WorldWideScience

Sample records for ambient ozone growth

  1. Assessing plant response to ambient ozone: growth of young apple trees in open-top chambers and corresponding ambient air plots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manning, W.J.; Cooley, D.R.; Tuttle, A.F.; Frenkel, M.A.; Bergweiler, C.J.

    2004-01-01

    Open-top chambers (OTCs) and corresponding ambient air plots (AA) were used to assess the impact of ambient ozone on growth of newly planted apple trees at the Montague Field research center in Amherst, MA. Two-year-old apple trees (Malus domestica Borkh 'Rogers Red McIntosh') were planted in the ground in circular plots. Four of the plots were enclosed with OTCs where incoming air was charcoal-filtered (CF); four were enclosed with OTCs where incoming air was not charcoal-filtered (NF) and four were not enclosed, allowing access to ambient air conditions (AA). Conditions in both CF and NF OTCs resulted in increased tree growth and changed incidence of disease and arthropod pests, compared to trees in AA. As a result, we were not able to use the OTC method to assess the impact of ambient ozone on growth of young apple trees in Amherst, MA. - Capsule: Conditions in charcoal-filtered and non-filtered open-top chambers affected apple tree growth equally and prevented assessment of ambient ozone effects

  2. Establishing a cause and effect relationship for ambient ozone exposure and tree growth in the forest: Progress and an experimental approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manning, William J.

    2005-01-01

    Much has been written about the effects of ambient ozone on tree growth. Cause and effect has been established with seedlings in chambers. Results from multi-year studies with older tree seedlings, in open-top chambers, have been inconclusive, due to chamber effects. Extrapolation of results from chambers to trees in the forest is not possible. Predictive models for forest tree growth reductions caused by ozone have been developed, but not verified. Dendrochronological methods have been used to establish correlations between radial growth reductions in forest trees and ambient ozone exposure. The protective chemical ethylenediurea (EDU) has been used to protect tree seedlings from ozone injury. An experimental approach is advocated here that utilizes forest trees selected for sensitivity and non-sensitivity to ozone, dendrochronological methods, the protective chemical EDU, and monitoring data for ambient ozone, stomatal conductance, soil moisture potential, air temperature, PAR, etc. in long-term investigations to establish cause and effect relationships. - Progress is reviewed and an experimental approach is proposed to demonstrate a cause and effect relationship for ambient ozone and forest tree growth

  3. Assessing effects of ambient ozone on injury and growth of Trifolium subterraneum at four rural sites in the Netherlands with ethylenediurea (EDU)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tonneijck, A.E.G.; Dijk, van C.J.

    1997-01-01

    To assess adverse effects of ambient ozone on injury and growth, EDU (ethylenediurea) and non-EDU-treated plants of subterranean clover (Trifolium subterraneum cv. Geraldton) were exposed to ambient air at four rural sites in the Netherlands. In each of two successive experiments of eight weeks

  4. Protection of plants from ambient ozone by applications of ethylenediurea (EDU): A meta-analytic review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng Zhaozhong; Wang Shuguang; Szantoi, Zoltan; Chen Shuai; Wang Xiaoke

    2010-01-01

    A meta-analysis was conducted to quantitatively assess the effects of ethylenediurea (EDU) on ozone (O 3 ) injury, growth, physiology and productivity of plants grown in ambient air conditions. Results indicated that EDU significantly reduced O 3 -caused visible injury by 76%, and increased photosynthetic rate by 8%, above-ground biomass by 7% and crop yield by 15% in comparison with non-EDU treated plants, suggesting that ozone reduces growth and yield under current ambient conditions. EDU significantly ameliorated the biomass and yield of crops and grasses, but had no significant effect on tree growth with an exception of stem diameter. EDU applied as a soil drench at a concentration of 200-400 mg/L has the highest positive effect on crops grown in the field. Long-term research on full-grown tree species is needed. In conclusion, EDU is a powerful tool for assessing effects of ambient [O 3 ] on vegetation. - EDU effectively protect plants against ambient ozone.

  5. Effect of ambient levels of ozone on photosynthetic components and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of ambient levels of ozone on photosynthetic components and radical scavenging system in leaves of African cowpea varieties. ... The O3-induced significant reduction in catalase activity was observed in Blackeye at vegetative and reproductive growth stages; and in Asontem at reproductive growth stage. On the other ...

  6. Root growth and physiology of potted and field-grown trembling aspen exposed to tropospheric ozone

    Science.gov (United States)

    M.D. Coleman; R.E. Dickson; J.G. Isebrands; D.F. Karnosky

    1996-01-01

    We studied root growth and respiration of potted plants and field-grown aspen trees (Populus tremuloides Michx.) exposed to ambient or twice-ambient ozone. Root dry weight of potted plants decreased up to 45% after 12 weeks of ozone treatment, and root system respiration decreased by 27%. The ozone-induced decrease in root system respiration of...

  7. Ozone air pollution effects on tree-ring growth,{delta}{sup 13}C, visible foliar injury and leaf gas exchange in three ozone-sensitive woody plant species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Novak, K. [Swiss Federal Inst. for Forest, Snow and Landscape Research, Birmensdorf (Switzerland); Agroscope FAL Reckenholz, Swiss Federal Research Station for Agroecology and Agriculture, Zurich (Switzerland); Saurer, M. [Paul Scherrer Inst. Villigen (Switzerland); Fuhrer, J. [Agroscope FAL Reckenholz, Swiss Federal Research Station for Agroecology and Agriculture, Zurich (Switzerland); Skelly, J.M. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States). Dept. of Plant Pathology; Krauchi, N.; Schaub, M. [Swiss Federal Inst. for Forest, Snow and Landscape Research, Birmensdorf (Switzerland)

    2007-07-15

    Species specific plant responses to tropospheric ozone pollution depend on a range of morphological, biochemical and physiological characteristics as well as environmental factors. The effects of ambient tropospheric ozone on annual tree-ring growth, {delta}{sup 13} C in the rings, leaf gas exchange and ozone-induced visible foliar injury in three ozone-sensitive woody plant species in southern Switzerland were assessed during the 2001 and 2002 growing seasons. Seedlings of Populus nigra L., Viburnum lantana L. and Fraxinus excelsior L. were exposed to charcoal-filtered air and non-filtered air in open-top chambers, and to ambient air (AA) in open plots. The objective was to determine if a relationship exists between measurable ozone-induced effects at the leaf level and subsequent changes in annual tree-ring growth and {delta} {sup 13} C signatures. The visible foliar injury, early leaf senescence and premature leaf loss in all species was attributed to the ambient ozone exposures in the region. Ozone had pronounced negative effects on net photosynthesis and stomatal conductance in all species in 2002 and in V. lantana and F. excelsior in 2001. Water-use efficiency decreased and intercellular carbon dioxide concentrations increased in all species in response to ozone in 2002 only. The width and {delta}{sup 13} C of the 2001 and 2002 growth rings were measured for all species at the end of the 2002 growing season. Significant ozone-induced effects at the leaf level did not correspond to reduced tree-ring growth or increased {delta}{sup 13} C in all species, suggesting that the timing of ozone exposure and extent of leaf-level responses may be relevant in determining the sensitivity of tree productivity to ozone exposure. 48 refs., 4 tabs., 2 figs.

  8. Growth, yield and quality attributes of a tropical potato variety (Solanum tuberosum L. cv Kufri chandramukhi) under ambient and elevated carbon dioxide and ozone and their interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumari, Sumita; Agrawal, Madhoolika

    2014-03-01

    The present study was designed to study the growth and yield responses of a tropical potato variety (Solanum tuberosum L. cv. Kufri chandramukhi) to different levels of carbon dioxide (382 and 570ppm) and ozone (50 and 70ppb) in combinations using open top chambers (OTCs). Plants were exposed to three ozone levels in combination with ambient CO2 and two ozone levels at elevated CO2. Significant increments in leaf area and total biomass were observed under elevated CO2 in combination with ambient O3 (ECO2+AO3) and elevated O3 (ECO2+EO3), compared to the plants grown under ambient concentrations (ACO2+AO3). Yield measured as fresh weight of potato also increased significantly under ECO2+AO3 and ECO2+EO3. Yield, however, reduced under ambient (ACO2+AO3) and elevated ozone (ACO2+EO3) compared to ACO2 (filtered chamber). Number, fresh and dry weights of tubers of size 35-50mm and>50mm used for direct consumption and industrial purposes, respectively increased maximally under ECO2+AO3. Ambient as well as elevated levels of O3 negatively affected the growth parameters and yield mainly due to reductions in number and weight of tubers of sizes >35mm. The quality of potato tubers was also modified under different treatments. Starch content increased and K, Zn and Fe concentrations decreased under ECO2+AO3 and ECO2+EO3 compared to ACO2+AO3. Starch content reduced under ACO2+AO3 and ACO2+EO3 treatments compared to ACO2. These results clearly suggest that elevated CO2 has provided complete protection to ambient O3 as the potato yield was higher under ECO2+AO3 compared to ACO2. However, ambient CO2 is not enough to protect the plants under ambient O3 levels. Elevated CO2 also provided protection against elevated O3 by improving the yield. Quality of tubers is modified by both CO2 and O3, which have serious implications on human health at present and in future. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Evaluation of physiological, growth and yield responses of a tropical oil crop (Brassica campestris L. var. Kranti) under ambient ozone pollution at varying NPK levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Poonam; Agrawal, Madhoolika; Agrawal, Shashi Bhushan

    2009-01-01

    A field study was conducted to evaluate the impact of ambient ozone on mustard (Brassica campestris L. var. Kranti) plants grown under recommended and 1.5 times recommended NPK doses at a rural site of India using filtered (FCs) and non-filtered open top chambers (NFCs). Ambient mean O 3 concentration varied from 41.65 to 54.2 ppb during the experiment. Plants growing in FCs showed higher photosynthetic rate at both NPK levels, but higher stomatal conductance only at recommended NPK. There were improvements in growth parameters and biomass of plants in FCs as compared to NFCs at both NPK levels with higher increments at 1.5 times recommended. Seed yield and harvest index decreased significantly only at recommended NPK in NFCs. Seed quality in terms of nutrients, protein and oil contents reduced in NFCs at recommended NPK. The application of 1.5 times recommended NPK provided protection against yield loss due to ambient O 3 . - NPK level above recommended alleviates the adverse effects of ambient ozone on a tropical mustard cultivar

  10. Evaluation of physiological, growth and yield responses of a tropical oil crop (Brassica campestris L. var. Kranti) under ambient ozone pollution at varying NPK levels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Poonam [Laboratory of Air Pollution and Global Climate Change, Ecology Research Circle, Department of Botany, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi 221005 (India); Agrawal, Madhoolika [Laboratory of Air Pollution and Global Climate Change, Ecology Research Circle, Department of Botany, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi 221005 (India)], E-mail: madhoo58@yahoo.com; Agrawal, Shashi Bhushan [Laboratory of Air Pollution and Global Climate Change, Ecology Research Circle, Department of Botany, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi 221005 (India)

    2009-03-15

    A field study was conducted to evaluate the impact of ambient ozone on mustard (Brassica campestris L. var. Kranti) plants grown under recommended and 1.5 times recommended NPK doses at a rural site of India using filtered (FCs) and non-filtered open top chambers (NFCs). Ambient mean O{sub 3} concentration varied from 41.65 to 54.2 ppb during the experiment. Plants growing in FCs showed higher photosynthetic rate at both NPK levels, but higher stomatal conductance only at recommended NPK. There were improvements in growth parameters and biomass of plants in FCs as compared to NFCs at both NPK levels with higher increments at 1.5 times recommended. Seed yield and harvest index decreased significantly only at recommended NPK in NFCs. Seed quality in terms of nutrients, protein and oil contents reduced in NFCs at recommended NPK. The application of 1.5 times recommended NPK provided protection against yield loss due to ambient O{sub 3}. - NPK level above recommended alleviates the adverse effects of ambient ozone on a tropical mustard cultivar.

  11. ambient volatile organic compounds pollution and ozone formation

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    OLUMAYEDE

    2013-08-01

    Aug 1, 2013 ... Volatile organic compound (VOC) species react at different rate and exhibit differences in reactivity with respect to ozone formation in polluted urban atmosphere. To assess this, the variations pattern, reactivity relative to OH radical and ozone creation potential of ambient VOCs were investigated in field.

  12. 77 FR 30087 - Air Quality Designations for the 2008 Ozone National Ambient Air Quality Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-21

    ... and 81 Air Quality Designations for the 2008 Ozone National Ambient Air Quality Standards; Implementation of the 2008 National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone: Nonattainment Area Classifications...-9668-2] RIN 2060-AP37 Air Quality Designations for the 2008 Ozone National Ambient Air Quality...

  13. Silver birch and climate change: variable growth and carbon allocation responses to elevated concentrations of carbon dioxide and ozone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riikonen, J.; Holopainen, T.; Oksanen, E.; Lindsberg, M-M.; Lappi, J.; Peltonen, P.; Vapaavuori, E.

    2004-01-01

    The effects of elevated concentrations of carbon dioxide and ozone were studied on growth, biomass allocation and leaf area of field-grown ozone-tolerant (Clone 4) and ozone-sensitive (Clone 80) European silver birch trees. Seven-year old trees of both types were exposed for three years to outside and chamber control, (1) twice ambient ozone, (2) twice ambient carbon dioxide, and (3) twice ambient carbon dioxide and twice ambient ozone. No effect on biomass allocation was observed when results of the two clones were analyzed together. Total leaf area showed an increase, and leaf abscission appeared delayed in response to elevated carbon dioxide. Elevated ozone caused the dry mass of roots, branches and mean leaf size to decrease, and autumnal leaf abscission occurred earlier than usual in both clones. In general. the effects of elevated ozone were small, however, the interaction between elevated carbon dioxide and elevated oxygen were significant. When results from the two clones were analyzed separately, stem diameter, volume growth and total biomass of Clone 80 increased when exposed to elevated concentrations of carbon dioxide; elevated concentrations of ozone appeared to have no effect. In Clone 4 elevated ozone caused significant decrease in root and branch biomass, but the effects of elevated carbon dioxide were minimal. Responses to elevated ozone exposure were observed only under ambient carbon dioxide conditions. This response is believed to reflect the greater quantity of carbohydrates available for detoxification and repair under elevated carbon dioxide conditions. Alternatively, the response may be due to decreased stomatal conductance, thus decreased ozone uptake under elevated carbon dioxide conditions. 45 refs., 6 tabs., 4 figs

  14. Assessing the impact of ambient ozone on growth and yield of a rice (Oryza sativa L.) and a wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivar grown in the Yangtze Delta, China, using three rates of application of ethylenediurea (EDU)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Xiaoke; Zheng Qiwei; Yao Fangfang; Chen Zhan; Feng Zhaozhong; Manning, W.J.

    2007-01-01

    Foliar applications of ethylenediurea (abbreviated as EDU) were made at 0, 150, 300 or 450 ppm to field-grown rice and wheat in the Yangtze Delta in China. Rice and wheat responded differently to ambient ozone and EDU applications. For wheat, some growth characteristics, such as yield, seed number per plant, seed set rate and harvest index, increased significantly at 300 ppm EDU treatment, while for rice no parameters measured were statistically different regarding EDU application. The reason may be that the wheat cultivar used may be more sensitive to ozone than the rice cultivar. EDU was effective in demonstrating ozone effects on the wheat cultivar, but not on the rice cultivar. Cultivar sensitivity might be an important consideration when assessing the effects of ambient ozone on plants. - Cultivar sensitivity should be considered when using protective chemical to assess the effects of ambient ozone on plants

  15. effect of ambient levels of ozone on photosynthetic components

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    To clarify the long-term effects of ambient levels of tropospheric ozone (O3) on ... (Rubisco), thus contributing to the reduction in net photosynthetic rate at the .... USA). During the measurements, atmospheric. CO2 concentrations, air ...... productivity and implications for climate change. Annual Review of Plant Biology 63:.

  16. Passive sampling of ambient ozone by solid phase microextraction with on-fiber derivatization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, I-S.; Tsai, S.-W.

    2008-01-01

    The solid phase microextraction (SPME) device with the polydimethylsiloxane/divinylbenzene (PDMS/DVB) fiber was used as a passive sampler for ambient ozone. Both O-2,3,4,5,6-(pentafluorobenzyl)hydroxylamine hydrochloride (PFBHA) and 1,2-di-(4-pyridyl)ethylene (DPE) were loaded onto the fiber before sampling. The SPME fiber assembly was then inserted into a PTFE tubing as a passive sampler. Known concentrations of ozone around the ambient ground level were generated by a calibrated ozone generator. Laboratory validations of the SPME passive sampler with the direct-reading ozone monitor were performed side-by-side in an exposure chamber at 25 deg. C. After exposures, pyriden-4-aldehyde was formed due to the reaction between DPE and ozone. Further on-fiber derivatizations between pyriden-4-aldehyde and PFBHA were followed and the derivatives, oximes, were then determined by portable gas chromatography with electron capture detector. The experimental sampling rate of the SPME ozone passive sampler was found to be 1.10 x 10 -4 cm 3 s -1 with detection limit of 58.8 μg m -3 h -1 . Field validations with both SPME device and the direct-reading ozone monitor were also performed. The correlations between the results from both methods were found to be consistent with r = 0.9837. Compared with other methods, the current designed sampler provides a convenient and sensitive tool for the exposure assessments of ozone

  17. 40 CFR Appendix I to Part 50 - Interpretation of the 8-Hour Primary and Secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone 1. General. This appendix explains the data.... Primary and Secondary Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone. 2.1 Data Reporting and Handling Conventions... and Secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone I Appendix I to Part 50 Protection of...

  18. A direct sensitivity approach to predict hourly ozone resulting from compliance with the National Ambient Air Quality Standard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Heather; Baker, Kirk R; Akhtar, Farhan; Napelenok, Sergey L; Possiel, Norm; Wells, Benjamin; Timin, Brian

    2013-03-05

    In setting primary ambient air quality standards, the EPA's responsibility under the law is to establish standards that protect public health. As part of the current review of the ozone National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS), the US EPA evaluated the health exposure and risks associated with ambient ozone pollution using a statistical approach to adjust recent air quality to simulate just meeting the current standard level, without specifying emission control strategies. One drawback of this purely statistical concentration rollback approach is that it does not take into account spatial and temporal heterogeneity of ozone response to emissions changes. The application of the higher-order decoupled direct method (HDDM) in the community multiscale air quality (CMAQ) model is discussed here to provide an example of a methodology that could incorporate this variability into the risk assessment analyses. Because this approach includes a full representation of the chemical production and physical transport of ozone in the atmosphere, it does not require assumed background concentrations, which have been applied to constrain estimates from past statistical techniques. The CMAQ-HDDM adjustment approach is extended to measured ozone concentrations by determining typical sensitivities at each monitor location and hour of the day based on a linear relationship between first-order sensitivities and hourly ozone values. This approach is demonstrated by modeling ozone responses for monitor locations in Detroit and Charlotte to domain-wide reductions in anthropogenic NOx and VOCs emissions. As seen in previous studies, ozone response calculated using HDDM compared well to brute-force emissions changes up to approximately a 50% reduction in emissions. A new stepwise approach is developed here to apply this method to emissions reductions beyond 50% allowing for the simulation of more stringent reductions in ozone concentrations. Compared to previous rollback methods, this

  19. Association between ambient ozone and health outcomes in Prague

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hůnová, I.; Malý, Marek; Řezáčová, J.; Braniš, M.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 86, č. 1 (2013), s. 89-97 ISSN 0340-0131 Grant - others:GA MŠk(CZ) 2B08077; GA AV ČR(CZ) M100300904 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : ambient ozone * cardiovascular diseases * hospital admissions * mortality * respiratory diseases Subject RIV: DN - Health Impact of the Environment Quality Impact factor: 2.198, year: 2013

  20. Projecting future summer mortality due to ambient ozone concentration and temperature changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jae Young; Lee, Soo Hyun; Hong, Sung-Chul; Kim, Ho

    2017-05-01

    Climate change is known to affect the human health both directly by increased heat stress and indirectly by altering environments, particularly by altering the rate of ambient ozone formation in the atmosphere. Thus, the risks of climate change may be underestimated if the effects of both future temperature and ambient ozone concentrations are not considered. This study presents a projection of future summer non-accidental mortality in seven major cities of South Korea during the 2020s (2016-2025) and 2050s (2046-2055) considering changes in temperature and ozone concentration, which were predicted by using the HadGEM3-RA model and Integrated Climate and Air Quality Modeling System, respectively. Four Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP) scenarios (RCP 2.6, 4.5, 6.0, and 8.5) were considered. The result shows that non-accidental summer mortality will increase by 0.5%, 0.0%, 0.4%, and 0.4% in the 2020s, 1.9%, 1.5%, 1.2%, and 4.4% in the 2050s due to temperature change compared to the baseline mortality during 2001-2010, under RCP 2.6, 4.5, 6.0, and 8.5, respectively, whereas the mortality will increase by 0.0%, 0.5%, 0.0%, and 0.5% in the 2020s, and 0.2%, 0.2%, 0.4%, and 0.6% in the 2050s due to ozone concentration change. The projection result shows that the future summer morality in South Korea is increased due to changes in both temperature and ozone, and the magnitude of ozone-related increase is much smaller than that of temperature-related increase, especially in the 2050s.

  1. Interactive effects of ozone and climate on tree growth and water use in a southern Appalachian forest in the USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    S.B. McLaughlin; S.D. Wullschleger; G. Sun

    2007-01-01

    A lack of data on responses of mature tree growth and water use to ambient ozone (O3) concentrations has been a major limitation in efforts to understand and model responses of forests to current and future changes in climate.Here, hourly to seasonal patterns of stem growth and sap flow velocity were...

  2. Evaluation and Comparison of Chemiluminescence and UV Photometric Methods for Measuring Ozone Concentrations in Ambient Air

    Science.gov (United States)

    The current Federal Reference Method (FRM) for measuring concentrations of ozone in ambient air is based on the dry, gas-phase, chemiluminescence reaction between ethylene (C2H4) and any ozone (O3) that may be p...

  3. Modeling the effects of ozone on soybean growth and yield.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, K; Miller, J E; Flagler, R B; Heck, W W

    1990-01-01

    A simple mechanistic model was developed based on an existing growth model in order to address the mechanisms of the effects of ozone on growth and yield of soybean [Glycine max. (L.) Merr. 'Davis'] and interacting effects of other environmental stresses. The model simulates daily growth of soybean plants using environmental data including shortwave radiation, temperature, precipitation, irrigation and ozone concentration. Leaf growth, dry matter accumulation, water budget, nitrogen input and seed growth linked to senescence and abscission of leaves are described in the model. The effects of ozone are modeled as reduced photosynthate production and accelerated senescence. The model was applied to the open-top chamber experiments in which soybean plants were exposed to ozone under two levels of soil moisture regimes. After calibrating the model to the growth data and seed yield, goodness-of-fit of the model was tested. The model fitted well for top dry weight in the vegetative growth phase and also at maturity. The effect of ozone on seen yield was also described satisfactorily by the model. The simulation showed apparent interaction between the effect of ozone and soil moisture stress on the seed yield. The model revealed that further work is needed concerning the effect of ozone on the senescence process and the consequences of alteration of canopy microclimate by the open-top chambers.

  4. Fine root dynamics of mature European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) as influenced by elevated ozone concentrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mainiero, Raphael; Kazda, Marian; Haeberle, Karl-Heinz; Nikolova, Petia Simeonova; Matyssek, Rainer

    2009-01-01

    Fine root dynamics (diameter < 1 mm) in mature Fagus sylvatica, with the canopies exposed to ambient or twice-ambient ozone concentrations, were investigated throughout 2004. The focus was on the seasonal timing and extent of fine root dynamics (growth, mortality) in relation to the soil environment (water content, temperature). Under ambient ozone concentrations, a significant relationship was found between fine root turnover and soil environmental changes indicating accelerated fine root turnover under favourable soil conditions. In contrast, under elevated ozone, this relationship vanished as the result of an altered temporal pattern of fine root growth. Fine root survival and turnover rate did not differ significantly between the different ozone regimes, although a delay in current-year fine root shedding was found under the elevated ozone concentrations. The data indicate that increasing tropospheric ozone levels can alter the timing of fine root turnover in mature F. sylvatica but do not affect the turnover rate. - Doubling of ozone concentrations in mature European beech affected the seasonal timing of fine root turnover rather than the turnover rate.

  5. Modeling the effects of reformulated gasoline usages on ambient concentrations of ozone and five air toxics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ligocki, M.P.; Schulhof, R.R.; Jackson, R.E.; Jimenez, M.M.; Atkinson, D.

    1993-01-01

    The use of reformulated gasolines to reduce motor-vehicle-related hydrocarbon emissions has been mandated by the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments for nine severely polluted urban areas. Using a version of the Urban Airshed Model that includes explicit representation of five motor-vehicle-related air toxics, the effects of reformulated gasoline usage on ambient ozone and toxics concentrations were simulated. Simulations were conducted for two urban areas. Baltimore-Washington and Houston, for the year 1995. Additional simulation were conducted for Baltimore-Washington including winter and 1999 scenarios. In the Baltimore-Washington areas, the 1995 Federal reformulated gasoline scenario produce reductions of 1.1 percent in simulated peak ozone and 2.7 percent in the areal extent of simulated ozone exceedances. Simulated ozone reductions were much smaller in Houston. In the reformulated gasoline simulations, secondary formulation of formaldehyde and acetaldehyde was reduced, and decreases in ambient benzene and polycyclic organic matter (POM) concentrations were simulated. Larger reductions in ozone and toxics concentrations were simulated for reformulated gasolines meeting California Phase II standards than for those meeting Federal standards. The effects of reductions in motor-vehicle-related nitrogen oxides (NO x ) emissions, alone and in combination with hydrocarbon reductions, were also examined

  6. Bean leaf growth response to moderate ozone levels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evans, L S

    1973-01-01

    The middle leaflet from the first trifoliate leaf of pinto bean plants (Phaseolus vulgaris) was subjected to various ozone levels for both 12 and 24 h to show moderate oxidant injury. Rates of leaf expansion were used as criteria to measure the effects of ozone at three leaflet positions. Growth analysis included Y-intercepts indicating growth after day 1, growth after day 3, and regression line slopes between days 1 and 7 after the beginning of the experiments. Slopes of growth rate regression lines differentiated untreated leaflets from leaflets exposed to a 0.60 ppm-h (0.05 ppm for 12 h) dose. Growth rates of plants exposed to 1.20 ppm-h (either 0.05 ppm for 24 h, or 0.10 ppm for 12 h) were distinguishable from untreated plants within three days. Basal leaf portions showed the most differential ozone response compared with lateral and tip positions.

  7. Loblolly pine seedling growth after inoculation with plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria and ozone exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Estes, B.L.; Enebak, S.A.; Chappelka, A.H. [Auburn Univ., Auburn, AL (United States). School of Forestry and Wildlife Sciences

    2004-07-01

    The conifer tree species with the greatest economic importance in south eastern United States plantations is Loblolly pine. Plantations require intensive fertilization, pesticide application, and irrigation. In these cases growth-promoting rhizobacteria are useful in pest control. While it was once thought that ozone in the troposphere was limited to urban areas, it is now known that it is transported far from its place of origin. Ozone is known to impact plant growth negatively. There have been no previous studies on whether growth-promoting rhizobacteria can decrease the negative effects of ozone. In this study seedlings of Loblolly pine were inoculated with either Bacillus subtilis (Ehrenberg) Cohn or Paenibacillus macerans (Schardinger) Ash. These were exposed to controlled amounts of ozone for 8-12 weeks. All plants showed decreased biomass and increased foliar damage compared to plants that were not exposed to ozone. B. subtilis inoculated plants showed less foliar damage than un-inoculated ones and root dimensions were increased. The use of growth-promoting rhizobacteria is not ready for large-scale commercial application in forestry, but this demonstration of the possible beneficial effects on ozone exposure warrants further investigation. 44 refs., 3 tabs., 2 figs.

  8. Effect of increased carbon dioxide concentrations on stratospheric ozone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boughner, R.E.

    1978-01-01

    During the past several years, much attention has been focused on the destruction of ozone by anthropogenic pollutants such as the nitrogen oxides and chlorofluoromethane. Little or no attention has been given to the influence on ozone of an increased carbon dioxide concentration for which a measurable growth has been observed. Increased carbon dioxide can directly affect ozone by perturbing atmospheric temperatures, which will alter ozone production, whose rate displays a fairly strong temperature dependence. This paper presents one-dimensional model results for the steady state ozone behavior when the CO 2 concentration is twice its ambient level which account for coupling between chemistry and temperature. When the CO 2 level doubled, the total ozone burden increased in relation to the ambient burden by 1.2--2.5%, depending on the vertical diffusion coefficient used. Above 30 km. In this region the relation variations were insensitive to the choice of diffusion coefficient. Below 30 km, ozone concentrations were smaller than the unperturbed values and were sensitive to the vertical diffusion profile in this region (10--30 km). Ozone decreases in the lower stratosphere because of a reduction in ozone-producing solar radiation, which results in smaller downward ozone fluxes from the region at 25--30 km relative to the flux values for the ambient atmosphere. These offsetting changes occurring in the upper and lower stratosphere act to minimize the variation in total ozone

  9. Opposing effects of particle pollution, ozone, and ambient temperature on arterial blood pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Barbara; Luttmann-Gibson, Heike; Cohen, Allison; Zanobetti, Antonella; de Souza, Celine; Foley, Christopher; Suh, Helen H; Coull, Brent A; Schwartz, Joel; Mittleman, Murray; Stone, Peter; Horton, Edward; Gold, Diane R

    2012-02-01

    Diabetes increases the risk of hypertension and orthostatic hypotension and raises the risk of cardiovascular death during heat waves and high pollution episodes. We examined whether short-term exposures to air pollution (fine particles, ozone) and heat resulted in perturbation of arterial blood pressure (BP) in persons with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). We conducted a panel study in 70 subjects with T2DM, measuring BP by automated oscillometric sphygmomanometer and pulse wave analysis every 2 weeks on up to five occasions (355 repeated measures). Hourly central site measurements of fine particles, ozone, and meteorology were conducted. We applied linear mixed models with random participant intercepts to investigate the association of fine particles, ozone, and ambient temperature with systolic, diastolic, and mean arterial BP in a multipollutant model, controlling for season, meteorological variables, and subject characteristics. An interquartile increase in ambient fine particle mass [particulate matter (PM) with an aerodynamic diameter of ≤ 2.5 μm (PM2.5)] and in the traffic component black carbon in the previous 5 days (3.54 and 0.25 μg/m3, respectively) predicted increases of 1.4 mmHg [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.0, 2.9 mmHg] and 2.2 mmHg (95% CI: 0.4, 4.0 mmHg) in systolic BP (SBP) at the population geometric mean, respectively. In contrast, an interquartile increase in the 5-day mean of ozone (13.3 ppb) was associated with a 5.2 mmHg (95% CI: -8.6, -1.8 mmHg) decrease in SBP. Higher temperatures were associated with a marginal decrease in BP. In subjects with T2DM, PM was associated with increased BP, and ozone was associated with decreased BP. These effects may be clinically important in patients with already compromised autoregulatory function.

  10. Photosynthesis and growth response of almond to increased atmospheric ozone partial pressures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Retzlaff, W.A.; Williams, L.E.; DeJong, T.M.

    1992-01-01

    Uniform nursery stock of five almond cultivars [Prunus dulcis (Mill) D.A. Webb syn. P. amygdalus Batsch, cv. Butte, Carmel, Mission, Nonpareil, and Sonora] propagated on peach (P. domstica L. Batsch.) rootstock were exposed to three different atmospheric ozone (O 3 ) partial pressures. The trees were planted in open-top fumigation chambers on 19 Apr. 1989 at the University of California Kearny Agricultural Center located in the San Joaquin Valley of California. Exposures of the trees to three atmospheric O 3 partial pressures lasted from 1 June to 2 Nov. 1989. The mean 12-h [0800-2000 h Pacific Daylight Time (PDT)] O 3 partial pressures measured in the open-top chambers during the experimental period were 0.038, 0.060, and 0.112 μPa Pa -1 O 3 in the charcoal filtered, ambient, and ambient + O 3 treatments, respectively. Leaf net CO 2 assimilation, trunk cross-sectional area growth, and root, trunk, foliage, and total dry weight of Nonpareil were reduced by increased atmospheric O 3 partial pressures. Mission was unaffected by O 3 and Butte, Carmel, and Sonora were intermediate in their responses. Foliage of Nonpareil also abscised prematurely in the ambient and ambient + O 3 treatments. The results indicate that there are almond cultivars that are sensitive to O 3 exposure

  11. Estimating contribution of wildland fires to ambient ozone levels in National Parks in the Sierra Nevada, California

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preisler, Haiganoush K.; Zhong Shiyuan; Esperanza, Annie; Brown, Timothy J.; Bytnerowicz, Andrzej; Tarnay, Leland

    2010-01-01

    Data from four continuous ozone and weather monitoring sites operated by the National Park Service in Sierra Nevada, California, are used to develop an ozone forecasting model and to estimate the contribution of wildland fires on ambient ozone levels. The analyses of weather and ozone data pointed to the transport of ozone precursors from the Central Valley as an important source of pollution in these National Parks. Comparisons of forecasted and observed values demonstrated that accurate forecasts of next-day hourly ozone levels may be achieved by using a time series model with historic averages, expected local weather and modeled PM values as explanatory variables. Results on fire smoke influence indicated occurrence of significant increases in average ozone levels with increasing fire activity. The overall effect on diurnal ozone values, however, was small when compared with the amount of variability attributed to sources other than fire. - We have demonstrated that it is possible to produce accurate forecasts of next-day hourly ozone levels in the Sierra Nevada, CA, during fire season.

  12. Estimating contribution of wildland fires to ambient ozone levels in National Parks in the Sierra Nevada, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Preisler, Haiganoush K., E-mail: hpreisler@fs.fed.u [USDA Forest Service, Pacific Southwest Research Station, 800 Buchanan St, Albany, CA 94710 (United States); Zhong Shiyuan, E-mail: zhongs@msu.ed [Department of Geography, Michigan State University, 116 Geography Building, East Lansing, MI 48824-1117 (United States); Esperanza, Annie, E-mail: annie_esperanza@nps.go [Sequoia and Kings Canyon National Parks, 47050 Generals Highway Three Rivers, CA 93271 (United States); Brown, Timothy J., E-mail: tim.brown@dri.ed [Desert Research Institute, 2215 Raggio Parkway, Reno, NV 89521-10095 (United States); Bytnerowicz, Andrzej, E-mail: abytnerowicz@fs.fed.u [USDA Forest Service, Pacific Southwest Research Station, 4955 Canyon Crest Drive, Riverside, CA 92507 (United States); Tarnay, Leland, E-mail: Leland_Tarnay@nps.go [Yosemite National Park, El Portal, CA 95318 (United States)

    2010-03-15

    Data from four continuous ozone and weather monitoring sites operated by the National Park Service in Sierra Nevada, California, are used to develop an ozone forecasting model and to estimate the contribution of wildland fires on ambient ozone levels. The analyses of weather and ozone data pointed to the transport of ozone precursors from the Central Valley as an important source of pollution in these National Parks. Comparisons of forecasted and observed values demonstrated that accurate forecasts of next-day hourly ozone levels may be achieved by using a time series model with historic averages, expected local weather and modeled PM values as explanatory variables. Results on fire smoke influence indicated occurrence of significant increases in average ozone levels with increasing fire activity. The overall effect on diurnal ozone values, however, was small when compared with the amount of variability attributed to sources other than fire. - We have demonstrated that it is possible to produce accurate forecasts of next-day hourly ozone levels in the Sierra Nevada, CA, during fire season.

  13. Use of bioindicators and passive sampling devices to evaluate ambient ozone concentrations in north central Pennsylvania

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yuska, D.E.; Skelly, J.M.; Ferdinand, J.A.; Stevenson, R.E.; Savage, J.E.; Mulik, J.D.; Hines, A

    2003-09-01

    Passive samplers and bioindicator plants detect ozone air pollution in north central Pennsylvania. - Ambient concentrations of tropospheric ozone and ozone-induced injury to black cherry (Prunus serotina) and common milkweed (Asclepias syriaca) were determined in north central Pennsylvania from 29 May to 5 September 2000 and from 28 May to 18 September 2001. Ogawa passive ozone samplers were utilized within openings at 15 forested sites of which six were co-located with TECO model 49 continuous ozone monitors. A significant positive correlation was observed between the Ogawa passive samplers and the TECO model 49 continuous ozone monitors for the 2000 (r=0.959) and 2001 (r=0.979) seasons. In addition, a significant positive correlation existed in 2000 and 2001 between ozone concentration and elevation (r=0.720) and (r=0.802), respectively. Classic ozone-induced symptoms were observed on black cherry and common milkweed. In 2000, initial injury was observed in early June, whereas for the 2001 season, initial injury was initially observed in late June. During both seasons, injury was noted at most sites by mid- to late-July. Soil moisture potential was measured for the 2001 season and a significant positive relationship (P<0.001) showed that injury to black cherry was a function of cumulative ozone concentrations and available soil moisture.

  14. Use of bioindicators and passive sampling devices to evaluate ambient ozone concentrations in north central Pennsylvania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuska, D.E.; Skelly, J.M.; Ferdinand, J.A.; Stevenson, R.E.; Savage, J.E.; Mulik, J.D.; Hines, A.

    2003-01-01

    Passive samplers and bioindicator plants detect ozone air pollution in north central Pennsylvania. - Ambient concentrations of tropospheric ozone and ozone-induced injury to black cherry (Prunus serotina) and common milkweed (Asclepias syriaca) were determined in north central Pennsylvania from 29 May to 5 September 2000 and from 28 May to 18 September 2001. Ogawa passive ozone samplers were utilized within openings at 15 forested sites of which six were co-located with TECO model 49 continuous ozone monitors. A significant positive correlation was observed between the Ogawa passive samplers and the TECO model 49 continuous ozone monitors for the 2000 (r=0.959) and 2001 (r=0.979) seasons. In addition, a significant positive correlation existed in 2000 and 2001 between ozone concentration and elevation (r=0.720) and (r=0.802), respectively. Classic ozone-induced symptoms were observed on black cherry and common milkweed. In 2000, initial injury was observed in early June, whereas for the 2001 season, initial injury was initially observed in late June. During both seasons, injury was noted at most sites by mid- to late-July. Soil moisture potential was measured for the 2001 season and a significant positive relationship (P<0.001) showed that injury to black cherry was a function of cumulative ozone concentrations and available soil moisture

  15. Ambient Ozone Pollution and Daily Mortality: A Nationwide Study in 272 Chinese Cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Peng; Chen, Renjie; Wang, Lijun; Meng, Xia; Liu, Cong; Niu, Yue; Lin, Zhijing; Liu, Yunning; Liu, Jiangmei; Qi, Jinlei; You, Jinling; Zhou, Maigeng; Kan, Haidong

    2017-11-21

    Few large multicity studies have been conducted in developing countries to address the acute health effects of atmospheric ozone pollution. We explored the associations between ozone and daily cause-specific mortality in China. We performed a nationwide time-series analysis in 272 representative Chinese cities between 2013 and 2015. We used distributed lag models and over-dispersed generalized linear models to estimate the cumulative effects of ozone (lagged over 0-3 d) on mortality in each city, and we used hierarchical Bayesian models to combine the city-specific estimates. Regional, seasonal, and demographic heterogeneity were evaluated by meta-regression. At the national-average level, a 10-μg/m 3 increase in 8-h maximum ozone concentration was associated with 0.24% [95% posterior interval (PI): 0.13%, 0.35%], 0.27% (95% PI: 0.10%, 0.44%), 0.60% (95% PI: 0.08%, 1.11%), 0.24% (95% PI: 0.02%, 0.46%), and 0.29% (95% PI: 0.07%, 0.50%) higher daily mortality from all nonaccidental causes, cardiovascular diseases, hypertension, coronary diseases, and stroke, respectively. Associations between ozone and daily mortality due to respiratory and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease specifically were positive but imprecise and nonsignificant. There were no statistically significant differences in associations between ozone and nonaccidental mortality according to region, season, age, sex, or educational attainment. Our findings provide robust evidence of higher nonaccidental and cardiovascular mortality in association with short-term exposure to ambient ozone in China. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP1849.

  16. Effects of simultaneous ozone exposure and nitrogen loads on carbohydrate concentrations, biomass, and growth of young spruce trees (Picea abies)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, V.F.D.; Braun, S.; Flueckiger, W.

    2005-01-01

    Spruce saplings were grown under different nitrogen fertilization regimes in eight chamberless fumigation systems, which were fumigated with either charcoal-filtered (F) or ambient air (O 3 ). After the third growing season trees were harvested for biomass and non-structural carbohydrate analysis. Nitrogen had an overall positive effect on the investigated plant parameters, resulting in increased shoot elongation, biomass production, fine root soluble carbohydrate concentrations, and also slightly increased starch concentrations of stems and roots. Only needle starch concentrations and fine root sugar alcohol concentrations were decreased. Ozone fumigation resulted in needle discolorations and affected most parameters negatively, including decreased shoot elongation and decreased starch concentrations in roots, stems, and needles. In fine roots, however, soluble carbohydrate concentrations remained unaffected or increased by ozone fumigation. The only significant interaction was an antagonistic effect on root starch concentrations, where higher nitrogen levels alleviated the negative impact of ozone. - Simultaneous ozone fumigation and nitrogen fertilization have no synergistic impacts on carbohydrate concentrations, biomass, or growth of Picea abies saplings

  17. Photosynthesis and growth response of almond to increased atmospheric ozone partial pressures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Retzlaff, W.A.; Williams, L.E. (Univ. of California, Davis (United States) Kearney Agricultural Center, Parlier, CA (United States)); DeJong, T.M. (Univ. of California, Davis (United States))

    Uniform nursery stock of five almond cultivars [Prunus dulcis (Mill) D.A. Webb syn. P. amygdalus Batsch, cv. Butte, Carmel, Mission, Nonpareil, and Sonora] propagated on peach (P. domstica L. Batsch.) rootstock were exposed to three different atmospheric ozone (O[sub 3]) partial pressures. The trees were planted in open-top fumigation chambers on 19 Apr. 1989 at the University of California Kearny Agricultural Center located in the San Joaquin Valley of California. Exposures of the trees to three atmospheric O[sub 3] partial pressures lasted from 1 June to 2 Nov. 1989. The mean 12-h [0800-2000 h Pacific Daylight Time (PDT)] O[sub 3] partial pressures measured in the open-top chambers during the experimental period were 0.038, 0.060, and 0.112 [mu]Pa Pa[sup [minus]1] O[sub 3] in the charcoal filtered, ambient, and ambient + O[sub 3] treatments, respectively. Leaf net CO[sub 2] assimilation, trunk cross-sectional area growth, and root, trunk, foliage, and total dry weight of Nonpareil were reduced by increased atmospheric O[sub 3] partial pressures. Mission was unaffected by O[sub 3] and Butte, Carmel, and Sonora were intermediate in their responses. Foliage of Nonpareil also abscised prematurely in the ambient and ambient + O[sub 3] treatments. The results indicate that there are almond cultivars that are sensitive to O[sub 3] exposure.

  18. Effects of ambient and elevated level of ozone on Brassica campestris L. with special reference to yield and oil quality parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripathi, Ruchika; Agrawal, S B

    2012-11-01

    Tropospheric ozone (O(3)) has become a serious threat to growth and yield of important agricultural crops over Asian regions including India. Effect of elevated O(3) (ambient+10ppb) was studied on Brassica campestris L. (cv. Sanjukta and Vardan) in open top chambers under natural field conditions. Eight hourly mean ambient O(3) concentration varied from 26.3ppb to 69.5ppb during the growth period. Plants under O(3) exposure showed reductions in photosynthetic rate, reproductive parameters, yield as well as seed and oil quality. Cultivar Sanjukta showed more reduction in photosynthetic characteristics, reproductive structures and seed and oil quality. However, total yield was more affected in Vardan. Exposure of O(3) increased the degree of unsaturation and level of PUFA, ω-6fatty acid, linolenic acid and erucic acid in oil indicating the deterioration of its quality. The study further confirmed that there is a correspondence between O(3) induced change in photosynthetic processes, reproductive development and yield and did not find any compensatory response in the final yield. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. 40 CFR Appendix P to Part 50 - Interpretation of the Primary and Secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... the data handling procedures for the reported data). 2.3Comparisons with the Primary and Secondary... Secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone P Appendix P to Part 50 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS NATIONAL PRIMARY AND SECONDARY AMBIENT AIR QUALITY...

  20. Near-ambient ozone concentrations reduce the vigor of Betula and Populus species in Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oksanen, Elina; Manninen, Sirkku; Vapaavuori, Elina; Holopainen, Toini

    2009-12-01

    In this review the main growth responses of Finnish birch (Betula pendula, B. pubescens) and aspen species (Populus tremula and P. tremuloides x P. tremula) are correlated with ozone exposure, indicated as the AOT40 value. Data are derived from 23 different laboratory, open-top chamber, and free-air fumigation experiments. Our results indicate that these tree species are sensitive to increasing ozone concentrations, though high intraspecific variation exists. The roots are the most vulnerable targets in both genera. These growth reductions, determined from trees grown under optimal nutrient and water supply, were generally accompanied by increased visible foliar injuries, carbon allocation toward defensive compounds, reduced carbohydrate contents of leaves, impaired photosynthesis processes, disturbances in stomatal function, and earlier autumn senescence. Because both genera have shown complex ozone defense and response mechanisms, which are modified by variable environmental conditions, a mechanistically based approach is necessary for accurate ozone risk assessment.

  1. Influence of ambient ozone on the incidence of bone fractures especially among the elderly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calabrese, E.J.

    1979-02-01

    Elevated levels of breatheable ozone will reduce the amount of uv radiation in the range of 280 to 305 nm reaching the surface of earth. This range of uv converts the provitamin 7-dehydrocholesterol to vitamin D, within the human. Since most typical diets contain low levels of vitamin D, the role of uv-related vitamin D synthesis in the skin is considered to provide very important contributions to the total vitamin D content of the blood. Thus, elevated levels of ambient ozone should result in a decreased level of vitamin D synthesis which may be expressed as an increase in the incidence of histological osteomalacia and ultimately bone fractures, especially among the elderly.

  2. Growth responses to ozone in plant species from wetlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Franzaring, J.H.; Tonneijck, A.E.G.; Kooijman, A.W.N.; Dueck, Th.A.

    2000-01-01

    Ten wet grassland species were fumigated with four concentrations of ozone (charcoal-filtered air, non-filtered air and non-filtered air plus 25 or 50 nl 1-1 ozone) in open-top chambers during one growing season to investigate the long-term effect of this air pollutant on various growth variables.

  3. The effect of ambient ozone and humidity on the performance of nylon and Teflon filters used in ambient air monitoring filter-pack systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    PE Padgett

    2010-01-01

    Nylon and Teflon filter media are frequently used for monitoring ambient air pollutants. These media are subject to many environmental factors that may influence adsorption and retention of particulate and gaseous nitrogenous pollutants. This study evaluated the effects of ozone and humidity on the efficacy of nylon and Teflon filters used in the US dry deposition...

  4. Exposure-plant response of ambient ozone over the tropical Indian region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Deb Roy

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available A high resolution regional chemistry-transport model has been used to study the distribution of exposure-plant response index (AOT40, Accumulated exposure Over a Threshold of 40 ppb, expressed as ppb h over the Indian geographical region for the year 2003 as case study. The directives on ozone pollution in ambient air provided by United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UNECE and World Health Organization (WHO for vegetation protection (AOT40 have been used to assess the air quality. A substantial temporal and spatial variation in AOT40 values has been observed across the Indian region. Large areas of India show ozone values above the AOT40 threshold limit (3000 ppb h for 3 months. Simulated AOT40 values are found to be substantially higher throughout the year over the most fertile Indo-Gangetic plains than the other regions of India, which can have an adverse effect on plants and vegetation in this region. The observed monthly AOT40 values reported from an Indian station, agree reasonably well with model simulated results. There is an underestimation of AOT40 in the model results during the periods of highest ozone concentration from December to March. We find that the simulated AOT40 target values for protection of vegetation is exceeded even in individual months, especially during November to April. Necessary and effective emission reduction strategies are therefore required to be developed in order to curb the surface level ozone pollution to protect the vegetation from further damage in India whose economy is highly dependent on agricultural sector and may influence the global balance.

  5. Radial diffusive sampler for the determination of 8-h ambient ozone concentrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plaisance, H.; Gerboles, M.; Piechocki, A.; Detimmerman, F.; Saeger, E. de

    2007-01-01

    The 8-h ozone radial diffusive sampler was evaluated according to the CEN protocol for the validation of diffusive samplers. All the parameters regarding the sampler characteristics were found to be consistent with the requirements of this protocol apart from the blank value, which must be evaluated and subtracted at each sampling. The nominal uptake rate was determined in laboratory conditions. However, the uptake rate depends on the mass uptake, temperature, humidity and on the combination of temperature and humidity. Based on laboratory experiments, an empirical model has been established which improved the agreement between the radial sampler and the reference method. This improvement was observed under several different meteorological and emission conditions of sampling. By using the model equation of uptake rate, the data quality objective of 30% for the expanded uncertainty included in the O 3 European Directive, is easily attained. Therefore, the sampler represents an appropriate indicative method. - A passive sampler has been fully validated for monitoring 8-h ozone concentrations in ambient air

  6. [Effects of elevated ozone on Pinus armandii growth: a simulation study with open-top chamber].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chang-Fu; Liu, Chen; He, Xing-Yuan; Ruan, Ya-Nan; Xu, Sheng; Chen, Zhen-Ju; Peng, Jun-Jie; Li, Teng

    2013-10-01

    By using open-top chamber (OTC) and the techniques of dendrochronology, this paper studied the growth of Pinus armandii under elevated ozone, and explored the evolution dynamics and adaptation mechanisms of typical forest ecosystems to ozone enrichment. Elevated ozone inhibited the stem growth of P. armandii significantly, with the annual growth of the stem length and diameter reduced by 35.0% and 12.9%, respectively. The annual growth of tree-ring width and the annual ring cells number decreased by 11.5% and 54.1%, respectively, but no significant change was observed in the diameter of tracheid. At regional scale, the fluctuation of ozone concentration showed significant correlation with the variation of local vegetation growth (NDVI).

  7. Ozone dosing alters the biological potential and therapeutic outcomes of plasma rich in growth factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anitua, E; Zalduendo, M M; Troya, M; Orive, G

    2015-04-01

    Until now, ozone has been used in a rather empirical way. This in-vitro study investigates, for the first time, whether different ozone treatments of plasma rich in growth factors (PRGF) alter the biological properties and outcomes of this autologous platelet-rich plasma. Human plasma rich in growth factors was treated with ozone using one of the following protocols: a continuous-flow method; or a syringe method in which constant volumes of ozone and PRGF were mixed. In both cases, ozone was added before, during and after the addition of calcium chloride. Three ozone concentrations, of the therapeutic range 20, 40 and 80 μg/mL, were tested. Fibrin clot properties, growth factor content and the proliferative effect on primary osteoblasts and gingival fibroblasts were evaluated. Ozone treatment of PRGF using the continuous flow protocol impaired formation of the fibrin scaffold, drastically reduced the levels of growth factors and significantly decreased the proliferative potential of PRGF on primary osteoblasts and gingival fibroblasts. In contrast, treatment of PRGF with ozone using the syringe method, before, during and after the coagulation process, did not alter the biological outcomes of the autologous therapy. These findings suggest that ozone dose and the way that ozone combines with PRGF may alter the biological potential and therapeutic outcomes of PRGF. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Assessment of Protective Effect of Some Modern Agrochemicals against Ozone-Induced Stress in Sensitive Clover and Tobacco Cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blum, Oleg; Didyk, Nataliya; Pavluchenko, Nataliya; Godzik, Barbara

    2011-01-01

    Some modern agrochemicals with antioxidant potential were tested for their protective effect against ozone injury using clover and tobacco ozone-sensitive cultivars as model plants subjected to ambient ozone at two sites (Kyiv city in Ukraine and Szarów village in Poland). All used agrochemicals showed partial protective effects against ozone injury on clover and tobacco. Conducted studies confirmed the effectiveness of modern fungicides belonging to strobilurin group as protectants of sensitive crops against ozone damage. The effectiveness of new growth regulators "Emistym C" and "Agrostymulin" was showed for the first time. Out of the studied agrochemicals, fungicide "Strobi" and natural growth regulator "Emistym C" demonstrated the best protective effects. These agrochemicals present promise for further studies of their possible utilization for enhancement of ozone tolerance of sensitive crops.

  9. Assessing ambient ozone injury in olive (Olea europaea L.) plants by using the antioxidant ethylenediurea (EDU) in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basahi, J M; Ismail, I M; Haiba, N S; Hassan, I A; Lorenzini, G

    2016-06-01

    The antiozonant chemical, ethylenediurea (N-[2-(2-oxo-1-imidazolidinyl)ethyl]-N'-phenylurea, abbreviated as EDU), was applied as stem injections or soil drenches to 5-year-old containerized plants of olive (Olea europaea L. cultivar Kalamata) in growth chambers in order to assess its ameliorative effects against realistic ozone (O3) stress. Visible injury symptoms were reduced greatly in individuals treated with EDU, with injection applications having greater protection than soil drenches. EDU application caused increases in the measured ecophysiological parameters compared to untreated individuals. In particular, the stem injection protected plants against photosynthetic impairment (unchanged net photosynthetic rates and intercellular CO2 concentration, in comparison to plants grown in filtered air). EDU application increased the protection of PSII from ambient O3 oxidative stress, although it did not retain the proportion of redox state of QA, pigment composition of photosynthetic apparatus and size of light-harvesting complex of PSII. However, the stem injection of plants with EDU induced lower non-photochemical quenching (NPQ) values in comparison to ambient air (-2 %), indicating a better photoprotection of PSII in comparison to soil drench application. EDU application caused increases in the morphological and biometric parameters compared to individuals exposed to ambient air. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study highlighting the protection of Kalamata olive trees due to EDU in terms of growth, yield, visible injury, and photosynthetic performance. Furthermore, this study proved that EDU could be a low-cost and a low-technology efficient tool for assessing O3 effects on plant performances in the field in Saudi Arabia.

  10. Effects of sulfur nutrition on phytotoxicity and growth responses of bean plants to ozone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adedipe, N O; Hofstra, G; Ormrod, D P

    1972-01-01

    Phaseolus vulgaris L. cv. Blue Lake plants were grown in sand culture at three temperatures, and fed with nutrient solution containing 1.3 or 32 mg/liter sulfur (S). Plants were fumigated twice with ozone at 50 parts per hundred million (pphm) for 2 h. Intensity of phytotoxicity was markedly lower in plants grown at the high S rate. Ozone reduced chlorophyll content of plants grown in low S at 25/20 and 30/25/sup 0/. With the high S treatment, however, ozone had no significant effect on chlorophyll content particularly at the lower temperatures. Irrespective of S nutrition, ozone had no effect on total soluble carbohydrate content. Ozone effects on plant growth depended on plant part, growth temperature, and S nutrition.

  11. Assessing the effects of oil sands related ozone precursor emissions on ambient ozone levels in the Alberta oil sands region, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Sunny; Vijayaraghavan, Krish; Spink, David; Cosic, Biljana; Davies, Mervyn; Jung, Jaegun

    2017-11-01

    A study was undertaken to determine whether, and the extent to which, increased ground-level ozone (O3) precursor emissions from oil sands development have impacted ambient air quality in the north-eastern Alberta, Canada, over the period 1998 to 2012. Temporal trends in emissions of O3 precursors (NOx and VOC) and ambient air concentrations of O3 precursors, and O3 were examined using the Theil-Sen statistical analysis method. Statistically significant correlations between NOx emissions and ambient NOx concentrations were found mainly near surface (open-pit) mining areas where mine fleets are a large source of NOx emissions. No statistically significant trends in the 4th highest daily maximum 8-hr average O3 at any of the continuous and passive ambient air monitoring stations were found. A significant long-term decrease in monthly averaged O3 is observed at some ambient monitoring sites in summer. A visual examination of long-term variations in annual NOx and VOC emissions and annual 4th highest daily maximum 8-hr O3 concentrations does not reveal any indication of a correlation between O3 concentrations and O3 precursor emissions or ambient levels in the study area. Despite a significant increase in oil sands NOx emissions (8%/yr), there is no statistically significant increase in long-term O3 concentrations at any of monitoring stations considered. This suggests that there is surplus NOx available in the environment which results in a titration of ambient O3 in the areas that have ambient monitoring. The limited ambient O3 monitoring data distant from NOx emission sources makes it impossible to assess the impact of these increased O3 precursor levels on O3 levels on a regional scale. As a precautionary measure, the increasing oil sands development O3 precursor emissions would require that priority be given to the management of these emissions to prevent possible future O3 ambient air quality issues.

  12. Measurements of the potential ozone production rate in a forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crilley, L.; Sklaveniti, S.; Kramer, L.; Bloss, W.; Flynn, J. H., III; Alvarez, S. L.; Erickson, M.; Dusanter, S.; Locoge, N.; Stevens, P. S.; Millet, D. B.; Alwe, H. D.

    2017-12-01

    Biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOC) are a significant source of organic compounds globally and alongside NOx play a key role in the formation of ozone in the troposphere. Understanding how changes in NOx concentrations feed through to altered ozone production in BVOC dominated environments will aid our understanding of future atmospheric composition, notably as developing nations transition from NOx dominated to NOx limited chemistry as a result of mitigation strategies. Here we empirically investigate this ambient ozone formation potential. We report deployment of a custom built instrument to measure in near real time the potential for in situ chemical ozone production, using an artificial light source. Our results are thus indicative of the ozone formation potential for a sampled ambient air mixture, including full VOC complexity, i.e. independent of characterization of individual organic compounds. Ground level measurements were performed as part of the PROPHET-AMOS 2016 field campaign, at a site located within a Northern Michigan forest that has typically low NOx abundance, but high isoprene and terpenoid loadings. As the ambient NOx concentrations were low during the campaign, experiments were performed in which NO was artificially added to the sampled ambient air mixture, to quantify changes in the potential ozone production rate as a function of NOx, and hence the ozone forming characteristics of the ambient air. Preliminarily results from these experiments are presented, and indicate that while ozone production increases with added NO, significant variation was observed for a given NO addition, reflecting differences in the ambient VOC chemical reactivity and ozone formation tendency.

  13. Effects of long-term ambient ozone exposure on biomass and wood traits in poplar treated with ethylenediurea (EDU)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carriero, G.; Emiliani, G.; Giovannelli, A.; Hoshika, Y.; Manning, W.J.; Traversi, M.L.; Paoletti, E.

    2015-01-01

    This is the longest continuous experiment where ethylenediurea (EDU) was used to protect plants from ozone (O 3 ). Effects of long-term ambient O 3 exposure (23 ppm h AOT40) on biomass of an O 3 sensitive poplar clone (Oxford) were examined after six years from in-ground planting. Trees were irrigated with either water or 450 ppm EDU. Above (−51%) and below-ground biomass (−47%) was reduced by O 3 although the effect was significant only for stem and coarse roots. Ambient O 3 decreased diameter of the lower stem, and increased moisture content along the stem of not-protected plants (+16%). No other change in the physical wood structure was observed. A comparison with a previous assessment in the same experiment suggested that O 3 effects on biomass partitioning to above-ground organs depend on the tree ontogenetic stage. The root/shoot ratios did not change, suggesting that previous short-term observations of reduced allocation to tree roots may be overestimated. - Highlights: • 6-y ambient O 3 exposure was investigated in a sensitive poplar clone. • EDU irrigation protected poplar against ambient O 3 exposure. • O 3 reduced biomass of roots and stem, but did not change biomass allocation. • O 3 decreased stem diameter only in the lower third of the stem. • O 3 increased moisture content of the wood along the stem. - Ozone exposure reduced lateral branching, leaves and roots in younger trees, and affected stem and roots in older trees, while shoot/root ratios did not change.

  14. CARRY-OVER EFFECTS OF OZONE ON ROOT GROWTH AND CARBOHYDRATE CONCENTRATIONS OF PONDEROSA PINE SEEDLINGS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozone exposure decreases belowground carbon allocation and root growth of plants;however,the extent to which these effects persist and the cumulative impact of ozone stress on plant growth are poorly understood.To evaluate the potential for plant compensation,we followed the prog...

  15. Effects of ozone on growth, yield and leaf gas exchange rates of two Bangladeshi cultivars of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akhtar, Nahid; Yamaguchi, Masahiro; Inada, Hidetoshi; Hoshino, Daiki; Kondo, Taisuke; Izuta, Takeshi

    2010-01-01

    To clarify the effects of O 3 on crop plants cultivated in Bangladesh, two Bangladeshi wheat cultivars (Sufi and Bijoy) were grown in plastic boxes filled with Andisol and exposed daily to charcoal-filtered air or O 3 at 60 and 100 nl l -1 (10:00-17:00) from 13 March to 4 June 2008. The whole-plant dry mass and grain yield per plant of the two cultivars at the final harvest were significantly reduced by the exposure to O 3 . Although there was no significant effect of O 3 on stomatal diffusive conductance to H 2 O of flag leaf, net photosynthetic rate of the leaf was significantly reduced by the exposure to O 3. The sensitivity of growth, yield, yield components and leaf gas exchange rates to O 3 was not significantly different between the two cultivars. The results obtained in the present study suggest that ambient levels of O 3 may detrimentally affect wheat production in Bangladesh. - The exposure to ambient levels of ozone decreases growth, yield and leaf gas exchange rates of two Bangladeshi cultivars of wheat.

  16. Factors affecting the effects of EDU on growth and yield of field-grown bush beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.), with varying degrees of sensitivity to ozone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elagoez, Vahram [Plant Biology Graduate Program, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003 (United States)]. E-mail: velagoz@nsm.umass.edu; Manning, William J. [Department of Plant, Soil and Insect Sciences, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003 (United States)

    2005-08-15

    The effects of foliar applications of ethylenediurea (EDU) on responses to ozone by field-grown bush bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) lines 'S156' (O{sub 3}-sensitive) and 'R123' (O{sub 3}-tolerant), and cultivars 'BBL 290' (O{sub 3}-sensitive) and 'BBL 274' (O{sub 3}-tolerant) were investigated during the 2001 and 2002 growing seasons. EDU was applied weekly to designated plants between primary leaf expansion and pod senescence. Results were compared with control plants at harvests made at pod maturation and pod senescence. In 2001, average hourly ambient O{sub 3} concentrations ranged between 41 and 59 ppb for a total of 303 h; in 2002, for 355 h. EDU applications prior to pod maturation significantly increased the number of marketable pods in 'R123', but not for the other cultivars. Harvests at pod senescence showed significant improvements in crop yield production in EDU-treated 'S156' plants, whereas for EDU-treated 'R123' plants significant reductions were determined in above-ground biomass and seed production. In contrast, results from 'BBL 290' and 'BBL 274' at both harvest points were inconclusive. Growth and reproductive responses of O{sub 3}-sensitive and O{sub 3}-tolerant bush bean plants to EDU applications varied, depending on developmental stages, duration of EDU applications, and fluctuations in ambient O{sub 3}. - Plant sensitivity to ozone, stage of plant development, number of applications of EDU and ambient ozone affect bean plant responses to EDU.

  17. Ozone fumigation (twice ambient) reduces leaf infestation following natural and artificial inoculation by the endophytic fungus Apiognomonia errabunda of adult European beech trees

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olbrich, Maren; Knappe, Claudia; Wenig, Marion; Gerstner, Elke; Haeberle, Karl-Heinz; Kitao, Mitsutoshi; Matyssek, Rainer; Stich, Susanne; Leuchner, Michael; Werner, Herbert; Schlink, Katja; Mueller-Starck, Gerhard; Welzl, Gerhard; Scherb, Hagen; Ernst, Dieter; Heller, Werner; Bahnweg, Guenther

    2010-01-01

    In 2006, a controlled infection study was performed in the 'Kranzberger Forst' to address the following questions: (1) Will massive artificial inoculation with Apiognomonia errabunda override the previously observed inhibitory effect of chronic ozone? (2) Can biochemical or molecular markers be detected to account for the action of ozone? To this end six adult beech trees were chosen, three ozone fumigated (2x ozone) and three control trees (ambient = 1x ozone). Spore-sprayed branches of sun and shade crown positions of each of the trees, and uninoculated control branches, were enclosed in 100-L plastic bags for one night to facilitate infection initiation. Samples were taken within a five-week period after inoculation. A. errabunda infestation levels quantified by real-time PCR increased in leaves that were not fumigated with additional ozone. Cell wall components and ACC (ethylene precursor 1-amino cyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid) increased upon ozone fumigation and may in part lead to the repression of fungal infection. - Chronic sublethal ozone exposure reduces both natural and artificial infestation of beech leaves by the endophytic fungus Apiognomonia errabunda.

  18. Ozone fumigation (twice ambient) reduces leaf infestation following natural and artificial inoculation by the endophytic fungus Apiognomonia errabunda of adult European beech trees

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olbrich, Maren; Knappe, Claudia; Wenig, Marion; Gerstner, Elke [Institute of Biochemical Plant Pathology, Helmholtz Zentrum Muenchen, German Research Center for Environmental Health, 85764 Neuherberg (Germany); Haeberle, Karl-Heinz; Kitao, Mitsutoshi; Matyssek, Rainer [Forest Botany, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Am Hochanger 13, 85354 Freising (Germany); Stich, Susanne [Institute of Biochemical Plant Pathology, Helmholtz Zentrum Muenchen, German Research Center for Environmental Health, 85764 Neuherberg (Germany); Leuchner, Michael; Werner, Herbert [Bioclimatology, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Am Hochanger 13, 85354 Freising (Germany); Schlink, Katja; Mueller-Starck, Gerhard [Section of Forest Genetics, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Am Hochanger 13, 85354 Freising (Germany); Welzl, Gerhard [Institute of Developmental Genetics, Helmholtz Zentrum Muenchen, German Research Center for Environmental Health, 85764 Neuherberg (Germany); Scherb, Hagen [Institute of Biomathematics and Biometry, Helmholtz Zentrum Muenchen, German Research Center for Environmental Health, 85764 Neuherberg (Germany); Ernst, Dieter; Heller, Werner [Institute of Biochemical Plant Pathology, Helmholtz Zentrum Muenchen, German Research Center for Environmental Health, 85764 Neuherberg (Germany); Bahnweg, Guenther, E-mail: bahnweg@helmholtz-muenchen.d [Institute of Biochemical Plant Pathology, Helmholtz Zentrum Muenchen, German Research Center for Environmental Health, 85764 Neuherberg (Germany)

    2010-04-15

    In 2006, a controlled infection study was performed in the 'Kranzberger Forst' to address the following questions: (1) Will massive artificial inoculation with Apiognomonia errabunda override the previously observed inhibitory effect of chronic ozone? (2) Can biochemical or molecular markers be detected to account for the action of ozone? To this end six adult beech trees were chosen, three ozone fumigated (2x ozone) and three control trees (ambient = 1x ozone). Spore-sprayed branches of sun and shade crown positions of each of the trees, and uninoculated control branches, were enclosed in 100-L plastic bags for one night to facilitate infection initiation. Samples were taken within a five-week period after inoculation. A. errabunda infestation levels quantified by real-time PCR increased in leaves that were not fumigated with additional ozone. Cell wall components and ACC (ethylene precursor 1-amino cyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid) increased upon ozone fumigation and may in part lead to the repression of fungal infection. - Chronic sublethal ozone exposure reduces both natural and artificial infestation of beech leaves by the endophytic fungus Apiognomonia errabunda.

  19. Growth of soybean at future tropospheric ozone concentrations decreases canopy evapotranspiration and soil water depletion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernacchi, Carl J., E-mail: bernacch@illinois.edu [Global Change and Photosynthesis Research Unit, United States Department of Agriculture Agricultural Research Service, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States); Institute for Genomic Biology and Department of Plant Biology, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States); Leakey, Andrew D.B. [Institute for Genomic Biology and Department of Plant Biology, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States); Kimball, Bruce A. [USDA-ARS US Arid-Land Agricultural Research Center, 21881 N. Cardon Lane, Maricopa, AZ 85238 (United States); Ort, Donald R. [Global Change and Photosynthesis Research Unit, United States Department of Agriculture Agricultural Research Service, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States); Institute for Genomic Biology and Department of Plant Biology, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States)

    2011-06-15

    Tropospheric ozone is increasing in many agricultural regions resulting in decreased stomatal conductance and overall biomass of sensitive crop species. These physiological effects of ozone forecast changes in evapotranspiration and thus in the terrestrial hydrological cycle, particularly in intercontinental interiors. Soybean plots were fumigated with ozone to achieve concentrations above ambient levels over five growing seasons in open-air field conditions. Mean season increases in ozone concentrations ([O{sub 3}]) varied between growing seasons from 22 to 37% above background concentrations. The objective of this experiment was to examine the effects of future [O{sub 3}] on crop ecosystem energy fluxes and water use. Elevated [O{sub 3}] caused decreases in canopy evapotranspiration resulting in decreased water use by as much as 15% in high ozone years and decreased soil water removal. In addition, ozone treatment resulted in increased sensible heat flux in all years indicative of day-time increase in canopy temperature of up to 0.7 deg. C. - Highlights: > Globally, tropospheric ozone is currently and will likely continue to increase into the future. > We examine the impact of elevated ozone on water use by soybean at the SoyFACE research facility. > High ozone grown soybean had reduced rates of evapotranspiration and higher soil moisture. > Increases in ozone have the potential to impact the hydrologic cycle where these crops are grown. - Soybean grown in elevated concentrations of ozone is shown to evapotranspire less water compared with soybean canopies grown under current atmospheric conditions.

  20. Growth of soybean at future tropospheric ozone concentrations decreases canopy evapotranspiration and soil water depletion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernacchi, Carl J.; Leakey, Andrew D.B.; Kimball, Bruce A.; Ort, Donald R.

    2011-01-01

    Tropospheric ozone is increasing in many agricultural regions resulting in decreased stomatal conductance and overall biomass of sensitive crop species. These physiological effects of ozone forecast changes in evapotranspiration and thus in the terrestrial hydrological cycle, particularly in intercontinental interiors. Soybean plots were fumigated with ozone to achieve concentrations above ambient levels over five growing seasons in open-air field conditions. Mean season increases in ozone concentrations ([O 3 ]) varied between growing seasons from 22 to 37% above background concentrations. The objective of this experiment was to examine the effects of future [O 3 ] on crop ecosystem energy fluxes and water use. Elevated [O 3 ] caused decreases in canopy evapotranspiration resulting in decreased water use by as much as 15% in high ozone years and decreased soil water removal. In addition, ozone treatment resulted in increased sensible heat flux in all years indicative of day-time increase in canopy temperature of up to 0.7 deg. C. - Highlights: → Globally, tropospheric ozone is currently and will likely continue to increase into the future. → We examine the impact of elevated ozone on water use by soybean at the SoyFACE research facility. → High ozone grown soybean had reduced rates of evapotranspiration and higher soil moisture. → Increases in ozone have the potential to impact the hydrologic cycle where these crops are grown. - Soybean grown in elevated concentrations of ozone is shown to evapotranspire less water compared with soybean canopies grown under current atmospheric conditions.

  1. Measurement of Ozone Production Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Cazorla

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available A new ambient air monitor, the Measurement of Ozone Production Sensor (MOPS, measures directly the rate of ozone production in the atmosphere. The sensor consists of two 11.3 L environmental chambers made of UV-transmitting Teflon film, a unit to convert NO2 to O3, and a modified ozone monitor. In the sample chamber, flowing ambient air is exposed to the sunlight so that ozone is produced just as it is in the atmosphere. In the second chamber, called the reference chamber, a UV-blocking film over the Teflon film prevents ozone formation but allows other processes to occur as they do in the sample chamber. The air flows that exit the two chambers are sampled by an ozone monitor operating in differential mode so that the difference between the two ozone signals, divided by the exposure time in the chambers, gives the ozone production rate. High-efficiency conversion of NO2 to O3 prior to detection in the ozone monitor accounts for differences in the NOx photostationary state that can occur in the two chambers. The MOPS measures the ozone production rate, but with the addition of NO to the sampled air flow, the MOPS can be used to study the sensitivity of ozone production to NO. Preliminary studies with the MOPS on the campus of the Pennsylvania State University show the potential of this new technique.

  2. Deciduous shrubs for ozone bioindication: Hibiscus syriacus as an example

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paoletti, Elena [Institut Plant Protection (IPP), National Council Research (CNR), Via Madonna del Piano 10, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino, Florence (Italy)], E-mail: e.paoletti@ipp.cnr.it; Ferrara, Anna Maria [Istituto per le Piante da Legno e l' Ambiente (IPLA), Corso Casale 476, 10132 Turin (Italy); Calatayud, Vicent; Cervero, Julia [Fundacion C.E.A.M., Charles R. Darwin 14, Parc Tecnologic, 46980 Paterna, Valencia (Spain); Giannetti, Fabio [Istituto per le Piante da Legno e l' Ambiente (IPLA), Corso Casale 476, 10132 Turin (Italy); Sanz, Maria Jose [Fundacion C.E.A.M., Charles R. Darwin 14, Parc Tecnologic, 46980 Paterna, Valencia (Spain); Manning, William J. [Department of Plant, Soil and Insect Sciences, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003-9320 (United States)

    2009-03-15

    Ozone-like visible injury was detected on Hibiscus syriacus plants used as ornamental hedges. Weekly spray of the antiozonant ethylenediurea (EDU, 300 ppm) confirmed that the injury was induced by ambient ozone. EDU induced a 75% reduction in visible injury. Injury was more severe on the western than on the eastern exposure of the hedge. This factor of variability should be considered in ozone biomonitoring programmes. Seeds were collected and seedlings were artificially exposed to ozone in filtered vs. not-filtered (+30 ppb) Open-Top Chambers. The level of exposure inducing visible injury in the OTC seedlings was lower than that in the ambient-grown hedge. The occurrence of visible injury in the OTC confirmed that the ozone sensitivity was heritable and suggested that symptomatic plants of this deciduous shrub population can be successfully used as ozone bioindicators. EDU is recommended as a simple tool for diagnosing ambient ozone visible injury on field vegetation. - An Italian population of the deciduous shrub Hibiscus syriacus, a common ornamental species in temperate zones, is recommended as ozone bioindicator.

  3. Deciduous shrubs for ozone bioindication: Hibiscus syriacus as an example

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paoletti, Elena; Ferrara, Anna Maria; Calatayud, Vicent; Cervero, Julia; Giannetti, Fabio; Sanz, Maria Jose; Manning, William J.

    2009-01-01

    Ozone-like visible injury was detected on Hibiscus syriacus plants used as ornamental hedges. Weekly spray of the antiozonant ethylenediurea (EDU, 300 ppm) confirmed that the injury was induced by ambient ozone. EDU induced a 75% reduction in visible injury. Injury was more severe on the western than on the eastern exposure of the hedge. This factor of variability should be considered in ozone biomonitoring programmes. Seeds were collected and seedlings were artificially exposed to ozone in filtered vs. not-filtered (+30 ppb) Open-Top Chambers. The level of exposure inducing visible injury in the OTC seedlings was lower than that in the ambient-grown hedge. The occurrence of visible injury in the OTC confirmed that the ozone sensitivity was heritable and suggested that symptomatic plants of this deciduous shrub population can be successfully used as ozone bioindicators. EDU is recommended as a simple tool for diagnosing ambient ozone visible injury on field vegetation. - An Italian population of the deciduous shrub Hibiscus syriacus, a common ornamental species in temperate zones, is recommended as ozone bioindicator

  4. Depletion of stratospheric ozone over the Antarctic and Arctic: Responses of plants of polar terrestrial ecosystems to enhanced UV-B, an overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rozema, Jelte; Boelen, Peter; Blokker, Peter

    2005-01-01

    Depletion of stratospheric ozone over the Antarctic has been re-occurring yearly since 1974, leading to enhanced UV-B radiation. Arctic ozone depletion has been observed since 1990. Ozone recovery has been predicted by 2050, but no signs of recovery occur. Here we review responses of polar plants to experimentally varied UV-B through supplementation or exclusion. In supplementation studies comparing ambient and above ambient UV-B, no effect on growth occurred. UV-B-induced DNA damage, as measured in polar bryophytes, is repaired overnight by photoreactivation. With UV exclusion, growth at near ambient may be less than at below ambient UV-B levels, which relates to the UV response curve of polar plants. UV-B screening foils also alter PAR, humidity, and temperature and interactions of UV with environmental factors may occur. Plant phenolics induced by solar UV-B, as in pollen, spores and lignin, may serve as a climate proxy for past UV. Since the Antarctic and Arctic terrestrial ecosystems differ essentially (e.g. higher species diversity and more trophic interactions in the Arctic), generalization of polar plant responses to UV-B needs caution. - Polar plant responses to UV-B may be different in the Arctic than Antarctic regions

  5. Ozone generation in a kHz-pulsed He-O2 capillary dielectric barrier discharge operated in ambient air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sands, Brian L.; Ganguly, Biswa N.

    2013-12-01

    The generation of reactive oxygen species using nonequilibrium atmospheric pressure plasma jet devices has been a subject of recent interest due to their ability to generate localized concentrations from a compact source. To date, such studies with plasma jet devices have primarily utilized radio-frequency excitation. In this work, we characterize ozone generation in a kHz-pulsed capillary dielectric barrier discharge configuration comprised of an active discharge plasma jet operating in ambient air that is externally grounded. The plasma jet flow gas was composed of helium with an admixture of up to 5% oxygen. A unipolar voltage pulse train with a 20 ns pulse risetime was used to drive the discharge at repetition rates between 2-25 kHz. Using UVLED absorption spectroscopy centered at 255 nm near the Hartley-band absorption peak, ozone was detected over 1 cm from the capillary axis. We observed roughly linear scaling of ozone production with increasing pulse repetition rate up to a "turnover frequency," beyond which ozone production steadily dropped and discharge current and 777 nm O(5P→5S°) emission sharply increased. The turnover in ozone production occurred at higher pulse frequencies with increasing flow rate and decreasing applied voltage with a common energy density of 55 mJ/cm3 supplied to the discharge. The limiting energy density and peak ozone production both increased with increasing O2 admixture. The power dissipated in the discharge was obtained from circuit current and voltage measurements using a modified parallel plate dielectric barrier discharge circuit model and the volume-averaged ozone concentration was derived from a 2D ozone absorption measurement. From these measurements, the volume-averaged efficiency of ozone production was calculated to be 23 g/kWh at conditions for peak ozone production of 41 mg/h at 11 kV applied voltage, 3% O2, 2 l/min flow rate, and 13 kHz pulse repetition rate, with 1.79 W dissipated in the discharge.

  6. Photochemical model evaluation of the ground-level ozone impacts on ambient air quality and vegetation health in the Alberta oil sands region: Using present and future emission scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijayaraghavan, Krish; Cho, Sunny; Morris, Ralph; Spink, David; Jung, Jaegun; Pauls, Ron; Duffett, Katherine

    2016-09-01

    One of the potential environmental issues associated with oil sands development is increased ozone formation resulting from NOX and volatile organic compound emissions from bitumen extraction, processing and upgrading. To manage this issue in the Athabasca Oil Sands Region (AOSR) in northeast Alberta, a regional multi-stakeholder group, the Cumulative Environmental Management Association (CEMA), developed an Ozone Management Framework that includes a modelling based assessment component. In this paper, we describe how the Community Multi-scale Air Quality (CMAQ) model was applied to assess potential ground-level ozone formation and impacts on ambient air quality and vegetation health for three different ozone precursor cases in the AOSR. Statistical analysis methods were applied, and the CMAQ performance results met the U.S. EPA model performance goal at all sites. The modelled 4th highest daily maximum 8-h average ozone concentrations in the base and two future year scenarios did not exceed the Canada-wide standard of 65 ppb or the newer Canadian Ambient Air Quality Standards of 63 ppb in 2015 and 62 ppb in 2020. Modelled maximum 1-h ozone concentrations in the study were well below the Alberta Ambient Air Quality Objective of 82 ppb in all three cases. Several ozone vegetation exposure metrics were also evaluated to investigate the potential impact of ground-level ozone on vegetation. The chronic 3-months SUM60 exposure metric is within the CEMA baseline range (0-2000 ppb-hr) everywhere in the AOSR. The AOT40 ozone exposure metric predicted by CMAQ did not exceed the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UN/ECE) threshold of concern of 3000 ppb-hr in any of the cases but is just below the threshold in high-end future emissions scenario. In all three emission scenarios, the CMAQ predicted W126 ozone exposure metric is within the CEMA baseline threshold of 4000 ppb-hr. This study outlines the use of photochemical modelling of the impact of an industry (oil

  7. Effects of ozone exposures on epicuticular wax of ponderosa pine needles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bytnerowicz, A.; Turunen, M.

    1994-01-01

    Two-year-old ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa L.) seedlings were exposed during the 1989 and 1990 growing seasons to ozone in open-top chambers placed in a forested location at Shirley Meadow, Greenhorn Mountain Range, Sierra Nevada. The ozone treatments were as follows: charcoal-filtered air (CF); charcoal-filtered air with addition of ambient concentrations of ozone (CF + O 3 ); and charcoal-filtered air with addition of doubled concentrations of ozone (CF + 2 x O 3 ). Ozone effects on ponderosa pine seedlings progressed and accumulated over two seasons of exposure. Throughout the first season, increased visible injury and accelerated senescence of the foliage were noted. Subsequently, during the second season of ozone exposure, various physiological and biochemical changes in the foliage took place. All these changes led to reduced growth and biomass of the seedlings. Epistomatal waxes of needles from the CA + 2 x O 3 treatment had an occluded appearance. This phenomenon may be caused by earlier phenological development of needles from the high-ozone treatments and disturbed development and synthesis of waxes. It may also be caused by chemical degradation of waxes by exposures to high ozone concentrations. (orig.)

  8. Impact of enhanced ozone deposition and halogen chemistry on tropospheric ozone over the Northern Hemisphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fate of ozone in marine environments has been receiving increased attention due to the tightening of ambient air quality standards. The role of deposition and halogen chemistry is examined through incorporation of an enhanced ozone deposition algorithm and inclusion of halogen ch...

  9. Physiological and foliar symptom response in the crowns of Prunus serotina, Fraxinus americana and Acer rubrum canopy trees to ambient ozone under forest conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaub, M.; Skelly, J.M.; Zhang, J.W.; Ferdinand, J.A.; Savage, J.E.; Stevenson, R.E.; Davis, D.D.; Steiner, K.C.

    2005-01-01

    The crowns of five canopy dominant black cherry (Prunus serotina Ehrh.), five white ash (Fraxinus americana L.), and six red maple (Acer rubrum L.) trees on naturally differing environmental conditions were accessed with scaffold towers within a mixed hardwood forest stand in central Pennsylvania. Ambient ozone concentrations, meteorological parameters, leaf gas exchange and leaf water potential were measured at the sites during the growing seasons of 1998 and 1999. Visible ozone-induced foliar injury was assessed on leaves within the upper and lower crown branches of each tree. Ambient ozone exposures were sufficient to induce typical symptoms on cherry (0-5% total affected leaf area, LAA), whereas foliar injury was not observed on ash or maple. There was a positive correlation between increasing cumulative ozone uptake (U) and increasing percent of LAA for cherry grown under drier site conditions. The lower crown leaves of cherry showed more severe foliar injury than the upper crown leaves. No significant differences in predawn leaf water potential (ψ L ) were detected for all three species indicating no differing soil moisture conditions across the sites. Significant variation in stomatal conductance for water vapor (g wv ) was found among species, soil moisture, time of day and sample date. When comparing cumulative ozone uptake and decreased photosynthetic activity (P n ), red maple was the only species to show higher gas exchange under mesic vs. drier soil conditions (P wv and P n demonstrate the strong influence of heterogeneous environmental conditions within forest canopies. - Within the heterogeneous environment of a mature forest, many factors in addition to soil moisture play a significant role in determining exposure/response relationships to ozone

  10. The Influence of Ozonization For DO, BOD and Bacterial Growth in The Liquid Waste From Tanning Leather Industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    M-Yazid; Aris-Bastianudin; Widdi-Usada

    2007-01-01

    The research of ozonization influence of dissolved oxygen (DO), biological oxygen demand (BOD) and the bacterial growth in the liquid waste from tanning leather industry has been done. The objectives of this research was to studied the influence of ozonization for decomposition process of the organic compound in these waste by indicator of BOD decreased, increased of DO and decomposer bacterial growth. The ozonization was carried out by time variation 0, 15, 30, 45, 60, 75, 90, 105, 120, 135, 150, 165, 180, 195 and 210 minutes. Each samples of the waste has been ozonized keep in the sterile reaction tube for isolated of bacterial and the other keep in the bottle for BOD and DO measurement. These research results show that ozonization with 16.243 x 10 -4 mg/second debit for 3 hours can decreased of BOD were 19.61 %, and ozonization for 3.5 hours can increased of DO were 82.5%. The other hand, 3 hours ozonization can decreased of kind of bacterial growth were 80 %. (author)

  11. How closely does stem growth of adult beech (Fagus sylvatica) relate to net carbon gain under experimentally enhanced ozone stress?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitao, Mitsutoshi; Winkler, J. Barbro; Löw, Markus; Nunn, Angela J.; Kuptz, Daniel; Häberle, Karl-Heinz; Reiter, Ilja M.; Matyssek, Rainer

    2012-01-01

    The hypothesis was tested that O 3 -induced changes in leaf-level photosynthetic parameters have the capacity of limiting the seasonal photosynthetic carbon gain of adult beech trees. To this end, canopy-level photosynthetic carbon gain and respiratory carbon loss were assessed in European beech (Fagus sylvatica) by using a physiologically based model, integrating environmental and photosynthetic parameters. The latter were derived from leaves at various canopy positions under the ambient O 3 regime, as prevailing at the forest site (control), or under an experimental twice-ambient O 3 regime (elevated O 3 ), as released through a free-air canopy O 3 fumigation system. Gross carbon gain at the canopy-level declined by 1.7%, while respiratory carbon loss increased by 4.6% under elevated O 3 . As this outcome only partly accounts for the decline in stem growth, O 3 -induced changes in allocation are referred to and discussed as crucial in quantitatively linking carbon gain with stem growth. - Highlights: ► We model O 3 -induced changes in the photosynthetic carbon gain of adult beech trees. ► Elevated O 3 decreases gross carbon gain but increases respiratory carbon loss. ► Reduction in net carbon gain only partly accounts for the decline in stem growth. ► O 3 effects on the whole-tree allocation is crucial in addition to carbon gains. - Reduction in net carbon gain at the canopy level only partly accounts for the decline in stem growth under elevated ozone.

  12. Analysis of the effects of combustion emissions and Santa Ana winds on ambient ozone during the October 2007 southern California wildfires

    Science.gov (United States)

    A. Bytnerowicz; D. Cayan; P. Riggan; S. Schilling; P. Dawson; M. Tyree; L. Wolden; R. Tissell; H. Preisler

    2010-01-01

    Combustion emissions and strong Santa Ana winds had pronounced effects on patterns and levels of ambient ozone (O3) in southern California during the extensive wildland fires of October 2007. These changes are described in detail for a rural receptor site, the Santa Margarita Ecological Reserve, located among large fires in San Diego and Orange counties. In addition,...

  13. Ozone and ozone injury on plants in and around Beijing, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wan, Wuxing; Manning, W.J.; Wang, Xiaoke; Zhang, Hongxing; Sun, Xu; Zhang, Qianqian

    2014-01-01

    Ozone (O 3 ) levels were assessed for the first time with passive samplers at 10 sites in and around Beijing in summer 2012. Average O 3 concentrations were higher at locations around Beijing than in the city center. Levels varied with site locations and ranged from 22.5 to 48.1 ppb and were highest at three locations. Hourly O 3 concentrations exceeded 40 ppb for 128 h and 80 ppb for 17 h from 2 to 9 in August at one site, where it had a real-time O 3 analyzer. Extensive foliar O 3 injury was found on 19 species of native and cultivated trees, shrubs, and herbs at 6 of the 10 study sites and the other 2 sites without passive sampler. This is the first report of O 3 foliar injury in and around Beijing. Our results warrant an extensive program of O 3 monitoring and foliar O 3 injury assessment in and around Beijing. - Highlights: • Plants have been threatened by high O 3 concentration in and around Beijing, China. • 19 plant species are reported as obvious ambient O 3 injury symptoms in Beijing. • The O 3 injury symptoms occur more often where ambient O 3 concentration is higher. • The results warrant more extensive and long-term study of ambient O 3 in China. - First report of ozone incidence and ozone injury on plants in and around Beijing, China

  14. California Baseline Ozone Transport Study (CABOTS): Ozonesonde Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eiserloh, A. J., Jr.; Chiao, S.; Spitze, J.; Cauley, S.; Clark, J.; Roberts, M.

    2016-12-01

    Because the EPA recently lowered the ambient air quality standard for the 8-hr average of ozone (O3) to70 ppbv, California must continue to achieve significant reductions in ozone precursor emissions and prepare for new State Implementation Plans (SIP) to demonstrate how ground-level ambient ozone will be reduced below the new health-based standard. Prior studies suggest that background levels of ozone traveling across the Pacific Ocean can significantly influence surface ozone throughout California, particularly during the spring. Evidence has been presented indicating that background levels of ozone continue to increase in the western United States over the recent few decades, implying more ozone exceedances in the future. To better understand the contributions of the external natural and anthropogenic pollution sources as well as atmospheric processes for surface ozone concentrations in California during the spring and summer months, the California Baseline Ozone Transport Study (CABOTS) has been established. One major goal of CABOTS is to implement near daily ozonesonde measurements along the California Coast to quantify background ozone aloft before entering the State during high ozone season. CABOTS has been ongoing from May through August of 2016 launching ozonesondes from Bodega Bay and Half Moon Bay, California. The temporal progression of ozonesonde measurements and subsequent analysis of the data will be discussed with a focus on the contribution of background ozone to surface ozone sites inland as well as likely origins of layers aloft. Comparisons of current ozonesondes versus prior ozonesonde studies of California will also be performed. A few selected cases of high ozone layers moving onshore from different sources will be discussed as well.

  15. Effects of ozone water on growth of Lactuca sativa var. ramosa Hort and Erwinia carotovora subsp. carotovora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo Zhenghong

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Research on pathogenic bacteria growth of purple lettuce (Lactuca sativa var. ramosa and its photosynthetic physiology by being sprayed ozone water on the surface of the purple lettuce with different concentration during the reproductive stage. However,little is known regarding its concentration effect. In this study,we found that ozone water in a low concentration such as 2 mg/L did not inhibit the growth of pathogenic bacteria that originate from purple lettuce and also not affect the photosynthetic physiology of purple lettuce;in a high concentration,for example,14 mg/L,can completely suppressed the growth of pathogenic bacteria but,significantly influenced the activity of photosynthetic physiology;and in a moderate amount (6 mg/L not only completely impeded the growth of pathogenic bacteria,but also slightly increased the activity of photosynthetic physiology. Based on the above results,we propose that spraying the purple lettuce with a moderate concentration of ozone water is an efficient strategy for green disinfection.

  16. Estimate of biogenic VOC emissions in Japan and their effects on photochemical formation of ambient ozone and secondary organic aerosol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatani, Satoru; Matsunaga, Sou N.; Nakatsuka, Seiji

    2015-11-01

    A new gridded database has been developed to estimate the amount of isoprene, monoterpene, and sesquiterpene emitted from all the broadleaf and coniferous trees in Japan with the Model of Emissions of Gases and Aerosols from Nature (MEGAN). This database reflects the vegetation specific to Japan more accurately than existing ones. It estimates much lower isoprene emitted from other vegetation than trees, and higher sesquiterpene emissions mainly emitted from Cryptomeria japonica, which is the most abundant plant type in Japan. Changes in biogenic emissions result in the decrease in ambient ozone and increase in organic aerosol simulated by the air quality simulation over the Tokyo Metropolitan Area in Japan. Although newly estimated biogenic emissions contribute to a better model performance on overestimated ozone and underestimated organic aerosol, they are not a single solution to solve problems associated with the air quality simulation.

  17. An assessment of ground-level ozone concentrations in the Athabasca oil sands region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    Syncrude and Suncor have plans to develop new oil sands leases and to increase crude oil and bitumen recovery in the Athabasca oil sands region. A first air quality assessment was prepared as part of the Alberta Energy and Utilities Board application, in order to evaluate the emissions and potential impacts associated with the development. The Pembina Institute raised several issues with respect to potential future changes in ambient ozone levels as a result of the Aurora Mine operations. In response to these concerns, another more rigorous assessment was conducted to predict future ground-level ozone concentrations in the Fort McMurray area. This report includes: (1) ambient air quality guidelines for ozone, (2) emissions inventory for dispersion modelling, (3) dispersion modelling methodology, and (4) predicted ambient ozone concentrations. Ground level ozone (O 3 ) concentrations result from anthropogenically produced ozone, and from naturally occurring ozone. Ozone is not directly emitted to the atmosphere from industrial sources, but is formed as a result of chemical reactions between NO x and VOCs, which are emitted from industrial sources within the Athabasca oil sands region. NO x and VOC emissions associated with the Aurora Mine operation are predicted to increase hourly average ozone concentrations in the Fort McMurray area by only 0.001 ppm. 17 refs., 18 tabs., 5 figs

  18. Leaf injury characteristics of grassland species exposed to ozone in relation to soil moisture condition and vapour pressure deficit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bungener, P.; Balls, G.R.; Nussbaum, S.; Geissmann, M.; Grub, A.; Fuhrer, J.

    1999-01-01

    A range of plant species typical of semi-natural grasslands were tested for their sensitivity to short-term ozone injury under normal and reduced irrigation, and in relationship to air vapour pressure deficit. Potted specimens of 24 herbs, legumes and grasses were exposed during two seasons to four O 3 treatments in open-top chambers. The ozone treatments were: (a) charcoal-filtered air; (b) charcoal-filtered air plus ozone to match ambient levels; (c) charcoal-filtered air plus O 3 to ambient levels 1.5 and (d) charcoal-filtered air with ozone added to twice ambient levels during selected episodes of 7–13 d. During these ozone episodes, half of the plants in each ozone treatment received reduced irrigation (dry treatment) while the rest was kept under full irrigation (wet treatment). Type and date of first occurrence of leaf injury were noted during individual growth periods. Plants were harvested three times per year, and the percentage of injured leaves was recorded. Depending on species, injury symptoms were expressed as flecking (O 3 -specific injury), leaf yellowing or anthocyanin formation. Carum carvi and most species of the Fabaceae family (Onobrychis sativa, Trifolium repens, Trifolium pratense) were found to be most responsive to O 3 , injury occurring after only a few days of exposure in treatment (b). An episodic reduction in irrigation tended to reduce the expression of O 3 -specific symptoms, but only in species for which a reduction in soil moisture potential and an associated reduction in stomatal conductance during the dry episodes were observed. In other species, the protection from O 3 injury seemed to be of little importance. Using artificial neural networks the injury response of nine species was analysed in relation to Species, stomatal conductance, ozone as AOT40 (accumulated exposure above a threshold of 0.04 ppm for periods with global radiation ≥ 50 W m −2 (Fuhrer et al., 1997)), mean relative growth rate, air vapour pressure

  19. Exposure-Relevant Ozone Chemistry in Occupied Spaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coleman, Beverly Kaye [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2009-04-01

    Ozone, an ambient pollutant, is transformed into other airborne pollutants in the indoor environment. In this dissertation, the type and amount of byproducts that result from ozone reactions with common indoor surfaces, surface residues, and vapors were determined, pollutant concentrations were related to occupant exposure, and frameworks were developed to predict byproduct concentrations under various indoor conditions. In Chapter 2, an analysis is presented of secondary organic aerosol formation from the reaction of ozone with gas-phase, terpene-containing consumer products in small chamber experiments under conditions relevant for residential and commercial buildings. The full particle size distribution was continuously monitored, and ultrafine and fine particle concentrations were in the range of 10 to>300 mu g m-3. Particle nucleation and growth dynamics were characterized.Chapter 3 presents an investigation of ozone reactions with aircraft cabin surfaces including carpet, seat fabric, plastics, and laundered and worn clothing fabric. Small chamber experiments were used to determine ozone deposition velocities, ozone reaction probabilities, byproduct emission rates, and byproduct yields for each surface category. The most commonly detected byproducts included C1?C10 saturated aldehydes and skin oil oxidation products. For all materials, emission rates were higher with ozone than without. Experimental results were used to predict byproduct exposure in the cabin and compare to other environments. Byproduct levels are predicted to be similar to ozone levels in the cabin, which have been found to be tens to low hundreds of ppb in the absence of an ozone converter. In Chapter 4, a model is presented that predicts ozone uptake by and byproduct emission from residual chemicals on surfaces. The effects of input parameters (residue surface concentration, ozone concentration, reactivity of the residue and the surface, near-surface airflow conditions, and

  20. Ozone-induced growth suppression in radish plants in relation to pre- and post-fumigation temperatures. [Raphanus sativus L

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adedipe, N.O.; Ormrod, D.P.

    1974-01-01

    Two cultivars of Raphanus sativus L. (radish) were fumigated with ozone at a concentration of 25 parts per hundred million (pphm) for 3 h, before or after subjecting the plants to two growth temperature regimes. In the cultivar ''Cavalier'' ozone decreased leaf weight at the lower pre-fumigation day/night growth temperature regime of 20/15/sup 0/, but had no significant effect when the plants were either pre- or post-fumigation conditioned at the high temperatures of 30/25/sup 0/. In the cultivar ''Cherry Belle'', ozone decreased the leaf weight of only low temperature post-fumigation conditioned plants. Ozone had no significant effect on the total soluble carbohydrate concentration of ''Cherry Belle'', while it increased that of pre-fumigation conditioned ''Cavalier'' plants.

  1. Impact of elevated CO2 and elevated O3 on Beta vulgaris L.: Pigments, metabolites, antioxidants, growth and yield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumari, Sumita; Agrawal, Madhoolika; Tiwari, Supriya

    2013-01-01

    The present study was conducted to assess morphological, biochemical and yield responses of palak (Beta vulgaris L. cv Allgreen) to ambient and elevated levels of CO 2 and O 3 , alone and in combination. As compared to the plants grown in charcoal filtered air (ACO 2 ), growth and yield of the plants increased under elevated CO 2 (ECO 2 ) and decreased under combination of ECO 2 with elevated O 3 (ECO 2 + EO 3 ), ambient O 3 (ACO 2 + AO 3 ) and elevated O 3 (EO 3 ). Lipid peroxidation, ascorbic acid, catalase and glutathione reductase activities enhanced under all treatments and were highest in EO 3. Foliar starch and organic carbon contents increased under ECO 2 and ECO 2 + EO 3 and reduced under EO 3 and ACO 2 + AO 3. Foliar N content declined in all treatments compared to ACO 2 resulting in alteration of C/N ratio. This study concludes that ambient level of CO 2 is not enough to counteract O 3 impact, but elevated CO 2 has potential to counteract the negative effects of future O 3 level. -- Highlights: ► Elevated CO 2 enhanced the growth and yield of palak. ► Ambient and elevated ozone reduced the growth and yield of the test plant. ► Elevated CO 2 reduced negative effects of elevated O 3 by reducing oxidative stress. ► Higher amelioration was recorded at elevated CO 2 + O 3 compared to ambient CO 2 + O 3 . -- Predicted levels of CO 2 have greater ameliorative potential against negative effects of elevated ozone compared to present day CO 2 against ambient ozone

  2. Regional Assessment of Ozone Sensitive Tree Species Using Bioindicator Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    John W. Coulston; Gretchen C. Smith; William D. Smith

    2003-01-01

    Tropospheric ozone occurs at phytotoxic levels in the northeastern and mid-Atlantic regions of the United States. Quantifying possible regional-scale impacts of ambient ozone on forest tree species is difficult and is confounded by other factors, such as moisture and light, which influence the uptake of ozone by plants. Biomonitoring provides an approach to document...

  3. Integrated Science Assessment (ISA) of Ozone and Related ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA announced the availability of the final report, Integrated Science Assessment of Ozone and Related Photochemical Oxidants. This document represents a concise synthesis and evaluation of the most policy-relevant science and will ultimately provide the scientific bases for EPA’s decision regarding the adequacy of the current national ambient air quality standards for ozone to protect human health, public welfare, and the environment. Critical evaluation and integration of the evidence on health and environmental effects of ozone to provide scientific support for the review of the NAAQS for ozone.

  4. Ozone Nonattainment Areas - 1 Hour

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This data layer identifies areas in the U.S. where air pollution levels have not met the National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) for Ozone - 1hour (Legacy...

  5. Ozone air pollution in the Ukrainian Carpathian Mountains and Kiev region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oleg Blum; Andrzej Bytnerowicz; William Manning; Ludmila Popovicheva

    1998-01-01

    Ambient concentrations of ozone (O3) were measured at five highland forest locations in the Ukrainian Carpathians and in two lowland locations in the Kiev region during August to September 1995 by using O3 passive samplers. The ozone passive samplers were calibrated against a Thermo Environmental Model 49 ozone monitor...

  6. Contribution of ozone to airborne aldehyde formation in Paris homes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rancière, Fanny; Dassonville, Claire; Roda, Célina; Laurent, Anne-Marie; Le Moullec, Yvon; Momas, Isabelle

    2011-09-15

    Indoor aldehydes may result from ozone-initiated chemistry, mainly documented by experimental studies. As part of an environmental investigation included in the PARIS birth cohort, the aim of this study was to examine ozone contribution to airborne aldehyde formation in Paris homes. Formaldehyde, acetaldehyde and hexaldehyde levels, as well as styrene, nitrogen dioxide and nicotine concentrations, comfort parameters and carbon dioxide levels, were measured twice during the first year of life of the babies. Ambient ozone concentrations were collected from the closest background station of the regional air monitoring network. Traffic-related nitrogen oxide concentrations in front of the dwellings were estimated by an air pollution dispersion model. Home characteristics and families' way of life were described by questionnaires. Stepwise multiple linear regression models were used to link aldehyde levels with ambient ozone concentrations and a few aldehyde precursors involved in oxidation reactions, adjusting for other indoor aldehyde sources, comfort parameters and traffic-related nitrogen oxides. A 4 and 11% increase in formaldehyde and hexaldehyde levels was pointed out when 8-hour ozone concentrations increased by 20 μg/m(3). The influence of potential precursors such as indoor styrene level and frequent use of air fresheners, containing unsaturated volatile organic compounds as terpenes, was also found. Thus, our results suggest that ambient ozone can significantly impact indoor air quality, especially with regard to formaldehyde and hexaldehyde levels. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Ambient Ozone Exposure in Czech Forests: A GIS-Based Approach to Spatial Distribution Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hůnová, I.; Horálek, J.; Schreiberová, M.; Zapletal, M.

    2012-01-01

    Ambient ozone (O3) is an important phytotoxic pollutant, and detailed knowledge of its spatial distribution is becoming increasingly important. The aim of the paper is to compare different spatial interpolation techniques and to recommend the best approach for producing a reliable map for O3 with respect to its phytotoxic potential. For evaluation we used real-time ambient O3 concentrations measured by UV absorbance from 24 Czech rural sites in the 2007 and 2008 vegetation seasons. We considered eleven approaches for spatial interpolation used for the development of maps for mean vegetation season O3 concentrations and the AOT40F exposure index for forests. The uncertainty of maps was assessed by cross-validation analysis. The root mean square error (RMSE) of the map was used as a criterion. Our results indicate that the optimal interpolation approach is linear regression of O3 data and altitude with subsequent interpolation of its residuals by ordinary kriging. The relative uncertainty of the map of O3 mean for the vegetation season is less than 10%, using the optimal method as for both explored years, and this is a very acceptable value. In the case of AOT40F, however, the relative uncertainty of the map is notably worse, reaching nearly 20% in both examined years. PMID:22566757

  8. Physiological and foliar injury responses of Prunus serotina, Fraxinus americana, and Acer rubrum seedlings to varying soil moisture and ozone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaub, M.; Skelly, J.M.; Steiner, K.C.; Davis, D.D.; Pennypacker, S.P.; Zhang, J.; Ferdinand, J.A.; Savage, J.E.; Stevenson, R.E.

    2003-01-01

    High soil water availability favors ozone uptake, increases foliar injury, and exacerbates the negative ozone effect on gas exchange of seedlings of deciduous tree species. - Sixteen black cherry (Prunus serotina, Ehrh.), 10 white ash (Fraxinus americana, L.) and 10 red maple (Acer rubrum, L.) 1-year old seedlings were planted per plot in 1997 on a former nursery bed within 12 open-top chambers and six open plots. Seedlings were exposed to three different ozone scenarios (ambient air: 100% O 3 ; non-filtered air: 98% ambient O 3 ; charcoal-filtered air: 50% ambient O 3 ) within each of two different water regimes (nine plots irrigated, nine plots non-irrigated) during three growing seasons. During the 1998 and 1999 growing season, leaf gas exchange, plant water relations, and foliar injury were measured. Climatic data, ambient- and chamber-ozone-concentrations were monitored. We found that seedlings grown under irrigated conditions had similar (in 1998) but significantly higher gas exchange rates (in 1999) than seedlings grown within non-irrigated plots among similar ozone exposures. Cherry and ash had similar ozone uptake but cherry developed more ozone-induced injury (<34% affected leaf area, LAA) than ash (<5% LAA), while maple rarely showed foliar injury, indicating the species differed in ozone sensitivity. Significantly more severe injury on seedlings grown under irrigated conditions than seedlings grown under non-irrigated conditions demonstrated that soil moisture altered seedling responses to ambient ozone exposures

  9. Growth of Chironomus dilutus larvae exposed to ozone-treated and untreated oil sands process water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, J.; Wiseman, S.; Franz, E.; Jones, P.; Liber, K.; Giesy, J.; Gamal El-Din, M.; Marin, J.

    2010-01-01

    Oil sand processing operations require large quantities of freshwater and produce large volumes of oil sands process water (OSPW) which must be stored on-site. This presentation reviewed various treatment methods for remediating OSPW in order to eliminate downstream toxicity. Naphthenic acids are the most important target fractions for treatment because they are primarily responsible for the acute toxicity of OSPW. Although ozonation has shown promise for reducing OSPW toxicity, the effects of ozonation on aquatic invertebrates remain unknown. This study investigated the effects of exposure to untreated and ozonated OSPW in Chironomus dilutus larvae. OSPW was treated with either a 50 or 80 mg O 3 /L dose of ozonation. The effects of ozonation levels on C. dilutus survival and growth were examined. The study showed that after a 10-day exposure, there were pronounced effects on survival of larvae exposed to ozone-treated or untreated OSPW. Larvae exposed to OSPW were 64-77 percent smaller than their respective controls, but the mean wet mass of organisms exposed to 50 mg O 3 /L ozonated OSPW was not much different from that of the controls. Larvae exposed to 80 mg O 3 /L ozone-treated OSPW were 40 percent smaller than the freshwater controls, and the mean wet mass was also much larger than the untreated OSPW. It was concluded that the toxicity of OSPW to benthic invertebrates may be reduced by ozone treatment.

  10. Third year effects of cloudwater and ozone on red spruce seedlings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pier, P.A.; Thornton, F.C.; McDuffie, C. Jr.

    1991-01-01

    The reduction in growth of high elevation red spruce in the eastern US has been attributed in part to greater exposure to atmospheric pollution which occurs at high elevation. The authors objective was to evaluate the impact of ambient ozone and cloudwater deposition on the growth of red spruce seedlings at a high elevation site. Potted native and Phyton-grown (Phyton Technologies) red spruce seedlings were exposed in open-top field chambers at Whitetop Mountain, Virginia (elevation 1,680) for the third season to treatments of: (1) exclusion of clouds and 50% reduction in ambient O 3 (COE), (2) O 3 with clouds excluded (CO), (3) exposure to clouds and O 3 , as control chambers (CC), and (4) open plots (AA). Plant biomass components and diameter increment growth for both seedling types were not affected by treatments. Photosynthesis was not enhanced by removal of cloudwater and O 3 . Respiration (R d ) generally was not affected by treatments; however, R d in native seedling needles of previous year and two-year previous growth was significantly greater in CC than CO and COE on several sampling dates, indicating that cloudwater and O 3 may be causing higher R d

  11. Observations of ozone formation in power plant plumes and implications for ozone control strategies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryerson, T.B.; Trainer, M.; Holloway, J.S.; Parrish, D.D.; Huey, L.G.; Sueper, D.T.; Frost, G.J.; Donnelly, S.G.; Schauffler, S.; Atlas, E.L.; Kuster, W.C.; Goldan, P.D.; Huebler, G.; Meagher, J.F.; Fehsenfeld, F.C. [NOAA, Boulder, CO (USA). Aeronomy Lab.

    2001-04-27

    Data taken in aircraft transects of emissions plumes from rural US coal-fired power plants were used to confirm and quantify the nonlinear dependence of tropospheric ozone formation on plume NOx (NO plus NO{sub 2}) concentration, which is determined by plant NOx emission rate and atmospheric dispersion. The ambient availability of reactive volatile organic compounds, principally biogenic isoprene, was also found to modular ozone production rate and yield in these rural plumes. Differences of a factor of 2 or greater in plume ozone formation rates and yields as a function of NOx and volatile organic compound concentrations were consistently observed. These large differences suggest that consideration of power plant NOx emission rates and geographic locations in current and future US ozone control strategies could substantially enhance the efficacy of NOx reductions from these sources. 18 refs., 4 figs.

  12. Ground-level ozone in the Pearl River Delta and the roles of VOC and NO(x) in its production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Min; Zhang, Yuanhang; Zeng, Limin; Tang, Xiaoyan; Zhang, Jing; Zhong, Liuju; Wang, Boguang

    2009-01-01

    In many regions of China, very rapid economic growth has been accompanied by air pollution caused by vehicle emissions. In one of these regions, the Pearl River Delta, the variations of ground-level ozone and its precursors were investigated. Overall, the ambient concentrations of NO(2) increased quickly between 1995 and 1996, but then slightly decreased due to stringent nitrogen oxide (NO(x)) emission controls. Nonetheless, ambient NO(2) levels in the Pearl River Delta remained high. The regional average concentrations of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were 290 ppbC in summer and 190 ppbC in autumn. Local emissions and long-distance transportation of pollutants play important roles in the regional distribution of VOCs. Ambient O(3) production is significant in urban areas and also downwind of cities. The relative incremental reactivities (RIRs), determined by an observation-based model, showed that ground-level ozone formation in the Guangzhou urban area is generally limited by the concentrations of VOCs, but there are also measurable impacts of NO(x).

  13. Air pollution by ozone across Europe during summer 2010. Overview of exceedances of EC ozone threshold values for April-September 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2011-06-15

    This report provides an evaluation of ground-level ozone pollution in Europe for April-September 2010, based on information submitted to the European Commission under Directive 2002/3/EC on ozone in ambient air. Since Members States have not yet finally validated the submitted data, the conclusions drawn in this report should be considered as preliminary. (Author)

  14. Increased growth factors play a role in wound healing promoted by noninvasive oxygen-ozone therapy in diabetic patients with foot ulcers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jing; Guan, Meiping; Xie, Cuihua; Luo, Xiangrong; Zhang, Qian; Xue, Yaoming

    2014-01-01

    Management of diabetic foot ulcers (DFUs) is a great challenge for clinicians. Although the oxygen-ozone treatment improves the diabetic outcome, there are few clinical trials to verify the efficacy and illuminate the underlying mechanisms of oxygen-ozone treatment on DFUs. In the present study, a total of 50 type 2 diabetic patients complicated with DFUs, Wagner stage 2~4, were randomized into control group treated by standard therapy only and ozone group treated by standard therapy plus oxygen-ozone treatment. The therapeutic effects were graded into 4 levels from grade 0 (no change) to grade 3 (wound healing). The wound sizes were measured at baseline and day 20, respectively. Tissue biopsies were performed at baseline and day 11. The expressions of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β), and platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) proteins in the pathologic specimens were determined by immunohistochemical examinations. The effective rate of ozone group was significantly higher than that of control group (92% versus 64%, P healing of DFUs via potential induction of VEGF, TGF-β, and PDGF at early stage of the treatment. (Clinical trial registry number is ChiCTR-TRC-14004415).

  15. Effects of ozone on the sporulation, germination, and pathogenicity of Botrytis cinerea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krause, C.R.; Weidensaul, T.C.

    1978-02-01

    Studies were initiated to determine if Botrytis cinerea conidia remain viable when grown in vivo and in vitro in the presence of ambient ozone levels and whether ozonized conidia retain pathogenicity. Experimental materials and methods used are described.

  16. Impacts of elevated ozone on growth and photosynthesis of Metasequoia glyptostroboides Hu et Cheng.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Weiwei; Feng, Zhaozhong; Wang, Xiaoke; Niu, Junfeng

    2014-09-01

    One-year-old Metasequoia glyptostroboides seedlings were exposed to non-filtered ambient air (NF) and elevated ozone (E-O3, NF+60 ppb) in open-top chambers for two years. E-O3 accelerated leaf senescence, as indicated by significant decreases in photosynthetic pigment contents with the elongation of O3 exposure. E-O3 significantly affected gas exchange and carboxylation, inducing reductions in light-saturated photosynthesis (Asat), the maximum activity of Rubisco (Vc,max) and the maximum electron transport rate (Jmax). Chl a/b, Vc,max/Jmax and stomatal limitation (l) were not affected. Stomatal conductance (gs) was significantly decreased by E-O3 in the first year, but remained unchanged in the second year. It can be inferred that the decrease in Asat by E-O3 was mainly attributed to the changes in non-stomatal factors. After two years' exposure, E-O3 caused significant decreases in canopy photosynthesis and leaf mass per area, and a significant increase in the number of branches, but induced slight, not significant decreases in growth and biomass. Therefore, it can be concluded that the carbon accumulation of the species M. glyptostroboides could be negatively affected after long-term exposure to high O3 concentration. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Beneficial effects of CO2 enrichment to field-grown soybeans under ozone stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, E.H.; Mulchi, C.L.

    1991-01-01

    Damage from gaseous air pollution [e.g. ozone (O 3 ) and sulfur dioxide (SO 2 )] on crops in the US has been estimated to exceed several billion dollars annually. Atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) concentrations have increased from about 290 ppm in the late 1800's to current levels of 350 ppm. The combined effects of increased CO 2 and O 3 stress have not been studied under field conditions. The present study was conducted to determine the interactive effects of CO 2 enrichment and O 3 stress on the growth and physiology of 'Clark' soybean, testing the hypothesis that elevated CO 2 will ameliorate the effects of O 3 stress. Experiments with soybeans in open-top field chambers showed that increasing CO 2 levels to 400 parts per million (ppm) negated current ambient ozone harmful effects on soybean yields. When ambient O 3 levels were doubled, it was necessary to increase the atmospheric CO 2 concentration to 500 ppm to negate O 3 damage. Rising CO 2 counteracts O 3 pollution. Reduced stomatal conductance and decreased photosynthesis appear to reverse the CO 2 stimulation

  18. Development of a sensitive passive sampler using indigotrisulfonate for the determination of tropospheric ozone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Gabriel; Allen, Andrew George; Cardoso, Arnaldo Alves

    2010-06-01

    A new sampling and analytical design for measurement of ambient ozone is presented. The procedure is based on ozone absorption and decoloration (at 600 nm) of indigotrisulfonate dye, where ozone adds itself across the carbon-carbon double bond of the indigo. A mean relative standard deviation of 8.6% was obtained using samplers exposed in triplicate, and a correlation coefficient (r) of 0.957 was achieved in parallel measurements using the samplers and a commercial UV ozone instrument. The devices were evaluated in a measurement campaign, mapping spatial and temporal trends of ozone concentrations in a region of southeast Brazil strongly influenced by seasonal agricultural biomass burning, with associated emissions of ozone precursors. Ozone concentrations were highest in rural areas and lowest at an urban site, due to formation during downwind transport and short-term depletion due to titration with nitric oxide. Ozone concentrations showed strong seasonal trends, due to the influences of precursor emissions, relative humidity and solar radiation intensity. Advantages of the technique include ease and speed of use, the ready availability of components, and excellent sensitivity. Achievable temporal resolution of ozone concentrations is 8 hours at an ambient ozone concentration of 3.8 ppb, or 2 hours at a concentration of 15.2 ppb.

  19. Effects of ozone exposure on lung function in man: a review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Folinsbee, L J

    1981-01-01

    Ozone, an important component of photochemical smog, has a decided impact on lung function in man. In this review, the effects of zone on human lung function are discussed with particular attention to levels which are near the threshold of producing no effect. Attempts to define dose-response relationships and effects on sensitive subject populations are described. The relationship between exercise and ozone toxicity is presented in addition to the potential impact of ambient ozone exposure on athletic performance. Effects of ozone on respiratory symptoms and the interaction of ozone with other pollutants are briefly examined. Considerable attention has been directed at the phenomenon of adaptation to repeated ozone exposure and to possible mechanism of action of ozone.

  20. Seasonal differences and within-canopy variations of antioxidants in mature spruce (Picea abies) trees under elevated ozone in a free-air exposure system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hofer, Nora; Alexou, Maria; Heerdt, Christian; Loew, Markus; Werner, Herbert; Matyssek, Rainer; Rennenberg, Heinz; Haberer, Kristine

    2008-01-01

    The effect of free-air ozone fumigation and crown position on antioxidants were determined in old-growth spruce (Picea abies) trees in the seasonal course of two consecutive years (2003 and 2004). Levels of total ascorbate and its redox state in the apoplastic washing fluid (AWF) were increased under double ambient ozone concentrations (2 x O 3 ), whilst ascorbate concentrations in needle extracts were unchanged. Concentrations of apoplastic and symplastic ascorbate were significantly higher in 2003 compared to 2004 indicating a combined effect of the drought conditions in 2003 with enhanced ozone exposure. Elevated ozone had only weak effects on total glutathione levels in needle extracts, phloem exudates and xylem saps. Total and oxidised glutathione concentrations were higher in 2004 compared to 2003 and seemed to be more affected by enhanced ozone influx in the more humid year 2004 compared to the combined effect of elevated ozone and drought in 2003 as observed for ascorbate. - Antioxidant defence in sun and shade needles of Picea abies under free-air ozone fumigation in the seasonal course of two consecutive years

  1. The effect of winter stress on Ilex aquifolium L.previously fumigated with ozone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ranford, Jonathan; Reiling, Kevin

    2007-01-01

    European Holly (Ilex aquifolium) received either charcoal-filtered air (CFA) or CFA with 70 nl l -1 ozone added for 7 h day -1 over a 28 day period. Plants were then transferred into cooling incubators for hardening (4 o C day/2 o C night; day length 12 h) for 7 days and then to the frosting stage (2 o C day and -5, -10 or -15 o C night) for 4 days. The plants were then placed in ambient conditions. Treatment produced significant differences in chlorophyll fluorescence data. Stomatal conductance was significantly higher for the ozone treatments though both showed a general decline over all temperature regimes. Ozone also significantly increased electrolyte leakage and reduced winter survival. These results show that ambient concentrations of ozone can reduce the tolerance of I. aquifolium to freezing stress, which may have serious implications for its establishment and survival. - Exposure to ozone decreases the winter hardening capability and markedly increases the frost sensitivity of Ilex aquifolium

  2. Competition modifies effects of enhanced ozone/carbon dioxide concentrations on carbohydrate and biomass accumulation in juvenile Norway spruces and European beech

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, X.; Rennenberg, H.; Kozovits, A. R.; Grams, T. E.; Blaschke, H.; Matyssek, R.

    2004-01-01

    Potential interactions of carbon dioxide and ozone on carbohydrate concentrations and contents were studied in Norway spruce and European beech saplings to test the hypotheses that (1) prolonged exposure to elevated carbon dioxide does not compensate for the limiting effects of ozone on the accumulation of sugars and starches, or biomass partitioning to the root; and (2) growth of mixed-species planting will repress plant responses to elevated ozone and carbon dioxide. Norway spruce and European beech saplings were acclimated for one year to ambient and elevated carbon dioxide, followed by exposure to factorial combinations of ambient and elevated ozone and carbon dioxide during the next two years. In spruce trees, sugar and starch content was greater in saplings exposed to elevated carbon dioxide; in beech, the response was the opposite. The overall conclusion was that the results did not support Hypothesis One, because the adverse effects were counteracted by elevated carbon dioxide. Regarding Hypothesis Two, it was found to be supportive for beech but not for spruce. In beech, the reduction of sugars and starch by elevated ozone and stimulation by elevated carbon dioxide were repressed by competitive interaction with spruce, whereas in spruce saplings elevated concentrations of carbon dioxide resulted in higher concentrations of sugar and starch, but only in leaves and coarse roots and only when grown in combination with beech. Elevated ozone in spruce saplings produced no significant effect on sugar or starch content either in intra- or interspecific competition. 57 refs., 1 tab., 5 figs

  3. Competition modifies effects of enhanced ozone/carbon dioxide concentrations on carbohydrate and biomass accumulation in juvenile Norway spruces and European beech

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, X.; Rennenberg, H. [University of Freiburg, Inst. of Forest Botany and Tree Physiology, Freiburg (Germany); Kozovits, A. R.; Grams, T. E.; Blaschke, H.; Matyssek, R. [Technische Universitat Munchen, Dept. of Ecology and Ecophysiology of Plants, Freising (Germany)

    2004-09-01

    Potential interactions of carbon dioxide and ozone on carbohydrate concentrations and contents were studied in Norway spruce and European beech saplings to test the hypotheses that (1) prolonged exposure to elevated carbon dioxide does not compensate for the limiting effects of ozone on the accumulation of sugars and starches, or biomass partitioning to the root; and (2) growth of mixed-species planting will repress plant responses to elevated ozone and carbon dioxide. Norway spruce and European beech saplings were acclimated for one year to ambient and elevated carbon dioxide, followed by exposure to factorial combinations of ambient and elevated ozone and carbon dioxide during the next two years. In spruce trees, sugar and starch content was greater in saplings exposed to elevated carbon dioxide; in beech, the response was the opposite. The overall conclusion was that the results did not support Hypothesis One, because the adverse effects were counteracted by elevated carbon dioxide. Regarding Hypothesis Two, it was found to be supportive for beech but not for spruce. In beech, the reduction of sugars and starch by elevated ozone and stimulation by elevated carbon dioxide were repressed by competitive interaction with spruce, whereas in spruce saplings elevated concentrations of carbon dioxide resulted in higher concentrations of sugar and starch, but only in leaves and coarse roots and only when grown in combination with beech. Elevated ozone in spruce saplings produced no significant effect on sugar or starch content either in intra- or interspecific competition. 57 refs., 1 tab., 5 figs.

  4. Ozone, Fine Particulate Matter, and Chronic Lower Respiratory Disease Mortality in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Yongping; Balluz, Lina; Strosnider, Heather; Wen, Xiao Jun; Li, Chaoyang; Qualters, Judith R

    2015-08-01

    Short-term effects of air pollution exposure on respiratory disease mortality are well established. However, few studies have examined the effects of long-term exposure, and among those that have, results are inconsistent. To evaluate long-term association between ambient ozone, fine particulate matter (PM2.5, particles with an aerodynamic diameter of 2.5 μm or less), and chronic lower respiratory disease (CLRD) mortality in the contiguous United States. We fit Bayesian hierarchical spatial Poisson models, adjusting for five county-level covariates (percentage of adults aged ≥65 years, poverty, lifetime smoking, obesity, and temperature), with random effects at state and county levels to account for spatial heterogeneity and spatial dependence. We derived county-level average daily concentration levels for ambient ozone and PM2.5 for 2001-2008 from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's down-scaled estimates and obtained 2007-2008 CLRD deaths from the National Center for Health Statistics. Exposure to ambient ozone was associated with an increased rate of CLRD deaths, with a rate ratio of 1.05 (95% credible interval, 1.01-1.09) per 5-ppb increase in ozone; the association between ambient PM2.5 and CLRD mortality was positive but statistically insignificant (rate ratio, 1.07; 95% credible interval, 0.99-1.14). This study links air pollution exposure data with CLRD mortality for all 3,109 contiguous U.S. counties. Ambient ozone may be associated with an increased rate of death from CLRD in the contiguous United States. Although we adjusted for selected county-level covariates and unobserved influences through Bayesian hierarchical spatial modeling, the possibility of ecologic bias remains.

  5. Ozone Nonattainment Areas - 8 Hour (1997 Standard)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This data layer identifies areas in the U.S. where air pollution levels have not met the National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) for ozone over 8 hours and...

  6. PLASMA AND LUNG MACROPHAGE CAROTENOID RESPONSIVENESS TO SUPPLEMENTATION AND OZONE EXPOSURE IN HUMANS

    Science.gov (United States)

    OBJECTIVE:: To examine the effect of ozone exposure and vegetable juice supplementation on plasma and lung macrophage concentrations of carotenoids. DESIGN:: A randomized trial. SETTING:: Subjects were exposed to ambient air prior to antioxidant supplementation and to ozone after...

  7. Host location behavior of Cotesia plutellae Kurdjumov (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) in ambient and moderately elevated ozone in field conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinto, D.M.; Himanen, S.J.; Nissinen, A.; Nerg, A.-M.; Holopainen, J.K.

    2008-01-01

    In field O 3 -enrichment experiments increased herbivore densities have been reported, which could be due to negatively affected host location behavior of natural enemies. We addressed the impact of doubling background O 3 on the host location of the parasitoid Cotesia plutellae by conducting 24-h trials in an open-air O 3 -fumigation system during two consecutive years. Two circles (radii 1.40 and 4.00 m) of Plutella xylostella-infested potted cabbage plants were placed in the O 3 and ambient plots. Female wasps were released into each plot from the center, and observed 5 times over a 24-h period to assess their host location capability. Thereafter, plants were kept in laboratory conditions until larvae pupation to determine parasitism rates. No significant differences were detected between ambient and O 3 -enriched environments either in the number of wasps found in the field, or in the percentages of parasitized larvae. This suggests that moderately elevated O 3 will not affect the behavior of this parasitoid. - Atmospheric ozone increases do not directly affect the biological control of the cabbage pest, Plutella xylostella

  8. Host location behavior of Cotesia plutellae Kurdjumov (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) in ambient and moderately elevated ozone in field conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinto, D.M. [Department of Environmental Science, University of Kuopio, PO Box 1627, FIN-70211 Kuopio (Finland)], E-mail: delia.pinto@uku.fi; Himanen, S.J. [Department of Environmental Science, University of Kuopio, PO Box 1627, FIN-70211 Kuopio (Finland); Nissinen, A. [Department of Environmental Science, University of Kuopio, PO Box 1627, FIN-70211 Kuopio (Finland); Agrifood Research Finland, Plant Protection, FIN-31600 Jokioinen (Finland); Nerg, A.-M.; Holopainen, J.K. [Department of Environmental Science, University of Kuopio, PO Box 1627, FIN-70211 Kuopio (Finland)

    2008-11-15

    In field O{sub 3}-enrichment experiments increased herbivore densities have been reported, which could be due to negatively affected host location behavior of natural enemies. We addressed the impact of doubling background O{sub 3} on the host location of the parasitoid Cotesia plutellae by conducting 24-h trials in an open-air O{sub 3}-fumigation system during two consecutive years. Two circles (radii 1.40 and 4.00 m) of Plutella xylostella-infested potted cabbage plants were placed in the O{sub 3} and ambient plots. Female wasps were released into each plot from the center, and observed 5 times over a 24-h period to assess their host location capability. Thereafter, plants were kept in laboratory conditions until larvae pupation to determine parasitism rates. No significant differences were detected between ambient and O{sub 3}-enriched environments either in the number of wasps found in the field, or in the percentages of parasitized larvae. This suggests that moderately elevated O{sub 3} will not affect the behavior of this parasitoid. - Atmospheric ozone increases do not directly affect the biological control of the cabbage pest, Plutella xylostella.

  9. Influence of ammonia and ozone on growth and drought sensitivity of Pinus sylvestris

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dueck, Th.A.; Zuin, A.; Elderson, J.

    1998-01-01

    Four-year-old Pinus sylvestris trees were exposed to ammonia (16, 55, 110 ppb for 24 h d-1)and ozone (0, 45 and 68 ppb, 9 h d-1) in a factorial design in open-top chambers for 15 months. Treatment effects on tree growth and architecture were assessed during two growing seasons; effects on

  10. Growth responses of Populus tremuloides clones to interacting elevated carbon dioxide and tropospheric ozone

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. G. Isebrands; E. P. McDonald; E. Kruger; G. Hendrey; K. Percy; K. Pregitzer; J. Sober; D. F. Karnosky

    2001-01-01

    The Intergovernmental Panel of Climate Change (IPCC) has concluded that the greenhouse gases carbon dioxide (CO2) and tropospheric ozone (O3) are increasing concomitantly globally. Little is known about the effect of these interacting gases on growth, survival, and productivity of forest ecosystems. In this study we assess...

  11. A passive sampler for atmospheric ozone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grosjean, D.; Hisham, M.W.M.

    1992-01-01

    A simple, cost-effective passive sampler has been developed for the determination of atmospheric ozone. This passive sampler is based on a colorant which fades upon reaction with ozone, whose concentration can be determined by reflectance measurement of the color change. Direct, on-site measurements are possible, and no chemical analyses are needed. Sampler design and validation studies have been carried out and included quantitative determination of color change vs exposure time (1-8 days), color change vs. ozone concentration (30-350 ppb), and response to changes in sampler configuration that modify the passive sampling rate. With indigo carmine as the colorant, the detection limits are 30 ppb. day and 120 ppb. day using a plastic grid and Teflon filter, respectively, as diffusion barriers. Interferences from nitrogen dioxide, formaldehyde and peroxyacetyl nitrate are 15, 4 and 16%, respectively, thus resulting in a negligible bias when measuring ozone in ambient air

  12. Ozone from fireworks: Chemical processes or measurement interference?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zheng; Nie, Wei; Chi, Xuguang; Huang, Xin; Zheng, Longfei; Xu, Zhengning; Wang, Jiaping; Xie, Yuning; Qi, Ximeng; Wang, Xinfeng; Xue, Likun; Ding, Aijun

    2018-08-15

    Fireworks have been identified as one ozone source by photolyzing NO 2 or O 2 and are believed to potentially be important for the nighttime ozone during firework events. In this study, we conducted both lab and field experiments to test two types of fireworks with low and high energy with the goal to distinguish whether the visible ozone signal during firework displays is real. The results suggest that previous understanding of the ozone formation mechanism during fireworks is misunderstood. Ultraviolet ray (UV)-based ozone monitors are interfered by aerosols and some specific VOCs. High-energy fireworks emit high concentrations of particular matters and low VOCs that the artificial ozone can be easily removed by an aerosol filter. Low-energy fireworks emit large amounts of VOCs mostly from the combustion of the cardboard from fireworks that largely interferes with the ozone monitor. Benzene and phenol might be major contributors to the artificial ozone signal. We further checked the nighttime ozone concentration in Jinan and Beijing, China, during Chinese New Year, a period with intense fireworks. A signal of 3-8ppbv ozone was detected and positively correlated to NO and SO 2 , suggesting a considerable influence of these chemicals in interfering with ambient ozone monitoring. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Ozone exposure of a weed community produces adaptive changes in seed populations of Spergula arvensis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer B Landesmann

    Full Text Available Tropospheric ozone is one of the major drivers of global change. This stress factor alters plant growth and development. Ozone could act as a selection pressure on species communities composition, but also on population genetic background, thus affecting life history traits. Our objective was to evaluate the consequences of prolonged ozone exposure of a weed community on phenotypic traits of Spergulaarvensis linked to persistence. Specifically, we predicted that the selection pressure exerted by high ozone concentrations as well as the concomitant changes in the weed community would drive population adaptive changes which will be reflected on seed germination, dormancy and longevity. In order to test seed viability and dormancy level, we conducted germination experiments for which we used seeds produced by S. arvensis plants grown within a weed community exposed to three ozone treatments during four years (0, 90 and 120 ppb. We also performed a soil seed bank experiment to test seed longevity with seeds coming from both the four-year ozone exposure experiment and from a short-term treatment conducted at ambient and added ozone concentrations. We found that prolonged ozone exposure produced changes in seed germination, dormancy and longevity, resulting in three S. arvensis populations. Seeds from the 90 ppb ozone selection treatment had the highest level of germination when stored at 75% RH and 25 °C and then scarified. These seeds showed the lowest dormancy level when being subjected to 5 ºC/5% RH and 25 ºC/75% followed by 5% RH storage conditions. Furthermore, ozone exposure increased seed persistence in the soil through a maternal effect. Given that tropospheric ozone is an important pollutant in rural areas, changes in seed traits due to ozone exposure could increase weed persistence in fields, thus affecting weed-crop interactions, which could ultimately reduce crop production.

  14. Ozone exposure of a weed community produces adaptive changes in seed populations of Spergula arvensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landesmann, Jennifer B; Gundel, Pedro E; Martínez-Ghersa, M Alejandra; Ghersa, Claudio M

    2013-01-01

    Tropospheric ozone is one of the major drivers of global change. This stress factor alters plant growth and development. Ozone could act as a selection pressure on species communities composition, but also on population genetic background, thus affecting life history traits. Our objective was to evaluate the consequences of prolonged ozone exposure of a weed community on phenotypic traits of Spergulaarvensis linked to persistence. Specifically, we predicted that the selection pressure exerted by high ozone concentrations as well as the concomitant changes in the weed community would drive population adaptive changes which will be reflected on seed germination, dormancy and longevity. In order to test seed viability and dormancy level, we conducted germination experiments for which we used seeds produced by S. arvensis plants grown within a weed community exposed to three ozone treatments during four years (0, 90 and 120 ppb). We also performed a soil seed bank experiment to test seed longevity with seeds coming from both the four-year ozone exposure experiment and from a short-term treatment conducted at ambient and added ozone concentrations. We found that prolonged ozone exposure produced changes in seed germination, dormancy and longevity, resulting in three S. arvensis populations. Seeds from the 90 ppb ozone selection treatment had the highest level of germination when stored at 75% RH and 25 °C and then scarified. These seeds showed the lowest dormancy level when being subjected to 5 ºC/5% RH and 25 ºC/75% followed by 5% RH storage conditions. Furthermore, ozone exposure increased seed persistence in the soil through a maternal effect. Given that tropospheric ozone is an important pollutant in rural areas, changes in seed traits due to ozone exposure could increase weed persistence in fields, thus affecting weed-crop interactions, which could ultimately reduce crop production.

  15. Commuters’ Personal Exposure to Ambient and Indoor Ozone in Athens, Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krystallia K. Kalimeri

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This pilot study aimed to monitor the residential/office indoor, outdoor, and personal levels of ozone for people living, working, and commuting in Athens, Greece. Participants (16 persons of this study worked at the same place. Passive sampling analysis results did not indicate any limit exceedance (Directive 2008/50/EC: 120 µg/m3, World Health Organization (WHO Air Quality Guidelines 2005: 100 µg/m3. The highest “house-outdoor” concentration was noticed for participants living in the north suburbs of Athens, confirming the photochemical ozone formation at the northern parts of the basin during southwestern prevailing winds. The residential indoor to outdoor ratio (I/O was found to be significantly lower than unity, underlying the outdoor originality of the pollutant. The highest “office-indoor” concentration was observed in a ground-level building, characterized by the extensive use of photocopy machines and printers. Personal ozone levels were positively correlated only with indoor-office concentrations. A clear correlation of personal ozone levels to the time spent by the individuals during moving/staying outdoors was observed. On the other hand, no correlation was observed when focusing only on commuting time, due to the fact that transit time includes both on-foot and in-vehicle time periods, therefore activities associated with increased exposure levels, but also with pollutants removal by recirculating air filtering systems, respectively.

  16. Seasonal trends in reduced leaf gas exchange and ozone-induced foliar injury in three ozone sensitive woody plant species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novak, K.; Schaub, M.; Fuhrer, J.; Skelly, J.M.; Hug, C.; Landolt, W.; Bleuler, P.; Kraeuchi, N.

    2005-01-01

    Seasonal trends in leaf gas exchange and ozone-induced visible foliar injury were investigated for three ozone sensitive woody plant species. Seedlings of Populus nigra L., Viburnum lantana L., and Fraxinus excelsior L. were grown in charcoal-filtered chambers, non-filtered chambers and open plots. Injury assessments and leaf gas exchange measurements were conducted from June to October during 2002. All species developed typical ozone-induced foliar injury. For plants exposed to non-filtered air as compared to the charcoal-filtered air, mean net photosynthesis was reduced by 25%, 21%, and 18% and mean stomatal conductance was reduced by 25%, 16%, and 8% for P. nigra, V. lantana, and F. excelsior, respectively. The timing and severity of the reductions in leaf gas exchange were species specific and corresponded to the onset of visible foliar injury. - Reductions in leaf gas exchange corresponded to the onset of ozone-induced visible foliar injury for seedlings exposed to ambient ozone exposures

  17. Seasonal trends in reduced leaf gas exchange and ozone-induced foliar injury in three ozone sensitive woody plant species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Novak, K. [Swiss Federal Institute for Forest, Snow and Landscape Research WSL, Zuercherstrasse 111, 8903 Birmensdorf (Switzerland)]. E-mail: kristopher.novak@wsl.ch; Schaub, M. [Swiss Federal Institute for Forest, Snow and Landscape Research WSL, Zuercherstrasse 111, 8903 Birmensdorf (Switzerland); Fuhrer, J. [Swiss Federal Research Station for Agroecology and Agriculture FAL, 8046 Zurich (Switzerland); Skelly, J.M. [Department of Plant Pathology, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Hug, C. [Swiss Federal Institute for Forest, Snow and Landscape Research WSL, Zuercherstrasse 111, 8903 Birmensdorf (Switzerland); Landolt, W. [Swiss Federal Institute for Forest, Snow and Landscape Research WSL, Zuercherstrasse 111, 8903 Birmensdorf (Switzerland); Bleuler, P. [Swiss Federal Institute for Forest, Snow and Landscape Research WSL, Zuercherstrasse 111, 8903 Birmensdorf (Switzerland); Kraeuchi, N. [Swiss Federal Institute for Forest, Snow and Landscape Research WSL, Zuercherstrasse 111, 8903 Birmensdorf (Switzerland)

    2005-07-15

    Seasonal trends in leaf gas exchange and ozone-induced visible foliar injury were investigated for three ozone sensitive woody plant species. Seedlings of Populus nigra L., Viburnum lantana L., and Fraxinus excelsior L. were grown in charcoal-filtered chambers, non-filtered chambers and open plots. Injury assessments and leaf gas exchange measurements were conducted from June to October during 2002. All species developed typical ozone-induced foliar injury. For plants exposed to non-filtered air as compared to the charcoal-filtered air, mean net photosynthesis was reduced by 25%, 21%, and 18% and mean stomatal conductance was reduced by 25%, 16%, and 8% for P. nigra, V. lantana, and F. excelsior, respectively. The timing and severity of the reductions in leaf gas exchange were species specific and corresponded to the onset of visible foliar injury. - Reductions in leaf gas exchange corresponded to the onset of ozone-induced visible foliar injury for seedlings exposed to ambient ozone exposures.

  18. Incidence of ozone symptoms on vegetation within a National Wildlife Refuge in New Jersey, USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, Donald D.; Orendovici, Teodora

    2006-01-01

    During 1993-1996 and 2001-2003, we evaluated the percentage of plants (incidence) exhibiting ozone-induced foliar symptoms on vegetation within a National Wildlife Refuge located along the Atlantic Ocean coast of New Jersey, USA. Incidence varied among plant species and years. Bioindicator plants most sensitive to ozone, across all years, included native common milkweed (Asclepias syriaca) and wild grape (Vitis spp.), as well as introduced tree-of-heaven (Ailanthus altissima). Less sensitive bioindicators included Virginia creeper (Parthenocissus quinquefolia) and winged sumac (Rhus coppolina). Black cherry (Prunus serotina) and sassafras (Sassafras albidum) were least sensitive. The greatest incidence of ozone symptoms, across all plant species, occurred in 1996, followed by 2001 > 1995 > 1994 > 1993 > 2003 > 2002. A model was developed that showed a statistically significant relationship between incidence of ozone symptoms and the following parameters: plant species, Palmer Drought Severity Index, and the interaction of W126 x N100 measures of ambient ozone. - Vegetation in a National Wildlife Refuge containing a Class I wilderness area exhibits foliar symptoms from ambient ozone

  19. Incidence of ozone symptoms on vegetation within a National Wildlife Refuge in New Jersey, USA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, Donald D. [Department of Plant Pathology, Ecology Program, Penn State Institutes of the Environment, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16803 (United States)]. E-mail: ddd2@psu.edu; Orendovici, Teodora [Department of Plant Pathology, Ecology Program, Penn State Institutes of the Environment, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16803 (United States)

    2006-10-15

    During 1993-1996 and 2001-2003, we evaluated the percentage of plants (incidence) exhibiting ozone-induced foliar symptoms on vegetation within a National Wildlife Refuge located along the Atlantic Ocean coast of New Jersey, USA. Incidence varied among plant species and years. Bioindicator plants most sensitive to ozone, across all years, included native common milkweed (Asclepias syriaca) and wild grape (Vitis spp.), as well as introduced tree-of-heaven (Ailanthus altissima). Less sensitive bioindicators included Virginia creeper (Parthenocissus quinquefolia) and winged sumac (Rhus coppolina). Black cherry (Prunus serotina) and sassafras (Sassafras albidum) were least sensitive. The greatest incidence of ozone symptoms, across all plant species, occurred in 1996, followed by 2001 > 1995 > 1994 > 1993 > 2003 > 2002. A model was developed that showed a statistically significant relationship between incidence of ozone symptoms and the following parameters: plant species, Palmer Drought Severity Index, and the interaction of W126 x N100 measures of ambient ozone. - Vegetation in a National Wildlife Refuge containing a Class I wilderness area exhibits foliar symptoms from ambient ozone.

  20. Ozone Application for Tofu Waste Water Treatment and Its Utilisation for Growth Medium of Microalgae Spirulina sp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadiyanto Hadiyanto

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Tofu industries produce waste water containing high organic contents and suspendid solid which is harmful if directly discharged to the environment. This waste can lead to disruption of water quality and lowering the environmental carrying capacity of waters around the tofu industries. Besides, the tofu waste water still contains high nitrogen contents which can be used for microalgae growth. This study was aimed to reduce the pollution load (chemical oxygen demand-COD of tofue wastewater by using ozone treatments and to utilize nutrients in treated tofu waste water as medium growth of microalgae. The result showed that the reduction of COD by implementation of ozone treatment followed first order kinetic. Under variation of waste concentrations between 10-40%, the degradation rate constant was in the range of 0.00237-0.0149 min-1. The microalgae was able to grow in the tofue waste medium by the growth rate constants of 0.15-0.29 day-1. This study concluded that tofu waste was highly potent for microalgae growth.

  1. Ozone Application for Tofu Waste Water Treatment and Its Utilisation for Growth Medium of Microalgae Spirulina sp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadiyanto, Hadiyanto

    2018-02-01

    Tofu industries produce waste water containing high organic contents and suspendid solid which is harmful if directly discharged to the environment. This waste can lead to disruption of water quality and lowering the environmental carrying capacity of waters around the tofu industries. Besides, the tofu waste water still contains high nitrogen contents which can be used for microalgae growth. This study was aimed to reduce the pollution load (chemical oxygen demand-COD) of tofue wastewater by using ozone treatments and to utilize nutrients in treated tofu waste water as medium growth of microalgae. The result showed that the reduction of COD by implementation of ozone treatment followed first order kinetic. Under variation of waste concentrations between 10-40%, the degradation rate constant was in the range of 0.00237-0.0149 min-1. The microalgae was able to grow in the tofue waste medium by the growth rate constants of 0.15-0.29 day-1. This study concluded that tofu waste was highly potent for microalgae growth.

  2. Monitoring ambient ozone with a passive measurement technique method, field results and strategy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheeren, BA; Adema, EH

    1996-01-01

    A low-cost, accurate and sensitive passive measurement method for ozone has been developed and tested. The method is based on the reaction of ozone with indigo carmine which results in colourless reaction products which are detected spectrophotometrically after exposure. Coated glass filters are

  3. The potential near-source ozone impacts of upstream oil and gas industry emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olaguer, Eduardo P

    2012-08-01

    Increased drilling in urban areas overlying shale formations and its potential impact on human health through decreased air quality make it important to estimate the contribution of oil and gas activities to photochemical smog. Flares and compressor engines used in natural gas operations, for example, are large sources not only of NOx but also offormaldehyde, a hazardous air pollutant and powerful ozone precursor We used a neighborhood scale (200 m horizontal resolution) three-dimensional (3D) air dispersion model with an appropriate chemical mechanism to simulate ozone formation in the vicinity ofa hypothetical natural gas processing facility, based on accepted estimates of both regular and nonroutine emissions. The model predicts that, under average midday conditions in June, regular emissions mostly associated with compressor engines may increase ambient ozone in the Barnett Shale by more than 3 ppb beginning at about 2 km downwind of the facility, assuming there are no other major sources of ozone precursors. Flare volumes of 100,000 cubic meters per hour ofnatural gas over a period of 2 hr can also add over 3 ppb to peak 1-hr ozone somewhatfurther (>8 km) downwind, once dilution overcomes ozone titration and inhibition by large flare emissions of NOx. The additional peak ozone from the hypothetical flare can briefly exceed 10 ppb about 16 km downwind. The enhancements of ambient ozone predicted by the model are significant, given that ozone control strategy widths are of the order of a few parts per billion. Degrading the horizontal resolution of the model to 1 km spuriously enhances the simulated ozone increases by reducing the effectiveness of ozone inhibition and titration due to artificial plume dilution.

  4. The effect of entrainment through atmospheric boundary layer growth on observed and modeled surface ozone in the Colorado Front Range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaser, L.; Patton, E. G.; Pfister, G. G.; Weinheimer, A. J.; Montzka, D. D.; Flocke, F.; Thompson, A. M.; Stauffer, R. M.; Halliday, H. S.

    2017-06-01

    Ozone concentrations at the Earth's surface are controlled by meteorological and chemical processes and are a function of advection, entrainment, deposition, and net chemical production/loss. The relative contributions of these processes vary in time and space. Understanding the relative importance of these processes controlling surface ozone concentrations is an essential component for designing effective regulatory strategies. Here we focus on the diurnal cycle of entrainment through atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) growth in the Colorado Front Range. Aircraft soundings and surface observations collected in July/August 2014 during the DISCOVER-AQ/FRAPPÉ (Deriving Information on Surface conditions from Column and Vertically Resolved Observations Relevant to Air Quality/Front Range Air Pollution and Photochemistry Éxperiment) campaigns and equivalent data simulated by a regional chemical transport model are analyzed. Entrainment through ABL growth is most important in the early morning, fumigating the surface at a rate of 5 ppbv/h. The fumigation effect weakens near noon and changes sign to become a small dilution effect in the afternoon on the order of -1 ppbv/h. The chemical transport model WRF-Chem (Weather Research and Forecasting Model with chemistry) underestimates ozone at all altitudes during this study on the order of 10-15 ppbv. The entrainment through ABL growth is overestimated by the model in the order of 0.6-0.8 ppbv/h. This results from differences in boundary layer growth in the morning and ozone concentration jump across the ABL top in the afternoon. This implicates stronger modeled fumigation in the morning and weaker modeled dilution after 11:00 LT.

  5. Neurobehavioral effects of ambient air pollution on cognitive performance in US adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jiu-Chiuan; Schwartz, Joel

    2009-03-01

    In vivo animal experiments demonstrate neurotoxicity of exposures to particulate matter (PM) and ozone, but only one small epidemiological study had linked ambient air pollution with central nervous system (CNS) functions in children. To examine the neurobehavioral effects associated with long-term exposure to ambient PM and ozone in adults. We conducted a secondary analysis of the Neurobehavioral Evaluation System-2 (NES2) data (including a simple reaction time test [SRTT] measuring motor response speed to a visual stimulus; a symbol-digit substitution test [SDST] for coding ability; and a serial-digit learning test [SDLT] for attention and short-term memory) from 1764 adult participants (aged 37.5+/-10.9 years) of the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey in 1988-1991. Based on ambient PM(10) (PM with aerodynamic diameter SDLT, but not in SRTT. Each 10-ppb increase in annual ozone was associated with increased SDST and SDLT scores by 0.16 (95%CI: 0.01, 0.23) and 0.56 (95%CI: 0.07, 1.05), equivalent to 3.5 and 5.3 years of aging-related decline in cognitive performance. Our study provides the first epidemiological data supporting the adverse neurobehavioral effects of ambient air pollutants in adults.

  6. Ozone layer - climate change interactions. Influence on UV levels and UV related effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kelfkens G; Bregman A; de Gruijl FR; van der Leun JC; Piquet A; van Oijen T; Gieskes WWC; van Loveren H; Velders GJM; Martens P; Slaper H; NOP; LPI; LLO

    2002-01-01

    Ozone in the atmosphere serves as a partially protective filter against the most harmful part of the solar UV-spectrum. Decreases in ozone lead to increases in ambient UV with a wide variety of adverse effects on human health, aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems and food chains. Human health

  7. Redox Toxicology of Ambient Air Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambient air pollution is a leading global cause of morbidity and mortality. Millions of Americans live in areas in which levels of tropospheric ozone exceed air quality standards, while exposure to particulate matter (PM2.5) alone results in 3.2 million excess deaths annually wor...

  8. Photochemical processes and ozone production in Finnish conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laurila, T; Hakola, H [Finnish Meteorological Inst., Helsinki (Finland). Air Quality Dept.

    1997-12-31

    Photochemical ozone production is observed in March-September. Highest ozone concentrations and production efficiencies are observed in spring in the northern parts and in summer in the southern parts of the country. VOC concentrations are relatively low compared to continental areas in general. During the growing season a substantial part of the total reactive mass of VOCs is of biogenic origin. Large forest areas absorb ozone substantially, decreasing the ambient ozone concentrations in central and northern parts of Finland where long-range transport of ozone is relatively important compared to local production. The aim of the work conducted at Finnish Meteorological Institute has been to characterise concentrations of photochemically active species in the boundary layer and their photochemical formation and deposition including the effects on vegetation. Also interactions between the boundary layer and free troposphere of ozone have been studied. In the future, fluxes of both biogenic species and air pollutants will be measured and the models will be further developed so that the photochemical and micrometeorological processes could be better understood

  9. Photochemical processes and ozone production in Finnish conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laurila, T.; Hakola, H. [Finnish Meteorological Inst., Helsinki (Finland). Air Quality Dept.

    1996-12-31

    Photochemical ozone production is observed in March-September. Highest ozone concentrations and production efficiencies are observed in spring in the northern parts and in summer in the southern parts of the country. VOC concentrations are relatively low compared to continental areas in general. During the growing season a substantial part of the total reactive mass of VOCs is of biogenic origin. Large forest areas absorb ozone substantially, decreasing the ambient ozone concentrations in central and northern parts of Finland where long-range transport of ozone is relatively important compared to local production. The aim of the work conducted at Finnish Meteorological Institute has been to characterise concentrations of photochemically active species in the boundary layer and their photochemical formation and deposition including the effects on vegetation. Also interactions between the boundary layer and free troposphere of ozone have been studied. In the future, fluxes of both biogenic species and air pollutants will be measured and the models will be further developed so that the photochemical and micrometeorological processes could be better understood

  10. Foliar nutrient status of Pinus ponderosa exposed to ozone and acid rain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, P.D.; Houpis, J.L.J.

    1991-01-01

    A direct effect of foliar exposure to acid rain may be increased leaching of nutrient elements. Ozone exposure, through degradation of the cuticle and cellular membranes, may also result in increased nutrient leaching. To test these hypotheses, the foliar concentrations of 13 nutrient elements were monitored for mature branches of three clones of Pinus ponderosa exposed to ozone and/or acid rain. The three clones represented three distinct levels of phenotypic vigor. Branches were exposed to charcoal filtered, ambient, or 2 x ambient concentrations of ozone and received no acid rain (NAP), pH 5.1 rain (5.1), or pH 3.0 (3.0) rain. Following 10 months of continuous ozone exposure and 3 months of weekly rain applications, the concentrations of P and Mg differed significantly among rain treatments with a ranking of: 5.1 < NAP < 3.0. The S concentration increased with rain application regardless of pH. For the clones of moderate and low vigor, the concentration of N decreased with increasing rain acidity. There was no evidence of significant ozone or ozone x acid rain response. Among the three families, high phenotypic vigor was associated with significantly greater concentrations of N, P, K, Mg, B and An. These results indicate generally negligible leaching as a result of exposure to acid rain and/or ozone for one growing season. Increases in foliar concentrations of S, Mg and P are possibly the result of evaporative surface deposition from the rain solution

  11. Ozone killing action against bacterial and fungal species; microbiological testing of a domestic ozone generator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyas, A; Boughton, B J; Das, B C

    1983-10-01

    The action of ozone generated from a small domestic device was examined with a view to using it in clinical isolation units accommodating immunosuppressed patients. Over a six-hour period in an average size room the device did not generate sufficient ozone to suppress bacterial and fungal growth. A useful bactericidal action, against a variety of human pathogens was achieved with ozone concentrations between 0.3 to 0.9 ppm. Bactericidal ozone concentrations are close to the limit permitted for human exposure however and further experiments are indicated.

  12. Ozone air pollution and foliar injury development on native plants of Switzerland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novak, Kristopher; Skelly, John M.; Schaub, Marcus; Kraeuchi, Norbert; Hug, Christian; Landolt, Werner; Bleuler, Peter

    2003-01-01

    Visible ozone-induced foliar injury on native forest species of Switzerland was identified and confirmed under ambient OTC-conditions and related to the current European AOT40 standard. - The objectives of this study were to examine the foliar sensitivity to ozone exposure of 12 tree, shrub, and herbaceous species native to southern Switzerland and determine the seasonal cumulative ozone exposures required to induce visible foliar injury. The study was conducted from the beginning of May through the end of August during 2000 and 2001 using an open-top chamber research facility located within the Lattecaldo Cantonal Forest Nursery in Canton Ticino, southern Switzerland (600 m asl). Plants were examined daily and dates of initial foliar injury were recorded in order to determine the cumulative AOT40 ppb h ozone exposure required to cause visible foliar injury. Plant responses to ozone varied significantly among species; 11 species exhibited visible symptoms typical of exposures to ambient ozone. The symptomatic species (from most to least sensitive) were Populus nigra, Viburnum lantana, Salix alba, Crataegus monogyna, Viburnum opulus, Tilia platyphyllos, Cornus alba, Prunus avium, Fraxinus excelsior, Ribes alpinum, and Tilia cordata; Clematis spp. did not show foliar symptoms. Of the 11 symptomatic species, five showed initial injury below the critical level AOT40 10 ppmh O 3 in the 2001 season

  13. Comparative ozone responses of cutleaf coneflowers (Rudbeckia laciniata var. digitata, var. ampla) from Rocky Mountain and Great Smoky Mountains National Parks, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neufeld, Howard S; Johnson, Jennifer; Kohut, Robert

    2018-01-01

    Cutleaf coneflower (Rudbeckia laciniata L. var. digitata) is native to Great Smoky Mountains National Park (GRSM) and an ozone bioindicator species. Variety ampla, whose ozone sensitivity is less well known, is native to Rocky Mountain National Park (ROMO). In the early 2000s, researchers found putative ozone symptoms on var. ampla and rhizomes were sent to Appalachian State University to verify that the symptoms were the result of ozone exposure. In 2011, potted plants were exposed to ambient ozone from May to August. These same plants were grown in open-top chambers (OTCs) in 2012 and 2013, and exposed to charcoal-filtered (CF), non-filtered (NF), elevated ozone (EO), NF+50ppb in 2012 for 47days and NF+30/NF+50ppb ozone in 2013 for 36 and 36days, respectively. Ozone symptoms similar to those found in ROMO (blue-black adaxial stippling) were reproduced both in ambient air and in the OTCs. Both varieties exhibited foliar injury in the OTCs in an exposure-dependent manner, verifying that symptoms resulted from ozone exposure. In two of the three study years, var. digitata appeared more sensitive than var. ampla. Exposure to EO caused reductions in ambient photosynthetic rate (A) and stomatal conductance (g s ) for both varieties. Light response curves indicated that ozone reduced A, g s , and the apparent quantum yield while it increased the light compensation point. In CF air, var. ampla had higher light saturated A (18.2±1.04 vs 11.6±0.37μmolm -2 s -1 ), higher light saturation (1833±166.7 vs 1108±141.7μmolm -2 s -1 ), and lower Ci/Ca ratio (0.67±0.01 vs 0.77±0.01) than var. digitata. Coneflowers in both Parks are adversely affected by exposure to ambient ozone and if ozone concentrations increase in the Rocky Mountains, greater amounts of injury on var. ampla can be expected. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Effect of ozone exposure on maximal airway narrowing in non-asthmatic and asthmatic subjects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hiltermann, T J; Stolk, J; Hiemstra, P S; Fokkens, P H; Rombout, P J; Sont, J K; Sterk, P J; Dijkman, J H

    1995-01-01

    1. Ozone is a major constituent of air pollution in the summer. Epidemiological studies have demonstrated that there is an increase in hospital admissions for respiratory diseases 1 day after peak levels of ambient ozone. This may be due to an increase in the responsiveness of the airways to

  15. Short-term UV-B radiation and ozone exposure effects on aromatic secondary metabolite accumulation and shoot growth of flavonoid-deficient Arabidopsis mutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ormrod, D.P.; Landry, L.G.; Conklin, P.L.

    1995-01-01

    The presence of UV-absorptive substances in the epidermal cells of leaves is thought to protect mesophyll tissues from the harmful effects of UV-B radiation. We examined the influence of short-term UV-B exposures on UV-absorptive (330 nm) sinapates and flavonols, and on shoot growth of the Arabidopsis wild type ecotype Landsberg erecta and two mutants. 114 deficient in chalcone synthase, and 115, deficient in chalcone/flavonone isomerase. Sequential ozone exposures were used to determine the effects of oxidative stress The levels of sinapates and flavonols on a leaf fresh weight basis increased substantially in the wild type and sinapates increased in the 114 mutant in vegetative vegetative/reproductive transitional and reproductive stage plants in response to short-term (48h) UV-B radiation. When UV-B was discontinued the levels generally decreased lo pre-exposure levels after 48 h in vegetative/reproductive but not in reproductive plants. Exposure to ozone before or alter UV-B treatment did not consistently affect the levels of these UV-absorptive compounds. Dry matter accumulation was less affected by UV-B at the vegetative and reproductive stages than at the vegetative/reproductive stage. At the vegetative/reproductive stage, shoot growth of all 3 genotypes was retarded by UV-B. Growth was not retarded by short-term ozone exposure alone but when exposure to ozone followed UV-B exposure, growth was reduced in all genotypes. Leaf cupping appeared on 115 plants exposed to UV-B

  16. Transcriptional signatures in leaves of adult European beech trees (Fagus sylvatica L.) in an experimentally enhanced free air ozone setting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olbrich, Maren, E-mail: maren.olbrich@helmholtz-muenchen.d [Institute of Biochemical Plant Pathology, Helmholtz Zentrum Muenchen - German Research Center for Environmental Health, 85764 Neuherberg (Germany); Gerstner, Elke; Bahnweg, Guenther [Institute of Biochemical Plant Pathology, Helmholtz Zentrum Muenchen - German Research Center for Environmental Health, 85764 Neuherberg (Germany); Haeberle, Karl-Heinz; Matyssek, Rainer [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Ecophysiology of Plants, Am Hochanger 13, 85354 Freising (Germany); Welzl, Gerhard [Institute of Developmental Genetics, Helmholtz Zentrum Muenchen - German Research Center for Environmental Health, 85764 Neuherberg (Germany); Heller, Werner; Ernst, Dieter [Institute of Biochemical Plant Pathology, Helmholtz Zentrum Muenchen - German Research Center for Environmental Health, 85764 Neuherberg (Germany)

    2010-04-15

    Tropospheric ozone causes severe oxidative stress in plants. To investigate the transcriptional responsiveness of adult trees to ozone, fully-expanded sun and shade leaves of mature beech trees were harvested at four time points over the entire vegetation period in 2005 and 2006. Microarray analyses were conducted on leaves from trees grown in the field under ambient and twice-ambient ozone concentrations at Kranzberger Forst (Bavaria). Beech trees changed their transcript levels in response to ozone. In the years 2005 and 2006 different transcription patterns were observed; this may have been a result of different weather conditions and ozone uptake. Furthermore, we obtained differences in mRNA expression patterns between shade and sun leaves. In the ozone-treated sun leaves of 2005, slightly up- and down-regulated transcript levels were detected, particularly in the spring and autumn, whereas shade leaves clearly exhibited reduced mRNA levels, particularly at the end of the vegetation period. In 2006, this pattern could not be confirmed, and in the autumn, four other transcripts were slightly up-regulated in ozone-treated shade leaves. In addition, two other transcripts were found to be influenced in sun leaves in the spring/summer. While we detected changes in the levels of only a few transcripts, the observed effects were not identical in both years. In conclusion, elevated ozone exhibited very small influence on the transcription levels of genes of mature beech trees. - At the transcriptional level, leaves of mature beech trees barely react to double ambient ozone concentrations; differences are detected primarily between sun/shade leaves and between different growing seasons.

  17. Transcriptional signatures in leaves of adult European beech trees (Fagus sylvatica L.) in an experimentally enhanced free air ozone setting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olbrich, Maren; Gerstner, Elke; Bahnweg, Guenther; Haeberle, Karl-Heinz; Matyssek, Rainer; Welzl, Gerhard; Heller, Werner; Ernst, Dieter

    2010-01-01

    Tropospheric ozone causes severe oxidative stress in plants. To investigate the transcriptional responsiveness of adult trees to ozone, fully-expanded sun and shade leaves of mature beech trees were harvested at four time points over the entire vegetation period in 2005 and 2006. Microarray analyses were conducted on leaves from trees grown in the field under ambient and twice-ambient ozone concentrations at Kranzberger Forst (Bavaria). Beech trees changed their transcript levels in response to ozone. In the years 2005 and 2006 different transcription patterns were observed; this may have been a result of different weather conditions and ozone uptake. Furthermore, we obtained differences in mRNA expression patterns between shade and sun leaves. In the ozone-treated sun leaves of 2005, slightly up- and down-regulated transcript levels were detected, particularly in the spring and autumn, whereas shade leaves clearly exhibited reduced mRNA levels, particularly at the end of the vegetation period. In 2006, this pattern could not be confirmed, and in the autumn, four other transcripts were slightly up-regulated in ozone-treated shade leaves. In addition, two other transcripts were found to be influenced in sun leaves in the spring/summer. While we detected changes in the levels of only a few transcripts, the observed effects were not identical in both years. In conclusion, elevated ozone exhibited very small influence on the transcription levels of genes of mature beech trees. - At the transcriptional level, leaves of mature beech trees barely react to double ambient ozone concentrations; differences are detected primarily between sun/shade leaves and between different growing seasons.

  18. Ozone Induced Premature Mortality and Crop Yield Loss in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Y.; Jiang, F.; Wang, H.

    2017-12-01

    Exposure to ambient ozone is a major risk factor for health impacts such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and cause damage to plant and agricultural crops. But these impacts were usually evaluated separately in earlier studies. We apply Community Multi-scale Air Quality model to simulate the ambient O3 concentration at a resolution of 36 km×36 km across China. Then, we follow Global Burden of Diseases approach and AOT40 (i.e., above a threshold of 40 ppb) metric to estimate the premature mortalities and yield losses of major grain crops (i.e., winter wheat, rice and corn) across China due to surface ozone exposure, respectively. Our results show that ozone exposure leads to nearly 67,700 premature mortalities and 145 billion USD losses in 2014. The ozone induced yield losses of all crop production totaled 78 (49.9-112.6)million metric tons, worth 5.3 (3.4-7.6)billion USD, in China. The relative yield losses ranged from 8.5-14% for winter wheat, 3.9-15% for rice, and 2.2-5.5% for maize. We can see that the top four health affected provinces (Sichuan, Henan, Shandong, Jiangsu) are also ranking on the winter wheat and rice crop yield loss. Our results provide further evidence that surface ozone pollution is becoming urgent air pollution in China, and have important policy implications for China to alleviate the impacts of air pollution.

  19. Ozone visible symptoms and reduced root biomass in the subalpine species Pinus uncinata after two years of free-air ozone fumigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Díaz-de-Quijano, Maria; Schaub, Marcus; Bassin, Seraina; Volk, Matthias; Peñuelas, Josep

    2012-01-01

    Concentrations of ozone often exceed the thresholds of forest protection in the Pyrenees, but the effect of ozone on Pinus uncinata, the dominant species in subalpine forests in this mountainous range, has not yet been studied. We conducted an experiment of free-air ozone fumigation with saplings of P. uncinata fumigated with ambient O 3 (AOT40 May–Oct: 9.2 ppm h), 1.5 × O 3amb (AOT40 May–Oct: 19.2 ppm h), and 1.8 × O 3amb (AOT40 May–Oct: 32.5 ppm h) during two growing seasons. We measured chlorophyll content and fluorescence, visible injury, gas exchange, and above- and below-ground biomass. Increased exposures to ozone led to a higher occurrence and intensity of visible injury from O 3 and a 24–29% reduction of root biomass, which may render trees more susceptible to other stresses such as drought. P. uncinata is thus a species sensitive to O 3 , concentrations of which in the Pyrenees are already likely affecting this species. - Highlights: ► We assessed sensitivity to O 3 in Pinus uncinata using a free-air O 3 fumigation system. ► Occurrence and intensity of visible injury from O 3 correlated with exposure to O 3 . ► Increased O 3 reduced root biomass 24–29%. ► O 3 weakens P. uncinata, making it more susceptible to other stresses. ► Ambient [O 3 ] in the Pyrenees is thus likely to already be affecting P. uncinata stands. - Ozone concentrations similar to those in the Pyrenees affect Pinus uncinata by reducing root biomass and possibly increasing susceptibility to other stresses.

  20. Ambient Ozone Concentrations and the Risk of Perforated and Nonperforated Appendicitis: A Multicity Case-Crossover Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanyingoh, Divine; Dixon, Elijah; Johnson, Markey; Wheeler, Amanda J.; Myers, Robert P.; Bertazzon, Stefania; Saini, Vineet; Madsen, Karen; Ghosh, Subrata; Villeneuve, Paul J.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Environmental determinants of appendicitis are poorly understood. Past work suggests that air pollution may increase the risk of appendicitis. Objectives: We investigated whether ambient ground-level ozone (O3) concentrations were associated with appendicitis and whether these associations varied between perforated and nonperforated appendicitis. Methods: We based this time-stratified case-crossover study on 35,811 patients hospitalized with appendicitis from 2004 to 2008 in 12 Canadian cities. Data from a national network of fixed-site monitors were used to calculate daily maximum O3 concentrations for each city. Conditional logistic regression was used to estimate city-specific odds ratios (ORs) relative to an interquartile range (IQR) increase in O3 adjusted for temperature and relative humidity. A random-effects meta-analysis was used to derive a pooled risk estimate. Stratified analyses were used to estimate associations separately for perforated and nonperforated appendicitis. Results: Overall, a 16-ppb increase in the 7-day cumulative average daily maximum O3 concentration was associated with all appendicitis cases across the 12 cities (pooled OR = 1.07; 95% CI: 1.02, 1.13). The association was stronger among patients presenting with perforated appendicitis for the 7-day average (pooled OR = 1.22; 95% CI: 1.09, 1.36) when compared with the corresponding estimate for nonperforated appendicitis [7-day average (pooled OR = 1.02, 95% CI: 0.95, 1.09)]. Heterogeneity was not statistically significant across cities for either perforated or nonperforated appendicitis (p > 0.20). Conclusions: Higher levels of ambient O3 exposure may increase the risk of perforated appendicitis. PMID:23842601

  1. Development of a portable instrument to measure ozone production rates in the troposphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sklaveniti, Sofia; Locoge, Nadine; Stevens, Philip; Kumar, Vinod; Sinha, Vinayak; Dusanter, Sébastien

    2015-04-01

    Ground-level ozone is a key species related to air pollution, causing respiratory problems, damaging crops and forests, and affecting the climate. Our current understanding of the tropospheric ozone-forming chemistry indicates that net ozone production occurs via reactions of peroxy radicals (HO2 + RO2) with NO producing NO2, whose photolysis leads to O3 formation. Production rates of tropospheric ozone, P(O3), depend on concentrations of oxides of nitrogen (NOx = NO + NO2) and Volatile Organic Compounds (V OCs), but also on production rates of ROx radicals (OH + HO2 + RO2). The formation of ozone follows a complex nonlinear chemistry that makes strategies for reducing ozone difficult to implement. In this context, atmospheric chemistry models are used to develop emission regulations, but there are still uncertainties associated with the chemical mechanisms used in these models. Testing the ozone formation chemistry in atmospheric models is needed, in order to ensure the development of effective strategies for ozone reduction. We will present the development of an instrument for direct measurements of ozone production rates (OPR) in ambient air. The OPR instrument is made of three components: (i) two quartz flow tubes to sample ambient air, one exposed to solar radiation and one covered by a UV filter, (ii) a NO2-to-O3 conversion unit, and (iii) an ozone analyzer. The total amount of ozone exiting each flow tube is conserved in the form of Ox = NO2 + O3. Ozone production rates P(O3) are derived from the difference in Ox concentration between the two flow tubes, divided by the exposure time of air inside the flow tubes. We will present studies that were carried out in the laboratory to characterize each part of the instrument and we will discuss the performances of the OPR instrument based on experiments carried out using synthetic air mixtures of known composition (NOx and V OCs). Chemical modeling will also be presented to assess the reliability of ozone

  2. Current ambient ozone in China has threatened the health of farmland ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Z.

    2017-12-01

    Ground-level Ozone (O3) has been one of global environmental issues as a result of rising concentration at most parts of the earth causing significant biological and economic damage to both agricultural and native species. Although the rising trends in O3 concentration have leveled off or decreased slightly in North America and Europe, the trends are increasing in developing countries such as India and China. Here, the impacts of ozone on crops in China are reviewed from studies during the last two decades. The field experimental methods include open-top chambers (OTC), free-air concentration enrichments (FACE) and chemical protectant EDU application. The experimental crops are winter wheat, rice, soybean, and oilrape. At a regional scale, yield loss in Yangtze River Delta by O3 was estimated to be 17%, 3% and 6% for wheat, rice and oil rape, respectively, and the corresponding economic losses were estimated to be 86 M US , 116 M US and 39 M US $ at the rate of 2007 (Yao et al., 2008). In four years' FACE studies, a mean 25% enhancement above the ambient O3 concentration significantly reduced the grain yield by, on average, 20% and 12% for winter wheat and rice, respectively, but there were significant differences in O3 sensitivity among the cultivars studied (Shi et al., 2009; Zhu et al., 2011). Both flux and concentration -based dose-response relationships indicated that FACE system induced larger yield loss of crops than OTCs, suggesting that O3 effects on crop yield were underestimated. Therefore, it can be inferred that food security will be seriously threatened by rising O3 concentration due to the intensive rate of urbanization in China. However, the impacts of O3 on local food crops need to be investigated more thoroughly in different parts of China, and the combined effects of elevated O3 and other factors like warming and CO2 should be considered. ReferencesFeng, Z. Z., Tang, H.Y., Uddling, J, et al. (2012). Environ Pollut, 164, 16-23. Shi, G.Y., Yang, L

  3. Temporal and Spatial Variation in, and Population Exposure to, Summertime Ground-Level Ozone in Beijing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Hui; Zheng, Youfei; Li, Ting; Wei, Li; Guan, Qing

    2018-03-29

    Ground-level ozone pollution in Beijing has been causing concern among the public due to the risks posed to human health. This study analyzed the temporal and spatial distribution of, and investigated population exposure to, ground-level ozone. We analyzed hourly ground-level ozone data from 35 ambient air quality monitoring sites, including urban, suburban, background, and traffic monitoring sites, during the summer in Beijing from 2014 to 2017. The results showed that the four-year mean ozone concentrations for urban, suburban, background, and traffic monitoring sites were 95.1, 99.8, 95.9, and 74.2 μg/m³, respectively. A total of 44, 43, 45, and 43 days exceeded the Chinese National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) threshold for ground-level ozone in 2014, 2015, 2016, and 2017, respectively. The mean ozone concentration was higher in suburban sites than in urban sites, and the traffic monitoring sites had the lowest concentration. The diurnal variation in ground-level ozone concentration at the four types of monitoring sites displayed a single-peak curve. The peak and valley values occurred at 3:00-4:00 p.m. and 7:00 a.m., respectively. Spatially, ground-level ozone concentrations decreased in gradient from the north to the south. Population exposure levels were calculated based on ground-level ozone concentrations and population data. Approximately 50.38%, 44.85%, and 48.49% of the total population of Beijing were exposed to ground-level ozone concentrations exceeding the Chinese NAAQS threshold in 2014, 2015, and 2016, respectively.

  4. Temporal and Spatial Variation in, and Population Exposure to, Summertime Ground-Level Ozone in Beijing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Youfei; Li, Ting; Wei, Li; Guan, Qing

    2018-01-01

    Ground-level ozone pollution in Beijing has been causing concern among the public due to the risks posed to human health. This study analyzed the temporal and spatial distribution of, and investigated population exposure to, ground-level ozone. We analyzed hourly ground-level ozone data from 35 ambient air quality monitoring sites, including urban, suburban, background, and traffic monitoring sites, during the summer in Beijing from 2014 to 2017. The results showed that the four-year mean ozone concentrations for urban, suburban, background, and traffic monitoring sites were 95.1, 99.8, 95.9, and 74.2 μg/m3, respectively. A total of 44, 43, 45, and 43 days exceeded the Chinese National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) threshold for ground-level ozone in 2014, 2015, 2016, and 2017, respectively. The mean ozone concentration was higher in suburban sites than in urban sites, and the traffic monitoring sites had the lowest concentration. The diurnal variation in ground-level ozone concentration at the four types of monitoring sites displayed a single-peak curve. The peak and valley values occurred at 3:00–4:00 p.m. and 7:00 a.m., respectively. Spatially, ground-level ozone concentrations decreased in gradient from the north to the south. Population exposure levels were calculated based on ground-level ozone concentrations and population data. Approximately 50.38%, 44.85%, and 48.49% of the total population of Beijing were exposed to ground-level ozone concentrations exceeding the Chinese NAAQS threshold in 2014, 2015, and 2016, respectively. PMID:29596366

  5. Temporal and Spatial Variation in, and Population Exposure to, Summertime Ground-Level Ozone in Beijing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Zhao

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Ground-level ozone pollution in Beijing has been causing concern among the public due to the risks posed to human health. This study analyzed the temporal and spatial distribution of, and investigated population exposure to, ground-level ozone. We analyzed hourly ground-level ozone data from 35 ambient air quality monitoring sites, including urban, suburban, background, and traffic monitoring sites, during the summer in Beijing from 2014 to 2017. The results showed that the four-year mean ozone concentrations for urban, suburban, background, and traffic monitoring sites were 95.1, 99.8, 95.9, and 74.2 μg/m3, respectively. A total of 44, 43, 45, and 43 days exceeded the Chinese National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS threshold for ground-level ozone in 2014, 2015, 2016, and 2017, respectively. The mean ozone concentration was higher in suburban sites than in urban sites, and the traffic monitoring sites had the lowest concentration. The diurnal variation in ground-level ozone concentration at the four types of monitoring sites displayed a single-peak curve. The peak and valley values occurred at 3:00–4:00 p.m. and 7:00 a.m., respectively. Spatially, ground-level ozone concentrations decreased in gradient from the north to the south. Population exposure levels were calculated based on ground-level ozone concentrations and population data. Approximately 50.38%, 44.85%, and 48.49% of the total population of Beijing were exposed to ground-level ozone concentrations exceeding the Chinese NAAQS threshold in 2014, 2015, and 2016, respectively.

  6. Effects of Ambient Temperature on Growth Performance, Blood Metabolites, and Immune Cell Populations in Korean Cattle Steers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, H J; Lee, I K; Piao, M Y; Gu, M J; Yun, C H; Kim, H J; Kim, K H; Baik, M

    2016-03-01

    Exposure to cold may affect growth performance in accordance with the metabolic and immunological activities of animals. We evaluated whether ambient temperature affects growth performance, blood metabolites, and immune cell populations in Korean cattle. Eighteen Korean cattle steers with a mean age of 10 months and a mean weight of 277 kg were used. All steers were fed a growing stage-concentrate diet at a rate of 1.5% of body weight and Timothy hay ad libitum for 8 weeks. Experimental period 1 (P1) was for four weeks from March 7 to April 3 and period 2 (P2) was four weeks from April 4 to May 1. Mean (8.7°C) and minimum (1.0°C) indoor ambient temperatures during P1 were lower (pambient temperature affects blood T cell populations. In conclusion, colder ambient temperature decreased growth and feed efficiency in Korean cattle steers. The higher circulating NEFA concentrations observed in March compared to April suggest that lipolysis may occur at colder ambient temperatures to generate heat and maintain body temperature, resulting in lower feed efficiency in March.

  7. Long-term Measurements of Summer-time Ozone at the Walnut Grove Tower - Understanding Trends in the Boundary Layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmud, A.; Di, P.; Mims, D.; Avise, J.; DaMassa, J.; Kaduwela, A. P.

    2015-12-01

    The California Air Resources Board (CARB) has been monitoring boundary layer ozone at the Walnut Grove Tower (WGT) since 1996 for investigating regional transport and vertical profile. Walnut Grove is located between Sacramento and Stockton, CA in the Sacramento - San Joaquin Delta. Sampling inlets are positioned at 30-ft, 400-ft, 800-ft, 1200-ft and 1600-ft levels of the 2000-ft tower, which is one of the tallest monitoring towers in the Western US. Ozone, ambient temperature, wind speed, and wind direction are simultaneously measured at each level, and reported as hourly averages. The current study included analyses of available ozone and corresponding meteorological data for the months of June - September from 1996 - 2014 with objectives to: 1) explore trends and inter-annual variability of ozone, 2) examine any correlations between ozone and meteorological parameters, 3) understand interactions of ozone measured at various levels, and 4) assess how well a regulatory state-of-the-science air quality model such as the Community Multi-scale Air Quality Model (CMAQ) captures observation. Daily 1-hr maximum ozone has been consistently decreasing during the 1996 - 2014 period at a rate of ~1 ppb per year. This indicates that CARB's measures to control ambient ozone have been effective over the past years. Evolution of the vertical profile throughout the day shows that ozone is fairly homogeneously mixed between 1 - 5 pm, when mixing height typically reaches the maximum. Ozone at 30-ft shows the greatest variability because of its proximity to the ground and emissions sources - rises faster during morning hours (7 - 10 am) and declines more rapidly during evening hours (7 - 10 pm) compared to other levels. Air masses reaching the tower are predominantly southwesterly (247 - 257 deg.) at the bottom, and southwesterly to slightly northwesterly (254 - 302 deg.) at top levels. Daily 1-hr maximum ozone was negatively correlated with wind speed (i.e. ozone was high under

  8. Exploration of the formation mechanism and source attribution of ambient ozone in Chongqing with an observation-based model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SU Rong; ZHAI ChongZhi; ZHANG YuanHang; LU KeDing; YU JiaYan; TAN ZhaoFeng; JIANG MeiQing; LI Jing; XIE ShaoDong; WU YuSheng; ZENG LiMin

    2018-01-01

    An intensive field campaign was conducted in Chongqing during the summer of 2015 to explore the formation mechanisms of ozone pollution.The sources of ozone,the local production rates,and the controlling factors,as well as key species of volatile organic compounds (VOCs),were quantified by integrating a local ozone budget analysis,calculations of the relative incremental reactivity,and an empirical kinetic model approach.It was found that the potential for rapid local ozone formation exists in Chongqing.During ozone pollution episodes,the ozone production rates were found to be high at the upwind station Nan Quan,the urban station Chao Zhan,and the downwind station Jin-Yun Shan.The average local ozone production rate was 30× 10-9 V/V h1 and the daily integration of the produced ozone was greater than 180× 10-9 V/V.High ozone concentrations were associated with urban and downwind air masses.At most sites,the local ozone production was VOC-limited and the key species were aromatics and alkene,which originated mainly from vehicles and solvent usage.In addition,the air masses at the northwestern rural sites were NOx-limited and the local ozone production rates were significantly higher during the pollution episodes due to the increased NOx concentrations.In summary,the ozone abatement strategies of Chongqing should be focused on the mitigation of VOCs.Nevertheless,a reduction in NOx is also beneficial for reducing the regional ozone peak values in Chongqing and the surrounding areas.

  9. Inter- and intra-specific responses to elevated ozone and chamber climate in northern birches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manninen, S.; Huttunen, S.; Vanhatalo, M.; Pakonen, T.; Haemaelaeinen, A.

    2009-01-01

    We studied the responses of micropropagated, northern provenances of downy, mountain and silver birches to elevated ozone (O 3 ) and changing climate using open-top chambers (OTCs). Contrary to our hypothesis, northern birches were sensitive to O 3 , i.e. O 3 levels of 31-36 ppb reduced the leaf and root biomasses by -10%, whereas wood biomass was affected to a lesser extent. The warmer and drier OTC climate enhanced growth in general, though there were differences among the species and clones, e.g. in bud burst and biomass production. Inter- and intra-specific responses to O 3 and changing climate relate to traits such as allocation patterns between the above- and belowground parts (i.e. root/shoot ratio), which further relate to nutrient and water economy. Our experiments may have mimicked future conditions quite well, but only long-term field studies can yield the information needed to forecast responses at both tree and ecosystem levels. - Northern birches are responsive to ambient ozone levels.

  10. Acute effects of ozone on mortality from the "Air pollution and health : A European approach" project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gryparis, A; Forsberg, B; Katsouyanni, K; Analitis, A; Touloumi, G; Schwartz, J; Samoli, E; Medina, S; Anderson, HR; Niciu, EM; Wichmann, HE; Kriz, B; Kosnik, M; Skorkovsky, J; Vonk, JM; Dortbudak, Z

    2004-01-01

    In the Air Pollution and Health: A European Approach (APHEA2) project, the effects of ambient ozone concentrations on mortality were investigated. Data were collected on daily ozone concentrations, the daily number of deaths, confounders, and potential effect modifiers from 23 cities/areas for at

  11. Ozone effects on growth of radish plants as influenced by nitrogen and phosphorus nutrition and by temperature. [Raphanus sativus L

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ormrod, D.P.; Adedipe, N.O.; Hofstra, G.

    1973-10-01

    Raphanus sativus L. (radish) plants were grown in sand culture at two temperatures and fed with nutrient solutions containing relatively low or high levels of either N or P. At the 4-leaf stage, the plants were exposed to ozone at a concentration of 25 pphm for 4 h. Ozone treatments resulted in decreased dry weight of low- and high-N plants at both temperatures and of low and high P plants only at the lower temperature. The study showed that air pollutant growth reduction is not necessarily accentuated by luxuriant growth resulting from high nutritional status. Responses to the nutrition of specific mineral nutrients depend on the modifying affect of temperature.

  12. Ozone exposure induces the activation of leaf senescence-related processes and morphological and growth changes in seedlings of Mediterranean tree species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ribas, Angela; Pen-tilde uelas, Josep; Elvira, Susana; Gimeno, Benjamin S.

    2005-01-01

    Four Mediterranean tree taxa, Quercus ilex subsp. ilex, Quercus ilex subsp. ballota, Olea europaea cv. vulgaris and Ceratonia siliqua, were exposed to different ozone (O 3 ) concentrations in open top chambers (OTCs) during 2 years. Three treatments were applied: charcoal-filtered air (CF), non-filtered air (NF) and non-filtered air plus 40 ppb v of O 3 (NF+). The photochemical maximal efficiency, Fv/Fm, decreased in NF+ plants during the second year of exposure, especially during the most stressful Mediterranean seasons (winter and summer). An increase of δ 13 C was found in three of the four studied species during the first year of exposure. This finding was only maintained in C. siliqua during the second year. Decreases in the chlorophyll content were detected during the first year of fumigations in all the species studied, but not during the second year. The NF+ treatment induced changes in foliar anatomical characteristics, especially in leaf mass per area (LMA) and spongy parenchyma thickness, which increased in some species. A reduction in N content and an increase in δ 15 N were found in all species during the second year when exposed in the NF+ OTCs, suggesting a change in their retranslocation pattern linked to an acceleration of leaf senescence, as also indicated by the above mentioned biochemical and anatomical foliar changes. The two Q. ilex subspecies were the most sensitive species since the changes in N concentration, δ 15 N, chlorophyll, leaf area, LMA and biomass occurred at ambient O 3 concentrations. However, C. siliqua was the most responsive species (29% biomass reduction) when exposed to the NF+ treatment, followed by the two Q. ilex subspecies (14-20%) and O. europaea (no significant reduction). Ozone resistance of the latter species was linked to some plant traits such as chlorophyll concentrations, or spongy parenchyma thickness. - Ozone induces species-specific leaf senescence-related processes and morphological and growth changes in

  13. Ozone exposure induces the activation of leaf senescence-related processes and morphological and growth changes in seedlings of Mediterranean tree species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ribas, Angela [CSIC-CEAB-CREAF Ecophysiology Unit, CREAF-Center for Ecological Research and Forestry Applications, Edifici C, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, 08193 Bellaterra, Barcelona (Spain)]. E-mail: a.ribas@creaf.uab.es; Pen-tilde uelas, Josep [CSIC-CEAB-CREAF Ecophysiology Unit, CREAF-Center for Ecological Research and Forestry Applications, Edifici C, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, 08193 Bellaterra, Barcelona (Spain)]. E-mail: josep.penuelas@uab.es; Elvira, Susana [CIEMAT, Avd. Complutense 22, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Gimeno, Benjamin S. [CIEMAT, Avd. Complutense 22, 28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2005-03-01

    Four Mediterranean tree taxa, Quercus ilex subsp. ilex, Quercus ilex subsp. ballota, Olea europaea cv. vulgaris and Ceratonia siliqua, were exposed to different ozone (O{sub 3}) concentrations in open top chambers (OTCs) during 2 years. Three treatments were applied: charcoal-filtered air (CF), non-filtered air (NF) and non-filtered air plus 40 ppb{sub v} of O{sub 3} (NF+). The photochemical maximal efficiency, Fv/Fm, decreased in NF+ plants during the second year of exposure, especially during the most stressful Mediterranean seasons (winter and summer). An increase of {delta}{sup 13}C was found in three of the four studied species during the first year of exposure. This finding was only maintained in C. siliqua during the second year. Decreases in the chlorophyll content were detected during the first year of fumigations in all the species studied, but not during the second year. The NF+ treatment induced changes in foliar anatomical characteristics, especially in leaf mass per area (LMA) and spongy parenchyma thickness, which increased in some species. A reduction in N content and an increase in {delta}{sup 15}N were found in all species during the second year when exposed in the NF+ OTCs, suggesting a change in their retranslocation pattern linked to an acceleration of leaf senescence, as also indicated by the above mentioned biochemical and anatomical foliar changes. The two Q. ilex subspecies were the most sensitive species since the changes in N concentration, {delta}{sup 15}N, chlorophyll, leaf area, LMA and biomass occurred at ambient O{sub 3} concentrations. However, C. siliqua was the most responsive species (29% biomass reduction) when exposed to the NF+ treatment, followed by the two Q. ilex subspecies (14-20%) and O. europaea (no significant reduction). Ozone resistance of the latter species was linked to some plant traits such as chlorophyll concentrations, or spongy parenchyma thickness. - Ozone induces species-specific leaf senescence

  14. TOWARDS RELIABLE AND COST-EFFECTIVE OZONE EXPOSURE ASSESSMENT: PARAMETER EVALUATION AND MODEL VALIDATION USING THE HARVARD SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA CHRONIC OZONE EXPOSURE STUDY DATA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Accurate assessment of chronic human exposure to atmospheric criteria pollutants, such as ozone, is critical for understanding human health risks associated with living in environments with elevated ambient pollutant concentrations. In this study, we analyzed a data set from a...

  15. Yield and nutritive quality of sericea lespedeza (Lespedeza cuneata) and little bluestem (Schizachyrium scoparium) exposed to ground-level ozone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Powell, M.C.; Muntifering, R.B.; Lin, J.C.; Chappelka, A.H.

    2003-01-01

    Ground-level ozone decreased the nutritive quality of select warm-season forages for ruminant herbivores. - Sericea lespedeza (Lespedeza cuneata cv. Interstate 76) and little bluestem (Schizachyrium scoparium cv. Aldous) were raised from seed in a glasshouse, transplanted into 5.7-l pots and placed into open-top chambers (OTC) on 6 June 1999. Following a 7-day adjustment period, each of six OTCs (duplicate OTCs per treatment) was ventilated with either air that had been carbon-filtered (CF) to remove ambient ozone (O 3 ); non-filtered (NF), representative of ambient air; or enriched to twice-ambient O 3 concentration (2X). Primary-growth forage was harvested on days 7, 32, 46, 59 and 72 following the start of fumigation, and regrowth forage from the first primary-growth harvest was harvested on days 36, 54 and 72 following the start of fumigation. Dry matter (DM) yield of either forage species did not differ among treatments except in the final regrowth period when yield of sericea lespedeza was greater for the NF than 2X O 3 treatment. In vitro DM digestibility (IVDMD) and concentrations of crude protein (CP), soluble phenolics (SP) and condensed tannins (CT) in primary-growth sericea lespedeza did not differ between treatments, but NF primary-growth forage had higher concentration of protein-precipitating tannins (PPT) than did 2X primary-growth forage. Concentrations of neutral detergent fiber (NDF), acid detergent fiber (ADF) and acid detergent lignin (ADL) were higher in NF and 2X than in CF primary-growth sericea lespedeza. Similarly, concentrations of NDF and ADL were higher, and IVDMD was lower for NF and 2X than for CF regrowth sericea lespedeza. Concentrations of ADF and ADL were lower, whereas IVDMD, in vitro NDF digestibility (IVNDFD) and concentrations of CP and SP were greater, in CF than in NF and 2X primary-growth little bluestem. Percentages IVDMD and IVNDFD and concentrations of CP and SP in NF primary-growth little bluestem were greater than

  16. Effects of ozone on crops in north-west Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, Muhammad Nauman; Büker, Patrick; Khalid, Sofia; Van Den Berg, Leon; Shah, Hamid Ullah; Wahid, Abdul; Emberson, Lisa; Power, Sally A.; Ashmore, Mike

    2013-01-01

    Although ozone is well-documented to reduce crop yields in the densely populated Indo-Gangetic Plain, there is little knowledge of its effects in other parts of south Asia. We surveyed crops close to the city of Peshawar, in north-west Pakistan, for visible injury, linking this to passive measurements of ozone concentrations. Foliar injury was found on potato, onion and cotton when mean monthly ozone concentrations exceeded 45 ppb. The symptoms on onion were reproduced in ozone fumigation experiments, which also showed that daytime ozone concentrations of 60 ppb significantly reduce the growth of a major Pakistani onion variety. Aphid infestation on spinach was also reduced at these elevated ozone concentrations. The ozone concentrations measured in April–May in Peshawar, and used in the fumigation experiment, are comparable to those that have been modelled to occur over many parts of south Asia, where ozone may be a significant threat to sensitive crops. -- Highlights: ► Visible ozone injury to onion, cotton and potato was identified in north-west Pakistan. ► The symptoms on onion were reproduced by exposure to elevated ozone. ► Elevated ozone levels also significantly reduced onion growth. ► Levels of aphid infestation on spinach were lower under elevated ozone. ► These effects were observed at ozone levels that have been modelled to occur widely across south Asia. -- Ozone concentrations in NW Pakistan have adverse effects on sensitive crop species

  17. Cardiopulmonary mortality and COPD attributed to ambient ozone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khaniabadi, Yusef Omidi; Hopke, Philip K; Goudarzi, Gholamreza; Daryanoosh, Seyed Mohammad; Jourvand, Mehdi; Basiri, Hassan

    2017-01-01

    Tropospheric ozone is the second most important atmospheric pollutant after particulate matter with respect to its impact on human health and is increasing of its concentrations globally. The main objective of this study was to assess of health effects attributable to ground-level ozone (O 3 ) in Kermanshah, Iran using one-hour O 3 concentrations measured between March 2014 and March 2015. The AirQ program was applied for estimation of the numbers of cardiovascular mortality (CM), respiratory mortality (RM), and hospital admissions for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (HA-COPD) using relative risk (RR) and baseline incidence (BI) as defined by the World Health Organization (WHO). The largest percentage of person-days for different O 3 concentrations was in the concentration range of 30-39µg/m 3 . The health modeling results suggested that ~2% (95% CI: 0-2.9%) of cardiovascular mortality, 5.9% (95% CI: 2.3-9.4) of respiratory mortality, and 4.1% (CI: 2.5-6.1%) of the HA-COPD were attributed to O 3 concentrations higher than 10µg/m 3 . For each 10µg/m 3 increase in O 3 concentration, the risk of cardiovascular mortality, respiratory mortality, and HA-COPD increased by 0.40%, 1.25%, and 0.86%, respectively. Furthermore, 88.8% of health effects occurred on days with O 3 level less than 100µg/m 3 . Thus, action is needed to reduce the emissions of O 3 precursors especially transport and energy production in Kermanshah. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  18. Assessment of Protective Effect of Some Modern Agrochemicals against Ozone-Induced Stress in Sensitive Clover and Tobacco Cultivars

    OpenAIRE

    Blum, Oleg; Didyk, Nataliya; Pavluchenko, Nataliya; Godzik, Barbara

    2011-01-01

    Some modern agrochemicals with antioxidant potential were tested for their protective effect against ozone injury using clover and tobacco ozone-sensitive cultivars as model plants subjected to ambient ozone at two sites (Kyiv city in Ukraine and Szarów village in Poland). All used agrochemicals showed partial protective effects against ozone injury on clover and tobacco. Conducted studies confirmed the effectiveness of modern fungicides belonging to strobilurin group as protectants of sensit...

  19. Impacts of ozone on trees and crops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Felzer, B.S.; Cronina, T.; Melillo, J.M.; Reilly, J.M.; Xiaodong, Wang

    2007-01-01

    In this review article, we explore how surface-level ozone affects trees and crops with special emphasis on consequences for productivity and carbon sequestration. Vegetation exposure to ozone reduces photosynthesis, growth, and other plant functions. Ozone formation in the atmosphere is a product of NO x , which are also a source of nitrogen deposition. Reduced carbon sequestration of temperate forests resulting from ozone is likely offset by increased carbon sequestration from nitrogen fertilization. However, since fertilized crop-lands are generally not nitrogen-limited, capping ozone-polluting substances in the USA, Europe, and China can reduce future crop yield loss substantially. (authors)

  20. Ozone disintegration kinetics in the reactor for tyres decomposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golota, V.I.; Manujlenko, O.V.; Taran, G.V.; Pis'menetskij, A.S.; Zamuriev, A.A.

    2010-01-01

    The results of theoretical and experimental research of ozone disintegration kinetics in the chemical reactor which is developed for decomposition of tyres in the ozone-air environment are presented. Analytical expression for dependence of ozone concentration in the reactor from time and from parameters of the task, such as volume speed of ozone-air mixture feed on a reactor input, concentration of ozone on the input to the reactor, volume speed of output of the used mixture, reactor size, and square of its internal surface is obtained. It is shown that at the same speed of ozone-air mixture pro rolling through the reactor, with growth of ozone concentration on the input, value of stationary concentration in the reactor grows, remaining always less than concentration on the input. It is also shown that at the same ozone concentration on the input, with growth of speed of ozone-air mixture pro rolling through the reactor, value of stationary ozone concentration in the reactor also grows, remaining always less than ozone concentration on the input. The ozone disintegration kinetics in the reactor in a wide range of speed of ozone-air mixture pro rolling through the reactor (0.15, 0.30, 0.45, 0.60 m3/hour) and various ozone concentration on the input (5, 10, 15, 20 g/m3) is experimentally studied. It is shown that experimental results with good accuracy coincide with the theoretical. Direct experiment showed the essential influence of the internal surface of the reactor on the ozone disintegration kinetics.

  1. Effects of ozone water on growth of Lactuca sativa var. ramosa Hort and Erwinia carotovora subsp. carotovora

    OpenAIRE

    Guo Zhenghong; Wang Zuoming; Yin Lijun; Zhao Xuejun; Wang Wenjia; Wang Quanxi

    2017-01-01

    Research on pathogenic bacteria growth of purple lettuce (Lactuca sativa var. ramosa) and its photosynthetic physiology by being sprayed ozone water on the surface of the purple lettuce with different concentration during the reproductive stage. However,little is known regarding its concentration effect. In this study,we found that ozone water in a low concentration such as 2 mg/L did not inhibit the growth of pathogenic bacteria that originate from purple lettuce and also not affect the phot...

  2. Effects of Elevated Ambient Temperature on Reproductive Outcomes and Offspring Growth Depend on Exposure Time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huda Yahia Hamid

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Reproductive performance has been shown to be greatly affected by changes in environmental factors, such as temperature. However, it is also crucial to identify the particular stage of pregnancy that is most adversely affected by elevated ambient temperature. The aims of this study were to determine the effect on reproductive outcomes of exposure to elevated ambient temperature during different stages of pregnancy and to determine the effect of prenatal heat stress on offspring growth. Sixty pregnant rats were used in this study. The rats were divided equally into four groups as group 1 (control, group 2 (exposed to elevated temperature following implantation, group 3 (exposed to elevated temperature during pre- and periimplantation, and group 4 (exposed to elevated temperature during pre- and periimplantation and following implantation. Groups 3 and 4 had prolonged gestation periods, reduced litter sizes, and male-biased sex ratios. Moreover, the growth patterns of group 3 and 4 pups were adversely affected by prenatal exposure to elevated temperature. The differences between group 1 and group 3 and between group 1 and group 4 were highly significant. However, no significant differences were observed between groups 1 and 2 in the gestation length, sex ratios, and growth patterns. Thus, it can be concluded that exposure to elevated ambient temperature during pre- and periimplantation has stronger adverse effects on reproductive outcomes and offspring growth than postimplantation exposure.

  3. Ozone pollution: rising concentrations despite French and EU efforts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ba, M.; Elichegaray, Ch.

    2003-11-01

    Ozone is the main indicator of photochemical pollution which is caused by a complex combination of primary pollutants formed by chemical reactions in the troposphere, in the presence of sunlight. These primary pollutants, otherwise known as precursors of ozone (nitrogen oxides, volatile organic compounds and carbon monoxide), are emitted both by natural sources and human activities. In urban areas, during the summer months, ozone is often the main cause of deterioration in air quality. Directive 2002/3/EC relating to ozone in ambient air entered into force on 9 September 2003, superseding the first ozone Directive (92/72/CE) of 21 September 1992. In the last 10 years, monitoring of ozone pollution has considerably progressed in France (the number of analysers has increased tenfold). Emissions of the ozone precursors fell significantly (-27%) between 1990 and 2000 in France as a result of combined efforts in all sectors of activity. However, between 1994 and 2002, ozone levels remained above the information threshold for the protection of human health and vegetation on average more than 100 days a year in rural areas and over 40 days a year in urban and peri-urban areas. Efforts undertaken both in France and other European countries aim to improve the situation and ensure compliance with the requirements of Directive 2002/3/EC. (author)

  4. Associations between ozone and morbidity using the Spatial Synoptic Classification system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arora Gurmeet

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Synoptic circulation patterns (large-scale tropospheric motion systems affect air pollution and, potentially, air-pollution-morbidity associations. We evaluated the effect of synoptic circulation patterns (air masses on the association between ozone and hospital admissions for asthma and myocardial infarction (MI among adults in North Carolina. Methods Daily surface meteorology data (including precipitation, wind speed, and dew point for five selected cities in North Carolina were obtained from the U.S. EPA Air Quality System (AQS, which were in turn based on data from the National Climatic Data Center of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. We used the Spatial Synoptic Classification system to classify each day of the 9-year period from 1996 through 2004 into one of seven different air mass types: dry polar, dry moderate, dry tropical, moist polar, moist moderate, moist tropical, or transitional. Daily 24-hour maximum 1-hour ambient concentrations of ozone were obtained from the AQS. Asthma and MI hospital admissions data for the 9-year period were obtained from the North Carolina Department of Health and Human Services. Generalized linear models were used to assess the association of the hospitalizations with ozone concentrations and specific air mass types, using pollutant lags of 0 to 5 days. We examined the effect across cities on days with the same air mass type. In all models we adjusted for dew point and day-of-the-week effects related to hospital admissions. Results Ozone was associated with asthma under dry tropical (1- to 5-day lags, transitional (3- and 4-day lags, and extreme moist tropical (0-day lag air masses. Ozone was associated with MI only under the extreme moist tropical (5-day lag air masses. Conclusions Elevated ozone levels are associated with dry tropical, dry moderate, and moist tropical air masses, with the highest ozone levels being associated with the dry tropical air mass. Certain

  5. Ozone carcinogenesis in vitro and its co-carcinogenesis with radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borek, C.

    1988-01-01

    Ozone (O/sub 3/), a reactive species of oxygen, is an important natural constituent of the atmosphere. Background levels of ozone in the lower atmosphere may range up to 0.1 ppm and are modified by geographic elevation, solar radiation and climatic conditions. Since some ozone effects are radiomimetic, its actions may be enhanced in the presence of ionizing radiation from background and/or manmade sources. While stratospheric ozone spares the earth from excess solar ultraviolet (UV) radiation, high levels of ozone in the environment are toxic and present a health hazard to man. Excess environmental exposure to ozone can result from a variety of sources. Ozone is a key component in oxidant smog and in the vicinity of high electric voltage equipment when in operation. Ozone is widely used as a disinfectant for air and water, in bleaches, waxes, textiles, oils. and inorganic synthesis. Enhanced levels of ozone are found in planes flying at high altitudes. Because of the toxic nature of ozone and its potential hazard to man, its levels in the environment are subject to government regulation. The current standard is set at an hourly average of 235 μg/m/sup 3/ (0.12 ppm) not to be exceeded more than once per year. Urban areas with high levels of photochemical smog (e.g. Southern California) may experience high ambient ozone levels which can reach 0.5 ppm

  6. Semiconductor Sensors Application for Definition of Factor of Ozone Heterogeneous Destruction on Teflon Surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nataliya V. Finogenova

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available In our paper we present the results of our research, which was carried out by means of semiconductor sensor techniques (SCS, which allowed evaluating heterogeneous death-rate of ozone (γ Teflon surface. When ozone concentration is near to Ambient Air Standard value, γ is assessed to be equal to 6,57*10-7. High technique response provide possibility to determine ozone contents in the air media and the percentage of ozone, decomposed on the communication surfaces and on the surfaces of installation in the low concentration range (1–100 ppb.

  7. Tropospheric ozone and the environment II. Effects, modeling and control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berglund, R.L.

    1992-01-01

    This was the sixth International Specialty Conference on ozone for the Air ampersand Waste Management Association since 1978 and the first to be held in the Southeast. Of the preceding five conferences, three were held in Houston, one in New England, and one in Los Angeles. The changing location continues to support the understanding that tropospheric ozone is a nationwide problem, requiring understanding and participation by representatives of all regions. Yet, questions such as the following continue to be raised over all aspects of the nation's efforts to control ozone. Are the existing primary and secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) for ozone the appropriate targets for the ozone control strategy, or should they be modified to more effectively accommodate new health or ecological effects information, or better fit statistical analyses of ozone modeling data? Are the modeling tools presently available adequate to predict ozone concentrations for future precursor emission trends? What ozones attainment strategy will be the best means of meeting the ozone standard? To best answer these and other questions there needs to be a continued sharing of information among researchers working on these and other questions. While answers to these questions will often be qualitative and location specific, they will help focus future research programs and assist in developing future regulatory strategies

  8. Rapid increases in tropospheric ozone production and export from China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verstraeten, W.W.; Neu, J.L.; Williams, J.E.; Bowman, K.W.; Worden, J.R.; Boersma, K.F.

    2015-01-01

    Rapid population growth and industrialization have driven substantial increases in Asian ozone precursor emissions over the past decade1, with highly uncertain impacts on regional and global tropospheric ozone levels. According to ozonesonde measurements2, 3, tropospheric ozone concentrations at two

  9. Effects of elevated ozone on CO2 uptake and leaf structure in sugar maple under two light environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bäck, J.; Vanderklein, D.W.; Topa, M.A.

    1999-01-01

    The interactive effects of ozone and light on leaf structure, carbon dioxide uptake and short-term carbon allocation of sugar maple (Acer saccharum Marsh.) seedlings were examined using gas exchange measurements and 14 C-macroautoradiographic techniques. Two-year-old sugar maple seedlings were fumigated from budbreak for 5 months with ambient or 3 × ambient ozone in open-top chambers, receiving either 35% (high light) or 15% (low light) of full sunlight. Ozone accelerated leaf senescence, and reduced net photosynthesis, 14 CO 2 uptake and stomatal conductance, with the effects being most pronounced under low light. The proportion of intercellular space increased in leaves of seedlings grown under elevated ozone and low light, possibly enhancing the susceptibility of mesophyll cells to ozone by increasing the cumulative dose per mesophyll cell. Indeed, damage to spongy mesophyll cells in the elevated ozone × low light treatment was especially frequent. 14 C macroautoradioraphy revealed heterogeneous uptake of 14 CO 2 in well defined areole regions, suggesting patchy stomatal behaviour in all treatments. However, in seedlings grown under elevated ozone and low light, the highest 14 CO 2 uptake occurred along larger veins, while interveinal regions exhibited little or no uptake. Although visible symptoms of ozone injury were not apparent in these seedlings, the cellular damage, reduced photosynthetic rates and reduced whole-leaf chlorophyll levels corroborate the visual scaling of whole-plant senescence, suggesting that the ozone × low light treatment accelerated senescence or senescence-like injury in sugar maple. (author)

  10. The study of international and interstate transport of ozone in Yuma, Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Y.; Sonenberg, M.; Wood, J. L.; Pearson, C. R.; Colson, H.; Malloy, J. W.; Pace, M.; Mao, F.; Paul, J.; Busby, B. R.; Parkey, B.; Drago, L.; Franquist, T. S.

    2017-12-01

    In October 2015, EPA reduced the National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) for ozone from 75 parts per billion (ppb) to 70 ppb. Meeting the new standard may be extremely challenging for some areas, including rural Yuma County in the State of Arizona. Yuma County faces unique air quality challenges, since it borders the Mexican states of Baja California and Sonora, and the State of California. The present study investigates the contribution of international and interstate transport of ozone and ozone precursors to episodes of elevated ozone concentrations in Yuma. The Arizona Department of Environmental Quality (ADEQ) merged HYSPLIT modeling outputs with two years of hourly ground ozone monitor data to investigate the potential area contributions to ozone concentrations in Yuma County. This analysis found that elevated ozone concentrations in Yuma in 2014 and 2015 frequently coincided with back-trajectories over both California and Mexico, typically favoring Mexico during the spring. In May 2017, ADEQ installed a new ozone monitor in San Luis Rio Colorado, Sonora, Mexico (Latitude: 32.4665, Longitude: -114.7688), which is 29 km south of ozone site in Yuma County. We will present the first simultaneous observations of ozone seasons in Sonora, Mexico, eastern California, and Yuma.

  11. Ozone sensitivity of plants in natural communities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Treshow, M; Stewart, D

    1973-07-01

    Field fumigation studies conducted in grassland, oak, aspen, and conifer, communities established the injury threshold of prevalent plant species to ozone. Several important species, including Bromus tectorum, Quercus gambelii, and Populus tremuloides, were injured by a single 2-hours exposure to 15 pphM ozone. Over half the perennial forbs and woody species studied were visibly injured at concentrations of 30 pphM ozone or less. It is postulated that lower concentrations at prolonged or repeated exposures to ozone may impair growth and affect community vigor and stability. Continued exposure of natural plant communities to ozone is expected to initiate major shifts in the plant composition of communities. 10 references, 4 figures, 1 table.

  12. Quantification of ozone uptake at the stand level in a Pinus canariensis forest in Tenerife, Canary Islands: An approach based on sap flow measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wieser, Gerhard; Luis, Vanessa C.; Cuevas, Emilio

    2006-01-01

    Ozone uptake was studied in a pine forest in Tenerife, Canary Islands, an ecotone with strong seasonal changes in climate. Ambient ozone concentration showed a pronounced seasonal course with high concentrations during the dry and warm period and low concentrations during the wet and cold season. Ozone uptake by contrast showed no clear seasonal trend. This is because canopy conductance significantly decreased with soil water availability and vapour pressure deficit. Mean daily ozone uptake averaged 1.9 nmol m -2 s -1 during the wet and cold season, and 1.5 nmol m -2 s -1 during the warm and dry period. The corresponding daily mean ambient ozone concentrations were 42 and 51 nl l -1 , respectively. Thus we conclude that in Mediterranean type forest ecosystems the flux based approach is more capable for risk assessment than an external, concentration based approach. - Sap flow measurements can be used for estimating ozone uptake at the stand level and for parameterisation of O 3 uptake models

  13. Ozone as an ecotoxicological problem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mortensen, L. [National Environmental Research Inst., Dept. of Atmospheric Environment, Roskilde (Denmark)

    1996-11-01

    Ozone is quantitatively the dominating oxidant in photochemical air pollution. Other compounds like hydrogen peroxide, aldehydes, formate, peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN) and nitrogen dioxide are present too, and several of these are known to be phytotoxic, but under Danish conditions the concentration of these gases are without significance for direct effects on vegetation. Therefore, it is the effects of ozone on plant growth that will be described below. (EG) 65 refs.

  14. Exclusion of UV-B radiation from normal solar spectrum on the growth of mung bean and maize

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pal, M.; Sharma, A.; Abrol, Y.P.; Sengupta, U.K.

    1997-01-01

    The increase in UV-B radiation due to depletion of the ozone layer has potentially harmful effects on plant growth and performance. The bulk of these studies conducted in growth chambers, greenhouses or in the field use different types of exposure systems which may be responsible for differences in the sensitivity of a crop to UV-B radiation. A field study using selective filters to remove the UV-B portion of the solar spectrum was conducted with mung bean (a dicotyledonous C 3 plant) and maize (a monocotyledonous C 4 plant) to determine the sensitivity of these crop plants to ambient UV-B levels without disturbing the microenvironment. Mung bean was found to be sensitive to ambient UV-B levels in terms of leaf area development, plant height attained and net photosynthesis, while maize was found to be unaffected by ambient UV-B levels (22.8 |GmW cm −2 nm −1 ) found in Delhi, India (28°38′N, 77°13′E). The level of ambient UV-B radiation thus appears to be inhibitory for optimal growth of plants, especially dicotyledonous mung bean. (author)

  15. Suitability of Nicotiana tabacum 'Bel W3' for biomonitoring ozone in Sao Paulo, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sant'Anna, Silvia M.R.; Esposito, Marisia P.; Domingos, Marisa; Souza, Silvia R.

    2008-01-01

    Nicotiana tabacum 'Bel W3' is a widely used sensitive bioindicator for ambient ozone, but it is rarely used in tropical countries. Our goal was to determine the suitability of this plant for biomonitoring ozone in the city of Sao Paulo by evaluating the relationships between leaf necroses and ozone under field conditions and measurements of chlorophyll a fluorescence and antioxidants in plants exposed to different concentrations of ozone in closed chambers. While a weak linear relationship between leaf injury and ozone concentrations (R 2 = 0.10) was determined in the field, a strong linear relationship was observed in the chamber experiments. Maximum leaf injury was observed in plants submitted to 40 ppb, which coincided with a significant decrease in fluorescence and total ascorbic acid. The relationship between leaf damage observed in the field and ozone was improved when the concentrations were limited to 40 ppb (R 2 = 0.28). - Nicotiana tabacum 'Bel W3' is suitable for indicating low ozone levels in Brazil

  16. 40 CFR 52.2585 - Control strategy: Ozone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Ozone. 52.2585... strategy: Ozone. (a) Disapproval—On November 6, 1986, the Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources... would not be necessary to offset growth in emissions. (h) Approval—On November 15, 1993, the Wisconsin...

  17. Growth response of Pinus ponderosa seedlings and mature tree branches to acid rain and ozone exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, P.D.; Houpis, J.L.J.; Helms, J.A.

    1994-10-01

    Forests of the central and southern Sierra Nevada in California have been subjected to chronic damage by ozone and other atmospheric pollutants for the past several decades. Until recently, pollutant exposure of northern Sierra Nevada forests has been mild but increasing population and changes in land use throughout the Sacramento Valley and Sierra Nevada foothills may lead to increased pollutant damage in these forests. Although, better documented in other regions of the United States, little is known regarding the potential for acidic precipitation damage to Sierra Nevada forests. Only recently have studies directed towards understanding the potential interactive effects of ozone and acidic precipitation been undertaken. A key issue in resolving potential regional impacts of pollutants on forests is the extent to which research results can be scaled across genotypes and life-stages. Most of the pollution research to date has been performed using seedlings with varying degrees of genetic control. It is important to determine if the results obtained in such studies can be extrapolated to mature trees and to different genetic sources. In this paper, we present results from a one-year study examining the interactive effects of foliar exposure to acidic rain and ozone on the growth of ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa), a conifer known to be sensitive to ozone. The response to pollutants is characterized for both seedlings and mature tree branches of three genotypes grown in a common environment

  18. On the impact of temperature on tropospheric ozone concentration ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The influence of temperature on tropospheric ozone (O3)concentrations in urban and photochemically polluted areas in the greater Athens region are investigated in the present study.Hourly values of the ambient air temperature used for studying the urban heat island effect in Athens were recorded at twenty-three ...

  19. Synergistic action of tropospheric ozone and carbon dioxide on yield and nutritional quality of Indian mustard (Brassica juncea (L.) Czern.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Satyavan; Bhatia, Arti; Tomer, Ritu; Kumar, Vinod; Singh, B; Singh, S D

    2013-08-01

    Field experiments were conducted in open top chamber during rabi seasons of 2009-10 and 2010-11 at the research farm of the Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi to study the effect of tropospheric ozone (O3) and carbon dioxide (CO2) interaction on yield and nutritional quality of Indian mustard (Brassica juncea (L.) Czern.). Mustard plants were grown from emergence to maturity under different treatments: charcoal-filtered air (CF, 80-85 % less O3 than ambient O3 and ambient CO2), nonfiltered air (NF, 5-10 % less O3 than ambient O3 and ambient CO2 ), nonfiltered air with elevated carbon dioxide (NF + CO2, NF air and 550 ± 50 ppm CO2), elevated ozone (EO, NF air and 25-35 ppb elevated O3), elevated ozone along with elevated carbon dioxide (EO + CO2, NF air, 25-35 ppb O3 and 550 ± 50 ppm CO2), and ambient chamber less control (AC, ambient O3 and CO2). Elevated O3 exposure led to reduced photosynthesis and leaf area index resulting in decreased seed yield of mustard. Elevated ozone significantly decreased the oil and micronutrient content in mustard. Thirteen to 17 ppm hour O3 exposure (accumulated over threshold of 40 ppm, AOT 40) reduced the oil content by 18-20 %. Elevated CO2 (500 ± 50 ppm) along with EO was able to counter the decline in oil content in the seed, and it increased by 11 to 13 % over EO alone. Elevated CO2, however, decreased protein, calcium, zinc, iron, magnesium, and sulfur content in seed as compared to the nonfiltered control, whereas removal of O3 from air in the charcoal-filtered treatment resulted in a significant increase in the same.

  20. Evaluation of ozone emissions and exposures from consumer products and home appliances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Q; Jenkins, P L

    2017-03-01

    Ground-level ozone can cause serious adverse health effects and environmental impacts. This study measured ozone emissions and impacts on indoor ozone levels and associated exposures from 17 consumer products and home appliances that could emit ozone either intentionally or as a by-product of their functions. Nine products were found to emit measurable ozone, one up to 6230 ppb at a distance of 5 cm (2 inches). One use of these products increased room ozone concentrations by levels up to 106 ppb (mean, from an ozone laundry system) and personal exposure concentrations of the user by 12-424 ppb (mean). Multiple cycles of use of one fruit and vegetable washer increased personal exposure concentrations by an average of 2550 ppb, over 28 times higher than the level of the 1-h California Ambient Air Quality Standard for ozone (0.09 ppm). Ozone emission rates ranged from 1.6 mg/h for a refrigerator air purifier to 15.4 mg/h for a fruit and vegetable washer. The use of some products was estimated to contribute up to 87% of total daily exposures to ozone. The results show that the use of some products may result in potential health impacts. © 2016 The Authors. Indoor Air published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Revealing source signatures in ambient BTEX concentrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zalel, Amir; Yuval; Broday, David M.

    2008-01-01

    Management of ambient concentrations of Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) is essential for maintaining low ozone levels in urban areas where its formation is under a VOC-limited regime. The significant decrease in traffic-induced VOC emissions in many developed countries resulted in relatively comparable shares of traffic and non-traffic VOC emissions in urban airsheds. A key step for urban air quality management is allocating ambient VOC concentrations to their pertinent sources. This study presents an approach that can aid in identifying sources that contribute to observed BTEX concentrations in areas characterized by low BTEX concentrations, where traditional source apportionment techniques are not useful. Analysis of seasonal and diurnal variations of ambient BTEX concentrations from two monitoring stations located in distinct areas reveal the possibility to identify source categories. Specifically, the varying oxidation rates of airborne BTEX compounds are used to allocate contributions of traffic emissions and evaporative sources to observed BTEX concentrations. - BTEX sources are identified from temporal variations of ambient concentration

  2. Chronic drought stress reduced but not protected Shantung maple (Acer truncatum Bunge) from adverse effects of ozone (O3) on growth and physiology in the suburb of Beijing, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Li; Manning, William J.; Tong, Lei; Wang, Xiaoke

    2015-01-01

    A two-year experiment exposing Acer truncatum Bunge seedlings to elevated ozone (O 3 ) concentrations above ambient air (AO) and drought stress (DS) was carried out using open-top chambers (OTCs) in a suburb of Beijing in north China in 2012–2013. The results suggested that AO and DS had both significantly reduced leaf mass area (LMA), stomatal conductance (Gs), light saturated photosynthetic rate (A sat ) as well as above and below ground biomass at the end of the experiment. It appeared that while drought stress mitigated the expression of foliar injury, LMA, leaf photosynthetic pigments, height growth and basal diameter, due to limited carbon fixation, the O 3 – induced reductions in A sat , Gs and total biomass were enhanced 23.7%. 15.5% and 8.1% respectively. These data suggest that when the whole plant was considered that drought under the conditions of this experiment did not protect the Shantung maple seedlings from the effects of O 3 . - Highlights: • The response of Acer truncatum Bunge to drought and ozone was investigated. • Drought could mitigate the foliage injury and leaf photosynthetic pigments. • The O 3 -induced reductions in Asat, Gs and total biomass were enhanced by drought. - Drought didn't protect Shantung maple from O 3 effects but rather cause more reductions in biomass

  3. Studies on the Biological Effects of Ozone: 10. Release of Factors from Ozonated Human Platelets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Valacchi

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available In a previous work we have shown that heparin, in the presence of ozone (O3, promotes a dose-dependent platelet aggregation, while after Ca2+ chelation with citrate, platelet aggregation is almost negligible. These results led us to think that aggregation may enhance the release of platelet components. We have here shown that indeed significantly higher amount of platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF, transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1 and interleukin-8(IL-8 are released in a dose-dependent manner after ozonation of heparinised platelet-rich plasma samples. These findings may explain the enhanced healing of torpid ulcers in patients with chronic limbischemia treated with O3 autohaemoteraphy (O3-AHT.

  4. Temporal-Spatial Ambient Concentrator Estimator (T-SpACE): Hierarchical Bayesian Model Software Used to Estimate Ambient Concentrations of NAAQS Air Pollutants in Support of Health Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    To fulfill its mission to protect human health and the environment, EPA has established National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) on six selected air pollutants known as criteria pollutants: ozone (O3); carbon monoxide (CO); lead (Pb); nitrogen dioxide (NO2); sulfur dioxide ...

  5. The Cost of Crop Damage Caused by Ozone Air Pollution From Motor Vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Delucchi, Mark A.; Murphy, James; Kim, Jin; McCubbin, Donald R.

    1996-01-01

    The detrimental effects of ambient ozone on crops, even at relatively low concentrations, are well-established (Thompson et al., 1976; Heck and Brandt, 1977; Heck et al., 1982; Environmental Protection Agency, 1984; California Air Resources Board, 1987; Olszyk et al., 1988a, 1988b; Heagle et al., 1986; McCool et al., 1986, Ashmore, 1991). Ozone enters plant leaves through the stomatal openings in the leaf surface and then produces byproducts that reduce the efficiency of photosynthesis (CARB...

  6. 40 CFR 51.918 - Can any SIP planning requirements be suspended in 8-hour ozone nonattainment areas that have air...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... suspended in 8-hour ozone nonattainment areas that have air quality data that meets the NAAQS? 51.918 Section 51.918 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS... 8-hour Ozone National Ambient Air Quality Standard § 51.918 Can any SIP planning requirements be...

  7. Ozone, area social conditions, and mortality in Mexico City

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Neill, M.S.; Loomis, Dana; Borja-Aburto, V.H.

    2004-01-01

    We investigated whether the association of daily mortality and ambient ozone differs by age and area social conditions of the region of residence using a time-series analysis. The study setting was metropolitan Mexico City, a high altitude city situated in a valley, with an estimated 20 million inhabitants, large socioeconomic gradients, and ozone levels frequently exceeding international standards. We stratified daily deaths by six census-derived socioeconomic indicators, based on characteristics of the county where decedents lived. We used Poisson regression to model the association between daily mortality and ozone levels (on the day of death and the previous day) in separate models, stratified by area socioeconomic level and age, and controlling for time trends and temperature. Ozone was positively associated with total mortality [0.65% increase per 10 ppb increment, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.02%, 1.28%] and for mortality among those over age 65 [1.39% increase per 10 ppb increment, 95% CI: 0.51%, 2.28%]. Associations between ozone and all-age mortality did not show any consistent patterns according to socioeconomic gradients. We conclude that elderly people are at higher risk for ozone-associated mortality. Though county-level social indicators in Mexico City were not strong markers of vulnerability to ozone-associated acute mortality in this analysis, complex associations between individual and area-level factors may exist that would require additional data and further analyses to elucidate

  8. Passive Adsorption of Volatile Monoterpene in Pest Control: Aided by Proximity and Disrupted by Ozone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mofikoya, Adedayo O; Kim, Tae Ho; Abd El-Raheem, Ahmed M; Blande, James D; Kivimäenpää, Minna; Holopainen, Jarmo K

    2017-11-08

    Plant volatiles mediate a range of interactions across and within trophic levels, including plant-plant interactions. Volatiles emitted by a plant may trigger physiological responses in neighboring plants or adhere to their surfaces, which, in turn, may affect the responses of the neighboring plant to herbivory. These volatiles are subject to chemical reactions during transport in air currents, especially in a polluted atmosphere. We conducted a field experiment to test for the adsorption of dispenser-released myrcene on the surfaces of cabbage plants and the effects of distance from the dispenser and elevated ozone levels (1.4× ambient) on the process. We also tested the effects of the same treatments on oviposition on cabbage plants by naturally occurring Plutella xylostella. Under low ambient ozone conditions of central Finland, there was evidence for the adsorption and re-release of myrcene by cabbage plants growing at a distance of 50 cm from myrcene dispensers. This effect was absent at elevated ozone levels. The number of eggs deposited by P. xylostella was generally lower in plots under elevated ozone compared to ambient control plots. Our results indicate that passive adsorption and re-release of a volatile monoterpene can occur in nature; however, this process is dependent upon the distance between emitter source and receiver plants as well as the concentration of atmospheric pollutants in the air. We conclude that, in the development of field-scale use of plant volatiles in modern pest control, the effects of distances and air pollution should be considered.

  9. Photosynthesis, chloroplast pigments, and antioxidants in Pinus canariensis under free-air ozone fumigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Then, Ch.; Herbinger, K.; Luis, V.C.; Heerdt, C.; Matyssek, R.; Wieser, G.

    2009-01-01

    High O 3 levels, driving uptake and challenging defense, prevail on the Canary Islands, being associated with the hot and dry summers of the Mediterranean-type climate. Pinus canariensis is an endemic conifer species that forms forests across these islands. We investigated the effects of ozone on photosynthesis and biochemical parameters of P. canariensis seedlings exposed to free-air O 3 fumigation at Kranzberg Forest, Germany, where ambient O 3 levels were similar to those at forest sites in the Canary Islands. The twice-ambient O 3 regime (2xO 3 ) neither caused visible injury-like chlorotic or necrotic spots in the needles nor significantly affected violaxanthin, antheraxanthin and zeaxanthin levels and the de-epoxidation state of the xanthophyll cycle. In parallel, stomatal conductance for water vapour, net photosynthesis, intercellular CO 2 concentration, chlorophyll fluorescence parameters, as well as antioxidant levels were hardly affected. It is concluded that presently prevailing O 3 levels do not impose severe stress on P. canariensis seedlings. - Twice-ambient ozone does not significantly affect the physiological behavior of Pinus canariensis seedlings

  10. Quantification of ozone uptake at the stand level in a Pinus canariensis forest in Tenerife, Canary Islands: An approach based on sap flow measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wieser, Gerhard [Division of Alpine Timberline Ecophysiology, Federal Research and Training Centre for Forests, Natural Hazards and Landscape, Rennweg 1, A-6020 Innsbruck (Austria)]. E-mail: gerhard.wieser@uibk.ac.at; Luis, Vanessa C. [Department of Plant Biology, Plant Physiology, University of La Laguna, Avda. Astrofisico Francisco Sanchez s/n, E-38207 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); Cuevas, Emilio [Izana Atmospheric Observatory, National Institute of Meteorology, La Marina, E-38071 Santa Cruz de Tenerife (Spain)

    2006-04-15

    Ozone uptake was studied in a pine forest in Tenerife, Canary Islands, an ecotone with strong seasonal changes in climate. Ambient ozone concentration showed a pronounced seasonal course with high concentrations during the dry and warm period and low concentrations during the wet and cold season. Ozone uptake by contrast showed no clear seasonal trend. This is because canopy conductance significantly decreased with soil water availability and vapour pressure deficit. Mean daily ozone uptake averaged 1.9 nmol m{sup -2} s{sup -1} during the wet and cold season, and 1.5 nmol m{sup -2} s{sup -1} during the warm and dry period. The corresponding daily mean ambient ozone concentrations were 42 and 51 nl l{sup -1}, respectively. Thus we conclude that in Mediterranean type forest ecosystems the flux based approach is more capable for risk assessment than an external, concentration based approach. - Sap flow measurements can be used for estimating ozone uptake at the stand level and for parameterisation of O{sub 3} uptake models.

  11. Ozone exposure alters temporal fluctuations of 14C-labeled assimilate pools in leaves of Pinus taeda L

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friend, A.L.; Tomlinson, P.T.

    1991-01-01

    The effects of O 3 on uptake and distribution of 14 C within current-year foliage of 3-year-old loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) seedlings were studied using open-top exposure chambers that delivered ozone at three concentrations: sub-ambient O 3 [charcoal-filtered air (CF)]; ambient O 3 (AMB); and twice-ambient O 3 (2X). Seedlings were exposed to O 3 from May to Oct. of 1987, 1988, and 1989. In July, Aug., and Sept. 1989, individual foliage fascicles were labeled with 14 CO 2 ; harvested at 0, 0.5, 4, 24, and 48h after labeling; and analyzed for 14 C in lipids and pigments, protein, starch, residue, sugars, organic acids, and amino acids. O 3 affected initial (0 h) incorporation of 14 C into different chemical fractions, and the relative distribution of 14 C among fractions at specific points in time. Starch dynamics were particularly responsive to and negatively affected by O 3 . In 2X treatments, only 39-46% of the initial (0 h) 14 C incorporated into starch remained after 48h, compared with a range of 56-90% remaining in CF treatments. The percentage of 14 C in the starch fraction after 48 h decreased by nearly three-fold in August from CF to 2X treatments [%total 14 C in starch: 31% (CF), 17% (AMB), and 11% (2X)]. The authors data indicated that foliar starch synthesis and/or retention was depressed by ozone exposure during late-season months, and supported the concept that O 3 decreases growth by depleting carbohydrate reserves. Other findings will be discussed

  12. Modeling Stomatal Conductance to Estimate Seasonal Uptake in the Ozone-Sensitive Bioindicator Plant Common Milkweed (A. syriaca L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergweiler, C.

    2008-12-01

    The US EPA National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS) was not conceived to nor does it provide an accurate definition of the absorbed ozone dose or baseline exposure level to protect vegetation. This research presents a multiplicative modeling approach based not only on atmospheric, but on equally important physiological, phenological, and environmental parameters. Physiological constraints on ozone uptake demonstrate that actual absorption is substantially lower than that assumed by a simple interpretation of hourly atmospheric ozone concentrations. Coupled with development of foliar injury expression this provides evidence that tropospheric ozone is more toxic to vegetation than is currently understood.

  13. Meta-analysis of the association between short-term exposure to ambient ozone and respiratory hospital admissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ji Meng; Bell, Michelle L; Cohan, Daniel S

    2011-01-01

    Ozone is associated with health impacts including respiratory outcomes; however, results differ across studies. Meta-analysis is an increasingly important approach to synthesizing evidence across studies. We conducted meta-analysis of short-term ozone exposure and respiratory hospitalizations to evaluate variation across studies and explore some of the challenges in meta-analysis. We identified 136 estimates from 96 studies and investigated how estimates differed by age, ozone metric, season, lag, region, disease category, and hospitalization type. Overall results indicate associations between ozone and various kinds of respiratory hospitalizations; however, study characteristics affected risk estimates. Estimates were similar, but higher, for the elderly compared to all ages and for previous day exposure compared to same day exposure. Comparison across studies was hindered by variation in definitions of disease categories, as some (e.g., asthma) were identified through ≥ 3 different sets of ICD codes. Although not all analyses exhibited evidence of publication bias, adjustment for publication bias generally lowered overall estimates. Emergency hospitalizations for total respiratory disease increased by 4.47% (95% interval: 2.48, 6.50%) per 10 ppb 24 h ozone among the elderly without adjustment for publication bias and 2.97% (1.05, 4.94%) with adjustment. Comparison of multi-city study results and meta-analysis based on single-city studies further suggested publication bias.

  14. Innate Lymphoid Cells Mediate Pulmonary Eosinophilic Inflammation, Airway Mucous Cell Metaplasia, and Type 2 Immunity in Mice Exposed to Ozone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumagai, Kazuyoshi; Lewandowski, Ryan P; Jackson-Humbles, Daven N; Buglak, Nicholas; Li, Ning; White, Kaylin; Van Dyken, Steven J; Wagner, James G; Harkema, Jack R

    2017-08-01

    Exposure to elevated levels of ambient ozone in photochemical smog is associated with eosinophilic airway inflammation and nonatopic asthma in children. In the present study, we determined the role of innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) in the pathogenesis of ozone-induced nonatopic asthma by using lymphoid cell-sufficient C57BL/6 mice, ILC-sufficient Rag2 -/- mice (devoid of T and B cells), and ILC-deficient Rag2 -/- Il2rg -/- mice (depleted of all lymphoid cells including ILCs). Mice were exposed to 0 or 0.8 parts per million ozone for 1 day or 9 consecutive weekdays (4 hr/day). A single exposure to ozone caused neutrophilic inflammation, airway epithelial injury, and reparative DNA synthesis in all strains of mice, irrespective of the presence or absence of ILCs. In contrast, 9-day exposures induced eosinophilic inflammation and mucous cell metaplasia only in the lungs of ILC-sufficient mice. Repeated ozone exposures also elicited increased messenger RNA expression of transcripts associated with type 2 immunity and airway mucus production in ILC-sufficient mice. ILC-deficient mice repeatedly exposed to ozone had no pulmonary pathology or increased gene expression related to type 2 immunity. These results suggest a new paradigm for the biologic mechanisms underlying the development of a phenotype of childhood nonatopic asthma that has been linked to ambient ozone exposures.

  15. Ozone affects growth and development of Pieris brassicae on the wild host plant Brassica nigra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khaling, Eliezer; Papazian, Stefano; Poelman, Erik H.; Holopainen, Jarmo K.; Albrectsen, Benedicte R.; Blande, James D.

    2015-01-01

    When plants are exposed to ozone they exhibit changes in both primary and secondary metabolism, which may affect their interactions with herbivorous insects. Here we investigated the performance and preferences of the specialist herbivore Pieris brassicae on the wild plant Brassica nigra under elevated ozone conditions. The direct and indirect effects of ozone on the plant-herbivore system were studied. In both cases ozone exposure had a negative effect on P. brassicae development. However, in dual-choice tests larvae preferentially consumed plant material previously fumigated with the highest concentration tested, showing a lack of correlation between larval preference and performance on ozone exposed plants. Metabolomic analysis of leaf material subjected to combinations of ozone and herbivore-feeding, and focussing on known defence metabolites, indicated that P. brassicae behaviour and performance were associated with ozone-induced alterations to glucosinolate and phenolic pools. - Highlights: • We examined the effects of ozone on Pieris brassicae performance and preference. • We studied ozone and herbivore induced changes in the metabolome of Brassica nigra. • The performance of P. brassicae did not correlate with preference of ozonated plants. • Ozone and herbivore-feeding stress changes the phytochemical pools of B. nigra. - Ozone indirectly reduces herbivore performance, which is associated with change in phytochemical pools, but does not correlate with host plant preference

  16. Ozone mass transfer and kinetics experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bollyky, L.J.; Beary, M.M.

    1981-12-01

    Experiments were conducted at the Hanford Site to determine the most efficient pH and temperature levels for the destruction of complexants in Hanford high-level defense waste. These complexants enhance migration of radionuclides in the soil and inhibit the growth of crystals in the evaporator-crystallizer. Ozone mass transfer and kinetics tests have been outlined for the determination of critical mass transfer and kinetics parameters of the ozone-complexant reaction

  17. Inhibitory effects of ambient levels of solar UV-A and UV-B radiation on growth of cucumber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krizek, D.T.; Mirecki, R.M.; Britz, S.J.

    1997-01-01

    The influence of solar UV-A and UV-B radiation at Beltsville, Maryland, on growth and flavonoid content in four cultivars of Cucumis sativus L. (Ashley, Poinsett, Marketmore, and Salad Bush cucumber) was examined during the summers of 1994 and 1995. Plants were grown from seed in UV exclusion chambers consisting of UV-transmitting Plexiglas, lined with Llumar to exclude UV-A and UV-B, polyester to exclude UV-B, or cellulose acetate to transmit UV-A and UV-B. Despite previously determined differences in sensitivity to supplemental UV-B radiation, all four cultivars responded similarly to UV-B exclusion treatment. After 19–21 days, the four cultivars grown in the absence of solar UV-B (polyester) had an average of 34, 55, and 40% greater biomass of leaves, stems, and roots, respectively, 27% greater stem height, and 35% greater leaf area than those grown under ambient UV-B (cellulose acetate). Plants protected from UV-A radiation as well (Llumar) showed an additional 14 and 22% average increase, respectively, in biomass of leaves and stems, and a 22 and 19% average increase, respectively, in stem elongation and leaf area over those grown under polyester. These findings demonstrate the extreme sensitivity of cucumber not only to present levels of UV-B but also to UV-A and suggest that even small changes in ozone depletion may have important biological consequences for certain plant species. (author)

  18. Measures of ozone concentrations using passive sampling in forests of South Western Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanz, M.J. [Fundacion CEAM, Charles R. Darwin 14, Parc Tecnologic, E-46980 Paterna, Valencia (Spain)]. E-mail: mjose@ceam.es; Calatayud, V. [Fundacion CEAM, Charles R. Darwin 14, Parc Tecnologic, E-46980 Paterna, Valencia (Spain); Sanchez-Pena, G. [Servicio de Proteccion de los Montes contra Agentes Nocivos, Direccion General para la Biodiversidad, Ministerio de Medio Ambiente, Gran Via de San Francisco, 4, E-28005, Madrid (Spain)

    2007-02-15

    Ambient ozone concentrations were measured with passive samplers in the framework of the EU and UN/ECE Level II forest monitoring programme. Data from France, Italy, Luxembourg, Spain and Switzerland are reported for 2000-2002, covering the period from April to September. The number of plots increased from 67 in 2000 to 83 in 2002. The year 2001 experienced the highest ozone concentrations, reflecting more stable summer meteorological conditions. Average 6-month ozone concentrations above 45 ppb were measured this year in 40.3% of the plots, in contrast with the less than 21% measured in the other 2 years. Gradients of increasing ozone levels were observed from North to South and with altitude. Comments are made on the regional trends and on the time frame of the higher ozone episodes. Also, some recommendations enabling a better comparison between plots are provided. - Ozone concentrations in forested areas of SW Europe during the period 2000-2002 showed highest values in 2001, as well as a tendency to increase towards the South and with altitude.

  19. Measures of ozone concentrations using passive sampling in forests of South Western Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanz, M.J.; Calatayud, V.; Sanchez-Pena, G.

    2007-01-01

    Ambient ozone concentrations were measured with passive samplers in the framework of the EU and UN/ECE Level II forest monitoring programme. Data from France, Italy, Luxembourg, Spain and Switzerland are reported for 2000-2002, covering the period from April to September. The number of plots increased from 67 in 2000 to 83 in 2002. The year 2001 experienced the highest ozone concentrations, reflecting more stable summer meteorological conditions. Average 6-month ozone concentrations above 45 ppb were measured this year in 40.3% of the plots, in contrast with the less than 21% measured in the other 2 years. Gradients of increasing ozone levels were observed from North to South and with altitude. Comments are made on the regional trends and on the time frame of the higher ozone episodes. Also, some recommendations enabling a better comparison between plots are provided. - Ozone concentrations in forested areas of SW Europe during the period 2000-2002 showed highest values in 2001, as well as a tendency to increase towards the South and with altitude

  20. Chronic drought stress reduced but not protected Shantung maple (Acer truncatum Bunge) from adverse effects of ozone (O3) on growth and physiology in the suburb of Beijing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Li; Manning, William J; Tong, Lei; Wang, Xiaoke

    2015-06-01

    A two-year experiment exposing Acer truncatum Bunge seedlings to elevated ozone (O3) concentrations above ambient air (AO) and drought stress (DS) was carried out using open-top chambers (OTCs) in a suburb of Beijing in north China in 2012-2013. The results suggested that AO and DS had both significantly reduced leaf mass area (LMA), stomatal conductance (Gs), light saturated photosynthetic rate (Asat) as well as above and below ground biomass at the end of the experiment. It appeared that while drought stress mitigated the expression of foliar injury, LMA, leaf photosynthetic pigments, height growth and basal diameter, due to limited carbon fixation, the O3 - induced reductions in Asat, Gs and total biomass were enhanced 23.7%. 15.5% and 8.1% respectively. These data suggest that when the whole plant was considered that drought under the conditions of this experiment did not protect the Shantung maple seedlings from the effects of O3. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Variations of Ground-level Ozone Concentration in Malaysia: A Case Study in West Coast of Peninsular Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hashim Nur Izzah Mohamad

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Hourly ground ozone concentration, measured from the monitoring stations in the West Coast of Peninsular Malaysia for the period of 10 years (2003-2012 were used to analyse the ozone characteristic in Nilai, Melaka and Petaling Jaya. The prediction of tropospheric ozone concentrations is very important due to the negative impacts of ozone on human health, climate and vegetation. The mean concentration of ozone at the studied areas had not exceeded the recommended value of Malaysia Ambient Air Quality Guideline (MAAQG for 8-hour average (0.06 ppm, however some of the measurements exceeded the hourly permitted concentration by MAAQG that is 0.1 ppm. Higher concentration of ozone can be observed during the daytime since ozone needs sunlight for the photochemical reactions. The diurnal cycle of ozone concentration has a mid-day peak (14:00-15:00 and lower night-time concentrations. The ozone concentration slowly rises after the sun rises (08:00, reaching a maximum during daytime and then decreases until the next morning.

  2. Adaptation of root growth to increased ambient temperature requires auxin and ethylene coordination in Arabidopsis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fei, Qionghui; Wei, Shaodong; Zhou, Zhaoyang

    2017-01-01

    Key message: A fresh look at the roles of auxin, ethylene, and polar auxin transport during the plant root growth response to warmer ambient temperature (AT). Abstract: The ambient temperature (AT) affects plant growth and development. Plants can sense changes in the AT, but how this change......-naphthaleneacetic acid, but not indole-3-acetic acid (IAA). AUX1, PIN1, and PIN2 are involved in the ckrc1-1 root gravity response under increased AT. Furthermore, CKRC1-dependent auxin biosynthesis was critical for maintaining PIN1, PIN2, and AUX1 expression at elevated temperatures. Ethylene was also involved...... in this regulation through the ETR1 pathway. Higher AT can promote CKRC1-dependent auxin biosynthesis by enhancing ETR1-mediated ethylene signaling. Our research suggested that the interaction between auxin and ethylene and that the interaction-mediated polar auxin transport play important roles during the plant...

  3. Spatiotemporal prediction of daily ambient ozone levels across China using random forest for human exposure assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, Yu; Luo, Yuzhou; Deng, Xunfei; Grieneisen, Michael L; Zhang, Minghua; Di, Baofeng

    2018-02-01

    In China, ozone pollution shows an increasing trend and becomes the primary air pollutant in warm seasons. Leveraging the air quality monitoring network, a random forest model is developed to predict the daily maximum 8-h average ozone concentrations ([O 3 ] MDA8 ) across China in 2015 for human exposure assessment. This model captures the observed spatiotemporal variations of [O 3 ] MDA8 by using the data of meteorology, elevation, and recent-year emission inventories (cross-validation R 2  = 0.69 and RMSE = 26 μg/m 3 ). Compared with chemical transport models that require a plenty of variables and expensive computation, the random forest model shows comparable or higher predictive performance based on only a handful of readily-available variables at much lower computational cost. The nationwide population-weighted [O 3 ] MDA8 is predicted to be 84 ± 23 μg/m 3 annually, with the highest seasonal mean in the summer (103 ± 8 μg/m 3 ). The summer [O 3 ] MDA8 is predicted to be the highest in North China (125 ± 17 μg/m 3 ). Approximately 58% of the population lives in areas with more than 100 nonattainment days ([O 3 ] MDA8 >100 μg/m 3 ), and 12% of the population are exposed to [O 3 ] MDA8 >160 μg/m 3 (WHO Interim Target 1) for more than 30 days. As the most populous zones in China, the Beijing-Tianjin Metro, Yangtze River Delta, Pearl River Delta, and Sichuan Basin are predicted to be at 154, 141, 124, and 98 nonattainment days, respectively. Effective controls of O 3 pollution are urgently needed for the highly-populated zones, especially the Beijing-Tianjin Metro with seasonal [O 3 ] MDA8 of 140 ± 29 μg/m 3 in summer. To the best of the authors' knowledge, this study is the first statistical modeling work of ambient O 3 for China at the national level. This timely and extensively validated [O 3 ] MDA8 dataset is valuable for refining epidemiological analyses on O 3 pollution in China. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights

  4. Chloroplastic responses of ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) seedlings to ozone exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Paul D; Palmer, Brent; Houpis, James L J; Smith, Mary K; Pushnik, James C

    2003-06-01

    Integrity of chloroplast membranes is essential to photosynthesis. Loss of thylakoid membrane integrity has been proposed as a consequence of ozone (O(3)) exposure and therefore may be a mechanistic basis for decreased photosynthetic rates commonly associated with ozone exposure. To investigate this hypothesis, Pinus ponderosa seedlings were exposed to ambient air or ozone concentrations maintained at 0.15 or 0.30 microliter l(-1) for 10 h day(-1) for 51 days during their second growing season. Over the course of the study, foliage samples were periodically collected for thylakoid membrane, chlorophyll and protein analyses. Additionally, gas-exchange measurements were made in conjunction with foliage sampling to verify that observed chloroplastic responses were associated with ozone-induced changes in photosynthesis. Needles exposed to elevated ozone exhibited decreases in chlorophyll a and b content. The decreases were dependent on the duration and intensity of ozone exposure. When based on equal amounts of chlorophyll, ozone-exposed sample tissue exhibited an increase in total protein. When based on equal amounts of protein, ozone-exposed samples exhibited an increase in 37 kDa proteins, possibly consisting of breakdown products, and a possible decrease in 68 kDa proteins, Rubisco small subunit. There was also a change in the ratio of Photosystem I protein complexes CPI and CPII that may have contributed to decreased photosynthesis. Net photosynthetic rates were decreased in the high ozone treatment suggesting that observed structural and biochemical changes in the chloroplast were associated with alterations of the photosynthetic process.

  5. Ozone Bioindicator Gardens: an Educational Tool to Raise Awareness about Environmental Pollution and its Effects on Living Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapina, K.; Lombardozzi, D.

    2014-12-01

    High concentrations of ground-level ozone cause health problems in humans and a number of negative effects on plants, from reduced yield for major agricultural crops to reduced amounts of carbon stored in trees. The Denver Metro/Colorado Front Range is exceeding the National Ambient Air Quality Standard for ozone on a regular basis in summer and the efforts to reduce the ozone levels are hampered by the presence of diverse pollution sources and complex meteorology in the region. To raise public awareness of air quality in the Colorado Front Range and to educate all age groups about ground-level ozone, two ozone bioindicator gardens were planted in Boulder in Spring 2014. The gardens contain ozone-sensitive plants that develop a characteristic ozone injury when exposed to high levels of ozone. The ozone gardens are providing the general public with a real-life demonstration of the negative effects of ozone pollution through observable plant damage. Additionally, the gardens are useful in teaching students how to collect and analyze real-world scientific data.

  6. Growth response of four species of Eastern hardwood tree seedlings exposed to ozone, acidic precipitation, and sulfur dioxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, D.D. Skelly, J.M.

    1992-01-01

    In 1987 a study was conducted in controlled environment chambers to determine the foliar sensitivity of tree seedlings of eight species to ozone and acidic precipitation, and to determine the influence of leaf position on symptom severity. Jensen and Dochinger conducted concurrent similar studies in Continuously Stirred Tank Reactor (CSTR) chambers with ten species of forest trees. Based on the results of these initial studies, four species representing a range in foliar sensitivity to ozone were chosen: black cherry (Prunus serotina Ehrh.), red maple (Acer rubrum L.), northern red oak (Quercus rubra L.) and yellow-poplar (Liriodendron tulipifera L.). These species were also chosen because of their ecological and/or commercial importance in Pennsylvania. Seedlings were exposed in growth chambers simulated acid rain. In addition acute exposures to sulfur dioxide were conducted in a regime based on unpublished monitoring data collected near coal-fired power plants. The objective of this study was to determine if the pollutant treatments influenced the growth and productivity of seedlings of these four species. This information will help researchers and foresters understand the role of air pollution in productivity of eastern forests

  7. Development of an instrument for direct ozone production rate measurements: measurement reliability and current limitations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sklaveniti, Sofia; Locoge, Nadine; Stevens, Philip S.; Wood, Ezra; Kundu, Shuvashish; Dusanter, Sébastien

    2018-02-01

    Ground-level ozone (O3) is an important pollutant that affects both global climate change and regional air quality, with the latter linked to detrimental effects on both human health and ecosystems. Ozone is not directly emitted in the atmosphere but is formed from chemical reactions involving volatile organic compounds (VOCs), nitrogen oxides (NOx = NO + NO2) and sunlight. The photochemical nature of ozone makes the implementation of reduction strategies challenging and a good understanding of its formation chemistry is fundamental in order to develop efficient strategies of ozone reduction from mitigation measures of primary VOCs and NOx emissions. An instrument for direct measurements of ozone production rates (OPRs) was developed and deployed in the field as part of the IRRONIC (Indiana Radical, Reactivity and Ozone Production Intercomparison) field campaign. The OPR instrument is based on the principle of the previously published MOPS instrument (Measurement of Ozone Production Sensor) but using a different sampling design made of quartz flow tubes and a different Ox (O3 and NO2) conversion-detection scheme composed of an O3-to-NO2 conversion unit and a cavity attenuated phase shift spectroscopy (CAPS) NO2 monitor. Tests performed in the laboratory and in the field, together with model simulations of the radical chemistry occurring inside the flow tubes, were used to assess (i) the reliability of the measurement principle and (ii) potential biases associated with OPR measurements. This publication reports the first field measurements made using this instrument to illustrate its performance. The results showed that a photo-enhanced loss of ozone inside the sampling flow tubes disturbs the measurements. This issue needs to be solved to be able to perform accurate ambient measurements of ozone production rates with the instrument described in this study. However, an attempt was made to investigate the OPR sensitivity to NOx by adding NO inside the instrument

  8. Mode I and Mode II Interlaminar Crack Growth Resistances of Ceramic Matrix Composites at Ambient Temperature

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Choi, Sung R; Kowalik, Robert W; Alexander, Donald J

    2007-01-01

    ...) including three gas-turbine grade melt-infiltrated SiC/SiC composites. Modes I and II crack growth resistances, GI and GII, were evaluated at ambient temperature using double cantilever beam and end notched flexure methods, respectively...

  9. 40 CFR 52.1582 - Control strategy and regulations: Ozone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy and regulations: Ozone... Control strategy and regulations: Ozone. (a) Subchapter 16 of the New Jersey Administrative Code, entitled... demonstration that emissions from growth in vehicle miles traveled will not increase motor vehicle emissions and...

  10. Exploring the Liquefied Petroleum Gas - Ozone Relation in Guadalajara, Mexico, by Smog Chamber Experiments

    OpenAIRE

    Jaimes-López, José Luis; Sandoval-Fernández, Julio; Zambrano-García, Angel

    2005-01-01

    It has been hypothesized that liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) emissions can increase substantially the formation of ozone (O3) in the ambient air. We tested experimentally such hypothesis in Guadalajara's downtown by captive-air irradiation (CAI) techniques. During November 1997-January, 1998, morning ambient air samples were confined in outdoor smog chambers and subjected to the following treatments: 35% addition of commercial LPG or one out of two mixtures of major LPG compounds (propane/buta...

  11. Ethylenediurea (EDU): A research tool for assessment and verification of the effects of ground level ozone on plants under natural conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manning, William J. [Department of Plant, Soil and Insect Sciences, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003-9320 (United States); Paoletti, Elena, E-mail: e.paoletti@ipp.cnr.it [IPP CNR, Via Madonna del Piano 10, I-50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); Sandermann, Heinrich [ecotox.freiburg, Schubertstr. 1, D-79104 Freiburg (Germany); Helmholtz Zentrum Muenchen, German Research Center for Environmental Health, Institute of Biochemical Plant Pathology, D-85764 Neuherberg (Germany); Ernst, Dieter [ecotox.freiburg, Schubertstr. 1, D-79104 Freiburg (Germany)

    2011-12-15

    Ethylenediurea (EDU) has been widely used to prevent ozone (O{sub 3}) injury and crop losses in crop plants and growth reductions in forest trees. Successful use requires establishing a dose/response curve for EDU and the proposed plant in the absence of O{sub 3} and in the presence of O{sub 3} before initiating multiple applications to prevent O{sub 3} injury. EDU can be used to verify foliar O{sub 3} symptoms in the field, and to screen plants for sensitivity to O{sub 3} under ambient conditions. Despite considerable research, the mode of action of EDU remains elusive. Additional research on the mode of action of EDU in suppressing O{sub 3} injury in plants may also be helpful in understanding the mode of action of O{sub 3} in causing injury in plants. - EDU is a verified and effective tool for the assessment of the effects of ozone on plants.

  12. Psidium guajava 'Paluma' (the guava plant) as a new bio-indicator of ozone in the tropics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furlan, C.M.; Moraes, R.M.; Bulbovas, P.; Domingos, M.; Salatino, A.; Sanz, M.J.

    2007-01-01

    Psidium guajava 'Paluma' saplings were exposed to carbon filtered air (CF), ambient non-filtered air (NF), and ambient non-filtered air + 40 ppb ozone (NF + O 3 ) 8 h per day during two months. The AOT40 values at the end of the experiment were 48, 910 and 12 895 ppb h -1 , respectively for the three treatments. After 5 days of exposure (AOT40 = 1497 ppb h -1 ), interveinal red stippling appeared in plants in the NF + O 3 chamber. In the NF chamber, symptoms were observed only after 40 days of exposure (AOT40 = 880 ppb h -1 ). After 60 days, injured leaves per plant corresponded to 86% in NF + O 3 and 25% in the NF treatment, and the average leaf area injured was 45% in NF + O 3 and 5% in the NF treatment. The extent of leaf area injured (leaf injury index) was explained mainly by the accumulated exposure of ozone (r 2 = 0.91; p < 0.05). - Psidium guajava 'Paluma', a tropical species widely used in Brazilian food industry, is a potential sensitive bio-indicator of ozone

  13. Ecosystem Effects of Ozone Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ground level ozone is absorbed by the leaves of plants, where it can reduce photosynthesis, damage leaves and slow growth. It can also make sensitive plants more susceptible to certain diseases, insects, harsh weather and other pollutants.

  14. Suitability of Nicotiana tabacum 'Bel W3' for biomonitoring ozone in Sao Paulo, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sant' Anna, Silvia M.R.; Esposito, Marisia P.; Domingos, Marisa [Instituto de Botanica, Secao de Ecologia, Caixa Postal 3005, 01061-970 Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Souza, Silvia R. [Instituto de Botanica, Secao de Ecologia, Caixa Postal 3005, 01061-970 Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)], E-mail: souzasrd@terra.com.br

    2008-01-15

    Nicotiana tabacum 'Bel W3' is a widely used sensitive bioindicator for ambient ozone, but it is rarely used in tropical countries. Our goal was to determine the suitability of this plant for biomonitoring ozone in the city of Sao Paulo by evaluating the relationships between leaf necroses and ozone under field conditions and measurements of chlorophyll a fluorescence and antioxidants in plants exposed to different concentrations of ozone in closed chambers. While a weak linear relationship between leaf injury and ozone concentrations (R{sup 2} = 0.10) was determined in the field, a strong linear relationship was observed in the chamber experiments. Maximum leaf injury was observed in plants submitted to 40 ppb, which coincided with a significant decrease in fluorescence and total ascorbic acid. The relationship between leaf damage observed in the field and ozone was improved when the concentrations were limited to 40 ppb (R{sup 2} = 0.28). - Nicotiana tabacum 'Bel W3' is suitable for indicating low ozone levels in Brazil.

  15. Effects of Ambient Temperature on Growth Performance, Blood Metabolites, and Immune Cell Populations in Korean Cattle Steers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. J. Kang

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Exposure to cold may affect growth performance in accordance with the metabolic and immunological activities of animals. We evaluated whether ambient temperature affects growth performance, blood metabolites, and immune cell populations in Korean cattle. Eighteen Korean cattle steers with a mean age of 10 months and a mean weight of 277 kg were used. All steers were fed a growing stage-concentrate diet at a rate of 1.5% of body weight and Timothy hay ad libitum for 8 weeks. Experimental period 1 (P1 was for four weeks from March 7 to April 3 and period 2 (P2 was four weeks from April 4 to May 1. Mean (8.7°C and minimum (1.0°C indoor ambient temperatures during P1 were lower (p<0.001 than those (13.0°C and 6.2°C, respectively during P2. Daily dry matter feed intake in both the concentrate diet and forage groups was higher (p<0.001 during P2 than P1. Average daily weight gain was higher (p<0.001 during P2 (1.38 kg/d than P1 (1.13 kg/d. Feed efficiency during P2 was higher (p = 0.015 than P1. Blood was collected three times; on March 7, April 4, and May 2. Nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA were higher on March 7 than April 4 and May 2. Blood cortisol, glucose, and triglyceride concentrations did not differ among months. Blood CD4+, CD8+, and CD4+CD25+ T cell percentages were higher, while CD8+CD25+ T cell percentage was lower, during the colder month of March than during May, suggesting that ambient temperature affects blood T cell populations. In conclusion, colder ambient temperature decreased growth and feed efficiency in Korean cattle steers. The higher circulating NEFA concentrations observed in March compared to April suggest that lipolysis may occur at colder ambient temperatures to generate heat and maintain body temperature, resulting in lower feed efficiency in March.

  16. Chemical processes related to net ozone tendencies in the free troposphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozem, Heiko; Butler, Tim M.; Lawrence, Mark G.; Harder, Hartwig; Martinez, Monica; Kubistin, Dagmar; Lelieveld, Jos; Fischer, Horst

    2017-09-01

    Ozone (O3) is an important atmospheric oxidant, a greenhouse gas, and a hazard to human health and agriculture. Here we describe airborne in situ measurements and model simulations of O3 and its precursors during tropical and extratropical field campaigns over South America and Europe, respectively. Using the measurements, net ozone formation/destruction tendencies are calculated and compared to 3-D chemistry-transport model simulations. In general, observation-based net ozone tendencies are positive in the continental boundary layer and the upper troposphere at altitudes above ˜ 6 km in both environments. On the other hand, in the marine boundary layer and the middle troposphere, from the top of the boundary layer to about 6-8 km altitude, net O3 destruction prevails. The ozone tendencies are controlled by ambient concentrations of nitrogen oxides (NOx). In regions with net ozone destruction the available NOx is below the threshold value at which production and destruction of O3 balance. While threshold NO values increase with altitude, in the upper troposphere NOx concentrations are generally higher due to the integral effect of convective precursor transport from the boundary layer, downward transport from the stratosphere and NOx produced by lightning. Two case studies indicate that in fresh convective outflow of electrified thunderstorms net ozone production is enhanced by a factor 5-6 compared to the undisturbed upper tropospheric background. The chemistry-transport model MATCH-MPIC generally reproduces the pattern of observation-based net ozone tendencies but mostly underestimates the magnitude of the net tendency (for both net ozone production and destruction).

  17. Estimating changes in urban ozone concentrations due to life cycle emissions from hydrogen transportation systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guihua; Ogden, Joan M.; Chang, Daniel P. Y.

    Hydrogen has been proposed as a low polluting alternative transportation fuel that could help improve urban air quality. This paper examines the potential impact of introducing a hydrogen-based transportation system on urban ambient ozone concentrations. This paper considers two scenarios, where significant numbers of new hydrogen vehicles are added to a constant number of gasoline vehicles. In our scenarios hydrogen fuel cell vehicles (HFCVs) are introduced in Sacramento, California at market penetrations of 9% and 20%. From a life cycle analysis (LCA) perspective, considering all the emissions involved in producing, transporting, and using hydrogen, this research compares three hypothetical natural gas to hydrogen pathways: (1) on-site hydrogen production; (2) central hydrogen production with pipeline delivery; and (3) central hydrogen production with liquid hydrogen truck delivery. Using a regression model, this research shows that the daily maximum temperature correlates well with atmospheric ozone formation. However, increases in initial VOC and NO x concentrations do not necessarily increase the peak ozone concentration, and may even cause it to decrease. It is found that ozone formation is generally limited by NO x in the summer and is mostly limited by VOC in the fall in Sacramento. Of the three hydrogen pathways, the truck delivery pathway contributes the most to ozone precursor emissions. Ozone precursor emissions from the truck pathway at 9% market penetration can cause additional 3-h average VOC (or NO x) concentrations up to approximately 0.05% (or 1%) of current pollution levels, and at 20% market penetration up to approximately 0.1% (or 2%) of current pollution levels. However, all of the hydrogen pathways would result in very small (either negative or positive) changes in ozone air quality. In some cases they will result in worse ozone air quality (mostly in July, August, and September), and in some cases they will result in better ozone air quality

  18. Estimating changes in urban ozone concentrations due to life cycle emissions from hydrogen transportation systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guihua Wang; Ogden, Joan M.; Chang, Daniel P.Y.

    2007-01-01

    Hydrogen has been proposed as a low polluting alternative transportation fuel that could help improve urban air quality. This paper examines the potential impact of introducing a hydrogen-based transportation system on urban ambient ozone concentrations. This paper considers two scenarios, where significant numbers of new hydrogen vehicles are added to a constant number of gasoline vehicles. In our scenarios hydrogen fuel cell vehicles (HFCVs) are introduced in Sacramento, California at market penetrations of 9% and 20%. From a life cycle analysis (LCA) perspective, considering all the emissions involved in producing, transporting, and using hydrogen, this research compares three hypothetical natural gas to hydrogen pathways: (1) on-site hydrogen production; (2) central hydrogen production with pipeline delivery; and (3) central hydrogen production with liquid hydrogen truck delivery. Using a regression model, this research shows that the daily maximum temperature correlates well with atmospheric ozone formation. However, increases in initial VOC and NO x concentrations do not necessarily increase the peak ozone concentration, and may even cause it to decrease. It is found that ozone formation is generally limited by NO x in the summer and is mostly limited by VOC in the fall in Sacramento. Of the three hydrogen pathways, the truck delivery pathway contributes the most to ozone precursor emissions. Ozone precursor emissions from the truck pathway at 9% market penetration can cause additional 3-h average VOC (or NO x ) concentrations up to approximately 0.05% (or 1%) of current pollution levels, and at 20% market penetration up to approximately 0.1% (or 2%) of current pollution levels. However, all of the hydrogen pathways would result in very small (either negative or positive) changes in ozone air quality. In some cases they will result in worse ozone air quality (mostly in July, August, and September), and in some cases they will result in better ozone air

  19. Experimental investigation on oxidation kinetics of germanium by ozone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Xiaolei, E-mail: wangxiaolei@ime.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Microelectronics Devices & Integrated Technology, Institute of Microelectronics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100029 (China); Zhao, Zhiqian; Xiang, Jinjuan [Key Laboratory of Microelectronics Devices & Integrated Technology, Institute of Microelectronics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100029 (China); Wang, Wenwu, E-mail: wangwenwu@ime.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Microelectronics Devices & Integrated Technology, Institute of Microelectronics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100029 (China); Zhang, Jing, E-mail: zhangj@ncut.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Microelectronics Devices & Integrated Technology, Institute of Microelectronics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100029 (China); Microelectronics Department, North China University of Technology, Beijing 100041 (China); Zhao, Chao; Ye, Tianchun [Key Laboratory of Microelectronics Devices & Integrated Technology, Institute of Microelectronics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100029 (China)

    2016-12-30

    Highlights: • Kinetics mechanism of Ge surface oxidation by ozone at low temperature is experimentally investigated. • The growth process contains initially linear growth region and following parabolic growth region. • The GeO{sub x} thickness vs. oxidation time plot obeys the well-known Deal-Grove or linear parabolic model. • The linear growth region includes the oxidation of two topmost Ge layers, and the oxidation of third layer and following layers of Ge is diffusion limited. • The activation energies for linear and parabolic regions are 0.04 and 0.55 eV, respectively. - Abstract: Oxidation kinetics of germanium surface by ozone at low temperature (≤400 °C) is experimentally investigated. The growth process contains two regions: initial linear growth region and following parabolic growth region. The GeO{sub x} thickness vs. oxidation time plot obeys the well-known Deal-Grove or linear parabolic model. The linear growth region contains reaction of oxygen atoms with surface bond and back bonds of outmost Ge layer. And the activation energy is experimentally estimated to be 0.06 eV. Such small activation energy indicates that the linear growth region is nearly barrier-less. The parabolic growth region starts when the oxygen atoms diffuse into back bonds of second outmost Ge layers. And the activation energy for this process is found to be 0.54 eV. Furthermore, in the ozone oxidation it is not O{sub 3} molecules but O radicals that go through the GeO{sub x} film.

  20. Distribution and urban-suburban differences in ground-level ozone and its precursors over Shenyang, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ningwei; Ren, Wanhui; Li, Xiaolan; Ma, Xiaogang; Zhang, Yunhai; Li, Bingkun

    2018-03-01

    Hourly mixing ratio data of ground-level ozone and its main precursors at ambient air quality monitoring sites in Shenyang during 2013-2015 were used to survey spatiotemporal variations in ozone. Then, the transport of ozone and its precursors among urban, suburban, and rural sites was examined. The correlations between ozone and some key meteorological factors were also investigated. Ozone and O x mixing ratios in Shenyang were higher during warm seasons and lower during cold ones, while ozone precursors followed the opposite cycle. Ozone mixing ratios reached maximum and minimum values in the afternoon and morning, respectively, reflecting the significant influence of photochemical production during daytime and depletion via titration during nighttime. Compared to those in downtown Shenyang, ozone mixing ratios were higher and the occurrence of peak values were later in suburban and rural areas downwind of the prevailing wind. The differences were most significant in summer, when the ozone mixing ratios at one suburban downwind site reached a maximum value of 35.6 ppb higher than those at the downtown site. This suggests that photochemical production processes were significant during the transport of ozone precursors, particularly in warm seasons with sufficient sunlight. Temperature, total radiation, and wind speed all displayed positive correlations with ozone concentration, reflecting their important role in accelerating ozone formation. Generally, the correlations between ozone and meteorological factors were slightly stronger at suburban sites than in urban areas, indicating that ozone levels in suburban areas were more sensitive to these meteorological factors.

  1. The dynamics of ozone generation and mode transition in air surface micro-discharge plasma at atmospheric pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimizu, Tetsuji; Zimmermann, Julia L; Morfill, Gregor E; Sakiyama, Yukinori; Graves, David B

    2012-01-01

    We present the transient, dynamic behavior of ozone production in surface micro-discharge (SMD) plasma in ambient air. Ultraviolet absorption spectroscopy at 254 nm was used to measure the time development of ozone density in a confined volume. We observed that ozone density increases monotonically over 1000 ppm for at least a few minutes when the input power is lower than ∼0.1 W/cm 2 . Interestingly, when input power is higher than ∼0.1 W/cm 2 , ozone density starts to decrease in a few tens of seconds at a constant power density, showing a peak ozone density. A model calculation suggests that the ozone depletion at higher power density is caused by quenching reactions with nitrogen oxides that are in turn created by vibrationally excited nitrogen molecules reacting with O atoms. The observed mode transition is significantly different from classical ozone reactors in that the transition takes place over time at a constant power. In addition, we observed a positive correlation between time-averaged ozone density and the inactivation rate of Escherichia coli on adjacent agar plates, suggesting that ozone plays a key role in inactivating bacteria under the conditions considered here. (paper)

  2. Ozone Effects on Fruit Productivity and Photosynthetic Response of Two Tomato Cultivars in Relation to Stomatal Fluxes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giacomo Gerosa

    Full Text Available An Open-Top Chamber experiment on two tomato cultivars (cv. Oxheart and cv. San Marzano was carried out in Curno (Northern Italy between June and September 2007. Two ozone treatments were applied for a 3.5 months period: Non-Filtered OTC (NF-OTC, 95% of ambient ozone and Charcoal-Filtered OTC (CF-OTC, 50% of ambient ozone. Diurnal cycles of porometry measurements were performed during the season and allowed to draw a stomatal conductance model for each cultivar in order to calculate the ozone stomatal fluxes taken up by plants. Assessments on fruits yield were performed during the season, taking into account the number of fruits, their fresh weight and their marketability. In addition, measurements on the chlorophyll fluorescence of photosystems were carried out to assess possible negative effects on photosynthetic efficiency. Despite the two cultivars absorbed a similar ozone stomatal dose during the season (with an 8% difference, their responses to ozone treatments were totally divergent in relation to both fruits yield and photosynthetic efficiency. Plants of cv. Oxheart grown in NF-OTCs showed significant yield loss in the total weight of fruits (-35.9% which is exclusively related to a decrease in the number of fruits produced (-35.7% of total fruits; -30.6% of marketable fruits, since mean fresh weight of fruits remained unaffected. Moreover the same plants displayed low values (in comparison to CF-OTCs plants of the photosynthetic efficiency index (PIabs during the most intense period of ozone stress (July occurred in the flowering stage of plants and at the beginning of fructification. Plants of the cv. San Marzano had an opposite response behaviour with an increase of the mean fresh weight of fruits in plants grown in NF-OTC (even if not statistically significant and no difference in the number of fruits produced and in the values of photosynthetic efficiency.

  3. Growth overcompensation against O3 exposure in two Japanese oak species, Quercus mongolica var. crispula and Quercus serrata, grown under elevated CO2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitao, Mitsutoshi; Komatsu, Masabumi; Yazaki, Kenichi; Kitaoka, Satoshi; Tobita, Hiroyuki

    2015-11-01

    To assess the effects of elevated concentrations of carbon dioxide (CO2) and ozone (O3) on the growth of two mid-successional oak species native to East Asia, Quercus mongolica var. crispula and Quercus serrata, we measured gas exchange and biomass allocation in seedlings (initially 1-year-old) grown under combinations of elevated CO2 (550 μmol mol(-1)) and O3 (twice-ambient) for two growing seasons in an open-field experiment in which root growth was not limited. Both the oak species showed a significant growth enhancement under the combination of elevated CO2 and O3 (indicated by total dry mass; over twice of ambient-grown plants, p CO2. Such an over-compensative response in the two Japanese oak species resulted in greater plant growth under the combination of elevated CO2 and O3 than elevated CO2 alone. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Long-term exposure to ambient ozone and mortality: a quantitative systematic review and meta-analysis of evidence from cohort studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkinson, R W; Butland, B K; Dimitroulopoulou, C; Heal, M R; Stedman, J R; Carslaw, N; Jarvis, D; Heaviside, C; Vardoulakis, S; Walton, H; Anderson, H R

    2016-02-23

    While there is good evidence for associations between short-term exposure to ozone and a range of adverse health outcomes, the evidence from narrative reviews for long-term exposure is suggestive of associations with respiratory mortality only. We conducted a systematic, quantitative evaluation of the evidence from cohort studies, reporting associations between long-term exposure to ozone and mortality. Cohort studies published in peer-reviewed journals indexed in EMBASE and MEDLINE to September 2015 and PubMed to October 2015 and cited in reviews/key publications were identified via search strings using terms relating to study design, pollutant and health outcome. Study details and estimate information were extracted and used to calculate standardised effect estimates expressed as HRs per 10 ppb increment in long-term ozone concentrations. 14 publications from 8 cohorts presented results for ozone and all-cause and cause-specific mortality. We found no evidence of associations between long-term annual O3 concentrations and the risk of death from all causes, cardiovascular or respiratory diseases, or lung cancer. 4 cohorts assessed ozone concentrations measured during the warm season. Summary HRs for cardiovascular and respiratory causes of death derived from 3 cohorts were 1.01 (95% CI 1.00 to 1.02) and 1.03 (95% CI 1.01 to 1.05) per 10 ppb, respectively. Our quantitative review revealed a paucity of independent studies regarding the associations between long-term exposure to ozone and mortality. The potential impact of climate change and increasing anthropogenic emissions of ozone precursors on ozone levels worldwide suggests further studies of the long-term effects of exposure to high ozone levels are warranted. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  5. Impact of biogenic emission uncertainties on the simulated response of ozone and fine particulate matter to anthropogenic emission reductions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogrefe, Christian; Isukapalli, Sastry S; Tang, Xiaogang; Georgopoulos, Panos G; He, Shan; Zalewsky, Eric E; Hao, Winston; Ku, Jia-Yeong; Key, Tonalee; Sistla, Gopal

    2011-01-01

    The role of emissions of volatile organic compounds and nitric oxide from biogenic sources is becoming increasingly important in regulatory air quality modeling as levels of anthropogenic emissions continue to decrease and stricter health-based air quality standards are being adopted. However, considerable uncertainties still exist in the current estimation methodologies for biogenic emissions. The impact of these uncertainties on ozone and fine particulate matter (PM2.5) levels for the eastern United States was studied, focusing on biogenic emissions estimates from two commonly used biogenic emission models, the Model of Emissions of Gases and Aerosols from Nature (MEGAN) and the Biogenic Emissions Inventory System (BEIS). Photochemical grid modeling simulations were performed for two scenarios: one reflecting present day conditions and the other reflecting a hypothetical future year with reductions in emissions of anthropogenic oxides of nitrogen (NOx). For ozone, the use of MEGAN emissions resulted in a higher ozone response to hypothetical anthropogenic NOx emission reductions compared with BEIS. Applying the current U.S. Environmental Protection Agency guidance on regulatory air quality modeling in conjunction with typical maximum ozone concentrations, the differences in estimated future year ozone design values (DVF) stemming from differences in biogenic emissions estimates were on the order of 4 parts per billion (ppb), corresponding to approximately 5% of the daily maximum 8-hr ozone National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS) of 75 ppb. For PM2.5, the differences were 0.1-0.25 microg/m3 in the summer total organic mass component of DVFs, corresponding to approximately 1-2% of the value of the annual PM2.5 NAAQS of 15 microg/m3. Spatial variations in the ozone and PM2.5 differences also reveal that the impacts of different biogenic emission estimates on ozone and PM2.5 levels are dependent on ambient levels of anthropogenic emissions.

  6. Modeling mechanisms of susceptibility in vitro: Differential activation of the MAP kinase ERK, but not p38, mediates variability and adaptation in the pro-inflammatory response to ozone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozone is a ubiquitous ambient air pollutant that causes pulmonary inflammation upon exposure. The ozone-induced inflammatory response varies by orders of magnitude and the range of variation in “healthy” individuals extends beyond that of “susceptible” po...

  7. Analyzer for measurement of nitrogen oxide concentration by ozone content reduction in gas using solid state chemiluminescent sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chelibanov, V. P.; Ishanin, G. G.; Isaev, L. N.

    2014-05-01

    Role of nitrogen oxide in ambient air is described and analyzed. New method of nitrogen oxide concentration measurement in gas phase is suggested based on ozone concentration measurement with titration by nitrogen oxide. Research of chemiluminescent sensor composition is carried out on experimental stand. The sensor produced on the base of solid state non-activated chemiluminescent composition is applied as ozone sensor. Composition is put on the surface of polymer matrix with developed surface. Sensor compositions includes gallic acid with addition of rodamine-6G. Model of interaction process between sensor composition and ozone has been developed, main products appeared during reaction are identified. The product determining the speed of luminescense appearance is found. This product belongs to quinone class. Then new structure of chemiluminescent composition was suggested, with absence of activation period and with high stability of operation. Experimental model of gas analyzer was constructed and operation algorithm was developed. It was demonstrated that developed NO measuring instrument would be applied for monitoring purposes of ambient air. This work was partially financially supported by Government of Russian Federation, Grant 074-U01

  8. Seasonal and diurnal gas exchange differences in ozone-sensitive common milkweed (Asclepias syriaca L.) in relation to ozone uptake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergweiler, Chris; Manning, William J.; Chevone, Boris I.

    2008-01-01

    Stomatal conductance and net photosynthesis of common milkweed (Asclepias syriaca L.) plants in two different soil moisture regimes were directly quantified and subsequently modeled over an entire growing season. Direct measurements captured the dynamic response of stomatal conductance to changing environmental conditions throughout the day, as well as declining gas exchange and carbon assimilation throughout the growth period beyond an early summer maximum. This phenomenon was observed in plants grown both with and without supplemental soil moisture, the latter of which should theoretically mitigate against harmful physiological effects caused by exposure to ozone. Seasonally declining rates of stomatal conductance were found to be substantial and incorporated into models, making them less susceptible to the overestimations of effective exposure that are an inherent source of error in ozone exposure indices. The species-specific evidence presented here supports the integration of dynamic physiological processes into flux-based modeling approaches for the prediction of ozone injury in vegetation. - Temporal variation in physiological processes underlying diurnal and seasonal ozone uptake are described for a key ozone bioindicator species of North America

  9. Seasonal and diurnal gas exchange differences in ozone-sensitive common milkweed (Asclepias syriaca L.) in relation to ozone uptake

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergweiler, Chris [Department of Plant, Soil, and Insect Sciences, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003 (United States)], E-mail: bergweiler@nre.umass.edu; Manning, William J. [Department of Plant, Soil, and Insect Sciences, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003 (United States); Chevone, Boris I. [Department of Plant Pathology, Physiology, and Weed Science, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, VA 24061 (United States)

    2008-03-15

    Stomatal conductance and net photosynthesis of common milkweed (Asclepias syriaca L.) plants in two different soil moisture regimes were directly quantified and subsequently modeled over an entire growing season. Direct measurements captured the dynamic response of stomatal conductance to changing environmental conditions throughout the day, as well as declining gas exchange and carbon assimilation throughout the growth period beyond an early summer maximum. This phenomenon was observed in plants grown both with and without supplemental soil moisture, the latter of which should theoretically mitigate against harmful physiological effects caused by exposure to ozone. Seasonally declining rates of stomatal conductance were found to be substantial and incorporated into models, making them less susceptible to the overestimations of effective exposure that are an inherent source of error in ozone exposure indices. The species-specific evidence presented here supports the integration of dynamic physiological processes into flux-based modeling approaches for the prediction of ozone injury in vegetation. - Temporal variation in physiological processes underlying diurnal and seasonal ozone uptake are described for a key ozone bioindicator species of North America.

  10. Ozone Depletion in Tropospheric Volcanic Plumes: From Halogen-Poor to Halogen-Rich Emissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tjarda J. Roberts

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Volcanic halogen emissions to the troposphere undergo a rapid plume chemistry that destroys ozone. Quantifying the impact of volcanic halogens on tropospheric ozone is challenging, only a few observations exist. This study presents measurements of ozone in volcanic plumes from Kīlauea (HI, USA, a low halogen emitter. The results are combined with published data from high halogen emitters (Mt Etna, Italy; Mt Redoubt, AK, USA to identify controls on plume processes. Ozone was measured during periods of relatively sustained Kīlauea plume exposure, using an Aeroqual instrument deployed alongside Multi-Gas SO2 and H2S sensors. Interferences were accounted for in data post-processing. The volcanic H2S/SO2 molar ratio was quantified as 0.03. At Halema‘uma‘u crater-rim, ozone was close to ambient in the emission plume (at 10 ppmv SO2. Measurements in grounding plume (at 5 ppmv SO2 about 10 km downwind of Pu‘u ‘Ō‘ō showed just slight ozone depletion. These Kīlauea observations contrast with substantial ozone depletion reported at Mt Etna and Mt Redoubt. Analysis of the combined data from these three volcanoes identifies the emitted Br/S as a strong but non-linear control on the rate of ozone depletion. Model simulations of the volcanic plume chemistry highlight that the proportion of HBr converted into reactive bromine is a key control on the efficiency of ozone depletion. This underlines the importance of chemistry in the very near-source plume on the fate and atmospheric impacts of volcanic emissions to the troposphere.

  11. Water stress mitigates the negative effects of ozone on photosynthesis and biomass in poplar plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Feng; Catalayud, Vicent; Paoletti, Elena; Hoshika, Yasutomo; Feng, Zhaozhong

    2017-11-01

    Tropospheric ozone (O 3 ) pollution frequently overlaps with drought episodes but the combined effects are not yet understood. We investigated the physiological and biomass responses of an O 3 sensitive hybrid poplar clone ('546') under three O 3 levels (charcoal-filtered ambient air, non-filtered ambient air (NF), and NF plus 40 ppb) and two watering regimes (well-watered (WW) and reduced watering (RW), i.e. 40% irrigation) for one growing season. Water stress increased chlorophyll and carotenoid contents, protecting leaves from pigment degradation by O 3 . Impairment of photosynthesis by O 3 was also reduced by stomatal closure due to water stress, which preserved light-saturated CO 2 assimilation rate, and the maximum carboxylation efficiency. Water stress increased water use efficiency of the leaves while O 3 decreased it, showing significant interactions. Effects were more evident in older leaves than in younger leaves. Water stress reduced biomass production, but the negative effects of O 3 were less in RW than in WW for total biomass per plant. A stomatal O 3 flux-based dose-response relationship was parameterized considering water stress effects, which explained biomass losses much better than a concentration-based approach. The O 3 critical level of Phytotoxic Ozone Dose over a threshold of 7 nmol O 3 .m -2 .s -1 (POD 7 ) for a 4% biomass loss in this poplar clone under different water regimes was 4.1 mmol m -2 . Our results suggest that current O 3 levels in most parts of China threaten poplar growth and that interaction with water availability is a key factor for O 3 risk assessment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Modelling stomatal ozone flux and deposition to grassland communities across Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashmore, M.R.; Bueker, P.; Emberson, L.D.; Terry, A.C.; Toet, S.

    2007-01-01

    Regional scale modelling of both ozone deposition and the risk of ozone impacts is poorly developed for grassland communities. This paper presents new predictions of stomatal ozone flux to grasslands at five different locations in Europe, using a mechanistic model of canopy development for productive grasslands to generate time series of leaf area index and soil water potential as inputs to the stomatal component of the DO 3 SE ozone deposition model. The parameterisation of both models was based on Lolium perenne, a dominant species of productive pasture in Europe. The modelled seasonal time course of stomatal ozone flux to both the whole canopy and to upper leaves showed large differences between climatic zones, which depended on the timing of the start of the growing season, the effect of soil water potential, and the frequency of hay cuts. Values of modelled accumulated flux indices and the AOT40 index showed a five-fold difference between locations, but the locations with the highest flux differed depending on the index used; the period contributing to the accumulation of AOT40 did not always coincide with the modelled period of active ozone canopy uptake. Use of a fixed seasonal profile of leaf area index in the flux model produced very different estimates of annual accumulated total canopy and leaf ozone flux when compared with the flux model linked to a simulation of canopy growth. Regional scale model estimates of both the risks of ozone impacts and of total ozone deposition will be inaccurate unless the effects of climate and management in modifying grass canopy growth are incorporated. - Modelled stomatal flux of ozone to productive grasslands in Europe shows different spatial and temporal variation to AOT40, and is modified by management and soil water status

  13. Ambient air pollution and pregnancy-induced hypertensive disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Marie; Stayner, Leslie; Slama, Rémy

    2014-01-01

    to ambient air pollution and pregnancy-induced hypertensive disorders including gestational hypertension and preeclampsia. We searched electronic databases for English language studies reporting associations between ambient air pollution and pregnancy-induced hypertensive disorders published between December.......5), carbon monoxide (CO), ozone (O3), proximity to major roads, and traffic density met our inclusion criteria. Most studies reported that air pollution increased risk for pregnancy-induced hypertensive disorders. There was significant heterogeneity in meta-analysis, which included 16 studies reporting...... on gestational hypertension and preeclampsia as separate or combined outcomes; there was less heterogeneity in findings of the 10 studies reporting solely on preeclampsia. Meta-analyses showed increased risks of hypertensive disorders in pregnancy for all pollutants except CO. Random-effect meta...

  14. Ozone Atmospheric Pollution and Alzheimer's Disease: From Epidemiological Facts to Molecular Mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croze, Marine L; Zimmer, Luc

    2018-01-01

    Atmospheric pollution is a well-known environmental hazard, especially in developing countries where millions of people are exposed to airborne pollutant levels above safety standards. Accordingly, several epidemiological and animal studies confirmed its role in respiratory and cardiovascular pathologies and identified a strong link between ambient air pollution exposure and adverse health outcomes such as hospitalization and mortality. More recently, the potential deleterious effect of air pollution inhalation on the central nervous system was also investigated and mounting evidence supports a link between air pollution exposure and neurodegenerative pathologies, especially Alzheimer's disease (AD). The focus of this review is to highlight the possible link between ozone air pollution exposure and AD incidence. This review's approach will go from observational and epidemiological facts to the proposal of molecular mechanisms. First, epidemiological and postmortem human study data concerning residents of ozone-severely polluted megacities will be presented and discussed. Then, the more particular role of ozone air pollution in AD pathology will be described and evidenced by toxicological studies in rat or mouse with ozone pollution exposure only. The experimental paradigms used to reproduce in rodent the human exposure to ozone air pollution will be described. Finally, current insights into the molecular mechanisms through which ozone inhalation can affect the brain and play a role in AD development or progression will be recapitulated.

  15. Ozone generation in positive and negative corona discharge fed by humid oxygen and carbon dioxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skalny, J D; Orszagh, J; MatejcIk, S; Mason, N J

    2008-01-01

    The effect of humidity on ozone generation of positive and negative corona discharges fed by O 2 and CO 2 has been studied in the humidity range of 100-20 000 ppm. The experiments were carried out at an ambient temperature and pressure of 100 kPa. The increase in humidity of CO 2 conspicuously suppressed the ozone generation in negative corona discharge at all values of the input energy densities into the discharge. The effect was less pronounced in oxygen. In contrast to decrease of ozone concentration observed in negative corona discharge, the presence of water both in O 2 and CO 2 acts catalytically. The ozone concentration has been found to increase remarkably (approximately 10 times) in oxygen, if the humidity was increased from 100 to 20 000 ppm. The dependence of ozone concentration on the gas humidity exhibited an extreme. The increase observed at humidity up to approximately 5000 ppm was followed by the marginal reduction in ozone concentration. Anyway, the values of this were considerably higher than those found in dry CO 2 . The effect of humidity on ozone concentration will be discussed in relation to plasma chemical processes in studied discharges and their macroscopic parameters.

  16. Ozone induced leaf loss and decreased leaf production of European Holly (Ilex aquifolium L.) over multiple seasons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ranford, Jonathan; Reiling, Kevin

    2007-01-01

    European Holly (Ilex aquifolium L.) was used to study the impact of one short (28 day) ozone fumigation episode on leaf production, leaf loss and stomatal conductance (g s ), in order to explore potential longer term effects over 3 growing seasons. Young I. aquifolium plants received an episode of either charcoal-filtered air or charcoal-filtered air with 70 nl l -1 O 3 added for 7 h d -1 over a 28 day period from June 15th 1996, then placed into ambient environment, Stoke-on-Trent, U.K. Data were collected per leaf cohort over the next three growing seasons. Ozone exposure significantly increased leaf loss and stomatal conductance and reduced leaf production over all subsequent seasons. Impact of the initial ozone stress was still detected in leaves that had no direct experimental ozone exposure. This study has shown the potential of ozone to introduce long-term phenological perturbations into ecosystems by influencing productivity over a number of seasons. - Ozone significantly alters Ilex aquifolium leaf production and loss over multiple seasons

  17. A new predictive dynamic model describing the effect of the ambient temperature and the convective heat transfer coefficient on bacterial growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Yaghlene, H; Leguerinel, I; Hamdi, M; Mafart, P

    2009-07-31

    In this study, predictive microbiology and food engineering were combined in order to develop a new analytical model predicting the bacterial growth under dynamic temperature conditions. The proposed model associates a simplified primary bacterial growth model without lag, the secondary Ratkowsky "square root" model and a simplified two-parameter heat transfer model regarding an infinite slab. The model takes into consideration the product thickness, its thermal properties, the ambient air temperature, the convective heat transfer coefficient and the growth parameters of the micro organism of concern. For the validation of the overall model, five different combinations of ambient air temperature (ranging from 8 degrees C to 12 degrees C), product thickness (ranging from 1 cm to 6 cm) and convective heat transfer coefficient (ranging from 8 W/(m(2) K) to 60 W/(m(2) K)) were tested during a cooling procedure. Moreover, three different ambient air temperature scenarios assuming alternated cooling and heating stages, drawn from real refrigerated food processes, were tested. General agreement between predicted and observed bacterial growth was obtained and less than 5% of the experimental data fell outside the 95% confidence bands estimated by the bootstrap percentile method, at all the tested conditions. Accordingly, the overall model was successfully validated for isothermal and dynamic refrigeration cycles allowing for temperature dynamic changes at the centre and at the surface of the product. The major impact of the convective heat transfer coefficient and the product thickness on bacterial growth during the product cooling was demonstrated. For instance, the time needed for the same level of bacterial growth to be reached at the product's half thickness was estimated to be 5 and 16.5 h at low and high convection level, respectively. Moreover, simulation results demonstrated that the predicted bacterial growth at the air ambient temperature cannot be assumed to be

  18. Tibouchina pulchra (Cham.) Cogn., a native Atlantic Forest species, as a bio-indicator of ozone: Visible injury

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furlan, Claudia M. [Departamento de Botanica, Instituto de Biociencias, Universidade de Sao Paulo, CP 11461, 05422-970 Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)], E-mail: furlancm@yahoo.com.br; Moraes, Regina M.; Bulbovas, Patricia [Secao de Ecologia, Instituto de Botanica, SMA, CP 4005, 01061-970 Sao Paulo (Brazil); Sanz, Maria J. [Fundacion Centro de Estudios Ambientales del Mediterraneo, Parque Tecnologico, E-46980 Paterna, Valencia (Spain); Domingos, Marisa [Secao de Ecologia, Instituto de Botanica, SMA, CP 4005, 01061-970 Sao Paulo (Brazil); Salatino, Antonio [Departamento de Botanica, Instituto de Biociencias, Universidade de Sao Paulo, CP 11461, 05422-970 Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2008-03-15

    Tibouchina pulchra saplings were exposed to carbon filtered air (CF), ambient non-filtered air (NF) and ambient non-filtered air + 40 ppb ozone (NF + O{sub 3}) 8 h per day during two months. The AOT40 values at the end of the experiment were 48, 910 and 12,895 ppb h{sup -1}, respectively, for the three treatments. After 25 days of exposure (AOT40 = 3871 ppb h{sup -1}), interveinal red stippling appeared in plants in the NF + O{sub 3} chamber. In the NF chamber, symptoms were observed only after 60 days of exposure (AOT40 = 910 ppb h{sup -1}). After 60 days, injured leaves per plant corresponded to 19% in NF + O{sub 3} and 1% in the NF treatment; and the average leaf area injured was 7% within the NF + O{sub 3} and 0.2% within the NF treatment. The extent of leaf area injured (leaf injury index) was mostly explained by the accumulated exposure of ozone (r{sup 2} = 0.89; p < 0.05). - Tibouchina pulchra, a tropical species widely used in Brazilian landscapes as an ornamental tree, is a potential sensitive bio-indicator of ozone air pollution.

  19. Tibouchina pulchra (Cham.) Cogn., a native Atlantic Forest species, as a bio-indicator of ozone: Visible injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furlan, Claudia M.; Moraes, Regina M.; Bulbovas, Patricia; Sanz, Maria J.; Domingos, Marisa; Salatino, Antonio

    2008-01-01

    Tibouchina pulchra saplings were exposed to carbon filtered air (CF), ambient non-filtered air (NF) and ambient non-filtered air + 40 ppb ozone (NF + O 3 ) 8 h per day during two months. The AOT40 values at the end of the experiment were 48, 910 and 12,895 ppb h -1 , respectively, for the three treatments. After 25 days of exposure (AOT40 = 3871 ppb h -1 ), interveinal red stippling appeared in plants in the NF + O 3 chamber. In the NF chamber, symptoms were observed only after 60 days of exposure (AOT40 = 910 ppb h -1 ). After 60 days, injured leaves per plant corresponded to 19% in NF + O 3 and 1% in the NF treatment; and the average leaf area injured was 7% within the NF + O 3 and 0.2% within the NF treatment. The extent of leaf area injured (leaf injury index) was mostly explained by the accumulated exposure of ozone (r 2 = 0.89; p < 0.05). - Tibouchina pulchra, a tropical species widely used in Brazilian landscapes as an ornamental tree, is a potential sensitive bio-indicator of ozone air pollution

  20. Physiological responses of Pinus sylvestris to changing carbon dioxide and ozone concentrations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holopainen, T [Kuopio Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Ecology and Environmental Science; Palomaeki, V [Joensuu Univ. (Finland). Faculty of Forestry; Helmisaari, H S [Finnish Forest Research Inst., Helsinki (Finland); and others

    1997-12-31

    The objective of this research is to study the effects of elevated ozone, carbon dioxide and their combination on ultrastructural, physiological and biochemical responses of Scots pine needles and how these effects are reflected to photosynthesis, carbohydrate and nutrient allocation and finally to shoot and root growth of trees. In addition the interactions of the studied trees and mycorrhizal fungi as well as insect herbivores are studied. The exposures have been running only for two growing periods and it seems necessary to continue the experiment over the third growing season in 1996. Since the analyses are partially incomplete, only preliminary conclusions are possible at the moment. The slightly increased shoot growth and needle width and increased amount of starch in chloroplasts point to the slight stimulating effect of elevated CO{sub 2} among the chamber treatments. Altogether the growth of the seedlings was best in the chamberless treatment indicating a negative chamber effect. The elevated ozone significantly increased the chlorotic mottling and overall yellowing of second year needles as well as caused increased density of chloroplast stroma and declined photosynthesis, all these responses being often related to ozone exposures. The ozone related responses appeared at both CO{sub 2} levels indicating no clear protection due to elevated CO{sub 2}. The ozone or carbon dioxide treatments were not able to significantly change nutrient concentrations, insect herbivory or carbon allocation among the secondary compounds of needles. A tendency of increased carbon allocation to fine roots due to ozone but not so clearly to CO{sub 2} was observed

  1. Physiological responses of Pinus sylvestris to changing carbon dioxide and ozone concentrations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holopainen, T. [Kuopio Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Ecology and Environmental Science; Palomaeki, V. [Joensuu Univ. (Finland). Faculty of Forestry; Helmisaari, H.S. [Finnish Forest Research Inst., Helsinki (Finland)] [and others

    1996-12-31

    The objective of this research is to study the effects of elevated ozone, carbon dioxide and their combination on ultrastructural, physiological and biochemical responses of Scots pine needles and how these effects are reflected to photosynthesis, carbohydrate and nutrient allocation and finally to shoot and root growth of trees. In addition the interactions of the studied trees and mycorrhizal fungi as well as insect herbivores are studied. The exposures have been running only for two growing periods and it seems necessary to continue the experiment over the third growing season in 1996. Since the analyses are partially incomplete, only preliminary conclusions are possible at the moment. The slightly increased shoot growth and needle width and increased amount of starch in chloroplasts point to the slight stimulating effect of elevated CO{sub 2} among the chamber treatments. Altogether the growth of the seedlings was best in the chamberless treatment indicating a negative chamber effect. The elevated ozone significantly increased the chlorotic mottling and overall yellowing of second year needles as well as caused increased density of chloroplast stroma and declined photosynthesis, all these responses being often related to ozone exposures. The ozone related responses appeared at both CO{sub 2} levels indicating no clear protection due to elevated CO{sub 2}. The ozone or carbon dioxide treatments were not able to significantly change nutrient concentrations, insect herbivory or carbon allocation among the secondary compounds of needles. A tendency of increased carbon allocation to fine roots due to ozone but not so clearly to CO{sub 2} was observed

  2. Unequivocal detection of ozone recovery in the Antarctic Ozone Hole through significant increases in atmospheric layers with minimum ozone

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Laat, Jos; van Weele, Michiel; van der A, Ronald

    2015-04-01

    An important new landmark in present day ozone research is presented through MLS satellite observations of significant ozone increases during the ozone hole season that are attributed unequivocally to declining ozone depleting substances. For many decades the Antarctic ozone hole has been the prime example of both the detrimental effects of human activities on our environment as well as how to construct effective and successful environmental policies. Nowadays atmospheric concentrations of ozone depleting substances are on the decline and first signs of recovery of stratospheric ozone and ozone in the Antarctic ozone hole have been observed. The claimed detection of significant recovery, however, is still subject of debate. In this talk we will discuss first current uncertainties in the assessment of ozone recovery in the Antarctic ozone hole by using multi-variate regression methods, and, secondly present an alternative approach to identify ozone hole recovery unequivocally. Even though multi-variate regression methods help to reduce uncertainties in estimates of ozone recovery, great care has to be taken in their application due to the existence of uncertainties and degrees of freedom in the choice of independent variables. We show that taking all uncertainties into account in the regressions the formal recovery of ozone in the Antarctic ozone hole cannot be established yet, though is likely before the end of the decade (before 2020). Rather than focusing on time and area averages of total ozone columns or ozone profiles, we argue that the time evolution of the probability distribution of vertically resolved ozone in the Antarctic ozone hole contains a better fingerprint for the detection of ozone recovery in the Antarctic ozone hole. The advantages of this method over more tradition methods of trend analyses based on spatio-temporal average ozone are discussed. The 10-year record of MLS satellite measurements of ozone in the Antarctic ozone hole shows a

  3. Evaluation of DNA dosimetry to assess ozone-mediated variability of biologically harmful radiation in Antarctica

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    George, AL; Peat, HJ; Buma, AGJ

    In this study we investigated the use of a DNA dosimeter to accurately measure changes in ultraviolet B radiation (UVBR; 280-315 nm) under Antarctic ozone hole conditions. Naked DNA solution in quartz tubes was exposed to ambient solar radiation at Rothera Research Station, Antarctica, between

  4. Tobacco clones derived from tissue culture with supersensitivity to ozone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, E.J.; Kang, H.W.

    2003-01-01

    New tobacco clones supersensitive to ozone were obtained from tissue culture. - At least two supersensitive tobacco somaclones were obtained from tissue culture (TC) , when this approach was used to asexually propagate Bel-W3 tobacco indicator plants. These somaclones can detect as low as 30 ppb ozone for a 4-h exposure duration both within CSTR exposure chambers and in ambient air. Comparison of the injury index and their coefficient of variance showed that the TC plantlets usually have more uniform performance in response to ozone in addition to their higher sensitivity. A quick regeneration procedure was established to preserve the supersensitive germplasm immediately when it was found. The TC plantlets will flower and produce seed similar to seed-grown tobacco. The TC approach proved to be a better propagation system for valuable indicator plant species. The mechanism that causes the variation and the possible difference in their genome from seed-grown tobacco is still unknown. Further studies are needed in the future to determine if factors in the TC system may be responsible for the sensitivity difference

  5. Ozonation for source treatment of pharmaceuticals in hospital wastewater - ozone lifetime and required ozone dose

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kamilla Marie Speht; Spiliotopoulou, Aikaterini; Chhetri, Ravi Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Ozonation aimed at removing pharmaceuticals was studied in an effluent from an experimental pilot system using staged moving bed biofilm reactor (MBBR) tanks for the optimal biological treatment of wastewater from a medical care unit of Aarhus University Hospital. Dissolved organic carbon (DOC......) and pH in samples varied considerably, and the effect of these two parameters on ozone lifetime and the efficiency of ozone in removing pharmaceuticals were determined. The pH in the effluent varied from 5.0 to 9.0 resulting in approximately a doubling of the required ozone dose at the highest p......H for each pharmaceutical. DOC varied from 6 to 20 mg-DOC/L. The ozone required for removing each pharmaceutical, varied linearly with DOC and thus, ozone doses normalized to DOC (specific ozone dose) agreed between water samples (typically within 15%). At neutral pH the specific ozone dose required...

  6. Co-Mitigation of Ozone and PM2.5 Pollution over the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, J.; Xiang, S.; Yi, K.; Tao, W.

    2017-12-01

    With the rapid industrialization and urbanization, emissions of air pollutants in China were increasing rapidly during the past few decades, causing severe particulate matter and ozone pollution in many megacities. Facing these knotty environmental problems, China has released a series of pollution control policies to mitigate air pollution emissions and optimize energy supplement structure. Consequently, fine particulate matters (PM2.5) decrease recently. However, the concentrations of ambient ozone have been increasing, especially during summer time and over megacities. In this study, we focus on the opposite trends of ozone and PM2.5 over the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region. We use the Weather Research and Forecasting model coupled with Chemistry (WRF/Chem) to simulate and analyze the best emission reduction strategies, and adopt the Empirical Kinetics Modeling Approach (EKMA) to depict the influences of mitigating NOx and VOCs. We also incorporate the abatement costs for NOx and VOCs in our analysis to explore the most cost-effective mitigation strategies for both ozone and PM2.5.

  7. On the Size of the Antarctic Ozone Hole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Paul A.; Nash, Eric R.; Kawa, S. Randolph

    2002-01-01

    The Antarctic ozone hole is a region of extremely large ozone depletion that is roughly centered over the South Pole. Since 1979, the area coverage of the ozone hole has grown from near zero size to over 24 Million sq km. In the 8-year period from 1981 to 1989, the area expanded by 18 Million sq km. During the last 5 years, the hole has been observed to exceed 25 Million sq km over brief periods. In the spring of 2002, the size of the ozone hole barely reached 20 Million sq km for only a couple of days. We will review these size observations, the size trends, and the interannual variability of the size. The area is derived from the area enclosed by the 220 DU total ozone contour. We will discuss the rationale for the choice of 220 DU: 1) it is located near the steep gradient between southern mid-latitudes and the polar region, and 2) 220 DU is a value that is lower than the pre-1979 ozone observations over Antarctica during the spring period. The phenomenal growth of the ozone hole was directly caused by the increases of chlorine and bromine compounds in the stratosphere. In this talk, we will show the relationship of the ozone hole's size to the interannual variability of Antarctic spring temperatures. In addition, we will show the relationship of these same temperatures to planetary-scale wave forcings.

  8. Chloroplastic and stomatal aspects of ozone-induced reduction of net photosynthesis in plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torsethaugen, Gro

    1998-09-01

    The present thesis relates to ozone-induced reduction of photosynthesis in plants. As a photochemical oxidant O{sub 3} is formed by the interaction of hydrocarbons, nitrogen oxides and oxygen in sunlight. Ozone (O{sub 3}) is the most phytotoxic of all the air pollutants and is known to reduce plant growth and net photosynthesis, cause stomatal closure, induce visible injury, accelerate senescence and induce or inhibit transcription of a variety of genes with a corresponding increase/decrease in protein products. The underlying cellular mechanisms for many of these changes are unknown. Following fields are investigated: Ozone-induced reduction of net photosynthesis; ozone and the photosynthetic apparatus in the chloroplasts; ozone and stomata; ozone effects on plant membranes; protection against ozone injury in plants. 249 refs., 22 figs., 4 tabs.

  9. Ozone and Botrytis interactions in onion-leaf dieback: open-top chamber studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wukasch, R.T.; Hofstra, G.

    1977-09-01

    Paired open-top chambers were used to study interactions between Botrytis spp. and ozone in field-grown onions. Charcoal filters removed 35 to 65% of the ambient ozone, resulting in six-fold reduction of onion leaf dieback and a 28% increase in onion yield compared with unfiltered chambers. Symptoms of leaf injury appeared soon after ozone levels exceeded 294 ..mu..g/m/sup 3/ (0.15 ppm) for 4 hr. Lesions caused by Botrytis were few because no dew formed in the chambers. However, when leaves were wetted with foggers, inoculation with mycelial suspensions of B. sauamosa in late August produced significantly more lesions and leaf dieback in the unfiltered chamber. Botrytis squamosa, B. cinerea, B. allii, and several genera of secondary fungi were isolated from these lesions. Botrytis squamosa was recovered from lesions only, whereas B. cinerea and B. allii were associated more generally with onion leaf tissue regardless of lesions. 25 references, 1 figure, 2 tables.

  10. Modeling ozone bioindicator injury with microscale and landscape-scale explanatory variables: A logistic regression approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    John W. Coulston

    2011-01-01

    Tropospheric ozone occurs at phytotoxic levels in the United States (Lefohn and Pinkerton 1988). Several plant species, including commercially important timber species, are sensitive to elevated ozone levels. Exposure to elevated ozone can cause growth reduction and foliar injury and make trees more susceptible to secondary stressors such as insects and pathogens (...

  11. Case study of stratospheric ozone affecting ground-level oxidant concentrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lamb, R.G.

    1977-01-01

    During the predawn hours of 19 November 1972, the air pollution monitoring station at Santa Rosa, Calif., recorded five consecutive hours of oxidant concentrations in excess of the present National Ambient Air Quality Standard. The highest of the hourly averages was 0.23 ppm. From a detailed analysis of the meteorological conditions surrounding this incident, it is shown that the ozone responsible for the anomalous concentrations originated in the stratosphere and not from anthropogenic sources

  12. Psidium guajava 'Paluma' (the guava plant) as a new bio-indicator of ozone in the tropics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furlan, C.M. [Departamento de Botanica, Instituto de Biociencias, Universidade de Sao Paulo, CP 11461, 05422-970 Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)]. E-mail: furlancm@yahoo.com.br; Moraes, R.M. [Instituto de Botanica, SMA, CP 4005, 01061-970 Sao Paulo (Brazil); Bulbovas, P. [Departamento de Botanica, Instituto de Biociencias, Universidade de Sao Paulo, CP 11461, 05422-970 Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Domingos, M. [Instituto de Botanica, SMA, CP 4005, 01061-970 Sao Paulo (Brazil); Salatino, A. [Departamento de Botanica, Instituto de Biociencias, Universidade de Sao Paulo, CP 11461, 05422-970 Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Sanz, M.J. [Fundacion Centro de Estudios Ambientales del Mediterraneo, C/C. Darwin, 14, 46980 Paterna, Valencia (Spain)

    2007-06-15

    Psidium guajava 'Paluma' saplings were exposed to carbon filtered air (CF), ambient non-filtered air (NF), and ambient non-filtered air + 40 ppb ozone (NF + O{sub 3}) 8 h per day during two months. The AOT40 values at the end of the experiment were 48, 910 and 12 895 ppb h{sup -1}, respectively for the three treatments. After 5 days of exposure (AOT40 = 1497 ppb h{sup -1}), interveinal red stippling appeared in plants in the NF + O{sub 3} chamber. In the NF chamber, symptoms were observed only after 40 days of exposure (AOT40 = 880 ppb h{sup -1}). After 60 days, injured leaves per plant corresponded to 86% in NF + O{sub 3} and 25% in the NF treatment, and the average leaf area injured was 45% in NF + O{sub 3} and 5% in the NF treatment. The extent of leaf area injured (leaf injury index) was explained mainly by the accumulated exposure of ozone (r {sup 2} = 0.91; p < 0.05). - Psidium guajava 'Paluma', a tropical species widely used in Brazilian food industry, is a potential sensitive bio-indicator of ozone.

  13. The Variable Effects of Ozone and/or Diesel Particulate Inhalation Exposure on Allergic Airways Responses in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exposure to diesel exhaust particle matter (DEP) associated with the combustion of diesel fuel exacerbates asthma. Likewise, similar effects have been reported with exposure to the oxidizing air pollutant ozone (O3). Since levels of both pollutants in ambient air are e...

  14. Ambient Temperature and Cerebrovascular Hemodynamics in the Elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Wen-Chi; Eliot, Melissa N; Koutrakis, Petros; Coull, Brent A; Sorond, Farzaneh A; Wellenius, Gregory A

    2015-01-01

    Some prior studies have linked ambient temperature with risk of cerebrovascular events. If causal, the pathophysiologic mechanisms underlying this putative association remain unknown. Temperature-related changes in cerebral vascular function may play a role, but this hypothesis has not been previously evaluated. We evaluated the association between ambient temperature and cerebral vascular function among 432 participants ≥65 years old from the MOBILIZE Boston Study with data on cerebrovascular blood flow, cerebrovascular resistance, and cerebrovascular reactivity in the middle cerebral artery. We used linear regression models to assess the association of mean ambient temperature in the previous 1 to 28 days with cerebrovascular hemodynamics adjusting for potential confounding factors. A 10°C increase in the 21-day moving average of ambient temperature was associated with a 10.1% (95% confidence interval [CI], 2.2%, 17.3%) lower blood flow velocity, a 9.0% (95% CI, 0.7%, 18.0%) higher cerebrovascular resistance, and a 15.3% (95%CI, 2.7%, 26.4%) lower cerebral vasoreactivity. Further adjustment for ozone and fine particulate matter (PM2.5) did not materially alter the results. However, we found statistically significant interactions between ambient temperature and PM2.5 such that the association between temperature and blood flow velocity was attenuated at higher levels of PM2.5. In this elderly population, we found that ambient temperature was negatively associated with cerebral blood flow velocity and cerebrovascular vasoreactivity and positively associated with cerebrovascular resistance. Changes in vascular function may partly underlie the observed associations between ambient temperature and risk of cerebrovascular events.

  15. Ambient air quality observations in the Athabasca oil sands region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    Both Syncrude and Suncor have plans to develop new oil sands leases and to increase crude oil and bitumen recovery in the Athabasca oil sands region. In recognition of the effects that this will have on the environment, Suncor has proposed modifications to reduce SO 2 emissions to the atmosphere, while Syncrude plans to develop additional ambient air quality, sulphur deposition and biomonitoring programs. This report discussed the ambient air quality monitoring that was undertaken in the Fort McMurray-Fort McKay airshed. Twelve continuous ambient air quality stations and 76 passive monitoring stations are maintained in the region. Environment Canada maintains eight precipitation monitoring stations in northern Alberta and Saskatchewan. Source characterization, ambient air quality and meteorology observations, air quality monitoring, and air quality data from continuous sulphur dioxide, hydrogen sulphide, nitrogen oxides, ozone, carbon monoxide, hydrocarbon, acid rain and particulates analyzers were reviewed. The documentation of all computer files used for the analysis of the air quality data is discussed in the Appendix. 47 refs., 39 tabs., 53 figs

  16. What Controls the Size of the Antarctic Ozone Hole?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhartia, P. K. (Technical Monitor); Newman, Paul A.; Kawa, S. Randolph; Nash, Eric R.

    2002-01-01

    The Antarctic ozone hole is a region of extremely large ozone depletion that is roughly centered over the South Pole. Since 1979, the area coverage of the ozone hole has grown from near zero size to over 24 Million square kilometers. In the 8-year period from 1981 to 1989, the area expanded by 18 Million square kilometers. During the last 5 years, the hole has been observed to exceed 25 Million square kilometers over brief periods. We will review these size observations, the size trends, and the interannual variability of the size. The area is derived from the area enclosed by the 220 DU total ozone contour. We will discuss the rationale for the choice of 220 DU: 1) it is located near the steep gradient between southern mid-latitudes and the polar region, and 2) 220 DU is a value that is lower than the pre- 1979 ozone observations over Antarctica during the spring period. The phenomenal growth of the ozone hole was directly caused by the increases of chlorine and bromine compounds in the stratosphere. In this talk, we will show the relationship of the ozone hole's size to the interannual variability of Antarctic spring temperatures. In addition, we will show the relationship of these same temperatures to planetary-scale wave forcings.

  17. Concentration- and flux-based ozone dose–response relationships for five poplar clones grown in North China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, Enzhu; Gao, Feng; Xin, Yue; Jia, Huixia; Li, Kaihui; Hu, Jianjun; Feng, Zhaozhong

    2015-01-01

    Concentration- and flux-based O_3 dose–response relationships were developed for poplars in China. Stomatal conductance (g_s) of five poplar clones was measured to parameterize a Jarvis-type multiplicative g_s model. The maximum g_s and other model parameters varied between clones. The strongest relationship between stomatal O_3 flux and total biomass was obtained when phytotoxic ozone dose (POD) was integrated using an uptake rate threshold of 7 nmol m"−"2 s"−"1. The R"2 value was similar between flux-based and concentration-based dose–response relationships. Ozone concentrations above 28–36 nmol mol"−"1 contributed to reducing the biomass production of poplar. Critical levels of AOT_4_0 (accumulated O_3 exposure over 40 nmol mol"−"1) and POD_7 in relation to 5% reduction in total biomass for poplar were 12 μmol mol"−"1 h and 3.8 mmol m"−"2, respectively. - Highlights: • A stomatal conductance model was calibrated for poplar clones in China. • The stomatal O_3 flux–response relationship was developed for poplars. • O_3 concentrations > 28–36 nmol mol"−"1 contributed to poplar biomass reduction. • Current ambient O_3 level in most places of China has threatened poplar growth. • Ozone sensitivity of poplar is similar to that of birch/beech. - For the first time, dose–response relationships were developed for risk assessment of O_3 impacts on poplars in China.

  18. Modeling and characterization of field-enhanced corona discharge in ozone-generator diode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, Jagadish G.; Vijayan, T.

    2010-02-01

    Electric field enhanced corona plasma discharge in ozone generator diode of axial symmetry has been investigated and characterized in theory. The cathode K of diode is made of a large number of sharpened nozzles arranged on various radial planes on the axial mast and pervaded in oxygen gas inside the anode cup A, produces high fields over MV/m and aids in the formation of a corona plume of dense ozone cloud over the cathode surface. An r-z finite difference scheme has been devised and employed to numerically determine the potential and electric field distributions inside the diode. The analyses of cathode emissions revealed a field emission domain conformed to modified Child-Langmuir diode-current. Passage of higher currents (over μA) in shorter A-K gaps d gave rise to cathode heated plasma extending from the corona to Saha regimes depending on local temperature. Plasma densities of order 102-106 m-3 are predicted in these. For larger d however, currents are smaller and heating negligible and a negative corona favoring ozone formation is attained. High ozone yields about 20 per cent of oxygen input is predicted in this domain. The generator so developed will be applied to various important applications such as, purification of ambient air /drinking water, ozone therapy, and so on.

  19. Modeling and characterization of field-enhanced corona discharge in ozone-generator diode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patil, Jagadish G; Vijayan, T, E-mail: jagdishlove@gmail.co [Mahatma Education Society' s ' Pillai' s Institute of Information Technology, Engineering, Media Studies and Research' Dr. K M Vasudevan Pillai' s Campus, Sector 16, New Panvel, Navi Mumbai - 410 206 (India)

    2010-02-01

    Electric field enhanced corona plasma discharge in ozone generator diode of axial symmetry has been investigated and characterized in theory. The cathode K of diode is made of a large number of sharpened nozzles arranged on various radial planes on the axial mast and pervaded in oxygen gas inside the anode cup A, produces high fields over MV/m and aids in the formation of a corona plume of dense ozone cloud over the cathode surface. An r-z finite difference scheme has been devised and employed to numerically determine the potential and electric field distributions inside the diode. The analyses of cathode emissions revealed a field emission domain conformed to modified Child-Langmuir diode-current. Passage of higher currents (over {mu}A) in shorter A-K gaps d gave rise to cathode heated plasma extending from the corona to Saha regimes depending on local temperature. Plasma densities of order 10{sup 2}-10{sup 6} m{sup -3} are predicted in these. For larger d however, currents are smaller and heating negligible and a negative corona favoring ozone formation is attained. High ozone yields about 20 per cent of oxygen input is predicted in this domain. The generator so developed will be applied to various important applications such as, purification of ambient air /drinking water, ozone therapy, and so on.

  20. Modeling and characterization of field-enhanced corona discharge in ozone-generator diode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patil, Jagadish G; Vijayan, T

    2010-01-01

    Electric field enhanced corona plasma discharge in ozone generator diode of axial symmetry has been investigated and characterized in theory. The cathode K of diode is made of a large number of sharpened nozzles arranged on various radial planes on the axial mast and pervaded in oxygen gas inside the anode cup A, produces high fields over MV/m and aids in the formation of a corona plume of dense ozone cloud over the cathode surface. An r-z finite difference scheme has been devised and employed to numerically determine the potential and electric field distributions inside the diode. The analyses of cathode emissions revealed a field emission domain conformed to modified Child-Langmuir diode-current. Passage of higher currents (over μA) in shorter A-K gaps d gave rise to cathode heated plasma extending from the corona to Saha regimes depending on local temperature. Plasma densities of order 10 2 -10 6 m -3 are predicted in these. For larger d however, currents are smaller and heating negligible and a negative corona favoring ozone formation is attained. High ozone yields about 20 per cent of oxygen input is predicted in this domain. The generator so developed will be applied to various important applications such as, purification of ambient air /drinking water, ozone therapy, and so on.

  1. Thermo Scientific Ozone Analyzer Instrument Handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Springston, S. R. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2016-03-01

    The primary measurement output from the Thermo Scientific Ozone Analyzer is the concentration of the analyte (O3) reported at 1-s resolution in units of ppbv in ambient air. Note that because of internal pneumatic switching limitations the instrument only makes an independent measurement every 4 seconds. Thus, the same concentration number is repeated roughly 4 times at the uniform, monotonic 1-s time base used in the AOS systems. Accompanying instrument outputs include sample temperatures, flows, chamber pressure, lamp intensities and a multiplicity of housekeeping information. There is also a field for operator comments made at any time while data is being collected.

  2. Ozone Layer Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Research Centers Contact Us Share Ozone Layer Protection The stratospheric ozone layer is Earth’s “sunscreen” – protecting ... GreenChill Partnership Responsible Appliance Disposal (RAD) Program Ozone Protection vs. Ozone Pollution This website addresses stratospheric ozone ...

  3. Ozone-Induced Nasal Type 2 Immunity in Mice Is Dependent on Innate Lymphoid Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumagai, Kazuyoshi; Lewandowski, Ryan; Jackson-Humbles, Daven N; Li, Ning; Van Dyken, Steven J; Wagner, James G; Harkema, Jack R

    2016-06-01

    Epidemiological studies suggest that elevated ambient concentrations of ozone are associated with activation of eosinophils in the nasal airways of atopic and nonatopic children. Mice repeatedly exposed to ozone develop eosinophilic rhinitis and type 2 immune responses. In this study, we determined the role of innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) in the pathogenesis of ozone-induced eosinophilic rhinitis by using lymphoid-sufficient C57BL/6 mice, Rag2(-/-) mice that are devoid of T cells and B cells, and Rag2(-/-)Il2rg(-/-) mice that are depleted of all lymphoid cells including ILCs. The animals were exposed to 0 or 0.8 ppm ozone for 9 consecutive weekdays (4 h/d). Mice were killed 24 hours after exposure, and nasal tissues were selected for histopathology and gene expression analysis. ILC-sufficient C57BL/6 and Rag2(-/-) mice exposed to ozone developed marked eosinophilic rhinitis and epithelial remodeling (e.g., epithelial hyperplasia and mucous cell metaplasia). Chitinase-like proteins and alarmins (IL-33, IL-25, and thymic stromal lymphopoietin) were also increased morphometrically in the nasal epithelium of ozone-exposed C57BL/6 and Rag2(-/-) mice. Ozone exposure elicited increased expression of Il4, Il5, Il13, St2, eotaxin, MCP-2, Gob5, Arg1, Fizz1, and Ym2 mRNA in C57BL/6 and Rag2(-/-) mice. In contrast, ozone-exposed ILC-deficient Rag2(-/-)Il2rg(-/-) mice had no nasal lesions or overexpression of Th2- or ILC2-related transcripts. These results indicate that ozone-induced eosinophilic rhinitis, nasal epithelial remodeling, and type 2 immune activation are dependent on ILCs. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to demonstrate that ILCs play an important role in the nasal pathology induced by repeated ozone exposure.

  4. Tropospheric Ozone and Photochemical Smog

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sillman, S.

    2003-12-01

    global background ozone can make the effects of local pollution events everywhere more acute, and can also cause ecological damage in remote locations that are otherwise unaffected by urban pollution. Ozone at the global scale is also related to greenhouse warming.This chapter provides an overview of photochemical smog at the urban and regional scale, focused primarily on ozone and including a summary of information about particulates. It includes the following topics: dynamics and extent of pollution events; health and ecological impacts; relation between ozone and precursor emissions, including hydrocarbons and nitrogen oxides (NOx); sources, composition, and fundamental properties of particulates; chemistry of ozone and related species; methods of interpretation based on ambient measurements; and the connection between air pollution events and the chemistry of the global troposphere. Because there are many similarities between the photochemistry of ozone during pollution events and the chemistry of the troposphere in general, this chapter will include some information about global tropospheric chemistry and the links between urban-scale and global-scale events. Additional treatment of the global troposphere is found in Volume 4 of this work. The chemistry of ozone formation discussed here is also related to topics discussed in greater detail elsewhere in this volume (see Chapters 9.10 and 9.12) and in Volume 4.

  5. PM 10 and ozone control strategy to improve visibility in the los angeles basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farber, Robert J.; Welsing, Peter R.; Rozzi, Carlo

    The greater Los Angeles metropolitan area is in violation of the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) ambient standards for both ozone and PM 10. Accompanying these violations are hazy summer conditions, with current annual median visibility in the inland portions of Los Angeles running about 13 km, and visibilities decreasing to about 3 km on the 90th percentile days (worst days). The USEPA has given the local air pollution control agency until 2010 to bring the area into compliance with these standards. Because of continued population growth, accompanying light industry, dependence on private motor vehicles, and adverse natural meteorological conditions, emission reductions costing billions of dollars will be needed between now and 2010. The combination of emission reductions which will result in the fastest ozone and PM 10 cleanup at the lowest cost are presented. Substantial emission reductions in NO x, reactive hydrocarbons, SO x, ammonia, soot and fugitive dust will result in visibility improvements in the Los Angeles area. However, enactment of this comprehensive control strategy will only improve the annual median visibility to about 20 km and the 90th percentile days to 6.5 km. Significant changes in fine mass will result in relatively small changes in perceived visibility since the human eye is unable to differentiate visual range changes even as large as 40% in an urban landscape typical of Los Angeles.

  6. Effects Of Elevated Ozone On Leaf {delta} {sup 13} C And Leaf Conductance Of Plant Species Grown In Semi-Natural Grassland With Or Without Irrigation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaeggi, M.; Saurer, M.; Volk, M. [Agroscope-FAL (Switzerland); Fuhrer, J. [Agroscope-FAL (Switzerland)

    2005-03-01

    At the Swiss prealpine site Le Mouret (754 m a.s.l. 46deg 45min N / 7deg 10min E), semi-natural grassland species were kept under ambient or elevated ozone, paired with or without additional irrigation. Two of the four investigated grassland species showed an additive increase in {sup 13}C-values under drought and elevated ozone conditions. (author)

  7. Comparative study of ozonized olive oil and ozonized sunflower oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Díaz Maritza F.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study the ozonized olive and sunflower oils are chemical and microbiologically compared. These oils were introduced into a reactor with bubbling ozone gas in a water bath at room temperature until they were solidified. The peroxide, acidity and iodine values along with antimicrobial activity were determined. Ozonization effects on the fatty acid composition of these oils were analyzed using Gas-Liquid Chromatographic Technique. An increase in peroxidation and acidity values was observed in both oils but they were higher in ozonized sunflower oil. Iodine value was zero in ozonized olive oil whereas in ozonized sunflower was 8.8 g Iodine per 100 g. The antimicrobial activity was similar for both ozonized oils except for Minimum Bactericidal Concentrations of Pseudomona aeruginosa. Composition of fatty acids in both ozonized oils showed gradual decrease in unsaturated fatty acids (C18:1, C18:2 with gradual increase in ozone doses.

  8. Effects of growth retardants and fumigations with ozone and sulfur dioxide on growth and flowering of Euphorbia pulcherrima Willd

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cathey, H.M.; Heggestad, H.E.

    1973-01-01

    Eight cultivars of poinsettia, Euphorbia pulcherrima Willd., were evaluated for sensitivity to ..cap alpha..-cyclopropyl-..cap alpha.. (4-methoxyphenyl)-5-pyrimidine methanol (ancymidol) and protection from ozone and sulfur dioxide injury afforded by applications of ancymidol and (2-chloroethyl) trimethyl ammonium chloride (chlormequat). Foliar sprays of ancymidol were at least 80 to 500 times and the soil drench 1000 times more active than chlormequat in retarding stem elongation. The diam of the bracts was reduced, but branching increased more on plants treated with ancymidol than on untreated plants. The cv. Annette Hegg (AH) was more sensitive to ozone fumigations than was Eckespoint C-1' (C-1). Sulfur dioxide also caused more injury to AH than to C-1. Ancymidol and chlormequat reduced visible injury induced by ozone and sulfur dioxide.

  9. Two Years of Ozone Vertical Profiles Collected from Aircraft over California and the Pacific Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austerberry, D.; Yates, E. L.; Roby, M.; Chatfield, R. B.; Iraci, L. T.; Pierce, B.; Fairlie, T. D.; Johnson, B. J.; Ives, M.

    2012-12-01

    Tropospheric ozone transported across the Pacific Ocean has been strongly suggested to contribute substantially to surface ozone levels at several sites within Northern California's Sacramento Valley. Because this contribution can affect a city's ability to meet regulatory ozone limits, the influence of Pacific ozone transport has implications for air quality control strategies in the San Joaquin Valley (SJV). The Alpha Jet Atmospheric Experiment is designed to collect a multi-year data set of tropospheric ozone vertical profiles. Forty-four flights with ozone profiles were conducted between February 2nd, 2011 and August 9th, 2012, and approximately ten more flights are expected in the remainder of 2012. Twenty marine air profiles have been collected at sites including Trinidad Head and two locations tens of kilometers offshore at 37° N latitude. Good agreement is seen with ozonesondes launched from Trinidad Head. Additional profiles over Merced, California were obtained on many of these flight days. These in-situ measurements were conducted during spiral descents of H211's Alpha Jet at mid-day local times using a 2B Technologies Dual Beam Ozone Monitor. Hourly surface ambient ozone data were obtained from the California Air Resources Board's SJV monitoring sites. For each site, the Pearson linear correlation coefficient was calculated between ozone in a 300m vertical layer of an offshore profile and the surface site at varying time offsets from the time of the profile. Each site's local and regional ozone production component was estimated and removed. The resulting correlations suggest instances of Pacific ozone transport following some of the offshore observations. Real-Time Air Quality Modeling System (RAQMS) products constrained by assimilated satellite data model the transport of ozone enhancements and guide flight planning. RAQMS hindcasts also suggest that ozone transport to the surface of the SJV basin occurred following some of these offshore profiles

  10. Antarctic ozone loss in 1989-2010: evidence for ozone recovery?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuttippurath, J.; Lefèvre, F.; Pommereau, J.-P.; Roscoe, H. K.; Goutail, F.; Pazmiño, A.; Shanklin, J. D.

    2012-04-01

    We present a detailed estimation of chemical ozone loss in the Antarctic polar vortex from 1989 to 2010. The analyses include ozone loss estimates for 12 Antarctic ground-based (GB) stations. All GB observations show minimum ozone in the late September-early October period. Among the stations, the lowest minimum ozone values are observed at South Pole and the highest at Dumont d'Urville. The ozone loss starts by mid-June at the vortex edge and then progresses towards the vortex core with time. The loss intensifies in August-September, peaks by the end of September-early October, and recovers thereafter. The average ozone loss in the Antarctic is revealed to be about 33-50% in 1989-1992 in agreement with the increase in halogens during this period, and then stayed at around 48% due to saturation of the loss. The ozone loss in the warmer winters (e.g. 2002, and 2004) is lower (37-46%) and in the colder winters (e.g. 2003, and 2006) is higher (52-55%). Because of small inter-annual variability, the correlation between ozone loss and the volume of polar stratospheric clouds yields ~0.51. The GB ozone and ozone loss values are in good agreement with those found from the space-based observations of the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer/Ozone Monitoring Instrument (TOMS/OMI), the Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment (GOME), the Scanning Imaging Absorption Spectrometer for Atmospheric Chartography (SCIAMACHY), and the Aura Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS), where the differences are within ±5% and are mostly within the error bars of the measurements. The piece-wise linear trends computed from the September-November vortex average GB and TOMS/OMI ozone show about -4 to -5.6 DU (Dobson Unit) yr-1 in 1989-1996 and about +1 DU yr-1 in 1997-2010. The trend during the former period is significant at 95% confidence intervals, but the trend in 1997-2010 is significant only at 85% confidence intervals. Our analyses suggest a period of about 9-10 yr to get the first detectable ozone

  11. Field responses of Prunus serotina and Asclepias syriaca to ozone around southern Lake Michigan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, J P; Jepsen, E A; Roth, J A

    2006-07-01

    Higher ozone concentrations east of southern Lake Michigan compared to west of the lake were used to test hypotheses about injury and growth effects on two plant species. We measured approximately 1000 black cherry trees and over 3000 milkweed stems from 1999 to 2001 for this purpose. Black cherry branch elongation and milkweed growth and pod formation were significantly higher west of Lake Michigan while ozone injury was greater east of Lake Michigan. Using classification and regression tree (CART) analyses we determined that departures from normal precipitation, soil nitrogen and ozone exposure/peak hourly concentrations were the most important variables affecting cherry branch elongation, and milkweed stem height and pod formation. The effects of ozone were not consistently comparable with the effects of soil nutrients, weather, insect or disease injury, and depended on species. Ozone SUM06 exposures greater than 13 ppm-h decreased cherry branch elongation 18%; peak 1-h exposures greater than 93 ppb reduced milkweed stem height 13%; and peak 1-h concentrations greater than 98 ppb reduced pod formation 11% in milkweed.

  12. Ozone's impact on public health: Contributions from indoor exposures to ozone and products of ozone-initiated chemistry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weschler, Charles J.

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The associations between ozone concentrations measured outdoors and both morbidity and mortality may be partially due to indoor exposures to ozone and ozone-initiated oxidation products. In this article I examine the contributions of such indoor exposures to overall ozone-related heal...

  13. Principal Component Analysis of Chlorophyll Content in Tobacco, Bean and Petunia Plants Exposed to Different Tropospheric Ozone Concentrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borowiak, Klaudia; Zbierska, Janina; Budka, Anna; Kayzer, Dariusz

    2014-06-01

    Three plant species were assessed in this study - ozone-sensitive and -resistant tobacco, ozone-sensitive petunia and bean. Plants were exposed to ambient air conditions for several weeks in two sites differing in tropospheric ozone concentrations in the growing season of 2009. Every week chlorophyll contents were analysed. Cumulative ozone effects on the chlorophyll content in relation to other meteorological parameters were evaluated using principal component analysis, while the relation between certain days of measurements of the plants were analysed using multivariate analysis of variance. Results revealed variability between plant species response. However, some similarities were noted. Positive relations of all chlorophyll forms to cumulative ozone concentration (AOT 40) were found for all the plant species that were examined. The chlorophyll b/a ratio revealed an opposite position to ozone concentration only in the ozone-resistant tobacco cultivar. In all the plant species the highest average chlorophyll content was noted after the 7th day of the experiment. Afterwards, the plants usually revealed various responses. Ozone-sensitive tobacco revealed decrease of chlorophyll content, and after few weeks of decline again an increase was observed. Probably, due to the accommodation for the stress factor. While during first three weeks relatively high levels of chlorophyll contents were noted in ozone-resistant tobacco. Petunia revealed a slow decrease of chlorophyll content and the lowest values at the end of the experiment. A comparison between the plant species revealed the highest level of chlorophyll contents in ozone-resistant tobacco.

  14. Ozone modeling within plasmas for ozone sensor applications

    OpenAIRE

    Arshak, Khalil; Forde, Edward; Guiney, Ivor

    2007-01-01

    peer-reviewed Ozone (03) is potentially hazardous to human health and accurate prediction and measurement of this gas is essential in addressing its associated health risks. This paper presents theory to predict the levels of ozone concentration emittedfrom a dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasma for ozone sensing applications. This is done by postulating the kinetic model for ozone generation, with a DBD plasma at atmospheric pressure in air, in the form of a set of rate equations....

  15. Photochemical oxidants injury in rice plants. III. Effect of ozone on physiological activities in rice plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakamura, H; Saka, H

    1978-01-01

    Experiments were made to determine the effect of photochemical oxidants on physiological activities of rice plants. Rice plants were fumigated with ozone at concentrations of 0.12-0.20 ppm for 2-3 hr to investigate acute injury and at 0.05 and 0.09 ppm for daily exposure from 3.0 leaf stage to assess the effect of ozone on growth. It was observed that malondialdehyde produced by disruption of the components of the membrane increased in the leaves exposed to ozone. Ozone reduced the RuBP-carboxylase activity in both young and old leaves 12-24 hr after fumigation. In the young leaves the activity of this enzyme recovered to some extent after 48 hr, but it did not show any recovery in the old leaves. On the other hand, ozone remarkably increased the peroxidase activity and slightly increased acid phosphatase in all leaves. Abnormally high ethylene evolution and oxygen uptake were detected in leaves soon after ozone fumigation. In general, high molecular protein and chlorophyll contents in the detached leaves decreased with incubation in dark, particularly in the old ones. These phenomena were more accelerated by ozone fumigation. Kinetin and benzimidazole showed significant effects on chlorophyll retention in ozone-exposed leaves. Reduction of plant growth and photosynthetic rate was recognized even in low concentration of ozone in daily exposure at 0.05 and 0.09 ppm. From these results it was postulated that ozone may cause the senescence of leaves in rice plants.

  16. Combination of U.V.-B and ozone reduces pollen tube growth more than either stress alone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feder, W.A.; Shrier, R.

    1990-01-01

    The rate of in vitro Nicotiana tabacum L. “Bel-W3” pollen tube growth was reduced 62 and 44%, respectively, when pollen tubes were exposed to 120 ppb ozone (O 3 ) for 3 hr or 300 μW/cm 2 ultraviolet-B (u.v.-B) radiation for 30 min. Petunia hybrida Vilm. “White Cascade” pollen tube growth was reduced 34 and 59%, respectively, upon exposure to O 3 or u.v.-B at the above doses. The combination of u.v.-B at 300 μW/cm 2 for 30 min, followed by O 3 at 120 ppb for 3 hr, reduced pollen tube growth by 79% for “Bel-W3” and 75% for “White Cascade”. The effect appeared to be additive, implying that different target areas may be affected by the two stressors. In the Northeast, plants are exposed to both u.v.-B and O 3 during the normal growing season. This may result in an unexpectedly higher stress on the reproductive system than had been previously suspected based on these two stressors acting individually. (author)

  17. Impact of intercontinental pollution transport on North American ozone air pollution: an HTAP phase 2 multi-model study

    Science.gov (United States)

    The recent update on the US National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) of the ground-level ozone (O3/ can benefit from a better understanding of its source contributions in different US regions during recent years. In the Hemispheric Transport of Air Pollution experiment phas...

  18. Status of ambient air quality at Barauni

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kannan, G.K.

    1993-01-01

    Due to industrialization, Barauni has become a well developed industrial estate to be considered as industrial hub of Bihar. Contemporary to the industrial growth, the environmental quality also gradually deteriorated. Hence a need was felt to know the status of ambient air quality for proper planning of the future growth of industries. The ambient air quality was monitored at 16 stations in and around Barauni industrial estate during 3 major seasons for the period of one year. The results are discussed as to the status of the ambient air quality and suggestion have also been made for improvement. (author). 5 refs., 2 figs., 7 tabs

  19. Products and mechanisms of the reaction of gas phase ozone with organic colorants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grosjean, D. (DGA, Inc., Ventura, CA (USA)); Druzik, J.R. (Getty Conservation Institute, Marina del Rey, CA (USA)); Sensharma, D.K. (Univ. of California, Los Angeles (USA)); Whitmore, P.M.; DeMoor, C.P.; Cass, G.R. (California Institute of Technology, Pasadena (USA))

    1988-09-01

    Studies carried out in this laboratory have shown that many artists organic colorants fade substantially when exposed to ozone in the dark. These studies typically involved pigment exposure for 12 weeks to purified air containing 0.3-0.4 ppm of ozone at ambient temperature and humidity. These laboratory conditions are equivalent to about six years of exposure inside a typical air-conditioned building in Los Angeles, and the observed fading is therefore directly relevant to possible damage to works of arts in museum settings. Organic colorants that were most ozone-fugitive included natural colorants, such as curcumin and indigo, as well as modern synthetic colorants such as alizarin lakes and triphenylmethane dyes. Thus, these colorants were selected for further study with emphasis on the nature of the reaction products. Exposures were carried out on different substrates including watercolor paper, cellulose, silica gel, and Teflon. The experiments involved long-term exposure to low levels of ozone (e.g. {approximately} 0.3 ppm for 90 days) or shorter-term exposure to higher ozone concentrations (e.g. 10 ppm for 24 hours). Exposed and control samples, along with solvent and substrate blanks, were analyzed by mass spectrometry using a Kratos Scientific Instruments MS25 hexapole mass spectrometer operated in either methane chemical ionization (CI) or electron impact (EI) modes.

  20. Impacts of Lowered Urban Air Temperatures on Precursor Emission and Ozone Air Quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taha, Haider; Konopacki, Steven; Akbari, Hashem

    1998-09-01

    Meteorological, photochemical, building-energy, and power plant simulations were performed to assess the possible precursor emission and ozone air quality impacts of decreased air temperatures that could result from implementing the "cool communities" concept in California's South Coast Air Basin (SoCAB). Two pathways are considered. In the direct pathway, a reduction in cooling energy use translates into reduced demand for generation capacity and, thus, reduced precursor emissions from electric utility power plants. In the indirect pathway, reduced air temperatures can slow the atmospheric production of ozone as well as precursor emission from anthropogenic and biogenic sources. The simulations suggest small impacts on emissions following implementation of cool communities in the SoCAB. In summer, for example, there can be reductions of up to 3% in NO x emissions from in-basin power plants. The photochemical simulations suggest that the air quality impacts of these direct emission reductions are small. However, the indirect atmospheric effects of cool communities can be significant. For example, ozone peak concentrations can decrease by up to 11% in summer and population-weighted exceedance exposure to ozone above the California and National Ambient Air Quality Standards can decrease by up to 11 and 17%, respectively. The modeling suggests that if these strategies are combined with others, such as mobile-source emission control, the improvements in ozone air quality can be substantial.

  1. Field responses of Prunus serotina and Asclepias syriaca to ozone around southern Lake Michigan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bennett, J.P. [U.S. Geological Survey and Institute for Environmental Studies, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706 (United States)]. E-mail: jpbennet@wisc.edu; Jepsen, E.A. [Bureau of Air Management, Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources, Madison, WI 53707 (United States); Roth, J.A. [Bureau of Air Management, Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources, Madison, WI 53707 (United States)

    2006-07-15

    Higher ozone concentrations east of southern Lake Michigan compared to west of the lake were used to test hypotheses about injury and growth effects on two plant species. We measured approximately 1000 black cherry trees and over 3000 milkweed stems from 1999 to 2001 for this purpose. Black cherry branch elongation and milkweed growth and pod formation were significantly higher west of Lake Michigan while ozone injury was greater east of Lake Michigan. Using classification and regression tree (CART) analyses we determined that departures from normal precipitation, soil nitrogen and ozone exposure/peak hourly concentrations were the most important variables affecting cherry branch elongation, and milkweed stem height and pod formation. The effects of ozone were not consistently comparable with the effects of soil nutrients, weather, insect or disease injury, and depended on species. Ozone SUM06 exposures greater than 13 ppm-h decreased cherry branch elongation 18%; peak 1-h exposures greater than 93 ppb reduced milkweed stem height 13%; and peak 1-h concentrations greater than 98 ppb reduced pod formation 11% in milkweed. - Decreased cherry branch elongation, milkweed stem height and pod production, and foliar injury on both species occurred at sites around southern Lake Michigan at ozone exposures of 13 SUM06 ppm-h and 93-98 ppb peak hourly.

  2. Field responses of Prunus serotina and Asclepias syriaca to ozone around southern Lake Michigan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bennett, J.P.; Jepsen, E.A.; Roth, J.A.

    2006-01-01

    Higher ozone concentrations east of southern Lake Michigan compared to west of the lake were used to test hypotheses about injury and growth effects on two plant species. We measured approximately 1000 black cherry trees and over 3000 milkweed stems from 1999 to 2001 for this purpose. Black cherry branch elongation and milkweed growth and pod formation were significantly higher west of Lake Michigan while ozone injury was greater east of Lake Michigan. Using classification and regression tree (CART) analyses we determined that departures from normal precipitation, soil nitrogen and ozone exposure/peak hourly concentrations were the most important variables affecting cherry branch elongation, and milkweed stem height and pod formation. The effects of ozone were not consistently comparable with the effects of soil nutrients, weather, insect or disease injury, and depended on species. Ozone SUM06 exposures greater than 13 ppm-h decreased cherry branch elongation 18%; peak 1-h exposures greater than 93 ppb reduced milkweed stem height 13%; and peak 1-h concentrations greater than 98 ppb reduced pod formation 11% in milkweed. - Decreased cherry branch elongation, milkweed stem height and pod production, and foliar injury on both species occurred at sites around southern Lake Michigan at ozone exposures of 13 SUM06 ppm-h and 93-98 ppb peak hourly

  3. Three air quality studies: Great Lakes ozone formation and nitrogen dry deposition; and Tucson aerosol chemical characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foley, Theresa

    The Clean Air Act of 1970 was promulgated after thousands of lives were lost in four catastrophic air pollution events. It authorized the establishment of National Ambient Air Quality Standards or (NAAQS) for six pollutants that are harmful to human health and welfare: carbon monoxide, lead, nitrogen dioxide, particulate matter, ozone and sulfur dioxide. The Clean Air Act also led to the establishment of the United Stated Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) to set and enforce regulations. The first paper in this dissertation studies ozone in the Lake Michigan region (Foley, T., Betterton, E.A., Jacko, R., Hillery, J., 2011. Lake Michigan air quality: The 1994-2003 LADCO Aircraft Project (LAP). Atmospheric Environment 45, 3192-3202.) The Chicago-Milwaukee-Gary metropolitan area has been unable to meet the ozone NAAQS since the Clean Air Act was implemented. The Lake Michigan Air Directors' Consortium (LADCO) hypothesized that land breezes transport ozone precursor compounds over the lake, where a large air/water temperature difference creates a shallow conduction layer, which is an efficient reaction chamber for ozone formation. In the afternoon, lake breezes and prevailing synoptic winds then transport ozone back over the land. To further evaluate this hypothesis, LADCO sponsored the 1994-2003 LADCO Aircraft Project (LAP) to measure the air quality over Lake Michigan and the surrounding areas. This study has found that the LAP data supports this hypothesis of ozone formation, which has strong implications for ozone control strategies in the Lake Michigan region. The second paper is this dissertation (Foley, T., Betterton, E.A., Wolf, A.M.A., 2012. Ambient PM10 and metal concentrations measured in the Sunnyside Unified School District, Tucson, Arizona. Journal of the Arizona-Nevada Academy of Science, 43, 67-76) evaluated the airborne concentrations of PM10 (particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter of 10 microns or less) and eight metalloids and metals

  4. Ozone decomposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Batakliev Todor

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Catalytic ozone decomposition is of great significance because ozone is a toxic substance commonly found or generated in human environments (aircraft cabins, offices with photocopiers, laser printers, sterilizers. Considerable work has been done on ozone decomposition reported in the literature. This review provides a comprehensive summary of the literature, concentrating on analysis of the physico-chemical properties, synthesis and catalytic decomposition of ozone. This is supplemented by a review on kinetics and catalyst characterization which ties together the previously reported results. Noble metals and oxides of transition metals have been found to be the most active substances for ozone decomposition. The high price of precious metals stimulated the use of metal oxide catalysts and particularly the catalysts based on manganese oxide. It has been determined that the kinetics of ozone decomposition is of first order importance. A mechanism of the reaction of catalytic ozone decomposition is discussed, based on detailed spectroscopic investigations of the catalytic surface, showing the existence of peroxide and superoxide surface intermediates

  5. Protection of ash (Fraxinus excelsior) trees from ozone injury by ethylenediurea (EDU): Roles of biochemical changes and decreased stomatal conductance in enhancement of growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paoletti, Elena; Contran, Nicla; Manning, William J.; Castagna, Antonella; Ranieri, Annamaria; Tagliaferro, Francesco

    2008-01-01

    Treatments with ethylenediurea (EDU) protect plants from ozone foliar injury, but the processes underlying this protection are poorly understood. Adult ash trees (Fraxinus excelsior), with or without foliar ozone symptoms in previous years, were treated with EDU at 450 ppm by gravitational trunk infusion in May-September 2005 (32.5 ppm h AOT40). At 30-day intervals, shoot growth, gas exchange, chlorophyll a fluorescence, and water potential were determined. In September, several biochemical parameters were measured. The protective influence of EDU was supported by enhancement in the number of leaflets. EDU did not contribute its nitrogen to leaf tissue as a fertiliser, as determined from lack of difference in foliar N between treatments. Both biochemical (increase in ascorbate-peroxidase and ascorbic acid, and decrease in apoplastic hydrogen peroxide) and biophysical (decrease in stomatal conductance) processes regulated EDU action. As total ascorbic acid increased only in the asymptomatic trees, its role in alleviating O 3 effects on leaf growth and visible injury is controversial. - Both biochemical and biophysical processes may regulate EDU action

  6. Responses of sensitive and tolerant bush beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) to ozone in open-top chambers are influenced by phenotypic differences, morphological characteristics, and the chamber environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elagoez, Vahram [Plant Biology Graduate Program, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003 (United States)]. E-mail: velagoz@nsm.umass.edu; Manning, William J. [Department of Plant, Soil and Insect Sciences, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003 (United States)

    2005-08-15

    Responses of bush bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) lines 'S156' (O{sub 3}-sensitive) and 'R123' (O{sub 3}-tolerant), and cultivars 'BBL 290' (O{sub 3}-sensitive) and 'BBL 274' (O{sub 3}-tolerant) to ambient ozone (O{sub 3}) were investigated during the 2001 and 2002 growing seasons. Seedlings were grown in pots inside open-top chambers (OTCs), with charcoal filtered (CF) and non-filtered (NF) ambient air, and in non-chambered ambient air (AA) plots. Growth parameters from individual plants were evaluated after harvests at the end of vegetative (V{sub 4}) and reproductive (R{sub 10}) growth phases. Results at V{sub 4} indicated that CF did not provide additional benefits over NF in 'S156' in 2001 and 2002. In contrast, exposure to CF significantly impaired the growth of 'R123'. At the end of R{sub 10}, 'S156' produced more pods, most of which remained immature, and contained fewer seeds or were more frequently aborted, whereas pods produced in 'R123' reached pod maturation and senescence more consistently. Despite increased seed weights inside the OTCs, as observed in 'S156', differences between the two lines were insignificant when grown outside OTCs. Results from the 'BBL 290'/'BBL 274' pair, especially at V{sub 4} phase, remained inconclusive. Plant morphological characteristics, variabilities in environmental conditions, and 'chamber effects' inside OTCs were influential in determining plant response to ambient O{sub 3}. - Phenotypic differences, morphological characteristics, and 'chamber effects' inside OTCs are equally influential in determining the responses of beans to O{sub 3}.

  7. Maternal exposure to ambient air pollution and fetal growth in North-East Scotland: A population-based study using routine ultrasound scans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemens, Tom; Turner, Steve; Dibben, Chris

    2017-10-01

    Maternal ambient air pollution exposure is associated with reduced birthweight. Few studies have examined the effect on growth in utero and none have examined the effect of exposure to particulates less than 2.5µm (PM 2.5 ) and possible effect modification by smoking status. Examine the effect of maternal exposure to ambient concentrations of PM 10 , PM 2.5 and nitrogen dioxide (NO 2 ) for in utero fetal growth, size at birth and effect modification by smoking status. Administratively acquired second and third trimester fetal measurements (bi-parietal diameter, femur length and abdominal circumference), birth outcomes (weight, crown heel length and occipito-frontal circumference) and maternal details were obtained from routine fetal ultrasound scans and maternity records (period 1994-2009). These were modelled against residential annual pollution concentrations (calendar year mean) adjusting for covariates and stratifying by smoking status. In the whole sample (n=13,775 pregnancies), exposure to PM 10 , PM 2.5 and NO 2 was associated with reductions in measurements at birth and biparietal diameter from late second trimester onwards. Among mothers who did not smoke at all during pregnancy (n=11,075), associations between biparietal diameter and pollution exposure remained significant but were insignificant among those who did smoke (n=2700). Femur length and abdominal circumference were not significantly associated with pollution exposure. Fetal growth is strongly associated with particulates exposure from later in second trimester onwards but the effect appears to be subsumed by smoking. Typical ambient exposures in this study were relatively low compared to other studies and given these results, it may be necessary to consider reducing recommended "safe" ambient air exposures. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  8. Cultivar specific plant-soil feedback overrules soil legacy effects of elevated ozone in a rice-wheat rotation system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, Qi; Yang, Yue; Bao, Xuelian; Zhu, Jianguo; Liang, Wenju; Bezemer, T. Martijn

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Tropospheric ozone has been recognized as one of the most important air pollutants. Many studies have shown that elevated ozone negatively impacts yields of important crops such as wheat or rice, but how ozone influences soil ecosystems of these crops and plant growth in rotation systems is

  9. Guidance for growth factors, projections, and control strategies for the 15 percent rate-of-progress plans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-03-01

    Section 182(b)(1) of the Clean Air Act (Act) requires all ozone nonattainment areas classified as moderate and above to submit a State Implementation Plan (SIP) revision by November 15, 1993, which describes, in part, how the areas will achieve an actual volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions reduction of at least 15 percent during the first 6 years after enactment of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 (CAAA). In addition, the SIP revision must describe how any growth in emissions from 1990 through 1996 will be fully offset. It is important to note that section 182(b)(1) also requires the SIP for moderate areas to provide for reductions in VOC and nitrogen oxides (NOx) emissions as necessary to attain the national primary ambient air quality standard for ozone by November 15, 1996. The guidance document focuses on the procedures for developing 1996 projected emissions inventories and control measures which moderate and above ozone nonattainment areas must include in their rate-of-progress plans. The document provides technical guidance to support the policy presented in the 'General Preamble: Implementation of Title I of the CAAA of 1990' (57 FR 13498)

  10. Human mortality effects of future concentrations of tropospheric ozone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    West, J.; Szopa, S.; Hauglustaine, D.A.

    2007-01-01

    Here we explore the effects of projected future changes in global ozone concentrations on premature human mortality, under three scenarios for 2030. We use daily surface ozone concentrations from a global atmospheric transport and chemistry model, and ozone-mortality relationships from daily time-series studies. The population-weighted annual average 8-h daily maximum ozone is projected to increase, relative to the present, in each of ten world regions under the SRES A2 scenario and the current legislation (CLE) scenario, with the largest growth in tropical regions, while decreases are projected in each region in the maximum feasible reduction (MFR) scenario. Emission reductions in the CLE scenario, relative to A2, are estimated to reduce about 190,000 premature human mortalities globally in 2030, with the most avoided mortalities in Africa. The MFR scenario will avoid about 460,000 premature mortalities relative to A2 in 2030, and 270,000 relative to CLE, with the greatest reductions in South Asia. (authors)

  11. Physiological effects of ozone on cultivars of watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) and muskmelon (Cucumis melo) widely grown in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez-Bayon, J M; Barnes, J D; Ollerenshaw, J H; Davison, A W

    1993-01-01

    Two cultivars of watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) and muskmelon (Cucumis melo), which are widely grown in Spain, were exposed to ozone (70 nl litre(-1), 6 h d(-1)) for 21 days. Ozone sensitivity was assessed by recording the extent of visible injury, changes in fast-fluorescence kinetics, the relative-growth rate (R) of root (RR) and shoot (RS), and effects on the number of flowers produced per plant. Leaf gas exchange was measured in order to provide some indication of the factors underlying differential response to ozone. After 9-10 days of fumigation, all the cultivars developed typical visible symptoms of zone injury on the older leaves. However, significant (P watermelon, there was a marked reduction in the rate of CO(2) assimilation as a result of exposure to ozone, and this was accompanied by a parallel decrease in stomatal conductance. Mean plant-relative-growth rate (R) was markedly (P watermelon, but there were no significant effects on R in muskmelon. Ozone reduced root growth relative to the shoot in three out of four cultivars-an effect that may be of considerable ecological significance. Moreover, exposure to ozone reduced flower production in both muskmelon and watermelon, which indicated effects on yield. There was no correlation between a variety of methods used to assess ozone sensitivity and visible injury, and reasons for this are discussed. This observation draws clear attention to the dangers in ranking plants for ozone sensitivity purely on the basis of visible symptoms. It is concluded from this study that ozone-insensitive genotypes should be identified and considered for planting in the major areas of melon production concentrated on the Mediterranean coast of Spain.

  12. Contribution of low vapor pressure-volatile organic compounds (LVP-VOCs) from consumer products to ozone formation in urban atmospheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Hyeong-Moo; McKone, Thomas E.; Bennett, Deborah H.

    2015-05-01

    Because recent laboratory testing indicates that some low vapor pressure-volatile organic compounds (LVP-VOC) solvents readily evaporate at ambient conditions, LVP-VOCs used in some consumer product formulations may contribute to ozone formation. The goal of this study is to determine the fraction of LVP-VOCs available for ozone formation from the use of consumer products for two hypothetical emissions. This study calculates and compares the fraction of consumed product available for ozone formation as a result of (a) volatilization to air during use and (b) down-the-drain disposal. The study also investigates the impact of different modes of releases on the overall fraction available in ambient air for ozone formation. For the portion of the LVP-VOCs volatilized to air during use, we applied a multi-compartment mass-balance model to track the fate of emitted LVP-VOCs in a multimedia urban environment. For the portion of the LVP-VOCs disposed down the drain, we used a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) fate model to predict the emission rates of LVP-VOCs to ambient air at WWTPs or at the discharge zone of the facilities and then used these results as emissions in the multimedia urban environment model. In a WWTP, the LVP-VOCs selected in this study are primarily either biodegraded or removed via sorption to sludge depending on the magnitude of the biodegradation half-life and the octanol-water partition coefficient. Less than 0.2% of the LVP-VOCs disposed down the drain are available for ozone formation. In contrast, when the LVP-VOC in a consumer product is volatilized from the surface to which it has been applied, greater than 90% is available for photochemical reactions either at the source location or in the downwind areas. Comparing results from these two modes of releases allows us to understand the importance of determining the fraction of LVP-VOCs volatilized versus disposed down the drain when the product is used by consumers. The results from this study

  13. Ozone decay in chemical reactor for ozone-dynamical disintegration of used tyres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golota, V.I.; Manuilenko, O.V.; Taran, G.V.; Dotsenko, Yu.V.; Pismenetskii, A.S.; Zamuriev, A.A.; Benitskaja, V.A.

    2011-01-01

    The ozone decay kinetics in the chemical reactor intended for used tyres disintegration is investigated experimentally and theoretically. Ozone was synthesized in barrierless ozonizers based on the streamer discharge. The chemical reactor for tyres disintegration in the ozone-air environment represents the cylindrical chamber, which feeds from the ozonizer by ozone-air mixture with the specified rate of volume flow, and with known ozone concentration. The output of the used mixture, which rate of volume flow is also known, is carried out through the ozone destructor. As a result of ozone decay in the volume and on the reactor walls, and output of the used mixture from the reactor, the ozone concentration in the reactor depends from time. In the paper, the analytical expression for dependence of ozone concentration in the reactor from time and from the parameters of a problem such as the volumetric feed rate, ozone concentration on the input in the reactor, volume flow rate of the used mixture, the volume of the reactor and the area of its internal surface is obtained. It is shown that experimental results coincide with good accuracy with analytical ones.

  14. Ozone pollution and ozone biomonitoring in European cities Part II. Ozone-induced plant injury and its relationship with descriptors of ozone pollution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klumpp, A.; Ansel, W.; Klumpp, G.

    2006-01-01

    within local networks were relatively small, but seasonal and inter-annual differences were strong due to the variability of meteorological conditions and related ozone concentrations. The 2001 data revealed a significant relationship between foliar injury degree and various descriptors of ozone...... pollution such as mean value, AOT20 and AOT40. Examining individual sites of the local monitoring networks separately, however, yielded noticeable differences. Some sites showed no association between ozone pollution and ozone-induced effects, whereas others featured almost linear relationships...

  15. Carryover effects of acid rain and ozone on the physiology of multiple flushes of loblolly pine seedlings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasek, T.W.; Richardson, C.J.; Fendick, E.A.; Bevington, S.R.; Kress, L.W.

    1991-01-01

    The effects of acid rain and ozone exposure on loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) seedlings in the Piedmont of North Carolina were assessed over two exposure seasons (1987-1988). Direct effects and carryover effects of long-term exposure on the photosynthetic potential and photopigment concentrations of different needle age-classes were studied. Three half-sib families were grown in open-top field chambers and exposed two acid rain treatments and five ozone exposures delivered in proportion to ambient concentrations in a complete factorial design. Ozone significantly affected photosynthesis but there were no statistically significant effects of acid rain nor any ozone x acid rain interactions. In 1987, photosynthesis of the 1987 first-flush progressively diverged among the ozone treatments except between charcoal-filtered and nonfiltered air (NF). At the end of the first season, photosynthesis was reduced 24% at 1.5x compared to CF and more than 80% at 2.25x and 3.0x. Chlorophyll and carotenoid concentrations were similarly reduced at elevated ozone exposures. In 1988, photosynthesis of the 1987 first-flush in the elevated ozone treatments remained lower. Early in the second season, the 1988 first-flush had a 25% to 50% lower photosynthetic potential at 2.25x and 3.0x compared to CF. This carryover effect on the photosynthetic potential before significant cumulative exposure was progressively smaller in the later 1988 flushes. In the late season flushes in the highest ozone treatments, photosynthesis was significantly higher than in the lower ozone treatments

  16. Reconciliation of Halogen-Induced Ozone Loss with the Total-Column Ozone Record

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepherd, T. G.; Plummer, D. A.; Scinocca, J. F.; Hegglin, M. I.; Fioletov, V. E.; Reader, M. C.; Remsberg, E.; von Clarmann, T.; Wang, H. J.

    2014-01-01

    The observed depletion of the ozone layer from the 1980s onwards is attributed to halogen source gases emitted by human activities. However, the precision of this attribution is complicated by year-to-year variations in meteorology, that is, dynamical variability, and by changes in tropospheric ozone concentrations. As such, key aspects of the total-column ozone record, which combines changes in both tropospheric and stratospheric ozone, remain unexplained, such as the apparent absence of a decline in total-column ozone levels before 1980, and of any long-term decline in total-column ozone levels in the tropics. Here we use a chemistry-climate model to estimate changes in halogen-induced ozone loss between 1960 and 2010; the model is constrained by observed meteorology to remove the eects of dynamical variability, and driven by emissions of tropospheric ozone precursors to separate out changes in tropospheric ozone. We show that halogen-induced ozone loss closely followed stratospheric halogen loading over the studied period. Pronounced enhancements in ozone loss were apparent in both hemispheres following the volcanic eruptions of El Chichon and, in particular, Mount Pinatubo, which significantly enhanced stratospheric aerosol loads. We further show that approximately 40% of the long-term non-volcanic ozone loss occurred before 1980, and that long-term ozone loss also occurred in the tropical stratosphere. Finally, we show that halogeninduced ozone loss has declined by over 10% since stratospheric halogen loading peaked in the late 1990s, indicating that the recovery of the ozone layer is well underway.

  17. Nitrogen oxides transport from La Cygne Station, KS: A study for assessing its influence on urban ozone. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blumenthal, D.L.

    1998-02-01

    As a result of the new ozone and PM 2.5 national ambient air quality standards, it appears that the Kansas City metropolitan area will be classified as nonattainment with respect to ozone. The Kansas Department of Health and Environment (KDHE) is planning to develop a new Kansas State Implementation Plan (SIP) to address this issue between 1997 and 2000 with implementation scheduled for 2004. Some Ozone Transport Assessment Group (OTAG) related air quality analyses have indicated that the Kansas City area is subject to surface and aloft windfields that could carry ozone or ozone precursors into Kansas City from outside the region, including from other parts of the state of Kansas. But questions have arisen whether or not local emission reductions would be more effective in achieving ozone standards. To better understand the causes of high ozone in the region and, specifically, to understand the role of emissions from certain power generating stations, the NO x Steering Committee was formed. The Committee includes representatives of the Kansas Department of Health and Environment and two local utility companies (Kansas City Power and Light (KCPL) and Western Resources). Input was also solicited from the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). This report presents the results of a scoping study commissioned by the Committee

  18. Trends in Pinus ponderosa foliar pigment concentration due to chronic exposure of ozone and acid rain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neuman, L.; Houpis, J.; Anderson, P.

    1991-01-01

    To determine the effects of ozone and acid rain on mature Ponderosa pine trees, Lawrence Livermore National Lab. has collaborated with University of California Berkeley, University of California Davis, California State University Chico, and the US Forest Service at the latter's Chico Tree Improvement Center. Foliar tissue from mature grafted scions of Pinus ponderosa were exposed to two times ambient ozone for ten months and to acid rain (3.0 pH) weekly for 10 weeks using branch exposure chambers. Pigment extracts were analyzed spectrophotometrically for concentrations of chlorophylls a and b, and carotenoid pigments, at 662 nm, 644 nm, and 470 nm, respectively. Pigment concentrations were expressed on a surface area basis. Preliminary results revealed that chlorophyll a showed a downward trend due to the ozone treatment. Acid rain caused no effects on these three pigments, however, chlorophyll b showed an upward trend due to the interaction of ozone and acid rain. The carotenoid pigments showed no changes due to the treatments either singly, or in combination

  19. CONTRIBUTION TO INDOOR OZONE LEVELS OF AN OZONE GENERATOR

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report gives results of a study of a commonly used commercially available ozone generator, undertaken to determine its impact on indoor ozone levels. xperiment were conducted in a typical mechanically ventilated office and in a test house. he generated ozone and the in-room ...

  20. Mechanisms of impact of greenhouse gases on the Earth's ozone layer in the Polar Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zadorozhny, Alexander; Dyominov, Igor

    A numerical 2-D zonally averaged interactive dynamical radiative-photochemical model of the atmosphere including aerosol physics is used to examine the impact of the greenhouse gases CO2, CH4, and N2O on the future long-term changes of the Earth's ozone layer, in particular on its expected recovery after reduction of anthropogenic discharges of chlorine and bromine compounds into the atmosphere. The model allows calculating self-consistently diabatic circu-lation, temperature, gaseous composition of the troposphere and stratosphere at latitudes from the North to South Poles, as well as distribution of sulphate aerosol particles and polar strato-spheric clouds (PSCs) of types I and II. The scenarios of expected changes of the anthropogenic pollutants for the period from 1980 through 2050 are taken from Climate Change 2001. The processes, which determine the influence of anthropogenic growth of atmospheric abun-dance of the greenhouse gases on the long-term changes of the Earth's ozone layer in the Polar Regions, have been studied in details. Expected cooling of the stratosphere caused by increases of greenhouse gases, most importantly CO2, essentially influences the ozone layer by two ways: through temperature dependencies of the gas phase reaction rates and through enhancement of polar ozone depletion via increased PSC formation. The model calculations show that a weak-ness in efficiencies of all gas phase catalytic cycles of the ozone destruction due to cooling of the stratosphere is a dominant mechanism of the impact of the greenhouse gases on the ozone layer in Antarctic as well as at the lower latitudes. This mechanism leads to a significant acceleration of the ozone layer recovery here because of the greenhouse gases growth. On the contrary, the mechanism of the impact of the greenhouse gases on the ozone through PSC modification be-gins to be more effective in Arctic in comparison with the gas phase mechanism in springs after about 2020, which leads to retard

  1. Development of Compact Ozonizer with High Ozone Output by Pulsed Power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Fumiaki; Ueda, Satoru; Kouno, Kanako; Sakugawa, Takashi; Akiyama, Hidenori; Kinoshita, Youhei

    Conventional ozonizer with a high ozone output using silent or surface discharges needs a cooling system and a dielectric barrier, and therefore becomes a large machine. A compact ozonizer without the cooling system and the dielectric barrier has been developed by using a pulsed power generated discharge. The wire to plane electrodes made of metal have been used. However, the ozone output was low. Here, a compact and high repetition rate pulsed power generator is used as an electric source of a compact ozonizer. The ozone output of 6.1 g/h and the ozone yield of 86 g/kWh are achieved at 500 pulses per second, input average power of 280 W and an air flow rate of 20 L/min.

  2. Effects of 0.2 ppm ozone on biomarkers of inflammation in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and bronchial mucosa of healthy subjects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krishna, M.T.; Madden, J.; Teran, L.M. [and others

    1998-08-01

    Short-term exposure to ozone at peak ambient levels induces neutrophil influx and impairs lung function in healthy humans. In order to investigate the mechanisms contributing to neutrophil recruitment and to examine the role of T-cells in the acute inflammatory response, we exposed 12 healthy humans to 0.2 parts per million (ppm) of ozone and filtered air on two separate occasions for 2 h with intermittent periods of rest and exercise (minute ventilation=30 L x min{sup -1}). Fibreoptic bronchoscopy was performed 6 h after the end of exposures. Total protein, tryptase, histamine, myeloperoxidase, interleukin (IL)-8 and growth-related oncogene-{alpha} (Gro-{alpha}) were measured and total and differential cell counts were performed in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid. Flow cytometry was performed on BAL cells to study total T-cells, T-cell receptors ({alpha}{beta} and {gamma}{delta}), T-cell subsets (CD4+ and CD8+ cells) and activated T-cell subsets (CD25+). Using immunohistochemistry, neutrophils, mast cells, total T-cell numbers, T-cell subsets, CD25+ T-cells and leukocyte endothelial adhesion molecules including P-selectin, E-selectin, intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM)-1 and vascular adhesion molecule (VCAM)-1 were quantified in the bronchial biopsies. Paired samples were available from nine subjects. Following ozone exposure there was a threefold increase in the proportion of polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs) (p=0.07) and epithelial cells (p=0.05) in BAL fluid. This was accompanied by increased concentrations of IL-8 (p=0.01), Gro-{alpha} (p=0.05) and total protein (p=0.058). A significant positive correlation was demonstrated between the two chemokines and proportion of PMNs in BAL fluid. After ozone exposure there was a significant decrease in the CD4/CD8 ratio (p=0.05) and the proportion of activated CD4+ (p=001) and CD8+ T-cells (p=0.04). However, no significant changes were demonstrable in any of the inflammatory markers studied in the biopsies

  3. Hyaluronan signaling during ozone-induced lung injury requires TLR4, MyD88, and TIRAP.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhuowei Li

    Full Text Available Ozone exposure is associated with exacerbation of reactive airways disease. We have previously reported that the damage-associated molecular pattern, hyaluronan, is required for the complete biological response to ambient ozone and that hyaluronan fragments signal through toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4. In this study, we further investigated the role of TLR4 adaptors in ozone-induced airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR and the direct response to hyaluronan fragments (HA. Using a murine model of AHR, C57BL/6J, TLR4-/-, MyD88-/-, and TIRAP-/- mice were characterized for AHR after exposure to either ozone (1 ppm × 3 h or HA fragments. Animals were characterized for AHR with methacholine challenge, cellular inflammation, lung injury, and production of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Ozone-exposed C57BL/6J mice developed cellular inflammation, lung injury, pro-inflammatory cytokines, and AHR, while mice deficient in TLR4, MyD88 or TIRAP demonstrated both reduced AHR and reduced levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines including TNFα, IL-1β, MCP-1, IL-6 and KC. The level of hyaluronan was increased after inhalation of ozone in each strain of mice. Direct challenge of mice to hyaluronan resulted in AHR in C57BL/6J mice, but not in TLR4-/-, MyD88-/-, or TIRAP-/- mice. HA-induced cytokine production in wild-type mice was significantly reduced in TLR4-/-, MyD88-/-, or TIRAP-/- mice. In conclusion, our findings support that ozone-induced airway hyperresponsiveness is dependent on the HA-TLR4-MyD88-TIRAP signaling pathway.

  4. Impact of parameterization choices on the restitution of ozone deposition over vegetation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Morvan-Quéméner, Aurélie; Coll, Isabelle; Kammer, Julien; Lamaud, Eric; Loubet, Benjamin; Personne, Erwan; Stella, Patrick

    2018-04-01

    Ozone is a potentially phyto-toxic air pollutant, which can cause leaf damage and drastically alter crop yields, causing serious economic losses around the world. The VULNOZ (VULNerability to OZone in Anthropised Ecosystems) project is a biology and modeling project that aims to understand how plants respond to the stress of high ozone concentrations, then use a set of models to (i) predict the impact of ozone on plant growth, (ii) represent ozone deposition fluxes to vegetation, and finally (iii) estimate the economic consequences of an increasing ozone background the future. In this work, as part of the VULNOZ project, an innovative representation of ozone deposition to vegetation was developed and implemented in the CHIMERE regional chemistry-transport model. This type of model calculates the average amount of ozone deposited on a parcel each hour, as well as the integrated amount of ozone deposited to the surface at the regional or country level. Our new approach was based on a refinement of the representation of crop types in the model and the use of empirical parameters specific to each crop category. The results obtained were compared with a conventional ozone deposition modeling approach, and evaluated against observations from several agricultural areas in France. They showed that a better representation of the distribution between stomatal and non-stomatal ozone fluxes was obtained in the empirical approach, and they allowed us to produce a new estimate of the total amount of ozone deposited on the subtypes of vegetation at the national level.

  5. Seasonal and diurnal gas exchange differences in ozone-sensitive common milkweed (Asclepias syriaca L.) in relation to ozone uptake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergweiler, Chris; Manning, William J; Chevone, Boris I

    2008-03-01

    Stomatal conductance and net photosynthesis of common milkweed (Asclepias syriaca L.) plants in two different soil moisture regimes were directly quantified and subsequently modeled over an entire growing season. Direct measurements captured the dynamic response of stomatal conductance to changing environmental conditions throughout the day, as well as declining gas exchange and carbon assimilation throughout the growth period beyond an early summer maximum. This phenomenon was observed in plants grown both with and without supplemental soil moisture, the latter of which should theoretically mitigate against harmful physiological effects caused by exposure to ozone. Seasonally declining rates of stomatal conductance were found to be substantial and incorporated into models, making them less susceptible to the overestimations of effective exposure that are an inherent source of error in ozone exposure indices. The species-specific evidence presented here supports the integration of dynamic physiological processes into flux-based modeling approaches for the prediction of ozone injury in vegetation.

  6. Secondary maxima in ozone profiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Lemoine

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Ozone profiles from balloon soundings as well as SAGEII ozone profiles were used to detect anomalous large ozone concentrations of ozone in the lower stratosphere. These secondary ozone maxima are found to be the result of differential advection of ozone-poor and ozone-rich air associated with Rossby wave breaking events. The frequency and intensity of secondary ozone maxima and their geographical distribution is presented. The occurrence and amplitude of ozone secondary maxima is connected to ozone variability and trend at Uccle and account for a large part of the total ozone and lower stratospheric ozone variability.

  7. Vitamin D Synthesis by UV Radiation: the Importance of Ozone Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olds, W. J.; Moore, M. R.; Kimlin, M. G.

    2006-12-01

    The majority of humans rely on incidental sun exposure to maintain vitamin D sufficiency. Depending on where thresholds of vitamin D "sufficiency" are defined, it was recently stated that up to one billion people worldwide have suboptimal vitamin D levels (Bouillon, R., University of Leuven). Even in sunny southeast Queensland, the world's skin cancer capital, a 2006 study uncovered deficiency rates of up to 78% (at a threshold of 75 nmol/L of circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D). Vitamin D regulates calcium absorption and inadequate levels are proven to result in osteomalacia, osteoporosis, rickets, bone pain and general skeletal weakness. Recent evidence also suggests vitamin D plays a preventative role in autoimmune diseases including numerous cancers, diabetes, schizophrenia, coronary heart disease, depression and other disorders. The most promising means of alleviating the worldwide burden of vitamin D deficiency seems to be by increased UV exposure. However, a much more mature understanding of UV exposures encountered in everyday life is required. This understanding is fundamentally founded in geophysics. UV exposures are strongly influenced by season/time of year, time of day, climate, location, pollution, aerosols and, importantly, ozone. In this work, we use computer simulations to obtain daily totals of vitamin D producing UV at numerous latitudes during one year. The ozone concentration is varied from 260 DU to 360 DU to determine the role of ozone variability on the ambient levels of vitamin D UV. Vitamin D synthesis is highly dependent on UVB. In our results, we demonstrate that this has important implications. Namely, vitamin D is strongly affected by ozone variability, since ozone filters UVB more strongly than UVA. Moreover, since erythema (sunburn) can occur at UVA wavelengths, ozone variation will more strongly affect vitamin D synthesis than erythema. Our results highlight that ozone monitoring is essential for understanding appropriate UV exposures

  8. The stratospheric ozone and the ozone layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zea Mazo, Jorge Anibal; Leon Aristizabal Gloria Esperanza; Eslava Ramirez Jesus Antonio

    2000-01-01

    An overview is presented of the principal characteristics of the stratospheric ozone in the Earth's atmosphere, with particular emphasis on the tropics and the ozone hole over the poles. Some effects produced in the atmosphere as a consequence of the different human activities will be described, and some data on stratospheric ozone will be shown. We point out the existence of a nucleus of least ozone in the tropics, stretching from South America to central Africa, with annual mean values less than 240 DU, a value lower than in the middle latitudes and close to the mean values at the South Pole. The existence of such a minimum is confirmed by mean values from measurements made on satellites or with earthbound instruments, for different sectors in Colombia, like Medellin, Bogota and Leticia

  9. Artificially ionized region as a source of ozone in the stratosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gurevich, Aleksandr V; Litvak, Aleksandr G; Vikharev, A L; Ivanov, O A; Borisov, Nikolai D; Sergeichev, Konstantin F

    2000-01-01

    A set of physical and chemical processes occurring in a microwave stratospheric discharge of nanosecond duration is discussed in connection with the effect they may have locally on the ozone layer in the artificially ionized region (AIR) in the stratosphere. The AIR, to be created at altitudes of 18 - 20 km by the microwave breakdown of air with ground-produced powerful electromagnetic wave beams, is planned for use in the natural physical experiment aimed at active monitoring of the ozone layer (its internal state and a set of plasma-chemical and photochemical processes) by controllably generating a considerable amount of ozone in the stratosphere. Results of relevant theoretical studies are presented, as are those of a large series of laboratory experiments performed under conditions similar to those prevailing in the stratosphere. Discharge regimes securing the efficient growth of ozone concentration are identified and studied in detail. It is demonstrated that such a stratospheric ozonizer is about as efficient as the best ground-based ozonizers used at present. For typical stratospheric conditions (low pressures and temperatures T ∼ 200 - 220 K), it is shown that the intense generation of ozone in a microwave breakdown effected by groups of short nanosecond pulses does not virtually increase the density of nitrogen oxides - gases that play a vital role in catalytic ozone-decomposing reactions. The possibility of effectively producing ozone in prebreakdown electric fields is established experimentally. It is demonstrated that due to its long lifetime, ozone produced locally at altitudes of 18 - 20 km may spread widely under the action of winds and turbulent diffusion, thus leading to an additional - artificial - ozonization of the stratosphere. (reviews of topical problems)

  10. Gas exchange and chlorophyll fluorescence of pea (Pisum sativum L.) plants in response to ambient ozone at a rural site in Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ismail, I.M.; Basahi, J.M.; Hassan, I.A.

    2014-01-01

    Egyptian pea cultivars (Pisum sativum L. cultivars Little Marvel, Perfection and Victory) grown in open-top chambers were exposed to either charcoal-filtered (FA) or non-filtered air (NF) for five consecutive years (2009–2013) at a rural site in northern Egypt. Net photosynthetic rates (P N ), stomatal conductance (g s ), intercellular CO 2 (C i ) and chlorophyll fluorescence were measured. Ozone (O 3 ) was found to be the most prevalent pollutant common at the rural site and is suspected to be involved in the alteration of the physiological parameters measured in the present investigation. P N of different cultivars were found to respond similarly; decreases of 23, 29 and 39% were observed in the cultivars Perfection, Little Marvel and Victory, respectively (averaged over the five years) due to ambient O 3 . The maximum impairment in P N was recorded in the cultivar Victory (46%) in 2013 when the highest O 3 levels were recorded (90 nL L −1 ). The average stomatal conductance decreased by 20 and 18% in the cultivars Little Marvel and Perfection, respectively, while the average stomatal conductance increased on average by 27% in the cultivar Victory. A significant correlation was found between P N and C i , indicating the importance of non-stomatal limitations of photosynthesis, especially in the cultivar Victory. The P N vs. Ci curves were fitted to a non-rectangular hyperbolic model. The actual quantum yield (Φ PSII ) and photochemical quenching coefficient (qP) were significantly decreased in the leaves of plants exposed to NF air. Non-photochemical quenching (NPQ) was increased in all cultivars. Exposure to NF air caused reductions in chlorophyll (Chl a) of 19, 16 and 30% in the Little Marvel, Perfection and Victory cultivars, respectively. - Highlights: • Ozone (O 3 ) concentrations recorded were within the ranges of phytotoxicity. • O 3 has a clear influence on the physiological parameters. • O 3 decreased Photosynthetic rates, chlorophyll

  11. The cost-effectiveness of methanol for reducing motor vehicle emissions and urban ozone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krupnick, A.J.; Walls, M.A.

    1992-01-01

    This article analyzes the costs and emissions characteristics of methanol vehicles. The cost-effectiveness of methanol - the cost per ton of reactive hydrocarbon emissions reduced - is calculated and compared to the cost-effectiveness of other hydrocarbon reduction strategies. Methanol is found to cost from $33,000 to nearly $60,000 per ton, while several other options are available for under $10,000 per ton. The cost per part-per-million reduction in peak ambient ozone levels is also computed for two cities, Houston and Philadelphia. Despite the greater improvement in ozone in Philadelphia than Houston, methanol is found to be more cost-effective in Houston. This result occurs because Houston's distribution and marketing costs are lower than Philadelphia's. The costs in both cities, however, are far higher than estimates of the benefits from acute health improvements. Finally, the reduction in ozone exposure in Los Angeles is estimated and the costs of the reduction compared with an estimate of acute health benefits. Again, the benefits fall far short of the costs. 51 refs., 5 tabs

  12. Atmospheric ozone measurement with an inexpensive and fully automated porous tube collector-colorimeter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jianzhong; Li, Qingyang; Dyke, Jason V; Dasgupta, Purnendu K

    2008-01-15

    The bleaching action of ozone on indigo and related compounds is well known. We describe sensitive automated instrumentation for measuring ambient ozone. Air is sampled around a porous polypropylene tube filled with a solution of indigotrisulfonate. Light transmission through the tube is measured. Light transmission increases as O(3) diffuses through the membrane and bleaches the indigo. Evaporation of the solution, a function of the RH and the air temperature, can, however cause major errors. We solve this problem by adding an O(3)-inert dye that absorbs at a different wavelength. Here we provide a new algorithm for this correction and show that this very inexpensive instrument package (controlled by a BASIC Stamp Microcontroller with an on-board data logger, total parts cost US$ 300) provides data highly comparable to commercial ozone monitors over an extended period. The instrument displays an LOD of 1.2ppbv and a linear span up to 300ppbv for a sampling time of 1min. For a sampling time of 5min, the respective values are 0.24ppbv and 100ppbv O(3).

  13. Effects of ozone treatment on Botrytis cinerea and Sclerotinia sclerotiorum in relation to horticultural product quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharpe, Deana; Fan, Lihua; McRae, Ken; Walker, Brad; MacKay, Ron; Doucette, Craig

    2009-08-01

    Botrytis cinerea and Sclerotinia sclerotiorum are fungal pathogens that cause the decay of many fruits and vegetables. Ozone may be used as an antimicrobial agent to control the decay. The effect of gaseous ozone on spore viability of B. cinerea and mycelial growth of B. cinerea and S. sclerotiorum were investigated. Spore viability of B. cinerea was reduced by over 99.5% (P < 0.01) and height of the aerial mycelium was reduced from 4.7 mm in the control to less than 1 mm after exposure to 450 or 600 ppb ozone for 48 h at 20 degrees C. Sporulation of B. cinerea was also substantially inhibited by ozone treatments. However, ozone had no significant effect on mycelial growth of S. sclerotiorum in vitro. Decay and quality parameters including color, chlorophyll fluorescence (CF), and ozone injury were further assessed for various horticultural commodities (apple, grape, highbush blueberry, and carrot) treated with 450 ppb of ozone for 48 h at 20 degrees C over a period of 12 d. Lesion size and height of the aerial mycelium were significantly reduced by the ozone treatment on carrots inoculated with mycelial agar plugs of B. cinerea or S. sclerotiorum. Lesion size was also reduced on treated apples inoculated with 5 x 10(6) spores/mL of B. cinerea, and decay incidence of treated grapes was reduced. The 450 ppb ozone for 48 h treatment had no significant effect on color of carrots and apples or on CF of apples and grapes. Ozone, an environmentally sound antimicrobial agent, inactivates microorganisms through oxidization and residual ozone spontaneously decomposes to nontoxic products. It may be applied to fruits and vegetables to reduce decay and extend shelf life.

  14. Climate Change Impacts on Human Health Due to Changes in Ambient Ozone Concentrations (External Review Draft)

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report uses results from a previous report titled Assessment of the Impacts of Global Change on Regional U.S. Air Quality: A Synthesis of Climate Change Impacts on Ground-Level Ozone, a number of high-resolution, spatially explicit population projections developed ...

  15. Depletion of ozone layer and health

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kripke, M.L.

    1990-01-01

    A decrease in food supply, rather than an increase in cancers, could turn out to be the greatest danger from the loss of the Earth's ozone shield says the author. This could result from alterations in plants and animals that are more sensitive than humans to increased levels of ultraviolet radiation. Increasing ambient ultraviolet radiation within a short time would exert dramatic selective pressure on all living organisms, but the global consequences of such an occurrence cannot be predicted. Common skin cancer is the best understood link with ultraviolet radiation. In fact, the link is so straightforward that precise calculations are possible: a 1% decrease in ozone equals a 2% increase in ultraviolet radiation, which translates into a 3 to 6% increase in common skin cancers in the US. If the immune system is damaged, the body cannot survive the continual onslaught of infectious agents present in the environment. People's willingness to protect themselves against sunlight exposure has been dictated by fashion. The fashionability of hats and sunglasses is beneficial for reducing the risk of cataracts; on the other hand, the fashionability of sun-tans has probably contributed to the rising incidence of skin cancer among Caucasians. The best remedy she advises is to avoid overexposure to sunlight

  16. Deactivation of Legionella Pneumophila in municipal wastewater by ozone generated in arrays of microchannel plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Shengkun; Li, Jun; Kim, Min-Hwan; Cho, Jinhoon; Park, Sung-Jin; Nguyen, Thanh H.; Eden, J. Gary

    2018-06-01

    A greater than four log10 reduction in the concentration of Legionella pneumophila in municipal wastewater has been achieved in 1 min with ozone produced by a microchannel plasma reactor. Requiring less than 22 W of electrical power, and ambient air as the feedstock gas, the microplasma ozone generator is robust and a promising alternative to conventional corona and dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) technologies. Contrary to previous studies, the Ct model for pathogen deactivation (i.e. rate proportional to the product of the available disinfectant concentration and the exposure duration) is found to be valid for L. pneumophila. Accordingly, wastewater-specific Ct equations have been developed to predict the deactivation of L. pneumophila in the secondary wastewater environment. Inactivation of this pathogen was found to be dependent on temperature only in the absence of wastewater organic matter (WOM). In the presence of WOM, pathogen deactivation is controlled by the disinfection contact time, initial ozone concentration (varied between 15 and 281 µg l‑1), and initial WOM loading. The data reported here will assist in the implementation of plasma ozone generators for L. pneumophila deactivation in cooling towers, point-of-use systems, and wastewater reclamation facilities.

  17. Alfalfa nutritive quality for ruminant livestock as influenced by ambient air quality in west-central Alberta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, J.C.; Nosal, M.; Muntifering, R.B.; Krupa, S.V.

    2007-01-01

    Alfalfa (Medicago sativa) nutritive quality response to ambient ozone (O 3 ), sulfur dioxide (SO 2 ) and oxides of nitrogen (NO x ) were assessed at three locations in west-central Alberta, Canada (1998-2002). Yield data were segregated into high and low relative to overall median yield. Ozone concentrations (hourly median and 95th-percentile) and precipitation (P) contributed 69 and 29%, respectively, to the variability in crude protein (CP) concentration in low-yielding alfalfa, whereas mean temperature (T) and relative humidity (RH) collectively influenced 98% of the variation in CP in high-yielding alfalfa. Three-fourths of the accounted variation in relative feed value (RFV) of low-yielding alfalfa was attributable to P, T and RH, whereas median and 95th-percentile hourly O 3 concentrations and SO 2 and NO x exposure integrals contributed 25%. In contrast, air quality, (mainly O 3 ) influenced 86% of the accounted variation in RFV of high-yielding alfalfa, and T and P collectively contributed 14%. - Exposure to ambient concentrations of phytotoxic air pollutants affected nutritive quality of alfalfa for ruminant livestock in a yield-dependent manner

  18. Responses of Surface Ozone Air Quality to Anthropogenic Nitrogen Deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, L.; Zhao, Y.; Tai, A. P. K.; Chen, Y.; Pan, Y.

    2017-12-01

    Human activities have substantially increased atmospheric deposition of reactive nitrogen to the Earth's surface, inducing unintentional effects on ecosystems with complex environmental and climate consequences. One consequence remaining unexplored is how surface air quality might respond to the enhanced nitrogen deposition through surface-atmosphere exchange. We combine a chemical transport model (GEOS-Chem) and a global land model (Community Land Model) to address this issue with a focus on ozone pollution in the Northern Hemisphere. We consider three processes that are important for surface ozone and can be perturbed by addition of atmospheric deposited nitrogen: emissions of biogenic volatile organic compounds (VOCs), ozone dry deposition, and soil nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions. We find that present-day anthropogenic nitrogen deposition (65 Tg N a-1 to the land), through enhancing plant growth (represented as increases in vegetation leaf area index (LAI) in the model), could increase surface ozone from increased biogenic VOC emissions, but could also decrease ozone due to higher ozone dry deposition velocities. Meanwhile, deposited anthropogenic nitrogen to soil enhances soil NOx emissions. The overall effect on summer mean surface ozone concentrations show general increases over the globe (up to 1.5-2.3 ppbv over the western US and South Asia), except for some regions with high anthropogenic NOx emissions (0.5-1.0 ppbv decreases over the eastern US, Western Europe, and North China). We compare the surface ozone changes with those driven by the past 20-year climate and historical land use changes. We find that the impacts from anthropogenic nitrogen deposition can be comparable to the climate and land use driven surface ozone changes at regional scales, and partly offset the surface ozone reductions due to land use changes reported in previous studies. Our study emphasizes the complexity of biosphere-atmosphere interactions, which can have important

  19. Rice LTG1 is involved in adaptive growth and fitness under low ambient temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Guangwen; Wu, Fu-Qing; Wu, Weixun; Wang, Hong-Jun; Zheng, Xiao-Ming; Zhang, Yunhui; Chen, Xiuling; Zhou, Kunneng; Jin, Mingna; Cheng, Zhijun; Li, Xueyong; Jiang, Ling; Wang, Haiyang; Wan, Jianmin

    2014-05-01

    Low temperature (LT) is one of the most prevalent factors limiting the productivity and geographical distribution of rice (Oryza sativa L.). Although significant progress has been made in elucidating the effect of LT on seed germination and reproductive development in rice, the genetic component affecting vegetative growth under LT remains poorly understood. Here, we report that rice cultivars harboring the dominant LTG1 (Low Temperature Growth 1) allele are more tolerant to LT (15-25°C, a temperature range prevalent in high-altitude, temperate zones and high-latitude areas), than those with the ltg1 allele. Using a map-based cloning strategy, we show that LTG1 encodes a casein kinase I. A functional nucleotide polymorphism was identified in the coding region of LTG1, causing a single amino acid substitution (I357K) that is associated with the growth rate, heading date and yield of rice plants grown at LT. We present evidence that LTG1 affects rice growth at LT via an auxin-dependent process(es). Furthermore, phylogenetic analysis of this locus suggests that the ltg1 haplotype arose before the domestication of rice in tropical climates. Together, our data demonstrate that LTG1 plays an important role in the adaptive growth and fitness of rice cultivars under conditions of low ambient temperature. © 2014 The Authors. The Plant Journal © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Earth's ozone layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lasa, J.

    1991-01-01

    The paper contain the actual results of investigations of the influence of the human activity on the Earth's ozone layer. History of the ozone measurements and of the changes in its concentrations within the last few years are given. The influence of the trace gases on both local and global ozone concentrations are discussed. The probable changes of the ozone concentrations are presented on the basis of the modelling investigations. The effect of a decrease in global ozone concentration on human health and on biosphere are also presented. (author). 33 refs, 36 figs, 5 tabs

  1. Urban Summertime Ozone of China: Peak Ozone Hour and Nighttime Mixing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, H.; Wang, Y.; Zhang, R.

    2017-12-01

    We investigate the observed diurnal cycle of summertime ozone in the cities of China using a regional chemical transport model. The simulated daytime ozone is in general agreement with the observations. Model simulations suggest that the ozone peak time and peak concentration are a function of NOx (NO + NO2) and volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions. The differences between simulated and observed ozone peak time and peak concentration in some regions can be applied to understand biases in the emission inventories. For example, the VOCs emissions are underestimated over the Pearl River Delta (PRD) region, and either NOx emissions are underestimated or VOC emissions are overestimated over the Yangtze River Delta (YRD) regions. In contrast to the general good daytime ozone simulations, the simulated nighttime ozone has a large low bias of up to 40 ppbv. Nighttime ozone in urban areas is sensitive to the nocturnal boundary-layer mixing, and enhanced nighttime mixing (from the surface to 200-500 m) is necessary for the model to reproduce the observed level of ozone.

  2. Total ozone changes in the 1987 Antarctic ozone hole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krueger, Arlin J.; Schoeberl, Mark R.; Doiron, Scott D.; Sechrist, Frank; Galimore, Reginald

    1988-01-01

    The development of the Antarctic ozone minimum was observed in 1987 with the Nimbus 7 Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) instrument. In the first half of August the near-polar (60 and 70 deg S) ozone levels were similar to those of recent years. By September, however, the ozone at 70 and 80 deg S was clearly lower than any previous year including 1985, the prior record low year. The levels continued to decrease throughout September until October 5 when a new record low of 109 DU was established at a point near the South Pole. This value is 29 DU less than the lowest observed in 1985 and 48 DU less than the 1986 low. The zonal mean total ozone at 60 deg S remained constant throughout the time of ozone hole formation. The ozone decline was punctuated by local minima formed away from the polar night boundary at about 75 deg S. The first of these, on August 15 to 17, formed just east of the Palmer Peninsula and appears to be a mountain wave. The second major minimum formed on September 5 to 7 again downwind of the Palmer Peninsula. This event was larger in scale than the August minimum and initiated the decline of ozone across the polar region. The 1987 ozone hole was nearly circular and pole centered for its entire life. In previous years the hole was perturbed by intrusions of the circumpolar maximum into the polar regions, thus causing the hole to be elliptical. The 1987 hole also remained in place until the end of November, a few days longer than in 1985, and this persistence resulted in the latest time for recovery to normal values yet observed.

  3. Ozonation control and effects of ozone on water quality in recirculating aquaculture systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spiliotopoulou, Aikaterini; Rojas-Tirado, Paula Andrea; Chetri, Ravi K.

    2018-01-01

    To address the undesired effect of chemotherapeutants in aquaculture, ozone has been suggested as an alternative to improve water quality. To ensure safe and robust treatment, it is vital to define the ozone demand and ozone kinetics of the specific water matrix to avoid ozone overdose. Different...... ozone dosages were applied to water in freshwater recirculating aquaculture systems (RAS). Experiments were performed to investigate ozone kinetics and demand, and to evaluate the effects on the water quality, particularly in relation to fluorescent organic matter. This study aimed at predicting...... a suitable ozone dosage for water treatment based on daily ozone demand via laboratory studies. These ozone dosages will be eventually applied and maintained at these levels in pilot-scale RAS to verify predictions. Selected water quality parameters were measured, including natural fluorescence and organic...

  4. Ozone modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McIllvaine, C.M.

    1994-01-01

    Exhaust gases from power plants that burn fossil fuels contain concentrations of sulfur dioxide (SO 2 ), nitric oxide (NO), particulate matter, hydrocarbon compounds and trace metals. Estimated emissions from the operation of a hypothetical 500 MW coal-fired power plant are given. Ozone is considered a secondary pollutant, since it is not emitted directly into the atmosphere but is formed from other air pollutants, specifically, nitrogen oxides (NO), and non-methane organic compounds (NMOQ) in the presence of sunlight. (NMOC are sometimes referred to as hydrocarbons, HC, or volatile organic compounds, VOC, and they may or may not include methane). Additionally, ozone formation Alternative is a function of the ratio of NMOC concentrations to NO x concentrations. A typical ozone isopleth is shown, generated with the Empirical Kinetic Modeling Approach (EKMA) option of the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Ozone Isopleth Plotting Mechanism (OZIPM-4) model. Ozone isopleth diagrams, originally generated with smog chamber data, are more commonly generated with photochemical reaction mechanisms and tested against smog chamber data. The shape of the isopleth curves is a function of the region (i.e. background conditions) where ozone concentrations are simulated. The location of an ozone concentration on the isopleth diagram is defined by the ratio of NMOC and NO x coordinates of the point, known as the NMOC/NO x ratio. Results obtained by the described model are presented

  5. [Reactivity of several classes of pesticides with UV, ozone and permanganate].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chao; Qiang, Zhi-min; Tian, Fang; Zhang, Tao

    2009-01-01

    The reactivity of eight classes of 26 extensively used pesticides, namely, organochlorines, thiadiazole, dinitroanaline, acetamides, triazines, uracil and carbamates, with three common disinfectants or oxidants including UV254 (average intensity of 10.8 mW x cm(-2)), ozone (dosage of 4.1 - 6.2 mg x L(-1)) and permanganate (dosage of 15.8 mg x L(-1)) was investigated. The reactions were allowed to proceed for 30 min at pH 7.0 and ambient temperature (25 degrees C +/- 3 degrees C). Results indicate that under the applied experimental conditions, more than 95% of chlorobenzilate, etridiazole, alachlor, butachlor, metolachlor, propachlor, atrazine, simazine, aldicarb, oxamyl and methiocarb could be effectively removed by UV254; and the removal efficiencies of other pesticides were in a range of 12.9%-77.7%. Ozone could completely degrade chloroneb, dichlorvos, bromacil, aldicarb, carbaryl, carbofuran, oxamyl and methiocarb; prometon and aldicarb sulfone were resistant to ozonation; and the removal efficiencies of other pesticides varied from 19.0% to 93.1%. Permanganate could fully degrade dichlorvos, aldicarb and methiocarb; organochlorines, dinitroanaline, thiadiazole, acetamides and other carbamates were resistant to permanganate oxidation; and the removal efficiencies of other pesticides ranged from 16.0% to 88.2%. If the practical dosage applied in drinking water treatment is considered, it is expected that most of the pesticides will be completely degraded by ozone, a few by permanganate, but probably none by UV254 .

  6. Statistical evaluation of the impact of shale gas activities on ozone pollution in North Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadi, Mahdi; John, Kuruvilla

    2015-12-01

    Over the past decade, substantial growth in shale gas exploration and production across the US has changed the country's energy outlook. Beyond its economic benefits, the negative impacts of shale gas development on air and water are less well known. In this study the relationship between shale gas activities and ground-level ozone pollution was statistically evaluated. The Dallas-Fort Worth (DFW) area in north-central Texas was selected as the study region. The Barnett Shale, which is one the most productive and fastest growing shale gas fields in the US, is located in the western half of DFW. Hourly meteorological and ozone data were acquired for fourteen years from monitoring stations established and operated by the Texas Commission on Environmental Quality (TCEQ). The area was divided into two regions, the shale gas region (SGR) and the non-shale gas (NSGR) region, according to the number of gas wells in close proximity to each monitoring site. The study period was also divided into 2000-2006 and 2007-2013 because the western half of DFW has experienced significant growth in shale gas activities since 2007. An evaluation of the raw ozone data showed that, while the overall trend in the ozone concentration was down over the entire region, the monitoring sites in the NSGR showed an additional reduction of 4% in the annual number of ozone exceedance days than those in the SGR. Directional analysis of ozone showed that the winds blowing from areas with high shale gas activities contributed to higher ozone downwind. KZ-filtering method and linear regression techniques were used to remove the effects of meteorological variations on ozone and to construct long-term and short-term meteorologically adjusted (M.A.) ozone time series. The mean value of all M.A. ozone components was 8% higher in the sites located within the SGR than in the NSGR. These findings may be useful for understanding the overall impact of shale gas activities on the local and regional ozone

  7. Ozone production, nitrogen oxides, and radical budgets in Mexico City: observations from Pico de Tres Padres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, E. C.; Herndon, S. C.; Onasch, T. B.; Kroll, J. H.; Canagaratna, M. R.; Kolb, C. E.; Worsnop, D. R.; Neuman, J. A.; Seila, R.; Zavala, M.; Knighton, W. B.

    2008-08-01

    Observations at a mountain-top site within the Mexico City basin are used to characterize ozone production and destruction, the nitrogen oxide budget, and the radical budget during the MILAGRO campaign. An ozone production rate of ~50 ppbv/h was observed in a stagnant air mass during the afternoon of 12 March 2006, which is among the highest observed anywhere in the world. Approximately half of the ozone destruction was due to the oxidation of NO2. During this time period ozone production was VOC-limited, deduced by a comparison of the radical production rates and the formation rate of NOx oxidation products (NOz) For [NOx]/[NOy] values between 0.2 and 0.8, gas-phase HNO3 typically accounted for less than 10% of NOz and accumulation-mode particulate nitrate (NO3-(PM)) accounted for 20% 70% of NOz, consistent with high ambient NH3 concentrations. The fraction of NOz accounted for by the sum of HNO3(g) and NO3-(PM) decreased with photochemical processing. This decrease is apparent even when dry deposition of HNO3 is accounted for, and indicates that HNO3 formation decreased relative to other NOx "sink" processes during the first 12 h of photochemistry and/or a significant fraction of the nitrate was associated with the coarse aerosol size mode. The ozone production efficiency of NOx on 11 and 12 March 2006 was approximately 7 on a time scale of one day. A new metric for ozone production efficiency that relates the dilution-adjusted ozone mixing ratio to cumulative OH exposure is proposed.

  8. Ambient air pollution and cancer in California Seventh-day Adventists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, P K; Abbey, D; Beeson, W L; Petersen, F

    1991-01-01

    Cancer incidence and mortality in a cohort of 6,000 Seventh-day Adventist nonsmokers who were residents of California were monitored for a 6-y period, and relationships with long-term ambient concentrations of total suspended particulates (TSPs) and ozone (O3) were studied. Ambient concentrations were expressed as mean concentrations and exceedance frequencies, which are the number of hours during which concentrations exceeded specified cutoffs (e.g., federal and California air quality standards). Risk of malignant neoplasms in females increased concurrently with exceedance frequencies for all TSP cutoffs, except the lowest, and these increased risks were highly statistically significant. An increased risk of respiratory cancers was associated with only one cutoff of O3, and this result was of borderline significance. These results are presented in the context of setting standards for these two air pollutants.

  9. Ozone and Water Stress: Effects on the Behaviour of Two White Clover Biotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimo Fagnano

    Full Text Available ozone pollution, water stress, stomata conductance, ozone uptake, clover, OTC.Ozone is a strong oxidizing pollutant which derives by alteration of the photolytic NOx cycle and it accumulates in the troposphere spreading in rural areas and therefore determining injuries on natural vegetation and crops. Since its penetration occurs mainly through stomata, all factors which alter plant-atmosphere relations could be able to modify plant response to ozone. Interaction between ozone and water stress in Mediterranean environment was studied on ozone resistant and sensitive biotypes of white clover, which were grown in charcoal filtered and notfiltered Open Top Chambers in factorial combination with different levels of water supply. Measurements of biomass, leaf area and stomatal conductance were made during the growth period. Ozone injuries were estimated as not-filtered/filtered OTC yield ratio; the stomatal flux of ozone was estimated multiplying stomata conductance x diffusivity ratio between ozone and water vapour (0.613 x ozone hourly concentrations. The hourly values of ozone uptake were cumulated throughout the cropping periods of the two years. In the sensitive biotype, water stress reduced yield losses due to ozone from 38% to 22%, as well as yield losses due to water stress were reduced by the presence of ozone from 43% to 29%, while no interaction between ozone and water stress was observed in the resistant biotype. Biomass yield losses of the sensitive biotype were strictly correlated to cumulated ozone uptake (R2 = 0.99, while biomass yield losses of the resistant biotype were not affected by the ozone fluxes variations created by the treatments. Flux based models could better estimate yield losses due to ozone in Mediterranean environments in which other stresses could be contemporary present; therefore, the new European directives might replace the actual thresholds based

  10. Simplified Modeling of Tropospheric Ozone Formation Considering Alternative Fuels Using

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Aragão Ferreira da Silva

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Brazilian cities have been constantly exposed to air quality episodes of high ozone concentrations (O3 . Known for not be emitted directly into the environment, O3 is a result of several chemical reactions of other pollutants emitted to atmosphere. The growth of vehicle fleet and government incentives for using alternative fuels like ethanol and Compressed Natural Gas (CNG are changing the Brazilian Metropolitan Areas in terms of acetaldehyde and formaldehyde emissions, Volatile Organic Compounds (VOC's present in the atmosphere and known to act on the kinetics of ozone. Driven by high concentrations of tropospheric ozone in urban/industry centers and its implications for environment and population health, the target of this work is understand the kinetics of ozone formation through the creation of a mathematical model in FORTRAN 90, describing a system of coupled ordinary differential equations able to represent a simplified mechanism of photochemical reactions in the Brazilian Metropolitan Area. Evaluating the concentration results of each pollutant were possible to observe the precursor’s influence on tropospheric ozone formation, which seasons were more conducive to this one and which are the influences of weather conditions on formation of photochemical smog.

  11. Evaluation of emission control strategies to reduce ozone pollution in the Paso del Norte region using a photochemical air quality modeling system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valenzuela, Victor Hugo

    Air pollution emissions control strategies to reduce ozone precursor pollutants are analyzed by applying a photochemical modeling system. Simulations of air quality conditions during an ozone episode which occurred in June, 2006 are undertaken by increasing or reducing area source emissions in Ciudad Juarez, Chihuahua, Mexico. Two air pollutants are primary drivers in the formation of tropospheric ozone. Oxides of nitrogen (NOx) and volatile organic compounds (VOC) undergo multiple chemical reactions under favorable meteorological conditions to form ozone, which is a secondary pollutant that irritates respiratory systems in sensitive individuals especially the elderly and young children. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency established National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) to limit ambient air pollutants such as ozone by establishing an 8-hour average concentration of 0.075 ppm as the threshold at which a violation of the standard occurs. Ozone forms primarily due reactions in the troposphere of NOx and VOC emissions generated primarily by anthropogenic sources in urban regions. Data from emissions inventories indicate area sources account for ˜15 of NOx and ˜45% of regional VOC emissions. Area sources include gasoline stations, automotive paint bodyshops and nonroad mobile sources. Multiplicity of air pollution emissions sources provides an opportunity to investigate and potentially implement air quality improvement strategies to reduce emissions which contribute to elevated ozone concentrations. A baseline modeling scenario was established using the CAMx photochemical air quality model from which a series of sensitivity analyses for evaluating air quality control strategies were conducted. Modifications to area source emissions were made by varying NOx and / or VOC emissions in the areas of particular interest. Model performance was assessed for each sensitivity analysis. Normalized bias (NB) and normalized error (NE) were used to identify

  12. Ozone modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McIllvaine, C M

    1994-07-01

    Exhaust gases from power plants that burn fossil fuels contain concentrations of sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}), nitric oxide (NO), particulate matter, hydrocarbon compounds and trace metals. Estimated emissions from the operation of a hypothetical 500 MW coal-fired power plant are given. Ozone is considered a secondary pollutant, since it is not emitted directly into the atmosphere but is formed from other air pollutants, specifically, nitrogen oxides (NO), and non-methane organic compounds (NMOQ) in the presence of sunlight. (NMOC are sometimes referred to as hydrocarbons, HC, or volatile organic compounds, VOC, and they may or may not include methane). Additionally, ozone formation Alternative is a function of the ratio of NMOC concentrations to NO{sub x} concentrations. A typical ozone isopleth is shown, generated with the Empirical Kinetic Modeling Approach (EKMA) option of the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Ozone Isopleth Plotting Mechanism (OZIPM-4) model. Ozone isopleth diagrams, originally generated with smog chamber data, are more commonly generated with photochemical reaction mechanisms and tested against smog chamber data. The shape of the isopleth curves is a function of the region (i.e. background conditions) where ozone concentrations are simulated. The location of an ozone concentration on the isopleth diagram is defined by the ratio of NMOC and NO{sub x} coordinates of the point, known as the NMOC/NO{sub x} ratio. Results obtained by the described model are presented.

  13. Legacy effects of elevated ozone on soil biota and plant growth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, Q.; Yang, Y.; Bao, X.; Liu, F.; Liang, W.; Zhu, J.; Bezemer, T.M.; Putten, van der W.H.

    2015-01-01

    Many studies have examined how human-induced atmospheric changes will influence ecosystems. The long-term consequences of human induced climate changes on terrestrial ecosystems may be determined to a large extend by how the belowground compartment will respond to these changes. In a free-air ozone

  14. Ozone response to emission changes: a modeling study during the MCMA-2006/MILAGRO Campaign

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Song

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The sensitivity of ozone production to precursor emissions was investigated under five different meteorological conditions in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA during the MCMA-2006/MILAGRO field campaign using the gridded photochemical model CAMx driven by observation-nudged WRF meteorology. Precursor emissions were constrained by the comprehensive data from the field campaign and the routine ambient air quality monitoring network. Simulated plume mixing and transport were examined by comparing with measurements from the G-1 aircraft during the campaign. The observed concentrations of ozone precursors and ozone were reasonably well reproduced by the model. The effects of reducing precursor emissions on urban ozone production were performed for three representative emission control scenarios. A 50% reduction in VOC emissions led to 7 to 22 ppb decrease in daily maximum ozone concentrations, while a 50% reduction in NOx emissions leads to 4 to 21 ppb increase, and 50% reductions in both NOx and VOC emission decrease the daily maximum ozone concentrations up to 10 ppb. These results along with a chemical indicator analysis using the chemical production ratios of H2O2 to HNO3 demonstrate that the MCMA urban core region is VOC-limited for all meteorological episodes, which is consistent with the results from MCMA-2003 field campaign; however the degree of the VOC-sensitivity is higher during MCMA-2006 due to lower VOCs, lower VOC reactivity and moderately higher NOx emissions. Ozone formation in the surrounding mountain/rural area is mostly NOx-limited, but can be VOC-limited, and the range of the NOx-limited or VOC-limited areas depends on meteorology.

  15. Stem juice production of the C4 sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum) is enhanced by growth at double-ambient CO2 and high temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vu, Joseph C V; Allen, Leon H

    2009-07-15

    Two cultivars of sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum cv. CP73-1547 and CP88-1508) were grown for 3 months in paired-companion, temperature-gradient, sunlit greenhouses under daytime [CO2] of 360 (ambient) and 720 (double ambient) micromol mol(-1) and at temperatures of 1.5 degrees C (near ambient) and 6.0 degrees C higher than outside ambient temperature. Leaf area and biomass, stem biomass and juice and CO2 exchange rate (CER) and activities of ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase-oxygenase (Rubisco) and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC) of fully developed leaves were measured at harvest. On a main stem basis, leaf area, leaf dry weight, stem dry weight and stem juice volume were increased by growth at doubled [CO2] or high temperature. Such increases were even greater under combination of doubled [CO2]/high temperature. Plants grown at doubled [CO2]/high temperature combination averaged 50%, 26%, 84% and 124% greater in leaf area, leaf dry weight, stem dry weight and stem juice volume, respectively, compared with plants grown at ambient [CO2]/near-ambient temperature combination. In addition, plants grown at doubled [CO2]/high temperature combination were 2-3-fold higher in stem soluble solids than those at ambient [CO2]/near-ambient temperature combination. Although midday CER of fully developed leaves was not affected by doubled [CO2] or high temperature, plants grown at doubled [CO2] were 41-43% less in leaf stomatal conductance and 69-79% greater in leaf water-use efficiency, compared with plants grown at ambient [CO2]. Activity of PEPC was down-regulated 23-32% at doubled [CO2], while high temperature did not have a significant impact on this enzyme. Activity of Rubisco was not affected by growth at doubled [CO2], but was reduced 15-28% at high temperature. The increases in stem juice production and stem juice soluble solids concentration for sugarcane grown at doubled [CO2] or high temperature, or at doubled [CO2]/high temperature combination, were partially

  16. The Antarctic ozone hole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, Anna E

    2008-01-01

    Since the mid 1970s, the ozone layer over Antarctica has experienced massive destruction during every spring. In this article, we will consider the atmosphere, and what ozone and the ozone layer actually are. We explore the chemistry responsible for the ozone destruction, and learn about why conditions favour ozone destruction over Antarctica. For the historical perspective, the events leading up to the discovery of the 'hole' are presented, as well as the response from the international community and the measures taken to protect the ozone layer now and into the future

  17. Impact of future nitrous oxide and carbon dioxide emissions on the stratospheric ozone layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stolarski, Richard S; Waugh, Darryn W; Douglass, Anne R; Oman, Luke D

    2015-01-01

    The atmospheric levels of human-produced chlorocarbons and bromocarbons are projected to make only small contributions to ozone depletion by 2100. Increases in carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) and nitrous oxide (N 2 O) will become increasingly important in determining the future of the ozone layer. N 2 O increases lead to increased production of nitrogen oxides (NO x ), contributing to ozone depletion. CO 2 increases cool the stratosphere and affect ozone levels in several ways. Cooling decreases the rate of many photochemical reactions, thus slowing ozone loss rates. Cooling also increases the chemical destruction of nitrogen oxides, thereby moderating the effect of increased N 2 O on ozone depletion. The stratospheric ozone level projected for the end of this century therefore depends on future emissions of both CO 2 and N 2 O. We use a two-dimensional chemical transport model to explore a wide range of values for the boundary conditions for CO 2 and N 2 O, and find that all of the current scenarios for growth of greenhouse gases project the global average ozone to be larger in 2100 than in 1960. (letter)

  18. Evidence for a continuous decline in lower stratospheric ozone offsetting ozone layer recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, William T.; Alsing, Justin; Mortlock, Daniel J.; Staehelin, Johannes; Haigh, Joanna D.; Peter, Thomas; Tummon, Fiona; Stübi, Rene; Stenke, Andrea; Anderson, John; Bourassa, Adam; Davis, Sean M.; Degenstein, Doug; Frith, Stacey; Froidevaux, Lucien; Roth, Chris; Sofieva, Viktoria; Wang, Ray; Wild, Jeannette; Yu, Pengfei; Ziemke, Jerald R.; Rozanov, Eugene V.

    2018-02-01

    Ozone forms in the Earth's atmosphere from the photodissociation of molecular oxygen, primarily in the tropical stratosphere. It is then transported to the extratropics by the Brewer-Dobson circulation (BDC), forming a protective ozone layer around the globe. Human emissions of halogen-containing ozone-depleting substances (hODSs) led to a decline in stratospheric ozone until they were banned by the Montreal Protocol, and since 1998 ozone in the upper stratosphere is rising again, likely the recovery from halogen-induced losses. Total column measurements of ozone between the Earth's surface and the top of the atmosphere indicate that the ozone layer has stopped declining across the globe, but no clear increase has been observed at latitudes between 60° S and 60° N outside the polar regions (60-90°). Here we report evidence from multiple satellite measurements that ozone in the lower stratosphere between 60° S and 60° N has indeed continued to decline since 1998. We find that, even though upper stratospheric ozone is recovering, the continuing downward trend in the lower stratosphere prevails, resulting in a downward trend in stratospheric column ozone between 60° S and 60° N. We find that total column ozone between 60° S and 60° N appears not to have decreased only because of increases in tropospheric column ozone that compensate for the stratospheric decreases. The reasons for the continued reduction of lower stratospheric ozone are not clear; models do not reproduce these trends, and thus the causes now urgently need to be established.

  19. Evidence for a Continuous Decline in Lower Stratospheric Ozone Offsetting Ozone Layer Recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, William T.; Alsing, Justin; Mortlock, Daniel J.; Staehelin, Johannes; Haigh, Joanna D.; Peter, Thomas; Tummon, Fiona; Stuebi, Rene; Stenke, Andrea; Anderson, John; hide

    2018-01-01

    Ozone forms in the Earth's atmosphere from the photodissociation of molecular oxygen, primarily in the tropical stratosphere. It is then transported to the extratropics by the Brewer-Dobson circulation (BDC), forming a protective "ozone layer" around the globe. Human emissions of halogen-containing ozone-depleting substances (hODSs) led to a decline in stratospheric ozone until they were banned by the Montreal Protocol, and since 1998 ozone in the upper stratosphere is rising again, likely the recovery from halogen-induced losses. Total column measurements of ozone between the Earth's surface and the top of the atmosphere indicate that the ozone layer has stopped declining across the globe, but no clear increase has been observed at latitudes between 60degS and 60degN outside the polar regions (60-90deg). Here we report evidence from multiple satellite measurements that ozone in the lower stratosphere between 60degS and 60degN has indeed continued to decline since 1998. We find that, even though upper stratospheric ozone is recovering, the continuing downward trend in the lower stratosphere prevails, resulting in a downward trend in stratospheric column ozone between 60degS and 60degN. We find that total column ozone between 60degS and 60degN appears not to have decreased only because of increases in tropospheric column ozone that compensate for the stratospheric decreases. The reasons for the continued reduction of lower stratospheric ozone are not clear; models do not reproduce these trends, and thus the causes now urgently need to be established.

  20. Ozonated Olive Oils and Troubles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bulent Uysal

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available One of the commonly used methods for ozone therapy is ozonated oils. Most prominent type of used oils is extra virgin olive oil. But still, each type of unsaturated oils may be used for ozonation. There are a lot of wrong knowledge on the internet about ozonated oils and its use as well. Just like other ozone therapy studies, also the studies about ozone oils are inadequate to avoid incorrect knowledge. Current data about ozone oil and its benefits are produced by supplier who oversees financial interests and make misinformation. Despite the rapidly increasing ozone oil sales through the internet, its quality and efficacy is still controversial. Dozens of companies and web sites may be easily found to buy ozonated oil. But, very few of these products are reliable, and contain sufficiently ozonated oil. This article aimed to introduce the troubles about ozonated oils and so to inform ozonated oil users. [J Intercult Ethnopharmacol 2014; 3(2.000: 49-50

  1. Surface ozone variation at Bhubaneswar and intra-corelationship ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    availability of ozone precursors control its forma- tion and decay ... izer and food processing industries along with ther- mal power ... radic growth of different industries such as cement, ...... Miller J, Preston E and Weinstein L 1982 Assessment of ... measurements at urban coastal site Chennai, in India;. J. Hazard. Mater.

  2. The ambient air quality accounts for the Nova Scotia Genuine Progress Index

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monette, A.; Colman, R.

    2004-01-01

    The Nova Scotia Genuine Progress Index (GPI) is a measure of sustainable development which provides a complete and accurate picture of our well-being as a society. The GPI assigns explicit values to environmental quality, population health, livelihood security, equity, free time, and educational attainment. The Nova Scotia GPI includes 22 social, economic and environmental components, including ambient air quality. This report investigates Nova Scotia's ambient air concentrations and emissions of carbon monoxide (CO), total particulate matter (PM), sulphur dioxide (SO 2 ), nitrogen oxides (NOx), and volatile organic compounds (VOC). The costs of damages caused by the these key air pollutants are also examined. Exposure to these pollutants results in negative impacts on human health, damage to materials, agricultural crops and changes in forest productivity. From 1979 to 1996, national ambient concentrations of each of these pollutants decreased significantly. However, the national average concentration of ground-level ozone increased by 34 per cent during the same time period. In Nova Scotia, concentrations of CO, PM and SO 2 have declined dramatically since 1979, but the trends for NO 2 and ground-level ozone do not show significant declines. On a per capita basis, SOx emissions from electric power generation in the province are more than 8 times the Canadian average. The province also had higher per capita emissions of CO, PM, SOx and VOCs than all reporting OECD countries. Electric power generation is the greatest source of fuel combustion emissions in the province, followed by industrial and transportation sources. This report also described some individual actions that can be taken to reduce air pollutant emissions. 174 refs., 37 tabs., 60 figs

  3. SMM mesospheric ozone measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aikin, A. C.

    1990-01-01

    The main objective was to understand the secular and seasonal behavior of ozone in the lower mesosphere, 50 to 70 km. This altitude region is important in understanding the factors which determine ozone behavior. A secondary objective is the study of stratospheric ozone in the polar regions. Use is made of results from the SBUV satellite borne instrument. In the Arctic the interaction between chlorine compounds and low molecular weight hydrocarbons is studied. More than 30,000 profiles were obtained using the UVSP instrument on the SMM spacecraft. Several orbits of ozone data per day were obtained allowing study of the current rise in solar activity from the minimum until the present. Analysis of Nimbus 7 SBUV data in Antarctic spring indicates that ozone is depleted within the polar vortex relative to ozone outside the vortex. This depletion confirms the picture of ozone loss at altitudes where polar stratospheric clouds exist. In addition, there is ozone loss above the cloud level indicating that there is another mechanism in addition to ozone loss initiated by heterogeneous chlorine reactions on cloud particles.

  4. Elevated CO{sub 2} does not ameliorate effects of ozone on carbon allocation in Pinus halepensis and Betula pendula in symbiosis with Paxillus involutus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kytoeviita, M.M. [Oulu Univ., Dept. of Biology, Oulu (Finland); Pelloux, J.; Fontaine, V.; Botton, B.; Dizengremel, P. [Univ. Henri Poincare-Nancy, Lab. de Biologie Forestiere Associe INRA, Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy (France)

    1999-07-01

    The effect of 700 {mu}mol CO{sub 2} mol{sup -1}, 200 nmol ozone mol{sup -1} and a combination of the two on carbon allocation was examined in Pinus halepensis co-cultured with Betula pendula in symbiosis with the ectomycorrhizal fungus Paxillus involutus. The results show that under low nutrient and ozone levels, elevated CO{sub 2} has no effect on the growth of B. pendula or P. halepensis seedlings nor on net carbon partitioning between plant parts. Elevated CO{sub 2} did not enhance the growth of the fungus in symbiosis with the birch. On the other hand, ozone had a strong negative effect on the growth of the birch, which corresponded with the significantly reduced growth rates of the fungus. Exposure to elevated CO{sub 2} did not ameliorate the negative effects of ozone on birch; in contrast, it acted as an additional stress factor. Neither ozone nor CO{sub 2} had significant effects on biomass accumulation in the pine seedlings. Ozone stimulated the spread of mycorrhizal infection from the birch seedlings to neighbouring pines and had no statistically significant effects on phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC) or ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco) activity in the pine needles or on PEPC activity in pine roots. (au)

  5. Brassinosteroid signaling-dependent root responses to prolonged elevated ambient temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Sara; Montiel-Jorda, Alvaro; Cayrel, Anne; Huguet, Stéphanie; Roux, Christine Paysant-Le; Ljung, Karin; Vert, Grégory

    2017-08-21

    Due to their sessile nature, plants have to cope with and adjust to their fluctuating environment. Temperature elevation stimulates the growth of Arabidopsis aerial parts. This process is mediated by increased biosynthesis of the growth-promoting hormone auxin. How plant roots respond to elevated ambient temperature is however still elusive. Here we present strong evidence that temperature elevation impinges on brassinosteroid hormone signaling to alter root growth. We show that elevated temperature leads to increased root elongation, independently of auxin or factors known to drive temperature-mediated shoot growth. We further demonstrate that brassinosteroid signaling regulates root responses to elevated ambient temperature. Increased growth temperature specifically impacts on the level of the brassinosteroid receptor BRI1 to downregulate brassinosteroid signaling and mediate root elongation. Our results establish that BRI1 integrates temperature and brassinosteroid signaling to regulate root growth upon long-term changes in environmental conditions associated with global warming.Moderate heat stimulates the growth of Arabidopsis shoots in an auxin-dependent manner. Here, Martins et al. show that elevated ambient temperature modifies root growth by reducing the BRI1 brassinosteroid-receptor protein level and downregulating brassinosteroid signaling.

  6. Cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleg Blum

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Some modern agrochemicals with antioxidant potential were tested for their protective effect against ozone injury using clover and tobacco ozone-sensitive cultivars as model plants subjected to ambient ozone at two sites (Kyiv city in Ukraine and Szarów village in Poland. All used agrochemicals showed partial protective effects against ozone injury on clover and tobacco. Conducted studies confirmed the effectiveness of modern fungicides belonging to strobilurin group as protectants of sensitive crops against ozone damage. The effectiveness of new growth regulators “Emistym C” and “Agrostymulin” was showed for the first time. Out of the studied agrochemicals, fungicide “Strobi” and natural growth regulator “Emistym C” demonstrated the best protective effects. These agrochemicals present promise for further studies of their possible utilization for enhancement of ozone tolerance of sensitive crops.

  7. The VOC-Ozone connection: a grassland case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wohlfahrt, G.; Hoertnagl, L.; Bamberger, I.; Schnitzhofer, R.; Dunkel, J.; Hammerle, A.; Graus, M.; Hansel, A.

    2009-04-01

    Trophospheric ozone (O3) is formed in the presence of sunlight through the interaction of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and NOx (NO, NO2). O3 damages plants in several ways, most importantly by reducing net photosynthesis and growth. The extent of this damage depends on the time-integrated absorbed O3 flux (i.e. the dose), which is a function of leaf stomatal conductance and ambient O3 concentration, and further influenced by plant species specific defence mechanisms. VOCs are produced by plants through a variety of pathways and in response to a large number of different driving forces. A large variety of VOCs are emitted by plants in response to stress conditions, including the foliar uptake of O3. Here we present preliminary data from an ongoing study where concurrent measurements of the fluxes of VOCs and O3 are made above a managed mountain grassland in Tyrol/Austria. Fluxes of several different VOCs and O3 are measured by means of the eddy covariance method and a proton transfer reaction mass spectrometer (PTR-MS) and an ozone analyser, respectively. Our findings show that the Methanol (MeOH) flux is correlated with the daily time-integrated O3 uptake by vegetation (integrated daily from sunrise - a surrogate for the O3 dose absorbed and the oxidative stress experienced by plants) - MeOH deposition and emission prevailing at low and high time-integrated O3 uptake rates, respectively. Fluxes of other VOCs were not related to the time-integrated O3 uptake. Integrated over longer time scales (several weeks) no correlation between the O3 uptake and MeOH emissions were found. Our study thus confirms earlier leaf-level studies, who found that MeOH emission increase with O3 dose, at the ecosystems scale. As the reaction with the hydroxyl radical (OH), which is responsible for the destruction of the greenhouse gas methane (CH4), is the major sink of atmospheric MeOH, this process provides a potentially important indirect radiative forcing.

  8. Ozone Antimicrobial Efficacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozone is a potent germicide that has been used extensively for water purification. In Europe, 90 percent of the municipal water systems are treated with ozone, and in France, ozone has been used to treat drinking water since 1903. However, there is limited information on the bioc...

  9. Residential indoor air quality guideline : ozone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    Ozone (O 3 ) is a colourless gas that reacts rapidly on surfaces and with other constituents in the air. Sources of indoor O 3 include devices sold as home air cleaners, and some types of office equipment. Outdoor O 3 is also an important contributor to indoor levels of O 3 , depending on the air exchange rate with indoor environments. This residential indoor air quality guideline examined factors that affect the introduction, dispersion and removal of O 3 indoors. The health effects of prolonged exposure to O 3 were discussed, and studies conducted to evaluate the population health impacts of O 3 were reviewed. The studies demonstrated that there is a significant association between ambient O 3 and adverse health impacts. Exposure guidelines for residential indoor air quality were discussed. 14 refs.

  10. Annual report of the ambient air quality measurements in Austria 2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spangl, W.; Schneider, J.

    2001-01-01

    This report presents the result of the ambient air quality measurements conducted according to the air quality act (Austrian Federal Law Gazette I 115/97) in Austria in 2000. This act defines ambient air quality limit values for sulphur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide, total suspended particulates (TSP), carbon monoxide, benzene, lead in air, deposition (total mass including lead and cadmium) and a target value for ozone. The report also comprises results of explorative measurements of PM10 and PM2,5. Only one exceedance of the limit value for sulphur dioxide (0,20 mg/m 3 as half hour mean value, not to be exceeded more than three times a day; 0,50 mg/m 3 as half hour mean value) was observed. The exceedance was caused by air pollution transport from Slovenia. The limit values for nitrogen dioxide and total suspended particulates were exceeded quite frequently in 2000. For nitrogen dioxide, mainly traffic stations were affected. Exceedances of the limit value (0,20 mg/m 3 as half hour mean value) were observed both during winter episodes with unfavourable conditions for dispersion, as well as in spring/summer at a heavily frequented road during episodes with high ozone levels, causing rapid oxidation of NO to NO 2 . Exceedances of the limit value for total suspended particulates (0,15 mg/m 3 as daily mean value) were predominately recorded in urban areas in the vicinity of heavily frequented streets, especially in southern alpine basins and valleys with unfavourable dispersion conditions. The highest pollution was recorded at a heavily frequented crossroad in Graz. For carbon monoxide (eight hour mean value of 10 mg/m 3 ), benzene ( 10 μg/m 3 as annual mean value) and lead (1 μg/m 3 , as annual mean value), no exceedances were recorded. The pollution levels of sulphur dioxide and carbon monoxide show a strong decrease during the last decade, whereas for nitrogen dioxide and particulate matter no clear trend can be identified. The target value of ozone is exceeded at

  11. Results of photochemical modeling sensitivity analyses in the Lake Michigan region: Current status of Lake Michigan Ozone Control Program (LMOP) modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dolwick, P.D. [Lake Michigan Air Directors Consortium, Des Plaines, IL (United States); Kaleel, R.J. [Illinois Environmental Protection Agency, Springfield, IL (United States); Majewski, M.A. [Wisconsin Dept. of Natural Resources, Madison, WI (United States)

    1994-12-31

    The four states that border Lake Michigan are cooperatively applying a state-of-the-art nested photochemical grid model to assess the effects of potential emission control strategies on reducing elevated tropospheric ozone concentrations in the region to levels below the national ambient air quality standard. In order to provide an extensive database to support the application of the photochemical model, a substantial data collection effort known as the Lake Michigan Ozone Study (LMOS) was completed during the summer of 1991. The Lake Michigan Ozone Control Program (LMOP) was established by the States of Illinois, Wisconsin, Michigan, and Indiana to carry out the application of the modeling system developed from the LMOS, in terms of developing the attainment demonstrations required from this area by the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990.

  12. Effects of 0.12 and 0.80 PPM ozone on rat nasal and nasopharyngeal epithelial mucosubstances: Quantitative histochemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harkema, J.R.; Hotchkiss, J.A.; Henderson, R.F.

    1988-01-01

    The present study was designed to characterize changes in the quantity of mucosubstances in surface epithelia of rat nasal airways after short- term ozone exposure. Rats were exposed for 7 days (6 h/day) to 0.0, 0.12, or 0.8 ppm ozone, and killed immediately or 7 days after the last exposure. Nasal cavities were processed for morphometric analysis of intraepithelial mucosubstances. Compared to controls, rats exposed to 0.12 ppm ozone had increased amounts of stored mucosubstances within epithelium lining the medial aspect of the nasal turbinate immediately after exposure, but no change within epithelia of the nasopharynx. Rats exposed to 0.8 ppm ozone had increased quantities of stored mucosubstances within transitional and respiratory epithelium lining turbinates and lateral walls of the anterior nasal airway and significant decreases in stored mucosubstances within epithelia of the nasal septum at the end of exposure. Seven days after the end of exposure, the amounts of intraepithelial mucosubstances returned to control levels along the septum, but remained greater than those of controls along the turbinates. We demonstrated that exposures to ambient levels of ozone induce significant changes in the stored secretory product of nasal epithelium in the rat, and that these changes persist for at least 7 days post-exposure. (author)

  13. Ozone-induced H2O2 accumulation in field-grown aspen and birch is linked to foliar ultrastructure and peroxisomal activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    E. Oksanen; E. Häikiö; J. Sober; D.F. Karnosky

    2003-01-01

    Saplings of three aspen (Populus tremuloides) genotypes and seedlings of paper birch (Betula papyrifera) were exposed to elevated ozone (1.5x ambient) and 560 p.p.m. CO2, singly and in combination, from 1998 at the Aspen-FACE (free-air CO2 enrichment) site (Rhinelander, USA).

  14. Treatment of Wastewater by Ozone Produced in Dielectric Barrier Discharge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita Bhatta

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available There is rapid diminishing of water resources in many countries due to, for example, population growth and constant reduction in fresh water supply. The sewage wastewater, industrial effluents, and municipal wastewater are directly and indiscriminately discharged into rivers and lakes and thus primarily cause water pollution in Nepal. This has increased the water crisis and also causes environmental deterioration. Therefore, the need for the development of an effective, cheap, and environmentally friendly process for the treatment of wastewater before discharging into aquatic environment has emerged. Treatment by ozone produced from dielectric barrier discharge is one of the emerging technologies for such application. The ozonation process is more effective for disinfection and degradation of organic pollutants from water. The current study describes the treatment of wastewater of selected site within Kathmandu. Results on various physicochemical and microbial parameters of the inlet and outlet samples are discussed. Our results showed slight increase in pH, decrease in chemical oxygen demand, and significant increase in dissolved oxygen after ozonation. Importantly, ozonation caused total reduction of fecal coliform.

  15. Ozone effects on Sphagnum mosses, carbon dioxide exchange and methane emission in boreal peatland microcosms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niemi, Riikka; Holopainen, Toini; Martikainen, Pertti J.; Silvola, Jouko

    2002-01-01

    Microcosms of a boreal peatland originating from an oligotrophic fen in Eastern Finland were fumigated under four ozone concentrations (0, 50, 100 and 150 ppb O 3 ) in laboratory growth chambers during two separate experiments (autumn and summer) for 4 and 6 weeks, respectively. Ozone effects on Sphagnum mosses and the fluxes of carbon dioxide and methane were evaluated. In both experiments, the three Sphagnum species studied showed only a few significant responses to ozone. In the autumn experiment, membrane permeability of S. angustifolium, measured as conductivity and magnesium leakage, was significantly higher under ozone fumigation (P=0.005 and 2 exchange during the 6-week-long summer experiment, but dark ecosystem respiration was transiently increased by ozone concentration of 100 ppb after 14 days of exposure (P<0.05). Fumigation with 100 ppb of ozone, however, more than doubled (P<0.05) methane emission from the peatland monoliths. Our results suggest that increasing tropospheric ozone concentration may cause substantial changes in the carbon gas cycling of boreal peatlands, even though these changes are not closely associated with the changes in Sphagnum vegetation

  16. Multi-model assessment of stratospheric ozone return dates and ozone recovery in CCMVal-2 models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Eyring

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Projections of stratospheric ozone from a suite of chemistry-climate models (CCMs have been analyzed. In addition to a reference simulation where anthropogenic halogenated ozone depleting substances (ODSs and greenhouse gases (GHGs vary with time, sensitivity simulations with either ODS or GHG concentrations fixed at 1960 levels were performed to disaggregate the drivers of projected ozone changes. These simulations were also used to assess the two distinct milestones of ozone returning to historical values (ozone return dates and ozone no longer being influenced by ODSs (full ozone recovery. The date of ozone returning to historical values does not indicate complete recovery from ODSs in most cases, because GHG-induced changes accelerate or decelerate ozone changes in many regions. In the upper stratosphere where CO2-induced stratospheric cooling increases ozone, full ozone recovery is projected to not likely have occurred by 2100 even though ozone returns to its 1980 or even 1960 levels well before (~2025 and 2040, respectively. In contrast, in the tropical lower stratosphere ozone decreases continuously from 1960 to 2100 due to projected increases in tropical upwelling, while by around 2040 it is already very likely that full recovery from the effects of ODSs has occurred, although ODS concentrations are still elevated by this date. In the midlatitude lower stratosphere the evolution differs from that in the tropics, and rather than a steady decrease in ozone, first a decrease in ozone is simulated from 1960 to 2000, which is then followed by a steady increase through the 21st century. Ozone in the midlatitude lower stratosphere returns to 1980 levels by ~2045 in the Northern Hemisphere (NH and by ~2055 in the Southern Hemisphere (SH, and full ozone recovery is likely reached by 2100 in both hemispheres. Overall, in all regions except the tropical lower stratosphere, full ozone recovery from ODSs occurs significantly later than the

  17. OZONE AMBIENT AIR QUALITY STANDARD HAS BENEFICIAL EFFECT ON PONDEROSA PINE IN CALIFORNIA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambient air quality standards and control strategies are implemented to protect humans and vegetation from adverse effects. However, to date there has not been a simple and objective method to determine if the standards and resultant control strategies have reduced O3 impacts on ...

  18. Merged SAGE II, Ozone_cci and OMPS ozone profile dataset and evaluation of ozone trends in the stratosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. F. Sofieva

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we present a merged dataset of ozone profiles from several satellite instruments: SAGE II on ERBS, GOMOS, SCIAMACHY and MIPAS on Envisat, OSIRIS on Odin, ACE-FTS on SCISAT, and OMPS on Suomi-NPP. The merged dataset is created in the framework of the European Space Agency Climate Change Initiative (Ozone_cci with the aim of analyzing stratospheric ozone trends. For the merged dataset, we used the latest versions of the original ozone datasets. The datasets from the individual instruments have been extensively validated and intercompared; only those datasets which are in good agreement, and do not exhibit significant drifts with respect to collocated ground-based observations and with respect to each other, are used for merging. The long-term SAGE–CCI–OMPS dataset is created by computation and merging of deseasonalized anomalies from individual instruments. The merged SAGE–CCI–OMPS dataset consists of deseasonalized anomalies of ozone in 10° latitude bands from 90° S to 90° N and from 10 to 50 km in steps of 1 km covering the period from October 1984 to July 2016. This newly created dataset is used for evaluating ozone trends in the stratosphere through multiple linear regression. Negative ozone trends in the upper stratosphere are observed before 1997 and positive trends are found after 1997. The upper stratospheric trends are statistically significant at midlatitudes and indicate ozone recovery, as expected from the decrease of stratospheric halogens that started in the middle of the 1990s and stratospheric cooling.

  19. Tropospheric Ozone from the TOMS TDOT (TOMS-Direct-Ozone-in-Troposphere) Technique During SAFARI-2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, J. B.; Thompson, A. M.; Frolov, A. D.; Hudson, R. D.; Bhartia, P. K. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    There are a number of published residual-type methods for deriving tropospheric ozone from TOMS (Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer). The basic concept of these methods is that within a zone of constant stratospheric ozone, the tropospheric ozone column can be computed by subtracting stratospheric ozone from the TOMS Level 2 total ozone column, We used the modified-residual method for retrieving tropospheric ozone during SAFARI-2000 and found disagreements with in-situ ozone data over Africa in September 2000. Using the newly developed TDOT (TOMS-Direct-Ozone-in-Troposphere) method that uses TOMS radiances and a modified lookup table based on actual profiles during high ozone pollution periods, new maps were prepared and found to compare better to soundings over Lusaka, Zambia (15.5 S, 28 E), Nairobi and several African cities where MOZAIC aircraft operated in September 2000. The TDOT technique and comparisons are described in detail.

  20. Alfalfa nutritive quality for ruminant livestock as influenced by ambient air quality in west-central Alberta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, J.C. [Department of Animal Sciences, Auburn University, Auburn, AL 36849 (United States); Nosal, M. [Department of Mathematics and Statistics, University of Calgary, Calgary, AB T2N 1N4 (Canada); Muntifering, R.B. [Department of Animal Sciences, Auburn University, Auburn, AL 36849 (United States)]. E-mail: muntirb@auburn.edu; Krupa, S.V. [Department of Plant Pathology, University of Minnesota, St. Paul, MN 55108 (United States)

    2007-09-15

    Alfalfa (Medicago sativa) nutritive quality response to ambient ozone (O{sub 3}), sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) and oxides of nitrogen (NO {sub x} ) were assessed at three locations in west-central Alberta, Canada (1998-2002). Yield data were segregated into high and low relative to overall median yield. Ozone concentrations (hourly median and 95th-percentile) and precipitation (P) contributed 69 and 29%, respectively, to the variability in crude protein (CP) concentration in low-yielding alfalfa, whereas mean temperature (T) and relative humidity (RH) collectively influenced 98% of the variation in CP in high-yielding alfalfa. Three-fourths of the accounted variation in relative feed value (RFV) of low-yielding alfalfa was attributable to P, T and RH, whereas median and 95th-percentile hourly O{sub 3} concentrations and SO{sub 2} and NO {sub x} exposure integrals contributed 25%. In contrast, air quality, (mainly O{sub 3}) influenced 86% of the accounted variation in RFV of high-yielding alfalfa, and T and P collectively contributed 14%. - Exposure to ambient concentrations of phytotoxic air pollutants affected nutritive quality of alfalfa for ruminant livestock in a yield-dependent manner.

  1. A Review of Atmospheric Ozone and Current Thinking on the Antarctic Ozone Hole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-01-01

    UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA 0 A Review of Atmospheric ozone and Current Thinking on the Antartic Ozone Hole A thesis submitted in partial satisfaction of the...4. TI TLE (Pit 5,1tlfie) S. TYPE OF REPORT & PFRIOO COVERED A Review of Atmospheric Ozone and Current THESIS/DA/;J.At1AAU00 Thinking on the Antartic ...THESIS A Review of Atmospheric Ozone and Current Thinking on the Antartic Ozone Hole by Randolph Antoine Fix Master of Science in Atmospheric Science

  2. Evidence for potential impacts of ozone on Pinus cembra L. at mountain sites in Europe: An overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wieser, G.; Manning, W.J.; Tausz, M.; Bytnerowicz, A.

    2006-01-01

    We summarize what is known about the impact of ozone (O 3 ) on Pinus cembra in the timberline ecotone of the central European Alps and the Carpathian Mountains. In the central European Alps exposure to ambient and two-fold ambient O 3 throughout one growing season did neither cause any visible injury nor affect the photosynthetic machinery and biochemical parameters in current to 1-year-old needles. By contrast, in the southern French Alps and in the Carpathians 1-year-old needles of Pinus cembra trees showed visual symptoms similar to those observed in O 3 stressed pine stands in southern California. For the southern French Alps the observed symptoms could clearly be attributed O 3 and differences in O 3 uptake seems to be the likely key factor for explaining the observed decline. For the Carpathians however, other reasons such as drought may not be excluded in eliciting the observed symptoms. Thus, the action of O 3 has always to be evaluated in concert with other environmental impacts, determining the tree's sensitivity to stress. - An overview of ozone effects on Pinus cembra an important European coniferous tree species in the timberline ecotone

  3. Vertical and Horizontal Measurements of Ambient Ozone over a Gas and Oil Production Area using a UAV Platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, A.; Gowing, I.; Martin, R. S.

    2013-12-01

    During the 2013 wintertime Uintah Basin Ozone Study (UBOS13), an autonomous unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) platform, coupled with an on-board UV ozone monitor, flew several spatial profiles near the location (Horse Pool) of other concentrated measurements by other co-investigators. The airframe, part of the Utah Water Research Laboratory's (UWRL) AggieAir UAV program, consisted of a custom-built, battery-operated plane with and 2.4 m (8 ft) wing span and a 12.7 cm x 12.7 cm x 30.5 cm payload bay with a carrying capacity of approximately 2.0 kg. With the current power system, the fully-loaded AggieAir UAV can fly for approximately 45 minutes at a nominal airspeed of 13.4 m/s (30 mph). The system can be operated either in manual control or be flown autonomously following preprogrammed waypoints via a built in GPS system. The AggieAir UAV systems were primarily designed for photographic and telemetry tracking projects. For the UBOS13 flights, a 2B Technologies Model 205 Ozone (O3) monitor was modified for minimal weight optimization, wrapped with lightweight insulation and secured into the UAV payload bay. Additionally, HOBO Model H08-001-02 shielded temperature/datalogger was secured to the exterior of the UAV from parallel thermal profile determination. During the study period, three demonstration flight profiles were obtained on February 17 and 18, 2013: two vertical 'curtain' profiles and a pair of 'stacked' horizontal profiles. As recorded by numerous ground-based monitoring sites, the ozone during the UAV test periods was characterized by initial trends of daytime O3 maximums over 130 ppb, followed by a meteorological front partially ventilating the Basin on the evening of Feb. 17th leading to decreased O3 minimums around 40 ppb. However, the ground level O3 rebuilt quickly to ground level maximums approaching 100 ppb. The vertical 'curtain' flown on the evening of Feb. 17th only reached a maximum elevation of about 2160 m ASL (600 m AGL) due to encountering

  4. Gas exchange and chlorophyll fluorescence of pea (Pisum sativum L.) plants in response to ambient ozone at a rural site in Egypt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ismail, I.M.; Basahi, J.M. [Air Pollution Laboratory (APL), Centre of Excellence in Environmental Studies (CEES), King Abdulaziz University, P. O. Box 80216, Jeddah 21589 (Saudi Arabia); Hassan, I.A., E-mail: ihassan_eg@yahoo.com [Air Pollution Laboratory (APL), Centre of Excellence in Environmental Studies (CEES), King Abdulaziz University, P. O. Box 80216, Jeddah 21589 (Saudi Arabia); Department of Botany, Faculty of Science, Alexandria University, 21526 El Shatby, Alexandria (Egypt)

    2014-11-01

    Egyptian pea cultivars (Pisum sativum L. cultivars Little Marvel, Perfection and Victory) grown in open-top chambers were exposed to either charcoal-filtered (FA) or non-filtered air (NF) for five consecutive years (2009–2013) at a rural site in northern Egypt. Net photosynthetic rates (P{sub N}), stomatal conductance (g{sub s}), intercellular CO{sub 2} (C{sub i}) and chlorophyll fluorescence were measured. Ozone (O{sub 3}) was found to be the most prevalent pollutant common at the rural site and is suspected to be involved in the alteration of the physiological parameters measured in the present investigation. P{sub N} of different cultivars were found to respond similarly; decreases of 23, 29 and 39% were observed in the cultivars Perfection, Little Marvel and Victory, respectively (averaged over the five years) due to ambient O{sub 3}. The maximum impairment in P{sub N} was recorded in the cultivar Victory (46%) in 2013 when the highest O{sub 3} levels were recorded (90 nL L{sup −1}). The average stomatal conductance decreased by 20 and 18% in the cultivars Little Marvel and Perfection, respectively, while the average stomatal conductance increased on average by 27% in the cultivar Victory. A significant correlation was found between P{sub N} and C{sub i}, indicating the importance of non-stomatal limitations of photosynthesis, especially in the cultivar Victory. The P{sub N} vs. Ci curves were fitted to a non-rectangular hyperbolic model. The actual quantum yield (Φ{sub PSII}) and photochemical quenching coefficient (qP) were significantly decreased in the leaves of plants exposed to NF air. Non-photochemical quenching (NPQ) was increased in all cultivars. Exposure to NF air caused reductions in chlorophyll (Chl a) of 19, 16 and 30% in the Little Marvel, Perfection and Victory cultivars, respectively. - Highlights: • Ozone (O{sub 3}) concentrations recorded were within the ranges of phytotoxicity. • O{sub 3} has a clear influence on the physiological

  5. Ozone depletion calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luther, F.M.; Chang, J.S.; Wuebbles, D.J.; Penner, J.E.

    1992-01-01

    Models of stratospheric chemistry have been primarily directed toward an understanding of the behavior of stratospheric ozone. Initially this interest reflected the diagnostic role of ozone in the understanding of atmospheric transport processes. More recently, interest in stratospheric ozone has arisen from concern that human activities might affect the amount of stratospheric ozone, thereby affecting the ultraviolet radiation reaching the earth's surface and perhaps also affecting the climate with various potentially severe consequences for human welfare. This concern has inspired a substantial effort to develop both diagnostic and prognostic models of stratospheric ozone. During the past decade, several chemical agents have been determined to have potentially significant impacts on stratospheric ozone if they are released to the atmosphere in large quantities. These include oxides of nitrogen, oxides of hydrogen, chlorofluorocarbons, bromine compounds, fluorine compounds and carbon dioxide. In order to assess the potential impact of the perturbations caused by these chemicals, mathematical models have been developed to handle the complex coupling between chemical, radiative, and dynamical processes. Basic concepts in stratospheric modeling are reviewed

  6. Ambient Air Pollution and Morbidity in Chinese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Li-Wen; Lawrence, Wayne R; Liu, Yimin; Yang, Bo-Yi; Zeng, Xiao-Wen; Chen, Wen; Dong, Guang-Hui

    2017-01-01

    The rapid economic growth in China is coupled with a severe ambient air pollution, which poses a huge threat to human health and the sustainable development of social economy. The rapid urbanization and industrialization over the last three decades have placed China as one of countries with the greatest disease burden in world. Notably, the prevalence rate of chronic noncommunicable diseases (CND), including respiratory diseases, CVD, and stroke, in 2010 reaches 16.9%. The continuous growth of the incidence of CND urgent needs for effective regulatory action for health protection. This study aims to evaluate the impact of rapid urbanization on status of ambient air pollution and associated adverse health effects on the incidence and the burden of CND and risk assessment. Our findings would be greatly significant in the prediction of the risk of ambient air pollution on CND and for evidence-based policy making and risk management in China.

  7. Study of ozone gas formed in the industrial radiation process with cobalt-60 and its impact on the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uzueli, Daniel Henrique

    2013-01-01

    The radiation processing is present in various products such as foods, medical disposable, electrical cables, gems, among others. This process aims to improve the properties, sterilize or sanitize irradiated products. In industrial irradiators facilities, electromagnetic radiation (gamma and X-rays) or electrons before they interact with the products in processing, there are a layer of air. To interact with this air layer, it causes radiolytic effects on the molecules present in the ambient atmosphere, and the main interaction are with the oxygen molecules that have their bonds broken, separating them into two highly reactive atoms that recombine with the other molecule of oxygen to form ozone gas. In this work it was studied the formation, decay and dispersion of ozone in industrial gamma irradiators facilities that use cobalt-60 as a source of radiation. The monitoring of ozone concentration was performed by optical absorption method in a commercial monitor. (author)

  8. A DIGE analysis of developing poplar leaves subjected to ozone reveals major changes in carbon metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohler, Sacha; Bagard, Matthieu; Oufir, Mouhssin; Planchon, Sébastien; Hoffmann, Lucien; Jolivet, Yves; Hausman, Jean-François; Dizengremel, Pierre; Renaut, Jenny

    2007-05-01

    Tropospheric ozone pollution is described as having major negative effects on plants, compromising plant survival. Carbon metabolism is especially affected. In the present work, the effects of chronic ozone exposure were evaluated at the proteomic level in developing leaves of young poplar plants exposed to 120 ppb of ozone for 35 days. Soluble proteins (excluding intrinsic membrane proteins) were extracted from leaves after 3, 14 and 35 days of ozone exposure, as well as 10 days after a recovery period. Proteins (pI 4 to 7) were analyzed by 2-D DIGE experiments, followed by MALDI-TOF-TOF identification. Additional observations were obtained on growth, lesion formation, and leaf pigments analysis. Although treated plants showed large necrotic spots and chlorosis in mature leaves, growth decreased only slightly and plant height was not affected. The number of abscised leaves was higher in treated plants, but new leaf formation was not affected. A decrease in chlorophylls and lutein contents was recorded. A large number of proteins involved in carbon metabolism were identified. In particular, proteins associated with the Calvin cycle and electron transport in the chloroplast were down-regulated. In contrast, proteins associated with glucose catabolism increased in response to ozone exposure. Other identified enzymes are associated with protein folding, nitrogen metabolism and oxidoreductase activity.

  9. [Ozone concentration distribution of urban].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Yong-quan; Li, Chang-mei; Ma, Gui-xia; Cui, Zhao-jie

    2004-11-01

    The increase of ozone concentration in urban is one of the most important research topics on environmental science. With the increase of nitrogen oxides and hydrogen-carbon compounds which are exhausted from cars, the ozone concentration in urban is obviously increased on sunlight, and threat of photochemistry smog will be possible. Therefore, it is very important to monitor and study the ozone concentration distribution in urban. The frequency-distribution, diurnal variation and monthly variation of ozone concentration were studied on the campus of Shandong University during six months monitoring. The influence of solar radiation and weather conditions on ozone concentration were discussed. The frequency of ozone concentration less than 200 microg/m3 is 96.88%. The ozone concentration has an obvious diurnal variation. The ozone concentration in the afternoon is higher than in the morning and in the evening. The maximum appears in June, when it is the strong solar radiation and high air-temperature. The weather conditions also influence the ozone concentration. The ozone concentration in clear day is higher than in rainy and cloudy day.

  10. Decadal Changes in Ozone and Emissions in Central California and Current Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanrikulu, S.; Beaver, S.; Soong, S.; Tran, C.; Cordova, J.; Palazoglu, A.

    2011-12-01

    The relationships among ozone, emissions, and meteorology are very complex in central California, and must be well studied and understood in order to facilitate better air quality planning. Factors significantly impacting changes in emissions such as economic and population growth, and adopted emission controls make the matter even more complex. Here we review the history of ozone pollution in central California since the 1970s to plan for the future. Since the 1970s, changes in emissions have been accompanied by likewise dramatic changes in region-to-region differences in air quality. We focus on the coastal San Francisco Bay Area (SFBA) and the inland San Joaquin Valley (SJV). In the 1970s, the SFBA population was approaching 5 million people while the considerably larger and more rural SJV population remained below 2 million. The SFBA population was mostly confined to coastal locations. Peak ozone levels occurred mostly around the population centers and especially over the Bay itself. Hourly average ozone levels routinely approached 160 ppb. These high ozone levels promoted regulations under which SFBA emissions were continuously reduced through the present. By the 1990s, SFBA emissions had been reduced considerably despite the region's population growing to around 6 million. Relative to the 1970s, in 1990s the SFBA had lower peak ozone levels that were shifted to inland locations where much of the population growth was occurring. The SFBA still exceeded the federal 1-hour standard. A rapidly changing economic landscape in the 1970s promoted vast changes in the central California population distribution. In the SJV, the OPEC oil crisis promoted significant development of petroleum resources. Meanwhile, family farms were quickly being replaced with commercial-scale farming operations. The SJV population rapidly expanded to around 3 million people by the early 1990s. During this time, SJV emissions increased considerably, largely from increases in mobile source

  11. The response of some common Egyptian plants to ozone and their use as biomonitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Khatib, A.A.

    2003-01-01

    Growth and physiological response of plants was shown to be an effective tool for O 3 -biomonitoring. - Relative sensitivity of five common Egyptian plant species namely, Senecio vulgaris, Malva parviflora, Sonchus oleraceus, Medicago sativa and Melilotus indicus to elevated levels of ozone has been studied. The plants were exposed to charcoal filtered air (CFA) and different levels of O 3 (50 and 100 ppb) for 5 h per day. The studied parameters were recorded for five consecutive days after fumigation. The foliar injury varied significantly among species in a dose-dependent manner. Severe injury symptoms were recorded on the leaves of M. sativa. With the exception of M. parviflora, all species exhibited significant increases in the percentage reduction of the above-ground dry weight as a result of reductions in both leaf and stem dry weights. M. sativa showed a marked reduction in its relative growth rate at elevated levels of O 3 . The extent of chlorophyll a destruction was higher in both M. sativa and S. oleraceus than in the other species tested. No differences in the sensitivity of chlorophylls a+b and carotenoids to ozone levels were recorded in this work. Percentage reduction of ascorbic acid was higher in M. sativa and S. oleraceus, compared with the other species studied. With respect to relative percentages of proline, there was a significant difference in the responses of plants to ozone. According to the ozone resistance (R%), measured as relative growth rate, the test species were arranged in the descending order: M. parviflora>M. Indicus>S. Vulgaris>S. Oleraceus>M. sativa. In M. sativa, both determinant and correlation coefficients are well reflected in the relationship between its physiological response, its performance and ozone levels, supporting its recommendation as a candidate for biomonitoring in Egypt

  12. The response of some common Egyptian plants to ozone and their use as biomonitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Khatib, A A

    2003-08-01

    Growth and physiological response of plants was shown to be an effective tool for O{sub 3}-biomonitoring. - Relative sensitivity of five common Egyptian plant species namely, Senecio vulgaris, Malva parviflora, Sonchus oleraceus, Medicago sativa and Melilotus indicus to elevated levels of ozone has been studied. The plants were exposed to charcoal filtered air (CFA) and different levels of O{sub 3} (50 and 100 ppb) for 5 h per day. The studied parameters were recorded for five consecutive days after fumigation. The foliar injury varied significantly among species in a dose-dependent manner. Severe injury symptoms were recorded on the leaves of M. sativa. With the exception of M. parviflora, all species exhibited significant increases in the percentage reduction of the above-ground dry weight as a result of reductions in both leaf and stem dry weights. M. sativa showed a marked reduction in its relative growth rate at elevated levels of O{sub 3}. The extent of chlorophyll a destruction was higher in both M. sativa and S. oleraceus than in the other species tested. No differences in the sensitivity of chlorophylls a+b and carotenoids to ozone levels were recorded in this work. Percentage reduction of ascorbic acid was higher in M. sativa and S. oleraceus, compared with the other species studied. With respect to relative percentages of proline, there was a significant difference in the responses of plants to ozone. According to the ozone resistance (R%), measured as relative growth rate, the test species were arranged in the descending order: M. parviflora>M. Indicus>S. Vulgaris>S. Oleraceus>M. sativa. In M. sativa, both determinant and correlation coefficients are well reflected in the relationship between its physiological response, its performance and ozone levels, supporting its recommendation as a candidate for biomonitoring in Egypt.

  13. How is ozone pollution reducing our food supply?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, Sally; Mills, Gina; Illidge, Rosemary; Davies, William J

    2012-01-01

    Ground-level ozone pollution is already decreasing global crop yields (from ∼2.2-5.5% for maize to 3.9-15% and 8.5-14% for wheat and soybean, respectively), to differing extents depending on genotype and environmental conditions, and this problem is predicted to escalate given climate change and increasing ozone precursor emissions in many areas. Here a summary is provided of how ozone pollution affects yield in a variety of crops, thus impacting global food security. Ozone causes visible injury symptoms to foliage; it induces early senescence and abscission of leaves; it can reduce stomatal aperture and thereby carbon uptake, and/or directly reduce photosynthetic carbon fixation; it can moderate biomass growth via carbon availability or more directly; it can decrease translocation of fixed carbon to edible plant parts (grains, fruits, pods, roots) due either to reduced availability at source, redirection to synthesis of chemical protectants, or reduced transport capabilities via phloem; decreased carbon transport to roots reduces nutrient and water uptake and affects anchorage; ozone can moderate or bring forward flowering and induce pollen sterility; it induces ovule and/or grain abortion; and finally it reduces the ability of some genotypes to withstand other stresses such as drought, high vapour pressure deficit, and high photon flux density via effects on stomatal control. This latter point is emphasized here, given predictions that atmospheric conditions conducive to drought formation that also give rise to intense precursor emission events will become more severe over the coming decades.

  14. 75 FR 1566 - Public Hearings for Reconsideration of the 2008 National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-12

    ..., Moody Ballroom (located on the ground floor), 8181 Airport Boulevard, Houston, Texas 77061. Telephone... Standards for Ozone'' proposed rule should be addressed to Ms. Susan Lyon Stone, U.S. EPA, Office of Air... Park, NC 27711, telephone: (919) 541-1146, e-mail: stone[email protected] . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The...

  15. Growth, photosynthesis and UV-B absorbing compounds of Portuguese Barbela wheat exposed to ultraviolet-B radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Correia, C.M.; Torres-Pereira, M.S.; Torres-Pereira, J.M.G.

    1999-01-01

    Wheat plants (Triticum aestivum L.) were exposed to two levels of UV-B radiation (ambient UV-B and high UV-B, simulating a 20% reduction in the ozone layer) under mediterranean field-growth conditions. After 4 months of UV-B treatment, total plant biomass of high UV-B plants was 18% lower compared to control plants. The decrease of biomass appears to be the result of changes in morphological and physiological processes. High UV-B treatment induces decreases in leaf area, net photosynthesis rate, transpiration rate and water use efficiency. Pigment analysis of leaf extracts showed increases in chlorophyll content and no effect on accumulation of UV-B absorbing pigments. The underlying mechanisms for these results are discussed. (author)

  16. Growth and nutritive quality of Poa pratensis as influenced by ozone and competition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bender, J.; Muntifering, R.B.; Lin, J.C.; Weigel, H.J.

    2006-01-01

    Interspecific plant competition has been hypothesized to alter effects of early-season ozone (O 3 ) stress. A phytometer-based approach was utilized to investigate O 3 effects on growth and nutritive quality of Poa pratensis grown in monoculture and in mixed cultures with four competitor-plant species (Anthoxanthum odoratum, Achillea millefolium, Rumex acetosa and Veronica chamaedrys). Mesocosms were exposed during April/May 2000-2002 to charcoal-filtered air + 25 ppb O 3 (control) or non-filtered air + 50 ppb O 3 (elevated O 3 ). Biomass production was not affected by O 3 , but foliar injury symptoms were observed in May 2002. Early-season O 3 exposure decreased relative food value of P. pratensis by an average of 8%, which is sufficient to have nutritional implications for its utilization by herbivores. However, forage quality response to O 3 was not changed by interspecific competition. Lack of injury and nutritive quality response in P. pratensis harvested in September may reflect recovery from early-season O 3 exposure. - Early-season O 3 exposure decreased nutritive quality of Poa pratensis, and nutritive quality response to O 3 was not altered by interspecific competition

  17. Ozone kinetics in low-pressure discharges: vibrationally excited ozone and molecule formation on surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinov, Daniil; Guerra, Vasco; Guaitella, Olivier; Booth, Jean-Paul; Rousseau, Antoine

    2013-10-01

    A combined experimental and modeling investigation of the ozone kinetics in the afterglow of pulsed direct current discharges in oxygen is carried out. The discharge is generated in a cylindrical silica tube of radius 1 cm, with short pulse durations between 0.5 and 2 ms, pressures in the range 1-5 Torr and discharge currents ˜40-120 mA. Time-resolved absolute concentrations of ground-state atoms and ozone molecules were measured simultaneously in situ, by two-photon absorption laser-induced fluorescence and ultraviolet absorption, respectively. The experiments were complemented by a self-consistent model developed to interpret the results and, in particular, to evaluate the roles of vibrationally excited ozone and of ozone formation on surfaces. It is found that vibrationally excited ozone, O_3^{*} , plays an important role in the ozone kinetics, leading to a decrease in the ozone concentration and an increase in its formation time. In turn, the kinetics of O_3^{*} is strongly coupled with those of atomic oxygen and O2(a 1Δg) metastables. Ozone formation at the wall does not contribute significantly to the total ozone production under the present conditions. Upper limits for the effective heterogeneous recombination probability of O atoms into ozone are established.

  18. Ozone kinetics in low-pressure discharges: vibrationally excited ozone and molecule formation on surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marinov, Daniil; Guaitella, Olivier; Booth, Jean-Paul; Rousseau, Antoine; Guerra, Vasco

    2013-01-01

    A combined experimental and modeling investigation of the ozone kinetics in the afterglow of pulsed direct current discharges in oxygen is carried out. The discharge is generated in a cylindrical silica tube of radius 1 cm, with short pulse durations between 0.5 and 2 ms, pressures in the range 1–5 Torr and discharge currents ∼40–120 mA. Time-resolved absolute concentrations of ground-state atoms and ozone molecules were measured simultaneously in situ, by two-photon absorption laser-induced fluorescence and ultraviolet absorption, respectively. The experiments were complemented by a self-consistent model developed to interpret the results and, in particular, to evaluate the roles of vibrationally excited ozone and of ozone formation on surfaces. It is found that vibrationally excited ozone, O 3 * , plays an important role in the ozone kinetics, leading to a decrease in the ozone concentration and an increase in its formation time. In turn, the kinetics of O 3 * is strongly coupled with those of atomic oxygen and O 2 (a 1 Δ g ) metastables. Ozone formation at the wall does not contribute significantly to the total ozone production under the present conditions. Upper limits for the effective heterogeneous recombination probability of O atoms into ozone are established. (paper)

  19. Improvement of ozone yield by a multi-discharge type ozonizer using superposition of silent discharge plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Hyun-Jig; Chun, Byung-Joon; Lee, Kwang-Sik

    2004-01-01

    In order to improve ozone generation, we experimentally investigated the silent discharge plasma and ozone generation characteristics of a multi-discharge type ozonizer. Ozone in a multi-discharge type ozonizer is generated by superposition of a silent discharge plasma, which is simultaneously generated in separated discharge spaces. A multi-discharge type ozonizer is composed of three different kinds of superposed silent discharge type ozonizers, depending on the method of applying power to each electrode. We observed that the discharge period of the current pulse for a multi discharge type ozonizer can be longer than that of silent discharge type ozonizer with two electrodes and one gap. Hence, ozone generation is improved up to 17185 ppm and 783 g/kwh in the case of the superposed silent discharge type ozonizer for which an AC high voltages with a 180 .deg. phase difference were applied to the internal electrode and the external electrode, respectively, with the central electrode being grounded.

  20. Quantifying ozone uptake at the canopy level of spruce, pine and larch trees at the alpine timberline: an approach based on sap flow measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wieser, G.; Matyssek, R.; Koestner, B.; Oberhuber, W.

    2003-01-01

    Sap-flow based measurements can be used to estimate ozone uptake at whole-tree and stand levels. - Micro-climatic and ambient ozone data were combined with measurements of sap flow through tree trunks in order to estimate whole-tree ozone uptake of adult Norway spruce (Picea abies), cembran pine (Pinus cembra), and European larch (Larix decidua) trees. Sap flow was monitored by means of the heat balance approach in two trees of each species during the growing season of 1998. In trees making up the stand canopy, the ozone uptake by evergreen foliages was significantly higher than by deciduous ones, when scaled to the ground area. However, if expressed per unit of whole-tree foliage area, ozone flux through the stomata into the needle mesophyll was 1.09, 1.18 and 1.40 nmol m -2 s -1 in Picea abies, Pinus cembra and Larix decidua, respectively. These fluxes are consistent with findings from measurements of needle gas exchange, published from the same species at the study site. It is concluded that the sap flow-based approach offers an inexpensive, spatially and temporally integrating way for estimating ozone uptake at the whole-tree and stand level, intrinsically covering the effect of boundary layers on ozone flux

  1. Limited effect of ozone reductions on the 20-year photosynthesis trend at Harvard forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Xu; Keenan, Trevor F; Munger, William; Unger, Nadine

    2016-11-01

    Ozone (O 3 ) damage to leaves can reduce plant photosynthesis, which suggests that declines in ambient O 3 concentrations ([O 3 ]) in the United States may have helped increase gross primary production (GPP) in recent decades. Here, we assess the effect of long-term changes in ambient [O 3 ] using 20 years of observations at Harvard forest. Using artificial neural networks, we found that the effect of the inclusion of [O 3 ] as a predictor was slight, and independent of O 3 concentrations, which suggests limited high-frequency O 3 inhibition of GPP at this site. Simulations with a terrestrial biosphere model, however, suggest an average long-term O 3 inhibition of 10.4% for 1992-2011. A decline of [O 3 ] over the measurement period resulted in moderate predicted GPP trends of 0.02-0.04 μmol C m -2  s -1  yr -1 , which is negligible relative to the total observed GPP trend of 0.41 μmol C m -2  s -1  yr -1 . A similar conclusion is achieved with the widely used AOT40 metric. Combined, our results suggest that ozone reductions at Harvard forest are unlikely to have had a large impact on the photosynthesis trend over the past 20 years. Such limited effects are mainly related to the slow responses of photosynthesis to changes in [O 3 ]. Furthermore, we estimate that 40% of photosynthesis happens in the shade, where stomatal conductance and thus [O 3 ] deposition is lower than for sunlit leaves. This portion of GPP remains unaffected by [O 3 ], thus helping to buffer the changes of total photosynthesis due to varied [O 3 ]. Our analyses suggest that current ozone reductions, although significant, cannot substantially alleviate the damages to forest ecosystems. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Effects of 0.12 and 0.80 ppm ozone on rat nasal and nasopharyngeal epithelial mucosubstances: Quantitative histochemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harkema, J.R.; Hotchkiss, J.A.; Henderson, R.F.

    1989-01-01

    The present study was designed to characterize the quantity of mucosubstances in surface epithelia of the rat nasal cavity and nasopharynx after short-term ozone exposure. Rats were exposure. Nasal cavities were processed for morphometric analysis of intraepithelial mucosubstances. Compared to controls, rats exposed to 0.12 ppm ozone had increased amounts of stored mucosubstances within epithelium lining the medial aspect of the nasal turbinate, but no change within the epithelium of the nasopharynx. Rats exposed to 0.8 ppm ozone had increased quantities of stored mucosubstances within the transitional and respiratory epithelia lining turbinates and lateral walls of the anterior nasal airway, and significant decreases in stored mucosubstances within the epithelium of the nasal septum at the end of exposure. Seven days after the end of exposure, the amounts of intraepithelial mucosubstances returned to control levels along the septum, but remained greater than those of controls along the turbinates and nasopharynx. We conclude that exposures to ambient levels of ozone induce significant changes in the stored secretory product of nasal epithelium in the rat, and that these changes persist for at least 7 days after cessation of exposure

  3. In situ observation of carbon nanotube layer growth on microbolometers with substrates at ambient temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svatoš, Vojtěch; Gablech, Imrich; Ilic, B. Robert; Pekárek, Jan; Neužil, Pavel

    2018-03-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have near unity infrared (IR) absorption efficiency, making them extremely attractive for IR imaging devices. Since CNT growth occurs at elevated temperatures, the integration of CNTs with IR imaging devices is challenging and has not yet been achieved. Here, we show a strategy for implementing CNTs as IR absorbers using differential heating of thermally isolated microbolometer membranes in a C2H2 environment. During the process, CNTs were catalytically grown on the surface of a locally heated membrane, while the substrate was maintained at an ambient temperature. CNT growth was monitored in situ in real time using optical microscopy. During growth, we measured the intensity of light emission and the reflected light from the heated microbolometer. Our measurements of bolometer performance show that the CNT layer on the surface of the microbolometer membrane increases the IR response by a factor of (2.3 ± 0.1) (mean ± one standard deviation of the least-squares fit parameters). This work opens the door to integrating near unity IR absorption, CNT-based, IR absorbers with hybrid complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor focal plane array architectures.

  4. Development of an ozone high sensitive sensor working at ambient temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berger, F; Ghaddab, B; Sanchez, J B; Mavon, C

    2011-01-01

    Hybrid SnO 2 /SWNTs thin layer were deposited by using sol-gel process. Such sensitive layers showed very high performances for O 3 flow detection at ambient temperature. Limit sensitivity, lower than 21,5 ppb of O 3 in air has been reached by using these hybrid layers. Compared to usefull metal oxide sensors, the main advantage of the use of such hybrid layers, is that these devices enable the detection of O 3 traces at room temperature. The influence of sensor's working temperature is discussed and finally a reactional mechanism for the detection of O 3 is proposed.

  5. Towards the retrieval of tropospheric ozone with the ozone monitoring instrument (OMI)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mielonen, T.; De Haan, J.F.; Van Peet, J.C.A.; Eremenko, M.; Veefkind, J.P.

    2015-01-01

    We have assessed the sensitivity of the operational Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) ozone profile retrieval algorithm to a number of a priori and radiative transfer assumptions. We studied the effect of stray light correction, surface albedo assumptions and a priori ozone profiles on the retrieved

  6. Comparative study of ozonized olive oil and ozonized sunflower oil

    OpenAIRE

    Díaz,Maritza F.; Hernández,Rebeca; Martínez,Goitybell; Vidal,Genny; Gómez,Magali; Fernández,Harold; Garcés,Rafael

    2006-01-01

    In this study the ozonized olive and sunflower oils are chemical and microbiologically compared. These oils were introduced into a reactor with bubbling ozone gas in a water bath at room temperature until they were solidified. The peroxide, acidity and iodine values along with antimicrobial activity were determined. Ozonization effects on the fatty acid composition of these oils were analyzed using Gas-Liquid Chromatographic Technique. An increase in peroxidation and acidity values was observ...

  7. Effects of ozone-vegetation coupling on surface ozone air quality via biogeochemical and meteorological feedbacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadiq, Mehliyar; Tai, Amos P. K.; Lombardozzi, Danica; Martin, Maria Val

    2017-02-01

    Tropospheric ozone is one of the most hazardous air pollutants as it harms both human health and plant productivity. Foliage uptake of ozone via dry deposition damages photosynthesis and causes stomatal closure. These foliage changes could lead to a cascade of biogeochemical and biogeophysical effects that not only modulate the carbon cycle, regional hydrometeorology and climate, but also cause feedbacks onto surface ozone concentration itself. In this study, we implement a semi-empirical parameterization of ozone damage on vegetation in the Community Earth System Model to enable online ozone-vegetation coupling, so that for the first time ecosystem structure and ozone concentration can coevolve in fully coupled land-atmosphere simulations. With ozone-vegetation coupling, present-day surface ozone is simulated to be higher by up to 4-6 ppbv over Europe, North America and China. Reduced dry deposition velocity following ozone damage contributes to ˜ 40-100 % of those increases, constituting a significant positive biogeochemical feedback on ozone air quality. Enhanced biogenic isoprene emission is found to contribute to most of the remaining increases, and is driven mainly by higher vegetation temperature that results from lower transpiration rate. This isoprene-driven pathway represents an indirect, positive meteorological feedback. The reduction in both dry deposition and transpiration is mostly associated with reduced stomatal conductance following ozone damage, whereas the modification of photosynthesis and further changes in ecosystem productivity are found to play a smaller role in contributing to the ozone-vegetation feedbacks. Our results highlight the need to consider two-way ozone-vegetation coupling in Earth system models to derive a more complete understanding and yield more reliable future predictions of ozone air quality.

  8. The potential performance of microwave remote sensing for the estimation of stratospheric aircraft effect on ozone layer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kadygrov, E.; Sorokin, M.; Troitsky, A. [Central Aerological Observatory, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    1997-12-31

    A remote sensing capability is described for measurement of temperature fluctuation and some important gas species concentration at the wake vortex and wake dispersion regimes behind the supersonic aircraft at cruise altitude. The proposed new method of observation is based on the measurement of radio-brightness contrast between the ambient atmosphere and perturbed area behind the aircraft by using millimeter or submillimeter wave scanning spectroradiometers with specially selected spectral parameters. The qualitative estimation of the sensitivity of measurement to temperature fluctuation, changing concentration of ozone, water vapour, nitrogen oxide and sulfur dioxide were calculated. The preliminary test of a new equipment were conducted from high-altitude balloon (temperature profiles and fluctuation and ozone concentrations) and from the ground (sulfur dioxide relative concentration) measurement. (author) 9 refs.

  9. The potential performance of microwave remote sensing for the estimation of stratospheric aircraft effect on ozone layer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kadygrov, E; Sorokin, M; Troitsky, A [Central Aerological Observatory, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    1998-12-31

    A remote sensing capability is described for measurement of temperature fluctuation and some important gas species concentration at the wake vortex and wake dispersion regimes behind the supersonic aircraft at cruise altitude. The proposed new method of observation is based on the measurement of radio-brightness contrast between the ambient atmosphere and perturbed area behind the aircraft by using millimeter or submillimeter wave scanning spectroradiometers with specially selected spectral parameters. The qualitative estimation of the sensitivity of measurement to temperature fluctuation, changing concentration of ozone, water vapour, nitrogen oxide and sulfur dioxide were calculated. The preliminary test of a new equipment were conducted from high-altitude balloon (temperature profiles and fluctuation and ozone concentrations) and from the ground (sulfur dioxide relative concentration) measurement. (author) 9 refs.

  10. Photoprotection, photosynthesis and growth of tropical tree seedlings under near-ambient and strongly reduced solar ultraviolet-B radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, G Heinrich; Jahns, Peter; Virgo, Aurelio; García, Milton; Aranda, Jorge; Wellmann, Eckard; Winter, Klaus

    2007-10-01

    Seedlings of two late-successional tropical rainforest tree species, Tetragastris panamensis (Engler) O. Kuntze and Calophyllum longifolium (Willd.), were field grown for 3-4 months at an open site near Panama City (9 degrees N), Panama, under plastic films that either transmitted or excluded most solar UV-B radiation. Experiments were designed to test whether leaves developing under bright sunlight with strongly reduced UV-B are capable of acclimating to near-ambient UV-B conditions. Leaves of T. panamensis that developed under near-ambient UV-B contained higher amounts of UV-absorbing substances than leaves of seedlings grown under reduced UV-B. Photosynthetic pigment composition, content of alpha-tocopherol, CO(2) assimilation, potential photosystem II (PSII) efficiency (evaluated by F(v)/F(m) ratios) and growth of T. panamensis and C. longifolium did not differ between seedlings developed under near-ambient and reduced solar UV-B. When seedlings were transferred from the reduced UV-B treatment to the near-ambient UV-B treatment, a pronounced inhibition of photosynthetic capacity was observed initially in both species. UV-B-mediated inhibition of photosynthetic capacity nearly fully recovered within 1 week of the transfer in C. longifolium, whereas in T. panamensis an about 35% reduced capacity of CO(2) uptake was maintained. A marked increase in UV-absorbing substances was observed in foliage of transferred T. panamensis seedlings. Both species exhibited enhanced mid-day photoinhibition of PSII immediately after being transferred from the reduced UV-B to the near-ambient UV-B treatment. This effect was fully reversible within 1d in T. panamensis and within a few days in C. longifolium. The data show that leaves of these tropical tree seedlings, when developing in full-spectrum sunlight, are effectively protected against high solar UV-B radiation. In contrast, leaves developing under conditions of low UV-B lacked sufficient UV protection. They experienced a

  11. Use of Ozone to Treat Ileostomy Dermatitis in an Experimental Rat Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biçer, Şenol; Sayar, İlyas; Gürsul, Cebrail; Işık, Arda; Aydın, Merve; Peker, Kemal; Demiryilmaz, İsmail

    2016-03-07

    Dermatitis associated with ileostomy is an important problem that affects many people, especially children. The aim of this study was to investigate the therapeutic effects of ozone on dermatitis due to ileostomy, and to develop an alternative treatment option. A total of 28 rats were divided into 4 groups: control, ileostomy, ozone, and zinc oxide. Ileostomy was performed in all rats except the control group. After a 1-week waiting time, the ozone group was administered ozone therapy and the zinc oxide group was administered zinc oxide cream locally once a day for a total of 7 days. All rats were sacrificed at the end of this period. The efficacy of treatment was examined by biochemical, histopathological, and immunohistochemical parameters. The levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), total glutathione (tGSH), total antioxidant capacity (TAC), and total oxidant status (TOS) were measured from tissue. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) were examined immunohistochemically. Dermatitis occurred pathologically in all rats that underwent ileostomy surgery. The lowest dermatitis score was in the ozone treatment group (p<0.05). Ileostomy dermatitis caused increased levels of MDA and TOS. Ozone treatment resulted in reduced MDA and TOS levels, while the levels of tGSH and TAC were increased (p<0.05). Both VEGF and PCNA immunostaining were augmented in the ozone treatment group (p<0.05). Local ozone application may be a good alternative compared to the conventional treatment methods for the prevention of skin lesions that develop after ileostomy.

  12. Ozone exposure and pulmonary effects in panel and human clinical studies: Considerations for design and interpretation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohr, Annette C

    2018-04-01

    A wealth of literature exists regarding the pulmonary effects of ozone, a photochemical pollutant produced by the reaction of nitrogen oxide and volatile organic precursors in the presence of sunlight. This paper focuses on epidemiological panel studies and human clinical studies of ozone exposure, and discusses issues specific to this pollutant that may influence study design and interpretation as well as other, broader considerations relevant to ozone-health research. The issues are discussed using examples drawn from the wider literature. The recent panel and clinical literature is also reviewed. Health outcomes considered include lung function, symptoms, and pulmonary inflammation. Issues discussed include adversity, reversibility, adaptation, variability in ozone exposure metric used and health outcomes evaluated, co-pollutants in panel studies, influence of temperature in panel studies, and multiple comparisons. Improvements in and standardization of panel study approaches are recommended to facilitate comparisons between studies as well as meta-analyses. Additional clinical studies at or near the current National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS) of 70 ppb are recommended, as are clinical studies in sensitive subpopulations such as asthmatics. The pulmonary health impacts of ozone exposure have been well documented using both epidemiological and chamber study designs. However, there are a number of specific methodological and related issues that should be considered when interpreting the results of these studies and planning additional research, including the standardization of exposure and health metrics to facilitate comparisons among studies.

  13. Effect of ozone and granular activated coal (GAC) on the bioactivity of drinking water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sallanko, Jarmo; Iivari, Pekka; Heiska, Eeva

    2009-02-15

    In this research, the appearance of easily biodegradable organic material in ozonation and granular activated coal (GAC) filtration was studied. The amount of bioactivity was measured by conventional AOC analyses used in two different modes and also using quite a new growth potential (GP) method. GAC filtration without ozone doubled the amount of AOC of the chemically treated surface water, whereas by ozonation with GAC filtration it was possible to halve the amount of the AOC. The measurement of GP was noticeably simpler than measuring AOC, but for wider use more parallel studies are needed for the comparability of the results of the analysis.

  14. Ozone production in summer in the megacities of Tianjin and Shanghai, China: a comparative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Ran

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Rapid economic growth has given rise to a significant increase in ozone precursor emissions in many regions of China, especially in the densely populated North China Plain (NCP and Yangtze River Delta (YRD. Improved understanding of ozone formation in response to different precursor emissions is imperative to address the highly nonlinear ozone problem and to provide a solid scientific basis for efficient ozone abatement in these regions. A comparative study on ozone photochemical production in summer has thus been carried out in the megacities of Tianjin (NCP and Shanghai (YRD. Two intensive field campaigns were carried out respectively at an urban and a suburban site of Tianjin, in addition to routine monitoring of trace gases in Shanghai, providing data sets of surface ozone and its precursors including nitrogen oxides (NOx and various non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHCs. Ozone pollution in summer was found to be more severe in the Tianjin region than in the Shanghai region, based on either the frequency or the duration of high ozone events. Such differences might be attributed to the large amount of highly reactive NMHCs in Tianjin. Industry related species like light alkenes were of particular importance in both urban and suburban Tianjin, while in Shanghai aromatics dominated. In general, the ozone problem in Shanghai is on an urban scale. Stringent control policies on local emissions would help reduce the occurrence of high ozone concentrations. By contrast, ozone pollution in Tianjin is probably a regional problem. Combined efforts to reduce ozone precursor emissions on a regional scale must be undertaken to bring the ozone problem under control.

  15. Estonian total ozone climatology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Eerme

    Full Text Available The climatological characteristics of total ozone over Estonia based on the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS data are discussed. The mean annual cycle during 1979–2000 for the site at 58.3° N and 26.5° E is compiled. The available ground-level data interpolated before TOMS, have been used for trend detection. During the last two decades, the quasi-biennial oscillation (QBO corrected systematic decrease of total ozone from February–April was 3 ± 2.6% per decade. Before 1980, a spring decrease was not detectable. No decreasing trend was found in either the late autumn ozone minimum or in the summer total ozone. The QBO related signal in the spring total ozone has an amplitude of ± 20 DU and phase lag of 20 months. Between 1987–1992, the lagged covariance between the Singapore wind and the studied total ozone was weak. The spring (April–May and summer (June–August total ozone have the best correlation (coefficient 0.7 in the yearly cycle. The correlation between the May and August total ozone is higher than the one between the other summer months. Seasonal power spectra of the total ozone variance show preferred periods with an over 95% significance level. Since 1986, during the winter/spring, the contribution period of 32 days prevails instead of the earlier dominating 26 days. The spectral densities of the periods from 4 days to 2 weeks exhibit high interannual variability.

    Key words. Atmospheric composition and structure (middle atmosphere – composition and chemistry; volcanic effects – Meteorology and atmospheric dynamics (climatology

  16. Ozone Sensitivity and Catalase Activity in Pigmented and Non-Pigmented Strains of Serratia Marcescens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Ondarza, José

    2017-01-01

    Ozone exposure rapidly leads to bacterial death, making ozone an effective disinfectant in food industry and health care arena. However, microbial defenses may moderate this effect and play a role in the effective use of oxidizing agents for disinfection. Serratia marcescens is an opportunistic pathogen, expressing genes differentially during infection of a human host. A better understanding of regulatory systems that control expression of Serratia 's virulence genes and defenses is therefore valuable. Here, we investigated the role of pigmentation and catalase in Serratia marcescens on survival to ozone exposure. Pigmented and non-pigmented strains of Serratia marcescens were cultured to exponential or stationary phase and exposed to 5 ppm of gaseous ozone for 2.5 - 10 minutes. Survival was calculated via plate counts. Catalase activity was measured photometrically and tolerance to hydrogen peroxide was assayed by disk-diffusion. Exposure of S. marcescens to 5 ppm gaseous ozone kills > 90% of cells within 10 minutes in a time and concentration-dependent manner. Although pigmented Serratia (grown at 28°C) survived ozonation better than unpigmented Serratia (grown at 35°C), non-pigmented mutant strains of Serratia had similar ozone survival rates, catalase activity and H 2 O 2 tolerance as wild type strains. Rather, ozone survival and catalase activity were elevated in 6 hour cultures compared to 48 hour cultures. Our studies did not bear out a role for prodigiosin in ozone survival. Rather, induction of oxidative stress responses during exponential growth increased both catalase activity and ozone survival in both pigmented and unpigmented S. marcescens .

  17. Seasonal Changes in Tropospheric Ozone Concentrations over South Korea and Its Link to Ozone Precursors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, H. C.; Moon, B. K.; Wie, J.

    2017-12-01

    Concentration of tropospheric ozone over South Korea has steadily been on the rise in the last decades, mainly due to rapid industrializing and urbanizing in the Eastern Asia. To identify the characteristics of tropospheric ozone in South Korea, we fitted a sine function to the surface ozone concentration data from 2005 to 2014. Based on fitted sine curves, we analyzed the shifts in the dates on which ozone concentration reached its peak in the calendar year. Ozone monitoring sites can be classified into type types: where the highest annual ozone concentration kept occurring sooner (Esites) and those that kept occurring later (Lsites). The seasonal analysis shows that the surface ozone had increased more rapidly in Esites than in Lsites in the past decade during springtime and vice-versa during summertime. We tried to find the reason for the different seasonal trends with the relationship between ozone and ozone precursors. As a result, it was found that the changes in the ground-level ozone concentration in the spring and summer times are considerably influenced by changes in nitrogen dioxide concentration, and this is closely linked to the destruction (production) process of ozone by nitrogen dioxide in spring (summer). The link between tropospheric ozone and nitrogen dioxide discussed in this study will have to be thoroughly examined through climate-chemistry modeling in the future. Acknowledgements This research was supported by the Korea Ministry of Environment (MOE) as "Climate Change Correspondence Program."

  18. A probabilistic assessment of health risks associated with short-term exposure to tropospheric ozone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whitfield, R.G; Biller, W.F.; Jusko, M.J.; Keisler, J.M.

    1996-06-01

    The work described in this report is part of a larger risk assessment sponsored by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Earlier efforts developed exposure-response relationships for acute health effects among populations engaged in heavy exertion. Those efforts also developed a probabilistic national ambient air quality standards exposure model and a general methodology for integrating probabilistic exposure-response relation- ships and exposure estimates to calculate overall risk results. Recently published data make it possible to model additional health endpoints (for exposure at moderate exertion), including hospital admissions. New air quality and exposure estimates for alternative national ambient air quality standards for ozone are combined with exposure-response models to produce the risk results for hospital admissions and acute health effects. Sample results explain the methodology and introduce risk output formats.

  19. Growth of two-dimensional Ge crystal by annealing of heteroepitaxial Ag/Ge(111) under N2 ambient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Koichi; Ohta, Akio; Kurosawa, Masashi; Araidai, Masaaki; Ikeda, Mitsuhisa; Makihara, Katsunori; Miyazaki, Seiichi

    2018-06-01

    The growth of a two-dimensional crystal of Ge atoms on an atomically flat Ag(111) surface has been demonstrated by the thermal annealing of a heteroepitaxial Ag/Ge structure in N2 ambient at atmospheric pressure. The surface morphology and chemical bonding features of heteroepitaxial Ag(111) grown on wet-cleaned Ge(111) after annealing at different temperatures and for various times have been systematically investigated to control the surface segregation of Ge atoms and the planarization of the heteroepitaxial Ag(111) surface.

  20. Dobson spectrophotometer ozone measurements during international ozone rocketsonde intercomparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, C. L.

    1980-01-01

    Measurements of the total ozone content of the atmosphere, made with seven ground based instruments at a site near Wallops Island, Virginia, are discussed in terms for serving as control values with which the rocketborne sensor data products can be compared. These products are profiles of O3 concentration with altitude. By integrating over the range of altitudes from the surface to the rocket apogee and by appropriately estimating the residual ozone amount from apogee to the top of the atmosphere, a total ozone amount can be computed from the profiles that can be directly compared with the ground based instrumentation results. Dobson spectrophotometers were used for two of the ground-based instruments. Preliminary data collected during the IORI from Dobson spectrophotometers 72 and 38 are presented. The agreement between the two and the variability of total ozone overburden through the experiment period are discussed.

  1. Ozone Transport Aloft Drives Surface Ozone Maxima Across the Mojave Desert

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanCuren, R. A.

    2014-12-01

    A persistent layer of polluted air in the lower free troposphere over the Mojave Desert (California and Nevada) drives spring and summer surface ozone maxima as deep afternoon mixing delivers ozone and ozone precursors to surface measurement sites 200 km or more downwind of the mountains that separate the deserts from the heavily populated coastal areas of California. Pollutants in this elevated layer derive from California source regions (the Los Angeles megacity region and the intensive agricultural region of the San Joaquin Valley), and from long-range transport from Asia. Recognition of this poorly studied persistent layer explains and expands the significance of previously published reports of ozone and other pollutants observed in and over the Mojave Desert, resolves an apparent paradox in the timing of ozone peaks due to transport from the upwind basins, and provides a new perspective on the long-range downwind impacts of megacity pollution plumes.

  2. The risk of melanoma associated with ambient summer ultraviolet radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinault, Lauren; Bushnik, Tracey; Fioletov, Vitali; Peters, Cheryl E; King, Will D; Tjepkema, Michael

    2017-05-17

    Depletion of the ozone layer has meant that ambient ultraviolet radiation (UVR) has increased in recent decades. At the same time, the incidence of skin cancers, including melanoma, has risen. The relatively few large-scale studies that linked ambient UVR to melanoma found a trend toward rising incidence closer to the equator, where UVR estimates are highest. Similar research has not been conducted in Canada, where ambient UVR is generally lower than in countries further south. Modelled UVR data for the months of June through August during the 1980-to-1990 period were spatially linked in Geographic Information Systems to 2.4 million white members of the 1991 Canadian Census Health and Environment Cohort and tracked for melanoma diagnosis over an 18-year period (1992 to 2009). Standard Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate melanoma risk associated with increases of ambient summer UVR, assigned by residence at baseline. Models were adjusted for age, sex and socioeconomic (SES) characteristics. Separate analyses by body site of melanoma were conducted. Effect modification of the association between ambient UVR and melanoma by sex, age, outdoor occupation and selected SES characteristics was evaluated. Differences of one standard deviation (446 J/m², or 7% of the mean) in average ambient summer UVR were associated with an increased hazard ratio (HR) for melanoma of 1.22 (95% CI: 1.19 to 1.25) when adjusting for sex, age and SES characteristics. The HR for melanoma in relative UVR (per 1 standard deviation) was larger for men (HR = 1.26; 95% CI: 1.21 to 1.30) than for women (HR = 1.17; 95% CI: 1.13 to 1.22). Ambient summer UVR is associated with a greater risk of melanoma among the white population, even in a country where most people live within a narrow latitudinal belt. A stronger association between melanoma and ambient UVR was evident among men and among people of lower SES.

  3. Inhibitory effects of ambient levels of solar UV-A and UV-B radiation in growth of cv. New Red Fire lettuce

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krizek, D.T.; Britz, S.J.; Mirecki, R.M.

    1998-01-01

    The influence of solar UV-A and UV-B radiation at Beltsville, MD, USA, on growth of Lactuca sativa L. (cv. New Red Fire lettuce) was examined during early summer of 1996 and 1997. Plants were grown from seed in plastic window boxes covered with Llumar to exclude UV-A and UV-B, polyester to exclude UV-B, or tefzel (1996) or teflon (1997) to transmit UV-A and UV-B radiation. After 31-34 days, plants grown in the absence of solar UV-B radiation (polyester) had 63 and 57% greater fresh weight and dry weight of tops, respectively, and 57, 72 and 47% greater dry weight of leaves, stems and roots, respectively, as compared to those grown under ambient UV-B (tefzel or teflon). Plants protected from UV-A radiation as well (Llumar) showed an additional 43 and 35% increase, respectively, in fresh and dry weight of tops and a 33 and 33% increase, respectively, in dry weight of leaves and stems, but no difference in root biomass over those grown under polyester. Excluding ambient UV-B (polyester) significantly reduced the UV absorbance of leaf extracts at 270, 300 and 330 nm (presumptive flavonoids) and the concentration of anthocyantins at 550 nm as compared to those of leaf extract from plants grown under ambient UV-A and UV-B. Additional removal of ambient UV-A (Llumar) reduced the concentration of anthocyanins, but had no further effect on UV absorbance at 270, 300 or 330 nm. These findings provide evidence that UV-B radiation is more important than UV-A radiation for flavonoid induction in this red-pigmented lettuce cultivar. Although previous workers have obtained decreases in lettuce yield under enhanced UV-B, this is the first evidence for inhibitory effects of solar UV-A and UV-B radiation on lettuce growth. (au)

  4. Inhibitory effects of ambient levels of solar UV-A and UV-B radiation in growth of cv. New Red Fire lettuce

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krizek, D.T.; Britz, S.J.; Mirecki, R.M. [Climate Stress Laboratory, Beltsville, MD (United States)

    1998-05-01

    The influence of solar UV-A and UV-B radiation at Beltsville, MD, USA, on growth of Lactuca sativa L. (cv. New Red Fire lettuce) was examined during early summer of 1996 and 1997. Plants were grown from seed in plastic window boxes covered with Llumar to exclude UV-A and UV-B, polyester to exclude UV-B, or tefzel (1996) or teflon (1997) to transmit UV-A and UV-B radiation. After 31-34 days, plants grown in the absence of solar UV-B radiation (polyester) had 63 and 57% greater fresh weight and dry weight of tops, respectively, and 57, 72 and 47% greater dry weight of leaves, stems and roots, respectively, as compared to those grown under ambient UV-B (tefzel or teflon). Plants protected from UV-A radiation as well (Llumar) showed an additional 43 and 35% increase, respectively, in fresh and dry weight of tops and a 33 and 33% increase, respectively, in dry weight of leaves and stems, but no difference in root biomass over those grown under polyester. Excluding ambient UV-B (polyester) significantly reduced the UV absorbance of leaf extracts at 270, 300 and 330 nm (presumptive flavonoids) and the concentration of anthocyantins at 550 nm as compared to those of leaf extract from plants grown under ambient UV-A and UV-B. Additional removal of ambient UV-A (Llumar) reduced the concentration of anthocyanins, but had no further effect on UV absorbance at 270, 300 or 330 nm. These findings provide evidence that UV-B radiation is more important than UV-A radiation for flavonoid induction in this red-pigmented lettuce cultivar. Although previous workers have obtained decreases in lettuce yield under enhanced UV-B, this is the first evidence for inhibitory effects of solar UV-A and UV-B radiation on lettuce growth. (au) 34 refs.

  5. Source attribution of tropospheric ozone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, T. M.

    2015-12-01

    Tropospheric ozone is a harmful pollutant with adverse effects on human health and ecosystems. As well as these effects, tropospheric ozone is also a powerful greenhouse gas, with an anthropogenic radiative forcing one quarter of that of CO2. Along with methane and atmospheric aerosol, tropospheric ozone belongs to the so-called Short Lived Climate forcing Pollutants, or SLCP. Recent work has shown that efforts to reduce concentrations of SLCP in the atmosphere have the potential to slow the rate of near-term climate change, while simultaneously improving public health and reducing crop losses. Unlike many other SLCP, tropospehric ozone is not directly emitted, but is instead influenced by two distinct sources: transport of air from the ozone-rich stratosphere; and photochemical production in the troposphere from the emitted precursors NOx (oxides of nitrogen), CO (Carbon Monoxide), and VOC (volatile organic compounds, including methane). Better understanding of the relationship between ozone production and the emissions of its precursors is essential for the development of targeted emission reduction strategies. Several modeling methods have been employed to relate the production of tropospheric ozone to emissions of its precursors; emissions perturbation, tagging, and adjoint sensitivity methods all deliver complementary information about modelled ozone production. Most studies using tagging methods have focused on attribution of tropospheric ozone production to emissions of NOx, even though perturbation methods have suggested that tropospheric ozone is also sensitive to VOC, particularly methane. In this study we describe the implementation into a global chemistry-climate model of a scheme for tagging emissions of NOx and VOC with an arbitrary number of labels, which are followed through the chemical reactions of tropospheric ozone production in order to perform attribution of tropospehric ozone to its emitted precursors. Attribution is performed to both

  6. The ozone backlash

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taubes, G.

    1993-01-01

    While evidence for the role of chlorofluorocarbons in ozone depletion grows stronger, researchers have recently been subjected to vocal public criticism of their theories-and their motives. Their understanding of the mechanisms of ozone destruction-especially the annual ozone hole that appears in the Antarctic-has grown stronger, yet everywhere they go these days, they seem to be confronted by critics attacking their theories as baseless. For instance, Rush Limbaugh, the conservative political talk-show host and now-best-selling author of The Way Things Ought to Be, regularly insists that the theory of ozone depletion by CFCs is a hoax: bladerdash and poppycock. Zoologist Dixy Lee Ray, former governor of the state of Washington and former head of the Atomic Energy Commission, makes the same argument in her book, Trashing the Planet. The Wall Street Journal and National Review have run commentaries by S. Fred Singer, a former chief scientists for the Department of Transportation, purporting to shoot holes in the theory of ozone depletion. Even the June issue of Omni, a magazine with a circulation of more than 1 million that publishes a mixture of science and science fiction, printed a feature article claiming to expose ozone research as a politically motivated scam

  7. The Effect of Future Ambient Air Pollution on Human Premature Mortality to 2100 Using Output from the ACCMIP Model Ensemble

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Raquel A.; West, J. Jason; Lamarque, Jean-Francois; Shindell, Drew T.; Collins, William J.; Dalsoren, Stig; Faluvegi, Greg; Folberth, Gerd; Horowitz, Larry W.; Nagashima, Tatsuya; hide

    2016-01-01

    Ambient air pollution from ground-level ozone and fine particulate matter (PM(sub 2.5)) is associated with premature mortality. Future concentrations of these air pollutants will be driven by natural and anthropogenic emissions and by climate change. Using anthropogenic and biomass burning emissions projected in the four Representative Concentration Pathway scenarios (RCPs), the ACCMIP ensemble of chemistry climate models simulated future concentrations of ozone and PM(sub 2.5) at selected decades between 2000 and 2100. We use output from the ACCMIP ensemble, together with projections of future population and baseline mortality rates, to quantify the human premature mortality impacts of future ambient air pollution. Future air-pollution-related premature mortality in 2030, 2050 and 2100 is estimated for each scenario and for each model using a health impact function based on changes in concentrations of ozone and PM(sub 2.5) relative to 2000 and projected future population and baseline mortality rates. Additionally, the global mortality burden of ozone and PM(sub 2.5) in 2000 and each future period is estimated relative to 1850 concentrations, using present-day and future population and baseline mortality rates. The change in future ozone concentrations relative to 2000 is associated with excess global premature mortality in some scenarios/periods, particularly in RCP8.5 in 2100 (316 thousand deaths per year), likely driven by the large increase in methane emissions and by the net effect of climate change projected in this scenario, but it leads to considerable avoided premature mortality for the three other RCPs. However, the global mortality burden of ozone markedly increases from 382000 (121000 to 728000) deaths per year in 2000 to between 1.09 and 2.36 million deaths per year in 2100, across RCPs, mostly due to the effect of increases in population and baseline mortality rates. PM(sub 2.5) concentrations decrease relative to 2000 in all scenarios, due to

  8. The effect of future ambient air pollution on human premature mortality to 2100 using output from the ACCMIP model ensemble

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. A. Silva

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Ambient air pollution from ground-level ozone and fine particulate matter (PM2.5 is associated with premature mortality. Future concentrations of these air pollutants will be driven by natural and anthropogenic emissions and by climate change. Using anthropogenic and biomass burning emissions projected in the four Representative Concentration Pathway scenarios (RCPs, the ACCMIP ensemble of chemistry–climate models simulated future concentrations of ozone and PM2.5 at selected decades between 2000 and 2100. We use output from the ACCMIP ensemble, together with projections of future population and baseline mortality rates, to quantify the human premature mortality impacts of future ambient air pollution. Future air-pollution-related premature mortality in 2030, 2050 and 2100 is estimated for each scenario and for each model using a health impact function based on changes in concentrations of ozone and PM2.5 relative to 2000 and projected future population and baseline mortality rates. Additionally, the global mortality burden of ozone and PM2.5 in 2000 and each future period is estimated relative to 1850 concentrations, using present-day and future population and baseline mortality rates. The change in future ozone concentrations relative to 2000 is associated with excess global premature mortality in some scenarios/periods, particularly in RCP8.5 in 2100 (316 thousand deaths year−1, likely driven by the large increase in methane emissions and by the net effect of climate change projected in this scenario, but it leads to considerable avoided premature mortality for the three other RCPs. However, the global mortality burden of ozone markedly increases from 382 000 (121 000 to 728 000 deaths year−1 in 2000 to between 1.09 and 2.36 million deaths year−1 in 2100, across RCPs, mostly due to the effect of increases in population and baseline mortality rates. PM2.5 concentrations decrease relative to 2000 in all scenarios

  9. A Global Ozone Climatology from Ozone Soundings via Trajectory Mapping: A Stratospheric Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, J. J.; Tarasick, D. W.; Fioletov, V. E.; McLinden, C.; Zhao, T.; Gong, S.; Sioris, G.; Jin, J. J.; Liu, G.; Moeini, O.

    2013-01-01

    This study explores a domain-filling trajectory approach to generate a global ozone climatology from sparse ozonesonde data. Global ozone soundings of 51,898 profiles at 116 stations over 44 years (1965-2008) are used, from which forward and backward trajectories are performed for 4 days, driven by a set of meteorological reanalysis data. Ozone mixing ratios of each sounding from the surface to 26 km altitude are assigned to the entire path along the trajectory. The resulting global ozone climatology is archived monthly for five decades from the 1960s to the 2000s with grids of 5 degree 5 degree 1 km (latitude, longitude, and altitude). It is also archived yearly from 1965 to 2008. This climatology is validated at 20 ozonesonde stations by comparing the actual ozone sounding profile with that found through the trajectories, using the ozone soundings at all the stations except one being tested. The two sets of profiles are in good agreement, both individually with correlation coefficients between 0.975 and 0.998 and root mean square (RMS) differences of 87 to 482 ppbv, and overall with a correlation coefficient of 0.991 and an RMS of 224 ppbv. The ozone climatology is also compared with two sets of satellite data, from the Satellite Aerosol and Gas Experiment (SAGE) and the Optical Spectrography and InfraRed Imager System (OSIRIS). Overall, the ozone climatology compares well with SAGE and OSIRIS data by both seasonal and zonal means. The mean difference is generally under 20 above 15 km. The comparison is better in the northern hemisphere, where there are more ozonesonde stations, than in the southern hemisphere; it is also better in the middle and high latitudes than in the tropics, where assimilated winds are imperfect in some regions. This ozone climatology can capture known features in the stratosphere, as well as seasonal and decadal variations of these features. Furthermore, it provides a wealth of detail about longitudinal variations in the stratosphere such

  10. A Compact Mobile Ozone Lidar for Atmospheric Ozone and Aerosol Profiling

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Young, Russell; Carrion, William; Pliutau, Denis

    2014-01-01

    A compact mobile differential absorption lidar (DIAL) system has been developed at NASA Langley Research Center to provide ozone, aerosol and cloud atmospheric measurements in a mobile trailer for ground-based atmospheric ozone air quality campaigns. This lidar is integrated into the Tropospheric Ozone Lidar Network (TOLNet) currently made up of four other ozone lidars across the country. The lidar system consists of a UV and green laser transmitter, a telescope and an optical signal receiver with associated Licel photon counting and analog channels. The laser transmitter consist of a Q-switched Nd:YLF inter-cavity doubled laser pumping a Ce:LiCAF tunable UV laser with all the associated power and lidar control support units on a single system rack. The system has been configured to enable mobile operation from a trailer and was deployed to Denver, CO July 15-August 15, 2014 supporting the DISCOVER-AQ campaign. Ozone curtain plots and the resulting science are presented.

  11. Ozone depletion in the interstitial air of the seasonal snowpack in northern Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Momoko Nakayama

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available To examine the behaviour of ozone (O3 in the seasonal snowpack, measurements were taken of O3 and CO2 in the interstitial air on Rishiri Island, which is located in northern Japan, during the 2010/11 winter season. Exhibiting variation on timescales ranging from several minutes to several days, the atmospheric O3 in the surface air generally increased from December (38 ppb to April (52 ppb. The ozone mixing ratio sharply decreased below the snow surface. Whereas the CO2 data in the interstitial air indicated that a rapid exchange between the snow and the atmosphere occurred intermittently, the O3 mixing ratio remained low and constant (<5 ppb in the snowpack interior. The vertical profile of the O3 mixing ratio indicates that the e-folding lifetime of the O3 loss reaction was 5.0±2.3 minutes during the day and 10.0±6.3 minutes at night, suggesting photochemical O3 depletion occurred during the daytime. Kinetic experiments using ambient (maritime air and snow indicate that the photochemical O3 loss is proportional to the solar radiation and that the O3 loss rate decreases as dawn approaches during the night. The result of the kinetic experiments using artificial O3 in the pure air and snow suggests the important role of gaseous species in the ambient air towards O3 depletion.

  12. Evaluation of Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment (GOME) ozone profiles from nine different algorithms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, Y.J.; Swart, D.P.J.; Baier, F.; Bhartia, P.K.; Bodeker, G.E.; Casadio, S.; Chance, K.; Frate, Del F.; Erbertseder, T.; Felder, M.D.; Flynn, L.E.; Godin-Beekmann, S.; Hansen, G.; Hasekamp, O.P.; Kaifel, A.; Kelder, H.M.; Kerridge, B.J.; Lambert, J.-C.; Landgraf, J.; Latter, B.G.; Liu, X.; McDermid, I.S.; Pachepsky, Y.; Rozanov, V.; Siddans, R.; Tellmann, S.; A, van der R.J.; Oss, van R.F.; Weber, M.; Zehner, C.

    2006-01-01

    An evaluation is made of ozone profiles retrieved from measurements of the nadir-viewing Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment (GOME) instrument. Currently, four different approaches are used to retrieve ozone profile information from GOME measurements, which differ in the use of external information

  13. Ozone: The secret greenhouse gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berntsen, Terje; Tjernshaugen, Andreas

    2001-01-01

    The atmospheric ozone not only protects against harmful ultraviolet radiation; it also contributes to the greenhouse effect. Ozone is one of the jokers to make it difficult to calculate the climatic effect of anthropogenic emissions. The greenhouse effect and the ozone layer should not be confused. The greenhouse effect creates problems when it becomes enhanced, so that the earth becomes warmer. The problem with the ozone layer, on the contrary, is that it becomes thinner and so more of the harmful ultraviolet radiation gets through to the earth. However, ozone is also a greenhouse gas and so the greenhouse effect and the ozone layer are connected

  14. New dynamic NNORSY ozone profile climatology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaifel, A. K.; Felder, M.; Declercq, C.; Lambert, J.-C.

    2012-01-01

    Climatological ozone profile data are widely used as a-priori information for total ozone using DOAS type retrievals as well as for ozone profile retrieval using optimal estimation, for data assimilation or evaluation of 3-D chemistry-transport models and a lot of other applications in atmospheric sciences and remote sensing. For most applications it is important that the climatology represents not only long term mean values but also the links between ozone and dynamic input parameters. These dynamic input parameters should be easily accessible from auxiliary datasets or easily measureable, and obviously should have a high correlation with ozone. For ozone profile these parameters are mainly total ozone column and temperature profile data. This was the outcome of a user consultation carried out in the framework of developing a new, dynamic ozone profile climatology. The new ozone profile climatology is based on the Neural Network Ozone Retrieval System (NNORSY) widely used for ozone profile retrieval from UV and IR satellite sounder data. NNORSY allows implicit modelling of any non-linear correspondence between input parameters (predictors) and ozone profile target vector. This paper presents the approach, setup and validation of a new family of ozone profile climatologies with static as well as dynamic input parameters (total ozone and temperature profile). The neural network training relies on ozone profile measurement data of well known quality provided by ground based (ozonesondes) and satellite based (SAGE II, HALOE, and POAM-III) measurements over the years 1995-2007. In total, four different combinations (modes) for input parameters (date, geolocation, total ozone column and temperature profile) are available. The geophysical validation spans from pole to pole using independent ozonesonde, lidar and satellite data (ACE-FTS, AURA-MLS) for individual and time series comparisons as well as for analysing the vertical and meridian structure of different modes of

  15. Unregulated gaseous exhaust emission from modern ethanol fuelled light duty vehicles in cold ambient condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clairotte, M.; Adam, T. W.; Zardini, A. A.; Astorga, C.

    2011-12-01

    According to Directive 2003/30/EC and 2009/28/EC of the European Parliament and the Council, Member States should promote the use of biofuel. Consequently, all petrol and diesel used for transport purpose available on the market since the 1st of January 2011 must contain a reference value of 5.75% of renewable energy. Ethanol in gasoline could be a promising alternative to comply with this objective, and is actually available in higher proportion in Sweden and Brazil. In addition to a lower dependence on fossil fuel, it is well established that ethanol contributes to reduce air pollutant emissions during combustion (CO, THC), and presents a beneficial effect on the greenhouse gas emissions. However, these statements rely on numerous chassis dynamometer emission studies performed in warm condition (22°C), and very few emission data are available at cold ambient condition encountered in winter, particularly in the north of Europe. In this present study, the effects of ethanol (E75-E85) versus gasoline (E5) have been investigated at cold ambient temperature (-7°C). Experiments have been carried out in a chassis dynamometer at the Vehicle Emission Laboratory (VELA) of the European Commission's Joint Research Centre (JRC - Ispra, Italy). Emissions of modern passenger cars complying with the latest European standard (Euro4 and Euro5a) were tracked over the New European Driving Cycle (NEDC). Unregulated gaseous compounds like greenhouse gases (carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide), and air quality related compounds (ammonia, formaldehyde, acetaldehyde) were monitored by an online Fourier Transformed Infra-Red spectrometer with 1 Hz acquisition frequency. In addition, a number of ozone precursors (carbonyls and volatile organic hydrocarbons) were collected in order to assess the ozone formation potential (OFP) of the exhaust. Results showed higher unregulated emissions at -7°C, regardless of the ethanol content in the fuel blend. Most of the emissions occurred during

  16. Ozone therapy in periodontics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, G; Mansi, B

    2012-02-22

    Gingival and Periodontal diseases represent a major concern both in dentistry and medicine. The majority of the contributing factors and causes in the etiology of these diseases are reduced or treated with ozone in all its application forms (gas, water, oil). The beneficial biological effects of ozone, its anti-microbial activity, oxidation of bio-molecules precursors and microbial toxins implicated in periodontal diseases and its healing and tissue regeneration properties, make the use of ozone well indicated in all stages of gingival and periodontal diseases. The primary objective of this article is to provide a general review about the clinical applications of ozone in periodontics. The secondary objective is to summarize the available in vitro and in vivo studies in Periodontics in which ozone has been used. This objective would be of importance to future researchers in terms of what has been tried and what the potentials are for the clinical application of ozone in Periodontics.

  17. OZONE ABSORPTION IN RAW WATERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LJILJANA TAKIĆ

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The ozone absorption in raw water entering the main ozonization step at the Belgrade drinking water supply plant was investigated in a continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR. A slow chemical reaction rate of dissolved ozone and pollutants present in raw water have been experimentally determined. The modified Hatta number was defined and calculated as a criterion which determines whether and to which extent the reactions of ozone and pollutants influence the rate of the pure physical ozone absorption.

  18. Influence of the ozone profile above Madrid (Spain) on Brewer estimation of ozone air mass factor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anton, M. [Univ. de Extremadura, Badajoz (Spain). Dept. de Fisica; Evora Univ. (PT). Goephysics Centre of Evora (CGE); Lopez, M.; Banon, M. [Agenica Estatal de Meteorologia (AEMET), Madrid (Spain); Costa, M.J.; Silva, A.M. [Evora Univ. (PT). Goephysics Centre of Evora (CGE); Evora Univ. (Portugal). Dept. of Physics; Serrano, A. [Univ. de Extremadura, Badajoz (Spain). Dept. de Fisica; Bortoli, D. [Evora Univ. (PT). Goephysics Centre of Evora (CGE); Vilaplana, J.M. [Instituto Nacional de Tecnica Aeroespacial (INTA), Huelva (Spain). Estacion de Sondeos Atmosferico ' ' El Arenosillo' '

    2009-07-01

    The methodology used by Brewer spectroradiometers to estimate the ozone column is based on differential absorption spectroscopy. This methodology employs the ozone air mass factor (AMF) to derive the total ozone column from the slant path ozone amount. For the calculating the ozone AMF, the Brewer algorithm assumes that the ozone layer is located at a fixed height of 22 km. However, for a real specific site the ozone presents a certain profile, which varies spatially and temporally depending on the latitude, altitude and dynamical conditions of the atmosphere above the site of measurements. In this sense, this work address the reliability of the mentioned assumption and analyses the influence of the ozone profiles measured above Madrid (Spain) in the ozone AMF calculations. The approximated ozone AMF used by the Brewer algorithm is compared with simulations obtained using the libRadtran radiative transfer model code. The results show an excellent agreement between the simulated and the approximated AMF values for solar zenith angle lower than 75 . In addition, the relative differences remain lower than 2% at 85 . These good results are mainly due to the fact that the altitude of the ozone layer assumed constant by the Brewer algorithm for all latitudes notably can be considered representative of the real profile of ozone above Madrid (average value of 21.7{+-}1.8 km). The operational ozone AMF calculations for Brewer instruments are limited, in general, to SZA below 80 . Extending the usable SZA range is especially relevant for Brewer instruments located at high mid-latitudes. (orig.)

  19. Enhancement of growth, photosynthetic performance and yield by exclusion of ambient UV components in C3 and C4 plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kataria, Sunita; Guruprasad, K N; Ahuja, Sumedha; Singh, Bupinder

    2013-10-05

    A field experiment was conducted under tropical climate for assessing the effect of ambient UV-B and UV-A by exclusion of UV components on the growth, photosynthetic performance and yield of C3 (cotton, wheat) and C4 (amaranthus, sorghum) plants. The plants were grown in specially designed UV exclusion chambers, wrapped with filters that excluded UV-B (plant species responded to UV exclusion by a significant increase in plant height, leaf area, leaf biomass, total biomass accumulation and yield. Measurements of the chlorophyll, chlorophyll fluorescence parameters, gas exchange parameters and the activity of Ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase (Rubisco) by fixation of (14)CO2 indicated a direct relationship between enhanced rate of photosynthesis and yield of the plants. Quantum yield of electron transport was enhanced by the exclusion of UV indicating better utilization of PAR assimilation and enhancement in reducing power in all the four plant species. Exclusion of UV-B in particular significantly enhanced the net photosynthetic rate, stomatal conductance and activity of Rubisco. Additional fixation of carbon due to exclusion of ambient UV-B was channeled towards yield as there was a decrease in the level of UV-B absorbing substances and an increase in soluble proteins in all the four plant species. The magnitude of the promotion in all the parameters studied was higher in dicots (cotton, amaranthus) compared to monocots (wheat, sorghum) after UV exclusion. The results indicated a suppressive action of ambient UV-B on growth and photosynthesis; dicots were more sensitive than monocots in this suppression while no great difference in sensitivity was found between C3 and C4 plants. Experiments indicated the suppressive action of ambient UV on carbon fixation and yield of C3 and C4 plants. Exclusion of solar UV-B will have agricultural benefits in both C3 and C4 plants under tropical climate. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. A case study of ozone production, nitrogen oxides, and the radical budget in Mexico City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. C. Wood

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Observations at a mountain-top site within the Mexico City basin are used to characterize ozone production and destruction, nitrogen oxide speciation and chemistry, and the radical budget, with an emphasis on a stagnant air mass observed on one afternoon. The observations compare well with the results of recent photochemical models. An ozone production rate of ~50 ppbv/h was observed in a stagnant air mass during the afternoon of 12 March 2006, which is among the highest observed anywhere in the world. Approximately half of the ozone destruction was due to the oxidation of NO2. During this time period ozone production was VOC-limited, deduced by a comparison of the radical production rates and the formation rate of NOx oxidation products (NOz. For [NOx]/[NOy] values between 0.2 and 0.8, gas-phase HNO3 typically accounted for less than 10% of NOz and accumulation-mode particulate nitrate (NO3(PM1 accounted for 20%–70% of NOz, consistent with high ambient NH3 concentrations. The fraction of NOz accounted for by the sum of HNO3(g and NO3(PM1 decreased with photochemical processing. This decrease is apparent even when dry deposition of HNO3 is accounted for, and indicates that HNO3 formation decreased relative to other NOx "sink" processes during the first 12 h of photochemistry and/or a significant fraction of the nitrate was associated with the coarse aerosol size mode. The ozone production efficiency of NOx on 11 and 12 March 2006 was approximately 7 on a time scale of one day. A new metric for ozone production efficiency that relates the dilution-adjusted ozone mixing ratio to cumulative OH exposure is proposed.

  1. Evidence for potential impacts of ozone on Pinus cembra L. at mountain sites in Europe: An overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wieser, G. [Division Alpine Timberline Ecophysiology, Bundesamt und Forschungszentrum fuer Wald, Rennweg 1, 6020 Innsbruck (Austria)]. E-mail: gerhard.wieser@uibk.ac.at; Manning, W.J. [Department of Microbiology, University of Massachusetts, Amsherst, MA 01003 (United States); Tausz, M. [Institute of Plant Sciences, Karl-Franzens Universitaet Graz, Schubertstrasse 51, 8010 Graz (Austria); School of Forest and Ecosystem Science, University of Melbourne, Water Street, Creswick Victoria 3363 (Australia); Bytnerowicz, A. [USDA Forest Service, Pacific Southwest Research Station, Riverside (United States)

    2006-01-15

    We summarize what is known about the impact of ozone (O{sub 3}) on Pinus cembra in the timberline ecotone of the central European Alps and the Carpathian Mountains. In the central European Alps exposure to ambient and two-fold ambient O{sub 3} throughout one growing season did neither cause any visible injury nor affect the photosynthetic machinery and biochemical parameters in current to 1-year-old needles. By contrast, in the southern French Alps and in the Carpathians 1-year-old needles of Pinus cembra trees showed visual symptoms similar to those observed in O{sub 3} stressed pine stands in southern California. For the southern French Alps the observed symptoms could clearly be attributed O{sub 3} and differences in O{sub 3} uptake seems to be the likely key factor for explaining the observed decline. For the Carpathians however, other reasons such as drought may not be excluded in eliciting the observed symptoms. Thus, the action of O{sub 3} has always to be evaluated in concert with other environmental impacts, determining the tree's sensitivity to stress. - An overview of ozone effects on Pinus cembra an important European coniferous tree species in the timberline ecotone.

  2. Evaluation of ozone profile and tropospheric ozone retrievals from GEMS and OMI spectra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Bak

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available South Korea is planning to launch the GEMS (Geostationary Environment Monitoring Spectrometer instrument into the GeoKOMPSAT (Geostationary Korea Multi-Purpose SATellite platform in 2018 to monitor tropospheric air pollutants on an hourly basis over East Asia. GEMS will measure backscattered UV radiances covering the 300–500 nm wavelength range with a spectral resolution of 0.6 nm. The main objective of this study is to evaluate ozone profiles and stratospheric column ozone amounts retrieved from simulated GEMS measurements. Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI Level 1B radiances, which have the spectral range 270–500 nm at spectral resolution of 0.42–0.63 nm, are used to simulate the GEMS radiances. An optimal estimation-based ozone profile algorithm is used to retrieve ozone profiles from simulated GEMS radiances. Firstly, we compare the retrieval characteristics (including averaging kernels, degrees of freedom for signal, and retrieval error derived from the 270–330 nm (OMI and 300–330 nm (GEMS wavelength ranges. This comparison shows that the effect of not using measurements below 300 nm on retrieval characteristics in the troposphere is insignificant. However, the stratospheric ozone information in terms of DFS decreases greatly from OMI to GEMS, by a factor of ∼2. The number of the independent pieces of information available from GEMS measurements is estimated to 3 on average in the stratosphere, with associated retrieval errors of ~1% in stratospheric column ozone. The difference between OMI and GEMS retrieval characteristics is apparent for retrieving ozone layers above ~20 km, with a reduction in the sensitivity and an increase in the retrieval errors for GEMS. We further investigate whether GEMS can resolve the stratospheric ozone variation observed from high vertical resolution Earth Observing System (EOS Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS. The differences in stratospheric ozone profiles between GEMS and MLS are comparable to those

  3. Satellite-based Estimates of Ambient Air Pollution and Global Variations in Childhood Asthma Prevalence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, H. Ross; Butland, Barbara K.; Donkelaar, Aaron Matthew Van; Brauer, Michael; Strachan, David P.; Clayton, Tadd; van Dingenen, Rita; Amann, Marcus; Brunekreef, Bert; Cohen, Aaron; hide

    2012-01-01

    Background: The effect of ambient air pollution on global variations and trends in asthma prevalence is unclear. Objectives: Our goal was to investigate community-level associations between asthma prevalence data from the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC) and satellite-based estimates of particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter < 2.5 microm (PM2.5) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2), and modelled estimates of ozone. Methods: We assigned satellite-based estimates of PM2.5 and NO2 at a spatial resolution of 0.1deg × 0.1deg and modeled estimates of ozone at a resolution of 1deg × 1deg to 183 ISAAC centers. We used center-level prevalence of severe asthma as the outcome and multilevel models to adjust for gross national income (GNI) and center- and country-level sex, climate, and population density. We examined associations (adjusting for GNI) between air pollution and asthma prevalence over time in centers with data from ISAAC Phase One (mid-1900s) and Phase Three (2001-2003). Results: For the 13- to 14-year age group (128 centers in 28 countries), the estimated average within-country change in center-level asthma prevalence per 100 children per 10% increase in center-level PM2.5 and NO2 was -0.043 [95% confidence interval (CI): -0.139, 0.053] and 0.017 (95% CI: -0.030, 0.064) respectively. For ozone the estimated change in prevalence per parts per billion by volume was -0.116 (95% CI: -0.234, 0.001). Equivalent results for the 6- to 7-year age group (83 centers in 20 countries), though slightly different, were not significantly positive. For the 13- to 14-year age group, change in center-level asthma prevalence over time per 100 children per 10% increase in PM2.5 from Phase One to Phase Three was -0.139 (95% CI: -0.347, 0.068). The corresponding association with ozone (per ppbV) was -0.171 (95% CI: -0.275, -0.067). Conclusion: In contrast to reports from within-community studies of individuals exposed to traffic pollution, we did not find

  4. Growth and nutritive quality of Poa pratensis as influenced by ozone and competition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bender, J. [Institute of Agroecology, Federal Agricultural Research Centre (FAL), Bundesallee 50, 38116 Braunschweig (Germany)]. E-mail: juergen.bender@fal.de; Muntifering, R.B. [Department of Animal Sciences, Auburn University, AL 36849 (United States); Lin, J.C. [Department of Animal Sciences, Auburn University, AL 36849 (United States); Weigel, H.J. [Institute of Agroecology, Federal Agricultural Research Centre (FAL), Bundesallee 50, 38116 Braunschweig (Germany)

    2006-07-15

    Interspecific plant competition has been hypothesized to alter effects of early-season ozone (O{sub 3}) stress. A phytometer-based approach was utilized to investigate O{sub 3} effects on growth and nutritive quality of Poa pratensis grown in monoculture and in mixed cultures with four competitor-plant species (Anthoxanthum odoratum, Achillea millefolium, Rumex acetosa and Veronica chamaedrys). Mesocosms were exposed during April/May 2000-2002 to charcoal-filtered air + 25 ppb O{sub 3} (control) or non-filtered air + 50 ppb O{sub 3} (elevated O{sub 3}). Biomass production was not affected by O{sub 3}, but foliar injury symptoms were observed in May 2002. Early-season O{sub 3} exposure decreased relative food value of P. pratensis by an average of 8%, which is sufficient to have nutritional implications for its utilization by herbivores. However, forage quality response to O{sub 3} was not changed by interspecific competition. Lack of injury and nutritive quality response in P. pratensis harvested in September may reflect recovery from early-season O{sub 3} exposure. - Early-season O{sub 3} exposure decreased nutritive quality of Poa pratensis, and nutritive quality response to O{sub 3} was not altered by interspecific competition.

  5. Leachate Treatment from Sarimukti Landfill Using Ozone with Sludge from Water Treatment Plant as a Catalyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yudha Ramdhani Muhammad

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Leachate is the liquid waste from anaerobic decomposition in a landfill. The ozonation process can be used for leachate treatment. Sludge from sedimentation in water treatment plant contains 5.96% of Al and 9.35% of Si which can affect of its cation exchange capacity and affects the active site in the catalyst. This study aims to determine the effectivity of sludge in the ozonation process to treat leachate. A 1,5 L semi-batch reactor containing 1 L sample was used in this experiment with the rate of oxygen supply was at 4 L/min taken from ambient air. Two groups of sludge weighing 1.5 grams, 3.0 grams and 4.5 grams were used and activate with physically and chemically activated. The best result was obtained by the physically activated sludge with mass of 4.5 gram O3-L-4,5 AF. The differences of removal efficiency between O3-L-4,5 AF with the control (O3 for turbidity were respectively 13.02% and 7.81%, for EC were 10.57% and 8.29%, for COD were 49.44% and 37.50%, and for residual ozone concentration at the end of contact time were 7.6 mg/L and 9.7 mg/L. It can be concluded that activaed sludge and ozonation can be used as a catalyst in leachate treatment.

  6. Bacterial decontamination using ambient pressure nonthermal discharges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Birmingham, J.G.; Hammerstrom, D.J.

    2000-02-01

    Atmospheric pressure nonthermal plasmas can efficiently deactivate bacteria in gases, liquids, and on surfaces, as well as can decompose hazardous chemicals. This paper focuses on the changes to bacterial spores and toxic biochemical compounds, such as mycotoxins, after their treatment in ambient pressure discharges. The ability of nonthermal plasmas to decompose toxic chemicals and deactivate hazardous biological materials has been applied to sterilizing medical instruments, ozonating water, and purifying air. In addition, the fast lysis of bacterial spores and other cells has led us to include plasma devices within pathogen detection instruments, where nucleic acids must be accessed. Decontaminating chemical and biological warfare materials from large, high value targets such as building surfaces, after a terrorist attack, are especially challenging. A large area plasma decontamination technology is described.

  7. Modifiers of short-term effects of ozone on mortality in eastern Massachusetts - A case-crossover analysis at individual level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schwartz Joel

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Substantial epidemiological studies demonstrate associations between exposure to ambient ozone and mortality. A few studies simply examine the modification of this ozone effect by individual characteristics and socioeconomic status, but socioeconomic status was usually coded at the city level. Methods This study used a case-crossover design to examine whether impacts of ozone on mortality were modified by socioeconomic status coded at the tract or characteristics at an individual level in eastern Massachusetts, US for a period May-September, 1995-2002, with a total of 157,197 non-accident deaths aging 35 years or older. We used moving averages of maximal 8-hour concentrations of ozone monitored at 8 stationary stations as personal exposure. Results A 10 ppb increase in the four-day moving average of maximal 8-hour ozone was associated with 1.68% (95% confidence interval (CI: 0.51%, 2.87%, 1.96% (95% CI: -1.83%, 5.90%, 8.28% (95% CI: 0.66%, 16.48%, 0.44% (95% CI: -1.45%, 2.37%, -0.83% (95% CI: -2.94%, 1.32%, -1.09% (95% CI: -4.27%, 2.19% and 6.5% (95% CI: 1.74%, 11.49% changes in all natural deaths, respiratory disorders, diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, heart diseases, acute myocardial infarction and stroke, respectively. We did not find any evidence that the associations were significantly modified by socioeconomic status or individual characteristics although small differences of estimates across subpopulations were demonstrated. Conclusions Exposure to ozone was associated with specific cause mortality in Eastern Massachusetts during May-September, 1995-2002. There was no evidence that effects of ozone on mortality were significantly modified by socioeconomic status and individual characteristics.

  8. Ambient Space and Ambient Sensation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Ulrik

    The ambient is the aesthetic production of the sensation of being surrounded. As a concept, 'ambient' is mostly used in relation to the music genre 'ambient music' and Brian Eno's idea of environmental background music. However, the production of ambient sensations must be regarded as a central...... aspect of the aesthetization of modern culture in general, from architecture, transport and urbanized lifeforms to film, sound art, installation art and digital environments. This presentation will discuss the key aspects of ambient aesthetization, including issues such as objectlessness...

  9. Draft protocol to the 1979 convention on long-range transboundary air pollution to abate acidification, eutrophication and ground-level ozone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-10-15

    The draft Protocol to be tabled as item 2 of the seventeenth session of the Executive Body for the Convention on Long-Range Transboundary Air Pollution, (29 November - 3 December 1999) has the objective of controlling and reducing emissions of sulphur, nitrogen oxides, ammonia and volatile organic compounds caused by anthropogenic activities and likely to cause adverse effects due to acidification, eutrophication or ground-level ozone as a result of long-range transboundary atmospheric transport and to ensure that atmospheric depositions or concentrations do not exceed, for Parties within the geographical scope of EMEP (the programme for monitoring and evaluation of long-range transmission of air pollutants in Europe), and Canada, the critical loads of acidity for EMEP countries as described in Annex I of the document; the critical loads of nutrient nitrogen as described in Annex I, and, for ozone, the critical levels as described in Annex I for EMEP countries, for Canada, the Canada-wide Standard for ozone, and for the USA, the National Ambient Air Quality Standard for ozone. It specifies limit values for boilers rated at {gt} 50 MW{sub th}. 9 apps.

  10. Use of ozone in a water reuse system for salmonids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, R.C.; Hughes, S.G.; Rumsey, G.L.

    1982-01-01

    A water reuse system is described in which ozone is used in addition to biological filters to remove toxic metabolic wastes from the water. The system functions at a higher rate of efficiency than has been reported for other reuse systems and supports excellent growth of rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri).

  11. Ozone as an air pollutant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berg, Rolf W.

    1996-01-01

    A Danish new book on ozone as an air pollutant has been reviewed. The Book is "Ozon som luftforurening" by Jes Fenger, Published by "Danmarks Miljøundersøgelser, 1995.......A Danish new book on ozone as an air pollutant has been reviewed. The Book is "Ozon som luftforurening" by Jes Fenger, Published by "Danmarks Miljøundersøgelser, 1995....

  12. Determination of the Optimum Ozone Product on the Plasma Ozonizer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agus Purwadi; Widdi Usada; Suryadi; Isyuniarto; Sri Sukmajaya

    2002-01-01

    An experiment of the optimum ozone product determination on the cylindrical plasma ozonizer has been done. The experiment is carried out by using alternating high voltage power supply, oscilloscope CS-1577 A, flow meter and spectronik-20 instrument for the absorbance solution samples which produced by varying the physics parameter values of the discharge alternating high voltage and velocity of oxygen gas input. The plasma ozonizer is made of cylinder stainless steel as the electrode and cylinder glass as the dielectric with 1.00 mm of the discharge gap and 7.225 mm 3 of the discharge tube volume. The experiment results shows that the optimum ozone product is 0.360 mg/s obtained at the the discharge of alternating high voltage of 25.50 kV, the frequency of 1.00 kHz and the rate of oxygen gas input of 1.00 lpm. (author)

  13. Ozone measurements 2010. [EMEP Co-operative Programme for Monitoring and Evaluation of the Long-range Transmission of Air Pollutants in Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hjellbrekke, Anne-Gunn; Solberg, Sverre; Fjaeraa, Ann Mari

    2012-07-01

    From the Introduction: Ozone is a natural constituent of the atmosphere and plays a vital role in many atmospheric processes. However, man-made emissions of volatile organic compounds and nitrogen oxides have increased the photochemical formation of ozone in the troposphere. Until the end of the 1960s the problem was basically believed to be one of the big cities and their immediate surroundings. In the 1970s, however, it was found that the problem of photochemical oxidant formation is much more widespread. The ongoing monitoring of ozone at rural sites throughout Europe shows that episodes of high concentrations of ground-level ozone occur over most parts of the continent every summer. During these episodes the ozone concentrations can reach values above ambient air quality standards over large regions and lead to adverse effects for human health and vegetation. Historical records of ozone measurements in Europe and North America indicate that in the last part of the nineteenth century the values were only about half of the average surface ozone concentrations measured in the same regions during the last 10-15 years (Bojkov, 1986; Volz and Kley, 1988).The formation of ozone is due to a large number of photochemical reactions taking place in the atmosphere and depends on the temperature, humidity and solar radiation as well as the primary emissions of nitrogen oxides and volatile organic compounds. Together with the non-linear relationships between the primary emissions and the ozone formation, these effects complicates the abatement strategies for ground-level ozone and makes photochemical models crucial in addition to the monitoring data. The 1999 Gothenburg Protocol is designed for a joint abatement of acidification, eutrophication and ground-level ozone. It has been estimated that once the Protocol is implemented, the number of days with excessive ozone levels will be halved and that the exposure of vegetation to excessive ozone levels will be 44% down on 1990

  14. Tropospheric Ozone Pollution from Space: New Views from the TOMS (Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer) Instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Anne M.; Hudson, Robert D.; Frolov, Alexander D.; Witte, Jacquelyn C.; Kucsera, Tom L.; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    New products from the TOMS (Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer) >satellite instrument can resolve pollution events in tropical and mid-latitudes, Over the past several years, we have developed tropospheric ozone data sets by two methods. The modified-residual technique [Hudson and Thompson, 1998; Thompson and Hudson, 1999] uses v. 7 TOMS total ozone and is applicable to tropical regimes in which the wave-one pattern in total ozone is observed. The TOMSdirect method [Hudson et at., 2000] represents a new algorithm that uses TOMS radiances to extract tropospheric ozone in regions of constant stratospheric ozone and tropospheric ozone displaying high mixing ratios and variability characteristic of pollution, Absorbing aerosols (dust and smoke; Herman et at., 1997 Hsu et al., 1999), a standard TOMS product, provide transport and/or source marker information to interpret tropospheric ozone. For the Nimbus 7/TOMS observing period (1979-1992), modified-residual TTO (tropical tropospheric ozone) appears as two maps/month at I-degree latitude 2-degree longitude resolution at a homepage and digital data are available (20S to 20N) by ftp at http://metosrv2. umd.edu/tropo/ 14y_data.d. Preliminary modified-residual TTO data from the operational Earth-Probe/TOMS (1996- present) are posted in near-real-time at the same website. Analyses with the new tropospheric ozone and aerosol data are illustrated by the following (I)Signals in tropical tropospheric ozone column and smoke amount during ENSO (El Nino-Southern Oscillation) events, e.g. 1982-1983 and the intense ENSO induced biomass fires of 1997-1998 over the Indonesian region [Thompson et a[, 2000a, Thompson and Hudson, 1999]. (2) Trends in tropospheric ozone and smoke aerosols in various tropical regions (Atlantic, Pacific, Africa, Brazil). No significant trends were found for ozone from1980-1990 [Thompson and Hudson, 19991 although smoke aerosols increased during the period [Hsu et al.,1999]. (3) Temporal and spatial offsets

  15. Modification of the effect of ambient air pollution on pediatric asthma emergency visits: susceptible subpopulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strickland, Matthew J; Klein, Mitchel; Flanders, W Dana; Chang, Howard H; Mulholland, James A; Tolbert, Paige E; Darrow, Lyndsey A

    2016-01-01

    Background Children may have differing susceptibility to ambient air pollution concentrations depending on various background characteristics of the children. Methods Using emergency department (ED) data linked with birth records from Atlanta, Georgia, we identified ED visits for asthma or wheeze among children aged 2–16 years from 1 January 2002 through 30 June 2010 (n=109,758). We stratified by preterm delivery, term low birth weight, maternal race, Medicaid status, maternal education, maternal smoking, delivery method, and history of a bronchiolitis ED visit. Population-weighted daily average concentrations were calculated for 1-hour maximum carbon monoxide and nitrogen dioxide; 8-hour maximum ozone; and 24-hour average particulate matter less than 10 microns in diameter, particulate matter less than 2.5 microns in diameter (PM2.5), and the PM2.5 components sulfate, nitrate, ammonium, elemental carbon, and organic carbon, using measurements from stationary monitors. Poisson time-series models were used to estimate rate ratios for associations between three-day moving average pollutant concentrations and daily ED visit counts and to investigate effect-measure modification by the stratification factors. Results Associations between pollutant concentrations and asthma exacerbations were larger among children born preterm and among children born to African American mothers. Stratification by race and preterm status together suggested that both factors affected susceptibility. The largest estimated effect size (for an interquartile-range increase in pollution) was observed for ozone among preterm births to African American mothers: rate ratio=1.138 (95% confidence interval=1.077–1.203). In contrast, the rate ration for the ozone association among full-term births to mothers of other races was 1.025 (0.970–1.083). Conclusions Results support the hypothesis that children vary in their susceptibility to ambient air pollutants. PMID:25192402

  16. Tropospheric Ozone: a Menace for Crops and Natural Vegetation in Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Costas Saitanis

    Full Text Available Based on instrumental monitoring (AOT40s and phytodetection (with Bel-W3 and KK6/5 tobacco cultivars data we evaluated ambient ozone phytotoxicity in Greece. In the greater region of Mesogia-Attica, during the summer of 2000, the year before the new airport Eleftherios Venizelos (March 2001 began operating in this region, the AOT40s (ppb*h were 16,325 over 110 days at Spata; 18,646 over 113 days at Markopoulo; 8,093 over 22 days at Artemis and 16,679 over 121 days in Athens. The Bel- W3 and KK6/5 plants were extensively injured at all places with the greatest injury occurring at Artemis. During the same summer, ozone was also monitored in three rural areas of Corinth, at the Astronomical Observatory of Krionerion, Bogdani Hill and Kiato; The highest average daily AOT40 (192 ppb*h was observed in Krionerio, and it was almost equal to that occurred in Athens (193 ppb*h. Bel-W3 and KK6/5 plants placed at 11 rural areas in Corinth showed extended injury. The following year (2001, high injury was observed on other sets of bioindicator plants exposed in a network of 28 locations throughout the greater area of Volos and Pelion Mountain. Symptoms were more severe at Mortias, Xinovrisi, Tsagarada, Makrinitsa and Chania. The AOT40 (May-July was 11,391 and 10,351 ppb*hours for 2001 and 2002 respectively. Severe ozone-like symptoms have also been observed on field-cultivated grape vines, onion and watermelon plants. Synoptically, our investigations suggest that ozone occurs in the Greek mainland at levels that are potentially phytotoxic for sensitive crop species and for sensitive natural vegetation species including forest trees.

  17. Quantifying the contributions to stratospheric ozone changes from ozone depleting substances and greenhouse gases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. A. Plummer

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available A state-of-the-art chemistry climate model coupled to a three-dimensional ocean model is used to produce three experiments, all seamlessly covering the period 1950–2100, forced by different combinations of long-lived Greenhouse Gases (GHGs and Ozone Depleting Substances (ODSs. The experiments are designed to quantify the separate effects of GHGs and ODSs on the evolution of ozone, as well as the extent to which these effects are independent of each other, by alternately holding one set of these two forcings constant in combination with a third experiment where both ODSs and GHGs vary. We estimate that up to the year 2000 the net decrease in the column amount of ozone above 20 hPa is approximately 75% of the decrease that can be attributed to ODSs due to the offsetting effects of cooling by increased CO2. Over the 21st century, as ODSs decrease, continued cooling from CO2 is projected to account for more than 50% of the projected increase in ozone above 20 hPa. Changes in ozone below 20 hPa show a redistribution of ozone from tropical to extra-tropical latitudes with an increase in the Brewer-Dobson circulation. In addition to a latitudinal redistribution of ozone, we find that the globally averaged column amount of ozone below 20 hPa decreases over the 21st century, which significantly mitigates the effect of upper stratospheric cooling on total column ozone. Analysis by linear regression shows that the recovery of ozone from the effects of ODSs generally follows the decline in reactive chlorine and bromine levels, with the exception of the lower polar stratosphere where recovery of ozone in the second half of the 21st century is slower than would be indicated by the decline in reactive chlorine and bromine concentrations. These results also reveal the degree to which GHG-related effects mute the chemical effects of N2O on ozone in the standard future scenario used for the WMO Ozone Assessment. Increases in the

  18. Maternal exposure to ozone and PM2.5 and the prevalence of orofacial clefts in four U.S. states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Ying; Gilboa, Suzanne M.; Herdt, Michele L.; Lupo, Philip J.; Flanders, W. Dana; Liu, Yang; Shin, Mikyong; Canfield, Mark A.; Kirby, Russell S.

    2017-01-01

    Background: While there is some evidence that maternal exposure to ambient air pollution is associated with orofacial clefts in offspring, the epidemiologic studies have been largely equivocal. We evaluated whether maternal exposure to elevated county-level ambient fine particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter ≤2.5 µm (PM 2.5 ) and ozone during early gestation was associated with a higher prevalence of orofacial clefts. Methods: Birth data consisting of 4.7 million births from 2001 to 2007 were obtained from National Birth Defects Prevention Network for four states — Arizona, Florida, New York (excluding New York City), and Texas. The air pollution exposure assessment for gestational weeks 5–10 was based on county-level average concentrations of PM 2.5 and ozone data generated using a Bayesian fusion model available through CDC's Environmental Public Health Tracking Network. Two outcomes were analyzed separately: cleft lip with or without cleft palate, cleft palate alone. In logistic regression analyses, we adjusted for factors that were suspected confounders or modifiers of the association between the prevalence of orofacial clefts and air pollution, i.e., infant sex, race-ethnicity, maternal education, smoking status during pregnancy, whether this was mother's first baby, maternal age. Results: Each 10 µg/m 3 increase in PM 2.5 concentration was significantly associated with cleft palate alone (OR =1.43, 95% CI: 1.11–1.86). There was no significant association between PM 2.5 concentration and cleft lip with or without cleft palate. No associations were observed between ozone exposure and the two outcomes of orofacial clefts. Conclusions: Our study suggests that PM 2.5 significantly increased the risk of cleft palate alone, but did not change the incidence of cleft lip with or without palate. Ozone levels did not correlate with incidence of orofacial clefts. - Highlights: • This is a large study with about 4.7 million births and 7000

  19. Ozone modeling for compliance planning: A synopsis of ''The Use of Photochemical Air Quality Models for Evaluating Emission Control Strategies: A Synthesis Report''

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanchard, C.L.

    1992-12-01

    The 1990 federal Clean Air Act Amendments require that many nonattainment areas use gridded, photochemical air quality models to develop compliance plans for meeting the ambient ozone standard. Both industry and regulatory agencies will need to consider explicitly the strengths and limitations of the models. Photochemical air quality models constitute the principal tool available for evaluating the relative effectiveness of alternative emission control strategies. Limitations in the utility of modeling results stem from the uncertainty and bias of predictions for modeled episodes, possible compensating errors, limitations in the number of modeled episodes, and incompatibility between deterministic model predictions and the statistical form of the air quality standard for ozone. If emissions estimates (including naturally produced ''biogenic'' emissions) are accurate, intensive aerometric data are available, and an evaluation of performance (including diagnostic evaluations) is successfully completed, gridded photochemical airquality models can determine (1) the types of emission controls - VOC, NO x , or both - that would be most effective for reducing ozone concentrations, and (2) the approximate magnitudes - to within about 20--40% - of the estimated ozone reductions

  20. Future heat waves and surface ozone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meehl, Gerald A.; Tebaldi, Claudia; Tilmes, Simone; Lamarque, Jean-Francois; Bates, Susan; Pendergrass, Angeline; Lombardozzi, Danica

    2018-06-01

    A global Earth system model is used to study the relationship between heat waves and surface ozone levels over land areas around the world that could experience either large decreases or little change in future ozone precursor emissions. The model is driven by emissions of greenhouse gases and ozone precursors from a medium-high emission scenario (Representative Concentration Pathway 6.0–RCP6.0) and is compared to an experiment with anthropogenic ozone precursor emissions fixed at 2005 levels. With ongoing increases in greenhouse gases and corresponding increases in average temperature in both experiments, heat waves are projected to become more intense over most global land areas (greater maximum temperatures during heat waves). However, surface ozone concentrations on future heat wave days decrease proportionately more than on non-heat wave days in areas where ozone precursors are prescribed to decrease in RCP6.0 (e.g. most of North America and Europe), while surface ozone concentrations in heat waves increase in areas where ozone precursors either increase or have little change (e.g. central Asia, the Mideast, northern Africa). In the stabilized ozone precursor experiment, surface ozone concentrations increase on future heat wave days compared to non-heat wave days in most regions except in areas where there is ozone suppression that contributes to decreases in ozone in future heat waves. This is likely associated with effects of changes in isoprene emissions at high temperatures (e.g. west coast and southeastern North America, eastern Europe).

  1. Comparing Simultaneous Stratospheric Aerosol and Ozone Lidar Measurements with SAGE 2 Data after the Mount Pinatubo Eruption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, G. K.; Poole, L. R.; McCormick, M. P.; Veiga, R. E.; Wang, P.-H.; Rizi, V.; Masci, F.; DAltorio, A.; Visconti, G.

    1995-01-01

    Stratospheric aerosol and ozone profiles obtained simultaneously from the lidar station at the University of L'Aquila (42.35 deg N, 13.33 deg E, 683 m above sea level) during the first 6 months following the eruption of Mount Pinatubo are compared with corresponding nearby Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment (SAGE) 2 profiles. The agreement between the two data sets is found to be reasonably good. The temporal change of aerosol profiles obtained by both techniques showed the intrusion and growth of Pinatubo aerosols. In addition, ozone concentration profiles derived from an empirical time-series model based on SAGE 2 ozone data obtained before the Pinatubo eruption are compared with measured profiles. Good agreement is shown in the 1991 profiles, but ozone concentrations measured in January 1992 were reduced relative to time-series model estimates. Possible reasons for the differences between measured and model-based ozone profiles are discussed.

  2. Ozone health effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Easterly, C.

    1994-01-01

    Ozone is a principal component of photochemical air pollution endogenous to numerous metropolitan areas. It is primarily formed by the oxidation of NOx in the presence of sunlight and reactive organic compounds. Ozone is a highly active oxidizing agent capable of causing injury to the lung. Lung injury may take the form of irritant effects on the respiratory tract that impair pulmonary function and result in subjective symptoms of respiratory discomfort. These symptoms include, but are not limited to, cough and shortness of breath, and they can limit exercise performance. The effects of ozone observed in humans have been primarily limited to alterations in respiratory function, and a range of respiratory physiological parameters have been measured as a function of ozone exposure in adults and children. These affects have been observed under widely varying (clinical experimental and environmental settings) conditions

  3. Studies on the developmental toxicity of ozone: postnatal effects. [Rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kavlock, R J; Meyer, E; Grabowski, C T

    1980-01-01

    Pregnant rats were exposed to either 0, 1.0, or 1.5 ppm ozone during either mid gestation (Days 9-12) or late gestation (Days 17-20). The dams were allowed to deliver and the early morphological and behavioral development of their pups was monitored. Both exposure regimens transiently reduced neonatal growth rates. The late gestation exposure regimen produced retardations in early reflex development and in open field behavior. Finally, several males from this exposure regimen remained permanently stunted in growth.

  4. Ozone and NOx chemistry in the eastern US: evaluation of CMAQ/CB05 with satellite (OMI data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. P. Canty

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Regulatory air quality models, such as the Community Multiscale Air Quality model (CMAQ, are used by federal and state agencies to guide policy decisions that determine how to best achieve adherence with National Ambient Air Quality Standards for surface ozone. We use observations of ozone and its important precursor NO2 to test the representation of the photochemistry and emission of ozone precursors within CMAQ. Observations of tropospheric column NO2 from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI, retrieved by two independent groups, show that the model overestimates urban NO2 and underestimates rural NO2 under all conditions examined for July and August 2011 in the US Northeast. The overestimate of the urban to rural ratio of tropospheric column NO2 for this baseline run of CMAQ (CB05 mechanism, mobile NOx emissions from the National Emissions Inventory; isoprene emissions from MEGAN v2.04 suggests this model may underestimate the importance of interstate transport of NOx. This CMAQ simulation leads to a considerable overestimate of the 2-month average of 8 h daily maximum surface ozone in the US Northeast, as well as an overestimate of 8 h ozone at AQS sites during days when the state of Maryland experienced NAAQS exceedances. We have implemented three changes within CMAQ motivated by OMI NO2 as well as aircraft observations obtained in July 2011 during the NASA DISCOVER-AQ campaign: (a the modeled lifetime of organic nitrates within CB05 has been reduced by a factor of 10, (b emissions of NOx from mobile sources has been reduced by a factor of 2, and (c isoprene emissions have been reduced by using MEGAN v2.10 rather than v2.04. Compared to the baseline simulation, the CMAQ run using all three of these changes leads to considerably better simulation of column NO2 in both urban and rural areas, better agreement with the 2-month average of daily 8 h maximum ozone in the US Northeast, fewer number of false positives of an ozone exceedance

  5. "OZONE SOURCE APPORTIONMENT IN CMAQ' | Science ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozone source attribution has been used to support various policy purposes including interstate transport (Cross State Air Pollution Rule) by U.S. EPA and ozone nonattainment area designations by State agencies. Common scientific applications include tracking intercontinental transport of ozone and ozone precursors and delineating anthropogenic and non-anthropogenic contribution to ozone in North America. As in the public release due in September 2013, CMAQ’s Integrated Source Apportionment Method (ISAM) attributes PM EC/OC, sulfate, nitrate, ammonium, ozone and its precursors NOx and VOC, to sectors/regions of users’ interest. Although the peroxide-to-nitric acid productions ratio has been the most common indicator to distinguish NOx-limited ozone production from VOC-limited one, other indicators are implemented in addition to allowing for an ensemble decision based on a total of 9 available indicator ratios. Moreover, an alternative approach of ozone attribution based on the idea of chemical sensitivity in a linearized system that has formed the basis of chemical treatment in forward DDM/backward adjoint tools has been implemented in CMAQ. This method does not require categorization into either ozone regime. In this study, ISAM will simulate the 2010 North America ozone using all of the above gas-phase attribution methods. The results are to be compared with zero-out difference out of those sectors in the host model runs. In addition, ozone contribution wil

  6. Advanced treatment of biotreated textile industry wastewater with ozone, virgin/ozonated granular activated carbon and their combination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arslan-Alaton, Idil; Seremet, Ozden

    2004-01-01

    Biotreated textile wastewater (CODo = 248 mg L(-1); TOCo = 58 mg L(-1); A620 = 0.007 cm(-1); A525 = 0.181 cm(-1); A436 = 0.198 cm(-1)) was subjected to advanced treatment with ozonation, granular activated carbon (GAC) adsorption in serial and simultaneous applications. Experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of applied ozone dose, ozone absorption rate, specific ozone absorption efficiency, GAC dose, and reaction pH on the treatment performance of the selected tertiary treatment scheme. In separate experiments, the impact of virgin GAC ozonation on its adsorptive capacity for biotreated and biotreated + ozonated textile effluent was also investigated. Ozonation appeared to be more effective for decolorization (kd = 0.15 min(-1) at pH = 3), whereas GAC adsorption yielded higher COD removal rates (54% at pH = 3). It was also found that GAC addition (4 g/L) at pH = 7 and 9 enhanced the COD abatement rate of the ozonation process significantly and that the sequential application of ozonation (at pH = 3-11, 675 mg L(-1) O3) followed by GAC adsorption (at pH = 3-7, 10 g L(-1) GAC) resulted in the highest treatment performances both in terms of color and COD reduction. Simultaneous application of GAC and ozone at acidic and alkaline pH seriously inhibited COD abatement rates as a consequence of competitive adsorption and partial oxidation of textile components and GAC. It could also be established that ozone absorption efficiency decreased after color removal was complete. Ozonation of biotreated textile wastewater with 113 mg L(-1) ozone resulted in an appreciable enhancement of GAC adsorptive capacity in terms of residual color removal. Ozonation of GAC at relatively low doses (= 10.8 mg/g GAC) did not improve its overall adsorption capacity.

  7. An In Vitro Evaluation of Ozonized Organic Extra-Virgin Olive Oil on Giardia Lamblia Cysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boland-Nazar, Najmeh Sadat; Eslamirad, Zahra; Sarmadian, Hossein; Ghasemikhah, Reza

    2016-11-01

    Giardia lamblia is a common intestinal parasite that has been reported all over the world. This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of ozonized organic extra-virgin olive oil on the cyst of G. lamblia . The olive oil was ozonized based on international standards and confirmed by the world health organization (WHO) at various times in a generator. The ozone concentration of olive oil was adjusted at 32, 64, 96, 128, 160 mg/g based on ozone absorption. Giardia lamblia cysts were isolated from heavily infected stool samples and the sucrose gradient flotation technique. Five groups of triple tubes containing Giardia cysts were exposed to olive oil with 32, 64, 96, 128, 160 ozone concentrations, and the sixth and seventh groups were exposed to non-ozonized olive oil and normal saline, respectively. The tubes were placed at room temperature, and every four hours, the mortality of the Giardia cysts was assessed. The results showed that the first five groups' mortality rate of Giardia cysts reached 100% in 100 hours. An increasing concentration of ozone in olive oil leads to an increase in the mortality rate of Giardia cysts. The results showed a significant difference in the mean time of the mortality in all the groups (P ≤ 0.05). Furthermore, the higher fatality effect of ozonized organic extra-virgin olive oil (Ozonized Olive Oil = OZO) was proved in comparison with metronidazole in vitro. We concluded that ozonized organic extra-virgin olive oil was a growth inhibitor of Giardia cysts, and concerning its compatibility with a biological system, it is recommended for further clinical trials.

  8. The response of some common Egyptian plants to ozone and their use as biomonitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Khatib, A A

    2003-01-01

    Relative sensitivity of five common Egyptian plant species namely, Senecio vulgaris, Malva parviflora, Sonchus oleraceus, Medicago sativa and Melilotus indicus to elevated levels of ozone has been studied. The plants were exposed to charcoal filtered air (CFA) and different levels of O3 (50 and 100 ppb) for 5 h per day. The studied parameters were recorded for five consecutive days after fumigation. The foliar injury varied significantly among species in a dose-dependent manner. Severe injury symptoms were recorded on the leaves of M. sativa. With the exception of M. parviflora, all species exhibited significant increases in the percentage reduction of the above-ground dry weight as a result of reductions in both leaf and stem dry weights. M. sativa showed a marked reduction in its relative growth rate at elevated levels of O3. The extent of chlorophyll a destruction was higher in both M. sativa and S. oleraceus than in the other species tested. No differences in the sensitivity of chlorophylls a+b and carotenoids to ozone levels were recorded in this work. Percentage reduction of ascorbic acid was higher in M. sativa and S. oleraceus, compared with the other species studied. With respect to relative percentages of proline, there was a significant difference in the responses of plants to ozone. According to the ozone resistance (R%), measured as relative growth rate, the test species were arranged in the descending order: M. parviflora>M. Indicus>S. Vulgaris>S. Oleraceus>M. sativa. In M. sativa, both determinant and correlation coefficients are well reflected in the relationship between its physiological response, its performance and ozone levels, supporting its recommendation as a candidate for biomonitoring in Egypt.

  9. Optical remote measurement of ozone in cirrus clouds; Optische Fernmessung von Ozon in Zirruswolken

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reichardt, J. [GKSS-Forschungszentrum Geesthacht GmbH (Germany). Inst. fuer Physikalische und Chemische Analytik

    1998-12-31

    The subject of this thesis is theoretical and experimental investigations into the simultaneous optical remote measurement of atmospheric ozone concentration and particle properties. A lidar system was developed that combines the Raman-lidar and the polarization-lidar with the Raman-DIAL technique. An error analysis is given for ozone measurements in clouds. It turns out that the wavelength dependencies of photon multiple scattering and of the particle extinction coefficient necessitate a correction of the measured ozone concentration. To quantify the cloud influence, model calculations based on particle size distributions of spheres are carried out. The most important experimental result of this thesis is the measured evidence of pronounced minima in the ozone distribution in a humid upper troposphere shortly before and during cirrus observation. Good correlation between ozone-depleted altitude ranges and ice clouds is found. This finding is in contrast to ozone profiles measured in a dry and cloud-free troposphere. (orig.) 151 refs.

  10. Experimental study of ozone synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garamoon, A A; Elakshar, F F; Nossair, A M; Kotp, E F

    2002-01-01

    A silent discharge ozonizer has been constructed with a design that enables the study of ozone concentration behaviour as a function of different parameters when oxygen used as a working gas. The behaviour of ozone concentration as a function of discharge current density has four characteristic regions. The concentration is enhanced by more than threefold whenever gas pressure is reduced by a factor of two. The flow rate of the working gas is a more effective parameter on ozone concentration than the gas pressure. When the flow rate is kept constant, and the pressure is decreased by 100%, the ozone concentration increases by only 10%. On the other hand, when the flow rate is decreased by 13%, the ozone concentration increases by 200%, whenever the gas pressure is kept constant. The concentration is nearly doubled when the gap space is increased by four times under the same conditions. The length of the discharge region, the thickness and the dielectric constant of the insulating materials are found to have a considerable effect on the generated ozone concentration. Also, the ozone concentration is ten times less when air is used instead of oxygen as a working gas. A maximum efficiency of 185 g/kWh, is obtained for the present system

  11. Ozone kinetics in low-pressure discharges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerra, Vasco; Marinov, Daniil; Guaitella, Olivier; Rousseau, Antoine

    2012-10-01

    Ozone kinetics is quite well established at atmospheric pressure, due to the importance of ozone in atmospheric chemistry and to the development of industrial ozone reactors. However, as the pressure is decreased and the dominant three-body reactions lose importance, the main mechanisms involved in the creation and destruction of ozone are still surrounded by important uncertainties. In this work we develop a self-consistent model for a pulsed discharge and its afterglow operating in a Pyrex reactor with inner radius 1 cm, at pressures in the range 1-5 Torr and discharge currents of 40-120 mA. The model couples the electron Boltzmann equation with a system of equations for the time evolution of the heavy particles. The calculations are compared with time-dependent measurements of ozone and atomic oxygen. Parametric studies are performed in order to clarify the role of vibrationally excited ozone in the overall kinetics and to establish the conditions where ozone production on the surface may become important. It is shown that vibrationally excited ozone does play a significant role, by increasing the time constants of ozone formation. Moreover, an upper limit for the ozone formation at the wall in these conditions is set at 10(-4).

  12. Short term respiratory health effects of ambient air pollution: results of the APHEA project in Paris.

    OpenAIRE

    Dab, W; Medina, S; Quénel, P; Le Moullec, Y; Le Tertre, A; Thelot, B; Monteil, C; Lameloise, P; Pirard, P; Momas, I; Ferry, R; Festy, B

    1996-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE: To quantify the short term respiratory health effects of ambient air pollution in the Paris area. DESIGN: Time series analysis of daily pollution levels using Poisson regression. SETTING: Paris, 1987-92. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Air pollution was monitored by measurement of black smoke (BS) (15 monitoring stations), sulphur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), particulate matter less than 13 microns in diameter (PM13), and ozone (O3) (4 stations). Daily mortality and ...

  13. Elevated CO{sub 2} and ozone reduce nitrogen acquisition by Pinus halepensis from its mycorrhizal symbiont

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kytoeviita, M.M. [Oulu Univ., Dept. of Biology, Oulu (Finland); Thiec, D. Le [Univ. Henri Poincare-Nancy, Lab. de Biologie Forestiere, Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy (France); Dizengremel, P. [Unite Ecophysiologie Forestiere-Lab. de Pollution Atmospherique, INRA-Centre de Recherches Forestieres, Champenoux (France)

    2001-07-01

    The effects of 700 {mu}mol mol{sup -1} CO{sub 2} and 200 nmol mol{sup -1} ozone on photosynthesis in Pinus halepensis seedlings and on N translocation from its mycorrhizal symbiont, Paxillus involutus, were studied under nutrient-poor conditions. After 79 days of exposure, ozone reduced and elevated CO{sub 2} increased net assimilation rate. However, the effect was dependent on daily accumulated exposure. No statistically significant differences in total plant mass accumulation were observed, although ozone-treated plants tended to be smaller. Changes in atmospheric gas concentrations induced changes in allocation of resources: under elevated ozone, shoots showed high priority over roots and had significantly elevated N concentrations. As a result of different shoot N concentration and net carbon assimilation rates, photosynthetic N use efficiency was significantly increased under elevated CO{sub 2} and decreased under ozone. The differences in photosynthesis were mirrored in the growth of the fungus in symbiosis with the pine seedlings. However, exposure to CO{sub 2} and ozone both reduced the symbiosis-mediated N uptake. The results suggest an increased carbon cost of symbiosis-mediated N uptake under elevated CO{sub 2} while under ozone, plant N acquisition is preferentially shifted towards increased root uptake. (au)

  14. Physicochemical patterns of ozone absorption by wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamleeva, N. A.; Lunin, V. V.

    2016-11-01

    Results from studying aspen and pine wood ozonation are presented. The effect the concentration of ozone, the reagent residence time, and the content of water in a sample of wood has on ozone consumption rate and ozone demand are analyzed. The residence time is shown to determine the degree of ozone conversion degree and the depth of substrate destruction. The main patterns of ozone absorption by wood with different moisture content are found. Ways of optimizing the ozonation of plant biomass are outlined.

  15. Tropospheric Ozone Assessment Report: Database and Metrics Data of Global Surface Ozone Observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin G. Schultz

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available In support of the first Tropospheric Ozone Assessment Report (TOAR a relational database of global surface ozone observations has been developed and populated with hourly measurement data and enhanced metadata. A comprehensive suite of ozone data products including standard statistics, health and vegetation impact metrics, and trend information, are made available through a common data portal and a web interface. These data form the basis of the TOAR analyses focusing on human health, vegetation, and climate relevant ozone issues, which are part of this special feature. Cooperation among many data centers and individual researchers worldwide made it possible to build the world's largest collection of 'in-situ' hourly surface ozone data covering the period from 1970 to 2015. By combining the data from almost 10,000 measurement sites around the world with global metadata information, new analyses of surface ozone have become possible, such as the first globally consistent characterisations of measurement sites as either urban or rural/remote. Exploitation of these global metadata allows for new insights into the global distribution, and seasonal and long-term changes of tropospheric ozone and they enable TOAR to perform the first, globally consistent analysis of present-day ozone concentrations and recent ozone changes with relevance to health, agriculture, and climate. Considerable effort was made to harmonize and synthesize data formats and metadata information from various networks and individual data submissions. Extensive quality control was applied to identify questionable and erroneous data, including changes in apparent instrument offsets or calibrations. Such data were excluded from TOAR data products. Limitations of 'a posteriori' data quality assurance are discussed. As a result of the work presented here, global coverage of surface ozone data for scientific analysis has been significantly extended. Yet, large gaps remain in the surface

  16. Stratospheric ozone intrusion events and their impacts on tropospheric ozone in the Southern Hemisphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. W. Greenslade

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Stratosphere-to-troposphere transport (STT provides an important natural source of ozone to the upper troposphere, but the characteristics of STT events in the Southern Hemisphere extratropics and their contribution to the regional tropospheric ozone budget remain poorly constrained. Here, we develop a quantitative method to identify STT events from ozonesonde profiles. Using this method we estimate the seasonality of STT events and quantify the ozone transported across the tropopause over Davis (69° S, 2006–2013, Macquarie Island (54° S, 2004–2013, and Melbourne (38° S, 2004–2013. STT seasonality is determined by two distinct methods: a Fourier bandpass filter of the vertical ozone profile and an analysis of the Brunt–Väisälä frequency. Using a bandpass filter on 7–9 years of ozone profiles from each site provides clear detection of STT events, with maximum occurrences during summer and minimum during winter for all three sites. The majority of tropospheric ozone enhancements owing to STT events occur within 2.5 and 3 km of the tropopause at Davis and Macquarie Island respectively. Events are more spread out at Melbourne, occurring frequently up to 6 km from the tropopause. The mean fraction of total tropospheric ozone attributed to STT during STT events is  ∼ 1. 0–3. 5 % at each site; however, during individual events, over 10 % of tropospheric ozone may be directly transported from the stratosphere. The cause of STTs is determined to be largely due to synoptic low-pressure frontal systems, determined using coincident ERA-Interim reanalysis meteorological data. Ozone enhancements can also be caused by biomass burning plumes transported from Africa and South America, which are apparent during austral winter and spring and are determined using satellite measurements of CO. To provide regional context for the ozonesonde observations, we use the GEOS-Chem chemical transport model, which is too coarsely

  17. Ozone impacts on vegetation in a nitrogen enriched and changing climate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mills, Gina; Harmens, Harry; Wagg, Serena; Sharps, Katrina; Hayes, Felicity; Fowler, David; Sutton, Mark; Davies, Bill

    2016-01-01

    This paper provides a process-oriented perspective on the combined effects of ozone (O_3), climate change and/or nitrogen (N) on vegetation. Whereas increasing CO_2 in controlled environments or open-top chambers often ameliorates effects of O_3 on leaf physiology, growth and C allocation, this is less likely in the field. Combined responses to elevated temperature and O_3 have rarely been studied even though some critical growth stages such as seed initiation are sensitive to both. Under O_3 exposure, many species have smaller roots, thereby enhancing drought sensitivity. Of the 68 species assessed for stomatal responses to ozone, 22.5% were unaffected, 33.5% had sluggish or increased opening and 44% stomatal closure. The beneficial effect of N on root development was lost at higher O_3 treatments whilst the effects of increasing O_3 on root biomass became more pronounced as N increased. Both responses to gradual changes in pollutants and climate and those under extreme weather events require further study. - Highlights: • CO_2 amelioration of O_3 effects on leaf physiology are less likely in the field. • Both extremes of temperature and O_3 impact on critical growth stages. • Many species are more sensitive to drought as a result of exposure to O_3 pollution. • The beneficial effect of N on root development is lost at higher O_3 treatments. • The effects of O_3 on root biomass are higher at high than low N. - A process-oriented perspective on the combined effects of ozone, climate change and/or nitrogen on vegetation.

  18. Growth overcompensation against O3 exposure in two Japanese oak species, Quercus mongolica var. crispula and Quercus serrata, grown under elevated CO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitao, Mitsutoshi; Komatsu, Masabumi; Yazaki, Kenichi; Kitaoka, Satoshi; Tobita, Hiroyuki

    2015-01-01

    To assess the effects of elevated concentrations of carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) and ozone (O 3 ) on the growth of two mid-successional oak species native to East Asia, Quercus mongolica var. crispula and Quercus serrata, we measured gas exchange and biomass allocation in seedlings (initially 1-year-old) grown under combinations of elevated CO 2 (550 μmol mol −1 ) and O 3 (twice-ambient) for two growing seasons in an open-field experiment in which root growth was not limited. Both the oak species showed a significant growth enhancement under the combination of elevated CO 2 and O 3 (indicated by total dry mass; over twice of ambient-grown plants, p < .05), which probably resulted from a preferable biomass partitioning into leaves induced by O 3 and a predominant enhancement of photosynthesis under elevated CO 2 . Such an over-compensative response in the two Japanese oak species resulted in greater plant growth under the combination of elevated CO 2 and O 3 than elevated CO 2 alone. - Highlights: • Quercus mongolica var. crispula and Quercus serrata were grown under elevated CO 2 and O 3 . • O 3 induced a preferable biomass allocation into leaves. • Photosynthesis was predominantly enhanced under elevated CO 2 exceeding O 3 impacts. • Combination of elevated CO 2 and O 3 enhanced the growth of two oak species. - O 3 -induced carbon allocation into leaves and CO 2 -enhanced photosynthesis result in a significant growth enhancement in Japanese oak species under the combination of gases.

  19. Ambient air pollution and low birthweight: a European cohort study (ESCAPE)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pedersen, Marie; Giorgis-Allemand, Lise; Bernard, Claire; Aguilera, Inmaculada; Andersen, Anne-Marie Nybo; Ballester, Ferran; Beelen, Rob M. J.; Chatzi, Leda; Cirach, Marta; Danileviciute, Asta; Dedele, Audrius; Eijsden, Manon van; Estarlich, Marisa; Fernández-Somoano, Ana; Fernández, Mariana F.; Forastiere, Francesco; Gehring, Ulrike; Grazuleviciene, Regina; Gruzieva, Olena; Heude, Barbara; Hoek, Gerard; de Hoogh, Kees; van den Hooven, Edith H.; Håberg, Siri E.; Jaddoe, Vincent W. V.; Klümper, Claudia; Korek, Michal; Krämer, Ursula; Lerchundi, Aitana; Lepeule, Johanna; Nafstad, Per; Nystad, Wenche; Patelarou, Evridiki; Porta, Daniela; Postma, Dirkje; Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole; Rudnai, Peter; Sunyer, Jordi; Stephanou, Euripides; Sørensen, Mette; Thiering, Elisabeth; Tuffnell, Derek; Varró, Mihály J.; Vrijkotte, Tanja G. M.; Wijga, Alet; Wilhelm, Michael; Wright, John; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J.; Pershagen, Göran; Brunekreef, Bert; Kogevinas, Manolis; Slama, Rémy

    2013