bulk-like phase transition of pentacene film and the diminution of a majority of charge trapping at interfaces in OFETs.

  4. Charge transport in dual-gate organic field-effect transistors

    OpenAIRE

    Brondijk, J. J.; Spijkman, M.; Torricelli, F Fabrizio; Blom, PWM Paul; Leeuw, van der, R.

    2012-01-01

    The charge carrier distribution in dual-gate field-effect transistors is investigated as a function of semiconductor thickness. A good agreement with 2-dimensional numerically calculated transfer curves is obtained. For semiconductor thicknesses larger than the accumulation width, two spatially separated channels are formed. The cross-over from accumulation into depletion of the two channels in combination with a carrier density dependent mobility causes a shoulder in the transfer characteris...

  5. Organic phthalocyanine films with high mobilities for efficient field-effect transistor switches

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Schauer, F.; Zhivkov, I.; Nešpůrek, Stanislav

    266-269, 1-3 (2000), s. 999-1003. ISSN 0022-3093. [International Conference on Amorphous and Microcrystalline Semiconductors /18./. Snowbird, 23.08.1999-27.08.1999] R&D Projects: GA MŠk OC 518.10; GA AV ČR KSK2050602 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4050913 Keywords : phthalocyanine * charge mobility * field-effect transistor Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 1.269, year: 2000

  6. Intrinsic Ambipolarity and Rotation in Stellarators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is shown that collisional plasma transport is intrinsically ambipolar only in quasiaxisymmetric or quasihelically symmetric magnetic configurations. Only in such fields can the plasma rotate freely, and then only in the direction of quasisymmetry. In a non-quasi-symmetric magnetic field, the average radial electric field is determined by parallel viscosity, which in turn is usually governed by collisional processes. Locally, the radial electric field may be affected by turbulent Reynolds stress producing zonal flows, but on a radial average taken over several ion gyroradii, it is determined by parallel viscosity, at least if the turbulence is electrostatic and obeys the conventional gyrokinetic orderings. This differs from the situation in a tokamak, where there is no flow damping by parallel viscosity in the symmetry direction and the turbulent Reynolds stress may affect the global radial electric field

  7. High yield fabrication of chemically reduced graphene oxide field effect transistors by dielectrophoresis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joung, Daeha; Chunder, A; Zhai, Lei; Khondaker, Saiful I, E-mail: saiful@mail.ucf.edu [Nanoscience Technology Center, University of Central Florida, Orlando, FL 32826 (United States)

    2010-04-23

    We demonstrate high yield fabrication of field effect transistors (FET) using chemically reduced graphene oxide (RGO) sheets. The RGO sheets suspended in water were assembled between prefabricated gold source and drain electrodes using ac dielectrophoresis. With the application of a backgate voltage, 60% of the devices showed p-type FET behavior, while the remaining 40% showed ambipolar behavior. After mild thermal annealing at 200 deg. C, all ambipolar RGO FET remained ambipolar with increased hole and electron mobility, while 60% of the p-type RGO devices were transformed to ambipolar. The maximum hole and electron mobilities of the devices were 4.0 and 1.5 cm{sup 2} V{sup -1} s{sup -1} respectively. High yield assembly of chemically derived RGO FET will have significant impact in scaled up fabrication of graphene based nanoelectronic devices.

  8. High yield fabrication of chemically reduced graphene oxide field effect transistors by dielectrophoresis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We demonstrate high yield fabrication of field effect transistors (FET) using chemically reduced graphene oxide (RGO) sheets. The RGO sheets suspended in water were assembled between prefabricated gold source and drain electrodes using ac dielectrophoresis. With the application of a backgate voltage, 60% of the devices showed p-type FET behavior, while the remaining 40% showed ambipolar behavior. After mild thermal annealing at 200 deg. C, all ambipolar RGO FET remained ambipolar with increased hole and electron mobility, while 60% of the p-type RGO devices were transformed to ambipolar. The maximum hole and electron mobilities of the devices were 4.0 and 1.5 cm2 V-1 s-1 respectively. High yield assembly of chemically derived RGO FET will have significant impact in scaled up fabrication of graphene based nanoelectronic devices.

  9. Solution processable multi-channel ZnO nanowire field-effect transistors with organic gate dielectric

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present work focuses on nanowire (NW) applications as semiconducting elements in solution processable field-effect transistors (FETs) targeting large-area low-cost electronics. We address one of the main challenges related to NW deposition and alignment by using dielectrophoresis (DEP) to select multiple ZnO nanowires with the correct length, and to attract, orientate and position them in predefined substrate locations. High-performance top-gate ZnO NW FETs are demonstrated on glass substrates with organic gate dielectric layers and surround source–drain contacts. Such devices are hybrids, in which inorganic multiple single-crystal ZnO NWs and organic gate dielectric are synergic in a single system. Current–voltage (I–V) measurements of a representative hybrid device demonstrate excellent device performance with high on/off ratio of ∼107, steep subthreshold swing (s-s) of ∼400 mV/dec and high electron mobility of ∼35 cm2 V−1 s−1 in N2 ambient. Stable device operation is demonstrated after 3 months of air exposure, where similar device parameters are extracted including on/off ratio of ∼4 × 106, s-s ∼500 mV/dec and field-effect mobility of ∼28 cm2 V−1 s−1. These results demonstrate that DEP can be used to assemble multiples of NWs from solvent formulations to enable low-temperature hybrid transistor fabrication for large-area inexpensive electronics. (paper)

  10. Characterization of 6,13-bis(triisopropylsilylethynyl) pentacene organic thin film transistors fabricated using pattern-induced confined structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Kyohyeok; Kwon, Namyong [Sungkyunkwan University Advanced Institute of Nanotechnology, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of); Chung, Ilsub, E-mail: ichung@skku.ac.kr [Sungkyunkwan University Advanced Institute of Nanotechnology, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of); College of Information and Communication Engineering, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-01-01

    Bottom gate organic thin film transistors (OTFTs) were fabricated on polyethersulphone substrate using an ink jet printing method. 6,13-bis(triisopropylsilylethynyl) (TIPS) pentacene and poly-4-vinylphenol (PVP) were used as an active material and as a gate insulator, respectively. In an attempt to reduce the coffee stain effect, TIPS pentacene active layer was printed onto the pattern-induced confined structure (PICS) which had been obtained by orthogonally printing Ag electrodes on the pre-printed PVP layer. The resolution of Ag patterns was obtained by modifying the surface energy using UV irradiation and substrate temperature. The channel lengths of the aforementioned PICS OTFTs were in the range of 10 μm to 50 μm. The average mobility and on/off ratio of PICS OTFTs were 0.034 cm{sup 2}/Vs and 10{sup 3}, respectively. - Highlights: • Ink-jet printed bottom gate organic thin film transistor on plastic substrate • Ag lines orthogonally printed on pre-printed poly-4-vinylphenol lines • Pattern-induced confined structures obtained • UV irradiation affects the surface energy and the resolution of the Ag patterns.

  11. Impact of the Capacitance of the Dielectric on the Contact Resistance of Organic Thin-Film Transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zojer, K.; Zojer, E.; Fernandez, A. F.; Gruber, M.

    2015-10-01

    As the operation of organic thin-film transistors relies exclusively on injected charge carriers, the gate-induced field assumes a dual role: It is responsible for charge-carrier accumulation and, provided that an injection barrier at the contact-semiconductor interface is present, aids charge-carrier injection across this barrier. Besides the gate-source bias, the thickness of the insulator and its dielectric constant influence the gate field. Here, we explore the impact of the capacitance of the gate dielectric on the performance of organic thin-film transistors utilizing drift-diffusion-based simulations comprising a self-consistent consideration of injection. Upon varying the capacitance of the insulating layer, we observe a conceptually different behavior for top-contact and bottom-contact architectures. Top-contact devices possess a nearly constant contact voltage in the linear regime leading to an apparent mobility lowering. In strong contrast, bottom-contact architectures possess non-Ohmic contact resistances in the linear regime due to a contact voltage whose value depends strongly on both the gate-source bias and the capacitance. Counterintuitively, this is accompanied by a mobility being apparently unaffected by the substantial contact resistance. Additionally, threshold-voltage shifts appear due to gate-limited injection. The latter is particularly dominant in bottom-contact architectures, where the threshold voltages steeply increase with the thickness of the insulating layer.

  12. Low operating voltage n-channel organic field effect transistors using lithium fluoride/PMMA bilayer gate dielectric

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Alternative to chemically crosslinking of PMMA to achieve low leakage in provided. • Effect of LiF in reducing gate leakage through the OFET device is studied. • Effect of gate leakage on transistor performance has been investigated. • Low voltage operable and low temperature processed n-channel OFETs were fabricated. - Abstract: We report low temperature processed, low voltage operable n-channel organic field effect transistors (OFETs) using N,N′-Dioctyl-3,4,9,10-perylenedicarboximide (PTCDI-C8) organic semiconductor and poly(methylmethacrylate) (PMMA)/lithium fluoride (LiF) bilayer gate dielectric. We have studied the role of LiF buffer dielectric in effectively reducing the gate leakage through the device and thus obtaining superior performance in contrast to the single layer PMMA dielectric devices. The bilayer OFET devices had a low threshold voltage (Vt) of the order of 5.3 V. The typical values of saturation electron mobility (μs), on/off ratio and inverse sub-threshold slope (S) for the range of devices made were estimated to be 2.8 × 10−3 cm2/V s, 385, and 3.8 V/decade respectively. Our work thus provides a potential substitution for much complicated process of chemically crosslinking PMMA to achieve low leakage, high capacitance, and thus low operating voltage OFETs

  13. Low operating voltage n-channel organic field effect transistors using lithium fluoride/PMMA bilayer gate dielectric

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, S.; Dhar, A., E-mail: adhar@phy.iitkgp.ernet.in

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • Alternative to chemically crosslinking of PMMA to achieve low leakage in provided. • Effect of LiF in reducing gate leakage through the OFET device is studied. • Effect of gate leakage on transistor performance has been investigated. • Low voltage operable and low temperature processed n-channel OFETs were fabricated. - Abstract: We report low temperature processed, low voltage operable n-channel organic field effect transistors (OFETs) using N,N′-Dioctyl-3,4,9,10-perylenedicarboximide (PTCDI-C{sub 8}) organic semiconductor and poly(methylmethacrylate) (PMMA)/lithium fluoride (LiF) bilayer gate dielectric. We have studied the role of LiF buffer dielectric in effectively reducing the gate leakage through the device and thus obtaining superior performance in contrast to the single layer PMMA dielectric devices. The bilayer OFET devices had a low threshold voltage (V{sub t}) of the order of 5.3 V. The typical values of saturation electron mobility (μ{sub s}), on/off ratio and inverse sub-threshold slope (S) for the range of devices made were estimated to be 2.8 × 10{sup −3} cm{sup 2}/V s, 385, and 3.8 V/decade respectively. Our work thus provides a potential substitution for much complicated process of chemically crosslinking PMMA to achieve low leakage, high capacitance, and thus low operating voltage OFETs.

  14. Local Maps of the Polarization and Depolarization in Organic Ferroelectric Field-Effect Transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Ronggang; Jonas, Alain M.

    2016-02-01

    We study the local ferroelectric polarization and depolarization of poly(vinylidene fluoride-co-trifluoroethylene) (P(VDF-TrFE)) in p-type ferroelectric field-effect transistors (FeFETs). Piezoresponse force microscopy (PFM) is used to obtain local maps of the polarization on model metal-semiconductor-ferroelectric stacks, and on FeFETs stripped from their top-gate electrode; transfer curves are measured on complete FeFETs. The influence of the semiconductor layer thickness and of the polarity and amplitude of the poling voltage are investigated. In accumulation, the stable “on” state consists of a uniform upward-polarized ferroelectric layer, with compensation holes accumulating at the ferroelectric/semiconducting interface. In depletion, the stable “off” state consists of a depolarized region in the center of the transistor channel, surrounded by partially downward-polarized regions over the source and drain electrodes and neighboring regions. The partial depolarization of these regions is due to the incomplete screening of polarization charges by the charges of the remote electrodes. Therefore, thinner semiconducting layers provide higher downward polarizations, which result in a more depleted transistor channel and a higher charge injection barrier between the electrodes and the semiconductor, leading to lower threshold voltages and higher on/off current values at zero gate bias. Clues for optimization of the devices are finally provided.

  15. Edge ambipolar potential in toroidal fusion plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spizzo, G., E-mail: gianluca.spizzo@igi.cnr.it; Vianello, N.; Agostini, M.; Puiatti, M. E.; Scarin, P.; Spolaore, M.; Terranova, D. [Consorzio RFX, Euratom-ENEA Association and Istituto Gas Ionizzati del CNR, Corso Stati Uniti, 4 35127 Padova (Italy); White, R. B. [Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton University, P.O. Box 451, Princeton, New Jersey 08543 (United States); Abdullaev, S. S.; Schmitz, O. [Institut für Energieforschung-Plasmaphysik, Association EURATOM-FZJ, Jülich (Germany); Cavazzana, R. [Consorzio RFX, Euratom-ENEA Association, Corso Stati Uniti, 4 35127 Padova (Italy); Ciaccio, G. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università degli studi di Padova, Padova (Italy)

    2014-05-15

    A series of issues with toroidally confined fusion plasmas are related to the generation of 3D flow patterns by means of edge magnetic islands, embedded in a chaotic field and interacting with the wall. These issues include the Greenwald limit in Tokamaks and reversed-field pinches, the collisionality window for ELM mitigation with the resonant magnetic perturbations (RMPs) in Tokamaks, and edge islands interacting with the bootstrap current in stellarators. Measurements of the 2D map of the edge electric field E{sup r}(r=a,θ,ϕ) in the RFX reversed-field pinch show that E{sup r} has the same helicity of the magnetic islands generated by a m/n perturbation: in fact, defining the helical angle u=mθ−nϕ+ωt, maps show a sinusoidal dependence as a function of u, E{sup r}=E{sup ~r}sin u. The associated E × B flow displays a huge convective cell with v(a)≠0 which, in RFX and near the Greenwald limit, determines a stagnation point for density and a reversal of the sign of E{sup r}. From a theoretical point of view, the question is how a perturbed toroidal flux of symmetry m/n gives rise to an ambipolar potential Φ=Φ{sup ~}sin u. On the basis of a model developed with the guiding center code ORBIT and applied to RFX and the TEXTOR tokamak, we will show that the presence of an m/n perturbation in any kind of device breaks the toroidal symmetry with a drift proportional to the gyroradius ρ, thus larger for ions (ρ{sub i} ≫ ρ{sub e}). Immediately, an ambipolar potential arises to balance the drifts, with the same symmetry as the original perturbation.

  16. Investigation of ambipolar signature in SiGeOI homojunction tunnel FETs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutin, L.; Oeflein, R. P.; Borrel, J.; Martinie, S.; Tabone, C.; Le Royer, C.; Vinet, M.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we study the ambipolar tunneling signature from the output characteristics of TFETs featuring Si0.8Ge0.2 homojunctions, which we compare to those measured on conventional MOSFETs and Schottky Barrier FETs. The difference with the former is immediate since a single TFET can display a transistor effect under both pull-up (nTFET) and pull-down (pTFET) biasing conditions. This is however a property shared with SBFETs, in which injection occurs via tunneling through a single carrier Schottky Barrier instead of band-to-band tunneling. Without requiring quantitative considerations on the current levels or transfer characteristics, we find that simply performing the same dual ID-VDS electrical tests while voluntarily "swapping" the S/D terminals unequivocally characterizes TFET operation, even compared to asymmetrically doped SBFETs.

  17. Reversible Conversion of Dominant Polarity in Ambipolar Polymer/Graphene Oxide Hybrids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Ye; Han, Su-Ting; Sonar, Prashant; Ma, Xinlei; Chen, Jihua; Zheng, Zijian; Roy, V. A. L.

    2015-03-01

    The possibility to selectively modulate the charge carrier transport in semiconducting materials is extremely challenging for the development of high performance and low-power consuming logic circuits. Systematical control over the polarity (electrons and holes) in transistor based on solution processed layer by layer polymer/graphene oxide hybrid system has been demonstrated. The conversion degree of the polarity is well controlled and reversible by trapping the opposite carriers. Basically, an electron device is switched to be a hole only device or vice versa. Finally, a hybrid layer ambipolar inverter is demonstrated in which almost no leakage of opposite carrier is found. This hybrid material has wide range of applications in planar p-n junctions and logic circuits for high-throughput manufacturing of printed electronic circuits.

  18. Solution-processed small molecule-polymer blend organic thin-film transistors with hole mobility greater than 5 cm 2/Vs

    KAUST Repository

    Smith, Jeremy N.

    2012-04-10

    Using phase-separated organic semiconducting blends containing a small molecule, as the hole transporting material, and a conjugated amorphous polymer, as the binder material, we demonstrate solution-processed organic thin-film transistors with superior performance characteristics that include; hole mobility >5 cm 2/Vs, current on/off ratio ≥10 6 and narrow transistor parameter spread. These exceptional characteristics are attributed to the electronic properties of the binder polymer and the advantageous nanomorphology of the blend film. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Highly sensitive NH3 detection based on organic field-effect transistors with tris(pentafluorophenyl)borane as receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Weiguo; Besar, Kalpana; LeCover, Rachel; Rule, Ana María; Breysse, Patrick N; Katz, Howard E

    2012-09-12

    We have increased organic field-effect transistor (OFET) NH(3) response using tris(pentafluorophenyl)borane (TPFB) as a receptor. OFETs with this additive could detect concentrations of 450 ppb v/v, with a limit of detection of 350 ppb, the highest sensitivity reported to date for semiconductor films; in comparison, when triphenylmethane (TPM) or triphenylborane (TFB) was used as an additive, no obvious improvement in the sensitivity was observed. These OFETs also showed considerable selectivity with respect to common organic vapors and stability toward storage. Furthermore, excellent memory of exposure was achieved by keeping the exposed devices in a sealed container stored at -30 °C, the first such capability demonstrated with OFETs. PMID:22934620

  20. Large scale pattern graphene electrode for high performance in transparent organic single crystal field-effect transistors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wei; Jackson, Biyun Li; Zhu, Jing; Miao, Cong-Qin; Chung, Choong-Heui; Chung, Choon-Heui; Park, Young-Ju; Sun, Ke; Woo, Jason; Xie, Ya-Hong

    2010-07-27

    High quality, large grain size graphene on polycrystalline nickel film on two inch silicon wafers was successfully synthesized by the chemical vapor deposition (CVD) method. The polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) stamping method was used for graphene transferring in this experiment. The graphene transferred onto Al2O3/ITO substrates was patterned into macroscopic dimension electrodes using conventional lithography followed by oxygen plasma etching. Experimental results show that this graphene can serve as transparent source and drain electrodes in high performance organic semiconductor nanoribbon organic field-effect transistors (OFETs), facilitating high hole injection efficiency due to the preferred work function match with the channel material: single crystalline copper phthalocyanine (CuPc) nanoribbons. The nanoribbons were grown on top of the patterned graphene via evaporate-deposition to form the FET device. The carrier mobility and on/off current ratio of such devices were measured to be as high as 0.36 cm2/(V s) and 10(4). PMID:20536162

  1. Performance Improvement of Organic Thin Film Transistors Based on Gate Insulator Polymethyl-Methacrylate-co-Glyciclyl-Methacrylate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Organic thin transistors (OTFTs) on indium tin oxide glass substrates are prepared with polymethyl-methacrylate-co-glyciclyl-methacrylate (PMMA-GMA) as the gate insulator layer and copper phthalocyanine as the organic semiconductor layer. By controlling the thickness, the average roughness of surface is reduced and the OTFT performance is improved with leak current decreasing to 10−11 A and on/off ratio of 104. Under the condition of drain-source voltage −20 V, a threshold voltage of −3.5 V is obtained. The experimental results show that PMMA-GMA is a promising insulator material with a dielectric constant in a range of 3.9–5.0

  2. Light response characteristics of organic thin-film transistors with and without a P(MMA–GMA) modification layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes the photo-response characteristics of pentacene-based organic thin-film transistors (OTFTs) with SiO2 as the gate dielectric. The operation current increases significantly and the threshold voltage is shifted toward positive bias at the incident illumination. The distinguishable light responsive characteristics can be observed at the OTFTs with and without poly(methyl methacrylate co glycidyl methacrylate) (P(MMA–GMA)) as the modification layer, respectively. Maximum light responsivities of 24 600 and 1173 A W−1 were obtained for OTFTs with and without P(MMA–GAM), respectively, under the lower illumination power of 0.64 µW cm−2. The corresponding photo-response mechanisms were analyzed, which demonstrated that the present organic phototransistor properties have a strong dependence on the trap density at the pentacene bulk and the interface of pentacene/dielectric

  3. The relevance of ambipolar diffusion for neutron star evolution

    CERN Document Server

    Passamonti, Andrea; Pons, José A; Miralles, Juan A

    2016-01-01

    We study ambipolar diffusion in strongly magnetised neutron stars, with special focus on the effects of neutrino reaction rates and the impact of a superfluid/superconducting transition in the neutron star core. For axisymmetric magnetic field configurations, we determine the deviation from $\\beta-$equilibrium induced by the magnetic force and calculate the velocity of the slow, quasi-stationary, ambipolar drift. We study the temperature dependence of the velocity pattern and clearly identify the transition to a predominantly solenoidal flow. For stars without superconducting/superfluid constituents and with a mixed poloidal-toroidal magnetic field of typical magnetar strength, we find that ambipolar diffusion proceeds fast enough to have a significant impact on the magnetic field evolution only at low core temperatures, $T \\lesssim 1-2\\times10^8$ K. The ambipolar diffusion timescale becomes appreciably shorter when fast neutrino reactions are present, because the possibility to balance part of the magnetic f...

  4. Mesoscale control of organic crystalline thin films: effects of film morphology on the performance of organic transistors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jaekyun; Park, Sungkyu [Chung-Ang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Yonghoon [Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-08-15

    We report mesoscale control of small molecular 6,13-bis(triisopropylsilylethynyl) pentacene (TIPS-pentacene) crystalline thin films by varying the solute concentration in the fluidic channel method. A stepwise increase in the TIPS-pentacene concentration in the solution enabled us to prepare highly-crystallized ribbons, thin films, and thick films in a mesoscale range, respectively. All three types of deposited films exhibited an in-plane crystalline nature of (001) direction being normal to the substrate as well as crystalline domain growth parallel to the direction of the receding meniscus inside the fluidic channel. In addition, the film's morphology and thickness were found to have a great influence on the field-effect mobility of the transistors, and the highest average and maximum mobilities were achieved from transistors with thin-film semiconductor channels.

  5. Ultra-thin films of polysilsesquioxanes possessing 3-methacryloxypropyl groups as gate insulator for organic field-effect transistors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polysilsesquioxanes (PSQs) possessing 3-methacryloxypropyl groups as an organic moiety of the side chain were synthesized by sol–gel condensation copolymerization of the corresponding trialkoxysilanes. The ultra-thin PSQ film with a radical initiator and a cross-linking agent was prepared by a spin-coating method, and the film was cured integrally at low temperatures of less than 120 °C through two different kinds of polymeric reactions, which were radical polymerization of vinyl groups and sol–gel condensation polymerization of terminated silanol and alkoxy groups. The obtained PSQ film showed the almost perfect solubilization resistance to acetone, which is a good solvent of PSQ before polymerization. It became clear by atomic force microscopy observation that the surface of the PSQ film was very smooth at a nano-meter level. Furthermore, pentacene-based organic field-effect transistor (OFET) with the PSQ film as a gate insulator showed typical p-channel enhancement mode operation characteristics and therefore the ultra-thin PSQ film has the potential to be applicable for solution-processed OFET systems. - Highlights: ► Polysilsesquioxanes (PSQs) possessing 3-methacryloxypropyl groups were synthesized. ► The ultra-thin PSQ film could be cured at low temperatures of less than 120 °C. ► The PSQ film showed the almost perfect solubilization resistance to organic solvent. ► The surface of the PSQ film was very smooth at a nano-meter level. ► Pentacene-based organic field-effect transistor with the PSQ film was fabricated.

  6. Synthesis of Acenaphthyl and Phenanthrene Based Fused-Aromatic Thienopyrazine Co-Polymers for Photovoltaic and Thin Film Transistor Applications

    KAUST Repository

    Mondal, Rajib

    2009-08-11

    Dithiophene and fluorene co-polymers containing fused aromatic thieno[3,4-b]pyrazine moieties were synthesized for organic thin film transistor (OTFT) and organic photovoltaic (OPV) applications. Suzuki and Stille polycondensation reactions were used for the polymerization. The band gap (Eg) of the polymers was tuned in the range of 1.15-1.6 eV to match the solar spectrum. Density functional theory calculations were carried out to rationalize the low band gaps. These polymers showed field effect mobility (μ) as high as 0.2 cm2/(V.s) with an on/off ratio as high as 106 in OTFT devices. Interestingly, one polymer in this class also showed ambipolar charge transport. Power conversion efficiency (PCE) up to 1.3% was achieved in bulk heterojunction solar cells, indicating that these materials are promising for OPV applications. © 2009 American Chemical Society.

  7. Improvement in Brightness Uniformity by Compensating for the Threshold Voltages of Both the Driving Thin-Film Transistor and the Organic Light-Emitting Diode for Active-Matrix Organic Light-Emitting Diode Displays

    OpenAIRE

    Ching-Lin Fan; Hao-Wei Chen; Hui-Lung Lai; Bo-Liang Guo; Bohr-Ran Huang

    2014-01-01

    This paper proposes a novel pixel circuit design and driving method for active-matrix organic light-emitting diode (AM-OLED) displays that use low-temperature polycrystalline-silicon thin-film transistors (LTPS-TFTs) as driving element. The automatic integrated circuit modeling simulation program with integrated circuit emphasis (AIM-SPICE) simulator was used to verify that the proposed pixel circuit, which comprises five transistors and one capacitor, can supply uniform output current. The v...

  8. A multi-agent quantum Monte Carlo model for charge transport: Application to organic field-effect transistors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bauer, Thilo; Jäger, Christof M. [Department of Chemistry and Pharmacy, Computer-Chemistry-Center and Interdisciplinary Center for Molecular Materials, Friedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg, Nägelsbachstrasse 25, 91052 Erlangen (Germany); Jordan, Meredith J. T. [School of Chemistry, University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); Clark, Timothy, E-mail: tim.clark@fau.de [Department of Chemistry and Pharmacy, Computer-Chemistry-Center and Interdisciplinary Center for Molecular Materials, Friedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg, Nägelsbachstrasse 25, 91052 Erlangen (Germany); Centre for Molecular Design, University of Portsmouth, Portsmouth PO1 2DY (United Kingdom)

    2015-07-28

    We have developed a multi-agent quantum Monte Carlo model to describe the spatial dynamics of multiple majority charge carriers during conduction of electric current in the channel of organic field-effect transistors. The charge carriers are treated by a neglect of diatomic differential overlap Hamiltonian using a lattice of hydrogen-like basis functions. The local ionization energy and local electron affinity defined previously map the bulk structure of the transistor channel to external potentials for the simulations of electron- and hole-conduction, respectively. The model is designed without a specific charge-transport mechanism like hopping- or band-transport in mind and does not arbitrarily localize charge. An electrode model allows dynamic injection and depletion of charge carriers according to source-drain voltage. The field-effect is modeled by using the source-gate voltage in a Metropolis-like acceptance criterion. Although the current cannot be calculated because the simulations have no time axis, using the number of Monte Carlo moves as pseudo-time gives results that resemble experimental I/V curves.

  9. A multi-agent quantum Monte Carlo model for charge transport: Application to organic field-effect transistors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have developed a multi-agent quantum Monte Carlo model to describe the spatial dynamics of multiple majority charge carriers during conduction of electric current in the channel of organic field-effect transistors. The charge carriers are treated by a neglect of diatomic differential overlap Hamiltonian using a lattice of hydrogen-like basis functions. The local ionization energy and local electron affinity defined previously map the bulk structure of the transistor channel to external potentials for the simulations of electron- and hole-conduction, respectively. The model is designed without a specific charge-transport mechanism like hopping- or band-transport in mind and does not arbitrarily localize charge. An electrode model allows dynamic injection and depletion of charge carriers according to source-drain voltage. The field-effect is modeled by using the source-gate voltage in a Metropolis-like acceptance criterion. Although the current cannot be calculated because the simulations have no time axis, using the number of Monte Carlo moves as pseudo-time gives results that resemble experimental I/V curves

  10. A miniature photoelectrochemical sensor based on organic electrochemical transistor for sensitive determination of chemical oxygen demand in wastewaters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Jianjun; Lin, Shiwei; Zeng, Min; Yang, Yue

    2016-05-01

    A three-electrode configuration is often required in the conventional photoelectrochemical measurements. Nevertheless, one common drawback is the reference electrode and the counter electrode used in the measurements, which has been proved to be an impediment for the miniaturization. In this study, a simple, cost-effective and miniature photoelectrochemical sensor based on high sensitive organic electrochemical transistor (OECT) is developed and used for the determination of chemical oxygen demand (COD) in wastewaters. The devices show detection limit down to 0.01 mg/L COD, which is two orders of magnitude better than that of the conventional photoelectrochemical method. The excellent sensing performance can be contributed to the novel sensing mechanism of OECT devices. That is, the devices are sensitive to the potential changes induced by the photoelectrochemical reaction on TiO2 nanotube arrays gate electrodes. Real sample analyses are also carried out. The results demonstrate that the measured COD values using the OECT devices and the standard dichromate methods are in a good agreement. Since the proposed sensor is constructed on a miniature transistor, it is expected that the device shows a promising application on the integrated COD monitoring platform. PMID:26971805

  11. Review of a solution-processed vertical organic transistor as a solid-state vacuum tube

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Hung-Cheng; Zan, Hsiao-Wen; Chao, Yu-Chiang; Chang, Ming-Yu; Meng, Hsin-Fei

    2015-05-01

    In this paper, we investigate the key issues in raising the on/off current ratio and increasing the output current. A 1 V operated inverter composed of an enhancement-mode space-charge-limited transistor (SCLT) and a depletion-mode SCLT is demonstrated using the self-assembled monolayer modulation process. With a bulk-conduction mechanism, good bias-stress reliability, and good bending durability are obtained. Finally, key scaling-up processes, including nanoimprinting and blade-coated nanospheres, are demonstrated.

  12. Organic transistors fabricated by contact coating at liquid-solid interface for nano-structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Wen Cheng

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available A contact coating method is developed to cover the nano-channels with 100 nm or 200 nm diameter and 400 nm depth with a poly(4-vinylphenol (PVP. In such coating the nano-channels faces downwards and its vertical position is controlled by a motor. The surface is first lowered to be in immediate contact with the polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVPY water solution with concentration from 1 to 5 wt%, then pulled at the speed of 0.004 to 0.4 mm/s. By tuning the pulling speed and concentration we can realize conformal, filled, top-only, as well as floating film morphology. For a reproducible liquid detachment from the solid, the sample has a small tilt angle of 3 degree. Contact coating is used to cover the Al grid base of the vertical space-charge-limited transistor with PVPY. Poly(3-hexylthiophene-2,5-diyl (P3HT as the semiconductor. The transistor breakdown voltage is raised due to base coverage achieved by contact coating.

  13. Transistor data book

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It introduces how to use this book. It lists transistor data and index, which are Type No, Cross index, Germanium PNP low power transistors, silicon NPN low power transistors, Germanium PNP high power transistors, Switching transistors, transistor arrays, Miscellaneous transistors, types with U.S military specifications, direct replacement transistors, suggested replacement transistors, schematic drawings, outline drawings, device number keys and manufacturer's logos.

  14. The effect of metal-buffer bilayer drain/source electrodes on the operational stability of the organic field effect transistors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, we have investigated experimentally the effect of different drain/source (D/S) electrodes and charge injection buffer layers on the electrical properties and operational stability of a stilbene organic field effect transistor (OFET). The results show that the organic buffer layer of copper phthalocyanine (CuPc) considerably improves the electrical properties of the transistors, but has a negligible effect on their temporal behavior. On the other hand, inorganic metal-oxide buffer layer of molybdenum oxide (MoO3) drastically changes both the electrical properties and operational stability. The functionalities of this metal-oxide tightly depend on the properties of the D/S metallic electrodes. OFETs with Al/MoO3 as the bilayer D/S electrodes have the best electrical properties: field effect mobility μeff = 0.32 cm2 V−1 s−1 and threshold voltage VTH = − 5 V and the transistors with Ag/MoO3 have the longest operational stability. It was concluded that the chemical stability of the metal/metal-oxide or metal/organic interfaces of the bilayer D/S electrodes determine the operational stability of the OFETs. - Highlights: • The effect of buffer layers on the performance of the stilbene OFETs has been investigated. • Inorganic buffer layer improved the electrical and temporal behaviors simultaneously. • Organic buffer layer only changes the electrical properties. • Chemical stability of the interfaces determines the operational stability of the transistor

  15. Intrinsic graphene field effect transistor on amorphous carbon films

    OpenAIRE

    Tinchev, Savcho

    2013-01-01

    Fabrication of graphene field effect transistor is described which uses an intrinsic graphene on the surface of as deposited hydrogenated amorphous carbon films. Ambipolar characteristic has been demonstrated typical for graphene devices, which changes to unipolar characteristic if the surface graphene was etched in oxygen plasma. Because amorphous carbon films can be growth easily, with unlimited dimensions and no transfer of graphene is necessary, this can open new perspective for graphene ...

  16. Hydrogen ion-selective electrolyte-gated organic field-effect transistor for pH sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kofler, Johannes; Schmoltner, Kerstin; Klug, Andreas; List-Kratochvil, Emil J. W.

    2014-05-01

    A H+ ion-selective electrolyte-gated organic field-effect transistor (IS-EGOFET) with a broad detection range between pH 3 and pH 12, is presented. This pH sensor relies on an integrated EGOFET used as a transducer in combination with an ionophore-doped polymeric ion-selective membrane serving as a sensing element. The broad detection range was possible through a dynamic measurement protocol comprising a readjustment of the gate voltage, which ensures a stable device operation at a constant working point. The effectiveness of this dynamic approach is confirmed by stability investigations. On the basis of this pH sensor concept, the importance of an appropriate gating electrolyte is highlighted, giving insights into the working mechanism of EGOFETs.

  17. Organic thin film transistors with a SiO2/SiNx/SiO2 composite insulator layer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Xiang; Liu Hui

    2011-01-01

    We have investigated a SiO2/SiNx/SiO2 composite insulation layer structured gate dielectric for an organic thin film transistor (OTFT) with the purpose of improving the performance of the SiO2 gate insulator.The SiO2/SiNx/SiO2 composite insulation layer was prepared by magnetron sputtering.Compared with the same thickness of a SiO2 insulation layer device,the SiO2/SiNx/SiO2 composite insulation layer is an effective method of fabricating OTFT with improved electric characteristics and decreased leakage current.Electrical parameters such as carrier mobility by field effect measurement have been calculated.The performances of different insulating layer devices have been studied,and the results demonstrate that when the insulation layer thickness increases,the off-state current decreases.

  18. Performance enhancement of pentacene-based organic field-effect transistor by inserting a WO3 buffer layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The pentacene-based organic field effect transistor (OFET) with a thin transition metal oxide (WO3) layer between pentacene and metal (Al) source/drain electrodes was fabricated. Compared with conventional OFET with only metal Al source/drain electrodes, the introduction of the WO3 buffer layer leads to the device performance enhancement. The effective field-effect mobility and threshold voltage are improved to 1.90 cm2/(V·s) and 13 V, respectively. The performance improvements are attributed to the decrease of the interface energy barrier and the contact resistance. The results indicate that it is an effective approach to improve the OFET performance by using a WO3 buffer layer. (semiconductor devices)

  19. Chemical potential shift in organic field-effect transistors identified by soft X-ray operando nano-spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagamura, Naoka; Kitada, Yuta; Tsurumi, Junto; Matsui, Hiroyuki; Horiba, Koji; Honma, Itaru; Takeya, Jun; Oshima, Masaharu

    2015-06-01

    A chemical potential shift in an organic field effect transistor (OFET) during operation has been revealed by soft X-ray operando nano-spectroscopy analysis performed using a three-dimensional nanoscale electron-spectroscopy chemical analysis system. OFETs were fabricated using ultrathin (3 ML or 12 nm) single-crystalline C10-DNBDT-NW films on SiO2 (200 nm)/Si substrates with a backgate electrode and top source/drain Au electrodes, and C 1s line profiles under biasing at the backgate and drain electrodes were measured. When applying -30 V to the backgate, there is C 1s core level shift of 0.1 eV; this shift can be attributed to a chemical potential shift corresponding to band bending by the field effect, resulting in p-type doping.

  20. Chemical potential shift in organic field-effect transistors identified by soft X-ray operando nano-spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A chemical potential shift in an organic field effect transistor (OFET) during operation has been revealed by soft X-ray operando nano-spectroscopy analysis performed using a three-dimensional nanoscale electron-spectroscopy chemical analysis system. OFETs were fabricated using ultrathin (3 ML or 12 nm) single-crystalline C10-DNBDT-NW films on SiO2 (200 nm)/Si substrates with a backgate electrode and top source/drain Au electrodes, and C 1s line profiles under biasing at the backgate and drain electrodes were measured. When applying −30 V to the backgate, there is C 1s core level shift of 0.1 eV; this shift can be attributed to a chemical potential shift corresponding to band bending by the field effect, resulting in p-type doping

  1. Chemical potential shift in organic field-effect transistors identified by soft X-ray operando nano-spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagamura, Naoka, E-mail: NAGAMURA.Naoka@nims.go.jp; Kitada, Yuta; Honma, Itaru [Institute of Multidisciplinary Research for Advanced Materials, Tohoku University, 2-1-1 Katahira, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan); Tsurumi, Junto; Matsui, Hiroyuki; Takeya, Jun [Department of Advanced Materials Science, Graduate School of Frontier Sciences, The University of Tokyo, 5-1-5 Kashiwanoha, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8561 (Japan); Horiba, Koji [Photon Factory, Institute of Materials Structure Science, High Energy Accelerator Research Organization, 1-1 Oho, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0801 (Japan); Oshima, Masaharu [Synchrotron Radiation Research Organization, The University of Tokyo, 1-1-1 Kouto, Sayo-cho, Sayo-gun, Hyogo 679-5198 (Japan)

    2015-06-22

    A chemical potential shift in an organic field effect transistor (OFET) during operation has been revealed by soft X-ray operando nano-spectroscopy analysis performed using a three-dimensional nanoscale electron-spectroscopy chemical analysis system. OFETs were fabricated using ultrathin (3 ML or 12 nm) single-crystalline C10-DNBDT-NW films on SiO{sub 2} (200 nm)/Si substrates with a backgate electrode and top source/drain Au electrodes, and C 1s line profiles under biasing at the backgate and drain electrodes were measured. When applying −30 V to the backgate, there is C 1s core level shift of 0.1 eV; this shift can be attributed to a chemical potential shift corresponding to band bending by the field effect, resulting in p-type doping.

  2. Enhanced performance of C60 organic field effect transistors using a tris(8-hydroxyquinoline) aluminum buffer layer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng Hong; Cheng Xiaoman; Tian Haijun [Institute of Material Physics, Key Laboratory of Display Material and Photoelectric Devices, Ministry of Education, Tianjin University of Technology, Tianjin 300384 (China); Zhao Geng, E-mail: zheng_033@163.com [School of Science, Tianjin University of Technology, Tianjin 300384 (China)

    2011-09-15

    We have investigated the properties of C60-based organic field effect transistors (OFETs) with a tris(8-hydroxyquinoline) aluminum (Alq3) buffer layer inserted between the source/drain electrodes and the active material. The electrical characteristics of OFETs are improved with the insertion of Alq3 film. The peak field effect mobility is increased to 1.28 x 10{sup -2} cm{sup 2}/(V{center_dot}s) and the threshold voltage is decreased to 10 V when the thickness of the Alq3 is 10 nm. The reason for the improved performance of the devices is probably due to the prevention of metal atoms diffusing into the C60 active layer and the reduction of the channel resistance in Alq3 films. (semiconductor devices)

  3. Enhanced performance of C60 organic field effect transistors using a tris(8-hydroxyquinoline) aluminum buffer layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have investigated the properties of C60-based organic field effect transistors (OFETs) with a tris(8-hydroxyquinoline) aluminum (Alq3) buffer layer inserted between the source/drain electrodes and the active material. The electrical characteristics of OFETs are improved with the insertion of Alq3 film. The peak field effect mobility is increased to 1.28 x 10-2 cm2/(V·s) and the threshold voltage is decreased to 10 V when the thickness of the Alq3 is 10 nm. The reason for the improved performance of the devices is probably due to the prevention of metal atoms diffusing into the C60 active layer and the reduction of the channel resistance in Alq3 films. (semiconductor devices)

  4. Enhanced electrical properties of pentacene-based organic thin-film transistors by modifying the gate insulator surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, J. X.; Lee, C. S.; Chan, M. Y.; Lee, S. T.

    2008-09-01

    A reliable surface treatment for the pentacene/gate dielectric interface was developed to enhance the electrical transport properties of organic thin-film transistors (OTFTs). Plasma-polymerized fluorocarbon (CFx) film was deposited onto the SiO 2 gate dielectric prior to pentacene deposition, resulting in a dramatic increase of the field-effect mobility from 0.015 cm 2/(V s) to 0.22 cm 2/(V s), and a threshold voltage reduction from -14.0 V to -9.9 V. The observed carrier mobility increase by a factor of 10 in the resulting OTFTs is associated with various growth behaviors of polycrystalline pentacene thin films on different substrates, where a pronounced morphological change occurs in the first few molecular layers but the similar morphologies in the upper layers. The accompanying threshold voltage variation suggests that hole accumulation in the conduction channel-induced weak charge transfer between pentacene and CFx.

  5. Ambipolar solution-processed hybrid perovskite phototransistors

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Feng

    2015-09-08

    Organolead halide perovskites have attracted substantial attention because of their excellent physical properties, which enable them to serve as the active material in emerging hybrid solid-state solar cells. Here we investigate the phototransistors based on hybrid perovskite films and provide direct evidence for their superior carrier transport property with ambipolar characteristics. The field-effect mobilities for triiodide perovskites at room temperature are measured as 0.18 (0.17) cm2 V−1 s−1 for holes (electrons), which increase to 1.24 (1.01) cm2 V−1 s−1 for mixed-halide perovskites. The photoresponsivity of our hybrid perovskite devices reaches 320 A W−1, which is among the largest values reported for phototransistors. Importantly, the phototransistors exhibit an ultrafast photoresponse speed of less than 10 μs. The solution-based process and excellent device performance strongly underscore hybrid perovskites as promising material candidates for photoelectronic applications.

  6. Dianthraceno[a,e]pentalenes: Synthesis, crystallographic structures and applications in organic field-effect transistors

    KAUST Repository

    Dai, Gaole

    2015-01-01

    Two soluble and stable dianthraceno[a,e]pentalenes with two (DAP1) and six (DAP2) phenyl substituents were synthesized. Both compounds possess a small energy band gap and show amphoteric redox behaviour due to intramolecular donor-accepter interactions. X-ray crystallographic analysis revealed that DAP2 has a closely packed structure with multi-dimensional [C-H⋯π] interactions although there are no π-π interactions between the dianthraceno[a,e]pentalene cores. As a result, solution-processed field effect transistors based on DAP2 exhibited an average hole mobility of 0.65 cm2 V-1 s-1. Under similar conditions, DAP1 showed an average field effect hole mobility of 0.001 cm2 V-1 s-1. This journal is

  7. Threshold-Voltage Shifts in Organic Transistors Due to Self-Assembled Monolayers at the Dielectric: Evidence for Electronic Coupling and Dipolar Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aghamohammadi, Mahdieh; Rödel, Reinhold; Zschieschang, Ute; Ocal, Carmen; Boschker, Hans; Weitz, R Thomas; Barrena, Esther; Klauk, Hagen

    2015-10-21

    The mechanisms behind the threshold-voltage shift in organic transistors due to functionalizing of the gate dielectric with self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) are still under debate. We address the mechanisms by which SAMs determine the threshold voltage, by analyzing whether the threshold voltage depends on the gate-dielectric capacitance. We have investigated transistors based on five oxide thicknesses and two SAMs with rather diverse chemical properties, using the benchmark organic semiconductor dinaphtho[2,3-b:2',3'-f]thieno[3,2-b]thiophene. Unlike several previous studies, we have found that the dependence of the threshold voltage on the gate-dielectric capacitance is completely different for the two SAMs. In transistors with an alkyl SAM, the threshold voltage does not depend on the gate-dielectric capacitance and is determined mainly by the dipolar character of the SAM, whereas in transistors with a fluoroalkyl SAM the threshold voltages exhibit a linear dependence on the inverse of the gate-dielectric capacitance. Kelvin probe force microscopy measurements indicate this behavior is attributed to an electronic coupling between the fluoroalkyl SAM and the organic semiconductor. PMID:26415103

  8. Drain Voltage Scaling in Carbon Nanotube Transistors

    OpenAIRE

    Radosavljevic, M.; Heinze, S.; Tersoff, J.; Avouris, Ph.

    2003-01-01

    While decreasing the oxide thickness in carbon nanotube field-effect transistors (CNFETs) improves the turn-on behavior, we demonstrate that this also requires scaling the range of the drain voltage. This scaling is needed to avoid an exponential increase in Off-current with drain voltage, due to modulation of the Schottky barriers at both the source and drain contact. We illustrate this with results for bottom-gated ambipolar CNFETs with oxides of 2 and 5 nm, and give an explicit scaling rul...

  9. Electron Mobility Exceeding 10 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1) and Band-Like Charge Transport in Solution-Processed n-Channel Organic Thin-Film Transistors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiaomin; Yao, Yifan; Shan, Bowen; Gu, Xiao; Liu, Danqing; Liu, Jinyu; Xu, Jianbin; Zhao, Ni; Hu, Wenping; Miao, Qian

    2016-07-01

    Solution-processed n-channel organic thin-film transistors (OTFTs) that exhibit a field-effect mobility as high as 11 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1) at room temperature and a band-like temperature dependence of electron mobility are reported. By comparison of solution-processed OTFTs with vacuum-deposited OTFTs of the same organic semiconductor, it is found that grain boundaries are a key factor inhibiting band-like charge transport. PMID:27151777

  10. Enhanced mobility in organic field-effect transistors due to semiconductor/dielectric interface control and very thin single crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Ji; Yu, Peng; Atika Arabi, Syeda; Wang, Jiawei; He, Jun; Jiang, Chao

    2016-07-01

    A perfect organic crystal while keeping high quality semiconductor/dielectric interface with minimal defects and disorder is crucial for the realization of high performance organic single crystal field-effect transistors (OSCFETs). However, in most reported OSCFET devices, the crystal transfer processes is extensively used. Therefore, the semiconductor/dielectric interface is inevitably damaged. Carrier traps and scattering centers are brought into the conduction channel, so that the intrinsic high mobility of OSCFET devices is entirely disguised. Here, very thin pentacene single crystal is grown directly on bare SiO2 by developing a ‘seed-controlled’ pentacene single crystal method. The interface quality is controlled by an in situ fabrication of OSCFETs. The interface is kept intact without any transfer process. Furthermore, we quantitatively analyze the influence of crystal thickness on device performance. With a pristine interface and very thin crystal, we have achieved the highest mobility: 5.7 cm2 V‑1 s‑1—more than twice the highest ever reported pentacene OSCFET mobility on bare SiO2. This study may provide a universal route for the use of small organic molecules to achieve high performance in lamellar single crystal field-effect devices.

  11. Fabrication and characterization of p+-i-p+ type organic thin film transistors with electrodes of highly doped polymer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tadaki, Daisuke; Ma, Teng; Zhang, Jinyu; Iino, Shohei; Hirano-Iwata, Ayumi; Kimura, Yasuo; Rosenberg, Richard A.; Niwano, Michio

    2016-04-01

    Organic thin film transistors (OTFTs) have been explored because of their advantageous features such as light-weight, flexible, and large-area. For more practical application of organic electronic devices, it is very important to realize OTFTs that are composed only of organic materials. In this paper, we have fabricated p+-i-p+ type of OTFTs in which an intrinsic (i) regioregular poly (3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) layer is used as the active layer and highly doped p-type (p+) P3HT is used as the source and drain electrodes. The 2,3,5,6-tetrafluoro-7,7,8,8-tetracyanoquinodimethane (F4-TCNQ) was used as the p-type dopant. A fabricating method of p+-i-p+ OTFTs has been developed by using SiO2 and aluminum films as capping layers for micro-scaled patterning of the p+-P3HT electrodes. The characteristics of the OTFTs were examined using the photoelectron spectroscopy and electrical measurements. We demonstrated that the fabricated p+-i-p+ OTFTs work with carrier injection through a built-in potential at p+/i interfaces. We found that the p+-i-p+ OTFTs exhibit better FET characteristics than the conventional P3HT-OTFT with metal (Au) electrodes, indicating that the influence of a carrier injection barrier at the interface between the electrode and the active layer was suppressed by replacing the metal electrodes with p+-P3HT layers.

  12. Effect of titanium oxide–polystyrene nanocomposite dielectrics on morphology and thin film transistor performance for organic and polymeric semiconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Previous studies have shown that organic thin film transistors with pentacene deposited on gate dielectrics composed of a blend of high K titanium oxide–polystyrene core–shell nanocomposite (TiO2–PS) with polystyrene (PS) perform with an order of magnitude increase in saturation mobility for TiO2–PS (K = 8) as compared to PS devices (K = 2.5). The current study finds that this performance enhancement can be translated to alternative small single crystal organics such as α-sexithiophene (α-6T) (enhancement factor for field effect mobility ranging from 30-100× higher on TiO2–PS/PS blended dielectrics as compared to homogenous PS dielectrics). Interestingly however, in the case of semicrystalline polymers such as (poly-3-hexylthiophene) P3HT, this dramatic enhancement is not observed, possibly due to the difference in processing conditions used to fabricate these devices (film transfer as opposed to thermal evaporation). The morphology for α-sexithiophene (α-6T) grown by thermal evaporation on TiO2–PS/PS blended dielectrics parallels that observed in pentacene devices. Smaller grain size is observed for films grown on dielectrics with higher TiO2–PS content. In the case of poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) devices, constructed via film transfer, morphological differences exist for the P3HT on different substrates, as discerned by atomic force microscopy studies. However, these devices only exhibit a modest (2×) increase in mobility with increasing TiO2–PS content in the films. After annealing of the transferred P3HT thin film transistor (TFT) devices, no appreciable enhancement in mobility is observed across the different blended dielectrics. Overall the results support the hypothesis that nucleation rate is responsible for changes in film morphology and device performance in thermally evaporated small molecule crystalline organic semiconductor TFTs. The increased nucleation rate produces organic polycrystalline films with small grain size which are

  13. Comparison of conductor and dielectric inks in printed organic complementary transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Tse Nga; Mei, Ping; Whiting, Gregory L.; Schwartz, David E.; Abraham, Biby; Wu, Yiliang; Veres, Janos

    2014-10-01

    Two types of printable conductor and a bilayer gate dielectric are evaluated for use in all-additive, inkjetprinted complementary OTFTs. The Ag nanoparticle ink based on nonpolar alkyl amine surfactant or stabilizer enables good charge injection into p-channel devices, but this ink also leaves residual stabilizer that modifies the transistor backchannel and shifts the turn-on voltage to negative values. The Ag ink based on polar solvent requires dopant modification to improve charge injection to p-channel devices, but this ink allows the OTFT turn-on voltage to be close to 0 V. The reverse trend is observed for n-channel OTFTs. For gate insulator, a bilayer dielectric is demonstrated that combines the advantages of two types of insulator materials, in which a fluoropolymer reduces dipolar disorder at the semiconductor-dielectric interface, while a high-k PVDF terpolymer dielectric facilitates high gate capacitance. The dielectric is incorporated into an inverter and a three-stage ring oscillator, and the resulting circuits were demonstrated to operate at a supply voltage as low as 2 V, with bias stress levels comparable to circuits with other types of dielectrics.

  14. Non-intrinsic ambipolar diffusion in turbulence theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ambipolar flow in a turbulent plasma is investigated by combining a WKB treatment of the waves with a turbulent collision operator resulting from either quasi-linear theory or certain renormalized turbulence theories. If the wave momentum has a flow from outgoing waves, then particle diffusion is not intrinsically ambipolar, and the time variation of the electric-potential profile is determined by the turbulent spectrum. However, in most cases of practical interest, as in the drift-wave problem, this effect is small; and, in steady state, equal rates of stochastic diffusion are predicted for electrons and ions

  15. Synthesis and Photophysical Studies of Thiadiazole[3,4-c]pyridine Copolymer Based Organic Field-Effect Transistors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bathula, Chinna; Lee, Sang Kyu; Kalode, Pranav; Badgujar, Sachin; Belavagi, Ningaraddi S; Khazi, Imtiyaz Ahmed M; Kang, Youngjong

    2016-05-01

    A novel thiadiazolo[3,4-c]pyridine] based donor-acceptor (D-A) copolymer, poly[4,8-bis(triisopropylsilylethynyl)benzo[1,2-b:4,5-b']dithiophene-2,6-diyl-alt-[4,7-bis(4-(2-ethylhexyl)thiophen-2-yl)-[1,2,5]thiadiazolo[3,4-c]pyridine] (PTBDTPT), containing triisopropylsilylethynyl(TIPS)benzo[1,2-b:4,5-b']dithiophene as a donor is synthesized by Stille polymerization reaction. All the important photo physical prerequisites for organic field-effect transistor (OFET) application such as strong and broad optical absorption, thermal stability, and compatible HOMO-LUMO levels can be accomplished and combined on one macromolecule. Optical band gap of the polymer was found to be 1.61 eV as calculated from its film onset absorption edge. The hole mobility of bottom gate OFET using the synthesized polymer as an active channel is found to be 1.92 X 10(-2) cm V(-1) s(-1) with the On/Off ratio of 25. The photophysical study suggests that PTBDTPT is promising candidate for future large area organic electronic applications. PMID:27056185

  16. Effect of UV/ozone treatment on polystyrene dielectric and its application on organic field-effect transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Wei; Fan, Huidong; Zhuang, Xinming; Yu, Junsheng

    2014-09-01

    The influence of UV/ozone treatment on the property of polystyrene (PS) dielectric surface was investigated, and pentacene organic field-effect transistors (OFETs) based on the treated dielectric was fabricated. The dielectric and pentacene active layers were characterized by atomic force microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and scanning electron microscopy. The results showed that, at short UVO exposure time (60 s), new chemical groups, including alcohol/ether, carbonyl, and carboxyl/ester groups, were formed. By adjusting the UVO exposure time to 5 s, the hole mobility of the OFETs increased to 0.52 cm2/Vs, and the threshold voltage was positively shifted to -12 V. While the time of UVO treatment exceeded 30 s, the mobility started to shrink, and the off-current was enlarged. These results indicate that, as a simple surface treatment method, UVO treatment could quantitatively modulate the property of PS dielectric surface by controlling the exposure time, and thus, pioneered a new way to modulate the characteristics of organic electronic devices.

  17. Organic thin film transistor with poly(4-vinylbiphenyl) blended 6,13-bis(triisopropylsilylethynyl)pentacene on propyleneglycolmonomethyletheracetate dielectric surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Jae-Hong; Shin, Sang-Il; Choi, Jinnil; Chung, Myung-Ho; Oh, Tae-Yeon; Kim, Kyung-Hwan; Choi, Dong Hoon; Ju, Byeong-Kwon

    2010-05-01

    This paper presents the latest results in the use of soluble materials, such as organic semiconductors (OSCs) and gate-dielectrics, for simplified processing of organic thin film transistors (OTFTs). In this work, the fabrication of a solution-processed OTFT, with 6,13-bis(triisopropylsilylethynyl)pentacene (TIPS-pentacene) and TIPS-pentacene mixed with poly(4-vinylbiphenyl) (PVBP) as the OSC, and propyleneglycolmonomethyletheracetate (PGMEA) as the gate-dielectric, is described. From electrical measurements, we observed exemplary I-V characteristics for these TFTs. Device performance characteristics have been obtained, including the charge carrier mobility (micro) of 1.47 x 10(-2) cm2Ns, threshold voltage (V(T)) of -11.36 V, current on/off ratio (I(ON/OFF)) of 1.08 x 10(4), sub-threshold swing (SS) of 2.13 V/decade for an OTFT with PVBP blended TIPS-pentacene and micro of 1.39 x 10(-4) cm2/Vs, V(T) of 0.7 V, I(ON/OFF) of 1.64 x 10(3), SS of 4.21 V/decade for an OTFT without polymer binder, individually. PMID:20358921

  18. Design of an Auto-zeroed, Differential, Organic Thin-film Field-effect Transistor Amplifier for Sensor Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binkley, David M.; Verma, Nikhil; Crawford, Robert L.; Brandon, Erik; Jackson, Thomas N.

    2004-01-01

    Organic strain gauge and other sensors require high-gain, precision dc amplification to process their low-level output signals. Ideally, amplifiers would be fabricated using organic thin-film field-effect transistors (OTFT's) adjacent to the sensors. However, OTFT amplifiers exhibit low gain and high input-referred dc offsets that must be effectively managed. This paper presents a four-stage, cascaded differential OTFT amplifier utilizing switched capacitor auto-zeroing. Each stage provides a nominal voltage gain of four through a differential pair driving low-impedance active loads, which provide common-mode output voltage control. p-type pentacence OTFT's are used for the amplifier devices and auto-zero switches. Simulations indicate the amplifier provides a nominal voltage gain of 280 V/V and effectively amplifies a 1-mV dc signal in the presence of 500-mV amplifier input-referred dc offset voltages. Future work could include the addition of digital gain calibration and offset correction of residual offsets associated with charge injection imbalance in the differential circuits.

  19. 3.4-Inch Quarter High Definition Flexible Active Matrix Organic Light Emitting Display with Oxide Thin Film Transistor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatano, Kaoru; Chida, Akihiro; Okano, Tatsuya; Sugisawa, Nozomu; Inoue, Tatsunori; Seo, Satoshi; Suzuki, Kunihiko; Oikawa, Yoshiaki; Miyake, Hiroyuki; Koyama, Jun; Yamazaki, Shunpei; Eguchi, Shingo; Katayama, Masahiro; Sakakura, Masayuki

    2011-03-01

    In this paper, we report a 3.4-in. flexible active matrix organic light emitting display (AMOLED) display with remarkably high definition (quarter high definition: QHD) in which oxide thin film transistors (TFTs) are used. We have developed a transfer technology in which a TFT array formed on a glass substrate is separated from the substrate by physical force and then attached to a flexible plastic substrate. Unlike a normal process in which a TFT array is directly fabricated on a thin plastic substrate, our transfer technology permits a high integration of high performance TFTs, such as low-temperature polycrystalline silicon TFTs (LTPS TFTs) and oxide TFTs, on a plastic substrate, because a flat, rigid, and thermally-stable glass substrate can be used in the TFT fabrication process in our transfer technology. As a result, this technology realized an oxide TFT array for an AMOLED on a plastic substrate. Furthermore, in order to achieve a high-definition AMOLED, color filters were incorporated in the TFT array and a white organic light-emitting diode (OLED) was combined. One of the features of this device is that the whole body of the device can be bent freely because a source driver and a gate driver can be integrated on the substrate due to the high mobility of an oxide TFT. This feature means “true” flexibility.

  20. Unsubstituted Benzodithiophene-Based Conjugated Polymers for High-Performance Organic Field-Effect Transistors and Organic Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Weichao; Xiao, Manjun; Han, Liangliang; Zhang, Jidong; Jiang, Huanxiang; Gu, Chuantao; Shen, Wenfei; Yang, Renqiang

    2016-08-01

    Unsubstituted benzo[1,2-b:4,5-b']dithiophene (BDT) was used to construct a high-performance conjugated polymer with 5,6-difluoro-4,7-bis[4-(2-octyldodecyl)thiophene-2-yl]benzo[c][1,2,5] thiadiazole (DTFFBT), named PBDT-DTFFBT. The polymer shows the low-lying highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) energy level (-5.40 eV) and a broad absorption spectra with strong vibronic absorption peak. Pure polymer films exhibit good crystallinity and edge-on orientation, partially attributed to the BDT units without any side chains, and as a result, the corresponding thin-film transistor showed excellent hole mobility over 1 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1). Interestingly, a well-distributed nanofibrillar polymer aggregation with face-on orientation was obviously formed when blending with PC71BM, which was in favor of the charge transportation. Consequently, the bulk heterojunction polymer solar cells based on the blends showed high power conversion efficiency of 9.29% with large short-current density (14.56 mA cm(-2)) and high fill factor (0.751) without any process additives or thermal annealing. PMID:27403850

  1. The effect of metal-buffer bilayer drain/source electrodes on the operational stability of the organic field effect transistors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karimi-Alavijeh, H.R., E-mail: h.karimi@eng.ui.ac.ir [Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Isfahan, Isfahan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ehsani, A. [Department of Electrical and Avionics Engineering, Malek-Ashtar University of Technology, Isfahan (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2015-09-01

    In this paper, we have investigated experimentally the effect of different drain/source (D/S) electrodes and charge injection buffer layers on the electrical properties and operational stability of a stilbene organic field effect transistor (OFET). The results show that the organic buffer layer of copper phthalocyanine (CuPc) considerably improves the electrical properties of the transistors, but has a negligible effect on their temporal behavior. On the other hand, inorganic metal-oxide buffer layer of molybdenum oxide (MoO{sub 3}) drastically changes both the electrical properties and operational stability. The functionalities of this metal-oxide tightly depend on the properties of the D/S metallic electrodes. OFETs with Al/MoO{sub 3} as the bilayer D/S electrodes have the best electrical properties: field effect mobility μ{sub eff} = 0.32 cm{sup 2} V{sup −1} s{sup −1} and threshold voltage V{sub TH} = − 5 V and the transistors with Ag/MoO{sub 3} have the longest operational stability. It was concluded that the chemical stability of the metal/metal-oxide or metal/organic interfaces of the bilayer D/S electrodes determine the operational stability of the OFETs. - Highlights: • The effect of buffer layers on the performance of the stilbene OFETs has been investigated. • Inorganic buffer layer improved the electrical and temporal behaviors simultaneously. • Organic buffer layer only changes the electrical properties. • Chemical stability of the interfaces determines the operational stability of the transistor.

  2. Scanning Kelvin Probe Microscopy Investigation of the Role of Minority Carriers on the Switching Characteristics of Organic Field-Effect Transistors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yuanyuan; Pecunia, Vincenzo; Jiang, Lang; Di, Chong-An; Gao, Xike; Sirringhaus, Henning

    2016-06-01

    A method based on scanning Kelvin probe microscopy is developed to probe the effects of minority carriers on the switching characteristics of organic field-effect transistors. The mobility of the minority carriers is extracted and the role they play in screening of the gate potential in the OFF state and in recombination of trapped majority carriers trapped after an ON state is understood. PMID:27059526

  3. Improving the Performance of Organic Thin-Film Transistors by Ion Doping of Ethylene-Glycol-Based Self-Assembled Monolayer Hybrid Dielectrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietrich, Hanno; Scheiner, Simon; Portilla, Luis; Zahn, Dirk; Halik, Marcus

    2015-12-22

    Tuning the electrostatics of ethylene-glycol-based self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) by doping with ions is shown. Molecular dynamics simulations unravel binding mechanisms and predict dipole strengths of the doped layers. Additionally, by applying such layers as dielectrics in organic thin-film transistors, the incorporated ions are proven to enhance device performance by lowering the threshold voltage and increasing conductivity. PMID:26524344

  4. Printable organic thin film transistors for glucose detection incorporating inkjet-printing of the enzyme recognition element

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elkington, D.; Wasson, M.; Belcher, W.; Dastoor, P. C.; Zhou, X.

    2015-06-01

    The effect of device architecture upon the response of printable enzymatic glucose sensors based on poly(3-hexythiophene) (P3HT) organic thin film transistors is presented. The change in drain current is used as the basis for glucose detection and we show that significant improvements in drain current response time can be achieved by modifying the design of the sensor structure. In particular, we show that eliminating the dielectric layer and reducing the thickness of the active layer reduce the device response time considerably. The results are in good agreement with a diffusion based model of device operation, where an initial rapid dedoping process is followed by a slower doping of the P3HT layer from protons that are enzymatically generated by glucose oxidase (GOX) at the Nafion gate electrode. The fitted diffusion data are consistent with a P3HT doping region that is close to the source-drain electrodes rather than located at the P3HT:[Nafion:GOX] interface. Finally, we demonstrate that further improvements in sensor structure and morphology can be achieved by inkjet-printing the GOX layer, offering a pathway to low-cost printed biosensors for the detection of glucose in saliva.

  5. Rubidium carbonate modified gold electrodes for efficient electron injection in n-type organic field-effect transistors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report on the performance enhancement of n-type organic field-effect transistors (OFETs) through the use of gold source and drain electrodes that are both modified with rubidium carbonate (Rb2CO3) reducing the electron injection barrier. Devices are fabricated using n-channel N, N′-ditridecyl-3,4,9,10-perylenetetracarboxylicdiimide (PTCDI-C13) and a polymeric gate dielectric with various thicknesses of Rb2CO3, and the dependence of device's electrical performance on Rb2CO3 thickness is investigated. The device with 10 Å Rb2CO3 exhibits the best performance, and its mobility is five times higher than that of the device without Rb2CO3. UV–visible, x-ray and ultraviolet photoemission spectroscopy are used to investigate the interface between Rb2CO3 and PTCDI-C13, and we find that charge transfer from Rb2CO3 to PTCDI-C13 occurs, resulting in the reduction of the electron charge injection barrier from the gold electrode. The charge injection mechanism and OFET performance enhancement with Rb2CO3 are discussed in detail. (paper)

  6. Fluorinated copper-phthalocyanine-based n-type organic field-effect transistors with a polycarbonate gate insulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fluorinated copper-phthalocyanine (F16CuPc) thin films were prepared by using a vacuum evaporation technique and were applied to n-type organic field-effect transistors (OFETs) as active channel layers combined with a spin-coated polycarbonate thin-film gate insulator. The output characteristics of the resulting n-type OFET devices with bottom-gate/bottom-contact structures were investigated to evaluate the performances such as the field effect mobility (μFE), the on/off current ratio (Ion/off), and the threshold voltage (Vth). A relatively high field effect mobility of 6.0 x 10-3 cm2/Vs was obtained for the n-type semiconductor under atmospheric conditions with an on/off current ratio of 1 x 104 and a threshold voltage of 5 V. The electron mobility of the n-type semiconductor was found to depend strongly on the growth temperature of the F16CuPc thin films. X-ray diffraction profiles showed that the crystallinity and the orientation of the F16CuPc on a polycarbonate thin film were enhanced with increasing growth temperature. Atomic force microscopy studies revealed various surface morphologies of the active layer. The field effect mobility of the F16CuPc-OFET was closely related to the crystallinity and the orientation of the F16CuPc thin film.

  7. Unencapsulated Air-stable Organic Field Effect Transistor by All Solution Processes for Low Power Vapor Sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Linrun; Tang, Wei; Zhao, Jiaqing; Yang, Ruozhang; Hu, Wei; Li, Qiaofeng; Wang, Ruolin; Guo, Xiaojun

    2016-02-01

    With its excellent mechanical flexibility, low-cost and low-temperature processing, the solution processed organic field-effect transistor (OFET) is a promising platform technology for developing ubiquitous sensor applications in digital health, environment monitoring and Internet of Things. However, a contradiction between achieving low voltage operation and having stable performance severely hinder the technology to become commercially viable. This work shows that, by reducing the sub-gap density of states (DOS) at the channel for low operation voltage and using a proper low-k non-polar polymer dielectric layer, such an issue can be addressed. Stable electrical properties after either being placed for weeks or continuously prolonged bias stressing for hours in ambient air are achieved for all solution processed unencapsulated OFETs with the channel being exposed to the ambient air for analyte detection. The fabricated device presents a steep subthreshold swing less than 100 mV/decade, and an ON/OFF ratio of 106 at a voltage swing of 3 V. The low voltage and stable operation allows the sensor made of the OFET to be incorporated into a battery-powered electronic system for continuously reliable sensing of ammonia vapor in ambient air with very small power consumption of about 50 nW.

  8. Organic Ferroelectric Field-Effect Transistor Memory Using Flat Poly(vinylidene fluoride-tetrafluoroethylene) and Pentacene Thin Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanashima, Takeshi; Yabe, Kazuki; Okuyama, Masanori

    2012-02-01

    Organic ferroelectric field-effect transistor (FET) memories have been fabricated using pentacene as the semiconductor and a flat poly(vinylidene fluoride-tetrafluoroethylene) [P(VDF-TeFE)] thin film as the ferroelectric gate. The P(VDF-TeFE) film is prepared by spin coating, and it was cooled slowly with a flattening process after annealing. The polarization-electric field (P-E) hysteresis of the P(VDF-TeFE) thin film prepared by slow cooling is larger than that in the case of quick cooling. Moreover, the flattening process does not have a negative effect on ferroelectric properties. The obtained remanent polarization (Pr) of 5.2 µC/cm2 is sufficient for controlling the pentacene surface potential. Good memory characteristics are obtained in the P(VDF-TeFE) gate FET with pentacene deposited on the flat P(VDF-TeFE). The maximum drain current is about twice larger than that deposited on the rough P(VDF-TeFE) prepared by quick cooling, and the memory retention is over 1 week.

  9. Cyanoethyl cellulose-based nanocomposite dielectric for low-voltage, solution-processed organic field-effect transistors (OFETs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faraji, Sheida; Danesh, Ehsan; Tate, Daniel J.; Turner, Michael L.; Majewski, Leszek A.

    2016-05-01

    Low voltage organic field-effect transistors (OFETs) using solution-processed cyanoethyl cellulose (CEC) and CEC-based nanocomposites as the gate dielectric are demonstrated. Barium strontium titanate (BST) nanoparticles are homogeneously dispersed in CEC to form the high-k (18.0  ±  0.2 at 1 kHz) nanocomposite insulator layer. The optimised p-channel DPPTTT OFETs with BST-CEC nanocomposite as the gate dielectric operate with minimal hysteresis, display field-effect mobilities in excess of 1 cm2 V‑1 s‑1 at 3 V, possess low subthreshold swings (132  ±  8 mV dec‑1), and have on/off ratios greater than 103. Addition of a 40–50 nm layer of cross-linked poly(vinyl phenol) (PVP) on the surface of the nanocomposite layer significantly decreases the gate leakage current (<10‑7 A cm‑2 at  ±3 V) and the threshold voltage (<  ‑0.7 V) enabling operation of the OFETs at 1.5 V. The presented bilayer BST-CEC/PVP dielectrics are a promising alternative for the fabrication of low voltage, solution-processed OFETs that are suitable for use in low power, portable electronics.

  10. Exposure to volatile organic compounds and kidney dysfunction in thin film transistor liquid crystal display (TFT-LCD) workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Ta-Yuan; Huang, Kuei-Hung; Liu, Chiu-Shong; Shie, Ruei-Hao; Chao, Keh-Ping; Hsu, Wen-Hsin; Bao, Bo-Ying

    2010-06-15

    Many volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are emitted during the manufacturing of thin film transistor liquid crystal displays (TFT-LCDs), exposure to some of which has been reported to be associated with kidney dysfunction, but whether such an effect exists in TFT-LCD industry workers is unknown. This cross-sectional study aimed to investigate the association between exposure to VOCs and kidney dysfunction among TFT-LCD workers. The results showed that ethanol (1811.0+/-1740.4 ppb), acetone (669.0+/-561.0 ppb), isopropyl alcohol (187.0+/-205.3 ppb) and propylene glycol monomethyl ether acetate (PGMEA) (102.9+/-102.0 ppb) were the four dominant VOCs present in the workplace. The 63 array workers studied had a risk of kidney dysfunction 3.21-fold and 3.84-fold that of 61 cell workers and 18 module workers, respectively. Workers cumulatively exposed to a total level of isopropyl alcohol, PGMEA and propylene glycol monomethyl ether> or =324 ppb-year had a significantly higher risk of kidney dysfunction (adjusted OR=3.41, 95% CI=1.14-10.17) compared with those exposed to <25 ppb-year after adjustment for potential confounding factors. These findings indicated that array workers might be the group at greatest risk of kidney dysfunction within the TFT-LCD industry, and cumulative exposure to specific VOCs might be associated with kidney dysfunction. PMID:20227824

  11. Selective nitrate detection by an enzymatic sensor based on an extended-gate type organic field-effect transistor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minami, Tsuyoshi; Sasaki, Yui; Minamiki, Tsukuru; Wakida, Shin-Ichi; Kurita, Ryoji; Niwa, Osamu; Tokito, Shizuo

    2016-07-15

    First selective nitrate biosensor device based on an extended-gate type organic field-effect transistor (OFET) is reported. The fabricated sensor device consists of the extended-gate electrode functionalized by a nitrate reductase with a mediator (=a bipyridinium derivative) and an OFET-based transducer. The mechanism of the nitrate detection can be explained by an electron-relay on the extended-gate electrode, resulting in changes of the electric properties of the OFET. The detection limit of nitrate in water is estimated to be 45 ppb, which suggests that the sensitivity of our fabricated sensor is comparable to those of some conventional detection methods. As a practical application of the OFET sensor, the nitrate detection in diluted human saliva has been successfully demonstrated; the results agreed well with those by conventional colorimetric measurement. The advantages of OFETs are printability, mechanical flexibility, stretchability and disposability, meaning that the fabricated OFET could open up a new approach for low-cost electronic devices toward on-site detection of nitrate in aqueous media. PMID:26921557

  12. Printable organic thin film transistors for glucose detection incorporating inkjet-printing of the enzyme recognition element

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elkington, D., E-mail: Daniel.Elkington@newcastle.edu.au; Wasson, M.; Belcher, W.; Dastoor, P. C.; Zhou, X. [Centre for Organic Electronics, The University of Newcastle, Callaghan 2308 (Australia)

    2015-06-29

    The effect of device architecture upon the response of printable enzymatic glucose sensors based on poly(3-hexythiophene) (P3HT) organic thin film transistors is presented. The change in drain current is used as the basis for glucose detection and we show that significant improvements in drain current response time can be achieved by modifying the design of the sensor structure. In particular, we show that eliminating the dielectric layer and reducing the thickness of the active layer reduce the device response time considerably. The results are in good agreement with a diffusion based model of device operation, where an initial rapid dedoping process is followed by a slower doping of the P3HT layer from protons that are enzymatically generated by glucose oxidase (GOX) at the Nafion gate electrode. The fitted diffusion data are consistent with a P3HT doping region that is close to the source-drain electrodes rather than located at the P3HT:[Nafion:GOX] interface. Finally, we demonstrate that further improvements in sensor structure and morphology can be achieved by inkjet-printing the GOX layer, offering a pathway to low-cost printed biosensors for the detection of glucose in saliva.

  13. Amorphous silicon thin film transistor active-matrix organic light-emitting diode displays fabricated on flexible substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, Jonathan A.

    Organic light-emitting diode (OLED) displays are of immense interest because they have several advantages over liquid crystal displays, the current dominant flat panel display technology. OLED displays are emissive and therefore are brighter, have a larger viewing angle, and do not require backlights and filters, allowing thinner, lighter, and more power efficient displays. The goal of this work was to advance the state-of-the-art in active-matrix OLED display technology. First, hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) thin film transistor (TFT) active-matrix OLED pixels and arrays were designed and fabricated on glass substrates. The devices operated at low voltages and demonstrated that lower performance TFTs could be utilized in active-matrix OLED displays, possibly allowing lower cost processing and the use of polymeric substrates. Attempts at designing more control into the display at the pixel level were also made. Bistable (one bit gray scale) active-matrix OLED pixels and arrays were designed and fabricated. Such pixels could be used in novel applications and eventually help reduce the bandwidth requirements in high-resolution and large-area displays. Finally, a-Si:H TFT active-matrix OLED pixels and arrays were fabricated on a polymeric substrate. Displays fabricated on a polymeric substrates would be lightweight; flexible, more rugged, and potentially less expensive to fabricate. Many of the difficulties associated with fabricating active-matrix backplanes on flexible substrates were studied and addressed.

  14. Liquid Crystal-on-Organic Field-Effect Transistor Sensory Devices for Perceptive Sensing of Ultralow Intensity Gas Flow Touch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Jooyeok; Park, Soohyeong; Nam, Sungho; Kim, Hwajeong; Kim, Youngkyoo

    2013-08-01

    We demonstrate liquid crystal-on-organic field-effect transistor (LC-on-OFET) sensory devices that can perceptively sense ultralow level gas flows. The LC-on-OFET devices were fabricated by mounting LC molecules (4-cyano-4'-pentylbiphenyl - 5CB) on the polymer channel layer of OFET. Results showed that the presence of LC molecules on the channel layer resulted in enhanced drain currents due to a strong dipole effect of LC molecules. Upon applying low intensity nitrogen gas flows, the drain current was sensitively increased depending on the intensity and time of nitrogen flows. The present LC-on-OFET devices could detect extremely low level nitrogen flows (0.7 sccm-11 μl/s), which could not be felt by human skins, thanks to a synergy effect between collective behavior of LC molecules and charge-sensitive channel layer of OFET. The similar sensation was also achieved using the LC-on-OFET devices with a polymer film skin, suggesting viable practical applications of the present LC-on-OFET sensory devices.

  15. Printable organic thin film transistors for glucose detection incorporating inkjet-printing of the enzyme recognition element

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of device architecture upon the response of printable enzymatic glucose sensors based on poly(3-hexythiophene) (P3HT) organic thin film transistors is presented. The change in drain current is used as the basis for glucose detection and we show that significant improvements in drain current response time can be achieved by modifying the design of the sensor structure. In particular, we show that eliminating the dielectric layer and reducing the thickness of the active layer reduce the device response time considerably. The results are in good agreement with a diffusion based model of device operation, where an initial rapid dedoping process is followed by a slower doping of the P3HT layer from protons that are enzymatically generated by glucose oxidase (GOX) at the Nafion gate electrode. The fitted diffusion data are consistent with a P3HT doping region that is close to the source-drain electrodes rather than located at the P3HT:[Nafion:GOX] interface. Finally, we demonstrate that further improvements in sensor structure and morphology can be achieved by inkjet-printing the GOX layer, offering a pathway to low-cost printed biosensors for the detection of glucose in saliva

  16. Field-Effect Modulation of Ambipolar Doping and Domain Wall Band Alignment in P-type Vanadium Dioxide Nanowires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Yasen; Peng, Xingyue; Yang, Yiming; Yu, Dong

    The sub-picosecond metal-insulator phase transition in vanadium dioxide (VO2) has attracted extensive attention with potential applications in ultrafast Mott transistors. However, the development of VO2-based transistors lags behind, owing to the lack of an efficient and hysteresis-free electrostatic doping control. Here we report the first synthesis of p-type single crystalline VO2nanowires via catalyst-free chemical vapor deposition. The p-type doping was unambiguously confirmed by both solid and electrochemical gating methods, and further evidenced by the scanning photocurrent microscopic measurements. Interestingly, we observed that the photocurrent spot polarity at the metal-insulator domain walls was reversibly switched by electrochemical gating, which indicates a band bending flipping. Furthermore, we eliminated the common hysteresis in gate sweep and greatly shortened the transistor response time via a hybrid gating method, which combines the merits of liquid ionic and solid gating. The capability of efficient field effect modulation of ambipolar conduction and band alignment offers new opportunities on understanding the phase transition mechanism and enables novel electronic applications based on VO2.

  17. Polyimide Dielectric Layer on Filaments for Organic Field Effect Transistors: Choice of Solvent, Solution Composition and Dip-Coating Speed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rambausek Lina

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In today’s research, smart textiles is an established topic in both electronics and the textile fields. The concept of producing microelectronics directly on a textile substrate is not a mere idea anymore and several research institutes are working on its realisation. Microelectronics like organic field effect transistor (OFET can be manufactured with a layered architecture. The production techniques used for this purpose can also be applied on textile substrates. Besides gate, active and contact layers, the isolating or dielectric layer is of high importance in the OFET architecture. Therefore, generating a high quality dielectric layer that is of low roughness and insulating at the same time is one of the fundamental requirements in building microelectronics on textile surfaces. To evaluate its potential, we have studied polyimide as a dielectric layer, dip-coated onto copper-coated polyester filaments. Accordingly, the copper-coated polyester filament was dip-coated from a polyimide solution with two different solvents, 1-methyl-2-pyrrolidone (NMP and dimethylformaldehyde. A variety of dip-coating speeds, solution concentrations and solvent-solute combinations have been tested. Their effect on the quality of the layer was analysed through microscopy, leak current measurements and atomic force microscopy (AFM. Polyimide dip-coating with polyimide resin dissolved in NMP at a concentration of 15w% in combination with a dip-coating speed of 50 mm/min led to the best results in electrical insulation and roughness. By optimising the dielectric layer’s properties, the way is paved for applying the subsequent semi-conductive layer. In further research, we will be working with the organic semiconductor material TIPS-Pentacene

  18. Solution-Processable BODIPY-Based Small Molecules for Semiconducting Microfibers in Organic Thin-Film Transistors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozdemir, Mehmet; Choi, Donghee; Kwon, Guhyun; Zorlu, Yunus; Cosut, Bunyemin; Kim, Hyekyoung; Facchetti, Antonio; Kim, Choongik; Usta, Hakan

    2016-06-01

    Electron-deficient π-conjugated small molecules can function as electron-transporting semiconductors in various optoelectronic applications. Despite their unique structural, optical, and electronic properties, the development of BODIPY-based organic semiconductors has lagged behind that of other π-deficient units. Here, we report the design and synthesis of two novel solution-proccessable BODIPY-based small molecules (BDY-3T-BDY and BDY-4T-BDY) for organic thin-film transistors (OTFTs). The new semiconductors were fully characterized by (1)H/(13)C NMR, mass spectrometry, cyclic voltammetry, UV-vis spectroscopy, photoluminescence, differential scanning calorimetry, and thermogravimetric analysis. The single-crystal X-ray diffraction (XRD) characterization of a key intermediate reveals crucial structural properties. Solution-sheared top-contact/bottom-gate OTFTs exhibited electron mobilities up to 0.01 cm(2)/V·s and current on/off ratios of >10(8). Film microstructural and morphological characterizations indicate the formation of relatively long (∼0.1 mm) and micrometer-sized (1-2 μm) crystalline fibers for BDY-4T-BDY-based films along the shearing direction. Fiber-alignment-induced charge-transport anisotropy (μ∥/μ⊥ ≈ 10) was observed, and higher mobilities were achieved when the microfibers were aligned along the conduction channel, which allows for efficient long-range charge-transport between source and drain electrodes. These OTFT performances are the highest reported to date for a BODIPY-based molecular semiconductor, and demonstrate that BODIPY is a promising building block for enabling solution-processed, electron-transporting semiconductor films. PMID:27182606

  19. Dynamics of Threshold Voltage Shifts in Organic and Amorphous Silicon Field-Effect Transistors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mathijssen, S.G.J.; Cölle, M.; Gomes, H.; Smits, E.C.P.; Boer, B. de; McCulloch, I.; Bobbert, P.A.; Leeuw, D.M. de

    2006-01-01

    Progress in environmental stability and processability, and the increase of the field-effect mobility of organic semiconductors has triggered their use as the active element in microelectronic devices. The advantages of their application are the easy processing, for example, spin-coating and ink-jet

  20. Graphene electrodes for n-type organic field-effect transistors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henrichsen, Henrik Hartmann; Boggild, P.

    2010-01-01

    This work presents a convenient and contamination safe E-beam lithography process for microstructuring of graphene flakes. Exfoliated graphene flakes were deposited on oxidized silicon wafers and subsequently patterned by E-beam lithography, to be used as source and drain electrodes in an organic...

  1. High-performance organic broadband photomemory transistors exhibiting remarkable UV-NIR response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Lili; Luo, Xiao; Lv, Wenli; Zhao, Feiyu; Peng, Yingquan; Tang, Ying; Wang, Ying

    2016-05-14

    The electrical and optical properties of organic semiconductors have improved rapidly in recent years, rendering them highly promising for various optoelectronic applications owing to low-cost and lightweight potential in combination with spectral tunability and long photocarrier lifetimes. Organic photomemory has emerged as an innovative application to achieve optical data storage. However, practical operation requires universal device design with broader spectral response in terms of related materials, interfaces and architecture, a task that remains a significant challenge. Herein, we present a universal strategy to fabricate organic broadband photomemories featuring remarkable UV-NIR response, thereby providing optical switching ability with a controllable memory window. To the best of our knowledge, this study demonstrates an excellent performance with the broadest response spectra and the highest photomemory efficiency of up to 593%. We systematically study the charge trapping mechanism and photoinduced injection enhancement by combining an energy level model with theoretical calculations, characterizing conceivable photogenerated minority carrier trapping and accumulation kinetics. Thus, it is anticipated that the proposed approach will be a starting point for further research, resulting in high-performance organic photomemory ideal for digital commutation between optical and electric signals. PMID:27113427

  2. Extraction of contact resistance and channel parameters from the electrical characteristics of a single bottom-gate/top-contact organic transistor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takagaki, Shunsuke; Yamada, Hirofumi; Noda, Kei

    2016-03-01

    A parameter extraction procedure for staggered-type organic field-effect transistors (OFETs), in which only the electrical characteristics of a single device are needed, was newly considered. The existing differential method and the transition voltage method for evaluating contact and channel parameters in OFETs were complementarily combined. The calibration of the total resistance between the source and the drain was also incorporated to compensate discrepancies in the total resistances calculated from output and transfer characteristics, caused by the existence of nonignorable contact resistance and carrier traps. By using our proposed method, gate-voltage-dependent contact resistance and channel mobility in the linear regime were evaluated for bottom-gate/top-contact pentacene thin-film transistors, and the channel-length dependence of these parameters was investigated. A series of results of parameter extraction confirm the validity of our proposed method, which is advantageous in avoiding the influences of characteristic variations that are frequently observed in practical OFET devices.

  3. The importance of spinning speed in fabrication of spin-coated organic thin film transistors: Film morphology and field effect mobility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have investigated the film morphology and the field effect mobility of 2,7-dioctyl[1]benzothieno[3,2-b][1]benzothiophene (C8-BTBT) thin films which were formed by spin coating on the SiO2 substrate with solution-processed graphene electrodes. The domain size and the density of aggregates in the C8-BTBT film showed the same dependence on the spinning speed. These competitive two factors (domain size and density of aggregates) give an optimum spinning speed, at which the field effect mobility of C8-BTBT transistor showed a maximum (2.6 cm2/V s). This result indicates the importance of spinning speed in the fabrication of solution processed organic thin film transistors by spin coating.

  4. Improved Performance of Organic Light-Emitting Field-Effect Transistors by Interfacial Modification of Hole-Transport Layer/Emission Layer: Incorporating Organic Heterojunctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Li; Hu, Yongsheng; Zhang, Nan; Li, Yantao; Lin, Jie; Liu, Xingyuan

    2016-06-01

    Organic heterojunctions (OHJs) consisting of a strong electron acceptor 1,4,5,8,9,11-hexaazatriphenylene hexacarbonitrile (HAT-CN) and an electron donor N,N'-di(naphthalene-1-yl)-N,N'-diphenyl-benzidine (NPB) were demonstrated for the first time that they can be implemented as effective modification layers between hole transport layer (HTL) and emission layer in the heterostructured organic light-emitting field effect transistors (OLEFETs). The influence of both HAT-CN/NPB junction (npJ) and NPB/HAT-CN junction (pnJ) on the optoelectronic performance of OLEFETs were conscientiously investigated. It is found that both the transport ability of holes and the injection ability of holes into emissive layer can be dramatically improved via the charge transfer of the OHJs and that between HAT-CN and the HTL. Consequently, OLEFETs with pnJ present optimal performance of an external quantum efficiency (EQE) of 3.3% at brightness of 2630 cdm(-2) and the ones with npJs show an EQE of 4.7% at brightness of 4620 cdm(-2). By further utilizing npn OHJs of HAT-CN/NPB/HAT-CN, superior optoelectronic performance with an EQE of 4.7% at brightness of 8350 cdm(-2) and on/off ratio of 1 × 10(5) is obtained. The results demonstrate the great practicality of implementing OHJs as effective modification layers in heterostructured OLEFETs. PMID:27215694

  5. Realization of size controllable graphene micro/nanogap with a micro/nanowire mask method for organic field-effect transistors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liao, Zhiyu; Wan, Qing; Liu, Huixuan;

    2011-01-01

    graphene micro/nanogap bottom electrodes. The ultrathin thickness of the graphene, combined with its good compatibility with organic semiconductors, and high electrical conductivity produced high-performance CuPc film device with mobility at 0.053 cm(2)/Vs and on/off ratio at 10(5), showing promising......A size controllable graphene micro/nanogap fabrication method using micro/nanowire as mask is presented. The gap dimension can be adjusted by the diameter of the mask wire. As a typical application, copper phthalocyanine (CuPc) film organic field-effect transistors (OFETs) were fabricated with the...

  6. 有机场效应晶体管的研究与应用进展%Progress in Organic Field-Effect Transistors and Its Applications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈淑芬; 戴春雷; 牟鑫; 袁顺东; 翁洁娜; 凌启淡; 黄维

    2011-01-01

    有机场效应晶体管(Organic Field Effect Transistors,OFETs)是以有机半导体材料作为有源层的晶体管器件.和传统的无机半导体器件相比,由于其可应用于生产大面积柔性设备而被人们广泛的研究,在有机发光、有机光探测器、有机太阳能电池、压力传感器、有机存储设备、柔性平板显示、电子纸等众多领域具有潜在而广泛的应用前景.文中对OFET结构和工作原理做了简要介绍,之后重点讨论了最近几年来OFET中有机材料和绝缘体材料的发展状况,接着总结了OFET制备技术及其应用新领域,最后对OFET发展面临问题及应用前景做了归纳和展望.%Organic field-effect transistors (OFETs) are the transistors using organic semiconductive materi-als as the active layers. In comparison with conventional inorganic transistors, OFETs have attracted exten-sive attention due to their potential applications in large area and flexible opto-electronic devices, such as organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs) , organic photo detectors (OPDs) , organic solar cells, pressure sen-sors, organic memory elements,flexible flat panel displays,electronic papers,and so on. The device struc-ture and operating principle of OFET are briefly introduced in the beginning of the paper. The develop-ment of organic materials, fabrication technologies and potential applications of OFETs in the past few years are reviewed comprehensively. Finally,the development of OFETs in the future is prospected.

  7. Direct structural mapping of organic field-effect transistors reveals bottlenecks to carrier transport

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Ruipeng

    2012-08-10

    X-ray microbeam scattering is used to map the microstructure of the organic semiconductor along the channel length of solution-processed bottom-contact OFET devices. Contact-induced nucleation is known to influence the crystallization behavior within the channel. We find that microstructural inhomogeneities in the center of the channel act as a bottleneck to charge transport. This problem can be overcome by controlling crystallization of the preferable texture, thus favoring more efficient charge transport throughout the channel. © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. High voltage surface potential measurements in ambient conditions: Application to organic thin-film transistor injection and transport characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Tournadre, Grégoire; Reisdorffer, Frédéric; Rödel, Reinhold; Simonetti, Olivier; Klauk, Hagen; Giraudet, Louis

    2016-03-01

    A scanning surface potential measurement technique suited for thin-film devices operating under high voltages is reported. A commercial atomic force microscope has been customized to enable a feedback-controlled and secure surface potential measurement based on phase-shift detection under ambient conditions. Measurements of the local potential profile along the channel of bottom-gate organic thin-film transistors (TFTs) are shown to be useful to disentangle the contributions from the channel and contacts to the device performance. Intrinsic contact current-voltage characteristics have been measured on bottom-gate, top-contact (staggered) TFTs based on the small-molecule semiconductor dinaphtho[2,3-b:2',3-f]thieno[3,2-b]thiophene (DNTT) and on bottom-gate, bottom-contact (coplanar) TFTs based on the semiconducting polymer polytriarylamine (PTAA). Injection has been found to be linear in the staggered DNTT TFTs and nonlinear in the coplanar PTAA TFTs. In both types of TFT, the injection efficiency has been found to improve with increasing gate bias in the accumulation regime. Contact resistances as low as 130 Ω cm have been measured in the DNTT TFTs. A method that eliminates the influence of bias-stress-induced threshold-voltage shifts when measuring the local charge-carrier mobility in the channel is also introduced, and intrinsic channel mobilities of 1.5 cm2 V-1 s-1 and 1.1 × 10-3 cm2 V-1 s-1 have been determined for DNTT and PTAA. In both semiconductors, the mobility has been found to be constant with respect to the gate bias. Despite its simplicity, the Kelvin probe force microscopy method reported here provides robust and accurate surface potential measurements on thin-film devices under operation and thus paves the way towards more extensive studies of particular interest in emerging fields of solid-state electronics.

  9. Transistor Effect in Improperly Connected Transistors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luzader, Stephen; Sanchez-Velasco, Eduardo

    1996-01-01

    Discusses the differences between the standard representation and a realistic representation of a transistor. Presents an experiment that helps clarify the explanation of the transistor effect and shows why transistors should be connected properly. (JRH)

  10. Evanescent ergosurfaces and ambipolar hyperkähler metrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niehoff, Benjamin E.; Reall, Harvey S.

    2016-04-01

    A supersymmetric solution of 5d supergravity may admit an `evanescent ergosurface': a timelike hypersurface such that the canonical Killing vector field is timelike everywhere except on this hypersurface. The hyperkähler `base space' of such a solution is `ambipolar', changing signature from (+ + ++) to (- - --) across a hypersurface. In this paper, we determine how the hyperkähler structure must degenerate at the hyper-surface in order for the 5d solution to remain smooth. This leads us to a definition of an ambipolar hyperkähler manifold which generalizes the recently-defined notion of a `folded' hyperkähler manifold. We prove that such manifolds can be constructed from `initial' data prescribed on the hypersurface. We present an `initial value' construction of supersymmetric solutions of 5d supergravity, in which such solutions are determined by data prescribed on a timelike hypersurface, both for the generic case and for the case of an evanescent ergosurface.

  11. Evanescent ergosurfaces and ambipolar hyperk\\"ahler metrics

    CERN Document Server

    Niehoff, Benjamin E

    2016-01-01

    A supersymmetric solution of 5d supergravity may admit an `evanescent ergosurface': a timelike hypersurface such that the canonical Killing vector field is timelike everywhere except on this hypersurface. The hyperk\\"ahler `base space' of such a solution is `ambipolar', changing signature from $(++++)$ to $(----)$ across a hypersurface. In this paper, we determine how the hyperk\\"ahler structure must degenerate at the hypersurface in order for the 5d solution to remain smooth. This leads us to a definition of an ambipolar hyperk\\"ahler manifold which generalizes the recently-defined notion of a `folded' hyperk\\"ahler manifold. We prove that such manifolds can be constructed from `initial' data prescribed on the hypersurface. We present an `initial value' construction of supersymmetric solutions of 5d supergravity, in which such solutions are determined by data prescribed on a timelike hypersurface, both for the generic case and for the case of an evanescent ergosurface.

  12. Microtexturing of the conductive PEDOT:PSS Polymer for superhydrophobic organic electrochemical transistors

    KAUST Repository

    Gentile, Francesco

    2014-01-22

    Superhydrophobic surfaces are bioinspired, nanotechnology artifacts, which feature a reduced friction coefficient, whereby they can be used for a number of very practical applications including, on the medical side, the manipulation of biological solutions. In this work, we integrated superhydrophobic patterns with the conducting polymer PEDOT:PSS, one of the most used polymers in organic electronics because highly sensitive to ionized species in solution. In doing so, we combined geometry and materials science to obtain an advanced device where, on account of the superhydrophobicity of the system, the solutions of interest can be manipulated and, on account of the conductive PEDOT:PSS polymer, the charged molecules dispersed inside can be quantitatively measured. This original substrate preparation allowed to perform electrochemical measurements on ionized species in solution with decreasing concentration down to 10 -7 molar. Moreover, it was demonstrated the ability of the device of realizing specific, combined time and space resolved analysis of the sample. Collectively, these results demonstrate how a tight, interweaving integration of different disciplines can provide realistic tools for the detection of pathologies. The scheme here introduced offers breakthrough capabilities that are expected to radically improve both the pace and the productivity of biomedical research, creating an access revolution. 2014 Francesco Gentile et al.

  13. Microtexturing of the Conductive PEDOT:PSS Polymer for Superhydrophobic Organic Electrochemical Transistors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Gentile

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Superhydrophobic surfaces are bioinspired, nanotechnology artifacts, which feature a reduced friction coefficient, whereby they can be used for a number of very practical applications including, on the medical side, the manipulation of biological solutions. In this work, we integrated superhydrophobic patterns with the conducting polymer PEDOT:PSS, one of the most used polymers in organic electronics because highly sensitive to ionized species in solution. In doing so, we combined geometry and materials science to obtain an advanced device where, on account of the superhydrophobicity of the system, the solutions of interest can be manipulated and, on account of the conductive PEDOT:PSS polymer, the charged molecules dispersed inside can be quantitatively measured. This original substrate preparation allowed to perform electrochemical measurements on ionized species in solution with decreasing concentration down to 10−7 molar. Moreover, it was demonstrated the ability of the device of realizing specific, combined time and space resolved analysis of the sample. Collectively, these results demonstrate how a tight, interweaving integration of different disciplines can provide realistic tools for the detection of pathologies. The scheme here introduced offers breakthrough capabilities that are expected to radically improve both the pace and the productivity of biomedical research, creating an access revolution.

  14. 2,6-Bis(benzo[b]thiophen-2-yl-3,7-dipentadecyltetrathienoacene (DBT-TTAR2 as an Alternative of Highly Soluble p-type Organic Semiconductor for Organic Thin Film Transistor (OTFT Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mery B. Supriadi

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available A new compound of organic semiconductor based on tetrathienoacene (TTA derivatives, DBT-TTAR2 was synthesized and characterized. The corporation of dibenzo[b,d]thiophene (DBT group and alkyl substituent in both ends of TTA core have a significant effect on their π-π molecular conjugation length, energy gaps value and solubility properties. DBT-TTAR2 is fabricated as p-type organic semiconductor of organic thin film transistor (OTFT by solution process at Industrial Technology Research Institute, Taiwan. A good optical, electrochemical, and thermal properties of DBT-TTAR2 showed that its exhibits a better performance as highly soluble p-type organic semiconductor.

  15. The role of aging of poly(3-hexylothiophene) solutions for spray- and spin coated organic field effect transistors

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bielecka, Urszula; Lutsyk, P.; Janus, K.; Nešpůrek, Stanislav; Bartkowiak, W.

    Nice: European Materials Research Society, 2011. NP8-16. [E- MRS 2011 Spring Meeting IUMRS ICAM 2011 & E- MRS / MRS Bilateral Conference on Energy. 09.05.2011-13.05.2011, Nice] EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 35859 - BIMORE Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : transistor * spin coating * poly(3-hexylothiophene) Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry

  16. Driving High-Performance n- and p-type Organic Transistors with Carbon Nanotube/Conjugated Polymer Composite Electrodes Patterned Directly from Solution

    KAUST Repository

    Hellstrom, Sondra L.

    2010-07-12

    We report patterned deposition of carbon nanotube/conjugated polymer composites from solution with high nanotube densities and excellent feature resolution. Such composites are suited for use as electrodes in high-performance transistors of pentacene and C60, with bottom-contact mobilities of ?0.5 and ?1 cm2 V-1 s-1, respectively. This represents a clear step towards development of inexpensive, high-performance all-organic circuits. © 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. INFLUENCE OF FILM STRUCTURE AND LIGHT ON CHARGE TRAPPING AND DISSIPATION DYNAMICS IN SPUN-CAST ORGANIC THIN-FILM TRANSISTORS MEASURED BY SCANNING KELVIN PROBE MICROSCOPY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teague, L.; Moth, M.; Anthony, J.

    2012-05-03

    Herein, time-dependent scanning Kelvin probe microscopy of solution processed organic thin film transistors (OTFTs) reveals a correlation between film microstructure and OTFT device performance with the location of trapped charge within the device channel. The accumulation of the observed trapped charge is concurrent with the decrease in I{sub SD} during operation (V{sub G}=-40 V, V{sub SD}= -10 V). We discuss the charge trapping and dissipation dynamics as they relate to the film structure and show that application of light quickly dissipates the observed trapped charge.

  18. Poly(4-vinylphenol gate insulator with cross-linking using a rapid low-power microwave induction heating scheme for organic thin-film-transistors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ching-Lin Fan

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available A Microwave-Induction Heating (MIH scheme is proposed for the poly(4-vinylphenol (PVP gate insulator cross-linking process to replace the traditional oven heating cross-linking process. The cross-linking time is significantly decreased from 1 h to 5 min by heating the metal below the PVP layer using microwave irradiation. The necessary microwave power was substantially reduced to about 50 W by decreasing the chamber pressure. The MIH scheme is a good candidate to replace traditional thermal heating for cross-linking of PVP as the gate insulator for organic thin-film-transistors.

  19. Large-Signal Model of Graphene Field-Effect Transistors -- Part II: Circuit Performance Benchmarking

    OpenAIRE

    Pasadas, Francisco; Jiménez, David

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a circuit performance benchmarking using the large-signal model of graphene field effect transistor reported in Part I of this two-part paper. To test the model, it has been implemented in a circuit simulator. Specifically we have simulated a high-frequency performance amplifier, together with other circuits that take advantage of the ambipolarity of graphene, such as a frequency doubler, a radio-frequency subharmonic mixer and a multiplier phase detector. A variety of sim...

  20. Inkjet-printed silver nanoparticles on nano-engineered cellulose films for electrically conducting structures and organic transistors: concept and challenges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chinga-Carrasco, Gary, E-mail: gary.chinga.carrasco@pfi.no [Paper and Fibre Research Institute (PFI) (Norway); Tobjoerk, Daniel; Oesterbacka, Ronald [Abo Akademi University, Physics, Department of Natural Sciences and Center for Functional Materials (Finland)

    2012-11-15

    This study explores the suitability of microfibrillated cellulose (MFC) films as a substrate for printing electrically conductive structures and multilayer electronic structures such as organic field effect transistors. Various MFC qualities were tested, including mechanically produced MFC, 2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidinyl-1-oxyl pre-treated MFC and carboxymethylated-MFC. The films differed significantly with respect to the surface structure. In addition, the carboxymethylated-MFC films were surface modified with hexamethyldisilazane (HMDS) to reduce the water-wettability of the films, and thus, improve the print resolution of the inkjet-printed silver (Ag) nanoparticles. The Ag-particles (diameter < 50 nm) were printed on the HMDS-modified films, which were mainly composed of nanofibrils with diameters <20 nm. The effect of surface roughness and surface chemical characteristics on the ink spreading and print resolution of the Ag-structures was explored. It was demonstrated that organic transistors operating at low voltages can be fabricated on nano-engineered MFC films.

  1. Inkjet-printed silver nanoparticles on nano-engineered cellulose films for electrically conducting structures and organic transistors: concept and challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study explores the suitability of microfibrillated cellulose (MFC) films as a substrate for printing electrically conductive structures and multilayer electronic structures such as organic field effect transistors. Various MFC qualities were tested, including mechanically produced MFC, 2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidinyl-1-oxyl pre-treated MFC and carboxymethylated-MFC. The films differed significantly with respect to the surface structure. In addition, the carboxymethylated-MFC films were surface modified with hexamethyldisilazane (HMDS) to reduce the water-wettability of the films, and thus, improve the print resolution of the inkjet-printed silver (Ag) nanoparticles. The Ag-particles (diameter < 50 nm) were printed on the HMDS-modified films, which were mainly composed of nanofibrils with diameters <20 nm. The effect of surface roughness and surface chemical characteristics on the ink spreading and print resolution of the Ag-structures was explored. It was demonstrated that organic transistors operating at low voltages can be fabricated on nano-engineered MFC films.

  2. Tailoring the Dielectric Layer Structure for Enhanced Performance of Organic Field-Effect Transistors: The Use of a Sandwiched Polar Dielectric Layer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shijiao Han

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available To investigate the origins of hydroxyl groups in a polymeric dielectric and its applications in organic field-effect transistors (OFETs, a polar polymer layer was inserted between two polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA dielectric layers, and its effect on the performance as an organic field-effect transistor (OFET was studied. The OFETs with a sandwiched dielectric layer of poly(vinyl alcohol (PVA or poly(4-vinylphenol (PVP containing hydroxyl groups had shown enhanced characteristics compared to those with only PMMA layers. The field-effect mobility had been raised more than 10 times in n-type devices (three times in the p-type one, and the threshold voltage had been lowered almost eight times in p-type devices (two times in the n-type. The on-off ratio of two kinds of devices had been enhanced by almost two orders of magnitude. This was attributed to the orientation of hydroxyl groups from disordered to perpendicular to the substrate under gate-applied voltage bias, and additional charges would be induced by this polarization at the interface between the semiconductor and dielectrics, contributing to the accumulation of charge transfer.

  3. Amorphous Strontium Titanate Film as Gate Dielectric for Higher Performance and Low Voltage Operation of Transparent and Flexible Organic Field Effect Transistor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Sarita; Ghosh, Subhasis

    2016-04-27

    We report that the pervoskite material, strontium titanate (STO) can be used as a gate dielectric layer of flexible and low voltage organic field effect transistor (OFET). The crystallinity, dielectric constant, and surface morphology of STO films can be controlled by the engineering of the growth condition. Under optimized growth condition, amorphous films of STO show a much better gate dielectric compared to other gate dielectrics used to date, with very small leakage current density for flexible and low voltage (transistors with amorphous STO gate dielectric show high mobility of 2 cm(2)/(V s), on/off ratio of 10(6), subthreshold swing of 0.3 V/dec and low interface trap density. Similarly excellent performance has been obtained in copper phthalocyanine (CuPc) based OFETs with on/off ratio ∼10(5) and carrier mobility ∼5.9 × 10(-2) cm(2)/(V s). Moreover, the operating voltage (∼5 V) has been reduced by more than one order of magnitude. It has been demonstrated that the low processing temperature of amorphous STO makes it the most suitable gate dielectric for flexible and transparent organic devices to operate under low voltage. PMID:27029419

  4. Effects due to the large ambipolar potential in TMX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The large potentials and potential gradients in tandem mirrors have several effects. Some of these are discussed, together with supporting data from TMX. These include: azimuthal averaging by the E x B rotation, reduction of radial outward drifts (from high order multipoles) by the rapid E x B azimuthal velocity, neoclassical-resonant diffusion, Joule heating of central cell ions due to non-ambipolar transport in the radial electric field, low frequency instabilities, and differences between the details of the electron behavior and theory

  5. Large-area WSe2 electric double layer transistors on a plastic substrate

    KAUST Repository

    Funahashi, Kazuma

    2015-04-27

    Due to the requirements for large-area, uniform films, currently transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDC) cannot be used in flexible transistor industrial applications. In this study, we first transferred chemically grown large-area WSe2 monolayer films from the as-grown sapphire substrates to the flexible plastic substrates. We also fabricated electric double layer transistors using the WSe2 films on the plastic substrates. These transistors exhibited ambipolar operation and an ON/OFF current ratio of ∼104, demonstrating chemically grown WSe2 transistors on plastic substrates for the first time. This achievement can be an important first step for the next-generation TMDC based flexible devices. © 2015 The Japan Society of Applied Physics.

  6. Deposition of composite materials using a wire-bar coater for achieving processability and air-stability in Organic Field-Effect Transistors (OFETs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Pozo, Freddy G.; Galindo, Sergi; Pfattner, Raphael; Rovira, Concepció; Mas-Torrent, Marta

    2015-08-01

    Organic thin films based on composite materials of semiconducting dibenzo-tetrathiafulvalene (DB-TTF) and insulating styrenic matrices (Polystyrene (PS10k) and Poly-alpha methylstyrene (PAMS10k) ) have been fabricated by the wire-bar coating technique in ambient conditions (air, light, humidity) and contrasted with the ones prepared by thermally evaporating the organic semiconductor. The transistors fabricated with DB-TTF:PS10k composites show a clear fieldeffect behavior with p-type characteristics, exhibiting charge carriers mobilities in the range of 0.01 cm2/Vs, fully comparable with the films obtained by thermal evaporation. However, while the thermally evaporated films show poor stability in air, the wire-bar coated composites films and devices are highly reproducible and exhibit lower threshold voltage values. Thus, we demonstrate the suitability of the wire-bar technique for manufacturing large area devices.

  7. Light-induced characteristic variations in organic thin-film transistors with a poly(vinylphenol-co-methyl methacrylate)/titanium-dioxide nanocomposite gate dielectric

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dongwook; Shin, Hyunji; Park, Sangcheol; Lee, Dokyoung; Choi, Jong Sun; Baang, Sungkeun; Ham, Youngjin; Park, Jaehoon; Piao, Shang Hao; Choi, Hyoung Jin

    2015-11-01

    We investigated the effect of light exposure on the electrical characteristics of organic thinfilm transistors (OTFTs) fabricated with a cross-linked poly(vinylphenol-co-methyl methacrylate) (PVP-co-PMMA)/titanium-dioxide (TiO2) nanocomposite gate dielectric. When illuminated, the off-state drain current increased significantly in the OTFTs containing the TiO2 nanocomposite gate dielectric, but changed negligibly in those containing the pristine PVP-co-PMMA gate dielectric. On the other hand, the dependence of the on-state drain current on the photon energy was similar in both cases. These results can be explained in terms of photogenerated charge carriers in the organic semiconductor and the TiO2 nanoparticles.

  8. Superconducting transistor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Kenneth E.

    1979-01-01

    A superconducting transistor is formed by disposing three thin films of superconducting material in a planar parallel arrangement and insulating the films from each other by layers of insulating oxides to form two tunnel junctions. One junction is biased above twice the superconducting energy gap and the other is biased at less than twice the superconducting energy gap. Injection of quasiparticles into the center film by one junction provides a current gain in the second junction.

  9. Large sensitivity enhancement in semiconducting organic field effect transistor sensors through incorporation of ultra-fine platinum nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, Haisheng; Ramalingam, Balavinayagam; Korampally, Venumadhav; Gangopadhyay, Shubhra, E-mail: gangopadhyays@missouri.edu [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Missouri, Columbia, Missouri 65201 (United States)

    2013-11-04

    We report remarkable improvement in sensitivity of pentacene-based field effect transistor devices towards trace nitro-aromatic explosive vapors through the incorporation of high density, sub-2 nm platinum nanoparticles (NPs) within these structures. Exploiting the unique electronic properties of these NPs, we have demonstrated a detection limit of 56.6 parts per billion of 2,4-dinitrotoluene (DNT) vapor while control samples without any embedded NPs showed no observable sensitivity to DNT vapor. We attribute this remarkable enhancement in sensitivity to the ability of these NPs to function as discrete nodes, participating in the charge transfer with adsorbed nitro-aromatic molecules.

  10. Effects of the F4TCNQ-Doped Pentacene Interlayers on Performance Improvement of Top-Contact Pentacene-Based Organic Thin-Film Transistors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ching-Lin Fan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the top-contact (TC pentacene-based organic thin-film transistor (OTFT with a tetrafluorotetracyanoquinodimethane (F4TCNQ-doped pentacene interlayer between the source/drain electrodes and the pentacene channel layer were fabricated using the co-evaporation method. Compared with a pentacene-based OTFT without an interlayer, OTFTs with an F4TCNQ:pentacene ratio of 1:1 showed considerably improved electrical characteristics. In addition, the dependence of the OTFT performance on the thickness of the F4TCNQ-doped pentacene interlayer is weaker than that on a Teflon interlayer. Therefore, a molecular doping-type F4TCNQ-doped pentacene interlayer is a suitable carrier injection layer that can improve the TC-OTFT performance and facilitate obtaining a stable process window.

  11. Driving Method for Compensating Reliability Problem of Hydrogenated Amorphous Silicon Thin Film Transistors and Image Sticking Phenomenon in Active Matrix Organic Light-Emitting Diode Displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Min-Seok; Jo, Yun-Rae; Kwon, Oh-Kyong

    2011-03-01

    In this paper, we propose a driving method for compensating the electrical instability of hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) thin film transistors (TFTs) and the luminance degradation of organic light-emitting diode (OLED) devices for large active matrix OLED (AMOLED) displays. The proposed driving method senses the electrical characteristics of a-Si:H TFTs and OLEDs using current integrators and compensates them by an external compensation method. Threshold voltage shift is controlled a using negative bias voltage. After applying the proposed driving method, the measured error of the maximum emission current ranges from -1.23 to +1.59 least significant bit (LSB) of a 10-bit gray scale under the threshold voltage shift ranging from -0.16 to 0.17 V.

  12. A Lattice-Strained Organic Single-Crystal Nanowire Array Fabricated via Solution-Phase Nanograting-Assisted Pattern Transfer for Use in High-Mobility Organic Field-Effect Transistors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyunghun; Rho, Yecheol; Kim, Yebyeol; Kim, Se Hyun; Hahm, Suk Gyu; Park, Chan Eon

    2016-04-01

    A 50 nm-wide 6,13-bis(triisopropylsilylethynyl) pentacene nanowire (NW) array is fabricated on a centimeter-sized substrate via a facile nanograting-assisted pattern-transfer method. NW growth under a nanoconfined space adopts a lattice-strained packing motif of the NWs for strong intermolecular electronic coupling, and thus a NW-based organic field-effect transistor shows high field-effect mobility up to 9.71 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1) . PMID:26915597

  13. Nanowires: A Lattice-Strained Organic Single-Crystal Nanowire Array Fabricated via Solution-Phase Nanograting-Assisted Pattern Transfer for Use in High-Mobility Organic Field-Effect Transistors (Adv. Mater. 16/2016).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyunghun; Rho, Yecheol; Kim, Yebyeol; Kim, Se Hyun; Hahm, Suk Gyu; Park, Chan Eon

    2016-04-01

    S. H. Kim, S. G. Hahm, C. E. Park, and co-workers fabricate a 50 nm-wide organic single-crystalline nanowire array on a centimeter-sized substrate via a facile roll-to-plate process, as described on page 3209. Nanowire growth in a nano-confined space adopts a lattice-strained and single-crystalline packing motif, which can be harnessed for strong intermolecular electronic coupling. Thus, nanowire-based field-effect transistors show extremely high field-effect mobilities up to 9.71 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1) . PMID:27105809

  14. High-conductance low-voltage organic thin film transistor with locally rearranged poly(3-hexylthiophene) domain by current annealing on plastic substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pei, Zingway; Tsai, Hsing-Wang; Lai, Hsin-Cheng

    2016-02-01

    The organic material based thin film transistors (TFTs) are attractive for flexible optoelectronics applications due to the ability of lager area fabrication by solution and low temperature process on plastic substrate. Recently, the research of organic TFT focus on low operation voltage and high output current to achieve a low power organic logic circuit for optoelectronic device,such as e-paper or OLED displayer. To obtain low voltage and high output current, high gate capacitance and high channel mobility are key factors. The well-arranged polymer chain by a high temperature postannealing, leading enhancement conductivity of polymer film was a general method. However, the thermal annealing applying heat for all device on the substrate and may not applicable to plastic substrate. Therefore, in this work, the low operation voltage and high output current of polymer TFTs was demonstrated by locally electrical bias annealing. The poly(styrene-comethyl methacrylate) (PS-r-PMMA) with ultra-thin thickness is used as gate dielectric that the thickness is controlled by thermal treatment after spin coated on organic electrode. In electrical bias-annealing process, the PS-r- PMMA is acted a heating layer. After electrical bias-annealing, the polymer TFTs obtain high channel mobility at low voltage that lead high output current by a locally annealing of P3HT film. In the future, the locally electrical biasannealing method could be applied on plastic substrate for flexible optoelectronic application.

  15. Turbulent energy dissipation and intermittency in ambipolar diffusion magnetohydrodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Momferratos, Georgios; Falgarone, Edith; Forêts, Guillaume Pineau des

    2015-01-01

    The dissipation of kinetic and magnetic energy in the interstellar medium (ISM) can proceed through viscous, Ohmic or ambipolar diffusion (AD). It occurs at very small scales compared to the scales at which energy is presumed to be injected. This localized heating may impact the ISM evolution but also its chemistry, thus providing observable features. Here, we perform 3D spectral simulations of decaying magnetohydrodynamic turbulence including the effects of AD. We find that the AD heating power spectrum peaks at scales in the inertial range, due to a strong alignment of the magnetic and current vectors in the dissipative range. AD affects much greater scales than the AD scale predicted by dimensional analysis. We find that energy dissipation is highly concentrated on thin sheets. Its probability density function follows a lognormal law with a power-law tail which hints at intermittency, a property which we quantify by use of structure function exponents. Finally, we extract structures of high dissipation, de...

  16. Ambipolarity and transport with resonant ion diffusion in EBT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using recently derived analytic expressions for resonant and nonresonant neoclassical transport coefficients in EBT, we calculate the ambipolar potential required to maintain quasi-charge neutrality in the presence of a high-energy ion tail produced by nonclassical heating. The electric field obeys a differential rather than an algebraic equation. Solution of this equation gives a potential proportional to the local magnetic field strength and thus a rigid rotation of low-energy ions near the magnetic axis. Radial-transport calculations using this potential give improved agreement with experimental data for neutral density and particle lifetime. However, high-energy ion orbits in the calculated potential exhibit banana widths larger than assumed in the resonant transport theory. The required density of high-energy ions is therefore larger than would be expected if realistic banana widths could be included

  17. Unique Characteristics of Vertical Carbon Nanotube Field-effect Transistors on Silicon

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Jingqi

    2014-07-01

    A vertical carbon nanotube field-effect transistor (CNTFET) based on silicon (Si) substrate has been proposed and simulated using a semi-classical theory. A single-walled carbon nanotube (SWNT) and an n-type Si nanowire in series construct the channel of the transistor. The CNTFET presents ambipolar characteristics at positive drain voltage (Vd) and n-type characteristics at negative Vd. The current is significantly influenced by the doping level of n-Si and the SWNT band gap. The n-branch current of the ambipolar characteristics increases with increasing doping level of the n-Si while the p-branch current decreases. The SWNT band gap has the same influence on the p-branch current at a positive Vd and n-type characteristics at negative Vd. The lower the SWNT band gap, the higher the current. However, it has no impact on the n-branch current in the ambipolar characteristics. Thick oxide is found to significantly degrade the current and the subthreshold slope of the CNTFETs.

  18. Surface Morphology of Polyimide Thin Film Dip-Coated on Polyester Filament for Dielectric Layer in Fibrous Organic Field Effect Transistor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rambausek Lina

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The idea of wearable electronics automatically leads to the concept of integrating electronic functions on textile substrates. Since this substrate type implies certain challenges in comparison with their rigid electronic companions, it is of utmost importance to investigate the application of materials for generating the electronic functions on the textile substrate. Only when interaction of materials and textile substrate is fully understood, the electronic function can be generated on the textile without changing the textile’s properties, being flexible or stretchable. This research deals with the optimization of the dielectric layer in a fibrous organic field effect transistor (OFET. A transistor can act as an electrical switch in a circuit. In this work, the polyimide layer was dip-coated on a copper-coated polyester filament. After thoroughly investigating the process conditions, best results with minimal thickness and roughness at full insulation could be achieved at a dip-coating speed of 50 mm/min. The polyimide solution was optimal at 15w% and the choice for the solvent NMP was made. In this paper, details on the pre-treatment methods, choice of solvent and dip-coating speed and their effect on layer morphology and thickness, electrical properties and roughness are reported. Results show that the use of polyimide as a dielectric layer in the architecture of a fibrous OFET is promising. Further research deals with the application of the semiconductor layer within the mentioned architecture, to finally build an OFET on a filament for application in smart textiles.

  19. High-performance single-crystalline arsenic-doped indium oxide nanowires for transparent thin-film transistors and active matrix organic light-emitting diode displays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Po-Chiang; Shen, Guozhen; Chen, Haitian; Ha, Young-geun; Wu, Chao; Sukcharoenchoke, Saowalak; Fu, Yue; Liu, Jun; Facchetti, Antonio; Marks, Tobin J; Thompson, Mark E; Zhou, Chongwu

    2009-11-24

    We report high-performance arsenic (As)-doped indium oxide (In(2)O(3)) nanowires for transparent electronics, including their implementation in transparent thin-film transistors (TTFTs) and transparent active-matrix organic light-emitting diode (AMOLED) displays. The As-doped In(2)O(3) nanowires were synthesized using a laser ablation process and then fabricated into TTFTs with indium-tin oxide (ITO) as the source, drain, and gate electrodes. The nanowire TTFTs on glass substrates exhibit very high device mobilities (approximately 1490 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1)), current on/off ratios (5.7 x 10(6)), steep subthreshold slopes (88 mV/dec), and a saturation current of 60 microA for a single nanowire. By using a self-assembled nanodielectric (SAND) as the gate dielectric, the device mobilities and saturation current can be further improved up to 2560 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1) and 160 microA, respectively. All devices exhibit good optical transparency (approximately 81% on average) in the visible spectral range. In addition, the nanowire TTFTs were utilized to control green OLEDs with varied intensities. Furthermore, a fully integrated seven-segment AMOLED display was fabricated with a good transparency of 40% and with each pixel controlled by two nanowire transistors. This work demonstrates that the performance enhancement possible by combining nanowire doping and self-assembled nanodielectrics enables silicon-free electronic circuitry for low power consumption, optically transparent, high-frequency devices assembled near room temperature. PMID:19842677

  20. Enhanced mobility in organic field-effect transistors due to semiconductor/dielectric iInterface control and very thin single crystal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Ji; Yu, Peng; Arabi, Syeda Atika; Wang, Jiawei; He, Jun; Jiang, Chao

    2016-07-01

    A perfect organic crystal while keeping high quality semiconductor/dielectric interface with minimal defects and disorder is crucial for the realization of high performance organic single crystal field-effect transistors (OSCFETs). However, in most reported OSCFET devices, the crystal transfer processes is extensively used. Therefore, the semiconductor/dielectric interface is inevitably damaged. Carrier traps and scattering centers are brought into the conduction channel, so that the intrinsic high mobility of OSCFET devices is entirely disguised. Here, very thin pentacene single crystal is grown directly on bare SiO2 by developing a 'seed-controlled' pentacene single crystal method. The interface quality is controlled by an in situ fabrication of OSCFETs. The interface is kept intact without any transfer process. Furthermore, we quantitatively analyze the influence of crystal thickness on device performance. With a pristine interface and very thin crystal, we have achieved the highest mobility: 5.7 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1)-more than twice the highest ever reported pentacene OSCFET mobility on bare SiO2. This study may provide a universal route for the use of small organic molecules to achieve high performance in lamellar single crystal field-effect devices. PMID:27211506

  1. Ambipolar Diffusion in Direct-Current Positive Column with Variations in Radius of Discharge Tube

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    D. AKBAR; S. BILIKMEN

    2006-01-01

    @@ The ambipolar diffusion and argon ion mobility as functions of the reduced electric field and pressure times the tube radius are investigated in a weakly ionized non-uniform glow discharge plasma system.

  2. Ambipolar radial electric field generated by anomalous transport induced by magnetic perturbations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Dunqiang; Zhu, Siqiang; Zhang, Debing; Wang, Shaojie

    2016-05-01

    The anomalous particle transport induced by magnetic perturbations in a tokamak is investigated. The correlation between the radial position and the kinetic energy of electrons, Dr K=-e ErDr r , is predicted theoretically and is verified by simulations in the presence of a mean radial electric field. This correlation leads to a radial particle flux produced by the radial electric field. The ambipolar radial electric field can thus be predicted by using the ambipolarity condition Γri=Γre .

  3. Current on-off operation of graphene transistor with dual gates and He ion irradiated channel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakaharai, Shu; Sato, Shintaro; Yokoyama, Naoki [Green Nanoelectronics Centre, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), 16-1 Onogawa, Tsukuba 305-8569 (Japan); Iijima, Tomohiko [Innovation Center for Advanced Nanodevices, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), 16-1 Onogawa, Tsukuba 305-8569 (Japan); Ogawa, Shinichi [Nanoelectronics Research Institute, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), 16-1 Onogawa, Tsukuba 305-8569 (Japan); Li, Song-Lin; Tsukagoshi, Kazuhito [International Centre for Materials Nanoarchitectonics (WPI-MANA), National Institute for Materials Science (NIMS), 1-1 Namiki, Tsukuba 305-0044 (Japan)

    2013-11-15

    We demonstrate the current on-off operation in a novel dual-gated transistor with a He ion irradiated graphene channel in which defect-induced transport gap is formed. The transistor operation was performed by controlling the band configuration of gate-controlled p-i-n junction by independent biasing of top gates. The maximum current on-off ratio of nearly four orders of magnitude was obtained at a temperature of 250 K in the proposed device structure. It was also demonstrated that the transistor polarity can be changed between unipolar and ambipolar just by adjusting the gate bias of one of the dual gates, as expected from the device operation model. (copyright 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  4. Amorphous Solid Simulation and Trial Fabrication of the Organic Field-Effect Transistor of Tetrathienonaphthalenes Prepared by Using Microflow Photochemical Reactions: A Theoretical Calculation-Inspired Investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Atsushi; Matsui, Yasunori; Asada, Toshio; Kumeda, Motoki; Takagi, Kenichiro; Suenaga, Yu; Nagae, Kunihiko; Ohta, Eisuke; Sato, Hiroyasu; Koseki, Shiro; Naito, Hiroyoshi; Ikeda, Hiroshi

    2016-04-15

    The p-type organic semiconductor (OSC) material tetrathieno[2,3-a:3',2'-c:2″,3″-f:3‴,2‴-h]naphthalene (2TTN) and its alkyl-substituted derivatives Cn-2TTNs (n = 6, 8, and 10) have been developed based on the results of theoretical calculation-inspired investigation. A hole mobility for amorphous Cn-2TTNs (10(-2)-10(-3) cm(2) V(-1) s(-1)) was accurately predicted by using a novel statistical method in which the geometric mean of the mobilities for many individual small molecular flocks in an amorphous solid was obtained by using molecular mechanical molecular dynamics simulations and quantum chemical calculations. The simulation also suggests that upon increasing the length of alkyl chains in Cn-2TTNs the mobilities become smaller as a consequence of a decrease in transfer integral values. Cn-2TTNs are synthesized in a microflow reactor through photoreactions of the corresponding precursors. Cn-2TTNs are then utilized in the fabrication of organic field-effect transistors (OFETs). Although spin-coated thin films of Cn-2TTNs are crystalline, the hole mobilities (10(-2)-10(-3) cm(2) V(-1) s(-1)) of trial OFETs decrease upon elongation of the alkyl chains. This finding parallels the results of theoretical simulation. The simulation method for amorphous solids developed in this effort should become a useful tool in studies aimed at designing new OSC materials. PMID:27010327

  5. Significance of the double-layer capacitor effect in polar rubbery dielectrics and exceptionally stable low-voltage high transconductance organic transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chao; Lee, Wen-Ya; Kong, Desheng; Pfattner, Raphael; Schweicher, Guillaume; Nakajima, Reina; Lu, Chien; Mei, Jianguo; Lee, Tae Hoon; Wu, Hung-Chin; Lopez, Jeffery; Diao, Ying; Gu, Xiaodan; Himmelberger, Scott; Niu, Weijun; Matthews, James R.; He, Mingqian; Salleo, Alberto; Nishi, Yoshio; Bao, Zhenan

    2015-12-01

    Both high gain and transconductance at low operating voltages are essential for practical applications of organic field-effect transistors (OFETs). Here, we describe the significance of the double-layer capacitance effect in polar rubbery dielectrics, even when present in a very low ion concentration and conductivity. We observed that this effect can greatly enhance the OFET transconductance when driven at low voltages. Specifically, when the polar elastomer poly(vinylidene fluoride-co-hexafluoropropylene) (e-PVDF-HFP) was used as the dielectric layer, despite a thickness of several micrometers, we obtained a transconductance per channel width 30 times higher than that measured for the same organic semiconductors fabricated on a semicrystalline PVDF-HFP with a similar thickness. After a series of detailed experimental investigations, we attribute the above observation to the double-layer capacitance effect, even though the ionic conductivity is as low as 10-10 S/cm. Different from previously reported OFETs with double-layer capacitance effects, our devices showed unprecedented high bias-stress stability in air and even in water.

  6. Improvement in Brightness Uniformity by Compensating for the Threshold Voltages of Both the Driving Thin-Film Transistor and the Organic Light-Emitting Diode for Active-Matrix Organic Light-Emitting Diode Displays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ching-Lin Fan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a novel pixel circuit design and driving method for active-matrix organic light-emitting diode (AM-OLED displays that use low-temperature polycrystalline-silicon thin-film transistors (LTPS-TFTs as driving element. The automatic integrated circuit modeling simulation program with integrated circuit emphasis (AIM-SPICE simulator was used to verify that the proposed pixel circuit, which comprises five transistors and one capacitor, can supply uniform output current. The voltage programming method of the proposed pixel circuit comprises three periods: reset, compensation with data input, and emission periods. The simulated results reflected excellent performance. For instance, when ΔVTH=±0.33 V, the average error rate of the OLED current variation was low (<0.8%, and when ΔVTH_OLED=+0.33 V, the error rate of the OLED current variation was 4.7%. Moreover, when the I×R (current × resistance drop voltage of a power line was 0.3 V, the error rate of the OLED current variation was 5.8%. The simulated results indicated that the proposed pixel circuit exhibits high immunity to the threshold voltage deviation of both the driving poly-Si TFTs and OLEDs, and simultaneously compensates for the I×R drop voltage of a power line.

  7. STABILIZED TRANSISTOR AMPLIFIER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noe, J.B.

    1963-05-01

    A temperature stabilized transistor amplifier having a pair of transistors coupled in cascade relation that are capable of providing amplification through a temperature range of - 100 un. Concent 85% F to 400 un. Concent 85% F described. The stabilization of the amplifier is attained by coupling a feedback signal taken from the emitter of second transistor at a junction between two serially arranged biasing resistances in the circuit of the emitter of the second transistor to the base of the first transistor. Thus, a change in the emitter current of the second transistor is automatically corrected by the feedback adjustment of the base-emitter potential of the first transistor and by a corresponding change in the base-emitter potential of the second transistor. (AEC)

  8. Label-free C-reactive protein electronic detection with an electrolyte-gated organic field-effect transistor-based immunosensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magliulo, Maria; De Tullio, Donato; Vikholm-Lundin, Inger; Albers, Willem M; Munter, Tony; Manoli, Kyriaki; Palazzo, Gerardo; Torsi, Luisa

    2016-06-01

    In this contribution, we propose a label-free immunosensor, based on a novel type of electrolyte-gated field-effect transistor (EGOFET), for ultrasensitive detection of the C-reactive protein (CRP). The recognition layer of the biosensor is fabricated by physical adsorption of the anti-CRP monoclonal antibody onto a poly-3-hexyl thiophene (P3HT) organic semiconductor surface. A supplementary nonionic hydrophilic polymer is used as a blocking agent preventing nonspecific interactions and allowing a better orientation of the antibodies immobilized onto the P3HT surface. The whole biomolecule immobilization procedure does not require any pretreatment of the organic semiconductor surface, and the whole functionalization process is completed in less than 30 min. Surface plasmon resonance (SPR) measurements were performed to assess the amount of biomolecules physisorbed onto the P3HT and to evaluate the CRP binding proprieties of the deposited anti-CRP layer. A partial surface coverage of about 23 % of adsorbed antibody molecules was found to most efficiently sense the CRP. The electrical performance of the EGOFET immunosensor was comparable to that of a bare P3HT EGOFET device, and the obtained CRP calibration curve was linear over six orders of magnitude (from 4 pM to 2 μM). The relative standard deviation of the individual calibration points, measured on immunosensors fabricated on different chips, ranged between 1 and 14 %, and a detection limit of 2 pM (220 ng/L) was established. The novel electronic immunosensor is compatible with low-cost fabrication procedures and was successfully employed for the detection of the CRP biomarker in the clinically relevant matrix serum. Graphical abstract Schematic of the EGOFET immunosensor for CRP detection. The anti-CRP monoclonal antibody layer is physisorbed on the P3HT organic semiconductor and the CRP is directly measured by a label-free electronic EGOFET transducer. PMID:27032409

  9. Protonic transistors from thin reflecting films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ionic transistors from organic and biological materials hold great promise for bioelectronics applications. Thus, much research effort has focused on optimizing the performance of these devices. Herein, we experimentally validate a straightforward strategy for enhancing the high to low current ratios of protein-based protonic transistors. Upon reducing the thickness of the transistors’ active layers, we increase their high to low current ratios 2-fold while leaving the other figures of merit unchanged. The measured ratio of 3.3 is comparable to the best values found for analogous devices. These findings underscore the importance of the active layer geometry for optimum protonic transistor functionality

  10. The Organic Power Transistor: Roll-to-Roll Manufacture, Thermal Behavior, and Power Handling When Driving Printed Electronics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pastorelli, Francesco; Schmidt, Thomas Mikael; Hösel, Markus;

    2016-01-01

    drive large currents while handling the thermal aspects in operation together with other organic printed electronics technologies such as large area organic photovoltaics (OPV)[2] and large area electrochromic displays (EC).[3] We find especially that an elevated operational temperature is beneficial...... with respect to both transconductance and on/off ratio. We achieve high currents of up to 45mA at a temperature of 80 C with an on/ off ratio of 100 which is sufficient to drive large area organic electronics such as an EC device powered by OPV devices that we also demonstrate. Finally, we observe a...

  11. Demonstration of InAlN/AlGaN high electron mobility transistors with an enhanced breakdown voltage by pulsed metal organic chemical vapor deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xue, JunShuai, E-mail: junshuaixue@hotmail.com; Zhang, JinCheng; Hao, Yue [Key Laboratory of Wide Band Gap Semiconductor Materials and Devices, School of Microelectronics, Xidian University, Xi' an 710071 (China)

    2016-01-04

    In this work, InAlN/AlGaN heterostructures employing wider bandgap AlGaN instead of conventional GaN channel were grown on sapphire substrate by pulsed metal organic chemical vapor deposition, where the nominal Al composition in InAlN barrier and AlGaN channel were chosen to be 83% and 5%, respectively, to achieve close lattice-matched condition. An electron mobility of 511 cm{sup 2}/V s along with a sheet carrier density of 1.88 × 10{sup 13 }cm{sup −2} were revealed in the prepared heterostructures, both of which were lower compared with lattice-matched InAlN/GaN due to increased intrinsic alloy disorder scattering resulting from AlGaN channel and compressively piezoelectric polarization in barrier, respectively. While the high electron mobility transistor (HEMT) processed on these structures not only exhibited a sufficiently high drain output current density of 854 mA/mm but also demonstrated a significantly enhanced breakdown voltage of 87 V, which is twice higher than that of reported InAlN/GaN HEMT with the same device dimension, potential characteristics for high-voltage operation of GaN-based electronic devices.

  12. Low-voltage operation of Si-based ferroelectric field effect transistors using organic ferroelectrics, poly(vinylidene fluoride-trifluoroethylene), as a gate dielectric

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyata, Yusuke; Yoshimura, Takeshi; Ashida, Atsushi; Fujimura, Norifumi

    2016-04-01

    Si-based metal-ferroelectric-semiconductor (MFS) capacitors have been fabricated using poly(vinylidene fluoride-trifluoroethylene) [P(VDF-TrFE)] as a ferroelectric gate. The pinhole-free P(VDF-TrFE) thin films with high resistivity were able to be prepared by spin-coating directly onto hydrogen-terminated Si. The capacitance-voltage (C-V) characteristics of the ferroelectric gate field effect transistor (FeFET) using this MFS structure clearly show butterfly-shaped hysteresis originating from the ferroelectricity, indicating carrier modulation on the Si surface at gate voltages below 2 V. The drain current-gate voltage (I D-V G) characteristics also show counterclockwise hysteresis at gate voltages below 5 V. This is the first report on the low-voltage operation of a Si-based FeFET using P(VDF-TrFE) as a gate dielectric. This organic gate FeFET without any insulator layer at the ferroelectric/Si interface should be one of the promising devices for overcoming the critical issues of the FeFET, such as depolarization field and a decrease in the gate voltage.

  13. Demonstration of InAlN/AlGaN high electron mobility transistors with an enhanced breakdown voltage by pulsed metal organic chemical vapor deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work, InAlN/AlGaN heterostructures employing wider bandgap AlGaN instead of conventional GaN channel were grown on sapphire substrate by pulsed metal organic chemical vapor deposition, where the nominal Al composition in InAlN barrier and AlGaN channel were chosen to be 83% and 5%, respectively, to achieve close lattice-matched condition. An electron mobility of 511 cm2/V s along with a sheet carrier density of 1.88 × 1013 cm−2 were revealed in the prepared heterostructures, both of which were lower compared with lattice-matched InAlN/GaN due to increased intrinsic alloy disorder scattering resulting from AlGaN channel and compressively piezoelectric polarization in barrier, respectively. While the high electron mobility transistor (HEMT) processed on these structures not only exhibited a sufficiently high drain output current density of 854 mA/mm but also demonstrated a significantly enhanced breakdown voltage of 87 V, which is twice higher than that of reported InAlN/GaN HEMT with the same device dimension, potential characteristics for high-voltage operation of GaN-based electronic devices

  14. Electrical characteristics of top contact pentacene organic thin film transistors with SiO2 and poly(methyl methacrylate) as gate dielectrics

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Jaya Lohani; Praveen Saho; Upender Kumar; V R Balakrishnan; P K Basu

    2008-09-01

    Organic thin film transistors (OTFTs) were fabricated using pentacene as the active layer with two different gate dielectrics, namely SiO2 and poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA), in top contact geometry for comparative studies. OTFTs with SiO2 as dielectric and gold deposited on the rough side of highly doped silicon (n+ -Si) as gate electrode exhibited reasonable field effect mobilities. To deal with poor stability and large leakage currents between source/drain and gate electrodes in these devices, isolated OTFTs with reduced source/drain contact area were fabricated by selective deposition of pentacene on SiO2/PMMA through shadow mask. This led to almost negligible leakage currents and no degradation in electrical performance even after 14 days of storage under ambient conditions. But, the field effect mobilities obtained were lower than 10-3 cm2 V-1 s-1, whereas by using PMMA as gate dielectric with chromium deposited on the polished side of n+ -Si as gate electrode, improved field effect mobilities (> 0.02 cm2 V-1 s-1) were obtained. PMMA-based OTFTs also exhibited lower leakage currents and reproducible output characteristics even after 30 days of storage under ambient conditions.

  15. Influence of the substrate platform on the opto-electronic properties of multi-layer organic light-emitting field-effect transistors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Generali, Gianluca; Capelli, Raffaella; Toffanin, Stefano; Muccini, Michele [Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche (CNR), Istituto per lo Studio dei Materiali Nanostrutturati (ISMN), via P. Gobetti 101, I-40129 Bologna (Italy); Dinelli, Franco, E-mail: g.generali@bo.ismn.cnr.it, E-mail: m.muccini@bo.ismn.cnr.it [Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche (CNR), INO U.O.S. ' A. Gozzini' Area della Ricerca di Pisa - S. Cataldo, via Moruzzi 1, I-56124 Pisa (Italy)

    2011-06-08

    In this paper, we present a study of the effects of the influence of the substrate platform on the properties of a three-layer vertical hetero-junction made of thin films of {alpha}, {omega}-diperfluorohexyl-4T (DHF4T), a blend of tris(8-hydroxyquinoline)aluminium (Alq3) and 4-(dicyanomethylene)-2-methyl-6-(p-dimethylaminostyryl)-4H-pyran (DCM) and {alpha}, {omega}-dihexyl-quaterthiophene (DH4T). The hetero-junction represents the active component of an organic light-emitting transistor (OLET). The substrate platforms investigated in this study are glass/indium-tin-oxide/poly(methyl-methacrylate) (PMMA) and Si{sup ++}/silicon oxide (SiO{sub 2})/PMMA. The first platform is almost completely transparent to light and therefore is very promising for use in OLET applications. The second one has been chosen for comparison as it employs standard microelectronic materials, i.e. Si{sup ++}/SiO{sub 2}. We show how different gate materials and structure can affect the relevant field-effect electrical characteristics, such as the charge mobility and threshold voltage. By means of an atomic force microscopy analysis, a systematic study has been made in order to correlate the morphology of the active layers with the electrical properties of the devices.

  16. Visualization of trapped charges being ejected from organic thin-film transistor channels by Kelvin-probe force microscopy during gate voltage sweeps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamagishi, Yuji; Kobayashi, Kei; Noda, Kei; Yamada, Hirofumi

    2016-02-01

    Kelvin-probe force microscopy (KFM) has been widely used to evaluate the localized charge trap states in the organic thin-film transistor (OTFT) channels. However, applicability of the KFM has been limited to the trapped charges whose lifetime is typically longer than several minutes because of the temporal resolution of the KFM. Therefore, it has not long been employed for studying the dynamics of the trapped charges in the OTFTs. Here, we demonstrate a method to visualize the transient distribution of the trapped charge carriers in operating OTFTs. The method allows visualizing the dynamics of the trapped charges during the gate voltage sweeps on a time scale of several hundreds of milliseconds. The experimental results performed on dinaphtho[2,3-b:2',3'-f]thieno[3,2-b]thiophene (DNTT) OTFTs indicate that, immediately after a bias voltage applied to a device was turned off, the primary discharging of the channel region around the electrode edges started and it limited the ejection process of the remaining accumulated charges to the electrodes, resulting in an increased density of long-lived trapped charges in a region distant from the electrodes. The presented results suggest that the method is useful to study the electrical connections at the interface between the DNTT grains and electrodes, or those between the grains.

  17. Chalcogenophene comonomer comparison in small band gap diketopyrrolopyrrole-based conjugated polymers for high-performing field-effect transistors and organic solar cells

    KAUST Repository

    Ashraf, Raja Shahid

    2015-01-28

    The design, synthesis, and characterization of a series of diketopyrrolopyrrole-based copolymers with different chalcogenophene comonomers (thiophene, selenophene, and tellurophene) for use in field-effect transistors and organic photovoltaic devices are reported. The effect of the heteroatom substitution on the optical, electrochemical, and photovoltaic properties and charge carrier mobilities of these polymers is discussed. The results indicate that by increasing the size of the chalcogen atom (S < Se < Te), polymer band gaps are narrowed mainly due to LUMO energy level stabilization. In addition, the larger heteroatomic size also increases intermolecular heteroatom-heteroatom interactions facilitating the formation of polymer aggregates leading to enhanced field-effect mobilities of 1.6 cm2/(V s). Bulk heterojunction solar cells based on the chalcogenophene polymer series blended with fullerene derivatives show good photovoltaic properties, with power conversion efficiencies ranging from 7.1-8.8%. A high photoresponse in the near-infrared (NIR) region with excellent photocurrents above 20 mA cm-2 was achieved for all polymers, making these highly efficient low band gap polymers promising candidates for use in tandem solar cells. (Graph Presented).

  18. Gate dielectric surface treatments for performance improvement of poly(3-hexylthiophene-2,5-diyl) based organic field-effect transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nawaz, Ali; de, Cristiane, , Col; Cruz-Cruz, Isidro; Kumar, Anshu; Kumar, Anil; Hümmelgen, Ivo A.

    2015-08-01

    We report on enhanced performance in poly(3-hexylthiophene-2,5-diyl) (P3HT) based organic field effect transistors (OFETs) achieved by improvement in hole transport along the channel near the insulator/semiconductor (I/S) interface. The improvement in hole transport is demonstrated to occur very close to the I/S interface, after treatment of the insulator layer with sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS). SDS is an anionic surfactant, with negatively charged heads, known for formation of micelles above critical micelle concentration (CMC), which contribute to the passivation of positively charged traps. Investigation of field-effect mobility (μFET) as a function of channel bottleneck thickness in OFETs reveals the favorable gate voltage regime where mobility is the highest. In addition, it shows that the gate dielectric surface treatment not only leads to an increase in mobility in that regime, but also displaces charge transport closer to the interface, hence pointing toward passivation of the charge traps at I/S interface. OFETs with SDS treatment were compared with untreated and vitamin C or hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) treated OFETs. All the treatments resulted in significant improvements in specific dielectric capacitance, μFET, on/off current ratio and transconductance.

  19. Low-voltage organic field-effect transistors based on novel high-κ organometallic lanthanide complex for gate insulating materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qi Liu

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available A novel high-κ organometallic lanthanide complex, Eu(tta3L (tta=2-thenoyltrifluoroacetonate, L = 4,5-pinene bipyridine, is used as gate insulating material to fabricate low-voltage pentacene field-effect transistors (FETs. The optimized gate insulator exhibits the excellent properties such as low leakage current density, low surface roughness, and high dielectric constant. When operated under a low voltage of −5 V, the pentacene FET devices show the attractive electrical performance, e.g. carrier mobility (μFET of 0.17 cm2 V−1 s−1, threshold voltage (Vth of −0.9 V, on/off current ratio of 5 × 103, and subthreshold slope (SS of 1.0 V dec−1, which is much better than that of devices obtained on conventional 300 nm SiO2 substrate (0.13 cm2 V−1 s−1, −7.3 V and 3.1 V dec−1 for μFET, Vth and SS value when operated at −30 V. These results indicate that this kind of high-κ organometallic lanthanide complex becomes a promising candidate as gate insulator for low-voltage organic FETs.

  20. Low-voltage organic field-effect transistors based on novel high-κ organometallic lanthanide complex for gate insulating materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A novel high-κ organometallic lanthanide complex, Eu(tta)3L (tta=2-thenoyltrifluoroacetonate, L = 4,5-pinene bipyridine), is used as gate insulating material to fabricate low-voltage pentacene field-effect transistors (FETs). The optimized gate insulator exhibits the excellent properties such as low leakage current density, low surface roughness, and high dielectric constant. When operated under a low voltage of −5 V, the pentacene FET devices show the attractive electrical performance, e.g. carrier mobility (μFET) of 0.17 cm2 V−1 s−1, threshold voltage (Vth) of −0.9 V, on/off current ratio of 5 × 103, and subthreshold slope (SS) of 1.0 V dec−1, which is much better than that of devices obtained on conventional 300 nm SiO2 substrate (0.13 cm2 V−1 s−1, −7.3 V and 3.1 V dec−1 for μFET, Vth and SS value when operated at −30 V). These results indicate that this kind of high-κ organometallic lanthanide complex becomes a promising candidate as gate insulator for low-voltage organic FETs

  1. Effects of neutral particle beam on nano-crystalline silicon thin films, with application to thin film transistor backplane for flexible active matrix organic light emitting diodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jang, Jin Nyoung; Song, Byoung Chul; Lee, Dong Hyeok [Dept. of Display and Semiconductor Physics, Korea University, Chungnam (Korea, Republic of); Yoo, Suk Jae; Lee, Bonju [National Fusion Research Institute, 52, Yuseong-Gu, Deajeon, 305-333 (Korea, Republic of); Hong, MunPyo, E-mail: goodmoon@korea.ac.kr [Dept. of Display and Semiconductor Physics, Korea University, Chungnam (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-08-01

    A novel deposition process for nano-crystalline silicon (nc-Si) thin films was developed using neutral beam assisted chemical vapor deposition (NBaCVD) technology for the application of the thin film transistor (TFT) backplane of flexible active matrix organic light emitting diode (AMOLED). During the formation of a nc-Si thin film, the energetic particles enhance nano-sized crystalline rather microcrystalline Si in thin films. Neutral Particle Beam (NPB) affects the crystallinity in two ways: (1) NPB energy enhances nano-crystallinity through kinetic energy transfer and chemical annealing, and (2) heavier NPB (such as Ar) induces damage and amorphization through energetic particle impinging. Nc-Si thin film properties effectively can be changed by the reflector bias. As increase of NPB energy limits growing the crystalline, the performance of TFT supports this NPB behavior. The results of nc-Si TFT by NBaCVD demonstrate the technical potentials of neutral beam based processes for achieving high stability and reduced leakage in TFT backplanes for AMOLEDs.

  2. One-step method of producing uniaxially oriented layers of organic discotic molecules for field effect transistors

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Miskiewicz, P.; Rybak, A.; Jung, J. Y.; Glowacki, I.; Maniukiewicz, W.; Tracz, A.; Pfleger, Jiří; Ulanski, J.; Müllen, K.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 37, 1-3 (2007), s. 207-218. ISSN 1543-0537. [International Conference Erpos on Electrical and Related Properties of Organic Solids and Polymers /10./. Carges, 10.7.2005-15.7.2005] Grant ostatní: Cordis(PL) G5RD-CT-2000-0032 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : FETs * discotic liquid crystals * organic semiconductors Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry

  3. Ambipolar field effect in the ternary topological insulator (BixSb1–x)2Te3 by composition tuning

    KAUST Repository

    Kong, Desheng

    2011-10-02

    Topological insulators exhibit a bulk energy gap and spin-polarized surface states that lead to unique electronic properties 1-9, with potential applications in spintronics and quantum information processing. However, transport measurements have typically been dominated by residual bulk charge carriers originating from crystal defects or environmental doping 10-12, and these mask the contribution of surface carriers to charge transport in these materials. Controlling bulk carriers in current topological insulator materials, such as the binary sesquichalcogenides Bi 2Te 3, Sb 2Te 3 and Bi 2Se 3, has been explored extensively by means of material doping 8,9,11 and electrical gating 13-16, but limited progress has been made to achieve nanostructures with low bulk conductivity for electronic device applications. Here we demonstrate that the ternary sesquichalcogenide (Bi xSb 1-x) 2Te 3 is a tunable topological insulator system. By tuning the ratio of bismuth to antimony, we are able to reduce the bulk carrier density by over two orders of magnitude, while maintaining the topological insulator properties. As a result, we observe a clear ambipolar gating effect in (Bi xSb 1-x) 2Te 3 nanoplate field-effect transistor devices, similar to that observed in graphene field-effect transistor devices 17. The manipulation of carrier type and density in topological insulator nanostructures demonstrated here paves the way for the implementation of topological insulators in nanoelectronics and spintronics. © 2011 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.

  4. Improvement in Mobility and Stability of n-Type Organic Field-Effect Transistors with a Hole Transporting Interfacial Layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakayama, Ken-ichi; Ishikawa, Motomi; Yokoyama, Masaaki

    2009-02-01

    Field-effect electron mobility and stability of N,N'-dioctyl-3,4,9,10-perylene tetracarboxylic diimide (PTCDI-C8H) improved when a hole-transporting layer, used in organic light-emitting diodes, was inserted between the gate insulator and the channel layer. This result suggests that insertion of an electronically active interfacial layer of an organic semiconductor is more effective in eliminating electron traps of the insulator surface compared to conventional surface treatment to obtain an inert surface.

  5. Ambipolar diffusion in low-mass star formation. I. General comparison with the ideal MHD case

    CERN Document Server

    Masson, Jacques; Hennebelle, Patrick; Vaytet, Neil; Commerçon, Benoit

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we provide a more accurate description of the evolution of the magnetic flux redistribution during prestellar core collapse by including resistive terms in the magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) equations. We focus more particularly on the impact of ambipolar diffusion. We use the adaptive mesh refinement code RAMSES to carry out such calculations. The resistivities required to calculate the ambipolar diffusion terms were computed using a reduced chemical network of charged, neutral and grain species. The inclusion of ambipolar diffusion leads to the formation of a magnetic diffusion barrier in the vicinity of the core, preventing accumulation of magnetic flux in and around the core and amplification of the field above 0.1G. The mass and radius of the first Larson core remain similar between ideal and non-ideal MHD models. This diffusion plateau has crucial consequences on magnetic braking processes, allowing the formation of disk structures. Magnetically supported outflows launched in ideal MHD models...

  6. Self-Assembled Organic Single Crystalline Nanosheet for Solution Processed High-Performance n-Channel Field-Effect Transistors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jin Hong; Park, Sang Kyu; Kim, Jong H; Whang, Dong Ryeol; Yoon, Won Sik; Park, Soo Young

    2016-07-01

    Submillimeter sized n-channel organic single crystalline nanosheet based on dicyanodistyrylbenzene derivative, (2E,2'E)-3,3'-(2,5-dimethoxy-1,4-pheny-lene)bis(2-(5-(4-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl)thiophen-2-yl)acrylonitrile) (Me-4-TFPTA), is developed. Strong π-π interaction, hydrogen bonding interactions derived from cyano group (CN) as well as solvent inclusion along the lateral direction play a key role in forming nanosheet morphology. Me-4-TFPTA nanosheets exhibit excellent field-effect electron mobility of up to 7.81 cm(2) v(-1) s(-1) . PMID:27165653

  7. Air-stable n-channel organic field-effect transistors based on N,N‧-bis(4-trifluoromethylbenzyl)perylene-3,4,9,10-tetracarboxylic diimide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosoi, Yoshinobu; Tsunami, Daisuke; Ishii, Hisao; Furukawa, Yukio

    2007-02-01

    Air-stable n-channel field-effect transistors based on thin films of the compound, N, N'-bis(4-trifluoromethylbenzyl)perylene-3,4,9,10-tetracarboxylic diimide (PTCDI-TFB), were fabricated, and the effects of surface treatment and substrate temperature at the film deposition on the electron mobility of the transistors were studied. The maximum mobility, 4.1 × 10 -2 cm 2 V -1 s -1 in the saturation region (1.7 × 10 -2 cm 2 V -1 s -1 in the linear region), was obtained in air for the film deposited at 95 °C on the SiO 2 surface modified with hexamethyldisilazane. The high electron affinity of PTCDI-TFB estimated at 4.8 eV by photoelectron yield spectroscopy and UV-Vis absorption spectroscopy, which is ascribable to the trifluoromethylbenzyl groups, is likely to result in the observed stable transistor operation in air.

  8. Charge transport in high-performance ink-jet printed single-droplet organic transistors based on a silylethynyl substituted pentacene/insulating polymer blend

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Xiaoran; Smaal, Wiljan T. T.; Kjellander, Charlotte; van der Putten, Bas; Gualandris, Kevin; Smits, Edsger C. P.; Anthony, John; Broer, Dirk J; Blom, Paul W. M.; Genoe, Jan; Gelinck, Gerwin

    2011-01-01

    We present a systematic study of the influence of material composition and ink-jet processing conditions on the charge transport in bottom-gate field-effect transistors based on blends of 6,13-bis(triisopropyl-silylethynyl) pentacene (TIPS-PEN) and polystyrene. After careful process optimizations of blending ratio and printing temperature we routinely can make transistors with an average mobility of 1 cm(2)/Vs (maximum value 1.5 cm(2)/Vs), on/off ratio exceeding 10(7), and sharp turn-on in cu...

  9. A novel Tunneling Graphene Nano Ribbon Field Effect Transistor with dual material gate: Numerical studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghoreishi, Seyed Saleh; Saghafi, Kamyar; Yousefi, Reza; Moravvej-farshi, Mohammad Kazem

    2016-09-01

    In this work, we present Dual Material Gate Tunneling Graphene Nano-Ribbon Field Effect Transistors (DMG-T-GNRFET) mainly to suppress the am-bipolar current with assumption that sub-threshold swing which is one of the important characteristics of tunneling transistors must not be degraded. In the proposed structure, dual material gates with different work functions are used. Our investigations are based on numerical simulations which self-consistently solves the 2D Poisson based on an atomistic mode-space approach and Schrodinger equations, within the Non-Equilibrium Green's (NEGF). The proposed device shows lower off-current and on-off ratio becomes 5order of magnitude greater than the conventional device. Also two different short channel effects: Drain Induced Barrier Shortening (DIBS) and hot-electron effect are improved in the proposed device compare to the main structure.

  10. Integrating carbon nanotubes into silicon by means of vertical carbon nanotube field-effect transistors

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Jingqi

    2014-01-01

    Single-walled carbon nanotubes have been integrated into silicon for use in vertical carbon nanotube field-effect transistors (CNTFETs). A unique feature of these devices is that a silicon substrate and a metal contact are used as the source and drain for the vertical transistors, respectively. These CNTFETs show very different characteristics from those fabricated with two metal contacts. Surprisingly, the transfer characteristics of the vertical CNTFETs can be either ambipolar or unipolar (p-type or n-type) depending on the sign of the drain voltage. Furthermore, the p-type/n-type character of the devices is defined by the doping type of the silicon substrate used in the fabrication process. A semiclassical model is used to simulate the performance of these CNTFETs by taking the conductance change of the Si contact under the gate voltage into consideration. The calculation results are consistent with the experimental observations. This journal is © the Partner Organisations 2014.

  11. Electric Characteristics of the Carbon Nanotube Network Transistor with Directly Grown ZnO Nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Un Jeong; Bae, Gi Yoon; Suh, Dong Ik; Park, Wanjun

    2016-03-01

    We report on the electrical characteristics of field effect transistors fabricated with random networks of single-walled carbon nanotubes with surfaces modified by ZnO nanoparticles. ZnO nanoparticles are directly grown on single-walled carbon nanotubes by atomic layer deposition using diethylzinc (DEZ) and water. Electrical observations show that ZnO nanoparticles act as charge transfer sources that provide electrons to the nanotube channel. The valley position in ambipolar transport of nanotube transistors is negatively shifted for 3V due to the electronic n-typed property of ZnO nanoparticles. However, the Raman resonance remains invariant despite the charge transfer effect produced by ZnO nanoparticles. PMID:27455727

  12. Electrical properties of functionalized nanowire field effect transistors

    OpenAIRE

    Weitz, Ralf Thomas

    2008-01-01

    The utilization of functional organic materials holds great promise for applications in electronic devices. Semiconducting organic molecules are frequently used as channel material in field effect transistors, due to the ease by which they can be assembled as such components, and the ease with which their properties can be specifically tailored. An extension of the use of organic materials in field effect transistors with the potential to substantially improve the performance of such devices ...

  13. Subthreshold-swing-adjustable tunneling-field-effect-transistor-based random-access memory for nonvolatile operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huh, In; Cheon, Woo Young; Choi, Woo Young

    2016-04-01

    A subthreshold-swing-adjustable tunneling-field-effect-transistor-based random-access memory (SAT RAM) has been proposed and fabricated for low-power nonvolatile memory applications. The proposed SAT RAM cell demonstrates adjustable subthreshold swing (SS) depending on stored information: small SS in the erase state ("1" state) and large SS in the program state ("0" state). Thus, SAT RAM cells can achieve low read voltage (Vread) with a large memory window in addition to the effective suppression of ambipolar behavior. These unique features of the SAT RAM are originated from the locally stored charge, which modulates the tunneling barrier width (Wtun) of the source-to-channel tunneling junction.

  14. N-type ohmic contacts to undoped GaAs/AlGaAs quantum wells using only front-sided processing: application to ambipolar FETs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taneja, D.; Sfigakis, F.; Croxall, A. F.; Das Gupta, K.; Narayan, V.; Waldie, J.; Farrer, I.; Ritchie, D. A.

    2016-06-01

    We report the development of a simple and reliable, front-sided-only fabrication technique for n-type ohmic contacts to two-dimensional electron gases (2DEGs) in undoped GaAs/AlGaAs quantum wells. We have adapted the well-established recessed ohmic contacts/insulated metal gate technique for inducing a 2DEG in an undoped triangular well to also work reliably for undoped square quantum wells. Our adaptation involves a change in the procedure for etching the ohmic contact pits to optimise the etch side-wall profile and depth. As an application of our technique, we present a front-side-gated ambipolar field effect transistor (FET), where both 2D electron and hole gases can be induced in the same quantum well. We present results of low-temperature (0.3 K - 4 K) transport measurements of this device, including assessment of the n-type ohmic contact quality. On the basis of our findings, we discuss why the fabrication of these contacts is difficult and how our technique circumvents the challenges.

  15. Field-effect transistors based on phthalocyanines

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Nešpůrek, Stanislav; Chaidogiannos, G.; Glezos, N.; Petraki, F.; Kennou, S.; Šebera, Jakub; Záliš, Stanislav; Kratochvílová, Irena; Sworakowski, J.

    Wroclaw : Oficyna Wydawnicza Politechniki Wroclawskiej, 2008. s. 24. ISBN 978-83-7493-399-5. [International Conference on Electrical and Related Properties of Organic Solids /11./. 13.07.2008-17.07.2008, Piechowice] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KAN401770651 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : transistor * phthalocyanine * molecular switch Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry

  16. Global simulations of protoplanetary disks with ohmic resistivity and ambipolar diffusion

    CERN Document Server

    Gressel, Oliver; Nelson, Richard P; McNally, Colin P

    2015-01-01

    Protoplanetary disks are believed to accrete onto their central T Tauri star because of magnetic stresses. Recently published shearing box simulations indicate that Ohmic resistivity, ambipolar diffusion and the Hall effect all play important roles in disk evolution. In the presence of a vertical magnetic field, the disk remains laminar between 1-5au, and a magnetocentrifugal disk wind forms that provides an important mechanism for removing angular momentum. Questions remain, however, about the establishment of a true physical wind solution in the shearing box simulations because of the symmetries inherent in the local approximation. We present global MHD simulations of protoplanetary disks that include Ohmic resistivity and ambipolar diffusion, where the time-dependent gas-phase electron and ion fractions are computed under FUV and X-ray ionization with a simplified recombination chemistry. Our results show that the disk remains laminar, and that a physical wind solution arises naturally in global disk model...

  17. The effect of ambipolar electric fields on the electron heating in capacitive RF plasmas

    CERN Document Server

    Schulze, J; Derzsi, A; Korolov, I; Schuengel, E

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the electron heating dynamics in electropositive argon and helium capacitively coupled RF discharges driven at 13.56 MHz by Particle in Cell simulations and by an analytical model. The model allows to calculate the electric field outside the electrode sheaths, space and time resolved within the RF period. Electrons are found to be heated by strong ambipolar electric fields outside the sheath during the phase of sheath expansion in addition to classical sheath expansion heating. By tracing individual electrons we also show that ionization is primarily caused by electrons that collide with the expanding sheath edge multiple times during one phase of sheath expansion due to backscattering towards the sheath by collisions. A synergistic combination of these different heating events during one phase of sheath expansion is required to accelerate an electron to energies above the threshold for ionization. The ambipolar electric field outside the sheath is found to be time modulated due to a time modul...

  18. Interaction of ambipolar plasma flow with magnetic islands in a quasi-axisymmetric stellarator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A reference equilibrium for the US National Compact Stellarator Experiment is predicted to be sufficiently close to quasi-symmetry to allow the plasma to flow in the toroidal direction with little viscous damping, yet to have sufficiently large deviations from quasi-symmetry that nonambipolarity significantly affects the physics of the shielding of resonant magnetic perturbations by plasma flow. The unperturbed velocity profile is modified by the presence of an ambipolar potential, which broadens the profile and improves the shielding near the plasma edge. In the presence of a resonant magnetic field perturbation, nonambipolar transport produces a radial current, and the resulting jxB force resists departures from the ambipolar velocity and enhances the shielding. (author)

  19. Dynamics of fluctuating magnetic fields in turbulent dynamos incorporating ambipolar drifts

    CERN Document Server

    Subramanian, K

    1997-01-01

    Turbulence with a large magnetic Reyonolds number, generically leads to rapidly growing magnetic noise over and above any mean field. We revisit the dynamics of this fluctuating field, in homogeneous, isotropic, helical turbulence. Assuming the turbulence to be Markovian, we first rederive, in a fairly transparent manner, the equation for the mean field, and corrected Fokker-Plank type equations for the magnetic correlations. In these equations, we also incorporate the effects of ambipolar drift which would obtain if the turbulent medium has a significant neutral component. We apply these equations to discuss a number of astrophysically interesting problems: (a) the small scale dynamo in galactic turbulence with a model Kolmogorov spectrum, incorporating the effect of ambipolar drift; (b) current helicity dynamics and the quasilinear corrections to the alpha effect; (c) growth of the current helicity and large-scale magnetic fields due to nonlinear effects.

  20. Silicon nanowire transistors

    CERN Document Server

    Bindal, Ahmet

    2016-01-01

    This book describes the n and p-channel Silicon Nanowire Transistor (SNT) designs with single and dual-work functions, emphasizing low static and dynamic power consumption. The authors describe a process flow for fabrication and generate SPICE models for building various digital and analog circuits. These include an SRAM, a baseband spread spectrum transmitter, a neuron cell and a Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) platform in the digital domain, as well as high bandwidth single-stage and operational amplifiers, RF communication circuits in the analog domain, in order to show this technology’s true potential for the next generation VLSI. Describes Silicon Nanowire (SNW) Transistors, as vertically constructed MOS n and p-channel transistors, with low static and dynamic power consumption and small layout footprint; Targets System-on-Chip (SoC) design, supporting very high transistor count (ULSI), minimal power consumption requiring inexpensive substrates for packaging; Enables fabrication of different types...

  1. Ambipolar potential measurement plans and instrumentation. Final report, 1 October 1980-30 September 1982

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A Thomson parabola charged particle spectrometer was built with an energy resolution of 80 keV and an active silicon detector array that is read by a computer-compatible CAMAC. The instrument was checked out at the University of Rochester Omega Laser facility. Experiments to measure the ambipolar potential and the dE/dx thermonuclear target to within 50 keV are now possible. The ion temperature of the burn can be determined to within 10%

  2. Thermal transport in the presence of steep gradients and strong ambipolar field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A kinetic treatment to incorporate the effect of a strong ambipolar field on nonlocal heat transport in laser-produced plasma is presented. The numerically calculated nonlocal propagators are found to be significantly modified and consequently the flux inhibition factor for steep thermal and density gradients turns out to be much lower than predicted previously. The classical Spitzer-Haerm result is also recovered in the local case. (orig.)

  3. On the influence of neutral turbulence on ambipolar diffusivities deduced from meteor trail expansion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. M. Hall

    Full Text Available By measuring fading times of radar echoes from underdense meteor trails, it is possible to deduce the ambipolar diffusivities of the ions responsible for these radar echoes. It could be anticipated that these diffusivities increase monotonically with height akin to neutral viscosity. In practice, this is not always the case. Here, we investigate the capability of neutral turbulence to affect the meteor trail diffusion rate.

    Key words. Meteorology and atmospheric dynamics (middle atmosphere dynamics; turbulence

  4. Dynamics of fluctuating magnetic fields in turbulent dynamos incorporating ambipolar drifts

    OpenAIRE

    Subramanian, K.(Srikumar)

    1997-01-01

    Turbulence with a large magnetic Reyonolds number, generically leads to rapidly growing magnetic noise over and above any mean field. We revisit the dynamics of this fluctuating field, in homogeneous, isotropic, helical turbulence. Assuming the turbulence to be Markovian, we first rederive, in a fairly transparent manner, the equation for the mean field, and corrected Fokker-Plank type equations for the magnetic correlations. In these equations, we also incorporate the effects of ambipolar dr...

  5. The Bloch Oscillating Transistor

    OpenAIRE

    Seppä, H.; Hassel, J.

    2003-01-01

    We introduce a new mesoscopic transistor, which consists of a superconducting island connected to superconducting and normal electrodes via two mesoscopic tunnel junctions. Furthermore, the island is being charged through a resistor. The interplay between Bloch oscillations, single-electron effects and ohmic current leads to a device having a high current gain. The operation and characteristics of the transistor are analyzed with a numerical model.

  6. Study of Fused Thiophene Based Organic Semiconductors and Interfacial Self-Assembled Monolayer (SAM) for Thin-Film Transistor (TFT) Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youn, Jangdae

    In this thesis, the molecular packing motifs of our newly designed fused thiophenes, benzo[d,d]thieno[3,2-b;4,5-b]dithiophene (BTDT) derivatives, were studied by utilizing grazing incidence wide angle X-ray scattering (GIWAXS). Considering the potential of fused thiophene molecules as an environmentally stable, high performance semiconductor building block, it must be an important groundwork to investigate their thin film structures in relation to molecular structures, single crystal structures, and organic thin-film transistors (OTFT) performances. OTFT device performance is not only determined by semiconductor materials, but also influenced by the interfacial properties. Since there are three major components in TFT structures---electrodes, semiconductors, and dielectrics, two types of major interfaces exist. One is the semiconductor-electrode interface, and the other is the semiconductor-dielectric interface. Both of these interfaces have critical roles for TFT operation. For example, the semiconductor-electrode interface determines the charge injection barrier. Before charge carriers go through the electrode (source)-semiconductor-electrode (drain) pathways, the energy gaps between the work function of the electrodes and the HOMO energy of the semiconductor materials must be overcome for hole injection, or the energy gap between the metal work function of the electrodes and the LUMO energy of the semiconductor materials must be overcome for electron injection. These charge injection barriers are largely determined by the energetic structure of the semiconductor material and work function of the electrode. However, the size of energy gap can be modified by introducing an organic self-assembled monolayer (SAM) on the surface of metal electrode. In addition, the structure of semiconductor films, especially within several monolayers right above the electrode, is greatly influenced by the SAM, and it changes charge injection property of OTFT devices. In this thesis

  7. Control of residual carbon concentration in GaN high electron mobility transistor and realization of high-resistance GaN grown by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He, X.G. [State Key Laboratory on Integrated Optoelectronics, Institute of Semiconductors, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 912, Beijing 100083 (China); Zhao, D.G., E-mail: dgzhao@red.semi.ac.cn [State Key Laboratory on Integrated Optoelectronics, Institute of Semiconductors, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 912, Beijing 100083 (China); Jiang, D.S.; Liu, Z.S.; Chen, P.; Le, L.C.; Yang, J.; Li, X.J. [State Key Laboratory on Integrated Optoelectronics, Institute of Semiconductors, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 912, Beijing 100083 (China); Zhang, S.M.; Zhu, J.J.; Wang, H.; Yang, H. [Suzhou Institute of Nano-tech and Nano-bionics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Suzhou 215125 (China)

    2014-08-01

    GaN films were grown by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) under various growth conditions. The influences of MOCVD growth parameters, i.e., growth pressure, ammonia (NH{sub 3}) flux, growth temperature, trimethyl-gallium flux and H{sub 2} flux, on residual carbon concentration ([C]) were systematically investigated. Secondary ion mass spectroscopy measurements show that [C] can be effectively modulated by growth conditions. Especially, it can increase by reducing growth pressure up to two orders of magnitude. High-resistance (HR) GaN epilayer with a resistivity over 1.0 × 10{sup 9} Ω·cm is achieved by reducing growth pressure. The mechanism of the formation of HR GaN epilayer is discussed. An Al{sub x}Ga{sub 1−x}N/GaN high electron mobility transistor structure with a HR GaN buffer layer and an additional low-carbon GaN channel layer is presented, exhibiting a high two dimensional electron gas mobility of 1815 cm{sup 2}/Vs. - Highlights: • Influence of MOCVD parameters on residual carbon concentration in GaN is studied. • GaN layer with a resistivity over 1 × 10{sup 9} Ω·cm is achieved by reducing growth pressure. • High electron mobility transistor (HEMT) structures were prepared. • Control of residual carbon content results in HEMT with high 2-D electron gas mobility.

  8. Control of residual carbon concentration in GaN high electron mobility transistor and realization of high-resistance GaN grown by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    GaN films were grown by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) under various growth conditions. The influences of MOCVD growth parameters, i.e., growth pressure, ammonia (NH3) flux, growth temperature, trimethyl-gallium flux and H2 flux, on residual carbon concentration ([C]) were systematically investigated. Secondary ion mass spectroscopy measurements show that [C] can be effectively modulated by growth conditions. Especially, it can increase by reducing growth pressure up to two orders of magnitude. High-resistance (HR) GaN epilayer with a resistivity over 1.0 × 109 Ω·cm is achieved by reducing growth pressure. The mechanism of the formation of HR GaN epilayer is discussed. An AlxGa1−xN/GaN high electron mobility transistor structure with a HR GaN buffer layer and an additional low-carbon GaN channel layer is presented, exhibiting a high two dimensional electron gas mobility of 1815 cm2/Vs. - Highlights: • Influence of MOCVD parameters on residual carbon concentration in GaN is studied. • GaN layer with a resistivity over 1 × 109 Ω·cm is achieved by reducing growth pressure. • High electron mobility transistor (HEMT) structures were prepared. • Control of residual carbon content results in HEMT with high 2-D electron gas mobility

  9. Transistor-based interface circuitry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taubman, Matthew S.

    2007-02-13

    Among the embodiments of the present invention is an apparatus that includes a transistor, a servo device, and a current source. The servo device is operable to provide a common base mode of operation of the transistor by maintaining an approximately constant voltage level at the transistor base. The current source is operable to provide a bias current to the transistor. A first device provides an input signal to an electrical node positioned between the emitter of the transistor and the current source. A second device receives an output signal from the collector of the transistor.

  10. Printed thin film transistors and CMOS inverters based on semiconducting carbon nanotube ink purified by a nonlinear conjugated copolymer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Wenya; Dou, Junyan; Zhao, Jianwen; Tan, Hongwei; Ye, Jun; Tange, Masayoshi; Gao, Wei; Xu, Weiwei; Zhang, Xiang; Guo, Wenrui; Ma, Changqi; Okazaki, Toshiya; Zhang, Kai; Cui, Zheng

    2016-02-01

    Two innovative research studies are reported in this paper. One is the sorting of semiconducting carbon nanotubes and ink formulation by a novel semiconductor copolymer and second is the development of CMOS inverters using not the p-type and n-type transistors but a printed p-type transistor and a printed ambipolar transistor. A new semiconducting copolymer (named P-DPPb5T) was designed and synthesized with a special nonlinear structure and more condensed conjugation surfaces, which can separate large diameter semiconducting single-walled carbon nanotubes (sc-SWCNTs) from arc discharge SWCNTs according to their chiralities with high selectivity. With the sorted sc-SWCNTs ink, thin film transistors (TFTs) have been fabricated by aerosol jet printing. The TFTs displayed good uniformity, low operating voltage (+/-2 V) and subthreshold swing (SS) (122-161 mV dec-1), high effective mobility (up to 17.6-37.7 cm2 V-1 s-1) and high on/off ratio (104-107). With the printed TFTs, a CMOS inverter was constructed, which is based on the p-type TFT and ambipolar TFT instead of the conventional p-type and n-type TFTs. Compared with other recently reported inverters fabricated by printing, the printed CMOS inverters demonstrated a better noise margin (74% 1/2 Vdd) and was hysteresis free. The inverter has a voltage gain of up to 16 at an applied voltage of only 1 V and low static power consumption.Two innovative research studies are reported in this paper. One is the sorting of semiconducting carbon nanotubes and ink formulation by a novel semiconductor copolymer and second is the development of CMOS inverters using not the p-type and n-type transistors but a printed p-type transistor and a printed ambipolar transistor. A new semiconducting copolymer (named P-DPPb5T) was designed and synthesized with a special nonlinear structure and more condensed conjugation surfaces, which can separate large diameter semiconducting single-walled carbon nanotubes (sc-SWCNTs) from arc discharge

  11. Impact of regioregularity on thin-film transistor and photovoltaic cell performances of pentacene-containing polymers

    KAUST Repository

    Jiang, Ying

    2012-01-01

    Regioregular pentacene-containing polymers were synthesized with alkylated bithiophene (BT) and cyclopentadithiophene (CPDT) as comonomers. Among them, 2,9-conjugated polymers PnBT-2,9 and PnCPDT-2,9 achieved the best performance in transistor and photovoltaic devices respectively. The former achieved the most highly ordered structures in thin films, yielding ambipolar transistor behavior with hole and electron mobilities up to 0.03 and 0.02 cm 2 V -1 s -1 on octadecylsilane-treated substrates. The latter achieved photovoltaic power conversion efficiencies up to 0.33%. The impact of regioregularity and direction of conjugation-extension (2,9 vs. 2,10), on thin-film order and device performance has been demonstrated for the pentacene-containing polymers for the first time, providing insight towards future functional material design. © 2012 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  12. Poly(3-hexylthiophene)/C{sub 60} heterojunction solar cells: Implication of morphology on performance and ambipolar charge collection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geiser, Alain [EPFL STI IMX LOMM, PH D2 464 Batiment PH, Station 3, CH 1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); Fan, Bin; Benmansour, Hadjar; Castro, Fernando; Heier, Jakob; Nueesch, Frank; Hany, Roland [Empa, Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Testing and Research, Laboratory for Functional Polymers, Ueberlandstr. 129, CH 8600 Duebendorf (Switzerland); Keller, Beat; Mayerhofer, Karl Emanuel [Empa, Laboratory for Nanoscale Materials Science (Switzerland)

    2008-04-15

    The performance of heterojunction organic solar cells is critically dependent on the morphology of the donor and acceptor components in the active film. We report results of photovoltaic devices consisting of bilayers and bulk heterojunctions using poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) and Buckminsterfullerene C{sub 60}. White light power efficiencies of {eta}{proportional_to}2.2% (bulk heterojunction) and 2.6% (bilayer) were measured after a thermal annealing step on completed devices. Optical and structural investigations on non-annealed bilayer thin films indicated a distinct porosity of the spin-coated polymer, which allows C{sub 60} to penetrate the P3HT layer and to touch the anode. This resulted for these bilayer solar cells in the experimental observation that electrons were collected predominantly at the cathode after photo-excitation of P3HT, but predominantly at the anode after C{sub 60} excitation. A morphological model to explain the ambipolar charge collection phenomenon is proposed. (author)

  13. Low-Programmable-Voltage Nonvolatile Memory Devices Based on Omega-shaped Gate Organic Ferroelectric P(VDF-TrFE) Field Effect Transistors Using p-type Silicon Nanowire Channels

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ngoc Huynh Van; Jae-Hyun Lee; Dongmok Whang; Dae Joon Kang

    2015-01-01

    A facile approach was demonstrated for fabricating high-performance nonvolatile memory devices based on ferroelectric-gate field effect transistors using a p-type Si nanowire coated with omega-shaped gate organic ferroelectric poly(vinylidene fluoride-trifluoroethylene) (P(VDF-TrFE)). We overcame the interfacial layer problem by incorporating P(VDF-TrFE) as a ferroelectric gate using a low-temperature fabrication process. Our memory devices exhibited excellent memory characteristics with a low programming voltage of ±5 V, a large modulation in channel conductance between ON and OFF states exceeding 105, a long retention time greater than 3 9 104 s, and a high endurance of over 105 programming cycles while maintaining an ION/IOFF ratio higher than 102.

  14. Diode, transistor & fet circuits manual

    CERN Document Server

    Marston, R M

    2013-01-01

    Diode, Transistor and FET Circuits Manual is a handbook of circuits based on discrete semiconductor components such as diodes, transistors, and FETS. The book also includes diagrams and practical circuits. The book describes basic and special diode characteristics, heat wave-rectifier circuits, transformers, filter capacitors, and rectifier ratings. The text also presents practical applications of associated devices, for example, zeners, varicaps, photodiodes, or LEDs, as well as it describes bipolar transistor characteristics. The transistor can be used in three basic amplifier configuration

  15. Quantum thermal transistor

    CERN Document Server

    Joulain, Karl; Ezzahri, Younès; Ordonez-Miranda, Jose

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate that a thermal transistor can be made up with a quantum system of 3 interacting subsystems , coupled to a thermal reservoir each. This thermal transistor is analogous to an electronic bipolar one with the ability to control the thermal currents at the collector and at the emitter with the imposed thermal current at the base. This is achieved determining the heat fluxes by means of the strong-coupling formalism. For the case of 3 interacting spins, in which one of them is coupled to the other 2, that are not directly coupled, it is shown that high amplification can be obtained in a wide range of energy parameters and temperatures. The proposed quantum transistor could, in principle, be used to develop devices such as a thermal modulator and a thermal amplifier in nano systems.

  16. Low-Temperature Band Transport and Impact of Contact Resistance in Organic Field-Effect Transistors Based on Single-Crystal Films of Ph-BTBT-C10

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Joung-min; Mori, Takehiko

    2016-06-01

    Transistors based on single-crystal films of 2-decyl-7-phenyl-[1]benzothieno[3,2-b][1]benzothiophene (Ph-BTBT-10) fabricated using the blade-coating method are investigated by the four-probe method down to low temperatures. The four-probe mobility is as large as 18 cm2/V s at room temperature, and increases to 45 cm2/V s at 80 K. At 60 K the two-probe mobility drops abruptly by about 50%, but the mobility drop is mostly attributed to the increase of the source resistance. The carrier transport in the present single-crystal film is regarded as essentially bandlike down to 30 K.

  17. A Silicon Optical Transistor

    CERN Document Server

    Varghese, Leo T; Wang, Jian; Gan, Fuwan; Niu, Ben; Xuan, Yi; Weiner, Andrew M; Qi, Minghao

    2012-01-01

    A fundamental road block for all-optical information processing is the difficulty in realizing a silicon optical transistor with the ability to provide optical gain, input output isolation and buffer action. In this work, we demonstrate an all-optical transistor using optical nonlinearity in microrings. By using weak light to control strong light, we observed an On/Off ratio up to 20 dB. It can compensate losses in other optical devices and provide fan-out capability. The device is ultra compact and is compatible with current complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) processing.

  18. A Silicon Optical Transistor

    OpenAIRE

    Varghese, Leo T.; Fan, Li; WANG, Jian; Gan, Fuwan; Niu, Ben; Xuan, Yi; Weiner, Andrew M.; Qi, Minghao

    2012-01-01

    A fundamental road block for all-optical information processing is the difficulty in realizing a silicon optical transistor with the ability to provide optical gain, input output isolation and buffer action. In this work, we demonstrate an all-optical transistor using optical nonlinearity in microrings. By using weak light to control strong light, we observed an On/Off ratio up to 20 dB. It can compensate losses in other optical devices and provide fan-out capability. The device is ultra comp...

  19. Mesoscopic photon heat transistor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ojanen, T.; Jauho, Antti-Pekka

    2008-01-01

    We show that the heat transport between two bodies, mediated by electromagnetic fluctuations, can be controlled with an intermediate quantum circuit-leading to the device concept of a mesoscopic photon heat transistor (MPHT). Our theoretical analysis is based on a novel Meir-Wingreen-Landauer-typ......We show that the heat transport between two bodies, mediated by electromagnetic fluctuations, can be controlled with an intermediate quantum circuit-leading to the device concept of a mesoscopic photon heat transistor (MPHT). Our theoretical analysis is based on a novel Meir...

  20. Effect of ECH and ICH on ambipolar potential in NBT-1M

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of the ambipolar potential on the ion transport is studied experimentally by introducing additional ECH and ICH power to the plasma in NBT-IM device. The magnetic fluctuation spectrum measurement shows that the fluctuation in the range of ion cyclotron frequency is increased by applying 8.5 GHz microwave power. When this power is introduced, the bulk ion temperature is raised and the high energy ion tail appears. The depth of the ambipolar potential well decreases until P sub(8.5) approximately 3 kw and then increases with the appearance of the high energy ion tail. One of the possible mechanisms for the change in potential below P sub(8.5) approximately 3 kw is attributable to the diffision enhanced by the low frequency electrostatic fluctuation which is observed to be decreased with 8.5 GHz microwave power. In order to study the plasma transport by changing the bulk ion temperature, twelve half turn antennas are used to heat both trapped and toroidally passing ions uniformly around the torus. The observations suggest that the change in ambipolar potential is closely related to the increase in ion temperature, and not to the heating configuration of the wave. The increment of the center potential by the ion heating is proportional to the increase in ion temperature. It is observed that the electrostatic potential is well shaped when T sub(e) > T sub(i) (ECH plasma) while it is hill shaped when T sub(e) < T sub(i) (ion heated plasma). (Nogami, K.)

  1. The effect of ambipolar diffusion on low-density molecular ISM filaments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ntormousi, Evangelia; Hennebelle, Patrick; André, Philippe; Masson, Jacques

    2016-05-01

    Context. The filamentary structure of the molecular interstellar medium and the potential link of this morphology to star formation have been brought into focus recently by high resolution observational surveys. An especially puzzling matter is that local interstellar filaments appear to have the same thickness, independent of their column density. This requires a theoretical understanding of their formation process and the physics that governs their evolution. Aims: In this work we explore a scenario in which filaments are dissipative structures of the large-scale interstellar turbulence cascade and ion-neutral friction (also called ambipolar diffusion) is affecting their sizes by preventing small-scale compressions. Methods: We employ high-resolution (5123 and 10243), 3D magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulations, performed with the grid code RAMSES, to investigate non-ideal MHD turbulence as a filament formation mechanism. We focus the analysis on the mass and thickness distributions of the resulting filamentary structures. Results: Simulations of both driven and decaying MHD turbulence show that the morphologies of the density and the magnetic field are different when ambipolar diffusion is included in the models. In particular, the densest structures are broader and more massive as an effect of ion-neutral friction and the power spectra of both the velocity and the density steepen at a smaller wavenumber. Conclusions: The comparison between ideal and non-ideal MHD simulations shows that ambipolar diffusion causes a shift of the filament thickness distribution towards higher values. However, none of the distributions exhibit the pronounced peak found in the observed local filaments. Limitations in dynamical range and the absence of self-gravity in these numerical experiments do not allow us to conclude at this time whether this is due to the different filament selection or due to the physics inherent of the filament formation.

  2. Self-assembled molecular monolayers as ultrathin gate dielectric in carbon nanotube transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert, Gaël; Derycke, Vincent; Goffman, Marcelo F.; Lenfant, Stéphane; Vuillaume, Dominique; Bourgoin, Jean-Philippe

    2008-10-01

    We demonstrate the use of a self-assembled monolayer of octadecanethiol on gold as thin gate dielectric for a single-walled carbon nanotube field-effect transistor. P-type transistors display very steep subthreshold slopes, greatly reduced hysteresis, and band-to-band tunneling. The suppression of the gate efficiency for n-type transistors emphasizes the key role of the electrical dipole of the molecular layer in controlling the switching. Combining the versatility of organic dielectrics with the exceptional electronic and mechanical properties of carbon nanotubes opens interesting ways toward the realization of fully organic nanoscale transistors.

  3. Accelerating the life of transistors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qi Haochun; Lü Changzhi; Zhang Xiaoling; Xie Xuesong

    2013-01-01

    Choosing small and medium power switching transistors of the NPN type in a 3DK set as the study object,the test of accelerating life is conducted in constant temperature and humidity,and then the data are statistically analyzed with software developed by ourselves.According to degradations of such sensitive parameters as the reverse leakage current of transistors,the lifetime order of transistors is about more than 104 at 100 ℃ and 100% relative humidity (RH) conditions.By corrosion fracture of transistor outer leads and other failure modes,with the failure truncated testing,the average lifetime rank of transistors in different distributions is extrapolated about 103.Failure mechanism analyses of degradation of electrical parameters,outer lead fracture and other reasons that affect transistor lifetime are conducted.The findings show that the impact of external stress of outer leads on transistor reliability is more serious than that of parameter degradation.

  4. A Selenophene-Based Low-Bandgap Donor-Acceptor Polymer Leading to Fast Ambipolar Logic

    KAUST Repository

    Kronemeijer, Auke J.

    2012-02-20

    Fast ambipolar CMOS-like logic is demonstrated using a new selenophene-based donor-acceptor polymer semiconductor. The polymer exhibits saturation hole and electron mobilities of 0.46 cm 2/Vs and 0.84 cm 2/Vs. Inverters are fabricated with high gains while three-stage ring oscillators show stable oscillation with an unprecedented maximum frequency of 182 kHz at a relatively low supply voltage of 50 V. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. A Matterwave Transistor Oscillator

    CERN Document Server

    Caliga, Seth C; Zozulya, Alex A; Anderson, Dana Z

    2012-01-01

    A triple-well atomtronic transistor combined with forced RF evaporation is used to realize a driven matterwave oscillator circuit. The transistor is implemented using a metalized compound glass and silicon substrate. On-chip and external currents produce a cigar-shaped magnetic trap, which is divided into transistor source, gate, and drain regions by a pair of blue-detuned optical barriers projected onto the magnetic trap through a chip window. A resonant laser beam illuminating the drain portion of the atomtronic transistor couples atoms emitted by the gate to the vacuum. The circuit operates by loading the source with cold atoms and utilizing forced evaporation as a power supply that produces a positive chemical potential in the source, which subsequently drives oscillation. High-resolution in-trap absorption imagery reveals gate atoms that have tunneled from the source and establishes that the circuit emits a nominally mono-energetic matterwave with a frequency of 23.5(1.0) kHz by tunneling from the gate, ...

  6. Spin-torque transistor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bauer, G.E.W.; Brataas, A.; Tserkovnyak, Y.; Van Wees, B.J.

    2003-01-01

    A magnetoelectronic thin-film transistor is proposed that can display negative differential resistance and gain. The working principle is the modulation of the soure–drain current in a spin valve by the magnetization of a third electrode, which is rotated by the spin-torque created by a control spin

  7. Radiation-hardened transistor and integrated circuit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Kwok K.

    2007-11-20

    A composite transistor is disclosed for use in radiation hardening a CMOS IC formed on an SOI or bulk semiconductor substrate. The composite transistor has a circuit transistor and a blocking transistor connected in series with a common gate connection. A body terminal of the blocking transistor is connected only to a source terminal thereof, and to no other connection point. The blocking transistor acts to prevent a single-event transient (SET) occurring in the circuit transistor from being coupled outside the composite transistor. Similarly, when a SET occurs in the blocking transistor, the circuit transistor prevents the SET from being coupled outside the composite transistor. N-type and P-type composite transistors can be used for each and every transistor in the CMOS IC to radiation harden the IC, and can be used to form inverters and transmission gates which are the building blocks of CMOS ICs.

  8. Double gate graphene nanoribbon field effect transistor with single halo pocket in channel region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naderi, Ali

    2016-01-01

    A new structure for graphene nanoribbon field-effect transistors (GNRFETs) is proposed and investigated using quantum simulation with a nonequilibrium Green's function (NEGF) method. Tunneling leakage current and ambipolar conduction are known effects for MOSFET-like GNRFETs. To minimize these issues a novel structure with a simple change of the GNRFETs by using single halo pocket in the intrinsic channel region, "Single Halo GNRFET (SH-GNRFET)", is proposed. An appropriate halo pocket at source side of channel is used to modify potential distribution of the gate region and weaken band to band tunneling (BTBT). In devices with materials like Si in channel region, doping type of halo and source/drain regions are different. But, here, due to the smaller bandgap of graphene, the mentioned doping types should be the same to reduce BTBT. Simulations have shown that in comparison with conventional GNRFET (C-GNRFET), an SH-GNRFET with appropriately halo doping results in a larger ON current (Ion), smaller OFF current (Ioff), a larger ON-OFF current ratio (Ion/Ioff), superior ambipolar characteristics, a reduced power-delay product and lower delay time.

  9. Improved Tunnel-FET inverter performance with SiGe/Si heterostructure nanowire TFETs by reduction of ambipolarity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, S.; Trellenkamp, S.; Schäfer, A.; Hartmann, J. M.; Bourdelle, K. K.; Zhao, Q. T.; Mantl, S.

    2015-06-01

    Complementary MOSFET and Tunnel-FET inverters based on tri-gated strained Si nanowire arrays are demonstrated. The voltage transfer characteristics as well as the inverter supply currents of both inverter types are analyzed and compared. A degradation of the inverter output voltage is observed due to the ambipolar transfer characteristics of the symmetric homostructure TFET devices. Emulated TFET inverters based on the measured transfer characteristics of SiGe/Si heterostructure nanowire array n-channel TFETs with reduced ambipolarity demonstrate improved inverter switching for supply voltages down to VDD = 0.2 V.

  10. Effect of Ambipolar Plasma Flow on the Penetration of Resonant Magnetic Perturbations in a Quasi-axisymmetric Stellarator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A reference equilibrium for the U.S. National Compact Stellarator Experiment is predicted to be sufficiently close to quasi-symmetry to allow the plasma to flow in the toroidal direction with little viscous damping, yet to have sufficiently large deviations from quasi-symmetry that nonambipolarity significantly affects the physics of the shielding of resonant magnetic perturbations by plasma flow. The unperturbed velocity profile is modified by the presence of an ambipolar potential, which produces a broad velocity profile. In the presence of a resonant magnetic field perturbation, nonambipolar transport produces a radial current, and the resulting j x B force resists departures from the ambipolar velocity and enhances the shielding

  11. Hybrid light emitting transistors (Presentation Recording)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhieddine, Khalid; Ullah, Mujeeb; Namdas, Ebinazar B.; Burn, Paul L.

    2015-10-01

    Organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) are well studied and established in current display applications. Light-emitting transistors (LETs) have been developed to further simplify the necessary circuitry for these applications, combining the switching capabilities of a transistor with the light emitting capabilities of an OLED. Such devices have been studied using mono- and bilayer geometries and a variety of polymers [1], small organic molecules [2] and single crystals [3] within the active layers. Current devices can often suffer from low carrier mobilities and most operate in p-type mode due to a lack of suitable n-type organic charge carrier materials. Hybrid light-emitting transistors (HLETs) are a logical step to improve device performance by harnessing the charge carrier capabilities of inorganic semiconductors [4]. We present state of the art, all solution processed hybrid light-emitting transistors using a non-planar contact geometry [1, 5]. We will discuss HLETs comprised of an inorganic electron transport layer prepared from a sol-gel of zinc tin oxide and several organic emissive materials. The mobility of the devices is found between 1-5 cm2/Vs and they had on/off ratios of ~105. Combined with optical brightness and efficiencies of the order of 103 cd/m2 and 10-3-10-1 %, respectively, these devices are moving towards the performance required for application in displays. [1] M. Ullah, K. Tandy, S. D. Yambem, M. Aljada, P. L. Burn, P. Meredith, E. B. Namdas., Adv. Mater. 2013, 25, 53, 6213 [2] R. Capelli, S. Toffanin, G. Generali, H. Usta, A. Facchetti, M. Muccini, Nature Materials 2010, 9, 496 [3] T. Takenobu, S. Z. Bisri, T. Takahashi, M. Yahiro, C. Adachi, Y. Iwasa, Phys. Rev. Lett. 2008, 100, 066601 [4] H. Nakanotani, M. Yahiro, C. Adachi, K. Yano, Appl. Phys. Lett. 2007, 90, 262104 [5] K. Muhieddine, M. Ullah, B. N. Pal, P. Burn E. B. Namdas, Adv. Mater. 2014, 26,37, 6410

  12. Interfacial charge transfer in nanoscale polymer transistors

    OpenAIRE

    Worne, J. H.; Giridharagopal, R.; Kelly, K. F.; Natelson, D.

    2008-01-01

    Interfacial charge transfer plays an essential role in establishing the relative alignment of the metal Fermi level and the energy bands of organic semiconductors. While the details remain elusive in many systems, this charge transfer has been inferred in a number of photoemission experiments. We present electronic transport measurements in very short channel ($L < 100$ nm) transistors made from poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT). As channel length is reduced, the evolution of the contact resistan...

  13. A simple drain current model for Schottky-barrier carbon nanotube field effect transistors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report on a new computational model to efficiently simulate carbon nanotube-based field effect transistors (CNT-FET). In the model, a central region is formed by a semiconducting nanotube that acts as the conducting channel, surrounded by a thin oxide layer and a metal gate electrode. At both ends of the semiconducting channel, two semi-infinite metallic reservoirs act as source and drain contacts. The current-voltage characteristics are computed using the Landauer formalism, including the effect of the Schottky barrier physics. The main operational regimes of the CNT-FET are described, including thermionic and tunnel current components, capturing ambipolar conduction, multichannel ballistic transport and electrostatics dominated by the nanotube capacitance. The calculations are successfully compared to results given by more sophisticated methods based on non-equilibrium Green's function formalism (NEGF)

  14. Scanning photocurrent microscopy reveals electron-hole asymmetry in ionic liquid-gated WS2 transistors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We perform scanning photocurrent microscopy on WS2 ionic liquid-gated field effect transistors exhibiting high-quality ambipolar transport. By properly biasing the gate electrode, we can invert the sign of the photocurrent showing that the minority photocarriers are either electrons or holes. Both in the electron- and hole-doping regimes the photocurrent decays exponentially as a function of the distance between the illumination spot and the nearest contact, in agreement with a two-terminal Schottky-barrier device model. This allows us to compare the value and the doping dependence of the diffusion length of the minority electrons and holes on a same sample. Interestingly, the diffusion length of the minority carriers is several times larger in the hole accumulation regime than in the electron accumulation regime, pointing out an electron-hole asymmetry in WS2

  15. Sub-Alfvenic Non-Ideal MHD Turbulence Simulations with Ambipolar Diffusion: I. Turbulence Statistics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klein, R I; Li, P S; McKee, C F; Fisher, R

    2008-04-10

    Most numerical investigations on the role of magnetic fields in turbulent molecular clouds (MCs) are based on ideal magneto-hydrodynamics (MHD). However, MCs are weakly ionized, so that the time scale required for the magnetic field to diffuse through the neutral component of the plasma by ambipolar diffusion (AD) can be comparable to the dynamical time scale. We have performed a series of 256{sup 3} and 512{sup 3} simulations on supersonic but sub-Alfvenic turbulent systems with AD using the Heavy-Ion Approximation developed in Li et al. (2006). Our calculations are based on the assumption that the number of ions is conserved, but we show that these results approximately apply to the case of time-dependent ionization in molecular clouds as well. Convergence studies allow us to determine the optimal value of the ionization mass fraction when using the heavy-ion approximation for low Mach number, sub-Alfvenic turbulent systems. We find that ambipolar diffusion steepens the velocity and magnetic power spectra compared to the ideal MHD case. Changes in the density PDF, total magnetic energy, and ionization fraction are determined as a function of the AD Reynolds number. The power spectra for the neutral gas properties of a strongly magnetized medium with a low AD Reynolds number are similar to those for a weakly magnetized medium; in particular, the power spectrum of the neutral velocity is close to that for Burgers turbulence.

  16. Ambipolar Electric Field, Photoelectrons, and Their Role in Atmospheric Escape From Hot Jupiters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, O.; Glocer, A.

    2012-01-01

    Atmospheric mass loss from Hot Jupiters can be large due to the close proximity of these planets to their host star and the strong radiation the planetary atmosphere receives. On Earth, a major contribution to the acceleration of atmospheric ions comes from the vertical separation of ions and electrons, and the generation of the ambipolar electric field. This process, known as the "polar wind," is responsible for the transport of ionospheric constituents to Earth's magnetosphere, where they are well observed. The polar wind can also be enhanced by a relatively small fraction of super-thermal electrons (photoelectrons) generated by photoionization.We formulate a simplified calculation of the effect of the ambipolar electric field and the photoelectrons on the ion scale height in a generalized manner. We find that the ion scale height can be increased by a factor of 2-15 due to the polar wind effects. We also estimate a lower limit of an order of magnitude increase of the ion density and the atmospheric mass-loss rate when polar wind effects are included.

  17. AMBIPOLAR ELECTRIC FIELD, PHOTOELECTRONS, AND THEIR ROLE IN ATMOSPHERIC ESCAPE FROM HOT JUPITERS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atmospheric mass loss from Hot Jupiters can be large due to the close proximity of these planets to their host star and the strong radiation the planetary atmosphere receives. On Earth, a major contribution to the acceleration of atmospheric ions comes from the vertical separation of ions and electrons, and the generation of the ambipolar electric field. This process, known as the 'polar wind', is responsible for the transport of ionospheric constituents to Earth's magnetosphere, where they are well observed. The polar wind can also be enhanced by a relatively small fraction of super-thermal electrons (photoelectrons) generated by photoionization. We formulate a simplified calculation of the effect of the ambipolar electric field and the photoelectrons on the ion scale height in a generalized manner. We find that the ion scale height can be increased by a factor of 2-15 due to the polar wind effects. We also estimate a lower limit of an order of magnitude increase of the ion density and the atmospheric mass-loss rate when polar wind effects are included.

  18. Metatronic transistor amplifier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chettiar, Uday K.; Engheta, Nader

    2015-10-01

    Utilizing the notion of metamaterials, in recent years the concept of a circuit and lumped circuit elements have been extended to the optical domains, providing the paradigm of optical metatronics, i.e., metamaterial-inspired optical nanocircuitry, as a powerful tool for design and study of more complex systems at the nanoscale. In this paper we present a design for a new metatronic element, namely, a metatronic transistor that functions as an amplifier. As shown by our analytical and numerical paper here, this metatronic transistor provides gain as well as isolation between the input and output ports of such two-port device. The cascadability and fan-out aspects of this element are also explored.

  19. TRANSISTOR HIGH VOLTAGE POWER SUPPLY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driver, G.E.

    1958-07-15

    High voltage, direct current power supplies are described for use with battery powered nuclear detection equipment. The particular advantages of the power supply described, are increased efficiency and reduced size and welght brought about by the use of transistors in the circuit. An important feature resides tn the employment of a pair of transistors in an alternatefiring oscillator circuit having a coupling transformer and other circuit components which are used for interconnecting the various electrodes of the transistors.

  20. Silicene field-effect transistors operating at room temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Li; Cinquanta, Eugenio; Chiappe, Daniele; Grazianetti, Carlo; Fanciulli, Marco; Dubey, Madan; Molle, Alessandro; Akinwande, Deji

    2015-03-01

    Free-standing silicene, a silicon analogue of graphene, has a buckled honeycomb lattice and, because of its Dirac bandstructure combined with its sensitive surface, offers the potential for a widely tunable two-dimensional monolayer, where external fields and interface interactions can be exploited to influence fundamental properties such as bandgap and band character for future nanoelectronic devices. The quantum spin Hall effect, chiral superconductivity, giant magnetoresistance and various exotic field-dependent states have been predicted in monolayer silicene. Despite recent progress regarding the epitaxial synthesis of silicene and investigation of its electronic properties, to date there has been no report of experimental silicene devices because of its air stability issue. Here, we report a silicene field-effect transistor, corroborating theoretical expectations regarding its ambipolar Dirac charge transport, with a measured room-temperature mobility of ˜100 cm2 V-1 s-1 attributed to acoustic phonon-limited transport and grain boundary scattering. These results are enabled by a growth-transfer-fabrication process that we have devised—silicene encapsulated delamination with native electrodes. This approach addresses a major challenge for material preservation of silicene during transfer and device fabrication and is applicable to other air-sensitive two-dimensional materials such as germanene and phosphorene. Silicene's allotropic affinity with bulk silicon and its low-temperature synthesis compared with graphene or alternative two-dimensional semiconductors suggest a more direct integration with ubiquitous semiconductor technology.

  1. Polarization induced doped transistor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xing, Huili (Grace); Jena, Debdeep; Nomoto, Kazuki; Song, Bo; Zhu, Mingda; Hu, Zongyang

    2016-06-07

    A nitride-based field effect transistor (FET) comprises a compositionally graded and polarization induced doped p-layer underlying at least one gate contact and a compositionally graded and doped n-channel underlying a source contact. The n-channel is converted from the p-layer to the n-channel by ion implantation, a buffer underlies the doped p-layer and the n-channel, and a drain underlies the buffer.

  2. Spin Hall effect transistor

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Wunderlich, Joerg; Park, B.G.; Irvine, A.C.; Zarbo, Liviu; Rozkotová, E.; Němec, P.; Novák, Vít; Sinova, Jairo; Jungwirth, Tomáš

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 330, č. 6012 (2010), s. 1801-1804. ISSN 0036-8075 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KAN400100652; GA MŠk LC510 Grant ostatní: EU FP7 SemiSpinNet(XE) 215368 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100521 Keywords : spin Hall effect * spintronics * spin transistor Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 31.364, year: 2010

  3. Field-effect transistor chemical sensors of single nanoribbon of copper phthalocyanine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Copper phthalocyanine (CuPc) nanoribbon field-effect transistors were implemented as chemical sensors. They showed fast response and high reversibility in the detection of the tetrahydrofuran atmosphere at room temperature. The drain current of the field-effect transistor sensor decreased from 6.7 to 0.2 nA when the transistor was measured under the tetrahydrofuran atmosphere. The sensor was self-refreshable in a few minutes. These results demonstrate that the organic single crystalline nanoribbon transistors could effectively act as chemical sensors.

  4. Diindeno-fusion of an anthracene as a design strategy for stable organic biradicals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudebusch, Gabriel E.; Zafra, José L.; Jorner, Kjell; Fukuda, Kotaro; Marshall, Jonathan L.; Arrechea-Marcos, Iratxe; Espejo, Guzmán L.; Ponce Ortiz, Rocío; Gómez-García, Carlos J.; Zakharov, Lev N.; Nakano, Masayoshi; Ottosson, Henrik; Casado, Juan; Haley, Michael M.

    2016-08-01

    The consequence of unpaired electrons in organic molecules has fascinated and confounded chemists for over a century. The study of open-shell molecules has been rekindled in recent years as new synthetic methods, improved spectroscopic techniques and powerful computational tools have been brought to bear on this field. Nonetheless, it is the intrinsic instability of the biradical species that limits the practicality of this research. Here we report the synthesis and characterization of a molecule based on the diindeno[b,i]anthracene framework that exhibits pronounced open-shell character yet possesses remarkable stability. The synthetic route is rapid, efficient and possible on the gram scale. The molecular structure was confirmed through single-crystal X-ray diffraction. From variable-temperature Raman spectroscopy and magnetic susceptibility measurements a thermally accessible triplet excited state was found. Organic field-effect transistor device data show an ambipolar performance with balanced electron and hole mobilities. Our results demonstrate the rational design and synthesis of an air- and temperature-stable biradical compound.

  5. Fullerene C70 as a p-type donor in organic photovoltaic cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fullerenes and their derivatives have been widely used as n-type materials in organic transistor and photovoltaic devices. Though it is believed that they shall be ambipolar in nature, there have been few direct experimental proofs for that. In this work, fullerene C70, known as an efficient acceptor, has been employed as a p-type electron donor in conjunction with 1,4,5,8,9,11-hexaazatriphenylene hexacarbonitrile as an electron acceptor in planar-heterojunction (PHJ) organic photovoltaic (OPV) cells. High fill factors (FFs) of more than 0.70 were reliably achieved with the C70 layer even up to 100 nm thick in PHJ cells, suggesting the superior potential of fullerene C70 as the p-type donor in comparison to other conventional donor materials. The optimal efficiency of these unconventional PHJ cells was 2.83% with a short-circuit current of 5.33 mA/cm2, an open circuit voltage of 0.72 V, and a FF of 0.74. The results in this work unveil the potential of fullerene materials as donors in OPV devices, and provide alternative approaches towards future OPV applications.

  6. Solution-processed high-LUMO-level polymers in n-type organic field-effect transistors: a comparative study as a semiconducting layer, dielectric layer, or charge injection layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In solution-processed organic field-effect transistors (OFETs), the polymers with high level of lowest unoccupied molecular orbitals (LUMOs, > −3.5 eV) are especially susceptible to electron-trapping that causes low electron mobility and strong instability in successive operation. However, the role of high-LUMO-level polymers could be different depending on their locations relative to the semiconductor/insulator interface, or could even possibly benefit the device in some cases. We constructed unconventional polymer heterojunction n-type OFETs to control the location of the same polymer with a high LUMO level, to be in, under, or above the accumulation channel. We found that although the devices with the polymer in the channel suffer from dramatic instability, the same polymer causes much less instability when it acts as a dielectric modification layer or charge injection layer. Especially, it may even improve the device performance in the latter case. This result helps to improve our understanding of the electron-trapping and explore the value of these polymers in OFETs. (invited article)

  7. Effect of AlN growth temperature on trap densities of in-situ metal-organic chemical vapor deposition grown AlN/AlGaN/GaN metal-insulator-semiconductor heterostructure field-effect transistors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph J. Freedsman

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The trapping properties of in-situ metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD grown AlN/AlGaN/GaN metal-insulator-semiconductor heterostructure field-effect transistors (MIS-HFETs with AlN layers grown at 600 and 700 °C has been quantitatively analyzed by frequency dependent parallel conductance technique. Both the devices exhibited two kinds of traps densities, due to AlN (DT-AlN and AlGaN layers (DT-AlGaN respectively. The MIS-HFET grown at 600 °C showed a minimum DT-AlN and DT-AlGaN of 1.1 x 1011 and 1.2 x 1010 cm-2eV-1 at energy levels (ET -0.47 and -0.36 eV. Further, the gate-lag measurements on these devices revealed less degradation ∼ ≤ 5% in drain current density (Ids-max. Meanwhile, MIS-HFET grown at 700 °C had more degradation in Ids-max ∼26 %, due to high DT-AlN and DT-AlGaN of 3.4 x 1012 and 5 x 1011 cm-2eV-1 positioned around similar ET. The results shows MIS-HFET grown at 600 °C had better device characteristics with trap densities one order of magnitude lower than MIS-HFET grown at 700 °C.

  8. Band Alignment for Ambipolar-Doping of SnxZn1-x Te Alloys

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁小娟; 刘建哲; 宁锋; 张勇; 唐黎明

    2012-01-01

    Using the first-principles band-structure method and a special quasirandom structure(SQS) approach,we have systematically calculated the alloy bowing coefficients and the nature band offsets of SnxZn1-x Te alloys.We show that the bowing coefficients and band gaps of these alloys are sensitively composition dependent.Due to wave functions full overlapping and delocalization of the Sn outermost p orbits and Zn s orbits,the coupling between these states is very strong,resulting in a significant downshift of conduction band edge with the increase of the Sn concentration x,While the valence band edge keeps almost unchanged compared with that of the binary ZnTe,thus improving the possibility for ambipolar-doping.

  9. Ambipolar ballistic electron emission microscopy studies of gate-field modified Schottky barriers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Che, Y. L.; Pelz, J. P.

    2010-06-01

    Four-terminal ambipolar ballistic electron emission microscopy studies are conducted on Au/Si and Cu/Si Schottky contacts fabricated on back-gated silicon-on-insulator wafers, allowing the electric field to be varied so that both electron (n)- and hole (p)-Schottky barrier heights can be measured at the same sample location. While the individual n- and p-Schottky barrier heights varied by more than 200 meV between the Au/Si and Cu/Si contacts, for a given sample they sum to within 15 meV of the same value, indicating that the individual variations are due to variations in a local surface dipole as compared with tip effects or variations in local composition.

  10. Nonlinear Evolution of Gravitational Fragmentation Regulated by Magnetic Fields and Ambipolar Diffusion

    CERN Document Server

    Basu, Shantanu; Wurster, James

    2008-01-01

    We present results from an extensive set of simulations of gravitational fragmentation in the presence of magnetic fields and ambipolar diffusion. The average fragmentation spacing in the nonlinear phase of evolution is in excellent agreement with the prediction of linear perturbation theory. The time scale for nonlinear growth and runaway of the first core is $\\approx 10$ times the calculated growth time $\\taugm$ of the eigenmode with minimum growth time, when starting from a uniform background state with small-amplitude white-noise perturbations. Subcritical and transcritical models typically evolve on a significantly longer time scale than the supercritical models. Infall motions in the nonlinear fully-developed contracting cores are subsonic on the core scale in subcritical and transcritical clouds, but are somewhat supersonic in supercritical clouds. Core mass distributions are sharply peaked with a steep decline to large masses, consistent with the existence of a preferred mass scale for each unique set...

  11. The effect of ambipolar diffusion on low-density molecular ISM filaments

    CERN Document Server

    Ntormousi, Evangelia; André, Philippe; Masson, Jacques

    2016-01-01

    The filamentary structure of the molecular interstellar medium and the potential link of this morphology to star formation have been brought into focus recently by high resolution observational surveys. An especially puzzling matter is that local interstellar filaments appear to have the same thickness, independent of their column density. This requires a theoretical understanding of their formation process and the physics that governs their evolution. In this work we explore a scenario in which filaments are dissipative structures of the large-scale interstellar turbulence cascade and ion-neutral friction (also called ambipolar diffusion) is affecting their sizes by preventing small-scale compressions. We employ high-resolution, 3D MHD simulations, performed with the grid code RAMSES, to investigate non-ideal MHD turbulence as a filament formation mechanism. We focus the analysis on the mass and thickness distributions of the resulting filamentary structures. Simulations of both driven and decaying MHD turbu...

  12. The effects of contacts and ambipolar electrical transport in nitrogen doped multiwall carbon nanotubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, W J; Zhang, J Y; Li, P J; Shen, X; Zhang, Q F; Wu, J L [Key Laboratory for the Physics and Chemistry of Nanodevices, Department of Electronics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China)], E-mail: jlwu@pku.edu.cn

    2008-02-27

    The electrical transport properties of pristine single wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) and lower nitrogen content doped multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) (lower than in the experiments of Xiao et al (2005 J. Am. Chem. Soc. 127 8614)) in contact with Au and Pt were studied. Compared with pristine SWCNTs, the Fermi level of the lower nitrogen content doped MWCNTs also moved to the valence band edge with the contact metal's work function increasing. In contrast to Derycke et al' s results (2002 Appl. Phys. Lett. 80 2773), the lower nitrogen content doped MWCNTs exhibited ambipolar behavior, and increasing the doping level led to a reduction of the Schottky barrier height of electrons. Consistent with theoretical calculations, the results support the opinion that the degree of Fermi level pinning is minor for doped carbon nanotubes.

  13. Coexistence of Midgap Antiferromagnetic and Mott States in Undoped, Hole- and Electron-Doped Ambipolar Cuprates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Xinmao; Zeng, Shengwei; Das, Tanmoy; Baskaran, G.; Asmara, Teguh Citra; Santoso, Iman; Yu, Xiaojiang; Diao, Caozheng; Yang, Ping; Breese, Mark B. H.; Venkatesan, T.; Lin, Hsin; Ariando; Rusydi, Andrivo

    2016-05-01

    We report the first observation of the coexistence of a distinct midgap state and a Mott state in undoped and their evolution in electron and hole-doped ambipolar Y0.38 La0.62 (Ba0.82 La0.18 )2Cu3 Oy films using spectroscopic ellipsometry and x-ray absorption spectroscopies at the O K and Cu L3 ,2 edges. Supported by theoretical calculations, the midgap state is shown to originate from antiferromagnetic correlation. Surprisingly, while the magnetic state collapses and its correlation strength weakens with dopings, the Mott state in contrast moves toward a higher energy and its correlation strength increases. Our result provides important clues to the mechanism of electronic correlation strengths and superconductivity in cuprates.

  14. Field errors in EBT and their effects on the ambipolar potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Because the ELMO Bumpy Torus (EBT) is a closed field line device, it is very sensitive to small magnetic field asymmetries - field errors (ΔB/B less than or equal to 1.5 x 10-4). Such field errors are unavoidable due to minute coil misalignments (0.25 mm) and the ubiquitous earth's field (B approx. 5 x 10-5 T). If the inherent error field of the device is large enough, it causes: (1) a distortion of the poloidal symmetry of the potential profile and even a total disappearance of the ambipolar potential well, leading in turn to a deterioration of the plasma confinement parameters; (2) the establishment of a toroidal current and, therefore, enhancement of fluctuations; and (3) an opening of the confined closed drift surfaces that increases particular diffusion

  15. THE EFFECT OF MAGNETIC FIELDS AND AMBIPOLAR DIFFUSION ON CORE MASS FUNCTIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bailey, Nicole D.; Basu, Shantanu, E-mail: nwityk@uwo.ca, E-mail: basu@uwo.ca [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Western Ontario, 1151 Richmond Street, London, Ontario N6A 3K7 (Canada)

    2013-03-20

    Linear analysis of the formation of protostellar cores in planar magnetic interstellar clouds yields information about length scales involved in star formation. Combining these length scales with various distributions of other environmental variables (i.e., column density and mass-to-flux ratio) and applying Monte Carlo methods allow us to produce synthetic core mass functions (CMFs) for different environmental conditions. Our analysis shows that the shape of the CMF is directly dependent on the physical conditions of the cloud. Specifically, magnetic fields act to broaden the mass function and develop a high-mass tail while ambipolar diffusion will truncate this high-mass tail. In addition, we analyze the effect of small number statistics on the shape and high-mass slope of the synthetic CMFs. We find that observed CMFs are severely statistically limited, which has a profound effect on the derived slope for the high-mass tail.

  16. THE EFFECT OF MAGNETIC FIELDS AND AMBIPOLAR DIFFUSION ON CORE MASS FUNCTIONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linear analysis of the formation of protostellar cores in planar magnetic interstellar clouds yields information about length scales involved in star formation. Combining these length scales with various distributions of other environmental variables (i.e., column density and mass-to-flux ratio) and applying Monte Carlo methods allow us to produce synthetic core mass functions (CMFs) for different environmental conditions. Our analysis shows that the shape of the CMF is directly dependent on the physical conditions of the cloud. Specifically, magnetic fields act to broaden the mass function and develop a high-mass tail while ambipolar diffusion will truncate this high-mass tail. In addition, we analyze the effect of small number statistics on the shape and high-mass slope of the synthetic CMFs. We find that observed CMFs are severely statistically limited, which has a profound effect on the derived slope for the high-mass tail.

  17. REGENERATIVE TRANSISTOR AMPLIFIER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabell, L.J.

    1958-11-25

    Electrical circults for use in computers and the like are described. particularly a regenerative bistable transistor amplifler which is iurned on by a clock signal when an information signal permits and is turned off by the clock signal. The amplifier porforms the above function with reduced power requirements for the clock signal and circuit operation. The power requirements are reduced in one way by employing transformer coupling which increases the collector circuit efficiency by eliminating the loss of power in the collector load resistor.

  18. The coupled atom transistor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We describe the first implementation of a coupled atom transistor where two shallow donors (P or As) are implanted in a nanoscale silicon nanowire and their electronic levels are controlled with three gate voltages. Transport spectroscopy through these donors placed in series is performed both at zero and microwave frequencies. The coherence of the charge transfer between the two donors is probed by Landau–Zener–Stückelberg interferometry. Single-charge transfer at zero bias (electron pumping) has been performed and the crossover between the adiabatic and non-adiabatic regimes is studied. (paper)

  19. Monolithic metal oxide transistors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Yongsuk; Park, Won-Yeong; Kang, Moon Sung; Yi, Gi-Ra; Lee, Jun-Young; Kim, Yong-Hoon; Cho, Jeong Ho

    2015-04-28

    We devised a simple transparent metal oxide thin film transistor architecture composed of only two component materials, an amorphous metal oxide and ion gel gate dielectric, which could be entirely assembled using room-temperature processes on a plastic substrate. The geometry cleverly takes advantage of the unique characteristics of the two components. An oxide layer is metallized upon exposure to plasma, leading to the formation of a monolithic source-channel-drain oxide layer, and the ion gel gate dielectric is used to gate the transistor channel effectively at low voltages through a coplanar gate. We confirmed that the method is generally applicable to a variety of sol-gel-processed amorphous metal oxides, including indium oxide, indium zinc oxide, and indium gallium zinc oxide. An inverter NOT logic device was assembled using the resulting devices as a proof of concept demonstration of the applicability of the devices to logic circuits. The favorable characteristics of these devices, including (i) the simplicity of the device structure with only two components, (ii) the benign fabrication processes at room temperature, (iii) the low-voltage operation under 2 V, and (iv) the excellent and stable electrical performances, together support the application of these devices to low-cost portable gadgets, i.e., cheap electronics. PMID:25777338

  20. The diamond RF-transistor model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Altukhov A. A.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In this work is shown that fluent shutter model it is enough well describes work field-effect diamond RF-transistors. Using this model, possible to calculate transistor parameters used electronic parameters of the diamond structure with δ-doped (hydrogen or boron layer and geometric parameter transistor element. Proof, are calculated by us main parameters model RF-transistor, which it is enough close comply with published experimental result of the measurements real RF-transistors.

  1. High-performance n-type black phosphorus transistors with type control via thickness and contact-metal engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perello, David J.; Chae, Sang Hoon; Song, Seunghyun; Lee, Young Hee

    2015-01-01

    Recent work has demonstrated excellent p-type field-effect switching in exfoliated black phosphorus, but type control has remained elusive. Here, we report unipolar n-type black phosphorus transistors with switching polarity control via contact-metal engineering and flake thickness, combined with oxygen and moisture-free fabrication. With aluminium contacts to black phosphorus, a unipolar to ambipolar transition occurs as flake thickness increases from 3 to 13 nm. The 13-nm aluminium-contacted flake displays graphene-like symmetric hole and electron mobilities up to 950 cm2 V−1 s−1 at 300 K, while a 3 nm flake displays unipolar n-type switching with on/off ratios greater than 105 (107) and electron mobility of 275 (630) cm2 V−1 s−1 at 300 K (80 K). For palladium contacts, p-type behaviour dominates in thick flakes, while 2.5–7 nm flakes have symmetric ambipolar transport. These results demonstrate a leap in n-type performance and exemplify the logical switching capabilities of black phosphorus. PMID:26223778

  2. Chemical Vapour Deposition Graphene Radio-Frequency Field-Effect Transistors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report the dc and rf performance of graphene rf field-effect transistors, where the graphene films are grown on copper by using the chemical vapour deposition (CVD) method and transferred to SiO2/Si substrates. Composite materials, benzocyclobutene and atomic layer deposition Al2O3 are used as the gate dielectrics. The observation of n- and p-type transitions verifies the ambipolar characteristics in the graphene layers. While the intrinsic carrier mobility of CVD graphene is extracted to be 1200 cm2/V·s, the parasitic series resistances are demonstrated to have a serious impact on device performance. With a gate length of 1 μm and an extrinsic transconductance of 72 mS/mm, a cutoff frequency of 6.6 GHz and a maximum oscillation frequency of 8.8 GHz are measured for the transistors, illustrating the potential of the CVD graphene for rf applications. (condensed matter: electronic structure, electrical, magnetic, and optical properties)

  3. Demonstration of hetero-gate-dielectric tunneling field-effect transistors (HG TFETs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Woo Young; Lee, Hyun Kook

    2016-06-01

    The steady scaling-down of semiconductor device for improving performance has been the most important issue among researchers. Recently, as low-power consumption becomes one of the most important requirements, there have been many researches about novel devices for low-power consumption. Though scaling supply voltage is the most effective way for low-power consumption, performance degradation is occurred for metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors (MOSFETs) when supply voltage is reduced because subthreshold swing (SS) of MOSFETs cannot be lower than 60 mV/dec. Thus, in this thesis, hetero-gate-dielectric tunneling field-effect transistors (HG TFETs) are investigated as one of the most promising alternatives to MOSFETs. By replacing source-side gate insulator with a high- k material, HG TFETs show higher on-current, suppressed ambipolar current and lower SS than conventional TFETs. Device design optimization through simulation was performed and fabrication based on simulation demonstrated that performance of HG TFETs were better than that of conventional TFETs. Especially, enlargement of gate insulator thickness while etching gate insulator at the source side was improved by introducing HF vapor etch process. In addition, the proposed HG TFETs showed higher performance than our previous results by changing structure of sidewall spacer by high- k etching process.

  4. Nb-doped single crystalline MoS2 field effect transistor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report on the demonstration of a p-type, single crystalline, few layer MoS2 field effect transistor (FET) using Niobium (Nb) as the dopant. The doping concentration was extracted and determined to be ∼3 × 1019/cm3. We also report on bilayer Nb-doped MoS2 FETs with ambipolar conduction. We found that the current ON-OFF ratio of the Nb-doped MoS2 FETs changes significantly as a function of the flake thickness. We attribute this experimental observation to bulk-type electrostatic effect in ultra-thin MoS2 crystals. We provide detailed analytical modeling in support of our claims. Finally, we show that in the presence of heavy doping, even ultra-thin 2D-semiconductors cannot be fully depleted and may behave as a 3D material when used in transistor geometry. Our findings provide important insights into the doping constraints of 2D materials, in general

  5. Selected Transistor Material for the Information-Seeking Adult.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ringold, Dorman R.

    This study was undertaken to identify and organize meaningful and useful basic materials on transistor principles and applications, and to explore some of the elements required for adult teaching. It was limited to the apparent needs of information-seeking adults in greater Los Angeles who desired occupational skills. A literature review…

  6. Midnight ionosphere collapse at Arecibo and its relationship to the neutral wind, electric field, and ambipolar diffusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Yun; Zhou, Qihou; Zhang, Shaodong; Aponte, Nestor; Sulzer, Michael; Gonzalez, Sixto

    2012-08-01

    We report the analysis of "midnight collapse," a large drop in the F-layer peak height (HmF2) around midnight, observed at Arecibo during Jan. 14-22, 2010. During the nine nights of observations, the first four nights (Jan. 14-17) exhibited modest drops in HmF2 while the last five nights (Jan. 18-22) showed more severe drops. We examine the roles played by the meridional wind, electric field, and ambipolar diffusion in driving the vertical ion motion. The collapse process can be classified into three stages: preconditioning, initial descent, and sustained descent. Severe collapses occur when HmF2 is preconditioned high prior to the collapse. Ambipolar diffusion is most important during the initial descent. Neutral wind and electric field are responsible for sustaining the collapse. During Jan. 18-22, HmF2 was pushed high by the neutral wind before the collapse started. Neutral wind and electric field were in phase during the sustained severe collapses. The diurnal tide of the meridional wind provided the general condition for the collapses. The terdiurnal tide was most important to cause the difference between the two periods in our observation. Previous studies largely emphasized meridional wind being the dominant mechanism causing midnight collapse. Our study suggests that electric field and ambipolar diffusion also play an important role and the former can be the most dominant factor in some cases.

  7. A multi-scale model for mobile and localized electroluminescence in carbon nanotube field-effect transistors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A multi-scale model is presented that captures the experimentally observed behaviour of electroluminescence (EL) in carbon nanotube field-effect transistors (CNFETs) under ambipolar bias conditions, namely variations in mobile EL intensity, localized EL at a contact, and localized EL at a charge defect. A full, quantum mechanical approach is used to describe tunnelling and thermionic emission at the contacts, and the drift-diffusion equations, with a field-dependent mobility, are used for transport in the long devices (CN length ≥10 μm). We find that contact-localized EL is only present when the height of the Schottky barrier at the ends of the CN favours the injection of one type of carrier. Charge defects on the CN surface also lead to localized EL, which is present only under certain bias conditions

  8. Nonvolatile Ferroelectric Memory Circuit Using Black Phosphorus Nanosheet-Based Field-Effect Transistors with P(VDF-TrFE) Polymer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Young Tack; Kwon, Hyeokjae; Kim, Jin Sung; Kim, Hong-Hee; Lee, Yun Jae; Lim, Jung Ah; Song, Yong-Won; Yi, Yeonjin; Choi, Won-Kook; Hwang, Do Kyung; Im, Seongil

    2015-10-27

    Two-dimensional van der Waals (2D vdWs) materials are a class of new materials that can provide important resources for future electronics and materials sciences due to their unique physical properties. Among 2D vdWs materials, black phosphorus (BP) has exhibited significant potential for use in electronic and optoelectronic applications because of its allotropic properties, high mobility, and direct and narrow band gap. Here, we demonstrate a few-layered BP-based nonvolatile memory transistor with a poly(vinylidenefluoride-trifluoroethylene) (P(VDF-TrFE)) ferroelectric top gate insulator. Experiments showed that our BP-based ferroelectric transistors operate satisfactorily at room temperature in ambient air and exhibit a clear memory window. Unlike conventional ambipolar BP transistors, our ferroelectric transistors showed only p-type characteristics due to the carbon-fluorine (C-F) dipole effect of the P(VDF-TrFE) layer, as well as the highest linear mobility value of 1159 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1) with a 10(3) on/off current ratio. For more advanced memory applications beyond unit memory devices, we implemented two memory inverter circuits, a resistive-load inverter circuit and a complementary inverter circuit, combined with an n-type molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) nanosheet. Our memory inverter circuits displayed a clear memory window of 15 V and memory output voltage efficiency of 95%. PMID:26370537

  9. Current Status of Graphene Transistors

    OpenAIRE

    Lemme, Max. C.

    2009-01-01

    This paper reviews the current status of graphene transistors as potential supplement to silicon CMOS technology. A short overview of graphene manufacturing and metrology methods is followed by an introduction of macroscopic graphene field effect transistors (FETs). The absence of an energy band gap is shown to result in severe shortcomings for logic applications. Possibilities to engineer a band gap in graphene FETs including quantum confinement in graphene Nanoribbons (GNRs) and electricall...

  10. Differential Bloch Oscillating Transistor Pair

    OpenAIRE

    Sarkar, Jayanta; Puska, Antti; Hassel, Juha; Hakonen, Pertti J.

    2013-01-01

    We examine a Bloch Oscillating Transistor pair as a differential stage for cryogenic low-noise measurements. Using two oppositely biased, nearly symmetric Bloch Oscillating Transistors, we measured the sum and difference signals in the current gain and transconductance modes while changing the common mode signal, either voltage or current. From the common mode rejection ratio we find values $\\sim 20$ dB even under non-optimal conditions. We also characterize the noise properties and obtain ex...

  11. Measuring tools for ion modulated transistor applications : inverter, ring oscillator and flip-flop

    OpenAIRE

    Silvander, Jani

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis was to plan and create measurement tools that will be used for measuring experimental applications made of field-effect organic transistors (OFETs) or lateral ion modulated transistors which of both are build on paper substrate. P-type (hole conducting) materials are often used in the organic electronics because N-type (electron conducting) materials are more sensitive to ambient air and moisture. For this reason the tools in this thesis were made for...

  12. Gate-enclosed NMOS transistors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fan Xue; Li Ping; Li Wei; Zhang Bin; Xie Xiaodong; Wang Gang; Hu Bin; Zhai Yahong

    2011-01-01

    In order to quantitatively compare the design cost and performance of various gate styles,NMOS transistors with two-edged,annular and ring gate layouts were designed and fabricated by a commercial 0.35 μm CMOS process.By comparing the minimum W/L ratios and transistor areas,it was found that either the annular layout or its ring counterpart incurs a higher area penalty that depends on the W/L ratio of the transistor to be designed.Furthermore,by comparing the output and transfer characteristics of the transistors and analyzing the popular existing methods for extracting the effective W/L ratio,it was shown that the mid-line approximation for annular NMOS could incur an error of more than 10%.It was also demonstrated that the foundry-provided extraction tool needs significant adaptation when being applied to the enclosed-gate transistors,since it is targeted only toward the two-edged transistor.A simple approach for rough extraction of the W/L ratio for the ring-gate NMOS was presented and its effectiveness was confirmed by the experimental results with an error up to 8%.

  13. AMBIPOLAR DIFFUSION IN ACTION: TRANSIENT C SHOCK STRUCTURE AND PRESTELLAR CORE FORMATION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We analyze the properties of steady and time-dependent C shocks under conditions prevailing in giant molecular clouds. For steady C shocks, we show that ionization equilibrium holds and uses numerical integration to obtain a fitting formula for the shock thickness mediated by ambipolar diffusion, Lshock∝n0–3/4 v01/2 B01/2χi0–1. Our formula also agrees with an analytic estimate based on ion-neutral momentum exchange. Using time-dependent numerical simulations, we show that C shocks have a transient stage when the neutrals are compressed much more strongly than the magnetic field. The transient stage has a duration set by the neutral-ion collision time, tAD ∼ Lshock/vdrift ∼ 0.1-1 Myr. This transient creates a strong enhancement in the mass-to-magnetic flux ratio. Under favorable conditions, supercritical prestellar cores may form and collapse promptly as a result of magnetic flux loss during the transient stage of C shocks.

  14. Asymptotic, non-linear solutions for ambipolar diffusion in one dimension

    CERN Document Server

    Hoyos, Jaime; Valdivia, Juan

    2010-01-01

    We study the effect of the non-linear process of ambipolar diffusion (joint transport of magnetic flux and charged particles relative to neutral particles) on the long-term behavior of a non-uniform magnetic field in a one-dimensional geometry. Our main focus is the dissipation of magnetic energy inside neutron stars(particularly magnetars), but our results have a wider application, particularly to the interstellar medium and the loss of magnetic flux from collapsing molecular cloud cores. Our system is a weakly ionized plasma in which neutral and charged particles can be converted into each other through nuclear beta decays (or ionization-recombination processes). In the "weak-coupling" limit of infrequent inter-particle interactions, the evolution of the magnetic field is controlled by the beta decay rate and can be described by a non-linear partial integro-differential equation. In the opposite, "strong-coupling" regime, the evolution is controlled by the inter-particle collisions and can be modelled throu...

  15. Ringing After a High-Energy Collision: Ambipolar Oscillations During Impact Plasma Expansion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, M. I.; Farrell, W. M.; Stubbs, T. J.

    2012-01-01

    High-velocity impacts on the Moon and other airless bodies deliver energy and material to the lunar surface and exosphere. The target and i mpactor material may become vaporized and ionized to form a collision al plasma that expands outward and eventually becomes collisionless. In the present work, kinetic simulations of the later collision less stage of impact plasma expansion are performed. Attention is paid to characterizing "ambipolar oscillations" in which thermodynamic distur bances propagate outward to generate "ringing" within the expanding e lectron cloud, which could radiate an electromagnetic signature of lo cal plasma conditions. The process is not unlike a beam-plasma intera ction, with the perturbing electron population in the present case ac ting as a highly thermal "beam" that resonates along the expanding de nsity gradient. Understanding the electromagnetic aspects of impact p lasma expansion could provide insight into the lasting effects of nat ural, impact-generated currents on airless surfaces and charging haza rds to human exploration infrastructure and instrumentation.

  16. Enhanced O2+ loss at Mars due to an ambipolar electric field from electron heating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ergun, R. E.; Andersson, L. A.; Fowler, C. M.; Woodson, A. K.; Weber, T. D.; Delory, G. T.; Andrews, D. J.; Eriksson, A. I.; McEnulty, T.; Morooka, M. W.; Stewart, A. I. F.; Mahaffy, P. R.; Jakosky, B. M.

    2016-05-01

    Recent results from the MAVEN Langmuir Probe and Waves instrument suggest higher than predicted electron temperatures (Te) in Mars' dayside ionosphere above ~180 km in altitude. Correspondingly, measurements from Neutral Gas and Ion Mass Spectrometer indicate significant abundances of O2+ up to ~500 km in altitude, suggesting that O2+ may be a principal ion loss mechanism of oxygen. In this article, we investigate the effects of the higher Te (which results from electron heating) and ion heating on ion outflow and loss. Numerical solutions show that plasma processes including ion heating and higher Te may greatly increase O2+ loss at Mars. In particular, enhanced Te in Mars' ionosphere just above the exobase creates a substantial ambipolar electric field with a potential (eΦ) of several kBTe, which draws ions out of the region allowing for enhanced escape. With active solar wind, electron, and ion heating, direct O2+ loss could match or exceed loss via dissociative recombination of O2+. These results suggest that direct loss of O2+ may have played a significant role in the loss of oxygen at Mars over time.

  17. Energy balance in the solar transition region. I - Hydrostatic thermal models with ambipolar diffusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontenla, J. M.; Avrett, E. H.; Loeser, R.

    1990-01-01

    The energy balance in the lower transition region is analyzed by constructing theoretical models which satisfy the energy balance constraint. The energy balance is achieved by balancing the radiative losses and the energy flowing downward from the corona. This energy flow is mainly in two forms: conductive heat flow and hydrogen ionization energy flow due to ambipolar diffusion. Hydrostatic equilibrium is assumed, and, in a first calculation, local mechanical heating and Joule heating are ignored. In a second model, some mechanical heating compatible with chromospheric energy-balance calculations is introduced. The models are computed for a partial non-LTE approach in which radiation departs strongly from LTE but particles depart from Maxwellian distributions only to first order. The results, which apply to cases where the magnetic field is either absent, or uniform and vertical, are compared with the observed Lyman lines and continuum from the average quiet sun. The approximate agreement suggests that this type of model can roughly explain the observed intensities in a physically meaningful way, assuming only a few free parameters specified as chromospheric boundary conditions.

  18. Charge transport in single crystal organic semiconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Wei

    high-quality single crystals and exhibit large ambipolar mobilities. Nevertheless, a gap remains between the theory-predicted properties and this preliminary result, which itself is another fundamental challenge. This is further addressed by appropriate device optimization, and in particular, contact engineering approach to improve the charge injection efficiencies. The outcome is not only the achievement of new record ambipolar mobilities in one of the derivatives, namely, 4.8 cm2V-1s-1 for holes and 4.2 cm2V-1s-1 for electrons, but also provides a comprehensive and rational pathway towards the realization of high-performance organic semiconductors. Efforts to achieve high mobility in other organic single crystals are also presented. The second challenge is tuning the transition of electronic ground states, i.e., semiconducting, metallic and superconducting, in organic single crystals. Despite an active research area since four decades ago, we aim to employ the electrostatic approach instead of chemical doping for reversible and systematic control of charge densities within the same crystal. The key material in this study is the high-capacitance electrolyte, such as ionic liquids (ILs), whose specific capacitance reaches ~ μF/cm2, thus allowing accumulation of charge carrier above 1013 cm-2 when novel transport phenomena, such as insulator-metal transition and superconductivity, are likely to occur. This thesis addresses the electrical characterization, device physics and transport physics in electrolyte-gated single crystals, in the device architecture known as the electrical double layer transistor (EDLT). A detailed characterization scheme is first demonstrated for accurate determination of several key parameters, e.g., carrier mobility and charge density, in organic EDLTs. Further studies, combining both experiments and theories, are devoted to understanding the unusual charge density dependent channel conductivity and gate-to-channel capacitance behaviors. In

  19. Fabrication of Pentacene Thin-Film Transistors with Patterned Polyimide Photoresist as Gate Dielectrics and Research of Their Degradation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIANG Yan; DONG Gui-Fang; HU Yuan-Chuan; HU Yan; WANG Li-Duo; QIU Yong

    2004-01-01

    @@ Pentacene organic thin-film transistors using commercial photoresist as gate dielectrics were fabricated. The photoresist was spin-coated and directly patterned by photolithography. As a result, the fabrication processes were greatly reduced. With the characteristics of the transistors measured, the degradation of the transistors was investigated. In the search for the factors causing degradation, a transistor using poly(methyl methacrylate)as the gate dielectric was also fabricated. It is regarded that the degradation is caused by the changes at the interface between photoresist and pentacene film.

  20. Organic semiconductors. Fundamental aspects of metal contacts, highly ordered films and the application in field effect transistors; Organische Halbleiter. Fundamentale Aspekte von Metallkontakten, hochgeordneten Schichten und deren Anwendung in Feldeffekttransistoren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sachs, Soenke

    2010-05-31

    In this thesis, fundamental aspects of organic semiconductor devices are investigated and incorporated into the construction and optimization of an organic semiconductor field effect transistor (OFET). In order to approach the ''high end'' of OFETs, elaborate steps to optimize the devices are taken, despite the fact that they might not be feasible in a direct application. Well-characterized model systems are selected to study fundamental properties of devices, in particular the electronic structure at molecule/metal contacts and in the organic semiconductor bulk, as well as the growth of organic semiconductor molecules on single crystalline insulator substrates. The realization of a high performance OFET is pursued by a comprehensive approach in order to optimize particularly the interfaces of the device. Considerable progress is made towards a working OFET with best possible properties. A primary focus of this work, the investigation of the electronic structure at molecule/metal contacts and in the molecular bulk of the model system PTCDA/Ag(111) is performed using two photon photoelectron spectroscopy (2PPE). Of special interest is the excitation of the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) that shows different energetic relaxation mechanisms, depending on the origin of excitation. In addition to the importance of the molecule/metal contacts, the performance of OFETs is determined to a large extend by the quality of the organic semiconductor/gate insulator interface where the charge carrier channel is established. The morphology and structure of a molecular layer are investigated for diindenoperylene (DIP) molecules, adsorbed on a single crystalline Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} substrate, by atomic force microscopy and optical microscopy. Dependent on the substrate temperature during growth, the morphology shows grains with lateral dimensions of about 200 nm at 350 K which increase up to 700 nm at 450 K. This change in morphology is accompanied by